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or THE 


Jront iljc ^ormait (Tnitqucst ia iht '^xtBtnt ^imt; 






s of King's College, London ; and foi-merln an Assistant Master in the Leeds Gramnxar School, itc. . 

" The worth of a State in the long run is the worth of the indiridtials 
composing it."— J. S. Mill. 

"An honest man's the noblest work of God."— Pope. 





[SntfveD at ^tiitionei's' f^all] 




gcbixatib to 



The Rev. CANON ATLAY, D.D.. Vicar ; 



JOHN BLOSSET MAULE, Esq., Eecorder ; 
OBADIAH NUSSEY, Esq., ex-Mayor; 
JOSEPH OGDIN MAECH, Esq., late ex-Mayor; 






A LOXG preface is generally a waste both of time and 
paper, being scarcely ever read, especially by the young, 
for whom these BiograpMcctl Sketches are chiefly intended. 
Therefore, to plunge in medias res, it may be stated that 
the gTeater part of these Sketches, especially the earlier 
ones, were written out some years ago, during the time 
the compiler was an Assistant-Master at the Leeds Gram- 
mar School; certainly not with the intention of being 
printed, but solely for his own information and amuse- 
ment. Having been absent from Leeds, more or less, for 
about seven or eight years, and having noticed during 
that time, in the local journals, obituary notices of some 
of the most eminent men of his native town; and on his 
return, about two years ago (in June, 1863), having also 
observed the gTcat progress and improvement that had 
taken place, and was taking place, in Leeds and neighbour- 
hood, not only as regards the ]3opulation, the places of 
business, the streets, and pubHc buildings, but also as 
regards the moral, social, and religious condition of the 
people, he offered his Sketches of local Worthies, as they 
then were, or rather portions of them, to Mr. John Hamer, 
printer and publisher, who had succeeded Mr. Heaton, for 
insertion in the Leeds Hercdd (a Monthly Journal and 
Railway Time Table), which were at once accepted. After 
eight or nine contributions had appeared, the compiler 
found, on making a more extensive search, that his 
materials increased much faster than they were wanted, 
and that it would take a very long time to exliaust them 
at the rate of two or tliree pages a month. He therefore 
expressed a wish to have them, when re-written and 
enlarged, re-published in a separate form, and at as low a 
price as possible. Prospectuses were issued, and in a very 
short period upwards of 300 copies were subscribed for. 


The number of copies now bespoke, as may be seen from 
the subscription Hst, amount to upwards of 650 ; and 
many more names might have been obtained, if it had 
been thought absokitely necessary. Doubtless such a 
work has been frequently contemplated from Thoresby's 
time to our own. Several, somewhat similar, have been 
published in other parts of the country; therefore why 
should not Leeds, which has been styled the Metropolis 
of the West-Riding of Yorkshire, have also a book of its 

The author is exceedingly obliged to all the subscribers, 
but especially to the earlier ones, who not only gave 
in their names for two or more copies, but also allowed 
him to retain them (notwithstanding a little opposition), 
thereby evincing their confidence in him. He only hopes 
that they may be satisfied with the book as a whole. Of 
course, as a first attempt, it will have many shortcomings. 
Many things, doubtless, will have been inserted that ought 
not to have been inserted; and many more things omitted 
that ought not to have been omitted; but the size and 
small price of the book, with many urgent engagements, 
must be an excuse to a certain extent. It is the first of 
its kind, at all events, in this neighbourhood, and it is to 
be hoped that it will not be the last. Why should not 
each large town or city have a similar, if not a superior, 
collection? And not merely "Biographical Sketches of 
their Worthies," but also a Local (as well as a National) 
Portrait Gallery? There is now a decided tendency in 
that du-ection: may it grow and flourish ! 

The compiler's object in pubHshing this book has 
certainly not been to make money, because the little 
he will receive from it will not half or quarter repay 
him for his trouble, &c. But the work has been a 
laboiu' of love; and if it afford only a tenth part of the 
pleasure to the reader that it has to the compiler, it will 
not have been written in vain. His thanks are due to 
those who have forwarded contributions, and also to those 
who have kindly revised these Biographical Sketches.*^ 

* Here it miglit be observed that by revising the Sketeh is meant merely 
looking it over and passing it, if free from error ; if facts have been wrongly 
stated, correcting tliem : thus it is, as it were, a general voucher for the 


But his best thanks are chiefly due to the Messrs. 
Baines and to Mr. Kemplay, for their gi'eat kindness in 
allowing him to examine those volumes of the Leeds 
Mercury and the Leeds Intelligencer which are not in 
the Leeds Library, without which these Sketches, especially 
the later ones, woidd have been very meagre indeed. 
Much valuable information has also been derived from the 
biographical notices in the Gentleman's Magazine, fcc. 

It will be said, perhaps, that the merits of all, or most 
of the Leeds Worthies, have previously been recorded by 
contemporary writers. They have, at least to a certain 
extent, by Thoresby, Whitaker, and by a few others, as in 
the local newspapers, whose ponderous and costly folios 
can only be consulted in great public repositories, or in 
the libraries of the wealthy — mostly inaccessible, and 
always inconvenient, to the general mass of readers, and 
still more so to the majority of those who reside in the 
neighbouring villages. And these notices are very fre- 
quently in detached fragments,and rarely brought together 
under one connected view.* 

His principal aim, therefore, has been to collect and 
arrange these scattered notices, and to gather together in 
one volume these Biograpliical SJcetcJies of the Worthies 
of Leeds and, iieighhourhood. Disclaiming all pretensions 
to authorshijD in the compilation of these Biograjyhical 

accuracy of the statements, without the revisers being at all responsiWe for 
any eulogistic phrases the Sketches may contain. Several gentlemen have 
desired their names to be omitted on that account ; many have been, others 
were received too late; but with this explanation, it is to be hoped that they 
will all be satisfied. It was the only way of insuring accurac}', and their 
names being attached, takes the responsibility off the compiler's shoulders, 
and makes the burden much easier to be borne when there are manj-, and 
several of them well able to bear it. Many of the Sketches were examined, 
and returned unaltered ; many only slightly cori-ected, and several were not 
returned at all, it being, perhaps, considered unnecessary. Thus the Sketches, 
as they appear, are almost wholly as they were when wiitten. 

* It was intended to have had as a Frontispiece a fine Engraving of the 
Leeds Town Hall, or a first-class wood Engraving of Thoresby 's portrait ; but 
the expense of printing such a vast amount of matter in the shape of Notes, 
which must otherwise have been omitted, has been so great, that the small 
profits leave no room, unfortunately, for either the one or the other. — There 
must almost of necessity, in a work of this character, be occasionally some 
slight repetition, either in the text or notes, which cannot altogether be 
avoided ; neitlier is it, perhaps, at all times desirable that it should be, 
.seeing that with a little repetition much new information is always recorded. 


Sketches, he is still disposed to think they will not be 
found deficient in interest, or wanting in variety. 

This work professes no more than to introduce to the 
reader a slight acquaintance (for further information 
references are given to larger works, in connection) with 
the several Worthies that have been born in, or connected 
with, this large and important town and neighbourhood. 
As it comprises characters in every profession, of all par- 
ties, and several religious denominations, the author has 
not undertaken to decide upon the professional merits of 
those whose Lives he has endeavoured to depict, but has 
faithfully detailed the judgments which have obtained 
public credit. As to matters of opinion, whether political 
or rehgious, his rule has been to make each speak for 
himself in his own words, or by his own actions. He 
enters into no engagement to withhold his own sentiments 
occasionally; but he does not judge, much less condemn, 
the judgment of others. 

Should a second edition of this work be desired in 
two or three years' time, the compiler would then endea- 
vour to make it much more worthy of the public support 
than it is at present. Contributions, corrections, &c., 
might be sent to the pubhsher, Mr. John Hamer, at the 
Mercury office, Leeds; or to the Rev. 


Green-Mount Teekace, 

HoLBECK, Leeds, April, 1865. 





List of Subscribers . . - . • . 

Some of the principal Books written 
or published by Leeds men 

Works referred to in this volume 

List of Leeds Vicars, Head-Masters 
of the Gram. School, ^Ministers of 
St. John's Church, Mayors, <fec. . . 

On the Study of Biography . . 

A.D. The Norman Barons. 

ii09. Ealph Paganel 

1136. "William Paganel . . 

1152. Eichard de Courcy 

1186. PauUnus de Leedes . . 

1195. Robert Fitz Harding . . 

1199. Robert de Gaunt . . 

1230. Maurice de Gaunt 

Ttte Worthies of Leeds, etc. 

1394. Sir Hugh Calverley . . 

1412. Rev. Robert Passelew . . 

1413. Sir William Gascoigne 
1469. Rev. Thomas Clarel 

1472. Rev. William Evre, B.D. .. 
1499. Right Rev. John Frazer 
1566. Henry, Lord Darnley 
1587. Christopher Sastou 
1614. Rev. Robert Cooke, B.D. .. 
1630. Right Hon. Sir John Saville . . 
1632. Rev. Alexander Cooke, B.D. 
1632. Edward Fairfax 

1643. Sir P^alph, Lord Hopton . . 

1644. WUliam Gascoigne 

1648. Rev. Henry Burton, B D. .. 
1651. Rev. Peter Saxton, M.A. 
1654. Sir Ferdinand Leigh, Bart. 
1656. John Harrison, Esq 

1660. Rev. William Styles, M.A. 

1661. Rev. Robert Todd, A.M. 
1663. Rev. Henry Robinson, B.D. 
16G9. Rev. Elkanah Wales, A.M. .. 

1670. Adam Baynes, Esq., M.P. 

1671. Gen. Sir Thomas, Lord Fairfax 
1676. Gervas 2s erile, Esq. 

1678. Rt. Rev. J. Jilargerison, D.D. 
1680. John Hopkinson, Esq. 

1683. Rev. Marmaduke Cooke, D.D. 

1684. Sir George Rawden, Bart. . . 
1689. Right Rev. John Lake, D.D. .. 
1689. Mr. William Lodge . . 

1702. Rev. John MUner, B.D. 
1705. Sir WiUiam Lowther, M.P. 
1707. Rev. Dr. Joseph Hill . . 
1712. First Duke of Leeds, K.G. 
1716. Rev. John Killingbeck, B.D. .. 
1716. Robert Kitchingman, Esq. 
1725. Ralph Thoresbv, Esq., F.R.S. 

1728. Rev. Joseph Boyse .. 

1729. William Congreve 

1 73.5. Mr. Thomas Bridges 

1736. Rev. Henry Robinson, M.A. . . 











































































































Lady Elizabeth Hastings . . 146 

William Milner, Esq 150 

Rev. Richard Bentley, D.D. 152 
Rev. Joseph Cookson, M.A. .. 153 
Sir Walter Calverley, Bart. 160 

, General Guest . . . . . . 163 

Rev. Thomas Maguey, D.D. 164 
David Hartley, M.A., M.D. .. 164 
Sir Henry Ibbetson, Bart. . . 16S 
Sir Thomas Denison, Knight . . 169 
Rev. Richard Baron .. 170 

George (Fox^, Lord Bingley .. 173 
Robert Stansfield, Esq. .. 174 
Rev. Francis Fa wkes, M.A. .. 174 
First Earl of Mexborough . . 177 
Charles Ingram^ Visct. Irwin 178 
William Denison, Esq. . . 180 
Jeremiah Dixon, Esq., F.R.S. 181 
Rev. Thomas Adam, B.A. 183 

Rev. Samuel Kirshaw, D.D. .. 183 
Benjamin Wilson, Esq., F.R.S. 185 
Rev. Sir Wm. Lowther, Bart. . . 186 
John Berkenhout, Esq., M.D. 187 
John Smeaton, Esq., F.R.S. .. 191 
Right Rev. C. Wilson, D.D. 200 
Lieutenant C. H. Nevile . . 203 
Rev. Guy Fairfax .. .. 203 

First Lord Harewood . . . . 204 

Rev. Joseph MUner, JI.A. 205 

Thomas Maude, Esq 208 

Lieutenants Nevile . . . . 209 
Rev. Newcome Cappe . . . . 210 
Mr. Thomas Wright . . 213 

Lieutenant Samuel Predham . . 217 
Rev.J. Priestley, LL.D., F.R.S. 217 
Mr. Gervas Storr . . . . 227 

Joseph Denison, Esq. . . 228 
Rev. WiUiam Wood, F.L.S. .. 232 
Captains Walker and Beckett 237 
Robert Damson, Esq., M.D. .. 237 
Rev. Wm. Sheepshanks, M.A. 239 
Rev. MUes Atkinson, B.A. . . 242 
Sir WiUiam M. Mibur, Bart. 242 
Rev. Joseph Jowett, LL.D. .. 247 
Mr. Samuel BirchaU . . 253 

James Lucas, Esq. .. .. 253 

Rev. James Scott, D.D. .. 254 
Rev. Peter Haddon, M.A. ..259 
Rev. John Hey, D.D. .. 260 

Mr. John Rvley 262 

Rev. Joseph Whiteley, M.A. 263 
Joshua WaUier, Esq., M.D. ..264 
Mr, Herbert Knowles . . 266 
WiUiam Hey, Esq., F.R.S. .. 267 
Mr. Matthew Talbot . . 274 

First Earl of Harewood . . 275 

Very Rev I. Milner,D. D. ,F.R. S. 277 
James Lanej Fox, Esq., M.P. 283 
Rev. Thmnas Moryan, LL.D. 283 
Rev. T.D.Whitaker, LL.D., (fee. 286 
Sir James Graham, Bart., MP. 294 
Walter R. Fa wkes, Esq., M.P. 29C 
Mr. Matthew Murray . . 298 






"William Barnes Rhodes, E.sq. 302 
('. J. Brandlinij, Esq., M.P. 302 
Sir John Beckett, Fii'st Baronet 304 

Mr. John Liiccock . . 

Sir Thomas Vavasour, Bart. .. 

Mr. Charles Cojie 

Colonel Thomas Lloyd . . 

Sir John Trcvclyan, Bart. .. 

John Atkinson, Esq., F.L.S. .. 

Mr. Samuel Hick . . 

Second Earl of Mexboroiigh . . 

Edward S. George, Esq., F.L.S. 

Kev. George Walker, M.A. .. 

Eev. Samuel Clapham, M.A. 

Mr. John Blenkinsop . . 

Rev. James Fawcett, B.D. 

Roger Holt Leigh, Esq. 

Lieutenant-General Cockell 

Rev. Joseph Swain, B. D. 

Benjamin Hircl, Esq , M.I). 

Edward Markland, Esq. 

D. Sykes, Esq.. M.A., M.P. 

Charles Frederick Edgar, Esq. 

Charles T. Thackrah, Esq. 

Rev. Edward Parsons . . 

Thomas Tennant, Esq. 

Rev. Thomas Jervis 

Rev. William Vint . . 

Colonel Sir Michael M'Creagh „_„ 

M. T. Sadler, Esq., M.P., F.R.S. 354 


Richard Hey, Esq., LL.D. 
J. MarshaU, jun., Esq., M.P. 
Rev. William M. Heald, M.A. 
Charles Milner, Esq. 
Rev. Richard Fawcett, M.A. ., 
John Entwisle, Esq., M.P. 
J. Hey, Esq.. F.L.S., F.G.S. .. 
Rev. Thomas Sisson, M.A. 
Sixth Duke of Leeds, K.G. 

Lieut. -Gen. Sir J. EUey, K.C'.B. 375 

Alderman George Scholey 

WiUiam Robinson, Esq. . . 

Benjamin Gott, Esq. .. 

Cieorge Bridges, Esq., M.P. 

Charles Carr, Esq., M.D. 

T. S. B. Reade, Esq. 

Mr. William Dawson . . 

Second Earl of Harewood . . 

John N. Rhodes, Esq. . . 

Mr. John Nicholson 

Adam Hunter, Esq., M.D. 

Rev. John Beck Holmes . . 

(ieorge W. Wood, Esq.. M.P. 

AVilliam Hey, Esq., J.P. .. 

Earl of Lonsdale, K.G. 

Sir John Lowther, Bart., M.P 

James Musgrave, Esq. . . 

James Bischoff, Esq. 

John Marshall, Esq., M.P. 

James Williamson, Esq., M.D. 415 

Thomas Benson Pease, Esq. . . 416 

Mr. Jonathatt Shackleton .. 416 

Griffith Wright, Esq 417 

Christopher Beckett, Esq. . . 418 
Right Hon. Sir J. Beckett, M.P. 422 
Richard F. Wilson, Esq., MP. 424 
Rn\ Thomas Dykes, LL.B. .. 424 
Rev. John Ely . . . . 426 

Joseph Taylor, Esq 430 

Rev.R.W. Hamilton, LL.D.,&c. 431 
Edward Baines, Esq., M.P. .. 435 








Rear-Admiral Markland . . 443 
Mrs. Maithewman .. .. 443 
Mr. Thomas Gray . . . . 445 
George Lane Fox, Esq.. M.P. .. 445 
John Hepworth Hill, Esq. 447 

Gen. Sir R. T. Wilson, M.P. .. 447 
R. AV. D. Thorp, Esq., M.D. 448 
William Smith, Esq., J.P. .. 450 
Rev. Thomas Furbank, M.A. 450 
Wade Broume. Esq.. M.A. .. 450 
William Busfeitd, Esq., M.P. 450 
Rev. John Fawcett, M.A. .. 450 
William West, Esq., F.R.S. 451 
N. C. Scatcherd, Esq.. F.S.A. 453 
Mr. Henry Schroeder . . 453 

James Montgomery, Esq. . . 453 
Rev. Joseph Holmes, D.D. 454 

Joseph Robert Atkinson, Esq. 454 
Joshua Bower, Esq. . . 455 

Sir William Molesviorth, M.P. 455 
Mr. Joseph Rhodes . . . . 456 

John Atkinson, Esq 456 

Rev. R. Sheepshanks, F.R.S. 457 
John Hardy, Esq., M.P. .. 459 

William WUliams Brown, Esq. 461 
James Brovn, Esq. .. .. 461 
Thomas Nicholson, Esq. .. 461 

John WUkinson, Esq 462 

Third Earl of Harewood . . 463 
Robert Hall, Esq., M.A., M.P. 466 
Mr. Thomas Flint . . . . 471 
David Cooper, Esq. . . . . 471 

Mr. William Hirst . . . . 472 

Henry Hall, Esq 474 

F. R. Atkinson, Esq 474 

Sir George Goodman, M.P. 476 

Right Hon. Lord Macaulay . . 476 
Rev. F. T. Cookson, M.A. 479 

Lord Londesborough, F.R.S. .. 482 
Right Hon. M. T. Baines, M.P. 482 
Thomas W. Tottie, Esq. . . 486 

Mr. Joseph Gott .. .. 488 
John Arthur Ikin, Esq. .. 488 

Th ird Earl of Mexborough . . 489 
Rev. Thomas Scales . . . . 488 
Ralph Markland, Esq. . . 489 
Sir Peter Fairbairn . . . . 491 
Thomas F. Ellis, Esq., M.A. 496 

J. G. Uppleby, Esq 498 

Thomas Edward Flint, Esq. . . 497 
James Holdforth, Esq. . . 498 

Richard Oastler, Esq 499 

Mr. James Nichols . . . . 503 
WilUam Beckett, Esq., M.P. .. 506 
Frederick Hobson, Esq. . . 510 

Wm. M. Mamie, Esq 510 

WilliamWillans,Esq.,J.P. .. 512 

William Gott, Esq 511 

John Sheepshanks, Esq. . . 514 
R. G. Hardwick, Esq., M.D. .. 515 
Alaric A. Watts, Esq. . . 516 
Charles G. Maclea, Esq. . . 516 

Mrs. Wood (Vocalist^ .. 518 
John Hope Shaw, Esq. . . 520 

James E. Fawcett, Esq., R.N. 524 
Mr. Henry Smith . . . . 524 

John Fowler. Esq 525 

Admiral Meynell .. .. 528 

Conclusion . . . . . . 530 

Addenda et Corrigenda . . 531 
Alphabetical List of AVorthies 541 



Adams, Robert 

Addyman, Councillor 

Akroyd, Edward, J. P. 

Aldam, William, J. P. (2 copies) 

Alderson, Joseph 

AUman, Thomas 

Ambler, Thomas 

Anderton, George, J. P. 

Andrew, John 

Anonymous (5 copies) 

Appleton, Henry 

Appleyard, Rev. "Witliam 

Armfield, Rev. George 

Aimitage, S. L. 

Armistead Wilson (2 copies) 

Arthington, William 

Asquith, John William 

Atkinson, Edwai-d 

Atkinson, H. Miles 

Atkinson, John H. 

Atkinson, John William (2 copies) 

Atkinson, Mrs. 

Atkinson, Rev. Dr., Camh. 

Atlay, Rev. Dr. (2 copies) 

Backhouse. E. 

Baines, Edward, M.P. (2 copies). 

Baines, Frederick (2 copies) 

Baines, T. B. (2 copies) 

Baker, Robert (4 copies) 

Barker, John H. (2 copieis) 

Barr, Robert 

BaiTet, Joseph M. (2 copies) 

Ban-y, Rev. .Ufred, B.L>. 

Barthram, James 

Bates, Edmund 

Bateson, Joseph, J. P. 

Baxter, Joseph 

Ija.vter, William 

Baynes, Edward Robert 

Beanland, AV. 

Bearpark, George E. 

Bedford, F. W.,D.C.L. 

Beecroft, George S., M.P. (4 copies) 

Bell, John, B.A. 

Bell, William 

Bennett, George W. 

Bent, Peter 

Benton, Mark 

Bickerdike, Rev. John 

Bilbrough, J. B. 

Birchall, J. D. (4 copies) 

Bischoff, James (3 copies) 

Bishop, Edward, M.D. 

Blackburn, John 

Blackburn, Vernon 

Blake, Barnett 

Blakelock, Rev. Canon 

Blomefield, Rev. John 

Bloome, Matthew (2 copies) 

Booker, Rev. C. F. 

Booth, Thomas 

Boothman, Edward 

Botterill. Alderman (G copies) 

Bower, Joshua 

Bower, William 

Bowers, Rev. T. S. 

Boyne, William, F.S.A. 

Bradley, John 

Braim, John H. 

Braithwaite, John 

Bramley, Rev. H. R. 

Brewer, Rev. Dr. 

Briggs, Riley 

Briggs, Thomas 

Brook, Christopher B. 

Bro-ftTi, James, M.P. (2 copies) 

Brown, Samuel James (2 copies) 

Browne, Rev. Canon 

Bro^vne, John C. 

Bruce, William 

Buckton, Frederick 

Buckton, Joshua (2 copies) 

Bulmer, George 

Bui-niston, James 

Burton, John (2 copies) 

Burton, Joseph 

Burton, R. S. 

Butler, John O. 

Butler, Thomas 

Bywater, J. R. 

Calverley, John (2 copies) 
Cariss, Ben 
(yarr, George S. 
Cartledge, Charles 



Cass, Rev. W. A. 

Cassells, Rev. A. 

Cazenove, Rev. J. G. 

Chadwick, C, M.D. (2 copies) 

Chadwick, Rev. J. W. 

Chambers, Rev. O. L. 

Charnock, George 

Chiesman, W. G. 

Child, LieiitenaTit-Colonel 

Cliilders, J.W., J.P. 

Clapham, Samuel 

Clark, Rev. James 

Clay, George 

Claj'ton, Wniiam 

Cockerham, Jolm 

Collier, Rev. C. H. (2 copies) 

Collins, Benjamin 

Cooke, John 

Cooke, William 

Cookson, Francis 

Cookson, Mrs. F. T. (2 copies) 

Cookson, Rev. Edwai'd 

Cooper, John (4 copies) 

Cooper, Samuel Thomas 

Cotton, Stephen 

Coxon, Henry 

Craig, R. & G. 

Craven, Councillor (2 copies) 

Crawford, Alexander 

Crawford, William (2 copies) 

Crosland, Rev. John 

Cross, John 

Crossley, Sir ¥., Bart., M.P. 

Cruse, A. F. 

Cuthbert, John 

Daglish, W. M. 

Darwin, Francis, J.P. 

Dawson, Edwin 

Dawson, John 

Dawson, John (Kirkstall) 

Dawson, Thomas 

Day, Samuel 

Denny, Henry 

Derham, T. S. 

Dibb, Thomas T. (2 copies) 

Dickinson, J. N. 

Dinsdale, J. 

Dixon, John, J.P. 

Dobson, John 

Dobson, Thomas, M.D. 

Donaldson, Thomas 

Douglas, H. 

Doyle, James'Alfred 

Dunderdale, John 

Dykes, Rev. J. B., Mus.Doc. 

Eagland, Thomas 

Eastwood, J. 

Ellershaw, John (2 copies) 

EUershaw, R. J. (2 copies) 
Elmer, Thomas 
Entwisle, J. S. (2 copies) 

Fatrbairn, Andrew (6 copies) 
Farsley Mechanics' Institute 
Fawcett, J. K. 
Fawcett, Rev. J. M. 
Fenteman, Thomas (4 copies) 
Fitton, E. G. 
Forrest, Charles, sen. 
Forster, ^V. E., M.P. (2 copies) 
Foster, Allen 
Foster, Charles 
Foster, Edwin, M.D. 
Fourness, M. A. 
Fox, George S. Lane, J.P. 
Fox, James, C.E. 
Francis, Colonel 
Franks, Mrs. Elizabeth 

Garlic K, Joseph P. (2 copies) 

Garside, Alderman 

Gascoigne, F. C. T., J.P. 

Gaunt, Councillor 

George, Alderman (2 copies) 

Gibbs, William 

GHbanks, Rev. G. F. 

Gisburn, John H. 

Gladstone, Rev. D. T. 

Glover, Samuel 

Goodman, John (2 copies) 

Graveley, John 

Grayson, George 

Green, F. 

Green, Councillor (2 copies) 

Greene, Rev. W. C. 

Greenwell, Rev. IST. (2 copies) 

Griffiths, David 

Grosvenoi-, Charles (2 copies) 

Hailstone, Edward, F.S.A. 

Hainsworth, James 

Hall, William 

Hamer, Henry (2 copies) 

Hamilton, R. W. (2 copies) 

Hammond, Rev. Joseph 

Handcock, George 

Hanson, William 

Hardwick, John 

Hardy, Charles, J.P. 

Hardy, Gathorne, M.P. (2 copies) 

Harvey, Thomas 

Hayward, George 

Heald, Rev. Canon 

Heaton, J. D., M.D. (2 copies) 

Heaton, Thomas C. 

Henderson, Rev. Dr. (4 copies) 

Henville, Rev. E. 

Hei^per, J. H. 



Hey, Rev. Canon 

Hey, Eev. John 

Hey, Samuel 

Hev, 'WUliam (2 copies) 

Hiley, Eev. R. W. 

Hill, George 

Hill, Jolin ■WUliam (2 copies) 

Hill, Miss J. F. 

HincUe, W. B. 

Hiist, Wniiam Henry 

Hobbiss, John James 

Hobson, Edward 

Hobson, Joseph 

Hobson, Joseph (Roundhay) 

Hobson, Leonard 

Hobson, Richard, M.D. 

Hodgson, J. P. 

Holbeck Mechanics' Institute 

Holdforth, "Walter (6 copies) 

Hole, James 

HoUway, T. S. 

Holmes, John 

Holmes, Eev. F. G. 

Holroj'd, John 

Holroyd, Thomas 

Holroyd, T. T. 

Holt, Benjamin 

Holt, John 

Holt, Joseph 

Holt, Rev. E. K. 

H., T. 

HorsfaU, Abraham 

Horsfield, J. N. 

Horton, Richard George 

Houghton, Rt. Hon. Lord (2 copies) 

Hudson, Robert John (2 copies) 

Huggon, "William 

Hunslet Mechanics' Institute 

Himt, John 

Hyam & Co. 

Hyde, "William 

Ikin, J. Inghaji 

Ulingworth, "WilLiam 

Inchbold, Henry 

Ingham, Samuel 

Ingledew, C. J. D, 

Ingram, H. C. MeyneU (2 copies) 

Irwin, Edward (2 copies) 

Jackson, Eeedekick 
Jefferson, Peter 
Jepson, Edward George 
Jowett, .James 
Joy, Rev. Samuel 
Joy, "Walker (2 copies) 

Kate, John, jun. 

Kelsall, Alderman (2 copies) 

Keudell, Dr., J. P. 

Kendell, John 

KeiT, Samuel H., Ph.D. (3 copies) 

Kershaw, Rev. H. 

Kettlewell, "W. C. 

Kinsman, Rev. A. G. 

Kirk, John 

Kirkby, Frederick 

Kitson, Alderman (2 copies) 

Knight, J. C. 

Lampen, Henkt 

Lawson, John 

Law sou, Samuel, jun. 

Laycock, Thomas 

Leach, Robert 

Leadman, Miss E. "W. 

Leatham, E. A., M.P. (2 copies) 

Leatham, ■\^^iIliam H. (2 coines) 

Leather, J. Towlerton 

Leather, John "W., C.E. 

Lee, Charles 

Leeds Church Institute 

Leeds Mechanics' Institution 

Leighton, Christopher 

Linsley, Councillor 

Lloyd, Mis. George 

Lobley, Rev. John 

Loe, James S. 

Longfield, Joseph 

Luccock, J. D., Mayor 

Luml), Charles P. 

Lupton, Dai-nton (2 copies) 

Lupton, Rev. J. H. 

Lyon, Richard 

JIakins, Mrs. Charles (2 copies) 

MaUorie, T. P. (2 copies) 

Mann, David 

Manning, John 

Blarch, Alderman (6 copies) 

March, George (4 copies) 

Margerison, John L. 

Markham, Lieut. -Colonel, J. P. 

Marshall, Ai-thur 

Marshall, Henry Cowjoer, J. P. 

Marshall, James Garth, J.P. 

Marshall, Reginald Dykes, J.P, 

Marshall, Thomas H., J.P. 

Marshall, "\yilliam 

Martin, Samuel D. (2 copies) 

Maule, .John Blosset (2 copies) 

Mayhall, John 

McClieane, Rev. J. H. 

Merritt, Samuel 

Mexljorough, The Earl of (2 copies) 

Middleton, John "WiUiam 

Middleton, Rev. C. H. 

Miluer, Sir W. M., Bart. (2 copies) 

Moorhouse, E. H. 

Morley, George (4 coines) 



Miisgrave, Archdeacon, D.D. 

Nelson, George 

Nelson, Henry 

Nelson, J. H. 

Newlove, Rev. Richard 

Nichols, Councillor ('2 copies) 

Nichols, William (2 copies) 

Nicholson, Thomas 

North, "William 

Nimneley, Thomas 

Nussey, O., caj-Maj'or (0 copies) 

Nussey, Richard 

Nussey, Thomas (2 copies) 

O'Callaghan, p., LL.D. (2 cojiies) 
Oxley, Alderman 

Parkee, Edwin 

Parkes, Charles (2 copies) 

Parkinson, William 

Parsons, E. 

Payne, Richard E. (4 copies) 

Pease, Thomas (3 cojsies) 

Peckover, Daniel (2 copies) 

Penny, John 

Pepper, Wm. & Thos. (2 copies) 

Pickard, Daniel 

Pollard, John 

Pool, John 

Pool, Luke 

Price, William Nicholson 

Prockter, John B. 

Pullan, Richard 

Pudsey Mechanics' Institution 

Ramsden, J. W. 

Ramsden, Sir J. W., Bart., M.P. 

Raper, W. C. 

Reinhardt, J. C. 

Reynolds, Richard 

Rhodes, John (5 copies) 

Rhodes, William, J. P. 

Richardson, Thomas 

Rider, James 

Ridsdale, Joseph H. 

Ripley, David 

Ripley, John 

Roberts, Samuel 

Robinson, Major John 

Robinson, Rev. G. C. 

Roodliouse, Charles 

Roundell, Rev. D. R. 

Rowell, Rev. F. T. 

Royce, John 

Rushforth, William 

Ryder, Charles 

Sadler, Michael Thos. (3 copies) 
Sadler, M. T., juu., M.D. (3 copies) 

Salt, Titus (2 copies) 
Sampson, Henry 
Sangster, J. W. 
Savile, Hon. and Rev. P. Y. 
Scatcherd, Samuel (2 copies) 
Scattergood, Thomas 
Scholes, George 
Scholey, John 
Scotson, George 
Seaton, James 
Senior, Rev. Joseph, LL.D. 
Settle, Joseph 
Sewell, Edward 
Shackleton, John 
Shai-p, Rev. T. W. 
Sharp, S. H. 
Sharpe, Nathaniel 
Sheepshanks, Rev. Thomas 
Sheldon, Councillor 
Shepherd, John 
Sbipperdson, Rev. E. H. 
Simjjson, Algernon 
Simpson, Dr., J. P. 
Simpson, Robert TV. 
Sisson, Rev. J. L., D.D. 
Smith, Frederick 
Smith, George 
Smith, Henry Stocks 
Smitli, John 

Smith, John, J.P. (2 copies) 
Smith, John M. (2 copies) 
Smith, John Wales 
Smith, Rev. John G. 
Smith, Rev. S., D.D. 
Smith, Samuel 
Smith, William, jun. 
Smith, William, Son, & Co. 
Snell, John (2 copies) 
Spark, Frederick R. 
Spark, William, Mus.Doc. 
Spraj% James, M.A. 
Stansfeld, Hamer, J.P. 
Stansfeld, Thomas W. 
Stead, Samuel 
Stratten, Rev. John R. 
Stubbins, Henry 
Stuhlmann, A. F. C. 
Sumner, Rev. N. H. 
Sunter, John Thomas 
Swainsou, John 
Swan, Thomas E, 

Tatham, George 
Tattersall, Edward 
Taylor, Charles 
Taylor, C. H. 
Taylor, Geoi-ge (2 copies) 
Taylor, Henry 
Taylor, John 
Taylor, Samuel 



Teale, T. P., RE.S. (6 copies) 

Tempest, Charles 

Tennant, Joseph Mason 

Tennant, Thomas 

Tetley, Joshua 

Thackeray, Joseph 

Thackrah, John 

Thorne, James 

Thornton, F. L. 

Thorold, Rev. William 

Thorp, Yen. Ai-chdeacon (2 copies) 

Thorp, Disney L., M.D. (2 coines) 

Thurston, S. C. 

Titley, Alderman 

Tone, Rev. W. F. W. 

Townsley, J. H. 

Trevelyan, SirW. C, Bart. 

Turner, Eev. Alfred 

Tutin, Rev, William 

TJPTON, Thomas Eveeard 
Urquhart, Rev. John 

Vasce, John, M.P. 

Wadsworth, Thomas, & Co. 
Wailes, William 
Waiaman, Benjamin (2 copies) 
Warbiu-ton, W. H. 
Ward, Eev. J. P. 
Ward, Thomas G. 
WardeU, James (2 copies) 
Wardle, Charles W. (2 copies) 
Wardman, Henry 
Ware, Rev. W. W. 
Waterhouse, W. 
Watson, George 
Watson, William 

West, AVUliam 

Wlieler, Rev. Charles, J. P. 

Wheater, William 

Whewell, Rev. Professor, D.D. 

Whitaker, Rev. R. N. 

Wliitaker, T. H., J.P. 

Wliite, William 

Whitham, Joseph & Son (2 copies) 

Wliitham, Joshua 

Wilcock, William 

Wilkinson, John 

Wilkinson, Joseph 

Willans, J. Edward 

Willey, Rev. Joseph H. 

Williamson, Alfred 

Wilson, B., jun. 

Wilson, George 

Wilson, John, J.P. 

Wilson, Richard 

WUson, T. 

Winter, William 

Wood & Jackson 

Wood, Rev. F. J. 

Wood, Rev. J. Spicer (2 copies) 

Wood, Richard 

Wood, Wm. Rayner, J.P. (2 copies) 

Woodhead, Johji 

Woodd, Basil T., M.P. (2 copies) 

Woollam, Rev. William (2 copies) 

Wouldhave, J. H. 

Woiildhave, William (2 copies) 

Wright, Murrell 

Wright, Thomas, M.A., F.S.A. 

Teadon, Edmund 
Tewdall, George 
Young, George 

Subscribers, 508 ; Copies, 658. 




Note.— Those Works marked with an asterisk (•) refer to living authors ; and those marked 
with a dagger (t) are not to be found in the Leeds Librarj-. 

tAcAM (Rev. Thomas), Complete Works, 3 vols., 8vo., London, 1822. — Exposi- 
tion of the Four Gospels, -with IMemoir, by Westoby, 2 vols., Svo., 1837. 

*Ariiistead (Wilson), "Cloud of Witnesses" against slavery and oppres- 
sion, 12mo., 18.53. — Leeds Anti-Slavery Tracts, 12mo., 1853. — Select 
Miscellanies, illustrative of the History, &c. , of the Society of Friends, 
6 vols., 12mo., 1851. — Tribute for the Negro, a Vindication of the Moral, 
Intellectual, and Religions Capabilities of the Coloured Races, 8vo., 1848. 
Atkinson (John, F.L.S. ), Compendium of the Ornithology of Great Bri- 
tain, with Reference to the Anatomy and Physiology of Birds, 8vo., 1820. 
Atkinson (Rev. Miles, B.A. ), Practical Sermons, with Life of the Author, 
2 vols., 8vo., 1812. — National Jubilee, a Sermon, 8vo., Leeds, 1809. 

Baines (Edward, M.P.), History of the W.ars of the French Revolution 
from 1792 to 1815, comprehending the Civil History of Great Britain and 
France, 3 vols., 4to., 1817. — History of Lancashire, 4 vols., 4to., 1836. — 
Parson (W.), History and Directory of Yorkshire, 2 vols., 12mo., Leeds, 
1823. —Life of, by his son, E. Baines, 8vo., 1851. ^Edward, jun., M.P., 
Companion to the Lakes of Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Lancashire, 
post 8vo., 1830. — History of the Cotton Manufacture in Great Britain, 
8vo., 1835. — On the Moral Influence of Free Trade, and its effects on the 
Prosperity of Nations, 8vo., 1835. — Social, Educational, and Religious 
State of the Manufacturing Districts, 8vo., 1843.— Tracts on State and 
Volmitary Education from 1846 to 1856, Svo. —Visit to the Vaudois of 
Piedmont, 12mo., 1855. 
tBARNARD (Rev. Thomas, M.A.), Historical Character of the Lady Elizabeth 
Hastings, &c., Leeds, 1742. 

Baron (Rev. Richard), Pillars of Priestcraft and Orthodoxy Shaken, 4 vols., 
12mo., 1768. — fCordial for Low Spirits, 3 vols., 12mo., 1750. 
* Barry (Rev. Alfred), Introduction to the Study of the Old Testament, 8vo., 
1856. — Notes on the Gospels, Leeds. 

Bentlet (Rev. Dr. Richard), Works, edited by Rev. A. Dyce, 3 vols., 8vo. 
1836. — Correspondence, edited by Rev. C. Wordsworth, D.D., 2 vols., 
8vo., 1842.— Life of, by Rev. Dr. "Monk, 4to, 1830. 

Berkenhout (John, RLD.), Biographia Literaria, or Biographical History of 
Literature, 4to., 1777. — Essay on the Bite of a Mad Dog, 8vo., 1783. — 
t Letters on Education, to his son at Oxford, 2 vols., 12mo., 1791. — 
Lucubrations on Ways and Means, addressed to Lord North, 8vo., 1780. 
— Synopsis of the National History of Great Britain and Ireland, 2 vols., 
12mo., 1789. 

BiRCHALL (Samuel), Descriptive List of the Provincial Copper Coins or 
Tokens issued between 1786 and 1796, 12mo., Leeds, 1796. 

BiSCHOFF (James), History of Van Dieman's Land, 8vo., 1832. — History of 
the Woollen and Worsted Manufactures, and the Natural and Com- 
mercial History of Sheep, 2 vols., 8vo., 1842, vnth Pamphlets on " The 
Wool Question Considered," on " Marine Insurances," on " Foreign 
Tariffs," &c. 


Bolton (J., of Halifax), Filices Britannicce, or a Histoiy of the British 
Proper Ferus, 4to., Leeds, N. D. — History of Funguses growing about 
Halifax, 3 vols., 4to., Leeds, 1788. — Natural History of British Song- 
Birds, 2 vols., 4to., 1794-6. 
Bowman (W.), Reliquiae Antiquse Eboracenses, or Remains of Antiqxiity 
relating to the Countj' of York, 6 parts, 4to., 1851-55. 
*B0TNE (William, F.S. A. ), Tokens issued in the Seventeenth Century, Svo., 
1858. — Tokens issued in Yorkshire, with the Corporate Seals of the 
County, 4to., privately printed, Headingley, 1858. 
+BOTSE (Rev. Joseph), Complete ^Vorks, 2 vols., folio, 1728. 
Beamlet (Richard Ramsden), Roadmaker's Guide, 8vo., Leeds, 1805. 
British Association Reports, 8vo., Leeds, 1858. 
+BlRLEND (Edward), Village Rhymes, &c. 

■f Burrow, (Reuben), Lad^^'s and Gentleman's Diary. — Restitution of the 
Geometrical Treatise of ApoUonius Pergpeus on Inclinations, 4to., 1779. 
— The Theory of Gunnery, or the Docti-ine of Projectiles in a Non- 
resisting Medium, 4to. , 1779. 
+BnKTON (Rev. Henry), see Kippis's Biographia Britannica. 
BuTTERWORTH (William), Three Y'ears' Adventures of a Minor, 8vo., Leeds. 

+Cappe (Rev. N. ), Three Fast-Day Sermons, published diuing the American 
War. — A Sermon on the Thanksgi^^ng Day, 1784. — A Selection of 
Psalms for Social Worship. — Remarks in Vindication of Dr. Priestley, in 
answer to the Monthly Reviewers. — Critical Remarks on many im- 
portant Passages of Scriptiu-e, with Memoirs of liis Life, by his wife, 

2 vols., 8vo., 1802. — Discourses, chieflj' on Devotional Subjects, v\-ith. 
Memoirs, 8vo., York, 1805. — Discoui-ses, chiefly on Practical Sulsjects, 
Svo., York, 1815. 

tCLAPHAif (Rev. Samuel), Selected Family Sermons, 3 vols. — Sermons, 3 vols. 

tCoNGREVE (William), Memoirs of. — Poem to the memoiy of, by James 

Thomson, edited by Cunningham, 1843 (Anderson, Chalmers). — Works, 

3 vols., 8vo., Birmingham, Baskerville. 1761. — Works, with Life, 2 vols., 
small 8vo., 1774. — Dramatic Works, edited by Leigh Himt, imperial 8vo., 

+COOKE (Rev. Alexander), see Whitaker's Tlioreshy. 
■fCoOKE (Rev. Robert), Censura Patrum, &c. 

*Dexison (Edmund Beckett, Q.C.), Rudimentary Treatise on Clock and 

Watch-making, 12mo., 1850. — Lectures on Church-Building, 8vo., 1856. 
* Denny (Henry), An Essay on the British Parasitic Insects, 8vo., 1842, &c. 
+D1XON (Rev. J. D. ), Sermons preached at St. Luke's Church, Leeds, 1851. 
■fDrKES (Rev. Thomas, LL.B.), Sermons, with Memoirs of his Life, 1849. 

fEDGAR (Charles Frederick), Yorkshire Literary Annual, 1831. — Original 

Poems, 2 vols., Leeds, 1831-32. 
+ELLIS (Thomas Flower), and Adolphus, Queen's Bench Reports, 12 vols., Svo., 

from 1835. — Ditto, 18 vols., new series. 
+ELy (Rev. John), Winter Lectures, Svo., 1833. — An Appeal to the Religious 

Communit}', 8vo., 1838. 

Fairfax, Correspondence. — Memoirs of the Reign of Charles I. (162.5—40), 
edited by Johnson, 2 vols., Svo., 1848. — Memorials of the Civil Wars, 
edited by Bell, 2 vols., Svo., 1849. 
"i- Fairfax (Edward), Translation of Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered, first pub- 
lished in 1600.— Ditto, 2 vols., post Svo., 1817.— Histoiy of Edward the 
Black Prince. — Treatise on Dcmonology, Eclogues, &;c. 

Fawcett (Rev. .James, B.D.), Sennon on the Propriety and Importance of 
Public Worship, 8vo., 1790. — Sermons before the University of Cam- 
bridge, Svo., 1794. 
tFAWCETT (Rev. John), Sermons, 4 vols. — Exposition of St. .John, 3 voli. — 
Exposition of the Acts, 3 vols. 


Fawkes (Francis) Original Poems and Translations, 1761. — Poetical Works, 
in Chalmers's English Poets, vol. x\4. 
+FAWKES (Walter R. ), Chronology of the History of Modern Europe, 4to., 

1810.— Two Political Pamphlets, &c. 
•Fentejian's Historical Guide to Leeds, 1858. 
FUEB^VNK (Rev. Thomas), Votive Offerings, a Help towards Stanniugley 
Chm-ch, Svo., 1839. 

+Geat (Thos.), Observations on a General Iron Railway, 7^. Qd., 8vo., 1820. 
— Essays on Land-Steam Conveyance. 

HAiaH (Rev. D. H.), Essay on the Numismatic History of the Kingdom of 
the East Angles, 8vo., Leeds, 1845. 

Hall (Robert, M.P.), Visit to Mettray, 8vo., 1854. — Visits to Continental 
Eefonnatories, 8vo., 1855. 

Hamek (John, F.R.S.L.), The Smokei-'s Text-Book; printed in "Brilliant," 
tlie smallest movable type in the world, 1864. 
tHAMlLTON (Rev. Dr. R. W. ), Pastoral Appeals on Personal, Domestic, and 
Social Prayer, 1834. — The Little Sanctuary (Domestic Prayers), 1838. 
— The Institutions of Popular Education, 1844. — Sermons, second series, 
1846. — The Revealed Doctrine of Rewards and Punishments, 1847. — 
Horpe et Vindicise Sabbaticse ; or. Familiar Disquisitions on the Revealed 
Sabbath, 1848. — Posthumous Works of the Rev. John Ely, with Memoir, 
1848. — Essay on Craniology, 8vo., Leeds, 1826. — Missions, their Autho- 
rity, Scope, and Encouragement, 8vo., 1842. — Sermons, 8vo., 1833. — 
Nugse Literarise, Prose and Verse, 8vo., 1841. — Life of, by the Rev. Dr. 
StoweU, 8vo., 1850. 

Hartley (David, M.D.), Observations on Man, his Frame, Duty, and 
Expectations, 2 vols., 8vo., 1749; 3 vols., 8vo., 1791. — Theory of the 
Mind, edited by Dr. Priestley, 8vo., 1775. 

Het (Rev. Dr. John), Discourses on the Malevolent Sentiments, 8vo., 1801. 
— Lectures in Divinity, 3 vols. , 8vo., Cambridge, 1796 ; third edition, 1841. 
— 1"Poem on Redemption, Sermons, &c. 

Het (Mrs.), Moral of Flowers, royal 8vo., 1833. — Recollections of the Lakes, 
and other Poems, 12mo., 1841. — Sjnrit of the Woods, royal 8vo., 1837. 

Hj;t (Richard, LL.D.), Dissertations on Gaming, Duelling, and Suicide, 
8vo., Cambridge, 1784; new edition in 1812. — Happiness and Rights, a 
Dissertation, 8vo., York, 1792.— Observations on the Nature of Civil 
Liberty and Principles of Government, 8vo., 1776. — fEdington, 2 vols. 

Hey (Wm., F.R.S.), Observations on Surgery, and Treatise on the Blood, 
8vo., 1779. — tTracts and Essays on the Atonement, on the Divinity of 
Christ, &c. — +Life of, by Pearson, 8vo, 1822. 

Hey (Wm., jun.). Practical Observations on Surgery, 8vo., 1814. — Treatise 
on the Puei-peral Fever, 8vo. , Leeds, 1815. 
+HiCK (Samuel), Life of, by James Everett ; new edition, 1863. 
tHXLL (Rev. Dr. Jos.) Edition of Schrevelius' Greek Lexicon. — The 
Zealander's Choice.— Dissertation Concerning the Antiquity of Temples. 

Hied (Dr.), Tribute to the Memory of Dr. FothergilL, 4to., 1781. 
*HOLE (James), Essay on the History and Management of Literary, Scientific, 
and Mechanics' Institutions, 8vo. , 1853. — Light, more Light : a Prize Essay. 

Holmes (Rev. Dr. Jos.), Duty of a Christian State to Suj^port a Church, in 
Five SeiTBons, 8vo., Leeds, 1834. 
*H00K (Rev. Dr. W. F.), Cluu-ch Dictionary, 12mo., 1842.— Ecclesiastical 
Biogi-aphy, 8 vols., 12mo., 1845. — Five Sermons before the University of 
Oxford, 8vo., 1837.— Last Days of our Lord's Ministry, 8vo., 1832.— On 
the Duty of EngUsh Churchmen and the Progress of the Church in 
Leeds, 8vo., 1857.— On the Means of Rendering more Efficient the Edu- 
cation of the People, 8vo., 1846.— Sermons Suggested by the Miracles, 
2 vols., 12mo., Leeds, 1847. — Sermons on Various Subjects, Svo., 1841. 
— The Three Reformations, Lutheran, Roman, Anglican, 8vo., |1847. — 
Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury. 


f Holmes (Rev. John B.), Histoiy of the Moravian Chmch.— Historical 

Sketches of the Brethren's Missions. 
HoPKiNSOX (.John), MS. Collection of Genealogies, &c. 
Hotter (Adam, U.T>.), Essay on Two Mineral Springs at Harrogate, and 

the Springs of Thorp- Ai-ch and Ilkley, 8vo., 1819. 
HCTTOX (Rev. Jos.), Sermon on Acts x. 34-5, 8vo., Leeds, 1819. 

Jackson (Rev. Miles), Sei-mons on the Truths of Revelation, and the 
Chai-acter, Comfort, and Prospects of Christians, 2 vols., post 8vo. 1825. 

Jekvis (Rev. Thos.), Address at the Burial of J. Dawson, Esq., 8vo., 1813. 
— The Christian Kame, a Discoui'se, 8vo., Leeds, 1809.— A Fast-Day 
Sermon preached at MiU Hill Chapel, 8vo., 1810.— Sermon on the Death 
of the Princess Charlotte, 8vo., 1817.— Sermon on the Death of the Rev. 
T Disney, 8vo., 1817.— Sermon on the Death of the Rev. J. Simpson, 
8vo., 1783.— The Vii-tuous Claims of Humanity, 8vo., 1809.— Sermons, 
8vo., 1811; ditto, Leeds, 18-40. 

KiLLiNGBECK (Rev. John, D.D.), Eighteen Sermons on Practical Subjects, 
8vo., 1717; second edition, 1730. 

*Leatham (Edw. Aldam, M.P.), Charmione, a Tale of the Great Athenian 
Revolution, 2 vols., post 8vo., 18.58; cheap edition, Leeds, 1864. 

*Leatham (Wra. Henry), Poems, 12mo., Wakefield, 1845. 

* Leather (J. W.), Letter on Professor Hof man's Chemical Examination of 
the Waters of the Rivers "Wharf e, Washboume, and Skirfare, 8vo., 1854. 
Leeds.- Acts of Pai-liament relating to, 1755-1822, with Corporation and 
Soke Charters, 8vo., Leeds, 1822.— Acts of Parliament relating to 
(Improvement Acts, &c.), Leeds, 18.51.— Charities of, in Reports on 
Public Charities, vols. xv. and xvL— Directory of (White's, &c.). General 
and Commercial, from 1817 to 1864, Leeds, 1864.— *Guide to, and its 
Vicinity (Fenteman's), 8vo., Leeds, 1858.— Histories of, vide Baiaes, 
Parsons, Thoresby, Wardell, and "WTiitaker. — Ordnance Survey of, 
bound in 1 vol., folio.— *Plau of the To^vn and Envii-ons, by Fowler, one 
sheet on rollers, 1844. — *iMartiii and Fox's Map of the Country Ten Miles 
round Leeds, sheet on roUers, Leeds, 1849. —White's Plan of, on sheet, 
1857.— Masser's Plan of, 1864, &c. -PoU-Books of, 1832-57, 3 vols., 12mo., 
Leeds, 1832-57.— Registers of Parliamentary Electors, 1832-40, 2 vols., 
8vo., Leeds, 1832-40.— *Worthies (Tajdor's) Biogi-aphical Sketches of, 
crown 8vo., Leeds, I860.— rnteUiffencer, from 1819, folio, Leeds, 1864. 
— Library, Catalogues and Reports of, 1768-1864.— i»/e?r!/?-^/, from 1802, 
folio, Leeds, 1864.— Philosopliical and Literary Society, Reports of, from 
1822, 8vo., Leeds, 1864. - Zoological and Botanical Society, Rules of, 
8vo., 1838. 
LiNDSET (Rev. Theophilus), Apology on Resigning the Vicarage of Catterick, 
in Yorkshire, 8vo., 1774.— Sequel to his Apology, 8vo., 1776.— Farewell 
Address to the Parishioners of Catterick, 8vo., 1776.— Conversations on 
the Divine Government, 8vo., 1802.— +Vindici3e Priestleianse, &c. 
Lister (Joseph, of Bradford), Autobiogi-aphy, with Contemporary Account 
of the Defence of Bradford and Capture of Leeds, 8vo. , 1842. 

+L0NDESBOROUGH (Lord), Wanderings in Search of Health (in Greece and 
Italy), 1849. 

*LojrGLEY (C. T., Bp. of Ripon), Letter to the Parishioners of S. Saviour's, 
Leeds, 8vo., 1851. 
Ldccock (.John), Nature and Properties of Wool, with Description of the 
English Fleece, 12mo., Leeds, 1805. — Notes on Rio Janeiro, and the 
Southern Parts of Brazil in 1808-18, 4to., 1820. 

* Major (Joshua), Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, 4to., 1852. 
Malde (Thomas), Verbeia, or Wharfedale, a Poem, witli Historical Remarks, 

4t(j., York, 1782.— Wcnsley dale, or Rural Contemiilations, a Poem, 8vo., 

Ricliniond, 1816, 
*tilAYHALL (John), Annals of Leeds and Yorkslme, 8vo., 1862. 


MlJillER (Rev. Dr. Isaac), Sermons, 2 vols., 8vo., 1820.— Essay on HumaB 
Liberty, post 8vo., 1824.— Life and Correspondency of, by bis Niece Svo 
1842. ^ » -.5, 

illLNER (Kei', Joj^jj,^ ggg Wbitaker's Thorcshj. 

MiLNEB (Rev. Josepb), Gibbon's Account of Christianity Considered, 8vo., 
1781. — tSonie Remarkable Passages in the Life of WiUiam Howard. — 
tEssays on the Influence of the Holy Spirit. —tTracts and Essays, 
Theological and Historical. — +Practical Sermons, edited by Rev. James 
Fawcett, of Leeds, 1841. — fComplete Works, by Dean Milner, 8 vols., 
1810. — History of the Church of Christ, with Additions by Dr. Isaac 
Milner, 4 vols., 8vo., 1834. — Practical Sermons, with Account of his Life 
and Character, by Dean Milner, 3 vols., 8vo., 1821. —Practical Sermons, 
edited by Bickersteth, 8vo., 1830. 
Montgomery (James), Poetical Works, collected by himself, Svo., 1850. — 
Chimney-Sweeper's Friend and Climbing Boy's Album, 12mo., 1824. — 
Lectures on Poetry and General Literature, 8vo., 1833. — Poet's Portfolio, 
or Minor Poems, 12nio., 1835. — Prose, by a Poet, 2 vols., 12mo., 1824. — 
Memoirs of his Life and AVritings, by Holland and Everett, 7 vols., 8vo.^ 

fMOBGAN (Rev. Dr. Thomas), Collection of Hymns for Public Worship, &c, 

fNALSON (Rev. Dr. John), An Impartial Collection of the Great Affairs of 

State.— History of the Holy War, folio, 1686. 
+N1CHOLS (James), Calvinism and Arminianism Compared in their principles 

and tendency. — +The Works of James Arminius, D.D., &c. — New 

Editions of the Works of Fuller, Thomson, Young, Ca3sar, Virgil, &c., &c. 
Nicholson (John), Airedale in Ancient Times, Elwood and Elvina, and 

other Poems, post 8vo., 1825. — fThe Lyre of Ebor, and other Poems, 

1827, &c. 
NiCOL (Robert), Poems, with Memoirs, 12mo., 1842. 
NuNNS (Rev. Thomas), Letter on the Condition of the Working Classes iu 

Birmingham, 8vo., 1842. — Sermons, chiefly Practical, edited by the Rev. 

Dr. Hook, 12mo., 1856. 

■*OsBURN (William), Account of an Egyptian Mummy in the Museum of the 
Leeds Philosophical Society, 8vo., Leeds, 1828. — Ancient Egypt, her 
Testimony to the Truth of the Bible, 8vo., 1846. — Doctrinal Errors of the 
Apostolical and Early Fathei-s, 8vo., 1835. — Israel in Egypt, or the Books 
of Genesis and Exodus illustrated by existing Monuments, 12mo., 1854. 
— Monumental History of Egypt, 2 vols., 8vo., 1854. — The Religions of 
the World, 12mo., 1857. 

Parson (W.), and White (W. ), Annals, History, and Guide of Leeds aad 
York, vol. 1, 12mo., Leeds, 1830. 

Parsons (Edward), Civil, Ecclesiastical, Literary, Commercial, and Mis- 
cellaneous History of Leeds, Halifax, Hudderstield, &c., 2 vols., 8vo., 
Leeds, 1834. 
IPlint (Thomas), Crime in England : its Relation, Character, and Extent, 
from 1801 to 1848, Leeds, 1851. — + Voluntaryism in England: or, the 
Census of 1851. 

Pollen (Rev. J. H.), Narrative of Five Years at S. Saviour's, Leeds, 12mo., 
Oxford, 1851. 
*P00LE (Rev. G. A. ), Appropriate Characters of Church Architecture, 12mo. , 
Leeds, 1842. — Architectural Notices of Churches in Northamptonshire, 
royal 8vo., 1849. — History of England, from the Invasion by the Romans 
to the Accession of Queen Victoria, 2 vols., 12mo., 1844. — History of 
Ecclesiastical Architecture in England, 8vo., 1848. — tThe Life and Times 
of St. Cyprian. — Sermons on the Apostles' Creed. — Twelve Practical 
Sermons on the Holy Communion, &c. 

Poole and Hugall (J. W.), Historical and Descriptive Guide to York 
Cathedral and its Antiqiuties, imp. 8vo., York, 1850. 


Priestley (Eev. Dr. Joseph), Theological and Miscellaueoits Works, 
edited by Rutt, 25 vols., 8vo., 1826. — Experiments and Observations on 
Different Kinds of Air, 3 vols., 8vo., 1790. — Experiments and Obsen-a- 
tions relating to Natural Pliilosophy, 3 vols., 8vo., 1779. — Heads of Lec- 
tures on Experimental Philosophy, 8vo., 1794. — History and Present 
State of Electricity, 4to., 1769 ; thml edition, 1775. — Histoi-y of the Dis- 
coveries relating to Vision, Light, and Colours, 4to., 1772. — Memoir of, 
written by himself, and continued by his Son, 8vo., 1806. — Familiar 
Epistles to the E,ev. Dr. Priestley, 8vo., 1771. 

fREADE (T. S. B. ), Christian Retirement. — tChristian Experience, kc. 

■fEHODES (WiUiam B. ), Epigrams, in two books, 1803. — fEccentric Tales, m 
Verse (by Cornelius Crambo), 1808. — fBurlesque Tragic Opera, Bombast^s 
Furioso, 1822. 

*EowELL (Rev. F. T.), Leeds: a Poem on occasion of her Majesty's Visit, 
8vo., Leeds, 1858. 

tRYLET (John), Leeds Correspondent; a Literaiy, Mathematical, and Philo- 
sophical iliscellanv, 2 vols. , 1815. — History of Leeds, and the neighbouring 
ViUages, 1808. 

Sadler (M. T. ), First Letter to a Reformer in reply to Fawkes's Manual, 
8vo., 1817. — Ireland, its Evils and their Remedies, 8vo., 1828. — Law of 
Population, 2 vols., 8vo., 1830. — Refutation of the Edinburgh Review on 
his Law of Population, 8vo., 1830. — Memoir of his Life and "Writings, 
8vo., 1842. 
tSAXTON (Christopher), Maps of England, "Wales, and Scotland, 1579. 
tScALES (Rev. Thos. ). Principles of Dissent, 1830. 

Scatcherd (Non-ison, F.S.A.), Histoiy of Morley, &c., 8vo., Leeds, 1830. — 
Dissertation on Ancient Bridges and Bridge Chapels, 8vo., 1828. — Memoirs 
of Eugene Aram, &c. 

SCHROEDER (Henry), Butterworth's Minor's Life. — Annals of Yorkshire, &c., 
2 vols., Svo., Leeds, 185.5. 

Scott (Rev. Dr. Jas. ), Fast-Day Sermon, preached at York February 21st, 
1781, 4to., York, 1781. — Fast- Day Sermon, 4to., 1793.— Greatness no 
Pledge of Happiness : a Sermon, 4to., 1809. — Sermons on Interesting 
Subjects, 8vo., 1816. — fEssays, Letters, kc. 

Sheepshanks (Rev. J.), Visitation Sennon at Leeds, 8vo., Leeds, 1804. 

Sjteatox (John, F.R.S. ), Description of the Eddystone Lighthouse, folio, 
1791. — Historical Report on Ramsgate Harbour, 8vo., 1791. — Reports and 
Miscellaneous Papers, 4 vols. , 4to. , 1812. 
* Smith (Henry Stooks), Alphabetical List of the Officers of the 4th Dragoon 
Guards, 8vo., 1856; lltli Hussars, 8vo., 18.50; Grenadier Guards, 8vo., 
1854. — 43rd Monmouthsliire Light Infantry, 1851 ; 79th Cameron High- 
landers, 8vo., 18.52; 85th Foot, 8vo., 1851; Rifle Brigade, 8vo., 1851; 
York-sliii-e Hussars, 8vo., 18.53.— Military Obituaiy for 18.5;?-4-.5-6, 8vo., 
1853-56. — Parliaments of England from Geo. I. to the Present Time, 3 
vols., 12mo., 1844-.50. — Parliamentary Representation of Yorkshire, 8vo., 
18.54. — Register of Parliamentarv Contested Elections, 12mo., 1841; 
2ud edition, 12mo., 1842. 

fTALBOT (Matthew), Analysis of the Holy Bible, 4to., 1800; New Edition 
by Dr. Eadie. 

*Taylor (Rev. R. V.), Biogiaphia Leodiensis; or, Biogi-aphical Sketches of 
the Worthies of Leeds, &c., crown 8vo., 1865. 

*Teale (Rev. W. H.), Seven Sermons preached at the Consecration and Re- 
opening of the Leeds Parish Cliurch, edited by, post 8vo., 1842. — Lives 
of English Laymen, 12mo., 1842. — Lives of English Divines, 12mo., 1844. 
Thackrah (C. T. ), Inquiry into the Nature and Properties of tlie Blood, in 
Health and Disease, 8vo., 1819 ; fNew Edition by Dr. Wright, witli 
Memoir, 1833.— Introductory Discourse to the Leeds Pliilosophical and 
Literary Society, 4to., Leeds, 1821. — Lectures on Digestion and Diet, 
royal 8vo., 1824.— Effects of Arts, Trade.s, and Piofessious on HeaUli and 
Longevity, 1831. 


ThoEESBT (Ralph, r.R.S.), Ducatus Leodiensis; or, Topography of Leeds, 
large paper, foHo, 1715. (The copy in the Leeds Library, presented by 
Mr. Charles Barnard, has nnmerons MS. notes by Mr. Thos. Wilson, F.S. A., 
and Mr. Lncas.) — Vicaria Leodiensis; or. History of the Chvirch of Leeds, 
12mo., 1724. — Ducatus Leodiensis, edited, with Additions, by Dr. 
Whitaker, folio, Leeds, 1816.— Diary, from 1677 to 1724, edited by the 
Rev. J. Hunter, 2 vols., 8vo., 1830. — Letters of Eminent Men addressed 
to, 2 vols., 8vo., 1832. 

Thoep (Dr. R. W. D. ), Obsei-vations on the Prevention of Contagious Fever, 
8vo., Leeds, 1802. 

*VlCTOKlA (Queen), Visit of, to Leeds, September 7tli, 1858, 8vo., Leeds, 1858. 

"I-Walkee (Rev. Geo.), Select Specimens of English Poetry, and Select 
Specimens of English Prose, from the Reign of Elizabeth to the Present 
Time, with Introductions, 1827. — Elements of Arithmetic, 3rd edition, 
Leeds, 1827. — A Coi^ious Latin Grammar, translated from the German, 
2 vols. 

Walker (Joshua, M.D.), Essay on the Waters of Harrogate and Thorp- 
Arch, 8vo., 1784. 
* Waedell (.James), Municipal History of Leeds, imp. 8vo,, 1846. — Antiquities 
of Leeds described and illustrated, 8vo., 1853. 

Watts (Alaric A.), Poetical Sketches, 12mo., 1823. — Poetical Album and 
Register of Modern Fugitive Poetry, 8vo., 1825. — Scenes of Life and 
Shades of Character, 2 vols., j)ost 8vo., 1831. — Literary Souvenir; or, 
Cabinet of Poetry and Romance, edited by, from 1825 to 1837, 12 vols., 
12mo. and 8vo., 1837.— Lyrics of the Heart, 8vo., 1851. 
*+Wheatee ( Wm. ), History of Sherburn and Cawood. In the Press. 

Whitaker (Rev. Dr. T. D. ), Fast-Day Sei-mon on Religion and Loyalty, 
preached at Leeds, 4to., Leeds, 1794. — Sermon on the Fast-Day, Februaiy 
25th, 1795, 8vo., Leeds, 1795. — Sermons for the Benefit of the Leeds 
Iirfirmary, 8vo. , Leeds, 1796. — History of 'VVhaUey and Honour of 
CUtheroe, in the counties of Lancaster and York, 2 vols., 4to., 1801 ; 3rd 
edition, 1818. — History and Antiquities of the Deanery of Craven, 2ud 
edition, 4to., 1812. — Thoresby's History of Leeds, with Additions, folio, 
Leeds, 1816. — Loidis and Elmete; or, a History of the Lower Portions of 
Airedale, Wharfedale, and the Vale of Calder, folio, Leeds, 1816. — • 
History of Richmondshiie, in the North-Riding, 2 vols. , foUo, 1823. 

Whitelet (Rev. Joseph), Essay on Revelation, 4to., Leeds, 1787. — Essay 
on the Holy Spirit, 4to., Leeds, 1787. — Necessity of a Redeemer, 8vo., 
1783. — Essays on the Rewards of Eternity, 4to., Leeds. — Noi-risian Prize 
Essay on Duty, 4to., Leeds, 1788. — Sermon preached at Harewood, Oct., 
1794, 4to., Leeds, 1794. 

Wilson (Thomas, F.S. A.), Valuable Collection of Manuscripts on the 
Leeds Charities ; Pedigrees of the West-Riding and Lancashire Gentry, 
presented by his son, Mr. Jos. Wilson, to the Leeds Library. 

Wood (Rev. Wm., F.L.S.), Sermons on Social Life, 12mo', 1775.— Two 
Sermons on the Hundredth Anniversary of the Revolution, 8vo., Leeds, 
1788. — tRev. N. Cappe's Funeral Sermon, -nith Memoir, Dec. 31, 1800. — 
Memoirs of his Life and Writings, by WeUbeloved, 8vo., 1809. 

Wool, Plain Reasons against the Exi^ortation of, 8vo., Leeds, 1782. 

Yoekshiee, Churches of, 2 vols, in 1, royal 8vo. , Leeds, 1854. 
,, Costumes of, by George Walker, Esq. 

,, Election of 1826, Speeches of the Candidates at, 8vo., Leeds. 

Election of 1826, Historical Account of, 8vo., Leeds, 1826. 
„ PoU Books, West-Riding, August, 1837, 8vo., Leeds, 1838. 

„ „ ,, Dec, 1848, by T. PUnt, 8vo., Leeds, 1849. 

2{ote. — The above list has been much curtailed for want of space. All the works by 
the Eevs. Dr. Brewer, E. K. Conder, T. Davis, T. Hincks, S. Kettlewell, A. Martineau, 
E. Monro, G. Thomas, (fee. : and also by Messrs. R. Baker, Dr. Braithwaite, J. I. Ikin, 
Dr. Mayne, T. Nunneley, B. E. Smith, Wm. Smith, jim., T. P. Teale, F.E.S., George 
WOson, &c., have, for the same reason, been omitted. 



OF soatE or the 





Admirals, British. — Camphcll (BerkenJiout), Soidhey. 

Agricultural Biogi'aphy. — Donaldson. 

Aikin's General Biograpliy, 4to., 10 vols., 1799-3815. 

Anecdotes of Distinguished Persons, 5 vols.- — Seioard. 

Annual Biography and Obituary, 21 vols., 1817-1837. 

Annual Eegister {Dodsleti), 10.5 vols., 1758-1864. 

Amiy Lists, 94 vols., 1770-1864. 

Art- Journal, 25 vols., 1839-1864. 

Athense Cantahrigienses. — Cooper. 

Athenee Oxonienses. — Wood. 

Athenseum, 33 vols., 1832-1864. 

Autobiographies. — T. Wrif/ht, &c., &c. 

Beauties of England and Wales. — BrayJey and Britton. 

Bibliographer's Manual. — Lowndes. 

Bibliogi-aphical Account of the Principal Works Kelating to English 

Topography, 3 vols. — Upcot. 
Bibliotheca Britannica. — Watts. 

Devoniensis. — Davidson. 

Topograjjhica Britannica, 4to. — Nichols. 

Biographia BoreaHs; or. Northern Worthies. — Coleridge. 

Britannica, 7 vols., 1747-1768, folio. Second Edition by 

A. Kippis, 5 vols., to F, 1778-1793, folio. 

Britannica Literaria (Anglo-Saxon). — T. Wright. 

Classica, 2 vols., 1750. 

Dramatica, 2 vols. , Balder ; 4 vols. , Reed. 

Evangelica, 4 vols., Middleton, 1779. 

Literaria. — Berkenhout, Coleridge. 

Navalis, 5 vols. — Charnocl: Biogi-aphia Scotica. — Stark. 

Biogi-aphical Dictionaiy, 12 vols., 1760; 7 vols., 1842. 

of Living Authors of Great Britain and Ireland, 

2 vols., 1816. 

of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful 

Knowledge, 4 vols, (in 7 parts, only letter A), 1842-1844. 
Biographical Histoiy of England, 5 vols., 4to. — Ch'cinger, Nolle. 

■ of Philosophy. — Lewes. 

Biogi-aphie Moderae, 3 vols. , Paris, 8vo. 

— Universelle, 52 vols., Paris, 1811-1828. 

Biography, Religious. — Jamieson. 

Bohn's Guinea Catalogue. 

British Biogiaphy, 10 vols., 1773-1778.— ilfawnc^e?'. 

Catalogue. — (S'. L01.1J. , 

Di'amatists. — Dunham. 


British Military Commanders.— 6r7t(i7. 

Painters. — Cunningham. 

■ Physicians. 

■ Plutarch, 6 vols. — Wravcjham. 

Statesmen. — Macdiarmid, Forster. 

Toiwgra.Y>\iy.— Adams, Camden, Gorton, Gough. 

Brougham's Philosophers of the Time of George III. 

Burke's Commoners of England ; Extinct Peerage ; Heraldic Illustrations ; 

Lauded Gentry ; Peerage and Baronetage. 
Cambridge, History of University and Colleges of, 2 vols. — Dper, &c. 
Carlisle's Endowed Grammar Schools. 
Carlyle's Lectures on Heroes. 

Chalmers's Gen. Biographical Dictionary, 32 vols, 1812. 
Chambers's Cyclopaedia of English Literature, 2 vols. ; Eminent Scotsmen. 
Chancellors, Jjord.— Campbell, 
Chief -Justices. — GamphcU. 
Christian Observer. 
Christians, Eminent. — Frost. 
Clerical Directory. — Crockford. 
Coleridge's Illustrious Worthies of Yorkshire, 1835. 
Cooper's Atlienffi Cantabrigienses, 2 vols. 
Cyclopaedia Bibliograpliica, 2 vols. — Darling. 
English, Knight, 6 vols., 1858, Biography; 4 vols., 1855, 

Geography; 4 vols., 1856, Natural History. 

National, 12 vols., 1851. — Knight. 

Penny, 31 vols., 1858. Cyclopaedia, Rees, 39 vols., 1819. 

Devon Worthies. — Prince. 

Dibdin's Library Compauitm, 1824, pp. 479-562. 

Dictionary of Engravers (Biog.), 2 vols., 4to. — Strutt. 

■ of Painters, 4to. — Filkington. 

■ and Engravers, (Biog.), 2 vols., 4to. — Bryan. 

Divines of the Church of England. — Hughes. 

Dramatic Biography — Thespian Dictionary. 

Early Blossoms ; or, Biographical Notices of Individuals distinguished by 

tlieir Genius, &c., who died in their youth, 12mo. 
Ecclesiastical Biography. — Care, Dupin, Hook, Stephens, Wordsworth. 
Edgar's Footprints of Famous Men ; Men who were in Earnest, &c. 
Emerson's Representative Men. 
Eminent Britisli Lawyers. — Roscoe. 

EugUshmen. — Cunningham. 

Scotsmen. — CJiambers. 

Eminently Pious Women of the British Empire, 3 vols., 12mo. 
Encyclopaedia Britanuica, Edin., 20 vols., 1810; 8th Edition, 1858. 

Edinburgh, 18 vols., 1830 (Brewster). 

— Londinensis, 24 vols., 1829 (Wilkes). 

Metropolitana, 29 vols., 1842 (Rose). 

Modern, 11 vols., 1820 (Burrows). 

Engraved British Portraits. — Bromley, Granger. 

European Magazine, 1782-1826. 

Fathers of the Church. — Butler. 

Females, Distinguished. — Burke. 

Foss's Judges of England, 8 vols. 

Fuller's Worthies (Nuttall), 3 vols., 1840. 

Gallery of Portraits. 

General Biography. — Aikln, Chalmers, Gorton, Maunder, Pkitts, Rich, 

Rose, Wat kins, &c. 
Gentleman's Magazine, 1731-1833; New Series, 1834-1865. 
Gilfillan's Gallery of Portraits. 

Gough's English Topography ; Sepulchral Monuments, 3 vols. , folio. 
Hook's Archbishops of Cauterbviij'. 


Houbrakcn's Heads of Illustrioiis Persons of Great Britain, with their 

Lives, folio. — Dr. Birch. 
Illustrated London News. Illustrated Times. 
Illustrious Personages. — Lodge. 
Individual Biographies. — Co/ertc///?, &c., &c. 
Johnson's Lives of the Toets.— Chalmers, Cunningham. 
Judges of England. — Foss. 
Laud we Live in. — Howitt. 
Literary and Scientific Men. — Dunham. 

. Gazette. 

Lives of British Physicians, 1830; Anglican Tyivmes.— Walton. 

Eminent Persons. 

■ the Poets. — Johnson. 

Local Histories. Local Newspaper-s'. 

Mackenzie's Imperial Dictionary of Universal Biography. 

Maundei-'s British Biography ; Biographical Treasury. 

Medical Biogi-aphy. — Hutch inson. 

Memorials and Characters. — Wilford. 

Memoirs of Great Britain, 6 vols. — Beatson. 

and Ireland, 3 vols., 4to. — Dalrymple. 

Men of the Time. — Walford. 

Musicians, Dictionary of, 2 vols., I2mo. 

National Portrait Gallery. — Jerdan. 

Naval Biogi-aphical Dictionary. — 0' Byrne. Navy Lists. 

New Monthly Magazine. 

New Spirit of the Age. — Home. 

Nichols's Literary Anecdotes ; Illustrations. 

Nonconformists' Memorials. — Calamy. 

Notes and Queries. 

Old England's Worthies. 

Oxford, History and Antiquities of Colleges and Halls at, 4to. — Gutch, &e. 

Painters, Anecdotes of. — Edward,?. 

Parliamentary Companion.- — Dod, &c. 

Portraits, or Sketches of the Public Character of some of 

the most distinguished Speakers of the House of Commons. 
Peerages. — Burke, Collins, Dthrctt, Lodge, kc. 
Poets, English. — Bell, Campbell, &c. 
Priestley's Biographical Chart, folio. 
PubHc Characters, 8 vols., 1798-1806. 
Puritans, Book of. — Neal. 
Queens of England. — Strickland. 
Hose's Biographical Dictionary. 
Royal and Noble Authors. — Walpole. 
Scottish Worthies. — Tytler. 
Seats in England, &c. — Neale. 

Smiles's Industrial Biography ; Lives of the Engineers ; Self- Help. 
Speakers of the House of Commons. — Manning. 
Thomson's Annals of Philosophy ; History of the Royal Society. 
United Service Journal. 
Wakefield Worthies. — Lupton. 
Walker's Sufi'erings of the Clergy. 
Watkins's Biographical Dictionary. 
Wonderful Characters. — Wilson. 
Wood's Athenw Oxonienses. — Bliss. 
Yorkshire Castles and Abbeys. — Grainger. 

History of, Allen, 6 vols., 1828. — Hailstone, Wainurlght. 

Mona.sticon Eboracense, folio. — Burton. 

South. — Hunter. 

- Topograpliical Dictionary. — Langdale. 

Zoologists. — Ma eg illivray, Swa i n so n 







Johannes Thornton 


Alanus de Shirburn 


Christopher Bradley 


Johannes de Feversliam 


Alexander Fascet, or Fawcett 


Galfridus de Sponden 


Robert Cooke, B.D. 


GUbertus Gaudibus 

1614-15. Alexander Cooke, B.D. 


Alanus de Berwick 


Henric. Robinson, B.D, 

William Brimby 


Peter Saxton, M.A. 


WilUam Mirfield 


^V"illiam Styles, M.A. 


Johannes Snagtall 


Johannes Lake, D.D. (Bp. of 


Robert Passelew 


Eobert Newton 


Marmaduke Cooke, D.D. 


"William Saxton 


Johannes Milner, B.D. 


Johannes Herbert 


Johannes Killingbeck, B.D. 

Jacobus Baguley 


Josephus Cookson, M.A. 


Thomas Clarel 


Samuel, D.D. 


William Evre, B.D. 


Peter Haddou, M.A. 


Johannes Frazer (Bp. of Ross) 


Richai-d Fawcett, M.A. 


Mai-tinus Collins 


Walter Farquhar Hook, D.D., 


Robert Wrangwash, B.A. 

Oxon. (Dean of Chichester) 


William Evi-e 


James Atlay, D.D., Camb. 

Johannes Thomson 

(Canon of Ripon) 


Since the Second Endowment by Harrison, in 1624. 



Samuel Pullen, D.D. 
wards Abp. of Tuam 

Joshua Pullen, D.D. 
1651. John Garnet, M.A. 
1662. Michael Gilberts, M.A. 
1690. Edward Clarke, M.A. 
1694. Miles Farrer, M.A. 
1698. Thomas D\vyer, B.D. 
1706. Thomas Dixon, M.A. 
1712. Thomas Barnard, M.A. 


1750. Richard Sedgwicke, M.A. 
1755. John Moore, M.A. 
1764. Samuel Brooke, M.A. 
1778. Thomas Goodinge, LL.D. 
1790. Joseph Whiteley, M.A. 
181.5. George Page Richards, M.A. 
1818. George Walker, M.A. 
1830. Joseph Holmes, D.D. 
1854. Alfred Barry, B.D., Camb. 
1862. William George Henderson, 
D.C.L., Oxon. 


1626. John Clayton, Esq. 
1661. Francis Whyte, Esq. 
1692. Jasper Blythman, Esq. 
1707. Richard Thornton, Esq. 
1710. John Walker, Esq. 
1729. Richard Wilson, Esq. 
1762. Richard Wilson, jun., Esq. 

1776. Samuel Buck, Esq. 
1806. John Hardy, Esq., M.P. 
1833. Charles Milner, Esq. 
1837. Robert Baynes Armstrong, Esq. 
(late Recorder of Manchester) 
1839. Thomas Flower Ellis, Esq. 
1861. John Blosset Maule. Esq. 



1634. Robert Todd, A.M. 

1C62. John Milner. B.D. 

1677. John Kave, M.A. 

1683. Henrv Eobinson, M.A. 

1696. Blight Dixon, M.A. 

1709. Henry Lodge, M.A. 

1717. Samuel Brooke, LL.D. 
1731. John Murgati-oyd, M.A. 
1768. Richard Fawcett, M.A. 
1783. William Sheepshanks, M.A. 
1810. Francis Thomas Cookson, M. A. 
1860. Edward Monro, M.A., Oxon. 

Under the First Charter of Charles I., 






Sir John Savile 
John Harrison 
Samuel Casson 
Robert Benson 
Richard Sykes 
Thomas Metcalf 
Joseph Hillary 
Benjamin TTade 
Francis Jackson 
John Harrison, 2nd 
Samuel Casson, 2nd 
Richard Sykes, 2nd 
Thomas Metcalf, 2nd 
John Hodgshon 
Joseph Hillary, 2nd 
Francis Jackson, 2nd 
John Hodgshon, 2nd 

1642. Ralph Croft 

1643. John Dawson 

1644. Francis Allanson 

164.5. JohnThoresby 

* * * 

1649. Robert Brooke 

1650. James Moxon 

1651. William Marshall 

1652. Richard Mibier 

1653. JohnThwaits 
16.54. Martin Isles 

1655. Henry Roundhill 

1656. Marmaduke Hicke 

1657. Francis Allanson, 2nd 
165S. William Fenton 
16.59. William Fenton, 2nd 
1660. PaulThoresby 

Under the Second Charter, 13 aiarles II., 1661. 

Thomas Danby 
Edward Atkinson 
John Dawson, 2nd 
Benjamin Wade, 2nd 
Heujy Skelton 
Daniel Foxcroft 
Mannaduke Hicke, 2nd 
Edward Atkinson, 2nd 
Christopher Watkinson. 
Godfrey Lawson 
Richard AiTnitage 
Thomas Dixon 

1672. William Hutchinson 

1673. William Busfield 

1674. Samuel Sykes 

1675. Martin Headley 

1676. Anthony Wade 

1677. John Killiugbeck 

1678. William Pickeiing 

1679. Joseph Bawmer 

1680. Henry Skelton, 2nd 

1681. Marmaduke Hicke, 3rd 

1682. Thomas Potter 

1683. William Rooke 

Under the Third Charter of James II., 1684. 

1684. Gervase Nevile 

1685. Joshua Ibbetson 

1686. William Sawer 

The former Charter Restored, 

1689. William Massey 

1690. Michael Idle 

1691. John Preston 

1692. WiUiam Calverley 

1693. Thomas Dixon, 2nd 

1694. Marmailuke Hicke, 4th 

1695. Henry Iveson 

1696. John Dodgson 

1697. William Milner 

1698. Caleb Askwith 

1699. John Rontree 

1687. Henry Stanhope 

1688. Thomas Kitchingman 

by William and Mary, 1689. 

1700. Thomas Lasonby 

1701. John Gibson 

1702. James Kitchingman 

1703. Samuel Hey 

1704. Edmund Barker 

1705. Tliomas Kitchingman, 2nd 

1706. Jeremiah Barstow 

1707. Rowland :\Iitchell 

1708. Rowland Mitchell, 2nd 

1709. Hem-y Iveson, 2nd 

1710. John Dodgson, 2nd 




Jolin Atkinson 



WiUiam Cookson 



William Rooke 



Solomon Pollard 



Croft Preston 



Edward Ibbetson 



Thomas Pease 



Benjamin Wade 



Scudaniore Lazeuby 



Thomas Brearey 



Robert Denison 



James Kitchiugraan, 2nd 



Edmund Barker 



Jeremiah Barstow, 2nd 



William Cookson, 2nd 



Thomas Sawer 



Solomon Pollard, 2nd 



Edward Iveson 



John Blayds 


George Dover 



Edward Kenion 



John Douglas 



William Fenton 



Henry Scott 



Thomas Micklethwait 



John Brook 



Robert Denison, 2nd 



William Cookson, 3rd 



Henry Atkinson 


Thomas Sawer, 2nd 



John Snowden 



John Watts 



Robert Smithson 



Richard Horncastle 



Timothy Smith 



Edward Kenion, 2nd 



WiUiam Fenton, 2nd 



Henry Scott, 2nd 



Edward Gray 



John Firth 



Henry Hall 



Thomas Micklethwait, 2nd 



Sir Henry Ibbetson, Bart. 



(William Denison) John Brook, 





(William Denison) Robert Deni- 


son, 3rd 



Thomas Denison 



(William Denison) WalterWade 



William Denison 



Edmund Lodge 



Tliomas IMedhurst 



.John Blayds 



William Wilson 



Samuel Harper 



Samuel Davenport 



Joshua Dixon 



James Kenion 



Luke Sechwell 



Edward Gray, 2nd 


. William Hutchinson 
. William Dawson 
. Edmund Lodge, 2nd 
. John Calverley 
. Thomas Medhurst, 2nd 
, .John Blayds, 2nd 

John Beckett 

John Wormald 

Joseph Fountaine 

Gamaliel Lloyd 

John Micklethwait 

Thomas Rea Cole 

William Smithson 

Arthur Ikin. 

William Cookson 

Jeremiah Dixon 

John Calverley 

John Markland (afterwards 

WiUiam Hey, F.R.S. 

Edward Sanderson 

Edward Markland 

John Plowes 

Wade Browne 

Richard Ramsden Bramley 

Alexander Turner 

John Blayds, 3rd 

Whittel Sheepshanks (after- 
wards York) 

Henry Hall 

John Beckett, 2nd 

John Calverley, 2nd 

Benjamin Gott 

John Brooke 

WUliam Cookson, 2nd 

WiUiam Hey, F.R.S., 2nd 

Thomas Ikin 

Wade Browne, 2nd 

John Wilson 

R. R. Bramley. 2nd 

Edward Markland, 2nd 

Thomas Tennant 

Richard PuUan 

Alexander Turner, 2nd 

Charles Brown 

Henry Hall, 2nd 

WUliam Greenwood 

John Brooke, 2nd 

Whittel York, 2nd 

WiUiam Prest 

John Hill 

George Banks 

Christopher Beckett 

"W^illiam Hey, jun. 

Lepton Dobson 

Benjamin Sadler 

Thomas Tennant, 2nd 

Charles Brown, 2nd 

Henry Hall, 3rd 

Thomas Beckett 



1827. Thomas Blayds 

1828. Ealph Markland 

1829. Christopher Beckett, 2nd 

1830. E. W. Disney Thorp, M.D. 









Mayors since Municipal 

Griffith Wright, 2nd 1 

George Goodman j 
James 'Williamson, M.D. 
Thomas "William Tottie 
James Holdfoiih 
"William Smith 

William Smith, 2nd , 

WilUam Fawson 1 

Henry Cowper Marshall i 

Hamer Stansfeld ' 

Darnton Lupton j 

John Darnton Luccock I 
Charles Gascoigne Maclea, and 

George Goodman, 2nd ; 

Francis Carbutt I 

John Hope Shaw I 

1831. William Hev, 2nd 

1832. Thomas Tennant, 3rd 
183.3. Benjamin Sadler, 2iid 
1834. Griffith Wright 

Corporations Act, 1835. 

1850. Joseph Bateson 
18.51. George Goodman, 3rd 
1S52. Sir George Goodman, 4tli 
1853. John Hope Shaw, 2nd 
] 854. John Wilson 
lS.5-5. .Joseph Richardson 

1856. Thomas Willington George 

1857. John Botterill 

1858. Peter Fairbaim 

1859. Sir Peter Fairbairn 

1860. AYilliam KelsaU 

1861. James Kitson 

1862. James Kitson, 2ud 

1863. Joseph Ogdin March 

1864. Obadiah Nussey 

1865. John Darnton Luccock, 2nd 

Samuel Brogden 
Thomas Simpson 
Edward Brogden 
Morgan Lowry 
James Newport 

Francis Bellhouse 
George Bannister 
Samuel Brogden 
Castilion Morris 
John Jackson 
Henry Adam 
John Lazenby 


I 1790. John Atkinson 

1824. Robert Barr 

1835. John Lofthouse 

I 1836. John Blackburn, Esq. 


1753. Thomas Atkinson 
1765. Thomas Barstow, jun. 
1792. Lucas Nicholson 
1812. James Nicholson 

1836. Edwin Eddison 
1843. John Arthur Ikin 
1860. John Edward Smith, Esq. 


Samuel Sykes 
William Sawer 
Heni-y Stanhope 
Christopher Pawson 
Henry Stanhope 
Joshua Ibbetson 
Thomas Hardwicke 
John Dodgson 
WiUiam Cottam 
Joshua Pickersgill 
William Cookson, jun. 
Jeremiah Dixon 
•John Douglas 



George Dover 
John Wilkinson 
Henry Hall 
Samuel Howgate 
John Micklethwait 
Edward Sandei-sou 
Edward Markland 
Christopher Beckett 
Mr. Gawthorp 
John Smith 
William Whitehead 
W. E. Hepper, Esq. 

1831. James Richardson I 1862. J. W.Hamilton Richardson, Esq. 

1836. Robert Barr, Esq. 



1846. Charles Tinley, C.E. | 3859. Edward FiUiter, C.E. 


J. E. W. Atkinson, Esq. 

Joseijli Bateson, Esq. 

Sii- Thomas Beckett, Bart. 

Thomas Benyon, Esq. 

John Bottei-iU, Esq. 

Richard Bramley, Esq. 

John Burton, Esq. 

Francis Carbntt, Esq. 

Charles Chadwick, Esq., M.D. 

Hemy Chorley, Esq. 

Joseph Cliff, Esq. 

John Cooper, Esq. 

John Crofts, Esq. 

John EUershaw, jun., Esq. 

Wilham Firth, Esq. 

Thomas Willington George, Esq. 

Edward Grace, Esq. 

S. B. Hargreave, Esq. 

Richard Harrison, Esq. 

John Heaton, Esq. 

Robert Hudson, Esq. 

Edwaid Irwin, Esq. 

William KelsaU, Esq. 

James Kitson, Esq. 

John Darnton Luccock, Esq. (Mayw) 

Darnton Lupton, Esq. 

Joseph Ogdin March, Esq. 

Henry Cowi^er aiarshaU, Esq. 

Jolin Marshall, Esq. 

Edmund Claude, Esq. 

Obatliah Nussey, Esq. 

Hamer Stansfeld, Esq. 

Thomas Pridgin Teale, Esq., F.R.S. 

Joseph Mason Tennant, Esq. 

Thomas Tennant, Esq. 

John Wilson, Esq. 



-Adam Baynes, Esq., of Knostrop, near Leeds 

1832, Dec— John Marshall, jun., Esq. (Whig) . 

Thomas Babington Macaulay, Esq. (Whig) 
Micluid Thomas Sadler, Esq. (Tory) . 

1834, Feb.— Edward Baines, Esq. (Whig, vice Macaulay, India) 

Sir John Beckett, Bart. (Tory) . 

1835, Jan.— Eight Hon. Sir John Beckett, Bart. (Tory) 

Edward Baines, Esq. ("Wliig) 

William Brougham, Esq. ( Wliig) . 
1837, July— Edward Baines, Esq. (Whig). 

Sir WiUiam Molesworth, Bart. (Radical) 

Sir John Beckett, Bart. (Tory) . 
1841, July— WiUiam Beckett, Esq. (Tory) . 

WUliam Aldam, jun., Esq. (Whig) 

Joseph Hume, Esc/. ( Wliig) 

Lord Jocelyn (Tory) 

1847, July — WUliam Beckett, Esq. (Consei-vative) 

James Garth Marshall, Esq. (Liberal) 

Joseph Sturge, Esc/. (Liberal) . 
1852, July — Sir Geoi-ge Goodman, Kut. (Liberal) 

Eight Hon. M. T. Baines, Esq. (Liberal) . 

Robert Hall, Esq. ( Conservative) . 

Thomas Sidney, Esq. (Conservative) 
1857,March-Right Hon. M. T. Baines, Esq. (Liberal) 

Robert HaU, Esq. (Conservative) 

John Remington Mills, Esc/. (Liberal) . 
1857, June — George Skirrow Beecroft, Esq. (Conservative, 
Robert HaU, Esq., deceased) . 

John Remington Mills, Esq. (Liberal) 

(6,204 registered, 4,134 voted) 
1859, Ai^rU — Edward Baines, jun., Esq. (Libei-al) 

George S. Beecroft, Esq. (Conservative) . 

William Edward Forster, Esq. (Liberal) 










Biography is a species of history which, records tlie lives and 
characters of remarkable persons. This is at once the most 
entertaining and instructive kind of history. History itself is 
chiefly made up of biographies; a biography, therefore, may be 
said to be " history in miniature." It is a repository of the 
actions and fortunes of great men, which admits of all the 
paintmg and passion of romance; but Avith tliis capital differ- 
ence, that our passions are more keenly interested, because the 
character and incidents are not only agreeable to nature, but 
strictly time. No books are so fit to be put into the hands of 
young people. According to Archbishop Whately, " Biography 
is allowed on all hands to be one of the most attractive and 
pi'ofitable kinds of reading." 

Biograplda, or the history of jiarticular men's lives, is in 
dignity inferior to history and annals, yet in pleasure and 
instruction it equals, or even excels, both of them. It is not 
only commended by ancient practice to celebrate the memory of 
great and vortliy men, as the best thanks which posterity can 
pay them, but also the examples of virtue are of more vigour, 
when they ai-e thus contracted into individuals. As the sun- 
beams, united in a burning-glass to a point, have greater force 
than Avhen they are darted from a plain superficies, so the 
A-irtues and actions of one man, drawn together into a single 
story, strike upon our minds a stronger and more lively impres- 

* Compiled from various soiu'ces. 


sion than the scattered relations of many men and many 
actions; and by the same means that they give ns pleasure, 
they afford ns profit too. For when the understanding is 
intent and fixed on a single thing, it carries closer to the 
mark; every part of the object sinks into it, and the soul 
receives it unmixed and whole. There is nothing of the 
tyrant in example, but it gently glides into us, is easy and 
pleasant in its passage, and, in one word, reduces into practice 
our speculative notions; therefore, the more powerful examples 
are, they are the more useful also, and by being more known 
they are more powerful (Dryden). Alexander Pope says: — 
" The proper study of mankind is man;'' and from the author 
of Sartor Resartus we learn that "the great miaister, Von 
Goethe, has penetratingly remarked that ' 7nan is pi^operly the 
only object that interests man;'' thus I too have noted that our 
whole conversation is little or nothing else but biography 
or auto-biogi-aphy; ever humano-anecdotical. Biography is by 
nature the most universally profitable, universally pleasant, of 
all things; especially biography of distinguished individuals." 
And in his Lectures on Heroes he states that " imiversal history, 
the histoiy of what man has accomplished in this world, is 
at bottom the histoiy of the great men who have worked here. 
They were the leaders of men, these great ones; the modellers, 
patterns, and in a wide sense creators, of whatsoever the 
o'eneral mass of men contrived to do or to attain; all things 
that we see standing accomplished in the world are properly 
the outer material result, the practical realization and embodi- 
ment of thoughts that dwelt in the great men sent iato 
the world: the soul of the whole world's history, it may justly 
be considered, were the history of these. Too clearly it is 
a topic we shall do no siiiiicient justice to in this place ! One 
comfort is, that great men, taken up in any way, are profitable 
company. We cannot look, however imperfectly, iipon a great 
man, without gaining something by him. He is the li^dug 
light-fountain, which it is good and pleasant to be near, — 
the light which enlightens, which has enlightened the darkness 
of the world; and this not as a kindled lamp only, but rather 
as a natural luminary shining by the gift of Heaven; a flowing 
light-fountain of native, original insight, of manhood and 
heroic nobleness; in whose radiance all souls feel that it is well 
with them. On any terms whatsoever, you will not grudge to 
wander in such neighbourhood for a while. The history of the 
world is indeed the biography of gi-eat men. And what is 
notable, in no time whatever can they entirely eradicate out of 


living men's heai-ts a certain altogether peculiar reverence for 
great men, genuine admiration, loyalty, adoration, however dim 
and perverted it may be. Hero-v^orship endures for ever while 
man endures. In all times and places, the heio has been wor- 
shipped. It will ever be so. We all love great men; love, 
venerate, and bow down submissive before gi'eat men: nay, can 
we honestly bow down to anything elsel Ah! does not every 
true man feel that he is himself made higher by doing reverence 
to what is really aljove him! No nobler or more blessed 
feeling dwells in man's heart." 

" These men are Fortune's jewels, movilded brigM; 

Brought forth mth their own fii-e and light." — CoWLEY. 

The subjects of biography are the lives either of public or 
private pereons; for many useful observations in the conduct of 
human life may be made from jiist accounts of those who have 
been eminent and beneficial to the world in either station. 
Nay, the lives of vicious persons are not without their use, as 
warnings to others, by observing the fatal conseqiiences which 
sooner or later generally follow such practices. But for those 
who exposed their lives, or otherwise employed their time and 
labour for the service of their fellow-creatures, it seems but 
a just debt that theii" memories should be perpetuated after 
them, and posterity acquainted with their benefactors. The 
expectation of this was no small incentive to virtue in the 
ancient pagan world. And perhaps every one, upon due 
reflection, Avill be convinced how natural this passion is to 
mankind in general. And it was for this reason, probably, 
that Virgil jilaces not only his heroes, but also the inventors of 
useful arts and sciences, and other persons of distinguished 
merit, in the Elysian Fields, where he thus describes them : — 

" Here patriots live, who, for their coiintry's good. 
In fighting-fields were prodigal of blood ; 
Pi-iests of unblemished lives here make abode, 
And poets worthy their inspiring God ; 
And seai'clung wits of more mechanic parts, 
Wlio gi-ac'd their age Avith new-invented arts ; 
Those who to Korth their bounty did extend, 
And those who knew that bounty to commend : 
The heads of these with holy fillets bound, 
And all their temples were with garlands crown'd. " 

^neid vi. 660-65, 

It is a proverb no less tnithful than common, that " example 

is better than precept," The latter is compulsive, the former 

attractive. There can be no question as to which is more 

powerful, the statue-like principle or its living impersonation; 

and here is the advantmje of biography, A few only can be 


benefited by tlie actual converse and example of the gi-eat 
and good; but this may be in part embalmed. In fact, not 
only does " the evil that men do live after them, but the good 
is oft interred with their bones:" theii* actions, also, while 
remembered, are all instinct with influences of some sort or 
another. In the pages that do honour to their memory, mo- 
tives may often be revealed, and actions viewed in all their 
consequences; in imagination we hold converse with the dead 
or absent, mark the tenour of their way, and breathe the spirit 
of the time; now stimidated to exertion, and now, it may 
be, restrained from w^anton injury and wrong. Human sym- 
pathies are strong; indeed, there are no mightier agencies in 
the world than those affections which unite man to man. 
They have both nurtured and destroyed communities; and 
individuals tending towards each other, or a common centre, 
they have lured together to ruin or success. Biogi-aphy has 
corresponding power for good or ill; the portrait has its magic 
charm, if the friendly grasp boasts its electric fire. Biography 
of every description is thus included among the departments 
subsidiary to history. Indeed, it has Ijeen proved by some late 
brilliant examples — in the case of JMacaulay's England, for 
instance — that the historian who rightly understands his busi- 
ness can glean nearly as much material suitable for his purpose, 
from the lives of private persons as from those of princes, 
statesmen, or generals. This branch of litei'ature opens witb 
auto-biographies, which, when Avell executed, constitute its 
most valuable and interesting portion. We have but little to 
set by the side of the charming " memoires" in innumerable 
volumes, which form so piquant a portion of the literature 
of France. In biography, exclusiA'e of auto-biogTaphy, we may 
distinguish — 1. Genei'al compilations; 2. National compila- 
tions; 3. Class biographies; and 4. Personal biographies. Of 
the first kind, it is to our reproach that until the last few years 
we have had no specimen deserving of mention. Chalmers 
was the first to bring out a Biograpldcal Dictionary of any pre- 
tension, but even in this the omissions are numerous and 
important. In our o\m day, two enterprising publishei'S have 
done, and are doing, much to supply the deficiency — Mr. 
Knight, by the Biographical portion of the English Cyclo- 
jKi'dia, and Mr. JMackenzie, by his Imperial Dictionary of 
Biography, now in course of publication at Glasgow. Of the 
second kind, we have the Biographia Britannica, a work of 
great research, though with many and serious omissions. The 
original edition embraced the entire alphabet; but its defects 


were so glaring as to determine Dr. Kippis and others to 
undertake a re-issue of the work upon an enlarged scale; the 
new edition, however, was never carried further than the 
commencement of the letter F. Fuller's Worthies of England 
is a work of the same description. Of class biographies, the 
chief examples are Walton's Lives of Anglican Divines; Wood's 
A thence Oxonienses, which is a collection of short Memoirs of 
all the writers and bishops educated at Oxford fi-om 1500 to 
lG9o; Johnson's Lives of the Poets; Hartley Coleridge's Bio- 
grapMaj Borealis, or Lives of Northern Worthies; Lord Camp- 
bell's Lives of the Chancellors ; and Dr. Hook's Lives of the 
Archbishops of Canterhury. &c. Among personal biographies, 
Boswell's Life of Johnson holds confessedly the first place. 
It must be owned that v,-e English have not done that part 
of our hero-worship particularly well, which consists in writing 
really good lives of our heroes. Shakespeare's life was never 
written at all ; and many of the others fall far beneath their 
subjects. Lord Bacon says: "The writing of lives is not 
frequent;" but whatever reason there might have been in 
former days, to complain of the want of due respect to the 
memoiy of distinguished persons, it can hardly be said of our 
times, that an indifference prevails in regard to departed 

Thei'e is a growing desii-e to know more of men who have 
made a place in the world's memory. We, who are of 
humanity, are gratified at seeing our nature in its highest 
phases and most glorious aspects. We feel as though we were 
bound to the individual by his greatness. Biogi-aphy has been 
called the "Romance of Histoiy." It is more than that: it is 
its vital truth — its inner life. We gather into one chronicle 
the records of peoples and ages. We note all the thoughts, 
mark down all the acts, read the whole progress of the mass. 
Then we feel that something is wanting. In that crowd there 
must be some point to rest upon. Among the thousands there 
is sui-ely some man who does more towards the age than 
his fellows. We desire to know him. He can tell us not only 
what was done, but why it was done. He can show us the 
springs of the machine, of which we see but the outside. 
We yearn to know the secrets of the heart, that through other 
agencies moA-es the world. Most great deeds seem to be done 
by the multitude, yet we have a consciousness it is not so. 
We feel that there is some " foi-emost man of all his time," that 
in him other men centre to a focus, as the rays of light do in a 
burning-glass. He concentrates the faint hopes of others into 


a burning desire. He gathers together the confused thoughts 
of the many, and gives them an articulate expression. He 
binds up the impulsive tendencies of thousands, till they be- 
come sti'ong enoxigh for effort. Such men are Representative 
men, and something more. 

" The wise and active conquer difficulties 
By daiing to attempt them ; sloth and folly 
Shiver and shrink at sight of toil and hazard, 
And make the impossibility they fear. " — EOWE. 

In the lives of public persons, their public characters are 
principally but not solely to be regarded. The world is inquisi- 
tive to know the condu.ct of princes and other great men, 
as well in private as public. And both, as has been said, may 
be of service, considering the influence of their examples. But 
to be over-inquisitive in searching into the weaknesses and 
infii'mities of the greatest or best of men, is, to say no more of 
it, but a needless ciu-iosity. 

There is no sort of reading more profitable than that of the 
lives and characters of wise and good men. To find that great 
lengths have been actually gone in learning and virtue, that 
high degrees of perfection have been actually attained by men 
like ourselves, entangled among the infirmities, the temptations, 
the op])osition from wicked men, and the other various e\ of 
life, — how does this show us to ourselves as utterly inexcusable, 
if we do not endeaA'-our to emulate the heights we know have 
been reached by others of owv fellow-creatures ! Biography, in 
short, brings lis into the most intimate acquaintance with 
the real characters of the illustrious dead; shows us what they 
have been, and, consequently, what we ourselves may be; — 
'' What man has done, man may do;" — sets before us the whole 
character of a person who has made himself conspicuous eitlier 
by his virtues or his vices ; shows us how he came first to take 
a right or wrong turn; how he afterwards proceeded greater 
and greater lengths; the prospects which invited him to aspire 
to higher degrees of glory, or the delusions which misled him 
from his virtue and his peace; the circumstances which raised 
him to trae greatness, or the rocks on which he split and sunk 
to infamy. And how can we more efiectually, or in a more 
entertaining manner, learn the important lesson — what we 
ought to piu'sue, and what we ought to avoid? Such lives as 
those found in this volume teach young men that if they wUl 
only attend to their business and keep out of scrapes, that 
they are rising men, and have all the prizes of the nation 
before them; teach them that nothing great or good can be 


accomplislied without labour; "that a cat in gloves catches no 
mice;" and that tlie performances of the human heart, at 
which we look with praise or Avonder, are instances of the 
resistless force of human energy. It is by this that the quarry 
becomes a pyramid, and that distant countries are united by 
canals. If a man was to compare the effect of a single stroke 
of a pick-axe, or of one impression of the spade, with the 
general design and last result, he woiild be overwhelmed by the 
sense of then- dispropoi-tion ; yet those petty operations, 
incessantly continued, in time surmount the greatest diflS,- 
culties, and movmtains are levelled, and oceans bounded, by the 
slender force of human beings. Industry, if no more than 
habit, is at least an excellent one. If you ask us, kind reader, 
which is the real hereditary sin of human nature, do you 
imagine we should answer pride, or luxury, or ambition, or 
egotism? No; we should say, Indolence. Who conquers in- 
dolence, will conquer all the rest. Indeed, all good principles 
must stagnate without mental acti^dty. Generally speaking, 
the life of all truly great men has been a life of intense and 
incessant labour. They have commonly passed the first half of 
life in the gross darkness of indigent humility, — overlooked, 
mistaken, contemned by weaker men, — thinking while others 
slept, reading while others rioted, feeling something within 
them, that told them they should not always be kept down 
among the dregs of the world; and then, when then* time was 
come, and some little accident has given them their first 
occasion, they have burst ou.t into the light and glory of public 
life, rich with the spoils of time, and mighty in all the labours 
and struggles of the mind. 

" The heights, by great men reached and kept, 
Were not attained by sudden flight; 
But they, while their comijanions slept, 

Were toiling uj) wards in the night." — LONGFELLOW. 

Handel was forty-eight befoi-e he gave the world assurance 
of a man; Dryden came up to London, from the provinces, 
dressed in dnigget, somewhat above thirty, and did not even 
then know that he could wiite a line of poetry; Milton was 
upwards of fifty when he began his great work; Cowper knew 
not his own might till ho was far beyond his tliirtieth year, and 
his Task was not written till near his fiftieth year ; Sii- Walter 
Scott was also upwards of thirty before he published his 
Minstrelsy, and all his greatness was yet to come. 

" Scost thoii a man diligent in his business? he shall stand before kings; 
he shall not stand befoi'e mean men." — Frov. xxii. 29. 


Emerson, in his Representative Men, says : " It is natural to? 
believe iii great men. If the companions of otir childhood 
should turn out to be heroes, and their condition regal, it would 
not surprise us. All mythology opens Avith demi-gods, and the cii'- 
cumstance is high and poetic ; that is, their genius is paramount. 
Nature seems to exist for the excellent. The world Ls upheld 
by the veracity of great men : they make the earth wholesome. 
They who lived with them found life glad and mitritious. Life 
is sweet and tolerable only in our belief in such society ; and 
actually, or ideally, we manage to live with superiors, — we call 
our children and our lauds by their names. Their names are 
wrought into the verbs of language, their woi-ks and effigies are 
in our houses, and every circumstance of the day recalls an 
anecdote of them. The search after the great is the dream 
of youth, and the most serious occupation of manhood. 

" The knowledge, that in the city is a man who invented the 
railroad, &c., raises the credit of all the citizens. How easily 
we adopt their labours ! Every ship that sails to America got 
its chart from Columbus. Every novel is a debtor to Homer. 
Every carpenter who shaves with a fore-plane borrows the 
genius of a forgotten inventor. Life is girt all round with a zodiac 
of sciences, the contributions of men who have perished to add 
their point of light to our sky. Engineer, broker, jurist, physician, 
moralist, theologian, and every man, inasmuch as he has any 
science, is a dehner and map-maker of the latitudes and longi- 
tudes of our condition. These road-makers on eveiy hand 
enrich us. We must extend the area of life, and multiply our 
relations. "We are as much gainers by finding a new property 
in the old eai'th, as by acquiring a neAv planet. 

" To ascend one step, we are better served through onr sym- 
pathy. Activity is contagious. Looking where others look, and 
conversing with the same things, we catch the chaim which 
Itu-ed them. Napoleon said, ' You must not fight too often 
with one enemy, or you will teach him all your art of war.' 
Talk much with any man of vigorous mind, and we acquire 
very fast the habit of looking at things in the same light, 
and, on each occurrence, we anticipate his thought. All mental 
and moral force is a positive good. It goes out from you, 
whether you will or not, and profits me whom you never tliought 
of. I cannot even hear of personal A-igour of riny kind, great 
power of pei'formance, without fresh resolution. We are emu- 
lous of all that man can do. Cecil's saying of Sir Walter 
Ealeigh, 'I know that he can toil terribly,' is an electric touch. 
So are Clarendon's portraits, — of Hampden; 'who was of an 


industry and A'lgilance not to be tired out or wearied by the 
most laborious, and of parts not to be imposed on by the most 
subtle and sharp, and of a personal courage equal to his best 
parts,' — of Falkland ; ' who was so severe an adorer of truth, 
that he could as easily have given himself leave to steal as to 
dissemble.' We cannot read Plutarch, without a tingling of 
the blood; and I accept the sayiug of the Chinese Mencius: 
'A sage is the instmctor of a hundred ages. When the man- 
ner of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the 
wavering, determined.' This is the moral of biography; yet 
it is hard for departed men to touch the quick like our own 
companions, whose names may not last as long. What is he 
whom I never think of? whilst in every solitude are those who 
succour our genius, and stimulate us in wonderful manners. 
Under this head, too, falls that homage, very pure, as I think, 
which all ranks pay to the hero of the day, from Coriolanus and 
Gracchus down to Pitt, Lafayette, Wellington, Webster, Lamar- 
tine, and Garibaldi, &g. We are as elastic as the gas of gun- 
powder, and a sentence in a book, or a word cb-opped in 
conversation, sets free our fancy, and instantly our heads are 
bathed with galaxies, and our feet tread the lioor of the pit. 
These great men correct the delirium of the animal spirits, 
make us considerate, and engage us to new aims and powers. 
The veneration of mankind selects these for the highest place. 
Witness the multitude of statues, pictures, and memorials which 
recall their genius in every city, village, house, and ship : — 

' Ever their pliantoms rise before us, 

Our loftier brothers, but oue in blood ; 
At bed and table they lord it o'er us, 

With looks of beauty, and words of good.' 

Every child of the Saxon race is educated to wish to be first. 
It is our system ; and a man comes to measure his greatness by 
the regrets, envies, and hatreds of his competitors. But in 
these new fields there is room; here are no self-esteems, no ex- 

" We admire great men of all classes, those who stand for facts 
and for thoughts. We love to associate with heroic persons, 
since our receptivity is unlimited ; and, with the great, our 
thoughts and manners easily become great. We are all wise in 
capacity, though so few in energy. There needs but one wise 
man in a company, and all are wise, so rapid is the contagion. 
Great men are thus a collyiium to clear our eyes from egotism, 
and enable us to see other people and their works. Again, it is 
very easy to be as wise and good as your companions. We 


learn of our contemporaries wliat they know, without effort, 
and almost through the pores of the skin. We catch it by 
sympathy, or, as a wife arrives at the intellectual and moral 
elevations of her husband. But we stop where they stop. 
Very hardly can we take another step. The great, or such as 
take hold of nature, and transcend fashions, by their fidelity to 
univei'sal ideas, are saviours from these federal errors, and defend 
us from our contemporaries ; they are the excejjtions which we 
want, where all grows alike. Thvis we feed on geniu.s, and 
refresh ourselves from too much conversation with our mates, 
and exult in the depth of nature in that dii'ection in which he 
leads us. What indemnification is one great man for popula- 
tions of pigmies ! Every mother wishes one son a genius, 
though all the rest should be mediocre. But a new danger 
appears in the excess of influence of the great man. His at- 
tractions warp us from our place. We have become under- 
lings and intellectual suicides. Ah ! yonder in the liorizon is 
our help ; other great men, new qualities, counterweights and 
checks on each other. We cloy of the honey of each peculiar 

Dr. Smiles, in his Self-Help, informs us that "The chief 
use of biography consists in the noble models of character in 
which it abounds. Our great forefathers still live among us in 
the records of their lives, as well as in the acts they have done, 
and which live also ; still sit by us at table, and hold us by the 
hand; furnishing examples for our benefit, which we may still 
study, admii'e, and imitate. Indeed, whoever has left behind 
liim the record of a noble life, has bequeathed to posterity an 
enduring source of good, for it lives as a model for others, to 
form themselves by, in all time to come ; still breathing fresh 
life into uS, helping us to reproduce his life anew, and to illus- 
ti-ate his character in other forms. Hence a book containing 
the life of a true man is full of precious seed. To use Milton's 
words, 'it is the precious life-blood of a master-spirit, embalmed 
and treasured up on purpose to a life beyond life.' Such a book 
never ceases to exercise an elevating influence, and a power for 
good. It may not have the power of the living life of a man; 
but it is a record of gi-eatness, which we cannot help admiring; 
and unconsciously imitating, while we admire. No yovmg man 
can rise from the perusal of such lives, without feeling his mind 
and heart made better, and liis best resolves invigorated. Such 
biographies increase a man's self-reliance, by demonstrating what 
men can be, and what they can do; fortifying our hopes and 
elevatincf our aims in life. 


'^ Tims it Is impossible to say where a good example may not 
reach, or where it will end, if indeed it have an end. Hence 
the advantage, in literature as in life, of keeping the best society, 
reading the best books, and wisely admiring and imitating the 
best things we find in them. ' In literature,' said Lord Dudley, 
' I am fond of confining myself to the best company, which 
consists chiefly of my old acquaintance, with whom I am desir- 
ous of becoming more intimate ; and I suspect that nine times 
out of ten it is more profitable, if not more agreeable, to read 
an old book over again, than to read a new one for the first 
time.' Sometimes a book containing a noble exemplar of life, 
taken up at random, merely with the object of reading it as a 
pastime, has been known to call forth energies whose existence 
had not before been suspected. 

" Example is one of the most potent of instnictors, though it 
teaches without a tongue. Contact with the good never fails to 
impart good, and we caiiy away with us some of the blessing, 
as travellers' garments retain the odour of the flowers and 
shiiibs through which they have passed." 

According to Dr. Hamilton, " There are few influences on 
society more wholesome than the fame of its Worthies." 

And the author of Self-Advancement sajs: "Of all the 
studies that can be presented to human contemplation, that of 
the human character is the most interesting and the most useful. 
We love to trace in others the spring of actions, by which our 
own interests may be indii-ectly afiected, or to see them wind 
then- way through the same labp-inths of life, which it may be 
our lot to tread. We are glad to find difliculties vanquished, 
and -vii-tuous principles meet with their due reward, because, 
independently of that benevolent instinct which teaches us 
to rejoice in the success of moral truth and rectitude, our self- 
love, flattering us with possessing some degree of the same 
excellence, impels us to hope that some degi-ee of the same good 
which has befallen another, may at a future period befall our- 
selves, or those dear to ns. Nor is there anything in this feeling 
that can he reprehended. From viewing -wdth pleasure the 
advancement of othei"s, we learn to emulate the virtues or the 
talents by which it may have been attained. For young 
pei'sons in particular, it is desii-able that this should be the case; 
and it is chiefly for them that the following pages have been 
compiled ; to quicken their ingenuous sympathy in the trials and 
difliculties, with which it has been the fate of many to contend; 
to them to moi-e lively admiration of the energy that 
could conquer the most discouraging obstacles; and to teach 


them that there is no laudable object of ambition, but what may 
be hoped for, by steadily fixing the mind, and directing the con- 
duct for its attainment." 

We must ourselves he and do, and not rest satisfied merely 
with reading and meditating over what other men have written 
and done. According to Lord Chesterfield, we should "aim at 
perfection in everything, though in most things it is unattain- 
able. However, they who aim at it and persevere will come 
much nearer to it, than those whose laziness and despondency 
make them give it up as unattainable." 

" No species of writing," says the author of the Rambler, 
" seems more worthy of cultivation than biography, since none 
can be more delightful, or more useful ; none can more certainly 
enchain the heart by irresistible interest, or more widely diff"use 
instruction to every diversity of condition." 

" Study the lives, and study tlie thoughts of good men," says 
Dean Stanley. " They are the salt not only of the world, but 
of the clnirch. In them we see, close at hand, what on the 
public stage of history we see through eveiy kind of distorted 
medium and deceptive refraction. In them we can trace the 
history, if not of ' the Catholic Church,' at least of ' the Com- 
munion of Saints.' Such biographies are the common, perhaps 
the only common, literature alike of rich and poor. Hearts, 
to whom even the Bible speaks in vain, have by such works 
been roused to a sense of duty and holiness. However cold the 
response of mankind has been to other portions of history, tliis 
has always commanded a reverential, even an excessive atten- 

In no other publication of a character purely literary are 
instruction and entertainment so intimately blended as in the 
" Biographies of Worthy Men :" hence arises the general demand 
for works of this class, as well as the extensive and lasting 
popularity, which they have always enjoyed. Materials for the 
supply of this demand were never so abundant, or accessible, as 
they have been in our own times ; and yet scarcely in any other 
country in Christendom, have the wants of the public in this 
particular been, hitherto, less liberally provided for than in 

The following sketches give brief, but we trust not unsatis- 
factory records of the lives of our Worthies. Brief as they 
are, they cannot be read without advantage ; for, as it has been 
well obsei-ved, "We feel ourselves grow stronger, and we become 
more hopeful respecting what we can do and endure, when we 
follow the course of men who, though laden with all our in- 


firraities, and some even vnth. greater, have, nevertheless, con- 
quered cii'cumstances ; overcome what appeared insurmountable 
obstacles; and, by dint of strong-hearted toil and courage, have 
fought their way to usefulness and honour." Such men were 
Smeaton and the Milners, &c., whose examples may be held out 
as beacons of hope to all industrious and enterprising men, who, 
as was their case, may enter into life obscui'e and unknown, but 
who, by imitating their industry, energy, perseverance, sobriety, 
and honesty, may leave behind them names for theii" children to 
revere, and for posterity to honour. 

" Lives of gi'eat men all remind us, 
We can make our lives sublime, 
And, departing, leave 1>eliind us 
Footjirints on the sands of time. 

" Footprints, that perhaps another, 
SaiUng o'er life's solemn main, 
Some forlorn and shipwrecked brother, 
Seeing, may take heart again. 

' ■ Let vs, then, be up and doing. 
With a heart for any fate; 
Still achieving, stiU pursuing, 
Learn to labour, and to wait."— LONGFELLOW. 

The following selection comprises such persons as were either 
born in Leeds or neighbourhood, or connected with it in some 
other way — persons who, by their enterprise, genius, learning, 
bravery, piety, benevolence, scientific or other pursuits, ren- 
dered themselves more than ordinarily attractive among their 
contemporaries, and objects of attention for the consideration of 
posterity — to instruct by their wisdom, and encourage by their 
example. It may be remarked for the further guidance of the 
reader, as well as hj way of explanation, — that several names are 
necessarily omitted in this selection, of persons Avho stood more or 
less connected with the events of the times in which they lived ; — 
that a few persons have been introduced in humble circum- 
stances — in russet costume — who, though their fame was far 
from being trumpet-tongued, exercised, nevertheless, a certain 
modicum of influence on society, and, if not permitted to stand 
by the side of the more gorgeous flovfers tliat adorn the gardens 
of the great, may be allowed, like the daisy of the field, the 
wild hedge-rose, the cowslip, the primrose, and the forget-me- 
not, to have a glance bestowed upon them, while gemming the 
humbler walks of life; — that while the list presents, at one view, 
tlie biographical wealtli of the town and neighbourhood, it is 
still to 1)6 characterized as comprising a selection only — sufficient, 
though by no means perfect ; and to be valued chiefly for the 
sake of reference, and as memorial sketches ; as the notices could 


not, with propriety, be extended to too great length, and they 
fail to produce the effect, in an isolated form, which they are 
calculated to accomplish accorcKng to the present arrangement. 

It is always pleasant to become acquainted with the history 
of men who have distinguished themselves, whether by the 
performance of noble and heroic acts; the discovery or the 
promulgation of important inventions, or the advocacy of great 
jn'inciples in any branch of human knowledge; and. that plea- 
sure is generally increased, in proportion to the association 
of the reader with the subject of the history under considera- 
tion. Hence local biographies possess a special intei-est in a 
local point of view, and they have a deeper influence within 
than without the pale of what we may denominate their 
own domain. The Worthies in this book include men whose 
life-history has had an interest extending far beyond the limits 
of the town of Leeds and its neighbourhood. 

The men who have elevated themselves to distinction by 
their eminent attainments in literature and science, and who 
have proceeded from this district, have been exceedingly nume- 
rous; and it will soon appear that scarcely any region of the 
British empire has produced such a number of distinguished 
characters, the honour of therr country and their age. It will, 
of course, be impossible for us to give more than very abbre- 
viated Sketches of their history. From the most approved 
authorities, we shall, however, present all those particulars 
which it may be the most important for our readei-s to know. 

This volume contains, in chronological order. Biographical 
Sketches of the principal persons who have lived in and around 
Leeds, from the date of the most remote authentic histories 
down to the present time. The particulars have been selected 
and condensed from every source of information within the 
reach of the compiler, and, through the kindness of friends, 
several curious and interesting particulars are now published 
for the fii'st time. Great care has been taken to avoid giving a 
party or political bias to the work, and to add to its value by 
making each sketch as impartial as possible. 

In conclusion, the following lines, " Know Others," by the 
Rev. Francis Fawkes, M.A. (a sketch of whom will be found in 
a subsequent part of this volume), seem to be especially appro- 
priate at the present time : — 

" Know thou thyself," was always said of old, 
A maxim not quite absolute, I hold : 
It had been better far, you must allow, 
And more ovxr interest, " other men to knmo." 



Lords of the Manor of Leeds, Ac. 

" Wealth, and the high estate of pride, 
With what ixntimely speed they glide : 
How soon depart !" 

EALPH PAYNEL [or Paganel]. 

All the historians of Leeds have ever been of opinion that 
]5rior to the Norman conquest it was a town of considerable 
national importance. In the Anglo-Saxon history of Britain, both 
political and ecclesiastical, but more especially the latter, many 
of the great movements i-ecorded there will be found to have 
occurred either in the immetliate neighbourhood of Leeds, or at 
least in the territories of that peculiar and independent kingdom 
of Elmete, of which Leeds is supposed to have been the primi- 
tive capital. The Roman has ei-ected his altars and constructed 
liis camps on all sides of the town ; and the Saxon, when con- 
verted from paganism, sent his first northern missionary, 
Paulinus, to preach in our streets ; wliilst his kings built their 
royal residences in the pleasant valleys, and roamed over the 
thickly- wooded hill, or galloped across the wide expanse of moor 
in pursuit of their favourite pastime — the chase."'' 

But whatever may have been the celebrity of Leeds anterior 
to the Norman conquest, it certainly did not retain a tithe of 

* For a long account of Leeds under the Eomans and Anglo-Saxons, see 
Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis ; Whitakei-'s Loidis and Ebnete; and Parsons' 
History of Leeds, &c. 

The following places, so familiar to the people of Leeds, are mostly 
derived from the language of our Anglo-Saxon ancestors. Leeds is supposed 
by Thoresljy to be derived from the British Cair Laid Colt, a town in the wood ; 
by the venerable Bode (who was born in GG4), from the first Saxon possessor 
named Loidi; others sujjpose it to be derived frona our German ancestors, as 
there is a town called Leedes on the river Deuder, in East Flanders, near 
which is the village of Holbeck. Briggate, the Bridyc-'jate; Kirkgate, the 


its im])oi'tance after^tliat event. ' Witli the advent of the N"or- 
mans, Saxon institutions were ignored, and Saxon municipalities 
despised, except in cases where the Saxon thane had selected a 
spot pre-eminently suitable for the erection of the fortress of the 
Norman knight. Such, however, appears not to have been the 
case with Leeds ; and to that cause we may doubtless refer its 
immediate retrogression under the early Norman kings. 

It was in the latter lialf of the year 1069, that William the 
Conquei'or made his second, and successful, invasion of North- 
iimbria. His army advanced into Yorkshire along the old 
Roman road, which led them through Doncaster and Pontefract. 
At the latter place the invaders were detained for thi'ee weeks, 
on account of the swollen waters of the river Aire, and their 
own ignorance as to the exact position of the fords. William 
accompanied his army ; and, being annoyed at the delay, he des- 
patched a knight, who carefully sounded the river, both above 
and below the town, in order to discover a place where the army 
might pass. At lengtli, with great difficvdty, he discovered a 
ford at the town now called Ferry-Bridge, and crossed over the 
river at the head of sixty bold men-at-arms. They were imme- 
diately charged by the Saxons, but stoutly held their ground 
against the assault, and the next day the army crossed without 
further difficulty or delay. The name of the knight, Lisois des 
Moutiers, fortunately has been preserved ; and, as we shall 

Church-r/ate ; SwincgiAe, so called from leading to a beck oi- stream where 
those animals were washed, ^ortr-lane had probably a similar derivation. 

Alleeton, Alder, a tree, and ton, town. 

Armlet, Arm or Orm, a proper name, and let/, field. 

Beeston, Bede, a proper name, and ton, town. 

Bramley, Bram or hramhle, a wild shrub, and le'j, field. 

BuRLEY, Bur, a tree, and ley, field. 

Farxlet, Fern, a wild plant, and leij, field. 

Farsley, Furze, a wild plant, and ley, field. 

Gledhow, Gled, hawk, and how, hill. 

GiPTON, &'i/j, a proper name, and ton, town. 

Headingley, Heath, moor, iny, meadow, and ley, field. 

Holbeck, Hoi, a low place, and hedc, stream. 

Hunslet, Hounde, hound, and leet, a meeting. 

KiRKSTALL, Kirk, church, and stall, place. 

Knowsthorpe, Knoirl, the brow of a hiU, and thorpe, village. 

]\Ieanwood, Mense, in common, and xvood. 

Os:vruNDTH0RPE, Osmund, a proper name, and thorpe, village. 

PoTTERNEWTON, Ncxv-town , near the poHc/'^. 

HoDLEY', Rood, a cross, and ley, field. 

Stanxingley, Stan, stone, in[i, meadow, and ley, field. 

Weetwood, Weet, wet or marshy, and wood. 

"VVoRTLET, Wort, a wild plant, and ley, field. 

At a place in Armley, formerly called Ginnfs-hill, was an extensive earth- 
work, described by Thoresby as being thrown u]! and used by the Danes as a 


afterwards show, from it we discover, among the invaders, the 
presence of the fii'st Norman baron of Leeds. Along with that 
Norman army came llbert de Laci, and to him was confided the 
task of subduing the western porti(jns of the rebellious kingdom; 
and well did he, and the mail-clad adventurers whom he led, 
achieve the task. The first to enter upon the wild districts of 
the West-Riding of Yorkshii-e, there to dispute at the sword's 
point with broken and scattered but indomitable Northum- 
brians, lUjert was the fortunate soldier who hurled to the dust 
all their hopes of the restoration of their nationality ; and the 
vast tract of country, stretching from Ponfcefract, which was to 
be the seat of his barony, to Blackburn in Lancashire, was his 
personal share of the district he had subdued. His subordinate 
companions received proportionately ample shares of the lands 
theii* valour had won ; some of them shared with him, as 
tenant-in-chief, while others received, as separate and distinct 
grants, the remaining lands of the dispossessed Saxon. Leeds, 
then an important town, was a poi-tion of Ilbert's newly-acquired 
domain, but, although its absolute lord, he did not long retain it 
in his own hands. llbert de Laci was, in Normandy, a baron 
of no mean imjDoi-tance ; being the owner of Bois 1' Eveque, 
near DarnetaL He does not, however, appear to have been at 
the head of the house of Laci, but a younger brother; the elder 
being Walter de Laci, now called Lassi, on the road from Aulnai 
to Yire. Walter received a grant from the Conqueror of more 
than one hundred and twenty manors, in the districts first sub- 

foi-t, or place of security, whence tliey might issue at leisure to lay waste and 
I)lunder the surrounding countiy. It must have been a very strong and 
advantageous jjost, the noi-theni side thereof being defended by a high and 
precipitous hill, at the foot of which ran the river Aii-e. Like the other 
camps of this jieople, it was of circular form, measuiing twenty perches in 
circumference; the ramparts being about eighteen or twenty feet liigh. 
Whether, before the estabUshment of the Roman power in the island, any 
city, or centre of population, was to be found in the neighbourhood, depends 
on the question whether the Cair Loid C'oit, which occurs in the list of 
British cities given l)y jSTeunius, was Leeds. Thoresby, observing a region 
called Loidiit to be spoken of by Bede in connection with Elmet wood, argues 
in favour of this hypothesis ; and his opinion has lieen seconded and enlarged 
upon by Mr. James, in an ingenious Paper read at the meeting of the 
Archaeological Association at Leeds in October, 1863, and piinted in theii* 
Journal of March :31st, 1864. As regards the name of Leeds, it is probaldy 
of Saxon origin. Dr. Whitaker fLoidis and Eincte) considers it as " merely 
the genitive case of tlie name borne by Loidl, the first Saxon possessor. 
Others (as in Gibson's Camden) derive it from the Saxon Leod, "people," 
implying it to have been a populous place in Saxon times. This view receives 
some sliglit confirmation from the fact of other places of the name being 
found in Germanic countries. In Domesday Book Leeds is spelt Ledca; and 
in Eastera Flanders, near Alost, is a town called Ledc. See also the index to 
Kemble's Codex Diplomaticus (1848). 



jugated — those in the West of England. This flict may be 
considered strong evidence that the superior chieftains of the 
conquest received their large rewards, according to the order of 
priority established by their feudal rank ; and therefore, Avhen 
two are found bearing the same name, the first to whom lands 
are apportioned, may be considered of the highest primogenital 
or feudal importance. Among his companions in arms vras a 
Norman named Ralph Paynel, or Paganel, to whom he subin- 
feudated the manors of Leeds and Headingley, and others in the 
immediate neighbourhood ; and in whose hands, or those of his 
descendants, the several manors continued for more than two 

This Ralph Paynel, the first Norman lord who exercised 
jurisdiction over Leeds, was one of the leaders of the Norman 
army, who brought his little contingent to svvell the ranks of 
that band, whose fortunes were to be won or lost at Hastings ; 
and one of the most favoured was he, of the many favoured 
adventurers who won that terrible battle. His paternal chateaii 
stood either upon the summit of a hill in the depariement cle la 
Manche, whose sloping sides bore the picturesque little to^Ti of 
Haie Paisnel, with its beautiful and fascinating aspect, and 
whose base was washed by the waters of the river Thar ; or it 
was the renowned fortress of Moutiers-Hubert, celebrated in 
Anglo-Norman history for the subsequent actions of one of his 
descendants. Moutiers-Hubert has certainly ever been the 
cradle of the family of Paynel ; and if we recollect that the 
knight who first forded the Aire was called Lisois des Moutiers, 
by his name we shall recognize in him a feudal tenant of a 
Paynel of the House of Moutiers-Hubert. Spning from an old 
Scandinavian stock, Ralph's Norman ancestors appear to have 
retained the Viking's contempt for Christianity, until at length 
that contempt gained for them the generic a,ppellation of " Pa- 
ganus," or the Pagan, which afterwards became softened or 
corrupted into Paganellus, and eventually changed into Pa^Tiel 
or Paganel. Ralph, the hero of the conquest, certainly pos- 
sessed all the cliaracteristic bravery of his ancestors, although 
there are the most conclusive proofs that theu' pagan contempt 
for the worship of Christ, had, in him, changed into the devotion, 
of a true Christian; without, as they supposed, operating inimi- 
cally to the development of that fierce courage which marks the 
unrestrained warrior. But brave and warlike as the bravest of 
his redoubtable ancestors, must have been Ralph PajTiel ; for 
not only do we find him possessed in fee of Leeds, Headingley, 
and the other adjacent manors, but also of vast domains in 


several parts of the coimtrj, which must have beeu his reward 
for other and former conquests. 

In Yoi'kshii'e, the principal part of his personal estates lay- 
along the hanks of the Ouse, and the Aire at its junction with 
the parent stream ; and as those districts lay in the route of the 
Normans during their tu'st invasion, they were probahly by 
anticipation of eventual success, given to him as the rewai'd of 
hLs services diu'ing that campaign. The success thus anticipated 
followed, and with it the disposal of the lands formerly belong- 
ing to a noble Nortlmmbi'ian named Marlesweyn, who, along 
with Edgar Atheling, Cospatric, and other celebrated chieftains, 
had been most prominent in their opposition to the Normans. 
Drax, Armine, Camblesfoi-th, and Barlow manors, formerly be- 
longing to MarlesAveyn, were given to him in ccqnte, as well as 
considerable estates in the city and neighbourhood of York. 
Leeds and Headingley, as we haA-e seen, were at the same time 
possessed by him under Ilbert de Laci ; and the ser\"ice due for 
them was reckoned at one knight's fee and a half. Adel, 
Arthington, Burdonhead, and Eccup, devolved upon him in 
right of his wife Matilda, the daughter and co-heiress, if not 
sole heiress, of Bichard de Surdeval, baron of Surdeval, in 
Normandy, a town near his paternal residence. This Bichard, 
one of the fii-st band of Norman adventurers, had obtained 
large grants of land in the neighbourhood of Leeds, which fell 
to Balph Paynel on his marriage with IMatilda, and for long 
afterwards were the possessions of the lord of the manor of Leeds. 

Leeds, hov/ever, was never the chief seat of the Paynels. 
Fi'om the earliest period of their possession Drax was undoubt- 
edly theii- home, and there they immediately built a strong 
castle, which Avas doul^tless constructed by Balph about the 
same time as was Pontefract castle by Ilbert de Laci. The 
castle of Leeds, about which so A-ery little is knoAvn, AV'as pro- 
bably built simultaneously with the other tAvo ; * but one thing 
is certain, that it never Avas the important feudal fortress they 
were ; being rather a strongly-fortified manor-house, similar in 
its nature and construction to the one erected by Ilbert de Laci 
at BothAvell. Balph Paynel founded the priory of the Holy 
Trinity in York, and gaA'e to it the churches of Leeds and Adel 

* It is most probable that the castle of Leeds (in which it is said that 
Richard II. was confined, prior to his removal to Pontefract castle) 
was erected about the year 1081, by the De Lacies, of Pontefract. It 
occupied the site at present surrounded by Mill Hill, Bishopgate, and the 
south-Avesteni jiart of Boar Lane. It was iu all probaijUity surrounded by a 
moat and an extensive park, as we may gather from the names Park Row, 
Park S<iuare, Park Place, and Park Lane. In excavating for the foundations 


in 1089. In ii charter Tbeginniiig iu a remarkably gi'ancUlo- 
quent strain, he states that — "I, Ralph, surnamecl Paynel, 
inflamed by the fire of divine love, desiring to treasiire up in 
heaven what I can after this life receive a hundredfold, having 
at the city of York, of the fief of the king of the English, a 
certain chiirch constructed in the honour of the Holy Trinity, 
formerly adorned with canons, and rents of farms, and ecclesias- 
tical ornaments, but now by sins which cry for vengeance almost 
reduced to nothing, in the desii-e of re-establishing it in the 
service of God, which has been abandoned, I have delivered it 
to the blessed Mai-tin of INIarmoutier, and to his monks, to l)e in 
their possession for ever, for the soul of my lord King William, 
and of liis wife Matilda, and for the redemption and good estate 
of the realm of his son William, who has also willingly autho- 
rized this gift, ^^^.th the assent of my wife Matilda, and of my 
sons William, Jordan, Elias, and Alexander ; in order that the 
abbot of Marmoutier may have free faculty of ordaining the 
establishment of the said church, and the distribution of its 
endowments, and the introduction of monks ser^ong God in the 
aforesaid church hereafter ; so that we may deserve to have, in 
time to come, a share of the blessed resurrection, through their 
assiduous prayers." He then proceeds to enumerate the list of 
benefactions he made to the said church — a list which speaks 
highly as to his religious enthusiasm, and in which we find that 
in his vill of Drax he gives one fishery, and the tithe of the 
rest of the fisheries ; and also the church of Leeds and what- 
soever belongs to it, and the tithe of the demesne, and half a 
carucate of land which Reginald had held, in increase of the 
glebe which belonged to the church. 

Rali:)]i's gift of the church of Adel is positive evidence of 
the existence of a Saxon chm^ch anterior to Domesday; although 
that record neither mentions a church nor a priest, and from its 
silence it has been supposed that, at the time of the conquest, 
there was no church existing there. The donation could not 
refer to the present structure, which is known to have been 
built by the monks of Holy Trinity in the lifetime of William 
Paynel, who succeeded to his father's estates in 1108 or 1109, 
and enjoyed them until about 11.36. 

of the warehouses on the south side of West Bar, in 1836, the workmen dis- 
covered the remains of the castle moat. It appeared to have had a semi- 
cii-cular fonn, and to have tenninated in the mill goit, extending considerably 
on each side of the Scarborough Hotel, on which site the castle is supposed 
to have stood. A tower also stood near Lydgate, in "\Voodho\ise Lane, called 
Tower Hill, which was probably connected with the castle ; but not a vestige 
of either fabric remains. 


Prior to May, 1108, Henry I., -at York, and in the presence 
of the same Ralph Pa}Tiel, ' confirmed the gift of the chvirch 
of "Leddes"and the other donations; and that confii-mation 
-was ratified by Ai'chljishop Thomas, the second of that name, 
who was consecrated on Sunday, Jime 27, 1109, and died 
February 16, 1114. 

Ealph Papiel was the second vicecomes, or sheriff of York, 
having succeeded, in the reign of William Eufus, Hugh Fitz 
Baudric, or BaucUy, who had been made governor of the city of 
York in 1068, when that city was the furthest northerly 
position to which the Normans had then penetrated. He is 
supposed to have died about the year 1108 or 1109, and was 
probably interred in the church of the priory of Holy Tiinity, 
which he had so liberally endowed. — For other information, see 
the History of the Priory of Holy Trinity, and Thierry's His- 
tory of tlie Xorman Conquest, kc. 

-1136. ^ 

WTTJJAM PAYNEL [or Pagaxel]. 

Ralph was succeeded by his son, William Paynel ; whilst of 
his other sons, Alexander, the youngest, appears to be the only 
one who established another branch of this house, having settled 
at Manby, a hamlet of Broughton, where one of his descen- 
dants, Ralph Paynel, lived in 1310. Jordan, his second son, 
married Gertrude, the daughter of Robert Fozzard, who was the 
widow of Robert de Mainil, and died childless. Elias, the 
third son, from a knight became a monk, entering the piiory of 
the Holy Trinity, and in due time becoming prior of that cor- 
poration, which othce he continued to fill down to the year 1143. 
His father had been a benefactor to Selby abbey, and when, in. 
the year above-named, the abbey became vacant, Elias Paynel 
was chosen abbot. He ruled the monastery until 1153, when 
he was deposed by Archbishop Murdac, who desired to fill that 
dignified situation with a creature of his owti, and accordingly 
Germanus, the prior of Tynemoiith, was instituted in the stead 
of the deposed Elias Paynel. 

On the death of Ralph, when the manors of Leeds, Head- 
ingley, &c., as well as the other domains he had held of the 
king in ccqnte, descended to his son, William Pa^oiel, one of his 
fii-st acts was to confirm the gifts of the churches and lands 
given to the prioiy of the Holy Trinity in York, by hLs fathei\ 
Thurstan, Archbishop of York, in a charter granted circa 1120, 
ratifies William's confirmation in the following words : — 

" We grant, and by the present charter confirm, whatsoever 


Rulpli Papiel, and William and Jordan, his sons, and their 
vassals, and otlier benefactors, have given to the monastery of 
the Trinity of York, as well in tithes as in other possessions ; 
and by name the church of Leeds, with all things belonging to 
it. We also prohibit, lest any one, either a hermit or any one 
else, should presume to construct a chapel, or any sort of ora- 
tory, within the teiTitory of the chvirch of the same parish, 
without the permission or spontaneous free-will of the prior and 
chapter of the aforesaid monastery ; nor may any one receive 
the parishioners of the same church or their benefactors." 

This prohibition appeals to bear some obscure reference to 
the chapel of Holbeck. That village is not mentioned in 
Domesday, and there is the most conclusive proof that at the 
time of the gift of the advowson of Leeds to the piiory of the 
Holy Ti'inity, parts, if not the whole, of the present township 
were included in the lands then conveyed. Robert de Gaunt, 
who was lord of the manor of Leeds for the period between 
the years 1153 and 1199, gave to the priory the chapel of 
Holljeck, which had probably been erected by the monks upon 
their lands there, and which were then inclusive of the manor 
of Leeds. On the 18th of February, 1418, we find that one 
William Haryngton, chevalier, obtains a licence from the king, 
on condition of paying him six pounds thirteen shillings and 
fourpence, to endow a chapel, or chantry, within the 'parish of 
Leeds, the chaplain of which was to be provided for out of the 
rents of his lands or tenements in Holbeck in the same parish, 
and Kirkeby-npon-Quarf, which lands were not held of the kmg 
in capite. This grant is made by virtue of the king's licence to 
give in mortmain; and as the estates of religious houses were 
generally held in moi'tmain, it is probable that the king's con- 
cession to Hai-yngton bore upon the priory's estates in Holbeck, 
and that Haryngton's chantry was added to the chapel previ- 
ously erected by the piiory. '"' The priest was to pray for the 
good estate of the king so long as he lived, for his soul when he 
departed this life, and also for the souls of all his ancestors and 
successors, as well as for the soul of Eobert Nevile, of Hornby, 
and for the souls of all the faithful defunct. 

Between the years 1109 and 1114, by the admonition and 
advice of Thurstan, Archbishop of York, William Paynel 
founded the priory of Drax, for black canons of the order of St. 
Augustine, which he endowed with thirty bushels of unground 

* Haryngton was a brave soldier who fought at Agincoiirt. It is probable 
that Ms gift refers to the chapel of Farnley. 


corn from liis mill in Himslet, and the cliurcli of Bingley, wliicli 
Wiis confirmed b}' Arclibisho]) Eoger. Peter Daxitrey {de alia 
JRijxi), one of liis feudal tenants, paid £1 per annum to the 
convent, which his father had given to them out of his mill in 
Hunslet. William Pavnel had also given to the canons half a 
carucate of land in Beeston, together with the tithe of all his 
mills in Leeds ; and for that half carucate of land, John, son 
of Peter Dautrey, gave the homage and service of Pdchard de 
la Have, who was probably one of his Saxon vassals living upon 
Rothwell Haigh. 

William Pa}Tiel married Alicia, second daughter of William 
de Meschines, who, by his marriage with Cecilia, only daughter 
of Robert de Rumeli, became possessed of the extensive fief 
composing the honour of Skijjton. In right of his wife, William 
Pavnel was presumptive lord of the manor of one part of that 
tiet" the ancient barony of Hare wood ; but, as he did not sur- 
vive his father-in-law, that honour was never possessed by him. 
The male succession to the honour of Skipton had been cut off 
by the death of his two sons, — -the younger of whom was 
drowned in attempting to leap over the " Strid." Followed by 
a forester, the lad had taken a hound to hunt in Wharfedale, 
and when crossing that fearful spot, where the concentrated 
waters of the Wharfe tear through the narrow orifice between 
the rocks, the brute, appalled by the roaring of the waters, 
hung back, and the leash by which he was secured broke his 
master's bound, and hurled him into the foaming torrent. The 
miserable vassal beheld the death of his young lord by an 
agency which scoffed at all hviman efforts; and when he returned 
to the castle, to indirectly impart his mournful tidings, by ask- 
ing the mother, who doted upon her only son, the question 
"What is good for a bootless bene 1 "' his blanched cheek told to 
her quick eye the extent of her loss, and the sadly pathetic 
answer immediately arose to her lips — ''Endless sorrow!" 

Her sorrow, humanly speaking, was endless, but it was the 
sorrow of a Christian; and when the bereaved mother overcame 
the poignancy of her first distraction, she vowed that "many 
poor men's sons should be her heirs ; " and, in accordance with 
her vow, founded the priory of Bolton. 

The only fruit of William's union was a daughter, named 
Alice, who was first the wife of Pvichard de Courcy, a younger 
brother of Robert de Courcy, baron of Courcy, in Normandy ; 
and, after his death, which occurred ante 1152, of Robert de 
Gaunt. William Paynel did not long survive the accession of 
King »Stephe]i, as Richard de Courcy was in possession of his 


barony, in right of liis wife, prior to tlie year 1138. One of 
William's last acts appears to have occairred in Normandy, in 
October, 113G. The Anjevins invaded Normandy with a large 
army ; and, after assaulting the tower of Montreuil unsuccess- 
fully, they laid siege to the castle of Moutiers-Hubert, then 
commanded by a Paynel, and eventually cariied it by storm, 
making prisoners the commandant and thii-ty men-at-arms, 
for whose ransom they received a large sum. The chronicle 
does not mention the Christian name of th.e knight, but he 
is sui)posed to have been William Paynel, who is said to have 
exasperated the Anje\T.ns by the many outrages be had com- 
mitted upon them during that same year. He died in England 
about the year 1137, and was probably buried in the priory of 
Drax. And thus the last baron of Leeds, of the race 

"Des Moutiers-Hubert Paienels," 

as Wace, in his " Roman cle Rou et des clues cle Normandie" 
styles them, slept in the hallowed ground of an English priory 
founded, built, and endowed by himself. — See History of the 
Holy Trinity; Bohn's Ordericus Vitalis; Burton's Jloiiasticon 
JEboracense; and Whitaker's History of Craven, &c. 

After the death of William Paynel, Leeds and the other 
estates belonging to him descended to Richard de Courcy, the 
husband of Alice Pa}Tiel, his daughter and heiress. During the 
time that Bichard held the barony of his wife, Avicia Rumille, 
William Paynel's widow contracted a second marriage with 
Robert de Courcy, a kinsman of her son-in-law. Robert was a 
descendant of the junior branch of the Courcy family, lords of 
the honour of Stoke, in Somersetshire, which has obtained 
from its possessors the affix of Courcy; and of Newenham 
Courtenay, in Oxfordshire, held by Richard de Courcy, grand- 
father of Richard and Robert, at the time of Domesday 
Siuwey. The issue of this marriage, which had been brought 
about through the pi*evious alliance of her daughter, Alice 
Paynel, was a son, William de Courcy, the heir to his mother's 
barony of Harewood. The union between Richard and Alice 
was of very short duration; for it is certain that prior to 
the decease of Eustace, the eldest son of King Stephen, August 
lOtb, 1152, Alice, his widow, was the wife of a second 
husband, Robert de Gaunt, brother of Gilbert de Gaunt, Earl 
of Lincoln. But the period in which Richard possessed the 


Paynel estates was one of great historical importance; inas- 
much as it was the precise period when Stephen and Matikla 
were stiiiggliag for the crown of England. Robert, Eaii of 
Gloucester, the natural son of Henry I., was zealous for the 
succession of Matilda, his half-sister, the rightful heir to the 
throne; but the barons declared they would not be governed by 
a woman, and Matilda's chance of obtiiining her rights conse- 
quently became very remote. Robert, howe"\'er, determined not 
to desert her, and as Stephen's conduct did not much tend 
to ensui'e the continued respect and co-operation of the nobility, 
except so far as was favoui'able to the indulgence of theii* feel- 
ings of ambition, avarice, or licentiousness, the earl seized, in 
Matilda's name, some of the strongest castles in the south of 
England, amongst which was that of Leeds, in Kent. This 
occurred in 1138, the third year of his usurpation; and as 
Stephen's adherents were not yet prepared to separate them- 
selves from the regime under which scenes of the most un- 
bounded rapine and cruel ■\dolence coidd be perpetrated, anai'chy 
favoured their schemes of self-aggrandisement, and enabled 
them to gain at once both additional power and wealth. The 
earl's attempt to reduce the kingdom to order, by the defeat of 
the iLSiu'per and his wretched partisans, therefore proved abor- 
tive; all the castles that had been seized were snatched fr-om 
Mm, that of Leeds being besieged and captured by Gilbert de 
Clare. These events, as we have stated, occurred in the year 
1138, and as there has been considerable misunderstandiug 
respecting Stephen's capture of the castle of Leeds, in York- 
shire, in 1139, the desire to obviate that misunderstanding has 
constrained us to give the details of both transactions, as well 
as the events which intervened. 

Stephen's successes in the south were followed by others 
of equal or greater importance in the noi-th. David of Scot- 
land, in defence of his niece Matilda's claim, had placed himself 
at the head of a formidable army with wliich he entered 
England, and penetrated into Yorkshire, committing on his 
route the most barbarous devastations. Many of the powerful 
Norman barons were averse to the line of policy adopted by 
Stephen. They could not countenance Matilda's pretensions, 
and yet were too honourable or indiflerent to oj^pose her ; but 
they could not tolerate the Scottish iuA-asion, which they looked 
upon mth mingled feelings of indignation, and despised military 
renown. William, Earl of Albemarle, and Gilbert de Laci, 
two of the most potent of the northern barons, with many 
others, pi'omptly summoned their vassals to aid in repelling the 


iuvadeis. Piieluivd tie Coiircy, as the feudal tenant of Gilbert 
de Laci, was appointed to command one part of tlie English. 
army, probably the contingent furnished by the estates of the 
De Laci, and including tlie men of Leeds. The invasion termi- 
nated in the decisive battle of the Standard, fought near North- 
allerton on the 22nd August, 1138, when, after a most des- 
perate action, the Scots were defeated with immense loss; and, 
singularly enough, the only knight who was slain on the English 
side was a brother of Gilbert de Laci, the supreme lord of the 
manor of Leeds. 

Previous to the battle of the Standard, Matilda's cause was 
represented by a small body of chieftains of no great feudal 
power. After that event, however, political opinions changed 
rapidly, and Matilda, instead of finding her claims ignored, had 
the satisfaction of seeing the most potent of her once turbulent 
nobility gather around her standai'd openly to espouse her 
cause. One of the name of Pa}-nel is mentioned among her 
partisans, and it appears most probable that he was one of the 
Paynels who sprung from Leeds. At the latter part of the 
year 1139, Stejjlien marched north to check another invasion of 
the Scotch, and on his journey he besieged and took Leeds 
castle. This event is recorded as happening after Christmas 
Day, in 1139. "When Stephen had repulsed the Scotch he 
returned south to chastise the rebellious barons who still ofiered 
armed opposition, and he then found that Ludlow castle 
was held against him by a knight of the name of Paganus, or 
Paynel, probably the person already referred to, but which, after 
a somewhat protracted defence, surrendered, and Stephen's 
cause was again triumphant. 

During the whole of his reign the strife continued with 
varying success ; at one period his power was in the ascendant, 
at another we find him a prisoner in the hands of his enemies. 
In 1154 he was again compelled to take the field, when he 
besieged and took many castles, amongst which, and almost the 
last, was that built by the Paynels at Drax. But before that 
event occurred Richard de Coi;rcy was dead, and his widow had 
married another husband. — For further information, see History 
of the Holy Trinity, kc. 


According to Fuller, in his Worthies of England, was born in 
Yorkshire, "where there be three towns of that name in one 
wapentake." It is uncertain in which of these he was born, and 


the matter is of uo great concernment. One so free from 
Simony, and far from buying a ibisliopric, that, wlien a bisliopric 
was bought him, he refused to accept it; for, when Henry II. 
chose him Bishop of Carlisle, and promised to increase the 
revenues of that chiTrch ■s\ three hundred marks annual 
rent, besides the grant of two church livings and two manors 
near to Carlisle, on the condition that this Paulinus would 
accept the place, all this would not work bim to embrace so 
wealthy an offer — (Godwin, in his Catalogue of Bishops, out of 
E. Hoveden). "The reasons of his refusal are rendered by no 
author, but must be presiimed Yevj weighty to overpoise such 
lich proffers; on which account let none envy his name a room 
in this my catalogue." He flourished about the year of our Lord 
11 86. See Roger de Hoveden's Annals of English History, kc. 



The influence of King Henry II. was the undoubted cause 
of the marriage of Fitz Harding and Avicia, the heiress of the 
barony of Leeds. The Fitz Hardings sprang fiom Robert Fitz 
Harding, a wealthy merchant and mayor of Bristol, to whom 
the Empress Matilda is said to have granted the confiscated 
lordship of Berkeley, as a reward for the assistance he gave to 
her cause, both with money and influence. Robert, the father, 
was consequently in great favour both with Matilda and the earl 
her brother ; indeed it is said that Henry 11. was at school in 
Bristol with his sons. The Fitz Hardings were Danes of royal 
descent, as appears by an inscription over the gate-house of the 
abbey of St. Augustine, in Bristol, now the cathedral, which 
they founded. Although the union of Avicia and Robert took 
place, during her life-time he had no benefit of her inheritance, 
which continued with her father, Robert de Gaunt, as tenant 
by the courtesy of England, and who survived his daughter. 
Robert Fitz Harding appears to have died ante 6tli Richard I., 
1195, so that the manor was held by Robert de Gaunt until his 
death, as that luq-peued before the majority of Robert Fitz 
Harding's son, who was born sometime previous to 1191, as 
appears from the following entry on the pipe roll of Yorkshii-e 
for that year : — " Robert, son of Robert Fitz Harding, renders 
account of 60 maiks (.£10) for having the inheritance of Alice 
Paynel, who had been fii-st the wife of Robert de Gaunt, whose 
daughter and heir he had to wife, and he will hold the aforesaid 
uiheritance of his wife to the use of the boys whom she had 
borne to him." The name of Robert's eldest son was Maurice, 


wlio adopted the surname of his grandfather de Gaunt, or some- 
times of his gi-eat grandfather Payueh He was a minor at his 
father's death, and was phxced under the wardship of William 
de St. Mariae Ecclesia, subsequently Bishop of London. — See 
History of the Priory of the Holy Trinity ; Foss' Lives of the 
Judges; Whitaker's Loiclis and Elmete, &c. 


Was the second husband of Alice Paynel, whom he married 
ante 1152. He had sprung from a Norman family equally 
illustrious with that of Pajrael, and was brother of Gilbert de 
Gaunt, Eai-1 of Lincoln. It was while he was lord of the manor 
of Leeds that Drax castle was captured. 

William de Newburgh, the most explicit of the chroniclers 
who record the fact, states : " But King Stephen, coming into 
the proATJice of York, found a certain Philip de Colville, who it 
was supposed had burnt his fortress at Drax, or had delivered 
it up to be burnt, in rebellion, relying on the strength of the 
same fortress and on the mighty prowess of his comrades, and 
on a copious supply of food and arms ; nevertheless, the king, 
having assembled an army from the nearest provinces, laid siege 
to the fortress, though almost inaccessible from the intervening- 
rivers, forests, and marshes, and having bravely stormed it, in a 
short time won it." Philip de Colville was the mesne-tenant 
of this Robert, and the treason committed by the vassal was 
avenged upon the lord by the forfeiture of the demesnes of 
Drax and Leeds ; and, in point of fact, the whole barony of 
W^illiam Paynel had reverted to the Crown by reason of this 
rebellion. Prior to 1182, Alice Paynel was deceased, leaving 
issue by her second husband, Robert, an only daughter, A^dcia, 
whose wardship and marriage, when of age, were obtained by 
Robert, son of Robert Fitz Harding, and next brother of 
Maurice de Berkeley, ancestor of the illustrious family of that 
name. The females of the house of Paynel were unfortunate in 
being left widows. Robert de Courcy, the husband of Avicia 
Rumille, was killed at the battle of Coleshill, in 1157, and she 
was again a widow, living iipon her estates in 1168. Alice 
Paynel died ante 1182, and after her decease, Robert de Gaunt 
contracted a second marriage with Gunnora, one of the sisters 
and co-heiresses of Ralph d' Aubigne, by whom he had issu.e 
four sons, Stephen, Gilbert, Geoifry, and Reginald. 

In the 2nd of Richard L, 1190, we have these entries on 
the pipe roll for Yorkshire : " On the part of John le Mareshal, 


sheriff of the county, who veudererl account of £7 19s. Od., for 
the issues of Leeds, the laud of Robert de Gaunt, whilst it had 
been in the king's hands; and of £(i -is. 6d. of the mortgages 
and lands of the Jews." 

In the 9th Richard I., 1197, under the heading of "The 
debts of Aaron, the Jew of Lincoln," is this entry: "Robert 
de Gaunt owed £26 iipon Irnham and Leeds; but because Irn- 
ham and Leeds are not of the inheritance of him, Robert, or of 
his heii", it was adjudged by the barons that no distraint ought 
to be made upon Irnham or Leeds for the aforesaid debt; but 
the aforesaid debt ought to be exacted from the heir of the 
aforesaid Robert." What a change must have taken place 
since then ! Two manors, and one of them Leeds — now the 
wealthy and world-famed capital of the West-Riding of York- 
shire — pawned to a Jew for the paltry sum of £26! — See Ilis- 
tory of the Priory of Holy Trinity^ and the monkish historians 
of the period. 

11 S4- 1230. 
MAURICE DE GAUNT [or Paynel]. 

The date of the birth of this, the most illustrious of the 
barons of Leeds, may be brought within very nari'ow limits by 
the following evidences : — 

"John I., 1199, convention between the Bishop of London 
and Thomas le PoiteAnn (lord of the manor of Headingley), 
concerning the boundary of the wood of Leeds and Headingley, 
respecting which there has been a suit ; viz. : — that it remain in 
that state in which it now is, until the legitimate age of Maurice, 
son of Robert, who is in the custody of the aforesaid bishop, 
whose fief the vill of Leeds is. Therefore neither the bishop 
or his own men, nor the aforesaid Thomas or his men, may 
take anything in that boundary until the aforesaid term." This 
proves that he was not of age in 1199, but in 1205 he insti- 
tuted a suit to dispossess the prior of Holy Trinity of his rights 
and emoluments proceeding from the church of Leeds ; but 
judgment was given against him, and the prior remained in 
possession according to the terms of the various charters given 
by the Paynels, his ancestors. In 1205 he had certainly at- 
tained his majority, and we may infer that he had commenced 
the above suit as soon as he was legally capable of doing so, 
consequently he would have been born not later than 1184, and 
not earlier than 1178, but most probably in the former year. 
In the 13th John, 1212, upon the occasion of the levy of the 
.scutage of two marks on each knight's fief, for the host of Scot- 


land, Maxxrice is entered upon the pipe roll of Yorkshire as 
holding twelve knights' fees and a Iialf, the same number as had 
been certified by Robert de Gaunt, in his charter, to be due 
from the barony of Paynel, of which Leeds was now, since the 
demolition of the castle of Drax, reckoned one of the chief seats. 
In addition to the castle of Leeds, Maurice possessed as liis 
bai'onial residence, the splendid feudal castle of Beverston, in 
Gloucestershire, which had descended to him from his father, 
Robert Fitz Harding. The grim ruins of this old fortress raise 
their moss-covered heads in all their venerable majesty, while 
of the castle of Leeds not one stone is to be found, except such 
as are to be revealed to us by the pick and shovel of the con- 
tractor's labourer.* In the L5th John, Maurice had the king's 
licence to marry Matilda, the only child of Henry D'Oilly, 
baron of Hook-Norton, in Oxfoixlshire ; in consideration for 
which he was to serve the king whenever he pleased, with 
twenty knights. IMaurice followed King John in his expedition 
to the Continent, in February, 1214, and in 1215 we find him 
amongst the principal instigators of the contest between the 
king and those discontented barons Avho wrung from that 
wretched monarch the bulwark of England's constitution, the 
Great Charter. Innocent III., in the ISth year of his pontifi- 
cate, excommunicated the barons who opposed the king ; and 
Maurice thereupon lost all his lands, which were distributed 
amongst the royal followers, the greater part being given to 
Philip de Albini. An entry on the patent roll, January 2nd, 
1216, states that "it is enjoined the good rnen of Leeds, that 
they be obedient to Philip de Albini, as their lord, because the 
king had committed to him the land which had belonged to 
Maurice de Gaunt in Leeds, with the appurtenances, as long as 
it shall please him." It was also enjoined the sheriff of York- 
shii-e, that he cause Pliilip de Alljini to have seizure of the 
whole land in Ms bailiwick, which had belonged to the same 
Maurice. On the accession of Henry III., he continued to 
adhere to the cause of Prince Louis, and was among the English 
barons who were defeated at Lincoln, on May 20th, 1217; 
when he fell a captive into the hands of Rannulph, Earl of 
Chester, and as such was confined for about twelve months. 
He obtained his liberty by ceding to the earl two of his capital 
manors, those of Leeds and Bingley, in Yorkshire ; and although 
peace was concluded between the king and the barons, bv a 

* See Note, p. 51 ; and for a longer account of Leeds Castle, see Parsons' 
History of Lct'.ls, i. , 88, &c. 


treaty drawn up on the lltli of September, — wlierem it was 
an-an^ed that all prisoners who had paid a sum for their ransom, 
were not to have that sum returned to them, but all that remained 
unpaid was to be forgiven to the debtors — yet the manors of 
Leeds and Bingley were lost to Maurice de Gaunt. He was the 
first baron who acknoAvledged the men of Leeds as freemen and 
citizens, and on the 10th November, 1208, took the first step 
towards rendering this town a corporation, by granting "his 
burgesses of Leeds " a charter, the terms of which reflect equal 
honour upon the noble grantor, and the industrious men whom 
that celebrated instrument was framed to benefit ; and although 
his name and deed are alike forgotten, the splendid liberality of 
the feudal chieftain is unquestionably one gi^eat cause of the 
present prosperity of this town, which had then sprung into 
commercial notoriety, as may be seen from the following : — 1275, 
" The jurors say that Thomas de Abberford, of Ottelay, Robert 
Doune, of the same place, and Alexander Fuller, of Ledes, 
make cloth not of a right breadth." '" 

After being forgiven by the king, his loyalty was thence- 
foi"«'ard steadfixst and active. In the 9th Henry III., he assisted 
Wilham, the Earl jNIarshal, in fortifying a castle in Wales ; and 
in consequence of being so engaged, a suit against him, which 
was to have been heard before the justices itinerant, was re- 
moved before the judges at Westminster. Although he had 
fortified his castle of Beverston, in Gloucestershire, Avithout the 
necessary royal licence, yet he gave such satisfactory explana- 
tions to Henry, and submitted himself so unreseiwedly, that he 
obtained the royal confirmation of his act. In August of the 
same year, 1227, he was nominated one of the justices itinerant. 
On the 30th April, 1230, he embarked with Henry on his expe- 
dition into France, during which, on the following August, he 
died. After the death of his first wife, Matilda, in the eaily 
part of Henry's reign, he married Margaret, the widow of 
Ralph de Sumeri, who survived him ; but he left no issue by 
either. Maurice was the last Isaron of the house of Paynel, 
and after bis capture and the forfeiture of his estates of Leeds 
and Bingley, those estates again descended to the De Laci family, 
through a sLster of the Earl of Chester, -who married into that 
family, and increased their numerous titles by the addition of 
that of Earl of Lincoln, she being countess of that city in her 
own right. She married John de Laci, and, after his death, 

* For a full translatetl copy of Mauiice Paganel's charter, see Appendi.x II. 
to Warden's Municipal History of Leeds. 


William Marshall, Earl Marshal and of Pembroke, Her son 
and successor, Edmund de Laci, married Alice, daughter of the 
Marquis of Saluces, in Italy, and was deceased July 22nd, 
1257 ; whereupon Alice, his widow, had for her dower the 
manors of Rothwell, Leeds, Ber"wick-in-Elmet, Snaith-with-the- 
Soke, Slaidburn in Bolland, Grindleton, and Bradford, in York- 
shire. And thus the manor of Leeds reverted to its original 
lords, the Lacies, and remained with them until the Laci fee 
merged into the duchy of Lancaster, by the man-iage of Alice, 
the heiress of the Lacies, with Thomas Earl of Lancaster. 
Thomas entered into the stormy politics of the day, and was 
made a martyr to his cause, being beheaded at Pontefract, on 
the 23rd of March, 1322. Four years afterwards, his lascivious 
lady bestowed her hand upon one of her many paramours. Sir 
Ebulo r Estrange, and for so doing without his consent, the 
king confiscated all her lands in Yorkshire, Lancashire, and 
Cheshire. — See History of tlie Priory of Holy Trinity in York; 
Burton's Monasticon Ehoracense ; Bohn's Ordericus Vitalis, 

* The j)rececling Sketches of the Norman Barons (with the exception of 
Pauliiius and the Notes), have been kindly supplied by my friend, Mr. 
William Wheater, land-surveyor, of Albion Street, Leeds ; also the ensuing 
Sketches of Sir Hugh Calverley, Sir Ralph Hopton, and Sir Ferdinand Leigh. 

For an accoimt of some of the succeeding Lords of the Manor, see Parsons' 
History of Leeds, i., 93, &c. 



Appears to have been a younger son of tlie house of Calverley of 
Scott, lords of the manor of Calverley, near Leeds. Living in an 
age when there were but two professions worthy of the son of a 
knightly house, the church and the sword, he readily chose the 
latter; and as the English were from the beginning of the 
14th century constantly engaged in war, ample ojiportunities 
of becoming an accomplished man-at-arms were afforded to the 
young aspirant, who appears to have availed himself of them to 
the utmost. The first time we hear of him is at a tournament, 
recollected with pride and exultation by the Freach, as an 
engagement conferring upon them immense honour. It was 
fought on a field near Ploermal — -where there is now a monu- 
ment erected to perpetuate the memory of the event — on 
Sunday, March 27th, 1351, and is known as the "Combat of 
Thirty," that being the number of combatants on each side. 
The English were defeated ; a great many on each side were 
killed, Sir Hugh being captured and carried into the castle of 
Josselin. How long he remained there, and by what means he 
gained his liberty, are unknown. He is not enumerated among 
any of the chieftains in France until 13o9, when he is one of 
the two governors of Melun-siir-Seine, then besieged by the 
Duke of ISTormandy. The siege was raised, and Sir Hugh, with 
the three queens he had under his protection, were safely rescued 
by their friends. AVe next find mention of him at the battle of 
Amay, fought on Sunday, 9th October, 13G4. Charles of Blois 
had assented to the partition of Bretague, but his wife, whose 
dowry the province was, would not sanction it; and through 
her influence or obstinacy, her husband, with a body of troops 
sent by the King of France, and led l)y the renowned Du 
Guesclin, had taken the field to ojipose the English army sent to 
enforce the partition. The Earl of Montfort was the com- 



mander-in-cliief of the English, and as his subordinate, but still 
in high command, was Sir Hugh Calverley. Froissart, the his- 
torian, who records the battle, leaves us a fine but painful scene 
enacted by the superior, and his brave but somewhat unmly 
inferioi', where strict military discipline is subverted by the 
fiei'ce spiiit of a warrior who claims as the only place worthy of 
him, that in the van of the fii'st line of battle. The earl ordered 
Sir Hugh to take the command of the rear-guard, an order 
which aroused the indignation of the fiery soldier, who looked 
upon a position where danger was not greatest, and blows 
thickest, as an insult to his courage and knightly fame. Sir 
Hiigh at fii'st absolutely refused to comply with such a dis- 
honourable proposal, but through the solicitation of the earl, 
who besought him to take a command which he alone was 
fitted for, he afterwards accepted it with much reluctance. The 
battle was gained by the English, but Sir Hugh did not partici- 
pate in the glory then won, except by showing himself a skilful 
commander, and one ready to meet any emergency the day of 
battle might produce. 

Sii' Hugh was the commander of one of those jieculiarly 
organized bodies of mercenary troops known as " Free Compa- 
nies." Vagabonds of every description were enrolled in theii* 
ranks; discipline, except on the field of battle, and in the mo- 
ment of action, when it alone could ensure victory and conse- 
quently plunder, was unrecognized. Composed of men of every 
nation, whose only desire to conquer was to rob and devastate, 
their dissolute life and recklessness of purpose made them as 
much to be feared by their friends as the most inveterate enemy. 
But in Sir Hi;gh they recognized a master-spirit who could lead 
them to -victory and awe them into discipline; and the hardy 
ruffians who fought with him respected and feared him, for 

" They love a captain to obey, 
Boisterous as March, yet fresh as May ; 
With open hand and brow as free. 
Lover of wine and minstrelsy;" 

and such a captain was Sir Hugh Calverley. 

When active employment could no longer be provided for 
them in France, Sir Hugh, and many more leaders of "Free 
Companies," went into Spain, where civil war was then breaking 
out. Pedro the Crael, of Spain, had quarrelled with his illegiti- 
mate brother, Don Enrique, and though he had previously 
entered into an alliance with Edward the Black Prince, that did 
not prevent many of the English leaders of Companies taking 
service under the standard of his brother. A grant of a con- 


siderable sum of money, and a promise of more, cansed Sir 
Hugh to accept ser\dce against tlie ally of liis prince. This ser- 
vice was the more acceptable to the mercenaiy warriors because, 
when success attended them, as it invariably did, plimder 
followed in its train. In the two years 1365 and 1366 Sir 
Hugh fought under Don Eurique, but in the spring of 1367 the 
Black Prince entered Spain with an army to assist Pedro, whose 
foi'ces were beaten and himself dispossessed of his throne. Before 
the prince started he recalled all those English captains who 
were serving Don Eurique, and, true to his lord and his country, 
if occasionally forgetful of his knightly vow of purity and moral 
rectitude, Sir Hugh I'eturned to the prince. In Januaiy, 1367, 
Sir Hugh took the towns of ]Miranda and Puenta de la Regna ; 
and in February the prince and his whole army ariived at 
Pampeluna. Sir Hugh had received from Don Eui-ique, as a 
reward for his valour, the lordship of Carrion; but the hardy 
and often ruthless warrior preferred losing that to violating the 
faith of a knight and a vassal by beai'ing arms against his natu- 
ral chief. On Friday, the 2nd of April, the English ai'my took 
up a position at Navaretta, in front of the enemy commanded 
by the renowned Du Guesclin; and as on the eve of most of 
their great battles, the English I'ested in a sleepless bivouac, 
an-hungered, destitute, and forlorn, but indomitable in spirit, and 
burning to chastise the enemy who had brought upon them their 
misery. On the morning of Satui'day, between the towTis of 
Nagarra and Navaretta, a battle was fought equal in slaughtei', 
glory, and the exposition of military prowess, to any of those 
wept for and gained by the descendants of those proud yeomen 
who then taught the combined Spaniard and Fi'enchman with 
what majestic dignity and inimitable bravery the English 
soldiers could fight. All in that conquering army performed 
prodigies of valour; but, if Froissart is to be believed, none 
distinguished themselves more than the intrepid Sir- Hugh 
Calveiley. " It was a grand day," says a sneering French his- 
torian, in the moment of his bitter malevolence, "for the Pi-ince 
of Wales. It was twenty years since he had fought at Crecy, 
and ten .since he had won the battle of Poictier,s. He gave 
judgment on the plain of Burgos; and held gages and field of 
battle there. For one day he could call all Spain his o^mi."' It 
was indeed a proud day for England ; for France throbbed with 
fear at the mention of her fatal prowess in arms; and France's 
choicest soldier was a second time a prisoner in the hands of the 
English, from whom 100,000 confederates had that day received 
a humiliating defeat. This victoiy dissipated all the hope of 


Enrique, and restored peace. War, however, again broke out 
between the Black Prince and the King of France, in conse- 
quence of a hearth tax, which was ordered by the former, and 
resisted by the peasantry and the latter. At this time Sir Hugh 
was on the borders of Arragon with a large body of the " Free 
Companies" who had lately quitted Spain. He immediately 
hastened to the prince, who at that time held his court at 
Angouleme, and was received by him with the most lively satis- 
faction, being appointed governor of Calais, a position which 
only devolved upon those whom a prince, by no means devoid 
of judgment and knowledge as to character and capacity, selected 
from the most woi-thy of his chieftains. In 1373 he accom- 
panied the Duke of Lancaster to Calais with an army destined 
to invade Picardy, but the expedition proved a failure and was 
abandoned. A truce followed, which was not lasting, war again 
breaking out in 1377, when Sir Hugh was again sent to Calais 
as its governor. Ardres, a neighbouring fortress, was then 
under the command of a German in the English service, the 
Leur de Gunny, who, it is supposed, treasonably surrendered his 
post to the French. Sir Hugh immediately despatched him to 
England to answer to the charge, while he himself gathered 
together his troops and commenced a destructive raid upon the 
surrounding district, as a measiire of retaliation for the loss of 
the fortress. With 500 men under his command he marched 
towards Boulogne, which he seized, burning the ships in the 
harbour, and one of the suburbs. Whilst the conflagration pro- 
gressed, the fierce soldier caused his chaplain to celebrate mass 
in the midst of the burning houses, as if to ask God's blessing 
upon the savage deeds he had committed; and when the cere- 
mony was concluded, and the violence of the conflagration 
exhausted, he gave the town over to pillage, and then withdrew, 
taking away large herds of cattle and many other valuables. 
After his return to Calais he joined the Earl of Pembroke in an 
incursion into Anjou, when he again reaped plunder and the 
glory that worships bravery and ignores any higher moral quality 
in a soldier, by driving the French from a bridge called the 
Pont de le, and taking the rich Abbey of St. Maur. A few days 
after Christmas, 1378, "deeming himself too much at ease," as 
the chronicler tells us, he gathered his men together, and fell 
suddenly upon the town of Etaples while the fair was being 
held, and after murdering the merchants, robbing them of their 
goods, and burning the town, he returned to Calais. But he 
did not allow himself a long repose. He again took the field, 
captured the Castle of Merk, and then, advancing towards St. 


Andemer, lie seized vast quantities of cattle, and, "witliout inter- 
iiiptioD, dx'ove tlieni into Calais, because, as a chronicler says, 
" Deus erat cum eo, et omnia ejus opera dirigebat!" 

To mention merely tlie many acts of daring and military 
skill which distinguished this renowned warrior, would requii-e 
too large a space; but the reader who is curious to examine the 
accounts of every-day life of the brave but lawless men — a large 
class of themselves, and of which Sir Hugh formed one, and per- 
haps a type — should consult the pages of the chronicler Froissart, 
which are stored with ^^.vid descrijitions of knightly achieve- 
ment, and the racy gossiji of the camp and court. 

Nor should we regard with too much severity the many 
peccadilloes that tliis sketch presents. They were the faults of 
the age, not of the individual; and to measure them by the 
moral standard of the present day, and then blame him for its 
shortcomings, or reprehend him for not reforming the ^-ices of 
his day and generation, is to treat him with great injustice. 
Animal courage was esteemed the greatest \'irtue of that fierce 
and warlike age, and that he possessed in an eminent degree. 
After a life of toil, privation, and continuous fighting, he died 
Apx'il 23rd, 1394. — For other particulars, consult also Walsing- 
ham's Historia Anglicana, &c. 

Instituted Yicar of Leeds in the year 1408, was the first whose 
name indicates him to have been a native of the parish. The 
Passelews (or Paslews) were an ancient family long settled in 
Potternewton, near Leeds ; and this vicar is supposed by 
Thoresby to have been son of "Robert Passelew del Ledes," so 
styled in a charter of that period. Dr. Wliitaker possessed the 
original will of a William Passelew del Ledes, dated 23 Rich. IL, 
or 1399, the first feotfee named in which is "Johannes Yicar. 
Ecclesite del Leds," namely, Jolon Snagtall, the preceding vicar; 
and this William, in point of chronology and place, may have an 
equal claim to be the father of his successor. It does not appear 
"whether Robert Passelew avoided the benefice by resignation or 
death ; but he did not hold it long, for there is only the interval 
of ten years between 1408, the time of his institution, and 1418, 
the date of the institution of his next successor but one, William 
Sax ton.'"' 

The Leeds parish church (St. Peter's), being mentioned in 

* For short accounts of some of the preceding vicars, see Thoresby's 
Vicaria Leodiensis, &c. 


Domesday Book, proves it to have been in existence at a very- 
early period. On taking down the old parish church of Leeds, 
in 1838, a most interesting discovery was made of several sculp- 
tured stone crosses of the Anglo-Saxon period. The largest 
cross was thirteen feet in height; the others were less, and 
broken into fragments. One of the crosses contained in Runic 
characters the name of a king. The inscription was Guni OnlaJ-] 
that is. King Onlaf. Onlaf, the Dane, entered the Humber in 
937, and subsequently became King of Northumbria, and a 
Christian. His residence was probably the "Villa Regia" at 
Osmondthorpe ; and this cross was no doubt erected to his 
memory in the cemetery of the Leeds parish church, about the 
year 950. Ancient fragments were discovered of the ITorman 
church of Leeds; not the one mentioned in the Domesday 
Survey, but the church renewed about the latter end of the 11th 
or the commencement of the 12th century.* Behind the altar- 
piece was a mural monument to the memory of a family named 
Hardewycke, of the 16th century; and in taking up the floor 
under the communion table, a tablet was found in excellent jDre- 
servation, containing a brass-plate inscribed to the memory of 
Thomas Darrell (or Clarrell), Vicar of Leeds, who was a bene- 
factor to the church, and died in 1469. t On taking up the floor 
of the choir, a fine efl&gy was discovered in chain-mail, with plate 
knee-caps, sword, and shield, beautifully carved in limestone; 
the coat of arms or quarterings of the shield denoting the knight 
to have been of the fainily of Stainton or Steynton. The legs 
had been broken off close under the knee. This efiigy is cross- 
legged, and cannot be later than Edward II. 's time, or about 
the year 1300. In the succeeding reign, Elizabeth Stainton was 
prioress of Kirkstall, and probably of the same family. The 
advowsons of the church of Leeds and the chapel of Holbeck 
were given in 1089, by Ral2:)h Paganel, to the priory of the 
Holy Trinity, at York. The original chapel of St. Mary the 
Virgin, at Beeston, was most probably founded about the same 
period. — For the pedigree and coat of arms of the Passelews, see 
Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis, p. 120. 



An eminent judge in the reign of Henry IV., was descended of 

a noble family, originally from Normandy, and born at Gaw- 

thorp, near Harewood, about seven miles from Leeds, in the 

* For a large view of the south prospect of old St. Petei-'s church at Leeds, 
see Thoresby's Vicaria Leodiensis. f See p. 72 of this volume. 


year 1350.* Being designed for the law, lie became a student 
either at Gray's Inn or the Inner Temple; and growing eminent 
in his profession, was made one of the king's Serjeants in 1398, 
and the next year Judge of the Common Pleas, and in 1401 
Chief-Justice of the King's Bench. How much he distinguished 
himself in that office appears from the several abstracts of his 
opinions, arguments, distinctions, and decisions, which occur in 
our old books of law-reports. He was ap])ointed commissioner 
to treat with those who had joined the rebellion of the Earl of 
Northumberland; but when Archbishop Scroop was taken in 
arms, he refused, though repeatedly solicited by Henry IV., to 
condemn him for treason, observing with undaunted firmness 
that neither the king nor his subjects could legally adjudge a 
bishop to death. He worthily asserted the dignity of his high 
office when the Prince of Wales, afterwards Henry Y., deter- 
mined to rescue one of his servants, who was arraigned before 
the King's Bench, presumed to interrupt, and even to strike, 
the chief-justice. On this Sir William, after some expostula- 
tions upon the outrage, indignity, and unwarrantable interrvip- 
tion of the proceedings in that place, directly committed him to 
the King's Bench prison, there to await his father's pleasure; 
and the prince submitted to his punishment with a calmness no 
less sudden and surprising than the offence had l^een which drew 
it upon him. The king, being informed of the whole affivii-, 
instead of being displeased with the chief -justice, returned 
thanks to God, " that he had given him both a judge who knew 
how to administer, and a son who could obey justice."t This 
extraordinary event has been recorded, not only in the general 
histories of the reigns of these two sovereigns, but celebrated 
also by the poets, and particularly by Shakspeare, who has ren- 
dered it immortal, in the second part of " Henry TV." The 
venerable judge died soon after, on the 17th of Dec, 1413.J 
His monument is in Harewood church : an altar-tomb, with re- 
cumbent figures of himself and wife. The inscription on a brass 

* He was of Norman extraction, and William was the great patronymic of 
the family, — probably out of compliment to the Conqueror, — there being 
sixteen Williams lineally succeeding each other, seven before and eight after 
tlie Chief -.Justice. 

+ " Happy am I that have a man so bold 
That dares do justice on my proper son : 
And not less happy, having such a son 
That would deliver uj) his greatness so 
Into the hands of justice." 

Shakspeare, ffcnrt/ IV. ii. 5, ii. 
t Mr. John .Tones, in his History of Harewood (Leeds, 1859), proves from 
his Latin will that he died in 1419. 


filleting round the tomb, mentioned by Fuller in his Worthies 
of England, has disappeared; having been torn away, it is gene- 
rally said, in the time of the civil wars.* From his general con- 
duct, as related by historians, there is sufficient reason to i^lace 
Sir William Gascoigne in the rank of chief-justices of the first 
merit, both for his integrity and abilities. Lord Campbell says : 
" Never was the seat of judgment filled by a more upright or 
independent magistrate." He was twice married, and left a 
numerous family. The famous Earl of Straiford, who was 
executed in the reign of Charles I., was one of his descen- 
dants by his first wife.t^ — For a more lengthened account, see 
the English Histories, the Biographia Britannica, and Chal- 
mers's General Biographical Dictionary, &c. For a portrait, 
&c.,of Sir William Gascoigne, see Gentleman's Magazine for 
1781, vol. IL, p. 516. For pedigree and coat of arms of the 
Gascoignes, see Jones's History of Harewood, pp. 54 and 254; 
Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis, p. 179; Whitaker's Loidis and 
Elmete, pp. 238 and 251, &c. 

Vicar of Leeds from 1430 to 1469, is supposed to have been 
descended from the ancient and knightly family of the Clarels, 
of Clarel Hall, near Tickhill, in this county, of whom Leland 
saith: "There were also buried divers of Clarelles in Tickhil 
Priory." There is yet a place by Tickhill, called Clarelles Hall. 
The Clarelles (or Clarrells) were indeed founders of that house; 
and some portion of their munificent spirit descended upon this 
incumbent, who was a great benefiictor, according to the opinions 
of these times, to his church, having founded and well-endowed 
a chantry to the honour of St. Catherine, the virgin and martyr, 
and adorned the chancel with paintings and other decorations. 
During his incumbency another transaction took place highly 
interesting to his successors, which was the donation of the site 
of the late vicarage-house to the benefice, by William Scot, the 
elder, of Potternewton. It has been conjectured that the vicar's 
ancient residence was in some part of the original parsonage, 
whose site was lately pointed by the old tithe-barn. Whether 

* For a large engraving of the tomb of Lord Chief -Justice Gascoigne, and 
Ehzaljcth his wife, daughter and co-heir of Sir William (or Alexander) Mow- 
bray, of Kirklington, in this county, see Whitaker's Thorcshy, vol. ii., p. 170. 

t Richard Gascoigne, Esq., of Himslet, who married Beatrix, daughter and 
co-heii-ess of Henry EUis, Esq. (of Hunslet), and died in 1422, was brother to 
the above Sir WilUam. The Gascoignes of Parlington, &c., are also descended, 
from this family. 


the ancient manse vv-as become ruinous, or was too mucli crowded 
by tlie increase of buildings, or what motive stimulated this 
benefactor to so well-judged an act of charity, cannot at this 
distance of time be more than conjecture. Dr. AVhitaker thinks 
it is veiy credible that John Elcock, one of the witnesses in 
the Latin charter of donation, then in the humble situation of a 
chaplain, or stipendiary priest, was the indi\-idual John Alcock 
who, through many successive preferments, became Bishop of 
Ely, and is, or ought to be, gratefully remembered as the founder 
of Jesus College, Cambridge. He was born at Beverley, and 
was collated by Dr. Kempe, Bishop of London, to his first pre- 
ferment, the rectory of St. Margaret, Fish Street, in 1461 — just 
eight years after this time — a date which is perfectly consistent 
with the supposition that he was now a young man in the out- 
set of his ecclesiastical career, serving a stipendiary cure in his 
native county. — For further particulars, see the latter part of 
the Rev. Robert Passelew, 1412, and Thoresby's Vicaria Leodi- 
ensis, by Dr. Whitaker. 


Collated to the vicarage of Leeds, ISTov. 16th, 1460, and Pre- 
centor of York at the time of his institution, the son of Sir 
William E\Te, Knight, a great family in the East-Riding, by 
Maud, daughter of Henry, Lord Fitzhugh, and brother of Sir 
Ralph Evre, who was killed at the battle of To^vton. This vicar 
left a memorial behind him at Leeds, by founding the chantry 
of St. Mary Magdalen, at the corner of Upper Briggate, turning 
into Upperhead Row, where a house still retains some of the 
old upright timbers, and something of its original appearance, 
though the chantry windoAvs which remained in Thoresby's time 
are gone. What share the vicarage of Leeds had of this vicar's 
residence and attendance, or whether he were interred here or 
at York, is not known. It is certain, however, that he held it 
to his death, or about twelve years. — For the pedigree and arms 
of the Evres, see Whitaker's Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensisy 
p. 19.^'' 

* There was another William Evre, Vicar of Leeds, in the j-ear 1.508. Ho 
was the son of Sir William (nephew of the above William Evre, B.D., Vicar 
of Leeds), by Margaret, his former wife, daughter of Sir Robert Constable, 
Knt., and brother to Sir Ralph Evre, Knt., who by Murela, daughter of Sir 
Hugh Hastings, Knt., had issue auotlier Sir William, whom King Henry 
VIII., Ijy letters patent (afterwards deposited in Thoresby's Museum), ad- 
vanced to the dignity of a baron of this realm, for his faithful services when 
warden of the East Marches towards Scotland, and captain of the town and 
castle of Benvick-upon-Tweed, in the presence of Archbishop Craumer, and 



Vicar of Leeds, and Bishop of Ross in Scotland, who left Scot- 
land with the Duke of Albany during the distracted reign of 
James III., and meeting with an hospitable reception in 
England, probably at York, did not accompany his patron into 
France. By what particular interest he procured this benefice, 
as a means of subsistence during his exile, does not appear ; but 
he held it about seventeen years, and after the troubles of his 
native country were composed by the prudence and vigour of 
James IV., returned to Scotland in 1499. Thoresby speaks of 
tills vicar with some hesitation, as he is styled in the archiepis- 
copal registers merely " Johannes Dei gratia Ptossensis Episco- 
pus;" but the period of his retreat in England, coupled vdth the 
precise time of his resigning the benefice of Leeds, which coin- 
cides with the beginning of the reign of James, leaves no doubt 
that Frazer was the man. — For some notices of this prelate, see 
Holinshead, vol. ii., p. 70-5, and Middleton's Additions to Spottis- 
looode, &c. 


Son of Matthew Stuart, Earl of Lennox, husband of Mary Queen 
of Scots, and father of James the Sixth of Scotland and First of 
England, was born at Temple Newsome, near Leeds, in the year 
1545. After the dissolution of the Knights Templars in 1311, 
Temple Newsome was granted by Edward III. to Sir John 
D'Arcy, and his heirs male. In this line it descended to Thomas, 
Lord D'Arcy and Meinel, and on his attainder, in consequence 
of the active part which he took in the Pilgrimage of Grace, 
became forfeited to the Crown. It was again granted to 
Matthew, Earl of Lennox, who resided here (with Lady Mar- 
garet his wife), at the birth of his celebrated but unfor- 
tunate son, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, whose heir-at-law 
was King James I. In him the manor of Temple IsTew- 
some was once more united to the Crown, and by him, in the 
profusion of his bounty, given to his kinsman, Esme Stuart, 
Duke of Lennox and Richmond. He did not long remain in 
possession of this fair domain, but sold it to Sir Ai-thur Ingram, 
the son of a wealthy citizen of London, who purchased many 

other spiritiial and temporal lords. His son, Sir Ralph Evre, -will ever live in 
fame for his noble defence of Scarborough Castle, against the northern 
rebels, full six weeks, without any other assistance than his own domestics, or 
any other food for the last twenty days than bread and water. 


other valuable estates in the county, which he destined for his 
futui'e residence. It appears that as soon as Sir Arthur Ingram 
became possessor of Temple Newsome, he pulled down the old 
house, which was probably become ruinous, and began to build 
a uniform and magnificent fabric of brick, the shell of which 
remains nearly entire. The old house, however, was not com- 
pletely demolished, for Thoresby asserts that the identical apart- 
ment in which Lord Darnley was born remained in his time, 
and was distingaiished by the name of the king's chamber. It 
is now forgotten, nor can a vestige of any portion of the building 
earlier than Sir Ai-thur Ingram's work be discovered. — (For a 
fine engraving of Temple Newsome, or, as it is now spelled, 
Newsam, see Dr. Whitaker's Loidis and Elmete, p. 139.) The 
house covers a great extent of ground; its plan is that of a Roman 
H, or rather of three sides of a large quadrangle, and the archi- 
tecture is a fine specimen of the period in which it was built. The 
roof is surrounded by a battlement, com^iosed of capital letters 
in stonework, forming the following inscription : " All glory 


AND Holy Ghost, on high; peace upon earth, good will 


AND PLENTY WITHIN THIS HOUSE." The external appearance of 
the building, though not uniform, is very imposing; its deep 
and embayed windows are distinctive of the age (i.e., of the 
first Stuarts) in which it was constriicted ; splendid convenience 
and domestic comfort form the character of its internal arrange- 
ments; and the whole fabric constitutes a truly noble residence. 
The park around the house is extensive; it is shaded by vene- 
rable and magnificent woods; the walk on the southern de- 
clivity of the hill between gigantic trees is very fine, and 
the situation truly beautiful. The collection of paintings at 
Temple Newsome is very valuable. The series of fiimily por- 
traits from Sii- Arthur Ingram (who died July 4th, 1655), to 
the present generation, besides the intrinsic merit of several as 
works of art, forms an excellent study of the English costume 
for more than two centui'ies. But there ai-e many works of a 
higher order, from Guido to Reynolds, on which every visitant 
of taste or science will dwell with delight, till he forgets the 
ordinary measui-cs of time assigned to such enjoyments. The 
noble fiimilies of Lennox, Irwine, and Hertford have resided 
here. — For other particulars respcctmg the brief but eventful 
life of Lord Darnley, with which almost all schoolboys are 
familiar, see the Histories of England and Scotland, and 


especially the Lives of the Queens of Scotland, by Agnes Strick- 
land (London, 185G), whicli contain several line portraits of 
Mary (Stuart) Queen of Scots, who was one of the most beau- 
tiful women that ever lived, ttc. 

A celebrated geographer in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, was 
probably one of the ancestors of the Rev. Peter Saxton, vicar 
of Leeds, for Camden supposes him to have been a native of 
Leeds parish, where he frequently resided amongst his relations; 
though he is said to have lived chiefly at Topcliffe, Tingley, 
or Woodkirk, near Ardsley. It is also related that he was 
born at Bramley, near Leeds. Thoresby, in allusion to Cam- 
den's Christopher Saxton (whom all must own to haA^e been a 
most distinguished person in his generation), says: "As long 
as that celebrated author is owned ' the prince of our English 
antiquaries,' and his Britannia the common sun whereat our 
modern writers lighted their little torches, the fame of Saxton 
will survive : for Camden speaks very highly of his works, and 
styles him ' tlie most excellent cliorograjjiher'" Saxton's maps 
of England, the fruit of an actual survey which took up nine 
years, wei-e highly esteemed little more than a century ago, 
having then not been surpassed, or scarcely equalled in exact- 
ness. He died in October, and was buried at Leeds on the 
31st, in the year 1587. The leanied John Gregory, in his 
description and use of maps and charts, makes use of Sax- 
ton's as the very best for the illustrating of his examples, who 
(saith that judicious author), as he drew topographical descrip- 
tions of this kingdom by the shires and counties in a set 
volume of tables, so a general chorographical map of the whole 
kingdom, than which nothing can be more particularly and 
exactly performed according to art or industry (Cregoiy's 
Works, pp. 319, 322). Besides those which were commonly 
sold, Thoresby had a very rare map of this his native county, 
nearly a yard in length, with the plan of York in one corner, 
and the prospect of Hull in another. The small ones were 
engraved by William Hole, but the large one by Augustine 
Ryther (1G42), who was also very probably of this town, 
where the name was lately numerous, as that of Saxton Avas 
formerly. There are some of Christopher Saxton's Geographical 
Charts of all the counties of England and Wales, distinguished 
by colours, in the Bodleian Library, which (so curiously painted 
maps) are not exposed with the printed books, but preserved 


in the archives, amongst the very choicest manuscripts. — See 
Thoresby's Vicaria Leodlensis, &c. 

Vicar of Leeds, son of William Cooke, was baptized in Beeston 
chapel, July 23rd, 1550. In 1567 he was admitted of Braze- 
nose College, Oxford, having probably received his school 
education in Sir "William Sheaffield's foundation, the original 
Grammar School at Leeds ; and, according to Wood, the author 
of Athence Oxonienses, he became "the most noted disputant of 
his time." In July, 1572, he took his first degree of Bachelor 
of Arts, and in December of the following year, he was unani- 
mously elected Probationer Fellow of that college. In January, 
1576, he commenced IMaster of Arts, about which time, entering 
into holy orders, and being noted for his learning, he was, in 
1582, elected one of the Pi'octors of the University, in which 
station he acquitted himself so admirably well, that his house 
gained much credit thereby. In 1584, he commenced Bachelor 
of Divinity, but in June, 1590, he resigned his fellowship and 
retired into his native county, having been presented to the 
vicarage of Leeds, into which he was instituted on the 18th of 
December ; from which time is dated the revival of religious 
knowledge and substantial piety in these parts. But he was a 
singular blessing, not only to the neighbourhood where he was 
boi'n, but also to the nation, and even to the learned world in 
general ; for, by a severe application to study, he became, as the 
Oxford historian owns, a man learned in the church, and singu- 
larly skilled in the disquisition of antiquity, especially for the 
discerning of the proper works of the Fathers from the forged 
and counterfeit. Mr. Robert Cooke, formerly called Gale, was 
the second Protestant vicar of Leeds (Alexander Fascet, or 
Fawcett, being the first) ; and he appears to have united the 
charactei's of a hard student and an active parish priest. He 
was not one of those who, from the multiplicity of their avoca- 
tions, "have not time to be learned ;" nor was he "lost to the 
people while amongst them " in the solitude of his study, but 
employed meditation and public duty alternately, to relieve each 
other. This happy union was the great characteiistic of the 
reformers. It continued to distinguish many of the English 
clergy in the reign of James I. But the secret is, that they 
were not men of pleasure, — for no economy of time can include 
in the same day lc)ng houi's of study, great activity in business, 
and the calls of company and amusement; which last being now 


considered, by some, as indispensable, one or other of the former 
must give place. Another reason of the difference was, that 
the more hopeful students in divinity did not begin their min- 
istry so early as the present generation. In Thoresby's later 
days, more than a century after the decease of Robert Cooke, 
his memory was still venerated in the parish, — a pi-oof that even 
then his doctrine and example had not ceased to profit. The 
tliird and fourth generations might be influenced by a cause of 
which they were unconscious. His remaining works, in print 
and in MS., ]5rove him to have been a powerful disputant and 
an acute critic. His principal work was his Gensura Patrum, 
which passed through several editions, and the object of which 
was highly useful and pi-aiseworthy, namely, to detect the nume- 
rous forgeries and unauthorized insertions made by Roman 
Catholic editors or transcribers in the works of the Fathers — 
a book that will render his name venerable, as long as learning 
and reformed Christianity shall endure. But as the success of 
the undertaking depended on a general collation of the printed 
copies with the MSS., and of the later with the earlier MSS., 
the author's situation in a country town was peculiarly unfa- 
vourable. Zeal, howevei', and industry will overcome all ordi- 
nary difficulties; and perhaps the materials had been collected 
during the later years of his residence in Oxford. A few years 
after this time, Ai'chbishop Abbott projected a noble undertak- 
ing of the same kind, and upon a great scale; but, from a want 
of that general co-operation which even the influence of an 
English primate was unable to command, it fell to the ground. 
This learned and excellent man, whose nativity, Thoresby says, 
is the glory of the place, died Januar'y 1st, 1614, and was in- 
terred in his own church. He was succeeded by his brother 
Alexander. — For a longer and more particalar account, see 
Thoresby's Vicaria Leodiensis, and Dr. Whitaker's Thoresby's 
Ducaius Leodiensis, &c. 

] 556— 1630. 
The first alderman, or mayor, of the borough of Leeds, which 
was incorporated by Charles I., in 1626.* He married Kathe- 
rine, daughter of Charles, Lord Willoughby, and became the 
father of Sii- Thomas, afterwards Baron Saville, and Earl of 

* He did not, however, formally discharge the functions of his oflBce, 
which were perfonned for him by the celebrated John Harrison. John 
Clayton, Esq., was the first recorder, and George Banister the first town- 


Sussex, who died in 1652. Sir John was High Sheriif of the 
county of Lincoln, and, during the reigns of James I. and 
Charles I., was several times Knight of the Shire for Yorkshire. 
He was High Steward of the Honour of Pontefract, and Steward- 
ship of Wakefield, of the Privy Coimcil to Charles I., and 
Comptroller of his Household; and by him was created Baron 
Saville, of Pontefract ; whose crest and stipporters," known by 
the name of " hullarts," or owls, were, in honovir of him, 
adopted by the town of Leeds.* The fleece in the shield de- 
notes the woollen manufactures, the very life of these parts 
of England, supported by the Athenian bii'ds, in memory of 
the famous Sii- John Saville (afterwards created Lord Sa\T.lle, 
as his son was Earl of Sussex), the first hon. alderman when 
this populous town and parish wei-e incorporated ; also a good 
omen of so many learned authors as have been born or resided 
here, of whom (with the divine permission) more hereafter; 
indeed more suitable supporters could not have been desired. 
Minerva, whose bird the owl is, as well as the Savilles' arms, 
being not only the goddess of learning and wisdom, but the 
inventor of spinning and weaving; and justly celebrated for 
finding out the use both of oil and wool, withoiit which this 
place could not well subsist. He built Howley Hall, in Batley 
parish, near Leeds, called by Camden " a most elegant house." 
(For an engi-aving of which see Thoreshy.) After standing for 
a century and a half, the pride and admiration of the neigh- 
bourhood, it was, at the instigation of a faithless agent, blown 
up with gTinpowder by order of the Earl of Cardigan, in 1730. 
There are two repiited facts connected with the place, how- 
ever, which should not be omitted. The first is, that the cele- 
brated Rubens visited Lord Saville in Howley Hall, and 
painted for him a view of Pontefract; and the second is, that 
Archbishop Usher here assumed the disguise of a Jesuit, in 
oi-der to try the conti'oversial talents of Robert Cooke, the 
learned Yicar of Leeds. — For a long account of Howley Hall, see 
Parsons' History of Leeds, i., 5.3, 347; Scatcherd's History of 
Morley, p. 235, etc. For the charter of Charles I., and copies 
of the Leeds arms, &c., see Wardell's Municipcd History of 
Leeds; and for a long account of the Saville family, see the 
Peerages; Dr. Whitakers Loidls and Elmete, p. 272; Appendix 
to Greenwood's History of Dewshury, &c. 

* For a copy of the Leeds arms, see the cover of this volume, &c. 




Equally related to liis predecessor in principles and practice as 
in blood, was born in the same house, at Beeston, and bajitized 
September 3i-d, 1564. His early education was in the old 
Grammar School of Leeds. In Michaelmas term, 1581, he was 
admitted a member of Brazenose (his brother's) College, in 
Oxford, where he took his fii'st degree June 25, 1585. Here 
he made such evident proficiency in his studies, that in 1587 he 
was chosen to a Percy Fellowship of University College. In 
the year following he proceeded to the degree of M.A., and 
about the same time entering into holy orders, and appMng 
himself with great diligence to the study of the Holy Scriptures, 
he became a frequent and celebrated preacher in the neighbour- 
hood of Oxford, though it does not appear what was his cure. 
On the 26th of May, 1596, he took the degree of B.D. In 
the declining health and age of his brother, he performed his 
duty at the parish church of Leeds with general applause, and 
npon his decease deservedly succeeded him, and imitated that 
great exemplar in his studies, industiy, and zeal against the 
errors of the Romanists. Wood's account of him is, " that he 
was admirably read in the conti'oversies between the Protestants 
and Papists, versed in the Fathers and schoolmen, witty and in- 
genious, but a great Calvinist." Whatever might be his ten- 
dency to Puritanism, which at that time was synonymous 
with Calvinism, in other respects he certainly copied their spirit 
in the bad taste and quaintness of the titles which he pre- 
fixed to his several works. Thoresby, having in his possession 
most of his works, and having read them deliberately, says: 
"That whoever doth the like, without prejudice and levity, 
must own him to have been a person of great learning, reading, 
and judgment; of prodigious industiy in consulting so great a 
number of authors ; and of great sagacity in making so accurate 
observations iipon them." Let not modern indolence or fasti- 
diousness refuse its assent to such a testimony; for, in spite of 
the rude and tasteless style of their titles, they were useful and 
well-timed works. The critical "sdgilance of Protestant divines 
has seldom been better exercised than in detecting those frauds, 
by which the most dignified advocates of the Church of Piome 
have, without a blush, obtruded upon the world their own in- 
sertions for the genuine language of the Fathers. This good and 
useful man died June, J 632, and was interred in the chancel of 
Ms parish church, near the remains of his brother, but without 


any memorial. Alexander Cooke, not long after his decease, 
received from a celebrated preacher the following tribute of 
respect. After celebrating his abilities in learning, especially 
divinity; his skill in controversies, particularly with the Papists; 
and his correspondence with the most famous and learned 
divines, he says that " He was a lover of goodness wherever he 
saw it, and a man that always preferred the truth and substance 
of religion before the form and ceremonies ; bold and resolute 
in a good cause ; liberal to the needy, even above his ability ; 
exemplary for his care of his flock in his life, and solicitude for 
them at his death." Even the morose and cynical Anthony 
"Wood allows to Alexander Cooke the character of " a good and 
learned man ; a man abounding in charity, and exemplary in 
his life and conversation." His affinities were very dignified, 
his wife being sister to the celebrated Archbishop Bramhall, and 
his daughter married to Dr. Samuel Pulleyne, Archbishop of 
Tuam. — For a fuller account, see Whitaker's Thoresby's Bucatits 
Leodiensis, and Thoresby's Vicaria Leodiensis, &c. 

An ingenious poet, who flourished in the reigns of Elizabeth 
and James I., was the second son of Sir Thomas Faii'fax, of 
Denton Park, Otley, near Leeds. In what year he was bora is 
not related. The family from which he sprang was of a very 
military turn. His father had passed his youth in the wars 
of Europe, and was with Charles, Duke of Bourbon, at the 
sacking of Rome in 1527. It was in 1577, or 1579, when far 
advanced in years, that he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth. 
The poet's eldest brother, Thomas, who, in process of time, 
became the first Lord Fairfax of Cameron, received the honour 
of knighthood before Piouen, in Normandy, in 1591, for his 
bravery in the army sent to the assistance of Heniy TV. 
of France; and he afterAvards signalized himself on many occa- 
sions in Germany against the house of Austria. A younger 
brother of Edward Fairfax, Sir Charles, was a captain under 
Sir Francis Vere at the battle of Newport, fought in 1600; 
and in the famous tlii'ee years' siege at Ostend, commanded all 
the English in that town for some time before it surrendered. 
Wliile his brothers were thus honourably employed abi'oad, 
Edward Fairfax devoted himself to a studious course of life. 
That he had the advantage of a veiy liberal education cannot 
be doubted, from liis intellectual acquirements, and the distinc- 
tion which he soon obtained in the literary woi'ld. Indeed, his 



attainments \rere such, that he became qualified to have filled 
any employment either in church or state. But an invincible 
modesty, and the love of retirement, induced him to prefer 
the shady groves and natural cascades of Denton, and the 
forest of Kjiaresborough, to the employments and advantages 
of a public station. Accordingly, ha\'ing married, he fixed 
himself at Fewstone, as a retired country gentleman. The care 
and education of his children, for Vi^hicli he was so well 
qualified, probably engaged some part of his attention ; and 
it is said that he was very serviceable, in the same way, to 
his brother. Lord Fairfax ; besides which, he assisted him in the 
government of his family and the management of his affairs. 
What his principles were, appears from the character which he 
gives of liimself in his book on demonology : " For myself," 
says he, " I am in religion neither a fantastic Puritan nor 
a superstitious Papist; but so settled in conscience, that I have 
the sure ground of God's Word to warrant all I believe, and 
the commendable ordinances of our English church to approve 
all I practise; in which course I live a faithful Christian and 
an obedient subject, and so teach my family." In these prin- 
ciples he persevered to the end- of his days, which took place in 
1632. He died at his own house, called New Hall, Fewstone, 
between Denton and Knaresboroiigh, and was buried in the 
same parish, where a marble stone, with an inscription, was 
placed over his grave. But it is as a poet that he is principally 
entitled to attention; and in this respect he is held in just 
reputation, and deserves to have his name transmitted vrith 
honour to posterity. His principal work was his translation of 
Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered into English verse, first published 
in 1600; and what adds to the merit of the work is, that 
it was his first essay in poetry, and executed when he was very 
young: on its appearance it was dedicated to Queen Elizabeth. 
The book was highly commended by the best judges and wits 
of the age in which it was written, and their judgment has 
been sanctioned by the approbation of succeeding critics. 
James I. valued it above all other English poetry, and Charles I. 
used to divert himself with reading it, in the time of his con- 
finement. All who mention Fairfax do him the justice to 
allow that he was an accomplished genius. Dryden inti'oduces 
Spenser and Fairfax, almost on a level, as the leading authors of 
their times; and Waller confessed that he owed the music of his 
numbers to Fairfax's Godfrey of Boulogne. Of Fairfax, it has 
been justly said that he had the powers of genius and fancy, 
and broke through that servile custom of translation which 


prevailed in his time. His liberal elegance rendered his ver- 
sions more agreeable than the dryness of Jonson, and the dull 
fidelity of Sandys and May. The perspicuity and harmony of 
his versification are extraordinary, considering the time in which 
he wrote; and in this respect he ranks nearly with Spenser. 
Hume observes that " Fairfax has translated Tasso with an 
elegance and ease, and at the same time w-ith an exactness, 
which, for that age, are surprising. Each line in the original 
is faithfully rendered by a correspondent line in the transla- 
tion." After being for a while superseded in the estimation of 
the reading public, by the inferior translation of Hoole, it 
has been more justly appreciated, and recent editions of the 
work have been issued from the press. Fairfax also wrote the 
History of Edward the Black Prince, and a number of 
Eclogues. The ]MS. of the former perished in the fire, when 
the banqueting-house at Whitehall was burnt. Of the Eclogues, 
twelve in number, only the foxirtli has been printed ; it ap- 
peared in Mrs. Cooper's Muses' Library, published in 1737. 
He also wi-ote a treatise on De'nionology, in which he was, 
it seems, a believer. Fairfax left several children, sons and 
daughters. William, his eldest son, was a scholar, and of the 
same temper with his fiither, but more cynical. He translated 
Diogenes Laertius into English ; and was also tutor of Thomas 
Stanley, the celebrated author of the Lives of the Philosophers, 
and the editor oi jEschylus. — For a fuller account, see his Life, 
prefixed to Charles Knight's edition of Tasso; Cunningham's 
Lives of Eminent and Illustrious Engl'ishnien ; and the Bio- 
graphical Dictionaries of Rose, Knight, and Chalmers, (tc. 
For jDedigi-ee and coat of arms, &c., of the Fairfaxes, see 
Thoresby's Ducatus Leodietisis, p. Go, and Whitaker's Loidis 
and Elmete, p. 1 30, &c. 


The Hoptons of Armlcy Hall, from whom Sii* Ralph 
descended as the heir to that estate, are a family of considerable 
antiquity and reputation. As a knightly hoiise they came into 
England with the Conqiieror, and from a very early period they 
have been settled at Armley Hall and the village of Hopton, 
near Mirfield, which takes its name from them. Although, per- 
haps. Sir Ralph was the greatest and most illustrious represen- 
tative of his house, yet he was by no means the only remarkable 
man of a family ever prolific in soldiers of no ordinaiy ability 
and reputation. He was baptized on the 2 1st of May, 1583, 


and married, probably about the year 1612, to Mary, daughter 
of Roger No well, Esq., by whom he had a son (baptized 23i-d 
February, 1G14), afterwards Sir Ingram Hopton, Knt., who was 
slain on the field of battle, and who earned a reputation worthy 
of his gallant father and the proud name he bore. Like the 
others of his glorious ancestors, who shed their blood both 
in England and France in support of their king. Sir Ralph was 
a zealous Royalist, and when the civil war broke out he im- 
mediately offered his services to Charles I. When the king 
appointed the Marquis of Hertford his lieutenant-general of 
all the western parts of the kingdom, giving him power to levy 
such a body of horse and foot as he found necessary for his 
Majesty's service, Sir Ralph was chosen one of the officers to 
form the array. He received a commission as lieutenant- 
genei'al of horse, and raised, at his own expense, a small troop 
of dragoons, with which he made a demonstration at Wells in 
favour of the king, dispersing the Parliamentaiy rabble there 
congi'egated. When the Earl of Bedford went into Glamorgan- 
shire, Sir Ralph marched into Cornwall with a force consisting 
of one hundred horse and fifty dragoons, for the purpose of 
seizing the county, enlisting the sympathies, and gaining the 
assistance of the Cornish gentry for the king's cause. He 
took Launceston, which had been abandoned by Sir George 
Chudleigh, thence he went to Saltash, another of the Parliamen- 
tary garrisons: and thus, in his person, the king became master 
of Cornwall and the extreme south-west. The reputation of 
the king's forces being absolute masters of the one county of 
Cornwall, and the apprehension of what might result from the 
fact, if made known to other counties, speedily caused the 
Parliament to take measures to effect the defeat of the king's 
troops and the suppression of all loyal sentiments. Ruthven 
then commanded the Parliamentary troops in the south and 
south-west, who immediately marched to attack Sir Ralph; and 
their two ai'mies met on the east side of Braddock Down, near 
Liskeai'd. Sir Ralph placed his troops in order of battle, and 
then caused jjublic prayers to be said at the head of every 
squadron. The rebels observing this, sneeringly told theii" 
men that "they wei'e at mass;" but when their devotions 
were concluded, Sir Ralph led on his handful of troops with 
such impetuosity that their impious enemies were speedily con- 
quered and dispersed, leaving in the hands of the victors 1,250 
prisoners, most of their colours, all their cannon and an " iron 
Saker," all their ammunition, and most of their arms. In 
company with Lord Mohun, he led the first division of the 


army at the battle of Stratton, Tuesday, May 16tli, 1643, 
where they gained a gloiious victory. Sir Ralph's valour 
contributed not a little towards gaining this success, and in the 
moment of his pride Lord Clarendon pays him a high com- 
pliment when he tells us that, after the battle of Stratton, Sir 
Ralph " was gi-eedily expected in his o"svn county, whei-e his 
reputation was second to no man's." He also greatly dis- 
tinguished himself at the battle of Lansdo-^Tie, July 5, 1643, 
when he was shot through the arm with a musket-ball, but his 
wound was not so serious as to prevent him from doing duty. 
Surrounded by all his staff, he was riding next morning across 
the field of battle to see that the wounded were properly cared 
for and to gather together the stragglers, when an ammunition 
waggon, containing eight barrels of powder, exploded, killing 
and wounding many. Su- Ealph ' ' having hardly so much life 
as not to be numbered with the dead," was borne off the field 
in a litter, and conveyed to his old quarters at Marsfield. 
Being deprived by the accident of all physical power, but, for- 
tunately, unhurt as to his mental faculties, Sii' Ealj)h was long 
prostrated by his woixnds, but " the soldier's darling," as he is 
affectionately called, survived, and was nominated as the 
governor of Bristol. After a great deal of bickering on the 
part of the king, who dared not openly to slight so valiant and 
faithful a soldier, but who wished to give that post to his 
nephew, Prince Rupert, the affair was compromised. Sir Ealph, 
" who was now so well recovered that he was walking into the 
air," being ajipointed lieutenant-governor under the prince. 
Throughout the whole of his military career Sir Ralph ever 
showed himself the brave soldier, the loyal gentleman, and the 
skilful captain, whose capacity is not in the least degree 
luiworthy of comparison with that of the many great soldiers 
Leeds and its neighbourhood sent into the field during those 
troublous times. As a reward for his long and faithful services, 
but more especially for his achievement of the victory of 
Stratton, Charles created him Baron Hopton of Sti'atton, in 
memory of the happy event. He is said to have died on 
the 10th September, 1643.* 

* For pedigree and coat of arms of the Hoptons, see Thoresby's Ducatus 
Leodiensis, p. 187, and AVhitaker's Loiilis and Eimete, pp. 198, 272, and 338. 
—Fuller, the celebrated author of the Worthies of England, going to Oxford 
early in 1043, to join the king's party, became chaplain to Sii- Ealph Hopton, 
and employed his leisure in making collections relative to English history and 

Another important member of this very considerable family was the 
Biyht Rev. John Hojjton, D.D., Bishop of ]Stor«'ich, who resided alternately 


An ingenious natural philosopher, was the son of Henry Gas- 
coigne, Esq., of Thorpe-on-the-Hill, and Middleton, small vil- 
lages in the parish of Kothwell, near Leeds. Henry, his 
father, was descended from John Gascoigne, Esq., the fourth 
son of Sir WiUiam Gascoigne, of Gawthorpe (the famous judge, 
who fearlessly committed an English prince* to prison, for 
offending the laws of his counti-y). Little is known of William, 
except the immortal inventions which resulted from the con- 
tinued labours of his great mind. The time of his birth is 
unknown to us, and the time of his death is a matter of dispute. 
His early life appears to have been spent in deep study and 
obscurity, at one of his father's houses, in the villages above- 
named. Bom some time about the year 1612, although it has 
erroneously been stated that his birth occurred at a later period, 
the first thirty years of his quiet life were spent in the study of 
astronomy, in which science he attained to a degree of perfec- 
tion equal to that of his great contemporaries and friends, 
Horrox and Crabtree, the Lancashire savants. This illustrious 
triumvirate compiled for their own present use, but undoubtedly 
intended for future publication, a series of brilliant papers 
which they entitled De re Astronomica, and which are now in 
the possession of the Townleys, of Lancashire. Mr. Townley 
in one of his lettei's tells us that, at the time of Gascoigne's 
death, he had a treatise on OiMcs ready for the press, "but 
though I have iised my vitmost endeavours to retrieve it, yet 
have I in that point been totally unsuccessful." But William 
Gascoigne's greatest work was the invention of the viicrometer, 
although that honour has been claimed by others, especially, 
though long after his time, by M. A^out. Mr. Townley, how- 
ever, settles that question in one of the jiapers now printed in 
the Philosophical Transactions, and wherein he states, " You 
may assure the curious that he (his brother) has, under Mr. 
Gascoigne's own hand, wherewith to entitle him to the inven- 
tion of the micrometer before all foreigners or English; it was 
invented before 1641, for then he mentioned it as in being." 
(For a description of which, see Gascoygne, in Knight's Blo- 

at Blake Hall, near Mirfield, and at Armley Hall, near Leeds. He was a 
Dominican Friar, educated at Oxford, from whence, after his course of study 
was completed, he travelled to E,ome, and took the degi-ee of D.D. at 
Bologna. He was chaplain to Princess Mary ; soon after whose accession to 
the Crown he was nominated to the see of Norwich, which he enjo)'ed to his 
death. — See Dr. Whitaker's Loidis and Elmete, &c. * See p. 70 of this vol. 


graphical Gyclopcedia, &c.) At the time of his death he had, at 
his father's residence, New Hall, Middleton, " a whole barn 
full of instruments," constiiicted by him, to carry out ideas 
which, unfortunately, died with him. He lived in an unsettled 
age, an age which saw the people in arms to o})pose their king, 
and the chivalrous spirit which Gascoigne inherited from such a 
noble race of ancestry, could not remain indifferently idle when 
his sovereign's life was in danger. He espoused the cause of 
the king, and in all probability was one of the volunteer 
defenders of Pontefract .Castle, during the first siege. Certain 
it is that his loyalty cost him his life; but at what precise 
period it is difficult to say. Hopkinson, a contemporary, and 
of the same parish, says he was slain at Melton Mowbray; 
whilst Aubrey and Townley tell us it was " at Marston, with 
Rupert, 'gainst traitors contending," that he lost his life, July 
2nd, 1644. They also tell us that he was slain at the age 
of twenty-three, but that must be incorrect. Young as he was 
at the time of his death, he, nevertheless, lived sufficiently long 
to produce an instrument the invention of which would have at 
once rendered his name illustrious, had not his untimely end, 
and the melancholy circumstances which produced it, given 
others an opportunity of claiming the honour and receiving the 
measure of applaxise the invention so nobly deserved. — For 
other j^articulars, see Thoresby's Correspondence ; Annual Regis- 
ter (1761, vol. iv., p. 196); Philosophical Transactions ; Gentle- 
man's Magazine, &c. 


A puritan divine, was born at Birstal, near Leeds, about 1579, 
and educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, where he took 
both his degrees in arts. He was afterwards incorporated 
M.A. at Oxford, and there took the degree of B.D. He first 
was tutor to the sons of Lord Carey, of Lepington (created, in 
1625, Earl of Monmouth), and afterwards, probably by his 
lordship's interest, clerk of the closet to Px'ince Henry; and, 
after his death, to Pruice Charles, whom he was appointed to 
attend into Spain in 1623; but, for reasons unknown, was set 
aside after part of his goods were shipped, and upon that 
prince's accession to the Crown was removed from being his 
clerk of the closet. Burton, highly disgusted at this treatment, 
took cveiy ojjportunity of expressing his resentment, particu- 
larly by railing against the bishops. In April, 1625, he 
presented a letter to King Charles, remonstrating against Dr. 


Neile and Dr. Laud, his Majesty's continual attendants, as 
popishly affected; and for this he was forbidden the court. 
Soon aftei", he was presented to the rectory of St. Matthew's, in 
Friday Street, London. In December, 1636, he was summoned 
to appear before Dr. Duck, one of the commissioners for causes 
ecclesiastical, who tendered to him the oaths ex-officio, to answer 
to certain ai'ticles brought against him, for what he had ad- 
Tanced in two sermons, preached in his own church on the 
preceding 5th of November. Burton, instead of answeiing, 
appealed to the king; but a special high-commission court, 
which was called soon after at Doctors' Commons, suspended 
him, in his absence, from both his office and benefice; on which 
he thought fit to abscond, but published his two sermons under 
the title of For God and the King, together with an apology 
justifying his appeal. For these seditious sermons he was 
prosecuted, sentenced to the pillory, fined five thousand pounds, 
and ordered to be imprisoned for life. In N'ovember, 1640, the 
House of Commons, upon his wife's petition complaining of 
the severity of his sentence, ordered that he should be brought 
to the Parliament in safe custody. Burton, on his arrival 
at London, presented a petition to the House, setting forth 
his sufferings. In consequence of this, the House resolved that 
the sentence against him was illegal, and ought to be reversed; 
that he be freed from the fine, and from imprisonment, and 
restored to his degrees in the university, orders in the ministiy, 
and to his ecclesiastical benefice in Friday Street. He was, 
however, restored to his living of St. Matthew's, after which he 
declared himself an Independent, and complied with the altera- 
tions that ensued; but, according to "Wood, when he saw to 
what extravagant lengths the Parliament went, he grew more 
moderate, and afterwards fell out with his fellow-sufferers, 
Prynne and BastA\'ick, and with Mr. Edmund Calamy. He 
wrote many pamphlets, chiefly controversial, severe and abusive, 
which are now little read, though often inquu*ed after. He 
died January 7th, 1648.- — For a list of his works, and other 
particulai-s, see the Biograplda Britannica ; Life by himself, 1 643 ; 
Wood's Atheme Oxon.; the British Biography; and the Bio- 
graphiccd Dictionaries of Chalmers, Rose, &c. 


Vicar of Leeds from 1646 to 1651— most probably a kinsman 
of the preceding Christopher Saxton — was born at or near 
Bramley, in the parish of Leeds, and educated at the XJni- 


versity of Cambridge, where lie took liis M.A. He appeal's to 
have received deacon's orders from Archbishop Hiitton, and 
priest's orders from Archbishop Matthews; the last, April 18th, 
1611; so that, as there is no entry of his baptism in the parish 
register, his bii-th may be fixed, on probable grounds, about the 
year 1586. He was not only a learned man, and a cUstinguished 
Hebrew scholar, but also a devoted minister. After spending 
some years in preaching the Gospel in America, whither he 
went in 1640 — being at that time dissatisfied with the cere- 
monies of the Church of England, and the troubles of the 
realm ; and also being amongst the fii'st of those who enlight- 
ened the dark regions of that extensive continent — he returned 
to England, when he had the ofier of a valuable living in Kent, 
which he declined, jireferring to reside in his native county. 
He was appointed vicar of Leeds in April, 1646; and im- 
mediately on assuming the charge of the parish, he re-opened 
the Old Church for cUviiie worship, it having been closed during 
the ravages of the pestilence. He appears to have been a man 
really devout, but coarse and enthusiastic, and therefore well 
suited to those times, in which bad taste was considered as a 
mark of grace ; and elegance, or even correctness of style, would 
have emptied a church. Such as he was, however, he found a 
people prepared for his rude and homely style, by such occa- 
sional preach ei-s as had been provided for the church of Leeds, 
in the iiiterv'id between the flight of Mr. Robinson, in Januaiy, 
1642-3, and April, 1646, when he took possession of the 
pulpit. During hLs ministry, a commission was granted for the 
purpose of surveying and subdividing the great parishes in the 
north of England, the original reports of which are now in the 
archiepiscopal library at Lambeth. The object was to break 
down all distinction between jiarish churches and chapels, to 
make as many parishes as there were places of worship, and to 
aftbrd a competent maintenance in each for a resident ])reaching 
minister. The latter part of the ])lan was certainly laudable 
and useful. He continued to occupy this position of usefuhiess 
tUl his death, which took place October 1st, 1651. On the 
decease of Peter Saxton, the vicarage of Leeds devolved at 
least on a less uncouth and rugged man (William Styles): for 
even in those days there were degrees of rudeness, and there 
were approximations to civility and good order. — For additional 
information, see Thoresby's Vicaria Leodiensis ; Cotton Mather's 
Uistory of New England; Whitaker's Loidis and Elmete; and 
Parsons' History of Leeds. 




Knight, of Middletou, in the parish of Roth well, near Leeds, 
was the son and heir of Thomas Leigh and his wife Elizabeth 
Stanley, one of the maids of honour to Queen Elizabeth, and a 
member of the noble family of Stanley, Earls of Derby. Fer- 
dinand appears to have been born about the year 1585, for 
Jane, his younger sister, was baptized on the 8th August, 1587. 
His father died, and was buried June 21st, L594, when Fei"- 
dinand was but a child, and his mother married again to a 
gentleman named Richard Houghton, of Lancashire; and thus 
he, at an early age, was left in possession of the large estates of 
Roth well Haigh, Middleton, &.C., which descended to him as 
the rightful heir, and for many years did he enjoy the cairn 
seclusion and happy life of an opulent country gentleman. The 
pleasures of a conjugal life must at an early period have had an 
irresistible fascination for him, for by the time he was thirty 
years of age he had been twice a widower. He is known to 
have had four wives : the first being Margery, the daughter of 
William Cart%vi'ight, Esq., who died childless; the second, Mary, 
the daughter of Thomas Pilkington, Esq., the grandson of 
Leonard Pilkington, Prebendary of Durham, who was the 
younger brother of James Pilkington, the first Protestant 
Bishop of Durham. Mary, his second wife, also died childless; 
and he then married Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Tyrwitt, of 
Cameringham, in Lincolnshire, Esq., by whom he had two sons 
who died young, and two daughters, Annie and Elizabeth. The 
dates of his various marriages are not given; but Elizabeth, his 
daughter, was Ijaptized June 21st, 1618. His fourth wife, 
Annie, daughter of Edwin Clough, Esq., of Thorpe Stapleton, 
brought him a numerous progeny, the eldest of which was 
John Leigh, his successor; the youngest, Dorothy, born about 
1G30. Sir Ferdinand was an enthusiastic royalist; and when 
the king assembled the gentry of Yorkshire at York in 1642, 
for the purpose of asking their assistance and advice in the 
midst of his difficulties with his refractoiy people. Sir Fer- 
dinand contributed the sum of £100 to the exchequer of his 
royal master. He was a gentleman of the Privy Chamber to 
the king, and for the zeal he displayed was appointed colonel of 
a regiment of horse in the royal service, having his son John 
serving under him as a captain. He was for many years 
governor of the Isle of Man, under the Earl of Derby. He 
died at Pontefract, Januaiy 19th, 1654, and was buried in the 



ruined cliurch there. Many details respecting liis military life 
may be fovind in Clarendon and tlie contemporary historians of 
the civil wars, &c. — For the pedigree and the coat of arms of 
the Leighs, see Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis, p. 221, and 
Whitaker's Loidis and Elmete, pp. 206, 260, &c. 

TTe shall give a more detailed account of this distinguished 
man, as his name deserves to be held in everlasting remem- 
brance for his extensive charities, and his moral worth. The 
descent of Harrison was respectalile ; his father, John Hai'ri- 
son, was a merchant in Leeds, and his mother, Grace, was the 
daughter of William Kitchingman, Esq., and Mary, daughter 
of the Rev. Mark Millbank, rector of Marsden. He had two 
sisters, Grace and Edith, of whom we shall presently speak. 
John Harrison (whose name never vibrates on a Leeds ear, 
unassociated with the ideas of beneficence and charity), was 
born in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, a.d. 1579, in the house 
then called Pawdmire House, in Leeds; and soon after his 
birth he was taken to reside in the house of his uncle, John 
Kitchingman, Esq., of Chapel- Allerton. There Harrison was 
retained for the period of ten years, and there he began to dis- 
play the dawn of those virtues which subsequently rendered 
him so illustrious. It seems that the spirit of generosity, 
which afterwards directed every action of his life, began to 
influence him in the earliest period of childhood. An instance 
of his early benevolence is still preserved. In the seventh 
year of his age, as he passed thi-ough the village of Chapel- 
Allerton, he saw a poor boy without coat or shoes, and \ni\\ 
all the other indications of extreme poverty and want; Harri- 
son looked at the boy, his compassion was immediately excited, 
and in defiance of appearance, and perhaps of prudence, he 
took off his own coat, and threw it over the shoulders of the 
boy. ISTo other incidents are preserved of his early years ; 
although sufficient evidence remains that, like liis divine 
exemplar, as he grew in stature, he grew in favour both with 
God and man. Exalted benevolence is almost always connected 
with fervent piety, and Harrison was an exemplification of the 
general rule. It appears that from a child he was remarkable 
for his reverential attachment to divine things, and that he was 
consequently preserved from all those vices and follies, which so 
frequently bring young persons into guilt or contempt. Like 
the celebrated Howard of aftertimes, the warmth of his be- 


nevolencc was sustained by the flame of pure and undefiled 

In the twenty-fourth year of his age, Harrison entered the 
matrimonial state. His lady was the daughter of Henry 
Marton, Esq., merchant, of Leeds. Of the personal and 
mental endowments of his lady no record remains. The parties 
never had children. When Harrison attained to man's estate. 
and by the possession of a plentiful fortune was enabled to 
pursue, without restriction, the bent of his inclinations, he 
soon demonstrated a philanthropy which has never been 
equalled, and probably never will be, in the West-Riding of 
Yorkshire. In the Lowerhead Row stood a large, and at that 
period of time, no doubt, esteemed an excellent mansion, 
Rockley Hall — so called as having been the property and 
the residence of the ancient family of the same name. This 
capital messuage, with a considerable estate in land, Harrison 
bought of Mr. Falkingham. When he entered into the pos- 
session of the hall, he devoted a part of it to the purposes 
of humanity. The two largest and most convenient rooms he 
set apart from his domestics and the rest of his family, and 
occupied them as repositories of provisions and clothing for the 
use of the poor. In fact, as will soon be seen, he devoted the 
rents of the whole estate to pious uses, in combination with 
the education and support of the children of his two sisters. 

The wealth and importance of this great benefactor seem to 
have increased; and when the first charter of incorporation 
was given to the town of Leeds by Charles I., in 1621, Harri- 
son was appointed mayor, as the deputy of Sir John Saville, 
one of the great patrons of the town, who, for some unknown 
reason, either was unable or unwilling to discharge the func- 
tions of the office. Such was the esteem in which he was held 
by the inhabitants, that twice after the institution of the 
charter, he filled the office of mayor. No positive information 
remains of the manner in which he discharged the functions of 
his office, but it may be supposed from his genei'al character 
that he was distinguished in his public capacity by the strictest 
impartiality and justice. 

It was while he was the second time mayor, in 1634, that he 
determined to build a new church in the town of Leeds. It 
seems that the old church was frequently most inconveniently 
crowded; and that about the commencement of the ITtli cen- 
tury, it had one of the greatest congregations and assemblies 
of communicants in the north of England. Harrison, who 
was equally distinguished by his attachment to Episcopacy and 


royalty, determined to obviate this evil, and St. John's church 
was the result of his resolution. It was begun in 1631, and 
consecrated by Archbishop Neale, September 21, 1634j the 
Rev. Robert Todd, A.M., being the first incumbent. 

The truly illustrious and philanthropic John Hamson was 
the great benefactor of the Leeds Free Grammar School, which 
had been previously endowed by Sir William Sheafiield, priest, 
in 1552, and by Sir William Armistead, &g. The original 
school, being in a very inconvenient situation, was removed in 
1624, "by the munificence of John Harrison, Esq., alderman of 
Leeds," to a pleasant field of his own, between Koi-th Street and 
St. John's church, which he enclosed with a substantial brick 
wall, and in the midst of the quadrangle erected the late edi- 
fice. An apartment, used as a library, was added by Godfrey 
Lawson, Esq., in 1692, which comprised several ancient books, 
including folio editions of some of the works of the Fathers, 
and most of the ancient classics. The Rev. Samuel Pullen, 
D.D., afterwards Archbishoj) of Tuam, was the first master of 
this school. The Grammar School has recently been rebuilt 
near Woodhouse Moor. This benevolent man also endowed 
St. John's church with £80 per annum, besides £10 a year for 
repairs, which endowment in 1773, when the Rev. Richard 
Fawcett was minister of St. John's, amounted to upwards 
of £200, and has since greatly increased in value. This bene- 
ficent man, whose name will be venerated in the disti-ict as 
long as gratitude and memoiy shall endure, also founded, in 
1653, the hospital near St. Jolm's church for poor widows, 
which has also recently been rebuilt. 

There can be little doubt that, about the same period, Harri- 
son built that house in Briggate, the site of which was lately 
occupied by the Leeds Mercury office, and of which Thoresby 
said: " Over and against the east end of the Bar-lane, is a good 
old-fashioned house, with a quadrangular court in the midst; it 
was built by Mr. John Harrison, and has one thing very 
peculiar in it, viz., holes or passages cut in the doors or ceilings 
for the free passage of cats : for which animals he seems to have 
had as great an affection as another eminent benefiictor had, 
viz,. Sir Richard Whittington." There can be little doubt that 
this tradition was generally believed in Thoresby's time; and it 
is veiy likely tliat Harrison, being left without children, might 
be very eccentric ui his habits; but the whole story is said to 
have been a fabrication, by which the worthy author of tlie 
DvAiatus was imposed upon, and which he has with character- 
istic credulity recorded. To the loyalty of this distinguished 


man the writer has ah-eady alluded, — that loyalty, in the despe- 
rate struggle between the king and parliament, was fearlessly 
and prominently displayed, and was the means of entailing 
upon him considerable odium and suffering. Of this loyalty 
the following remarkable instance is recorded. When Charles 
I. had thrown himself into the hands of the Scots, and when 
the perfidious men who had determined to beti'ay him were 
taking him as a prisoner through the town of Leeds, Mr. 
Harrison went to the Red Hall, where the king was lodged, 
and entreated permission from the guards to present his 
Majesty with a tankard of excellent ale, which he brought in his 
hand; the guards admitted him for the j^urpose, but when the 
king raised the cover, he found the tankard filled with gold 
pieces instead of ale, which he immediately concealed about his 
person, and dismissed his loyal subject as though he had mei-ely 
drained the tankard of its beverage. 

The window which lighted the room in which he was con- 
fined, is that to the extreme right in the second story on 
the north side of the house. A maid-servant of this house 
entreated him to put on her clothes and make his escape, 
assuring him that she would conduct him in the dark out of 
the garden-door into a back alley, called Lands Lane, and 
thence to a friend's house, whence he might escape to France. 
The king, however, declined the woman's offer, but with many 
thanks, and gave her for a token tJie Garter, saying, that if it 
were never in liis power, on sight of that token his son would 
reward her. After the Restoi-ation, the woman presented the 
token to the king, and told him the story. The king inquired 
whence she came? She said from Leeds, in Yorkshire. 
Whether she had a husband "? She replied, yes. What was his 
calling? She said an undei'-bailiff. Then, said the king, he 
shall be chief-bailiff in Yoi'kshire. The man afterwards 
built Crosby House, in Upperhead Row. 

It was not, of course, to be expected that, in such times 
as these, such loyalty could be displayed without being visited by 
the successful party with theii' vengeance. Harrison was conse- 
quently oppressed by the sequestrators, and he soon felt the 
serious consequences of theii- confiscations in his estate. Of 
Han-ison's conduct at this period, a well-known writer says : — 
" During this unhappy period, he remonstrated, he complained, 
he defended himself with vigour against the prevailing iniquity 
of the times, but in vain. Those who ate his own bread — the 
minister of the church, and the master of the school which he 
had endowed, appear to have forsaken him; they swam with the 


stream of tlie times, when gratitude, if not dangerous, would at 
least have been unpopular. These men, however, he did not 
fail to remind of their obligations in a lofty and i-ather sarcastic 
strain, which a sense of ill-requited bounty is too apt to 
prompt." The extent of this ingratitude and the effect it had 
upon Mr. Harrison's feelings, may be estimated by the follow- 
ing extract of a letter to Mr. Todd, the incumbent of St. 
John's : — " The time was when you called me patron, and 
remembered me in your prayers, public and private; but now 
patrons are out of date, and so may churches be tithe-barns.. 
To pray for any in public is popish and prelatic : the time was 
when I suffered for you under the royal party more than you 
will suffer for me under the parliament, but (oh ! the times) 
my suffering for you is made the apology to deter you from so 
much as visiting me, being under the hatches : a poor conclusion 
gi'ounded on weak premises ; but the time was when all I could 
do for you was too little, but now the least done for me is too 
much." Dr. Whitaker, upon this melancholy part of Harri- 
son's life, says : — " It must be remembered that Mr. Harrison 
had laid out, according to his own statement, at least six thou- 
sand pounds upon the new church, the school, and other build- 
ings appropriated to public and charitable uses. His landed 
estate was no more than one hundred and eighty-seven pounds 
per annum, which was destined, after his decease, to be applied 
in the same manner; but at that period his good works were 
miscalled superstition, and himself, in the language of the pre- 
vailing party, ' a merit-monger;' and on misinformation of 
having sent two horses to the king, which had really been 
taken from him by Sir William Saville, he was condemned to 
suffer a sequestration of the poor pittance, which he had reserved 
for the support of his old age." It would not be interesting 
nor useful to the reader, to recite all the correspondence which 
took place between Harrison and Judge Thorpe, upon the fine 
which he was thus condemned to pay. 

The last days of this great benefactor were not only beclouded 
with external calamity, but were connected with much bodily 
suffering. Anguish of mind and loss of fortune were aggra- 
vated by sickness and weakness, and prior to his death he was 
confined more than twenty months to his bed. His descendants 
still have proofs that he endured his last illness with Christian 
fortitude and resignation to the divine will. He died October 
29th, 1G52, aged seventy-seven years, and was interred in his 
o^vn oi'chard on the 8th of November following, which occupied 
the site of the present Kirkgate Market; but having decreed in 


liis will tliat the propei^ty in Briggate should be sold, the 
descendants of his two sisters caused him to be taken up and 
to be interred in St. John's church, where there is an epitaph 
as follows (said to have been composed by Dr. Lake, then Vicar 
of Leeds, afterwards Bishop of Chichester): — "Here resteth 
the body of Mr. John Harrison, the wonder of his own, and 
pattern of succeeding ages ; eminent for prudence, piety, loyalty, 
charity; who (beside other works of a pious munificence, and 
many great instances of an excellent virtue) founded an hospital 
for the relief of indigent persons of good conversation, and 
formerly industrious. Built the Free (Grammar) School of this 
town for the encouragement of learning; together with a 
chapel, this church (which most may envy), for the exercise of 
religion, and endowed it with .£80 per annum. Also that he 
might do good in all his capacities, he erected a stately cross 
for convenience of the market; and having given these pledges 
of a joyful resurrection, fell asleep October 29, anno Dom. 
1656; cetatis sues 77." 

It has been generally supposed that Harrison died in poverty. 
That his estate was materially diminished by the sequestrations 
is evident; but the assertion that he was in indigent cu'cum- 
stances at the time of his dissolution is positively contradicted 
by the fact that sums of money have been periodically distri- 
buted to his necessitoiis relatives to the present day. 

In St. John's church, in the Free Grammar School, in the 
Charity School, in the Pious Use property, he has left noble 
monuments to his memory.""' 

Fuller, in his Worthies of Yorkshire, says : " Let me forget 
myself when I do not remember the worthy and charitable 
master .... Harrison, inhabitant of the populous town 
of Leeds, so famoiis for the cloth made therein. Methinks I 
hear that great town accosting him in the language of the 
children of the prophets to Elisha, ' Behold now, the place 
where we dwell with thee is too strait for us' (2 Kings vi. 1). 
The church could scarce hold half the inhabitants, till this 
worthy gentleman provided them another, so that now the 
men of Leeds may say with Isaac, ' Rehoboth, for now the 

* It may be said of John Harrison, as it was said of tlie late much-lamented 
Prince Consort by the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, "Gone though he be 
from among us, he, like other ivorthies of mankind who have preceded him, 
is not altogether gone; for, in the words of the jioet, — 

' the religious actions of the just 

Smell sweet in death, and blossom in the dust.' 
So he has left for all men, in all classes, many a useful lesson to be learned 
from the record of his life and character." 


Lord batli made room for us' {Gen. xxvi. 22). He accepted of 
no assistance in the building of tliat fair fabric but what he 
fully paid for, so that he may be owned the sole founder 
thereof. But all his charity could not secure him from seques- 
tration in our troublesome times. All I will add is this, as he 
hath ' built a house for God,' may God (in Scripture phrase) 
^ build a house for him' {Exod. i. 21); I mean make him fruit- 
ful and fortunate in his posterity." 

The charitable disposition of Hai'rison was displayed by some 
of his descendants. His nephew, the Rev. Henry Robinson, 
M.A. (1736), deserves to be particularly mentioned, as the 
founder of Trinity church, (fee. 

The large, full-length portrait of alderman Harrison, in his 
robes of otfice, whicli formerly Ining in St. John's church, and 
aftex'wards in the adjoining school-room, is now ia the Council- 
room at the Town-hall." — For his portrait and pedigree, &c., 
see Whitaker's Tlioreshy; and for further information, see 
Parsons' History of Leeds, &c. Copies of Mr. Harrison's 
will, letters, and ex-tempore prayer, are to be found in ■ the 
A])pendix to the second volume of Whitaker's Thoreshy, «fec. 
The originals ai'e preseiwed in the archives of St. John's 
church, Leeds. 


Vicar of Leeds, for whose admission an opening was made by 
the voluntary cession of the legal incumbent, and who appears 
to have been regularly appointed by the trustees, was born at 
Doncaster, and educated in Trinity College, Cambridge. The 
date of his ordination to the priesthood was September 24th, 
1620, 30 that as that order was frequently conferred, before the 
Act of Uniformity, at the age of twenty-three, he may be sup- 
posed to have been born about 1596 or 1597. His first pi'efer- 
nient was the vicarage of Ledsham, near Leeds, where he 
improved the vicarage-house. Here, however, he did not long 
continue, for on March 3rd, 1624, he was presented by the 
king to the vicarage of Pontefract, which, about the year 1642, 
he exchanged for a still more puljlic and important situation, 
the vicarage of Hessel-cum-Hidl, in which he succeeded the 
celebrated Mr. Marvel, father of the patriot. While at Ponte- 
fract he seems to have contracted some dislike to the ceremonies, 
and he was i)rosecuted in the ecclesiastical court at York for 
baptizing a child without the sign of the cross, but the prosecu- 

* Harrison Street is, of course, called after this great philanthropist. 



tiou was withdrawn at tlie instance of Alexander Cooke. At 
Hull, many years after, lie Avas called to take the Engagement, 
which he steadily refused, on which Bradshaw "wrote to Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Salmon, deputy-governor of the town, to turn 
him by force out of the church, and to secure his person. This 
di'ew from his affectionate flock a petition and testimonial on 
his behalf, stating " that he was a very orthodox and painful 
preacher, of a most blameless conversation, and that by his 
constant and luiwearied pains in the Gospel, he had won many 
souls to God, and that consequently their loss of him would be 
exceedingly great; that he was besides a very old man, unfit to 
travel, and had not a house in the whole world to jHit his head 
in ; offering to be bound for his peaceable demeanour, and that 
if he could not in conscience comply before the latter end 
of March, he should then yield to the law." Bradshaw, savage 
and brutal as he was, felt so much compunction on this occa- 
sion, as to respite the poor old man till the winter was over; 
but this was all: a man of his tried loyalty was not to be 
endured in a place of so much importance as Hull, and when 
spring arrived he removed to London, where he preached nearly 
a year in Ironmonger Lane; but the air of a crowded city not 
agreeing with his health, he returned into his native county, 
where he was appointed to the vicarage of Leeds, in which he 
was highly honoured by the magistrates and the people for his 
excellent practical preacliing. Thoresby had seen many volumes 
of sermons written, as he spoke them (a practice of those days), 
by his devout hearers. I am sorry to relate that a person, who 
in those evil days had the courage and honesty to pray for the 
king in exile, did not live to see his restoration. It appears 
from the parish register that this son of piety and peace was 
interred in his own church, at Leeds, Mai-ch 16th, 1659-60. 
He had a son, Henry Styles, educated at the Grammar School 
of Leeds, who went into Ireland with Archbishop Bramhall; 
was admitted into Trinity College, Dublin, of which he became 
Yice-Provost. He was afterwards LL.D. and judge of the 
Admiralty Court in that city. — For further information, see 
"Wliitaker's Loidis and Elmete; "Walkex-'s Sufferings of the 
Clergy; Thoresby's Vicaria Leodiensis, &c. 



"Was a native of South Cave, near Hull, and was born in 1594. 

He spent the early part of his life in Holderness, where his 

character was deservedly esteemed. He was educated at Jesus 


College, Cambridge, and it appears that lie was ordained in 
1621 by Dr. Matthew, Archbishop of York. Four yeai's after 
his oi'dination, he was presented to the "sdcarage of Ledsham; 
upon the death of a Mr. Garbutt, he was called to be lecturer 
at Leeds; and when St. John's church was biiilt,'' he was 
the fii'st incumbent. The consecration of this church, by 
Archbishop Neile, which took place September 21st, 163 i, 
was attended with this memorable cii'cumstance of church dis- 
cipline, that the new minister, Mr. Robert Todd, A.M., was 
suspended on the very day when he entered upon his function. 
The truth was, that Archbishop Neile, a rigid exactor of con- 
formity, appointed his own chaplain, the celebrated Dr. Cosin, 
afterwards Bishoj^ of Durham, to preach the consecration 
sermon. In the afternoon Mr. Todd occupied the pulpit, and 
delivered a discoiu-se in so different a strain, that, though his 
materials must have been previously prepared, the metropolitan 
considered it as an answer to the morning exercise, and as an 
affront to himself and the discipline of the church. "After 
being restored to his function, Mr. Todd, who was really a 
Nonconformist at heart, dragged his chain heavily and reluc- 
tantly for a few years, when the prevalence of the Parliament 
delivered him and his brethi'en at once from surplice, litui'gy, 
decency, and order. In this sunshine of Christian liberty, as 
it was then accounted, they basked till after the Restoration, 
when, on the trying Bartholomew's Day, Mr. Todd, to whom 
the praise, at least, of consistency is due, quitted his church, 
and died soon afterwards." He was succeeded, in 1662, by the 
Rev. John Milner, B.D., afterwards vicar of Leeds. Mr. 
Todd was one of the first and leading Nonconformists in the 
parish of Leeds. His merits as an Established minister, both 
in the situation of lecturer at the parish church and first 
curate of St. John's had been very great. During the plaguet 
he preached repeatedly and impressively on Hezekiah's boil, and 
the peculiarly awful circumstances of the time gave weight to 
all which he spoke. He was also eminently useful in private 
by holding weekly conferences with his people, on some text of 
Scripture, or case of conscience. He is described as having 
been an excellent scholax', a solid, substantial, and agi'eeable 
preacher, though his voice was remarkably loud. He appears, 
from some expressions which escaped him in his last illness, to 

* For a fine engravin2r of St. John's church, see Thoresby's Ducatus 
Leodkmis, 1715, p. 28; Whitaker's Thoreshy, vol. ii., &c. 

t For a long account of the plague, &c., see Parsons' History of Leeds, 
i., 99, &c. 


have been broken-hearted by the Bartholomew Act, which he 
scarcely survived a year. He died January 16th, 1661, aged 
sixty-seven, and was interred in the chancel of the church 
which had so long been the scene of his labours. The substance 
of this short account, chiefly taken from Calaviy, had been 
communicated to that writer by Thoresby himself, in the 
abundance of his candour, after he had conformed to the 
Established Church. — For his pedigree and other particulars, 
see Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis, p. 29; Parsons' Histonj of 
Leeds, ii., 4, &c, 


Vicar of Leeds from 1632 to 1646, and son of Mr. Alexander 

Robinson, merchant, of Leeds, by Grace, the sister of the cele- 
brated Harrison, who founded St. John's church. This his 
nephew was baptized at St Peter's, the parish church, July 
27th, 1598, and, like his immediate predecessors, received his 
elementary learning at the Grammar School of his native town. 
He was next admitted of St. John's College, Cambridge, where 
he took in course the two degrees in arts, and afterwards that of 
Bachelor of Divinity. He next became chaplain to the cele- 
brated Earl of Southampton, in whose service he continued till 
the year 1632, when he was elected vicar of Leeds, at the age 
of thirty-four, and therefore in the vigour of his constitution. 
He received institution, July 4th, and immediately set about 
his ministerial work with such zeal and diligence that, at a 
period when seriousness was suspected, he acquired the name of 
Puritan, though a strict conformist to the rules and ceremonies 
of the church. Not only was his conversation blameless and 
exemplary, but his preaching admirable. In addition to these 
excellencies, he was in person a constant and conscientious 
catechist of the young of his flock, for whose use he drew up a 
work, entitled Catechetical Exercises, which were afterwards 
pi'inted, with additions, by his son-in-law, the Rev. Mr. Brigg, 
at Cambridge. When the king, driven from Whitehall by the 
tumults at Westminster, fixed his court at York, Mr. Robinson 
waited on his old patron, the Earl of Southampton, who impor- 
tuned him to preach before the king, which he unwillingly 
undertook, though the text of the only sermon which he had 
brought with him had a somewhat uncourtly sound in the 
midst of preparations for war: "Follow peace with all men, 
and holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord" {Heh. 
xii. 14). This, however, he managed so dexterously as not 


only to avoid giving offence, but to procure a gracious acknow- 
ledgment from the king, who offered him the title and distinc- 
tion of his chaplain, which he modestly declined. The time, 
however, was now approaching, when ]\Ir. Robinson had a 
more decisive opportunity of proving that loyalty in politics 
and seriousness in religion might exist together. On January 
2.3rd, 1643-3, Leeds was stormed and taken by the Parliament 
forces under Sir Thomas Faii-fax, when the vicar, who would 
not quit his flock till the last extremity, in crossing the Aire 
below the church narrowly escaped with his life, and fled to 
Methley Hall, where he was protected and concealed for some 
time. Years of inquietude and distress now awaited him. As 
the power of the Parliament gradually prevailed, he withdrew 
to one remaining garrison of the king after another, but was at 
length taken, and imprisoned in Middleham Castle, and thence 
conveyed to Cawood, where the upper part of a tower fell upon 
him, yet so pro\-identially that, though surrounded by great 
stones, and in the most imminent danger of being crashed to 
death, one arm only was broken. This calamity his faithful 
wife did not fail to improve as a plea for his deliverance; the 
exact time of which, however, is not recorded. He suffered 
not only in the sequestration of his vicarage, but in his private 
and personal estate; his losses wherein, by a moderate compu- 
tation, amounted to above fifteen hundred pounds. But his 
tranquillity was restored long before that of his unhappy 
country, for in the year 1649 he was presented to the quiet 
rector}- of Sw-illington, near Leeds; and such was the excellence 
of his character, and the opinion of his inoffensive disposition 
entertained by the prevailing party, that he was permitted 
to enter npon and hold his benefice, without being harassed 
by any of their engagements. In this retreat he spent the 
remainder of his days; and when solicited to return to Leeds 
after the Piestoration, wisely declined the invitation, well know- 
ing that vicarage to be ill-adapted to a mind and body broken 
dovi'n by labours and sufferings. He used, however, his remain- 
ing influence with his old parishionere, by recommending to 
that station the Rev. John Lake ; after which no more is heard 
of him to his death, March 19th, 1663. He was interred in 
the parish church of Swillington, where his memory is pre- 
sei-ved by a Latin inscription. To the sepulchral memorial of 
Mr. Robinson, the following character, as moi-e generally intel- 
ligible, is given by one of his successors (the excellent Mr. 
Killingbeck) : — " He was a person generally esteemed and 
admired for liis extraordinary abilities and knowledge in all 


sorts of iiseful learning; a judicious and well-studied divine; a 
celebrated and most accomplished preacher. His natural tem- 
per was peaceable, affable, and obliging ; his conversation grave, 
prudent, and every way suitable to his character and function; 
his life regular, exemplary, and primitive; in short, he was 
a shining light in his time, and a great blessing to this to'ttTi, 
where his memory is yet dear and precious." — For a more 
lengthened account, see Thoresby's Vicaria Leodiensis ; "Walker's 
Sufferings of the Clergy ; Wliitaker's Loiclis and Elmete, kc. 


EEV. elka:n"ah wales, A.M., 

"Was born at Idle, near Leeds, in the year 1588; educated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, and without regard to his own 
emolument, accepted the poor chapehy of Pudsey, which 
appears to have been almost wholly unendowed. Here he con- 
tinued in the midst of tempting offers and mortifying disap- 
pointments. Though he was indefatigable in praying, preaching, 
and expounding, his people, for the most part, continued igno- 
rant and uutractable. But though the prophet had little 
honoiu- in his own country, his services were courted by all the 
coimtry round, and multitudes travelled sevei'al miles to profit 
by a minister whom his own people lieard with indifference, or 
scarcely heard at all. In those days there was a monthly 
lecture at Leeds, where Mr. "Wales freqiiently preached to 
crowded auditories. He suffered by the common misfortune of 
moderate men; — under the Commonwealth for favoxuing the 
king, and under the king for favouring the Conmionwealth. 
At length, after a ministry of more than fifty years, the good 
old man was compelled by the Five-mile Act, as it was called, 
to leave the village where he had resided so long, and to with- 
draw to Leeds. Here, with his friend Mr. Todd, he attended 
the services of the church, and preached in private at different 
hours. After having attained to more than eighty years, with- 
out any infirmity of age, excepting deafness, he died at the 
house of a Mr. Hickson, in Leeds, May 11th, 1669. 

For sketches of the following Nonconformist divines of 
Leeds and neighbourhood, viz. — Christopher Nesse, A.M., lec- 
tui-er at the Leeds parish church; Thomas Hawkesworth, 
A.M., curate of Hunslet; Robert Armitage, curate of Hol- 
beck; Thomas Sharp, A.M., minister of Adel, &c., see Calamy'a 
Memorials; Whitaker's Thoresby, vol. ii. ; Parsons' History of 
Leeds, ii., 5; Bicentenary Lectures (Leeds Series), &c. 


The son of Robert Bapies, Esq., of Knowstliorpe, near Leeds, 
was born December 22nd, 1620-1, and became the first " Par- 
liament man for Leeds," during the Commonwealth. He had 
been an officer in the Parliamentary army, under General 
Lambert, and was returned as member for Leeds about 164-1. 
Captain Baynes was the only representative the borough had 
till the passing of the Reform Bill in 1832. He marzied 
Martha, daughter of Richard Dawson, Esq., who, after having 
had sixteen childi-en, died in July, 1713, aged eighty-eight years. 
The eldest sou, Robert Baynes, who died in 1697, mamed 
Dorothy, daughter of Sir- William Lowther. Dr. Whitaker 
gives the following short account of Baynes's house : — The hall 
contains perhaps the only dais, or raised step for the high, 
table, which is to be found in England. A few years since 
it was hung round A\ portraits of the family. Captain Adam 
Baynes, after the Restoration, from a lenity never exercised by 
his own pai-ty, was permitted quietly to retire to this his 
paternal estate, on which he died in December, 1670; after 
having been compelled to refund the royal manor of Holdenby, 
in Xorthamptonshii'e, which he had purchased of the Parlia- 
ment for £29,000. The estate at Knostrop continued till very 
recently with his descendants. — For his pedigree and coat of 
arms, (fcc, see Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis, p. 101 ; and for 
two or three of Baynes's letters, see Whitaker's Loidis and 
Ebnete, p. 91; Parsons' Histm-y of Leeds, i., 103, &c. 

A distinguished commander and leading character in the civil 
wars which distracted England in the 17th centiuy. He was 
bora in 1611, at Denton Park, Otley, near Leeds, being son 
and heir of Ferdinando, Lord Fairfax (to whose title and 
estates he succeeded in 1647), and of Mary Sheffield, daughter 
of the Eai-1 of Mulgrave. A strong predilection for a military 
life induced him to quit Cambridge, and, at an early age, to 
volunteer with the Lord Yere, under whom he served a cam- 
paign in the Netherlands with some rejiutation, and whose 
daughter he married in 1637. When the disputes between 
Charles I. and the Parliament terminated in open rupture, 
Fairfax warmly espoused the cause of the latter, and joined 
his father in makiiig active preparations for the approaching 


contest. His first exploit was at Bradford, in Yorksliii-e, which 
he obliged a body of Eoyalists to cjiiit, and to retire to Leeds. 
A few days after, he and Captain Hothani, with some horse and 
dragoons, marching thither, the Royalists fled to York. And 
the former having advanced to Tadcastei', resolved to keep the 
pass at Wetherby, for securing the West-Riding of Yorkshire, 
whence their chief supplies came. Being defeated there by 
the Earl of Newcastle, they fled to Selby, then to Bradford, 
and thence to Leeds, which he carried, January 23rd, 1642-3, 
after a hot dispute, and found a good store of ammunition, 
of which he stood in great want; soon afterwards Wakefield 
and Doncaster yielded themselves to the Parliamentarians. In 
the meantime, Lord Fairfax, being denied succour from Hull 
and the East-Riding, was forced to forsake Selby, and retire to 
Leeds, of which the Earl of Newcastle having intelligence, lay 
with his army on Cliffox'd Moor to intercept him in bis way to 
Leeds. An engagement took place on Bramham Moor, in 
which Sir Thomas was defeated; who also received a second 
defeat upon Seacroft Moor, where some of his men wex-e slain, 
and many taken prisoners, and he himself made his retreat 
with much cUfiiculty to Leeds, about an hour after his father 
was safely come thither. Leeds and Bradford being all the 
garrisons the Parliament had in the north, Sir Thomas thought 
it necessary to possess some other place, therefore he drove the 
Royalists out of Wakefield, which they had seized again, and 
took 1,400 prisoners, 80 ofiicers, and great stoi-e of ammunition. 
But, shortly after, the Earl of Newcastle coming to besiege 
Bradford, and Sir Thomas and his father having the boldness, 
with about 3,000 men, to go and attack his whole army, 
which consisted of 10,000, on Addei-ton, or Adwalton Moor,* 
near Leeds; they were entirely routed by the earl on the 30tli 
of June, 1643, with a considerable loss. Upon that, Halifax 
and Beverley being abandoned by the Parliamentarians, and 
Lord Faii'fax having neither a place of strength to defend him- 
self in, nor a garrison in Yorkshire to retii'e to, withdrew the 
same night to Leeds to secure that town. By his father's order. 
Sir Thomas stayed in Bradford with 800 foot and 60 horse, but 
being surrounded, he was obliged to force his way through ; in 
which desperate attempt, his lady and many others were 

* For a lively description of the Battle of Adwalton Moor, see Scatcherd's 
History of Morleii, p. 280 ; Eushwortli's Historical Collections, v., 279, &c. 
Niimerous relics, such as cannon-balls, grape-shot, bullets, and bridle-chains, 
have been found on the scene of this desperate engagement. 


taken prisoners.* At his coming to Leeds he found things in 
great distraction: the council of war ha^•ing resolved to quit 
the town and retreat to Hull, which was sixty miles off, with 
many of the king's garrison in the way; but he got safely 
to Selby, and afterwards, with considerable difficulty, and being 
wounded, he arrived at Hull. (For other particulars, see May- 
hall's Annals of Leeds; Parsons' History of Leeds; Grainge's 
Battles of Yorkshire. &c.) At the battle of Marston JMoor he 
redeemed his credit, and the Earl of Essex resigning the com- 
mand of the Parliamentary anny, Fairfax was made general-in- 
chief in his room. After the victory at INaseby, to the gaining 
of which his courage and conduct mainly contributed, he 
marched into the western counties, quelling all opposition as he 
advanced. When the king fell into the power of the prevailing 
party, considerable jealousy appears to have been entertained 
by Oliver Cromwell and his adhei-ents, of Fairfax, who seems 
to have been far from wishing to push matters to the extremity 
to which they afterwards went; and it is said that, in order to 
prevent his interference with the execution of Charles, Harri- 
son, at Cromwell's instigation, detained him, under pretext 
of worship, at a distance from Whitehall, until the blow was 
struck. Nevertheless, he still adhered to the party with which 
he had hitherto acted, and continued in employment, though 
more than suspected of disaffection, till, being ordered to march 
against the revolted Scottish Presbyterians, he positively de- 
clined the command, and retired for a while from public life. 
Dr. Whitaker says : "To him we are indebted not only for the 
basis of Thoresby's museum, but for the voluminous collection 
of Dodsworth, transcribed under his patronage, and bequeathed 
by him to the University of Oxford. Prince Piupert lodged 
at Denton, in the old house, then the property of Ferdinando, 
Lord Fairfax, on his way to the battle of Marston IMoor; 
being pleased with a picture he saw there, he forbade any 
spoil to be committed upon the house." Though Faii-fiix was 

* Fairfax found that resistance woiild be unavailiiig, and woTild only lead to 
a useless expenditure of blood. At the head of hi*; determined followers, he 
broke througli tlie lines of the Royalists, and effected his escape through 
Leeds to Hull ; but his lady, who, vnth a courage and fortitude ab<ive her 
sex, had been liis companion through all the perils of the campaign, fell into 
the hands of their enemies. Newcastle, witli tlie true dignity of a noldeman 
and the generosity of a Briton, not only liberated the intrepid lady on the 
spot, but sent her under an escort, and in his coach, to a place of safety that 
she might rejoin her noble husband. — For a long and interesting Sketch of 
Lady Fairfax, see Anderson's Memorable Women of the Puritan Times, 
vol. L, &c. 


one of the princiiial heroes of tlie Common-wealth, and long a 
detei-mined enemy to the Stvxarts, he became a friend to the 
Restoration, after which he remained a peaceful and loyalsub- 
ject. The names of the king's self-constituted judges being 
called over, a voice from among the spectators called out, when 
the ci-ier came to the name of Fairfax, " He has more wit than 
to he here;" and when the king was said to be accused "in the 
name of the people of England,'' the same voice exclaimed, 
" Not a tenth part of them." The soldiers were ordered to fire 
at the spot from whence the voice had proceeded ; but on 
its being discovered that Lady Fairfax was the person w^ho had 
spoken the words, they, in consideration of her sex and rank, 
did not fire. This heroic lady had been an ardent politician, 
and had fanned her husband's zeal against the royal cause; but 
now, seeing that the struggle was to end in the sacrifice of the 
king, and the exaltation of the usurping Cromwell, both she 
and her husband were dismayed at the event, and bitterly 
repented the part they had taken." He was afterwards instrii- 
mental in the restoration of King Charles II., in 1660; being 
one of the deputies sent by Parliament to Charles, then at the 
Hague, in Holland, to invite him over to England; and, as 
might be expected, was most graciously received by the dis- 
solute prince. After the Restoration he retired to his house at 
Nun-Appleton, near Tadcaster, whei'e he sj)ent the remainder 
of his life, bearing the pains of the gout and stone with a 
courage and patience equal to that which he had shown in the 
wars. He wrote an account of his actions in the northern 
war, from its breaking out in 1642 to 1644, the truthfulness of 
which cannot be disputed. He was of a grave, saturnine 
disposition, of scrupulous honesty, singleness of mind, and the 
greatest personal courage ; indefetigable and diligent ; but 
■vsnthont the genius of his far-seeing contemporary, Cromwell. 
He could execute the greatest i^ndertakings, but was not 
equally great in forming regvilar plans of operations. He died 
of fever, after a short ilhiess, at Nun-Aj^pleton, November 12th, 
1671, and was buried at Bilbroiigh, where a monument remains 
to his memory, bearing the following inscription: — 

* " Having been bred in Holland," says Lord Clarendon, in liis History of 
the RcheUion (v., 254), "she had not that reverence for the Church of Eng- 
land which she ought to have had, and so had unhappily concurred in her 
husband's entering into rel)ellion, never imagining what rniseiy it would 
bring upon the kingdom, and now abhorred the work in hand as much as any 
body coiild, and did all she could to hinder her husband from acting any part 
in it."' 








a:n:n", his ■^^tfe, 





The little leisure wLicli the bustling period in wliicli lie lived 
allowed him, he dedicated to the encouragement and cultivation 
of letters, especially as regarded the study of antiquities; and 
he left behind him a few poetical and miscellaneous pieces, among 
the latter of which is an interesting sJcetck of his own public 
life, printed in one 12mo. volume, 1699. One branch of this 
family has for some generations resided in America, where they 
have considerable property in Maryland, and at Faii-fax, in Vir- 
ginia. Their motto is, " Fare-Fac;" in English, " Speak: do." 
■ — For further information, see the English histories; Claren- 
don's History of the Rebellion; the Fairfax Correspondence^ 
with Portraits; Coleridge's Worthies of Yorkshire; Fairfax's 
Memorials of the Civil War, by Bell, 1849; Biographical Bic- 
iionanes of Aikin, Chalmers, Knight, Rose, &c. 

A native of Holbeck, near Leeds, who was quarter-master- 
general to the Marquis of Xewca-stle, in the rebellion of 1645, 
died February loth, 1676, aged eighty-five years, and was 
intei-red in St. John's church, Leeds. He left several small 

* Lines by ililton to the General Lord Fairfax : — 

" Fairfax, whose name in arms through Em-ope rings, 
Filling each mouth vrit]i envy or with praise, 
And all her jealous monarchs with amaze. 
And nimours loud that daunt remotest kings. 
Thy firm unshaken virtue ever brings 

Victoiy home, though new rebellions raise 
Their hydra-heads, and the false north displays 
Her broken league to imp their serpent wings. 
Oh ! yet a nobler task awaits thy hand 

(For what can war but endless war still need?) 
Till truth and right from violence be freed, 
And public faith cleared from the shameful hand 
Of public fraud. In vain doth valour bleed, 
While avarice and rapine share the land." 
The above poem was not, for obvious reasons, found in the editions pub- 
lished during the reigu of Charles U. 


charities for the poor at Holbeck and Armley, to be charged 
annually on the King's Mills, in Mill Hill. Holbeck Avas formerly 
the seat of the ancient and highly respectable family of the 
Neviles, of whom some account should be given, because of the 
prominent part they have acted both in the county of York 
and the vicinity of Leeds. Descended from Waltheof, Earl of 
Northumberland, prior to the Conquest, the Neviles have been 
connected by marriage with some of the most ancient and 
respectable fomilies in Yorkshire. Sir John de Nevile was 
twice high-sheriff of the county in th.e reign of Henry YII. 
Another Sir John Nevile sustained the same dignified oflice in 
the reign of Henry YIII. Sir Robert NcatIc was elevated to 
the same dignity in the thirty-second year of the same reign, 
and a third Sir John Nevdle, in the third year of the reign of 
Elizabeth. The above Gervas (or Gervause) Nevile, of Beeston 
(or Holbeck), from being quarter-master-general to the Duke of 
Newcastle, in 1643, was consequently a distinguished partaker 
in the principal transactions of the civil war in Yorkshire. 
His son, Gervase Nevile, Esq., was the first mayor of the 
borough of Leeds, under the charter of King James II., dated 
January 1st, 168 i. William Nevile, of Holbeck, was also high- 
.shci-iff for the county in 1710. Cavendish Nevile, the brother 
of William, was the last of the male line of this family. The 
name, however, vras revived in the person of John Pate Lister, 
afterwards Nevile, the son of the female representative of the 
Neviles. In his favour, restrictions were introduced into the 
act passed in 1790 for the efiectual supply of the town of Leeds 
with water. Two of his sons, ofiicers in the 3rd regiment of 
guards, died in the same year, 1799, of their wounds received 
in. the campaign in Holland; another of his sous, a lieutenant 
in the 2nd regiment of foot, was killed on board Lord 
Howe's ship in the celebrated naval engagement of June 1st, 
1794; his eighth son, a lieutenant in the navy, was slain at 
Martinique, 1804; and his fourth son, a lieutenant in the 
guards, died at Badsworth, in 1802. Thus five sons died in the 
service of their sovereign, during the most dangerous and 
devastating war which ever was waged upon the surface of the 
globe — an instance of patiiotic devotion to the cause of their 
country in one family, certainly not to be paralleled in this dis- 
trict, and seldom equalled in the histoiy of the empire. — For 
the pedigree and coat of arms of the Neviles, of Holbeck, see 
Thoresby's Bucatus Leodiensis, p. 184; Whitaker's Loidis aiul 
Elmete, p. 338, &c. 


Archbishop of Armagh (sometimes also called Margetson), was 
the founder of the Grammar School at Drighlingtou, near 
Leeds. This benevolent and distinguished ecclesiastic was a 
native of that village, and when he was exalted to one of the 
highest and most honourable stations in the church, he remem- 
bered the necessities of the place which gave him birth, and 
determined to rear among its population a noble monument of 
his Christian philanthropy. In 1666 he built a school at 
Drighlington, but he did not endow it duruig his lifetime. By 
his -will, dated May 31st, 1678, in which year he died, he gave 
all his lands, tenements, and hereditaments in Drighlington and 
Kew' Hall, near Leeds, to his son Robert and the heirs of 
his body, with remainders to others, to pay from the produce of 
these lands sixty pounds for ever tow^ards the maintenance of 
the school. A subsequent grant by William and Mary, con- 
tained in letters patent dated January 11th, 1691, determined 
that Sir John Tempest, Bart., and other persons therein named, 
shoidd be a body corporate, by the name of " The Governors of 
the Free School of James Mai'gerison, late Lord Archbishop of 
Armagh," "with perpetual succession, and be able to receive the 
said yearly sum of £60, and take a conveyance thereof for the 
benefit of the school, &c. The right of nominating the head- 
master was granted by the will of the founder to the master 
and senior fellow-s of Peter House, in the University of 
Cambridge. Since the erection of a chapel-of-ease at Drigh- 
lington, the head-master of the Free Grammar School has 
usually officiated within its walls, but the duties of the chapel 
and the school are by no means essentially connected. — For 
further particulars, see Carlisle's JSndowecl Grammar Schools; 
"SVliitaker's LoicUs and Elmete; Pai'sons" History of Leeds, kc. 


The founder of the celebrated collection of MSS., and the son 
of George Hopkinson, gent., was born at Lofthouse, near 
Leeds, in the year 1610. Lofthouse has acquired its pi-iucipal 
fame from having been the residence of the celebi-ated John 
Hopkinson, the antiquary, whose learning and prudence 
acquired the just respect of the stormy age in which he lived, 
and whose laboui-s have imposed upon every succeeding topo- 


graplier a debt of gratitude and admii-ation.* This celebrated 
man was clerk of the peace for the county of York in the 
reign of Charles I, He devoted all his leisui'e time to the 
collection and transcription of all the curious papers relating to 
the antiquities of the whole county of York, which fell into 
his hands; besides compiling with incredible labour the pedi- 
grees of the nobility and gentry. His compilations and manu- 
scripts were lately in the possession of Miss Currer. Of John 
Hopkinson, and his father George, two interesting papers have 
been preserved, which we regret that our limits will not permit 
us to present at length to oiir readers. They are two letters of 
protection from the rival commanders in Yorkshire during the 
civil wars, granted with the view of saving the family from the 
hostile attempts which the straggling parties of the two armies 
might be disposed to make upon the persons or the properties 
of the Hopkinsons. The first letter is from the Marquis of 
Newcastle, commanding the royal forces, "to desist from plun- 
dering, molesting, piLlagiDig, or any way injuring George 
Hopkinson, his servants, or family." This letter is dated 
October 1st, 1643. The second letter is from Lord Fairfax, 
commanding the Parliamentarians " to take especial care that 
George Hopkinson, of Lofthonse, gent., and John Hopkinson, 
his son, be not plundered, pillaged, or any way injured in any 
of their goods by those in the service of the Parliament." This 
second letter is dated July 20th, 1644. It is pleasing to find 
two contending parties thus doing homage to virtue and science, 
and exemplifyiog some sense of humanity and some deference 
to literaiy eminence amidst all the exasperation and horrors of 
civil war. He died in 1680, aged seventy years. A monu- 
ment, partly of marble and partly of freestone, with a Latin 
insci-iption, fixed to the south wall of the chancel of Rothwell 
church, near Leeds, preserves the memory of this industrious and 
worthy man, to whom every topographer and historian of York- 
shire is under such extensive and permanent obligations. t — ■ 
Copies of his Genealogies, &c., coiTected and enlarged by Thomas 

* The extent of his labours may be inferred from the following memo- 
randum, made by one connected with the family, wliich states that " in 
1815, of the manuscript collections relating to the antiquities of the county 
of York, forty volumes are preserved in the library of Miss Richardson 
Currer, of North Bierley, and about the same number in the possession of 
the late John Henrj- Smyth, Esq., of Heath, near Wakefield." — See Lupton's 
Wakefield Worthies, &c. 

"t* Mr. James, in the preface to his History and Topography of Bradford, 
says " that Hopkinson's collections are still the great storehouse for the 
Yorkshire topographer." 


Wilson, F.S.A., may now be seen in the Leeds Library, and for 
a fiirther account of him, see Wliitaker's Thoreshy; Nichols' 
Literary Illustrations : Parsons' History of Leeds; Thoresby's 
Diary, p. 110, kc. For his pedigree, kc, consult Whitaker's 
Loiclis and Elmete, p. 202; the Appendix, p. 38, &c. 

Yicar of Leeds in the year 1663, -was the son of Robert Cooke, 
who was son of Hugh Cooke, of Campsall, by Alice, daughter 
of John Middleton, of Norton, in the county of York ; which 
Robert had six sons, and educated them all at the university.* 
This ]Marmaduke, who was the eldest, was born at Doncaster, 
and educated at Catherine Hall, Cambridge. "WTien he was 
Tripos he performed the public exercises with applause. He 
was for some time in his younger years master of the Free 
School at Doncaster, the place of his nativity, and then rector 
of, and in that capacity licensed in April, 
1662, to preach in the province of York. Li November, 1663, 
he was instituted \ of Leeds, where he had the character 
of a good preacher (though he had not the most plausible 
delivery), a peaceable and quiet man, and a holy mortified 
Christian. The author of the New View of London acquaints 
us, that he gave fifty pounds towards the rebuilding of St. Paul's 
cathedral. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Atkin- 
son, Esq., mayor of Leeds in 1661 and 1667. He was appointed 
canon and prebendary of Riccall in the cathedral of St. Peter, 
York, where he lies interred under a marble slab, with a 
short Latin inscription. He died in December, 1683, aged 
sixty years, having resigned the vicarage of Leeds in 1677. — 
For further particulars, see Thoresby's Vicar ia Leodiensis; 
Whitaker's Loidis and Elmete, <fec. 

* Of the other sons of the said Robert Cooke, Thomas was a Fellow of St. 
John's, and Richard, the youngest, was Fellow of Jesus ; but the most noted 
was William Cooke, LL.D., President of .Jesus College, Cambridge, and 
Chancellor of Ely, from whence he very kindly transmitted to Thoresby the 
epitaph of the celebrated !Dr. John Nalson, a noted historian and native of 
this parish, who lies interred in that cathedral. (John Nalson, LL.D., who 
died in 16*^5, was the son of the Rev. .John Nalson, M.A., minister of 
Holbeck, who died in 16G1.) Dr. Marmaduke Cooke, \'icar of Leeds, and 
Dr. "William Cooke, Chancellor of Ely, are conjoined in the same patent for 
arms, " a.s persons of good reputation and loyalty, and of competent estates 
to support the conditions of gentlemen ; " but neither of them left male 
issue : the former buried his five sons, and the latter never married. — See Dr. 
"Wliitaker's Thoreshy, kc. 




It would seem that William the Conqueror, soon after the 
compilation of Domesday Boot, granted the estate of Rawden, 
near Leeds (which is twice mentioned in that book), to Paulinus 
(or Paulyn) de Rawden, as a reward for his ser^dces with 
a bodv of archers which he commanded.* And here the 
family continued for more than six hundred years. The most 
renowned person m this family, during its residence at Rawden, 
was Sir George Rawden, a warrior and hero. He had a com- 
mand in Ireland, and was absent at his own estate when the 
horiible massacre of 1G41 was perpetrated in that country. As 
soon as he heard the tidings, he hastened through Scotland to 
his post, and arrived at Lisburn, seven miles from Belfast, at 
the very time when Sir Phelim O'Neale, at the head of six 
or seven thousand Papists, was about to break into the town, 
and to murder the inhabitants. Sir George found only two 
hundred men ready to resist the ferocious banditti, who had 
desolated the country -with fire and sword, and even this little 
band had only forty-seven muskets among them ; but they were 
animated with a determination to sell their lives as dearly 
as possible, and even the women prepared to participate in the 
dangers of the conflict. Sir George, who was well-known 
among the native Irish, made his dispositions with such con- 
summate skill, that the enemy soon became aware of his return, 
and the cry, "Sir George Rawden has come from England!" 
intimidated the assailants. ISTumbers, however, were on the 
point of prevailing; Sir George's horse v/as shot under him, and 
the enemy were already raising a shout of triumph, when a 
slight reinforcement and a small supply of powder arriving 
from Belfast, the Papists were defeated: Sir George saved his 
little garrison from massacre, and acquired the honour of 
having performed one of the most glorious actions of the war. 
Sir George, who had previously been created a baronet, after- 
wards commanded a regiment for Charles I., and died in 1684, 
in the eightieth year of his age. His great-grandson was 
created Baron Rawden of Moira, in 1750, and Earl Moira in 
1761. He married for his third wife, Lady Elizabeth Hastings, 
Baroness Hastings in her own right, eldest daughter of Theo- 
philus, niutli Earl of Huntingdon. Their son, Francis Rawdon 

* This tradition is alluded to in their family arms, -which contain three 
arrow-heads; and their motto, in English, is: "We, too, have scattered 


Hastings, as tlie Earl of Moira, and one of the intimate friends 
of George IV., when Piince of Wales, was for a long time one 
of the most prominent characters in the empii-e. He w-as 
created Marquess of Hastings, was governor-general of India, 
and afterw^ards became governor of Malta, K.G., G.C.B., F.E.S.* 
The hall at Eawdon, long the residence of this distinguished 
family, is situated a little to the east of the chiuxh, and with 
its extensive front and projecting gables, placed on a commanding 
and elevated situation, presents an extremely imposing appear- 
ance from the new- road between Yeadon and Kirkstall, and 
still exliibits numerous indications of the dignity and importance 
of its noble possessors.— For further particulars, see Thoresby's 
Diary, p. 401; and for the pedigree and coat of aims of the 
Eawdens, see the Peerages; Whitaker's Loidis and Elmete, 

p. 198, &c. 


Yicar of Leeds, was born at Halifax, and was baptized on the 
5th of December, 1624. He w^as educated at the Grammar 
School of his native town, and made so rapid a progress in his 
studies that he w-as admitted to St. John's College, Cambridge, 
in his thirteenth year. His tutor at St. John's was the learned 
Mr. Cleveland; w^hose life he subsequently wrote, and whose 
works, in conjunction wdth Dr. Drake, rector of Pontefract, he 
edited and published in 1687. He took his degi'ee of B.A. at 
a very early age, and distinguished himself no less for loyalty 
than learning. He was arrested, together with a considerable 
party of ardent young royalLsts, by the Parliamentary Com- 
missioners, for refusing to take the Covenant, and put into 
strict confinement — not being sufiered to stir wdthoixt the gates, 
or to take the slightest exercise or recreation. During the time 
of his restraint, young Lake sedulously pursued his studies. At 
last he escaped, and, rejoairing to Oxford, entered the king's 
sei-vice as a volunteer. After some time, his love of learning 
induced him to return to his academic studies. He refused to 
take the Engagement with no less fii-mness than he had rejected 
the Covenant; yet he succeeded, in 1647, in obtaining ordina- 
tion from one of the deprived prelates, and entered publicly and 
fearlessly on his interdicted vocation. He preached liLs first 

* For a long sketch of Francis Rawdon Hastings, the first marquis, who 
■was a gallant soldier, an eloquent senator, and a popular statesman, see the 
Peerayes ; the Annual RerpMer; Bxorjrajilui and Obituary ior 1828, p. 142, &c. 
He was succeeded in his title and estates by George Augustus Francis, the 
second marquis. 



sermon in his native town of Halifax, July 26th, 1647. Not 
being suffered to remain there without taking the Engagement, 
he removed to Oldham, whence, after a warm controversy, he 
was ejected by the Puritan party, and effectually silenced for a 
time. On the death of Mr. Styles, in 1660, he was presented 
to the vicarage of Leeds, but met with so much opposition from 
the Puritan party, who wished to introduce Mr. Bowles, of 
York, that it was found necessary to call in a company of 
soldiers to secure his induction, the church-doors having been 
barred against him by a disorderly mob, composed of the friends 
of his competitor, Mr. Bowles. As this took place before the 
Restoi-ation, Lake must have had some powerful and influential 
friends on the other side, notwithstanding his well-known affec- 
tion to the royal cause. On October 9th, 1680, he was installed 
archdeacon of Cleveland, and in the following year he was 
recommended, by the royal letter of Charles II., to have the 
degree of D.D. conferred upon him by the University of Cam- 
bridge, which was accordingly done. Lake preached his first 
Synod sermon at York, with which the dean was so greatly 
pleased that he sent a copy, without the author's knowledge, to 
Dr. Sheldon, Bishop of London. That prelate sent for Lake, 
and collated him to the rectory of St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate, 
May 22nd, 1663, to give an example of uniformity to the city 
at that juncture; for he was as strict himself in observing the 
canons and rubrics, as he was afterwards careful that others 
should observe them. He was made prebend of Holbourn, 
June 11th, 1667, and formed a friendship with Sancroft, which 
lasted as long as he lived. Lake next obtained the living 
of Prestwich, in Lancashire, and the prebendary of Friday- 
thorpe, in the cathedral of York, with other preferments, not 
one of which was of his own seeking. His zeal for the restora- 
tion of good order and discipline in the church, especially bis 
determination to abolish the ii^reverent custom into which the 
people had fallen, of walking about the aisles of the cathedral, 
and talking during the celebration of divine service, excited 
great ill-will among the "vailgar. This broke out with great 
violence on his being installed archdeacon of Cleveland, when 
the most painful scene in his life occurred. The rabble forced 
themselves into the church in great numbers, wearing their 
hats, and raised a tumultuous riot. Lake, whose courage was 
indomitable, rose from his seat, and taking oft' the hats of those 
who were within reach, admonished them on the sacrilegious 
nature of their proceedings in the house of God, bidding them 
either remain and join in the service, or leave the chiirch. 


Awed by tlae impressiveness of his language they retired, hut 
presently a fresh crowd collected and burst open the soiith 
door, and defied him in the most brutal language, and endea- 
voured to provoke him to strife. Lake, however, preserved his 
temper, even when, without the church, they followed him 
home, and but for the courageous promptitude of Captain 
Hone\-wood, the deputy-governor, would have j)lundered and 
pulled down hLs house. The following Shrove Tuesday a fresh 
outbreak took place, in consequence of Lake's determination to 
stop the heathenish licence claimed on that day by the sturdy 
apprentices and young men of York. It had been their custom 
from very ancient times to ring one of the cathedral bells, 
which they called the 2)ancalce hell. This practice obtained in 
other places in Yorkshire; for in Dr. Lake's native town thei-e 
was a popular rhyme circulated as a proverb, and having refer- 
ence to the inauguration of Shrovetide festivities : — 

" When pancake Ijell begins to ring, 
All Halifax lads begin to sing." 

But Lake was determined that in York cathedral no singing 
should be tolerated, save to the glory of God. The dean and 
chapter advised him to wink at the saturnalia, and not to stir 
up the rabble by contesting a privilege which they had enjoyed 
from time immemorial, of having the minster, from crypt to 
tower, thrown open for the pleasure of themselves and their 
country cousins on Shrove Tuesday. Lake, however, coura- 
geously endeavoured to prevent the desecration of the minster, 
first by reproving the rabble, and then by taking steps for their 
expulsion. They cissailed him as before with brutal ferocity, 
and would have torn him to pieces, if some of the more mode- 
rate had not interposed and adAdsed him to retire, unless he 
wished to be slain on the spot. " I have faced death too often 
in the field," he replied, " to shrink from the danger of mar- 
t}Tdom in the performance of my duty; but I should be sorry 
if any of your lives were to be endangered through your cruel 
and cowardly attack on me: but leave the grovmd at your 
bidding I will not." He was with difficulty rescued by the 
governor and his assistant force. Though Dr. Lake might have 
retired to either of his livings, his high spirit would not cower 
before the storm, and he continued, at the imminent peril of 
his life, to reside in York, till he had convinced his ferocious 
adversaries that they were not to convert the house of God 
into a place of idle riot. His firmness and courage finally 
conquered. In 1G82 he was conseci-ated Bishop of Sodor 
and Man; in 1GS4 he was translated to Bristol; and in the 


following yeai' to Chichester. He was one of the seven bishops 
who were committed to the Tower of London in the reign of 
James II., but positively refused to take the oaths of allegiance 
to William III., and prepared for a deprivation, but was 
removed by death in his sixty-sixth year. Bishop Lake died 
August 30th, 1689, and was buried in St. Botolph's church, 
London, with the character of a steadfast adherer to the articles 
and canons of the church; of the same firmness of mind 
through all the changes of fortune — the same in the Tower and 
at his trial, as at his palace in Chichester. — For additional 
information, see Thoresby's Vicaria Leodiensis ; Whitaker's 
Loiclis and Elmete; Wright's and Crabtree's History of Hali- 
fax ; Parsons' History of Leeds; Miss Strickland's Sketch in 
the Churchman's Family Magazine for October, 1863, &c. 

A spirited, tasteful, and distinguished engraver, was born at 
Leeds, July 4th, 1649, and inherited an estate of £300 a year. 
He was the son of Mr. William Lodge, of Leeds, merchant, by 
Elizabeth, daughter of Mi*. John Sykes, eldest son of Richard 
Sykes, Esq., one of the first aldermen of Leeds.* From school 
he went to the University of Cambridge, where he x'esided some 
time at Jesus College, from whence he was sent to Lincoln's 
Inn, to study the law. But this employment not suiting his 
genius, he chose to travel ; and attended Thomas, Lord 
Bellasis (afterwards Viscount Falconberg), to Venice, where 
that nobleman was sent as ambassador from the British Court. 
In this city he met with Giacomo Barri's Viaggio Pittoresco, in 
which is contained an account of the most estimable pictures in 
Italy, and also of the famous cabinet of Canon Settala, at 
Milan. He was so pleased with this work that he translated it 
into English, and added the heads of the great painters, etched 
by himself, and a map of Italy. It was printed in octavo, in 
1679. On his return to England, he assisted Dr. Lister, of 
York, in drawing rare shells and fossils, which the doctor 
transmitted to the Royal Society, and which are inserted in 
then" Transactions, particularly the table of snails, &c. He 
also drew for him thirty-four difierent sorts of spiders. There 
was then at York a club of virtuosi, composed of Dr. Martin 
Lister, John Lambert, Esq., Thomas Kirke, Esq., Mr. William 
Lodge, and Mr. Francis Place. Between the two last congenial 

* For pedigree and other particulars of the Sykes family, see Thoresby's 
Ducatus Leodiensis, pp. 3, 36, &c. 


artists thei-e was a strict friendship. They used frequently to 
make excursions together, for two or three months at a time, as 
occasion served, in order to draw views of the country. It 
happened once, as they were amusing themselves in this manner 
in Wales, they were taken up as Jesuitical spies (it being at 
the time of the discovery of the popish plot), and put into 
prison, notwithstanding all their remonstrances, where they 
were confined till the arrival of some of their friends from 
Chester, who, confirming their innocence, had them released. 
Mr. Lodge died at Leeds, and it was intended to bury his 
corpse at Gisbiu-n, near Craven, by the side of his mother; 
but by the accident of the hearse breaking down at Harewood, 
as it was passing through that place, and the cofiin being much 
damaged, he was interred there, August 27th, 1G89.* Besides 
the portraits above mentioned, there are several views by tliis 
ai-tist, etched in a slight, but spirited style, from his own 
designs, which he made both abroad and at home. They bear 
the mai-ks of genius and a good taste. The following may 
be mentioned: — ^A set of middling-sized plates, lengthways, 
entitled, A Book of Divers Prospects, done after the life, hy 
William Lodge; a sheet-print, containing the Vieim of Leeds 
and Wakefield; View of the City of York; Lambeth House, from 
the Thames; The Pont du Gard in Languedoc, signed with a 
monogi-am, composed of a W and an L joined together; with 
several other views of churches, castles, &c. — For additional 
particulai-s, see Strutt's Biographical Dictionary of Engravers, 
vol. ii. ; Langdale's Yorkshire ; Walpole's Catalogue of En- 
gravers ; Jones's History of Harewood; Bryan's Dictionary 
of Painters and Engravers, &c. 

Was instituted vicar of Leeds, August 2nd, 1677. This eminent 
scholar was the second .son of John Milner, of Skircoat, near 
Halifax, was baptized February 10th, 1627, and educated in 
the Grammar School of Queen Elizabeth at that place. At 
fourteen years of age he was sent to Christ College, Cam- 
bridge, where he took both the degrees in arts. He was first 
settled as curate at Middleton, in Lancashire : no very agreeable 
situation for a young man of loyal principles, where the interest 

» On a plain tombstone in the north side of the choir of Harewood church 
is the following inscription :— " Here lieth the body of Jlr. William Lodge, 
wlio departed tliis life in the fortieth year of his age, and was here interred, 
August 27th, 1689."— See Jones's History of Hamvood, p. 122, &c. 


of the republican family of tlie Asshetons, the lords and almost 
sole pi'oprietors of that town, was pi'edominant. He seems to 
have taken some active part in Sir George Booth's unsuccessful 
attempt to restore the royal family, on which occasion he was 
driven from Middleton, and found an asylum at Beeston, near 
Leeds, which made an opening for liis further advancement in 
this parish. About the year 16G2, he took the degree of B.D., 
and soon afterwards he was elected minister of St. John's, in 
this town, upon the cession or expulsion of Mr. Todd, the first 
minister, who refused to conform. Here he spent fourteen 
years of application to the study of the more abstruse parts 
of theology and of the Oriental languages, and in 1677 suc- 
ceeded Dr. Marmaduke Cooke in the vicarage of Leeds. In 
1681 he was installed prebendary of Ripon, and after an 
incumbency of about twelve years, being dissatisfied with 
the oaths im})Osed on the accession of King William, he 
voluntarily quitted his preferments. Unlike many of his 
brethren, however, he continued in communion with the Church 
of England, and withdrew to St. John's College, Cambridge, 
where he had the Ijenetit of an excellent library and the society 
of several old friends, some of whom had the same scruples, 
and yet persevei-ed in the same communion with himself. Here 
he spent the last thirteen years of his life in piety and study, 
beloved by the older members of the college, and reverenced 
for the quiet sanctity of his manners by the younger. There 
he died Febniaiy 16th, 1702, aged seventy-five, and was interred 
in the college-chapel, where, it is said, there is no memorial to 
him. In the Hebrew and its kindred dialects he a})pears to 
have been very learned, ha"ving cultivated these studies with 
great diligence at an early^ period of life, and in the midst 
of his ministerial engagements. To enumerate even the long 
catalogue of ]Mr. Milner's works would require too much of 
our space. The following character of Mr. Milner is extracted 
from a letter received by Thoi'esby, from the celebrated Dr. 
Gower, then master of St. John's College: — "The work you 
ai'e about (the Vicaria LeocUensis) will be a monument to your- 
self, as well as to those for whose memories you intend it. Mr. 
Milner, I am sui-e, deserves a place among the best, — great 
learning and piety made him really a gi'eat man ; he was 
eminent in both, and nothing but his humility and modesty 
kept him from being more noted for being so. I had the happi- 
ness of much of his conversation, but still desired more. He was 
a blessing to the whole society, by the example he gave in 
every good thing. He died beloved and much lamented here, 


and his memory is honourable and jjrecious among us, and will 
long continue so. Besides his printed works, he hath left many 
useful and learned manuscripts behind him, which are in the 
hands of his son." His only son, the Eev. Thomas Miluer, 
M.A., vicar of Bexhill, in Sussex, by will dated September, 
172:2, bequeathed to the governors of the charity for the relief 
of poor widows and children of clergymen, the sum of two 
hundred pounds; to the Society for Promoting Christian Know- 
ledge, fifty pounds; to the Society for Propagating the Gospel 
in Foreign Parts, fifty pounds ; to the JMaster and Fellows of 
St. Mary ;]klagdalen's College, Cambridge, and their successors 
for ever, the sum of one thousand pounds, wherewith an estate 
was to be purchased within the sj^^ce of three years, for the 
founding of three scholai-ships, to be called by his name (now 
worth about £70 a year), and given to such scholars as shall be 
admitted pensioners, and shall come in there from the Free 
Schools of Heversham, in Westmoreland, and of Halifax or 
of Leeds^ in Yorkshire ; they behaving themselves soberly," 
studiously, and virtuously, and residing nine months ur the 
year; to be held by the said scholars after taking the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts, till they take the degree of Master of Arts, or 
are chosen Fellows, &c. — For further information, see Thoresby's 
Vicaria Leodiensis; Whitaker's Loidis and Elmete ; Wright's 
and Crabtree's History of Halifax; Chalmers' Biograpliical 
Dictionary ; Parsons' History of Leeds, drc. 

1G39— 1705. 
Justice of the peace, and deputy-lieutenant for the West- 
Piiding, was bom in Kirkgate, near the Leeds parish chiu'ch, in 
the year 1G39. He was elected M.P. for Pontefract in 1675, 
and was appointed high-sheriff of the county in 1681; and 
died in December, 1705. He was the son of Sir William. 
Lowther, of Swillington, Avho died in 1687, and Jane, daugliter 
of William Busfeild, merchant, of Leeds.* He married Cathe- 
rine, daughter of Thomas Harrison, Esq., of Hertfordshire, 
whose eldest son, William Lowther (also ]M.P. for Pontefract), 
was created a baronet in r71o,t and died in March, 1729; 

* Sir was also a benefactor to the Leeds Grammar School. His 
father was younger brother to Sir John Lowther, Bart., M.F. for Westmore- 
land, who was created a baronet in 1640, and died in 1675; and his younger 
brother, Richard, was rector of Swillington for thirty-eight years, and died 
in 1702. 

t On the 26th of May, 1724, it was stated in the Corporation that Sn- 
William Lowther, Bart., one of his Majesty's justice.s of the peace for the 


liaving married Amabella, daughter of Lord Maynard, to 
whose eldest son there is a monument in Swillington church, 
with the following inscription : — " To the memoiy of Sir 
William Lowther, Bart., in whom leainiiiag, piety, and all the 
vii'tues of a real Christian were united, who departed this life 
the 22nd day of December, 1763, in the sixty-ninth year of his 
age, and was buried, according to his own desire, in this 
churchyard, at the east end of the chancel." — For pedigree and 
other particulars, see Whitaker's Loidis and Elmete, p. 260; 
Burke's Peerage and Baronetage ; also the Rev. Sir William 
Lowther, Bart, (in this vol.), who died in 1788. 


A highly-distinguished minister and scholar, was born at 
Bramley, near Leeds, in October, 1625; being the son of the 
Rev. Joshua Hill, curate of Bramley. He gave eai-ly proofs of 
his capacity by the progress he made in school-learning, but the 
ti'oubles which began at that time prevented his being sent to 
college until he was eighteen years old, when he was admitted 
to St. John's, at Cambridge, where, by his diligence, he soon 
recovered the time that he had lost. In a few yeai-s he was 
chosen Fellow of Magdalene College, and in 1659 was promoted 
to the office of proctor (or magistrate) of the university, and 
liis conduct in that office proved him to be well worthy of the 
honour. In the following year he declared his judgment to be 
against conformity ; but that he might escape persecution on 
this account, the collegians, out of kindness to him, cut his 
name out of their books. He retired to London, and soon 
afterwards went abroad, travelled throvigh several foreign 
countries, and then spent two or three years at the Leyden 
university. In 1667, he was called to be pastor of the English 
church at Middleburg, in Zealand, where he continued six 
years; when a work which he published gave some offence to 
the governor of that province, who obliged him to leave the 
place. He then returned to England, when King Charles II., 
as a reward for writing the book, gave him a sinecure worth 
about £80 a year, and offered that if he would comply with 
the " Uniformity Act" he should receive a bishopric. But 
being altogether dissatisfied with the terms of that enactment, 

West-Riding of the county, had several times by his warrant, and otherwise, 
infringed upon tlie rights and liberties of the Corporation, and an action-at- 
law was ordered to be commenced against him for so doing, at the public cost. 
— See Warden's Municipal History of Leeds, 


even the offer of a mitre did not tempt liim. He declined the 
promotion, and shortly afterwards became minister of the Eng- 
lish church at Rotterdam, in Holland, where he continued 
until his death. Such was his devotion to study, that the 
infirmities of age did not prevent his spending many houx'S 
a day among his books, of which he had a very extensive 
collection. A new edition of Schrevelius' Greek Lexicon was 
edited by him. He died on the 5th of November, 1707, aged 
eighty-three, leaving his valuable libraiy to the Free Grammar 
School at Leeds. — For his 2:)edi_gree, &c. , see Thoresby'sZ>wc. Leod.^ 
p. 209 j Wilson's Sketch of Bramley, &c. 
Sir Thomas Osborne, Bart., only son of Sir Edward Osborne, 
who was settled at Kiveton, in this county, was elected high- 
sheriff of Yorkshire in IG 62, and appointed Lord President of 
the Council in 1689. He afterwards became Lord High Trea- 
surer of England, and was elevated to the peerage in August, 
1673, as Baron Osborne of Kiveton, and Viscount Latimer of 
Danby; advanced to an earldom, in June, 1674, as Earl of 
Danby, in this county; created Marquis of Carmarthen, in 
April, 1689; and first Duke of Leeds, in May, 1694. His 
grace was installed a Knight of the most illustrious order of 
the Garter, and enrolled amongst the peers of Scotland (1675), 
by the title of Viscount Dunblane. The duke married Lady 
Bridget, daughter of Montague Bertie, Lord Willoughby, of 
Eresby (afterwards Earl of Lindsay, Lord-Great-Chamberlain of 
England), and at his demise, in 1712, was succeeded by his only 
surviving son. Peregrine," Baron Osborne of Kiveton, as the 

* 2nd Duke of Leeds, Peregi-ine, had been summoned to the House of Peers, 
in the lifetime of his father, as Baron Osborne of Kiveton ; married Bridget, 
only daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas Hyde, Bart., by whom he had two 
sons and a daughter. His grace died in 1729, and was succeeded by his 
second and only surviving son, — 

(.■^rd), Peregrine Hyde, who had been previously summoned to j^arliament 
as Lord Osborne. This nobleman attained the rank of admiral in the royal 
navy. His grace married thrice : first, Elizabeth, tlaughter of Robert, Earl 
of Oxfoi-d, by whom he had an only son, Thomas, his successor; secondly, 
Anne, daughter of Charles, Duke of Somerset, by whom he had a son, who 
died in infancy; and, thirdly, Juliana, daughter and co-heiress of Roger 
Hele, Esq., by whom he had no child. He died in 1731, and was succeeded 
by his only son, — 

(4th), Thomas, E.G., who was bom in November, 1713, and who married, 
in 1740, Mary, second daughter and co-heiress of Francis, Earl of Godolphin, 
and dying in 1789, was succeeded by his only surviving son, — 

(•oth), Francis Godolphin, who had been summoned to parli.amcnt in the 
lifetime of his father, as Baron Osborne. His grace manied, in 1773, Amelia, 
only daughter and heiress of Robert D'Arcy, Earl of Holderuess, and 


second Duke of Leeds. In giving to the Duke of Leeds a title 
derived from a trading town, it must be confessed that there 
was somethmg approi)riate. For his grace's family originated 
from among the people. Its founder, Edward Osborne, in the 
middle of the 16th century, was the apprentice of William 
Hewett (or Hewit), an opulent tradesman, who lived upon 
London Bridge, then occupied by a number of houses, and 
presenting a continued street. The only daughter of Mr. 
Hewett on one occasion fell from an open window into the 
Thames, and would have been drowned but for the gallantry of 
young Osborne, who plunged into the stream at the hazard of 
his life, and succeeded in saving his young mistress from 
destruction. He received the fair lady's hand as the reward of 
his courage ; his father-in-law, who became Sir William Hewett 
and Lord Mayor of London, riclily endowed him with wealth ; 
he was created a knight, and' elevated to the highest civic 
honours in the reign of Elizabeth; and his son. Sir Ed^vard 
Osborne of Kiveton, was made a baronet by Charles I. Near 
to Kiveton park is Harthill church, under which, in a spacious 
vault, are arranged in splendid coffins the remains of many of 
the ancestors of this noble family. Their motto, in English, 
is : " Peace in War," and their country-seat is at Hornby 
Castle, Yorkshire.— See Thoresby's Due. Lead., p. 2; Whitaker's 
Zoidis, p. 203 ; Peerages of Burke, Collins, Debrett, Lodge, &c. 

Baroness Conyers at the demise of her father (the haroiiy of Conyers was 
conferred by Avrit, in October, 1509, on William Conyers, son and heir of Sir 
John Conyers, by Margery, second daughter and co-heiress of Philip, Lord 
D'Arcv), by which marriage he had issue two sons and a daughter (1. George 
William Frederick, his successor; 2. Francis Godolphin, born in October, 
1777 ; created in May, 1832, Baron Godolphin ; married in March, 1800, the 
Hon. Elizabeth Charlotte Eden, daughter of William, first Lord Auckland, 
and by her had issue George Godolphin, second baron, and present Duke of 
Leeds). The Duke of Leeds being divorced from his duchess, by act of 
parliament, in May, 1779, her grace married, subsequently, John Byron, 
Esq., father of Lord Byron, the poet. His grace died in 1799. 

(6th.) George William Frederick, K.G., born in Jirly, 1775; succeeded to 
the barony of Conyers upon the decease of his mother in 1784; married, in 
1797, Charlotte, daughter of George, Marquis of Town send, by whom he had 
■ issue two sous and a daughter (1. Francis Godolphin D'Arcy, his successor; 
2. Conyers George Thomas William, born in May, 1812 ; killed accidentally at 
Oxford, while wrestling, in February, 1831 ; 3. Charlotte, married. May, 1826, 
to Sack\ille Lane Fox, Esq. ). He was lord-lieutenant of the North-Ridmg, 
governor of the Scilly Islands, constable of Middleham Castle, ranger of 
Eichmond Forest, Yorkshire. He was appointed JSIaster of the Horse in 
May, 1827 ; sworn of the Brivy Council on the 10th of the same mouth, and on 
the same day elected a Knight of the Garter. His grace died July 10th, 1838. 
(7th. ) Francis Godolphin D'Arcy, only surviving son, was born in 1798; 
succeeded his father in 1838, having been previously summoned to the House 
of Lords as Baron Osborne ; married, in 1828, Louisa Catherine, daughter of 
Eicliard Caton, Esq., of Maryland, and widow of Sk Felton Harvey, Bart. 




Yiear of Leeds from 1G90 to 1715, another native of tlie parish' 
and ekiest son of John Killingbeck, Esq., of Headingley, who 
was mayor of Leeds in 1677. The Killingbecks (or Kelliug- 
becks), though originally sprung from a i)lace of the same name 
in an adjoining parish, had long flourished in the parish of 
Leeds, where theii- names occur as witnesses to charters in the 
llth century. One of this name was abbot of Kirkstall in the 
reign of Henry YIL, and a benefactor to the church of Leeds. 
John Killingbeck, the subject of this sketch, was born at 
Headingley Hall, February 15th, 1649, and baptized in the 
chapel of that village, then lately erected. We are not told 
where he received his scholastic education; but on April 11th, 
1671, he was admitted of Jesus College, Cambridge, where he 
took both the degrees in arts, and that of Bachelor of Divinity. 
In this college he resided fifteen years, and ha^-ing been elected 
Fellow, became a very eminent tutor. Here his " intense 
studies, his solid parts, his grave and ingenuous deportment, 
gained him the affection of his superiors, and recommended him 
to the favour of that sing-ularly good and learned prelate. Dr. 
Gunning, then Bishop of Chichester," and master of St. John's 
College, by whom he was ordained deacon in the chapel of that 

His gi-ace was M.P. for Helstone from 182G-30, colonel of the North York 
Militia, &c. He was succeeded by his cousin, Lord Godolphin ; in the barony 
of Conyers, by his nephew, S. G. Lane Fox, Esq., eldest son of his only 
sister, Lady Charlotte .Sack^^lle Lane Fox, who died in 1836. 

(8th. ) George Godolphin, eldest son of first Lord Godolphin, by Elizabeth 


at "Westminster and Christ Chm-ch, Oxford. Heir, his son, Marquis of Car- 
marthen, born in 1828; married, in 1861, Fanny Georgiana, daughter of 
fourth Lord Rivers. His grace inherits the princedom of the empire as 
senior representative of John Churcliill, the first and great Duke of Marl- 
borough, on whom, and liis heirs, the dignity was conferred by patent in 
November, 1705. Of these descendants, the Duke of Leeds is the senior 
existing representative, being sole heir of Henrietta, Duchess of Marl- 
borough, the eldest daughter of the fii-st Duke of Marlborough, while the 
present Duke of Maill)or<)Ugh is representative only of the second daughter, 
Anne, Countess of Sunderland. In addition to the honour of being thus the 
senior representative of the hero of Blenheim, tlie Duke of Leeds represents 
also the famous minister, Sidney, Lord Godolphin, and the celebrated com- 
mander, Frederick, Duke of Schomberg, as well as Robert D'Arcy, Earl of 
Holdemess, whose surname and arms the late duke took by royal licence in 
1849. The illustrious houses of Conyers, D'Ai'cy, ;md Godolphin, which the 
present Duke of Leeds represents, and his descent through various lines from 
the royal house of Plantagenet, add a lustre to his grace's coronet of which 
few other families can boast. — See Curke's Pecrajc, &c. 


college, May 25th, 1673. He received the order of priesthood 
at Bishopthorpe, near York, September 19th (or 26th), 1675. 
He was for some time curate to his good fi-iend Dr. W. Cooke, 
at Harleton, near Cambridge, to which he was admitted in 
1677, by the before-mentioned Di*. Gunning, then Bishop of 
Ely. In a short time he became so eminent for his well- 
digested sermons and well-regulated zeal, that the university 
presented him with a faculty, containing an ample commenda- 
tion of his great knowledge, and probity of life answering 
to his doctrine, and constituting him one of the university 
preachers, with libei-ty to exercise his function throughout Eng- 
land and Ireland. In May, 1682, he became lecturer of St. 
Nicholas's chapel, Lynn Regis, and removed thither, to the 
gi-eat comfort and advantage of the inhabitants, who very much 
admired his edifying way of preaching. Here he was so con- 
stant in his duty, and unblamable in hrs practice, that it 
justly procured him the favour of several eminent men, who 
very unwillingly parted with him. But the vicarage of Leeds 
has always been an object of honourable ambition to natives of 
the parish or neighbourhood, and Pro-\T.dence marked out this 
preferment for the most useful and active period of Mr. Killing- 
beck's life. Accordingly, fifteen of the twenty surviving feoffees 
elected him successor to Mr. Milner, who without a formal 
cession had withdrawn himself, and refused to take the oaths to 
Kiug William III. But his institution was deferred till July, 
1690, Archbishop Lamplugh being unwilling to furnish the 
first precedent of instituting to a benefice so circumstanced; 
expressing, however, " his great willingness to admit so de- 
serving a person to take care of so great a parish," and promising 
to institute no other, nor take any advantage of the lapse. 
Tliis difficulty, however, was in due time overcome, especially 
when Mr. Milner had had time to reflect; and after it appeared 
that his scruples were invincible. " Of the character of this 
excellent clergyman, I write," says Dr. Whitaker, " with the more 
confidence, as I do little more than repeat the character given 
of him by Thoresby, who knew him long and intimately, and 
who says that ' he was a singular blessing to this populous 
parish and parts adjacent, and might have been more so to the 
whole nation, if he could have been i^revailed upon to publish 
some of those sermons, wherein was so rare a mixture of divine 
and human learning, that at the same time they did instruct 
and edify the more critical and judicious; they, by a peculiar 
felicity and emphasis, did also move and profit the vulgar 
capacities.' " His miuLsterial abilities were so conspicuous, that 


the deservedly celebrated Archbishop Sharp (who collated him 
to a prebend of York in December, 1694), pviblicly at a visita- 
tion proposed him as an example to the clergy, both in jioint of 
preaching and practice. In Thoresby's account of Mr. Killing- 
beck, I meet with one of the earliest notices of the excellent 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, of which he was 
an active and useful member, by distributing Bibles, Common 
Prayer-books, and other books of practical devotion to the 
sober and religious poor of his parish, accompanied with good 
advice and exhortations. (Such institutions were then in their 
infancy ; but the people, comparatively humble and teachable, 
were better disposed to profit by them than at present, when 
infinitely greater exertions are used for the spiritual advantage 
of the poor, and probably with less efiect.) Another good work 
of this Aicar, the effects of which subsist to the present day, 
was his exertion for the foiuidation of a charity school, which 
in a few weeks produced a subscription of above £200 per 
annxim, for the entii-e maintenance and clothing oi forty poor 
children. Estimating the great depreciation of money — the 
value of which is reduced to one-foiu'th in the last century — and 
the increase of Leeds in population and opulence, this cannot 
be considered as equivalent to less than an annual contribution 
from the town of £2,000 at present. For the support of this 
institution he was prevailed upon to print a sermon, entitled 
The Blessedness and Eeivard of Charity Considered, preached 
upon Innocents' Day, 1709. This was all that he would permit 
to be published in his lifetime. After his death, however, 
were printed Eighteen Sermons on Practical Subjects, — plain, 
sensible, and pious; such as prove, without a panegyrist, that 
he was a very useful and edifying preacher : a second edition 
of which was published in 1730. I transcribe the following 
passage with pleasure, both on account of the subject and the 
author, for it is the only relic which I can j^roduce, or ever saw, 
of his respectable successor (the Pev. Joseph Cookson), and is 
part of the sermon preached at his interment : " God had 
principally reserved him for the good of his own country, and 
the place of his nativity, that it might boast of his endowments 
as well as his birth, and be blessed with his spu-itual govern- 
ment and assistance. Here he was fixed by a concurrent voice, 
and with a general joy and satisfaction; how faithful he hath 
been in the discharge of this great trust, with what care he 
hath watched over his flock, what he hath done for then." peace 
and happiness, what he hath done for the house of God, we are 
witnesses, and the beauty and order of this place is a sufficient 


evidence. If we considei* liim in this place (the place that he 
truly delighted in), how important were his subjects! How 
well chosen, and how adapted to the capacities and circum- 
stances of his hearers! With what strength of argument did 
he plead the cause of God and religion! What fervency of 
expression, what vehemence of elocution, what rhetoric had he 
to persuade, what pressing motives to engage your practice! 
And oh ! that these had but their desired effect ; could they 
but be duly remembered, not only the present, but the suc- 
ceeding generation would have reason to rejoice, and to praise 
God for him. If we observe him in prayer and devotion, what 
ardent zeal, what fervency of the spirit, what inward regard 
and attention might be discovered by his outward address, his 
humble deportment and decent gestures of the body ! Enough 
to kindle a flame in the coldest heart, to strike the indifferent, 
and bring the loftiest looks down to the ground. If we follow 
him into his family, we find everj'lhing regulated by a daily and 
orderly address to the throne of grace in prayers and praises, by 
expressions of goodwill and kindness to those about him, endea- 
vouring to improve the measures of love and xinity, and give 
no occasion of offence or clamour. If we inquire into his more 
private behaviour, his closet retirements, those devout ejacula- 
tions, those pious soliloquies, with which his public discourses 
wei'e frequently adorned, will be a sufficient evidence that his 
thoughts and conversatioa were then chiefly in heaven; that he 
was frequently prostrate upon his knees, humbling himself for 
his own sins and those of others, deprecating the divine wrath, 
and imploring mercy and protection for himself and for all 
men. He lived like one of the primitive fathers, and preached 
like one of the present. In brief, there was so pei-fect a har- 
mony between his life and doctrine, and both so very amiable, 
that several persons of distinction were brought over from the 
Dissenters to the Established Church, not by set discourses 
against them and passionate ill-natured reflections — wliich tend 
too much to extinguish the life of religion and the power of 
godliness, and never win upon ingenuous tempers — but by 
preaching the substantials of the Christian religion. His 
severer animadversions were generally and chiefly against the 
Deists, Unitarians, and modern Arians, who endanger the 
foundations of revealed religion and the Christian faith. He 
first introduced into this parish a monthly communion, which has 
now been for many years, and is yet duly frequented by great 
numbers of devout souls, who are breathing after higher 
degrees of purity and perfection. As to charity to the poor, he 


might be said (if the expression was decent) to be extravagant 
therein, seldom knowing any bound but the bottom of his 
pocket. What he taught in public he practised in secret, and 
was eminent for his faithful discharge of all relative and per- 
sonal duties, constant and exemplaiy in family and secret 
devotions, and in the weekly fasts, &c. The care that ministers 
and masters of families take for the souls of others, will not 
extenuate the neglect of their own, or the public worship 
supersede the religious exercises of the closet. In that place of 
his fei'\"ent and constant devotion, he received the premonition 
of his death with a most Christian submLssion, He continued 
for a considerable time to frequent the public assemblies, even 
after he was disabled fi-om preaching; and he desii'ed, one of the 
last times, to administer the blessed elements at the Lord's 
Supper, but did it with a faltering tongue and great weakness, 
so that Ml'. Lodge, an ingenious and eloquent preacher, was 
obliged to conclude the service. This occasioned many weeping 
eyes and bleeding hearts, and will, I believe, be remembered by 
some of the participants as long as a breath remains." He died, 
universally lamented, Febmary 12th, 1715-16, aged sixty -six 
years, wanting only three days, and was interred under the 
communion-table of his own church, on the 16th, with a 
general sorrow, not only of those of the Church of England, 
but even of the Dissenters; so amiable is a holy life in the 
eyes of all good Christians. To this general panegyric on Mr. 
Killingbeck in particular, it may be added that he was a man 
of apostolical simplicity and charity, ignorant to a great degree 
of the modes and usages of common life, and so addicted to 
acts even of undistinguishing bounty, that to prevent it his wife 
found it necessary frequently to remove money from his pocket 
by night, and place it in her own safe keeping; — a loss which 
he never discovered. In addition to a Latin inscrijjtion to hLs 
memory, his widow caused the following epitaph to be inscribed 
on the stone which covers his remains : — " Hei'e lietli interred the 
body of John Killingbeck, B.D., late vicar of Leedes, and pre- 
bendary of York, who was orthodox in religion, eminent in tlie 
church for learning, constant and useful in preaching; an 
example to his audience for piety and devotion; a faithful 
monitor in lectures of morality; ready to distribute to the 
necessitous; zealous in promoting Christian education for the 
ignorant and poor. This life he exchanged for a better, Feb- 
ruary xii., MDCCXV., in the Ixvi. year of his age." — For further 
particulars, see Thoresby's Vicaria Lcodiensis ; Whitaker's 
Loidis and Elmete, &c. ; and for his pedigree and coat of arms, 


see Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis, p. 133; Whitaker's Thoreshy, 
p. 206, &c. 



A merchant of Leeds, who died May 7th, 1716, aged one 
hundred years, at AUerton Hall, which was upwards of four 
centuries the property and residence of the Kitchingmau family. 
It was the largest and most ancient mansion in Chapeltown, 
consisting of above sixty rooms, ^vith gardens and pleasure- 
grounds. It was sold, about 1755, by James Kitchingman, 
Esq., to Josiah Gates, Esq., merchant, of Leeds. The Kitching- 
mau family, for upwards of four hundred years, were carried 
from this hall by torch-light, to be interred in the choir of St. 
Peter's church in Leeds. At the interment of any of the 
family, the gi-eat chandelier, consisting of thirty-six bi'anches, 
was always lighted. The above Mr. Robert Kitchingmau 
ordered his body to be buried with torch-lights at Chapel- 
Allerton; he was interred on the 16th of May, when one 
hundred torches were carried ; the room where the body was 
laid was hung with black, and a velvet pall with escutcheons 
was borne by the chief gentry; the pall-bearers had all scarves, 
biscuits, and sack ; the whole company had gloves. Fifty 
pounds were given among the poor, in the chapel yard, on the 
day of his interment. Mary, his wife, died July 28th, 1716, 
aged ninety-seven years, and was interred precisely in the 
same way. She was daughter of Alexander Robinson, merchant, 
of Leeds, and Grace, his wife, sister of the illustrious Har- 
rison. Part of the house where Mr. Robert Kitchingman lived 
is yet standing, although the greatest part of it was taken down 
about the year 1730. When Sir Thomas Fairfax took Leeds, 
Henry Robinson, vicar of Leeds, and brother of Mary Kitch- 
ingman, fled to this house, after having narrowly escaped with 
his life in crossing the Aii-e below St. Peter's church. He 
afterwards made his escape to Methley Hall. Tradition says 
that King Charles I. was concealed at this house before he Avent 
to Leeds. Mr. Harrison, the great benefactor, spent the summer 
of 1645 here, when the plague i-aged in Leeds. — For his pedi- 
gi'ee and coat of arms, see Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis, 
p. 256, (fee, 


An eminent antiquarian and to^Dographer, was born at the house 
of his father, John Thoresby, in Kirkgate, Leeds, August 16th, 

Ralph thoresby, esq., p.r.s. 129 

1658. The family wa.s ancient and respectable, and oui' anti- 
quaiy was willing to accept the evidence of genealogists by pro- 
fession, that it might be traced to Aykiith or Aykfrith, a noble 
baron, lord of Dent, Sedberg, and twelve other seigniories in the 
time of Canute, the Dane. From that period they are found in 
the situation of lords of the manor of Thursby, Thor.sby, 
Thoresby, or, as the name of the place is now pronounced, 
Thuresby, in Wensleydale. The direct male line continued to 
Henry Thoresby, a lawyer of eminence, who died in 1615, 
leaving a single daughter and heiress, Eleanor, who, by mar- 
riage with Sir T. Hardresse, of Great Hardresse, in Kent, 
Iwought the manor of Thoresby, with a large personal fortune, 
into that family. Heniy had a younger brother, Ralph 
Thoresby, settled, in what capacity we are not told, at Wool- 
ham, near Barnard Castle. Ealph was the father of George 
Thoresby, of West Cottiugwith, in the county of York, who by 
two successive marriages had issue John and Paul. These 
brothers of the half blood settled as clothiers at Leeds, -where 
both became aldermen of the borough. The elder had a son of 
his own name, our author's father, and the younger had a 
very numerous issue. The father, a merchant, w^as possessed of 
a good share of learning, and had a particular turn to the 
knowledge of antiquities, which disposition was inherited by 
his son. Ralph Thoresby, the subject of this memoir, received 
the first rudiments of learning in the school, formerly the 
chantry, near the bridge at Leeds. He was next removed to 
the Grammar School, and afterwards placed by his father's care 
with a worthy relative in London, in order to acquire the 
knowledge of his intended calling as a merchant. Here, how- 
ever, a new and splendid scene of antiquities opened upon him, 
and he seems to have been more occupied in A'isiting churches 
and other remarkable places, copying moniimental inscriptions, 
and drawing up tables of benefactions, than in poring over 
ledgers, drawing up invoices, or copying the unamusiug articles 
of a merchant's desk. In the spring of 1678, being now in his 
twentieth year, he was sent by his father to Rotterdam, in 
order to leai-n the Dutch and French languages, and to perfect 
himself in mercantile accomplishments. The climate not agree- 
ing with his constitution, he returned to England about the close 
of the same year with the remains of an ague, which nothing 
but air and exercise could dissipate. For this purpose he made 
several excursions on horseback, constantly uniting the purpose 
of recruiting his health with the desire of topographical know- 
ledge. By the death of his father, in 1679, the mercantile con- 



cerns of the house devolved upon the son at no very auspicious 
period. The woollen manufacture — the old and staple trade of 
the town — had for a season fallen into a state of decay. To 
repair this deficiency, Ralph Thoresby purchased the freedom of 
an incorporated company of merchant adventurers trading to 
Hamburg, and having placed his affairs, as he supposed, in a 
promising situation, he married at Ledsham, near Leeds, Feb. 
25 1684, Anna, third daughter and co-heiress of Richard Sykes, 
of 'Leeds, gentleman, whose descent he has carefully recorded. 
But though merchandise was his profession, yet learning and 
antiquities were his great delight; and they took so firm a pos- 
session of his heart, that, contenting himself with a moderate 
patrimony, he made them the great employment of his life. 
His father had left him a valuable collection of coins and medals, 
purchased from the executors of Sir Thomas, Lord Fairfax 
(1611-1671), to whom and to whose family the Thoresbys had, 
from similarity of principles, religious and political, been long 
devoted. Like the old general of the Parliament, they were 
moderate Presbyterians, but without any violent animosity to 
the Church ; like him they were never undevoted to the person 
of Kino' Charles I., and with him they made an unqualified 
submission to his son. After the accession of King James, and 
when his conduct, however plausible towards the Dissenters, 
threatened the ruin of Protestantism in all its denominations, 
he became more frequent in his attendance upon the worship of 
the Established Church. For this he had two reasons — first, 
the learned and excellent discourses of his parish minister, the 
Rev. John Mikier, B.D. ; and, secondly, a generous resolution to 
support by his countenance and example that Church, to the 
existence of which it was supposed that the Dissenters would 
finally be indebted for their own. Mr. Thoresby was well 
respected by those of the clergy and gentry, in his town and 
neighbourhood, who had any taste for learning or regard for 
piety; and he was not more diligent to increase his learned 
treasure, than ready to communicate it to others. It would be, 
in a manner, endless to enumei-ate the assistances which he gave 
in one way or another to the works of the learned. The new 
edition of Camden's JBritannia, in 1695, introduced our author 
to Dr. Gibson, at whose request he wrote notes and additional 
observations on the West-Riding of Yorkshire; and for the use 
of this edition he transmitted above a hundred of his coins to 
Mr. Obadiah Walker, who had undertaken that province which 
related to the Roman, British, and Saxon moneys. And when 
the bishop was preparing that work for another and more com- 


plete impressiou, he sent a great number of queries to Mr. 
Thoresby; wliicli were answered entirely to his lordship's satis- 
faction, and accompanied mth other miscellaneous observations. 
Mr. Thomas Hearne requested Mr. Thoresby's correspondence, 
and often acknowledged the favoiir of it in print. Mr. Strype 
was obliged to him for communicating some original letters in 
his collection. Besides these and many similar favours to 
learned men, he imparted to Dr. Edmund Calamy Memoirs of 
several northern divines for his Abridgment of Baxter's Life 
and Times; as he did also of the worthy Royalists to Mr. 
Walker, for his Sufferings of the Clergy (which book was pub- 
lished as an antidote to Dr. CalarnVs woi'k); for he esteemed 
good men of all parties ivorthy to have their names and 
characters transmitted to posterity. His skill in heralcby and 
genealogy rendered him, moreover, a veiy serviceable corres- 
pondent to Mr. Arthur Collins in his Peerage of England, and 
made him an acceptable acquaintance to the principal persons 
of the College of Arms, at London. By these good offices, and 
by that easiness of access which he allowed to his own cabinet, 
he always found the like easy access to the cabinets of other 
virtuosoes, which gave him frequent opportiuiities of enlarging 
his collection far beyond what could have been expected from a 
private person not wealthy. His collection was in such esteem 
that not only many of the nobility and gentry of our own 
country, but likewise many foreigners, visited his museum, and 
honoured his Album with their names and mottoes. Among 
other virtuosoes, Mr. Thoresby commenced an early friendship 
with the celebrated naturalist, Dr. Martin Lister. It was to 
him that he sent an account of some Roman antiquities he had 
discovered in Yorkshire, which, being communicated by Dr. 
Lister, and Dr. Gale, dean of York, to the Royal Society, 
obtaiued him a fellowship of that learned body, into which he 
was unanimously chosen at their anniversary meeting in 1697; 
and the great number of his papers which appear in theii' Trans- 
actions, relating chiefly to Roman and Saxon monuments of 
antiquity in the north of England, with notes upon them, and 
the inscriptions of coins, &c., show how well he deserved that 
honour. At what time he fonned the plan of his great work, 
the Ducatus Leodie^isis, does not appear; but the first impulse 
appears to have been given by a sermon of the learned Mr. 
Milner, in which he took occasion to mention the great anti- 
quity of the toAvn, and the notice with which it had been 
honoured by the venerable Bede. " There is, however," says 
Dr. Whitaker, " a MS. belonging to the Grammar School, and. 


by the kindness of the late respectable master, Mr. Whiteley, 
now before me, containing the first rough draft of the Bucatus, 
in Thoresby's handwriting; but it has nothing to fix the date. 
At this time I knew not that any other counties had been illus- 
trated by the labours of provincial topographers than Kent, 
Surrey, Cornwall, Warwickshire, Nottinghamshire, Oxfordshire, 
Shropshire, and Lancashire. Parochial histories M^ere very few, 
and our author modestly described himself as 'attempting his 
account of the parish of Leeds in the manner of Dr. Plot.'"* 
In the prosecution of this laborious work, he frequently an- 
nounces his intention of compiling an historical or hiograjyhical 
part, as an accompaniment to the topographical. For this 
undertaking his own museu^m, as well as his recollection, 
afforded ample materials; but age was now creeping upon him, 
and indolence, its usual attendant, t A regard, however, to the 
church of his own parish, and the many eminent divines who 
had presided over it, prompted him to compose and commit to 
the press his Vicar ia Leodiensis; or. The History of the Church 
of Leedes, &c. (8vo.), which was published in 1724. He was 
now sixty-six years of age — a period beyond which little space 
is usually left for bodily or mental exertion. He had a consti- 
tutional, perhaps an hereditaiy, tendency to apoplexy. The 
consistency of his blood was thick, which exposed him to pains 
or numbness in the back part of his head, with other apoplectic 
symptoms. All these he received as intimations of his ap- 
proaching deimrture, which was delayed beyond his expectation. 
In the month of October, 1724, he was suddenly seized by a 
paralytic stroke, from which he so far recovered as to speak 
intelligibly and walk without help. There is also a letter 
extant, written by him in this melancholy state, and com- 
plaining, though with great patience and submission, of his 
feelings; thus he languished till the same month of the fol- 
lowing year, when he received a second and final shock from 

* Mr. Tlioresby had long formed a design of writing the history of his 
native town and its environs, and had accumulated a vast quantity of mate- 
rials for the work; a part of which was published in one folio volume in 
1714-15, under the title of Bucatus Leodiensis; or, The Topograjjhij of Leedes 
and Parts Adjacent. To which is subjoined, Musceum Thoresbcianv.m ; or, 
A Catalogue of the Antiquities, <tc., in the Repository of Ralph Thoresby, 
gent., &c. 

+ In this work he had proceeded so far as to bring his narration, in a fair 
copy, nearly to the end of tlie sixth century, illustrating and confirming his 
history by his coins, &c. This curioiis piece being found well prepared for 
the press, as far as it extends, and well worthy of the public acceptance, is 
inserted in the Biographia Britannica, in order to excite some able hand to 
carry it on, and complete the noble design of the author. 


the same disease, wliicli put an end to his life, October 16th, 
1725, in the sixty-eighth yeai- of his age. He was interi-ed 
with his ancestors in the choir of the Leeds parish church, and 
lay for upwards of a century without any memorial from the 
piety of his friends, or the gratitude of his townsmen.'^' 
A memorial stone within the altar-rail at the south-east side of 
the parish church now beai'S this inscription: — "Sacred to the 
memoiy of Ralph Thoresby, F.R.S., a member of the ancient 
Corporation of Leeds. He was born 16th August, 1658. He 
died 16th October, 1725, and was interred within these walls. 
His name, known in the annals of literature as that of an 
historian and antiquary, is recorded here as that of an humble 
Christian. He was educated a ISTonconformist, but the wish of 
his maturer years was guided to seek the Church. Within her 
fold he attended with a salutary diligence the orcUnances of our 
holy faith; hence he was enabled to dispense the benefits of a 
respected example, and to receive the blessings of that pure and 
iindefiled religion which led him to visit the fatherless and 
widows in their affliction, and to keep himself unspotted from 
the world." His character for learning is best seen in the 
books he published, which show him to have been a great 
master of the history and antiquities of his own country; to 
attain which it became necessary for him to be thoroughly 
skilled, as he was, in genealogy and heraldiy. He appears from 
these books to have been also an industrious biographer. That, 
however, which set his reputation the highest as a scholar, was 
his uncommon knowledge of both coins and medals. But Mr, 

* The late Rev. T. D. "Whitaker, LL.D. and F.S.A., vicar of AVlialley, iu 
Lancashire, and author of Loidis and Elmete, puhlished in 1816 a sjilendid 
edition of the Ducatus Leodiensis of Thoresby, the antiquary, -n-hose last 
female descendant was espoused by the doctor (who died in 1822), having 
himself gained considerable celebrity both as an antiquary and historian. Of 
ten children bom to our author, three only survived their father. Ralph and 
Richard, the two sons, were clergj-men, the first educated at Queen's CoUege, 
the second at Catherine Hall, Cambridge, and both promoted, by the kindness 
of Bishop Gibson for their father's memory, to respectable benefices, the 
elder being rector of Stoke Xewington, where he died, April 24th, 1763, 
without issue ; and the younger of St. Catherine's, Coleman Street, London, 
who died in 1774. The following extract from the Gentleman's Magazine 
for February, 18.^3, page 172, has been kindly contributed. The ^^Titer 
(the Rev. C. J. Arinistead, formerly of Leeds), alluding to one of Thoresby's 
nieces, says: — "All that can be told witli certainty is, that she married a 
Jeremiah Nicholson, cloth-dresser, in Leeds; and Thoresby, in his Diary 
edited by the Rev. Joseph Hunter, frequent!}' speaks of his niece Nicholson; 
they liad Richard Nicholson, whose only daughter, Elizabeth, married James 
Settle, father of the present F. Nicholson Settle, of Leeds. He has an 
original painting of the antiquary, which was long neglected in the work- 
shop of Jeremiah Nicholson. It is taken in the aldermanic dress of that 


Thoresby possessed accomplisliments more valuable than these, 
and far beyond all kinds or degi-ees of learning; for he was a 
truly good man — a man of humble virtue and unaffected piety. 
How diligent soever he was in cultivating his favourite studies, 
yet he never suffered such pursuits to interfere with his religious 
services. He would often lament the great consumption of 
time occasioned by the numerous visitors of his museum, but 
took care they should not hinder his private or public worship. 
He read the Scriptures many times over, with the best com- 
mentators; nor was he unacquainted with the prevailing con- 
troversies ; but books of warm practical divinity were his greatest 
delight. He was modest, temperate, and even abstemious to an 
uncommon degree. He was constant and regular at his private 
devotions, and highly exemplary in the government of his 
family; calling them together morning and evening to prayer 
and reading the Scriptiu'es. He was extremely careful of the 
religious instniction of his children, and by no means unmindful 
of the moral behaviour of his servants. He was strictly just, 
and chaiitable to the utmost of his power. Being of a quiet 
and peaceable temper, and constitutionally slow to resent, he 
imbibed with ease the Christian principles of forbearance and 
forgiveness, and constantly exemplified them in his practice. 
He was a kind and steady friend ; always cheerfully em- 
bracing any opportunity of exercising his benevolent affections. 
Adorned with such accomplishments, and endowed with such 
vii'tues, Mr. Thoresby was highly respected in his life, and his 
memory will be had in honoiu' amongst the wise and good. 
Thoresby was intimate with some of the most excellent and 
estimable men of his day; among them were Dr. Sharpe, Ai-ch- 
bisliop of York; Di-. Nicholson, afterwards Bishop of Carlisle; 
Dr. Gibson, afterwards Bishop of London; Dr. Gale, Dean of 
York; Dr. George Hickes, Bishop Kennet, Thomas Hearne, 
John Stiy^De, John Ray, Dr. Richardson, of Bierley; Sir Hans 
Sloane, John Evelyn, Dr. Mead, and Dr. Stukeley. He was a 
man beloved as well as esteemed and valued for the warmth of 
his affections, and the endowments of his mind. — For his por- 
trait and other particulai'S, see his life at the beginning of 
Whitaker's Thoresby; the Biographia Britannica; the British 
Biography, vol. viii., &c. A fine portrait of him is also prefixed 
to the sketch of his life in the Diary of Ralph Thoresby, F.R.S., 
author of the Topography of Leeds, by the Rev. Joseph 
Hunter, F.S.A., published in 2 vols., London, 1830. See also 
the Letters of Eminetxt Men, addressed to Ralph Thoresby, 
F.R.S., 2 vols., London, 1832. 


An able dissenting minister, born at Leeds on the 14th of 
January, 1659-GO. He was one of the sixteen children of Mr. 
Matthew Boyse, of Leeds. After early instruction under the 
care of his parents, who were persons of seriousness and piety, 
he received the fii-st part of his education for the ministry at 
the private academy of the E,ev. Mr. Frankland, near Kendal, 
in Westmoreland, and completed it under the tuition of the 
Rev. Edward Veal, who kept a private academy at Stepney, 
near London. Having continued live years in these seminaries, 
where he enjoyed many advantages for the prosecution of his 
studies, in which he was extremely diligent, and having availed 
himself of the opportunities which he enjoyed in the latter 
situation of attending on the preaching of many able divines, 
both Conformists and ISTonconformists, he entered on the exer- 
cise of his public ministry about the year 1680. He was for 
some time assistant to a dissenting minister in Kent, of whose 
life he afterwards published an account. In 1681, he was 
invited to be domestic chaplain to the Countess of Donegal, 
who then resided at London, and in whose family he continued 
till the beginning of the next summer, which he spent at 
Amsterdam, where he had an invitation to preach at the 
Brownist chui-ch during the absence of the minister, whose 
private affairs detained him in England about half a year. 
After his return from Amsterdam, he continued to preach occa- 
sionally at Leeds, and some other places in the neighbourhood, 
till the year 1683, when, upon the death of one of his intimate 
friends and fellow-students, who had been for some time 
assistant to Mr. Daniel WiUiams, pastor of a congi-egation in 
Wood Street, Dublin, he received an invitation to succeed him 
in that station. This invitation he at first took little notice of, 
having an aversion to the thought of settling in a kingdom of 
whose natives the history of the Irish rebellion had given him 
a very frightful idea; but finding that he could not discharge 
the duties of his function in England without molestation, he 
went over to Dublin, and became joint pastor with Mr. (after- 
wards Dr.) Williams. When that gentleman, some years after, 
quitted his situation in Ireland, ]Mi-. Boyse had for his coadjutor 
the Bev. Mr. Thomas Emlyn, so well known for his wTitings 
and his sufferings. This connection subsisted between them for 
more than ten years, with mutual friendship and uninterrupted 
hai-monv; but it was at length dissolved in consequence of Mr. 


Emlyn's sentiments concerning the doctrine of tlie Trinity. Oa 
this occasion the zeal of Mr. Boyse for the orthodox view led 
him to take some steps that were thought injurious to his former 
colleague, and inconsistent with the friendship that had subsisted 
between them; though lie disapproved the prosecution which 
Mr. Emlyn suffered, and behaved towards him with a greater 
degree of kindness than any of the other dissenting ministers 
of Dublin. The latter years of Mr. Boyse's life wei-e embit- 
tered by bodily disorders and straitened circumstances. The 
exact time of his death is not mentioned, but his funeral sermon 
was preached at Dublin on the 8th of December, 1728. He 
was considered as a learned, pious, able, and useful divine; 
assiduous in the exercise of his ministry, and in his conduct 
generally esteemed. He had a principal share in promoting the 
Act of Toleration in Ireland. His works were jmblished in 
two folio volumes in 1728. The first volume contains seventy- 
one sermons, six dissertations on the doctrine of justification, 
and a paraphrase on those passages of the New Testament 
which chiefly relate to that doctrine. One of his sermons, 
originally printed separately, on The Office of a Christian 
£ishop, was ordered to be burnt by the Irish Parliament in 
November, 1711. The second volume contains a variety of 
pieces on controvei-sial and miscellaneous subjects, of which the 
principal is a Vindication of the True Deity of our Messed 
Saviour, in answer to Mr. Emlyn's Humble Inquiry into the 
Scripture of Jesus Christ, &g. As Mr. Boyse's answer was 
published at the time when Mr. Emlyn was under prosecution 
for his sentiments, his conduct did not escape censure from 
the friends of EmljTi, who did not think it candid, libei'al, or 
ingenuous. Samuel Boyse, his only son, who was born in 1708, 
though veiy improvident, was the author of a poem on The 
Deitij, &c. — (For a sketch of his son's life, see Johnson's English 
Poets, by Chalmers, vol. xiv.; the Biographical Dictionaries, &c.) 
For additional information, see the £iographia Britannica, 
2nd edition ; Swift's Works, vol. xi. ; the British Biography^ 
vol. X. ; the Biograjjhical Dictionaries of Rose, Chalmers, (fee. 


An eminent English dramatist, was born at Bardsey Grange, 
seven miles north of Leeds, in 1669, or '70, as appears by the 
register of his baptism there; hence it seems that the date 
(1672) upon his monument in Westminster Abbey is erroneous. 
Whilst he was very young, he was carried into Ireland by his 


father,^' who had a command in the army there, and who after- 
wards settled in that kingdom, being engaged as steward to the 
Earl of Biu-lington, whose estates were of very great extent. This 
circumstance seems to have led some persons into the opinion 
that Mr. Congi-eve was a native of Ireland; but, without doubt, 
England has a just claim to the honour of his birth. His 
father having thus fixed his residence in Ireland, our young 
gentleman was sent to the gi-eat school at Kilkenny, where he 
gave some eai'ly proofs of a political genius ; and being removed 
from thence to the University of Dublin, he soon became 
acquainted with all the branches of polite literature, and dis- 
tinguished himself by his correct taste and his critical know- 
ledge of the classics. A little after the Revolution, in the year 
1688, his father sent him over to England, and placed him as a 
student in the Middle Temple. But the severe study of the 
law was by no means suited to his disposition ; and though he 
continued for three or four years to live in chambers and pass 
for a Templar, yet his thoughts were employed on subjects very 
remote from the profession for which his friends designed him. 
Classical pui-suits still engaged his attention; and the turn of 
his mind and the nature of his studies wei-e soon discovered by 
his first publication, which, though no more than a novel, and a 
novel very hastily Aviitten, was a striking proof not only of the 
vivacity of his wit and the fluency of his style, but also .of the 
strength of his judgment. The title of this performance was 
Incognita; or, Love and Duty Reconciled. This was indeed a 
very early specimen of his talents, for Congreve was not at this 
time more than seventeen years of age. x^ot long after this, 
our young author amused himself, during a slow recoveiy fi-om 
sickness, with writing a comedy called The Old Bachelor, which, 
at the instance of his friends, he consented to bring upon the 
stage. In order to this, he was recommended to Mr. Southerne, 
and his play was submitted to the inspection of Mr. Diyden, 
who generously observed that he had never seen such a first 
play in his life, and that it would be a pity to liave it miscany 
for want of a little assistance in those points which required 
amendment, not on account of any deficiency of genius or art 
in the author, but purely from his being unacquainted with the 
stage and the town. Accordingly, Diyden revised and corrected 

* Congreve's mother (a relationslaip always pleasing to ascertain) was Anne, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Fitzherbert, and grand-daughter of Sir Anthony, the 
celebrated judge. According to a writer in the third series of Notes and 
Queries, and in opposition to a note (from Leigh Hunt) in Cunningham's 
recent Life, the above Anne was not the mother but the grandmother of 
Congreve. See also Burke's Landed Gentry, kc. 


it; and it was acted iu the year 1693, before a numerous and 
noble audience. The play was admirably performed, and was 
received with the greatest applause ; so that the author's repu- 
tation was in a manner established by his fu'st performance, and 
he began to be considered as the sup])ort of the declining stage 
and the rising genius in dramatic poesy. It was this successful 
play that first introduced Congreve to the notice of the cele- 
brated Earl of Halifax, who immediately took him under his 
protection, and appointed him one of the commissioners for 
licensing hackney-coaches; soon after which he bestowed upon 
him a place in the pipe-office, and gave him likewise a post in 
the custom-house of the value of six hundred pounds a year. 
These extraordinary favours placed our young poet in a state of 
ease and affluence; and the encouragement which the town had 
given to his first attempt inducing liim to exert his genius again 
in the same way, he brought his DovMe Dealer upon the stage 
in the ensuing year. This play was not so universally ap- 
plauded as his former performance; but, what is perhaps more 
for the true honom* of the author, it was veiy liighly com- 
mended by the best judges. His dedication of it to his great 
patron, the Earl of Halifax, is not, like the generality of those 
compositions, a mere string of acknowledgments and praises, 
but it contains much true and solid criticism, and furnishes an 
excellent vindication of the play itself from some objections 
which had been urged against it. About the close of this year, 
Congreve distinguished himself by writing a pastoral on the 
death of Queen Mary, which has been much admired for its 
simplicity, elegance, and correctness ; and in the following year, 
1695, he brought his comedy oi Love for Love upon the stage, 
at the new theatre in Lincoln's Inn-fields, where it was received 
with universal applause. There is prefixed to this play a short 
dedication to Charles, Earl of Dorset and Middlesex, who was 
Lord Chamberlain at that time — which is written, as all his 
dedications are, Avith great decency and good sense, and without 
any of that fulsome flattery which reflects at once on the patron 
and the writer. The same year, he attempted a new kind of 
poetry, by addressing to King William an irregular Ode upon 
the taking of Namur; and the performance was well received. 
His reputation as a comic writer being now raised to an exalted 
pitch, he was willing to engage in another species of dramatic 
composition; and in the year 1697, his tragedy called The 
Mourning Bride was performed at the theatre in Lincoln's Inn- 
fields. Few plays have excited so great expectations as this 
did, and fewer still have answered them so well ; for it was the 


best received of all his pieces.* But our author had not long 
enjoyed that reputation which he had acquired by his dramatic 
pei-formances, before he found it necessary to vindicate these 
works fi"om the exceptions of the celebrated Jeremiah Collier, 
who had attacked all liis plays on the score of their immoral 
tendency, and bad freely represented him as a most dangerous 
and pei-nicious writer. With this view, therefore, he drew up 
a defence of his four plays, in the form of letters to his friend, 
Walter Moyle, Esq., which he published under the modest title 
of " Amendments of Islr. Collier's False and Imperfect Cita- 
tions, &c., from I7ie Old Bachelor, Double Dealer, Love for Love, 
and Mourning Bride: by the Author of those Plays." In this 
apology, CongreA'e not only displayed his wit, but, upon the 
foundation of some judicious remarks, attempted to justify the 
greatest part of the passages objected to by his antagonist; 
others he strove to palliate, and some he frankly gave up, with 
a promise of correction. But though, of all the writers anim- 
advei-ted upon by CoUier, he was thought to have escaped the 
best, and to have defended himself with the greatest appearance 
of learning, justice, and candour; yet it must be confessed that 
his cause was desperate; for the gross licentiousness of sentiment 
and expression with which his comedies are contaminated is 
utterly inexcusable, and deserving of the severest reprehension. 
Some time after this, our author brought another comedy upon 
the stage, entitled The Way of the World, a perfoi-mance which 
appears to have cost him much care and pains; but his labours 
were iU-requited, for his play did not meet with a very favour- 
able reception. This ill success, however, is weU revenged in 
the epilogue, a.g the occasion of it is justly exposed in the 
author's dedication to Ralph, Earl of Montague; where, having 
observed that but little of hLs comedy was prepared for that 
general taste which seemed then to be predominant in the palates 
of the audience, he explains the motives of his attempt to correct 
the public taste, and vindicates the method he had adopted for 
that purpose. But his first endeavoiirs proving ineffectual, he 
deteitnined to relinquish the undertaking, and, throwing down 
his pen in disgust, he withdrew fx-om the theatre. Upon this 

* The opening lines have often heen quoted :— 

" Music has charms to soothe a savage breast, 
To soften rocks, or bend a knotted oak. 
I've read that things inanimate have moved, 
And, as vrith living souls, have been informed, 
By magic numbers and persuasive sound." 

— Congieve's Mourning Bride. 


occasion, the well-known Mr. Dennis, thongli he "was by no 
means famous either for the civility or the elegance of his 
remarks, paid him the just compliment of oljserving, "That 
Mr. Congreve quitted the stage early, and that comedy left it 
with him." From this time our author amused himself A\ 
composing original poems and translations, which he afterwards 
collected into one volume, and published in the year 1710. His 
eai'ly acquaintance with the great had secured to him an easy 
and a liappy station in life, which freed him from the necessity 
of courting any longer the public favour, though it still left him 
under the obligations of gratitude to his illustrious friends; and 
he acted in a manner suitable to his situation. He seldom 
risked the character he had obtained, with a view to exalt it; 
and he never omitted any opportunity of paying his compli- 
ments to his patrons, in. a manner worthy of himself and of 
them, when events of a national or private concern furnished a 
fit subject for his verse. In like manner, Congreve readily 
embraced every opportunity of returning the favours he had 
received from persons of a less exalted station, in the earlier 
part of his life. In this spirit of gratitude, he wrote an 
epilogue for his old friend Mr. Southerne's tragedy of 
Oroonoko ; and how much he had assisted Dryden in his trans- 
lation of Virgil, that poet himself has told ixs: — "Mr. Con- 
greve," says he, "has done me the favour to review the uEneis, 
and to compare my version with the original. I shall never be 
ashamed to own that this excellent young man has showed me 
many faults, which I have endeavoured to coiTect." This gene- 
rous commendation does equal honour to the poet and his friend; 
as it shows the readiness with which the former received any 
information of his o^vn mistakes, and as it sets the abilities of 
the latter in the fairest point of view. But this was not the 
only occasion upon which he testified his regard for Dryden, 
and his willingness to serve him. For when that great poet 
proposed to publish a translation of Juvenal, Congreve contri- 
buted the eleA'entli satire, and at the same time wrote a recom- 
mendatory copy of verses on the translation of Persius, which 
Dryden himself had completed. He likewise wrote a prologue 
for a play of Mr. Charles Dryden's, full of kindness for that 
young gentleman, and of respect for his father. Besides the 
translations already mentioned, our author produced some ver- 
sions of select parts of the ancient poets, which have done him 
great honour, in the opinion of the l)est judges; and amongst 
his other occasional productions, we find two pieces of the 
dramatic kind, which show that he had a fine taste for music as 


well as for poetry. These are The Judgment of Paris — a Masque, 
and The Opera of Semele; tlie former of wliicli was acted with 
great applause, and the latter finely set to music by his friend, 
Mr. John Eccles, who was a very elegant composer. In the 
latter part of his life, Congreve was very much afflicted with 
the gout; and at length his constitution was so imjjaired by this 
disorder, that he felt himself sinking into a gradual decay. In 
this condition he went to Bath for the benefit of the waters, in 
the year 1728, where he had the misfortune to be overturned in 
his chariot; and from that hour he complained of a pain in his 
side, which was supposed to arise from some inward biiiise. 
Upon his return to London, his health declined more and more ; 
and on the 19th of Januaiy, 1728-9, he breathed his last, at 
his house in Surrey Street, in the Strand. On Sunday, the 
26th of the same month, his corpse lay in state in the Jei-usalem 
Chamber; from whence it was carried the same evening, with 
great decency and solemnity, into King Henry the Seventh's 
chapel at Westminster, and was interred in the abbey. The 
pall was supported by the Duke of Bridgewater, the Earl of 
Godolphin, Lord Cobham, Lord Wilmington, the Hon. George 
Berkeley, and Brigadier-General ChurchUl; and Colonel Con- 
greve followed as chief mourner. Some time after, an elegant 
monument was erected to his memoiy by the Duchess of Mai-l- 
borough, to whom he bequeathed all his property, with the fol- 
lowing inscription: — "Mr. Wm. Congreve died Jan. 19, 1728, 
aged fifty-six [at least 58 or 59], and was buried near this place; 
to whose most valuable memory this monument is set up by 
Hem-ietta, Duchess of Marlborough, as a mark how dearly she 
remembers the happiness and honour she enjoyed in the sincere 
friendship of so worthy and honest a man; whose \'irtue, can- 
dour, and wit, gained him the love and esteem of the present 
age, and whose writings will be the admiration of the future." 
Mr. Congi'eve's manners and conversation were extremely 
engaging, and he not only lived in familiarity with the greatest 
men of his time, but they courted his frieudshij) by rendering 
him every good otiice in their power. It has been obsei'ved, 
that no change of the Ministry aftected him in the least; nor 
was he ever removed from any place that was given him, unless 
it were to a better. His place in the custom-house, and his 
other appointments, are said to have brought him in more than 
twelve hundred pounds a year; from which revenue, though he 
lived in a manner suitable to his fortune, his good economy 
enabled him to save a considerable estate. It has been observed, 
likewise, that no man of his parts and learning ever passed 


through life with more ease, or more vmmolested by his com- 
petitors for fame. In the dawn of his reputation he endeared 
himself to the greatest wits of his time, and he always con- 
tinued to receive the tiniest marks of a sincere regard from men 
of fenius and learning, in whose contentions he was never 
involved. He lived in a state of friendshi]) with Mr. Addison 
and Sir Richard Steele, who testified their personal esteem for 
him, and their high opinion of hLs writings, upon many occa- 
sions; and he was particularly honoiu'ed with the respect and 
applause of Mr. Pope, who, it is well known, disdained the 
thought of paying a servile court to any man, and scorned to 
prostitute his praises. The commendations which that poet 
bestowed on Congreve w^ere no more than justice demanded, 
when he thus expressed himself at the close of his postscript 
to the translation of Homer: — "Instead of endeavouring to 
raise a vain monument to myself, let me leave behind me a 
memorial of my friendship with one of the most valuable men, 
as well as finest writers of my age and country : one who has 
tried, and knows by his own experience, how hard an under- 
taking it is to do justice to Homer, and one who, I am sure, 
sincerely rejoices with me at the period of my labours. To 
him, therefore, having brought this long work to a conclusion, 
I desii-e to dedicate it, and to have the honour and satisfaction 
of placing together in this manner the names of Mr. Congreve 
and of A. Pope." The fame of Congreve was not confined to 
his own country. It was spread through every pai-t of Europe 
by the celebrated Yoltaire, who, when he was in England, 
visited our author, and, in liis letters on the English nation, has 
spoken of him in these terms: — "Mr. Congreve raised the 
glory of comedy to a greater height than any English writer 
before or since his time. He wrote only a few plays, but they 
are excellent in their kind. The laws of the drama are strictly 
observed in them. They abound with characters, all which are 
shadowed with the utmost delicacy; and we don't meet with so 
much as one low or coarse jest. The language is everywhere 
that of men of fashion, but their actions are those of knaves — 
a proof that he was perfectly well acquainted with human 
nature, and frequented what we call polite company. He was 
infirm, and come to the verge of life, when I knew him. Mr. 
Congreve had one defect, which was his entertaining too mean 
an idea of his first profession — that of a writer — though it was 
to this he owed his fame and fortune. He spoke of his works 
as of trifles that were beneath him; and hinted to me in our 
first conversation, that I should visit him upon no other footing 


than that of a gentleman who led a life of plainness and sim- 
plicity. I answered, that had he been so unfortunate as to be a 
mere gentleman, I should never have come to see him; and I 
was very much disgusted at so unseasonable a piece of vanity." 
It is no wonder that Voltaire was chagrined at such a recep- 
tion; for it was necessary to his own good opinion of himself, 
that the name of poet should be esteemed a most honourable 
appellation. But the case was difl'erent with Congreve, who, 
whatever may have been his former love of fame and sensibility 
to praise, was now got beyond the season of such gratifications; 
and having no longer the pride of an author about him, was 
unwilling to be considered and conversed with merely as such. 
An d in this, perhaps, he merited commendation rather than 
blame. In other respects this admirable wi'iter has done justice 
to his character.* Congreve was considered veiy handsome. The 
best portrait of him is that amongst the kit-cat series presented 
to Jacob Tonson, and now at Bayfordbuiy, Herts.t Congreve's 
works were published in 3 vols. 8vo. ; and they have been most 
elegantly repx'inted by Baskerville, &c. — See also Leigh Hunt's 
Dramatic Works of }Vycherley, Congreve, &c. For an engraved 
portrait of Congreve, see vol. viii. of the British Biography; 
for additional information, see Kippis's Biographia Brita7inica ; 
Johnson's English Poets, by Chalmers, vol. x. ; Memoirs of Wm. 
Congreve, Esq.; Cunningham's Lives of Eminent and Illustrious 
Englishmen; the Biograjihie Universelle, vol. ix. ; Chambers's 
Cyclopaedia of English Literature, vol. i., p. 593; and the Bio- 
graphical Dictionaries of Chalmei-s, Knight, Hose, (tc. And for 
still later information, see Johnson's Lives of the Poets, by Cun- 
ningham, vol. ii., p. 231, (kc. 



A native of Leeds, whom Dr. "Whitaker, the editor of Thoresby's 

Works, designates a " true antiquary," to whose industry and 

exactness in recording the transactions of this town and parish 

* " Congreve! the justest glory of our age ! 
The whole Kenander of the English stage ! 
Thy comic muse, in each complete design, 
Does manly sense and sprightly wit combine." 
t Another authority in Notes and Queries says that the best portrait of 
Congreve is undoubtedly that by Sir Godfrey Kneller, now in the possession 
of the junior branch of the family. "Wm. Congi-eve, Esq., of Congreve, in 
Staffordshire; and Richard Congreve, Esq., of Barton, in Cheshire, are the 
present representatives of this ancient family. Their motto is, "Won vioritur 
cujus fama vivit" — He dies not whose fame survives. See Burke's Landed 
Oentry, &c. 


for a series of years, lie acknowledges himself to have been 
greatly indebted. He was the third son of the Rev. William 
Bridges, M.A., vicar of Castleford, and Sarah, daughter of 
Richard Lodge, of Leeds; and he was born in the year 1683. 
His brother, the Rev. William Bridges, who succeeded his 
father as rector of Castleford, having built there a very good 
house for himself and successors, died in 1729. He married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Francis and Elizabeth Stapleton, formerly 
of Bradford, in this county. Mr. Bridges had also gathered 
the most valuable collection of ancient medals which this town 
or neighboui'hood has had to boast since Thoresby's museum. 
They vrere recently in the possession of his grandson, Francis 
Sharp Bridges, Esq., of Little .Horton, near Bradford. He 
died on the 9th of February, 1735, aged fifty-two years; and 
there is in the cemetery of St. John's, Leeds, an inscription in 
Latin to his memory.— For a copy of which, and also for 
his pedigree and other particulars, see Thoresby's Ducatus 
Leodiensis, p. 73; Whitaker's Loidls and Elmete, pp. 63, 354, 




Minister of St. John's, and founder of Trinity church, Leeds, 
was the son of the Rev. Henry Robinson, B.D., vicar of 
Leeds, who bore the same Christian and surname. He was 
bom August 9th, 1646, and was appointed minister of St. 
John's church, Leeds, on the 25th of November, 1683, which 
he held for about thirteen years (until 1696). He married 
Sarah, relict of Wm. Hutchinson, Esq., mayor of Leeds, in 
1672. He died Jvily 26th, 1736, aged ninety, about forty 
years after his resignation. Thoresby, who rejoiced in every 
good work, just lived to see the plan, and to contribute to the 
erection of another church in Leeds (Holy Trinity), endowed 
by Mr. Henry Robinson, the nephew of the magnificent founder 
of St. John's. For a fine engraving of Trinity church, see 
Whitaker's Loidis, p. 65.'"'' The fabric is a correct and beautiful 
edifice, built with durable moorstone of the Doric order, though 
the capitals of the columns within are composite. It may be 
doubted whether the first proposal for erecting Trinity church 
originated with ]Mr. Robinson, — who certainly prondsed to endow 

* In Thoreslsy's engraving, prefixed to the Vicaria (1724), there appears only 
a square tower, and the adoption of tlie extinguisher, which now appears on 
the top, was unquestionably one instance among many of private interfer- 
ence, by which the better judgment of real architects is often overruled, and 
for which they are unjustly considered as responsible. — Z>?'. Whitaker. 


it, when built, with lands of the annual value of ,£80, — or with 
Thomas Layton, Esq., of Rawdon, who, after having engaged 
to contribute ,£1,000 to the edifice, incui'red no small reproach 
by failing to pex-fonn his undertaking. This defect, however, 
was supplied by Lady Elizabeth Hastings (a name never to be 
mentioned without honoui-), who, on March 21, 1721, entered 
into an engagement to defray half the expense of the building, 
pi'ovided that such half did not exceed £1,000, and on condition 
also that Mr. Robinson should endow the church when built, 
according to his former promise. This sum was soon doubled by 
subscription, and the site ha\aag been purchased for .£175, the 
foundation-stone was laid by Mr. Henry Robinson, August 23rd, 
1721. The entire expense of the building was £4,563 9s. Gd., 
of which £3,731 19s. 6d. was the amoimt of the subscriptions; 
and the remainder, namely, £831 10s., was supplied by the sale 
of the pews. The consecration did not take jilace before 
August 21st, 1727, just six years from the laying of the founda- 
tion-stone, the ceremony being performed by Ai'chbishop Black- 
burn. On this occasion Lady Elizabeth Hastings was first led 
with great ceremony into the church, as the principal bene- 
factress to the building. The only eiiitaphs which merit atten- 
tion are those of the venerable founder, whose monument in 
the church was erected to his honour by H. Scott, Esq., nephew 
to the above-mentioned ]Mi\ Robinson, with a long Latin inscrip- 
tion, t There is also the following tablet: — 

"A Schedule of Mr. Roljinson'a Public Cliarities : — To the endowment of 
this Chapel, £2,000. To procure the Bounty of Queen Anne for 

St. Saviour's, York .... £200 

Holbeck eh. (lands) .... 200 

Thorparchvic. 200 

Bramleych. 200 

Honley ch 50 

Lightcliffech 50 

Deanhead ch 50 

Flockton ch 50 

Sandal vie 50 

Beeston ch 40 

Binglev vie £100 

Wighillvic 100 

Giggles^vick vie 100 

Ossettchap 200 

Headingley ch 100 

Holmfii-th ch 100 

Horbui-y ch 200 

Hamiljy rect 200 

Dronfieldvic 200 

Tadcastervic 200 

Chapel- Allerton ch 100 

" To the Charity Schools of 
Leeds, during life, £255; Rotherham, £100; Kirkburton, £100 ; left by will to 
Leeds Charity School, £200 ; the Society for Propagating the Gospel, £200. 

" Go, and do thou likewise." 

For additional information, see Thoresby's Vicaria Leodiensis ; 
and for his pedigree, &c., Whitaker's Loidis andElmete, p. 96, &c. 

t In this church there is also a tablet, — "In memory of the Rev. James 
Scott, A.M. (1700-1782), first minister of this church, to which he was nomi- 



Was tlie daugliter of Tlieoj>hiliis, seventh Earl of Huntingdon, 
and Elizabeth, daughter and co-heir of Sir John Lewis, Bart., 
of Ledstone, near Leeds; and was born on the 19th of April, 
1682. In lier childhood she was remarked for a sweetness of 
countenance, expressing at once dignity and modesty, for an 
ingenuous tempei", an aptness of understanding, a tractable will, 
and a devout frame of spirit, which early disposed her to an 
awful sense of holy things. She was sister to George, the 
eighth Earl of Huntingdon, who carried the sceptre at the 
coronation of Queen Anne, and who died unmarried, February, 
1704. When she thus became, at the age of twenty- two, the 
mistress of a large fortune, her character was necessarily more 
known to the world, and she was observed to be somewhat more 
than a lady of great beauty and fine accomplishments, of con- 
descension and good nature, and regular observance of religious 
duties. In order to increase the stock of wisdom and know- 
ledge, which she had laid in by her own endeavours, and by 
assistance from the appointed ministers under whom she lived, 
she cultivated the friendship of such learned men as Archbishop 
Sharpe, Mr. Eobei-t ISTelson, Dr. Lucas, and others, of which 
friendships she spoke with joy more than twenty years after 
the latest of these holy men had left this world. Her residence 
was at Ledstone House, near Leeds, a fine gray-stone building, 
of the style of Queen Elizabeth's reign, standing upon a height 
which looks towaixls the soutli, beaiitiful both within and with- 
out, where slie spent the greater part of her life, diligently 
employing her time there in friendship for those who lived 
with her as friends and neighbours, and charity to those who 
required her assistance. Her beauty and other attractions of 
person, manners, and accomplishments, were such as without 

nated in 1727, by the munificent founder, his maternal uncle, Henry Kobinson, 
A.M., great nephew to the illustrious John Harrison. The duties of his 
sacred function he xjerformed Avith unwearied propriety, dignity, and 
solemnity. A living example of the divine religion he taught ; whose excel- 
lencies, while he illustrated, he was himself one of her brightest ornaments. 
In private life he was revered for his spotless truth and integi'ity, and beloved 
by those who knew him for his cheerful and benevolent disposition ; con- 
cealing under the exterior of a too severe and rigid virtue the most endearing 
sweetness and gentleness of manners. Regretted by the ■wise, and lamented 
by the good, he died full of years and honour, Feb. 11th, 1782, aged 82." On 
a marble slab which covers his remains, there is also a short Latin inscription. 
He married Annabella, daughter of Henry "NYickhara, captain in the Royal 
Navy, and son to the dean of York. He was father to the Eev. James Scott, 
D.D., who died in 1814. See Whitaker'a Loidis, &c. 


her large fortune might easily inspire aifection, but she refused 
the ofi'ers of several among the nobility, and chose to continue 
in a single life; either, it is supposed, that she might make a 
wise and religious use of her great estate, or accounting that a 
single life naturally led to higher perfection. In 1721, she gave 
.£1,000 towards building Trinity chui'ch, in Leeds; but, that 
this donation might not hiu't the mother church there, she 
afterwards offered a farm near Leeds, of £23 per annum, and 
capable of improvement, to be settled on the "vicar and his 
successors, pi'ovided the town would do the like; which the 
corporation readily agreed to, and to her ladyship's benefaction 
added lands of the yearly value of £24, for the application of 
which they were to be entirely answerable to her kindred. In 
the manors of Ledstoue, Ledsham, Thorparch, and Collingham, 
she erected charity schools; and for the support of them and 
other charities she gave, in her lifetime, Collingham, Shadwell, 
and an estate at Burton Salmon. This excellent lady distin- 
guished herself by many works of piety and benevolence. She 
erected schools, built churches, supported many indigent families, 
and at her death bequeathed considerable sums for charitable and 
public uses; amongst which were five scholarships in Queen's 
College, Oxford, for students in divinity, of £28 a year each 
(now worth between £75 and £90 a year), to be enjoyed for five 
years, and, as the rents should rise, some of her scholars to be 
capable, in time, of having £60 per annum, for one or two 
years after the first term. The Free Grammar School, at Leeds, 
is entitled to send one poor scholar to be nominated, in common 
with the following similar establishments, viz. — Wakefield, 
Bradford, Beverley, Skipton, Sedbergh, Eipon, and Sherburn, 
in Yorkshire; Appleby and Haversham, in Westmoreland; and 
St. Bees and Penrith, in Cumberland. When she had entered 
her fifty-fourth year, she began to suffer from a tumour, pro- 
duced by a hurt during her youth, which till that time had 
caused her little or no disturbance, but then increased so 
dangerously that an eminent surgeon decided upon the necessity 
of a most painful operation for remo\'ing the evil. She died at 
Ledstone House, near Leeds, in her fifty-eighth year, December 
22nd, 1739. She was buried in the family vault, near her 
grandfather. Sir John Lewis, on the 7th of Januaiy. A stately 
monument in Ledsham church, near Leeds, aftei-wards aug- 
mented with the statues of her two amiable sisters, records in 
elegant Latin the chai-acter of this ornament of her sex. Her 
own figure is placed on a sarcophagus, reclining, and reading a 
book of devotion; and the countenance, which is a portrait, is 


handsome and spirited. Lady Frances and Lady Ann Hastings 
ai'e placed on pedestals at the sides, and are repi-esented with 
the emblems of piety and prudence. (For a copy of which, see 
Whitaker's Loidis and Elmete.) This lady is described in the 
forty-second number of the Tatler, under the name of Aspasia. 
After speaking of the ladies of that day who were wits, poli- 
ticians, virtuosoes, free-thinkers, and disj)utants, and showing 
how different they were from the women of Shakspeare's time, 
who were only mothers, sisters, daughters, and wives, the paper 
goes on : — " But these ancients would be as much astonished to 
see in the same age so illustrious a pattern to all who love things 
praiseworthy, as the divine Aspasia. Methinks I now see her 
walking in her garden like our fii-st parent, with iin affected 
charms, before beauty had spectators, and bearing celestial con- 
scious vii'tue in her aspect. Her countenance is the lively 
picture of her mind, which is the seat of honoui*, truth, com- 
passion, knowledge, and innocence. In the midst of the most 
ample fortime, and veneration of all that behold and know her, 
without the least affectation, she consults retirement, the con- 
templation of her own being, and that Svipreme Power which 
bestowed it. Without the learning of schools, or knowledge of 
a long course of arguments, she goes on in a steady course of 
uninterrupted piety and virtue, and adds to the severity and 
privacy of the last age all the freedom and ease of this. The 
language and mien of a court she is possessed of in the highest 
degree; but the simplicity and humble thoughts of a cottage are 
her more welcome entertainments. Aspasia is a female philo- 
sopher, who does not only live up to the resignation of the most 
retired lives of the ancient sages, but also to the schemes and 
plans which they thought beautiful, though inimitable. This 
lady is the most exact economist, without appearing busy; the 
most strictly virtuous, without tasting the praise of it; and 
shuns applause with as much industry as others do reproach. 
Tills character is so particular, that it will very easily be fixed 
on her only by all that know her; but I dare say she wiU be 
the last that finds it out." The above character, from the Tatler, 
was written in July, 1709, when she was in her twenty-eighth 
year, and the following, published in Wilford's Memorials, from 
the notices of her after her death in the public prints, is in as 
warm a strain of panegyric: — "The splendour she derived from 
her birth and extraction, though great, strikes but faintly among 
the numerous and shining qualities of this most excellent lady. 
Graceful was her person, genteel her mien, polite her manners, 
agreeable her couvei'sation, strong and piercing her judgment 


and understanding, sacred lier regard to friendship, and strict to 
the last degree her sense of honour; but could all these be 
painted in the liveliest colours, they would make but the lowest 
part of her character, and be rather a shade and abatement 
than add any lustre to it. For, what is infinitely above all, ' she 
did justice, loved mercy, and walked humbly with her God.' 
The whole Christian religion was early planted in her heai-t, 
which was entirely formed and fashioned by it. She learned it 
from the Sacred Scriptures, and the faithful depository of ever- 
lasting truths, the Church of England; whose genuine daughter 
she was, and bore towards our dearest mother as inviolable 
devotion as even those whose names shine amongst the martyrs. 
Her life had chiefly for its dii-ection two gi-eat objects — how she 
might exalt the glory of God, and how demonstrate her own 
good-will towards men. The first she sought by employing all 
her power and capacities for his honour and ser\ice, and what- 
ever related to it was ever in motion, and never discontinued, 
but so far as the weakness of human nature made it necessaiy. 
Her supplications and prayers, intercessions and giving of 
thanks, as they w'ere directed towards heaven, so being dis- 
charged of every weight and incumbrance, and cleansed from 
every impurity and alloy, they easily ascended thither, and the 
holy flame was rarely sufiered to languish, never to go out. Her 
benevolence to her fellow-creatures was such as the good angels 
are blessed with — warm and cherishing, wide and unbounded. 
Thousands and tens of thousands has she comforted and relieved, 
many has she enriched and advanced, and the collective mass of 
mankind daily had her blessings and her prayers. Such was 
the Lady Elizabeth Hastings, not after the gaiety of youth was 
over, and the gratifications of it became deadened by much 
using, but in its eai'ly beginning, through all the stages of life, 
down to its most glorious conclusion. And well may it be 
called so, for, make what demand you will of every virtue, in its 
full height and stature, that can be thought of or wished for, to 
crown a life in everything excellent, and the same might have 
been seen exemplified in her last long and tedious sickness. 
Her patience under God's visitation, and her absolute resignation 
to his will; the continual labour and travail of her soul for the 
enlargement of his kingdom, and the increase of his glory; her 
heaviness and mourning for the sins of other men ; her un- 
weai-ied study and endeavours for their recovery and eternal 
welfare; her generous and charitable appointments; lier tender 
and afiectionate expi-essions to her relations, her friends, and 
sen^ants; and her grateful acknowledgments to her physicians, 


and to those who more immediately attended upon her, would 
requii-e pages to set them in a proper Ught. In short it may 
be affirmed without excess, that scarce any age or country of 
later times has presented to the world a person that was a 
gi'eater blessing to many, and a more illustrious pattern to all." 
She was fond of her pen, and frequently employed herself in 
"wi'iting; but, pre^dousl}' to her death, she destroyed the greater 
part of her papers. A more full account of her life is given in 
English Church Woinen of the Seventeenth Century, and also in 
an " Histoi'ical Character relating to the holy and exemplary 
life of the Eight Honourable the Lady Elizabeth Hastings, 
with the scholastic codicil to her will, and a schedule of her 
charities," written by Thomas Barnard, M.A., master of the 
Pree Grammar School, Leeds (from 1712 to 1750), and pub- 
lished at Leeds, in 1742. — For further pai'ticulars, see Gentle- 
man's Magazine, vols. vi. and x.; Tatler, with notes, voL i., 
p. 346; Chalmers' Biograiyhical Dictionary; Parsons' History 
of Leeds, &c. 


Merchant and alderman of Leeds, lord of the manor of Beeston, 
and justice of the peace for the West-Riding of Yorkshire, 
died December 23rd, 1740, aged seventy-eight yeai-s. He was 
born ISTovember 29th, 1662, being the son of William Milner, 
merchant, of Leeds, who died in 1691, and the grandson of 
Eichard Milner, alderman of Leeds, who died in 1659. He 
married Mary, daughter of Joshua Ibbotson, Esq., mayor of 
Leeds, in 1685, by Mary, daughter of Christopher Brearey, E.sq., 
lord mayor of York in 1666. William Milner was also mayor 
of Leeds in 1697, and a gi*eat benefactor to the Leeds Charity 
School, &c. There was formerly in the south transept of the 
Leeds parish church, a tablet and sarcophagus of marble, 
inscribed as follows: — "Near this place is interred the body of 
William Milner, Esq., alderman and merchant of this town, 
whose eminent knowledge in that business procured him the 
regard, as his uprightness in the exercise of it did the esteem, 
of all he dealt with. His private charities were large, frequent, 
and extensive. His public benefactions were twenty pounds 
per annum to the poor; ten pounds per annum towards the 
repairs of Trinity chapel; and twenty pounds per annum, as a 
stipend for a clergyman to read prayers iu St. Peter's church, at 
seven o'clock in the evening. After a life spent in piety towards 
God, usefulness to his country, tenderness and afl'ection to his 


family, kindness and affability to his friends and acquaintance, 
and benevolence towards all men, lie died universally esteemed, 
beloved, and lamented, on the twenty-third day of December, 
1740, aged seventy-eight years. He married Maiy, daughter of 
Mi\ Joshua Ibbotson, merchant, by whom he had issue, Sir 
"William Milner, Bart.* (who married the daughter of Sir William 
Dawes, Lord Ai-chbishop of York), IMary, Jane, Elizabeth, 
Francis, &c." The white marble Statue of Queen Anne,\ exe- 
cuted by Carpenter (which was thought to be equal, if not 
superior, in point of workmanship, to the one at St. Paul's, in 
London), was, at the expense of Alderman "William Milner, 
erected in front of the Moot Hall,;}: which was removed from 
the centre of Briggate, Leeds, in 1825, since which this beauti- 
ful statue has occupied a niche in front of the Corn Exchange, 
at the head of the same street. It has been re-chiselled, and is 
considered the best marble effigy of Queen Anne extant. There 
were gi-eat rejoicings at Leeds, and a splendid procession and 
festival in honour of the queen, on the day when her statue 
was erected, viz.. May 12th, 1713. For other pai-ticulars, see 
"Whitaker's Loidis and Ehnete, &c. 

* I. Sii- William was created a baronet in 1717 ; married Elizabeth, 
daughter of His Grace Sir William Dawes, Bart., Archbishop of York, by 
whom he had a son and a daughter. He represented the city of York in 
parliament, and died in November, 1745. 

II. Sir William, bom in 1719 ; married in 1747, Elizabeth, youngest 
daughter and co-heiress of the Rev. George INIordaunt. and niece of Charles, 
third Earl of Peterboro', by whom he had William Rlordaunt, his successor 
(George, bom in 1760, a general officer in the army, who died in 1 836 ; Henry 
Stephen, born in 1764, in holy orders, D.C.L.), &c. Sir AYilliam was for many 
years receiver of the excise, and died in 1774. 

m. Sir William Mordaunt, bom in 1754 ; married in 1774, Diana, eldest 
daughter of Humphrey Stui-t, Esq., of Dorsetshire. He represented the city 
of York in three parliaments, and died in September, 1811. 

rV^. Sir William Mordaunt Sturt, bom in October, 1770 ; married first in 
1803, Selina, only daughter of the Eight Hon. Theophilus Clements, and niece 
of the first Earl of Leitrim ; secondly, in May, 1809, Harriet Elizabeth, 
daughter of Lord Edward Charles Cavendish Bentinck (brother to the Duke 
of Portland), by whom he had the present baronet, &c. He died in March, 

V. Sir William Mordaunt Edward, bom in June, 1820 ; married in April, 
1844, Lady Georgiana Anne, sister of the present Earl of Scarboro', and has 
issue WilUam Mordaunt, born in May, 1848, kc. The present baronet is a 
deputy -lieutenant for the AYest-Riding, and has sat for York in parliament, 
&c. See Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, kc. 

+ For a large engraving of the Statue of Queen Anne, see Thoresby's 
Ducatus Leodiensis, 1715, i>. 250. 

X For a fine engraving of the Moot HaU, see Whitakei-'s Thoreshij, p. 248, 
kc. The foUowing inscription, translated from the Latin, in letters of gold 



This very extraorclinary aud celebrated person was bom at 
Oulton, in the parish of Rothwell, about five miles from Leeds, 
on the 27th of January, 1662. His ancestors were respectable, 
and long possessed an estate at Heptonstall, in the parish of 
Halifax. James Bentley, the grandfather of the subject of the 
present sketch, was a captain in the royaKst army in the civil 
wars, who was involved in the fate of his party; his house was 
plundered, his estate was confiscated, and he died a pxisoner in 
Pontefract Castle. Thomas Bentley, the son of this martyr to 
royalty, who owned a small estate at Woodlesford, married in 
1661, Sarah, the daughter of Richard Willis, of Oulton, who 
had also been an officer in the array of Charles I. ; he being then 
a widower considerably advanced in life, while she was only 
eighteen. To this gentleman, who was left his guardian, 
Richard Bentley was, in part, indebted for his education; and 
having gone through a day school at Methley, and the Grammar 
School at Wakefield, with singular reputation, both for his pro- 
ficiency and liis exact and regular behaviour, he was admitted 
a si^ar of St. John's College, Cambridge, under the tuition of 
Mr. Johnson, on the 24th of May, 1676, being then only four 
months above fourteen years of age. In 1680 he took his 
degree of Bachelor of Arts, on which occasion his name ap- 
peared sixth in the list of mathematical honours. On the 22nd 
of March, 1681-2, he stood candidate for a fellowship; and 
would have been unanimously elected, had he not been excluded 

upon black marLle, was subsequently ordered by the Corporation to be placed 
thereunder, at their expense : — 

"Mark ims elegant Statue, 
(Superior even to that of St. Paul's, in London,) 


(Though far surpassing every representation,) 




This statue was removed to the Com Exchange, at the top of Briggate, in 
1828, and the following is the inscription now beneath it : — 

"This Statue of QUEEN ANNE was erected 

AT the cost of Alderman MILNER, 

IN the front of the ancient Moot Hall, a.d. 1712; 

WAS restored at the expense of the Corporation, 


THE Moot Hall having been purchased by the Town, 



by the statutes, on account of his being too young for priests' 
orders. He was then a junior bachelor, and but little more 
than nineteen years old. It was soon after tliis that he became 
a schoolmaster at Spalding. After twelve months he accepted 
the office of private tu.tor to the son of Dr. Stillingfleet, dean 
of St. Paul's — an office in which he enjoyed the benefit of one 
of the best private libraries in the kingdom, as well as the 
society of its learned possessor. In July, 1683, he took his 
degree of Master of Aii:s. He had all along been looking for- 
ward to taking holy orders; but in 1685, when he completed 
his twenty-thii'd year, James II. came to the throne; and his 
hostility to the Church of England made Bentley pause a while 
in his intention. He afterwards went, with Dr. Stillingfleet's 
son, to the University of Oxford, and being then at age, he 
made over a small estate, which he derived from his family, to 
his elder brother, and immediately laid out the money he 
obtained for it in the pnrchase of books. It is recorded of 
him, that having, at a very early age, made surprising progress 
in the learned languages, his capacity for critical learning soon 
began to display itself. Before the age of twenty-four, he had 
written with his own hand a sort of Mexajjla, a thick volume 
in 4to., in the first column of which was every word of the 
Hebrew Bible, alphabetically disposed ; and in five other 
columns all the various interpretations of those words in the 
Chaldee, Syi'iac, Vulgate Latin, Septuagint, Aquila, Symma- 
chus, and Theodosian, that occur in the whole Bible. This 
he made for his own use, to know the Hebrew, not from the 
late Rabbins, bvit from the ancient versions, when, excepting 
Arabic, Persic, and Ethiopic, he must then have read over the 
whole Polyglott. He had also at that time made, for his own 
private use, another volume in 4to., of the various lections and 
emendations of the Hebrew text, drawn out of those ancient ver- 
sions, which, though done at such an early age, would have made 
a second part to the famous Capellus's Critica Sacra. On the 4th 
of July, 1689, he was incoqiorated M.A. in the Univex-sity of 
Oxford, where he could for a time revel in the treasiu'es of the 
Bodleian; and is mentioned by Anthony Wood (though then 
but a young man a good deal under thirty) as a genius that 
was promising, and to whom the world was likely to be indebted 
for his future studies and productions. Being ordained deacon 
at length, in 1G90, he received the appointment of chaplain to 
the Bishop of Worcester. Meanwhile he did not neglect his 
classical studies. In 1091, he published a Latin epistle to John 
Mill, D.D., containing some critical observations relating to 


Johannes Malala (or Malela-s), Greek Historiographer, published 
at tlie end of that author, at Oxon, in a large 8vo. This was 
the tirst piece that our author published. Nor was religion less 
indebted to him than learning, for in 1692 he had the honour 
to be selected as the first person to preach at Boyle's Lectures 
(founded by the Hon. Robert Boyle, to assert and vindicate the 
fundamental truths of natural and I'evealed religion), upon 
which occasion he successfully applied Sir Isaac Newton's 
Principia Maiheinatica* to demonstrate the being of God, and 
altogether sUenced the atheists, who, in this country, have, 
since that time, for the most part, sheltered themselves under 
Deism. Evelyn was in St. Martin's church when the second of 
these addresses was delivered; and the high opinion he there 
formed of the author's merits led to a warm friendship 
between them. Bentley's Boyle Lectures are deservedly 
esteemed, liave passed through many editions, and been trans- 
lated into several foreign languages. There is a good edition 
by the Rev. A. Dyce, which will amply repay perusal. On the 
2nd of October, 1692, he was installed a prebendaiy of Wor- 
cester by Bishop Stillingfleet. Upon the death of Mr. Justel, 
Mr. Beutley was immediately thought upon to succeed him as 
keeper of the royal library at St. James's; and accordingly, a 
few months after his decease, he had a warrant made out for 
that place from the secretary's office, December 23rd, 1693, and 
had his patent for the same in April following. Soon after he 
was nominated to that office, before his patent was signed, by 
his care and diligence he procured no less than a thousand 
volumes of one sort or another, which had been neglected to be 
brought to the library, according to the act of parliament then 
subsisting, which prescribed that one copy of every book 
printed in England should be brought and lodged in this library, 
and one in each University library. In the following year he 
was made one of the chaplains in ordinary to the king. It was 
about this time, and upon this occasion of his being made 
librarian, tliat the famous dispute between him and the Hon. 
Charles Boyle, whether the Epistles of Phalaris were genuine 
or not, in some measure, at first took rise, which gave occasion 
to so many books and pamphlets, and has made so much noise 

* Newton's Principia had been published about six years, but was as yet 
little understood ; and to Bentley belongs the credit of first presenting it to 
the public in an inviting fonn. It is related in Nichols's Litemry Anecdotes 
"that Dr. Bentley, when in town, was frequently at Sir Isaac's table; and 
that his behaviour was singidarly haughty and inattentive to every one but 
Newton hirpself," 


in the world. Bentlej rejoined by liis enlarged Dissertation on 
Phalaris, a volume of lasting value to the lovers of ancient 
literature. The loudness of the outcry raised against him made 
him write cautiously, and therefore well. In the words of 
Macaulay, in his Essay on Sir William Temple: — "His spirit, 
daring even to rashness, self-confident even to negligence, and 
proud even to insolent ferocity, was awed for the first and last 
time; awed, not into meanness or cowarcUce, but into wariness 
and sobriety. For once he ran no risks, he left no crevice un- 
guarded, he wantoned in no paradoxes; above all, he returned no 
railing for the railing of his enemies. In almost everything that 
he has written, we can discover proofs of genius and learning. 
But it is only here that his genius and learning appear to have 
been constantly under the guidance of good sense and good 
temper." As to its more endiuiug efiect, it may not be too 
much to assert that, as Bentley himself may be considered the 
" progenitor of the great and enlightened philologers of Ger- 
many," so the Phalaris in particular "paved the way for 
Niebuhr's History of Rome.'" When, in 1696, he was admitted 
to his degree of D.D., he preached, on the day of the public 
commencement, from 1 Peter iii. 15, "Be ready always to give 
an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope 
that is in you." In 1700, upon the resignation of Dr. Mon- 
tague, he was by the Crown presented to the Mastership of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, which is reckoned worth near 
£1,000 per annum,'"" and was also in the same year Yice-Chan- 
cellor of the University; upon obtaining which preferment, he 
resigned his prebend of Worcester; but June 12th, 1701, on Dr. 
Saywell's death, he was collated archdeacon of Ely. It had 
been intended that the young Duke of Gloucester, on whom the 
hopes of the nation then rested, should be educated under the 
immediate superintendence of the new Master; but this design 
was frustrated by the death of the former, July 29th, 1700. 
What next employed his critical genius were the two first 
comedies of Aristophanes. Upon these he made some curious 
annotations, which were published at Amsterdam in 1710; as 
was much about the same time at Elieims his Emendations, &c., 
on the Fragments of Menander and Philemon, in the feigned 
name of " Phileleutherus Lipsiensis." Under this character he 
appeared again, in 1713, in remarks upon Collins's Discourse on 

* In after years he refused to excliaiige it for the bishopric of Bristol ; and, 
being asked by the minister what preferment lie would consider worth his 
acceptance, wisely replied, in a sentence that might have been pointed by 
Diogenes, " that which wo\ild leave him uo reason to wish for a removal," 


Freethinking, — a book wliich had made no small noise in the 
wox'ld at that time. This he handles and confutes in a critical, 
learned, and yet familiar manner. Before his Remarks on Free- 
thinking, in 1711, came forth his so long-expected and cele- 
brated edition oi Horace. On the 5th of* November, 1715, the 
doctor preached a sermon before the University against Popery, 
on which somebody soon after published remai"ks which occa- 
sioned Dr. Beutley's answer, entitled Reflections on the Scandal- 
ous Aspersions cast on the Clergy, hy the Author of the Remarks 
on Dr. Beutley's Sermon on Popery, &c. This was printed in 
1717, in 8vo. In 1716, at which time he succeeded to the chair 
of Regius Professor of Divinity, the doctor had two printed 
letters inscribed to him, dated January 1st. He very shortly 
added his answer concerning his intended edition of the Greek 
Testament, giving some account of what was to be expected in 
that edition. In 1725, at a public commencement on the 6th 
of July, the doctor made an elegant Latin speech on creating 
seven doctors of divinity. About 1732, the doctor published 
his Milton's Paradise Lost, when he was, as he says in his 
preface, about seventy years old. This is a very elegant and 
beaiitiful edition of that poem, but cannot be said to have con- 
tributed much to the editor's reputation. The dispute between 
Dr. Bentley and the University, and the proceedings of the 
latter agaiust him, we have no inclination to detail, nor would 
the narrative be either agreeable or useful to our readers. It 
originated in a demand which Dr. Bentley made of four guiueas 
from several doctors who were attending in the senate house 
to receive their degrees the day after a visit from the king 
(George I.).* Those who are inclined to examine further into 
the dispute may peruse the well-wi-itten life of Bentley, by 
Hartley Coleridge, in his Northern Worthies. Bentley, it is 
well known, gained the victory in the contest, and the Court of 
King's Bench sent down a mandamus to restore Dr. Bentley 
to whatever honours he might have been deprived of in the 
course of the dispute. After this triumjih he employed himself 
in various literary undertakings until his death, July 14th, 
1742, aged eighty years. Bentley's character was disting-uished 
by sternness and perha])s querulousness ; his wit was caustic and 
severe; and whatever commendation may be bestowed upon 

* Hartley Coleridge, in his Biographia Borcalis, offers some palliation for 
this conduct. Considering the trouble and expense to whicli Bentley was 
put by this visit of George I. , and the easy terms on which the new doctors 
of divinity, owing to the same event, obtained their degree, he thinks the 
latter might have paid the fee with a good grace. 


him as one of the most learned men of his day, he could not 
have been involved in so many quarrels, unless there had been 
something reprehensible as well as unfortunate, both in his 
manners and in his temper.* In his domestic relations Bentley 
was pre-eminently happy. He married, January 4th, 1701, 
Joanna, daughter of Sii' John Bernard, of Brampton, in 
Huntingdonshire; and during the forty years that she shared 
his joys and sorrows, her gentle manners and excellence of dis- 
position did much to smooth his frequently rugged path. She 
died in 1740, leaving three surviving children. Of these, 
E,ichard,t who showed such early promise that he was made a 
Fellow of Trinity College at fifteen, became in after life the 
friend of Horace Walpole. Of the otlier two, who were 
daughters, Elizabeth, the elder, married for her first husband 
Humphrey Bidge, Esq., a Hampshii'e gentleman, and for her 
second the Rev. James Fa veil; the younger one, Joanna,| who 
was the " Phoebe" of Bj^ron's beautiful pastoral in the Spectator, 
married the Bev. Denison Cumberland, afterwards Bishop of 

* Bentley was esteemed by the best judges to be tbe greatest critic ra the 
learned languages of the age in which he lived ; and was more celebrated for 
his extensive and uncommon erudition in foreign nations, than in his own 
country. But there appears to have been something haughty and overbearing 
in his manners and behaviour, which caused him to have many enemies. He 
was also apt to speak too contemptuously of others, and especially if he had 
any personal pique against them. But, independent of the above, Dr. Bentley 
seems to have been a very agreeable and entertaining companion ; and this he 
was enabled to be, not only by his extensive erudition, but by his wit and 
humour, of which he j^ossessed a considerable degree. It was certainly not 
merely the haughtiness of his beha\aour, which procured him enemies in his 
own College and in the University. His superior learning and abilities excited 
envy (he being at that time, there is great reason to believe, the most learned 
man in England, if not in Europe); and many of the Fellows of his College 
were much disgusted at sundrj' regulations which he made therein, though 
those regulations were evidently agi-eeable to the design of the founder, and 
calculated for the promotion and encouragement of learning. And it is said 
that an eminent hnvj'er, who was counsel against him in the trial between 
him and the University of Camln-idge, declared that " he was siu-e Dr. Bentley 
must be a very good and virtuous man, since, in the course of that trial, 
nothing inconsistent with that character could Ijc proved against him." As a 
scholar, Bentley had perhaps no lival ; the only man who can be placed in 
competition with him is Joseph Justus ScaUger ; but, though we are far 
from vrishing to underrate the merits of the latter, we confess that, in our 
opinion, Bentley has more valid claims on the gratitude of the learned. His 
name constitutes an epoch in the history of philology. He united in one 
person the copious erudition of the older schoLirs, and that peculiar felicity 
in verltal emendation which is so remarkable in some modern critics, and 
especially in I'orson and Monk. 

+ His library passed into the hands of his son, Dr. Uichard Bentley, a man 
of learning and talent, but of too desultory habits to obtain eminence in any 
pursuit. The books were purchased after his deatli by the house of Lacking- 
ton, from which they were repurchased by the British Museum. 

X In her honour, when a beautiful girl of eleven, Byron (then a B.A. of 


Kilmore, and became tlie mother of Richard Cumberland, the 
well-known dramatic writer. The letters of this eminent man, 
under the title of The Correspondence of Richard Bentley, D.D., 
were edited by the Rev. Cliristopher Wordsworth, D.D., and 
published, in 1842, in two volumes 8vo.* — For his portrait, and 
a very pleasing and eulogistic life, see Richard Bentley, in vol. vi. 
of De Quincey's Works, Edin., 18G2; and for a more particular 
account, see Life of Richard Bentley, D.D. (with a portrait and 
a vignette of the house in which he was born), by J. H. Monk, 
D.D. (1830), who soon after its publication was raised to the 
bishopric of Gloucester. See also his Life in Coleridge's York- 
shire Worthies; in the Gentleman s Magazine; in Cunningham's 
Lives; in Kippis's Biograjyhia Britannica; in the British Bio- 
graphy; in the Biographic Universelle; a,nd m. the Biographical 
Dictionaries of Chalmers, Knight, Rose, tire. &c. 


Son of Mr. William Cookson, was born in Kirkgate, Leeds, 
September 34th, and baptized October 16th, 1678. He was 
educated at the Grammar School of his native town, and after- 
wards admitted of Christ's College, Cambridge, where he took 
the degrees of B.A. and M.A. He was first settled at Hendon, 
in Middlesex, and on the 17th of November, 1709, became 
lecturer of the parish church of Leeds. In 1710, he married 
Elizabeth, daughter of the Rev. Mr. Smith, of Hendon. t He 
was elected vicar of Leeds, March 4th, 1715-16 (the candidates 
being himself, then lecturer of St. John's, and Dr. Brooke, 
aftei-wards minister of that church). About the year 1738, he 
became sub-dean of Ripon, and died Februaiy 20th, 1745. + Of a 
ministry which continued neai-ly thirty years, we have been able 

Trinity Coll. ), wrote the little pastoral poem found in No. 603 of the Spectator: — 
" My time, O ye Muses, was happily spent, 
"WTien Plicehe went with me wherever I went ; 
Ten thousand sweet pleasures I felt in my breast : 
Sure never fond shepherd like CoLLn was blest," &;c. 
* A series of his letters to and from Dr. Bernard, the Savilian professor, 
is also published in the Museum Criticum, vol. ii. ; together with a series of 
emendations on the Greek Plays, previously unpublished. Dr. Bentley also 
published, in 172.5, a new edition of Terence and Fhadrus, which was 
reprinted in 1726-7. — See Chambers's Cyclop, of Eng. Lit, vol. i., p. 660. 

+ He had a son, the Rev. Edward Cookson, M.A., bom in 1712, who also 
became lecturer at the Leeds parish church. 

X The following Epitaph on the Rev. Joseph Cookson, vicar of Leeds, 
was -vvritten by the Rev. Francis Fawkes, M.A., in 1747 : — 
"Wrapt in cold clay, beneath this marble lies 
"V^Tiat once was generous, eloquent, and wise ; 


to learn but very little. From the specimen of Mr. Cookson's 
funeral sermon for his predecessor, it is impossible not to think 
favourably of his piety, and of his talents as a preacher. An 
irregular practice of baptizing children of the higher ranks at 
home, having been conuived at by his predecessor, Mr. Killing- 
beck, had become inveterate. Mr. Cookson's mode of redi-essinc 
the evil was ingenious. During the mayoralty of his brother 
(Wm. Cookson, either in 1725 or 1738),* having been invited as 
usual to perform that ceremony in a private house, he complied, 
and procured himself to be jjresented for the irregularity in the 
ecclesiastical court at York, with which he had a good under- 
standing on the subject. Tliis, of course, broke through the 
practice. In the year 1727, Mr. Cookson rebuilt the vicarage- 
house and offices upon the ground in the Vicar's Croft (now 
the Kii-kgate market), which, Avith the lands they stood upon, 
were given in 1453, by William Scott, of Potternewton, and 
which, after standing nearly a centur\', were taken down, and 
the site and croft converted into a lai'ge public market. A 
large and handsome house in Park Place was pm-chased as the 
future vicarage. After the death of Mr. Cookson, a severe con- 
test followed. The candidates were James Scott, A.M., curate 

A genivis form'd in every light to shine, 

A well-bred scholar, and a sage divine ; 

An orator in every art refin'd, 

To teach, to animate, and mend mankind ; 

The wise and good appro^''d the life he led, 

And, as they lov'd him living, movirn him dead." 
* "William Cookson, Esq. (1G69-1743), alderman of Leeds, buried July 
25th, 1743. N.B. — He was thrice mayor of this corporation, of which he was 
the greatest ornament. His virtues [shined] shone with an amiable lustre 
through the various scenes of life. He was a pious Christian, a generous 
benefactor, an honest tradesman, a tender husband, au indulgent parent, a 
sincere fi;iiend, and a complete gentleman. " The above is an extract from the 
register of the Leeds parish church for 1743. He was the son of William 
Cookson, who was born in 1639, who settled in Leeds about 1652; and was 
the son of Brian Cookson, who was born in 1610, and died in 1685. It is a 
singular fact that the ancestors of this Brian possessed an estate near Settle 
for upwards of 300 years, under the names of Brian and Eobert alternately, 
as is evident from the family deeds. The son, Wm. Cookson, was born at 
Leeds, October 17th, 166'.t ; and married at Roth well, .June '_'2nd, 1701, >Susanna, 
daughter of Michael Idle, Esq., mayor of Leeds in 1690. He was elder 
brother to the Rev. Joseph Cookson, M.A., vicar of Leeds; and was thrice 
mayor of Leeds, iu 1712, 1725, and 1738. He died July 22nd, 1743, and was 
succeeded by his son Thomas, who man-ied Margaret, daughter of William 
Dawson, Esq., and had issue William Cookson, born in 1749, t^^dce mayor of 
Leeds, in 1783 and in 1801, and who died in February, 1811. The Cooksons, 
of Whitehill, in the county of Durham ; and those of Meldon Park, in the 
county of Northumberland, are also descended from this family. Their 
motto is, "Nil dcsperandum" — Never despair. For their pedigree, coat of 
arms, and other particulars, see Burke's Landed Gentry; Thoresby's Ducatus 
Leodimsis, p. 136, &c. 


of Trinity cliurch, Leeds, and Samuel Kirshaw, A.M., rector of 
Coningsby, in Lincolnshire, son of Richard Kirshaw, D.D., 
rector of Ripley. The former was, by nature, arrogant and 
haughty, of no contemptible talents, and confident of success 
from the merits and interest of his family. The pretensions of 
the latter were very different; considerable merit as a clergy- 
man, together with great calnmess, prudence, and discretion. 
The latter was elected. For a further account, see Thoresby's 
Vicaria LeocUensis, &c. 



Was the son of Walter Calverley, Esq., of Calverley, near 
Leeds, and Frances, daughter and heii-ess of Henry Thompson, 
Esq., of Esholt, near Leeds. He married Julia, eldest daughter 
of Sir William Blackett, Bart., in January, 1706; was created 
a bai'onet in December, 1711, and died in 1749. In the parish 
church of Calverley, over the vestry door, there is a large mural 
monument to him, with the following eulogistic inscription: — 
"To the memory of Sir Walter Calverley, of Calverley, Bart. — 
His mother, Frances, daughter and sole heiress of Henry Thom- 
son, of Esholt, Esq. — His wife, Julia, eldest daughter of Sir 
William Blackett, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Bart. — And of his 
two sisters, Ann, maiiied to Benj. Wade, of New Grange 
{near Leeds), Esq., and Bridget, first married to John Ramsden, 
of Growstone, Esq., and afterwards to William Nevile, of Hol- 
beck, Esq. — all of them persons of merit and character. Sir 
Walter was descended from an ancient and eminent famUy;* he 
made it the study of his life to reflect back upon his ancestors 
the lustre which he received from them. He possessed every 
qualification which distinguishes the gi'eat man; he cultivated 

* John Calverley, Esq. , next brother of Sir "William Calverley, Knt. , of 
Calverley, and tenth in direct descent from John Scot, alias Calverley, lord 
of Calverley in 1136, held lands in ChurweU in 1510. His son, Christopher 
Calverley, of Eothwell, who died in 1546, was great-great-grandfather of 
Kobert Calverley, Esq. , of Oidton, near Leeds, who died in 1674, leaving four 
sons, of whom the third, Matthew, bom in 1652, was father of William, bom 
in 1684, who married, in 1714, Frances, daughter and co-heiress of John 
Grosvenor, and dying in 1729, left a son, John, mayor of Leeds, who married 
Mary, daughter of Thomas "Walker, Esq., of Dewsbury, and died in 1783, 
leaving a son, John Calverley, Esq., who assumed, by royal licence, in 1807, 
the name and arms of Blayds. He married Mary, daughter of the Rev. 
Charles Downes, and left at his decease, in 1827, the present John Calverley, 
Esq., who resumed, by royal licence, in 1852, the name and arms of Calverley, 
of Oulton Hall, near Leeds, born in September, 1789; married in May, 1822; 
and has issue, Edmund, born in August, 1826; married in Apiil, 1852, 
Isabella Mary, elder daughter of John Thomas Selwyn, Esq. , of Down Hall, 
Essex, &c. — See Biuke's Landed Gentry/, &c. 


every virtue wliicli adorns the good one. Independent, he 
regarded no interest but the of his country; that 
interest he steadily asserted with prudence, with dignity, ^vith 
spirit. Preferring the tranquillity of retirement to the grandeur 
of a court, he fixed his residence at Esholt; there, by a genex-ous, 
affable hospitality, he circulated hLs fortune through its proper 
channel ; diffused cheerfulness among his friends and neigh boui-s, 
and quickened the industry of his tenants and dependents. 
Fond of agriculture and all the rural arts, he not only improved 
and beautified his own estate, but his admirable skill manifestly 
operated to the general emolument of this county. 3Ianufac- 
tures and manufacturers were the immediate objects of his 
attention and regard. He was an able and willing patron of 
the diligent poor; these he daily relieved l^y that most bene- 
ficial charity — employment : in the tender characters of the 
hvisband and the father, he discovered the purest conjugal love, 
the truest paternal indulgence and care; as a wise and upright 
magistrate, he commanded obedience to the laws by his autho- 
rity and by his example. In his religion he was warm without 
enthusiasm, strict without superstition. Thus, in the active 
■discharge of his duty to God and to mankind, having reached, 
through temperance and exercise, the eightieth year of his age, 
death, by an easy and gradual dissolution, ojjened to him a 
glorious immortality, the 17th of October, 1749."" Beneath 

* The three following notes ought to have been inserted somewhat earlier : — 
THOiiAS KiRKE, Esq., F.E.S. (1650-1706).— This respectable gentlemaji, 
who lived at Cookridge, near Leeds, was elected a Fellov/ of the Royal Society 
in 1693 ; to which society he aftei-wards communicated An Account of a Lamb 
being Sucked by a Wether Sheep for several Months after the Death of the Ewe. 
(See Philosophical Transactions, vol. xviii., p. 263.) He died April 24th, 
1706, aged fifty-six. In December, 1583, Gilbert Kirke purchased Cookridge 
of Sir Thomas Cecil, afterw-ards Earl of Exeter. Gilbert dying without issue 
in 1586, was buried in St. Peter's church, Leeds, lea%-ing his estate at Cook- 
ridge to Gilbert, second son of his brother, Thomas Kii-ke, of Buslingthorp, 
with a legacy to Frances Kirke, his sister, and gieat-gi-andmother to Ralph 
Thoresby. This Gilbert died in 1628, and was succeeded by his son, Thomas 
Kirke, of Cookridge, gent., who died in 1633. and was sxicceeded by Gilbert 
Kirke, wlio was born in 1624 ; married, in 1649, Margaret, daughter of Francis 
L.ayton, Esq., of Rawdon, and had issue Thomas Kirke, Esq., of Cookridge, 
ju.stice of the peace, Avho was bom December 22nd, 1650 ; married, July 11th, 
1678, Rosamund, daughter and co-heiress of Mr. Robert Abbot, and died in 
1700. " Cookridge," says Thoresby, " is deservedly famous for the noble and 
pleasant walks that this Mr. Kirke has contrived in his wood there. An 
avenue of four rows of trees leads from his liouse to that most sui-prising 
labyrinth, wliich at once delighteth and arauseth the spectator vnih. the 
windings and variously intermixed walks, whicli are so intricate that tliose 
who are engaged in tliem cannot without some difficulty extricate themselves, 
there being no less than 65 centres and about 300 views, better expresseil by 
the plan (see Thoresby"s Ducatus Lcodiensis, p. 1.58) than any description I am 
able to give of it. The whole contains about sLxscore acres, the double line 



wliicli there is also the following inscription: — "Lady Calverley 
was endowed with that equal disposition of mind which always 
creates its own happiness; with that ojoen and flowing bene- 
volence which always promotes the happiness of others; her 
person was amiable and engaging; her manners soft and gentle; 
her behaviour delicate and graceful; her conversation lively and 
instructing ; even her amusements distinguished her a woman of 
sense, having not only innocence but merit to recommend them : 
she fulfilled the endeai'iug oifices of the T\T.fe, the mother, and 
the friend with the most perfect constancy and affection. Her 
virtues were crowned mth a most sincere piety to her Maker, 
the great Author and final Rewarder of all goodness. She died 
the 16th of September, 1736, in the fifty-fii'st year of her age, 
as xiniversally lamented in her death as she had been admired 
in her life." To the memory of these excellent persons, more 
especially of his honoured parents, Sir Walter and Lady 
Calverley; "Walter, theii* only son, now Sir Walter Blackett, 
hath erected this monument, 1752. — Near this place lies the 
body of Sir Walter Blackett, of Wallington, in the county of 
Northumberland, Bart., son of Sir Walter Calverley, Bart., 
who died February l-lth, 1777, aged sixty-nine years. Sir 
Walter Calverley's only daughter, Julia, was married to Sir 

walks are about twenty feet wide, and the single abotffc eigM ; and all kept in 
excellent order by that ingenious gentleman, who has the pleasure (or fatigue, 
shall I say?) of almost all foreigners and gentlemen of curiosity of our own 
nation that travel into the north, and who aftei-wards can as little conceal 
their admiration as before they could their desii-e to see it." The Roman 
rig, or via vicinalis, from the lately-discovered station near Adel Mill (of 
which there is an account in the Philosophical Transactions, No. 282), passes 
through Cookridge, which perhaps might receive its denomination from 
thence. "This rig is evidently in some part of Mr. Ku-ke's gi-ounds, who 
showed me the place where several Roman monuments were dug up ; previous 
to which a statue of a Roman officer, with inscription, had been dug up, both 
which perished through the ignorance and stupidity of the labourers." His 
son, Thomas Kirke, gent., died in January, 1709. According to Thoresby, 
" both the JVIr. Kii-kes were gi-eat virtuosoes in all sorts of learning, and had a 
fine library and museum of curiosities ; all which were sold by auction in 
1710."— For several letters to and fi-om Mr. Kirke, Sir Hans Sloane, Su- 
Godfrey Copley, and Sir John "Wentworth, see Nichols's Ldterary Illustrations, 
vol. iv. , p. 72, &c. For their pedigree and other particulars, see Whitaker's 
Tliareshy, &c. 

Hexky W ATKINSON, EsQ., LL.D. (1628-1712), an excellent civilian, born in 
Kirkgate, Leeds, baptized April 24th, 1628, was the son of Henry Watkin- 
son, Esq., merchant, of Leeds, who died in November, 1638, and Bridget, 
daughter of Thomas Lodge, of Leeds, who Avas married in October, 1625. 
His daughter, Mary, manied "WiUiam Peai-son, LL.D., chancellor of York, 
and rector of Bolton Percy. His brother, Christopher Watkinson, Esq., 
baptized Aiigust 11th, 1630, was mayor of Leeds in 1668, and died in 1676, 
having previously married Mary, daughter of AYilliam Foxley, Esq., twice 
mayor of Hull, whose daughter, Bridget, manied, in April, 1688, Richard 
Thornton, Esq. , recorder of Leeds. Dr. "VVatkinson was educated at the Leeds 


George Trevelyan, Bart., who died December 28tli, 1768, from 
whom is descended the present Sir Walter Calverley Trevelyan, 
Bai*t. — For theii' pedigree and coat of arms, &c., see Thoresbj's 
Ducatus Leodiensis, p. 116.; Burke's Peerage, «tc. 

Who commanded the king's troops at Edinburgh during the 
rebellion in 1745, was a native of Leeds, and the son of a cloth- 
dresser — a business at which he himself laboured in the early 
part of his life.* Of the cu^cumstances which produced his 
elevation, there are at present no trace — at least none to which 
we have access. After the army of Charles Stuart had taken 
possession of the town of Edinburgh, General Guest made use 
of some finesse to engage the rebel army in a siege of the castle, 
and thus prevented them from marching directly into England; 
with this \T.ew, after the battle of Preston, he wrote four or five 
lettei-s addressed to the Duke of ils'ewcastle, Secretary of State, 
stating that there was but a small stock of pro\T.sions in the 
Castle of Edinburgh, and that he should be obliged to surrender 
immediately. These letters fell, as it was designed they should, 

Grammar School, became chancellor and vicar-general to four archbishops of 
York, and died April 22nd, 1712, in his eighty-fom-th year. — For his pedigree 
and other particulars, see Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis, p. 73, &c. 

CrRiL ARxmyGTOX, Esq., F.R.S. (—1720), was in the commission of the 
peace for the West-Eiding of the county of York; and is represented by 
Thoresby, in 1712, "as having then lately erected a noble hall at Artlungton, 
near LeecLs, and furnished it with water convej^ed in pipes of lead from an 
engine by him contrived at his mill upon the river Whai-f ; being an ingenious 
gentleman, and well seen in hydrostatics." He also erected a stately monu- 
ment in [Addle] Adel chiu-ch for his fii-st cousin, Henry Ai'thington, Esq., 
who died in 1681, and to whose estates he succeeded as next heii-. He was 
elected a Fellow of the Eoyal Society in 1701, and died without issue in 
1720. He devised his estate to his brother Sandford, M.D., of Milford, and 
his heirs male, and then to his sister Hardcastle's youngest son, Sandford, 
whose son, Sandford, was rector of Adel, and died in 178S, having previously 
married the Dowager Countess of Mexborough. From a sister of his, Dr. 
Cyril Jackson, the celebrated dean of Christ Chiuch, and Dr. William 
Jackson, who, in 1815, died Bishop of Oxford, were lineally descended. The 
Arthingtons in tlie twelfth century were a very devout and munificent family ; 
for, besides their benefactions to Kirkstall Abbey, in wliich, by a distinguished 
generosity, they preferred to see the flocks of the religious gi-azing on the 
brow in front of the manor-house rather than their own ; they amortized 
another portion of their demesnes for the endowment of a house of nuns at 
Arthington. Of this nunnery not a vestige now remains. — See Nichols's 
Literary Illustrations, vol. iv., p. 74, &;c. For their pedigree, &c., see 
Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis, i>. 7, &c. 

* .(\jiother account states that General Guest was once a servant at the 
Angel Inn, in Halifax : which greatly redounds to his honour, as he was most 
probably promoted for his merit. His parents lived for some time at Light- 
cliffe, near Halifax. See History of Haiijax by Watson, Crabtree, &c. 


into the bands of the rebels, and had the desired effect; and 
there is no douht that his judicious defence of the castle con- 
tributed to retard, in a very considerable degree, the progi-ess of 
the arms of the Pretender, and thereby rendered a very essen- 
tial and lasting service to his country. — See Ryley's Leeds 
Guide, &c. 


Was born in Leeds, in 1684, and educated at St. John's College. 
Cambridge, where he took his degree of Doctor of Divinity. He 
was successively rector of St. Nicholas's, Guildford, and St. 
Wilfred's, Bread Street, London; preacher at Lincoln's Inn, 
prebend of Durham, and vicar of Ealing. This learned and 
eloquent preacher died March 11th, 17-55, deeply regretted. — 
See Gentlemavls Magazine, Arc. 


An eminent physician and 7iietaphysician, was the son of a 
clei'gyman at Armley, near Leeds, where he was born, August 
30th, 1705.* After being for some time at a private school, he 
was admitted of Jesus College, Cambridge, in 1720, and was 
afterwards elected a Fellow of that society. He took his degree 
of A.B. in 1725, and that of A.M. in 1729. He was originally 
intended for the Church, but having some scruples as to sub- 
scription to the thirty-nine articles, gave up that design, although 
throughout the whole of his life he remained in communion 
with the Church of England. He now directed his studies to 
tlie medical pi-ofession, in which he became eminent for skill, 
integrity, and charitable comjDassion. His mind Avas formed to 
benevolence and universal philanthropy, and he exercised the 
healing art witli anxious and eqiial fidelity to the poor and to 
the rich. He commenced practice at Kewark, in Nottingham- 
shire, whence he removed to Bury St. Edmund's, in Suffolk; 
and after this he settled for some time in London. His last 
residence was at Bath. Dr. Hartley was industrious and inde- 
fatigable in the pursuit of all collateral branches of knowledge, 
and lived in j^ersonal intimacy with the learned men of his age. 
The bishops Law, Butler, and Warburton, and Dr. Jortin, were 

* It is also stated, though with less certainty, that he was horn at Illing- 
worth, near Halifax ; his father was curate there, and married, May 25th, 
1707 (?), a daughter of the Rev. Edward "Wilkinson, his predecessor. This 
curacy Mr. Hartley afterwards resigned for the chapelry of Armley, near 
Leeds. — See Watson's and Crabtree's History of Halifax, kc. 

DAVID IL4.RTLEY, M.A., M.D. 165 

his intimate friends, and he was much attached to Bishop Hoadly. 
Among his other friends or correspondents may he mentioned 
Dr. Hales, Mr. Hawkins Browne, Dr. Young (the poet), Dr. 
Byrora, and Mr. Hooke, the Roman historian. Pope was also 
admired by him, not only as a man of genius, but as a moral 
poet; yet he soon saw the hand of Bolingbroke in the Essaij 
on Man. Dr. Hai'tley's genius was jienetrating and active ; his 
industry indefatigable ; his philosophical observations and 
attentions unremitting. From his earliest youth he was devoted 
to the sciences, particularly to logic and mathematics. He 
studied mathematics, together with natural and experimental 
philosophy, under the celebrated Professor Saunderson. He was 
an enthusiastic admirer and disciple of Sir Isaac Newton in 
every branch of literature and philosophy, natural and experi- 
mental, mathematical, histoiical, and religious. His first prin- 
ciples of logic and metaphysics he derived from Locke. He 
took the first rudiments of his own work, the Observations on 
Man, from Newton and Locke; the doctrine of vibrations, as 
instrumental to sensation and motion, from the former, and the 
principle of association originally from the latter, further 
explained by the Rev. Mr. Gay in his Essay on the Fundamental 
Principle of Virtue or Morality, prefixed to Law's translation 
of Archbishop King's Origin of Evil. Dr. Hartley commenced 
the composition of the work, by which he has become universally 
known, at the age of twenty-five, in 1730. It had been the sub- 
ject of his thoughts even previously to this; but the woi-k was 
not finished until sixteen years after, and it was ultimately 
published in. 17-19, when he was about forty-three years of age, 
vmder the title of Observations on Man: his Frame, his Duty, 
and his Exjiectatioiis, in 2 vo]s.,-8vo. His biographer informs 
us that " he did not expect that it would meet with any genei-al 
or immediate reception in the philosophical world, or even that 
it would be much read or undei-stood; neither did it happen 
otherwise than as he had expected. But at the same time he 
did entertain an expectation that at some distant period it would 
become the adopted system of future philosophers." In this, 
liowever, he appears to have been mistaken. We know of no 
"futui'e' philosophers of any name who have adopted his 
system. Dr. Priestley, indeed, published, in 1775, Hartleys 
Theory, &c., toith Essays on the subject of it, but all he has done 
in this is to convince us of his own belief in materialism, and 
his earnest desire to prove Hartley a materialist, who dreaded 
nothing so much, although it must be confessed that his doctrines 
have an ajiparent tendency to that conclusion. Since that time 


Hartley's work was nearly forgotten until 1791, when an 
edition was published by his son, in a handsome 4to. volume, 
with notes and additions from the German of the Rev. Herman 
Andrew Pistorius, rector of Poseritz, in the island of Rugen; 
and a Sketch of the Life and character of Dr. Hartley.* The 
doctrine of vibrations, upon which he attempts to explain the 
origin and propagation of sensation, although supported by 
much ingenious reasoning, is not only built upon a gratuitous 
assumption, but, as Haller has shown, it attributes properties to 
the medullary substance of the brain and nerves, wliich are 
totally incompatible with their nature. Upon his doctrine of 
association the various systems of Mnemonics, which have lately 
been published, are founded. Dr. Hartley was the author of 
some medical tracts relative to the operation of Mrs. Stephens's 
medicine for the stone, a disease with which he was himself 
afflicted ; he was, indeed, principally insti-umental in procuring 
for Mrs. Stephens the five thousand pounds granted by parlia- 
ment for discovering the composition of her medicine, which was 
published in the Gazette in June, 1739. In 1738, he published 
Observations made on Ten Persons v)ho have taken the Medica- 
ment of Mrs. Stephens; and in 1739 his Yieio of the present 
Evidence for and against Mrs. Stei^hens^s Medicine as a Solvent 
for the Stone, containing 155 Cases, with some Exjoeriments and 
Observations, and a Supplement to the Vieiv of the present 
Evidence, &c. His own case is the 123rd in the above-mentioned 
Vieio ; but, notwithstanding any temporary relief which he 
might receive from the medicine, he is said to have died of the 
stone, after having taken above two hundred pounds' weight of 
soap, which is the pi"incij)al ingredient in the composition of that 
celebrated medicine. In the Gentleman' s Magazine for February, 
1746, Dr. Hartley published with his name, Directions for Pre- 
paring and Administering Mrs. Stephens's Medicine in a Solid 
Form. He is also said to have written in defence of inoculation 
for the small-pox, against the objections of Dr. Warren, of 
Buiy St. Edmund's ; and some papers of his are to be met with 
in the Philosophical Transactions. He died at Bath, August 
28th, 1757, aged fifty-two. He was twice married, and left 
issue by both marriages. The philosophical character of Dr. 
Hartley, says his son, is delineated in his works. The features 

* An edition was also jjulilislied. in 3 vols., 8vo., London, 1791. The third 
volume contains a Lije and character of Dr. Hartley, with notes and additions 
by Pistorius. He also wrote The Truth of the Christian Religion, included 
in Bishop Watson's Tracts, kc. — See Nichols's Literary Anecdotes; Darling's 
Cyclopoidia Bihlioyi'aphia, &c. 


of bis private and personal character were of the same com- 
plexion. It may with, peculiar propi-iety be said of him, that 
the mind was the man. " His thoughts were not immersed iu 
worldly pursuits or contentions, and therefore his life was not 
eventful or turbulent, but placid, and undistui'bed by passion or 
violent ambition. From his earliest youth his mental ambition 
was pre-occupied by pursuits of science. His hours of amuse- 
ment were likewise bestowed upon objects of taste and senti- 
ment. Music, poetry, and history, were his favourite recrea- 
tions. His imagination was fertde and correct, his language 
and expression fluent and forcible. His natural temper was 
gay, cheerful, and sociable. He was addicted to no vice in any 
part of his life; neither to pride, nor to sensuality, nor intem- 
perance, nor ostentation, nor envy, nor to any sordid self-interest; 
but his heart was replete with every contrary virtue. The vir- 
tuous principles which are instilled in his works, were the 
invariable and decided principles of his Kfe and conduct." His 
person was of the middle size, and well-proportioned. His 
complexion fair, his features regular and handsome. His coun- 
tenance open, ingenuous, and animated. He was peculiarly 
neat iu his person and attire. He was an early riser, and 
punctual in the employments of the day; methodical iu the 
order and disposition of his library, papers, and writings, as the 
companions of his thoughts, but without any pedantry either 
in tiaese habits or in any other part of his character. His 
behaviour was polite, easy, and graceful; biit that which made 
his addi'ess pecviliarly engaging was the benevolence of heart 
from which that politeness flowed. He never conversed with a 
fellow-creature without feeling a wish to do him good. He con- 
sidered the moral end of our creation to consist in the perform- 
ance of the duties of life attached to each particular station, to 
which all other considerations ought to be inferior and subor- 
dinate ; and conseqiiently that the rule of life consists in 
training and adapting our faculties, through the means of moral 
habits and associations, to that end. In this he was the faithful 
disciple of his own theory; and, by tlie observance of it, he 
avoided the tumult of worldly vanities and their disqixietudes, 
and preserved his mind in sincerity and vigour to perform the 
duties of life with fidelity and without distraction. His whole 
character was eminently and uniformly marked by sincerity of 
heart, simplicity of manners, and manly innocence of mind. 
His son, David Hartley, who was for some time member of 
parliament for Kingston-upon-Hull, and one of the first pro- 
moters of the abolition of the slave-trade, died at Bath in 


1813, aged eighty-four years. — For a more detailed account, see 
liis Life by Ins sou ; Reid's Essays on the Intellectual Poioers, 
p. 84, &c.; Monthly Revieiv, vols, liii., liv., and Ivi.; Watson's 
and Crabtree's History of Halifax, &c. ; Cunningham's Lives; 
H. Coleridge's i\'or(;/ier?^ Worthies; the Biographical Dictionaries 
of Chalmers, Knight, Rose, kc. 

Second son of Henry Ibbetson, Esq., of Red Hall,* Leeds, by 
Elizabeth, daughter and co-heiress of James Nicholson, Esq., 
M.D., of York; having raised a corps of a hundred men, at his 
own expense, during the rebellion of 1745, was, as a recompense 
for Ms loyalty, created a baronet on the 12th of May, 1748^ 
and had, as an honourable addition to his armorial bearings, the 
Golden Eleece, the arms of his native town of Leeds, ingrafted 
on his paternal coat. He married, in 1740, Isabella, daughter 
of Ralph Carr, Esq., of the county of Durham, by whom he 
had ten children. He was elected mayor of this borough in 
1752-3, having served the office of sheriff of the county in 
1748. Sir Henry died in 1761, and was succeeded by his 
eldest son. Sir James,t who, in 1795, was succeeded by Sir Henry , 
Carr Ibbetson, Lc. Then- country-seat was tUl very recently 
at Denton Park, near Otley; and their motto, in English, is, 

* Red Hall was built by Mr. Richard Lodge, a Leeds merchant, in 1628, 
and was afterwards noted for being the birthplace of His Grace the Duke of 
Norfolk, premier peer of Great Britain, upon which honoiu-able occasion it 
was most probably that the three dukes were there, who are said to have 
lodged in that house at the same time. An apartment in this house has also 
been called the king's chamber ever since King Charles I. lodged in it. 

f II. Sir James Ibbetson, who married, in 1768, Jane, daughter of John 
Caygdl, Esq., of Halifax, by Jane, sister of Charles Selwyn, Esq. (and had, 
1 Henry Carr, his successor ; 2, Charles, who inherited the Selwyn estates, 
l:>'ut eventually succeeding his eldest brother, these passed to his younger 
brother ; 3, James, killed by a fall from his horse in 1801 ; 4, John Thomas, 
who acquired the Selwyn estates on his brother Charles inheriting the 
baronetcy in 1825, and assumed in consequence the surname of Selwj'n. He 
married in that year Isabella, daughter of General John Leveson Gower, of 
Berkshire). Sir James was high sheriff for the county in 1769, and in Sep- 
tember, 1770, he' was chosen common coiincilnian of Leeds, being then 
resident in Kirkgate ; he afterwards removed to Bath, where he died in 
September, 1795. 

III. Sir Henry Carr, captain in the 3rd Dragoon Guards, in which regiment 
he served in Flanders under the Duke of York, and was afterwards lieutenant- 
colonel of the West York ]\Iilitia, and high sheriff of Yorkshire in 1793 or 
1803; maiTied in November, 1803, Alicia Mary, only daughter of AVilliam 
Feuton Scott, Esq., of AVoodhall, in this county. Sir Henry died in June, 
1825, when the title devolved upon his brother. 

IV. Sir Charles, born in September, 1779, who resumed in 1825 his 
paternal surname of Ibbetson, which he had relinquished for that of Selwyir, 


" I have lived a freeman, and so will die." This family of the 
Ibbetsons has flourished in the county of York from time 
almost immemorial. — For theix" pedigree, &c., see Whitaker's 
Thoreshy, p. 146; Bui-ke's Peerage and Baronetage, &c. 

The son of a clothier at North-town-end, Leeds; educated at 
the Leeds Grammar School; who, by his industry and abilities 
as a lawyer, was knighted, and elevated to a seat in the King's 
Bench. He died on the 8th of September, 1765, in. the sixty- 
seventh year of his age. His veneration for Chief- Justice 
Gascoigne induced him to order his own remains to be laid 
beside those of the great ornament of the same bench. He 
was buried in Harewood church, near Leeds, where a handsome 
monument, siu-mounted by a bust of the judge, is erected to his 
memory. The inscription is said to have been written by his 
friend, Lord Mansfield. "To the memory of Sir Thomas 
Denison, KJnight. This monument was erected by his afflicted 
"\^T.dow. He was an affectionate husband, a generous relation, a 
sincere friend, a good citizen, an honest man. Skilled in all 
the learning of the common law, he raised himself to great 
eminence in his profession, and showed by his practice that a 
thorough knowledge of legal art is not litigious, or an instru- 
ment of chicane, but the plainest, easiest, and shortest way to 
the end of strife. For the sake of the public he was pressed, 
and at last ]:)i-evailed iipon, to accept the office of a judge in the 
Court of King's Bench. He discharged the important trust of 
that high office with unsuspected integrity and uncommon 
ability. The clearness of his understanding, and the natural 
probity of his heart, led him immediately to truth, equity, and 
justice." Second column: — "The precision and extent of his 
legal knowledge enabled him always to find the right way of 
doing what was right; a zealous friend to the constitution of 
his country, he steadily adhered to the fundamental principle 
upon which it is built, and by which alone it can be main- 
tained, — a religious application of the inflexible rule of law to 

by sign-manual in 1817, under the -nail of his maternal great-uncle, Thomas 
Selwyn, Esq., of Do-wn Hall, Essex. He married, in February, 1812, Cliar- 
lotte Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Tliomas Stoughton, Esq., and had issue 
Charles Henry, &c. 

V. Sir Charles Henrv Ibbetson, Bart., of Leeds, county York, major of 
the .5th West York Militia, born 24th .July, 1814 ; succeeded his father in 
April, 1839 ; married in December, 1847, Eden, widow of Perceval Perkins, 
Esq. , of the county of Durham. —Sec the Peera[/es and Baronetages, &c. 


all questions concerning the power of the Crown and privileges 
of the subject. He resigned his otEce February 14th, 1765, 
because, from the decay of his health and loss of his sight, he 
foiind himself imable any longer to execvite it. He died 
September 8th, 1765, without issue, in tiie sixty-seventh year 
of his age. He wished to be buried in his native county, and 
in. this church. He lies here near the Lord Chief-Justice Gas- 
coigne, who, by a resolute and judicious exertion of authority, 
supported law and government iji a manner which has per- 
petuated his name, and made him an example famous to 
posterity." The founder of the Denison family was William 
Denison, of Leeds, who rose to be an opulent merchant, and 
who had two sons, — 1, William, his heir, who died in 1782; 
2, this Sir Thomas, a distinguished lawyer, appointed one of the 
judges of the Coiirt of King's Bench, 16th February, 1742, 
and died in 1765. Mr. Justice Denison left no issue, and on 
the death of his widow,* his large estates passed, under his 
will, to Edmund, son of the late Sii" John Beckett, Bart., of 
Leeds, who assumed the surname of Denison in 1816.t — For 
further information, see Whitaker's Thoreshy ; Jones's History of 
Hareioood ; Burke's Landed Gentry, <fec. ; Foss's Judges of Eng- 
latid, 1864, vol. viii., p. 266, &c. 

A dissenting minister, but most noted for his zeal as a political 
writer, was born at Leeds, and educated at the University of 
Glasgow, which he quitted in 1740, with very honourable testi- 
monies to his learning and personal character, from the cele- 
brated Dr. Hutcheson, and the mathematical professor, Simpson. 
In 1750, Baron began to distinguish himself as an editor, in 
which capacity he displayed considerable merit, and was of 
essential service to the cause which he so wannly espoused. 

* In the same cliapel, and on the south wall, is a monument to the memory 
of Dame Anne Denison, wife of the above Judge Denison. The inscription 
on her tomb is as follows : — "In the same vault with those of her late hus- 
band, Sir Thomas Denison, Knight, and agreealile to her will, are deposited 
the remains of Dame Anne Denison, daughter of Robert Smithson, Esq. 
(of Leeds). She departed this life the 1st of July, 178.5, in the seventy-second 
year of her age." The present Speaker of the House of Commons, the Right 
Hon. John Evelyn Denison, is also descended from this family. 

t Edmund Denison, Esq., J. P., born .January 29th, 1787; mamed, 
December 14th, 1814, Maria, daughter of AVilliam Beverley, Esq. , of Beverley, 
and great niece of the wife of Sir Thomas Denison, Knt., judge of the 
Common Pleas, and by her has issue — 1, Edmund Beckett — , M.A., born May 
12th, 1816; of Lincoln's Inn, Queen's counsel; married October 17th, 1845, 
Fanny Catherine, second daughter of the Right Rev. John Lonsdale, bishop 
of Lichfield. — 2, Christopher Beckett — , born May 9th, 1825, in the Indian 


He republished about that time a collection of tracts, under the 
title of A Cordial for Low Spirits, in 3 vols., 12mo. ; and thLs 
republication was soon followed by another, entitled Scarce and 
valuable Tracts and Sermons, occasionally jmblished hy the late 
Revere)idj and Learned John Ahernethy, M.A., author oj the 
''Discourses on the Being and^ Perfections of God;" noio first col- 
lected together. The original editions of these tracts were given 
to Baron, when he was a student at Glasgow, by Professor 
Hutcheson, upon a presumption that, some time or other, lie 
might be inclined to publish them. He also published in 1750, 
from a manuscript letter to Archbishop Herring, which fell into 
his hands, Bowers oion Account of his Escape from the Inquisi- 
tion, which first occasioned a suspicion, and led to a detection of 
Bower. Where he passed his time after leaving Glasgow, we 
scarcely know; but, in 1753, he became pastor of the dissenting 
meeting at Pinner's Hall, Broad Street, London : a congi-egation, 
if we are not mistaken, of the Baptist persuasion. Wliat he 
was as a divine is not very clear, but the whole bent of Ms 
studies was to defend and advance ci^■il and religious liberty. 
This zeal led the famous Thomas HoUis, Esq., to engage his 
assistance in editing some of the authors in the cause of free- 
dom, whose works he wished to repi-int with accuracy, and in 
an elegant fonn. Toland's Life of Milton, and Locke's Letters 
on Toleration, were prepared and corrected by ]\Ir. Baron. 
Not long after this, he procured a noble edition of Ludlow's 
Memorials, in folio, to which he wrote a preface. He also 
revised and corrected the folio edition of Algernon Sydney's 
Discourses on Government, and that of Milton's Prose Woi'ks, in 
2 vols., quarto. He likewise republished Nedham's Excellency 
of a Free State, to which he wrote a short preface. For this 
task he was well qualified, being an industrious collector of 
books on the subject of constitutional libei-ty, several of which 
he communicated to Mr. Hollis, with MS. notes or memoranda 
of his own in the blank pages, in which, we are told, he was 
not always in the right. Still he was indefatigable in searching 
for what he reckoned scarce and valuable Liberty-tracts, many 
of which Mr. Hollis bought of him while he lived, and othei-s 

Civil Service.— .3, William Beckett — , horn September 6th, 1826; married one 
of Lord Feversham's daughters ; is a banker at Leeds. Mr. Deuison, who is 
fifth son of the late Sir John Beckett, of Leeds, Bart., and brother of the 
late Right Hon. Sir .John Beckett, Bart, (and heir presumptive to his brother, 
the present Sir Thomas Beckett, Bart.), of Somerby Park, near Lincoln, 
assumed the surname and arms of Denison, by royal licence, in September, 
1816. Their motto is, " Prodesse civibus" — To do good to the citizens. — See 
Burke's Landed Gentry, &c. 


he bouglit at the sale of his books after his death. He was 
also Yigilant in detecting the underhand manoeuvres of men 
whom he knew to be disaffected to public liberty; and it is 
believed that some good Whig pamphlets were the better for 
his notes. In 1 755, Mr. Baron was so fortunate as to discover 
the second edition of Milton's Iconoclastes, of the year 1650, 
which contained large additions to the former edition, and 
which he republished in a thin quarto. He presented several 
copies of his edition to those whom he esteemed. In the copy 
sent to Mr. Pitt was written : — " To William Pitt, Esq., assertor 
of liberty, champion of the people, scourge of impious ministers, 
their tools and sycophants, this book is presented by the editor." 
His jjrincipal publication was a Collection of what he called 
Liberty-tracts, partly wi'itten by Gordon, the translator of 
Tacitus, first published in 2 vols., 12mo., in 1752, under the 
title of The Pillars of Priestcraft and Orthodoxy Shaken. He 
is, however, supposed to have been mistaken, or misinformed, 
concerning the persons to whom he ascribed some of these 
ti-acts. In 1767-8, he prepared another edition, enlarged to 
four volumes, to be published by subscri^^tion, which appeared 
after his death, along with his MS. sermons and other papers. 
His character has been tlius di-awn by no injudicious hand: — 
"Mr. Baron's character was one of the most artless and undis- 
guised that ever appeared in the world. He was a man of 
real and great learning, of fixed and steady integrity, and a 
tender and sympathizing heart. He firmly believed in Revela- 
tion, and for this very reason was infinitely more concerned to 
promote the cause of trath and virtue in the world, than to 
procure any emolument or advantages to himself. No man was 
ever more zealous in the cause of civil and religious liberty than 
Mi\ Baron, The whole bent of his studies led him that way. 
Well did he understand the cause in its utmost extent. 
Warmly was he animated whenever it was the subject of 
debate, and zealously indignant was he when he thought it 
attacked or in danger of subversion. Could he have restrained 
the natural impetuosity of his temper, no man would have had 
more fi-iends, or better deserved them.'"' With many virtues 
and few faults, v>-]iich only wanted the elevation of a higher 
station and a better fate to have assumed the form of virtues, 

* His eagerness and precipitation in favour of the cause he espoused, pre- 
vented Mr. Hollis from having that free and unreserved intercourse with 
him, which his many valuable qualities would otherwise have disposed that 
excellent person to have encoiu'aged and turned to the account of the public 
in various ways. 


Mr. Baron passed tlie greatest part of his life in penurious cir- 
cumstances, which neither abated the generous ardour, nor 
overcame the laudable independency of his spirit. These are 
virtues which, when exerted in a low sphei-e, seldom bring their 
reward to the possessor; yet these, with their blessed efiects, 
were all this good man left behind him for the consolation and 
support of a widow and three children." He died at his house 
at Blackheath, near London, Feb. 22nd, 1768. — For additional 
information, see the Protestant Dissenters' Magazine, vol. vi. ; 
the Memoirs of Thomas HoUis, F.R.S. ; the British Biography, 
vol. X. ; the Biographical Dictionaries of Chalmers, Rose, &c. 

"Was the eldest surviving son of Henry Fox, Esq., who mar- 
ried, secondly, in 1691, the Hon. Frances Lane, daughter of 
Su- George Lane, of Tulske, county Roscommon, principal 
Secretary of State in Ireland, created Yiscount Lanesborough ; 
and sister and heiress of James, Yiscount Lanesborough, who 
died in 1724. This George inherited by will the great estates 
of Lord Lanesborough, and assumed by act of parliament, 
March 22nd, 1750-1, in accordance with the testator's injunc- 
tion, the additional surname and arms of Lane. He was M.P. 
for the city of York, and married, in 1731, Harriet, daughter 
and sole heiress of the Right Hon. Robert Benson, Lord 
Bingley, and was created, on the extinction of his father-in- 
law^'s peerage, in May, 1762, Baron Bingley of Bingley, in the 
county of York.* By this lady, with whom he acquii-ed 
£100,000, and £7,000 a year, he had an only sou, Robert, 
who married, in 1761, Bridget, daughter of the Earl of North- 
ington, but died in his father's lifetime, 1768, without issue. 
Lord Bingley died in 1772 (when the barony became extinct), 
and, having survived his only child, devised his gi-eat estates 
in England and Ireland to his nephew, James Lane Fox, 

* The follow'ing Epitaph to liis next brother, James Fox, E-iq., who died iu 
October, 1753, was written by Francis Fato/cc-% 31. A., in 1754 :— 
"Peace to the noblest, most ingenuous mind, 
In wisdom's philosophic school refin'd, 
TJie friend of man ; to i)ndo alone a foe ; 
Whose heart humane would molt at others' woe. 
Oft has he made the breast of anguish gay, 
And sigh'd, like Titus, when he lost a day. 
All vice he lash'd, or in the rich or great, 
But prais'd mild merit in the meanest state. 
(,'ulm and serene iu virtue's patlis lie trod, 
Lov'd mercy, and walk'd humbly with his God." 


Esq., of Bramham Park, near Leeds. The family of Fox, 
which is of ancient descent, ranks among the most influential 
and opulent in the north of England. — For further particulars, 
see Burke's Lcmded Gentry ; Extinct Peerage, &c. 
In Guiseley church, near Leeds, there is a monument with the 
following inscription: — "Sacred to the memory of Robert 
Stansfield, of Esholt, Esq.* He married Jane, eldest daughter 
and co-heir of Richardson Ferrand, of Harden, Esq. ; and by her 
had two daughters, who died in their- infancy. He depai-ted 
this life September 14th, 1772, aged forty-four years. He was 
of a friendly, generous, and aifectionate disposition, esteemed 
by his acquaintance, beloved by his relations, and was truly 
deser^dng the character of a worthy gentleman." — For the 
Stansfields' pedigree and other particulars, see Whitaker's Loidis 
and Elmete, pp. 202-3, &c.; Burke's Heraldic Illustrations, 
vol. iii.; Commoners of England, vol. iv., &c. 


A poet and miscellaneous wi-iter, was born at or near Leeds, in 
Yorkshire, about the year 1721. He was educated at Leeds, 
under the care of the Rev. Mr. Cookson, vicar of that parish, 
from whence he went to Jesus College, Cambridge, and took his 
Bachelor's degree in 1741, and his Master's in 1745. After 
being admitted into holy orders, he settled at Bramham, in his 
native county, near the elegant seat of that name belonging to 

* Robert Stansfield, Esq., purchased Esliolt Hall (or Priory), in 1755, of 
Sir Walter Blackett, Bart., and died there in 1772. He was the son of 
Robert Stansfield, of Bradford, by Ann, daughter of William Busfield, Esq., 
of Rishworth, near Bingley. His sister Ann, by whom he was succeeded, 
married, in 1758, WilHam Rookes, Esq., of Roydes Hall, near Morley, 
who was senior bencher of Gray's Inn, and formerly of Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge ; and died at Esholt Hall in Februaiy, 1798, and was also buried at 
Guiseley, near Leeds. Her daughter, Anna Maria Rookes, heiress from her 
mother of Esholt Priory, born in July, 1763, married at Otley, in February, 
1786, Joshua Crompton, Esq., thii-d son of Samuel Cromjiton, Esq., late of 
Derby, and had issue "Wm. Rookes Crompton, who, having succeeded to his 
mothei-'s estates, assumed, in compliance with her will, the additional sur- 
name and arms of Stansfield, and is the present "William Rookes Crompton 
Stansfield, Esq., M.A., J.P., &c., recently of E.sholt Hall, near Leeds. See 
Burke's Landed Gentry, &c. — For the pedigree of the Rookes, see AATiitaker's 
Loidis and Elmete, p. 203, &c. 

David Stansfeld, of Leeds, merchant, was descended from the above 
Robert's gi-andfather's brother, John, who died in 1737. He was born in 
Februai-y, 1755; naaiTied, in 1776, Sarah, daughter and heu-ess of Thomas 
Wolrich, Esq., of Aj-mley House, near Leeds, and had issue — 1, Peggy, 


Robert Lane (now George Lane Fox), Esq., the beauties of 
which afforded him the first subject for his muse. He pub- 
lished his Bramham Park in 1745, but without liLs name. His 
next publications were the Descriptions of May and Winter, 
from Gawen Douglas — the former in 1752, the latter in 1754: 
these brought him into considerable notice as a poetical anti- 
quary, and it was hoj^ed that he would have been encouraged to 
modernize the whole of that author's works. About the year 
last mentioned, he removed to the curacy of Croydon, in Surrey, 
where he was noticed by Archbishop Herring, who resided 
there at that time, and to whom, among other complimentary 
vei'ses, he addressed an Ode on Ms Graces Recovery, which was 
printed in Dodsley's collection. These attentions, and his 
general merit as a scholar, induced the archbishop to collate 
him, in 1755, to the vicarage of Orpington, with St. Mary 
Cray, in Kent. In 1757, he had occasion to lament his patron's 
death in a pathetic elegy, styled Am'elius, printed with his 
Grace's sermons in 1763, but pre"ST.ously in our author's volume 
of poems in 1761. About the same time he married Miss 
Furrier, of Leeds. In April, 1774, by the late Dr. Plumptre's 
favoui-, he exchanged his vicarage for the rectory of Hayes, in 
the same county. This, except the ofiice of chaplain to the 
Princess Dowager of Wales, was the only ecclesiastical pro- 
motion he obtained. In 1761, he published by subscription a 
volume of Original Poems and Translations, by which he got 
more profit than fame. His subscribers amounted to nearly 
eight hundred, but no second edition was called for. Some 
other pieces by him are in Mr, Nichols's collection, and in the 

married, in 1802, to James, second son of George Bischoff, Esq., of Leeds. — 
2, Thomas Wolrich Stansfeld, of Burley "Wood, lieutenant-colonel of the 
Leeds Local Militia in 1808 ; born in March, 1779 ; maiTied in October, 1820, 
Anne, eldest daughter of Rawdon Briggs, Esq., of Halifax (and had issue 
Thomas Wokich Stansfeld, bom in December, 1829, &c.). He died in May, 
1853. — 3, 4, and .5, died young. — 6, James Stansfeld, of Green Bank, Halifax, 
judge of the County Court, who married Emma, daughter of the Eev. John 
Ealph (and has issue James Stansfeld, of the Inner Temple, LL.B., M.P., &c.). 
— 7, Hatton Hamer, late of St. Anne's Hill, Burley.— 8, Henry, of Burley, 
who died in 1829.— 9, Hamer, late of Headingley Lodge, J. P. for the West- 
Riding of Yorkshii-e, bom in 1797, &o. 

The family of Stansfield (or Stansfeld of Stansfeld, as anciently written), 
trace their descent from one of the oompanions-in-arms of "William the Con- 
queror, who obtained the grant of the lordship of that name. His descen- 
dants have remained ever since enjoying high respectability in the county of 
York, and their ancient residence, Stansfield Hall, is still to be seen in the 
once beautiful valley of Todmorden, in the parish of Halifax. 

The Stansfelds' motto is, "Ifosce teipsum" —Know thyself. The Wolrichs', 
"Virtug post furiera vivit" — Virtue lives after death. The Cromptons', 
"Love and Loyalty." For a long pedigree of the Stansfelds, see Burke's 
Landed Gentry; Whitaker's Thoresby, vol. ii., p. 202, &c. 


Poetical Calendar, a jieriodical selection of fugitive verses, 
wliicli lie published in conjunction with Mr. Woty, an indif- 
ferent poet of that time. In 1767, he published an eclogue to 
the Hon. Charles Yorke, entitled Partridge Shooting, which was 
inferior to his other productions. He was the editor also of a 
Family Bible, ^vath notes, in 4to., which is a work of veiy incon- 
siderable merit, but to which he probably contributed only his 
name — a common trick among the retailers of Comjjlete Family 
Bibles. His translations of Anacreon, Sapplw, Bion, Jfoschus, 
and Miosceus, appeax'ed in 1760, and his Theocritus, encouraged 
by another liberal subscription, in 1767. His Apollonms 
Rhodius, a posthumous publication, completed by the Rev. H. 
Meen, of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, made its appearance 
in 1780, when Mr. Fawkes's widow was enabled, by the kind- 
ness of the editor, to avail herself of the subscriptions, contri- 
buted as usual very liberally. Mr. Fawkes died in Kent, 
August 26th, 1777. These scanty materials are taken chiefly 
from Nichols's Life af Bowyer, and little can now be added to 
them. Mr. Fawkes was a man of a social disposition, with 
much of the imprudence which adheres to it. Although a pro- 
found classical scholar, and accounted an excellent translator, 
he was unable to publish any of his works without the previous 
aid of a subsciiption ; and his Bible was a paltry job which 
necessity only covild have induced him to vmdertake. With all 
his failings, howevei", it appears that he was held in esteem by 
many distinguished contemporaries, particularly by Drs. Pearce, 
Jortin, Johnson, Warton, Plumptre, and Askew, who contributed 
critical assistance to his translation of Theocritus. As an 
original poet, much cannot be said in his favour. His powers 
were confined to occasional slight and encomiastic verses, such 
as may be produced without great elFort, and are supposed to 
answer every purpose when they have pleased those to whom 
they were addressed. The epithalamic Ode may perhai:)S rank 
higher, if we could forget an ob^dous endeavour to imitate 
Dryden and Pope. In the Elegy on the Death of Dobbin, and 
one or two other pieces, there is a considerable portion of 
humour, which is a more legitimate proof of genius than one 
.species of poets are disposed to allow. His principal defects are 
want of judgment and taste. These, howevei', are less discover- 
able in his translations, and it was probably a consciousness of 
limited powers which inclined him so much to translation. In 
this he everywhere displays a critical knowledge of his author, 
while his versification is smooth and elegant, and his expression 
remarkablv clear. He was once esteemed the best translator 


since the days of Pope; a praise wMcli, if uow disallowed, it 
is much that it could iu his own time have been bestowed -with 
justice. These poetical versions have been repeatedly published. 
His poetrj', though not of fii'st-rate talent, is elegant and cor- 
rect. — For additional infonnation, see Johnson and Chalmers's 
English Poe^s, 1810, vol. xvi., &c. ; Kichols's Poems (and Bowyer); 
Aikin's General Biograpliy ; Cunningham's Lives, vol. xi.; 
Chambers's Cyclopceclia of English Literature, vol. ii., p. 118; 
Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, vol. iii., p. 51, &c.; the Biogra})hical 
Dictionaries of Chalmers, Gorton, Rose, &c. 

Formerly John Savile, Esq., was installed a Knight of the 
Bath in 1749, and elevated to the peei-age of Ireland on the 8th 
of November, 1753, as Baron Polling-ton of Longford. His 
lordship was created Viscount Pollington and Earl of Mex- 
borough, on the 11th of Febiixary, 1706. He married, in 
January, 1760, Sarah, sister of John, Lord Delaval, by whom 
he had issue John, the second earl, and two other sons. The 
first earl died in Februaiy, 1778, aged fifty-eight, and is buried 
at Methley chiu'ch, where there is a monument to him. This 
being a jieerage of Ireland, it confers no hereditary seat in par- 
liament, and the present earl Ls not one of the representative 
lords. The distinguished family of Savile has possessed patents 
of nobility in two of its branches prior to those of the present 
noble house, namely, Savile, Duke of Sussex, extinguished in 
1672, and Sa\dle, Marquis of Halifax, extinguished in 1700. 
From a third Ijranch sprung Sir John Savile, Knight, of 
Bradley Hall, in this county, one of the Barons of the Exche- 
quer, in the reigns of Elizabetli and James I., from whom this 
family is descended.* Their coat of anns includes three owls; 

* Sir John Sa^-ile, Knight (brother to the equally celebrated Sir- Henry 
Savile, warden of Merton College, Oxford, who died in 1621, and gi-andson 
of John Sa\ile, Esq., of New Hiill, near Leeds), was succeeded at his decease, 
in 1606, by his eldest son, Henrj' Savile, Esq. , of Metliley, near Leeds, who 
was created a baronet in 1611; but djong ^^ithout issue in 1631, tlie title 
became e.^tinct — (for a fine engraving of the tomb of Baron Savile, and Sir 
Henry Savile, his son, in ilethley church, see Whitaker's Loidis, p. 270) — 
and the estates devolved upon (the son of Sir John Sa\-ile, by his second 
wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas "Wentworth, Esq.) his half-brother, 
John Savile, Esq., wlio thus became "of Methley." He married, first, 
Mary, daughter of .John Robinson, Esq. , of Either ; and, secondly, Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Henry Garraway, Knight, Lord Mayor of London. After 
being sheriff of Yorkshire, he died in 1651, and was succeeded by liis son, 
John Savile, Esq., of Metliley and Thriberg, born in 1044; married Sarah, 
daughter of Peter Tryon, Esq., and was succeeded by his secoud^son, Charles 



and their crest is also an owl. Their motto is, " Be fast," and 
their country-seat is at Methley Pai-k, near Leeds. — For the pedi- 
gree, &c., of the Saviles, Earls of Mexborough, see "Whitaker's 
Loidis and Ehnete, p. 272; Hunter's South Yorkshire, &c. 

] 727-1778. 
There is a monument in Whitkirk church, near Leeds, to the 
memory of the late Lord and Lady Irwin, the latter of whom 

Savile, Esq., born in May, 1677; married Aletlieia, daughter and co-lieiress of 
Gilbert Mellington, Esq., of Nottinghamshire, and was succeeded, in 1741, 
by his only son. Sir John Savile, LL.D., M.P., &c., the first Earl of Mex- 
borough, of Methley Park, near Leeds. — See the Feerages of Burke, CoUins, 
Debrett, Lodge, &c. 

* The founder of this famUy was Hugh Ingram, a wealthy citizen and 
merchant of London, and of Thorp-on-the-HiU, near Leeds, who died in 
1612, leaving a large fortune to his two sons. The elder, Sir AVilliam Ingram, 
LL.D., Secretary to tlie Council of the North, died in July, 1623, leaving 
issue. The younger. Sir Arthur Ingram, made entensive purchases in the 
coimty of York, including Temple Newsom, on the river Au'e, two mUes 
below Leeds, from the Duke of Lennox. He sensed the office of sheriff for 
Yorkshire in the 18th of James I. ; often represented the city of York in 
parliament ; was one of the right lion. Council iu tlie North, and justice of 
the peace in the several Hidings. He was thrice married, and succeeded by 
his eldest son, — Sir Arthur Ingram, of Temple Newsom, high sheriff of York- 
shire in the 6th of Charles I., deputy-lieutenant, and justice of the peace, 
died in July, 1655, and was succeeded by his second son, — Henry, Lord 
Ingram, of Temple Newsom, who, having been a great loyalist during the 
troublesome reign of Charles I., was created a peer of Scotland, with 
remainder to the heirs male of liis body, as Lord Ingi'am, Viscount of Irvine, 
by letters patent, dated 23rd May, IGGl. He mamed Lady Essex Montagu, 
daughter of Edward, Earl of Manchester, and had two sons, Edward and 
Ai-thur. His lordship died in August, 1666, and was succeeded by his elder 
son, — Edward, Lord Ingi-am, second Viscount Irvine or Irwin, who married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Lord Leitrim, and sister of the Earl of Harborough ; 
died in 1688, and was succeeded by his brother, — Arthur, Lord Ingram, third 
Viscount Irwin, who married Isabella, eldest daughter and co-heiress of 
John Machel, Esq., M.P. for Horsham, Sussex, and had nine sons, of whom 
five, Edward, Eichard, Arthur, Heniy, and George, became fourth, fifth, 
sixth, seventh, and eighth Viscounts Irwin. 

Edward, Lord Ingram, fourth Viscount, was lord-lieutenant of the East- 
Eiding, and died in ]May, 1714. Eichard, Lord Ingram, fifth Viscount, mar- 
ried Lady Anne Howard, third daughter of Charles, thu-d Earl of Carlisle. (Of 
this lady there is a portrait in Park's WaliMle.) She was a poetess, and 
printed the following works : — In 1759, A Character of the Princess Elizabeth; 
An Ode to George III., in 1761; An Answer to some Verses of Lady Mary 
Wortley Montag^ie, printed in a supplement to Pope's Works; A Poetical 
Essay on Mr. Pope's Characters of Women. For this last her ladyship was 
thus noticed in Duncombe's Feminead: — 

"By generous views, one peeress more demands 
A grateful tribute from all female hands ; 
One, who to shield them from the worst of foes, 
In their just cause dar'd Pope himself oppose. 
Their own dark forms, deceit and envy wear. 
By IrKin touch'd with truth's celestial spear." 


spent a long and beneficent life at Temple Newsom, near 
Leeds — the design of whieli, though very handsome, scarcely- 
required the hand of Nollekius — with the following inscrip- 
tion: — "To the memory of the best of parents, Charles, Vis- 
count Irwin, and Fi-ances, Viscountess Irwin, his beloved wife, 
this monument is erected by their most dutiful and afflicted 
daughter, Isabella Ann Hertford.* The Right Hon. Charles 
Ingram, Viscount Irwin, born 19th of Mai'ch, 1727, died 19th 

He was Governor of Hull, colonel of the Body Guards, and was appointed 
Governor of Barbadoes, but died a few weeks before lie should have set out 
for that island, in May, 1721, without issue. 

Arthur, Lord Ingram, sixth Viscount, M.P. for Horsham, and lord-lieu- 
tenaiit for the East-Riding; died in Jime, 1736, ^vithout issue. 

Henry, Lord Ingi'am, seventh Viscount, also M.P. for Horsham, commis- 
sary for the stores at Gibraltar, and lord-lieutenant of the East-Riding, also 
died without issue. 

Rev. Dr. George, Lord Ingram, eighth Viscount, canon of "Windsor, pre- 
bendary of "Westminster, and chaplain to the House of Commons, succeeded 
his brother in 1761, and dying without issue in 1763, aged sixty-nine, was 
succeeded by his nephew, 

Charles, Lord Ingram, ninth Viscount (son of Charles Ingram, younger 
brother of the six preceding peers, colonel of the 2nd Regiment of Foot 
Guards, and adjutant-general of the forces, M.P. for Horsham till his death 
in 1748), married, in 1756, Miss Shepherd, a lady of large fortune. His lord- 
ship, who was chosen one of the representative peers of Scotland in 1768, 
died at Temple Newsom, June 27th, 1778, when, having no male issue, the 
peerage became extinct. He had the following five daughters (who all bore 
the additional surname of Shepherd) : — 

1. Isabella Ann Ingram Shepherd, married, in 1776, to Francis Seymour 
Conway, second Marquis of Hertford, K.G., &c., lord of Temple Newsom 
{jure nxoris); took the surname and arms of Ingi'am, by royal licence, in 
1807 ; appointed lord chamberlain in March, 1812 ; and had issue an only son, 
Francis Charles, third Marquis of Hertford, K.G., kc. 

2. Frances Ingram Shepherd, married in March, 1781, to Lord "William 
Gordon (see his lines addressed to the Marchioness of Hertford), second son of 
Cosmo George, third Duke of Gordon, and died ■without issue. 

3. Elizabeth Ingram Shepherd, mai-ried in August, 1782, Hugo MeyneU, 
Esq. (a) the younger, of Bradley, in the county of Derby, and died in May, 
1800, leaving issue, 

4. Harriet Ingram Shepherd, married in September, 1789, to Colonel 
Henry Harvey Aston, and had issue, 

5. Louisa Susan Ingi-am Shepherd, married in June, 1787, to Sir John 
Ramsden, Bart., of BjTom Hall, in the countj' of York, and had issue John 
Charles Ramsden, M.P. for Malton, &c., who married Isabella, fourth 
daughter of Lord Dundas, and had issue the present Sir John "William. 
Ramsden, Bart., M.P. for the "West-Riding, &c.— Burke's Extinct Feerac/e, &c. 

* Lines addressed to the Marchioness of Hertford, by Lord "NA'iUiam 
Gordon, on the death of her mother: — 

" In the cold gi-ave, where earth-bom sorrows cease, 
Thine honour'd, aged mother, sleeps in peace ! 

(a! Hugo Meynell. Esq., of Tloar Cross, county Stafford, married the Hon. Elizabeth Ingram, 
daughter and co-heiress of the last Viscount Invin, and by that lady had issue Hugo Charles, his 
nei''; Uenry, rear-admiral, late M.P. for Iiisbum; Frances Adeline, married in November, 1841. 
to William Beckett, Esq., M.I', for Leeds. Mr. Meynell died in 1801. and was succeeded by his 
elder son. who, having fcikcn the additional Eum.ame of Iniiram, is the present Hugo Charles 
Meynell Inijrim, Ks<i., of Temple Newsjm, near Leeds. Their motto is, " Virlute vici;" or, "By 
virtue I have conquered."— See Burke's Landid Gentry, ic. 


of June, 1778, aged fifty-one years. The Right Hon. Frances, 
Yiscoimtess Irwin, born 8th of August, 1734, died 20tli of 
November, 1807, aged seventy-three years." There is at 
Temple Newsom a series of family portraits, including one of 
the ninth and last Lord Yiscount Irwin, by Wilson, and another 
of his daughter, Isabella, the late Marchioness of Hertford, by 
Sir Joshua Reynolds. — For their pedigree, coat of arms, and other 
particidars, see Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis, p. 230; Burke's 
Extinct Peerage; Hvinter's South Yorkshire, vol. i., p. 173, &c. 



Eldest son of William Denison, a Leeds merchant, and brother 

to Sir Thomas Denison, was also a merchant in Leeds, where 

he realized a large fortune, and where for many years he was a 

Long in the patlis of virtue had she trod, 

Each step directed by the hand of God : 

Long had she prosper'd, in this vale of tears, 

And hajipiness increas'd with length of j^ears ; 

Each duty piouslj' fulfill'd in life, 

Of mother, daughter, neighbour, friend, and -wife. 

Full oft on angel-errand would she go, 

To carry comfoi-t to the house of woe ; 

Oft to the family of silent grief. 

Bear unsolicited, unhoped relief ; 

And home-n'ard as she liied, along the vale, 

On every side around her breath'd the gale 

Of gratitude, and, far as she could hear, 

The voice of distant Ijlessings reach'd her ear ; 

And still at early morn and evening late, 

The child of want found welcome at her gate ; 

While Charity, within her ancient haU, 

Dealt largess, food, and raiment, unto all ; — 

Her day on earth was happy ! like the sun 

In a May morn, lier dawn of life begim ; 

Unclouded was the sky, serene the air, 

And twilight infancy beam'd passing fair; 

High rose her charms, and with no common blaze, 

Shone in the noontide lustre of their rays ; 

Lovely and settled were her evening hours, 

Unvex'd by storms of gi'ief, or sorrow's showers, 

Late, in the sea of calm content, she sat. 

And left behind a night of long regret. 

Oh ! say, could fond imagination ti-ace, 

Through the long line of life, a happier race? 

Yet, what avaUs the thought ! In silent course, 

Sorrow stiU flows from memory's loVd source; 

The tear stiU rises in a daughter's eye. 

Falls on her bosom, and there meets a sigh ! " 
'•"'* For tablet and inscription, &c., to the memory of the Rev. James Scott, 
M.A., the first minister of Holy Trinity church, Leeds, who died in Febniary, 
1782, see Sketch of the Eev. Henry Robinson, M.A., who died in 1736, p. 145. 
See also note to the Eev. James Scott, D.D., who died in 1814. 


great benefactor to the poor. He Jived in Kirkgate, and after- 
wards at Denison Hall, Hanover Square, in this town. In 
January, 1776, he gave thirty loads of corn and four hundred 
corves of coals to the poor of Kirkgate division. The Leeds 
Corpoi'ation brought an action against him, when alderman, for 
refusing to take upon himself the office of mayor, to which he 
had been elected no less than four times, namely, in 1754, 
1755, 1756, and 1758. Lord Chief-Justice Mansfield, who tried 
the cause at York, obsen^ed " that he was surprised Mr. Denison 
should refuse the highest honour that the Corporation of Leeds 
could confer upon him." The cause was compromised by his 
engaging to accept office, on condition that the duties thereof 
might be discharged by his brother. He purchased the manor 
of Ossington, in Nottinghamshire, in 1753, and served as 
high sheriff of that county in 1779. He died at Bath, April 
11th, 1782, worth half-a-million of money, leaving issue John, 
his heir,* and Nathaniel. In Ossington church there is a 
magnificent mausoleum to his memory. — See the Annols and 
Histories of Leeds, &c. 



Was bom at Gledhow, near Leeds, in 1726; was high sheriff 

for the county of York in 1758; and died in 1782, aged fifty-six 

years. t He was the only son of Mr. John Dixon, merchant, 

* His eldest son, John Denison, Esq., was M.P. for Chicliester, and after- 
wards for Minehead. He man-ied twice; by his fii'st wife he had two 
daughters, of whom the ehler, Charlotte, married the Eight Hon. Charles 
Manners Sutton, Speaker of the House of Commons, afterwards Viscount 
Canterbury; by his second wife, Charlotte, daughter of Samuel Eastwicke, 
Esq., M.P., he had issue— 1, John Evelyn (of Ossington Hall, county Notts), 
bom 27th January, 1800 ; maiTied 14th July, 1827, Lady Charlotte Bentinck, 
third daughter of the present Duke of Portland. He is M.A. of Christ 
Chiu'ch, Oxford, and has been a member of the House of Commons since the 
year 1823. He was chosen Speaker in Maj-, 1857, and made a P.O. — 2, 
Edward (Right Eev.), D.D., born in 1801, consecrated Bishop of Salisbury 
in 1837, died in 1854. — 3, William Thomas (Sir), Knt., captain Royal En- 
gineers, and late Governor-General of Australia, now of Macbas. — 4, George 
Anthony, in holy orders, M. A., rector of East Brent, prebendary of Salisbury, 
and archdeacon of Taunton ; married 4th September, 1838, Georgiana, eldest 
daughter of J. W. Henley, Esq., M.P.— 5, Henry, M.A., Fellow of All Souls, 
Oxford, and barrister-at-law ; Stephen Charles, M.A., ban-ister-at-law, &c.; 
vnth. several others. — For further particulars, see Burke's Landed Gentry, &c. 

+ He was lineally descended from M'iUiam Dixon, of Heaton Royds, near 
Shipley, who was living in the year l.")(j4 ; wliose gi-andson, Joshua, settled at 
Leed.s, in the cloth trade, and mamed Eleanor, sister of William, father of 
Alderman .John Dodgson, twee mayor of Leeds, in 169G and 1710; whose 
eldest son, Jeremiah, of Leeds, died in October, 1721, having married Mary, 
daughter of the above John Dodgson, and left issue Jolm Dixon, of Leeds, 
merchant, who married Frances, daughter of Thomas Gower, Esq., of Hutton, 


of Leeds, for whom he caused a monument to be erected in the 
Leeds parish church, with the following inscription : — " Near 
this place are deposited the remains of Mr. John Dixon, of 
Leeds, merchant, who died -Ith February, 1749, aged fifty -four 
years. — And also of Frances, his wife, who died 16th September, 
1750, aged sixty-two years. Their exemplary conjugal affec- 
tion, and uniform practice of religious duties, made their loss 
sincerely lamented, more particularly by their only son, Jeremiah 
Dixon, of Gledhow, Esq., F.R.S., high sherifi" of this county in 
the year 1758, who died 7th of June, 1782, aged fifty-six years. 
At whose request this monument is erected, as a token of 
respect, to the memory of his parents. His own unsullied 
purity and amiableness of manners, strict integrity and elegance 
of taste, cultivated mind and evenness of temper, with an 
unwearied attention to the duties of a man, a citizen, and a 
Chiistian, engaged the esteem of all who knew him, and ren- 
dered him an example worthy of the imitation of posterity. — 
Also in memory of Mary Dixon, wife of the above-mentioned 
Jeremiah Dixon, Esq., and daughter of the Rev. Heniy Wick- 

grandson of Edward Gower, younger brother of Sir Thomas Gower, Bart., of 
Sittenham, in this county, from whom the Duke of Sutherland and Earl 
Granville are descended. This Jeremiah Dixon, their son, purchased, in 
1764, the estate of Gledhow from the "Wilson family ; in 1765, the manor of 
Chapel- Allertou from Mr. Killingbeck ; and in 1771, the estates of Lady 
Dawes and her son. In the years 1766 and 1767, he made considerable addi- 
tions to the old house of Gledhow, and during the remainder of his life con- 
tinued to adoin it with beautiful plantations. Having first introduced the 
Ajjherhously pine into the neighbourhood, it is usually known by the name 
of the Gledhow pine. (For a fine engraving of his house at Gledhow, and the 
siuTounding country, see Dr. Whitaker's History of Leeds, p. 131. ) He left 
three sons — 1, John, his heir ; 2, Jeremiah, mayor of Leeds in 1784, who 
married Mary, daughter of John Smeaton, Esq., F.E.S., who built Eddystone 
Lighthouse ; 3, Henry, of Brooke Farm, near LiveriJool, who married Mis.s 
Townley Plumbe, daughter of Thomas Plumbe, Esq., and sister of Colonel 
Flumbe Tempest, of Tong Hall, near Leeds, by whom he had a large family. 
John Dixon, Esq., of Gledhow, the eldest son and heir, was born in June, 
1753; became colonel of the 1st West York Militia; justice of the peace, and 
deputy -lieutenant for the West- Riding ; married in July, 1784, Lydia, 
daughter of the Eev. T. Parker, of Astle, in the county of Chester, and had. 
issue — 1, Henry, his heir; 2, John, present representative; 3, George, late 
captain in the 3rd Guards, &c. Colonel John Dixon died in Ai^ril, 1824, and 
was succeeded by Henry Dixon, Esq., of Gledhow, born in November, 1794; 
lieutenant in the 15th Hussars ; married in December, 1829, Emma Matilda, 
niece of Sir Robert Wilmot, of Derbyshire, and died without issue in 
August, 1838, when he was succeeded by his next brother, —John Dixon, Esq., 
of Astle Hall, near Knutsford, Cheshire, bom in February, 1799 ; a captain in 
the army; mamed in May, 1840, Sophia, daughter of the late T. W. Tatton, 
Esq., and has issue six sons and three daughters. — See Burke's Landed Gentry, 
&c. For an account of James Henry Dixon, Esq., of Seaton Carew, county 
of Durham, and the old family of the Beestons, of Beeston, near Leeds, se-e. 
appendix to Bui'ke's Landed Gentry, &c. 


ham, rector of Guiseley, wlio departed tins life the 7th of April, 
1807, aged seventy-three years." — For pedigree and other par- 
ticulars of the Dixons, see Whitaker's Loidis and Ehnete, 
p. 130; Burke's Landed Gentry; Commoners of England, 
vol. iii., &c. 


A pious divine, was born at Leeds in the year 1701, and edu- 
cated at Wakefield. He was the second son of H. Adam, Esq., 
town-clerk of Leeds, by Elizabeth, daughter of Jasper Blyth- 
man,'"' Esq., recoi-der of Leeds, who died in December, 1707. 
After remaining two years at Cambridge, he went to Oxford, 
where he took his degree of Bachelor of Arts. He afterwards 
obtained the living of Winteringham, in Lincolnshire, of which 
he continued rector fifty-eight years, and repeatedly refused 
additional prefei-ment. He died, much regretted, in his eighty - 
thii'd year, in 178-4. His Worhs were published in 3 vols.,t 
8vo., London, 1822. — For additional particulars, see his Life 
and 3Iemoirs, mentioned below; the Monthly Reviev); Dar- 
ling's Cyclopoidia Bihliograplda^ &c. 



Yicar of Leeds, an attentive and conscientious parish priest, 
was the son of the Be v. Bichard Kirshaw, D.D., rector of 
Bipley forty-two years, who died in 1736, aged seventy -two, 
and Bebecca, daughter of Samuel Sykes, Esq., mayor of Leeds 
in 1G74, whose younger daughter, Mary, married Samuel Kir- 
shaw, of Leeds, merchant, Bichard's brother. Bichard Kir- 

* For the pedigree of the Blythman family, see Thoresby's Dii,catu,s 
Leodiensls, p. 9, &c. 

t Vol. i. contains A Life and Character of the Author; An ExpositioTi of 
St. Matthew's Gospel, with suitable lectures aad prayers. 

Vol. ii. A Paraphrane on Romans; Private Thoughts on Religion; Prac- 
tical Lectures on the Church Cat-echisni; An Exercise Preparatory to Con- 
firmation. — According to \}xt Monthly Btview for February, 1754, " the author 
writes like a pious nVi'.Xi, and one who is desirous to make us good Christians." 
Vol. iii. Evangelical fi'ermons (twenty-.six in number). The volume of 
'Zermons published in 1781 contains only the last eleven of tlie above.— lu 
the year 17Hi), the Rev. Joseph Milner assisted the Kev. William Richardson 
in the pubhaition of tiic posthumous works of their venerable friend, Mr. 
Adam. Tlie preface to the Private Thoughts was their joint w(n'k. The 
Rev. .James Stillingfleet wrote the Life. • i i n 

He also wrote an Lxposition of the Four Gospels, which was edited by the 
Rev. A. Wcstoby, M.A., witli a Memoir by the editor, 2 vols., 8vo., Loudon, 
1837. Mr. Westoby also pu1>lished a Life of the Rev. Thoma.i Adam, sepa- 
rately in 18ol, 12mo. 


shaw's father was also rector of Ripley, and liis mother was 
also a Miss Sykes. Samuel, the vicar of Leeds, was educated 
at the Leeds Grammar School, and afterwards at Catherine 
Hall, Cambridge, where he took the degree of B.A. in 1727; 
proceeded M.A. in 1731; and D.D. in 1740. He was regularly 
elected vicar of Leeds, March 21st, 1751, after a long contest. He 
married Ann, only surviving daughter of the Rev. S. Brook, D.D., 
minister of St. John's, Leeds, and had issue — 1, Richard, Fellow 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, B.D., rector of Masham, and 
minister of Holy Trinity, Leeds, born in 1743, and died in Jan., 
1791-2, without issue; 2, Frances, born in 1751, and married 
Ralph Shipperdson, Esq., of Ridding Hall, Garth, in the county 
of Durham. For an account of him and his successors, see 
Burke's Landed Gentry, &c. After the death of the Rev. 
Joseph Cookson, in 1745, a contest and litigation of six years 
ensued, owing to one of the twenty-five trustees nominated 
under a decree of Lord Bacon having died, and the remaining 
twenty-four divided their votes equally between two candidates, 
viz., James Scott, M.A., and Samuel Kii'shaw, M.A. Thus 
the matter rested till one of the twenty-four died, and the 
twelve friends of Mx\ Scott strove to enforce his election, which 
the other eleven trustees rejected, and demanded a popular 
election. Mr. Kirshaw was chosen by the major part of the 
parishioners; several bills were now filed in Chancery, where at 
length it was ordered that the trustees should fill up their 
number to twenty-five, which was done, and Mr. Kirshaw was 
re-elected and inducted in 1751. At the close of this long 
contest, the disappointed candidate, Mr. Scott, gave vent to his 
feelings by an angry and injudicious pamphlet, which was 
answered in a strain of cool and sarcastic humour by Mr. 
Fawcett, afterwards minister of St. John's, to whom the charge 
of the parish church had been committed during the seques- 
tration. The parish had great reason to be thankful for the 
decree of the Court of Chancery, and the subsequent conduct of 
the electors. Through the remainder of a long life, Dr. Kir- 
shaw devoted himself to the duties of his position with great 
assiduity, and died, much regretted, at the age of eighty, 
November 1st, 1786.* He was also rector of Ripley, where, 
during a summer residence of four months, he annually visited, 
at their own houses, every family in a parish of no inconsider- 

* "We understand that John Smith, Esq., the banker, has a fine oil-paint 
portrait of the Rev. S. Kirshaw, D.D., formerly vicar of Leeds. N.B. — We 
should Uke to see a full collection of Portraits, &c. , of all the most celebrated 
"Worthies of Leeds and Neighbourhood," got together by some gentleman 


able extent. ■"■ He was interred beneath the communion-table of 
the parish chui-ch, Leeds. The truly classical epitaph, written 
by his son, and inscribed on a mural monument in the choir, 
has the additional merit of speaking the language of truth, as 
well as of affection. — For his pedigree and other j^articulars, see 
Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis, pp. 22, 36, &c. ; Whitaker's 
Loidis and Elmete, p. 360, kc; Nichols's Literary Illustrations, 
vol. tii., p. 757, &c. 


A celebrated painter, born at Leeds about 1720. Having 
shown some talent for drawing, he was sent to London when 
young, and was recommended to Dr. Berdmore, master of the 
Charter-house, who took him Tinder hLs protection. It is uncer- 
tain whether he was regularly educated in the ai't, but by his 
natural disposition and assiduous application, he became a very 
reputable paintei- of portraits. He was among the fii-st of the 
poi-trait painters of his time who endeavoured to introduce a 
better style of relief and of the chiar-oscuro into his pictures, 
and his heads are coloured with more warmth and nature than 
those of the generality of his contemporaries. About the year 
1773 he was appointed master-painter to the Board of Oi'dnance, 
which he retained till a few years before his death. He was 
particularly distinguished for his etchingst in imitation of 
Rembrandt, which are said to have completely deceived the 
connoisseurs of that day. The celebrated painting of the 
Raising ofJairus's Daughter, valued at £500, is an honourable 
proof both of his abilities as an artist, and of his generosity; 
it being now in the board-room of the Leeds General Infirmary. 
He was also pre-eminent amongst the men of science of his 
day, not only for the extent of his scientific attamments, but 

who has not only the -will but also the means, and presented to some of our 
public institutions; — exempli gratia, tlie political ones might go to the Town 
Hall; the literary and philosophical, to the Museum of tlie Literary and 
Philosophical Society ; and the vicars and clergy, to the Chuixh Institute, &c. 

* Dr. Kirshaw was the author of two papers in tlie Philosophical Trans- 
actions :— An Account of ttvo Piys of Lead found near Ripley, vol. xli., 
p. 560; and An Account of a Thunder and I/if/htnint/ Storm, bi/ lohirh Mr. 
Huntkij, of Harrogate, v:as Killed, September 29th, 1772, vol. Ixiii!^, p. 177, &c. 

+ There are several etchings by this artist, among which are the following : 
— An old man's head, with a hat and feather, and a ruff; in imitation of 
Rembrandt. A small landscape, lengthways ; in imitation of the same 
master. His own j)ortrait, in a wig, with very little drapery. A coarse 
etching of The Repeal. It was pul)lished upon the repeal of the American 
Stamp Act, and contains the portraits of the leading men of the ministerial 
party. — See Bryan's Biographical Dictionary of Painters, vol. ii., p. 012, &c. 


also for tlie originality of liis views. His contributions to the 
science of electricity jDrocured for the humble painter of Boar 
Lane the unsolicited honour of being elected a Fellow of the 
Royal Society: an honour conferred, at that time, with strict 
impartiality and discrimination. He died at his house in Great 
Kussell Street, Bloomsbury, London, June Gth, 1788. — For a 
long list of his papers contributed to the Philosophical Trmis- 
actions, see Gentleman s Magazine for 1788, p. ^5%. See also 
several articles in the Leeds Mercury for October, 1832, on 
Intellectual Epochs in Leeds. 



Rector of Swillington, near Leeds, was born July 10th, 1707, 
and was the son of Christopher Lowthei', younger brother of 
Sir William Lowther, M.P. for Pontefract, who was created 
a baronet in 1715; married Annabella, daughter of Lord May- 
nard, and had issue Sir William Lowther, Bart., also M.P. for 
Pontefract, who died in December, 1763, without issue; when 
the title became extinct, his brothers having died. This Rev. 
William procured a fresh patent of baronetage, dated August 
22nd, 1764; married in August, 1753, Anne, eldest daughter of 
the Rev. Charles Zouch, vicar of Sandal, near Wakefield, and 
had issue Sir William Lowther, Bart., born December 29th, 
1757; married July 15th, 1781, Lady Anne Fane, daughter of 
John, ninth Earl of Westmoreland; M.P. for Carlisle, 1780; 
for Cumberland, 1784; for Rutland, 1796; and on the death of 
James, late Earl of Lonsdale, in May, 1802, succeeded him as 
second Yiscount Lo^vther. On April 4th, 1807, he was created 
Earl of Lonsdale, and about the same time elected K.G., ikc* 
In Swillington church, near Leeds, there is a monument to the 
above, with the following inscription: — "Sacred to the memory 
of the Rev. Sir Wm. Lowther, Bart. , prebendary of the cathedral 
church of York, and rector of this parish. In all the relative 
duties of life truly exemplary; withoiit pride, without osten- 
tation; modest and unaspiring in his desires; of excellent 
understanding and sound judgment; graced with all the noblest 
acquirements of learning, and distinguished by that urbanity of 
manners which adorns the accomplished scholar: the benign 
cheerfulness of his aspect shone forth a silent testimony of the 
inward serenity of his mind. He died, full of the blessings of 

* See also Sir William Lowther, who died in 1705, p. 119 ; and also the 
Earl's younger brother, Sir John Lowther, vi^ho was crei^te4 a taronet in 
1824, aud died in 1844, 


a virtuous life, full of tlie liopes of a happy immortality, June 
loth, 1788, aged eighty-one years." — For pedigree and other 
particulars, see the Peerages and Baronetages ; Dr, Whitaker's 
Loidis and Ehnete, p. 260, ifec. 

A celebrated naturalist and miscellaneous wi'iter, was bom at 
Leeds in 1731, and was educated in the Leeds Grammar School. 
His father, who was a merchant, and a native of Holland, 
intended him for the mercantile profession ; and with that view 
sent him at an early age to Germany, in order to learn foreign 
languages. After continuing a few years in that country, he 
made the tour of Europe in company with one or more English 
noblemen. On their return to Gei'many they ^dsited Berlin, 
where Mr. Berkenhout met with a near relation of his father's, 
the Baron de Bielfeldt, a nobleman then in high estimation 
with Frederic the Great, king of Prussia; distingiiished as one 
of the founders of the Boyal Academy of Sciences at Berlin, 
and universally known as a politician and a man of letters. 
With this relation our young traveller fixed his abode for some 
time; and, regardless of his original destination, became a cadet 

* — 1791-2, Me. Reuben Bcekow, a zealous and well-known mathematician, 
was born at Hoberly, near Leeds. His father, who occupied a small farm, 
was not in circumstances to aiford him a better education than reading and 
writing : when about fifteen or sixteen years of age, however, he went for a 
short time to a school in Leeds, where he made rapid progress in algebra, 
geometi-y, and mensuration. A friend in London having engaged to procure 
for him the situation of clerk to a timber merchant, Reuben, in his eighteenth 
year, left Yorksliii-e, and in less than four days completed the journey to 
London, principally, if not all the way, on foot; his whole expense, it is said, 
amounted to no more than one shilling and tenpence! He continued with the 
timber merchant a year, and then engaged hirnself as an usher to Benjamin 
"Webb, the celebrated writing-master, in Bimhill Row. It was not long, 
however, before he commenced master himself, and set up a school at Ports- 
mouth; but as it failed to answer his expectations, he returned to London. 
His next situation was that of assistant to Dr. Maskelyne, at the Royal Obser- 
vatory, Greenwich; here he continued about two years, and then, in conse- 
quence of his man-iage, left the doctor; but, in 1774, was sent with him to 
assist in making the observations at the mountain Schiehallion : and soon 
after he returned from Scotland, his friend and patron. Colonel Heniy 
Watson (himself an able mathematician), procured him the appointment of 
mathematical master at the drawing-room in the Tower. He now compiled the 
Lady's and Gentleman' s Diary, Poor liohin, and some other almanacs, sold 
by Caraan, in St. Paul's Churchyard. In 1779 he published a Restitution of 
the Geometrical Treatise of Apollonius Perr/ceus on Inclinations ; also, The 
Theory of Gunnery ; or, the Doctrine of Projectiles in a Non-resisting Medium, 
4to. These are strongly marked witli oiiginality in geometrical construction. 
In 1782 he embarked for the East Indies, at the request of Colonel ^V'aison, 
who thought ho might exercise his abilities to much more advantage in that 
country than he could in England, His first <;!iiployment after he arrived *t 


in a Prussian regiment of foot. He soon obtained an ensign's 
commission; and, in the space of a few years, was advanced to 
the rank of a captain. He quitted the Prussian service on the 
declaration of war between England and France in 1756, and 
was honoured with the command of a company in the service 
of his native country. When peace was concluded in 1760, 
he went to Edinburgh, and commenced the study of physic. 
During his residence at that university, he compiled his Clavis 
Anglica Linguoe Botanicce — a book of singular utility to all 
students of botany, and at that time the only botanical lexicon 
in our language, and pai-ticularly expletive of the Linnaean 
system. It was not, however, published until 1764-5. Having 
continued some years at Edinburgh, Mr. Berkenhout went to 
the University of Leyden, where he took the degree of Doctor 
of Medicine in 1765, as we learn from his Dissertatio Medica 
inauguralis de Podagrd, dedicated to his relation, the Baron de 
Bielfeldt. Eeturniug to England, Dr. Berkenhout settled at 
Isleworth in Middlesex, and in 1766 published Ms PJutrma- 
copceia Medici, 12mo., the thiixl edition of which was printed 
in 1782. In 1769 he published Outlines of the Naturcd History 

Calcutta was private teaching ; this we learn from a paragrajih which 
appeared in one of the English newspapers, stating that a Caskmerean, one of 
Mr. Burrow's pupils, who understood English, "was translating Newton's 
Principia into Persian" ! Besides Colonel Watson, he soon reckoned the late 
Sir W. Jones, Colonel Wilf ord, &c. , among his intimate friends, who recom- 
mended him to Mr. Hastings, and he was made mathematical master to the 
corps of engineers. He now became one of the first members of the Asiatic 
Society, and a contributor to their Transnctions. He is also supposed to have 
been the first European who discovered algebra among the Hindoos. In 1787 
the East India Company came to a resolution that a trigonometrical survey, 
similar to that carried on in England under the direction of General Key, 
should commence on the coast of Coromandel, or somewhere in Bengal— this 
has since taken place under the direction of Major Lambton— and it was 
generally supposed that the execution of this business would have been com- 
mitted to Mr. Burrow; but the instruments intended for that purpose were 
not ready, and it appears from the papers of Major Lambton, in the Asiatic 
Researclies, that they were not sent from England tiU about 1800 or 1802 ; 
this must have been a great disappointment to a person of Mr. Burrow's 
zeal in the pursuit of mathematical knowledge. It did not, however, deter 
him from commencing the operation; accordingly we find that in 1790 he 
began near a place called Cawksellv, in kit. 23° 28' 7" N., long. 5h. 53 m. 
18 sec. E., and actually measured a distance of 212,670 feet (about 40 mUes) 
on the parallel of that latitude : the corresponding difi^erence of longitude 
he foimd by going twelve or thii-teen times from one extremity of the 
measured line to the other, with four of Arnold's and EarnshaVs chrono- 
meters; the mean result he piits down at 2 m. 32s., which gives 55,989 
fathoms for a degree of longitude in lat. 23° 28' N. In the following year 
he determined the length of a degree on the meridian in lat. 23° 18' N. A 
distance of 411,004 feet on the meridian was actually measured with rods 
(not computed trigonometrically), and the corresponding difference of latitude 
found to be 1° 7' 55", making 60,457 fathoms for a degree. A mean of 59 


of Great Bntain and Ireland, vol. i. ; vol. ii. appeared in 1770, 
and vol. iii. iu 1771. The encouragement this work met with 
afforded at least a proof that something of the kind was wanted. 
The three volumes were reprinted together in 1773, and in 
1778 were again published in 2 vols., 8vo., under the title of 
Synopsis of the Natural History of Great Britain, <fec. In 
1771, he published Dr. Cadogan's Dissertation on the Gout exa- 
mined and refuted; and in 1777, Biographia Literra/ria; or, a 
Biographical History of Literature; containing the Lives of 
English, Scotch, and Irish authors, from the dawn of Letters in 
these kingdoms to the p)'i'esent time, chronologically and classi- 
cally arranged, 4to., vol. i., the only volume which appeai'ed. 
This volume contains the authors who lived from the beginning 
of the fifth to the end of the sixteenth century. In a veiy 
long preface, dated from Richmond, in Surrey, the author pro- 
mises his readers a second, third, and fourth volume, but they 
never made theii' appearance. The lives are very short, and 
the author occasionally introduces sentiments hostile to religious 
establishments and doctrines, which could not be veiy acceptable 
to English readers. The dates and facts, however, are given 
with great accm-acy, and in many of the lives he profited by the 
assistance of George Steevens, Esq., the celebrated commentator 

latitudes was taken at one extremity of the measured arc, and a mean of 131 
at the other. These latitudes were observed with an astronomical quadrant, 
one foot radius, by Ramsden, and for measiuing his rods he had one of 
Eamsden's fifty feet steel chains of the new construction. A detail of these 
operations was" intended for the Asiatic Besearches, but ilr. Burrow died the 
year following, and therefore we have reason to suppose that he was prevented 
by illness from arranging the result of his labours for the press. In 1796, 
however, A Short Account of the late Mr. Burrovfs Measurenient of a Degree 
of Longitude, and another of Latitude, near the Tropic in Bengal, in the years 
1790-1, was published by his friend Mr. Dalby, Avho collected the materials 
from some papers which Mr. Buitow left him at his decease ; and it appears 
from this publication (a thin 4to., from which these particulars were originally 
extracted), that the axes of an ellipsoid determined from these measurements 
have very nearly the same ratio as the axes of the earth according to Ne^vton. 
Ml-. BuiTow certainly possessed strong natm-al abilities ; but liis attainments 
were not confined to the mathematics : he could read and translate Latin, 
French, and Italian, with facility; and he made considerable progi-ess in 
Arabic and Persian after he left England. His disposition was rather con- 
vivial, and he had a ready knack at'writing burlesque and doggerel verse ; two 
or three specimens of the kind, in ridicule of Captain Eobert Heath (who pub- 
lished the Boijal Astronomer and Navigator, kc), appeared before he left 
England. His form was athletic, and countenance expressive, ^vith a pene- 
trating eye : but the graces had been somewhat neglected, and he possessed 
less of the suariter in modo than of the fortiter in re. His papers in the 
Asiatic Besearches are— O/i Friction in Mechanics; On Calculating the Moon's 
Parallaxes; On Artificial Horizons; On the Intersections of Cun-cs; Correc- 
tion of Lunar Observations, in vol. i. On the Cases in Deducing the Longi- 
tude, <i:c.; Observations of Eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites; On the Hindoo 
Binmnial Tfieorem, in vol. iL— See the Ifew Monthly Moffazine, &c. 


on Sliakspeare. This was followed by A Treatise on Hysterical 
Diseases, translated from the French. In 1778 he was sent by- 
Government with certain commissioners to treat with America, 
but neither the commissioners nor their secretary were suffered 
by the Congress to proceed further than JSTew York. Dr. 
Berkenhout, however, foimd means to penetrate as far as 
Philadelphia, where the Congi-ess was then assembled. He 
appears to have remained in that city for some time without 
molestation; but at last, on siispicion that he was sent by Lord 
North for the purpose of tampering with some of their leading 
members, he was seized and committed to prison. How long 
he remained a state prisoner, or by what means he obtained his 
liberty, we are not informed ; but we find from the public 
prints that he rejoined the commissioners at New York, and 
returned with them to England. For this temporary sacrifice 
of the emoluments of his profession, and in consideration of 
political ser-\aces, he obtained a pension. In 1780, he published 
liis Lucubrations on Ways and 2£eans, inscribed to Lord North, 
proposing certain taxes, some of which were adopted by that 
minister, and some afterwards by Mr. Pitt. Dr. Berkenhout's 
friends at that time appear to have taken some pains to point 
him out as an inventor of taxes. His next work was An Essay 
on the Bite of a Mad Dog ; in which the claim to infallibility 
of the principal preservative remedies against hydrophobia is 
examined. In the year following, Dr. Berkenhout published his 
Symptomatology : a book which is too universally known to 
require any recommendation. In 1788 appeared First Lines of 
the Theory and Practice of Philosophical Chemistry, dedicated 
to Mr. Eden, afterwards Lord Auckland, whom the doctor 
accompanied to America. Of this book it is sufficient to say, 
that it exhibits a satisfactory display of the state of chemistry 
at that time. In 1779 he published a continuation of Dr. 
Campbell's Lives of the Admirals, 4 vols., 8vo. ; and once 
printed Proposals for a History of Middlesex, including London, 
4 vols., folio, which, as the design dropt, were never circulated. 
His last publication was Letters on Education, to his Son at 
Odford, 1791, 2 vols., 12mo. There is also reason to suppose 
him the author of certain humorous publications, in prose and 
verse, to which he did not tliink fit to prefix his name, and of a 
translation from the Swedish language of the celebrated Count 
Tessin's Letters to the late King of Sweden. It is dedicated to 
the Prince of Wales, afterwards King George the Third; and 
was, we believe, Mr. Berkenhout's first publication. He died 
on the 3rd of April, 1791, aged sixty years. Dr. Berkenhout 


was one of the greatest ornaments to his native towTi; and 
when we reflect on the variety of books that bear his name, we 
cannot but be surprised at the extent and variety of the know- 
ledge they contain. His knowledge was acquired not only by 
study, but by the variety of circumstances in which he was 
placed. He was originally intended for a merchant ; thence 
his knowledge of the principles of commerce. He was some 
years in one of the best disciplined armies in Europe; thence 
his knowledge of the art of wai'. His translation of Count 
Tessin's Letters shows him to have been well acquainted with the 
Swedish language, and that he was a good poet. His Pharma- 
copoeia Medici, &c., demonstrate his skill in his profession. His 
Outlines of Natural History, and his Botanical Lexicon, prove 
his knowledge in every branch of natural history. His First 
Lines of Pliilosopliical Chemistry have convinced the world of 
his intimate acquaintance with that science. His Essay on 
Ways and Means proves him well acquainted with the system 
of taxation. His Biographia Literaria, and all his writings, 
prove him to have been a classical scholar; and it is known that 
the Italian, French, German, and Dutch languages were familiar 
to him. He was moreover a painter; and played well, it is 
said, on various musical instruments. To these acquirements 
may be added a considerable degree of mathematical knowledge, 
which he attained in the coui'se of his military studies. An 
individual so universally informed as Dr. Berkenhout, is an 
extraordinary appearance in the republic of lettei'S. His works, 
published at different times, on history, literature, biography, 
medicine, and chemistry, comprise nineteen volumes. In his 
character, which, we believe, was published in his lifetime, there 
Ls the evident hand of a friend. Dr. Berkenhout, however, 
may be allowed to have been an ingenious and well-informed 
man, but as an author he ranks among the useful rather than 
the original; and the comparisons of his friends between him 
and the "admirable Crichton" are, to say the least, rather 
injudicious. — For further information, see European Magazine, 
1788, vol. xiv. ; Cunningham's Lives, vol. xi. ; Gentleman's 
Magazine, vol. Ixi. ; HwichmHon' h Medical Biogra2)hy; Parsons' 
History of Leeds; the Biographical Dictionaries of Chalmers, 
Gorton, Knight, Bose, Watkins, &c, 



A very celebrated mechanic and civil engineer, was born in 1724 

(May 28th, according to Chalmers, &c., but according to his 


monument on tlie 8tli of June), at Austliorpe, near Leeds, in a 
house built by bis grandfather, and long afterwards inhabited 
by his family. From his early childhood he discovered a strong 
propensity to t^e arts in which he afterwards excelled; was 
more delighted in talking with workmen than in playing with 
other boys; and surprised or occasionally alarmed his friends 
by mechanical efforts disproportioned to his years; sometimes 
being at the summit of a building, to erect a kind of mill, and 
sometimes at the side of a well, employed in the construction of 
a pump." When he was aboiit fourteen or fifteen he had con- 
stnicted a lathe to turn rose- work, and presented many of his 
friends with specimens of its operation in wood and ivory. 
" lir the year 1742," says one of his earliest biographers, "I 
spent a month at his father's house; and being intended myself 
for a mechanical employment, and a few years younger than he 
was, I could not but view his works with astonishment. He 
forged his iron and steel, and melted his metal; he had tools of 
every sort for working in wood, ivoiy, and metals. He had 
made a lathe by which he had cut a perpetual screw in brass — 
a thing little known at that day, and which, I believe, was the 
invention of Mr. Henry Hindley, of York, who was a man of 
the most communicative disposition, a great lover of mechanics, 
and of the most fertile genius. Mr. Smeaton soon became 
acquainted with him, and spent many a night at Mr. Hindley's 
house till daylight, conversing on those subjects." The father of 
Mr. Smeaton was an attorney, and wished to bring him up to 
the same pi'ofession. Mr. Smeaton, therefore, went up to 
London in 1742, and attended the courts in "Westminster Hall; 
but finding that the law did not suit the bent of his genius, he 
wrote a strong memorial on the subject to his father, who had 
the good sense to allow him from that time to pursue the path 
which nature pointed for him. Early in 1750 he had lodgings 
in Great Turnstile, Holborn, and was commencing the business 
of a mathematical instrument maker. In 1751 he invented a 
machine to measure a ship's way at sea, and a compass of 
peculiar construction, touched by Dr. Knight's artificial mag- 
nets; and made two voyages with Dr. Knight to ascei-tain the 
merit of his contrivances. In 1753 he was elected a Fellow of 
the Royal Society, and the nu^mber of his papers inserted in 

* At a pi-oper age the boy was sent to school at Leeds, wliicli then possessed, 
as it still does, the great advantage of an excellent Free Grammar School. 
At which school Smeaton is supposed to have received the best part of his 
school instruction ; and it is said that liis progxess in geometry and arithmetic 
was very decided. 


the Transactions of tliat body sufficiently evince how highly 
he deserved that distinction. In 1759 he received, by a 
unanimous vote, the Copley gold medal for his curious paper, 
entitled. An Experimental Inquiry concerning the Natural 
Poioers of Wind and Water to turn Mills and other Machines 
depending on a Circular Motion. This paper, he says, Avas the 
result of experiments made on working models in 1752-3, but 
not communicated to the Society till 1 759 ; before which time 
he had not an opportunity of putting the effect of these experi- 
ments into real practice, in a variety of cases and for various 
purposes, so as to assure the Society that he had found them to 
answer. These experiments discovered that wind and water 
could be made to do one-third moi'e than was before known, 
and they were made, we may observe, in his twenty-seventh and 
twenty-eighth years. In 1754 he visited Holland and the 
Netherlands; and the acquaintance he thus obtained with the 
construction of embankments, artificial navigations, and similar 
works, probably formed an important part of his engineering 
education."- In December, 1752, the Eddystone Lighthouse 
was burned down, and Mr. Smeaton was recommended to the 
proprietor by Lord Macclestield, then president of the Eoyal 
Society, as the person best qualified to rebuild it. This gi'eat 
work he undertook immediately, and completed it in the summer 
of 1759. An ample and most interesting account is given of 
the whole transaction in a folio volume published by himself 
in 1791, entitled, "A Narrative of the Building, and a Description 
of the Construction, of the Eddystone Lighthouse vnth Stone; to 
vv^hich is subjoined an Appendix, giving some Account of the 
Lighthouse on the Spurn Point, built upon a Sand; by John 
Smeaton, Civil Engineer, F.E.S." This publication may be con- 
sidered as containing an accurate history of four years of his 
life, in which the originality of his genius, with his great 
alacrity, industry, and perseverance, are fully displayed. It 
contains also an account of the former edifices constructed in 
that place, and Ls made, by the ingenuity of the writer, an 
entertaining as well as an instructive work. This volume is of 
gi-cat and permanent interest, detailing in the most minute and 

"Bid harbours open, public ways extend; 
Bid temples, worthier of God, ascend ; 
Bid the broad arch the dang'rous flood contain, 
The mole projected, break the roaring main; 
Back to its bounds tlieir subject sea command. 
And roll obedient rivers through the land. 
These honours, peace to happy Britain brings ; 
These are imperial works, and wortliy kings."— Poi'K. 


simple manner every circumstance wortliy of record concerning 
tlie history or the construction of the lighthouse. It is dedi- 
cated to George III., who had taken much interest in the 
structure ; and in the dedication, in explaining the circumstances 
which had deferred the appearance of the Narrative so long 
after the completion of the building, the author observes — " I 
can with truth say, I have ever since been employed in works 
tending to the immediate benefit of yoiu* Majesty's subjects; 
and indeed so unremittingly, that it is not without the greatest 
exertion that I am enabled even now to complete the publica- 
tion." His building the Eddystone Lighthouse, were there no 
other monument of his fame, woiild establish his chai'acter. The 
Eddystone Rocks have obtained their name from the great variety 
of contrary sets of the tide or current in their vicinity. They 
are situated nearly S.S.W. from the middle of Plymouth Sound. 
Their distance from the poi-t of Plymouth is about fourteen 
miles. They are almost in the line which joins the Start and the 
Lizard points; and as they lie nearly in the dii'ection of vessels 
coasting up and do^vn the Channel, they were unavoidably, before 
the establishment of a lighthouse there, very dangerous, and 
often fatal to ships. Their situation with regard to the Bay of 
Biscay and the Atlantic is such, that they lie open to the swells 
of the bay and ocean, from all the south-western points of the 
compass; so that all the heavy seas from the south-west quarter 
come uncontrolled upon the Eddystone Rocks, and break upon 
them wdth the utmost fuiy. Sometimes, when the sea is to all 
appearance smooth and even, and its sui'face vmiTiffled by the 
slightest breeze, the ground-swell meeting the slope of the rocks, 
the sea beats upon them in a fi-ightful manner, so as not only 
to obstruct any work being done on the rock, or even landing 
upon it, when, figuratively speaking, you might go to sea in a 
walnut-shell. That circumstances fraught with danger sur- 
rounding it should lead mariners to wish for a lighthouse, is not 
wonderful; but the danger attending the erection leads us to 
wonder that any one could be found hardy enough to undertake 
it. Such a man was first found in the person of Mr. H. Win- 
stanley, who, in 1696, was furnished by the Trinity House -wdth 
the necessary powers. In 1700 it was finished; but in the 
great storm of November, 1703, it was destroyed, and the pro- 
jector perished in the ruins. In 1709 another, upon a different 
construction, was erected by a Mr. Rudyerd,* which, in 1755, 

* An anecdote is told of a circumstance which occurred during its erection, 
so creditable to Louis XIV., then king of France, that it is repeated here. 

JOHN SilEATOX, ESQ., F.R.S. 195 

was imfortunately consumed by fire. The next building was 
under the direction of Mr. Smeaton, who, ha-v-ing considered 
the errors of the former constructions, has judiciously guarded 
against them, and erected a building, the demolition of which 
seems little to be dreaded, unless the rock on which it is erected 
should perish -wdth it. The cutting of the rock for the founda- 
tion of the building was commenced on the 5th of August, 1756; 
the fii'st stone was landed upon the rock June 12th, 1757; the 
building was finished on the 9th of October, 1759, and the 
lantern lighted for the first time on the 16th. Dui'ing this 
time there were 421 days' work done upon the rock.* But 
although Mr. Smeaton completed the building of the Eddystone 
Lighthouse in a manner that did him so ml^ch credit, it does 
not appear that he soon got into full business as a ci^dl engineer; 
for iu 1764, while he was in Yorkshire, he oflfered himself a 
candidate for the place of one of the receivers of the Dei-went- 
water estate. This place was conferred upon him at a full 
board in Greenwich Hospital, the last day of the same year, 
notwithstanding a powerful opposition. He was very service- 
able in it, by improving the mills and the estates belonging to 
the hospital; but in 1775 his private business was so much 
increased that he wished to resign, though he was prevailed 
upon to hold it two years longer. He was now concerned in 
many important public works. He made the river Calder 
navigable: a work that required great skill and judgment, on 
account of the very impetvious floods to which that river is 
liable. He planned and superintended the execution of the 
great canal in Scotland, which joins the two seas, from the 
Forth to the Clyde. To his skill, in aU probability, the pre- 
servation of old London Bridge for many years was attributable. 
In 1761, in consequence of alterations made for the improve- 
ment of the navigation, one of the piers was undermined by 

There beiag war at the time between France and England, a French privateer 
took the opportunity of one day seizing the men employed upon the rock, 
and carrying them off prisoners to France. But the ca^rture coming to the 
ears of the king, he immediately ordered that the prisoners should be released 
and sent Vjack to their work witli presents, declaring that, though he was at 
war with England, he was not at war with mankind ; and, moreover, that tlie 
Eddystone Lighthouse was so situated as to be of equal service to all nations 
having occasion to navigate the channel that divided France from England. — 
See Smeaton's Narrative, p. 28, &c. 

* The last mason's work done was the cutting out of the words " Laus 
Deo" (Praise to God), upon the last stone set over the door of the lantern. 
Round the upper store-room, upon the course under the ceiling, had been cut 
at an earlier period, " Except the Lord build the house, they labour in vaiu 
that build it." — Psalm cxxvii. 1. 


the stream to a fearful extent. The bridge Avas considered in 
such danger that no one would venture to pass over it; and the 
engineers were perj)lexed. An express was therefore sent to 
Yorkshire for Smeaton, who immediately sunk a great quantity 
of stones about the endangei-ed pier, and thereby pi-eserved it. 
In 1771 he became joint proprietor, with his friend Mr. Holmes, 
of the works for supplying Greenwich and Deptford vriih water 
— an undertaking which they succeeded in making useful to the 
pi;blic and beneficial to the proprietors, which it had never been 
before. Mr. Smeaton, in the course of his employments, con- 
structed a vast variety of mills, to the entire satisfaction and 
great advantage of the owners; and he improved whatever he 
took under his consideration of the mechanical or philosophical 
kind. Among many instances of this, we may mention his 
improvements in the air-pump, the })yrometer, the hygrometer, 
and the steam-engine. He was constantly consulted in parlia- 
ment, and frequently in the courts of law, on difficult questions 
of science; and his strength of judgment, perspicuity of expres- 
sion, and strict ■ integrity, always appeared on those occasions to 
the highest advantage. The Spuni Lighthouse at the mouth of 
the Humber, some important bridges in Scotland, and many 
other works of like character, might also be mentioned. About 
1785, finding his health beginning to decline, Mr. Smeaton 
wished as much as possible to withdraw himself from business, 
and to employ his leism-e in drawing up and publishing an 
account of his principal inventions and works. His NarrafAve 
of the Eddystone Lighthouse, already mentioned, was a part of 
this design, and tlie only part which he was able to complete. 
It was to have been followed by a Treatise on Mills, and other 
works, embodying his valuable experience as an engineer. 
Notwithstanding his wish to retire from business, he could not 
resist the solicitation of his friend Mr. Aubert, then chairman 
of the trustees for Eamsgate hai-bour, to accept the place of 
engineer to that harbour; and the improvements actually made, 
as well as his report published by the trustees in 1791, evince 
the attention which he paid to that important business. This 
harboui', being enclosed by two piers of about 2,000 and 
1,500 feet long respectively, affords a safe refuge for sliips, 
where it was much needed; vessels in the Downs having been 
exposed to imminent risk, during bad weather, before it was 
constructed. On the 16th of September, 1792, Mr. Smeaton 
was suddenly struck with paralysis as he was walking in his 
garden at Austhorpe, and remaining in a very infirm state, 
though in full j^jossession of his faculties, died on the 28th of 


tlie ensuing month. The character of this celebrated engineer 
may properly be given in the words of his friend Mr. Holmes: — 
" Mr. Smeaton had a warmth of expression that might appear 
to those who did not know him to border on harshness; but 
those more intimately acquainted with him knew^ it arose from 
the intense application of his mind, which was always in the 
piu'suit of tiaith, or engaged in investigating difficult subjects. 
He would sometimes break out hastily, when anything was said 
that did not tally "s\'ith his ideas; and he w^ould not give u^) 
anything he argued for, till his mind was con^'inced by sound 
reasoning. In all the social duties of life he was exemplaiy; 
he was a most affectionate husband, a good father, a warm, 
zealous, and sincei'e friend, always ready to assist those he 
respected, and ofte:i before it was pointed out to him in what 
way he could serve them. He was a lover and encourager of 
merit, wherever he found it: and many men are in a great 
measure indebted for their present situation to his assistance and 
ad^dce. As a companion he was always entertaining and insti-uc- 
tive; and none could spend their time in his company wdth out 
improvement. As a man (adds Mr. Holmes), I always admired 
and respected him, and his memory will ever be most dear to 
me." A second edition of his Narrative of the Eddystone 
was piiblished in 1793, under the reA^sal of his friend Mr. 
Aubert, but without any addition. The papers of Mr. Smeaton 
were purchased of his executors by Sir Joseph Banks, under 
the voluntary promise of accounting to them for the profits of 
whatever should be published. Accordingly, under the inspec- 
tion of a Society of Civil Engineers, founded originally l)y Mr. 
Smeaton, three 4to. vohimes of his Rejwrts were published in 
1797, etc., with a Life prefixed; biit the work was not com- 
pleted until 1812, when a fourth was added, consisting of his 
miscellaneous papers communicated to the Royal Society, &c. 
The society above alluded to is mentioned in the first volume of 
the Transactions of the Institution of Civil Engineers, as still 
existing. The inti-oduction to this volume contains a high 
eulogium on the talent of Smeaton as an engineer. Alluding 
to the Eddystone Lighthouse, it observes: — "This, Smeaton's 
first work, was also his greatest; probably, the time and all 
things considered, it was the most arduous undertaking that has 
fallen to any engineer, and none was ever more successfully 
executed.'"' And now, having been buffeted by the storms of 

* It is tnily observed liy the late Lord Ellesmere, in his Essays on 
Enf/ineerin/j, that hloody battles have been won, and caminiigns conducted to 
a successful issue, with less of personal exposure to physical danger on the 


nearly eighty [now (1805) upwards of a hundred] years, the 
Eddystone stands unmoved as the rock it is built on — a proud 
monument to its great author. Buildings of the same kind 
have been executed since, but it should always be borne in 
mind who taught the first great lesson, and recorded the pro- 
gressive steps with a modesty and simplicity that may well be 
held up as models for similar writings. His Reports are entitled 
to equal praise; they are a mine of wealth for the sound prin- 
ciples which they unfold, and the able practice they exemplify, 
both alike based on close observation of the operations of 
nature, and affording many fine examples of cautious sagacity 
in applying the instructions she gives, to the means within the 
reach of art." The deliberation and caution always exercised 
in the works of Smeaton are well worthy of imitation; and to 
these may be attributed the almost unexampled success of his 
undertakings. Smeaton also introduced many improvements in 
mathematical apparatus, and had an ardent love for science. 
He was particularly attached to astronomy, and had an obser- 
vatory at Austhorpe, near Leeds, where, even during the most 
active part of his career, he occasionally resided.* In person 
he was of middle stature, broad and strong made, and of good 
constitution. His manners were simple and unassuming; Ids 
temper was warm, but not overbearing; and his social character 
unimpeachable. Very little is recorded of liis private history; 
but his daughter, Mary Dixon,t in a letter prefixed to his 

part of the commander-in-cliief than was constantly encountered by Smeaton 
during the gi'eater part of those years in which the lighthouse was in course 
of erection. In all works of danger be himself led the way — was the first to 
spring upon the rock, and the last to leave it ; and by liis own example he 
inspired with courage the humble workmen engaged in cariying out his plans, 
who, like himself, were unaccustomed to the special terrors of the scene. 

* During many years of his life, Mr. )Smeaton was a constant attendant on 
parliament, his opinion being continually called for. And here his natural 
strength of judgment and ijerspicuity of expression had their fuU display. 
It was his constant practice, when applied to, to plan or support any measure, 
to make himself fully acquainted with it, and be convinced of its merits, 
before he would be concerned in it. By this caution, joined to the clearness of 
his desciiption and the integrity of his heart, he seldom failed having the 
bin he supported carried into an act of parliament. No person was heard 
with more attention, nor had any one ever more confidence placed in his 
testimony. In the courts of law he had several compliments paid to him 
from the bench, by the late Lord Mansfield and others, on account of the new 
light he threw uj)on difficult subjects. 

i" She was the wife of Jeremiah Dixon, Esq., mayor of Leeds in 1784, 
afterwards of Fell Foot, Windermere, and an active county magistrate. She 
possessed much of the force of character and benevolence of disposition 
which distinguished her father ; and was regarded as a woman of great 
practical ability. She sui-vived her husband many years, and during hei- 
lifetime built and endowed a fi-ee school for girls at Staveley, about a mile 


Reports, gives a pleasing account of his cliavacter as a husband, 
parent, and friend. He was by no means grasping or avai-icious, 
as many anecdotes related of him seem to show.* The inscrip- 
tion on the monument in Whitkirk church, near Leeds, to this 
celebrated man, is as follows: — " Sacred to the memory of John 
Smeaton, F.R.S., a man whom God had endowed with the most 
extraordinary abilities, which he indefatigably exerted for the 
benefit of mankind, in works of science and philosophical 
research j more especially as an engineer and mechanic. His 
principal work, the Eddystone Lighthouse, erected on a rock in 
the open sea (where one had been washed away by the violence 
of a storm, and another had been consumed by the rage of fire), 
secure in its own stability and the wise precautions for its 
safety, seems not unlikely to convey to distant ages, as it does 
to every nation of the globe, the name of its constructor. He 
was born at Austhoi-pe, June 8th, 1724, and dejDarted this life 
October 28th, 1792.t Mt. 68." — For additional information, see 

from her residence, which is now, and has been ever since its establishment, 
of vei-y great benefit to the population of the neighboiirhood. Mrs. Dixon 
was also an artist of some merit, and painted in oils; the altar-piece and 
decorated Ten Commandments now in Staveley church being of her execution. 

* The maxim which governed his life was, that "the abilities of the 
individual were a debt due to the common stock of public well-being." This 
high-minded principle, on which he faithfully acted, kept him free from 
sordid self-aggrandisement, and he had no diflBculty in resisting the most 
tempting offers which were made to attract him from his own settled course. 
When pressed on one occasion to undertake some new business, and the pro- 
spect of a lucrative recompense was held out to him, he called in the old 
woman who took charge of his chambers at Gray's Inn, and, pointing to her, 
said, " Her attendance suiBces for all my wants." If urgently called by duty, 
he was ready with his help ; but he would not be bought. AVlien the Princess 
(Daschkov) Dashkoff urged him to go to Russia and enter the service of the 
Empress Catherine, she held out to him very tempting promises of reward — 
even his own terms. But he refused : no money would induce him to leave 
his home, his friends, and his pursuits in England; and, though not rich, he 
had enough and to spare. "Sir," exclaimed the Prmcess, unable to withhold 
her admiration, " 1 honour you ! you may have your equal in abilities, per- 
haps ; but in character you stand alone. The English minister, Sif Robert 
Walpole, was mistaken, and my sovereign has the misfortune to find one 
man who has not his price." — See Smeaton's licports, 1812, vol. i. , p. 'J8, &c. 

t — 1790. John Burnell, Esq., alderman, wlio served the office of lord 
mayor of London in the year 1788, and died on Monday, Januai-y 18th, 1790, 
in the eighty-fifth year of his age, at his house in Green Street, Leicester 
Square, London, was born at (Addle) Adel, near Leeds; served his appren- 
ticeship to a bricklayer at Hunslet, and at the expiration of his time went to 
London ; where, by his industi-y and abilities, he- acquii'ed a fortune of 
upwards of one hundred thousand pounds. He left a few legacies to some 
poor relations in this parish. 

—1793. John Lee, Esq. (M.P.), banister-at-law, member of parliament 
for Higham Ferrers, and attorney-general of the county palatine of Durham, 
was a native of Leeds, and died at his seat, Staindrop, in the county of 
Durham, after a tedious illness, August 5th, 179H, in the sixty-first year of 


his Life prefixed to his Reports; Hutton's DicUonary ; Cun- 
ninghaui's Lives of Eminent and Illustrious Englislmien, part 
xi. ; Lighthouses aud Hai-bours in Timbs's Stories of Inventors ; 
tSniiles's Lives of the Engineers, voL ii. (with a fine portrait, and 
illustrations of his native district, the Eddystone Lighthouse, 
Ramsgate harbour, his house at Austhorpe, his burial-place and 
monumental tablet at Whitkirk) ; Lowndes's Bibliographers 
Manual; the Biographical Dictionaries of Chalmers, Gorton, 
Knight, Rose, &c. ; and for pedigree, cfcc, see Whitaker's Loidisn 
and Elmete, p. 1 30, etc. 


Was the third son of Richard Wilson, Esq.,"' the elder, recorder 
of Leeds, who died in April, 1761, aged eighty-three, and Anna, 
daughter of Christopher Lockwood, Esq., of Leeds. His eldest 
brother, Richard Wilson, jun., also became recorder of Leeds, 
and died, unmari'ied, in July, 1776, aged sixty-six. He was 
born March 22nd, 1715; and was educated at the Leeds 
Grammar School, and afterwards at Catherine Hall, Cam- 
bridge, where he took his B.A. in 1736; proceeded M.A. in 
174(); became a Fellow; and was Proctor of the University in 
1742-3. He occurs rector of Fulham, rector of Willingale 

liis age. He had the honour of being promoted to the oflSces of solicitor- 
genend and attorney-general to the king under the administrations of the 
Marquis of Eockingham aud the Duke of Portland. Of his distinguished 
professional abilities it is unnecessary to speak ; they desei-vedly gained him 
a most extensive practice. To an accurate and a profoimd knowledge of the 
laws of his country, he added a more splendid accomplishment, a ixniform 
integrity of coudvict, which jDeculiarly marked his character. Blessed with a 
Tiiemory uncommonly tenacious, he had diligently cvdtivated tlie ornamental 
parts of general literature. In his manners he was mild and gentle, in his 
disposition open and ingeniious, in his demeanour humble aud affable, and in 
the relative duties of society truly amiable. The -vvi-iter of this paragrapli 
knew him in tlie undress of life, when the artifices of forensic skill were laid 
aside. To soothe the pang of unavailing anguish, which his death occasioned, 
he offers this faint tribute of regard to the memory of his respected friend. 
— See the Leeds Tntellujvncer, &c., for August, 1793. 

* Hi chard "Wilson, Esq., recorder of Leeds, son of Thomas Wilson, Esq., 
of Leeds, merchant, the representative of an ancieut Yorkshire family (of 
which there is a copious pedigree in Dr. Whitaker's edition of Thoresby's 
Ducnius Leodtensis, p. 3), was )>orn July 24th, 1678 ; elected recorder of 
Leeds in 1729 ; and dying April 7th, 17(>1, was succeeded as recorder by his 
eldest son, Richard, who died, tinmanied, July 13th, 177(3. The late Mr. 
Richard Wilson had several volumes of pedigrees, surveys of churches, &c., 
transcribed from Dodsworth by the Rev. AY. Smith, rector of Melsonby; 
additions to Camden aud Thoresby, &c., &c., which were afterwards in the 
possession of his brother and heir, Thomas Wilson, Esq. , of Leeds, who dieil 
in 1789, aged seventy-six years. — See Gough's Brit. Topo't., vol. ii., p. 410; 
Nichols's Liicrarij Illustrations, vol. v., p. .507, &c. 


Spayue, m Essex, from 1744 to 1770; and vicar of Halstead, in 
the same county, from 1744 to 17GS — tlie former in the gift of 
the Crown, on the nomination of the Bishop of London, the 
lattei- in the gift of the Bisho]> of London absolutely; and was, 
in 1748, installed a prebendary of Westminster, which he 
resigned in 1758, on being made a canon resideutiaiy of St. 
Paul's. He was afterwards prebendary of Finsbury, and rector 
of Barnes, in Surrey, which he held in commendam. He pub- 
lished a sermon delivered before the House of Peers, January 
.31st, 1785, from Dan. v. 21; and, had he not been prevented 
by illness, would have been the preacher in course at the 
anniversary meeting of the Society for Propagating the Gospel 
in 1791. He also published a sermon from 1 Cor. xii. 21, 
preached January 30th, 1754, London, 4to. He married Anne, 
youngest daughter of the celebrated Dr. Edmund Gibson, Bishop 
of London; and he himself afterwards became Lord Bishop of 
Bristol (1783).""' His memory will endure in Leeds so long as 
St. Paul's church stands, for he gave the ground on which it was 
built. He died, April ISth, 1792, aged seventy-seven j'ears. 
Bishop Wilson's life was of that imdiversified tenour which dis- 
tinguishes churchmen who intermeddle little with politics, contro- 
versy, or literature. Exemplary was his conduct in every social 
claim upon character. His high office was sustained with suit- 
able dignity ; and the urbanity and intelligence of the gentleman 
and the scholar gave a finish to his domestic manners. They 
who look for the habitudes of life to influence the moment of 
dissolution may infer the best of his, for liis serenity was 

* Another bishop (in addition to those ah-eady given), born in this neigh- 
boiu'liood, though more than two hundred years previous, was the Eight Rev. 
Ralph Bai/nes, D.D. (—1559), who was born at Knostrop, near Leeds; edu- 
cated at St. John's College, Cambridge; proceeded B.A. in 1517-18, and was 
ordained priest at Ely, April 2;5rd, 1519, being then a Fellow of St. John's, 
on Bishop Fisher's foundation. He became M.A. in 1521; was constituted 
one r)f the university preachers in 1527, and was collated to the rectory of 
Hardwicke, in Cambridgeshire, which he resigned in 1544. He opposed 
Latimer at Cambridge, and in 1550 we find him disputing at Westminster on 
the Roman Catliolic side. He aftenvards went to Paris, and was professor of 
Hebrew in that university. He contiuiied abroad till the accession of Mary, 
when he returned to England, and on November 18th, 1554, was consecrated 
Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, taking his D.D. at Cambridge in 15.55. He 
took a prominent 2>art in the persecution of the Protestants; and when 
Elizabeth ascended tlie throne was deprived of his bishopric, and imprisoned 
for non-compliance with the changes in religion which tlicn ensued. He died 
of the stone, at Islington, Kovember 18th, 15.59, and was buried in the church of 
Dunstan-in-tlie-West, London. He was one of tlie cliief restorers of Hebrew 
learning in tliis country, and was also well versed in Latin and Greek. He 
publislicd a Hebrew Grammar, and other works, at Paris, from 1550 to 1.55.5.— 
For other particulars, see Fuller's Worthies; Fuller's Church History; 
(Jooper's yl</tc«. Cantab.; Thoresby's Ducatus Lcodiensis, p. 100, &c. 


unruffled; and, not having lived to give pain to others, at the 
close of being he felt none himself. He had ordered a 
full and superb set of communion-plate, which he intended 
to present to the new church of St. Paul, in his episcopal 
city of Bristol. He left one son and five daughters ; and 
died extremely rich, having, as prebendary of Finsbury, made 
a most fortunate and lucrative contract for a lease with 
the city of London.* His eldest son, Richard, married 
Elizabeth, daughter of the Yery Rev. Dr. Fountayne, dean of 
York, and thus became the father of Richard Fountayne Wilson, 
Esq., who was for some time member of parliament for York- 
shire, and to whom Leeds is indebted for the valuable piece of 
ground in front of the General Infirmary, and also for the 
extinction of small tithes. His third daughter, Mary, was 
married to the fii'st Sii- John Beckett, and thus became the 
mother of the second Sii- John, Chi'istopher, Sir Thomas, 
Richard, William, and Edmund — the latter of whom changed 
his name to Denison. Another of his daughters married the 
Rev. Mr. Disney, vicar of Halstead, Essex. — For pedigree and 
other particulars, see Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis, p. 3 ; 
Whitaker's Loidis and Elmete, p. G3 ; Nichols's Literary 
Anecdotes, vol. iii., p. 97; GentlemarC s Magazine, 1792, p. 477; 
Nichols's Literary Illustrations, vol. v., p. 507, &c. See also a 
Sketch of R. F. Wilson, Esq., M.P., who died in 1847. 

* The amazing improvement in the prebendal manor of Finsbury is worthy 
of notice (for a long account of which, see Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, 
vol. ix., pp. 520-24). The history of the church affords but few instances of 
such an increase of value ; and still fewer of its individuals that have amassed 
such an immense fortmie from such slender means — a life interest of only 
£39 13s. Ad. a year. It may he said, such opportunities seldom occur; but 
the merit of the man must not be forgotten, who was equal to the 
chance. He was an able calculator ; and possessed a persevering spirit, and a 
temper and manners of aU others suited to soothe and harmonize the conten- 
tions of so fluctuating a body as the Corporation of London in nearly fifty years' 
intercoiirse. In tracing his benefits from authentic documents, it appears that 
he received more than £50,000 (clear of all deductions) in his lifetime, with- 
out the assistance of compound interest ; and he chai'ged this estate in his will 
with legacies to the amount of £50,000 more, which, on the authority of liis 
executors, has proved ample, and will leave a very large residue. The net 
division at Christmas, 1797, after aU deductions, was, to the Corporation, 
£3,646; to the heirs of Bishop Wilson, £2,431; to Dr. Apthorpe, the next 
prebendaiy, £1,215. Bishop AYilson was not the only one of his family whom 
fortune had favoured with her abundance ; for his brother equalled his suc- 
cess by early engaging in the Selby Navigation, and, growing wealthy in 
Yorkshire, showed liis affectionate regard by pressing the doctor to take 
time and use precaution in agreeing to renew the lease, for he could and 
would support him. The biother died first, a bachelor ; the doctor died soon 
after, leaving a numerous offspring to inherit the gi-eat property of both. — See 
Nicliols's LUerarii Anecdotes, &c. 



"Eveiy man who falls in the service of his country," says 
Dr. Whitaker, *'deser\'e3 more lasting remembrance than marble 
can bestow." On a neat tablet in the chancel of the Leeds 
parish church, there is the following inscription : — " Sacred to the 
memory of Charles Henry Nevile, lieutenant in the Queen's (or 
2nd) Regiment of Foot, who, being on the marine duty on board 
Earl Howe's ship, after behaving in a most brave and gallant 
manner in the engagement which took place between the Eng- 
lish and French fleets for three days, was killed by a grape shot, 
June the 1st, 1794, aged nineteen years." 








oh! give one PITYING TEAR, 





For pedigree, &c., see Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis, p. 184 ; 
Whitaker's Loidis, p. 3.38, &c. See also Gervase Kevile (in thLs 
volume), who died in 1676, j). 107, (fee; and the Note to Lieu- 
tenants Nevile, who died in 1799, p. 209, &c. 

* — 1794. Captaix Henry Spencer, of the 53rd regiment, died in May, 
1794, in the prime of life, in the island of Guadaloupe : a gallant officer and a 
worthy man, formerly of Bramley Grange, near Leeds. 

— 1794. The B,EV. Guy Fairfax, of Newton Kyme, near Leeds, as he was 
performing divine service in his parish church, on Sunday evening, Sep- 
tember 7th, 1794, in apparent good health, fell l)ack in the reading-desk, and 
instantly expired without a single gi-oan ! It is doing very unperfect justice to 
his character to say, he was a man of the mildest and most amiable manners ; 
of the most distinguished benevolence, as unostentatious as it was diffusive ; 
and such was the invariableness of his conduct, that his whole life, in what- 
ever point of view it might be contemplated, appeared but as one continued 
act of preparation for a better. Under these circumstances, severe as must 
be the affliction of his surviving family for the loss of so valuable a member 
of it; the manner, at least, of his death must be considered by them as a 
matter rather of consolation than regret. He was the fourth son of Tliomas 
Fairfax, Esq., of Newton KjTne, near Tadcaster, wlio was the only son of 
Robert Fairfax, Esq., of Newton Kyme, vice-admiral of the Blue, M.P. for 
York, and its lord mayor in 1715, the memorable j'ear of the rising for 
Prince Charles. The Rev. Guy Fairfax married a daughter of the Rev. John 


17r2— 1795. 


Formerly Edwin Lascelles, Esq., son of Heniy Lascelles, Esq., 
of Harewood and Northallerton, which latter place he rejDre- 
sented in parliament, dying in 1745; succeeded his father, and 
was elevated to the peerage by the title of Baron Harewood of 
Harewood, on the 9th of July, 1790. He was baptized in 
February, 1712, and twice married, first in January, 1746, to 
Elizabeth, daughter and heii^ess of Sir D'Arcy Dawes, Bart., 
who died at Bath, in August, 1764; secondly, in March, 1770, 
to Jane, daughter of W. Coleman, Esq., and Jane Seymour, 
sister to the Duke of Somerset, who survived him. This 
nobleman having died, January 25th, 1795, without male issue, 
the title was extinguished ; but his lordship's estates descended 
to the eldest .sm-viving son of his deceased uucle, Edward 
Lascelles, Esq., of Barbadoes, his cousin, who was created, on 
the 18tli of June, 179G, Baron Harewood of Harewood, in the 
county of York; and advanced to a viscounty and earldom on 
the 7th of September, 1812, by the titles of Viscount Lascelles 
surd Earl of Harewood. The baron's loss was greatly deplored, 
especially by the peasantry of Harewood, who, having often 
experienced his benevolence, considered him as a father,* The 
noble lord was interred at Harewood, where there is a monu- 
ment erected to his honour. The family of Lascelles has been 

Kearney, D.D., by Henrietta, liis wife, daughter of tlie Hon. and Rev. 
Henry lirydges, brother of James, Duke of Chandos, and had a daughter, 
Henrietta Catherine, married to the present Joseph Chambei-layne Chamber- 
layue, Esq., of Maugerslniry House, Gloucestershu-e. His elder brother, 
.Jolni Fairfax, Esq. , succeeded to the estates of Steeton and Newton Kyme, 
and was succeeded by his son, Thomas Loddiugton Fairfax, Esq., of Newton 
Kyme, born in 1770; married Theophania, daughter of James Chaloner, Esq., 
of Guisborough, in this count}^ and died July 1st, 1840, leaving three 
daughters and a son, his successor, the present Thomas Fairfax, Esq., of 
Newton Kyme, J. P. and deputy -lieutenant, born in 1804; married, July 
2f)th, 1836, Louisa Constantia, daughter of George Ravensci-oft, Esq., and 
has issue, Thomas Ferdinand, born October 6th, 1839, &:c. — See the Leeds 
Intel/iffencer, &c., for September, 1794; Burke's Landed Gentry, &c. 

* The Eight Hon. Edwin, Lord Harewood, was a nobleman to whose 
(character it is not easy to do justice. In the senate, his lordship was inde- 
pendent and upright ; in private life, he was affable and courteous, hospitable, 
and generous. His moderation, indulgence, and liberality towards his ten- 
antry, were unexampled. His princely fortune was employed in such 
improvements as afforded support to all the neighbouring poor. The whole 
parisli i-egarded him as tlieu- father and their friend ; and the universal and 
deep regi-et manifested at his death (in his eighty-third year), was the surest 
indication how highly, in his life, he was honoured and beloved. He was 
M.P. for Scarborough, and for Noi-thallerton in 1754, and again from 1780 to 
1790. In 1759, he laid the foundation-stone of Harewood House, near Leeds. 
— See the Leeds InteUigencer, &c., for Jamiary, 1795. 


of importance in the county of York since the reign of Edward 
I., when Roger de Lascelles was summoned to parliament, as 
baron, 1295 ; but dying without male issue, the barony fell into 
abeyaiice between his four daughters, and has never been 
reclaimed. The earl is liueally descended from John de 
Lascelles, of Hinderskelfe (now Castle Howard), who lived in 
1315. The first earl was heir of the two senior lines of the 
family. Their motto, in English, is, " Salvation in God alone." 
Their towTi residence is in Harewood Place, Hanover Square, 
London, and their country-seat at Harewood House, near 
Leeds. — See Burke's Extinct Peerage ; Jones's History of 
Hareioood, &c. 


A pious, learned di^^.ne, and ecclesiastical historian, was born at 
Leeds, January 2ud, 1744, and was the son of a poor weaver. 
He was educated at the Leeds Grammar School, where he made 
great proficiency in Latin and Greek, in which he was greatly 
assisted by a memory of such uncommon powers, that his 
biographer, the Dean of Carlisle, asserts that he never saw his 
equal among the numerous pei-sons of science and literatui-e 
with whom he had been acquaiated. This faculty, which Mr. 
Milner possessed, without any \T.sible decay, during the whole 
of his life, gained him no little repiitation at school, where his 
master, the Rev. Mr. Moore, often availed himself of his 
memory in cases of liistoiy and mythology, and used to say, 
" Milner is more easily consulted than the Dictionaries or the 
Pantheon, and he is quite as much to be relied on." Mi-. 
Moore, indeed, told so many and almost incredible stories of his 
memory, that the Rev. Mr. 3Iurgatroyd, a very respectable 
clergyman, at that time minister of St. John's church, in Leeds, 
expressed some suspicion of exaggeration. Mr. Moore was a 
man of the strictest veracity, but of a warm temper. He 
instantly offered to give .satisfactory proof of his assertions. 
" Milner," said he, " shall go to church next Sunday, and, 
without taking a single note at the time, shall write down 
your sermon afterwards. Will you ])ermit us to compare what 
he writes with what you preach?" Mr. Murgati-oyd accepted 
the proposal with pleasure, and was often heard to express his 
astonishment at the event of this trial of memory. " The 
lad," said he, " has not omitted a single thought or sentiment in 
the whole sermon; and frequently he has got the very words 
for a long way together." By his industry and talents he 


gained the warm regard of liis instructor, Mr. Moore, wlio 
resolved to have him sent to college. This plan was nearly- 
frustrated by the death of Milner's father in very narrow 
circumstances; but by the assistance of some gentlemen in 
Leeds, whose children Milner had lately engaged to teach, he 
was appointed, at the age of eighteen, to the office of chapel- 
clerk at Catherine Hall, Cambridge, where he took his 
Bachelor's degree in 1766, and obtained one of the Chancellor's 
medals. He now became assistant-master in the Leeds Grammar 
(School, and soon afterwards the curate of the Rev. Mr. Atkin- 
son, at Thorp-Arch, the father of the Rev. Miles Atkinson, 
minister of St. Paul's church, Leeds. He afterwards became 
head-master of the Hull Grammar School, worth .£200 a year; 
and was soon after chosen afternoon lecturer of the principal 
church in that town. On obtaining this sitviatiou he sent for 
liis mother (then living at Leeds in poverty) to Hull, where 
she became the manager of his house; he also sent for two 
poor orphans, the children of his eldest brother ; he also 
removed his brother Isaac from Leeds, where he was humbly 
employed in a woollen maniifactory, and made him his 
assistant. This brother afterwards became master of Queen's 
College, Cambridge, professor of mathematics, and dean of 
Carlisle. About the year 1770, he embraced the sentiments of 
the Evangelical party in the Church of England. This change 
in his religious -^dews brought upon him neglect, and, in some 
cases, open opposition from many among the upj^er classes, who 
had once been his admirers and friends; but his chui'ch was 
soon crowded with others, chiefly from the lower orders of the 
people, in whose sentiments and manners his preaching pro- 
duced a striking change : and at length he not only recovered 
the esteem of his fellow-townsmen, but lived to see his own 
religious sentiments become so popular in the town, that many 
of the pulpits of the churches were tilled by liis friends and 
pupils, and he himself was chosen vicar of Hull by the mayor 
and corporation. His election took place only a few weeks 
before his death, which hapj^ened on the 15th of November, 
1797, in the fifty-fourth year of his age.* For seventeen years 

* By his death the world was deprived of a real philanthropist, his kindred 
of an affectionate relative, his acquaintance of a sincere friend, his king of a 
loyal subject, his country of a true patriot, and the Christian church of a 
zealous, learned, and sound divine. In short, he professed himself a Chris- 
tian, and his practice proved his sincerity. He held the above grammar 
school upwards of thirty years, during which period he applied himself with 
the most indefatiga})le attention to the arduous duty of education, and the 
many excellent scholars formed by his care are living monuments of his zeal 
and application. — See the Leeds Intellif/encer, &c., for Novembei", 1797. 


before his death he had been minister of North Ferriby, near 
HuU. An elegant monument, executed by Bacon, was erected 
to his memory in the High church of Hull by several gentlemen 
who had been his pupils.* The excellences of Mr. Milner's per- 
sonal character were of the highest order. He was a highly 
popular and successful preacher. He was also deeply pious, 
ujjright in all his conduct, singidarly open and sincere; and 
kind, cheerful, and amusing in social life. In his political 
principles he was strongly attached to the established order of 
things in Chiu-ch and State. The work by which he is best 
known is the History of the Church of Christ, which was com- 
menced by himself, and completed by his brother, the master of 
Queen's College, Cambridge, and which extends ii'om the rise of 
Christianity to the Reformation. The first edition of this 
work appeared in 5 vols., 8vo., 1794 to 1812, and a second 
edition in 1810. It has been more than once reprinted, t The 
other works of Milner are, — 1, Gibbon's Account of Christianity 
Co^isidered ; together luith some Strictures on Hume's Dialogues 
concerning Natural Religion; 2, Some Eemarkahle Passages in 
the Life of William Howard; 3, Essays on the Influence of the 
Holy Spirit; 4, Tracts and Essays, Tlbeological and Historical ; 
5, Practical Sermons, with an account of his Life and Cha- 

* His monument contained the following inscription : — "To the memory of 
Joseph Milner, M.A., successively lecturer and vicar of this church, and 
upwards of thirty years, master of the Free Crrammar School, this monument 
is erected by the gi-ateful affection of liis scholars. He was a man of a 
vigorous understanding, extensive learning, and unwearied diligence; dis- 
tinguished by primitive purity of sentiment, and holiness of life. He 
uniformly proved himself, through a long and active fministry, a zealous 
champion of the faith of Chiist; wliich his labours successfully iuc\dcated, 
and his writings will exhibit and vindicate to futiu'e generations. He died on 
the 1.5th of November, 1797, in the fifty-fourth year of his age." 

+ His Church History is important for giving a view of the progress of 
religion. The following are some of the principal editions : — History of the 
Church of Christ, mth a continuation to the present time; by the Rev. T. 
Haweis, LL.D., 8vo., Edinburgh, 1834. 

Practical Scrmonf:, to which is prefixed a Life and Character of the aiithor, 
second edition, revised and corrected by the Very Rev. Isaac Milnei-, D.D., 
dean of Carlisle. Large additions are made to the Life of the author, with 
further animadversions on Dr. Haweis' misrepresentations, 3 vols., 8vo., 

A Selection of Tracts and Essays from the miscellaneous writings of the 
late Rev. .Joseph Milner, A.M., edited by the Very Rev. Dr. Slilner, 8vo., 
London, 1810. 

The following edition by Mr. Grantham is much improved : — The History 
of tlie Church of Christ, with additions and corrections by the Very Rev. 
Isaac Milner, D. D. A new edition, revised and corrected throughout by the 
Rev. Thomas Grantham, B.D., rector of Bramber, Sussex, 4 vols., 8vo., 
London, 1847. This work has been continued by Dr. Stebbing, and also by 
Scott. — For the texts and subjects of liis Sermons, &c., see Darling's Cyclo- 
pedia Bibliographia ; Lowndes's Bibliographer's Manual, kc. 


racier, by the Dean of Carlisle, 2 vols. Some of liis Practical 
Sermons were also edited by the Rev. Edward Bickersteth, in 
1830 ; and others in 1 84rl by the Rev. James Fawcett, late incum- 
bent of Woodhouse, Leeds. A complete collection of his works 
was edited by Dean Milner, in 8 vols., in 1810. — For a more 
detailed account, see Gentleman s Magazine; the Clm'istian 
Observer; Cunningham's Lives; Parsons' History of Leeds; 
the Biographical Dictionaries of Gorton, Watkins, Chalmers, 
Knight, Rose, Mackenzie, &c. 

The author of Wharfedale, Wensleydale, and other poems, was 
born, it is said, at Harewood,* near Leeds, in 1717; but 
another account — though less certain — gives Westminster the 
credit of his birth. He was brought u]) to the medical profes- 
sion, and was sni'geon on board the Barjleur, with Captain 
Lord Harry Powlett. On returning, he became steward for the 
estates of the Duke of Bolton, and resided chiefly at his Grace's 
seat, Bolton Hall, in Wensleydale. He afterwards erected 
Burley House, near Otley, where he spent the latter part 
of his life. His principal poems are, — Wensleydale, or Rural 

* The following extracts evince poetic powers of a liigli order, and possess 
mucli local interest : — 

" As ai-tists boiTow some illustrious name, 
And on its wide-spi-ead base erect their fame ; 
So I, ambitious to adorn a tale, 
Must of expediency myself avail. 
In yonder fields, near Harewood's splendid dome, 
Where pleasure dwells and freedom feels at home, 
"Where ease and elegance their charms combine, 
And sister arts in happy uriiou twine : 
I sportive ranged ; there sipj)ed parental dew, 
"When first life's coinage current-value knew, 
Ere prejudice had sown her choking tares. 
And dashed my journey vni\\ intrusive cares. 
'Twas there in guileless hour my race began, 
"WTiile lib'ral culture trained me up to man. 
Thanks to that care, whose jirecepts first inspired, 
"Whose kindness cherished, and example fired ; 
"Whose doctrines taught with philosophic skill 
To rein the sallies of a devious will. 
So ruled a sire his son with virtuous sway. 
And gave to thought full energy to play, 
llest, sacred shade ! here, filial reverence, raise 
This last memorial of defective praise ; 
Nor shall maternal merit rest imknowu 
"While Phoebus condescends my muse to own. 
Or duty bids to clasp the mournful bier, 
And lends the heaving sigh and trickling tear." 


Contemplations ; and Verbeia* (Verbia), or Wharfedale, dedicsited 
to Edwin Lascelles, Esq. He died in 1798, aged eighty-one 
years. — See Scliroeder's Annals of Leeds; Jones's History of 

Ha/rewood, kc. 


There is a tablet in the chancel of the Leeds parish church 
with the following inscription: — "To the memory of John Pate 
Nevile, lieutenant in the 3rd Regiment of Foot Guards, who 
was wounded in Holland, in an engagement against the French, 
September 19th, of which wound he died October 10th, 1799, 
aged twenty-five years. — Also to the memory of Brownlow 
Pate Nevile, lieutenant in the 3rd Eegiment of Foot Guards, 
who was likewise wounded in Holland, in an engagement 
against the French, September 10th, and died September 16th, 
1799, aged twenty-three years. They were the brothers of 
Charles Henry Nevile, who was killed on board Earl Howe's 
ship, June 1st, 1794, and the sons of John Pate Nevile, Esq., 
of Badsworth, in the county of York." The merit of the sub- 
jects is the only reason for inserting these epitaphs. It is to be 
lamented that brave men, who have died for their country, 
should be no better recorded; but, as it is so, they ought not to 
be consigned to oblivion for the bad style of their epitaphs. 
Nevile (frequently written Neville) Street, leading to Holbeck, 
is of course called after this family. — For pedigree, &c., see 
Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis, p. 184-5; Whitaker's Loidis, 
p. 338 ; Hunter's South Yorkshire, vol. ii., p. 394, &c. 

* Verbeia was the Koman patroness of the Wharf e, as appears by an 
inscription dug up at Ilkley, the Olicana of the Romans. The stone is men- 
tioned by Camden, and is now existing neai- the public way in that village. 

t Descended from the Gervase Nevile, Esq., of Beeston and Holbeck, who 
was quartermaster-general to the Duke of Newcastle in 1643, and died in 
February, 167G, aged eighty-five years, and was buried in the great chancel of 
St. Peter's church in Leeds; whose eldest son and heu-, Gervase Nevile, Esq., 
of Beeston, sometime of Sheffield, and afterwards of Holbeck, died in May, 
1096, aged fifty -seven, and was buried at Leeds; having manied Dorothy, 
daughter of Francis Cavendish, Esq., of Doveridge, county of Derby. She 
died in .January, 171.3, aged seventy, and was buried at Leeds ; leaving issue — 
1, William Nevile, of Holbeck, Esq., high-sheriff of Yorkshire, in 1710, who 
married Bridget, daughter of Walter Calverley, Esq., and died in April, 1713, 
without issue. — 2, Rev. Gei-vase Nevile, vicar of Bingley in 1712, who suc- 
ceeded to the Holbeck estate, and at length to the entailed estates of Chevet, 
near Wakefield, and died unmarried. —3, Rev. Cavendish Nevile, M.A., 
sometime Fellow of University College, Oxford, forty years vicar of Norton, 
near Sheffield ; at length succeeded bis l^rother, Gervase, in the Chevet estates, 
&c., and was tlie last of the male line of this familj'. He man-ied Catherine, 
daughter of Sir Lionel Pilkington, Bai-t., of Stanley, near Wakefield, sister 
of Sir L. Pilkington, Bart., Lord of Chevet by purchase; she died. in Augmt, 



A dissenting minister of the Socinian persuasion, son of the 
Rev. Joseph Cappe, minister of the dissenting congregation at 
Mill Hill, in Leeds; was born in that town, Feb. 21st, 1732-3, 
and educated for some time under the care of his father, whom 
he lost in his sixteenth year.* Having at this eaiiy age dis- 
covered a predilection for nonconformity, he was placed at the 
academy of Dr. Aikin, at Kiljworth, in Leicestershire, in 1748, 
and the next year removed to that of Dr. Doddridge, at North- 
ampton. During his residence here, he overcame some scrujiles 
that arose in his mind respecting the evidences of revealed 
religion, by examining them in the best writers with gi-eat 
attention. After passing two years at Northampton, he was 

1 790, aged seventy-seven, and was 1 niried at Norton. He died at Clievet in 
February, 1749, aged sixty-nine, and was also biiried at Norton. — 4, Barbara, 
married in Noveinlier, 1705, at Eckingtou, county of Derby, to the Eev. 
Peter Robinson, aud had a daughter, Dorothy, only issue and heir of her 
mother, born in 170G, sole heir also of her cousin, Anne Nevile, (the Rev. 
(Javendish NevHe's daughter, who died at school in London, unmarried, in 
1756), aud heir general of her gi-andfather, Gervase Nevile, Esq. She died at 
Shrewsbury in October, 1782, aged seventj'-six ; having married John Lister, 
Esq., of Sysonby, county of Leicester, and had issue — 1, John Pate Nevile 
(formerly Lister), Esq., of Badsworth, lord of the manors of Holbeck and 
( 'hevet, born at Sysonby in March, 1734, baptized at Melton Mowbray, after- 
wards lived at Doncaster ; a captain in the Blues ; married at St. James's, 
Westminster, in March, 1771, Sarah, daughter of the Rev. Chambers Bate, 
of Forston, county of Derby, and rector of Easton, county of Northampton, 
;ind left a numerous family, most of whom fell in the service of then- country. 
1, Lieutenant John Pate Nevile, who died of his wounds in October, 1799, 
aged twenty-five. — 2, Lieutenant Charles Henry Nevile, who died on board 
Lord Howe's ship in June, ]794, aged nineteen. — 3, Lieutenant Brownlow 
Pate Nevile, who died of his wounds in Septemlier, 1799, aged twenty-three. 
— 4, Lieutenant Cavendish Nevile, who died in December, 1812, aged twentj'- 
hve. — 5, George Nevile, Esq., his heir, of Skelbrook Park, Badsworth, in 
this county, who married Georgiana Catherine, daughter of the Rev. Dr. 
( Jhampneys, and had issue John Pate Nevile, Esq. , formerly an officer in the 
76th Regiment of Foot, who married, in 1838, Louisa Mary, daughter of 
Robert Foster Grant-Dalton, Esq., and sister of Dalton Foster Grant-Dalton, 
Esq., J. P., of Shanks House, county of Somerset. He died in 1847, leaving issue 
— 1, Percy Sandford Ne^ale, Esq., of Skelbrook Park, near Pontefract, born 
in 1840, with two other sons and a daughter. Their motto is, "iVc vile vdis" 
— Wish nothing vile, or wish no evil.— See Burke's Landed Gcntrif, &c. 

* He showed early marks of singular genius and application to study ; and 
at six years of age he had made considerable progress in the Latin language. 
He was in the habit of rising at four o'clock in the morning, in order that he 
might read his lessons undisturbed, which "he did in the winter by the 
kitchen fire, which in that part of the coimtry it was ciistomary to keep in 
all night;" and in the summer, when the weather allowed, he chose for the 
l)lace of his morning studies the ruins of Kirkstall Abbey, situated about 
three miles from Leeds, on the banks of the river Aire. — See Monthly Be- 
viev', vol. xliii., p. 162, &c. 


deprived of the benefit of Dr. Doddridge'.s instructions, who 
was obliged to leave England on account of his health, and in 
1752 went to the University of Glasgow, where he continued 
three years, improving his knowledge with great industiy and 
success, and forming an acquaintance with manj' eminent men 
of the day, particularly Dr. Leechmau, Dr. Cullen, Dr. Adam 
Smith, Dr. Moore, and the late Dr. Black. Having completed 
his studies, he returned in 1755 to Leeds, and within a short time 
after was chosen co-pastor, and the following year sole pastor, of 
the dissenting congregation at St. Saviour-gate, York. This 
situation he retained for forty years, during which he engaged 
the respect and affection of liis hearei-s, and was distinguished 
as a preacher of uncommon eloquence, and a man of great 
learning and amiable manners. In 1791 and 1793 he experi- 
enced two paralytic shocks, which ever after affected both his 
walking and his speech; but he was enabled to employ much, of 
his time in preparing those works for tlie press which appeared 
after his death. Weakened at length by paralytic affections, he 
died December 24th, 1800. He published in his lifetime — 
1 , A Sermon tipon the King of Prussicis Victory at Roshach, 
November 3rd, 1757; 2, Three Fast-day Sermons, 2^'^Mished 
during the American War; 3, A Sermon on the Thanksgiving- 
day, 1784; 4, A Fast-day Sermon, vjritten during the Ainerican 
War, hut first iniblished in 1795; 5, A Sermon on the Death of 
the Rev. Edward Sandercock ; 6, A Selection of Psalms for 
Social Worshi]^; 7, Remarks in Vindication of Dr. Priestley, in 
Ansv;er to the Monthly Reviewers ; 8, Letters 2)ublished in the 
York Chronicle, signed "A Doughty Chamjnon in Heavy 
Armour," in rejdy to the attack of Dr. Cooper (tender the signa- 
ture of '■^ Erasmiis") upon Mr. Lindsey on his resigning the 
Living of Catterick;* and Discourses on tJie Providence and 

* Eev. Theophilus Lindsey, M.A. (1723 — 1808), a Socinian -vvriter, bom at 
Middlewch, iu Cheshire, June 20th, 1723, educated there, and at the Leeds 
Grammar School, under 'Mi: Barnard, where he made rapid in 
classical learning. At the age of eighteen (in 1741), he was admitted of St. 
John's College, Cambridge, where, by exemplary diligence and moral con- 
duct, he obtained the entire approbation of his tutors ; and, after taking his 
degrees, was elected Fellow in 1747, about which time he commenced liis 
clerical duties at an episcopal chapel iu Spital Square, London. Soon after 
this, he was, by the recommendation of Theophilus, Earl of Huntingdon, 
appointed domestic chaplain to Algernon, Duke of Somerset; after whose 
death, he travelled for two years on the continent with his son, subsequently 
Duke of Northumberland. On his return, about 1753, he was presented to 
the living of Kirkby Wiske, in the North-Kiding; and in 175G he removed to 
that of Piddletown, in Dorsetshire. In 1760, he mairicd a step-daugliter of 
his intimate friend. Archdeacon Blnckburne; and in 1703, chioHy for the 
sake of enjoying his society, and that of other friends iu Yorkshire, he 


Government of God, 8vo., London, 1795. In 1802 were pub- 
lished Critical Remarks orb many imjyortant Passages of Scrij)- 
iure, together icith Dissertations upon several subjects tending to 
illustrate the Phraseology and Doctrine of the New Testament* 
To these were prefixed Memoirs of his Life, by the editor, 
Catherine Cappe, his second wife, 2 vols., 8vo. (who also pub- 
lished Memoirs of herself, in 1822, and Observations on Cha/rity 
Schools, (fee). The chief object of these liemarTcs is to attack 
the Trinitarian doctrine, and to give those explanations and 
meanings to various parts of the New Testament language which 
are adopted by the modern Unitarian school. How far he has 
been successfid may be seen in the folio-wing references : — His 
Life, as above; Monthly Review, voL Ixix., where his Remarks 
in Vindication of Dr. Priestley are examined; British Critic, 
vol. xxi., p. Qd, (fee; Lo^vndes's Bibliographer's Manual; the 
Biographical Dictionaries of Chalmers, Goi-ton, Rose, ifec. 

exchanged the living of Piddletown for the vicarage of Catterick, which was 
of inferior value. Here he resided nearly ten years, an exemplary pattern of 
a primitive and conscientious pastor, highly respected and beloved by the 
people committed to his charge. In 1771, he co-operated with Ai-chdeacon 
Blackburne, Dr. John Jebb, Mr. Wj-vil, and others, in endeavouring to obtain 
relief in matters of subscription to the thirty-nine articles. In Novem- 
ber, 1773, he wrote to the prelate of his diocese, informing him of his inten- 
tion to quit the church, in consequence of scmples respecting the doctrine of 
the Trinity. Previously to leaving Catterick, he delivered a farewell address 
to his parishioners, in which he stated his motives for qmtting them. He 
then settled in London, where he opened a place of worship in Essex Street, 
Strand. The service of the place was conducted according to the plan of a 
litiu-gy, which had been altered from that ixsed in the Established Church by 
Dr. Samuel Clarke. About the same time he piiblished his Apology, Vindicice 
Priestleianm, kc. He died on the 3rd of November, 1808, in his eighty-sixth 
year, and was buried at Bun hill-fields. Mr. Lindsey was a man of mild and 
amiable manners, and very highly respected by every person who knew him. 
As a writer on the side of Unitarianism, it cannot be said that he brought 
many accessions of new matter and argument ; but liis honouiable conduct in 
the resignation of his jiref erment rendered him ijeculiarly an ornament to the 
sect he joined, and the loss of such a man might be justly regretted by the 
church he left. Besides copious biographical notices of Lindsey, which were 
published in the Monthly Repository and Monthly Magazine of December, 
1808, the Rev. Thomas Belsham published, in 1812, a thick octavo volume of 
Memoirs, in which he gives a fuU analysis of his works, and extracts from his 
coiTCspondence, together with a complete list of his publications. Two 
volumes of his Sei-mons were printed shortly after his death. — For additional 
particulars, see the above Memoirs, kc, and also the Athenaeum, voL v.; 
Bees's Cyclopcedia ; Biograp)kical Dictionaries of Chalmers, Knight, Maimder, 
Rose, &c. For a very eulogistic character of him, see Gentleman s Magazine, 
vol. lxxviii.,p. 1,044; Nichols's Literary Illustrations, vol. v., p. 415, kc. 

* He also published Discourses, chiefly on Devotional Subjects, to which are 
prefixed Memoirs of his Life, 8vo., York, 1805; and Discowses, chiefly on 
Practical Subjects, 8vo., York, 1815; and other works. — See Darling's Cyclo- 
pcedia Bibliographia, &c. 


Wliose interesting Autobiography (1736-1797) has been recently- 
edited by Hs grandson (Thomas Wright, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., 
&c., London, 1864), from which this sketch is compiled, and 
chiefly in his own words— except that the third person is used 
instead of the first — lived, for the most part, at BLrkenshaw, in 
the parish of Birstal, near Leeds. He was, as may be seen by 
his owai writings,'' no ordinary man. Endowed with very con- 
siderable talents, and with an earnest desire for knowledge, and 
a love of literature which might have raised him to a very dis- 
tinguished position iu fame, he evidently, from his own account, 
often regretted that he had no guardians of his youth w^ho could 
appreciate the real bent of his mind, and give him the educa- 
tion which his fortune, though not great, as well as his inclina- 
tions, claimed. But, left an oi^ihan in his eai'liest infancy, with 
none but distant relatives, who thought only of securing a 
share of his property; at first a spoiled child, and subsequently 
a neglected boy, nothing could swerve his mind from its natural 
bent, and some of his manuscripts in his grandson's possession, 
as well as the reports of those who knew him, prove that he 
possessed an extraordinary extent of reading, a large amount 
of miscellaneous knowledge, with power and judgment in the 
application of it, which must have made him an object of 
respect among the society of what was then rather a wild part 
of Yorkshire. At an early age he went through the usual 
coui-se of Latin in the old and justly celebrated Free Grammar 
School at Bradford, which was the whole amount of what may 
be called his liberal education ; and the w-riter of his brief Life, 
prefixed to the second edition of his Familiar Religious Con- 
versation, printed in 1812, states that, "He was accounted very 

'^ In addition to liis Autohiography, lie published at Leeds, in 1778, a 
poetical Essay, being a general defence of the Arminian party against the 
Calvinists, entitled (a parody on the title of Hogarth's celebrated pictiu'e) 
A Modern Familiar Religious Conversation. Possessing an excellent memory, 
he often entertained his friends by repeating to them a great part of this 
poem. They generally expressed themselves highly delighted with it. The 
high seiusoning of Hutlibrastic composition which tlie author had imparted to 
it, excited their nsible muscles to a high degree, and they frequently declared 
it to Vte a performance wliich contained much matter in a small compass. 
After mature consideration, he resolved on publishing it. The demand for it 
was much bej'ond his expectations. In a very short time there was not a 
copy of it to be procured. The first edition, published anonymously, is now 
a book of extreme rarity. But in 1812, a second and posthumous edition 
was printed under the modified title of A Familiar Religious Conversation, 
in Verse, by Thomas Wright. 


cle"\'er while at school; and when he went home, it was with 
the reputation of being a youth, of facetiovis disposition, and of 
the most ready wit and invention." He was born at the 
Mulctui-e Hall, in Halifax, January 27th, 173G; and lived with 
his father and mother, graudmotlier and grandfather Oordingley, 
at the said Mulcture Hall, where they all lived together till they 
almost all died. His mother died in childbed of his sister 
Elizabeth, when he was somewhat turned of two years old. 
His father died a year or two afterwards, leaving him and all 
his concerns to the care of his grandfather and grandmother. 
His eldest sister, Martha, having died sometime before of the 
small-pox, his grandmother, who was exceedingly fond of him, 
as the only remains of her only offspring, and conseqiiently 
very anxious to preserve his life, was pei'suaded by Dr. IS'ettle- 
ton, who was intimate ^vith the family, to have him inoculated, 
as the safest method against that dreadful malady. As soon as 
he became acquainted with his letters, that inclination for 
reading and the acquisition of knowledge, which was one of the 
strongest propensities of his nature, discovered itself. He was 
never weary of his book; and by the time he "was seven or 
eight years old, he had read thi'ough the Old and New Testa- 
ments, and was well acqxiainted with every remarkable story to be 
found there, and in the Apocrypha. Soon afterwards, his grand- 
mother died, and he was then taken by his aunt Ellison to 
Birkenshaw, where, after being sometime at the Bradford 
Grammar School, he was put to the white cloth-making trade, 
which on his coming of age he I'elinquished. Being in pretty 
good circumstances he bought many books, and read much 
divinity, philosophy, history, poetry, voyages, travels, &c. ; and, 
having a good memory," by this means he acquired a good deal 

* He was celebrated for an extraordinary memory, of wliicli there are 
several anecdotes recorded. It is still reniembeied (says his gi'andson) in one 
of the manufactories in which, when the increase of his family called for all 
his resonrces, he took employment, that "Tommy Wright," as he was popu- 
larly called in the phraseology of the district, could repeat the whole of 
Milton's Paradise Lost whenever called upon, besides the works of other 
poets; and yet that he could not remember accurately for a few hours a 
common business commission. This is, perhaps, somewhat exaggerated on 
the side of the forgetfulness, although he hasl evidently no taste for business ; 
but only a few years ago his grandson heard directly the following anecdote 
from an old man, who may be still aUve, and who was when young his inti- 
mate neighbour. This jjerson, who was an intelligent man, and in easy 
circumstances, stated that, on the day when the Leeds Mercury, then a 
young newspaper, arrived, "Tommy Wright" usually bi-ought it with him to 
his house, took his iisual seat by his kitchen fire, and, after both had lit their 
pipes, proceeded to read it through. The Mercury was then, of course, com- 
paratively a small paper; but when he had once read it, if called upon 


of various knowledge, wliicli, qualifying him for conversation, 
enabled him to contract a very large acquaintance with some of 
the most sensible men and best families in the surrounding 
countiy.* He also learned to play upon the \dolin and the 
German flute. He was also a good shot, and loved the 
plea.sures of the chase; and he appears to have mixed not 
unwillingly in the rustic amusements of the people. About 
that time he visited Hull, York, Scarborough, Harrogate, 
Ripon, and London, where he saw the old king, George 
II., and the Pi-ince of Wales, afterwards George III., and 
most of the royal family. He also went to Green^vich and 
Woolwich, to see the men-of-war, <t:c. He was privately mar- 
ried at Gretna Green, November 19, 17GG, to Lydia,t daughter 
of William Birkhead, of Brookhouses, near Cleckheaton. He 
then Lived at Lower Blacupj for about fourteen years; also near 
Cleckheaton, where he had issue — 1, Elizabeth, born Januaiy 
30th, 1768; married, December 2-5th, 1789, at the Leeds parish 
church, by the Rev. I\Ir. Fawcett, to Joseph Greenwood, 
tobacconist, Lowerhead Row, Leeds, and had issue, Thomas, 

immediately afterwards to repeat either the whole or any part of it, even au 
advertisement, he could do it -without hesitation, and so accurately that it 
was quite umiecessary to refer to the paj^er itself. 

* It mxist not be supposed that in this country Thomas "Wright was buried 
among a population of mere ignorant rustics. A considerable portion of the 
people around him were occupied in the cloth manufacture, and were steadily 
laying the foundation of the present manufactuiing wealth of the district, 
and some of them had already enriched themselves by their industiy and 
intelligence. There were, moreover, in the country around, a few men who 
had raised themselves to intellectual distinction. At Bierley Hall, about two 
miles to the north-west of Birkenshaw, lived Dr. Kichardson, F.R.S., the 
eminent naturalist, with whom Thomas Wi-ight was intimate in his youth. 
Fieldhead, in the parish of Birstal, was the residence of the Priestleys, where 
they established a celebrated boarding-school for ladies, to which he sent one 
of bis daughters. As tlie celebrated Dr. Joseph Priestley, F.R.S., who was 
bom at Fieldhead, was resident at Leeds during several years subsequent to 
1767, he must have frequently visited his near relatives at the place of his 
birth, and it is at least probable that Thomas Wright was personally 
acquainted with him. He visited Jliss Bosanquet, subsequently the wife of 
Fletcher, of Madeley, at Cross Hall, in the parish of Batley, about three 
miles to the east of Birkenshaw. He also describes as his friend, John 
Taylor, of Great Gomersal, little more than a mile to the south of Birken- 
shaw, the enterprising and intelligent merchant and manufacturer, whose 
character is drawn su adniiralily by Charlotte Bronte, under the name of 
Mr. Yorke, in the novel of Shirley. 

+ Mary Birkhead, of Brookhouses, mother of the above Lydia, died April 
29th, 1796, in the eightieth year of her age. "William Birkhead, father of the 
above Lydia, and husband of Mary, died Jlarch ;'>rd, 1797, in the hundredth 
year of his age. — Sec the inscriptions in the chapel at Cleckheaton, near 
Leeds. Obadiali Brooke, late a surgeon in Leeds, was related to tliis family. 

% For an illustration of his residence at Lower Blacup, as it appeared in 
November, 18<i:i, see the frontispiece of his Autobiograph;!. 


born in May, 1793; Lydia, born in October, 1795; Mary Ann, 
in June, 1797, &c. — 2, Mary, born November 22nd, 1769, who 
died May 25th, 1770.— 3, Thomas Wright,* born March 8th, 
1771.— 4, Sarah, born March 5th, 1773; married, June 17th, 
1793, at Birstal parish church, by the Rev. Reuben Ogden, to 
Timothy Greenwood, surgeon and apothecary, of Cleckheaton, 
and had issue, John Brook Greenwood, born in March, 1794; 
Mary Ann, born in May, 179G, &c. — 5, 6, 7, James, John, and 
William, who all died when children. His wife, Lydia, died of 
consumption, October 22nd, 1777, aged thirty years. He mar- 
ried, secondly, November 4th, 1781, at Birstal parish church, 
Alicia, daughter of Mi-. Thomas Finder, farmer, of Upper 
Blacup. In 1783, he removed again to Birkenshaw, where he 
had issue, — 8, Martha, born January 28th, 1783. — 9, Ann, 
bom June 27th, 1785.' — 10, Benjamin, born September 20th, 
1787.— 11, Hannah, born June 25th, 1790.— 12, John, born 
September 21st, 1793. — 13, Joseph, born June 10th, 1796. 
Thomas Wright, of Birkenshaw, died of an attack of typhus 
fever, on Friday, January 30th, 1801, aged sixty-five years. 
He was buried at the White Chapel, in the parish of Birstal, 
near Leeds, and retained his office of inspector of woollens (or 
cloth- searcher) to the end of his life. He appears to have been 
much attached to his children, and he describes the death of a 
favourite son, named John, in a detailed account, which is 
extremely pathetic. The loss of this child seems to have 
weighed heavily on his mind for several years, in which he 
devoted the anniversary of the sorrowful event to the composi- 
tion of a short poem to his memoiy. These, together with an 
Heroic Poem in jyraise of Richard Hill, Esq., will be found in 
the appendix to his Autohiogrcqyhy. 

* His eldest son, Thos. Wright, was aiiprenticed to Messrs. Nicholson, printers 
and publishers, of Bradford ; and after being deceived by Mr. S. Nicholson, the 
master's youngest son, he accompanied the eldest son, Mr. George Nicholson, to 
Ludlow, in Shropslure, where the latter continued for some years to publish 
books, which were remarkable for their good taste and good printing, and which 
had a large circulation. There the present Thomas Wright, Esq., M.A., 
F.S.A., author of several valuable works, was born, which was the cause of 
his being a native of that county, instead of a Yorkshireman. Mr. Nicholson 
was his own compiler and editor, and his own traveller ; and he pei-formed the 
latter task almost always on foot. His Cambrian Travellers' Guide, first pub- 
lished in 1808, but much enlarged and improved in a second edition, in 1813, 
is still the best work we have on Wales. Thomas Wright had the greatest 
personal esteem and respect for George Nicholson, and their friendship con- 
tinued till the death of the latter in 1825. Tor a longer and more particular 
account, see the Autobiography, &c. 


A native of Leeds, in the o4tli Regiment, who was shot through 
the body on the 2oth of Angust, 1801, aged twenty-eight, near 
the gates of Alexandria, in Egypt, where he displayed the 
active zeal, the intrepid gallantry, and the invincible spii-it and 
courage of a true British soldier. There is a monument to him 
in the Leeds j^arish church with the following inscription: — 
"In memoiy of Samuel Predliam, of this town, late Lieutenant 
of his Majesty's 54th Regiment of Foot. This monument is 
erected by his most affectionate and disconsolate mother on the 
loss of her only son.t In the memorable expedition to Egypt 
he bore a distinguished part, and displayed on all occasions the 
active zeal, the intrepid gallantry, and the imincible spirit and 
courage of a true British officer. He was shot through the 
body, the 2oth of August, 1801, near the gates of Alexandria." 









A dissenting divine, but more justly eminent as a philosopher, 
was boi-n March 1.3th, 17-33, at Fieldhead, Birstal, near Leeds. 
His father, Jonas Priestley, a cloth-dresser, was a dissenter of 
the Calvinistic persuasion. His mother dying when he was six 
years of age, he was adopted by a paternal aunt, Mrs. Keighley, 
by whom he was sent to a free grammar school in the neigh- 
bourhood, where he was taught the Latin language and the ele- 

* 1727 — 1802. Thomas "Walker, Esq., serjeant-at-law, &c., for whom there 
is in Guiseley church, near Leeds, a momiment with the following inscription : 
— "In memory of Thomas Walker, Esq., serjeant-at-law, and accountant- 
general of the High Court of C'hanceiy, who died 29th of January, 1802, in 
the seventy-fifth year of his age, and was huried in the benchers' vault of the 
Middle Temple, in the Temple church, London. He was the son and heir of 
Thomas Walker, of the parish of Guiseley, by Susannah Harrison, his wife, 
both of whom were buried in the churchyard of this parish." — For a large 
engraving of the nave and part of the choir of Guiseley church, see AVhitaker's 
Loidw and Elniete, p. 210. 

+ His father, Mr. Samuel (Predam or) Predham, of Leeds, died November 
16th, 1795, after a lingering illness, aged sixty-five years. 


ments of Greek. His vacations were devoted to the study of 
Hebrew under a dissenting minister; and when he had acquired 
some proficiency iu tliis hinguage, he commenced and made con- 
siderable progress in the Clialdee, Syriac, and Arabic. In the 
mathematics lie i-eceived some instruction from Mr. Haggerstone, 
who had been educated under Maclaurin. From his habits of 
application and attachment to theological inquiries, his aunt 
early entertained hopes of his becoming a minister". Ill health, 
however, led him to abandon for a while his classical studies, 
and apply himself to mercantile pursuits. We learn from his 
own statement that his constitution, always far from robust, 
had been injured by a " consumptive tendency, or rather an 
ulcer in the lungs, the consequence of improper conduct when 
at school, being often violently heated w^ith exercise, and as 
often imprudently chilled by bathing," &c. Without the aid of 
a master, he acquired some knowledge of French, Italijin, and 
German. With the return of health his earlier occupations 
were resumed, and at the age of nineteen he entered the Dis- 
senting academy at Daventry (afterwards Coward College, 
and now incorporated with New College, London), conducted 
by Mr, (afterwards Dr.) Ash worth, the successor of Dr. Dod- 
dridge. Both his parents were of the Calvinistic persuasion, as 
also was his aunt, who had omitted no opportunity of incul- 
cating tlie importance of the Calvinistic doctrine. As however 
differences of opinion on doctrinal points were not with her 
sufficient ground for rejecting the society of those whom she 
believed to be virtuous and enlightened, her house became the 
resort of many ministers and clergymen whose views were more 
or less opposed to those of Calvin. In their discussions yomig 
Priestley took considerable interest, and they may be supposed 
to have had considerable influence in leading him to a systematic 
examination of the grounds upon which he had rested his own 
belief. Before the age of nineteen, he styles himself rather a 
believer in the doctrines of Arminius, though he adds, " I had 
by no means rejected the doctrine of the Trinity or that of the 
Atonement." Before leaving home he expi'essed a desire to be 
admitted a communicant in the Calvinistic congregation which 
he had been in the habit of attending with his aunt; but the 
minister having elicited from his replies tliat he entertained 
doubts relative to the doctrines of oi'iginal sin and the eternity 
of punishment, his admission was refused. In the academy lie 
spent throe years, and came forth an adherent to the Ariau 
system. Here he was also introduced to an acquaintance with the 
■writings of Dr. Hai'tley, which exerted a powerful and lasting 


influence over Lis whole train of thinking. During hi.s resi- 
dence at the acailemy he composed the first pai't of his Insti- 
tutes of Natural and Revealed Beligion, published in 1772; the 
remaining three parts appeared in 1773-4. On quitting the 
academy in 1755, he became minister to a small congregation at 
Needliam-Market, in Suffolk ; whence, after a residence of 
three years, he removed to ISTantwich, in Chesliire, where he 
took the charge of a congregation, to which he also joined a 
school. Here he was more successful as a schoolmaster, and 
by means of the strictest economy was able to jjurchase some 
philosophical apparatus, including an air-pump and an electrical 
macliine, and also to keep out of debt, which through life he 
always made a point of doing.* His first publication was au 
English Grammar, on a new plan, pi'inted in 1761, in which he 
pointed out eiTors in Hume's language, which that author had 
the candour to i-ectify in his futm-e editions of his celebrated 
History. In the same year he was invited by the trustees of 
the dissenting academy at Wariington, to succeed Mr. (after- 
wards Dr.) Aikin, as tutor in the languages. Here he began to 
distingiiish himself as a writer in various branches of science and 
literature. Several of these had a relation to his department in 
the academy, whicli, besides philology, included lectures on 
history and general policy; among which were his lectures on 
The Theory of Language and Universal Gramviar, 1762; on 
Oratory and Criticism, 1777; on History and General Policy, 
1788; on The Laws and Constitution of England, 1772; an 
Essay on a Course of Liberal Echication for Civil and Active 
Life, 1765; Chart of Biography, 1765; Chart of History, 1769, 
&c. Here also he married the daughter of Mi-. "Wilkinson, an 
ironmaster of Wales, a lady of great amiability and streng-th of 
mind, by whom he had several children. A visit to London 
was the occasion of his introduction to Dr. Franklin, Dr. Price, 
Dr. Watson, Mr. Canton, and others. To the first of these he 
communicated his idea of writing an historical account of elec- 
trical discoveries, if jirovided with the requisite books. These 
Dr. Franklin undertook to procui-e; and before the end of the 
year in which Priestley submitted to him the plan of the work, 
he sent him a coj^y of it in print, though five hours of every 
day had been occupied in public or private teaching, besides 
which he had kept up an active philosophical correspondence. 

* In the l)iisiness of eilucation lie wa.s indefatigable ; and he added to the 
more common objects of instruction, experiments in natural j)liilosophy, 
which were the means of fostering in himself a taste for pursuits of that 


The title of this work is The History and Present State of Elec- 
tricity, loith Original Experiments, 1767 (third edition, 1775).* 
Shortly before its publication (in 1766) be was elected a Fellow 
of the Royal Society, and about the same time the honorary 
title of Doctor of Laws was conferred upon him by the Uni- 
versity of Edinbui-gh. The approbation bestowed on bis History 
0^" Electricity induced him to compose his History and Pre- 
sent State of Discoveries relating to Vision, Light, and Colours, 
published by subscription in 2 vols., 4to, 1772, which he 
intended should be succeeded by a similar account of the other 
branches of experimental science ; but the sale of this work not 
answering his expectations, the design was abandoned, and, we 
believe, the work itself did not eviaice any very intimate know- 
ledge of the subject. A disagreement between, the trustees and 
l^rofessors of the academy led to his relinquishing his appointment 
at Warrington in 1767. His next engagement was at Mill Hill 
chapel, Leeds, where his theological inquiries were resumed, 
and several works of the kind comjjosed, chiefly of a contro- 
versial character. From an Arian he was now become a Socinian ; 
and not content with enjopng the changes which he was at 
perfect liberty to make, he began to contend ■s\'ith great zeal 
against the authority of the established religion. The vicinity 
of his dwelling to a public brewery was the occasion of his 
attention being directed to pneumatic chemistry, the considera- 
tion of which he commenced in 1768, and subsequently prose- 
cuted with gi-eat success. His first publication on this subject 
was a pamphlet on Imiyregnating Water with Fixed Air (1772); 
the same year he communicated to the Royal Society his Obser- 
vations on Different Kinds of Air, to which the Copley medal 
was awarded in 1773.f While at Leeds very advantageous 

* Almost the whole of his liistorical facts ai-e taken from the Philosophical 
Transactions ; but at the end he gives a number of original experiments of liis 
own. His Orif/inal Experiments, though numerous and interesting, did not 
give rise to any discovery of importance, and the entire work is described by 
Dr. Thomson as "carelessly ■\vi-itteu," which may readily be attributed to the 
rapiditj' with which it was executed. The most important of all his electrical 
iliscoveries was, that charcoal is a conductor of electricity, and so good a con- 
ductor that it vies even with the metals themselves. This publication went 
through several editions, and was translated into foreign languages. 

+ " No one," observes Dr. Thomson, " ever entered upon the study of 
chemistry mth more disadvantages than Dr. Priestley, and yet few have 
occupied a more dignified station in it, or contributed a greater number of 
new and important facts. The career which he selected was new, and he 
entered upon it free from those pi-ejudices which warped the judgment and 
limited the views of those who had been regularly bred to the science. He 
possessed a sagacity capable of overcoming every obstacle, and a turn for 
observation which enabled him to profit by every phenomenon wliich pre- 
sented itself to his view. His habits of regidarity were such that everything 


proposals were made to liim to accompany Captain Cook iu his 
second voyage to the South Seas ; but \\'hen about to prepare 
for his departure, it was intimated to him by Mi*, (afterwards 
Sir Joseph) Banks, that objections to his religious principles had 
been successfully urged by some of the ecclesiastical members of 
the Board of Longitude. In 1773, after a residence at Leeds 
for six years,* through the recommendation of Dr. Price, he 
received the appointment of librarian and literary companion to 
the Earl of Shelbiu-ne (afterwards Marquis of Lausdowne), with 
a salary of .£250 a year, a separate residence, and a certainty 
for life in the event of his lordship's death or their pre\io\is 
sepajfation. t In the second year of this engagement he accom- 

■was registered as soon as observed. He was perfectly sincere and unaffected, 
and the discovery of truth seems to have been in every case his real and undis- 
guised object." He discovered oxygen gas, nitrous gas, nitrous oxide gas, 
nitrous vapour, carbonic oxide gas, sulphurous oxide gas, fluoric acid gas, 
muriatic gas, and ammoniacal gas. The first of these, ■which he named 
*' dephlogisticated air," he discovered iu 1774, ha%dng obtained it by concen- 
trating the sun's rays upon red precipitate of mercury. He showed that the 
red colour of arterial blood resulted from its combination with the oxygen of 
the atmosphere; that the change produced in atmospheric air diuing the 
process of combustion and putrefaction arose from a similar abstraction of 
oxygen ; and recognized the property possessed by vegetables of restoiing the 
constituent thus abstracted. Moreover, the pneumatic apparatus now used 
by chemists was piincipally invented by him. "But though," observes Dr. 
Thomson, "his chemical experiments were, for the most part, accui-ate, they 
did not exhibit that precise chemical knowledge which distinguished the 
experiments of some of his contemporaries. He never attempted to deter- 
mine the constituents of his gases, nor their specific gravity, nor any other 
numerical result." Of this he himself was, doubtless, aware; for in a letter 
written many years after (in 179-5), he observes, " As to chemical lectiu-eship, I 
am now convinced I could not have acquitted myself in it to proper advan- 
tage Though I have made many tliscoveries in some branches of 

chemistry, I never gave much attention to the common routine of it, and 
know but little of the common processes." The theory promulgated by 
Lavoisier, though founded on the discoveries of Cavendish and Priestley, was 
never adopted by the latter, who continued to adhere to the phlogistic theory, 
notwithstanding the many facts and arguments adduced against it. 

* In liis own words, — " At Leeds I continued sis years, vei-y happy with a 
liberal, friendly, and harmonious congregation, to whom my services (of which 
I was not sparing) were very acceptable. Here I had no unreasonable prejudices 
to contend with, so that I had fuU scope for evei-y kind of exertion ; and I can 
truly say that I alwaj's considered the office of a Christian minister as the 
most honourable of any upon earth, and in the studies proper to it I always 
took the greatest pleasure." Again he writes, "The only person in Leeds 
who gave much attention to my experiments was Mr. Hey, a surgeon. He 
was a zealous Methodist, and wrote answers to some of my theological tracts ; 
but we always conversed ynth the greatest freedom on philosophical subjects, 
without mentioning anything relating to theology. ^Vhen I left Leeds, he 
begged of me the earthen trough in which I had made all my experiments on 
air while I was there. It was such an one as is there commonly used for 
wa-shiiig linen," &c. 

+ Tills .'situation was useful, as affording Dr. Priestley advantages in im- 
proving his knowledge of the world, and in pursuing his scientific researches ; 


]);\nied his patron tlirougli France, Flanders, Holland, and Ger- 
many. At Paris liis philosophical publications procured for 
him an easy introduction to several of the leading chemists and 
mathematicians, whom he describes as professed atheists; and 
by whom he was told that he was the only individual they had 
ever met with, and of whose understanding they had any 
()})inion, who was a believer in Christianity. To combat their 
■Mv\ similar 2:)rejudices, he wrote his Letters to a Philosojjhical 
Unbeliever, containing an examination of the principal objections 
to the doctrines of natural religion, and especially those con- 
tained in the writings of Mr. Hume (1780); to which he after- 
wards added the State of the Evidence of Revealed Religion, 
with animadversions on the two last chapters of the first volume 
of Mr. Gibbon's History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman 
Ei/ipire (1787). While resident with Lord Shelbiirne, who 
allowed him £40 a year towards defraying the expenses of his 
chemical experiments, he printed the first four volumes of his 
Experiments and Observations on Air, 1774-79; a fifth appeared 
in 1780. He also wrote his Miscellaneous Observations on Edu- 
cation (1778), and an Introductory Dissertation to Hartley's 
Observations on Man. In this dissertation, having expressed 
his doubts concerning the immateriality of the sentient prin- 
ciple in man, he was denounced in most of the periodicals as an 
unbeliever in revelation and an atheist. This led to the publi- 
cation of his Disquisitions relating to Matter and Spirit (1777), 
wherein his object is to show that "man is wholly material, and 
that our only prospect of immortality is from the Christian 
doctrine of a resurrection." In the same year it was followed 
by A Defence of Unitarianism, or the Simple Humanity of 
Christ, in ojjjjosition to his Pre-existence ; and of the Doctrine of 
Necessity* The cause of the separation between Priestley and 

and, as lie was perfectly free from restraint, this was the period of some of 
those exertions which increased his reputation as a philosopher, and some of 
those which In-ought the greatest obloquy upon him as a divine. In 1775, he 
published his Examination of the Doctrine of Common Sense, as held by Drs. 
Reid, Beattie, and Osu'ald, in which he treated those gentlemen with a con- 
temjitiious arrogance, of which, we are told, he was afterwards ashamed. 
In his manner of treating his opponents, he always exhibited a striking con- 
trast to the mild and placid temper of his friend Dr. Price. 

* It is not improbable that the odium which these works bi'ought upon liim 
was the cause of a coolness in the behaviour of his noble patron, which about 
this time (1780) he began to remark, and which terminated in a separation 
after a connexion of seven years, without any alleged cause of complaint. 
That the Marquis of Lansdowne had changed his sentiments of Dr. Priestley 
appears from the evidence of the latter, who informs us, that when he came 
to London he proposed to call on the noble lord, but the latter declined 
receiving his visits. Dr. Piiestley adds, that d\u'iug his connexion with his 


Lord Shelbunie (1780) has never transpired, and does not 
appear to have been known to Priestley himself. Some have 
attributed it to the odium to which the works last mentioned 
subjected their author, and to the invidious attacks which issued 
iu almost all quarters from the press; but whatever may have 
been their true motives, the conduct of both appears to have 
been strictly honourable. Priestley retired with an annuity of 
^150 a year, and in 1787 Lord Shelburne made overtui'cs for 
renewing the original engagement, which, however^ Priestley 
thought pi-oper to decline. On leaving Lord Shelburne he 
became minister to the jorincipal dissenting congregation at 
Birmingham, and a subscription was entered into by his friends 
for defraying his philosophical exjiei-iments and promoting his 
theological inquiries. His receipts from these sources must, by 
his own account, have been veiy considerable. Offers were also 
made to pi-ocui-e him a pension from Government, but this he 
declined. In 1782 he published his History of the Corruptions 
of Christianity, 2 vols., 8vo. A refutation of the arguments 
contained in this work was proposed for one of the Hague prize 
essays; and in 178-5 the work itself was burnt by the common 
hangman in the city of Dort. It was succeeded by his History 
of Early Opinions concerning Jesus Christ, 1786, 4 vols., 8vo. 
His Familiar Letters to the Inhabitants of Birmingham, from 
the ironical style in which they were written, exasperated even 
the populace, urged on by strong part}'^ feeling and bigotry. His 
Reply to BurJces lieflections on the French Revolution, an event 
to which the lower orders of Birmingham were at that time 
unfivourably disposed, led to his being nominated a citizen of 
the French Republic ; and the occasion of a [)ublic dinner, given, 
to say the least, with little judgment or taste — the state of the 
public feeling being taken into account — by some of his friends, 
July 14th, 1791, in celebration of the anniversary of the 
destniction of the Bastile, at which, however, Priestley himself 
was not present, afforded to an excited mol) the opportunity of 
gratifying the maligmity which they conceived they had grounds 
to entertain towards him. After demolishing the place where 

lordship, he never once aided him in his political views, nor even with a 
single political paragraph. Tlie frien<ls of hoth parties seem to think that 
there was no bond of union l>etween thcni, and his lordsliip's attention 
hecame gi-adually so niucli engaged by politics, that every other object of 
study lost its hold. According, however, to tlie articles of agreement, Dr. 
Priestley retained his annuity for life of £1.50, which was honouraldy paid to 
the last ; and it has been said that when the bond securing this annuity was 
hui-nt at the riots of Birininghiim, his lordship in the handsomest manner 
presented him with another. 


the dinner liad been given, tliey broke into liis house, destroyed 
his philosophical apparatus, a valuable collection of books, and 
a large number of manuscripts, the result of many years' labour, 
after which they made an unsuccessful attempt to burn the 
dwelling and what was left in it. An eye-witness of the 
"riots" asserts that the high road, for fully half a mile of the 
house, was strewed with books, and that on entering the libraiy 
there were not a dozen volumes on the shelves, while the floor 
was covered several inches deep with the torn manuscripts. In 
the meantime, he and his family sought safety in flight. The 
first two nights he passed in a post-chaise, the two succeeding 
on horseback ; but owing less to his own apprehensions of 
danger than to those of others. The sum awarded to him at the 
assizes as compensation for the damage is not stated, but he tells 
us that it fell short of his loss by £2,000. Indi\idual gene- 
rosity made ample amends. Among other instances of this 
kind, his brother-in-law made over to him the sum of £10,000 
invested in the French funds, besides an annuity of .£200 a 
year. After this he removed to Hackney as the successor of 
his deceased friend. Dr. Price; but finding his society shunned 
by many of his former philosophical associates, among whom 
were the members of the Eoyal Society, from whom he formally 
withdrew himself, and seeing no prospect of enjoying permanent 
tranquillity in England, he determined on quitting it. Accord- 
ingly, April 7th, 1794, he embarked with his family for America, 
and took up his abode at Northumberland, in Pennsylvania. 
A few days before his embarkation he was presented with a 
silver inkstand bearing the inscription — " To Joseph Priestley, 
LL.D., &c., on his departure into exile, from a few members 
of the University of Cambridge, who regret that this expres- 
sion of their esteem is occasioned by the ingratitude in 
their countiy^" He had contemplated no difficulty in forming 
a Unitarian congregation in America; but in this he was 
greatly disappointed. He found that the majority disregarded 
religion ; and those who paid any attention to it were more 
afraid of his doctrines than desirous of hearing them. By the 
American government, the former democratic spirit of which 
had subsided, he was looked upon as a spy in the interest of 
France. His wife died in 1796. His youngest son had died a 
few months previoiis. He himself, in 1801, became subject to 
constant indigestion and difficulty of swallowing any kind of 
solid food. This continued to increase till 1803, when, per- 
ceiving his end appi'oaching, he told his physician that if he 
could prolong his life for six months he should be satisfied, as 


in that time lie hoped to comjilete the %vorks upon which he 
was then engaged. These were his General History of the 
Christian Church from the Fall of the Western Uinpire to the 
Present Time, 4 vols., 1802-3 (which had been preceded by his 
General History of the Christian Church to the Fall of the 
Western Empire, 2 vols., 1790), and Tlie Doctrines of Heathen 
Fhilosophy compared loith those of Revelation (posthumous). 
He died February Gth, 1804, expres.sing the satisfaction he 
derived from the consciousness of having led a useful life, and 
the confidence he felt in a future state, in a happy immortality. 
On his death becoming known at Paris, his eloge was read by 
Cuvier before the National Institute. There is a statement in 
more than one work that Priestley's death was occasioned by 
poison, but it does not appear to be supported by any autho- 
rity.* The Autohio(jrap>hy of Dr. Priestley, originally written, 
as he informs u.s, during one of his summer excursions, con- 
cludes with the date '•' Northumberland, March 24th, 1795." 
It was published in America after his decease, with a con- 
tinuation by his son, Joseph Priestley, and observations on his 
writings by Thomas Cooper (president judge of the fourth 
district of Pennsylvania), and the Eev. William Christie.t 

* There are many circumstances in tliis account which the attentive reader 
will consider with profound attention. It is unnecessaiy to point them out, 
or to attempt a lengthened character of Dr. Priestley. It has been said with 
truth that of his abilities, none can hesitate to pronounce that they are of 
first-rate excellence. His pliilosophical inquiries and publications claim the 
greatest distinction, and have materially contributed to the advancement of 
science. As an experimental philosopher, he v>'as among the first of his age. 
As a divine, had he proved as dUigent in propagating truth as in dissemi- 
nating error, in estabUshing the Gospel in the minds of men, instead of 
shaking their belief in the doctrines of revelation, perhaps few characters of 
the last century would have ranked higher as learned men, or have been held 
in greater estimation. Such, however, was not the character of his theo- 
logical Aviitings, which, as Dr. Johnson said, were calculated to tmsettle 
everything, but to settle nothing. All this accords with the sentiments of 
the great majority of the nation with respect to Dr. Piiestley as a divine, 
although we are aware that the epithet of bigot will, by some, be applied to 
liim who records the fact. On the other hand, in dwelling on Dr. Priestley's 
character as a philosopher, his friends may take the most effectual method" of 
reconciling all parties, and handing down his fame undiminished to the latest 
posterity. Dr. Priestley, according to anotlier account, was a man of perfect 
simplicity of character. In sjjite of his many controversies, he entertained 
no personal enmities, and was entirely free from envy and jealous}'. In the 
intercourse of life he was agreeable and benevolent. His ndnd was active, 
disciiminating, and exact; his knowledge comprehensive and various; his 
style in compcsition was very clear and fluent. 

+ We have enumerated his principal works in the preceding Sketch, but the 
■whole amount to about 70 vols., or tracts, in 8vo. An analysis of them is 
given in the Memoirs partly written by himself, and partly by his son, 1S06-7, 
2 vols., 8vo., to wliich we are j'rincipally indebted for the above ])articulars. 
"To enumerate," says tlie celebrated Mr. Kirwan, "Dr. Priestley's dis- 



Priestley's Correspondence lias been collected and incorporated 
with the above Memoir by Mr. John Towill E.utt, forming the 
fii'st two volumes of his collected edition of Priestley's Theo- 
logical and Miscellaneous Works, in 25 vols., 8vo., Hackney, 
1817, &c. At pp. 537-44 of the second volume of this edi- 
tion will be found, chronologically arranged, a complete list 
of Priestley's works : an imperfect list is given in Watts's 
Bihliotheca Britannica; Darling's Cyclopcedia Bibliographia, &c. 
— See his portrait in the Leeds Philosophical Hall. The Leeds 
Library, which is undoubtedly the largest in the north of 
England, owes its origin to the celebrated Dr. Priestley. For 
additional information, see Thomson's Annals of Philosopliyy 
vol. i., 1813; Thomson's History of the Royal Society, 4 to., 
1812; Cu\der's "Notice of the Life of Priestley" in the Bio- 
graphic Universelle; the articles, "Electricity" and "Chemis- 
try," in the Encyclopcedia Melropolitana, by the Rev. Francis 
Lunn ; Rees's Cyclopcedia ; Cunningham's Lives of Eminent 
and Illustrious Englishmen; Gentleman's Magazine, vol. Ixxiv. ; 
Monthly Review ; Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, and Literary 
Illustrations, vol. v., p. 418 ; Literary Memoirs of Living 
Authors (1798), vol. ii. ; Chambers's Cyclopcedia of English 
Literature, vol. ii., p. 213; Brougham's Rhilosophers of the 
Time of George the Third, various editions, with portrait ; 
Putt's Memoirs and Correspondence of Priestley, above-men- 
tioned; the Christian Observer; the Biographical Dictionaries 
of Chalmers, Gorton, Knight, Rose, Watkins, &c. 

coveries, would, in fact, be to enter into a detail of most of tliose that have 
been made within the last fifteen years. How many invisiljle fluids, whose 
existence evaded the sagacity of foregoing ages, has he made known to us? 
The very air we breathe he has taught us to analyze, to examine, to im- 
prove ; a substance so little known, that even the precise effect of respiration 
was an enigma, until he explained it. He first made known to us the proper 
food of vegetables, and in what the difi^erence between these and anunal 
substances consisted. To him pharmacy is indebted for the method of 
making artificial mineral waters, as well as for a shorter method of preparing 
other medicines ; metalliu-gy, for more powerful and cheap solvents ; and 
chemistry, for such a variety of discoveries as it would be tedious to recite — 
discoveries which have new-modelled that science, and drawn to it, and to 
this country, the attention of all Europe. It is certain that, since the year 
1773, the eyes and regards of all the learned bodies in Europe have been 
directed to this country by his means. In every philosophical treatise his 
name is to be found, and in almost every page. They all own that most of 
their discoveries are due either to the repetition of his discoveries, or to the 
hints scattered through his works." — See also a very eulogistic character of 
him by Lord Brougham, D.C.L., r.E.S.,&c., in his Lives of Men of Letters 
and Science who flowished in the Times of George III., 1845; vol. i., p. 427, 
with a fine portrait, from a pictiu-e by Gilbert Stewart, in the possession of 
T. B. Barclay, Esq., of Liverpool. 



Was a wortliy member of the Leeds Society of Friends. To 
delineate the character of this truly good man, with justice, is 
not only difficult, but impossible. With an income of several 
hundreds per annum, his personal expenses did not exceed £30 
a year : the surplus he bestowed iipon the poor — not through the 
medium of agents, but with his own hands ministering to their 
necessities. For this purpose he performed weekly circuits of 
several miles' extent through tlie adjacent villages, where he ex- 
plored the wretched abodes of misery, investigated their various 
necessities, and administered advice, bedding, clothing, and money, 
in the most judicious manner; and, during his last illness, he 
expressed his firm belief that the same Divine Power which had 
stimulated him thus to alleviate tlie distresses of his fellow - 
creatures, would raise up some others to supply his place. His 
spare habit, his venerable gray locks, his plain and rather coarse 
clothing, with the sanctity of his countenance, and general 
appearance, produced in beholders the idea of one of the ancient 
proj)hets, and caused him to be regarded with reverential defer- 
ence by all who knew him, especially the numerous claimants 
on his unbounded charity, who deeply regretted his loss. This 
useful and estimable man died on Wednesday, Januaiy 9th, 
1805. May his truly pious example stimulate many others to 
"Go and do likewise. "t — See the Leeds Mercury^ &c., for 1805. 

* — 1805. Mr. Gawtiiorp, a gentleman of the most benevolent and public- 
spirited temper, and who, in addition to liis um-emitting endeavours to aid 
the public charities in Leeds, gratuitously served the office of treasurer to 
the parish for a series of eighteen years, with " unremitting attention, 
unwearied diligence, and perfect accuracy ;" and for which the managers of 
the affairs of the town thought proper, some time previous to his death, to 
vote him their " most grateful remembrances," and to assure him "that they 
should hold him out to their friends, neighbours, and children, as a pattern 
for their imitation. " This charitable and disinterested person died, in Leeds, 
on Tuesday, June 18th, 1805. — See the Leeds Mercury, &c. 

+ " No storied marljle decorates thy earth, 

No costly monument's erected nigh. 
Save what thy modest, unassuming worth, 

And never-fading virtues will supply ! 
Those saci-ed monuments shall ever shine, 

While haughty sculpture moulders into dust, 
And claim more honour than the golden shiine, 

The trophied urn, or decorated bust. 
Each mournful relative that lingers here, 

Shall circulate thy deeds through life's short span, 
And o'er thy grave, while falls affection's tear, 

Shall pensive say, — Here lies an honest man." 



formerly of Leeds, died December 12tli, 1806, probably about 
eighty years of age, an extraordinary instance of success and 
prosperity in bis undertakings; being undoubtedly immensely 
rich, though probably not to such an enormous degree as has 
been represented. He was a native of the West part of York- 
shire; his parents in the humblest rank of life. But by some 
means he made his way to London, and after some time became 
clerk in the counting-house of a Mr. Dillon, an Irish Catholic 
merchant, who, " among the various changes of this mortal life," 
in aftertimes himself failing, was glad to become clerk to his 
own ci-devant clerk, Mr. Denison. At length he entered into 
business for himself; and, by unabated industry and the most 
rigid frugality, worked himself into very high credit and an 
increasing fortune. He dwelt for a considei'able time in Prince's 
Street, Lothbury, and aftei'wards removed to Jeffrey's Square 
and St. Maiy Axe. He became connected with the family of 
Heywood, bankers, at Liverpool, and other considerable mei'- 
chants in the north of England. In the beginning of his life 
he married a countrywoman of his own, of the name of Sykes, 
distantly related to the mother of the well-known antiquary, 
Mr. Ralph Thoresby, who bore that name. She was of great 
service to him, and very assistant to his prosperity, kee2:)ing his 
books, and looking after his affairs, when he was absent upon 
business; she died about forty years ago, without issue. He 
aftei'wards married Elizabeth, only child of a Mr. Butler, for- 
merly a hat-maker in or near Tooley Street, Southwark : a well- 
educated and very amiable woman, who lived with liim only 
three years and a half, dying November 27th, 1771, aged 
thirty-two, much regretted by all her acquaintance. She left a 
son, William Joseph Denison (member of parliament for Camel- 
ford, and afterwards returned for Hull), and two daughters; 
Elizabeth, married to Henry, Earl Conyngham, and had issue; 
and Maria, married to Sir Robert Lawley, and had no issue.* 
He bought of Lord King the estate of Denbies, near Dorking, 
in Surrey; and afterwards of the Duke of Leeds, for above 
j£l 00,000 (as has been said), the estate of Seamere, near Scar- 

* At his death, he left his two daughters, the Countess of Conyngham and 
Lady Lawley, £20,000 each, which, with their portions on marriage, would 
make their respective fortunes £50,000. To an only sister he gave an annuity 
of £100 per annum ; and the residue of his immense property, amounting to 
£15,000 per annum, he bequeathed to his eldest son. — See Gentleman's 
Magazine for February, 1807, &c. 


borough, in Yorkshire. {See Gentleman s Magazine for Decem- 
ber, 1806, &c.) According to a writer in Once a Week, the 
good fortune which attended on the Denlsoiis in their "rise and 
progress" to opulence and title, has seldom or never been sur- 
passed. Mr. Joseph Denison, the father of the late Mr. Wil- 
liam Joseph Denison, M.P., of Denbies,* the wealthy banker, 
whose daughter married the late Marquis of Conyngham,+ the 
especial favourite of George IV., and whose grandson wore the 
coronet of Lord Loudesborough,J was the son of very poor 
parents in Leeds. He travelled up to town as a youth with 
one of the ten-hoi'se carriers' waggons then in fashion, some- 
times riding, and at other times trudging along by the side of 

* "William Joseph Denison, Esq. , of Denbies, near Dorking, in Sun-ey, 
bom in May, 1770; M.P. for that county since 1818. He was a magis- 
trate for Sm-rey and Yorkshire, and served as high-sheriff of the latter 
in 1808 — was the son of Joseph Denison, Esq., of the city of London, a 
banker and merchant of gi-eat eminence, who realized a large foiinne, and 
purchased considerable estates. He married, in 1768, Elizabeth Butler, 
daughter of a Lisbon merchant, and left, at his decease, one son, William 
.Joseph Denison, and two daughters, Elizabeth, married, in 1794, to Henry, 
first Marquis of Conyngham, and Maria, married, in 1793, to Sir Robert 
Lawley, Bart., created, in 1831, Baron Weulock. — See Burke's Landed 
Gentry, &c. 

f Conj'ngham, 181G, second Marquis (Francis N. Conyngham, K.P., P.C.), 
eldest surviving son of first Marquis, by Elizabeth, daughter of Josepli 
Denison, Esq., of Denbies, Surrey; born in 1799; succeeded in 1832; married, 
in 1824, Lady Jane Paget, daughter of the first Marquis of Anglesea — sits as 
Lord Minster; a major-general unattached; was M.P. for coxxnty Donegal, 
1826-32: Postmaster General, 1834; Lord Chamberlain, 1837-39. Heir, his 
son. Earl ]\Iouut Charles, born in 1825. The dowager Marchioness of ConjTig- 
ham was the daughter of Joseph* Denison, Esq., a native of Leeds, an 
eminent and rich merchant of the city of London. This gentleman formed 
the present Liverpool bank of Heywoods, nearly a century ago. Mr. Deni- 
son, by his first lady (^«th whom he had no chiklren), was related to the 
Rev. Sir Mark Sykes, Bart., and also to the Sykes of HuU. The above 
noble ladj-, and also her sister, Lady Lawley, and the late member for Surrey, 
were by Mr. Denison's second wife, a !Miss Butler, living with her mother at 
Xewington, near London. She, dying after her last child, left Mr. Denison a 
■\vidower again. This lady's mother, after this event, took the two yoimg 
ladies, afterwards the Marchioness of ConjTigham and Lady (Lawley) Wen- 
lock, under her care. Their father purchased the late Duke of Leeds' estate 
round Scarborough, and several other large and valualile estates. These, 
combined with the fine persons and accomplisliinents of the young ladies, 
soon attracted admirers, and among the rest the late ^Marquis of Conyngham. 

+ Londesborough, 1850, first Lord (Albert Denison Denison, K.C.H., F.R.S., 
&c. ), second surviving son of first Mai-quis of Conyngham, by Elizabeth, 
daugliter of Joseph Denison, Esq., born in 1805; married, first, Henrietta 
Maria, daugliter of first Lord Forester: second, in 1847, Ursula Lucy, 
daughter of the Hon. Captain Bridgeman ; wr.s a vice-admiral of Yorksliire, 
and a, deputy-lieutenant for Donegal and the West-Riding; assumed, in 1849, 
the name <^f Denison ; died in 1860, wlien lie was succeeded by his son, 
William Henry Forester Denison, now the second lord, liorn in 1834, edu- 
cated at Eton, was M. P. for Beverley, 1857-9, then Scarborough till 1860. 
Residence, Grimston Park, near Tadcaster, &c. —See the Peerages, &c. 


the horses, and buoyed up by the hope (in which he was scai"cely 
disappointed) that he would find the streets of London paved 
with gold. His son died something more than a mere mil- 
lionaire. Another Denison, who prospered in his day, was the 
father of the Speaker of her Majesty's faithful Commons, now 
by vii-tue of his oflSce "the fii'st Commoner" in the land. His 
father, John Wilkinson, was a dyer at Leeds, who changed his 
name — ^whether with or without leaye and licence from royalty, 
we do not know — to Denison,* on the death of his maternal 
tmcle, a cloth merchant, of Leeds, who had risen from the 
ranks, and carried on a most successful trade with Portugal. 
He increased his prosperity by two fortunate marriages ; by the 
former of which he became father-in-law of one Speaker, Sir 
Charles Manners Sutton (afterwards Viscount Canterbuiy) ;t 
and by the second, the father of another Speaker, the present 
Eight Hon. John Evelyn Denison.^ He became lord of the 
manor of Ossington, and sat in parliament for many years ; and 
had he lived a few years longer, he would have seen one of his 
sons (John Evelyn Deuison) married to the daughter of a ducal 
house (Portland), and chosen Speaker of the House of Com- 
mons; another, Bishop of Salisbury (lately deceased); a third 
(Sir W. T. Denison, K.C.B., &c.), Governor-General of Aus- 
tralia, now of Madras; and three others first-class men at Oxford, 
Fellows of their colleges, and high up in the leai'ned professions. 
Another member of the same family, somewhat older than any 
of the above-mentioned gentlemen, also the son of very poor 
parents at Leeds, accumulated a ibi-tune in the law, and rose 
to be chief-justice of the Court of Common Pleas (viz.. Sir 
Thomas Denison, who died in 1765). He mariied an heiress, 
and his widow left her own and her husband's property to a 

* John Denison. Esq., of Ossington Hall, in Nottingliamshrre, died May 
Cth, 1820, at his liouse in Portman Square, London. He and his brother, 
Edward Wilkinson, Esq., of Pottertou Hall, in this county, inherited the 
greater part of the immense property of the late Mr. Denison, of Leeds ; and 
the deceased built the beautiful mansion of Woodhouse (House or) Hall, near 
Leeds, but never occupied it. — See the Leeds Mercury, &c.,for May, 1820; 
Burke's Landed Gerdnj, kc. 

t Canterbury, 1835,"second Viscount (Charles John Manners Sutton), elder 
son of first viscoimt, by his first wife, Charlotte, daughter of John Deuison, 
Esq. , born in 1812, succeeded ia 1845. The first viscount was Speaker of the 
House of Commons from 1817-34. Eesidence, Bottesford, near Grantham. 

J Denison, Eight Hon. John Evelyn, speaker, eldest son of the late .John 
Denison, Esq., M.P. ; born in 1800; married, in 1827, Charlotte, daughter of 
fourth Duke of Portland; educated at Eton, gi-aduated B.A. at Christ 
Church, Oxford, 1823; M.P. for South Notts, 1833-37; for Malton, 1841-57; 
chosen for North Notts and elected speaker, 1857. Residence, Ossington, 
near Newark. — See Burke's Landed Gentry, kc. 


great-niece, who married (Edmund) a member of the wealthy 
family of Beckett, on condition of his assuming the name of 
Denisou, and became the mother of Mr. Edmund Beckett 
Denison (M.A,, Q.C.), whose name is so fomiliar to our readers 
as the inventor of the great clock and bell at Westminster; and 
Mr. William Beckett DenLson, a banker at Leeds, &c. Their 
father was one of the members of parliament for the West- 
Riding for many yeai's (1840-57). It should be added that 
even to the present day the name of Denison is nearly as 
common about Leeds, as Smith in London, or Jones in Wales, 
or Campbell in Scotland, though it is rarely met with in other 
parts of her Majesty's dominions. Ajiother writer gives the 
following statement in the Gentlemaii s JIac/azine : — " Mr. 
Joseph Denison, the father of the late William Joseph Denison, 
Esq., M.P. for West Surrey, who died in 1806, rose to enormous 
wealth in the city of London, fi-om almost the humblest begin- 
nings. It has been stated that he was a parish boy, ignorant of 
reading and writing, who made his way up from Yorkshii-e to 
London on foot; others say that he was a respectable woollen 
cloth merchant in Leeds, who resided at Burmantofts Hall. 
The late William Joseph Denison, a man of sound principles 
and excellent character, though less penurious than his father, 
pui'sued the like process of acciimulation."* It has always 
been understood that a peerage was oifered to the late banker, 
through the intervention of his sister (Elizabeth), who obtained 
a marquisate for her lord (Marquis of Conyngham in 1816), 
and a barony for her brother-in-law. Sir Robert Lawley (Baron 
Wenlock in 1831), who died without issue; but the honour was 
respectfully declined by the staunch old "W^ig, who considered 
that his patronymic was more in its place at the head of his own 
ledger, than in the pages of the peerage. Whilst out of parlia- 
ment, Mr. William Joseph Denison served the office of sheriff 
of Yorkshire in 1808; in which county he was the principal 
landowner in the neighbourhood of Scarborough and Driffield. 
His Yorkshire estates are valued at more than half a million; 
those in Surrey at one hundred thousand; the remainder of his 
property is in the funds and other securities. The whole is 

* It is said that a few (three) years ago, when the nephew to whom he has 
bequeathed £8.5,(K)0 per annum, fell into railway difficulties (the speculation 
having been undertaken with the sanction of his uncle), he permitted liim to 
fly from the writs out against him to the semi-penal settlement of Boulogne- 
sur-mer, and reside there a twelvemonth with his young family, rather than 
come down with the tune of £2,000 ; yet to this very gentleman— a man of 
the nicest honour— he had at that very period bequeathed more than two 
millions. — See Gentleman's Magazine. 


valued at ,£2,300,000. — See GentlemarHs Magazine, <fec. See 
also Sir Thomas Denison (in tliis volume), with Notes, p. 169, 
&c. ; and also William Denison, Esq., with Xote, p. 180, &c. 

Minister of the Protestant Dissenting chapel, at Mill Hill, in 
Leeds, was born at Collingtree, a village near Northampton, on 
May 29th, 1745. His father, Mr. Benjamin Wood, was a 
member of the Christian Society at Northampton, of which Dr. 
Doddridge was the minister ; and being a pious man, paid 
pecuUar attention to the religious instruction of his children. 
While engaged in the usTial occupations of his business, he was 
accustomed to employ them in reading to him some work of 
piety, to which he fixed their attention by frequent questions 
and remarks, and thus imprinted upon their tender minds 
lessons of the most salutary nature for the future conduct of 
Hfe. Happy the children who are thvis early taught the love 
and practice of religion! Of Mr. Wood's childhood little else 
is known, than that he veiy early discovered considerable 
talents; and that he passed, with great credit, through the 
ordinary course of school education, under the late Dr. Stephen 
Addington, at Market Harborough. At the age of sixteen he 
entered the Dissenting Academy in M'ellclose Square, London, 
at that time under the cai-e of the Rev. Dr. Jennings, and the 
Rev. Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Morton Savage. In the following 
year, 1762, iipon the death of Dr. Jennings, the academy was 
removed to Hoxton; Mr. Savage was ap])ointed to the office of 
theological tutor, and with him were associated as tutors — the 
one in the belles lettres, the other in mathematics and natural 
philosophy — the Rev. A. Kippis, and Mr. A. Rees. Among his 
contemporaries in the academy were Mr. J. AJexauder, author 
of a paraphrase on 1 Cor. xv. ; Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Samuel 
Wilton; Mr. Forsyth, late tutor at Daventry and Northampton; 
Mr. Beaufoy, late member of parliament for Yarmouth; and 
Mr. T. Jervis, formerly tutor to the late Marquis of Lansdowne, 
and afterwards chosen to succeed to the pastoral office at j\Iill 
Hill chapel, in Leeds. With some of these he continued to 
maintain a pleasing intercourse through life; Ijut with the last 
he formed a close and intimate friendship, which subsisted 
without interruption till death. To the excellence of his con- 
duct as a student, as also to the talents and virtues by which he 
was throughout life distinguished, this "friend of his youth, and 
companion of his early studies," has borne bis affectionate and 


public testimon)^ (See Athenceum for May, 1808.) Mr. "Wood 
had not cliosen the Avork of the miuistiy as an idle occupation; 
he was well aware of the importance of that work, and of the 
necessity, not of natural talents alone, but of much acquired 
knowledge, to its proper discharge. He had resolved not to 
engage in it, unprepared to secure liis own credit, and the real 
advantage of those who might be committed to his care; and 
he was fiilly sensible that the instructions of the ablest tutors 
would be of little avail, without the constant personal diligence 
of the student. By his own unwearied assiduity, therefore, he 
aided theii" judicious eflforts; and the consequence w^as, that few 
young men ever left their preparatory studies better qualified to 
discharge the weighty duties of the pastoral care, and to pursue 
those interesting subjects of inquiry, to which the lectures of a 
public tutor are only initiatory. He preached his first sermon 
at Debenham, in Suffolk, on the 6th of July, 1760, and a more 
appropriate subject could scarcely have been chosen for such an 
occasion than that which he selected. His text was taken from 
St. Luke ix. '2C}. Tlie remaining part of that year, and a great 
part of 1767, was spent by him in the neighbourhood of London; 
and during this period he preached before the principal congre- 
gations in the metropolis and its vicinity. His talents were 
noticed and admired, and he obtained the friendship of some of 
the most eminent of the Dissenting ministers. Of this number 
was the late Dr. Price, who was then settled at Newington 
Green, and for whom he appears to have frequently ofiiciated. 
The friendship of such a man was, in itself, an honour and an 
advantage to one just entering upon the world; and as it con- 
tinued unimpaired till the doctor's death, many occasions 
occurred in which Mr. Wood was gi-eatly indebted to his kind 
exertions. Among other instances of this nature was a recom- 
mendation to the important place which his friend the Rev. T. 
Jer^is so ably and so honourably filled iu the family of the late 
Marquis of Lansdowne. In the month of September of this 
year he removed to Stamford, in Lincolnshire, as successor to 
his excellent friend, the Rev. J. Ralph. Here, connected with 
a small but afiectionate society, he spent somewhat more than 
three years. During this interval he was ordained, together 
with his late tutor, tlie Rev. A. Rees, at the meeting-house in 
St. Thomas's, Southwark, and his testimonial was signed by the 
principal Dissenting ministers then in London. From Stamford 
he removed to Ipswich, in November, 1770, as assistant to the 
Rev. T. Scott, the Avell-known translator of the Book of Job. 
At the close of the year 1772, Dr. Priestley resigned his situa- 


tion of minister at Mill Hill cliapel, in Leeds; and in conse- 
quence of the joint recommendation of himself and Dr. Price, 
Mr. Wood was invited to succeed him. On January 10th and 
17th, 1773, he preached as a candidate at Leeds; and on the 
30th of May, entered formally upon the office to which he had 
been unanimously chosen. The excellent discoui'se which he 
delivered upon that occasion was soon afterwards published. In 
it he justly and eloquently describes, and earnestly and forcibly 
urges, the reciprocal duties of a Christian minister and his 
hearers. When he undertook the chai'ge of this numerous and 
highly-respectable congregation, he had nearly completed his 
twenty-seventh year. At such an age to be placed in such a 
situation, and as the immediate successor of Dr. Priestley, was 
a flattering distinction, and as such, he acknowledges he felt it ; 
but at the same time he " was not unapprised of the unremitted 
care which it behoved him to take, that no one might have just 
reason to despise his youth." When he had been settled in 
Leeds about two years, he published a small vohime consisting 
of twelve Sermons on social life. These sermons were composed 
solely for the pulpit, at different intervals, and not in the order 
in which they were published. On the 29th of September, 
1780, Mr. Wood married Louisa Ann, the second daughter of 
Mr. George Oates, of Low Hall, near Leeds.* This gentleman 
was engaged in the Leeds trade, and his house (which was till 
lately continued by two of his grandsons), was one of the oldest 
and most respectable in the town. Being possessed of excellent 
abilities, and much general information, he had great influence, 
and was ever regarded by his neighbours as a leading man. In 
religion he was a steady Dissenter, and in politics a Whig of 
the old school. In this connection, which lasted six-and-twenty 
years, Mr. Wood experienced much domestic felicity; and it 
was a matter of no little importance to his comfort, that he 
became by this means united in closer ties to a considerable part 
of his congregation. The fruits of this marriage were four 
children, three of whom survived their parents. At a meeting 
of the Associated Dissenting Ministers in the West-Eiding of 
Yorkshire, held at Bradford, July 4th, 1781, during the Ame- 
rican war, he delivered an excellent discourse On the Christian 
Duty of Cultivating a Spirit of Universal Benevolence amidst 

* Their eldest son was George WiUiam Wood (of the firm of Oates, Wood, 
and Smithson), some time M.P. for Kendal, who married Sarah, daughter of 
Joseph Oates, Esq., of Weetwood Hall, near Leeds, his mother's brother, and 
died in 1843. She died in July, 1864, aged eighty-six, at Singleton Lodge, 
near Manchester. — For pedigi-ee of the Oates family, and other particulars, 
see Whitaker's Thorcshii, p. 97, &c. 


the Present Unhappy National Hostilities. At the request of 
the audience, it was afterwards published. From the time of 
his leaving the academy, but especially of his settling at Leeds, 
Mr. Wood ardently devoted himself to the studies immediately 
belonging to his profession, or intimately connected with it. Few 
men were ever better qualified for the investigation of theological 
tiTith. With considerable attainments in classical literature, and 
an accurate knowledge of the Hebrew language and the Greek of 
the synagogue, were united a sound understanding, a con-ect 
judgment, a comprehensive mind, a well-formed taste, and 
unweai'ied perseverance. From the principal sources of bibHcal 
criticism he could draw with ease, and for the minutest and the 
most patient investigation he was suited as well by habit and 
disposition as by extensive and accurate learning. In 1785 he 
began to deliver, once a fortnight, to the younger part of his 
congregation, a long and interesting course of lectui'es. While 
Mr. Wood was thus usefully and pleasingly occupied in studies 
peculiarly connected with his profession, he devoted no small 
paii; of his time and attention to the pursuit of natural history, 
and particularly of English botany. He also rendered his 
knowledge of nature subservient to the great pui'pose of public 
religious instruction ; frequently drawing from the works of 
God clear and impressive elucidations of his Word, and lessons 
of piety and virtue which forcibly an*ested the attention, and 
remained deeply imprinted on the hearts of his hearers. The 
centenary of the Revolution was an event which could not be 
passed over in silence, by one who had early imbibed the love of 
civil and religious liberty, and who was fii-mly attached by sub- 
sequent conviction to the genuine principles of the British con- 
stitution. Mr. Wood partook of the feelings which then gene- 
rally prevailed, and on the two Sundays which succeeded the 
4th of November, 1788, delivered two excellent Sermons, 
which were afterwards published. A short account of Leeds 
was, in 1794, contributed by him to Dr, Aikin's History of 
Manchester. The nature of that work admitted only of a brief 
and general view of the state of that extensive and flourishing 
town. In the year 1796, he had the unhappiness to lose an 
amiable and very promising son, at the early age of twelve years. 
This was a severe trial, but the unobtrusive and sincere piety 
which ever glowed in his bosom enabled him to bear it with 
composure and fortitude. It was also no small source of alle- 
viation to him, that at this time he was most actively and bene- 
ficially engaged in the education of young persons. The cir- 
cumstance which next brought him before the public was the 


deatli of the Rev. Newcome Cappe. The age and character of 
Mr. Wood, as well as his former connection and intercourse 
with this truly venerable person, pointed him out as Lest quali- 
fied to commit his remains to the earth, and to pay that tribute 
which was so justly due to departed learniug and piety. This 
mournful oiSce he performed on Wednesday, December 31st, 
1800, in a manner most impressive, and in the presence of a 
great concourse of people. When this ceremony was finished, 
he delivered a sermon adapted to the occasion, and containing a 
highly-wrought but just eulogy of his late revered friend. 
"An eloquent man, and mighty iu the Scriptures," were the 
words which he selected as his text, and none more appropriate 
could have been chosen. In fewer and in better terms the public 
character of Mr. Cappe could not have been comprised. This 
Sermon was shortly afterwards published, with a suitable dedi- 
cation to Mrs. Cappe, and with an appendix containing brief 
Memoirs of Mr. Cappe's life. In the course of these, some 
interesting particulars are given, and a masterly analysis of the 
few works which he published, especially of his Fast Sermons, 
which excited general admiration ; and had he been of less 
retired habits, would have procured for him the friendship of 
some of the most distinguished characters in the country. On 
the following Sunday, Mr. Wood delivered a Sermon at Mill 
Hill chapel, upon the Commencement of the Nineteenth Century. 
It was written hastily, and with no view to publication ; but the 
just and striking sentiments which it contained, together with 
the peculiarity of the occasion, produced such an effect upon the 
congregation, that immediately after the service they earnestly 
and unanimously reqviested that it might be printed. In the 
year 1801 he published a liturgv, consisting of five forms, for the 
congregation at Mill Hill chapel. This, for the most part, Avas 
compiled from the service of the Established Church, the Liver- 
pool, Shrewsbury, and other liturgies before published by the 
Dissenters. (See Political Papers, vol. vi., pp. 67-8.) He 
was instrumental in the academical institution being trans- 
ferred from Manchester to York. Upon the death of Dr. 
Priestley, in 1804, Mr. Wood was led no less by his own 
respect for the memory of that great and good man, than 
by the circumstance of his having succeeded to the same 
pulpit, and by the earnest request of the older members of the 
society, who remembered with pleasure and with gratitude the 
instructions which he had so zealously and so ably dispensed to 
them, to pay to his eminent virtues and talents that tribute 
which they so justly deserved. He afterwards, at the solicita- 


tion of the late editor of the Annual Revieio, consented to 
conduct the department of natural history. While he thus 
enjoyed the opportunity of seeing valuable and expensive works 
upon subjects relating to liis favourite science, he gratified and 
instructed the public by his able analyses of them, and by his 
free and judicious remarks upon their merits or defects. But 
the work in which he engaged about this time with the greatest 
satisfaction, and with unwearied diligence, was that truly 
national publication, the Cyclopcedia, cariied on under the very 
able and laborious superintendence of his friend, the Eev. Dr. 
E,ees. For this valuable work he wrote several articles con- 
nected with Botany. The ability displayed in these articles 
will be a lasting and an honourable testimony to his skill as a 
botanist. He became a member of the Linnsean Society at its 
first formation, and thus became intimate with many eminent 
scientific persons. He died April 1st, 1808,'"' aged sixty-three 
years, and was succeeded by the Rev. Dr. Hutton. Memoirs 
of his life and writings were published at Leeds in the followong 
yeai', by the Rev. Charles Wellbeloved, formerly of the Man- 
chester College, in York, from which Memoirs the above Sketch 
has been chiefly compiled. — For a small portrait and additional 
information, see his Memoirs ; Gentleman^ s Mac/azine, <tc. 

— 1809.t 
There is in the north transept of the Leeds parish church, a 
most beautiful marble cenotaph, by J. Flaxman, Esq., R.A., 
which cost upwards of £600, erected to the memory of two 
lamented young ofiicers, of Leeds, who were killed at tlae battle 
of Talavera. The monument represents a weeping Victory, as 

* — 1808. James Keniok, Esq., formerly an eminent surgeon and alderman 
of Leeds. The duties of tlie latter station he performed with zeal and im- 
partiality during twenty-seven years, when his advanced age having rendered 
a cessation from public duties necessary, he retii-ed with the thanks and regret 
of his colleagues. The eminence he attained in his profession was the result 
of science, attention, and feeling ; while his perfect urbanity as a gentleman, 
his piety as a Christian, and his goodness as a man, endeared htm to all who 
had access to him. As he lived respected, so he died regretted; and his 
memory will long be cherished by those who had the opportunity of best 
knowing his virtues. He died March 21st, 1808, aged eighty years. 

+ — 1810. Joseph Wilkinson, Esq., formerly of Bramhope, and recently of 
Hawkeworth Hall, near Leeds, died July 30th, 1810, aged fifty-five years. 
He was a gentleman well known and highly respected in this neighbourhood, 
from the general urbanity of his manners, and the long services he rendered 
his country, as major of the Leeds volunteers, and subsequently as captain in 
the Wharf edale corps.— See the Leeds Mercury, &c., for August, 1810. 

— 1810. KonEKT Davison, Esq., M.D., a physician of much eminence 
and extensive practice in Leeds and ueighboui'hood, till be was obliged by 


large as life, seated on a cannon, and supporting her head upon 
her right hand, which rests on a banner, inscribed with the 
word " Talavera" between two wreaths. Underneath is a 
Hon in basso-7-elievo, and on the base the following inscription : — 
" To the Memory of Captain Samuel Walker,* of the 3rd Regi- 
ment of Guards, and Captain Richard Beckett, of the Cold- 
stream Regiment of Guards, natives of Leeds; who, having 
bravely serv^ed their country together in Egypt, Germany, Den- 
mark, and Portugal, fell, in the prime of life, at the glorious 
battle of Talavera, in Spain, on the 28th of July, 1809,t their 
fellow-towTismen dedicate this monument." Dr. Whitaker, in 

bad healtli to retire from business, died August 11th, 1810. Nature had 
given him a strong understanding and retentive memoiy, to which she added 
a peculiar sagacitj% that enabled him, in cases the most complicated, to 
discriminate between cause and effect, between the disease and its symptoms. 
A kind friend to the poor, he never exercised his medical skill with greater 
satisfaction to himself than when he expected no remuneration except their 
blessing. He was a man of truth, integrity, and honour-, but, what is far 
better, of imaffected piety, which could alone support him under acciunu- 
lated afiaictions, and a long and painful illness, which he bore with roatience 
and resignation. He is gone to that place where physicians can be in no 
request : for there, is neither pain, nor infirmity, nor disease ; but where 
sincere Christians wiU meet with a joj'ful reception. The doctor was a 
branch of the Davisons, of the Brand, in Shropshire. — See Leeds Merairy, &c. 

* Samuel Walker was the fourth son of WiRiam "Walker, Esq., of Killing- 
beck Hall, near Leeds, whose pedigi-ee, &c., may be seen in Whitaker's Loidis 
and Elrnete, pp. 3, 198, 202, &c. Richard Beckett, brigade-major in the second 
regiment of foot-giiards, was the fourth son of the fiirst Sir John Beckett, 
Bart., of Leeds, and was bom June 8th, 1782. 

■f- The record of those gallant Britons who have finished their coiu'se of 
honour in defence of the liberties of Spain and the ci\'ihzed world, was also 
augmented by the death of another of our townsmen. More of our best 
blood has been shed in the great cause. John, the eldest son of Darcy 
Lever, Esq., midshipman in the Atlas, Admiral Purvis's flag-ship (a gallant 
youth only eighteen years of age), was killed on the 17th of February, 1810, 
near Cadiz, by the bursting of a cannon as he was firing it against the French 
batteries. He was on board the San Justo, a Spanish ship manned by British 
volunteers, of which he was one of the foremost. Endowed with everji;hing 
that was excellent in private Ufe, and with aU the courage and humanity 
characteristic of the British sailor, he promised to be a shining ornament to 
his profession, and a valuable servant to his country. His dawn of life pre- 
sented a fine prospect of a glorious day ; but the fair morn was scarce above 
the horizon, and, by its brilliancy, appeared the precursor of a meridian 
splendour, ere it was overcast by a dark and fearful cloud. It has set prema- 
tui'ely in the grave. Alas, brave youth ! thy career of glory has been short. 
Though thy remains be engTilphed in the ocean, or embowelled in the sands 
of that shore wliich thou died to defend, the memory of thy merits shall long 
live in the hearts of those who claimed thee as a friend or a comrade, 
and be engi-aven by thy grateful counti-ymen on that tablet which is more 
durable than monumental mai-ble. And while we survey the memorial 
erected to the memory of our Beckett and our Walker, and read, there 
recorded, their valour and their fall in the same cause for which thou bled, 
we will not forget to unite in the sympathetic emotions of sorrow the remem- 
brance of our Lever. — See the Leeds Intelligencer, &c., for March, 1810. 


liis Loidis and Elmete, says — " The simplicity of tliis epitaph, 
so uBiisual in that turgid species of composition, however laud- 
able in itself, would, without a supplement, leave uni-ecorded to 
posterity that these two brave men were of two most respect- 
able families in the town of Leeds, equally respectable in their 
own characters, and deeply regretted by their numerous connec- 
tions, for those amiable qualities which, in the manners of the 
present generation amongst our coimtiymen, are found to be 
perfectly consistent with personal courage." — See monument in 
Leeds parish chiirch, and a fine engraving in Whitaker's 
History of Leeds, p. 5\. 


Minister of St. John's church, Leeds, was born March 18th, 
1740, in the village of Linton, Craven, of respectable parents.* 
His father, who, having no trade or profession, lived upon and 
farmed his own estate, was a very sensible and intelligent man, 
so far superior to those among whom he lived, and so disin- 
terested in the application of his talents, that he was highly 

* He was the son of Richard Sheepshanks, of Linton, yeoman, who died 
in December, 1779, and Susannah Garside, of Stainland, who died in July, 
1784, leaving issue: — 1, The Eev. William Sheepshanks, M.A., who married 
Anne, daughter of Mr. John Hawkridge, of Grassington, who had a daughter, 
Mary, bom in 1777, married to the Rev. WiUiam Cary, D.D., prebendai-y of 
Westminster, and late head-master of Westminster School. 2, "Wliittell 
Sheepshanks, an eminent merchant of Leeds, bom November 14th, 1743, 
alderman, and twice mayor of Leeds, in 1795 and 1815; assumed by royal 
licence the surname and ai-ms of York, and died in August, 1817, leaving 
by Mary, his wife, relict of Mr. W. Peart, of Grassington, Richard, his 
heir,"' and Mary, who married, in 1801, the Rev. Anthony Lister (JNIarsden), 
!M.A., vicar of Gargi-ave, and rector of Tatham, county of York. 3, Richard, 
of Leeds and Philadelphia, merchant, born in September, 1747, died in 1797, 
in America, having manied Mi's. Ann Elidd, and left issue, William, of 
Leeds and Philadelphia, born in 1774. 4, Rev. Thomas, M.A., rector of 
Wimpole and Aspenden, in Cambridgeshire, born in December, 1752; 
married, secondly, Martha, daughter of Robei-t Gynn, Esq., of Wisbech, and 
had issue, William, B.A., of Trinity College, Cambridge, Thomas, Maria, 
and Louisa. 5, Joseph, of Leeds, merchant, bom in May, 1755; married 
Anne, daughter of Mr. Richard Wilson, of Kendal, and had issue, Thomas, 
William, John, Anne, Susannah, and Richard, B.A., of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. 6, James, of Leeds, merchant, who died in 1789. 7, John, M.A., 
late Fellow of Ti-inity College, Cambridge, vicar of Wymeswolde, Leicester- 
shire, and curate of Holy Trinity church, Leeds, born May 4th, 1765; 
married Marj', daughter of Mr. .John Anderson, of Cambridge, &c. 

The crest of the Sheepshanks is a " Sheep passant," and the crest of the 
Yorks is a " Demi-lion, supporting a Avoolpack, erect." 

'*' Richard York, Esq. , son and heir of Whittell Sheepshanks, aftei-wards 
York, Esq., bom in Jvme, 1778; afterwards of Wighill Park, near Tadcaster; 
a deputy-lieutenant, and lieutenant-colonel of the West-Riding of Yorksliire 
Hussar Yeomanry: served as high-sheriff in 1832; married, April 20th, 1801, 
Lady Mary Anne Lascelles, youngest daughter of Edward, first Earl of Hare- 


popular and useful in his native "village. His mother was a 
woman of very superior undei'standing. He was educated at 
the Grammar School of the parish, and in 1761 was admitted 
of St. John's College, Cambiidge. His singular facility in the 
attainment of philosophical knowledge quickly became so con- 
spicuous in this situation, that, at a time when other under- 
gradiTates find sufficient employment in preparing for their own 
exercises and examinations, he had no less than six pupils. At 
this time also he laid the foundation of a lasting friendship with 
two young men of great promise in the university, John Law 
and William Paley, both of Christ's College — the one aftei-wards 
Bishop of Elpliin, the other wanting no addition, and above all 
titles. In St. John's he lived upon terms of almost equal inti- 
macy with Mr. Arnald, the senior wrangler of his year, whose 
genius, always eccentric, after a short career of court ambition, 
sunk into incurable lunacy. His academical exercises also con- 
nected him more or less with the late Lord Alvanley, Mr. 
Baron Graham, and the learned and pious Joseph Milner, after- 
wards of Hull — all of whom, as well as Law, took their first 
degrees at the same time with liimself.'^"' Such a constellation of 
talent has scarcely been assembled in any single year from that 
time to the present. In January, 1766, he took the degree of 
B.A., and in 1767 was elected Fellow of his college, on the 
foundation of Mr. Piatt. In the same year he also took the 
degree of M.A. In 1772 he served the office of Moderator 
(or Examiner) for the university, with distinguished applause. 
During this period he numbered among his pupils several whom 
he lived to see advanced to high stations in their respective 
professions, particularly the late Bishop of Lincoln, and the 
Chief-Justice of the King's Bench.f In 1773 he accepted from 
the university the rectory of Ovington, in Norfolk; and, having 

wood, and died January 27th, 1843, leaving an only son, Edward York, Esq., 
of Wigliill Park, .J. P., and de puty -lieutenant ; born, January 6th, 1802; 
married, November 25th, 1835, Penelope Beatrix, daughter of the Rev. 
Christopher Sykes, rector of Poos, in Holderness, and has issue, Edward 
Christopher, born October 14th, 1842; Lucy Mary, married to Edward 
Brooksbank, Esq. , of Healaugh Hall, near Tadcaster ; Caroline Penelope ; 
Laura Marianne; and Harriet. See Burke's Landed Gentry, &c. 

* In 17<J6, Arnald, or Arnold, WiUiam, of St. -John's, was senior wrangler ; 
Law, John, afterwards Lord Bishop of Elphin, was second ; Graham, Sir 
Robert, afterwards Baron of the Exchequer, was third; Arden, or Lord 
Alvanley, afterwards Lord Chief -Justice of the Common Pleas, was twelfth. 
Milner, Joseph, of Leeds, author of the History of the Church of Christ, &c., 
was third among the senior optimes, with junior chancellor's medal ; Dr. John 
Law taking the senior medal. Dr. Wm. Paley was senior wrangler in 1763. 

1" Law, of Peter's, afterwards Lord Ellenborough, and Lord Chief-Justice 
of the King's Bench, was third wrangler in 1771; and Dr. George Pretyman 


married a liiglily respectable person, the object of his early 
attachment, settled at the village of Grassiugton, where he 
received into his house a limited number of pupils, among 
whom, in the years 1774-5, was the Eev. T. D. Whitaker. In 
the year 1777, he removed to Leeds; and in the same year, by 
the active friendship of Dr. John Law, then one of the pre- 
bendaries of Carlisle, he was presented by that chapter to the 
li\-ing of Sebei'gham, in. Cumberland. In 1783, he was ap- 
pointed to the valuable cure of St. John's church, in Leeds. In 
1792 he was collated, by his former pupil, Dr. Pretyman, Bishop 
of Lincoln, to a prebend in his cathedral, which, by the favour of 
the late Archbishop of York, he was enabled to exchange, in 
1794 or 1795, for a much more valuable stall at Carlisle, 
vacated by the promotion of Dr. Paley to the subdeaneiy of 
Lincoln. This was the last of his preferments, and probably the 
height of his wishes; for he was in his own nature very disin- 
terested. After having been afflicted for several years with 
calculous complaints, the scourges of indolent and literary men, 
lie died at Leeds, July 26th, 1810, and was interred near the 
communion-table in Ms own church, where there is a Latin 
inscription to himself and wife.* In vigour and clearness of 
understanding, Mr. Sheepshanks was excelled by few. His 
spirits were lively, and his conversation was inexhaustibly 
fertile in anecdote and reflection. His knowledge of common 
life, in all its modes, was that of an original and acute observer 
— his eyes were the most penetrating and expressive, perhaps, 
ever beheld. In short, nature had endowed him with faculties 
little, if at all, inferior to those of the two great men with 
whom he lived in habits of most intimate fi'iendship. His con- 
versation had much of the originality and humour which dis- 
tinguished that of Dr. Paley; and, when he thought proper, it 
was equally profound and sagacious with that of Dr. Law. 
When he could be prevailed upon to write at all, he wi-ote with 

{Tomline), afterwards Lord Bishop of Lincoln, and then of "Winchester, was 
senior wrangler in 1772, the year in which "William Sheepshanks, M.A., was 
one of the moderators. 

* He was religious 'without ostentation ; a friend without deceit ; and 
charitable as heoometh genuine charity. He was a man of first-rate genius 
and high literary attainments. As a tutor, he had had the honour of 
educating some of the most exalted characters in the empire, viz., Lord 
EUenhorough, Sir Soulden Lawrence, Dr. Tomline, Bishop of Lincoln (who 
was afterwards tutor of the great Pitt), &c. He was tlie most intimate 
friend of the late Dr. Paley, and stood liigh in the estimation of his Grace 
the Archbishop of this province. Tlie rectory of Ovington is, we believe, the 
only one presented by the irhole University of Cambridge. — See the Leeds 
Intelligencer, &c., for July, 1810. 



the clearness and force peculiar to his scliool; so that, if his 
industiy had borne any proportion to his natural talents, and if 
these had been sedulously applied to elucidate and expound 
those branches of science in which he so much excelled, he 
■would have wanted no other memorial. But a constitutional 
indolence robbed him of the feme which he might have attained : 
the privation, howevei", occasioned neither a struggle nor a pang, 
for his want of ambition was at least e(|ual to his hatred of 
exertion; and, as far as could be gathered from a conversation 
in the highest degree open and undisguised, he was equally 
careless of living and of posthumous reputation. Had the same 
indifference extended to his s\irviving friends, this short account 
would not have been written. — See Dr. Whitaker's History of 
Graven, p. 473, &c. For his pedigree, &c., see Whitaker's Loidis 
and Ehnete, p. 63; and for a fine portrait of him, see the 
Ai^pendix, p. 31. 



Founder of St. Paul's chiirch, Leeds, and the second son of the 
Ilev. Christopher Atkinson, rector of Thorp-Arch, in the county 
of York, was born at Ledsham, near Leeds, September 28th, 
1741. In his earliest years he exhibited symptoms of great 

* — 1811. Mr. Benjamin Clifford, a person very well known, and as 
highly respected, in the musical world ; who had also spent several years of 
his life in the band of the 1st West York Militia, died at Leeds, May 
4th, 1811, aged fifty-nine. We understand that he had just prepared for 
piiblication several pieces of miisic, and had obtained considerable patronage 
from subscribers, when, we are concerned to say, he was brought to a prema- 
ture grave by sleeping in a damp bed ; however, as his son v.'as well qualified to 
push forward his father's undertaking, we hope the work has not been lost to 
the piiblic. When in garrison at Hull, he composed a common measure tune, 
which rapidly spread through the whole empire, although he never published 
it himself. In these parts it was simply called Clifford's Common Measure, 
but in London it acquired the cui'ious title of Bonaparte's March. On the 
Tuesday following his death, his remains were attended to the parish church 
by all the professional singers and amateurs in Leeds and neighbourhood, a 
most numerous body, who sang an anthem before the funeral procession left 
his own house, and another when they bade him a final fai-ewell in the 
churchyard : and the superior style in which they poured out their har- 
monious and plaintive notes in the hynms in the streets, and in the psalms at 
church, had a most powerful effect on all who heard them. His company was 
remarkably placid and pleasant, and it had become proverbial, that where 
Clifford was, drunkenness and riot never showed their heads. He was 
deemed the father of the musical club in Leeds, and the members, after the 
funeral, repaired to their room, and spent the evening in various solemnities 
of music adapted to the occasion, in remembrance of their respected and 
lamented friend. — See the Leeds Mercury, &c., for Maj^, 1811. 

— 1811. Sir William Mordaunt Milner, Bart., whose grandfather, an 
alderman of Leeds, presented the statue of Queen Anne, at the top of 
Briggate, to the Corporation, expired September 9th, 1811, at his seat, Nun- 



native benevolence and tenderness of heart, wliicli lie extended 
to every part of the sensitive creation. He not only avoided 
giving pain to, but he frequently exerted himself in rescuing 
from a state of suifering, worms and insects. He was from the 
beginning brought np by his father in strict habits of religion, 
and accustomed to prayer. From a child he manifested an 
earnest desire for the ministiy. Before he went to the univer- 
sity, he frequently visited the poor cottagers in his father's 
parish, and conversed with them on the state of their souls; 
at the same time his judgment was no less sound than his dis- 
position was serious. He received the first rudiments of educa- 
tion from his father; but his talents for learning did not become 
conspicuous before he was thirteen or fourteen years old— after 
which his progress was so rapid, that at the age of sixteen or 
seventeen he was admitted of Peter House, Cambridge; where, 
during the whole term of his pupilage, his conduct was so 
uniformly moral and regular, that Dr. Law, who was then 
master of tlie college, and afterwards Bishop of Carlisle, held 
him forth as a model for the imitation of his fellow-students. 
This strictness of conduct in so yovmg a man, surrounded by 
numberless temptations, brought iipon him, as might be 
expected, the sneers of those to whom his behaviour was a 
I'eproach. But that he was enabled to withstand the railleries 
of the vicious, and the allurements of pleasure, must be ascribed 
to the strength of his religious principles, as he had nothing 
cold or phlegmatic in his constitution. During his residence in 
college, he was so strict an observer of the Sabbath, that on 
that day he never read or wrote on an}^ other than religious 

Appleton, near Tadcaster, in the fifty-seventh year of his age. He was 
cliosen representative for the city of Yoik in four successive parliaments, 
during whicli lie maintained what he believed to be the public interest with 
exemplary consistency. He was a true friend to old English liberty, and 
neither place nor pension were ever objects of his pursuit. His political life, 
like his domestic, was unsullied with a blot. There was nothing mean nor 
sordid in his cliaracter. He was frank, open, generous; and all the best 
affections seem to have made his lieart their favourite abode. His loss was 
long felt, and deeply lamented by his relatives and friends ; and by none 
more than liy him who wrote these few lines to record his worth, which he 
had an opportunity of obsei-\dng during an intimacy of twenty years. He 
■was succeeded in his title by his eldest son, Sir William M. Sturt Milner, 
Bart. — See Nott in this vol., p. 151; Leeds Mercury, &c., for September, 1811, 
&c. Lady Milner died at Exeter, in January, 1805. A very few years back, 
her ladyship was admired as the finest, the most beautiful, and accomplished 
woman in the fashionable world, of which she was at once the ornament and 
the leader. For two years past, her ladyship had been in a very declining 
state of health, and obliged to witlidraw from those scenes of elegant life over 
whicli her taste and accomj)lisliments liad so long shed a lustre. — See the 
Leeds IrddUgenccr, &c., for January, 1805. 


subjects. He f)as.sed a very respectable examination for tlie 
degree of B.A. in January, 1703, aud was the sixth wrangler 
of that year in which Mr. (afterwards the celebrated Dr.) Paley 
was senior wrangler. He never j^roceeded to any higher 
degree. In March, 1764, he was ordained deacon by the Bishop 
(Green) of Lincoln, and in May, 1766, he was ordained priest 
by Archbishop Drummond. Mr. Atkinson commenced his 
ministeinal labours as cui'ate of the late Rev. Dr. Kirshaw, at 
the parish church of Leeds, the great scene of his future use- 
fulness. He preached his first sermon in that church from 
Acts xvi. 30. In this situation he continued about three years, 
during which period he made a point of visiting five or six 
families daily— the individual sick amongst whom amounted on 
the whole to nearly three thousand. By these exertions he so 
much engaged the affections of the poor, that when he preached 
the church was always crowded. In February, 1764, he was 
licensed to the head-mastership of the school at Diighlington, 
near Leeds, to which he had been nominated by Dr. Law, 
master of Peter House, of which he continued to receive the 
emoluments till the year 1770. In April, 1768, he married 
Miss Maiy Kenion, with whom he lived above thirty years in 
the most uninterrupted bonds of conjugal affection; and in 
May of the same year he removed to Aberford, where he only 
remained about twelve months, being nominated to the lecture- 
ship of the parish church of Leeds: an event of unspeakable 
importance to many thousands of souls. As this was one of 
the largest congregations, so it was one of the most extensive 
scenes of tisefulness, in the church. He seldom preached to 
fewer than three thousand persons; and sucli was the power 
with which he spoke, that the happy effect of his labours soon 
became apparent. The private ministerial labours of Mr. 
Atkinson in the populous town of Leeds were so various and 
unceasing, that it is difficult to speak of them otlierwise than 
in general terms.* In visiting the patients of the General 

* The example of ]\Ir. Atkinson supported and enforced the doctrines which 
he taught. He was distinguished by fortitude andfidelity in his religious coui-se. 
In early life he rejected offers of preferment which were made to him, on 
condition of laying aside his obnoxious religion. To the close of his days he 
boldly and faithfuUy set forth the whole counsel of God; never speaking 
smooth things to please men; never sparing a sin liecause it was fashionable; 
never composing his sermons so as to please the higher ranks, while he left the 
poor to perish for lack of knowledge. His language was plain, Imt fei-vent ; 
his rebukes earnest; and many who heard him were led to renounce their 
sins, and turn to God. His private Hfe was marked with the same integrity 
which distinguished his public ministry. — See his Funeral Sermon, by the 
Eev. Thomas (Dikes or) Dykes, LL.B., &c. 


Infirmary, an extensive and well-conducted institvition, many, 
by his means, who came to be healed in theii' bodies, returned 
Avith a much greater blessing, having found health and peace to 
their souls. From 1773 to 1780, he was morning assistant to 
the Rev. Mr. Simon, vicar of Wliitchurch, near Leeds. In 
1783 he was instituted to the vicarage of Kippax, near Leeds; 
which afibrded him not only an agreeable retreat in summer, 
but what he much more desired, new opportunities of ministerial 
usefulness. It Avas owing principally to his exertions that 
Sunday schools were established in Leeds. In September, 1791, 
he laid the foundation-stone of St. Paul's church, in Leeds (for 
a fine engi-aving of which see Whitaker's Thoreshy, &c.), on a 
site which had been given him by Dr. Christopher Wilson, 
Bishop of Bristol, and which was consecrated September lOtb, 
1793, by Dr. William Markham,"' Archbisliop of York. His 
attachment to the constitution of his coimtry, in Chiu'ch and 
State, was active as well as zealous. He was ever ready to 
assist, either by his pen, his influence, or example, in furthering 
any measui-es which tended to promote the common welfare of 
the nation, the eflicacy of the laws, the safety of his sovereign, 
and the happiness of his fellow-subjects. Few men were more 
steady and active than he, in times peculiarly pregnant with 

* The Markhams of Becca Hall, near Leeds, are descended from this arch- 
bishop, who died iu 1807, lea^ang issue :— 1, William, his heir; 2, John, born 
in 1761, an admiral E.N., and M.P. for Portsmouth, who died in 1827; 3, 
George, born in 1703, dean of York; 4, Da\dd, a colonel in the army; .5, 
Robei-t, archdeacon of York, and rector of Bolton Percy; 6, Osborne, M.P., 
who married the Lady IMary Thynne, daughter of the first Marquis of 
Bath, &c. William Markham, Esq., the eldest son and heir, born in April, 
1760, was private secretaiy to Warren Hastings, and subsequently resident for 
some time at Benares, in India; eventually returning to Yorkshire, he seated 
himself at Becca Hall, near Aberford. He died January 1st, 1815, leaving 
issue :-;-l, William, his heir; 2, John, born in June, 1797, a lieutenant E.N.; 
3, David Frederick, born in March, 1800, canon of Windsor, married Catherine, 
daughter of Sir William Mordaunt Milner, Bart., of Nun-Appleton ; 4, 
Wan-en, born in July, 1801, a captain iu 72nd Highlanders ; 5, Charles, born 
in March, 1803, lieutenant-colonel in the 60th Pvifles, married Emma, daughter 
of the Rev. Ralph Brandling : — 1, Emma, married to William Rookes 
Crompton Stansfield, Esq., recently of Esholt Hall, near Leeds; 2, Laura, 
married to Colonel William Mure ; 3, Lucy, married to Henry Lewis Wick- 
ham, Esq., only son of the Right Hon. William Wickham. William Mark- 
ham, Esq., of Becca Hall, J. P. and D.L., the eldest son and heir, bom -Tune 
28th, 1796, colonel of the 2nd West York MiUtia, died January 26th, 1852, 
leaving issue :— 1, William Thomas, his heir ; 2, Edwin, born in IMarch, 1833, 
lieutenant in the Royal Artillery ; 3, Francis, bom October 31st, 1837, in the 
rifle brigade ; 4, Alfred, born .June 26th, 1839, in the royal navy, &c. WiUiam 
Thomas Markham, Esq., of Becca Hall, J.P., hia eldest son and heir, born 
July 13th, 1830, served in the rifle brigade and Cohlstream Guards from 1848 
to 18.56; now colouel of the Leeds Rifle Volunteers, &;c.— Sec lim^a'^Lumicd 
Gentry, &c. 


insurrection and sedition.* He died, aged seventy, on the 6th 
of February, 1811, and was interred in St. Paul's church, Leeds, 
amidst the tears and sighs of a numerous and affectionate 
peopIe.+ On the following Sunday his funeral sermon was 
preached at St. Paul's, to a most crowded congregation, by the 

* Mr. Atkinson was also a true patriot. Loyalty to his king, love to liis 
country, and veneration for constituted authorities, manifested themselves in 
him on all occasions. He considered ministers and magistrates as the great 
delegates of heaven ; as the chief promoters and supporters, under divine 
providence, of civil order and national happiness. His patriotic feelings were 
most energetically expressed in a sermon which he preached at the parish 
church in Leeds, on the day of Natimial Jubilee, and which was published at 
Leeds in 1809. 

+ We cannot suffer the irreparable loss, says the Leeds Intelligencer for 
February, 1811, sustained by the public through this aiilicting event, to be 
recorded without some testimony (however unequal to the task), of that 
sincere respect for his character while living, and of unfeigned regret for his 
departure, which his intrinsic worth so fully demanded. His zeal for the 
service of his Divine Master was constantly manifested by his earnest, una- 
bated concern for the immortal welfare of those committed to ;his charge, as 
displayed for the long space of nearly forty-eight years, during which he 
officiated as lecturer of St. Peter's church, Leeds. He was, in every sense of 
the word, that most estimable of all characters, the e.xemplary parish priest ; 
iind of him it may truly be said, that, wliile dispensing the bread of life, — 

"At church, with meek and unaffected grace. 
His looks adorned the venerable place; 
Truth, from his lips, prevail'd with double sway." 

In piety to his God — at once fervent and rational ; equally removed from the 
extremes of torpid indifference and wild fanaticism — he was excelled by none, 
and tlie faithful, uniemitted discharge of his public duty richly entitled him 
to the praise so beautifully expressed by Cowper, in honour of the truly 
Christian clergyman : — 

" Simple, grave, sincere; 

In doctrine uncorrupt ; in language plain, 

And i)lain in manner; decent, solemn, chaste, 

And natural in gesture ; much impress'd 

Himself, as conscious of his awful charge, 

And anxious mainly that the flock he feeds 

May feel it too ; affectionate in look, 

And tender in address, as well becomes 

A messenger of grace to guilty men." 

His private life corresponded with his public professions— a kind and tender 
father, a zealous and affectionate friend, and those who had the happiness of 
being admitted to his social circle can testify the cordial esteem which his 
unadulterated manners and solid acquirements were so well calculated to 
inspire. In unshaken loyalty to his king, his merit shone conspicuous. But 
to enter at large upon the character of this invaluable servant of the public, 
whether as a minister, a suljject, a father, brother, or friend, would occupy a 
volume; suffice it to say, that this tribxite of unfeigned veneration for his 
memory comes from the lieart of one who feels a melancholy pleasiire in reflect- 
ing that our loss will be his unspeakable gain ; and in classing himself amongst 
those by whom this upright ])astor lived respected, died regretted, and in 
whose breasts his numerous virtues deserve to be for ever embalmed : — 

"The sweet lemembrance of the just. 
Shall flourish when he sleeps in dust." 


Rev. Thomas Dykes, of Hull, from the first and second verses 
of the 57th claai)ter of Isaiah, which Sermon was afterwards 
printed. Another sermon was preached on this mournful occa- 
sion, in the afternoon of the same day, at the parish church, by 
the Kev. Peter Haddou, vicar of Leeds, from the fourth and 
fifth verses of the 49th chapter of Isaiah. His person was 
athletic ; his countenance awful, yet easily softened into an 
expression of benignity; his voice strong and sonorous. — For 
his porti-ait, pedigree, &c., see Whitaker's Thoresby : and for a 
more detailed account, with portrait, see the Short Memoir pre- 
fixed to his Practical Sermons, published in 2 vols., by Long- 
man & Co., in 1812, from which this Sketch is chiefly compiled. 
See also the Christian Observer for April, 1811, &c. 

Regius Professor of Civil Law in the University of Cambridge, 
born at Leeds about the year 1750, and educated at the Leeds 
Grammar School, died suddenly at his residence in Trinity 
Hall, Cambridge, on the 13th of November, 1813, in the sixty- 
third year of his age. During the college residencies of foi'ty- 
three years. Dr. Jowett had been in the habit of spending two 
evenings a week alone with the Rev. Dr. Milner, dean of 
Carlisle, his oldest academical intimate. In this manner was 
passed the evening of "Wednesday, the 10th of November, 1813, 
at Queen's College lodge; Dr. Jowett being then, to all appear- 
ance, in perfect health. The next day he drew up the Annual 
Report of the Cambridge Auxiliary Bible Society. On Friday 
he read the report to the committee, with a distinct and audible 
voice; and it was generally observed that the professor never 
appeared in better health and spirits than at that time. That 
evening he became in some degree unwell, and passed a restless 
night; and, in the forenoon of Saturday, complained of a giddi- 
ness and disposition to faint. He walked, however, about two 
o'clock, to Queen's College lodge; but with considerable diffi- 
culty and some interruptions. The dean of Carlisle observed 
tliat his countenance was alarmingly pale, and that his pulse 
was uncommonly weak, with frequent intermissions, so as some- 
times to be scarcely sensible. By the administration of a warm 
cordial drauglit, the stroke of his pulse soon became firm and 
regular, his countenance recovered its usual florid appearance, 
and he walked about the room conversing with as mucli chccr- 
fuhiess as if nothing had happened. " If all be well, I will visit 
jou to-morrow evening, as usual/' were the last words he spake 


to Lis friend. The symptoms of returning health were, how- 
ever, but of short duration — not more than an hour; for, in 
walking back to his college, he was seized with another fit of 
fainting and giddiness ; was carried home in a chair, and advised 
to go into a warm bed. He attempted to take a little broth, 
and aftei-wards a little biundy and water, but his stomach 
rejected both. He grew very restless, rolled from one side 
of the bed to the other alternately, and complained of great 
coldness. He had left Queen's College about three o'clock, and 
befoi-e half-past five he was no more. The remains of this good 
man were deposited in the College chapel of Trinity Hall, on the 
morning of the 18th November, — the very day of the meeting of 
the members of the Auxiliary Bible Society. His numerous rela- 
tives assembled from various parts to attend his funeral, along 
with the members of his own college, and many of his friends, 
then resident in the university, or met on occasion of the 
society's anniversary; and with great truth it may be said, that 
an assemblage of so much sincere and unaffected respect, of such 
profound sympathy, and even of mournful regret for the loss 
sustained by those who survive this excellent man — temi)ered, 
however, with a most entire conviction that the awful change was 
to himself an unspeakable gain — is very far from being an ordi- 
nary event in the history of funereal sensibilities and attentions. 
(For the eulogistic si^eeches of Professor Farish and Mr. Dealtry 
at the Bible Meeting, held immediately after the funeral, see 
the Christian Observer, for December, 181.3.) The report itself 
is a specimen of that neat, perspicuous, and forcible style which 
characterized the compositions of Dr. Jowett; and the prepara- 
tion of it was the last of his public services. He was looking 
foi"ward to the approaching anniversary with delight, because he 
knew that there would be on that day a most magnificent dis- 
play of the successes of the Bible Society. He himself loved 
his Bible, and being deeply sensible of its worth, he was anxious 
for its dispei'sion, and rejoiced in that extraordinary zeal and 
unanimity which have constantly distinguished the proceedings 
both of the parent society and its auxiliaries. " It cannot be 
otherwise, than that in this afilictive separation the near rela- 
tives of Dr. Jowett should experience a heavy stroke. Those 
of them who are more advanced in life will look back on a long 
series of useful and affectionate intercourse, now terminated, 
and, in this world, never more to be resumed; and the younger 
branches of his family connections Avill, no doubt, often be^ 
reminded how kind and valuable a friend, how wise and faithful 
an adviser, they have lost; and how seldom such a loss is after- 


wards to be repaired in any considerable degree, in a world where 
self-interests and partial affections so greatly predominate. It 
will easily be understood, that after the fii-st effusions of grief 
and surprise have subsided into a more sedate and pensive state 
of the affections, there is, perhaps, no individual who w'ill 
experience more substantial causes for painful and melancholy 
reflection than Dean Milner. The recollection of what he has 
lost, and can never hope to recover, will assixredly hang heavy 
on his mind as long as he lives. The dean has reason to thank 
God, that he is by no means without excellent friends, and 
friends, too, of long and tned loorth, who possess large portions 
of his heart. But, alas ! he looks ai'ound in vain for any one to 
supply the place of Dr. Jowett, either by jiroximity of residence 
and facility of communication, or by similarity of studies, and 
disencumbrance from domestic concerns. The e\als unavoidably 
consequent on the dean's necessary habits of retirement, were 
either removed or very much lessened by his constant inter- 
course with his steady friend — always near, benevolent, and 
communicative — the late professor of civil lavs^ In mathe- 
matical pursuits, and in subjects of natural philosophy, thoiigh 
these two friends were of the same academical year, and for 
some time likely to have been comjietitors for the university 
honours at degree time, they constantly read together, afforded 
mutual assistance to each other, and always communicated the 
respective progress they were making, without the least reserve 
or jealoiisy." The deceased professor of ci"\T.l law was not origi- 
nally of Trinity Hall. He was admitted, in June, 1769, at 
Tiinity College, under the tuition of the late Eev. Dr. Postle- 
thwaite, where he continued till January, 1773; when Dr. 
Halifax (or Hallifax), late bishop of St. Asaph, and at that 
time regius professor of civil law, applied to his intimate friend, 
Dr. Postlethwaite, to recommend to him one of his pupils, whom 
he should judge to be a proper person to remove from Trinity 
College to Trinity Hall, under the flattering prospect of being 
made immediately the assistant tutor of the college, then Fellow 
and principal tutor, and of afterwards obtaining the professor- 
ship itself, on the appointment of Dr. Halifax to a bishopric, 
an event which w'as supposed to be not very distant. The 
proposal being made to Dr. Jowett, his pious father acceded to 
it with considerable reluctance and hesitation. "The present 
plan," he said, " was quite contrary to all his views and wishes. 
He had set his heart on his son's becoming a useful, active 
minister in the church, and for that purpose had sent him to 
college, and not that he should be buried in pursuits of litera- 


ture." After some explanations, the worthy parent gave way 
to the advice of certain friends, whose judgment lie respected, 
and whose knowledge of academical concerns he allowed to be 
much superior to his own. Dr. Jowett was not disappointed in 
his prospects at Trinity Hall. Dr. Halifax by marriage vacated 
his Fellowship, October, 1775; and Dr. Jowett, in the suc- 
ceeding month, was elected Fellow in his place, and became 
the principal tutor of the college. In the year 17S1, Dr. 
Halifax was promoted to the see of Gloucester; and, in the 
month of May of the succeeding year, Dr. Jowett obtained his 
Majesty's patent, appointing him regius professor of civil law in 
the University of Cambridge. The Fellowshi]^ of Dr. Jowett, 
and his office as tutor, became vacant in the year 1795, the 
usual term of a twelvemonth having elapsed after he had been 
collated by the Master and Fellows of Trinity Hall to the living 
of Wethersfield, in Essex.'"' But he retained his situation as 
professor of civil law, and continued to discharge all the difficult 
and important duties of it with great ability and exemplary 
assiduity, till removed by his premature decease. The long 
summer vacations, when hLs presence was not called for in the 
university, were spent in a conscientious care of his parish. It 
soon appeared with how much judgment and foresight the 
Hev. Dr. Postlethwaite had selected from among his own pxipils 
Dr. Jowett to be the successor of Dr. Halifax. A clear under- 
standing, and a strong taste for mathematics, eminently quali- 
fied him to make rapid progress in that science; but further 
cultivation of it, to any considerable degree, was now found 
inconsistent with the duties of his situation. Numbers of his 
pupils, many of them persons of rank and distinction, were 
ready to report the solid sense contained in his annual courses 
of lectures on the civil law, and the elegance and perspicu.ity 
with which he used to compare together certain branches of the 
Roman and British juiisprudence. This part of the professor's 
lectures was always considered as peculiarly instructive and 
gratifying. The extreme facility, the unaffected neatness, the 
classical purity with which, when presiding in the public dis- 
putations, he was accustomed to deliver his observations in 
Latin — remarkably condensed as they always were — have long 
been the admiration of the most elegant classical scholars in 
the University of Cambridge. A profound knowledge in 
di\TLnity formed another part of the character of Dr. Jowett. 

* "WTiich Lad become vacant by the death of the Rev. Christopher Atkin- 
son, brother to the Rev. Miles Atkinson, B.A., incumbent of St. Paul's, 
l^eeds, &(;, 


Perfectly orthodox in his religious sentiments, extraordinarily- 
well acquainted with the several parts of Holy Writ, sedate 
and impartial in the investigation and exposition of their 
meaning, he was an inestimable friend to the Established 
Chiirch; at the same time that the native candour of his dis- 
position led him to exercise a most exemiJary Christian charity 
towards all other religious denominations. In one word, the 
University of Cambridge, in the premature decease of Dr. 
Jowett, will have long to lament the loss of one of its most 
useful, learned, and upright members. The influence of Dr. 
Jowett, considered as a religious character, was by no means 
confined to his speculations in the closet. He exemplified the 
Christian character throughout the whole of his conduct. It is 
well known that the tender consciences of pious young persons, 
who have had the benefit of a religious education, are often 
treated with contempt and ridiciile; and that their zeal in the 
cause of religion, however im^exceptionable in its operations and 
effects, is exposed to the misrejDresentation, obloquy, and perae- 
cution of the profane and ungodly. Now it is here that the 
deceased professor, by Ms rank, his learning, and Ms modera- 
tion, and by his firmness and counsel, proved, in many instances, 
an admirable support to the oppressed, and a shield against the 
oppressor. Who dared to ridicule the preacher, to whose dis- 
coui'ses Dr. Jowett was frequently known to listen ] And how 
often has the modest, diflident youth, when derided by his com- 
panions for being over religious, silenced their profane reproaches 
by appealing to the example of Dr. Jowett ! How often have 
both young graduates and undergraduates, of a pious turn of 
mind, been kindly taken by the hand, and directed and supported 
in their Christian course by the same judicious and excellent 
person ! This part of his character may not be very generally 
known; but those who did know it, know also how extensively 
useful this species of patronage was found to be in the Univer- 
sity of Cambridge, under the accredited management and direc- 
tion of such a person as the late regius professor of civil law. 
Notwithstanding his great attainments, and his numerous occu- 
pations, the professor was rarely observed to be pressed for 
time. Exact and regular in his arrangements, temperate and 
even abstemious in his indulgences, he found the twenty-four 
houi's sufiicient for every necessary or desirable purpose of life. 
He constantly adhered to the habit of early rising — a practice 
which, he used to say, gave him plenty of time both for study 
and for bodily exercise and mental relaxation. His great talents 
enabled him to go through much lousiness with little comparative 


labour. His temper was naturally clieerful and lively; and his 
passions were at all times obedient to a systematic discipline. 
His own internal resources were so abundant, that bis spirits 
were rarely known to flag; he was not only an example of a 
person of excellent health, but of one who himself possessed 
many of the very best preservatives of good health — viz., a 
natural serenity of mind, supported and improved by a good 
conscience, and a steady hoj)e and prospect of eternal happiness, 
founded on the divine promises in Christ Jesus ; and these 
superior principles by no means excluded from the mind of Dr. 
Jowett an extraordinary relish for many innocent and rational 
enjoyments of an inferior value. Often he regaled his senses in 
admiring the beauties of nature, but oftener refreshed his intel- 
lectual faculties by perusing the best compositions both in prose 
and verse. He was passionately fond of music, and a warm 
admirer of the finest productions of the great masters in 
painting and architecture.* "Long, indeed, will this great and 
good cliaracter be remembered in tlie University of Cambridge, 
which for so many years has reaped the benefit of his uninter- 
rupted residence. The station, knowledge, and experience of 
Dr. Jowett pointed him out, in many instances, as a proper 
member of the Syndicate for the consideration of public busi- 
ness, and as an examiner of candidates for academical scholar- 
ships. In these things, the professor of civil law was jjeculiarly 
distinguished for the exercise of his industry, good sense, and 
impartiality. On the whole, though we are bound to allow 
that so learned and respectable a body as the University of 
Cambridge can have no difficulty in su]:>plying the place of Dr. 
Jowett, yet, at the same time, we believe it must be confessed 
that this excellent person will seldom be surpassed in the essen- 
tial qualifications of leai-ning, wisdom, piety, and sound prin- 

* Dr. Mansell, some time vicar of Barwick-in-Elmet, near Leeds, and after- 
wards Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Lord Bisliop of Bristol, 
whilst a Bachelor of Arts, at Cambridge, rendered himself at once famous 
and formidable by his satirical writings, and in particiilar distinguished him- 
self as the aixthor of several well-written jeux cVesprits. Dr. Jowett, of 
Trinity Hall, the late acute and judicious jsrofessor of civil law, having 
amused both himself and the public by a pretty little fairy garden, with 
narrow gi-avel walks, besprinkled with shells and pellucid pebbles, the whole 
being enclosed by a delicate Chinese railing, somewhat in the style of the 
citizen's country villa described by Lloyd, the following lines were written 
by Dr. Mansell, On the Garden of Joseph Jozoett, LL.D. :— 

" A little garden little Jowett made. 
And fenced it with a little palisade ; 
If you would know the taste of little Joicett, 
This little garden won't a little show it." 


ciples of every kind." — Tlie greater part of the above tribute of 
affection is generally supposed to have been written by the Very 
Eev. Isaac Miluer, D.D., F.R.S., Master of Queen's College, 
Cambridge, &c. — See the Christian Observer, vol. xii. ; LiJ'e of 
Isaac Milner, 1842, p. 581, &c., &c. 



"Woolstapler, of Leeds, was a member of the Society of Friends, 
and an ardent lover of everything connected Avith natural his- 
tory, and other scientific and antiquarian pursuits. He formed 
valuable collections of stuffed bii'ds and beasts, of mineralogy, 
of gold and silver coins, and of copper tokens — especially of 
those that were chiefly issued between 1786 and 1796; and of 
these last he published a descriptive work, entitled, " Birchall's 
Provincial Copper Coins or Tokens (in alphabetical order; Leeds, 
1796)", much sought after even yet by those curious in such col- 
lections. He kept up an extensive acquaintance with men of 
letters of similar pursuits in other parts of the country. He 
was boiii in 1761, and died May 17th, 1814, aged fifty-three 
years. Some of the above particulars have been kindly contri- 
buted by his gi-andson, J. D. Birchall, Esq., the eminent woollen 
merchant, of Wellington Street, Leeds. 

* — 1814. Mr. .Joseph Livslet, who for upwards of thirty-four years was 
governor of the Leeds Workhouse, and filled that important, though often 
unthankful, office with infinite credit to himself and advantage to the town, 
died January 10th, 1814, aged seventy -three years. This l^enevolent yet 
economical guardian of the poor was often visited by the philanthropic 
Howard, who wrote as follows : — " The poor of Leeds are well fed, and taken 
care of; indeed they, and the people at large, are happy in having a worth}' 
and very honest man for the governor of the workhouse, a Mr. Liasley, who 
was formerly a manufacturer in the town. His temper and disposition, as 
well as those of his wife, seem peculiarly adapted to their charge ; mildness 
and attention to the complaints of the meanest, joined with firmness of 
manner, gain the resjiect of those who are placed under their care. I am at 
the same time convinced, by his open manner in showing me the books, that 
he transacts the business of the town with rectitude and economy." He was 
attended to liis grave by a great number of the respectable inhabitants. — See 
the Leeds Mercury for January, 1814 ; and for a longer account, see also tlie 
Leeds Intelligencer, &c. 

—1814. jAJfES LucA.s, Esq., Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, 
London, died December Gth, 1814, at West House, near Ripon, aged seventy 
years. Example is never more instructive and interesting than when profes- 
sional ability is associated with private worth. Mr. Lucas was a native of 
Leeds, and his birth did honour to it. Here he s](ent tlic first and largest 
portion of liis life, and became distinguished as well for tlic einincnce of his 
surgical skill as for those general habits which raise tlie human cliaiacter, and 
render it respectaVjle in any condition of life. His practice was extensive, and 
the public confidence in him was not misplaced. There are many still livijig 



An eloquent pi-eaclier belonging to the Churcli of Eogland, and 
a zealous political writer, was born at Leeds iia 1733. His 
father, James Scott," was minister of Ti-inity church, Leeds, 
and vicar of Bardsey. He was edvicated at Bradford School, and 
admitted pensioner of Catherine Hall, Cambridge, in 1752, but 
afterwards removed to Trinity College. He took the degree of 
B.A. in 1757, and was chosen Fellow the next year. His first 
employment in the church w^as the lecturesliip of St. John's, 
Leeds, which he held till he took the degi'ee of M.A. in 1760. 
There his oratorical powers were first displayed. He had accus- 
tomed himself to composition in college, and immediately after 
his degree, he devoted his time to the study of divinity; he was 
therefore enabled to w-rite his sermons, and with so much care 
did he apply himself to the task, that he preached, after some 
corrections and additions, some of those sermons in the latter 
part of his life, which he had written at the earliest clerical 
age. His mind and heart were in his profession; for no sooner 
had he preached one sermon than he began to prepare another. 
The young encouraged his zeal with their applauses; the old 
gladdened his heart with their prayers. In 1768 he took the 
degree of B.D., and in 1775 that of D.D. He served the 
curacy of Edmonton from 1760 to 1761, after which he resided 
in college. He frequently occupied the university pulpit; and 
whenever he preached, St. Maiy's was crowded — the parts of 
the church appropi'iated to the university were also filled. 
Noblemen, bishops, heads of houses, professors, tutors, masters 
of arts, undergi-aduates, all attended St. Mary's to hear this 
celebrated jjreacher. The inhabitants of the town expressed 
the same eagerness ; for in hearing Mr. Scott, their under- 
standings were informed, and their afiections interested. The 

who can henv testimony to liis merits. From its first institution to the year 
1794, he was one of the surgeons to the Leeds General Infimiary, and contri- 
buted, by his voluntary laljours, to lay the foundation of its great and 
increasing fame. But the talents and station of many of his pupils furnish 
out his highest panegyric. — >See the Leeds Papers, &c., for December, 1814. 

* His father, the Rev. James Scott, M.A., who died in 1782 (for a notice of 
whom, see p. 145), was Fellow of University College, Oxford; afterwards 
minister of Trinity church, Leeds, for fifty-five years, and vicar of Bardsey, 
in Yorkshire ; and was also domestic chaplain to Frederick, Prince of Wales. 
He married a lady of the name of Wickham, wlio was grand-daughter to 
John Wickham, dean of York, and lineally descended from William Wick- 
ham, bishop of Winchester, who married one of the daiighters of Wilham 
Barton, bishop of Chichester, of whom the following remarkable circum- 
stance is recorded in Camden: that he had five daughters all married to 
English bishops. 


discourses usually addressed to the university are in general 
uninteresting beyond what can be conceived; the matter studi- 
ously abstruse, and the delivery of it unimpassioned and lifeless. 
Mr. Scott, therefore, deviated altogether from the usual mode 
of preaching: the subjects of liis discourses attracted attention, 
the discussion of them awakened the feelings, and the elocution 
of the preacher captivated and fascinated the hoaiy sage, the 
ingenuous youth, and the unlettered Christian.* About the 
year 1764-, Dr. Scott resided partly in London, and formed 
habits of intimacy with the fother of the late Earl of Sand- 
wich, the Earl of Halifax, and with other public characters 
who were connected with Mr. Gren\dlle's administration. 
Under their patronage he -m-ote in 1765 the letters signed 
Aiiti-Sejanus, which were published in the Public Advertiser, 
and were so popular that they raised tlie sale of the paper from 
1,500 to 3,000 a day.t In'l768 the church of St. John's, in 
Leeds, became vacant, which, as well as Trinity church, was 
built and endowed by an ancestor of Dr. Scott, who left the 
nomination to the mayor, the three senior aldermen, and the 
\icar. For this preferment he was a candidate, and had the 
votes of two of the senior aldermen: he might have obtained 
the mayor's vote also, but it must have been at the expense of 
truth and honour; in consequence of which he lost the li\-ing of 
St. John's, endowed by his ancestor (the benevolent John Har- 
rison) with lands now worth upwards of £600 a year. Being 
the popular candidate, although his opponent was a man of 
extensive learning and exemplary character; and the whole of 
that populous town, including the Dissenters of every denomi- 
nation, feeling a personal interest in his success, apprehensions 
were entertained that serious commotions would take place. 
Happily the general indignation subsided. To compensate in 
some measure for the grievous disapjiointment the town sus- 

* He once displeased the undergraduates by preaching against gaming; 
they manifested their disapprohation by scraping \v\t\\ their feet, and inter- 
rupting him in the delivery of his discourse. The next time he preached, he 
chose for his text, "Keep tliy foot when thou goest to the house of God," 
&c. ; which he no sooner pronounced than the galleries were in an iiproar; 
but the interposition of the university officers producing silence, he delivered 
a discourse so eloquent, appropriate, and impressive, as to extort universal 

T These Letters, unfortunately, were never collected ; but many of them 
were published in 1767, in a work called A Collection of Intcrcstin;i Letters. 
His intention in writing them was not so much to serve a party, as to expose 
the mischief of favouritism. He chose, therefore, the signature of Anti- 
Sejanus, Sejanus having been the great favourite of Tiberius, who advanced 
him to the highest situation in government. There are likewise some others, 
signed Philanglia, written by Dr. Scott. 


tained, Dr. Scott was urgently requested to preacli at his father's 
church ill the afternoon, when a very munificent subscription was 
made for the purpose. One inconvenience, however, arose from 
this new appointment, which was not foreseen. All the principal 
inhabitants at that time went to Trinity chui'ch, his father 
having been popular as a pi-eacher; but, that they might get to 
their seats, they were obliged, in consequence of the vast crowds 
which uniformly attended, to go when the doors were first 
ojiened, and to sit nearly an hour before the service began. An 
assembly so crowded by both rich and j^oor, by Churchmen and 
Dissenters of every denomination, so eager to hear, and so 
edified in hearing, is seldom witnessed. He continued the 
lectureship only one year. In his farewell sermon, which was 
printed, he pathetically addi'essed his hearers, whilst tears were 
trickling from every eye, — "God is my record that I have wished 
for nothing so earnestly, have prayed for nothing so fervently, 
have laboured for nothing so abundantly, as the salvation of 
your souls." In 1 769 he was earnestly importuned to resume his 
political pen, which he did under the signature of Old Sly Boots, 
and several others. These Essays were collected and published 
in a small octavo volume. Dr. Scott has often declared, upon 
his woi'd as a clergyman and a gentleman, that he never, 
during his whole political warfare, received the smallest emolu- 
ment, either pecuniary or of any other kind. He had promises 
in abundance from Lord I^orth, but they were none of them 
fulfilled. In 1771, after being presented to the rectory of 
Simouburn, in Northumberland, obtained for liim by Lord 
Sandwich, who was then First Lord of the Admii-alty, he mar- 
ried Anne, daughter of Henry Scott, Esq., and had three 
children, who died young. Dr. Scott was, as may be supposed, 
pursued with the utmost rancour and malevolence during the 
litigation which he had with his parishioners;* all which he 
bore with the utmost composure, until a desperate attempt was 
made upon his life. He then left Simonburn and went to 
London, where he resided in Park Street, Grosvenor Square, 

* It was Dr. Scott's misfortune to succeed a clergyman who was so totally 
negligent of his temporal affairs, that although he had held the living 
upwai-ds of j&fty-two years, it produced less to him at his decease than 
it did at his induction. A number of surreptitious moduses had crept in, 
which his long incumbency established; and the parishioners had been so 
accustomed to pay to the rector just what they pleased, that they looked 
upon his demands as op]-iressive and iUegal; they therefore threatened him 
that they would lay all their corn -lands down with grass, if he would not 
take what they were disposed to give him for their tithes, and he then should 
have no corn-tithe at all. After his arguments were disregarded, his persua- 
sions ridiculed, and his proposals i-ejected, he was reduced to the necessity of 



and preaclied frequently at St. George's, Hanover Square, at 
Park Street and Audley chapels. Many applications were made 
to him to preach occasional and charity sermons; and when he 
was solicited to do a favour, of whatever kind, consistent with his 
jjrinciples, he was never known to refuse. In summer he lived 
at the pleasant village of Thornton,* in the district of Craven, in 
Yorkshire; the living of which the late Sir John Kaye was so 
kind to him as to give to his curate, that he might he accom- 
modated with a house to dwell, and a church to preach in. 
Dr. Scott published ten occasional sermons,t and printed one 

claiming the titlie of agistment for barren and unprofitable cattle; and he 
accordingly filed a bill in the Coui-t of Exchequer in 1774, to substantiate his 
claim. He had two decrees in his favour, and several submissions in court; 
notwithstanding which, his parishioners would not concede to his demands, 
•which he prosecuted for more than twenty years, at the expense of nearly 
£10,000. The htigation at length was closed upon the following conditions : — 
The rector was to give up the tithe of agistment during his incumbency, 
reserving the right to his successors; and the farmers were to paj- the cost of 
the suit, amounting to upwards of £2,400 ; from which concession it is 
evident that they felt that the ground under them was giving way. The 
agistment tithe had been estimated at £2,000 a year ; the parish was 34 
miles long, about 14 broad, and 103 round. " It was a rectory of such magni- 
tude and value that, on the next presentation, it was intended to be divided 
into four, or, perhaps, into six, distinct benefices, each of which would be a 
very acceptable preferment to the divine who miglit lie so fortunate as to 
obtain it." After his death, this large and valuable rectoiy was subdivided, 
imder tlie authority of an act of j)arliameut; and the commissioners of 
Greenwich Hospital presented the Eev. David Evans, late of "Wadhani 
College, Oxford, to the principal rectory of the mother church at Simonburn, 
in reward for his long and meritorious services at sea, and as chaplain of the 
E/oyal Naval Hospital at Haslar. The offspring minor rectories adjacent, at 
£.500 a year each, were confened on the Rev. John Davis, the Eev. Evan 
Halliday, the Eev. VT. Salter, the Eev. VT. Evans, and the Rev. W. Jones, 
all chaplains in the royal navy. 

* In the parish of Thornton there were many sectaries who had an idea 
that a clergyman had not the gift of preaching, as their ministers did, extem- 
pore; he, therefore, preached to them memoriter for many years. But this, 
indeed, may be said to have been his usual mode of preaching. He generally 
took his sermon into the pulpit, but seldom looked at it ; for, being short- 
sighted, it was of little use to him ; he, on that account, invariably repeated 
it. Some previous labour was certainly requisite, but the efi'ect was aston- 

t In the line of his profession. Dr. Scott was distinguished by several 
elegant discourses. Hoio far a State of Dependence and a Sense of Gratitude 
should Injiuence our Conduct; a sermon preached before the University of 
Cambridge, January 1st, 1704. A Sermon at the Visitation at Wakefield, 
July 2.5tli, 1769; which produced a pamplilot called Remarks, kc, censuring 
the preacher for having entertained his auilieiice with a "political declama- 
tion." A Farcivcll Sermon at Trinit>j (Jhitrch, Lccd-f, November 5th, 17G9. 
Bethcsda, or the House of Mercy ; a sermon preached at tlie parish church of 
St. Nicholas, in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, July 20th, 1777, before the governors 
of the Infirmarj'. A Sermon preached at York on tlie 20th of March, 1780, 
for the benefit of tlie Lunatic Asylum. A Sermon jn-eachcd at York, in 1781; 
and A Sermon preached at Park 'Street Chapel, on AprU 19th, 1793, being the 
day appointed for a general fast. By James Scott, D.D., late Fellow of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, 4to., &c. 



for tlie benefit of his parisliioners, on The Necessity of Receiving 
the Holy Sacrament. He also published three Seatonian Prize 
Poems, &c.,'"' which exalt him high as a poet. When he left 
school, he was an admirable classical scholar; and dviring his 
whole life he continued to read the principal Greek and Latin 
authors, thereby improving his knowledge and refining his 
taste. He devoted the last three years to the revisal of some 
of his sermons for the press, intending to publish two volumes. 
As a public sj)eaker he had scarcely an equal; his voice was 
loud and harmonious; his action solemn and dignified; there 
was no appearance of vanity, no lui'e for applause; the glory of 
his Master, and the salvation of his auditors, seemed alone to 
engross his mind: it is no wonder, therefore, that in declaring 
the promises and denouncing the terrors of the Gospel, 
he produced in an unusual degree the corresponding emotions 
of comfort and alarm in the breasts of his hearers. These 
efiects have by some been ascribed to the manner rather than 
the matter, to vehement declamation rather than to genuine 
pathos. But the occasional sermons which he published evince 
the fallacy of this criticism. A sermon jDreached for the 
Lunatic Asylum at York, is conclusive evidence.t In private 

* In 1760 he far outstripped his competitors for the Seatonian prize, in a 
poem which was published under the title of Heaven : and afterwards printed 
Odes on several Subjects, 1761, 4to. ; a Spousal Hymn, or an Address to his 
Majesty on his 3Iarriage, 1761, 4to. ; Purity of Heart, a Moral Epistle, 
which gained the author a second Seatonian prize ; A Hymn to Repentance, 
1762, a third prize poem. In 1763 he published The Redemption, a Monody, 
written for the Seatonian prize, but rejected; and, in the same year, Every 
Man the Architect of his oion Fortune, or the Art of Rising in the Church, a 
Satire, in which he thus describes himself: — 

"No sly fanatic, no enthixsiast wild, 

No party-tool, beguiling and begiul'd; 

No slave to pride, no canting jjimp to power, 

No rigid Churchman, no Dissenter sour ; 

No fawning flatterer to the base and vain, 

No tiniist vile, or worshipi^er of gain ; 

When gay, not dissolute ; grave, not severe ; 

Though tera'fi, no pedant; civil, though sincere ; 

Nor mean nor haughty : be one preacher's praise, 

That — if he rise — he rise by manly ways : 

Yes, he abhors each sordid, selfish view, 

And dreads the paths your men of art pursue." 
t That discourse is to be found in Mr. Clapham's thii-d volume of Selected 
Sermons; and it may be said without offence to that gentleman, whose 
labours are very meritorious, and without injury to the characters of those 
excellent authors whose works he has selected, that Dr. Scott's sermon, as an 
oratorical composition, stands pre-eminently sujierior to the whole of the 
collection. Mr. Clapham says: "His elocution is, I think, greatly superior 
to what I have ever heard either in the pulpit or the senate; and his sermons, 
whether considered as elegant compositions or persuasive exhortations, will, 
when published, be esteemed, I doubt not, superior both to those of Blair 


life lie showed himself influenced by the principles of the 
religion he so powerfully recommended in his public addresses. 
His fortune being considerable, and his preferment lai'ge, he 
lived in a manner becoming his distinguished station, exercising 
the utmost hospitality, and singularly happy when he had his 
friends around liim, whilst his hands were always open to pubHc 
charities and to private distress. His manners were refined and 
polished, and his conversation, beyond that of most other men, 
was entertaining, interesting, and instructive. Such was Dr. 
Scott ! Whether he may be considered as a polite scholar and 
possessed of very extensive learning, as a powerful speaker and 
an eloquent writer, a chosen instrument in the hands of Pro- 
vidence to turn many to righteousness, or as an amiable member 
of society and an exemplary Christian, the Church has lost one 
of its brightest ornaments. He died December 10th, 1814, in 
Somerset Street, Portman Square, London, in the 81st year of 
his age. His entire libraiy was sold by auction, in April, 1815, 
by Messrs. Leigh and Sotheby. — For additional particulars, 
see the Gentleman' s Magazine ; the Neio Monthly Magazine; 
Darling's Cyclopcedia Bibliograjjhia ; Nichols's Literary Anec- 
dotes, vol. ix., pp. 125, 724, &c. 

Elected vicar of Leeds, December 24th, 1786, was born at 
Warrington (the only incumbent of this benefice since the pur- 
chase of the advowson, in Fascet's time, 1583, who was not a 
native of the West-Pdding of Yorkshire) ; his father, the Rev. 
John (Hadden or) Haddon, having been rector of that place, 
and his gi-andfather -vicar of Bolton, in Lancashire. He was 
educated at Brazen ose College, Oxford, and became vicar of 
Sandbach, in Cheshu-e. A gi^aceful person, a cheerfid counte- 
nance, a musical voice, the depoitment of a gentleman, and an 
invincible tranquillity of temper, while they ensured to him 
many friends, would not have left him an enemy, had not a 
firm and decided attachment to the constitution of his country 
in Chuj'ch and State, drawn down upon him at one period a 
portion of indignation from tlie rabble, who were most indebted 
to him for the lenity and forbearance which he always dis- 
played in tlie exaction of his rights. After maintaining his 
native spirits, and the peculiar elasticity of his movements, to 

and Porteus. From his occasional sermons, I could select many passages 
which would ahundautly justify the character I have given of his dis- 
courses."— ^ee GcnlUman's Magazine, vol. Ixxxi., part 2, p. i548, &c. 


his seventy-eightli year, his constitution, without any specific 
disease, began to break, and he died of a gradual decay of 
nature, Februaiy 22nd, 1815, aged eighty-two years, after being 
vicar of Leeds for upwards of twenty-eight years (the fourth 
incumbent of this benefice in a period of one hundred and 
twenty-four years).* He was also prebendary of Ripon. As 
a Christian, a scholar, and a gentleman, few have ever ranked 
higher than the late venerable and most amiable divine. — For 
further particulars, see the Leeds Intelligencer ; the New Montldy 
Magazine; Whitaker's Loidis and Elmete, &c. 
A very learned divine, the second but eldest surviving son of 
Mr. Richard Hey, of Pudsey, near Leeds, was born in July, 
1734, and when between nine and ten years of age was sent 
along with his younger brother William (see the year 1819, in 
which he died) to an academy at Heath, near Wakefield, which 
was superintended by a gentleman of highly resjiectable character 
and an eminent mathematician, Mr. Joseph Randall, who con- 
ducted it upon a large and liberal, though somewhat expensive, 
plan (the Rev. Dr. Dodgson, afterwards Bishop of Elphin, and 
the Rev. Mr. Sedgwick, afterwards head-master of the Free 
Grammar School at Leeds, being classical tutoi-s). When 
seventeen years of age, in 1751, he went to the University of 
Cambridge, where he was admitted of Catherine Hall, and he 
continued a member of that college till 1758, when he removed 
to a Fellowship in Sidney Sussex College; of which college he 
continued a member till he quitted the university in 1795. 
Before he was twenty-one years of age, he had taken his degree 
of B.A. of Catherine Hall; and when twenty-four his degree of 
M.A. of Sidney Sussex College. He took the degree of B.D. 
in 1765, and D.D. in 1780. But in 1775 he performed his 
exercise for his Doctor's degree, in which he gave (says his 

* The following list is extracted from the parish records : — 

The Rev. John Killingbeck, chosen vicar of the parish of Leeds in 1690; 
died Februai-y 12th, 1715, aged sixty-six. — See p. 123, &c. 

The Rev. Joseph Cookson, chosen vicar in 1715, died February 20th, 1746, 
aged sixty-five. — See p. 158, &c. 

The Rm. Dr. Kirshmv, chosen 1751, died November 1st, 1786, aged eighty; 
■whose unsullied purity of morals, unremitted charity, and most exemplary 
zeal and fidelity in the discharge of all the sacred duties of his profession, 
deservedly had gained him the universal esteem of all ranks of liis numerous 
parishioners. — See p. 183, &c. 

The Rev. Peter Haddon, chosen 1786, died February 22nd, 1815, aged 
eighty-two, sincerely esteemed and lamented by almost every individual in his 
extensive parish. According to the New Monthly Magazine for April, 1815, 


brother Richaixl) an instance of that mode of disputation which 
is not usual, and is called a "public act." He was a tutor of 
Sidney Sussex College from 1760 to 1779, and he was one of 
the 2^reachei-s of his Majesty's chapel at Whitehall. Lord 
Maynard offered him the rectory of Passenham, in Northamp- 
tonshire, near Stony Stratford, which he accepted, and immedi- 
ately vacated his Fellowship in Sidney Sussex College. Not 
long afterwards he obtained the adjoining rectory of Calverton, 
in Buckinghamshire, by exchange for one offered to him by the 
Earl of Clarendon, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. On 
these two li\-ings he bestowed assiduous pastoral care; the small 
extent of the whole, and the thin population, enabling him to 
attend to every distinct family in both parishes. From the time 
of his obtaining Passenham till about five months before his 
death, his ordinary residence was there, except the time which 
the duties of his professorship recpiired him to spend at Cam- 
bridge. In 1780 he was elected the first Norrisian professor of 
divinity in the university. In 1785, and again in 1790, the 
professorship became vacant, by the will of the founder, Mr. 
Norris, and he was each time re-elected. In 1795 he ceased to 
be pi'ofessor — being too old, by the will, to be re-elected, and 
having declined to vacate the professoi'ship in 1791, in order to 
be re-elected within the prescribed age. When tutor in Sidney 
College, he gave lectures on morality, which were attended by 
several persons voluntarily (amongst whom were the great 
statesman, Mr. Pitt, and other persons of rank), besides those 
pupils whose attendance was required. These lectures on 
morality have not been printed; but Ms Lectures on Divinity 
are before the public, having been printed at the university 
press, 1796-1798, and published in four octavo volumes. 
These lectures have passed thi'ough three editions ; the last 
edition, published in 1811, was edited by Bishop Thomas 
Turton, of Ely.* Dr. Arnold says of this work — " I like no 
book on the Articles altogether; but Hey's Divinity Lectures at 
Cambridge seem to me to be the best and fairest of any that I 
know." And Bishop Kaye says of the author — "Dr. John 

"The king had Dot a more loyal subject, the Established Church a more firm 
and consistent minister, or the poor a more benevolent friend." Of him it 
may most truly be said : — " Omnibus iUe flehiUa occidit." 

* These exquisite discourses may boast of the singular honour of having 
sen-ed as the mother's milk to many a babe in divinity, and of having given 
a just bias to the opening thoughts of many a worthy pillar of the Church, 
and many an upright son of truth and orthodoxy. When flowing from the 
mouth of their pious and impressive deliverer, what ear but hung in rai)ture 
on the sound ! 


Hey was one of the most acute, most impartial, and most 
judicious divines of modern times." He also published Seven 
Sermons at diUerent times; and a Poem on Redemption, which 
gained Seaton's prize in the university, 1763; Discourses on the 
Malevolent Sentiments, in one volume, in 1801. In the year 
1811 he printed, without publishing, General Observations on 
the Writings of St. Paul. In 1814 he divested himself of the 
whole of his ecclesiastical prefei'ment, which was merely the 
two livings before mentioned. He removed to London in 
October; having resigned the li-\dng of Calverton at Lady-day, 
and Passenham on the 10th of October. From that time he 
contimxed in London until his death ; growing feeble in body, 
till, without painful disease, he sunk iinder that feebleness; 
retaining to the last a soundness of mind, and giving, to eveiy 
business that came before him, a remarkable degree of that per- 
severing attention which had evidently been with him a matter 
of strict duty through a long coui'se of years. Had a mitre 
been placed on his head (which was at least once, from good 
authority, understood to be highly probable), he appeared likely 
to have discharged the duties imposed by it with the same 
steady and principled perseverance. He died on the 17th of 
Mai-ch, 1815, aged eighty years, and was interred in the 
burying-ground of St. John's chapel, St. John's Wood, in the 
parish of Marylebone, London, in which parish he died. — A 
short Memoir of this worthy and eminent man appeared in 
the Literary Meonoirs of Living Authors, published in 1798; in 
the Gentleman's Magazine for April, 1815, p. 371, &c.; in Rose's 
Biographical Dictionary, &c. See also Darling's Gyclopcedia 
Bihliographia ; Lowndes's Bihliograi^her' s Manual, &c. 


Master of the Leeds Charity (or Blue Coat) School for twenty- 
six yeai'S, was born on the 30th of November, 17-47, and died 
April 22nd, 1815, aged sixty-eight. He enriched almost every 

* —1816. The Kev. Thomas Goodinge, LL.D., formerly of St. John's 
CoUege, Oxford, and for twelve years head-master of the Leeds Free 
Grammar School, which he resigned in 1790; afterwards rector of Cound, 
near Shrewsbuiy (which is worth above a tliousand a year), died July 2nd, 
181G. His predecessor, the Re\\ Samuel Brooke, AT. A., formerly rector of 
Gamston, Notts, was elected head-master of the Leeds Grammar School in 
1764, and died September 8th, 1778. He was distinguished for the point and 
neatness of his epigrams in Latin and English. — There was another Rev. 
Samuel Brooke, LL.D., minister of St. John's church, Leeds; appointed 
Februai-y 17th, 1717 ; died in 1731, and was interred in the churchyard of 
Birstal, near Leeds. He was also rector of St. Alphage, London ; prebendary 


periodical publication in mathematics for nearly half a century, 
and was justly admired for his problems and demonstrations.* 
He was also editor of the '■'•Leeds Correspondent ; a Literary, 
Mathematical, and Philosophical Miscellany," 2 vols., 1815. He 
also compiled a History of Leeds and the neighbouring villages, 
published in 1808. The Leeds Charity School, of which he 
was master, was originally established about the year 1705, by 
means of a subscription, for the maintenance and education of 
forty poor cliildren in the prmciples of the Established Church, 
and instructing them in reading, writing, and arithmetic, to 

of York ; and was a candidate for the vicarage of Leeds in March, 1715-16, 
together with the Rev. Jlr. Cookson. — His successor was the E,ev. Joseph 
Whiteley, M.A. 

The Rev. Joseph "Whiteley, M.A. ( — 1815), late of Magdalene College, 
Cambridge ; head-master of the Leeds Free Gi-ammar School ; vicar of 
Lastingham, in the North-Riding, and domestic chaplain to the Earl of Hare- 
wood, died May 8th, 1815. Dmiug his residence in Cambridge University, he 
was gi-eatly distinguished for the exceUeuce of his theological compositions, 
by which he gained no less than seven of the Norrisian prizes between 1781 
and 1789. He was incumbent of Beeston from 1784 to 1789, and was head- 
master of the Leeds Grammar School from 1790 to 1815. In the death 
of Mr. Whiteley, a disconsolate widow and numerous family had to deplore 
the loss of a tender husband and an affectionate father; his profession, a 
sound divine, and an excellent writer ; and society, one of its members, who 
possessed in an eminent degree that equanimity of temper and suavity of 
deportment, which, while they heighten the enjoyment of social intercourse, 
endear the departed to the memory of his surviving friends. Some of his 
sermons and Nori'isian jirize essays were published after his death, entitled, 
Essays on Revelation, kc. See Gentleman's Mayazine for Jime, 1815, p. 541, 
&;c. He was succeeded by the Rev. George Page Richards, M.A., Fellow of 
King's College, Cambridge. 

— 1816. Alexaxder Turnt:r, Esq., a justice of the peace for the borough 
of Leeds, died July 24th, 1816, in his sixty -fifth year. He twice filled the 
office of chief magistrate ; during his first mayoralty (1793), he was amongst 
the foremost to give his effective aid to that grand system of voluntary 
defence which spread through the country with one general and spontaneous 
burst of patriotism. He was a man of such amiable disposition, so mild, so 
good, so conciliating, so humane, that all loved and honoxu-ed him. In the 
exercise of his piivate and public duties, the fell i>assions of hatred and 
malice stood appalled before his all-benignant smile. On the bed of lingering 
sickness, and even in the hour of dissolution, his placid resignation to the 
Divine ^vill shone, if possible, mth increasing lustre. Amidst their regret for 
the loss of excellence so rare, most ti'uly indeed might his surviving relatives 
and friends indulge the pleasing reflection, that, as far as mortal could jiass 
througli this troublesome world without an enemy, it was tlie lot of him now 
departed. For those of our readers who are fond of brevity on these melan- 
choly occasions, we may sum uj) such a character in very few words : — In liim 
were strikingly combined the upright magistrate, the genuine patriot, and the 
good Samaritan. — See the Leeds Intelligencer, &c., for July, 1816. 

* Without the jiolish of the accomplished scholar, ]\ir. John (Riley, or) 
Ryley had a soundness of judgment, and a quickness of perception in mathe- 
matical knowledge, that desei-vedly ranked him one of its first i)rofessors. 
Possessed of these high attainments be souglit not temporal honours or 
advancement, but closed a useful and honourable life with humble, i)iou3 
resignation. — See the Leeds Intelli'jencer, kc, for April, 1815. 


qualify them for trade. The school was kept in a building 
which had formei'ly been used as a workhouse, till 1726, when 
a chapel belonging to Harrison's Hospital, and adjoining to St. 
John's churchyard, was converted into a school for the purposes 
of this charity ; at the same time the number of children was 
increased, the practice of maintaining them was discontinued, 
and the charity was limited to the purposes of clothing and 
education.^' In ISlo, on the death of its last master (Mr. John 
Ryley), this school was converted into an institution for clothing 
and bringing up gii'ls, not less than twelve years of age, as house 
servants; and the funds ai-e applied to supply eighty girls (now 
forty) with clothing, and instructing them in all necessaiy 
things to fit them for domestic service. On the alteration of 
the charity, a new school-house was erected on the site of the 
former, at a cost of .£1,000 and upwax-ds. The revenue of this 
charity, arises from the dividends on stock in the public funds, 
and from the rent of houses and lands enumei-ated in the report; 
and the total income of the charity amounts to about .£400 a 
year. The girls are under the care of the mistress and assistant, 
who are allowed stipends of £60 and £27 a year respectively. 
The clothing, &c., is supplied by the mistress, and her disburse- 
ments are rejiaid by the trustees. — See the Leeds Intelligencer 
for February, 1827; Parsons' History of Leeds, &c. 


A member of the Society of Friends, and for twenty-five years 
a physician to the Leeds General Infinnary, died at his house in 
Park Place, Leeds, on the 12th of February, 1817. Dr. Walker 
was born about 1746 of highly respectable parents at Bradford, 
and received the first rudiments of his education at the Free 
Grammar School there. He was afterwards placed under the care 
of David Hall, of Skipton (a Quaker of considerable learning and 
talents), pi'eviously to commencing his professional studies at 
Edinburgh. Hei'e his unceasing application and industiy, in 
acquiring a thorough knowledge of the theoretical learning of 
his profession, were not less remarkable than his anxiety and 
solicitude, when in extensive practice, to render his studies of 
use to posterity; having with great labour and assiduity com- 
piled many manuscript volumes of notes and observations upon 
the numerous and difficult cases in which he was consulted. In 
his practice (which was founded chiefly on the principles of 

* John Lucas, ■who died in July, 1750, and Thomas Wilson, his successor,, 
both masters of tliis school, were zealoiis £vnd industrious antiquaries^ 


Cullen, Gregory, and Black), he displaj'ed a praiseworthy inde- 
pendence of the inferior branches of the profession; and his 
brother physicians, who were in the habit of attending patients 
along with him, bore ample testimony to his liberality, and 
freedom from mercenary influence. He originally commenced his 
professional career at Hull, where his success was so great as to 
afford him the means of supporting a i-espectable establishment 
in the short space of one year. His removal to Leeds (owing to 
the state of his wife's health), though at first calculated to 
retard his progress, may be considered to ha^-e been eventually 
a fortunate circumstance, by its ha\ing opened a wider field for 
the exertion of his talents. He was quickly elected a physician 
of the General Infirmaiy there, to the duties of which situation 
he paid unwearied attention dm-ing a space of twenty-five 
years, though the greater pai-t of the time engaged with an 
extensive practice; and in a pecuniary point of view he was a 
truly liberal benefactor to that institution. In early life he 
pursued his natural talent for poetry as a favourite recreation — 
some beautiful specimens of which were occasionally presented 
to his friends ; and his love of classical and polite literature was 
eminently conspicuous during his whole life. In his political 
sentiments he was unquestionably loyal ; although ever averse to 
controversy on this subject, especially in public, yet to his inti- 
mate friends he was known to j^ossess sincere attachment to the 
constitution and liberties of his country, unbiassed by prejudice 
or party. He published an Essay on the Mineral Waters of 
Harrogate and Tliorp-Arch, in 1784, 8vo.* The public at large 
sincerely regretted the loss of his professional talents; while his 
relations and friends long lamented his social and endearing 
virtues, and with a melancholy pleasure recalled to mind the 
instructive lessons of justice and morality, which his enlightened 
conversation was accustomed to instil. Mary, his widow,t and 

* ITie basis, being his medical thesis at Edinburgh ; and some letters on 
medical subjects between Dr. Walker and Dr. Lettsom, will be found in the 
third volume of Mr. PettigreVs Life of Dr. Lettsom. 

f Their eldest daughter, Mary, maixied Thomas Jowitt, Esq., of Eltofts, 
but soon died, leaving issue. Their surviving daughter, Margaret, was 
married to the late William Leatham, Esq., of Heath, near Wakefield, and thus 
became the mother of — 1. John Arthington Leatham, Esq., barrister-at-law, 
who died, unmarried, in May, 18.")7 : 2, William Henry Leatham, Esq.. J.P. 
(author of a volume of Poems), who has kindly contributed a portion of this 
S/cctck, })orn in July, 1815; married, February 21st, 18:W, Priscilla, daughter 
of the late Samuel Gumey, Esq., of West Ham, Essex, and has surviving 
issue— Samuel Gurney, bom in December, 1840; WiUiam Henry, in 1844; 
Edmund Ernest, in 1847; Charles Alfred, in 1849; Gerald Artliur Buxton, in 
1851 ; Herbert Barclay, in 1852 ; Octavius, in 18.54 ; Claude, in 18.50 ; 
3, Joshua Walker Leatham, who died an infant in 1817 : 4, Margaret 


last surviving daughter of the late John Arthington, Esq., one 
of the founders of the Leeds Old Bank, died at her house in 
Park Place, Leeds, after several years of severe bodily suffering, 
April 19th, 1821, in the sixty-ninth year of her age. — For 
additional particulars, see the Leeds Papers; the New Monthly 

Magazine, &c. 



A young man of very distinguished talents, and of great 
poetical genius, was born at Gomersal, near Leeds, in 1798, 
brother to C. J. Knowles, Esq., an eminent barrister on the 
Northern Circuit, and Q.C He vk^as educated in the Grammar 
School at Richmond, and destined for the ledger at Livei-- 
pool. He is greatly lauded by P. Montgomery in The Christian 
Life. He died at Gomersal, February 17th, 1817, at the 
early age of nineteen, after having, by his talents as a poet, 
gained the patronage of several of the most distinguished men 
of the age. He left behind him a manuscript volume of poems, 

EUzabeth, married, June lOth, 1847, to John Bright, Esq., M.P., of One 
Ash, Rochdale: 5, Mary Walker, married to Joseph Giu-ney Barclay, Esq., 
of Lombard Street, London ; died lin 1848, leaving issue : 6, Charles Albert, 
who married Miss Rachael Pease, of Southeud, Darlington, and died in 1858, 
leaving issue : 7, Edward Aldam Leathani, Esq., M.A., M.P., author of Char- 
mione, &c., born in 1828; married, in 1851, Mary Jane, only daughter of 
John Fowler, Esq., of Elm Grove, Melksham. Their motto is " Virtute 
vinces"— by virtue thou shalt conquer, &c. — See Burke's Landed Gentry, &c. 
* — 1817. Mr. Cummins, a veteran and resjiectable performer of the Leeds, 
Hidl, and York theatres, died on Friday evening, June 20th, 1817, aged sixty- 
two. His death was awfully sudden, —while performing the character of 
Dumont in the tragedy of Jane Shore, he dropped down dead on the stage of 
the Leeds theatre, having just repeated the benedictory words : — 
"Be witness for me, ye celestial hosts ! 
Such mercy, and such pardon, as my soul 
Accords to thee, and begs of Heaven to show thee ; 
May such befall me, at my latest hour ! " 

This melancholy event gave an awful stop to the perfonnances of the evening, 
and every one departed with feelings not easily to be described. Although 
Mr. Cummins himself, and all his most intimate connections, had been aware 
that his dissolution must be sudden, such an exit could not fail to excite 
feelings, which on a similar occasion were strongly depicted through the 
audience and public press, when Mr. Palmer died on the Liverpool stage 
of a similar disease (ossification of the heart). Mr. Palmer died exclaiming — 
" There is another and a better world !" For more than forty years had Mr. 
Cummins been esteemed most universally in his profession. A correspondent 
thus feelingly contemplated his sudden demise: — " Quis nostrum tam auimo 
agresti ac duro fuit, ut Roscii morte nuper non commovetur?" — Cicero. On 
the Sunday evening following, the mortal remains of this highly esteemed 
cliaracter were interred in St. John's churchyard, Leeds ; Mr. Fitzgerald and 
Miss Cummins were movirners ; the whole theatrical corps attended, the con- 
course of people was immense, and all seemed to sympathize deeply at the 
melancholy event. — See the Leeds Papers for June, 1817; the New Monthly 
Magazine; the Oentleman's Magazine, &c. 


the earliest of which were published in the Literary Gazette for 
1824. His Three Tabernacles ; or, Methinks it is good to he 
here, &c., written in Richmond churchyard, Yorkshu-e, is a 
fine composition, and is well known. Little was wanting, under 
God, to his well-doing, both at school and at the viniversity, but 
health. The lamp was consumed by the fire which burned in it. 
— See Carlisle's History of Endowed Grammar Schools; the 
Gentleman's Magazine ; Nichols's Literary lllvbstrations ; 
Schroeder's Annals of Leeds, &c. 

An eminent surgeon of Leeds, was born at Pudsey, on the 3rd 
of September, 1736, and was the second son of Mr. Richard 
Hey, a diysalter in that village. His mother was the daughter 
of Jacob Simpson, surgeon, of Leeds, and grand-daughter of 
William Simpson, M.D., of Wakefield. Their other sons were 
all distinguLshed by their abilities. The eldest, the Rev. John 
Hey, D.D., became the first Norrisian professor in the Univer- 
sity of Cambridge. The third son, the Rev. Samuel Hey, M.A., 
was rector of Steeple Ashton, in Wiltsliire; and the fourth was 
Richard Hey, LL.D., barrister-at-law, and author of several 
ingenious publications. When William Hey was about four 
years old, he lost the use of his right eye, by a wound received 
fi-om a penknife, whilst cutting a piece of string. At the age of 
seven years he was sent to an academy at Heath, near Wakefield, 
conducted by Mr. Joseph Randall ; and with the Rev. Dr. 
Dodgson, afterwards Bishop of Elphin, and the Rev. R. Sedge- 
wicke, afterwards head-master of the Free Grammar School at 
Leeds, as classical tutors. During the seven years that he 
remained at this school, he applied himself to his studies with 
great diligence and industry, and thus acquired a vast amount 
of useful knowledge.* At the age of fourteen years he was 

* He displayed a great love of learning and science, wliicli increased with 
his years, and was conspicuous through every subsequent period of his life. 
The assiduous care of the parents of "William Hey to form his moral character 
was eminently successful ; he was never known to ixtter a falsehood, and such 
was his dutiful and affectionate regard to them, that liis sister cannot recollect 
his having been ever accused of a single act of disobedience to his father 
or mother. But the instructions of these woithy persons did not terminate 
in teaching lum a sacred regard to trutli in Iiis words, fidelity and uprightness 
in his conduct, and the duty of checi-ful obedience to themselves; they incul- 
cated, both by precept and example, the important obligations of religion, 
the fear of God, tlie importance and advantage of public worship and of private 
devotion ; and so strongly was his mind impressed by their injunctions on the 
subject of tliis duty, tliat on no occasion would lie tolerate the omission of it. 
Habits of piety, formed thus early, lost none of their beneficial influence with 


apprenticed to Mr. Dawson, a surgeon and apothecary at Leeds, 
eminent for his knowledge of Mr. Ray's botanical system, which 
had not then been superseded by the genius of Linnaeus. He 
served his time with great credit to himself, and to the satisfac- 
tion of his mastei'. During this time he was most assiduous in 
the studies connected with his profession, and was particularly 
remarkable for temperance, industry, and piety. In the autumn 
of 1757 he went to London to complete his professional educa- 
tion. During the whole winter he seldom employed less than 
twelve hours daily in the lecture and dissecting-rooms, and thus 
he was enabled to acquire a thorough and practical knowledge of 
anatomy, for which he was in later life so greatly distinguished, 
as it rendered his operations so generally successful. He became 
a pupil at St. George's Hospital, under William Bromefield, 
Esq. Early in 1759, he attended the lectures of Dz-. Mackenzie 
on Midwifery; and early in April of the same year, he returned 
to Leeds to enter iipon his practice as a surgeon and apothecary, 
but for several years his progress in gaining business was very 
slow. On the 30th of July, 1761, Mi\ Hey married Alice, the 
second daughter of JNIr. Robert Banks, a gentleman of Craven, 
in Yorkshire, by whom he had a numerous family; three sons 
and one daughter died in adult age, yet befoi'e their father: 
" Memoi'able," says Whitaker, "no less for the happiness of 
their deaths than the shortness of their lives, and very unlike 
the last generation of theii* family, whose longe\'ity was equally 
remarkable." After the establishment of the Leeds General 
Infirmary, he was appointed one of the surgeons, and in 
November, 1773, became the senior surgeon of the institu- 
tion. Three or four years before this time he commenced a 
friendly intercourse with the celebrated Dr. Priestley, who 
then resided at Leeds, and the two together conversed with 
the greatest freedom and harmony on philosophical subjects ; 
but on theological matters there was much difference of opinion 
between them, though not sufficient to sever their friendship, 
which remained steadfast for many years. On the recom- 
mendation of Dr. Priestley, Mr. Hey was, in the year 1775, 
elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. In the year 1778, 
Mr. Hey had the misfortune to receive a kick from his horse, 

his advancing years; his adult age was distinguished by self-government, 
temperance, purity, and a conscientious regard to his several duties ; and over 
his more mature and declining years the power of religion shed a bright and 
increasing influence, which actuated and adorned every subsequent period of 
his life, and conducted him through those various scenes of iiseful exertion, 
which procured for him a just veneration while living, and crowned his 
memory with honour. — See Pearson's Life of William Hey, pp. 4-6. 


whicli threatened for a time to terminate his professional 
labours ; lie then stood veiy high as an operating surgeon, and 
had a large practice. By this accident his leg was permanently- 
injured, so that till his death he was never able to walk without 
the aid of a crutch ; he was then obliged to pay his professional 
visits in a carriage. On the formation of a Leeds Philosophical 
Society in 1783, Mr. Hey became president, and read many 
valuable papers to the members. In 1786 he was elected an 
alderman of the borough of Leeds ; and in the following year 
was ajDpointed mayor. He was again elected mayor in 1802. 
In the spring of 1800, he gave a course of twelve anatomical 
lectures at the Leeds Infirmary; the clear profits of the course, 
which amounted to X27 6s., were given to the institution. In 
1803 he gave a second course, and presented the profits (forty 
guineas) to the Infirmary. In 180-5 he gave a third course, by 
which the institution gained £45 7s. In the year 1809 he gave 
a foiu-th and last course, the subject dissected being a woman of 
atrocious character (Mary Bateman). A great many people 
attended these last lectures, and the profits Mr. Hey also pre- 
sented to the institution, amounting to £80 lis. On October 7th, 
1812, he resigned his oflice of surgeon to the Leeds Infirmary, 
which he had held about forty-five years, thirty -nine of which 
he had been senior surgeon ; on the follo"wing day, his son 
William was unanimously elected to the oflice vacated by the 
resignation of his father. Aji address of thanks was presented 
to him by the trvistees, beautifully engraved on vellum, and 
ornamented with a vignette of the Infii-mary; and also inserted 
in each of the Leeds papers. (For a copy of which, see 
Mayhall's Annals of Leeds, kc, page 272.)* Mr. Hey highly 

* "To portraj' the cliaracter of this inestimable man is," according to the 
Leeds Mercury ioT Islwcch, 1819, "a task of much difficulty; and is rendei-ed 
so by the deep regret which his loss occasions, as well as by the variety of 
estimable traits in his mind and life, which equally attract admiration, and 
press in upon the memoiy. "Where the numerous virtues of a good man, 
testified in every department of his life, alike reflect honour upon himself 
and benefit to his fellow-men, we scarcely know which to prefer, or in what 
succession his several characteristics should be viewed. He was eminently a 
public man ; he acted in many capacities in relation to liis fellow-to^^^lsmen, 
to the members of his profession, and to his country; and, in all these 
capacities, the faculties of his mind and the disposition of his heart raised 
Lim to an honourable elevation, which we may justly fear wUl long remain 
unequalled. The soundness of his judgment, and the force of his genius, 
were aided by profound science, bj' long experience, and l)y acute observation. 
He was an ardent admirer of nature, and entliusiasticallj' devoted to liis pro- 
fession, whose eveiy branch he studied with patient and unremitting research. 
These secured to him that rare emmencc which he attained as a medical man, 
and enabled him to dispense the greatest of blessings to thousands of his 
fellow-creatures. His sur'dcal skUl is well known to have been consummate : 


deserved those laudations. His intellectual powers were of 
a high order. He was capable of profound investigation; 
was acute in discovei'ing the difference of things ; patient 
and diligent in his researches. His chirurgical writings, 
especially his Observations on the Blood, published in 1799, 
evince a strong, comprehensive, and enlightened view of the 

it was founded on accnrate anatomical science, and perfected by the extent of 
his practice. His Ohservatio7iS on Surgery and his Treatise on the Blood are 
works of sterling merit ; they are the best, and will he a permanent attesta- 
tion of his proficiency in every branch of his profession. The fame of his 
medical abilities was not confined to the sphere of their operation : it spread 
fai', and gained him many honours in the abodes of science, with the estima- 
tion and friendship of those who were its ablest supporters. Such was Mr. 
Hey in his profession, and as such he will be deeply dejjlored. He moved, 
also, in the capacity of a magistrate; and though here liis exertions were 
necessarily more limited, his objects were constantly laudable, and were 
admirably effected by the vigour and activity of his mind and habits. He 
followed no beaten track of established negligence ; justice unljiassed, and 
religion imfeigned, were his guides; he reformed many ci-ying abuses, re- 
pressed as much as possible every species of immorality, and promoted the 
interests of piety and benevolence, not only by his official authority, but by 
the influence of his example. His reformations raised him some enemies, of 
a species which every good man, active in discouraging vice, is sure to obtain, 
and of which he need not be ashamed. But the town will remember his 
undaunted perseverance in the course he adopted, and will acknowledge its 
benefits. His virtues as a man are displayed in their sui-est test — his life and 
practice. The noblest institution of our town — the General Infirmary — was 
raised, in a great measixre, by his benevolent exertions, and has grown almost 
to perfection under his auspices. For nearly half a centui-y he regularly 
and assiduoiisly supported it by his talents; and by none will he be regretted 
more justly than by the officers and friends of that institution, who have been 
accustomed, from their first connection with it, to regard him as the founder, 
the active and judicious supporter, of its interests. The religious and 
benevolent institutions of the town found in him a zealous and unwearied 
friend. He was ever foremost in disseminating among the ignorant the 
invaluable blessings of that Book which was his deUght and his guide ; and 
to enable the poor to acquire its benefits, he steadily supported that excellent 
institution which dispenses to them the advantages of mutual instruction in 
a manner so effectual, so liberal, and so generous. The Bible Society and the 
Lancasterian School may mourn the loss of their venerable friend. Mi-. Hey, 
in all his concerns, was cautious and prudent, yet decisive. He coolly 
deliberated, then fu-mly resolved. Through all his actions the vital principles 
of Christianity beamed ; the fear of God was the foundation of his wisdom ; 
and that wisdom, thus founded, matured with his age. His mind, till the 
very time of liis last illness, had the vigour and acuteness of youth ; unim- 
paired in the slightest degree, it appeared as strong as his excellent constitu- 
tion. It was a cheering, a consoling sight, to view so admirable a specimen 
of the mental and bodily powers of humanity, entering the vale of years, 
with a mien so unshattered by laborious service, with faculties so perfect, 
with an aspect rendered so venerable and dignified by the honours and 
experience of fourscore years. It is such a man whose sudden extinction we 
have to lament ; and we regi-et the portrait we are enabled to give of him is 
so imperfect ; biit his life stands an exemplar, worthy to be admired and 
imitated. Mi-. Hey was born in 1736, and is the fourth member of his father's 
family whose life has been terminated in the eighty-third year; two of his 
brothers and one sister haviug attained, without surpassing, that age." 


subjects which he xindertook to illustrate, and are very valuable 
to the faculty. In the exercise of his profession he was inde- 
fatigable; in its attainments eminently distinguished. In domes- 
tic life he was kind, tender, and afi'ectionate ; as a magistrate, 
just, legal, and conscientious. Through Kfe he was remarkable 
for sobriety and temj)erance, united ^vith wisdom and Christian 
piety.* At the age of eighty-two, his eyesight was remarkably 
good, so that he could read and write in a good light without 
spectacles ; and his handwriting was firm and distinct, without 
any of those irregularities which denote a tremuloiis pen. His 
hearing was vexy acute ; and his vocal powers, although much 
diminished, were agreeable. Tlie distinctness of his concej)tions, 
the soiindness of his judgment, his orderly and correct mode of 
thinking, and his facility of conveying his notions with perspi- 
cuity, copiousness, and fluency, did not appear to have suifered 
any diminution. t This eminent man died on Tixesday, the 23rd 

* Mr. Hey seems to have been by nature thoughtful and serious; and 
having in his early days unquestionably seen much to lament in the state of 
doctiine as well as practice among the members and even ministers of the 
Established Church, and the Methodists having recently commenced their 
laboiu's, Mr. Hey was induced to unite with that society. But he soon became 
dissatisfied mth their apparent conformity, and at one of then- public con- 
ferences he obtained leave from Mr. "Wesley, whose host at Leeds he had 
always been,' to read a memorial on the subject. Mr. AVesley, however, cut 
short the recitation, with a promise that, when a convenient oi>portimity 
arrived, the reader should be heard out ; but the opportunity never arrived. 
Mr. Hey had alwaj's the deepest veneration for the Chiu-ch of England, 
together with a dread of what he thought schism, and on these grounds 
wholly withdrew from a society whose prmciples of church government he 
could not espouse. From this period of his life Mi-. Hey continued a regular 
and conscientious member of the Church, without any abatement of rational 
zeal or steady orthodoxy. About this time he became acquainted with 
Dr. Priestley, then a Unitarian minister in Leeds, whom he assisted in his 
philosophical pursuits, while he steadily counteracted the mischiefs then 
spreading in the town from the heterodoxy of the latter, expressed too boldly 
both in his sermons and pamphlets. Of this celebrated man, Mr. Hey was 
wont to speak as possessing two understandings— the one philosophical, the 
other theological ; or, rather, as conducting one and the same understanding 
in opposite ways, according to the application which he made of it. The 
acquaintance of Mr. Hey with Dr. Priestley was the means of inducing the 
former to publish two treatises, one On the Atonement, and the other On the 
Divin itii of Christ, wluch have lieen j^roductive of immense good in this part 
of the country, and wluch, it is to be regretted, are not more frequently 
perused at the j)resent day. He also published, in the Gentleman's Mayazine, 
some papers on Subscription to the Thirty-nine Articles, of which it is not 
necessaiy to speak. 

t Mr. Hey was afflicted by a lameness for more than twenty years of the 
latter part of his life, which precluded the possibility of his visiting his 
patients except in a caniage. Upon tliis subject one of his Ijiograjihers says, — 

This apparent misfortune, by his wise economy of time, was converted into 
a suT)stuntial blessing, as by the strength and steadiness of his remaining eye 
(for be had one only, though of great lustre), he was enabled to read in a 
carriage without intemiption upon the roughest roads; while, by another 


of March, 1819, full of honours, and at the advanced age of 
eighty-three. On the foHowing Saturday, he was buried at St. 
Paul's church, Leeds. His funeral was attended by a great 
number of his friends and fellow-townsmen : and a funeral 
sermon was preached on the following day by his friend aud 
highly-respected pastor, the Rev. Miles Jackson, in the chui-ch 
of St. Paul, where Mr. Hey had been a constant attendant on 
divine worship since its consecration in 1793. The death of 
Mr. Hey was an event deeply felt aud sincerely lamented 
throughout the borough of Leeds.* A volume of his Tracts 

felicity, that as lie had friends always happy to attend him on these occasions 
iot the benefit of his conversation, he was always ready to resume even a 
difficult argument, on his return to his carriage, precisely at the point where 
it had been broken off." On these occasions, whether thus accom2)anied or 
not, the Bible was his inseparable companion ; and his example may prove a 
very useful fact, namely, how much both of knowledge and piety, amidst the 
labours of a toilsome profession, a man may gain who resolves never to lose a 
moment. About the year ISOO, Mr. Hey was of singular use to the Established 
Church, by promoting, with great activity, and at a considerable expense, the 
erection of a new church at Leeds, which was designed for the late lienevolent 
and pious Mr. Atkinson, who became the instrument of gathering and retain- 
ing in his own communion multitudes of serious persons, who otherwise 
■would have remained attached to the world. But he did more : by his 
affectionate and faithful instructions he prepared them for a better and 
higher communion. 

* The following character of "William Hey, Esq., F.R.S., one of the brightest 
names which has i^robably ever yet adorned this ancient and populous town, 
was given by the Leeds Intelligencer : — "With regard to the professional 
talents and character of Mr. Hey, it would be as presumptuous as it is 
unnecessary for us to speak, ajipreciated as they have been for so great a 
numV)er of years, not only in the extensive sphere of his own practice, but by 
most of the eminent medical authorities of the day ; and recognized as Avell 
by those unsolicited honours conferred on him at home and abroad, as by the 
offers of higher distinctions which he not only declined, but, with a modesty 
peculiar to himself, was as sedulous to conceal, as less elevated minds would 
have been anxious to display. His i^rofessional eminence was not the result 
of fortunate circumstances or extraoi'dinary patronage, but was built on the 
solid foundation of profound knowledge, developed in long practice and 
experience. To the qualifications necessary to his particular pursuits, he 
added various other literary attainments, as deep as they were extensive. As 
a linguist, both with regard to the dead as well as modern tongues, he was of 
the first order ; while his philosophical knowledge and acquirements associated 
him in many important pursuits and discoveries with some of the first 
characters of his time, and many years ago procured for him the highest and 
most unequivocal distinction of this nature, that England, or probably any 
other nation, has to confer. Yet with all this intellectual superiority, he 
preserved, or rather, perhaps, attained to, that perspicuous and dignified 
simjilicity, both in his conversation and writings, which afforded a most 
striking contrast to tlie spurious, and often confused, eloquence of the day. 
With a mind naturall}^ comprehensive and persevering, he thought closclj', 
understood clearly, and, consequently, expressed himself plainly. Hence, in 
mingling ^vith the social circle (for his habit of redeeming the time, notwith- 
standing his pursuits and engagements, afforded him opportunities, not unfre- 
quently, of giving liis friends that pleasure), he was unostentatious, cheerfully 
familiar; and strove to instruct rather than to dazzle .to please rather than to 


and Essays was published after his death. A full-length marble 
statue of Mr. Hey (by Chantrey) was subsequently erected by 
the subscriptions of his fellow-townsmen, and is placed in the 
Leeds General Infirmary. — For a more lengthened account, see 
his Life, by John Pearson, F.R.S., 2 vols., published in 1827, &c. 
(with an excellent likeness of Mr. Hey, from the painting by 

astonish. But in regard to his mental energies and endowments, however 
much admired, he could be an object of imitation only to the few; yet, in 
another and more important point of view, he " being dead yet speaketh," 
and calls aloiid to lus numerous friends and acquaintance, to the whole town 
and neighbourhood, to which he long afforded so bright a living example, to 
embalm his character in their most cherished recollections, and to copy its 
shining excellencies. He was not one of those, who, affecting to be absorbed 
in high pursuits, and elevated in lofty attainments, can afford no room in 
their hearts, nor spare any portion of theu- time, for the cidtivation of the 
minuter ancl more retiring duties of human life ; much less did he strive to 
make some striking excellence atone for some notorious defect. All the 
virtues were equally cherished in his heart, and exhibited in his actions; they 
were like the several stones of an arch, which, inseparably connected together, 
give stability to each other, and strength and beauty to the whole. Thus, as 
a husband, a father, and the head of a family, his conduct was most kind and 
conscientious. As a professional man, he was humane and attentive to his 
patients, and generous in his conduct to his medical brethren, in the highest 
degree. As a subject, his loyalty was eminently conspicuous throughout the 
whole of his Ufe, and especially diu-ing the last most eventful period of it. 
As a magistrate, he was indeed ' a terror to evil-doers, and a praise to them 
that do well ; ' ever anxious to suppress (and many times at the expense of 
great personal obloquy and opposition) whatever he thought militated against 
the interests of vii-tue and religion ; and, on the other hand, eager to give the 
powerful support of his talents, and the sanction of his venerated name, to 
whatever promised to promote the real interests and prosperity of the com- 
munity. Indeed this was a most striking feature in his character; — the per- 
sonal friend of the celebrated Hoivard, he had early drank deep into his 
spu'it. But it would be an endless task to instance his varioixs philanthropic 
efforts in this to\vn, from the establishment of our excellent Infirmary, of 
which he was a founder, and long remained a father, down to the period of 
his decease. In a word, religion, taking its rise in his heart, was ever visibly 
present and operative in all the minutest ramifications of his conduct; it was 
the leading and animating principle in all his pursuits and enjoyments. It was 
this which induced him to dedicate his house, his family, liis time, talents, 
and influence to the service of God ; which inspired him mth that striking 
reverence for the name and word of the Deity, which he ever evinced. His 
Christian profession was that of the Church of England ; and in this part of 
his character we hold him forth as worthy of all imitation. Not\vithstanding 
the numl)er and pressing nature of his professional avocations, he was con- 
stant in his attendance on her sacred ordinances ; a warm and eulighteuej 
advocate of her impressive services ; indefatigal)lc in promoting her honour 
and interest liy every means in his power ; and the firm and successful 
champion of her rights, in opposition to the attempts made to destroy her 
pre-eminence, by what was called Catliolic Emancipation. The Bible .Society 
was his favourite institution: its establishment lie hailed with emotions of 
the highest delight, and its progress ami prospects, lie was often heard U> say, 
shed the brightest ray of pleasure on the ]>atli "f Iiis doc^liiiing days. "Mark 
the perfect man, and behold the upright, for the end of that man is peace." 
Seized with a disorder, which we understand he took in attending to the 
humane duties of his profession, he sunk, full of comfort and peace, sur- 
rounded by his affectionate family, into the arms of that Sa\aour, whom 



Allen, which hangs in the Board-room of the Leeds Infirmary) ; 
Parsons' Ilistory of Leeds; the Christian Observer for August, 
1822; Darling's Cyclopcedia Bihliographia ; the Appendix to 
Gorton's Biographical Dictionary ; Lowndes's Bibliographer's 
Manual, &c. For his pedigree, &c., see Thoresby's Ducatus 
Leodiensis, p. 4; Whitaker's Loidis and Elmete, p. 198, <fec.; for 
his portrait, &c., see the Appendix to Whitaker's History of 
Leeds, p. 32, &c. 



Upwards of thirty-three years the faithful and indefatigable 
secretary of the Leeds General Infirmary, died, after a very 
short illness, December 23rd, 1819, aged seventy-five years. 
His mind was richly stored with Biblical knowledge; he had 
made several translations of the Holy Scriptures from the 

with ardent soul he had long adored, and whose footsteps he had humbly 
followed, at the advanced age of eighty -three ; but, up to the time of liis last 
illness, in possession of his bodily faculties, even that of sight, to an aston- 
ishing degree, and with a mind, which, in the last period of its earthly 
existence, demonstrated, to all who had the honour of his acquaintance, the 
imperishable nature of the human soul. Our readers, and especially the 
younger part of them, will, we trust, be impressed with this sacred truth, so 
often manifested, Ijut seldom more ijowerfiilly than on the present occasion, 
that ' godliness is profitable unto all things, having promise of the Ufe that 
now is, and of that which is to come.'" 


" How swiftly death mows down the ranks of men ! 
Soul follows soul, as quickly as the breast 
Heaves the conviilsive sigh, by grief opprest. 
Scarce does the eye beam tranquilly again. 
Ere the disturbed glance betrays another wound ;— 
Each mortal aiTow pierces many hearts. 
Besides the one whence flutt'ring life departs. 
Hear, o'er tlie just man's tomb, the mingled sound 
Of lamentations, which survivors raise. 
The voice of weeping, with the hymn of praise. 

Few of death's shafts have ■svider sorrow spread, 

Few have been felt so far, or wrought such woe, 
As that which number'd Him amongst the dead, 

And laid our venerated townsman low. 
Woi'ds are faint praise, — they vanquish'd lie; 

Sorrow's own eloqiieuce which nature gave. 
The touching language of th' unbidden sigh, 

Is mem'ry's offering to the good man's grave. 
Whilst vii-tiie pays the tributary tear. 
And piety, unnerv'd, weeps for her loss severe, 
Ajid droops a moment o'er the Christian's bier." 

— For a long Elegy on the death of William Hey, Esq., F.E.S., see the Leeds 
Intelligencer, for April, 1819; and for a much longer account of Mr. Hey, 
abridged from Pearson's Life, see the Intelligencer for February and March, 
1822, &c. 


original Hebrew and Greek languages; and was the author of a 
work of vast labour and of gi-eat utility, entitled an Analysis of 
tlie Holy Bible* quarto, published in 1800 (an elaborate work, 
which displaj^s an uncommon degree of perseverance and appli- 
cation, and which must prove an invaluable acquisition to those 
who make frequent references to the Holy Scriptures), as well 
as of some unpublished works. His daughter Charlotte was 
married to Edward Baines, Esq., M.P., and thus became the 
mother of the Eight Hon. Matthew Talbot Baines, M.P., who 
died in 18 GO, and of Edward Baines, jun., Esq., M.P., &c. For 
an account of his sou, John Talbot, who was on the editorial 
staff of the Leeds Mercury, and who died in 1 839, see that paper 
for March 30th, 1839, &c. 

1740— 1820.t 
Formerly Edward Lascelles, Esq., was born in Barbadoes, 
January 7th, 1740. This gentleman represented Northallerton 
in several parliaments, and was elevated to the peerage in June, 
1796, by the title of Baron Harewood of Harewood, near 
Leeds. Hls lordship married, in May, 1761, Anne, daughter 
of William Chaloner, Esq., of Guisborough, by whom (who died 
in February, 1805) he had issue — 1, Edward, born in 1764, 
who died unmarried in June, 1814; 2, Henry, born December 
25th, 1767, who succeeded him as second earl; and two 
daughters, Lady Frances Douglas, and Lady Mary Anne Yorke. 
His lordship was advanced to a \T.scounty and earldom in 

* Tliis Analysis has been recently republished by Dr. Eaclie,'who,finjhis 
remarks thereon, speaks of the work in very commendatory terms. The 
above Sketch has been kindly corrected by Mr. Baines, jun. ^ 

t —1820. Mil. Thomas Smales, better known by the name of "The Hors- 
furth Poet," died Februaiy 8th, 1820. This hardy veteran had attained to the 
eighty-eighth year of his age; upwards of fifty years of which he had spent 
in the bloodless senice of his country— in the humble but usefid capacity of 
a letter-carrier between Leeds and Guiseley — 

" The herald of a noisy world, 

News from all nations lumbering at his back." 

No weather arrested his daily labours ; and to ill health, tUli within a few of 
the last years of his life, he was almost a stranger. He had travelled, on an 
average, "for fifty successive years, twenty miles a day ; and, without extendiiig 
his journey more than fifteen miles from the same spot, had walked, within 
that period, a distance equal to fifteen times the circumference of the earth! iyf> 
firm were his stamina, that he continued to perform Ms accustomed duties till 
within about four years of his death; and he left behind him a race of 
descendants, consisting of seven children, thirty-four grand-childi-en, and. 
twenty-four great-grand-children. 

"Honour and shame from no condition rise: 
Act v)dl your part ; there all the honour lies." 


September, 1812, by the titles of Viscount Lascelles, and Earl 
of Harewood, With the prince and the peasant the noble earl 
e^-inced that complacency and equanimity which commanded 
universal respect and veneration. His establishments were 
always in the true style of old English hospitality; his charities 
were most extensive, and his religion was sincere but unosten- 
tatious. He entered the army in early life, and bore the 
standard of the Blues at the battle of Minden. In 1798, when 
the country was threatened by a foreign invader, he subscribed 
the mimificent sum of £4,000 towards the defence of the king- 
dom. His lordship died at his house in Harewood Place, 
Hanover Square, London, April 3rd, 1820, in his eighty-first 
year, having survived his eldest son Edward six years, and being 
succeeded by his second and only son, Henry. His remauis were 
brought from London, and interred in the family mausoleum at 
Harewood church, near Leeds. An immense train of relatives, 
carriages, and friends followed in the funeral procession, as the 
last mark of respect due to his rank and exalted virtues, "Few 
noblemen," it was said at the time, "will be more sincerely 
lamented, and there are few whose loss will be more acutely 
felt by the poor residing on or near his noble domain. To all 
his domestics he has been liberal, and has provided amply for 
the future comfort of those of longer servitude." To those to 
whom this nobleman was known, it is needless to panegyi'ize his 
virtues; and to those to whom he was a stranger, all our praises 
will fall short of his merits.* — For a further account, see Jones's 
History of Harewood; the Peerages by Burke, Collins, Debrett, 
Lodge, &c. ; the Gentleman s Magazine; the New Monthly 
Magazine, vol. xiii., p. 750. For long extracts from his will,t 
see the New Monthly Magazine, vol. xiv., p. 113, &c. See also 
the first Lord Harewood, who died in 1795, p. 204, &c. 

* His younger brother, Francis Lascelles, also bom in Barbadoes, in Novem- 
ber, 1744, who died, unmarried, in September, 1799, and was buried at Rich- 
mond, in Sun-ey, was appointed ensign in the 1st Eegiment of Foot Guards, 
February, 1761; captain in the 17th Dragoons, December, 1761 ; major in the 
8th Dragoons, June, 1764 ; lieutenant-colonel in the 8th Dragoons, May, 1768 ; 
colonel in the army, August, 1777; Heuteuant-colonel in the King's Own 
Dragoons, May, 1780; major-general in the army, November, 1782; colonel 
of the 8th Dragoons, March, 1789; and appointed Groom of his Majesty's 
Bedchamber, 1779. The Gentleman's Magazine says— "No man was more 
respected by his brother officers, and no man passed through life with more 
easy dignity, manliness, and unobtrusive good sense." 

t The personal estate of the late Earl of Harewood was sworn under 
£250,000. He left £10,000 to Lord Lascelles; £40,000 to the children of 
Lady Frances Douglas. To his daughter. Lady Mary Ann Yorke, £1000 per 
annum for life, one half of which to be devoted to the support and main- 
tenance of her children ; to whom also was given the sum of £20,000, in 
equal shares, on their arrival at twenty-one, or marriage. 


Dean of Carlisle, president of Queen's College, and professor of 
mathematics in the University of Cambridge, by Ms talents and 
industry made Ms way from tlie humblest ranks of life to the 
first honours of one of the first universities in the world. He 
was born in Mabgate, Leeds, January 11th, 1750.* In his 
youth he was a weaver ; but availing himself of his leisure 
hours in acquii-ing a knowledge of the classics and mathematics, 
he made such progress as to become assistant to Ms brother 
Joseph at the Hull Grammar School.t He was then nineteen 
years of age, and had been accustomed to work at the loom 
with a Tacitus by his side. The prospects of this youug man 
were soon turned towards the church; and, after assisting his 
brother for some time as an usher, he removed to Queen's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he was entered as a sizar. + For Ms 

* That the father of the young Milners was a man of strong sense and 
extraordinary industry and self-denial there is abundant evidence. Having 
experienced, in his own case, the want of a good education, he early resolved 
that, at whatever inconvenience to himself or his family, his children should 
possess that advantage ; and this resolution he kept, although at the cost of 
many personal sacrifices, till his sudden death; an event which took place 
soon after his son Isaac had attained his tenth year. An outline of Dr. Mdner's 
childhood has been thus traced by his own hand: — "Isaac, when a little hoy 
of six years old, began to accompany his brother Joseph every day to the 
Leeds Grammar School; and at ten years of age could construe Ovid and 
Sallust into tolerable English, and was then beginning to learn the rudiments 
of the Greek language. The premature death of their father ruined all the 
prospects of Isaac's advancement in learning. His mother was obUged to 
abandon the prosecution of her husband's jjlan; and, that her son might 
acquire a livellliood by honest industry, she wisely employed him in learning 
several branches of the woollen manufactui'e at Leeds." His turn for 
mathematical studies also exhibited itself very early. He freqiiently, towards 
the close of his life, spoke of a sun-dial which he had constructed at the age 
of eight years ; and said, that during one of his visits to Leeds, after he 
became dean of Carlisle, he had earnestly endeavoured to discover the marks 
of it upon a wall near the house in which he was born. 

+ The affection which bound these brothers to each other was, pei'haps, as 
strong as ever subsisted in that relation of life. It Ijegan in childliood ; was 
cemented in youth, by more than ordinai-y fraternal kindness on the one part, 
and by cordial gratitude on the other; and, far from suffering interruption or 
abatement in after life, it increased in fervour, till the death of the elder 
brother separated these tenderly-attaclied relatives. "Never," says the sur- 
vivor, " was separation more liitter or afflicting." 

% Isaac Milner happening one day, while engaged in the execution of his 
duties as a sizar, to overturn upon the floor of the hall a tureen of soup, 
intended for the Fellows' table, is said to have exclaimed, in reply to some 
tart rebuke, "When I get into power, I will abolish this nuisance." This 
expression of the unpolished Yorkshiie lad, "IV7/fM / (jet into poioer," occa- 
sioned, as it is said, much memment among the Fellows, who, of course, did 
not detect, under the rough exterior of the sizar, the future president of their 


new station Mr. Isaac Milnei- was admirably fitted; and, before 
lie went to the university, lie was allowed to have attained a 
senior optime's knowledge in algebra and mathematics. Pos- 
sessed of useful ambition, he now aimed at the first honours of 
his college, and had talents and perseverance sufficient to obtain 
them. Accordingly, in the year 1774, he became "senior 
wrangler," and gained the first mathematical prize (Smith's), 
with the honourable (hstinction of '^ {ncoynjyarabilis."* He was 
ordained deacon, December 17th, 1775, in the chapel of Trmity 
College, Cambridge, by the Lord Bishop of Peterborough. In 
January, 1776, he was elected a Fellow of Queen's College; and 
in the following year he proceeded to the degree of M.A., and 
was soon afterwards appointed tutor of his college, in which 
capacity he acquired a distinguished reputation. In June, 1780, 
he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, having contri- 
buted several papers to their Transactions during the three 
preceding years. In 1782 he served the ofiice of j^roctor, in the 
following year was chosen Jacksonian professor of natural and 
experimental philosophy, and in 1792 was honoured with 
the vice-chancellorship. Intense study, however, had secretly 
laid the foundation of a nervous disorder, which under- 
mined the sources of existence, and occasionally embittered 
the remainder of his life.t While at Cambridge, Mr. Isaac 

* His superiority above all his competitors was so strongly marked on 
this occasion that, contrary to the usual practice, it was deemed necessary by 
the examiners to intei-pose a blank space between him and those who followed 
him on the list ; and he was honoured with the designation of incomparalilis. 
A similar distinction, it is said, has only once been conferred since that time ; 
namely, in the year 1819, when Mr. Joshua King, of the same college 
(Queen's), took his degree as senior ■wrangler, with the same acknowledged 
superiority over every competitor. He, too, afterwards became president of 
Queen's College, and alsoLucasian professor of mathematics in the University 
of Cambridge. 

■f "While an undergradiiate, Mv. Milner became acquainted with the late 
celebrated William Hey, Esq., F.R.S., of Leeds, having occasion to consult 
liim for a comiilaint partly produced by intense application to study. His 
superior talents and attainments were quickly discerned and justly appre- 
ciated by Mr. Hey, who invited him to his house, and put him, as Dr. Milner 
afterwards said, "upon a completely new system of habits." He remained 
during several weeks the guest of Mr. Hey ; and the acquaintance thus com- 
menced ripened into a friendship which suffered neither diminution nor inter- 
ruption till the friends were separated by death. The state of Dean Milner's 
healtli, when aliout fifty years of age, induced him to recur to the ad^■ice of 
his friend, the late Wm. Hey, Esq., of Leeds, whose letters exhibit eminent 
piety and friendly regard, as well as professional skill. In a letter, dated 
Februai-y 19th, 1800, this gentleman writes, — " I will endeavour to dispose of 
the liberal supply you have sent me, in comforting many distressed persons." 
This ])assage refers to a sum of money sent at stated times by Dr. Milner to 
Mr. Hey, to be by him distributed among such of his poor patients as might 
be unable to prociu'e for themselves the comforts which their circumstances 


Milner became acquainted with Mr. Wilberforce, who cordially 
and conscientiously embraced the scriptural principles of that 
gentleman on religious subjects. After a short acquaintance, 
the two friends proceeded on a tour to the continent, accom- 
panied by Mr. Pitt; but had not travelled far before the last of 
these gentlemen was recalled, in consequence of some political 
changes, which afterwards elevated him to the premiership. 
The others accompanied him on his return, and an intimacy 
ensued, which continued for life. This occurred in 1788, in 
which year Mr. JMilner was elected president of Queen's College.* 

required. It would ill become the biographer of Dean IMilner to publish the 
deeds of Christian liberality which were done by him in secret ; but it may 
be allowable to say that, amid his many acts of benevolence, to strangers as 
well as to liis own poor relatives, he was ever ready to allow the peculiar claims 
of his indigent feUow-to'o-nsmen of Leeds ; with respect to them in particular it 
might be truly said, that ''the blessing of him that was ready to perish came 
upon" him; and he "caused the widow's heart to sing for joy." In the 
early part of 1808, Dr. Miluer's spirit (to use an exjiression of his o^ti) was 
refreshed by a short visit to Queen's College, Cambridge, from his friend 
Mr. Hey, of Leeds ; a man of whom he was accustomed to say, that " con- 
scientiousness and consistency" were the "distinguishing features of his 
character." The dean, in 1819, on hearing of the death of Mr. Hey, -wrote 
a veiy eulogistic letter of condolence to his son, William Hey, Esq. (jun.), 
of Leeds. 

* "As president of a college," says the author of a slight biographical 
sketch of the life and character of Dr. Jlilner, "his constant aim was to 
encourage learned men tliat belong to his own foundation, as well as to intro- 
duce improvements which might tend to the happiness of tlie students, and 
to the advancement of the universit3- at large." Pre\'ioiis to his election, 
this venerable asyliun of Erasmus had gi-eatly decreased in reputation, but 
it began then to re-assume its ancient consequence, by the repletion of 
its numbers, &c. He was twice elected vice-chancellor, in 1792 and afterwards 
in 1809. It has been recorded that the first time the dean amved at 
Cambridge, he and his brother Josej^h walked up from Leeds, -with occa- 
sional lifts in a waggon; and the writer believes that it came from the 
dean himself, Xa nian, certainly, ever acted more constantly in the spirit 
of Dr. Johnson's observation, "If I am in company ^^■ith a shoemaker, I 
talk to him about the making of shoes." And this he did whether he desired 
to learn or to teach. Some slight anecdotes, lately communicated, cannot, per- 
haps, be better introduced than in this place. "I once travelled with the 
dean," waites the Eev, Tliomas (Dikes, or) Dykes, LL.B., of Hull, "from 
Carlisle to Leeds. "We spent a few hours at Ripon, and walked out among 
the people on the market-day. He accosted a razor-giinder emploj^ed in his 
work, and gave him to understand that he had not properly learaed his trade, 
&iid surinised the man by the knowledge which he showed on the subject. 
'W^e then went into a caqienter's shop, where a well-looking youth was 
diligently employed; the dean for some time looked attentively on, and then 
earnestly said to him, ' What a shameful thing it is, that a young man like 
j-ou should use such antiquated tools ; you can never turn any good work out 
of your hands till you furnish yourself with better implements.' The dean 
understood the shoeing of a horse, and could tell the blacksmith how it was 
that the horse's foot was so often injured. The dean's comprehensive mind 
could gi-asp every subject, from tlie highest to the lowest. I have often seen 
]iim shake hands with some of his old compauions iu trade. He was never 
^hamed p'f liis former condition." Again, " one prominent ti'ait,'" writes the 


He now commenced some salutary reforms, and, recollecting 
that -when he was an tindergraduate it was the custom of the 
sizars to wait beliind the chairs of the Fellows at dinner, he had 
spirit and good sense enough to abolish those seiwile distinctions, 
which were coeval with the days of monkish ignorance and 
superstition. In 1792 he took out his Doctor's degree, and was 
presented with the deanery of Carlisle. At Hull he retained 
lodgings during the life of his brother. This became a favourite 
residence; and here he had a complete T,\'orkshop, where he was 
accustomed to relax his mind daily from the fatigues of study. 
He' found manual laboiir a great source of happiness, and 
spared no expense in obtaining the most perfect and expensive 
machinery. As a proof of this, his lathe and appendages cost 

Eev. James Fawcett, B.D., "in the great mind of Dr. Milner, was the steady 
perseverance -with which he pursued any object of inquiry which he had once 
started ; he would not let it go till he had made himself master of it. It was this 
valuable property which made his extraordinary powers tell in every depart- 
ment of science ; it was this which, at least, contributed to place him at the 
head of the mathematical tripos in the year of his graduating. And as his 
honours and prefemients were a diie homage paid to his attainments, it was 
this which seated him in the Lucasian chair, and advanced him to the deanery 
of Carlisle." In the year 1815, he strenuously exerted his influence in favour 
of the Eev. Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Holmes, then acandidate for the situation 
of head-master of the Grammar School at Leeds; and addressed to the 
electors, in his behalf, a very strong testimonial, in which he alludes to his 
habitual caution on this subject. The latter portion of this powerful testi- 
monial—in the covirse of which the dean alludes to the circumstance that he 
had himself, in early life, "laboirred for sis or seven years as a teacher in a 
grammar school," as enabling hini the better to form a judgment concerning 
the qualifications and attainments requisite for siich an office— may with per- 
fect propriety be here inserted, and wOl not he read with indifference. " As 
a native of the town of Leeds," writes Dr. ^RIiLner, "and one who received all 
his early education at the Grammar School, I hope I may be excused in 
expressing my most sincere regard for the success of the institutions of that 
town, and the prosperity of its inhabitants. My late brother, the Rev. 
Joseph Milner, as well as myself, ever retained a most grateful remembrance 
of the advantages which we derived from our education in the said school; 
and I have no scruple to own, that both of us, under a kind Providence, have 
ever had reason to ascribe all our successes in life to the instructions of the 
school of Leeds, and the liberality of the town and neighbourhood. The 
experience of almost fifty years in this university has convinced me, that a 
youth properly trained and exercised in a good country school may be full as 
well prepared for wliat are called 'the learned professions' as any other per- 
sons, be they who they may; and in regard to the useful qualifications of 
merchants and men of business, or even the ornamental accomplisliments of 
the higher classes of society, it is well known that the country schools have, 
in many instances, been obsei's'ed to merit a decided preference. My sincere 
attachment to my native town and to its school, must be my apology for saying 
so much. — Isaac Milxee, Dean of Carlisle, and President of Queen's College, 
Cambridge." To Dr. Holmes himself, who, although at this time unsuccessful 
in liis application, was subsequently elected to the situation of head-master of 
the Leeds Grammar School, Dean Milner addi-essed some adraii-able " Hints 
for the conducting of a Grammar School." 


him no less tlian 1 40 guineas. On the death of Dr. Waring, in 
1798, Dr. Mibier was nominated Lucasian professor of mathe- 
matics, an office worth about .£350 a year, and which had been 
filled by Isaac Barrow, Isaac Newton, &c. Dr. Milner wi'ote 
against Marsh, in favour of the Bible Society; and contributed 
many excellent papers on chemistry and natural philosophy to 
the Fhilosophiccd Tra7isactio7is.* On Saturday, April 1st, 1820, 
at the house of his esteemed friend, William Wilberforce, Esq., 
M.P., at Kensington Gore, London, and in the seventy-first year 
of his age, died this venerable scholar and exemplary Christian ;t 
and the final close of such a life must not be mentioned without 
a farewell tribute, however trifling, to his memory. He was 
in every respect an extraordinary man. In early life he rose 
superior to difficulties with which few could have successfully 
contended; and his academical career was eminently distin- 
guished. By the splendour of his reputation, whUe in the 
vigour of life, and by uncommon zeal and actiA'ity in the cause 
of science, he gave a strong impulse to the study of mathe- 
matical and philosophical learning in the university.:!: — For a 

* Dr. Milner frequently turned his researclies towards chemistry, and found 
therein a proper scene for the adventurous expansion of his vast talents. The 
French are generally thought to have availed themselves of his discovery 
concerning the composition of nitre, so as to provide, without foreign assist- 
ance, the vast consumption of that article, requisite in the manufactiu-e of gun- 
powder. As an author, Dr. INIilner is krio-mi to the public by his papers commu- 
nicated, between the years 1777 and 1800, to tlie Eoyal Society, and published 
in the Transactions of that learned body, — by his Life of the Rev. Joseph 
Milner, published in the year 1800 : an exquisitely beautiful and touching piece 
of biography, and a permanent memorial of an instance of pure and fervent 
frateraal affection, — by his Animadrersions on the Ecclesiastical History of 
Dr. Haweis, — by his powerful work in defence of the Bible Society (viz., 
Strictures on some of the Publications of the Rev. Herbert Marsh), published 
in the year 1813, — and by his able and elaborate continuation of The History 
of the Church of Christ : an tmdertaking designed and begun by his brother, 
and one that wiU assuredly perjjetuate the name of Milxeh. The above- 
mentioned works, with some other less important performances, were pub- 
lished by the dean himself. Since his death, two volumes of his Sermons 
have heen given to the public, and also an Essaii on the subject of Human 
Liberty. Of the Sermons it has been justly observed, that an extraordinary 
"vigour of conception, a striking exliibition of the essential trutlis of 
Christianity, and a constant and most forcible appeal to the heart and con- 
science, characterize them throughout." Of the E-mxy on Human Liberty, 
an original thinker and an accomplished judge of composition thus wi-ites : — 
"The great abilities of the writer are visible in every page; and from the 
perusal of such a production people may learn how to think on the difficult 
subject of which it treats."— See also Darling's Cijclopwdia Biblio'jraphia ; 
Lowndes's Bibliographei'' s Manual, &c. 

+ Being unmarried, his remains were deposited in the large vault under the 
chapel of Queen's College, to which he bequeathed his valuable liljrary. 

X With him, indeed, the season of vigour and activity was not of long 
duration ; a morbid constitution of body, acted upon by a mind wounded by 


long, full, and particular account, see the Life of Dean Milner 
(with a fine portrait,* from a picture by Opie, in the possession 

severe domestic affliction, deprived the world of his exertions at a period 
when they were the most The latter part of his life, and that a 
very considerable portion of the whole, he passed in retirement ; but it was 
the" retirement of a man of talents and of learning. The range of his inquiries 
was surprisingly extensive : abstract science ; philosophy, theoretical and 
experimental; ancient literature; history; theology; by turns occupied his 
attention. The loss which society and his friends have sustained by his 
death may, in some measure, be estimated by all who have heard the name of 
this distinguished character, as they cannot fail to have heard also of his 
commanding talent, his extensive erudition, and his valuable labours. In 
him that superiority of intellect, which always procures to its possessor the 
homage of mankind, was neither the sole nor the liighest gi-ound of admira- 
tion. To men who esteem the qualities of the heart above those of the 
understanding, it will appear but a small part of his praise that he stood 
unrivalled in mathematics and natural philosophy, and unequalled as an 
historian of the Church. It may safely be affirmed that, in the estimation 
of those who knew him intimately, these extraordinary endowments acquired 
their chief lustre and value from the superior qualities of piety, candour, 
sincerity, and affection, which so eminently marked his character. In their 
view, the man of genius was almost lost in the liberal benefactor, the prudent 
counsellor, the undisguised friend, the engaging and instructive companion. 
Much is it to be regretted that his bodily infii-mities, under the pressure of 
which he for many years ceased not to labour both in writing and preaching, 
towards the close of his life so increased as to suspend the continuation of 
that history in which, taking up the pen of a deceased brother, he has trans- 
mitted to posterity an immortal, though, alas ! imfinished, monument both 
of his fraternal affection and of his Christian piety. 

* Dean Milner's personal appearance was exceedingly distinguished. He 
was above the usual height, admirably proportioned, and of a commanding 
presence. His features were regular and handsome, and his fine countenance 
was as remarkable for the benevolence as for the high talent which it 
expressed. Of animal spirits he possessed, throughout his life, an abundant 
flow; and his constitution was doubtless, originally, unusually robust. In 
short, no man was ever more profusely gifted with the best and most valuable 
of natural endowments. By his friends he was regarded with a degree of 
admiration and reverent affection which falls to the lot of few. One who 
knew him well, and than whom few persons are better qualified to form a 
correct estimate of the powers of a truly gi-eat mind, thus writes :—" Dr. 
Milner was, beyond compare, the greatest and ablest man \vith whom, in the 
course of a somewhat checkered life, it has been my fortune to hold personal 
converse; and I never think of him without an accompanying feeling, that 
for anything which I may possess in the way of mental plenishing, I am 
indebted to him. I have often been struck with the resemblance between his 
conversations and those reported of Napoleon, whom all men must admit to 
have been an extraordinary specimen of mental power. There was the same 
freedom, the same neglect of conventional forms, and the same rapid transi- 
tion from one subject to another ; sometimes leaving behind all guesses as to 
the nature of the connection. There was also an utter carelessness about 
announcing facts whicli might seem to bear hard upon himself, and which a 
man of less consciousness of mental superiority would have withheld." The 
fulness and varietv of Dean Milnei-'s conversational powers were felt by aU 
who had the privilege of holding intercoiirse with him. When engaged in 
the discussion of any interesting topic, as a point of natun-^l philosophy, 
metaphysics, history, or theology, the abundance of the knowledge which he 
poured forth was only equalled by the force and originality of his expression. 
JJi? complete accjuaintauce with his gubject, his ainple storeg Qf ill\is,tr^tioii, 

JAMES (lane) fox, ESQ., M.P. 283 

of tlie president and fellows of Queen's College, Cambridge), by 
Lis niece, Mrs. Mary Milner, 1842; his Life in Edgar's Foot- 
prints of Famous Men; the Gentlemmi s Magazine; the various 
Biographical Dictionaries; the European Magazine for April, 
1820, pp. 291-296 (with a good portrait, engraved by J. 
Thomson, from an original drawing by J. Jackson, first pub- 
lished in the contemporary British Portraits); the Christian 
Observer for May, 1820, pp. 289-300; the Monthly Magazine 
for May, 1820, pp. 328-332 ; the Annual Biography and 
Obituary iov 1821; the Life of Wilherforce; the New Monthly 
Magazine, vol. xiii., p. 113, &c. See also his brother, the 
Kev. Joseph Milner, M.A., who died in 1797, p. 205, &c. 



Died in the sixty -fifth year of his age, April 7 th, 1821, at his 

seat, Bramham Park, near Leeds, after only a week's illness, but 

and his conclusive reasoning, rendered bis conversation, on svxcli occasions, an 
intellectual feast. At the same time he was completely free from a fault often 
observable in jjersons remarkable for their conversational talents : there was 
in him no assumption of superiority ; he did not make those who less under- 
stood the subject feel their inferiority; he rather spoke as if he and the 
friends around him were mutually and on equal terms discussing the point in 
hand. There was a dignified simplicity about him, which, without abating 
the respect, won the affections of those who were in his companj'. In con- 
junction, however, with an unaffected frankness of manner, there was in all 
his statements a force and decision which announced a clearness of conception 
and an authority of intellect rarely equalled. He possessed a mind sufficiently 
comprehensive and vigorous to embi-ace the widest range of inquiry ; and his 
industry and perseverance being equal to his ability, his acquirements were 
not confined within the limits of a few branches of science, but extended over 
almost the whole field of knowledge. His memory, although he himself con- 
sidered it inferior to that with which his brother Joseph had been gifted, 
was such as to enable him effectually to retain the stores of learning which 
he had amassed; and he possessed, in an extraordinary degree, the useful 
faculty — not always attendant even upon the most powerful memory — of l^eing 
able, at any moment, to call all his powers into full action. Whatever subject 
might be proposed, he was always able to seize at once upon its main points, 
and to bring his varied resouj-^es immediately to bear upon it. 

* —1821. Eev. Thomas Morgan, LL.D., died at the library, founded by the 
Eev. Dr. Daniel Williams, in Eed Cross Street, London, July 21st, 1821, in his 
sixty -ninth year. He was born in the year 1752, and was the only son of the 
Rev. Thomas Morgan, minister to a congregation of Trotestant Dissenters in 
Caermarthenshire, who afterwards removed with his family into England, 
and settled first at Delf, in Yorkshire, and then at Morley, near Leeds, where 
he died, liiglily respected and esteemed. (a) He was a man of considerable 
ability and learning, and a liberal ccjiitributor to the Gentleman's Magazine, 
The son was brought up to the same jirofession as the fatlier, and received th^ 
advantages of a classical education at the grammar schools in Hatloy iUid 
Leeds. AVhen he had attained his fifteenth year, he was entered a student in 
the college at Hoxton, near London. This seminary was under the direction 
of the Kov. Drs. Savage, Kippis, tvud Kees, gentlemen Qmiueiitly fl\wlifled to 


many years' suffering from declining health. His fine principles ; 
his honourable feelings; his excellent disposition; in short, his 
qualities, rarely equalled, were too niimerous to admit of an 
attempt to name them; his generosity and extensive charities 
can never be calculated, for they were not ostentatious. He 
was, perhaps, the most accomplished man of his day — the best 
linguist, and the best historian possible; his manners were those 
of the highest bred and most fashionable gentleman, and, we 
may venture to assert, nobody ever saw him otherwise. He was 
a most agTeeable man in society when in good spii-its, being 
veiy quick in ho7i mots, and full of anecdotes of the great men 
of his day, particularly of the celebrated Mr. Pitt, with whom 
he lived a good deal, as long as his health permitted ; when that 
grew worse he retu^ed from the world, and lived almost entirely 

fill the several departments of theology, the belles-lettres, and mathematics, 
to which they were appointed by the tmstees of the late Mr. Coward, who at 
that time supported two institutions for the education of j^oung men devoted 
to the Christian ministry. Under the able tuition of the professors in that 
college, Mr. Morgan continued six years. Leaving the college with ample 
testimonials of his proficiency and good conduct, he was chosen the assistant- 
preacher to a congi-egation at Alringdon, in Berkshire, then under the ministry 
of the Rev. Mr. Moore. The resignation of that gentleman, occasioned by 
age and infii-mities, following soon after his settlement, he was unanimously 
in^'ited to succeed him. His union with tliis society did not, however, con- 
tinue longer than two or three years, for, on the death of Dr. Prior, in 1768, 
the aged minister to the Presbyterian chapel in Goodman's Fields, Mr. Morgan 
was appointed to his pidpit, and he filled it mth acceptance and usefulness 
till the lease of the place expired, and the congregation was consequently 
dissolved. During the latter period of his connection with this society, he 
officiated as one of the Sunday evening lecturers at Salter's Hall ; and in the 
year 1783 became a member of the late Dr. Williams's trust, in Red Cross 
Street. He lield the office of trustee till the year 1804, when he was chosen 
librai-ian. No man could have been a more proper person to fill this honourable 
and important situation than himself. He was well acquainted with general 
literature, had a good knowledge of books, and was regular and punctual in 
his habits. In the year 1819 he was presented with the diploma of Doctor of 
Laws by the University of Aberdeen, and certainly few persons have better 
deserved the rank which was confeiTed on him by that learned body ; but his 
life was drawing to its close, and with it his enjoyment of the honour so 
deservedly bestowed. Dr. Morgan was a man of liberal sentiments in religion ; 
a Protestant Dissenter on principle, yet without bigotry; and in his relations 
and character as a man and a Cha-istian, was distinguished for the love of 
order and peace, which he connected vni\\ independence of mind and high 
sense of honour. As an author, he is before the public in two separate 
Discourses; and in a Oollcctioyi of Hymns for Public Worship, which include 
several original compositions, and in which Dr. Blippis, Dr. Rees, and Mr. 
Jervis, were concerned as well as himself; but he may be refen-ed to on a 
larger scale in his reviews of foreign and domestic literature in the New 
Annual Register; and in a work of considerable value and gi-eat interest, The 
General Biofjraphy, which was first begun by Dr. Enfield, and afterwards 
carried on by Dr. Aikin and others. The lives which he wrote, and to which he 
has added the initial of liis surname, will show with what care and judgment 
he collected, examined, and arranged his materials. Such was Dr. Morgan; 

JAMES (lane) fox, ESQ., M.P. 285 

at Bramliam Pai-k, occasionally going to a seat he had in Rut- 
land, and to London for a very short time every year.* He 
•was bom in the south, and was reared by his uncle, George Fox 
(Lane), Lord Bingley of Bingley, in this county. He resided 
for many years in Italy and France, and had travelled a great 
deal on the contiuent. About this time he was a member of 
the House of Commons as M.P. for Horsham, and moved in 
the most fashionable circles in London, himself residing in 
Bingley House, Cavendish Square. Late in life he inherited a 
very considerable property in Ireland, from his maternal grand- 
mother, the daughter of George Lane, Viscount Lanesborough, 
He married, in July, 1789, the Hon. Marcia Pitt,t daughter of 
George, Lord Rivers, by whom he had — 1, George Lane, a 
member of parliament; J 2, William Augustus, man-ied to Lady 

and the writer who offers this impartial and just tribute, hopes he may he 
allowed to close his account in the words of a Roman poet : — 

" Quis desiderio sit pudor aut modus 
Tarn cari capitis ? 
Multis ille bonis liebilis occidit." 

His body was deposited in Bimhill Fields, in the vault belonging to the late 
Dr. "Williams, the founder of the Ubrary in Red Cross Street, London. — For a 
longer account, see the Leeds Mercunj, kc, for Jixly, 1821; and also the 
Gentleman's Magazine for August, 1821, p. 181 ; the Monthly Magazine, voL 
liL, pp. 86, 277; the Nev: Monthly Magazine for October, 1821, p. 535, &c. 

**) His father, the Rev. Thomas Morgan, who was minister of the Presby- 
terian chapel at Morley during thirty-six years, and distinguished liimself for 
learning and piety, by his excellent sermons, by his wi-itings in the Gentleman's 
Magazine, and by his able reply to the doctrines of the Trinity and Atonement 
advocated by Dr. Priestley, died July 2nd, 1799, in his eightieth year. His 
immediate predecessor was the Rev. Mr. Aldred, who held the appointment 
fifty-four years, and during that long period was not once prevented by illness 
from discharging his ministerial duties. Mr. Aldi-ed's predecessor was the 
Rev. Joseph Dawson, who was ejected from Thornton chapel, under the act 
of uniformity, and appointed to the Presbyterian chapel at Morley, near 
Leeds, in 1688. — See the Annals of Leeds, kc. 

* As a gentleman, Mi-. (Fox Lane or) Lane Fox was highly distinguished 
for the politeness of his manners, and for the extreme kindness and liberality 
of his disposition ; and he was not less esteemed and valued in the extensive 
circle of his friends, than revered and respected by his numerous tenanti-y 
and dependents. 

+ The Hon. Mrs. Lane Fox, widow of the late James Lane Fox, Esq. , of Bram- 
ham Park, near Leeds, died at her house in Albemarle Street, London, Aug. 5th, 
1822, aged sixty-six. IMrs. Fox was tlie second daugliter of the first, and sister 
to the second. Lord Rivers. She was born in March, 17.5G, and niamed to Mr. 
Lane Fox, July 23, 1789. By the lamented death of this lad}', we imderstand 
that property of from £8,000 to £10,000 a year will devolve on the j^ounger 
branches of this noble family. Her remains were brought from London to be 
interred in the family vaults at Bramham, near Leeds. 

+ George Lane Fox, Esq., of Bramham Park, near Leeds, married, Septem- 
ber 20th, 1814, Georgiana Henrietta, only daughter of Edward Percy Buckley, 
Esq., by the Lady Georgiana West, his wife, daughter of John, second Earl 
of Delawarr, and had issue: — 1, the present Gteorge Lane Fox, Esq., of Bram- 


Caroline, niece of the Earl of Harewood, and sister to the Earl 
of Morton; 3, Sackville Walter, an officer in the Guards, M.P., 
who married, in June, 1826, Lady Charlotte Osborne, only- 
daughter of George, sixth Duke of Leeds, their eldest son being 
now Lord Conyers ; 4, Thomas Hemy, in holy orders ; and 
Mai-cia Bridget, married, August 5th, 1815, to the Hon. Edward 
Marmaduke Stourton, brother of Lord Stourton, who assumed 
the surname and arms of Vavasour, of Haslewood, and was 
created a bai'onet; Lady Vavasour died in 1829. — For further 
particulars, see the Leeds Intelligencer ; the Gentlemards Magor 
zine ; the JVeui Monthly Magazine for June, 1821, p. 313; 
Burke's Landed Gentry^ &c. See also George (Lane Fox), Lord 
Bingley, who died in 1772, p. 173, &c 

An exemplaiy divine and able topographer, author of Loidis 
and Elmete, or a History of Leeds, &c., and editor of a splendid 
edition of Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis, 1816, with engravings 
(to both of which works reference is very frequently made in 
this volume),* was born June 8th, 1759, in the parsonage-house 

liam Park (for whom tLe Duke of York and the Duchess of Rutland stood 
sponsors, married, November 17th, 1837, Katharine, daughter of John Stein, 
Esq., formerly M.P. for Bletchingley, and has issue, George Sackville, James 
Thomas, Pvichard, Marcia, &c. ) ; 2, Georgiana Marcia ; 3, Frederica Elizabeth. 
Mr. Lane Fox, who succeeded his father in 1821, represented Beverley and 
Pontefract successively in parliament ; and was major of the Yorkshire 
Yeomanry Cavali-y, and a deputy-lieutenant in the North-Riding. He died 
in 1848. — See Burke's Landed Gentrii, kc. 

* The following are the titles and dates of Dr. Whitaker's principal works : — 
1. A Sermon for the Benefit of the Leeds General lufirmaiy, 1796, 8vo. (see 
Gentleman's Magazine, vol. Ixvii., p. 139). 2. A History of the Original Parish 
of WhaUey and Manor of Clitheroe, in the Counties of Lancaster and York, 
mth plates and maps, 1801, 4to. ; third edition, 1S18. 3. History and Anti- 
quities of the Deanery of Craven, in the County of York ; London, 1805, foUo ; 
1812, royal 4to. 4. A Sermon, 1807, 8vo. 5. De Motu per Britanniam Civico, 
annis 1745 et 1746, Liber Unicus, London, 1809, 18mo. 6. The Life and 
Origiaal Correspondence of Sir George Radcliffe, Knight, 1810, 4to. 7. The 
Sermons of Dr. Edward Sandys, formerly Archbishop of York ; with a Life 
of the Author, 1812, 8vo. 8. The Vision of William concerning "Piers 
Ploughman," &c. ; London, 1813, 4to. 9. A Sermon, 1814, 4to. 10. A New 
Edition of Thoresby's "Diicatus Leodiensis;" or, "The Topography of Leeds," 
folio, 1816. 11. "Loidis and Elmete;" or, An Attempt to Illustrate the Dis- 
tricts described in those words by Bede, and supposed to embrace the lower 
IJortions of Airedale and "SMiarfedale, together \\'ith the entire vale of Calder, 
folio, 1816. 12. Sulistance of a Speech at Blackburn, February 20th, 1817. 
13. The History of Yorkshire, folio, 1821. The MSS. for "Richmondshire" 
and "Lunedale" were completed by Dr. ^^^litaker previous to his lamented 
death.— See the Gentleman's Magazine; 'Nichols's Illustrations of Literature, 
vol. iv., p. 880; the Annual Biography and Ohituary for 1823; Darling's 
Cyclopcedia BibUographia ; Lowndes's Bibliographei''s Manual, &c. 

THE REV. T. D. WHITAKER, LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A. 287 

of Rainham, Norfolk, wliich is the subject of a singular stoiy 
recorded by Sir Henry Spelmau (for which see the Annual 
Biography and Obituary for 1823). In November, 1766, he 
was placed under the care of the Rev. John >Shaw, of Eochdale, 
an excellent grammarian and instructor. In 1771 he fell into 
such an ill state of health as rendered him incapable of any 
steady attention to books until 177-4, when he was placed in the 
family of the Rev. William Sheepshanks, at Grassington, in 
Craven. In November of that year he was admitted of St. 
John's College, Cambridge, where he went to reside October 
3rd, 1775. In November, 1780, he took the degi-ee of LL.B., 
intending to pursue the profession of the civil law, which he 
studied for two years with great attention. But in June, 1782, 
his father haA"ing died after a week's illness, he settled upon his 
paternal estate, which for upwards of tliirty years he continued 
to improve and adorn by successive plantations. In August, 
1785, he was ordained deacon at Rosecastle, by Dr. John Law, 
Bishop of Clonfert; and in July of the following year received 
the oixler of priesthood from the same prelate — both vdthout a 
title. In 1788, having previously recovered, by a donation of 
£400, the patronage of the chapel at Holme, which had been 
founded by one of his ancestors, with the aid of some liberal 
subscriptions he rebuilt it, the old edifice being mean and dilapi- 
dated. In 1797 he was licensed to the perpetual curacy of 
Holme, upon his own nomination. In the month of July, 1799, 
he qualified as a magistrate for the county of Lancaster, and the 
next year but one for the West-Riding of Yorkshire. At the 
Cambridge commencement in 1801, he completed the degree of 
LL.D. ; and in the month of January, 1809, was presented by 
the Archbishop of Canterbiuy to the vicarage of Whalley, the 
great object of his wishes. For this favour, besides his Grace's 
own generous disposition to reward a stx'anger who had written 
a history of the parish, he was also indebted to the recom- 
mendation of that leai-ned and excellent prelate, Dr. Cleaver, 
formerly his diocesan, and at that time Bishop of Bangor, to 
whose many instances of friendly attention Dr. Whitaker has 
frequently alluded in his writings with gi-atitude and respect. 
In 1818 he was presented with the valuable living of Black- 
bum, in Lancashire. He married Lucy, daughter of Thomas 
Thoresby, Esq., of Leeds, a kinsman to the celebrated antiquary 
of that name, who survived him, and by whom he left three 
sons and one daughter, having lost a daughter in 1816, and his 
eldest son (tlie Rev. Thomas Thoresby Whitaker, M.A.) the 


subsequent year, in consequence of a fall from his horse.* The 
doctor is said never to have recovered the shock occasioned by 
this unfortunate catastrophe. This able and excellent man died 
at the vicarage, Blackburn, December 18th, 1821, in the sixty- 
third year of his age, and was buried in the family vaidt at 
Holme on the 24th; the attendance at his grave bearing ample 
testimony to the veneration his character had commanded where 
his influence was more immediately felt. The following character 
of Dr. Whitaker is from the pen of a gentleman to whom he 
was intimately known : — As a literary man, in which character 
he is most generally, though perhaps not most deservedly known, 
he was distinguished not less for industry and acuteness in 
x-esearch, accuracy of reasoning, and extent of knowledge, than 
warmth of imagination and vigour of style. To the study of 
Enf^lish antiquities, which the lovers of Greek and Roman lore 
too often aifect to despise as barbarous and uninteresting, he 
brought a rich store of classical information, and, what is of 
much rarer occurrence, a correct and classical taste; and when 
to these we add the knowledge of such modern languages as 
throw most light on the subject, an intimate acquaintance with 
the Ajiglo-Saxon and Gothic dialects, on which our own is 
chiefly founded, and the habit of close attention to those nume- 
rous traces they have left in the rude tongue of the people 
around him, it may be admitted that few champions have 
appeared in the arena of antiquarian warfare more completely 
armed for the field. He must, indeed, be considered as having 
mainly contributed to the revival of a school in topography, 
which had well-nigh become extinct. In the days of Leland 
and Camden, the fathers of this delightfid study, it was thought 
no sin for an antiquary to be a man of genius and letters, and 
we find this groimd occupied by the very first scholars of the 

* The Eev. Thomas Thoresby Whitaker, M.A., curate of Colne and Accring- 
ton, was born December 31st, 1785; married, March 26th, 1810, Jane, eldest 
daughter of James Hordem, Esq., of Wolverhampton, and had an only son, 
the present Thomas Hordem Whitaker, Esq., J. P., F.S.A., of The Holme, 
near Burnley, Lancashire, born December 2nd, 1814; married, fii-st, in 1848, 
Mary, daughter of James B. Garforth, Esq., of Coniston, which lady died 
without issue; and, secondly, November 18th, 1851, Margaret Nowell, 
youngest daughter of the Rev. J. Eobinson, rector of Alresford, Essex, by his 
wife, Mrs. NoweU, of Netherside and Linton, in Craven, and has a daughter, 
Mary Charlotte, &c. —See Burke's Landed Gentry, &c. His second son, the 
Rev. Robert NoweU Wliitaker, M.A., at present succeeds him in the vicarage 
of "Syhalley : a preferment which would have afforded his father the greatest 
satisfaction. His grandson, T. H. Whitaker, Esq., B.A., F.S.A. (who has 
kindly revised the above Sketch), also succeeds him in the family estate at 
Holme, and in the duties of a magistrate, which, " in those troublous times," 
shortened the latter days of his ancestor. 

THE REV. T. D. WHITAKER, LL.D., F.E.S., F.S.A. 289 

age; but in succeeding times the i-ace had greatly degenerated, 
and a fell array of county and local historians might be pro- 
duced, the heaviness of -whose matter is only exceeded by the 
dulness of their manner, and whose dense folios will be found 
to contain little beside transcripts of parish registers, title-deeds, 
public I'ecords, and monumental inscriptions, not often possessing 
even the merit of accurately representmg their originals. Did 
an erratic antiqiiary now and then forsake the beaten track, 
making ever so sliglit pretensions to brilliancy of imagination 
or warmth of feeling, he was looked upon by his brethren as 
one whose levity was altogether inconsistent with the gi'avity of 
the C01-J3S, and w-hose light weapons were calculated to injure 
rather than benefit the cause; like a young divine who should 
exliibit symptoms of wit before the convocation, or a knight- 
errant who w^ould break the ranks of a regular army to tilt and 
be slain for the honour of his lady. The natural consequence 
was, that the dulness of the whole brotherhood became pro- 
verbial; they were supposed to occupy the humblest place in the 
scale of literary existence — a step, perhaps, above the penmen 
of the counting-house, but very far below the lowest pretenders 
to literature in any other department. The possible utility of 
their pursuits in the illusti-ation of history, manners, and the 
arts, was quite overlooked by themselves and others. If they 
were ever praised, it was for patience and industry ; but even 
this scanty tribute was often withheld by those who did not 
hesitate to profit by theii' pains. From this degraded state it is 
not too much to say that the historian of Whalley, Craven, and 
Richmondshire, has redeemed his favourite study; and to him 
we are chiefly indebted, if it has in modern times been dis- 
covered that topography may be imited with the keenest relish 
for natural beaut}^, with the most devoted attachment to the fine 
arts, with the grave contemplation of the moralist, the edifying 
labours of the biographer, and the loftiest flights of the bard. 
'Nov will this merit be denied him, though the advocates of the 
old system may now and then triumph in a trifling inaccuracy, 
or raise the hue and cry against the inordinate ambition that 
would pant after higher honours than that of having compiled 
an index to a record office — that would aspire to the distinction 
of being read, and be but ill-content with the immortality of 
resting in a library, to be produced only on the transfer of a 
manor, the proof of a pedigree, or the sale of an advowson. 
But topography, though the favourite, was yet by no means 
the only station he occupied ; and in addition to tlu; acknow- 
ledged works by which these minor claims on public regai'd 



are supported, the Quarterly Review owed some of its most 
distinguished articles to his pen ; and his speech on the public 
distresses, deli-sered at a meeting in Blackburn, may be 
instanced as a specimen of sound reasoning calculated long to 
survive the particular occasion that called it forth. (See it 
printed in the Gentlemai^s Magazine, vol, Ixxxvii., p. 213.) In 
the fields of verse he never rambled, though no man could 
better appreciate the merits of poetry, or more readily trans- 
fuse its chief graces into his own compositions. His style was 
nervous, yet elegant; concise, yet fluent; averse to the modern 
barbarisms and affectation which degi'ade the English tongue, 
but never hesitating to naturalize a foreign word, so it were of 
respectable origin, and Avould conform to the usages of its 
adopted country. In the use of simile and quotation he was 
remarkably happy; but, above all, excelled in the faculty of 
paiiiting (if it may be so called) the object before him — of 
seizing at once the chief features, whether of scenery, architec- 
ture, or human character; and by a few well-chosen epithets, or 
by one masterly sti'oke, conveying a rapid but finished picture 
to the mind. In this respect he strongly resembled Camden; 
and, had the custom of publishing in a learned language pre- 
vailed now, as it did in the Elizabethan age, we have reason to 
suppose, from his little work, De Motu per Briianniani Cimco,, 
&c., that he would not have fallen short of that great master in 
his Latin style. To his characteristic warmth, however, the 
defects as well as the merits of his works may be mainly 
asciibed: nor is it to be wondered, that though for the most 
part no less accur-ate than vivid in his ideas, his rapidity should 
now and then have overlooked an object worthy of notice, or 
represented it in a manner which a second glance would infal- 
libly have coiTected; that in his opposition to principle, he 
should occasionally have appeared somewhat too unsparing of 
persons; and that his zeal, when counteracted by those with 
whom reason and authority had about equal weight, should 
sometimes have defeated its own object, where partial conces- 
sion, and a more conciliatory tone, might have prevailed. His 
theological works were confined to the publication of occasional 
Sermons; but he had the en\dable art of making every literaiy 
undertaking .subservient to the great interests of religion and 
morality, without violating the proprieties of the subject in 
hand ;* an object w'hich certainly no clergyman should ever 

* In this character, indeed, Dr. Whitaker was most exemplary. Placed in 
situations which gave him a sort of episcopal superintendence over a district 
no less than thirty mUes in extreme length, nearly the same ia breadth, con- 

THE REV. T. D. WHITAKER, LL.D., F.K.S., F.S.A. 291 

suffer to escape ids \'iew, whatever be the lighter studies or 
amusements he may think proper to indulge. His discourses 
partook largely of the peculiarities ah-eady noticed in his other 
works : they had the same fire, the same strength and fluency of 
langTiage, the same acuteness of reasoning and originality of 
illustration, the same happy use of ornament; but they were 
also so perfectly simple, and intelligible to the humblest of his 
auditors, and delivered ^vdth eloquence so natural and impres- 
sive, that, though far from courting popularity, he never failed 
to attract overflowing congregations. But the principles which 
regulated his whole conduct as a clergyman caimot be better 
expressed than in his own words : " The dispensation of the 
Gospel has been committed to me within a certain district, and 
under certain forms and limitations. I owe, imder the most 
solemn obligations, obedience to my immediate superiors in the 
church, and conformity to all its established rides : here I have 
no option; I eat my bread on that condition; if I transgress it, 
I am a dishonest man. I see, indeed, the genuine doctrines of 
my own church entirely neglected by some of its ministers; and 
mingled with fanaticism, democracy, and other poisonous com- 
binations, by others; nevertheless, I know them to be the word 
of truth. I will, by God's gi-ace, not reject, but separate them 
from these admixtures; preach them boldly, yet rationally; and 
if in so doing my motives are mistaken, my principles decried, 
and myself am classed with a sect to which I do not belong, I 
will bear my cross in patience." These observations occur in a 
note to the History of Whalley, p. 389, the whole of which is 
well deserving the attention of all friends of the EstabKshment, 
and merits a more general circulation than the particular object 
of the work is likely to afford. It has seldom hapiiened that 
men so gifted for the pulpit and the press have as successfully 
interchanged the retirement of the study for the more active 
walks of life; but with all the aversion to minute calculation, 
and the detail of mechanical arrangement, which the most 

taining twenty-foiir dependent chapelries, and occupied bv more than 100,000 
inhabitants, he exercised this important influence in a manner which might 
well have become a still wider sphere of labour. In his appointments to the 
chapels which came under his own immediate patronage, he was ever actuated 
bj' the purest and most disinterested motives; nor coxild any practicable 
scheme for promoting the temporal or spiiitual welfare of his parisliioners 
be proposed to him, wliich did not meet his reatly concurrence and active 
co-operation. More frequently, indeed, these plans originated witli himself; 
and while he was thus enabled to place around him a body of zealf)US and 
useful clergy, his own conduct in the discharge of his more personal functions 
furnished an excellent model to all. To this part of liis character ample 
justice was done during his lifetime, in that depository for ancient lore— the 
Gentleman's Marjazine, vol. xc, p. 402, &c. 


abstracted student could have expressed, no man could more 
practically weigh the merits of an extended plan; and -with 
nerves that shrunk at the very shadow of trivial and imaginaiy 
danger, none could more firmly encounter its real form when 
duty led the way. Composition, also, with him required little 
or no effort ; and while he could dictate his most finished 
descriptions on the spot, or lay up in the solitude of a morning- 
walk abundant employment for the too tardy pen, many a track 
was recovered from the encroachments of time, which his activity 
never allowed to remain long uncultui-ed. Hence he was no less 
busily employed in the preservation of old and the ei-ection of 
new churches throughout his parishes, than in pro^T-diiig for the 
fui-therance of the great objects to which they were dedicated; 
nor could the trustees of the parliamentary fund, lately applied 
to those pui'poses, have selected a more active and useful 
associate. Blessed early in life with the possession of a patri- 
monial estate, to which he was ever enthusiastically attached, 
he became a planter and improver on no narrow scale; and in 
this profitable and patriotic pursuit received the gold medal of 
the Society of Arts, while more than half a million of trees, 
rising gradually beneath his hand, gave grace and dignity to the 
rugged scenexy around him. To watch their growth and beauty 
was the frequent solace of his lighter hours; and when at his 
last visit to the Holme, declining health admonished him that 
he should see them no more, he calmly selected one of the 
comeliest of his own planting to be the depositary of his mortal 
remains.* Adorned with these accomplishments as an author, 
a clergyman, a subject, and a man, and endowed by nature and 
age Avith a commanding person, a venerable and expressive coun- 
tenance, and a peculiarly animated eye, he seemed to possess the 

* In a district where the non-residence or extinction of the ancient gentry 
had much weakened the civilizing influence of polished manners on the 
humbler classes of society, and even the resti-aints of law were but feebly 
exerted, the office of a magistrate, for which his education and pursuits had 
so well qualified him, was accepted as a duty, and, at Holme, might have 
been exercised with unmixed pleasure to himself, and advantage to others; 
but, transplanted into the midst of a manufacturing population, at a time 
when sedition and blasphemy were unusually prevalent, and the poison of a 
system, whose evils he had from the first foretold and resisted, was fer- 
menting to its utmost height of malignity, the conscientious discharge of his 
duty, rewarded as it was by the approbation of his sovereign, and the wai'm 
thanks of his neighbours and coimtrymen, was attended with sacrifices which 
his friends and the lovers of literature may be excused for thinking almost 
too great, even in the best of causes — the suspension of those calmer studies 
in which he delighted; and, as it may he feared, the introduction of that 
distressing disorder to which he fell a victim. A magnificent service of plate 
was given to him by the inhabitants of Blackburn, in testimony of their 
gratitude and respect, on the 23rd of April, 1821. 

THE REV, T. D. WHITAKER, LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A. 293 

faculty of impressing his own image on the mind no less vividly 
than the features of landscape were depicted by his pen — an 
image which no one who has once beheld him in the pxxlpit, 
amidst the trophies of antiquity, or in the peaceful seclusion of 
domestic life, will ever be able to efface from recollection. To 
this faithful account (originally communicated to the Gentleman s 
Magazine by the Eev. S. J. Allen) may be added a character of 
Dr. Whitalver which first appeared in the Leeck Intelligencer, 
under the signature of " P. W." : — '■ Having read in your Intel- 
ligencer the death of Dr. Whitaker, I fully expected that you 
would have given, in a subsequent paper, a more copious 
obituary of that profound and learned divine. Though I detest 
gross panegyric, or posthumous undeserved praise, I think that 
a jusfc and honoiu-able remembrance of the abilities and virtuous 
exertions of those who have gone before us, tends to stimulate 
the survivors. I have been more particularly disappointed by 
this silence, knowing that the doctor resided some time in the 
parish of Leeds. On that account I concluded that some of 
his learned acquaintance resident there, who had enjoyed his 
conversation, and had been instructed by his ecclesiastical 
labours, or by the numerous productions of his pen in di\inity, 
in politics, in history, and in antiquities, would have favoured 
your readers with a more detailed account. Not only his own 
parish, but probably the whole kingdom, is in some measure 
indebted to hLs exertions, through Providence, for the peace, 
domestic comforts, and national security, which we now have 
the happiness to enjoy. Though possessing a delicate frame, 
no violence of the Jacobinical mob, however malignant; no 
threateuings, however diabolical, excited his fears, or prevented 
him from discharging the most laborious and the most dangerous 
office of a magistrate in the disaifected district of Lancashire, 
where he resided. Among strangers he was silent and reserved. 
His eloquence was rarely exerted on political occasions. A 
friend of mine expressed his utmost astonishment when Dr. 
Whitaker addressed the meeting at Blackburn, convened by the 
magistrates, in order to support the arm of government, and to 
check the nefarious designs of the lower ranks. The hall was 
crowded to excess, particularly by tlie Radicals. When the 
doctor unexpectedly rose to address the meeting, he instantly 
poured forth such a torrent of eloquence that the higher ranks 
were completely electrified, and the disartected sneaked out one 
by one, overpowered by his arguments or convicted by their 
consciences." He was sometimes accused of severity. But 
morose, indeed, must he be who will not make allowance for 


delicate health and a highly nervous constitution, which times 
of insubordination, of turbulence, and disaffection, constantly- 
kept in a state of irritation. Piety and modest worth ever 
found in him a protector and a friend. The vanity of ignorance, 
or the presumption of the upstai-t, he held in equal contempt. 
If he were severe, he was, to use his own words, " Sola in vitia 
asper." In the company of a few select friends, his conversation 
was of a very superior cast; full of acute remarks, of argument, 
or of anecdote; — "Modo tristi, smpe jocoso." To affectation, to 
disguise, or to hypocrisy, his heart was an utter stranger. His 
knowledge of the Scriptures, of the Fathers, of history, and of 
antiquities, was most profound. His extempore eloquence in 
the pulpit was rapid, energetic, and impressive. His language 
was so terse, so correct, and, at the same time, so elegant, that 
the most learned and polished audience could not but admire 
it; — " Nee fecundia deserit hunc, nee lucidus ordo.^^ — For further 
particulars, see Gentleman's Magazine, vol. xcii., p. 312, &c. ; 
Nichols's Literary Illustrations, vol. iv., p. 871, <ic., with por- 
trait and facsimile of his autograph; the Annual Biography 
and Obituary for 1823, p. 211; the Dictionary of Living 
Authors; the Neio Monthly Magazine for March, 1822, p. 136; 
Knight's Biographical Gyclopcedia, &c. See also a fine portrait 
of Dr. Whitaker, set. bQ, from a painting by J. Northcote, 
R.A., in his Loidis and Elmete, &c. 

M.P. for Carlisle, of Kirkstall, near Leeds, died in Portland 
Place, London, in April, 1825, in his seventy-second year. 
There had been a visible decline in his health for a year before 
his decease ; but a relaxation from his usual attendance on 
public business, and the renovating bi'eezes of Brighton, were 
thought to have operated so far favourably as to allay all appre- 
hension of immediate danger. This, we believe, was also his 
own opinion, as in a letter written from Brighton he expressed 
himself with great cheerfulness, and described his health as 
much improved. The character of Sir James Graham, public or 
private, was as much above the compass of hasty p)anegyric as 
it was above selfishness and lij'jjocrisy. He was an active and 
useful public man in foi-warding all the improvements of the 
countiy; honest and frank, and at all times ready to promote 
the well-being of the community. Though occupying a station 
which often (we had nearly said necessarily) calls forth the ran- 
cour of pai-ty hostility, yet he had not, perhaps, a real enemy. 



In every relation of life he was exemplary. As a public ser- 
vant, discharging the duties of a voluntary and honorary trust, 
he was ever ready with advice and assistance. He never 
stopped to inquire to what party the applicant belonged ; to 
require his aid in a just cause was to obtain it. Every improve- 
ment of the city of Carlisle received his commendation, and 
called forth his pecuniary aid; the public charities liberally par- 
took of his bounty; he neglected nothing calculated to promote 
the welfare of his native county. Sir James was the second 
son of Thomas Graham, Esq., of Edmond Castle, near Carlisle, 
and was born on the 18th of Novembei', 1753. He was created 
a baronet in October, 1808.* In June, 1781, he married Anne,t 
only daughter of the Rev. Thomas Moore, of Kirkstall, near 
Leeds (sole heiress of her only brother, Major Thomas Moore, 
of the 4th Regiment of Cavalry, who died, unmaiTied, in 1784), 
heir-general of the family of Artliington,| of Arthington, near 
Leeds, and also one of the co-heiresses of the family of Sandford 
(a veiy ancient family, who may be traced to the reign of King 
John, and who were formerly of Sandford-upon-Eden, in the 
county of Westmoreland), &c., by whom he had issue three sons 
and two daughters, of whom one son and one daughter alone 
sui-vived him, viz., Sandfoi'd,§ who succeeded to the title, &c.. 

* Sir James Graham was, in June, 1802, from tlie personal friendship and 
powerful interest of Sir William Lowther, of Swillington, near Leeds, after- 
wards Earl of Lonsdale, &c., chosen member for the borough of Cocker- 
mouth, in the county of Cumljerland, which he continued to represent until 
1812 (except for a year, when he was chosen for the district boroughs in 
Galloway), when he was elected member for the city of Carlisle. He was 
Master of Ai-ts, F.A.S., and F.L.S., and hereditary member of the British 
Institution, &c. 

f Anne Moore was the daughter of Tliomas Moore, Esq. , who married, in 
1742, Ann, daughter of Thomas Sawer, Esq., twice mayor of Leeds, in 1726 
and 1740; took deacons' orders in 1744; became curate of Headingley, and 
died December 10th, 1764. Tlie male branches of the several families of 
Moore, rector of Guiseley (of Redcote and of Kirkstall Forge); of the 
Arthingtons, Hickes, and Hardcastles, all formerly of this neighljourhood, 
are now extinct; but dame Anne, the wife of Sir James Graham, Bart., was 
the lineal descendant and sole heir-general of the Moores, Arthingtons, and 
Hickes, and co-heir of the Hardcastles, &c. ; and they wei'e (as such heir- 
general) in the possession of the several mills and other pro])erty in Kirkstall, 
Armley, Bramley, Headingley, and Moore-.i\llerton, formerly of the Moores, 
Arthingtons, and Hickes. 

J For a short account of the Arthingtons, see Ifote on p. 163 of this volume ; 
and for a longer account, with two engravings of the ancient nunnery at Arth- 
ington, see Jones's Hintory of Haravood, pp. 218, 2.31, &c. 

§ Sir Sandford Graham, Bart., F.S. A., was boi-n March 10th, 1788 ; married, 
April 22nd, 1819, Caroline, thinl daugliter of the late Jolin Haugliton Lang- 
ston, Esq., of Sarsdcn House, C)xfor(lsliirc, and by her liad issue — 1, Sand- 
ford, the present baronet ; 2, Lumlcy, lieutenant-colonel, IDth regiment ; 
bom 1828; man-ied, January 1st, 1856, Augusta, eldest daughter of John 



imd the lady of Colonel Dairy mple, late M.P, for Applety, &c. 
Lady Graham died abovit three years ago (1822).— See the 
Leeds PaiJers ; the New Monthly Magazine for May, 1825, 
p, 232; the Annual Biogra'phy and Obituary for 1826, p. 430; 
Whitaker's Thoreshy, vol. i.,p. 8; Burke's Peerage and Baronet- 
age^ &c. 

M.P., of Farnley Hall, near Leeds, was born March 2nd, 1769, 
and died at his house iii Baker Street, Portman Square, London, 
October 2oth, 1825, aged fifty-six. He was the eldest son of 
Walter Ramsden Beaumont Hawksv/orth, Esq., of Hawksworth, 
in this county, who assumed the surname and arms of Fawkes, 
pursuant to the will of his cousin, Francis Fawkes, Esq., of 
Farnley Hall, near Leeds, who, owing to the death of an only 
son and heir-apparent, left his estate to^Mr. Hawksworth in 1786. 
This circumstance may suffice to show the incorrectness of a state- 
ment which appeared in some of the London papers, that Mr. 
Fawkes was a descendant of the celebrated conspii-ator, Guy 
Fawkes, and prided himself on that connection. Mr. Fawkes's 
relationship to the ancient family whose surname he bore was 
remote and maternal ; his grandfather, Walter Pvamsden, Esq., 
having assumed the surname and arms of Hawksworth, pur- 
suant to the will of his grandfather. Sir Walter Hawksworth, 
which Sir Walter Hawksworth had married a daughter of John 
Ayscough, Esq., who was allied on the female side to the 
Fawkeses, of Farnley. Mr. Walter Fawkes was a gentleman 
gifted with more than ordinary talents, and during a great part 
of his life took an active share in the public concerns of the 
country, and more particularly of his native county. During 
the dearth in 1795, emplojmient being scarce and bread dear, he 
distributed weekly twenty loads of wheat amongst the poor on 
his estate and neighbourhood; at the same time he used the 

Raymond Barker, Esq., of Fairford Park, Gloucestershire; 3, Cyril Gierke, 
born in 1834; and two daughters —1, Garoline, married, May 27th, 18.52, to 
the Eev. Henry John Morant, third son of John Morant, Esq., of Farn- 
horough; 2, Maiy, married. May 3rd, 1854, the Eev. Adolphus Leighton 
"Wliite, second son of the late Vice- Admiral Sir J. G. "White, K.G.B., &c. 
The present Sir Sandford Graham, Bart., of Kirkstall, near Leeds, was born 
Febi-uary 21st, 1821 ; married, February 4th, 1847, Eleonora Garoline, eldest 
daughter of the present Marquis of Anglesey, which lady flied November 
17th, 1848. Sir Sandford succeeded as third baronet at the decease of his 
father, in 1852. Their motto is " Fideliter et diligenter"— Faithfully and 
diligently, &c. The late Sir Sandford Graham, in February, 1826, gave the 
munificent sum of £500 towards the erection of a church at Kirkstall, near 
Leeds. — See the Peerages and Haronetagcs, &c. 


most rigid economy in his own house, and his benevolent 
example so affected the neighbouring millers, that they offered 
to grind for the poor gi-atis. He was colonel of the 4th West 
York Militia in 1797-8, and until it was disbanded iu 1799. 
At the great coiuity meeting in 1803, on the renewal of hos- 
tilities with France, Mr. Fawkes made a celebrated speech in 
support of that measure, and displayed a force of eloquence the 
effect of which was long afterwards remembered. His cordial 
co-oj^eration against the enemies of his countiy at that period 
was also further evinced by his heading the Wharfedale Volun- 
teers, who were then raised in defence of the nation. Duriug 
the short administration of "the talents," in 1806, he was one 
of the representatives for Yorkshire. In 1823 he was high- 
sheriff of the county. Mr. Fawkes's politics were supposed to 
be most nearly allied to those of the Whigs; but on this sub- 
ject, from his course of public conduct, it is difficult to speak 
with accu.racy. His accomplishments were many, and of the 
highest order. He was a lover and practiser of the refinements 
of social life, a munificent patron of the fine arts, and ^- assessed 
of a varied and cultivated taste. His collection of pictures at 
Farnley HaU was extensive and of great value, and contained 
more specimens of the celebrated Turner's best paintings and 
drawings than any other galleiy in the kingdom. He was also 
a warm friend to the Northern Society established in Leeds, 
and several times lent some of his best pictures to enrich their 
exhibitions. To say that 3Ir. Fawkes had failings, is only to 
observe that he partook of the common lot of humanity. He 
is now, however, no more; and whatever slight blemishes may 
have been in his character or conduct are lost, and will be for- 
gotten in the many splendid and endearing qualities which 
rendered him an ornament to his country, and made his death a 
deep affliction to his family and a vast circle of old and attached 
friends. His generosity and urbanity were almost proverbial — 
his integrity unquestionable ; in all the relations of life he was 
respected and beloved; and the loss of his kindness was long 
deplored by those who had been accustomed to experience it.* 
Mr, Fawkes was the last of three brothers — Francis Hawks- 

* According to the Gentleman's Magazine, Mr. Fawkes was a gentleman 
universally esteemed for his urbanity, and most deservedly sustained the 
character of an excellent landlord, as well as a kind master. In his public 
career he was a firm supporter of the Wiiig interest, and a strong advocate 
for parliamentary reform. He was a great admirer of the fine arts, and had 
some plates of local views engraved at his o\vn expense. He was the author, 
also, of two political pamphlets, and of a Ckronolo'jy of ike History of 
Modetti Europe, 4to., 1810. 


worth, Esq., tlie late registrar ; the Rev. Ayscough Hawks- 
worth, of Leathley Hall, near Leeds; and himself, the head of 
the family, who, in the short space of six months, were con- 
signed to the grave. He was married twice; first, to Maria, 
daughter of Richard Grimston, Esq., of Neswick, who died in 
December, 1823, and by whom he had eleven children, ten of 
whom survived him;"' and, secondly, in January, 1826, to the 
Hon. Mrs, Butler, relict of the Hon. and Rev. Pierce Butler, 
third son of the Earl of Carrick, by whom he had no issue. 
— See the Leeds Intelligencer, &c., for October, 1825. For his 
portrait, pedigree, &c., see Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis, p. 173 ; 
Whitaker's Loidis and Elmete, p. 194, &c. ; and for further 
information, see Burke's Landed Gentry, &c. 

A celebrated engineer (according to Smiles's Industrial Bio- 
graphy), f was born at Stockton-on-Tees, :{: in the year 1763.§ 
His parents were of the working class, and Matthew, like the 
other members of the family, was brought up with the ordinaiy 
career of labour before him. When of due age his father 
apprenticed him to the trade of a blacksmitli,|| in which he very 
soon acquired considerable expertuess. He married before his 
term had expired ; after which, trade being slack at Stockton, 
he found it necessary to look for work elsewhere. Leaving his 
wife behind him, he set out for Leeds with his bundle on his 
back, and after a long journey on foot he reached that town 
with not enough money left in his pocket to pay for a bed at 
the Bay Horse Inn, where he put up; but, telling the landlord 

*He was succeeded by his eldest son, the present Francis Hawksworth 
Fawkes, Esq. (who has kindly revised the above Sketch), of Farnley Hall, 
near Leeds, who married, April 6th, 1825, Elizabeth Anne, only daughter 
of the Hon. and Rev. Pierce Butler, younger son of Henry Thomas, second 
Earl of Carrick, &c. —See Burke's Landed Gentry, &c. 

+ The following Wotes, in correction of, and '^in addition to, Dr. Smiles's 
interesting account, have been kindly contributed by Mi". J. O. March, one of 
the senior aldermen of Leeds, and an eminent machine-maker, who married 
one of Mr. Matthew Murray's daughters; his late partner, Mr. Charles Gas- 
coigne^Maclea, having married another. 

X "VVe believe he was born in or near Newcastle, where he also served his 
apprenticeship, nnd afterwards for a year or two worked in a mechanics' shop 
at Stockton. Mrs. Murray's family lived at Wickham, near Newcastle, where 
he became acquainted with her. 

§ Mr. Murray died in February, 1826, in his sixty -first year, and was, there- 
fore, bom in 1765. 

II A blacksmith is one who shoes horses, &c., which Murray never did. He 
should have been called an engine-smith, or a machine-smith, or simply a 
smith ; any of Avhich would have been better than the designation given. 


that he expected work at Marshall's, and seeming to be a 
respectable young man, the landlord trusted him; and he was 
so fortunate as to obtain the job which he sought at Mr. Mar- 
shall's, who was then beginning the manufacture of flax, for 
which the firm has since become so famous. Mr. Marshall was 
at that time engaged in improvijig the method of manufacture, 
and the young mechanic was so fortunate, or rather so dex- 
terous, as to be able to suggest several improvements in the 
machineiy* which secured the approval of his employer, who 
made him a present of £20, and very shortly promoted him to 
be the fii-st mechanic in the workshop. On this stroke of good 
fortune Murray took a house at the neighbouring village of 
Beeston,f sent to Stockton for his wife, who speedily joined 
him, and he now felt himself fairly started in the world. He 
remained with Mr. Marshall for about twelve years, during 
which he introduced numerous improvements in the machinery 
for sjiinning flax, and obtained the reputation of being a first- 
rate mechanic. This induced Mr. James Fenton and Mr. David 
Wood to oflTer to join him in the establishment of an engineering 
and machine-making factory at Leeds, which he agreed to, and 
operations were commenced at Holbeck in the year 1795. As 
Mr. Murray had obtained considerable practical knowledge of 
the steam-engine while working at Mr. Marshall's, he took the 
principal charge of the engine-building department, while his 
partner (Wood) directed the machine-making. In the branch 
of engine-building Mr. Murray very shortly established a high 
reputation, treading close upon the heels of Boulton and Watt 
— so close, indeed, that that firm became very jealous of him, 
and purchased a lai-ge piece of ground close to his works with 
the object of preventing their extension.* His additions to the 

* He went to Scotland Mill, near Meanwood, to work for Mr. Marshall, in 
1789, and at that age (twenty-four) made several valuable improvements 
in flax-machiner}^ ; for which he was rewarded by a present of £20. But for 
his improvements at that time, it is nearly certain that flax-spinning in this 
neigh)>oui-hood would have ceased to exist, as all those embarked in it had 
lost the gi-eater part of their capital without any success. Its establishment 
in Leeds was mainly due to his skill and ingenuity. 

+ While at Scotland Mill, near Meanwood, Mr. Murray lived at Blackmoor, 
which is in the neighbourhood. They never lived at Beeston. Their first 
mechanics' shop was at Mill Gieen, in Wortley Lane, in the suburbs of Hol- 
lieck, l)ut they soon removed to Water Lane, the site of the present Rounfl. 

t The purchase of this large piece of ground, known as Camp Field, had 
the effect of "plugging up" Matthew Mun-ay for a time; and it remained 
disused, except for the deposit of dead dogs and other rubl)ish, for more than 
half a century. It has been partially enclosed during the last two yeai-s, and 
now forms part of the works of Messrs. Smith, Beacock, and Tannett, the 
eminent tool-makers. 


steam-engine were of great practical value: one of wliich, the 
self-acting apparatus attached to the hoiler for the purpose of 
regulating the intensity of fire under it, and consequently the 
production of steam, is still in general use. This was invented 
by him as early as 1799.* He also subsequently ijivented the 
D slide-valve, or at least greatly improved it, while he added to 
the power of the air-pump, and gave a new arrangement to the 
other parts, with a view to the simplification of the powers of 
the engine. To make the D valve work efficiently, it was found 
necessary to form two i)erfectly plain surfaces, to produce- which 
he invented his planing-machine. He was also the first to 
adopt the practice of placing the piston in a horizontal position 
in the common condeusing-engine. Among his other modifica- 
tions in the steam-engine was his improvement of the locomotive 
as invented by Trevithick; and it ought to be remembered to 
his honour that he made the first locomotive that regularly 

* In the construction and improvement of some of the parts of engines, 
mnch was done by Mr. Murray. These improvements were made the sub- 
jects of patents ; and though it appeared that some of them had been used 
before, they did not become publicly known tiU Mr. Murray obtained patents 
for them. In his iDatent of 1799, in order to save fuel, Mr. Murraj' proposed 
to place a small cylinder with a piston on the top of the boiler, connected by 
a chain to the damper on the chimney, by means of which the force of the 
steam within the boiler had the effect of increasing or decreasing the draught 
of the fire, so as to keep up a regular degree of elastic force in the steam. 
Mr. Murray also thought some advantage would be gained by placing the 
steam-cylinder in a horizontal instead of a vertical position, with a view of 
rendering the engine more compact than the usual construction; he also 
adopted a new method of connecting the reciprocating motion of the piston- 
rod to a rotatory one of equal power, by means of a jiroperty of the rolling- 
circle, and showed how to fix the wheels for producing motion alternately in 
perpendicular and horizontal directions. The slide-valve was first applied to the 
steam-engine by Mr. Murray in 1799, which answered the purpose of opening 
and closing four steam-passages, to use Dr. Robinson's words, "in a beautiful 
and simple manner," and he may be fairly considered the inventor. Mr. Murray 
invented a very ingenious meclianism for adjusting the supply of air to the 
])oiler-fumace, so as to diminish the quantity of smoke. This self-acting 
apparatus is described in the London Journal for 1821. Next in importance 
to Mr. Watt's improvements on the steam-engine may be reckoned those of 
Mr. Murray ; besides the invention of the apparatus for regidating the 
intensity of the fii-e, and the introduction of the slide-valve with gi-eat 
improvements, he gave a new arrangement to some of the other portions, and 
greatly improved the air-pump, as well as many other parts in the beautiful 
engines which were constructed at his manufactory. Teuton and Murray 
were the manufacturers of the most established reputation after Messrs. 
Boulton and Watt ; the engines they sent out could not be excelled in beauty 
and perfection of workmanship. Their extensive maniffactory was provided 
with every convenience for making all the parts of the engine in the best 
manner, and with the least labour. They had the reputation of emplojdng a 
greater quantity of tools, and of better and more ingenious construction, than 
any house in the trade. Mr. Murray was, indeed, a man of distinguished 
original genius. 


■worked upon any railway. This was tlie engine erected by liim 
for Blenkinsop, to work the Middleton Colliery Railway near 
Leeds, on which it began to run in 1812, and continued in 
regular use for many years. In this engine he introduced the 
double cylinder, the defects of which were supplemented by the 
addition of a fly-wheel to carry the crank over the dead points. 
But Matthew Murray's most important inventions, considered 
in their effects on manufacturing industry, were those connected 
with the machinery for heckling and spinning flax,* which he 
very greatly improved. HLs heckling-machine obtained for him 
the prize of the gold medal of the Society of Arts; and this, as 
well as his machine for wet flax-spinning by means of sponge 
weights, proved of the greatest practical value. At the time 
when these inventions were made, the flax trade was on the 
point of expiring, the spinners being unable to produce yarn to 
a profit; and their almost immediate efiect was to reduce the 
cost of production, to improve immensely the quality of the 
manufactiu-e, and to establish the British linen trade on a solid 
foundation. The production of flax machinery became an 
important branch of maniifacture at Leeds, large quantities 
being made for use at home as well as for exportation, 
giving employment to an increased number of highly-skilled 
mechanics. t Mr. Murray's faculty for organizing work, per- 
fected by experience, enabled him also to introduce many valu- 
able improvements in the mechanics of manufacturing. His 
pre-eminent skill in mill-gearing ;{: became generally acknow- 

* Mr. Mun-ay invented his heckling-macMne in 1805, and accomplished 
what was then thought a most flifficult task — to the trade it was all -im- 
portant. The machine was very ingenious, and Mv. March has in liis posses- 
sion the original model, which was exhibited to the Eoyal Society, at which 
time the Duke of Sussex presented Mr. Slurray -ndth the gold medal, which 
his grandson, I^Ir. George March, still retains as an heirloom. While naming 
this, it may also be stated that he constracted a large amount of engine and 
mUl work for the Russian Government, and had the honour of receiving 
from the Emperor a most valuable diamond ring. For works done for 
Sweden, he had also presented to him a gold snuff-box by the King of 

+ Among more recent improvers of flax-machinery, the late Sir Peter Fair- 
baira, of Leeds, is entitled to high merit: the work turned out by him being 
of fii-st-rate excellence, cmbodj-ing numerous inventions and improvements of 
great value and importance. 

+ At liis commencement, mill-gearing was in a veryi-ude state; he left it in 
nearly the state it is at present. The large framings for the first motions of 
mills are to this day models of elegance, possessing everything requisite for 
strength and durability. He touched nothing that did not come out of his 
hands a new thing. Considering that he was no mathematician, it was triily sur- 
prising that the sketches of drawings which he wanted making were remark- 
ably proportionate ; showing tlic strengths verj' nearly accurate wlien they 
were reckoned out. Mr. Murray possessed in a very high degree the common 


ledged, and the effects of his labours are felt to this day in the 
extensive and still thriving branches of industry, which his 
ingenuity and ability mainly contributed to establish. All the 
machine tools used in his establishment were designed by him- 
self, and he was most careful in the pei*sonal superintendence of 
all the details of their construction. Mr. JMurray died at Leeds, 
February 20th, 1826, in his sixty-first year. — See Grier's 
Mecha7iics' Dictionary ; Ne'wton's Lo)idon Journal of Arts; 
the Mechanics' Magazine; Smiles's Industrial Biography, &c. 

Author, &c., of Bedford Street, Bedford Square, London, died 
November 1st, 1826, after a severe illness of a few weeks, aged 
fifty-foui' years. He was born on Christmas day, 1772, and was 
the second son of Richard and Mercy Rhodes, of Leeds. His 
education is said to have been on rather a limited scale, and 
intended for mercantile pursuits, commencing his career in the 

attribute of real genius— a truly liberal mind; nothing pleased him more 
than to exliibit the great stores of his rich mechanical mind to a kindred spirit. 
For clever tools and implements, and especially for the forgings of beat-iron 
work, such as parallel motions and tlie like, he was far in advance of others. 
A memorable instance of his liberality was shown by the invitation he gave 
to Mr. Mm-dock, the managing partner of INIr. Watt, to stop a week at Steam 
HaU, — IVIr. Murray having V)uilt a verj' handsome house, which was called 
Steam Hall, because it was heated entirely by steam. Mr. Murdock accepted 
the invitation, and had free access to eveiy part of the works, and every 
attention was shown to him. For this kindness Mr. Murray received a most 
ungenerous return, for, immediately afterwards, Messrs. Boulton and Watt 
bought a lai'ge field near his works, for the express pui-pose of preventing 
their extension. ISTor was this the only source of complaint. On his way 
from London Mr. Mxuray called at Birmingham for the pui-pose of looking 
over the Soho "Works, and enjojing a treat in examining the tools of Mr. 
Watt's establishment. He was received politely, together with Mj-s. Murray, 
who accompanied him, and both were invited to dine ; Mr. INIurdock, how- 
ever, hoped they would excuse him declining to show him the works, as their 
rule was not to show them to any persons in the trade. It need hardly be 
added that Mr. Murray was greatly affronted, and at once declined the offered 
dinner, ilr. Murray lighted this town with gas at a very early period in the 
history of gas manufacture ; introducing many improvements in the constinic- 
tion of the retorts, the condensers, and the various other pai-ts of the 

* —1826. Charles John Br.vxdlixg, Esq., M.P. for Northumberland, of 
Middleton Hall, near Leeds, died, after a few hours' iUness, of inflammation, 
Februaiy ] st, 1826, at Gosforth House, near Xewcastle-upon-Tyne. He was de- 
scended from an ancient family in that county (see Surtees's D ur/uim, vol i. , pp. 
90-93) ; and was the eldest son of Charles Brandling, Esq. , an eminent banker in 
Newcastle, and M.P. for that town in three parliaments, from 1784 to 1797. 
On his father accepting the ChUtern Hundreds in the latter year, the son 
succeeded in the representation, and was returned at the four next general 
elections. In 1812 he retired, but at the general election in 1820 was chosen 
for Northumberland. He seldom spoke in the House but on local questions. 


humble department of writer in an attorney's office. Wliether 
the bias of his miud was to "pen a stanza when he should 
engross," is not absolutely cei-tain, although the seductive wiles 
of literature, and particularly the di-ama, not being discouraged 
by his father, occasioned his becoming an enthusiast upon the 
latter subject, and finally distinguLshed, some years after, as the 
fortunate possessor of a large and curious collection of theatrical 
pieces. About the year 1799 he obtained a permanent situation 
as a clerk in the Bank of England, where his strict attention, 
assiduity, and integiity, led to the not more fortunate than 
honourable appointment by the governors, unsolicited, about 
three years ago (in 1823), to the situation of a chief-teller. His 
duty at the bank daily aiforded a very few hours of leisure, of 
which his persevering zeal made due advantage. At the Rox- 
buj-ghe sale in June, 1812, he is supposed to have first materially 
enlarged his collection, and in Api-il, 1825, — a period not exceed- 
ing thii-teen years, — upon the sale of his own libraiy by Mr. 
Sotheby, he had accumulated no less than 2,918 lots (or nearly 
5,000 pieces), relative to the drama. An account of that sale, 
which lasted ten days, w4th the prices produced by the fifty-five 
most rare and curious articles, "was given in the Gentlemans 
Magazine for May, 1825. As an author, his fancy indulged in 
a playful revelry of satire and burlesque humoiir. He published, 
with his name, Eingrams, in two books, in 1803, and some 
Eccentric Tales, in Verse, by Cornelius Crambo, in 1808. But 
liis most popular and well-known production was the ludicrous 
Burlesque Tragic Opera, Bombastes Furioso, first performed at 
the Theatre Royal, Haymarket, August 7th, 1810. After being 
often suiTeptitiously printed in London, Dublin, and New York, 
the author in 1822 was induced to sanction a publication of 

Mr, Brandling married Frances Elizabeth, daughter of WUliani Hawksworth 
of Hawksworth, Esq., in the county of York, but had no cliildien. His next 
brother was the Eev. Ralph Henry Brandling, ^^ear of Eothwell, near Leeds. 
Two of his sisters, both now deceased, were married to Rowland Burdon, 
Esq., formerly M.P. for the county of Duiham, and to Thomas Creevey, Esq., 
late M.P. for Appleby, kc. The grand-daughter of Su- Ferdinand Leigh, of 
Middleton (for a Sketch of whom see p. 90, kc), married Ralph Brandling, 
Esq., of Tilling, in the county of Duiham, in whose famdy the manor of 
Middleton [ha.s] continued for more than a centuiy. There are scarcely any 
remains to be discovered of the old manor-house of the Leighs (or Leghs). 
The modern mansion, erected by the Brandling family, stands on a fine eleva- 
tion, commanding extensive prospects of Leeds and the neighbouring countiy, 
and is surrounded Ijy fine oak woods, which contain several plea.saut walks 
and drives. Charles .John Brandling, Esq., also married Henrietta, younger 
daughter of Sir George Aimytage (who died in 1836), of ELirklees Hall, in 
this county.— See the Gentleman's Magazine for April, 1826; 'WTiitaker's 
Thoreshy, kc. 


this whimsical trifle with his name. He left one or two other 
dramatic pieces, never acted or printed, which it was con- 
templated to publish with his other works in one volume, to 
assist his young widow and a posthumous daughter, whom the 
nature of his situation left in rather indifferent circumstances. 
See the Gentleman s Magazine for ISTovember, 1826, &c. 


Died at his seat, Gledhow, near Leeds, September 18th, 1826, in 
the eighty-fourth year of his age. He was born April 30th, 1743, 
and was"^the grandson of Gervase Beckett, Esq., of Barnsley.* 
He married, March 3rd, 1774, Mary, third daiighter of the Right 
Reverend Christopher Wilson, Bishop of Bristol (and aunt to 
Richard Fountayne Wilson, Esq., late M.P. for Yorkshire), and 
had by her eight sons and three daughters— 1, John, the second 
baronet, born 1775; 2, Christopher, born 1777; 3, Thomas, 
thii'd baronet, born 1779; 4, Richard, a captain in the Guards, 
slain at Talavera, in 1809; 0, William, M.P., late a banker at 
Leeds, born in 1784, who married Frances Adelina, sister of 
Hugo Meynell Ingram, Esq., of Temple Newsam, near Leeds; 
6, Edmund, late M.P. for the West-Riding of Yorkshire, born 
1787, married, in December, 1814, Maria, daughter of William 
Beverley, Esq., and great niece of the wife of Sir Thomas 
Denison, Knt., Judge of the Common Pleas, and has issue 
Edmund Beckett Denison, M.A., Q.C., and William Beckett 
Denison, banker, of Leeds. The father assumed the surname 
and arms of Denison in 1811. Sir John was created a baronet 
in ISTovember, 1813; was twice mayor of Leeds, in 1775 and 
1797, and both as chief magistrate of the borough, and one of 
the justices of the peace for the West-Riding, was distinguished 
for his legal knowledge, his firm but impartial administration of 
the laws, and his successful exertions in times of difficulty in 
preserving tranquillity, and enforcing the duties of good subjects 
to the government of the country. Without ever appearing 
very prominent as a political man. Sir John was a profound 
politician. No man better understood how to adapt the means 
to the end, and his influence was frec[uently felt where he was 

* He was the son of Jolin Beckett, Esq., by his second wife, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Joseph Wilson, Esq. Joseph Beckett, Esq., of Barnsley, one of 
Sir .John's younger brothers, married, in June, 1785, Mary, daughter and 
co-heir of John Staniforth, Esq., of Hull, and bj' her had (with five daughters, 
one of whom, Caroline, was married, in 1825, to Sir Thomas Beckett, Bart.) 
one son, the present John Staniforth Beckett, Esq., of The KnoU, Torquay, 
and late of Barnsley, born in April, 1794, &c. — See ISurke's Landed Gentry. 


not seen. Few men have been more blessed in tlieir family, and 
it is only justice to say that tliey owe mucli of their prosperity 
to the lessons of moral virtue and commercial integrity set by 
their revered parent. Besides the property which Sir John 
inherited, he was during a long course of years principal pai-tner 
in the Leeds Bank (of Beckett, Blayds, & Co. ), and in that capacity 
rendered at all times the most essential serv^ices to the trade 
and inhabitants, not only of Leeds but of its ^dcinity, to a con- 
siderable extent. It has indeed been the peculiar characteristic 
of this establishment, that however sudden or trying the vicissi- 
tudes of the commercial world, its stability has never been sus- 
pected; but, on the contrary, it has always at such emergencies 
been the refuge of honest men, and the liberal supporter of the 
mercantile and manufacturing interests. For some years Sir 
John had not taken an active part in business, but had chiefly 
resided in the bosom of his numerous and aflectionate family. To 
Ms memory and that of Lady Beckett, there is a tablet erected 
on the north-east side of the interior of the Leeds parisli church.* 
He was succeeded in his title by his eldest son, the late Eight 
Hon. Sir John Beckett, M.P., F.B.S., &c., who married, in 
1816, Lady Anne Lowther, third daughter of the Earl of Lons- 
dale, K.G. — For further information, see the Leeds Papers; the 
Peerages and Baronetages ; the Gentleman's Magazine for 1826. 
For his pedigree, &c., see Thoi-esby's Ducatus Leodiensis, p. 4. 



Merchant and woolstapler, of Leeds, died May 5tli, 1826, aged 

* On the 23rd of September the remains of the deceased were interred in 
the family vault in the parish church of St. John's, Leeds, attended thither 
by four mourning coaches, two family carriages, and the private carriages of 
the following gentlemen: — E,. F. WUson, Esq., M.P. ; Christopher "Wilson, 
Esq.; General Marriott (son-ia-law of 8ii- .John Beckett); Major Norcliflfe; 
John Blayds, Esq. ; John Blayds, jun. , Esq. ; Joseph Beckett, Esq. ; Thomas 
Beckett, Esq.; Thomas Benyon, Esq.; Martia Hind, Esq.; Thomas Chorley, 
Esq. ; Rev. G. Lewthwaite ; Benjamin Gott, Esq. ; T. B. Pease, Esq. ; and 
W. Hey, Esq. Some of the members of the Corjioration of Leeds, including 
the excellent chief magistrate, were also in attendance ; and, as the funeral 
approached its destination, great crowd.s of people of all classes joined it as a 
mark of lespect to the memory of the honourable baronet, who, when living, 
had been the object of their liighest esteem and veneration. On entering the 
churchyard, the coffin was followed by the Right Hon. Sir John Beckett, and 
five other of the late Sir John Beckett's son.s, as chief mourners; his brother, 
Joseph Beckett, Esq., of Bamslcy; his relations, General Marriott; R. F. 
Wilson, Esq., M.P. ; C'liristopher Wilson, Esq.; and a long train of gentlemen 
of the first lespectability. — See the Leeds Papers, and also the Gentleman^s 
Mctfjazine for October, 1826, p. 372, &c. 

+ — 1826. Sir Th(jmas Vava.socr, Bart., died January 27th, 1826, at Hazle- 
wood Hall, near Leeds, aged eighty years. He was originally intended for the 



fifty-six years. The Leeds Mechanics' Institute sustained in 
his death a very severe loss; he was one of the vice-presidents, 
and devoted much of his time to the promotion of its interests. 
He was also an active and efficient member of the Leeds 
Literary and Philosophical Society. Mr. Luccock was the 
author of a treatise on The Nature and Properties of Wool, 
Illustrated, with Description of the English Fleece, 12mo., Leeds, 
180/) — a work containing miich new and original information, 
and which concentrates into one view all that was before known 
upon this interesting subject ; and also of a valuable work 
entitled Kotes on Rio de Janeiro and the Southern Parts of 
Brazil, taken during a Residence of Ten Years in that country, 
from 1808 to 1818, ivith 3faps, &c., 4to., 1820, published at 
£2 12s. Gd. This brief Sketch has been kindly i-evised by his 
son, John Darnton Luccock, Esq., the present mayor of Leeds, 
&c. — See the Leeds Mercury, &c., for May, 1826. 



Artist and drawing-master, of Park Square, Leeds, died on 

Saturday, November 24th, 1827, in the forty-sixth year of his 

age, to the inexpressible grief of his family and a large circle of 

Leeds business, and was apprenticed with one of the most respectable houses 
in the town; but family circumstances prevented the intention from being 
carried into effect, and previously to the death of his brother (in 1802), 
he lived chiefly on the continent. He was born about 1746; was the seventh 
baronet, and was never married ; the baronetcy, therefoi'e, becoming extinct. 
The present Sir Henry Mervyn Vavasour, third baronet, born in 1814 ; suc- 
ceeded, 1838 ; married Louisa Anne, daughter of third Lord Braybrooke ; is 
descended maternally from the very ancient family of Vavasour, of Spalding- 
ton and Hazlewood, and is senior baronet of the united kingdom. The 
present Sir Edward Vavasour, second baronet, was born in 1815, and suc- 
ceeded in 1847. Tlie first baronet (the Hon. Edward Marmaduke Stoui-ton, 
who married Marcia, daughter of James Lane Fox, Esq., of Bramham Park) 
was a younger sou of the sixteenth Lord Stourton, who assumed the name 
of Vavasour on succeeding to the Hazlewood estates. Heir-presumptive, his 
brother William, who was born in 1822, and married, in 1846, Mary Con- 
stantia, daughter of the seventh Lord Clifford, &c.— For a longer Sketch, see 
the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. xcvi., pp. 272, 574, &c. ; the Monthly Ma(ja- 
zinc for April, 1826, p. 428, &c. ; the Peerages and Baronetages, &c. 

* —1827. Granville Hastings Wheler, Esq., F.S.A., of Ledstone Lodge, 
near Leeds, kc. , died February 3rd, 1827, aged forty-six years. He was pos- 
sessed of considerable estates in Yorkshire, imder" the will of the excellent 
and pious Lady Elizabeth Hastings. His eldest sister, Elizabeth, married 
Thomas Medhurst, Esq., of Kippax Hall, near Leeds, J. P. and D.L. ; and 
died in 1783, leaving issue an only son, Granville William Hastings Medhurst, 
Esq., of Kippax Hall, who married Sarah Anne, daughter of the Rev. 
William Jennings, of Blacklieath, and died April 4th, 1840, leaving issue — 1, 
William Granville Hastings Medhurst, Esq., of Kippax HaU, born in 1789; 
major in the army; served with the 27th regiment in the Peninsula, Egypt, 


friends. His deatli was occasioned by the ovei-throw of the 
" True Bkie" coach, which ran between Leeds and Wakefiekl, 
at Belle Hill, near Leeds, on Thursday, ISTovember 22nd, 1827. 
(For a long account of wliich, see the Leeds Papers, &c., of that 
date.) " One of the sufferers, the late Mi'. Cope, of this town, 
was a gentleman of great respectability in private life, and of 
very considerable professional talents as an artist. He had been 
a resident of Leeds for upwards of twenty years, and enjoyed 
the friendship as well as patronage of nearly all the first families 
in this part of the West-Riding. We have, indeed," said the 
Leeds Intelligencer, " seldom heard the untimely fate of any one 
more generally or sincerely lamented than the sudden and dis- 
tressing death of Mr. Cope, by all who had the pleasure of his 
acquaintance. He was, we believe, a native of London, and fell 
a victim to negligence, we may say, in the prime of life, and 
in the midst of prospects not less honourably acquired than 
gratifying in their future aspect." — See the Leeds Papers, &c., 
for November, 1827. 



Commandant of the Leeds Volunteer Infantry, and a deputy- 
lieutenant for the West-Riding, youngest son of the late George 

and Italy ; died in October, 1835, leaving issue the present Francis Hastings 
Medhurst, Esq. , of Kippax Hall, &c. ; 2, the present Rev. Charles Wheler, of 
Otterden Place, Kent, and Ledstone Hall, near Leeds, born in 1795 ; married, 
in 1831, Anne, daughter of the Rev. James Landon, B.D., vicar of Aberford, 
near Leeds, and has issue, Charles "WTieler, Esq., bom November 17th, 
1834, &c. — For a much longer Sketch, see the Gentleman's Magazine, &c., for 
Febraary, 1827, p. 180, &c. ; Burke's Landed Gentry, kc. For a description 
and engraving of Otterden Place, Kent, where there is a fine portrait of 
Lady Elizabeth Hastings, formerly of Ledstone Hall, &c., see the Gentleman's 
Magazine for May, 1832, pp. 393-398 ; and for June, 1832, p. 498, &c. 

* —1828. Sir Johx Trevelyan, Bart., born at Esholt, near Leeds, February 
Gtb, 1734-5; married Louisa Marianna, daughter and co-heiress of Peter 
Symond, Esq. , a merchant of London ; died April 8th, 1828, at his residence 
in Great Pulteney Street, Bath, aged ninety-three years— a gentleman be- 
loved and revered in every domestic and social relation. He was the only 
son of Sir George, the third baronet, by Julia, only daughter of Sir "Walter 
Calverley, Bart., of Calverley, near Leeds, and eventually heiress, in 1777, 
of her brotlier. Sir Walter Calverley, who had assumed the name of Blackett, 
in compliance with the testainentary injunction of his cousin. Sir William 
Blackett, Bart., who died in 1723. He was a member of New College, 
O-xford, where he was created M. A. in July, 1757. On the 28tli of December, 
17G8, he succeeded his father in the title and estates, which he had conse- 
quently enjoyed for nearly sixty years. He first entered parliament in 1777, 
on the death of his uncle. Sir Walter Blackett, as member for Newcastle, &c. 
The i)resent representative of this family is Sir A\'altcr Calverley Trevelyan, 
Bart., born in 1797, &c. Their motto, in Ivnglisli, is, "Time trietli troth." 
—For a longer Sketch, see the Gentleman's Magazine for May, 1828, p. 4G9, 
i^c. ; the Peerages and Baronetages, &c. See also tliis volume, p. 1(52, &c. 


Lloyd, Esq., F.R.S.,* of Ban-owby Hall, Horsfortli, near Leeds, 
by Susannah, daughter of the late Sir William Horton, of 
Chadderton, Bart., died in April, 1828, at Kingthorpe House, 

* Geokge Lloyd, Esq., F.E,.S., D.L., only child of Gamaliel Lloyd, of Man- 
chester, merchant and manufacturer, died at Barrowby, near Leeds, December 
4th, 1783. "^> He married, fi rst, Eleanor, elder daughter of Henry Wright, Esq. , 
of Ort'erton, in Cheshire, and by her had an only child, John Lloyd, Esq., 
E.R.S., of Snitterton, in the county of Warwick, who married Anne, 
daughter and heir of James Hibbins, M.D., and had issue— 1, George, of 
Welcombe House, Warwick, born in March, 1768; high-sheriff in 1806; 
died, unmarried, in July, 1831; 2, John Gamaliel, of Welcombe House, 
bencher of the Middle Temple, high-sheriff of Warwickshu-e in 1832; died, 
unmarried, in 1837 ; 3, Charlotte, who married the Eev. Thomas Warde, and 
had a son, Charles Thomas Warde, Esq., J. P., born in 1813, high-sheriff in 
1846, now of Welcombe House, &c., Warwickshii-e. Mr. Lloyd married, 
secondly, Susannah, daughter of Thomas Horton, Esq., of Chadderton, in 
Lancashire (some time governor of the Isle of Man, iinder the Earl of Derby, 
and father of Sir William Horton, Bart.), by liis wife, Anne, daughter and 
co-heiress of Eichard Mostyn, of London, and had issue — I. Gamaliel Lloyd, 
Esq., alderman of Leeds, and mayor in 1799, died in Great Ormonde Street, 
London, August 31st, 1817. He married Elizabeth, daughter of James 
Attwood, Esq., and had issue— 1, WilUam Horton Lloyd, Esq., F.L.S., pos- 
sessor of estates in the counties of York, Lancaster, and Derby, born 
February 10th, 1784, who married, April 13th, 1826, Maiy, fourth and 
youngest daughter of George "VMiitelocke, Esq., of Seymour Place, Bryan- 
stone Square, London, and had issue — Gamaliel, born in June, 1827, died in 
November, 1830, and George ^^^ntelocke, born May 30th, 1830; 2, Mary 
Horton, married to Stephen John Winthrop, M.D. ; 3, Anne Susannah, mar- 
ried to Leonard Horner, Esq., F.H.S., &c. IT. George Lloyd, Esq., barrister- 
at-law, long resident in Manchester, and afterwards at York, married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Jeremiah Naylor, of Wakefield, merchant, and had issue, the late 
George Lloyd, Esq., of Stockton Hall, Acombe, near York, born in May, 1787 ; 
died in 1863 ; married, in 1810, Alicia Maria, daughter of John Greame, Esq. , 
of Sowerby House, Yorkshire, and had issue — 1, George John, born in July, 
1811, who, in 1857, assumed the surname of Yarburgh, after his mother's 
grandfather, Charles Yarburgh, Esq. , of Heslington HaU, near York ; 
2, Y''arburgh Gamaliel, born in 1813, in holj^ orders ; 3, Henry, born in 
December, 181.5, late rector of Yarburgh, in Lincolnshire ; 4, Edward, born 
in May, 1823; and Alicia Maria, &;c. III. Tliomas Lloyd, Esq., of Horsforth 
Hall, lieutenant-colonel commandant of the Leeds Volunteers, died at King- 
thor]5e House, near Pickering, April 7th, 1828. He married Anne, daughter 
of Walter Wade, Esq., of New Grange, near Leeds, and had issue — 1, George 
Lloyd, Esq., of Cowesby Hall, Northallerton, born in May, 1786. He married, 
first, in 1820, Marian Christina, fifth daughter of Alexander Maclean, Esq., of 
Argyleshire, by whom he had no issue. He married, secondly, June 7th, 
1825, Elizabeth, second daughter of WiUiam Rookes Leeds Serjeantson, Esq., 
of Camp Hill, near Ripon, and has issue — 1, Thomas William; 2, George 
Walter; 3, John George; Caroline Anne; and Marianne Jane, &c. — ^For a 
longer account, see Burke's Landed Gentry, &c. 

<*t Tliere is in Swillingtou church, near Leeds, a monument with the following 
inscriptions: — "To the memoi-y of George Lloyd, Esq., F.R.S., formerly of 
the Holme, in the county of Lancaster, late of BaiTowby (near Leeds), in the 
county of York, who died the 4th of December, 1783, aged seventy-five. The 
love of knowledge early marked liis character ; and a clear, vigorous, compre- 
hensive mind, aided by much industrious application, and much familiar 
intercourse with men of letters, carried him to eminent attainments ; which 
rendered his conversation agreeable and instructive, and qualified him for 
that real usefulness in life to which his disposition prompted him. In the 


near Pickering, in the seventy-eightli year of his age.* In the 
early part of his life he was engaged in business as a merchant 
at Leeds; but soon after the death, of Ids father he gave it up, 
and retired into the neighbourhood — not indeed to a life of 
inacti"vity; for, ever active and patriotic as he was, he sought to 
make himself useful to hLs country as a volunteer officer. He 
had previously served as lieutenant in a corps of Leeds volun- 
teer Infantry, under the command of the late Colonel Dixon, of 
Gledhow, during the American war. In 1794, the year after 
the breaking out of the war with France, a new corps of volun- 
teer infantiy, about 300 strong, was embodied at Leeds, of 
which he was selected to take the command; and few persons 
were better qualified, either by natui-e or circumstances, for such 
an office. At the termination of that war the corps was dis- 
banded; but on the renewal of hostilities after the peace of 
Amiens, another corps was raised, consisting of two battalions 

exercise of magistracy, wise, upriglit, and assiduous, lie approved himself a 
faithful guardian of the public interests. The profession of medicine, to 
•which he had been bred, having no need to practise it for himself, he exer- 
cised solely for the benefit of others — of the poor, and those who had none to 
help them. In every relation and all Chiistian duties, he was such as, in 
dying, to have left to his numerous family, and to many friends, great com- 
fort as well as gi-eat affliction." Also, " In memory of Susanna, relict of 
George Lloyd, Esq., daughter of Thomas Horton, Esq., and sister of the late 
Sir WOIiam Horton, of Chadderton, in the county of Lancaster, Bart. In 
her was combined all that was amiable aud praiseworthy ; she was an affec- 
tionate wife, a most kind and tender parent, a sincere friend, and pious Chris- 
tian ; she was charitable and' liberal without ostentation, and in domestic 
affairs united economy with plenty ; cheerful in health and patient in sick- 
ness, beloved and respected by all who knew her. She departed tliis Kfe 
March 16th, 1797, aged seventy-eight years. She left three sons and three 
daughters to lament their loss, who have erected this monument in remem- 
brance of one of the best of mothers." 

* "The death of such an uncomiJromising patriotic Briton," according to 
the Leeds Intelligencer, " cannot be passed over without expressing the deepest 
sensation of individual and (as far as the town of Leeds is concerned) of uni- 
versal regret : we mean with reference not only more peculiarly to those who 
lived and personally acted with him so long as thii-ty years ago (1798), but 
also to those who have, without that personal knowledge, witnessed his 
unalterable and unceasing benevolence to many private individuals, as well as 
to almost all our public institutions. Let us go back to the period of the 
French Revolution. Colonel Lloyd then stood forward — a Volunteer; the 
offer quickly sjjread through the land, and animated a loyal people ; and, by 
his example, a patriot-band was instantaneously cemented, which, in spite of 
faction, most essentially aud happily tended to maintain the independence 
and integi-ity of the British empire. Our humble efforts could give no 
expression to the sincere regard of those who, fired with simultaneous British 
feelings, served under his patriotic banner. Many a one, who has seen their 
feelings pul>licly evinced, must give \is credit for declining the attemjit. "We 
knew the departed well; and sincerely are we convinced that, as a i)atriotic, 
truly sincere, and disinterestedly chaiitable individual, — 

" ' We ne'er shall look upon his like again.' " 


of 700 each, at tlie head of whicli lie was unanimously placed, 
and wliioli he continued to command till 1807, when he retii-ed 
from jniblic life. He was particularly happy in combining the 
strict discipline of the soldier with the urbanity and hospitality 
of the country gentleman; and pei'haps no one was ever more 
generally beloved, or more promptly and cheerfully obeyed. 
His dis])Osition was kind, generous, and friendly, and his 
manners were peculiarly adapted to win the afiections — being 
open, frank, manly, and decisive. From the highest to the 
lowest ranks in his corps he was regarded with the feeling of a 
brother, and this feeling spread among all classes with a spirit 
approaching to enthusiasm. Of the value in which his public 
sen'ices and private worth were held, some estimation may be 
formed from the following testimonies borne to them : — On the 
4th of June, 1795,* the Corporation of Leeds (John Blayds, 
Esq., mayor) presented him with a handsome sword, "as a 
token of their approbation of his military ser-sices, and of his 
conduct in the patriotic cause in which he was engaged." On 
the -Ith of June, 179G, the non-commissioned officei-s and 
privates of the Leeds Volunteer Infantry presented him with 
a large and handsome cuj) (silver-gilt), "as a grateful acknow- 
ledgment for ]iis unremitted and affectionate attention to 
them as brethren-in-arms, enrolled for the defence of the king, 
the constitution, and the laws." In 1799 an offer was made 
him by Government to raise a regiment to sei-ve in any part 
of Europe, all the commissions of which should be at his dis- 
posal] and on his declining it, he was desired to name any 
friend to whom the offer might be acceptable. In 1802 a full- 
length portrait of him by Russell was presented to Mrs. Lloyd, 
his wife, by the corps of Leeds Volunteers. In 1807 the non- 

* On the 29th of September, 1794, the Leeds Corporation passed a vote of 
thanks to the volunteer corps of this borough, for their readiness in enrolling 
themselves for its defence, and also ordered an elegant sword to be purchased 
and presented by the mayor, in the name of the corporation, "to Thomas 
Lloyd, Esq., colonel-commandant of the said volunteers." The cost of the 
.sword was £84. A vote of thanks was also given by the corporation, under 
their common seal, on the 11th of February, 1807, to Thomas Lloyd, Esquire, 
for his great and essential services as colonel-commandant of the Volunteer 
Corps of Infantry within this borough, when, owing to his declining .state of 
health, he resigned that office, in the following words: — "Resolved un.ani- 
mou.sly, that this court learn with deep regret that Thomas Lloyd, Esq., from 
the precarious state of his health, has found himself obliged to resign the situa- 
tion of lieutenant-colonel commandant of the Leeds Volunteer Infantry. That 
this court, sensible of the value of Lieutenant-Colonel Lloyd's past services, 
and impressed with the great importance of the example which he has given 
of disinterested patriotism during a crisis of unparalleled difficulty and 
danger, request that he will accept the tribute of their sincere and cordial 
thanks." — See Wardell's Munici2Ml History of Leeds, &c. 


commissioned officers and privates of tlie two battalions of Leeds 
Volunteer lufentrj presented liim with a gold snufF-box, "as a 
token of their respect for him their late colonel." In 1828, on 
his death, a public meeting was held at Leeds (Thomas Blayds, 
Esq., mayor, in the chair), when it was resolved, " That as a due 
mark of resjject for the invaluable services of the late Colonel 
Lloyd to this town and neighbourhood, a monument be ei-ected 
to his memory by subscription in the parish chiuxh ;" and a 
subscription was immediately entered into for that purpose. A 
monument, executed by J. Gott, Esq., to his memory, was 
erected in the Leeds parish church, in March, 1834. It is con- 
structed of beautiful white marble, and the inscription, of 
which the following is a copy, is surmovinted by an admirable 
bust of the deceased: — "To the Memory of Thomas Lloyd, 
Esquire. In his character were eminently displayed loyalty to 
the king, zeal for his country, and all the social virtues which 
mark the English gentleman. He was twice called by the 
general voice of the inhabitants of this borough to the important 
trust of lieutenant-colonel commandant of the Leeds Volun- 
teer Infantry. First, in the year 1794, for the protection of 
their property, endangered by the spread of anti-social and 
revolutionary principles; secondly, in the year 1803, for the 
preservation of their homes and liberties iinder the menace of 
foreign invasion. By military ardour and Urmness, tempered 
with discretion, and by kind offices of friendship and hospitality, 
he won the affection of his corps, and was honoured with 
several valuable tokens of their esteem, as well as with other 
testimonies of pubHc approbation. He contributed greatly to 
rouse that spirit of loyalty and patriotic devotion which secured 
domestic order, and finally achieved the coimtry's triumph over 
her foreign foes. He died at Kingthorpe House, near Pickering, 
the 7th day of April, 1828, aged seventy-seven years. For a 
memorial of their high regard, and to hand down his bright 
example to future ages, some of his surviving volunteers and 
friends have erected this monument." Colonel Lloyd married 
Anne, daughter of Walter "VVade, Esq., of New Grange, Leeds 
(by whom he had one son and one daughter), whose pedigree 
and arms may be seen in Thoi-esby's Ducatus Leodiensis, p. 154; 
Whitaker's Loidis and Elmete, p. 354, &c. See also the Gentle- 
man's Magazine, &c., for May, 1828, p. 472, &c. 



Surgeon, of Leeds, born May 29th, 1787, was the sixth son of 


the late Rev. Miles Atkinson, B.A., vicar of Kippax and 
incumbent of St. Paul's, Leeds. He received his education at 
the Grammar School of Leeds, and, at the age of fourteen, 
became a pupil of that eminent surgeon, the late Mr. Hey. 
Under such a preceptor, and aided by his owti enthusiastic 
devotion to his profession, he could not fail in acquiring that 
eminence to which he subsequently attained. But it was as a 
naturalist that ]\Ir. Atkinson was known to the world. It is 
interesting to trace the apparently accidental circumstances by 
which the mind is directed to pursuits for which it appears to 
have been peculiarly formed. A severe illness took Mr. Atkin- 
son from Leeds to the retired village of Kippax, his father's 
vicarage; here, an admirer of the beauties of nature, his atten- 
tion was attracted to her details; and he became engaged in 
the study of the kindred sciences of botany and entomology, 
with that ardour which characterized all his 23ursuits. For 
some time he laboured with no other book than Berkenhout's 
Synojjsis, and acquired an intimate knowledge of plants from 
studying them as presented by the hand of nature. On his 
removal to London to attend the course of lectures required for 
examination in his profession, he made an acquaintance with 
several eminent naturalists. He devoted the summer recesses 
to the cultivation of his favourite pursuits, and acquired an 
extended and correct knowledge of botany and entomology. 
At a later period Mr. Atkinson devoted his attention to orni- 
thology and zoology in general : the study of these sciences was, 
in a considerable degree, occasioned by his connection with the 
Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, of which he was one 
of the earliest members, and whose museum he founded by 
many munificent presents in every department of natural 
history. His office of curator, to which the whole of not only 
the days but the nights he could spare from an extensive prac- 
tice were devoted, prevented his taking any prominent part in 
the public proceedings of the society; the journals, however, 
contain several valuable communications. The chief merit of 
originating the Yorkshire Horticultural Society belongs to Mr. 
Atkinson. In the year 1820, he and several of his supporters 
held the first meetings at the Star and Garter Hotel, Kii-kstall, 
and for some years, as its treasui-er, the society was much 
indebted to him for its existence. He lived long enough to 
enrol amongst its members many of the first and leading names 
of the county, and to witness the great improvement in horti- 
cidture it has occasioned. Nor were his exertions confined to 
the diffusion of scientific knowledge; his was a more enlarged 


philanthropy. He was, in the support of every liberal institu- 
tion and society, feelingly alive to the calls of suffering and 
poverty. In his great practice, many were the sacrifices he 
made to the wants of the more indigent patients. It was to him 
the town of Leeds was indebted for that valuable institution 
the Lying-in Haspital; with him the proposal originated, and 
from him it received its most zealous support. Besides many 
communications to the scientific journals, Mr. Atkinson wrote 
a Compendium of the Ornithology of Great Britain, ivith a Refer- 
ence to the Anatomy and Physiology of Birds, 8vo., 1820; of 
which, dui'ing the melancholy illness that terminated in his death, 
he was preparing a second edition, with lithographic plates. He 
communicated the valuable account of plants growing within 
twenty miles of Leeds to Whitaker's Loidis and Elmete; and 
during his last illness, in addition to his work on ornithology, 
had prepared an account of the natural history of the neigh- 
bourhood of Askern. But gi'eat as was the public spirit by 
which he was distinguished, it was in private life that the 
value of hLs character shone with pre-eminent brilliancy. To 
those who were admitted to the delightful society of his social 
circle, the pleasiu-e with which he communicated his extensive 
knowledge, the winning marmer in which he encouraged the 
beginner in the paths of science, the valviable assistance he so 
liberally afforded, will long endear his memory. But Mr. Atkin- 
son possessed a still higher character — he was a Christian; and 
although walking in the highest paths of science, he remained 
imdazzled by the splendid scenes arovind him, and through 
nature, with humility, he looked to natui'e's God. He was a 
Fellow of the Linnsean Society; honorary curator of the Leeds 
Philosophical and Literary Society; treasurer to the Yorkshire 
Hoi-ticultural Society ; honoraiy member of the Bristol, York- 
shii-e, and Hull Philosophical Societies; and surgeon to the 
Leeds Lying-in Hospital. He died October 3rd, 1828, in his 
foi-ty-second year. — See the Leeds Papers, &c., for October, 
1828. The greater part of the above Sketch has been kindly 
contributed by his pupil and son-in-law, H. Miles Atkinson, 
Esq., surgeon, of Leeds, who has iia his possession two small 
portraits of the deceased. 



Well known as "The Village Blacksmith," and a popular 

itinerant Wesleyan preacher, was bom at Aberford, near Leeds, 

September 20th, 1758, and was one of thii-teen children. His 


parents were very poor and could not afford to give liim an 
education, so that he grew up to manhood without being able 
to read or write. At the age of fourteen he was bound appren- 
tice to Edward Derby, of Heulaugh, near Tadcaster, to learn 
the trade of a blacksmith. During his apprenticeship he was 
frequently impressed with religious feelings, especially by the 
addi'esses of Eichard Burdsall, whom he followed from place to 
place, travelling many scores of miles, and never hearing him 
without being blessed under his preaching. Just before the 
expiration of his time, Samuel fell in love with his master's 
daughter, or, rather, she fell in. love with him. Mr. Derby, 
coming down stairs one morning sooner than usual, found the 
gu'l seated on Samuel's knee. Without saying a word, he went 
to consult his wife as to what should be done to stop the affair, 
saying, " I believe she is as fond of the lad as ever cow was of 
a calf." The upshot of the matter was, that with a good deal 
of angry feeling the master ordered Samuel to leave his house 
and service. Samuel did not stick fast,- — to use his own nar- 
ration, — "When I was one-and-twenty years of age, there was 
a shop at liberty at Mickletield, and my father took it for me. I 
here began business for myself, and when I had paid for mf 
tools, I was left without a penny in my pocket or a bit of bread 
to eat; but I was strong, in good health, and laboured hard, and 
that God who sent the ravens to feed his servant, fed me. One 
day, while at work, a man came into my shop, who told me that 
his wife had fed the pig so fat as to render it useless to the 
family, and that he would sell me the one half of it very cheap. 
I told him that I wished it were in my power to make the pur- 
chase — that I was much in need — but that I was without 
money. He replied, he would trust me, and I agreed to take 
it. I mentioned the circumstance to a neighbour, who offered to 
lend me five pounds, which I accepted; and out of this I paid 
the man for what I had bought. 1 continued to labour hard, 
and the Lord in his abundant goodness supplied all my wants." 
After being established in business eighteen months, he observes 
— " The Lord saw that I wanted a helpmeet; knew the character 
that would suit me best, and was so kind as to furnish me with 
one of his own choosing." He soon unbosomed his feelings, 
was accepted, and finally united in holy matrimony in Spoffortli 
church. The union proved a long and happy one; his wife was 
about five years his senior, and survived him three years. On 
leaving the church, after the marriage, a number of poor widows 
pressed around him to solicit alms; his heart was touched. "I 
began the world," .said he to himself, "without money, and I 


■will agaiu begin it straight." He thereupon emptied his pocket 
of all the money he possessed. After marriage (his frugal wife, 
Martha, looking after the cash) he prospered. He used to say, 
"The Lord gave me a good wife, and I have never wanted 
money since." He says "That for some time after marriage, 
both he and liis wife were strangers to saving grace; that he 
was converted through a vision which appeared to him in his 
sleep." His mother-in-law, who had been a member of the 
Wesleyan Connexion, died, and he dreamed that she appeared 
to him arrayed in white, took him by the hand, and affection- 
ately warned him "to flee from the wrath to come." "My 
eyes," said he, "were opened — I saw all the sins I had com- 
mitted through the whole course of my life — I was like the 
Psalmist — I cried out like the gaoler — I said my prayers as I 
never did before." From that time till liis death he followed a 
career of Christian usefulness, always exhibiting a strictly moral 
conduct. He became a joined Methodist, and soon after made 
up his mind to preach. "I know that the Lord," says he, " has 
given me one talent, and I am resolved to use it. He has given 
friend Dawson ten; but I am determined that he shall never run 
away with my one." About the year 1797, Mr. Dawson says 
that Samuel was actively engaged as a prayer-leader and exhorter 
in the villages of Garforth, Barwick, Ki2:)pax, Micklefield, &c.; 
and, having a horse at command, he could go to the most dis- 
tant places without difficulty. He was subsequently (about 
1803) on both the Selby and Pontefract \AsiQ.^ as a local 
preacher. " In person he was tall and bony, rising to the 
height of about six feet. Hard labour and the nature of 
his employment gave a roim.dness to the upper part of 
his back, and a slight elevation to his right shoulder. His 
hair was naturally light, his complexion fair, his face full, but 
more inclined to the oval than the ro\ind, and his general 
features small, wdth a soft, quick, blue-gray, twinkling eye." 
His mind was peculiarly constructed. There was no system 
about his sennons; his thoughts seemed broken uito fragments. 
His mode of expression — half solemn, half comic — would cause 
his hearers one moment to smile, the next they would be in 
tears : such was his sudden transition from one train of thoughts 
to another. There was no polish about his speech. His lan- 
guage was of the broadest West-Yorkshire dialect ; but to 
thousands of the poor and others as unlettered as him.self, " the 
village blacksmith" was of essential service. His zeal was not 
a mere crackling blaze in the pulpit. His workshop Avas his 
chapel, and many were the homilies which he delivered over the 


auvil and over the vice, to both poor and rich,* He says: " In 
those days there were not many nohle, not many rich, called. 
For my own part, I have travelled many scores of miles, and 
neither tasted meat nor drink till I got home in the evening. 
I have very often had snowballs thrown at me, and been abused 
by the enemies of the cross of Christ. I have been turned out 
of places where 1 have been preaching, by the clergy and the 
magistrates; but, bless the Lord, I have lived to see better days." 
Through the exertions of Samuel, a Methodist chapel was erected 
at Aberford, his native place, towards which he gave £20. Mr. 
Dawson says: "Samuel Hick laid the first stone; and, as he 
offered the first prayer upon the first stone that was laid, so in 
the pulpit of the same chapel he preached his last sermon, and 
poured forth his last public prayer for the prosperity of Zion." 
His charity was unbounded — indeed his wife had now and then 
to stop the supplies, or he woiild have been a poor man all his 
life. " His heart always melted at the sight, or on hearing the 
tale of woe. He could not hear of persons in distress but he 
wept over them; and if they were within his reach, he relieved 
them according to his ability." One day, as he was returning 
from the pit with a load of coals, a little girl seeing him pass, 
asked him for a piece of coal, stating that her mother was con- 
fined, and the family without fire. He went with the girl home, 
found the story correct, brought the cart to the door, and poured 
down the load free of cost. Another time, some soldiers on a 
forced march halted at Micklefield early in the morning. A 
thrUl of loyalty and sympathy filled Samuel's bosom. He soon 
placed before the men the whole contents of the butteiy, pantry, 
and cellar — bread, cheese, milk, butter, meat, and beer, speedily 
went. When his wife came down stall's, she proceeded to the 
buttery to skim the milk for breakfast. To her astonishment 
all had disappeared. Inquiry was made, and when she found 

* " I remember Lord Mexborougli calling at my shop, one day," says he, 
" to get his horse shod. The horse was a fine animal. I had to back him 
into the smithy. I told his lordship that he was more highly favoured than 
tjur Savioui-, for He had only an ass to ride on, when He was upon earth." 
The earl, suspecting that Samuel was not very well iustiiicted in natural his- 
tory, replied, " In the country where our Saviour was born the people had 
rarely anything but asses to ride upon ; and many of them were among the 
finest animals under heaven, standing from sixteen to seventeen hands high." 
This information was new ; and as grateful, apparently, for the improved con- 
dition of his divine Master, as for an increase of knowledge, Samuel ex- 
cL'iimed, "Bless the Lord ! I am glad to hear that. I thought they were like 
tlie asses in our own country," &;c. — See The Village Blacksmith; or, Pieti/ 
and Usefulness Exemplified, in a McTiioir of the Life of Samuel Hick, of 
Micklefield, by James Everett, 1863, p. 99, &c. 

MR. SA^rUEL HICK. 317 

how tlie things had been disposed of, she chided him, saying, 
" Yon might have taken the cream off before yon gave it them." 
Samuel replied, " Bless thee, ham, it would do them more good 
vrith the cream on it." He once -s-isited a poor aged widow, and 
gave her sixpence, all the money he had with him. The -widow 
■vyas overi:)owered with gratitude, and Samuel was greatly affected 
by it, saying to himself, " Bless me ! can sixpence make a jioor 
creature happy? How many sixpences have I spent on this 
mouth of mine, in feeding it with tobacco ! I will never take 
another pipe whilst I live; I wiU give to the poor whatever I 
save from it." Soon after this Samuel was ill, and his medical 
attendant said it was in some measure caused by his suddenly 
breaking off' the use of the pipe. The following dialogue 
occurred: — Physician: "You must resume the use of the 
pipe, Mr. Hick." Samuel: "Never more, sir, while I live." 
Fhysician: " It is essential to your restoration to health, and I 
cannot be answerable for consequences should you reject the 
advice given." Samuel: " Let come what will, I'll never take 
another pipe ; I've told my Lord so, and 111 abide by it." 
Physician: " You will in all probability die, then." Samuel: 
" Gloiy be to God for that! I shall go to heaven. I have made 
a vow, and I'll keep it." To illustrate Samuel's faith in the 
efficacy of prayer, we will give the following anecdotes: — In 
the course of a summer of excessive drought, some years back, 
when the grain suffered gi-eatly, and many of the cattle, 
especially in Lincolnshh-e, died, Samuel was much affected. He 
visited Knaresbro', at which place he preached on the Lord's 
day. Remaining in the town and neighbourhood over the Sab- 
bath, he appeared extremely restless in the house in which he 
resided duiing the whole of Monday. His restlessness and 
singidarity of manners attracted the attention of the family so 
much, that they asked if anything was the matter with him. 
" Bless you, barns," was his reply, " do you not recollect that I 
was praying for rain last night in the pulpit 1 and what will the 
infidels at Knaresbro' think if it do not come — if my Lord 
.should fail me, and not stand by me ? But it must have time ; 
it cannot be here yet. It has to come from the sea. Neitlier 
can it be seen at first : the prophet only saw a bit of cloud like 
a man's hand ; by-and-by it spread along the sky. I am looking 
for an answer to my prayer; but it must have time." " Towards 
evening the sky became overcast, and the clouds dropped the 
fatness of a shower upon the earth." In 1817 Samuel was 
about to hold a lovefeast at Micklefield, and had in%T[ted persons 
from Kjiottingley and other places. He had promised that two 


loads of corn should be ground for tlie occasion. The day fixed 
for the lovcfeast drew near; there was no flour in the house, 
and the windmills, in consequence of a long calm, stretched out 
their arms in vain to catch the rising breeze. In the midst of 
this death-like quiet, Samuel carried his corn to the mill nearest 
his owai residence, and requested the miller to unfurl his sails. 
The miller objected, stating that there was " no wind." Samiiel, 
on the other hand, continued to urge his request, saying, " I 
will go and i^ray while you spread the cloth." The miller 
stretched his canvas, ancl, to his utter astonishment, a fine 
breeze sprung up — the fans whirled roimd — the corn was con- 
verted into meal — and Samuel returned with his burthen, 
rejoicing, and had everything in readiness for the festival. A 
neighbour who had seen the fans in vigorous motion, took also 
some corn to be ground; but the wind had dropped, and the 
miller remarked to him, " You must send for Samuel Hick to 
pray for the wind to blow again." At the beginning of 1826, 
he had made sufficient money to enable him to retii-e from busi- 
ness. He then entered upon a wider sphere of usefulness, 
preaching in several circuits in Yorkshire and Lancashire, and 
travelling entii-ely at his own expense. His addresses in the 
pulpit rarely exceeded half an hour. He continued until the 
very year of his death, preaching, travelling, and visiting the 
sick. In September of 1829, hearing that a niece of his, who 
resided at Grassington, was very ill, he took the coach for 
Skipton. The day was exceedingly wet, and being on the out- 
side, his clothes were drenched with rain. He arrived a few 
days before his niece died, but received his own death-stroke 
from the journey; for he caught a severe cold, wliich settled 
upon his lungs, and from which he never fully recovered. On 
his return home he was only able to preach a few times, and 
attend two missionary meetings. He now began to sink fast, 
though not confined to bed till a short time before he died. He 
died on Monday, November 9th, 1829, in the seventy -first year of 
his age. Such was the esteem in which he was held, that his 
remains were followed to Aberford by about a thousand people. 
In Samuel Hick was an amazing amount of simple, pure, 
unsophisticated nature, combined with the strictest moral con- 
duct and the most fervid zeal. He was remarkable for great 
openness of disposition and unbounded generosity, as well as 
faith and prayer; and by his one talent yielded a greater har- 
vest of good to the Christian church than many with their ten. 
— For a likeness of him, and other particulars, see his Memoirs, 
by Everett (to which the compiler is chiefly indebted for this 


Sketch), wliicli passed through twelve editions in about as many 
years, embracing between twenty and thii-ty thousand copies. — 
See also Mayhall's A^incds of Leeds, &c. 

Died, deeply lamented, February 3rd, 1830, at Methley Park, 
near Leeds. The following particulars relative to his lordship's 
family may not be unacceptable to some of our readers : — John 
Savile, second Earl of Mexborough, Yiscount Pollington, and 
Baron Pollington, of Longford, was born the 8th of April, 
1761 ; succeeded his father, John, the first earl, on the 27th of 
February, 1778; married, 25th September, 1782, Elizabeth, 
daiighter and sole heiress of John Stephenson, Esq., of East 
Burnham, Bucks, and had issue — 1, John, Viscount Pollington 
(third Earl of Mexborough), born 3rd of July, 1783, who 
married, 29th August, 1S()7, Lady Anne Yorke, eldest daughter 
of Philip, third Earl of Hardwicke, and had issue six sons and 
one daughter; 2, Lady Sarah Elizabeth, born 4th February, 
1786, who was married, 30th October, 1807, to John George, 
fourth Lord Monson, and by him had an only child, afterwards 
Lord Monson, and was, secondly, married, 21st October, 1816, 
to Henry Richard, afterwards third Earl of Warwick, and had 
issue one child. Viscount Brooke ; 3, Lady Elizabeth, who 
died at the age of five, in 1794. The late earl had two 
brothers, who died, Charles in 1807, and Henry in 1828. The 
title and estates have devolved on John, Viscount Pollington, 
now third Earl of Mexborough, his lordship's only son. We 
may safely say, that few men in any rank of society have 
2:)assed a life more distinguished for amiability in the exalted 
circle in which he was accustomed to move, for generosity and 
kindness to his tenantry and dependents, or for sincere charity 
to the poor and necessitous. The family of Savile appears to 
have been seated in Yorkshire as early as the 12th century; 
and two branches of it were, at different periods, elevated to 
the peerage of England, by the titles of Earl of Sussex and 
Manpiis of Halifax, of wliich the former became extinct on the 
death of John, second eai'l, in 1672, and the latter on the 
death of George, second marquis, in 1700; a third branch of 
the family was seated at Methley, near Leeds, of which was 
Sir Jolin Savile, one of the barons of the Exchequer in the 
reigns of Elizabeth and James I. His eldest son. Sir Henry, 
was created a baronet in 1611, but dying, without surviving 
issue, the title became extinct, but the estates devolved to his 


brother, John Savile, whose gi-andson, Charles )Savile, Esq., of 
Methley, born 167 G, married Aletheia, co-heiress of Gilbert 
Millington, Esq., of Felley Abbey, Nottinghamshire, and died 
5th June, 1741, leaving issue by her (who died 24th June, 
1759), an only son, John, installed K.B. 23rd June, 1749, 
created Baron Pollington, of Longford, 8th November, 1753, 
and advanced to the dignities of Viscount Pollington and Earl 
of Mexborough 11th February, 1766. His lordship manned, 
30th January, 1760, Sarah, sister of John, Lord Delaval. The 
remains of the earl were interred in the family vault of the 
Saviles at Methley, near Leeds. His lordship, by will executed 
some years ago, bequeathed the whole of his real and personal 
property, with some slight exceptions, to his only son and suc- 
cessor, the third Earl Mexborough, who died in 1860. — See 
the Leeds Papers; the Gentlemwris Magazine for April, 1830. 
For pedigree, &c., see Whitaker's Loidis and Elmete, p. 272; 
Hunter's South Yorkshire, &c. ; and also the Peerages of Burke, 
Collins, Debrett, Lodge, &c. See also the first Earl of Mex- 
borough, in this volume, with Note, p. 177, &c. 

Honorai-y curator of the Leeds Philosophical Hall, &c., died, 
February 9th, 1830, at his house in Park Square, Leeds, aged 
twenty-nine. The decease of this gentleman must not be per- 
mitted to pass without notice, because of the general feeling that 
the town of Leeds has lost one of the most valuable friends of 
science. At a very early period of life, the late Mr. Edward 
Sanderson George exhibited an ardent thirst after scientific 
knowledge, which he pursued with steady and unwearied perse- 
verance. His attainments in chemistry contribvited in a high 
degree to the prosperity of the respectable firm of Messrs. 
Thomas George and Sons, of which he was an active and enlight- 
ened partnei-. The Philosophical Hall, in Leeds, exhibits many 
memorials of his knowledge in geology, ornithology, and various 
other departments of science. Mi-. E. S. George, as honorary 
curator of that institution, followed out and extended the plans 
of his friend and predecessor, the lamented Mr. John Atkinson ; 
and the museum, particularly in its scientific arrangement, bears 
decisive evidence of the judgment and diligence of these two 
companions in science. The peculiar characteristic of Mr. 
George's mind was that of rapidly discovering the most simple 
mode of producing effect, so that in science and in his general 
operations lie had frequently, without apparent effort or display, 


produced the desired result whilst others were meditating on 
the plan of procedure. He wa« also honorary secretary to the 
Leeds and Yorkshire Horticultural Society, and laboured dili- 
gently to advance its interests. Our duty is particularly to 
point to the late Mr. George as an example to the young. He 
had no scientiiic tutor at auy period of life, and owed the high 
station he occupied solely to his diligent pursuit of knowledge, 
and the beneficial habit of examining everything around him as 
an object of inquiry. It is a common error with scientific 
minds to neglect everything as trivial but their favourite pur- 
suits. Not so with ]Mr. George. He felt that science was 
secondary to religion; and accordingly was found exhibiting the 
Christian character, and pre-eminently amiable in all the rela- 
tions of private life. He left a widov>-, to whom he was devoutly 
attached, an infant daughter, and a large circle of relatives and 
friends to deplore their own and the public loss. — Cliiefly from 
the Leeds Intelligencer for February, 1830. See also the account 
in the Leeds Mercury, which, though difierently expressed, is 
equally as full and eulogistic; and also the HejMrts of the Leeds 
Philosophical and Literary Society. The above Sketch has been 
kindly revised by his brother. Alderman T. W. George, of Leeds. 


Head-master of the Leeds Free Grammar School, and officiating 
minister of Trinity church, in this town; late Fellow of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and rector of Papworth-Everard, in the 
same count}", died at his i-esidence in Leeds, May 15th, 1830, 
in the thirty-seventh year of his age.'"' The death of this excel- 
lent and highly gifted man was a severe loss to the town of 
Leeds, and to society at large. Mr. Walker, though not pos- 

" Fuit in illo ingenium, ratio, memoria, literal, cura, cogitatio, diligentia."— Cicero. 
" "VTeep, genius, weep! Gush, ever}' fount of woe! 

From every source, ye streams of sorrow, flow ; 

"Weep, ^drtue, weep ! and let a cloud appear 

To dim the brightnes.s of thine hemisphere ; 

Let every balm of life — the parent, friend — 

Unite iu grief, in lamentation blend : 

Each pay the tribute of affliction's tear; 

Each wave the yew o'er Walko'^s honoured bier ! 

" Walker/ oh, say what minstrels' soothest strings 
Excite the music that thy mernorj' brings? 
Hail, honoured shade ! wliere every power combin'd 
To grace the bosom, and adorn the mind ; 
"Where wisdom, virtue, piety, and grace, 


scssecl of shining talents, was possessed of qualities far more 
valuable to society in a solid and perspicacious judgment, sound 
and extensive learning, and the power of communicating the 
knowledge he possessed; and to these intellectual attainments 
he added moral qualities even more distinguished — an ardent 
love of truth, Avith energy and directness in pursuing it — high 
and unbending principles of rectitude — a strong, lively, and 
experimental sense of religion, and a diffusive and active bene- 
volence. As a teacher of youth, Mr. Walker was eminently 
successful; he was appointed to the situation of head-master of 
the Leeds Free Gi'ammar School, on the resignation of the 
Rev. G. P. Richards, M.A., in the year 1818; and, during the 
twelve years of his superintendence, the Leeds School obtained 

Had each supreme, but modestly a place ; 

Meek and retiring, as the blushing rose 

That droops unconscious what its leaves disclose : 

Name most revei"'d ! whose fate shall prompt the sigh, 

And call the tear to many a tearless eye. 

" No more ! no more wilt thou the page imfold, 
Where faith and peace their sweet communion hold; 
No more, in sacerdotal garb, thine hand 
Will point to heaven's divine, eternal land. 
Oh ! say how oft the sinner's heart has joy'd, 
When thou thy pious eloquence employ'd? 
And while conviction from thine accents fell, 
Saw every joy of heaven — each woe of hell. 
Kindly severe and sternly meek thy tongue, 
Upon whose words persuasion's empu-e hung, 
Gently reprov'd and ' chid each dull delay,' 
Whilst thou to heaven 'aUm-'d and led the way.' 

"No longei-, now, shall lowty faith sincere 

Mingle -with thine her last, her dying tear ; 

No more shall ' parting hfe ' confess thy power 

To cheer her spirit in that drooping hour 

When earth recedes, and forth the spirit soars 

To ever calm, or — ever boisterous shores. 
"No more ! no more shall learning's classic page 

Thy modest doubt, or kind esteem engage ; 

No longer youth shall glow with virtuous aim, 

As when thy smile its ardom- did inflame ; 

When thou did'st prune each weed that checFd the growth 

Of wisdom's excellence, or sacred truth ; 

As when thy praise in cheering radiance shone, 

And rais'd luxuriant what it beam'd upon. 

" Oh, weep not ye ! But say, who fails to weep 
"S^Hien ill tlie sepulchre belov'd ones sleep? 
When lips that once imparted joy and peace — 
Such fond endearments — now must ever cease ! 
When hearts, that once responded sighs to ours, 
Are chill and motionless by death's stern powers ; 
AVhen each bland syrnpathy leaves its sad token 
In hopes destroy'd, in hearts— for ever broken ! 


a very Mgli character among the public schools of the king- 
dom — its numbers greatly increased, and many of the pupils 
gained distinguished honoixrs in the Universities of Oxford and 
Cambridge. As a minister of religion, Mr. Walker was con- 
scientious, zealous, and laborious ; his views were decidedly 
evangelical, and he preached the Gospel with boldness and 
fidelity. He was an active and powerful supporter of most of 
the religious and charitable associations in the town. As a 
speaker he was clear, convincing, and impressive, without pos- 
sessing the charms of a brilliant imagination or an oratorical 
manner; his candour and remarkable seriousness always pro- 
duced a favourable effect on his audience. He was a decided 
fi-iend to the diffusion of knowledge in every department; he 
not only took an active interest in the affairs of the Leeds 
Library, but was also the prudent and persevering supporter of 
the Mechanics' Institution. In private life he was greatly 
esteemed and beloved. A survey of his whole character, and 
of the varied and important functions he so ably performed, 
justifies us in saying that in the death of Mr. Walker the town 

" Wherefore to weep? Each tear and sigh, away ! 
Let joy her fairest countenance display. 
Wherefore to weep? say, shall the servile earth 
Enchain the spirit of celestial v;m'th ? 
Arise, each note of joy ! Hark ! how the string 
Of cherubs' harp resounds its niurmimng ; 
Behold yon orb that gilds the joj'ous sky, 
Proclairaing heaven's angelic jubilee ! 
Oh, mercy infinite ! to feel that death 
Can but congeal life's weary, fleeting breath ; 
That soon, in odorous incense, it shall rise 
To swell the raptures of the exulting skies. 

" Adieu ! endear'd and ever honour'd name, 
Thoia need'st not me to sound thj' heavenly fame ; 
Far nobler lyres their loudest notes shall raise 
To sound thy worth — perpetuate thy j^raise. 
Weak is my lyre, but thou hast strung each chord ; 
Its classic theme, ere this, thou did'st afford : 
Weak is my lyre — yet, oh! its strains sincere; 
No sadder heart than mine shall mourn thy bier." — Tblstis. 

From the Leeds Intelligencer of May 22nd, 1830; and for nine Verses, 
written on occasion of the funeral of the Rev. George Walker, A.M. (of 
which the following is a sijeciraen), see the Leeds Intelligencei' for May 29th, 
1830 :— 

" And if his honours were not of the sword, 
His triumphs won not in the tented field, 
Not less with us shall Weilker be deplor'd, 

Not less instruction his example yield. 
His name shall be upon our trembling lips 
Wliene'er we speak of piety and worth, 
As one of those bright stars in whose eclipse 
We feel, indeed, the darkness of our earth:" &c. 


of Leeds lost one of its best public characters, and one of its 
truest ornaments. Possessed of abilities of no ordinary cast, 
his character combined with them a rare degree of simplicity of 
mind. The respect which he commanded was not homage 
exacted by an ostentatious display of superiority, but the 
willing tribute of those with whom he associated, to his com- 
prehensive and highly-cultivated mind. He published Select 
Specimens of English Poetry, and Select Specimens of English 
Prose, from the Peign of Elizabeth to the Present Time, with 
Introductions, 1827; and a work on Elements of Arithmetic, 
third edition, 1827, for the special use of the Grammar School, 
Leeds, &c. ; also A Copious Latin Grammar, translated from 
the German, 2 vols., 30*., «fec. The remains of this much 
respected and venerated gentleman were entombed in one of 
the vaults of St. Paul's church, by the side of those of his 
first wife and child. His funeral took place on Friday, 
May 21st, and was attended by nearly the whole of the cor- 
poration, and a great number of the clergy and the most respect- 
able inhabitants. Funeral sermons were preached at St. Paul's 
and Holy Trinity chui'ches, by the Rev. Miles Jackson, and the 
Eev. Charles Musgrave, vicar of Halifax and Whitkirk, &c. 
He was succeeded, on the 28th of July following, by the Plbv. 
Joseph Holmes, M.A., late Fellow and tutor of Queen's College, 
Cambridge. — Chiefly from the Leeds Mercury of May 22nd, 
1830. See also the account in the Leeds Intelligencer, which, 
though not quite so full, is even still more laudatory. The 
above Sketch has been kindly revised and approved of hj the 
Ven. Archdeacon Musgrave, D.D., who was also elected a Fellow 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, in the same year, with the 

Vicar of Christchurch, Hampshire; of Great Ouseburn, York- 
shire; and rector of Gussage St. Michael, Dorsetshire, was born 
at Leeds in 1755, and died at Sidmouth, June 1st, 1830, in the 
seventy-sixth year of his age. He was educated by his father 
in his native town (Leeds), and at Clare Hall, Cambridge, Avhere 
he took his B.A. in 1778, and proceeded M.A. in 1784. In 
the year 1790 he undertook the curacy of Yarm, in Yorkshire; 
he was presented to Ouseburn, in 1797, by Lord Chancellor 
Loughborough; to Christchurch, in 1802, by the dean and 
chapter of Winchester (through the influence of Bishop Prety- 
man); and to Gussage, in 1806, by W, Long, Esq. For the 


greatest part of twenty-five years, and whilst his health per- 
mitted, he was an able, active, and upright magistrate for the 
county of Hants. For fifty-two years, as a Christian minister, 
he was a faithful and diligent labourer in his Master's vineyard. 
During this period he published many works bearing his own 
name ; thi-ee large volumes of Selected Family Sermons; Prety- 
man's Elements of Theology, abridged ; MassUlon's Charges, 
translated ; Jeremy Taylor's Prayers; with several occasional 
Discourses, &c. ; but he was also the author of three volumes of 
useful and popular Sermons, Avhich have been held in great 
repute, under the title of " Theophilus St. John, LL.B." Some of 
these were composed before he was twenty-four years old; and 
it was from self-diffidence alone that he ushered them into the 
world under a fictitious name. It is believed that he was an 
incidental contributor to the pages of the Gentleman' s Magazine 
— at least it is known that he was an admirer and lover of it, 
on account of the religions and political pi'inciples which it has 
always espoused, especially at that memorable era, or perilous 
crisis, when there were so many maclujiations with which our 
unrivalled Establishment in Church and State had to contend. 
For these principles and their advocates he was a most strenuous 
champion — indeed the sternness of his orthodoxy was a pro- 
minent feature in his character; and as all mortals have their 
failings, one of his perhaps was the vehemence with which he 
was accustomed to defend his favourite loyal and clerical tenets. 
If to hate a Whig was, in the opinion of Dr. Johnson, to be a 
good hater, Mr. Clapham might well aspire to that honourable 
appellation, bj'' his antipathy to all the enemies of our excellent 
Church, whether \\T.thin or without its pale. In one of St. 
John's (Mr. Clapham's) sermons on our Sa-vnour's answer to 
Nicodemus, he triumphantly exposes and refutes the erroneous 
Calvinistic doctrine of regeneration, which was lately so much 
inculcated by a certain class of teachers among ourselves. Mi*. 
Clapham's social qualities, his inflexible integrity and good nature, 
endeared liim to a numerous and respectable acquaintance. He 
kept up a constant intercourse witli many eminent preachers 
and literary men of talent, such as the late Bishop of Win- 
chester, Mr. Rose, M.P., &c. He was especially in habits of 
strict intimacy with the aged and venerable Dr. Scott, so many 
years rector of a valuable living in the north, since divided into 
six — one who will be known to posterity by his Sermons, as 
well as by his T^etters signed "Anti-Sejartus." What he did not 
publish of the former, he bequeathed to the subject of this 
memoir. Mr. Clapham was not less cautious in forming his pri- 


vate attachments, than he was fervent and steady in adhering 
to them when formed. With a slight publication which met 
his eye in 1795, he was so much pleased that he commenced and 
carried on a familiar and friendly correspondence with its author 
for more than ten years before they ever saw each other; after- 
wards, by a congeniality of sentiment on passing events and 
professional exertions, for the remaining twenty-five years it 
was never interrupted. Having taken this concise view of Mr. 
Clapham's principles and conduct, supported consistently through 
life, it must now be added that towards the close of his career 
his constitution began to be much impaii-ed. He was unable to 
share any more with an assistant in the parochial functions of 
his ministry, and in quitting his vicarage of Christchurch, 
where he had so long resided, he was advised by the faculty to 
repair to Sidmouth for the benefit of its salubrious air; but 
here, although incompetent to any service either in the desk or 
pulpit, his attention was ever on the alert, and his pen was not 
idle in his beloved Master's cause. He dedicated his time and 
talents to a revisal and improvement, by more French trans- 
lations, of a new edition, which was called for, of his Family 
Sermons. He happily lived long enough to complete this work, 
and see it make its appearance. After this he wholly resigned 
himself to pious meditations and devotional exercises. He had 
been long " setting his house in order," so as to be ready to quit 
it on a summons for that awful journey which we must all take 
that we may enter into our rest ; and a few weeks previous to 
his dissolution, after humorously describing his feeble and help- 
less state before he was confined to his bed, he wi-ote as follows 
to the author of this scanty and imperfect tribute to his 
memoiy: — "I am living with eternity ever in my view — not 
without that dread which every thinking man as a fallen crea- 
ture must feel at so awful a contemplation ; but soothed by hope 
and comfort, which I am willing to believe is directed from 
above." Under the impression of these sentiments it is natural 
to expect that his last end must be like that of the righteous; 
and, in fact, so easy and gentle was his exit from this world, 
that he may be said almost literally to have slept himself into 
another; there to receive, through a Redeemer's merits (for in 
these alone he placed his trust), the rewards of an industrious, 
well-spent, Christian life. Mr. Clapham had only one son, James 
Murray, who died on board his Majesty's ship Pandora, April 
28th, 1809, in his eighteenth year, and has a monumental tablet 
in the church of Upper Deal. He left three amiable unmar- 
ried daughters, who were truly exemplaiy and uni^emitting in 


filial attentions to their i-evered parent. — See tlie Gentleman^s 
Magazine, vol. c, part 1, p. G46, &c. ; Darling's Gydopmdia 
Bibliographia ; Lowndes's BibUograj^Iier's Manual, &c. 

Manager of the Middleton Collieries, near Leeds, in 1811 took 
out a patent for a locomotive .steam-engine, and placed his 
designs for execution in the hands of Messrs. Fenton, Murray, 
and Wood, at that time an eminent firm of mechanical 
engineei's in Leeds, This was the first locomotive engine in 
which two cylinders were employed, and in that respect was a 
great improvement upon the earlier attempts of Tre"\TLthick 
and others ; the cylinders were placed vei-tically, and were 
immersed for moi-e than half their length in the steam space 
of the boiler. The boiler was of cast-iron of the plain cylin- 
drical kind with one, flue — the fire being at one end, and the 
chimney at the other. It was supported upon a carriage, resting, 
without springs, dii-ectly upon two pairs of wheels and axles 
which were unconnected with the woi'kiiig parts, and served 
merely to carry the engine upon the rails — the progress being 
efiected by a cog-wheel working into a toothed-rack cast upon 
the side of one of the rails. Mr. Blenkinsop's engine began run- 
ning on the railway extending from the Middleton Collieries to 
the town of Leeds, a distance of about three miles and a half, 
on the 12th of August, 1812. This engine was set to work two 
years before George Stephenson started his earliest locomotive, 
and was undoubtedly " the first commerciaUy successful engine 
emjjloyecl upon any railivay."'^ In the year 1816 the Grand 
Duke Nicholas (afterwards Emperor) of Russia, observed the 
working of Blenkinsop's locomotive with curious interest, and 
expressions of no slight admiration. An engine dragged behind 
it as many as thirty coal waggons, at a speed of about three 
miles and a quarter per hour. Mr. Blenkinsop was for many 
years principal agent to the Brandling family at Middleton, near 

* At a conversazione of the Leeds Philosophical Society, held in December, 
1863, a model of Blenkinsop's engine, as made by the late Matthew Miu-ray, 
was exhibited and explained by Mr. Manning. In order to commemorate the 
fiftieth anniversary (September 2nd, 18G3) of Stephenson's visit to Leeds to 
see the engine at work, Messrs. ISIanning, Wardle, and Co., engineers, had the 
model photographed and mounted, with explanatory notes; and as a suitable 
memorial of the event, Mr. Manning (who has Ijeen kind enough to re-write 
the first part of the above Sketch), presented a copy to be hung in the Leeds 
Philosophical Hall. — For a longer description of the above engine, with an 
illustration, see the Leeds Mercury for July 18th, 1812, &c. 


Leeds.* As a man of science and benefactor to liis country, kis 
name -will be lianded down to future generations among the 
foremost in this enlightened age, by his invention of the steam- 
enf^ine for conveying coals from the Middleton pits to Leeds, 
which at once gave the general idea of the superior utility of 
the locomotive steam-engine. He died on Saturday, January 
22nd, 1831, after a tedious illness, aged forty-eight yeare. As a 
generous and disinterested friend, his memory was long cherished 
by a numerous circle of acquaintance; in his station as agent he 
commanded the entire confidence and esteem of his employers, 
and also Kved highly respected among the working classes, and 
died sincerely lamented by all who in any Avay were connected 
with liim. — See the Leeds Papers for 1831, &c. 
The following memoir must necessarily be a brief one; since 
it is not here intended to compose the abstract history of a 
Christian philosopher ; and the quiet disposition, the unassuming 
habits, the unambitious -views, and bodily infirniities of the 
individual under consideration, all conspired to withdraw him 
from an extensive intercourse with the world, and from any 
emulous competition with the candidates for its favours; his 
virtues, talents, and acquirements, however, were duly appre- 
ciated by a more confined circle of friends and acquaintance, to 
whom he was an object of love and respect in no ordinary 
degree, James Fawcett was born at Leeds in the year 1752, 
and received his education at the Free Grammar School of that 
town. He was brother to the Rev, Richard Fawcett, M.A., 
vicar of Leeds, On his mother's side he was descended from a 
very respectable family, of the name of Allen ; and his father 
was minister of one of those chapels which were attached to the 
vicarage, and at the disposal of the vicar. At his very entrance 
into this checkered scene of existence, it appeared that bodily 
infii-mities were to be contrasted in him with mental endow- 
ments; as if to exhibit the edifying example of a patient, 
philosophic, and Christian spirit, triumphing over the accidental 
evils of our mortal state. He was born with a weakly consti- 
tution ; and owing to that disease, so formidable to the infantile 
frame, which is called the rickets, he became dreadfully deformed 
in both his legs ; he had also the additional misfoi-tune to break 

♦Robert AVilliam Brandling, Esq., took out a patent in April, 1825, for 
improvements in railroads and can-iages. — Por a description of which, see 
Newton's London Journal of Arts, &c., for 1826. 


a ttigli in early youth ; so that his pei\sonal appearance -wiis 
calculated to excite commiseration, until it was known that no 
afflictions of this kind were able to distvirb the serenity of his 
temper and the benevolence of his mind, or to withdraw liim 
from those intellectual studies which are peciiliarly adapted to 
alleviate the calamities of human life. >Such a disposition did 
this amiable man bring to the place of his academical education ; 
having been entered at St. John's College, Cambridge, March 
26th, 1770, under Mr. Chevallier, who was then tutor, and 
aftei'wards head of that house. He came to reside in the month 
of October following, and very soon distinguished himself in 
the race of emulation with his contemporaries. The public 
examinations at this college, lately set on foot by its zealous 
and accomplished master, were then completely organized ; and 
when young Fawcett underwent the ordeal, at the end of liis 
tii'^t term of residence, a veiy high encomium was passed on 
his performance by Di". Powell, who, though a severe censor of 
academical delinquencies, was a great encourager of youthful 
merit. At his second trial in June, when prizes of books were 
adjudged to such as had twice obtained places in the first class, 
his name was mentioned with distinction among the foremost of 
those that were so rewarded : nor does he appear at any subse- 
qiient examination to have lost gi'ound, though he had to contest 
it with a set of competitors who entitled themselves to particular 
commendation from the master. HLs success on this arena may 
probably be attributed more to a proficiency in classical litera- 
ture than to skill in the mathematics ; for when he came to 
take his first degi-ee of A.B. in January, 1774, his name did 
not appear higher than fifth among the senior optimes; a respect- 
able place indeed, but one which denotes no great eminence in 
scientific attainments. He cultivated Latin prose composition 
with distinguished success. The letter which he wrote to the 
electors, when he was candidate for a scholarship in college, is 
said to have strongly recommended him to the notice and favour 
of Dr. Powell ; but his proficiency in this accomplishment 
appeared to much greater advantage in 1776, when he gained 
the first of those annual prizes which are givfin by the repre- 
sentatives of the university for the two best Latin essays. In 
1777 Mr. Fawcett took his degree of A.M., and in the same 
year was elected Fellow of his college, on the foundation of Sir 
MaiTQaduke Constable. In 1782 he was also elected into the 
ofiice of Lady Margaret's preacher, which, though a sinecure, 
probaVjly directed his attention to the university pulpit, and 
induced him to compose the admirable discourses Avhich are 


now re-published foi* the benefit of this and future generations. 
They were all delivered in St. Mary's church, and appear worked 
up with a minute attention both to style and argimient, worthy 
of the audience to which they were addressed. It cannot be 
said that these compositions are adapted to a parochial congre- 
(^ation, in which the middle and lower classes of society pre- 
dominate, though in peculiar times and seasons they might be 
turned generally to good account; they contain no flights of 
imagination, no display of pathetic sentiment, no vehement 
declamation to excite the passions : nor do the subjects treated 
of require such aid. The greater number of them are employed 
in establishing the truth of I'evelation on a sure and solid basis ; 
whilst the rest are directed to the sifting of some doctrinal 
point in religion, or some case in moral casuistry. Their great 
aim bemg to convmce men's understanding, and to secure the 
assent of their reason, nothing is omitted which is necessaiy for 
the argument, nothing introduced by which it might be encum- 
bered or weakened ; but the whole is conducted on the princi- 
ples of sound logic ; the most lucid order being preserved, and 
the most apposite illustrations collected from Holy Writ; more- 
over, scriptural texts are clearly explained when obscvired by 
difficulties, or perplexed by seeming contradictions ; and the 
strongest objections of the infidel, or sceptic, are boldly met, 
and unanswerably refuted. With regard to the style, it may 
be pronounced easy though terse, full though sententious ; its 
periods are veiy harmoniously constructed, every word appear- 
ing to fall into its right place, to be used in its right sense, and 
to be used so, that a better could rarely be substituted in its 
stead. Meanwhile, it must not be supposed that more awaken- 
ing topics are never iuti-oduced ; or that occasions are never 
taken to search into the secret state of the soul, to rouse the 
sinner's conscience, and second the efibrts of returning peni- 
tence ; to display those awful ti"uths which are connected with 
eternity, and point out to man the true means whereby he may 
secure the blessings of redemption : but, in fact, such topics 
were, at that peculiar time, of minor consideration. The very 
proofs of Cln-istianity had been long and vehemently attacked 
by the disciples of French infidelity ; and scepticism was 
gradually insinuating itself into our own more happy country : 
these proofs, therefore, were to be corroboi-ated, and placed in 
a proper light, before a large assembly of academic youth, of 
which the appointed ministers and defenders of the faith itself 
would be selected. A more important task could scarcely be 
committed to a man ; and it is not too much to say that it 


•was executed witli vigour and effect. On tliese admirable 
compositions, few as they are, Professor Fawcett's fame, in all 
probability, must ultimately rest : but nothing can be more 
unjust than to estimate the excellence of an author by the 
number and dimensions of his works ; for if quality be taken 
into account, how many bulky volumes must yield the palm to 
his small but condensed one ! " Had his own modesty, or the 
respect which was thoiight due to his memory by surviving 
fi-iends, not stood in the way, few authors of the present age 
could have furnished larger stores for the press ; since he was 
in the habit of composing his own discourses for the pulpit, and 
had, by constant reading, deep reflection, and uni-emitted dili- 
gence in writing, acquii-ed such a facility of composition, that 
he could, without premeditation, cast off a sermon, or an essay, 
which needed no re^dsion or correction : this, as I am assured 
by several of his fi'iends, he was in the habit of doing ; and I 
have the best authority for assei-ting, that the excellent lectures 
which he delivered as Noi-risian professor were so composed, 
and never afterwards materially altered. Let not, however, 
the young student deceive himself by viewing this practice in 
a fallacious light : he did not follow it, until he had acquired 
the right of so doing by intense study and laborious exercise. 
No style is generally less pleasing than the unstudied effusions 
even of a talented author ; whilst that which is in the highest 
degree artificial, provided care be taken to conceal the art, is 
most delightful to the common reader, as w-ell as to the severe 
critic : this is in fact the style which both excites and eludes the 
hope of successful imitation in the vmpractised and inexpert." 
In 1785 Mr. Fawcett pi'oceeded to the degree of B.D., and in 
1795 he was elected Norrisian professor of di\-inity (succeeding 
the Eev. Dr. John Hey, also a Leeds man), one year after the 
publication of his Sermons, which no doubt paved the way to 
that appointment, by satisfying the electors of his high qualifi- 
cation for it. Truth, however, requii-es us to confess that this 
qualification did not extend far beyond his intellectual endow- 
ments and his literary attainments : for a certain thickness in 
his speech, an awkwardness of manner in a crowd, a want of 
energy, and an easiness of temper, little calculated to curb the 
sallies of a large assembly of young men constrained to sit out 
a lecture of an hour in length, certainly found a contrast to the 
dignified manner, the ready deliveiy, and the adroit manage- 
ment, by which his learned successor secured the attention and 
respect, whilst he conciliated the good-will of his hearers. 
Some of the natural imperfections above mentioned contributed 


iilso to render Professor Fawcett's preaching at the Roimd 
church iu Cambridge (to the vicarage of which he was presented 
by the parishioners) less efficient than might have been expected 
from the sounckiess of his doctrine, the beautiful style of his 
discourses, and the exemplaiy tenoiu- of his life. He failed in 
drawing together large congregations ; though many membei-s 
of the university, both graduates and under-graduates, had the 
good taste, as well as good sense, to frequent his church, where 
they had opportimities of listening to what might be considered 
models of composition for a divine of the Church of England. 
Occupied with his clerical duties and those of his professorship, 
Mr. Fawcett chiefly resided in college, until he was presented by 
the society, in 1801, to the united rectories of Thursford and 
Great Snoring, in Norfolk : he afterwards divided his time 
between his parsonage and the university, being permitted to 
retain rooms in college on account of his lectures. He was not 
fond of entering there into mixed company; though he gi'eatly 
enjoyed that of his more intimate friends, and was very partial 
to a small, but social meeting, held by a few fellows of the 
college on Sunday evenings, at the rooms of each in rotation, 
where theological subjects were generally discussed, and where 
he was distinguished by the ready, clear, and satisfactory man- 
ner, in which he was accustomed to answer objections, and to 
solve difficulties. In 1815 Mr. Fawcett vacated the Norrisian 
professorship, which, by the tei-ms of its foundation, cannot be 
held beyond a certaia number of years ; in 1822 he also resigned 
his vicarage in Cambridge, and resided thenceforward solely on 
liis rectoiy in Norfolk ; there he lived on terms of great amity 
with his parishioners and the neighbouring families, keeping up 
genuine hospitality among the latter, contributing liberally to 
the wants of his poorer bi^ethi'en, and exercising the duties of 
his sacred profession with integiity and fidelity. At the festive 
season of Christmas, he generally made his appearance among 
his old fi-iends and associates in college, where his presence was 
always hailed with joy and gladness. He died on Sunday, 
April 10th, 1831, in his eightieth year, at the rectory house, 
Great Snoring, jSTorfolk, of which parish he had been incumbent 
thirty years. His learning entitled him to a high rank among 
scholars, while his unassuming manners, his sincere piety, his 
cheerful patience under severe and increasing infirmities, and 
the genuine kindness of his heart, secured him the love and 
esteem of his friends and relatives, and his benevolent attention 
to his parishioners merited their respectful attachment, " Since 
the great dearth of information respecting this excellent person 


prevents me from enlai-ging the imperfect Sketch of his life and 
character here given, I shall conclude with two observations, 
which are earnestly recommended to the consideration of any 
young person who may be subject to similar infirmities of body ; 
first, that an admirable counterpoise to such evils may be found 
in the cultivation of the mind ; secondly, that weakness of 
natural constitution may often be counteracted, to a surprising 
degree, by strict habits of temperance, by a cheerful disposition, 
and by a patient resignation to the will of Providence. James 
Fawcett, who was born with a constitution so frail that it 
seemed impossible for him to survive the years of childhood, 
not only attained to a high degree of literary excellence, but 
reached the extreme limit assigned by Holy Writ to the strength 
of mortal man."^ — Chiefly from Divines of the Church of England, 
by the Rev. T. S. Hughes, B.D., and the Leeds Intelligencer, &c. 
See also Darling's Cyclopoedia Bihliographia, &c. 

So well known to thousands for his public spirit, his benevo- 
lence, his unwearied attention to the welfare of our public 
institutions, his more than zeal in all cases wherein he could be 
of assistance, by purse or by personal exertion, to the cause of 
his country or of suffering humanity, left Leeds on the 3rd of 
May, 1831, to give his vote as a freeman of the borough of 
Wigan ; and in the exercise of that duty on the 4th, was so 
maltreated by the mob that he died on the 13th, in consequence 
of the injuries received, to the great afiliction of his family and 
numerous friends in Lancashire. In Leeds the occurrence was 
the subject of general conversation, and of deep and unfeigned 
regret. "What a loss we have sustained!" was the univei'sal 
remark. " How kind, how useful, how accessible he was to all 
i-anks !" " The champion and unflinching defender of what he 
conscientiously held to be the first interest of his country — the 
integrity of the British constitution." Mr. Leigh's heart was 
not only warm, it was in the right place. He was at all times 
ready to obey the call of patriotism, principle, and consistency, 
and often laboured while others slept ; but his physical powers, 
though considerable, were unequal to the fearful odds of a fierce 
and misguided rabble, clamouring for the overthrow of those 
institutions which were in his estimation dearer than life itself 
He was a senior common-councilman of this borough, having 
been elected to that office on the 1st of September, 1803. He 
was also one of the patrons of the vicarage of Leeds ; a governor 


of the Leeds Free Grammar School; a trustee of the Charity 
of Pious Uses ; and president of the committee of the Leeds 
Public Library. He likewise sti'enuously supported almost 
every charitable institution in the toAvn ; and to him is justly 
due the honour of the great success and advantage, which have 
attended the various schools established in this extensive town- 
ship in connection with the Established Chiirch. In addition 
to all this, he was a principal promoter of the building of the 
various new churches which were erected in this parish, during 
the ten years preceding his death. In short, his public devotion 
was unbounded, and his good qualities more than we have space 
to enumerate. Mr. Leigh was descended from the ancient and 
honoiirable family of the Leighs of Adlington, in the county of 
Cheshire, whence also descended the Barons Leigh. A subsci'ip- 
tion-monument, executed by Mr. Westmacott, jun., about a 
year and a half after his death, w^as put up in the choir of the 
Leeds parish church (in Octobei*, 1832). The design consists of 
a delicately-white marble five-feet statue of the deceased, in a 
sitting posture, in his civic robe, having an open volume in his 
hand, inscribed "1688." The likeness, considering that the 
artist had to work from a miniature and a pencil-di-awing, the 
former taken many years ago, is good; but there is tqp much 
hair on the head, and the countenance is more juvenile than 
that of the departed. All that depended on Mr. Westmacott 
has been most ably performed. On the tablet, beneath the 
statue, is this inscription : — " Sacred to the Memory of Roger 
Holt Leigh, Esquii-e, twenty-seven years a member of the cor- 
poration, and a strenuous supporter of the institutions of the 
borougli of Leeds. He was a warm advocate of the Established 
Church, an uncompromising defender of the gloriovis constitu- 
tion of 1 688, a consistent patriot, and a faithful friend. During 
the general election in the year 1831, whilst engaged in the 
exercise of his franchise as a burgess of Wigan, his native 
place, he was so severely injured by an excited populace that 
he died at Hindley Hall, the seat of his eldest and only surviv- 
ing brother. Sir Hobert Holt Leigh, Bart., May 13th, 1831, 
aged iifty-two years. As a memorial of their esteem and admi- 
ration of his inflexible public integrity and private worth, his 
numerous friends have caused this monument to be erected. 
Mr. Leigh's remains were interred in the family vault at Up- 
Holland Abbey church, near Wigan, in the county of Lancaster." 
— See the Leeds Intelligencer, &c., for May, 1831 ; the Gentle- 
man's Magazine; Burke's Extinct Baronetage, &c. 



A native of Leeds, who distingiuslied himself in the ai-my, and 
died June 6th, 1831, at Sandleford Lodge, near Newbury, 
Berks. An early predilection for the profession of arms induced 
him to leave school, and enter the army during the American 
war. His first commission was obtained for him by Sir George 
Saville, and he successively rose to the rank of lieutenant- 
general. Previous to obtaining his commission in the 31st 
Regiment, he quitted school unknown to his friends, who 
opposed his entering the army, and accompanied the 33rd 
Regiment in 1776 to Ajnerica, where he served until sent home 
by Lord Cornwallis, at the request of his friends. He was 
present at the takiag of Long Island, New York, and Phila- 
delphia ; the battles of Whiteplaius, Germanto-s\Ti, and Mon- 
mouth ; besides various skirmishes in New Jersey. Upon his 
return to England, in 1780, he served eighteen months as ensign 
in the 1st West York JNIilitia. William Cockell was appointed 
ensign ia the 31st Regiment, July 12th, 1782, and the same 
year was removed to the 2nd Foot, with which regiment he 
served six yeax-s at Gibraltar ; he was appointed lieutenant 
April 25th,' 1792*; captain, March 29th, 1793, in the 95th 
Regiment; major, April 18th, 1794, iu the 105th Regiment, 
and lieutenant-colonel, September 16th, 1795. On the reduc- 
tion of his regiment he was placed on half-pay, and shortly 
afterwards appointed assistant-adjutant-general in Zealand ; he 
was appointed to the 46th Regiment on the 7th July, 1800 ; 
and on the 8th of October, 1802, was removed to the 5th Foot. 
In August, 1802, he was appointed inspector of an Irish 
recruiting district; brevet-colonel, September 25th, 1803; 
brigadier-general, August 24th, 1804, on the staff at Guernsey, 
where he served till the 24th of June, 1806. He was 
appointed brigadier-general at the Cape, October 26th, 1810, 
with a brigade under his orders, consisting of a detachment of 
the Royal Artillery, the 72nd and 87th Regiments, to co-ope- 
rate with a force sent from India, under the command of 
Lieutenant-Genei'al Abercrombie, for the reduction of the 
Mauritius. After the capture of the island he returned to 
the Cape, lea^nng the troops he had taken with him ; he was 
appointed major-general, July 25th, 1810; and lieutenant- 
general, June 4th, 1814. — For further information, see the 
United Service Journal for 1831 ; the Royal Military Calendar ; 
the old Army Lists, and Military Obituary, &c. 


Incumbent of Beeston, near Leeds, died November 18th, 1831, 
awed seventy-seven years. His clerical ministrations in this 
town, extending through the long period of fifty-four years, as 
curate of Holy Trinity and the parish churches, as incumbent 
of Farnley, and latterly of Beeston, -were ever faithfully and 
punctually performed. As second-master of the Free Grammar 
School at Leeds, for a term of more than thirty years, he 
proved himself an able and successful instructor of youth. Of 
the public charities he was a steady and liberal supporter. As 
treasurer and secretary of the West-Riding Charity for the 
benefit of widows of the clergy, he laboured for its interests 
with an ardour and devotedness unsubdued by mental care or 
bodily fatigue. His exertions may truly be said to have caused 
many a widow's heart to sing for joy. — See the Leeds Papers, 
&c., for November, 1831. 

* — 1831. Benjamin Hird, Esq., M.D., physician to the Leeds General 
Infirmary, died, greatly respected, March 11th, 1831, at his house in Park 
Row, Leeds, in the sixty-eighth j-^ear of his age. Dr. Hird published a 
Tribute to the Memory of Dr. Fothergill, which may be found in the fifth 
volume of Miscellaneous Tracts, 4to. (Leeds Library). IJe was for twenty years 
physician to the Leeds General Infirmary ; and though he had a short time 
before his death retired from public life, his professional eminence and 
kindness and benevolence to the poor, were long remembered. — See the Leeds 
Papers, &c. 

— 1831. Mk. C. F. Hasse, organist to the church of the United Brethren 
at Fulneck, near Leeds, died very suddenly on Sunday morning, May 1st, 
1831. Christian Frederic Hasse was born March 3rd, 1771, at Sarepta, a 
settlement of the United Brethren in Russia. At an early age he was sent to 
tlie Moravian establishment at ISTiesky, in Prussia, and afterwards finished his 
education at Barliy, near Magdeburg. He was originally intended for the 
church ; but his musical talents early developing themselves, he followed the 
bent of his genius. His earliest musical work was a sacred cantata, while he 
was a teacher in the college at Uhyst, the concluding chorus of which is 
published in his second volume of Selections. At the beginning of the present 
century he removed to Fulneck, as professor of music to the institution and 
organist of the church. Here he devoted himself to classic sacred music, and 
for many years laboured indefatigably for the advancement of this divine art. 
Through his instrumentality music received a decided impulse for good, and 
the musicians of Yorkshire were brought into contact with many of the 
great ecclesiastical works of modern German composers, which undoubtedly 
assisted much to develop the musical taste of tlie West-Riding — for in 
every town the name of Hasse was revered and beloved by the musicians. 
His talents, particularly in that department to which he was more ex- 
pressly called to devote his attention, were of a very eminent order, and his 
knowledge both of musical authors, and of the theory of the art, such as is 
but rarely acqiured. His personal qualities were such as to endear him to 
an extensive circle of warmly-attached friends, by whom his loss was severely 
felt, as it was also long and deservedly regretted by the society of which he 
was so consistent and so valuable a member. — See the Leeds Pajiers, &c. The 
greater part of the particulars in the above Sketch have been kindly supplied 
by my friend, Mr. Edward Sewell, master of Fulneck school, near Leeds. 


Mayor of Leeds in 1790 and 1807, was born in 1749, and was 
the descendant of an ancient and I'espectable family in Lanca- 
shire. On his return from Spain, in 1775, where he had been 
for some yeai's engaged in commerce, he settled in Leeds, and 
having been elected a member of its corporation, he served the 
office of mayor of that borough in 1790 and 1807. He was 
also a de^Juty-lieutenant of the West-Riding of Yorkshire. 
Having removed to London in 1810, Mr. Markland was in the 
following year appointed one of the police magistrates at Queen 
Square, Westminster — an office which advancing age and 
increasing infirmities induced him to resign in 1827, when he 
selected Bath as his residence. Well versed in the criminal 
law, and uniting great acuteness of observation with soundness 
of judgment, Mr. Markland proved himself an active and most 
useful magistrate; and both in the ordinary routine of duty, as 
well as in times of emergency, his conduct was uniformly zealous, 
firm, and judicious. In politics he was a consistent Tory. His 
religious creed was that of the Established Church of England, 
to the communion of which he steadily and piously adhered 
through life. His habitual cheerfulness and vivacity imparted 
a charm to his social qualities, and irresistibly attached to him 
a large body of friends, by whom his memory was cherished 
with feelings of affijctionate regard ; but far higher praise is due 
to one who, tried — how hardly tried ! — in the school of adversity, 
maintained an unshaken spirit of fortitude and of patient endur- 
ance vnth the higher principles of moral rectitude. Founded as 
these virtues were on the basis of true religion, they evinced the 
sincerity of his faith, and proved him to be a conscientious and 
])ractical Christian. Mr. Markland married, in 1774, Elizabeth 
Sophia, daughter and co-heiress of Josiali Hardy, Esq., at that 
time the British consul at Cadi^— a family highly distinguished 
in the naval annals of this country, and by whom he left three 
sons and two daughters. He died March 17th, 1832, at his 
residence in St. James's Square, Bath, in his eighty-fourth year. 
— For further particidars, see the Gentleman's Magazine for 
April, 1832, p. 371, &c. ; the Annual Biography and Obituary 
for 1833, p. 437, &c. 


Barrister-at-law, late recorder of Hull, representative of that 
town in pai^liament from 1820 to 1830, and in the next parHa- 



rneut M.P. for Beverley, died, January 24th, 1832, at Baywell, 
near Hull, after a painful and lingering illness, aged sixty-six. 
Mr. Sykos (born November 12tli, 1766) was tlie youngest son 
of a merchant at Leeds,'"' and having received a liberal education, 
was elected a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, where he 
graduated B.A. in 1788, as fourteenth wrangler, and M.A. in 
1791. He was shortly after called to the bar, but the state of 
his health compelled him to reside in the country, relinquishing 
all the hopes of his profession (which he principally continued 
for the benefit of his provincial neighboui's), and joining in the 
commei'cial pursuits of his family, which, under the firm of 
Joseph Sykes, Sons, & Co., for more than thirty years were nearly 

■* Thoresby, in his Ducatus Leodlcnsis, gives a long pedigi-ee of the Sykeses^ 
many of whom rose to eminence. Tlie following, perhaps, are some of the 
most worthy: — One '\Villiam Sykes, a younger son of Richard 8ykes, of 
Sykes Dyke, near Carlisle, came into these more populous and trading parts, 
where he improved himself considerably by the clothing trade ; his grandson, 
Richard, was chief alderman of Leeds when first incorporated (1629 and 
1030), one of the most eminent merchants in these parts, and lord of the 
manor (which manor of Leeds he purchased of the Crown in 1625); who 
married, in 1593, EUzabeth Mawson, and died in 1045, leaving issue four sons 
and four daughters. Of this gentleman, it is said by Thoresby, the antiquary 
and historian, that he left, " besides vast estates to his sons, £10,000 a-piece 
to his daughters, from whom four knights' and baronets' families are 
descended." 2, Henry, of Hunslet Hall, near Leeds, Avho married Mary, 
daughter of Sir John Wood, of Beeston, and died in 1656. 3, William, lord 
of the manor of Leeds ; married Grace, daughter and co-heir of Josias: 
Jenkinson, Esq., of Leeds, and by her he left, at his decease, in 1652, besides 
daughters, five sons — Richard, of Ledsham Hall, near Leeds, who married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Scott, Esq., and left four daughters, his 
co-heirs, one of whom, Anna, married Ralph Thoresby, F.R.S., the historian 
of Leeds. 4, Daniel, born in 1632, was mayor of Hull, and a merchant of 
eminence there, where he died in 1093, leaving, by Deborah, his wife, 
daughter of William Oates, Esq., mayor of Pontefract, one surviving son, 
Richard Sykes, Esq., born in 1678; a merchaut of Hull, in the High chiu-ch. 
of which town there is a monument to his memory. He married, first, Mary, 
daughter and co-heir of Mark Kirkby, Esq., of Sledmere, and had by her, 
Richard, liigh-sherifF of York in 1752 ; and Mark, of whom presently. Mr. 
Sykes manied, secondly, Martha, daugliter of William Donkin, gent., by 
whom, at his death, in 1720, he left one surviving son, Joseph Sykes, Esq,, 
twice mayor of HuU, and a deputy-lieutenant for the East-Riding, born in 
1723, and died in 180.5; his fifth son, Daniel Sykes, Esq., F.R.S., represented 
HuU and Beverley in parliament. The present head of this branch is Richard 
Sykes, of West Ella, in this county. Mr. Sykes was succeeded by his eldest 
son by his first wife, the Rev. Sir Mark Sykes, D.D., rector of Roos, in this 
county, bom in 1711 ; created a baronet in March, 1783, and died in Sep- 
tember of that year, leaving an only son, Sir Christopher Sykes, D.C.L., 
born in 1749; M.P. for Beverley. He married Elizabeth, daughter of 
William Tatton, of Witlienshaw, in Cheshire, by whom he left, at his decease, 
in 1801 — I. Mark, third baronet, of whom presently; II. Tatton, who suc- 
ceeded his brother as fourth baronet; III. Christopher, in holy orders, 
rector of Roos; born in 1774; who married Lucy Dorothea, daughter and 
co-heir of Henry Langford, Esq., of Stockport, and had— 1, Lucy Elizabeth, 
married, first, in 1827, to the Hon. and Rev. Henry Duncombe ; and, secondly, 

DANIEL SYKES, ESQ., M.A., M.P., F.K.S. 339 

the sole importers, at Hull, of Swetlisli ii-on,* for the use of the 
cutlers at Sheffield. He was, however, in consequence of hLs legal 
acquii-ements, elected recorder of Hull, which office he retained 
until within six months of his decease. Mr. Sykes's father left 
him a large fortune and a share in the commerce, which also 
occupied some of his time ; and his leisure he employed in pro- 
moting the views of the Whig party, of which his family had 
long been supporters. He was one of the first establishers of 
the Rockingham weekly paper, v/hich, for many years, xmder the 
able editmg of the Eev. George Lee, had great influence in that 
pait of the kingdom. Thus he spent the earlier part of his life, 
until in 1820, as one of the representatives of the town of Hull 
— for which situation his extensive practical acquaintance with 
trade, and with the principles which govern it, jieculiarly 
fitted him; combining, as he did, the precise knowledge and 
habits of close investigation given by a legal education, with the 
expanded views of a legislator, and the business-like talent of a 
merchant. Mr. Sykes's speech in recommendation of Mr. 
Henry (afterwards Lord) Brougham, as the fittest person to be 
called on to represent the county, at a meeting of Whigs at 
York prior to the general election of 1830, had a powerful effect 
in deciding the meeting in his fivour. At a subsequent period 
the freeholders of the West-Riding were desirous of i-aising 
Mr. Sykes himself to the seat vacated by the elevation of 
Ml-. Brougham to the woolsack ; and he would in all probability 

in 1837, to the Eev. Charles Hotham; 2, Penelope, married, in 1837, to 
Edward York, Esq., of Wighill Park, near Leeds, &c. The eldest son, Sir 
Mark Sykes, married, first, Henrietta, daughter and heir of Henry Master- 
man, Esq. , of Settrington Hall, near York, but she dying, without issue, in 
July, 1813, he married, secondly, in August, 1814, Mary EHzabeth, sister of 
Wilbrahain Egerton, Esq., but died, without issue, in February, 1823. Sir 
Mark was M.P. for York from 1807 to 1820, and was succeeded bj'his brother. 
Sir Tatton Sykes, of Sledmere, born in 1772; married, in 1822, Mary Anne, 
daughter of the late Sir "W. FowUs, Bart. , of Ingleby Manor, and had issue 
— 1, the present Sir Tatton Sykes, born in March, 182G; 2, Christopher, born 
in 1831, &c. Sir Francis William Sykes, Bart. , of Basildon, in Berkshire, is 
also descended from this family.- — -For a much longer and more particular 
account, see "Whitaker's Thoresb;/ ; Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, &c. 

* Some of the ancestors of ]Mr. Sykes had for many generations been 
settled at Hull, in the pursuit of extensive commercial engagements. Mr. 
Sykes's great-grandfather had such a connection with the Baltic trade that, 
on the occasion of a severe famine in Sweden, he freighted several vessels 
with provisions, and sent tliem thither for gratuitous distribution among the 
poor; for this act the Swedish government in gratitude gave him the lease of 
some iron mines, whicli eventually swelled tlie patrimony of his descendants 
so as to enable them to withdraw from all other speculations. On his death 
he bequeathed this property to one of his sons ; and his landed estates to the 
other, from whom descended the celebrated collector and patron of literature, 
the late Sir Mark Sykes, of Sledmere, Bart., &c. 


liave been member foi' Yorkshire liad not his own reluctance, 
arising from too trne a feeling of his sinking health, prevented 
it. The following eulogy on liis character was at that period 
cii'culated by his friends: — "In Daniel Sykes, Esq., the present 
member for Beverley, they saw a member in every way answer- 
inf to their wishes. Himself connected with trade, being con- 
cerned in a mercantile house iu Hull — of mercantile descent 
and connections, being the son of a Leeds merchant, whose 
family has long been of high respectability in this town — 
thoroughly versed both in the details and principles of commerce 
— attached to the utmost freedom of industry — so independent 
and disinterested that he sacrificed the representation of HuU 
because he woiild not support the claims of the shipping inte- 
rests to a I'e-imposition of the old restrictions on navigation — 
favourable to freedom of trade in com and freedom of trade to 
the East — a staunch, consistent, and enlightened friend to a 
thorough reform of the House of Commons — the constant 
advocate of economy and retrenchment, which he supported on 
all occasions — most regular in his attendance at the House and 
in committees — a cool, clear-headed, patient man of business, 
the very apostle of anti-slavery, having visited the whole East- 
Riding to stir up the jDeople to petition for the emancijiation of 
the slave — and, above all, of the most inflexible integrity and 
unstained purity of character: such are the high and varied 
claims of Mr. Sykes to the confidence of the freeholders of 
Yorkshire." At the dissolution in 1830, Mr. Sykes declined 
ofiering himself again for Hull, but was returned for Beverley, 
and had the satisfaction of voting for the Reform Bill; but his 
health compelled him to retire from public life at the dissokition 
of parliament, and his constitution soon afterwards broke up. 
Mr. Sykes's funeral took place on Monday, January 30th, at 
Kirkella church, in the j^resence of a large number of friends, 
and many of the inhabitants of Hull and the neighbouring 
places. The funeral retinue left the fimily residence at Ray well 
soon after nine in the morning, and proceeded in the following 
order : — Five mourning coaches and four, containing the members 
of the family; the heai'se and four; a very long train of indi- 
viduals, walking two abreast, comprising personal friends of 
Mr. Sykes, merchants, professional gentlemen, members of the 
Mechanics' Institute, &:c. ; thu-ty carriages and coaches, and 
about the same number of gigs and vehicles of other classes; 
and between one and two hundred horsemen.* A splendid 

* On Sunday, Febi-u.iry ,5th, a funeral sermon was preached in the Holy 
Trinity cliurch, HuU, by the Rev. H. Venn, M.A., of Drypool. His text 

DANIEL SYKES, ESQ., M.A., M.P., F.R.S. 341 

monument was afterwards erected in Kirkella church to the late 
Daniel Sykes, Esq., M.P., by his widow, with a long Latin 
inscription, for which see Gentlemdit! s Magazine, vol. cii., part 2, 
p. 659, &c. — For a more particular account, see the Gentlemari s 
Magazine for February, 1832, p. 178, &c. ; the Annual Biography 
and Obituary for 1833, p. 294, &c. And for a pedigree of the 
Sykeses, see Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis, pp. 3, 36, &c. 

was taken from Ezekid xx. 3-5, which the preacher thus applied to the case of 
the departed : "At the time when his political associates were advanced to 
the direction of public affairs, — when the measui-es in which he had long 
taken a deep interest were brought into discussion, and political zeal amongst 
all parties was kindled to an unusual pitch, — when a fair and promising 
opportunity was open before him of succeeding to the representation of the 
county of York, a post of not less distinguished honour than overwhelming 
toil — at that time the fatal disease seized upon his frame with too sui-e a 
grasp, and seemed to whisper in his ear, ' Come thou aside, and turn thy 
thoughts to other things ; ' the hand of God brought him into ' the wilder- 
ness,' into a state of suffering and retirement, to meditate upon death and 
eternity, to hold converse with his God, and prepare for his immediate 
presence." After some other prefatory remarks, Mr. Yenn thus dilated on 
Mr. Sykes's character: "He was a man formed to take the lead in society. 
He was gifted with iine natural abilities, which were ciiltivated by mental 
exercise, by extensive reading, and by intercourse with men of kindred 
talents and attainments. He was distinguished by a cool and independent 
judgment, united with great acuteness and clearness of apprehension. Good 
sense was also one of the most striking featiu'es of his mind — sound, prac- 
tical, good sense. These great and valuable qualities rendered him, in an 
eminent degree, a useful member of the senate, and enabled him to command 
attention whenever he rose to deliver his opini<m. These qualities enabled 
him to discharge the liigh judicial functions which he sustained in this town 
with great dignity and advantage to the public. These qualities attracted 
the esteem and confidence of an unusually large circle of friends, and, it may 
be added, of all who had the opportunity of knowing him. The master- 
principle of his character was benevolence, an enlarged benevolence, mani- 
festing itself in acts of noble generosity, and disinterested zeal for the happi- 
ness and welfare of his fellow-creatures. As a member of the legislature, 
the questions in which he took the deepest interest and the most active part, 
were such as he conceived to bear most directly on the happiness and comfort 
of his countrymen, or any class of his feUow-creatures. Though identified 
with one of the leading parties of the state, in his general view of politics he 
still more cordially united with those of any party whom he believed to be 
actuated by a desire of doing good. There was not one of the numerous 
associations for purposes of benevolence in this district of the county, of 
which he was not a liberal patron. But this is but an insignificant part of 
his praise : it was not merely his money — his time, his ready and patient 
attention, his talents were at the command of any one who came upon a 
message of mercy. In the retirement of his country-seat, scarcely a day 
passed in which he did not receive applications from persons in difficulty or 
distress, to whom he liberally gave the benefit of legal advice, or such other 
relief as their cases required : scarcely a day passed in which he was not 
engaged in some act of kindness or bounty to his dependents and the neigh- 
bouring poor, for the great object of his life was to make everybody around 
him happy. Never did a public character better succeed in concealing the 
extent of his benevolence. In him there seemed a perfect abhorrence of 
ostentation, and hence much of his charity was exercised in ways which it 
was hardly possible for strangers to appreciate, or for friends to reveal during 



Poet, itc, died at Potternewton, near Leeds, July 6tb, 1832, 
aged twenty-five years, much respected and regretted.* Mr. 

liis life. A large and fixed portion of his income was devoted to charity, and 
this besides occasional princely gifts to those connected with him by ties of 
friendship and kindred. The part also which a father performs for the sake 
of his children he undertook for the sake of those who had not that claim 
upon him. For one proof of this, a circumstance may be mentioned, which, 
in a commercial town, cannot but be duly appreciated. He continued to 
engage in mercantile cares and risks for the Ijenefit of others. After having 
long since fixed upon a certain amount, beyond which he would not allow his 
property to accumulate, he had the finnness to abide by this decision, when 
the power and temptation to