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Full text of "A biographical album of prominent Pennsylvanians"

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THERE IS NO LIFE OF A MAN, FAITHFULLY RECORDED, BUT IS A HEROIC 
POEM OF ITS SORT, RHYMED OR UNRH YMED.— Caj^/^/V. 



FIRST SERIES. 

STATESMEN, MILITARY OFFICERS, JOURNALISTS, EDUCATORS 
AND PROMINENT PERSONS RECENTLY DECEASED. 



PHILADELPHIA : 
THE AMERICAN BIOGRAPHICAL PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

(CH.VRLES R. DEACON, MANAGER. ^ 

1S88. 

^ This bock brirDpe fo ^ 
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Copyrighted by CHARLES RIDGWAY DEACON, iSSS. 



CLECTROTVPEHS, 




1321613 
PRKFACK. 



Great the State and great her sons, 
Greater still than mightier ones 
Who rule their realms with purse and sword, 
Whose every act is stained with fraud. 
Stamp their fame on historj-'s page. 
Place their names amongst the sage 
Who've served the Nation and the State, 
Whose every act has made them great — 
Men of Pennsylvania. 

— Hon. Samuel G. King. 

THIS work had its inception in newspaper enterprise which, it must 
be admitted, is now the dominant factor in American civiUza- 
tion. If History, as Carlyle says, " is the essence of innumerable 
biographies," the nineteenth century is making history very rapidly ; 
for biography is a leading feature in modern journalism. Probably the 
most notable series of biographies that have appeared in late years 
were those published in the weekly issues of the Philadclpliia Press 
under the caption of "State Celebrities," and which induced some 
young journalists to undertake the preparation of a work that would, 
as they announced, "put into enduring form so much of the history 
of Pennsylvania as a few of her active citizens have helped to make." 
This was the origin of the "Biographical Album of Prominent Penn- 
sylvanians " now offered to the public, but which was not carried very 
far toward completion by its originators, who, meeting with unexpected 
obstacles and perplexities, allowed their zeal to flag, and the under- 
taking was suspended for a time until it passed into the hands of its 
present publishers. 

In presenting these volumes of " Prominent Pennsylvanians " we 
may claim that we are following in the footsteps of the most enlight- 
ened and progressive of our sister States. New England has pub- 
lished the genealogy of nearly every one of her leading families ; Ohio 
has devoted four ponderous volumes to recording the lives and doings 
of her prominent men ; while Pennsylvania, although she has citizens 
who have adorned every department of life, has thus far failed to 

(3) 



" cherish the story " of her sons who have rendered important service 
in many ways to the State and mankind. Why should not honor be 
given during life, as well as after death, to those to whom honor is due ? 
No doubt the predominance of the Quaker and German elements in 
our population is, in part, chargeable with this neglect, which has sub- 
jected us to the reproach of being " without State pride," but the 
publication of this work, we trust, heralds the promise of better days 
for Pennsylvanians, and affords encouragement to our young men to 
press forward in well-doing in the confidence that their merits will be 
recognized as they deserve. 

It is but justice to those whose personal histories are recorded in 
these volumes, to state that no one of them solicited a place in the work, 
and they furnished data for their sketches and photographs for their 
portraits, only in response to a pressing invitation given after a careful 
consideration of their merit ; and it is also just to other prominent men, 
whose life-records will not be found in these volumes, to admit that 
many of them are equally worthy of the distinction ; but this book is 
in no sense an encyclopaedia, and the subjects selected must be con- 
sidered as representative of many others " now living or recently 
deceased." 

To guard against the fault common to works of this class, of being 
too unwieldy for convenient reference, the contents have been sub- 
divided into three parts or series : the first, as will be seen, embracing 
biographical sketches of men distinguished in political and military 
life, journalists, professors, and men recently deceased ; the second, 
composed largely of representative professional men — lawyers, physi- 
cians and artists ; while the third is devoted principally to the active 
men of the present day, who are prominent in industrial enterprises, 
commerce, inventions and railroad management. 

The publishers extend their thanks to all who have aided them in 
their arduous enterprise, and desire to express their acknowledgments 
to H<>.\. Wm. D. Kelley, George W. Ciiilds, John Y. Huuer, and 
particularly to Edwin T. Freedley, whose co-operation has been 
earnest and effective. 

C. R. D. 

PiIII.AIjELI'UI.V, 1888. 



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INDEX TO BIOGRAPHIES, 



PROMINENT PENNSYLVANIANS. — FIRST SERIES. 



Adams, Robert, Jr. 
Adamson, Thomas 
Africa, J. Simpson 
Agnew, Daniel 
Allen, Harrison 
Allen, Robert P. 

Baird, Absalom 
Baker, Alfred G. 
Barr, James P. 
Bates, Stockton 
Bingham, Henry H. 
Bishop, John S. 
Brewster, Benjamin 
Brooke, H. Jones 
Brooke, John R. 
Bunn, William M. 
Bunnell, Frank C. 



Cameron, Simon 
Campbell, James H. 
Cattell, William C. 
Childs, George W. 
Cohen, Henry 
Cooper, Thomas V. 
Crawford, Samuel W. 
Curtin, Andrew G. 

Davis, Robert S. 
Demming, Henry C. 
Dick, Samuel B. 
Dravo, John F. 

Elliott, Washington L. 
Everhart, James B. 

Faunce, John E. 
Fetterolf, Adam H. 
Fitler, Edwin H. . 

Gable, William 
Garretson, James E. 
Gazzam, Joseph M. 
Grady, John C. 
Grubb, Edward Burd 
GusKY, Jacob M. 

Hancock, Winfield S. 



191 

203 
211 

lOI 

265 
167 



437 
3S3 
421 

23 
309 

97 
149 
247 
417 

43 

89 
69 
323 
357 
423 
183 

253 
61 

397 

297 

77 

1S7 

245 
27 

179 

343 
223 

199 

349 
169 

175 
261 

443 
227 



(5) 



INDEX TO BIOGRAPHIES. 



Hanpy, Moses P. 
Heyl, Edward M. 

HORNE, ABRAHA>! R. 

HowsoN, Henry 
HoYT, Kenry M. 
Hughes, Francis W. 

Kelley, William D. 
King, Samcel G. 
Knox, James H. M. 
KooNTZ, William H. 

Lilly, William 

Macfarlane, John J. 
MacKellar, Thomas 
March, Francis A. 
MacCalla, Clifford P. 
McClire, Alexander K 
Melville, George W. 
Mercir, Ulysses 
Mitchell, John H. 
MoRwrrz, Edward . 
Murdoch, Samuel K. 

Osborne, Edwin H. . 
Owen, Joshua T. 

Patton, John . 
Penrose, Boies . 
Porter, Horace 
Pollock, Otis W. . 

Quay, Matthew S. 

Randall, Samuel J. 
Rey'burn, John E. 

Sailer, Joseph 
Sharswood, George 
SiNGEKLY, William M. 
Smedley, Samuel L. 
Smith, A. Kerr 
Smith, Charles Emory 
Sower, Charles G. 
Starr, Samuel H. . 
Sturgis, Samuel D. 

Tagcart, John H. . 

Wallace, William A. 
Weyand, Michael 
WisTAR, Isaac J. 
WoLKK, Charles S. 
WoLVERTON, Simon P. 

Young, Samuel B. M. 



401 
289 
345 
445 
125 
141 

7 
217 

335 

73 

28s 

i6i 

355 
339 
405 
363 
321 
III 
57 
379 
431 

37 
281 

47 
195 
269 



>5 

165 

411 
115 

371 
439 
83 
387 
425 
293 
237 



'33 
4"5 
277 
151 
139 




Hon. William D. Kelley. 



A 

BIOGRAPHICAL ALBUM 

OF 

PROMINENT PENNSYLVANIANS. 



WILLIAM DARRAH KELLEY. 

WILLIAM Darrah Kelley, lawyer and statesman, was born in Philadelphia, 
April 1 2th, 1 8 14. His ancestors were among the pioneers of American 
civilization. Among the earliest settlers of West Jersey was a small colony of 
French Huguenots and Irish Presbyterians. Among the Huguenots was a 
family bearing the name of Casteau and of the Irish stock there were Kelleys ; 
a Kelley married a Casteau, and these were paternal ancestors of " the gentle- 
man from Pennsylvania." Judge Kelley's maternal ancestors, the Darrahs, 
were among the early comers into Bucks county, settling on the banks of the 
Neshaminy. The Philadelphia Directory for 18 14, in the April of which year 
Judge Kelley was born, records that his father, David Kelley, was in business 
as a watchmaker and jeweler, and lived at No. 227 North Second street. The 
War of 1812, through the financial crisis which followed and culminated in 
1816-21, ruined many of Philadelphia's best people. David Kelley might have 
survived the shock to his own business, but, unhappily, he had endorsed for a 
considerable amount the paper of the husband of his wife's sister. The sheriff 
came swift on the heels of the principal's default. Not long after David Kelley 
fell dead on the street. Hannah Kelley found herself with four children to 
support, of whom William Darrah was the youngest and the only son. She had 
courage and capacity, and everybody admitted that she was an excellent house- 
keeper. With borrowed money she opened a boarding-house. The common 
school had not come yet, and the four Kelley children were sent to the con- 
gregational school of the Second Presbyterian Church, then at the northwest 
corner of Third and Arch streets, where the late Morton McMichael and his 
gifted brother Isaac were also pupils. Here, under the tuition of Daniel L. 
Peck, they completed their schooling. 

(7) 



8 WILLIAM D. KELLEY. 

William D. Kelley had now reached the age of eleven years. He was ambi- 
tious and impatient. He felt that he could do something to lighten his mother's 
burden, and he wanted to be about it. He refused longer to attend school, and 
went in search of his first "job." In those days a good shop or errand boy 
commanded a dollar a week, and at that rate the young fortune-seeker found 
employment in a lottery- office on Fourth street above Market. Half a century 
ago lotterj- had a better standing than now, but the boy noted the anguish of 
the more desperate of the disappointed players, and he felt that he could not 
remain in that business. He found harder work for a time with an umbrella 
maker, and shortly after became copy-reader m the printing-office of the late 
Jesper Harding, father of George Harding, the eminent patent lawyer, and of 
William W. Harding, proprietor of the Philadelphia Inquirer. He had no 
thought of becoming a printer. It was his father's intention that he should be a 
good watchmaker and jeweler, and that was u':e son's desire. Harsh as the law 
was, it had left him his father's tools, and he only waited to be old enough to 
enter upon his apprenticeship. Judge Kelley never wearies of recounting to 
young people the benefits he derived from his employment in the printing- 
office. It fell to his lot to read aloud, with such distinctness as would satisfy a 
careful proof-reader, several volumes of historj- and high-class fiction. Here 
was a schooling which not only opened to young Kelley a treasur>' of delight 
and profit, but developed a clearness of enunciation for which the man is noted, 
and which is not the least part of his power as a public speaker. To this period 
of his life Judge Kelley ascribes his intellectual awakening. It was then that 
he laid the foundation of a copious vocabulary and a marvellously facile use of 
language. At that time Jesper Harding was printing also the journal of the 
Franklin Institute, then recently established, and through this the boy's atten- 
tion was directed to many branches of mechanics. This led to the gradual 
acquisition of a special knowledge which in after years stood him in good stead 
in his tariff inquiries and discussions. 

Before his thirteenth birthday William apprenticed himself, with his mother's 
consent, to Rickards & Dubosq, jewelers. The apprenticeship was to expire 
April 1 2th, 1834, his twentieth birthday. Besides sticking close to his bench in 
the working-hours, and in the evening indulging his keen appetite for books, he 
.sought active recreation in Colonel James Page's State Fencibles. At the age 
of seventeen he was an active member of the Niagara Hose Company, though 
the Constitution of the company forbade the admission of any person under 
twenty j'ears of age. 

The Youth's Library Company was an association of apprentice boys in 
which the lad seems to have been a leading spirit. When he was but sixteen 
years of age he was selected as one of three members to deliver public addresses 
in the hall of the Franklin Institute as a means of bringing the Library Com- 
pany into notice. The venerable manuscript of this juvenile discourse holds a 
high place in the Judge's recollections of his youth. 



WILLIAM n. KELLEY. 9 

April of 1834 came at last. The apprentice was free and a journeyman 
jeweler. The bitter war between Pre.sident Jackson and the United States 
Bank disturbed the country, so that business was suffering universal and ex- 
treme depression, and there was no work for jewelers. 

In I S3 5 there came such a revival of trade as enabled him to get employment 
in Boston, where a former shopmate had found work and opened a way for him. 
His stay in Boston had a marked effect upon the broader career which ability, 
industry and perseverance were to open to him. It was his good fortune to 
come into contact with men of high attainments, whose influence and example 
fired his ambition and directed it into profitable preparatory channels. The 
Faneuil Hall meeting, which he attended and captured, offered a favorable 
opportunity for a dramatic and taking debut. Nathaniel Green, Postmaster of 
Boston, who had heard the speech, offered the young orator a night clerkship, 
with small duties, in the post-office. George Bancroft, then Collector of the 
Port, invited him to the use of his fine librar}' and tendered him a position under 
the government, which would enable him to prepare for college, and advised 
him to seek a scholarship in Harvard. In each instance his response was sub- 
stantially that he did not wish to give up his independence and individuality 
and become a waiter on the tide of affairs. 

A better suggestion came from the late Colonel James Page, long known as 
one of the most active of Philadelphians. " Why don't you study law ? " " Why 
don't I go to Congress, sir?" replied Kelley, the one thing seeming to him as 
practicable as the other. " Perhaps you may some day, but first come and read 
law with me." March 9th, 1839, Colonel Page registered William D. Kelley, 
who had now returned to Philadelphia, as a student at law in his office, and 
April 17th, 1841, on Colonel Page's motion, the jeweler became a full-fledged 
limb of the law. The young lawyer's force as a public speaker attracted atten- 
tion and brought him business, if not enough at once to turn his head, at least 
sufficient to keep him fairly employed and supply his wants. In 1845 he was 
made Prosecutor of the Pleas for Philadelphia, to which place he was twice 
appointed. The acceptance of this office devolved upon the young lawyer the 
prosecution of all persons arraigned for participation in the bloody riots of 1844, 
and afforded rare opportunities for Kelley to display his independence of char- 
acter and forensic ability. 

He continued to perform the duties of prosecutor until he was nominated by 
Governor Shunk to a seat on the bench of the Common Pleas, Oyer and 
Terminer and Quarter Sessions. Judge Kelley 's commission bore date March 
13th, 1847, eight years, less one day, from the date of his registration as a law- 
student, and about a month before he had reached his thirty-third year. By 
constitutional amendment, ratified in 1850, the judicial office was made elective. 
The change was to take effect in March, 185 i, when but half of Judge Kelley's 
term would have expired. Meanwhile there occurred an election for District- 
Attorney. The late Horn R. Kneass was the Democratic candidate, and the 



lO WILLIAM D. KELLEY. 

late William B. Reed stood for the Whigs. The return was granted to Mr. 
Kneass, but Mr. Reed and his friends came to the front with a prompt and 
vigorous attack on its validitj', making distinct allegations of fraud. 

After the most protracted investigation of an election case that had ever 
occurred in Philadelphia, Judge King, supported by Parsons and Kelley, deliv- 
ered an exhaustive opinion, which gave the office to the Whig contestant. Judge 
Kelley was known to be largely responsible for this opinion, and the vitupera- 
tion now heaped upon him served the better to emphasize the public service he 
had rendered. The Evening Bulletin, then under the charge of the late Alex- 
ander Cummings, proposed a people's ticket, naming for President Judge Oswald 
Thompson, and for Associates William D. Kelley and Joseph Allison. Neither 
the Whigs nor the American party made nominations, and the People's Judicial 
ticket was elected. Judge Kelley leading in the vote. He was now recommis- 
sioned for ten years. 

Though a Democrat, Judge Kelley had always been hostile to slavery. In 
deference to judicial propriety, he avoided open political demonstrations, but in 
social intercourse and correspondence he devoted much time to the discussion 
of this grave question, and, when the Missouri Compromise was repealed, made 
open declaration of his purpose to unite with whomsoever might stand ready to 
resist the extension of slavery beyond the Missouri Compromise line. He was 
thus committed m advance to the Republican party, and while he did not appear 
at the Convention of 1854, which was held in this city, he consorted freely with 
such of the leaders from the interior of this and other States as were known per- 
sonally to him. 

In August of 1856 Samuel V. Merrick, General Hector Tyndale, Judge 
Kelley, and other gentlemen interested in the long dormant Sunbury and Erie 
railroad enterprise, set out to locate a route. There were not even stage lines 
through the wild region, and it was necessary to hire wagons at Lock Haven. 
When the party reached Williamsport on the way back, they found the first 
Philadelphia newspapers that had been seen for several days, and from these 
Judge Kelley learned that the Republican Convention of the Fourth Congres- 
sional District had placed him in nomination. He had not been consulted by 
anybody about making such use of his name. In determining to accept the 
nomination, he also determined to throw himself actively into the campaign 
against slavery and then to leave the bench. He could not hope for an election, 
nor was he willing to remain on the bench after having borne an active part in a 
campaign as heated as that was likely to be. This was the year of the Fremont 
campaign, not a very good one for the young Republican party, except as it 
scored a good beginning. Of course Judge Kelley was defeated in the race for 
Congress, and of course he resigned his seat on the bench, having held it for ten 
years, and made an honorable record as a learned, fearless and impartial Judge. 

Judge Kelley was now thoroughly identified with the Republican party. He 
was a delegate in the Chicago Convention of i860, and when Lincoln was chosen 



WILLIAM D. KELI.EV. II 

to be President Kcllcy was elected to represent the Fourth District of Pennsyl- 
vania in the famous Thirty-seventh Congress. Judge Kelley has held this seat 
without intermission for twenty-two years, and is now serving his twelfth term. 
A few months before the time comes around again to nominate him an opposi- 
tion of more noise than strength is developed, but the Convention invariably an- 
ticipates the action of the people by declaring in favor of " the father of the 
House." Judge Kelley will represent the Fourth District of Pennsylvania as 
long as he shall consent to serve. It is not necessary to follow the details of 
Judge Kelley's career in Congress. They are knit in with the history of the 
Republican party, and are better known than the story of his early struggle and 
the record of his early achievements, which it is thought well to give, not only as 
a key to a public character, but as a stimulus and an encouragement to American 
lads of small opportunities and honorable ambition. It is enough to say of Judge 
Kelley's record in the House that he at once took rank beside the most earnest 
and able of the defenders of the Union ; that he favored the most vigorous con- 
duct of the war, and interested himself personally for the comfort of the soldiers; 
that he was in favor of emancipation and manhood suffrage, and so early as 1862 
advocated the arming of the negro ; that he took an advanced Republican posi- 
tion on the question of reconstruction ; that he advocated the Morrill tariff of 
1 86 1, and has since stood valiantly by the protective principle, and has defended 
the greenback as a good and lawful money, no less serviceable in peace than in 
war. Judge Kelley is always busy, though not always in the best of health, and 
understands better than most men how to economize time. He conducts an 
immense correspondence, to which he is able to attend promptly with the aid of 
an accomplished short-hand secretary, whom he keeps busy writing at his dicta- 
tion. The secretary writes a comely hand, but the Judge cannot boast much of 
his. One of his constituents, who had received a letter penned by the secretary 
and signed by the Judge, said: "Judge Kelley writes first-rate until he has said 
' Yours truly,' and then he writes his name as though he was tired." The 
" William D." is open to recognition, but the " Kelley " might be anything. 

While Mr. Fernando Wood's Ways and Means Committee was in the agony 
of bringing forth that grotesque monstrosity known as the Wood Tariff Bill, and 
while it was being knocked about in the House, to the Judge's private rooms in 
Washington came everybody who visited Washington on business in any way 
connected with the protective side of the tariff question. Forty gentlemen, rep- 
resenting more than half as many interests, gathered there at one time, and a 
bushel of letters and telegrams was waiting to be looked into, the Judge giving 
audience and going over his mail as he lay upon his back suffering from a serious 
fall. A gentleman who came to instruct the tariff champion on the drug list had 
his audience, and was passing out when he met a tin-plate man, to whom he said, 
" I came to tell Judge Kelley about our business and how the Wood bill will 
affect it, but he knows more about it than I do." " Is that so? Well, I've just 
found that I can't tell him anything about tin-plate, and he has given me some 



12 WILLIAM D. KELLEY. 

good suggestions which had never occurred to me." It is one of the secrets of 
Judge Kelley's strength on the tariff question that he has explored it to the bot- 
tom and through all its ramifications, so that he knows it in practical as well as 
tlieoretical detail. • He never forgets. What he once learns he knows always, 
and he has his knowledge so methodically stored away in his mind that he has 
only to want it for use and instantly it is upon the tongue. This readiness he 
never exhibited to better advantage than in his speech against the Wood bill, 
which old stagers declared to be the greatest speech on the tariff question ever 
delivered in the American Congress. The notes of that speech had been care- 
fully but hurriedly prepared, and the preparation was more for the purpose of 
arrangement than to evolve and fortify an argument. Judge Kelley is always 
prepared to answer a question or make a three-hour speech, always master of his 
ample resources, never disconcerted, ever entertaining, instructive and forceful. 
When he rises to speak the House listens, and his splendid voice reaches the 
remotest corner of the hall. On a certain occasion, when the Judge was on the 
floor and rolling out his tones to the best advantage, one of those fellow-citizens 
who post themselves in the gallery because it is a nice, warm place for a com- 
fortable nap on a cold day, suddenly awaking from his slumber, shouted in a 
voice almost as strong as the Judge's : " Oh, h — 11 ! a fellow can't sleep when 
Kelley's talkin' ! " In a volume of his speeches, letters and addresses, published 
by Henrj' Carey Baird in 1872, and which he dedicated to his life-long friend and 
revered teacher, the late Henry C. Carey, Judge Kelley tells the story of his con- 
version from the doctrine of free -trade to the principle of protection to Ameri- 
can industries. He had been charmed by the taking phrases and abstract theories 
of the free-traders ; he had looked with confidence on the Walker revenue tariff 
of 1846; but the commercial panic and industrial ruin that followed started 
a new line of thought, and that led to close investigation, and that to conversion. 
The stor>^ is told at length in the book, and is worth reading as a tariff primer, 
which completely puts the case in language that everybody can understand. 
Notwithstanding the public demands upon him Judge Kelley has twice visited 
Europe and found time to make a thorough acquaintance with his own country. 
In 1867 he made an extended tour of the South, delivering speeches in the chief 
cities and towns. At Mobile, while he was addressing a large audience, a mur- 
derous assault was made upon him ; shot-guns, muskets and pistols were used 
freely, the meeting was broken up, and several persons were killed and wounded. 
Judge Kelley defied the rioters, but his friends took possession of him and hur- 
ried him off to his hotel. During the excitement of reconstruction times, one 
Judge Field, a Louisiana fire-eater, attacked Judge Kelley with a knife in Wil- 
lard's Hotel and severely wounded him in the hand, which he threw up to pro- 
tect his body. The Judge has often been threatened for opinion's sake, but that 
kind of argument has not modified his opinions. It is Judge Kelley's boast that 
he has never held an office which he has not resigned. Though .still in Congress, 
he has more than once declined to be a candidate for re-election, finally yielding 



WILLIAM D. KELLEY. 1 3 

his personal desire to the wish of his constituents. In 1870 he wanted to retire 
from Congress, and consented to a re-election with the proviso that he was not 
to be expected to act as an office-broker for place-hunters — a very practical kind 
of a civil-service reform platform. For a man of his experience in public life he 
is one of the least skilful of politicians ; indeed, he lacks about everything which 
makes the politician. He is plain-spoken to bluntness, sometimes brusque in 
manner, never hesitating to express an opinion without stopping to consider how 
it may be received. He often advises an office-seeking constituent to devote his 
time and ability to a more certain employment, and if the applicant be a young 
man he will have a useful trade suggested to him. Judge Kelley is too positive 
and self-willed to employ the arts which give a politician his grip. He will make 
rattling speeches on the stump, but he doesn't take kindly to " mixing," which 
requires the paying of pretty personal compliments without stint. 

When the Judge is not engaged at Washington he delights to spend his time 
in his beautiful home in West Philadelphia. There is nothing pretentious about 
his house, but its halls are broad and its ceilings high, and ample grounds sur- 
round it. There is scarcely a tree on the lawn but has some pleasant memory 
associated with it. This one was brought by a friend from a far country and that 
one the Judge planted with some good friend's aid. Each tree has an individu- 
ality, and to them, as he walks through his grounds, the Judge delivers the rough 
outline of some of his best speeches. The well-stored library is his delight. 
His books show the bent of his mind. There is a good deal of high-class gen- 
eral literature, but histor\', finance and economic science take up most of the 
shelves. Henry C. Carey has an honored place ; and the free-trade writers are 
there, too, waiting to be slaughtered once more in the next speech. The large 
desk in the middle of the floor is a good deal littered up with letters, pamphlets 
and books — some of them sprawled out on all-fours, and all of them marked 
with slips of paper for reference. Between two windows stands one of those tall, 
old-fashioned clocks with a high-colored, chubby face looking down on the dial. 
" D. Kelley, Philadelphia," tells that it was made by the Judge's father, but 
doesn't add that the father made it for the man who was his landlord when the 
son was born, and that in recent years the Judge bought the stately time-piece 
of melodious tick from the landlord's widow. The Judge points with a tender 
pride to that old clock. To this workshop a friend, or one who has business, is 
always welcome ; but it is not a good place for bores. 




Hon Samuel J. Randall. 



SAMUEL JACKSON RANDALL. 

SAMUEL J. Randall is a son of Josiah Randall, a man well known in his day 
and generation, and whose memory is still fragrant in Philadelphia, where 
he lived and died. Josiah Randall was for years an influential factor in Penn- 
sylvania politics, first as a Democrat, then — and for the greater part of his life — 
as a Henry Clay Whig ; and finally, when the Whigs gravitated towards Aboli- 
tion, he errtbraced the Democratic faith. He never held any prominent office, 
but was a member of the Legislature, and was an able pohtical contributor to the 
press. The death of tliis gentleman of the old school occurred years ago, but 
his wife lingered until 1880, and died in May of that year. Her son, Samuel, 
then Speaker of the House of Representatives, was with her at the last, and, with 
his brothers Henry and Robert, followed iier remains to the grave. Each of 
these worthy parents had a strong influence in moulding the character of the son 
who now bears the family name so prominently and so worthily, and lawyer 
Josiah Randall's keen political instincts, clear perceptions, and comprehensive 
grasp of public affairs are reproduced in the present Democratic leader in the 
House of Representatives. 

Samuel J. Randall was born in Philadelphia, October loth, 1828. His educa- 
tion was academic, and it was his father's intention to make him a merchant. 
His school-days were passed at the University Academy, on Fourth street below 
Arch, of which Mr. Crawford was the principal. It is said by his old school- 
fellows that he was a bright, pluckj^ and ambitious pupil. From the academy he 
passed at once to the counting-room of Mather, Walton & Hallowell, dry goods 
merchants, on Market street, and there he remained several years. He was 
afterwards, at twenty-one years of age, in the iron business, being a partner 
in the firm of Earp & Randall. They had a fine warehouse, running from 
Delaware avenue to Water street, and did a large wholesale trade. Meanwhile 
he drank in political information from his father's lips, and in the old gentle- 
man's society acquired considerable knowledge of political methods. He found 
himself at the foot of the political ladder, and actually taking a step on it. The 
first round in this case was a seat in the City Council. He was elected to that 
body as an Old-Line Whig while still young, and served the old Locust ward as 
a City Father until the Consolidation, and then the Eighth ward, making four 
years in all. In those days he was " hail fellow, well met " with ever}'body, and 
became a great favorite with the voters generally. When a vacancy in the State 
Senate, caused by the death of Senator Penrose, father of the present Judge Pen- 
rose, beckoned him a step higher, he accepted the invitation with alacrity. For 
this place he ran as a Democrat, having changed his political relations in 1S56, 
when his father came out for Pennsylvania's candidate for the Presidency, James 
Buchanan. In that year Josiah Randall went to Cincinnati ; liis sons, Samuel 

(•5) 



1 6 SAMUEL J. RANDALL. 

J. and Robert E., going with him to effect that nomination. They kept open 
house at the Burnett House while the National Democratic Convention was in 
session. It was as a Democrat, therefore, that Samuel J. Randall was a candi- 
date for the Senate, and he has been a Democrat of the Democrats ever since. 
He was elected by a good majority, defeating Stillwell S. Bishop, and served one 
term in the Senate, his brother Robert E., now a resident of New York city, 
serving at the same time in the lower House. Ambitious Pennsylvanians find 
Harrisburg right on the road to Washington, but many never get any further 
than the first station. Samuel J. Randall is one of the lucky few. While he was 
in the Legislature the war broke out. The call for ninety days' men was 
answered by Senator Randall in pefson. He was a private in the First City 
Troop of Philadelphia, Captain James commanding. 

As soon as the call for troops was made by the National Government, on the 
15th of April, 1861, the company tendered its services under the call. On the 
13th of May it was mustered into the service of the United States for the term 
of ninety days. The liorses all belonged to the troopers. The company was 
attached to the Second United States Cavalry, commanded by Colonel, afterwards 
the distinguished General, George H. Thomas. It was while in the field that 
Randall wrote to Washington, making the suggestion to the War Department 
which led to the advancement of George H. Thomas to the line of general 
officers. That letter called the attention of the department to the ability of 
General Thomas in such a way as to make an impression at head-quarters, 
although it came from a man in the ranks, and as yet unknown to fame. In 
1 879, when the equestrian statue of General Thomas was unveiled at Washington, 
this fact was remembered, and Mr. Randall, then Speaker of the House of Rep- 
resentatives, was given a special invitation to witness and participate in the 
ceremony. 

Private Randall came back from the war as Orderly Sergeant Randall, and 
Sergeant Randall was, in 1862, elected a Representative in Congress from the 
First District, which embraced nearly the same wards that now compose the 
Third Di.strict. From that day to this, although often bitterly battled against, he 
has never been out of Congress for a day, being successively re-elected to every 
Congress from the Thirty-eighth to and including the Forty-ninth. He was a 
very quiet member at first, and spent a good \A\\\c in getting settled in his new 
phcre and accustomed to his new surroundings. During his first term he was a 
member of only one committee, that on Public Buildings and Grounds; in his 
second he served on three, all important committees, viz.: Banking and Currency, 
Retrenchment, and Expenditures in the State Department ; and in his third he 
held his place in each of these three, and was also lionored as a representative of 
his party on the Special Committee on the Assassination of Lincoln. 

On the 25th of May, 1862, Governor Curtin ordered Major-Gencral Patterson to 
muster the military force under his command to protect the capital of the country. 
On the following morning Mr. Randall despatched a note to the general com- 



SAMUEL J. RANDALL. I7 

mantling tlic division, tendering the services of the troop. Early the succeeding 
day, Mr. Randall, in obedience to orders, reported by letter to the commanding 
general, and on the first intimation of the advance of the Southern army north 
of the Potomac he proceeded to Harrisburg to make arrangements by which the 
troop could go into service. He marched the troop to Harri.sburg, and on to 
Gettysburg, and, as Cornet, commanded until honorably discharged. Wliile at 
Columbia he was appointed Provost Marshal, and under his orders strict military 
rule was established, and the sale of intoxicating liquors prohibited. 

The Democrats were in a hopeless minority in those days, and all that Mr. 
Randall could do was to make his mark as an efficient committeeman. It was 
not until the minority grew strong enough fo have confidence in itself that he 
made a profound impression upon the House as a ready debater, an expert in 
parliamentary practice, and a fighter who fought until he was whipped, and then 
snapped his fingers in the face of defeat. In the Forty-first Congress he was a 
useful member of the Committee of Elections, and of the Joint Committee on 
Retrenchment. His next advance was in the Forty-second Congress, when his 
parliamentary skill brought him forward as a member of the Committee on 
Rules, the other members being Speaker Blaine, ex-Speaker Banks, General 
Garfield, and S. S. Co.k ; but he continued to serve on the old committees, whose 
duties he had thoroughly mastered. 

Then came the Forty-third Congress, which gave the member from the Third 
Pennsylvania District the opportunity of his life. He was not slow to seize it; 
not because he recognized it as an opportunity for personal advancement, but 
because circumstances combined to make him the mouthpiece and defender of 
his party and its principles. The occasion was the attempted passage of the now 
famous force bill, which, according to Democratic theory, was a desperate device 
of the Republicans to avert their fast-coming decline, at the expense of the Con- 
stitutional rights of the States, and in reckless contempt of the spirit of free insti- 
tutions. Still in a minority in the House of Representatives, the Democrats 
scarcely dared hope to defeat this bill; but Randall took the lead, made their 
fight aggressive instead of defensive, and the whole party seemed to catch his 
spirit. For days and nights he opposed parliamentary tactics, ready strategy 
and invincible pluck, to a compact Republican majority, with all the machinery 
of the House at its back. In the end his apparently forlorn hope was victorious, 
and Randall was by common consent the hero of the contest. At once and 
thenceforward Samuel J. Randall occupied a prominent position in the eyes of 
the nation, and when the House of Representatives in the next Congress was 
organized by the Democrats, almost everybody looked to see him carry off the 
great prize of the Speakership. But he was to wait a little longer before entering 
upon his reward. There was an honest and earnest Democrat from Indiana who 
had an older claim — Michael C. Kerr was the man. The South and West com- 
bined to give him the Chair. Mr. Randall made a good fight, but, losing, 
acquiesced cheerfully. " Mr. Chairman," said he to the caucus, as soon as the 
3 



l8 SAMUEL J. RANDALL. 

vote was taken, " let the wish of the majority be tlie voice of all. From this 
moment the differences among ourselves must be at an end, and we must thus 
present a united front to our adversaries. Our mission on this floor must be, as 
far as we are able, to restore the government to its Constitutional purposes, and 
to expose the corruption of the administration." This speech sounded the key- 
note of the Democratic policy on its restoration to the control of the House of 
Representatives. The appointment of Mr. Randall to the Chairmanship of the 
Committee on Appropriations gave him a chance to impress his ideas upon 
legislation, in so far as a Republican Senate would allow it. As a leader of the 
majority he was not so impressive as when he led a minority, but the work that 
he accomplished under whip and spur in a single session was remarkable. Abler 
Republicans than any that now sit on the floor of the House of Representatives 
challenged him at every step ; timid Democrats held on to his coat-tails, while 
the Senate stood like a stone wall in the path of retrenchment. Randall sur- 
prised everybody by his mastery of details in every department of the govern- 
ment business. The reforms that he proposed were so sweeping as to cause 
alarm ; but he was prepared to stand by every figure in his budget, and to show 
that he was the right one in the right place. His idea was, that the difference 
between the legitimate cost of running this government and the amount that was 
paid therefor under Republican estimates was 538,910,984.29, and this enormous 
balance he proposed to cut off and charge to extravagance. The party which 
had been holding the keys of the Treasury so long was naturally loth to 
admit that its trust had been abused to such an extent. General Garfield, 
the Chairman of the old Committee on Appropriations, under which this 
extravagance had been accumulating, was particularly bitter in opposition ; but 
there was no withstanding Randall's conclusive array of figures. Beaten in 
the House, the Republicans made a desperate stand in the Senate, and when 
the appropriation bills came back to the House there ensued a bitter discussion 
as to the degree to which the Senate is responsible for the raising of the 
revenue and the disposition of it. Randall was charged with putting the House 
above the Senate. Kasson, of Iowa, attacked him vigorously on this line, but 
Randall closed the debate with the simple remark : " I take all the right for this 
House which the Constitution gives it, and will be satisfied with nothing less." 
The battle was won by the popular branch, and, thanks to Randall above all 
others, the Democrats in the Presidential and Congressional elections of 1876 
were enabled to show that, although intrusted with only one branch of a single 
department of the government, they had reduced the burden of taxation to the 
enormous extent of $40,000,000, of which $30,000,000 was saved in a single 
session. This result was the tallest feather in Randall's cap then, and it is to- 
day. 

Speaker Kerr died in tin- summer of 1876, and when Congress assembled in 
the following December it was necessary to elect his successor to the Chair for 
the unoxjiired Congressional term. There was now no doubt as to the man for 



SAMUEL J. RANDALL. IQ 

the place. Mr. Randall was selected by the Democratic caucus over S. S. Cox, 
of New York, a Democrat who had achieved a national reputation when his 
successful competitor in this fight was only a member of the Pennsylvania Legis- 
lature. The vote stood : Randall, yi ; Cox, 63. When the election took place 
the country was throbbing with excitement over a disputed Presidential election. 
Mr. Randall was chosen by the friends of Governor Tilden to go with other 
prominent Democrats to Louisiana, and have an eye upon the tricks of the 
Returning Board. While in New Orleans, he did much by his presence and 
counsel to encourage the Democrats to fight for their rights before the Returning 
Board. It was on his return that he was elected Speaker; and a controlling 
influence in tlie choice was the general desire of the Democrats to have a clear- 
headed and quick-witted man, not to be bullied, in the Chair during the electoral 
count and the proceedings preliminary thereto. This confidence in Randall was 
justified. If the white feather was shown by any Democrat in that period of 
doubt and dread, Samuel J. Randall was not the man who showed it. 

There is little need to dwell upon the last four years of Mr. Randall's life. 
During that time his words and acts have been read of all men, for he has not 
lived in a corner nor kept his hand on his mouth. His successive re-elections to 
Congress, in 1876 and 1878, were followed by successive re-elections to the 
Speakership of the House of Representatives; never without bitter opposition, 
but always, it may be said, without disparagement of his rivals, with the approval 
of the Democracy and of the country at large. As Speaker he made mistakes 
of judgment, yet no decision was ever overruled by the House — a remarkable 
fact ; but any such mistakes are insignificant compared with his great services 
to the party and to the nation. His occupation of the Chair of the House 
was a standing guarantee of an honest administration of its duties, without 
regard to personal or sectional considerations, and in the broad spirit of 
nationality. There was wincing here and there, and he has been damned up 
hill and down when recognition was not given to a man with an ugly a.xe to 
grind, or when a committee was not made up to please the friends of a certain 
great enterprise, or when his gavel, in sustaining a point of order, fell with such 
force as to mash a proposed subsidy as flat as a pancake ; but there is no telling 
how many millions he has saved the country, or from how many pitfalls he has 
rescued the Democratic party by this stiff-neckedness. He knew as well as any- 
body else that his anti-sectional and anti-subsidy policy could not be enforced 
without making him liable to the charge of niggardliness, and indefinitely in- 
creasing the number of his enemies, but he was willing to pay that price. His- 
tory will make Samuel J. Randall second to none of his predecessors in the 
Speakership, whether the standard be integrity, intelligence, decision of character, 
length and breadth of vision, or the mastery and application of rules of parlia- 
mentary proceedings. 

The life which we have sketched has been passed by a man of the world among 
men of the world, without Pharisaical pretensions, but it has been an honest life 



20 SAMUEL J. RANDALL. 

amid great temptations. There hav^ been times when Randall's friends trembled 
lest he should stumble, and when enemies chuckled over his apparently inevi- 
table downfall, but he has come to his fifty-ninth year without a stain upon his 
personal integrity. After twenty-five years of public life, covering the most cor- 
rupt period in American history, he finds himself a poor man, with nothing to 
show for his diligence in business except an honorable position, and the plainly 
furnished little house in Washington, where he lives during the Congressional 
session. When he comes to Philadelphia he has a room at Guy's Hotel, and 
his summers are generally passed with his wife and children in a rented house 
near Berwj-n, on the Pennsylvania Railroad, within a few hours' ride of the city. 
He did not figure on the memorandum-book of Oakes Ames, nor was he on 
the pay-roll of Boss Shepherd, and no lobbyist knows a sure way to Randall's 
good graces. There is no middleman whom he has enriched. When the Cen- 
tral Pacific Railway Companj' had a bill before the House, looking to the 
appropriation of Ware Island for depot purposes, by a wanton sacrifice of the 
government's title to that property, a lifelong personal friend of Mr. Randall 
went to him and said : " Look here, Sam ; I know you are opposed to this bill, 
and there is no use in asking you to help us get it through, but its passage will 
be S20,000 in my pocket. Now, all I ask is that you will favor me by not 
fighting it any more than is absolutely necessary." " My friend," was the reply, 
" I would rather lose my right hand than have you lose that fee, for I know you 

need the money, and I have no better friend in the world ; but by , I am 

opposed to that bill. It is a steal, and I am going to fight it to the death." He 
was as good as his word, fighting it with all his might, and it was defeated by 
one \'ote. Vice-President Wheeler, by the way, was Chairman of the Committee 
on Pacific Railroads at the time, and the patron of the bill. A dozen similar 
stories illustrating this point could be told, but everybody who knows Samuel J. 
Randall will acknowledge that he is a man that a lobbyist cannot bring down 
with any sort of shot. He has, indeed, been a warm friend of some of the 
enterprises, whose suit upon the floor of Congress he has rejected from a sense 
of public duty, with a brusqueness which verged upon rudeness and tyranny. 
In a matter of this kind he has no blind side ; approach which way one will, he 
is sure to get a kick. Hence the tears of many a parliamentary broker, and the 
hate of every legislative rooster. 

Personall)', Mr. Randall is a man who would attract attention in any company, 
and yet he is not a man of imposing appearance. He is perhaps a little above 
the medium height, but a slight stoop reduces his stature to the average. He is 
broad-shouldered and loose-limbed. Wearing no beard, and being always close- 
shaven, his face is almost as smooth as a baby's. His eyes are small, black, and 
piercing, but this effect is modified by a habit of squinting, which seems to be 
tile result of trying to conquer nearness of sight without the aid of glasses. But 
his most prominent feature is the mouth, which, while inclined to smile and 
reveal a fine set of teeth, shuts with a snap and assumes the firmest sort of ex- 



SAMUEL J. KANPALL. 21 

pression under the impulse of antagonism. The sunsliine of boyish frankness, 
which usually dwells upon liis countenance, is obscured in an instant by a cloud 
as black as thunder. The massive lower jaw is projected, the thin lips close, a 
frown falls upon the brow, and the whole head is thrust forward in a defiant 
fashion. It is a complete transformation, and when Randall is in this ugly 
mood, friend and foe are equally liable to suffer from the displeasure of the 
moment. Very different does he look as he saunters down Chestnut street or 
Pennsylvania avenue, or sits in his sparsely furnished study with a fe\V chosen 
friends, talking over the affairs of the day. Then he is all smiles, and nobody 
who has seen him laugh heartily will ever think of him with that other look. 
As to dress he is somewhat careless, but the fact that he went to his sister-in- 
law's wedding in a linen duster is not to be used against him, for that was an 
accident of travel. He is almost always seen in a complete suit of black broad- 
cloth, the coat being the long-tailed black frock, which is still considered full 
dress in some parts of the country. I have known him to be taken in Washing- 
ton for the chaplain of the House, or some visiting clergyman, and in Philadel- 
phia for a member of the Society of Friends. 

Mr. Randall is a model husband and an indulgent father. tCarly in life he 
married a daughter of General Aaron Ward, of Sing Sing, N. Y., who was a 
member of Congress from 1S27 to 1829, from 1831 to 1837, and from 1841 to 
1843, a gentleman of liberal education and travel, who gave his children the 
same advantages. Mrs. Randall has been in every sense a help-meet for her 
husband. The Speaker's domestic circle is completed by three children, the 
eldest of whom is a daughter, and the j'oungest a bright boy, who bears his 
father's name. Mrs. Randall's receptions arc always well attended, and, while 
marked by extreme simplicity, are always thoroughly enjoyable. For the last 
ten years Mr. Randall has been a hard student at home as well as at the Capitol. 
He reads a great deal and has a voluminous correspondence, makes it a rule 
never to allow a letter to remain unanswered over night, and after due allowance 
for domestic engagements finds little time to go about town. He is rarely seen 
in public places after dark, and his appearance in such a rendezvous as Willard's 
would cause a sensation. When he comes to Philadelphia he is overrun with 
callers, and his visits are often made between days in order that business may 
not be sacrificed by an undue pressure of friendly attentions. In the summer he 
rents a cottage, and, eschewing public concerns as far as possible, rests to gain 
the health and strength which he always brings to his winter's work. 

In 1880 Mr. Randall's name first became prominently considered as a desira- 
ble Democratic candidate for the Presidency of the United States. He had been 
the four immediately preceding years close in the counsel of Samuel J. Tilden, 
and believing that the sage of Greystone was unjustly deprived of the Presi- 
dency in 1877, he was an unwavering supporter of his claims to renomination. 
Occupying that attitude, he resolutely declined to have his own name canvassed, 
and, in the opinion of many of his friends, carried his loyalty to Mr. Tilden to 



22 SAMUEL J. KAN'DALL. 

the verge of ruthless self-sacrifice. In June, 1880, he actually went to the 
National Democratic Convention to lead the ad\'ocates of " the Old Ticket." 
The Convention met in Cincinnati. Mr. Randall's head-quarters were at the 
St. Nicholas Hotel. There he was waited upon by scores of influential dele- 
gates and other party leaders, who begged that he would drop Tilden and enter 
the lists himself. These overtures were firmly and even impatiently rejected ; 
but they were renewed with fresh force when Mr. Tilden telegraphed a declina- 
tion of renomination. Confusion followed this declination, and it is probable 
that Randall is the only man who could have held the Tilden phalanx together. 
An attempt was made to consolidate on Pa}-ne, but it was a failure. Too late, 
but even then against his wishes, the name of Randall was thrown into the Con- 
vention. Hancock was the nominee, but Randall, without organization or 
serious effort on the part of his friends, polled over 100 votes. 

There was a similar use of Mr. Randall's name in the Convention at Chicago, 
in 1884. During the Garfield and Arthur administrations alike, while his party 
was in a minority in the Senate and in the majority in the House, his hold 
on the Democratic party had been greatly strengthened. More than ever he 
came to be recognized as the natural leader of the Democracy; yet by a com- 
bination of revenue reformers and defenders of the whiskey interests he was 
beaten for the Speakership in 1883, the opposition having the sagacity to select, 
as their candidate, Carlisle, of Kentucky. This result gave Mr. Randall less 
concern than his friends, and caused him no loss of prestige. On the contrary, 
as Chairman of the Appropriations Committee, he did more effective work than 
ever for his party and the country, and the opposing and triumphant faction in 
the Speakership was obliged to call him to the rescue, and follow his lead in 
every emergency. From all parts of the country went to Chicago men who 
wished to make him their candidate for President. He went to Chicago, too, 
but intent upon other things. He believed the platform of supreme importance, 
and to its proper construction bent all his energies, to the sacrifice of his per- 
sonal ambition. He had his way about the platform, and then, rejecting all 
offers of combinations in his own behalf, threw all of his influence unreservedly 
in behalf of the nomination of Grover Cleveland. Nevertheless some of his 
friends persisted in voting their first choice, and on the first ballot he received 
170 votes, showing a strength .second only to Cleveland's. Sub.sequently nearly 
every Randall man joined the Cleveland column, giving him the necessary two- 
thirds for the nomination. Nobody rejoiced more than Mr. Randall in a result 
which he did so much to bring about, and throughout the campaign he was one 
of Mr. Cleveland's most tru.sted advisers, and his influence in regard to appoint- 
ments to important offices has been paramount during tlic administration. 




i 



Hon. Henry H. Bingham^ 



HENRY HARRISON BINGHAM. 

HENRY Harrison Bingham, solijier when war involving tiie life of his country 
was in progress, honored citizen crowned by Pennsylvanians with laurels 
that decorate those triumphs of peace which are "no less renowned " than those 
of war, and able man in the practical affairs of life, was born in the Ninth ward 
of Philadelphia in 1841. His structure, both intellectual and physical, betokens 
his descent from the hardy Scotch-Irish race, which has contributed so munifi- 
cently to tlie preservation of the traits that make the English-speaking people 
dominant in the thought and action of the nineteenth century. James Bingham, 
the father of General Henry Harrison Bingham, was born early in the present 
century, and was, when his distinguished son was born, a member of the then 
well-known forwarding firm of Bingham & Dock. General Bingham's paternal 
grandfather was Thomas Bingham. The name of his mother was Ann Shellar 
Baum. General Bingham pursued the usual Philadelphian course of instruction 
until during 1858 he was entered at Jefferson College, at Cannonsburg, Penna. 
Graduating in August, 1862, he was the recipient five years later, when he 
was already eminent by his valor on the battle-field, of the distinction of being 
made a Master of Arts b)' his Alma Mater. Hardly twenty years of age, when 
Fort Sumter was fired upon, he was with difficulty restrained from entering the 
military service of the Union, and persuaded to remain at college during the year 
yet necessary to complete his academic course. When the honors of graduation 
were bestowed upon him he immediately enlisted for the army, and aided in the 
organization of a company of infantry, composed almost wholly of college and 
class-mates, and was selected as one of the lieutenants of the company, a pro- 
motion which he gladly accepted. The company was assigned to the 140th 
Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, with young Bingham as its captain. From 
that time on, during the period when the Army of the Potomac was winning 
its imperishable fame, he was a distinguished feature in Pennsylvania's 
splendid contribution to that illustrious host of patriots and heroes. During 
his four years of arduous duty Captain Bingham illustrated the best traits 
of soldiership, while he blended with his admirable bearing in the service of 
his country a rare gentility and philanthropy in the performance of duty. Testi- 
mony to his service as a soldier is amply given by that eminent Pennsyl- 
vanian. General Winfield Scott Hancock, who, in a letter to the Secretary of War 
recommending Captain Bingham for promotion to the rank of Major, said : 

" Captain Bingham is a man of talent and an officer of rare spirit. His habits 
are good, and I think he is the best Judge-Advocate I have seen in the army." 
Then, again, in recommending Mr. Bingham, who in the meantime had reached 
the rank of Colonel, for promotion to a Brigadier-Generalship, General Hancock 
said : " On all occasions Colonel Bingham has especially distinguished himself 

(23) 



24 HENRY H. BINGHAM. 

for intrepidit}- in action, especially at Gett)-sburg, where he was slightly wounded; 
at the Wilderness, where he performed important services in rallying broken 
troops, and at Spottsylvania, where he was most severely wounded while gallantly 
performing his duty." 

This is the tribute of one soldier to another. Who that has known General 
Bingham in war or peace will not freely accord equal praise to the model 
gentleman ? \\'ith a quick, penetrating, well-trained mind, of which the founda- 
tion is good judgment and fine poise. General Bingham has a well-adjusted 
temperament that makes him, while self-respecting, also consistent of the feelings 
of others. His public utterances are always founded upon an acute appreciation 
of the topics of the hour, and are addressed to the reason and the justice of his 
fellow-citizens, while all his actions are inspired by the fairness, integrity and 
magnanimit}' which are the rule of his life. 

It was on the 26th of April, 1863, that Captain Bingham was taken from his 
company and made the Judge-Advocate of the First Division of the Second 
Army Corps, then stationed at Falmouth, Va. So well did he perform the duties 
of his new office that in the following June he was assigned to the staff of Gen- 
eral Hancock and made Judge-Advocate of the corps. Bingham's commission 
of Major and Judge-Advocate was one of onl\' twent)--two similar commissions 
issued by the War Department during the war. That he fairly earned this rapid 
promotion is well attested in the reasons given at the War Department. They 
read : " For good conduct and conspicuous gallantry, especially at the Wilder- 
ness, May 6th, 1864, where he collected a considerable party of stragglers and 
led them against the enemy with marked bravery, and at Spottsylvania, May 
1 2th, 1864, where he voluntarily took part with his regiment in the assault and 
was wounded. He was also wounded at Gettysburg." General Bingham's qual- 
ities as a soldier were of such a character that further promotion came to him 
rapidly. In April, 1865, he was commissioned Brevet Brigadier-General and 
Judge-Advocate of the Middle Military Department, embracing the States of 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia and Delaware. Although Lee 
surrendered at Appomattox in April, 1865, it was not until July, 18G6, that 
General Bingham was honorably mustered out of the service. 

Returning to his home in Philadelphia, General Bingham was soon afterward 
made the Chief Clerk of the Post-Office there. He accepted the place with the 
intention of holding it simply as a means of support until he could study the 
law and fit himself for the practice of the same. But fate seemed to decree 
otherwise. Andrew Johnson was then President of the United States and was 
in conflict with the representatives in Congress of the party that elected him. 
He appointed person after person to be Postmaster at Philadelphia, but the 
Senate would not confirm any one of them. F"inally Chief Clerk Bingham, upon 
the recommendation of Major-General Meade and Major-General Hancock, both 
of whom knew his fitness, capacity and distingui.shed army record, was suggested 
for the position. President Johnson accepted the suggestion, sent Bingham's 



HENRY H. BINGHAM. 25 

name to the Senate, and that bod)' promptly confirmed the nomination. At tlie 
expiration of his term, in 1869, he was immediately reappointed by President 
Grant. As postmaster General Bingham showed that same tenacity of purpose 
— industry, push, skill and intelligence — that made him so conspicuously success- 
ful as an officer in the war. During his administration he succeeded in bringing 
all of the outh^ing post-offices in the county of Philadelphia within the jurisdic- 
tion of the Philadelphia post-office, thereby making the postage uniform through- 
out the county. He was the first postmaster in the country to put his carriers 
in uniform. He organized the movement for a new building for the post-office 
and the United States Courts, and when Congress made the necessary appropria- 
tion he was made a member and chosen as secretary of the commission created 
to select a site. The result of this commission's labors was the selection of the 
site at Ninth and Chestnut streets, where to-day stands the finest Federal build- 
ing in the countr}'. As postmaster General Bingham naturally drifted into poli- 
tics and soon became an important factor in his party's councils. He was Treas- 
urer of the Republican State Central Committee from 1869 to 1875 He was 
one of the four delegates-at-Iarge from Pennsylvania to the National Republican 
Convention that was held in Philadelphia in 1872, and which placed General 
Grant in nomination for a second term of the Presidency, and Permanent Secre- 
tary of that body. In the autumn of 1872 he was placed in nomination by his 
party in Philadelphia for the position of Clerk of the Courts Oyer and Terminer and 
Quarter Sessions of the Peace of the County of Philadelphia, and was elected by 
the people at the election in October. He resigned his position of postmaster 
and took possession of his new office, December 1st, 1872. In 1875 he was re- 
nominated for the clerkship by his party, and again the people elected him. In 
the following year he was chosen as one of the two delegates from the first Con- 
gressional district to the National Republican Convention held in Cincinnati and 
which placed Rutherford B Hayes in nomination for the Presidency. Shortly 
before the expiration of his second term as Clerk of Quarter Sessions General 
Bingham was nominated for Congress by the Republicans of the First District of 
Pennsylvania, comprising the First, Second, Seventh, Twenty-sixth and Thirtieth 
wards of Philadelphia, and he was elected by the people. He entered the Forty 
sixth Congress with his party in the minority, He was assigned to the Commit- 
tee on the Post-Office and Post-Roads. In 1880 he was re-elected, and his party 
in the Forty-seventh Congress being in the majority, he was made the Chairman 
of the Post-Office and Post-Roads Committee. This enabled him to get the 
attention of the House, and gave him the opportunity to show to that body and to 
the country that he was well qualified and well equipped to be a member of the 
National Congress. In presenting to the House the measures matured in his com. 
mittee and in advocating the same, he proved himself a man ready, eloquent and 
convincing in debate, with a fine presence and a voice strong, clear and distinct. 

During his chairmanship of the Post-Office Committee he secured legislation 
looking to the largest convenience for the people and a continued reduction of 



26 IIENRV II. BINGHAM. 

postage. He made a specialty of framing laws to improve and perfect our postal 
system, and 1Tb is looked upon in the House as the authority on all matters relat- 
ing to the post-office of the government. He is the author of the law passed by 
the Forty-seventh Congress establishing and creating the postal note and reduc- 
ing the charges for the money order service. He is the author of the legislation 
of the Fortj'-sixth and Forty-seventh Congresses reorganizing the free delivery 
and the railway mail service. He framed the bill which was passed by the 
Forty-eighth Congress readjusting the compensation of the entire force of post- 
masters upon a basis of work actually done, thereby preventing favoritism. He re- 
ported to the House the bill reducing domestic postage from three cents to two 
cents, and made the leading argument on the measure. 

In 1882 he was elected to the Forty-eighth Congress, and was assigned to 
membership on the Committee on the Post-Office and Post-Roads and the Com- 
mittee on Civil Service Reform In this Congress he introduced and had re- 
ported favorably to the House a bill changing the maximum weight of domestic 
letters from one-half ounce to one ounce and transporting the same through the 
mails for two cents. He introduced, also, reported favorably and passed through 
the House a bill reducing postage on second class-matter, such as newspapers 
and periodicals, from one cent for two ounces to one cent for four ounces. 

General Bingham was chosen by his constituents as one of the two delegates 
from the First District to represent them at the Republican National Convention, 
held at Chicago, June, 1884, and which placed James G Blaine in nomina- 
tion for the Presidency. In that convention he made the speech seconding the 
nomination of Chester A. Arthur for the Presidency. In November, 1887, he 
was for the fifth time elected to Congress. He is now serving in the 50th 
Congress. 




1*^ / 



Hon. James B. Everhart. 



JAMES ROWEN EVERHART. 

Two centuries is a goodly and long time for one to glance back through tlie 
vista of a family history ; yet it is about that length of time since there 
landed in New York from Germany — most probably from the ancient kingdom 
of Wurtemberg — a family by the name of Eberhard, which has since that date 
become anglicized into Everhart. This name is closely linked with the history 
of Wurtemberg ; and as far back as 1370 there was a famous Eberhard, who 
figured prominently in the history of Germany, and gave the Emperor Karl IV. 
no little amount of trouble, which was continued for several years with the 
Emperor's son and successor, Wenczelas. 

About the commencement of the last century the ancestor of the subject of 
this sketch moved to Pennsylvania, and settled finally in Vincent township, 
Chester county. The grandfather, James Everhart, was a stripling of seventeen 
years when the Revolution of the English colonies occurred. Like a brave and 
patriotic youth, he shouldered his musket and was soon in the field fighting for 
the cause of liberty and independence. He served the infant Republic until 
his musket was worn out. He lived to see his grandchildren and died a nona- 
genarian. He had three sons, James, John and William ; the first two were in 
the iron business, as owners of furnaces, and the latter, the father of James Bowen 
Everhart, learned the profession of surveyor, which he carried on until near the 
time of his majority, when he engaged in the mercantile business in Tredyffrin 
township. He afterwards moved to West Whiteland township, and in 18 14 
married Miss Matlack, whose ancestors were from Matlock, England, one of 
whom owned nearly all of what is now the North, and part of \\hat is now the 
East, ward of West Chester and adjoining lands. 

In 1S22 William E\erhart, being desirous of increasing his stock of merchan- 
dise, sailed from New York with $io,000 in gold — in those days bills of 
exchange and drafts were not as easily procured as at the present day — on the 
ill-fated packet ship Albion, for Liverpool ; besides Mr. Everhart there were the 
following noted passengers on board : General Lefebvre Desnouettes, Colonel 
A. J. Prevost, Major William Gough, brother of Lord Gough, Professor Fisher, 
of Yale College, and twenty-five others. On the night of April 22d, during a 
terrific storm, the ship was driven upon the rocks of Old Head of Kinsale, Ire- 
land, and completely wrecked. The captain and all of the crew and steerage 
but eight, together with every cabin passenger excepting Mr. Everhart, found a 
watery grave. He with almost superhuman efforts succeeded in saving his life, 
by clinging to the nearly perpendicular rock, upon which he found just sufficient 
space to rest one foot, in which position he remained until the dawn of the next 
day, when he was rescued by the people, who lowered a rope to him from the 
headland above. 

(27) 



2S JAMES B. EVERHAKT. 

Having moved to West Chester, he purchased the " Wollerton Farm " and 
other tracts in 1S29, which to-day make up the bulk of the business portion of 
the borough. At his own expense he laid out streets and presented them to the 
authorities. He also erected several substantial stores, residences, offices and 
the Mansion House, one of the principal hotels of the town. He has been 
justly looked upon as one of the most enterprising and liberal-minded gentlemen 
that ever lived in the town. In 1852 he was elected on the Whig ticket to Con- 
gress, and just before his term expired he delivered, on May 19th, 1854, a very 
able speech on the Kansas-Nebraska bill of Senator Douglas, in which he, in 
almost prophetic language, predicted the dreadful results that would follow the 
passage of the bill, saying " its authors are sowing the wind, but will reap the 
whirlwind." He declined a renomination in 1854. In 1867 he retired from 
business, having amassed a large fortune, with a credit second to none both in 
this countrj- and Europe. In 1868 he died. 

James Bowen Everhart, who represented the Sixth Pennsylvania District, 
composed of Chester and Delaware counties, in the XLVIII. and XLIX. Con- 
gresses, was born in West Whiteland township, a few miles from West Chester, 
and is now in the prime of his life, a genial, highly gifted bachelor, around whom 
both men many years his senior and his junior delight to gather and enjoy hours 
of social and instructive conversation. Mr. Everhart when called upon to 
address an audience never fails to please. His comparisons are largely made 
from Scripture characters, scenes and events, and historical subjects. He has 
two brothers living — Benjamin M. Everhart, a botanist, who is well known 
abroad and at home ; and John R. Everhart, M. D., who was a surgeon through- 
out the war, and who has travelled extensively and published some interesting 
letters of foreign countries. 

He received his early education at Bolmar's Academy in West Chester. His 
preceptor, Antoine Bolmar, was a French gentleman and soldier, who had 
served under the Due d'Angouleme in the Franco-Spanish wars, and settled in 
West Chester in 1832. After finishing at that institute of learning, he entered 
Princeton College. He graduated in a class of sixty in 1842, with high honors. 
After his graduation he returned to We.st Chester, and some time thereafter 
commenced the study of law under Hon. Jo.seph J. Lewis, Commissioner of 
Internal Revenue under Lincoln, and the Nestor of the Chester county bar. 
He remained under Mr. Lewis' tutorship for a year, when he went to the Har- 
vard Law School, and passed about another year. To further perfect himself in 
legal lore, he entered the law office of the late Hon. William M. Meredith in 
Philadel[)hia, and was admitted to practice at the Chester county and the Phila- 
delphia bar. For three years he practised his profession in West Chester, and 
then went upon a foreign tour. He passed several months in the University of 
Berlin, and was absent from home for three years. On his return he resumed 
his practice, which he relinquished in i860. During his service at the bar he 
was nearly always found as the defendant's counsel, excepting in one instance, 



JAMES B. EVERHAKT. SQ 

when he assisted the Commonwealth officer in a criminal prosecution. His 
field was a varied one, covering nearly every branch of law, such as arson, 
burglary, forgery, riot, manslaughter, and six murder trials. Not one of the 
defendants in the latter cases suffered capital punishment. He conducted the 
defence of two poisoning cases, in which the prisoners were only convicted of 
murder in the second degree — cases perhaps then without a precedent in Penn- 
sylvania criminal annals. He also conducted a case of homicide in which juris- 
diction was ousted on his motion, because the blow was given in Chester county 
while death occurred in Philadelphia. It may here be remarked that this last- 
named case was like that of our murdered President Garfield, who, though shot 
in Washington, died in New Jersey. In one of the homicide cases above men- 
tioned, he was threatened with bodily harm by a friend of the dead man if he 
defended the prisoner, and was also importuned by others not to enter the case, 
being assured that he would lose every- friend he had in the neighborhood 
where the crime occurred. Notwithstanding the threats and friendly advice, he 
defended the prisoner and saved his life, thus showing that he was not to be 
deterred in his convictions of justice and the right of the defendant to have a fair 
trial. In civil suits he was interested in cases involving titles, trusts, action in 
covenant for non-performance, one for nuisance, in which a company was prose- 
cuted for corrupting water used in the manufacture of paper. In this case his 
side had chemical experiments made in open court before a jury. In another 
suit for divorce, he made claim on the husband to pay the wife's counsel fees, 
without regard to the result of the case, which claim was then for the first time 
allowed in Chester county, though before recognized by the courts of Philadel- 
phia. In an important quo ivarratito case, involving the charter of a railroad 
company, before the Supreme Court, being suddenly left alone by his elder col- 
league in the case when it came up, he showed considerable courage in oppos- 
ing, single-handed, three of the ablest lawyers in Pennsyhania, who were also 
flanked by attorneys of well-known fame as advisers. In fact, during the few 
years that he acted as a counsellor, he managed all manner of cases. His field 
of action was not confined to Chester county, but he tried cases and delivered 
speeches and lectures in several counties of the State. 

When Mr. Everhart left the University of Berlin he started on an extended 
tour through Europe, Asia, Africa and the British Isles. On the continent he 
visited nearly all the noted cities of France and other places of historic interest 
in that country, and passed several weeks in its gay capital of the then Republic, 
over which Louis Napoleon Bonaparte ruled as President. 

At Naples he climbed to Vesuvius, and looked into its crater while in a state 
of partial eruption, with " stones being shot up like rockets " close beside him. 
From the summit of the burning mountain he descended to the two fated cities 
of Herculaneum and Pompeii, and walked through their lava-paved streets, and 
looked upon the jewels worn by the beautiful women of nineteen centuries ago. 
He also visited the " City of the Sea," and went througii the palaces of the 



30 JAMES B. EVERHART. 

Doges, crossed the Rialto, and lingered at the Bridge of Sighs, over which the 
victim of the Council passed to his doom. 

Leaving Europe, he crossed the Mediterranean and visited Egypt, sailed upon 
the Nile, " the joy of the Arab," up as far as the Ruins of Thebes. He wan- 
dered in the Desert, and had sundry semi-agreeable adventures with the 
Bedouins. Leaving the ancient kingdom of the Ptolemies and the beautiful 
Cleopatra, he entered the land of Palestine and sojourned for a short space of 
time in the ancient city of the Kings of Israel, visiting all the noted places of 
interest in and around Jerusalem ; while there, he was enabled to witness the 
Ekister festival, which attracted Jew, Christian and Mohammedan. From Jeru- 
salem he proceeded to the Jordan and Dead Sea ; while on the banks of the 
former he had a rather unpleasant encounter with the Jordan robbers, and by 
his great presence of mind in all probability saved his life. Among the cities of 
Palestine that he visited were Jericho, the City of the Nativity, Beer, Bethsaida, 
Tyre and Beirut, at which point he took ship for Constantinople. 

From Central Europe he turned his face to the southwest, traversed France, 
crossed the Pyrenees and entered the Iberian Peninsula. He visited Madrid, 
where he talked to the noble cavaliers and beautiful Senoritas, delighting in 
gay costume ; where the beggars are not yet called " tramps," and who ask for 
alms like gentlemen, never appearing in public without the renowned Spanish 
cloak and embroidered hat. He made a pilgrimage to the Escurial, which is 
convent, sepulchre and palace. He wandered through its spacious halls, stood 
on its grand stairways and descended into its gaping vaults, where " precious 
stones flash light from the walls, and elaborate urns contain the jewelled skulls 
of kings." From Madrid he went into Granada, and beheld the dark-eyed and 
olive-skinned Moors, who yet cling with reverential love to the customs and 
costumes of the Saracen. Back over the Pyrenees through France he went to 
the country' of dykes and canals, a land redeemed from the sea by its thrifty 
people, whose women he thought had the most lovely complexions of any he 
had yet seen. From the Continent he went to the British Isles, passed several 
weeks in London, visited Crystal Palace, where he saw the conqueror of the 
first Napoleon, " who was an old man dressed in a blue, tight-body coat, with 
his head drooped upon his breast." Temple Bar, the Tower, St. Paul's and the 
famous Wine Vaults, all were inspected. He did not neglect to visit the land 
of Bruce and the unfortunate Mary Queen of Scots, the wild Welsh Mountains, 
nor the Emerald Isle, and then returned home with a great store of knowledge 
and information. Unfortunately his retiring disposition and hesitancy of speak- 
ing of himself and his travels have deprived one of much delightful conversation. 
He has, however, given to the world short chapters regarding his travels. 

In 1862 he published a work of 300 pages, entitled " Miscellanies," which are 
very interesting, being mainly short sketches of the places which he visited 
while abroad. In 1867 he published a collection of his poetical writings, 
which he dedicated to his father; they are real gems and give evidence of high 



JAMES E. EVEKHART. 3 1 

poetic culture. One of the most beautiful and pathetic is that entitled " She 
is not There," being a loving son's tribute to his deceased mother. The 
poems were followed in 1875 by another single poem, entitled "The Fox 
Chase," and at the time of its publication the following criticism was passed by 
The Press: "This short but spirited poem convej-s a better idea of the 'noble 
sport ' than the celebrated blank verse quarto called ' The Chase,' which 
appeared in 1735. The character of the poetry is high — some passages exhibit- 
ing no small skill in word-painting. The action is at a rapid pace and very 
accurate." The scene of this poem is laid in Chester county, on the Brandywine 
Battle-Ground, up the stream, over its hills and through its valleys. 

In 1888 he published a collection of "Speeches, etc.," which are of a varied 
character and upon a variety of subjects relating to social events, and matters 
pertaining to State and National legislation. One, in the State Senate in 1881, 
against compensation for the prohibition of the liquor traffic, has been fully 
justified by a late decision of the United States Supreme Court. 

On June 7th, 1876, by invitation, he delivered a poem in the Chestnut Street 
Theatre, at the reunion of the Army of the James, of which the following are 
the first two stanzas : 

Where is the Army of the James? Where flies 

Its banner, beaming with the triple light ? 
Where its battalions? That, with cheering cries. 

Went hence in all the pomp of arms bedight ? 

Is yon the standard, in ils faded plight? 
Are these the remnants of that famous host, 

Which climbed the ridges of the gory fight, 
And drove the stubborn foe from post to post, 
And, in the captured city, held its Pentecost? 

Bloodshed has uses, and the grave is just ! 

The soldier's avocation has its place, 
When power is cruel, and betrays its trust : 

When haughty nations would inflict disgrace ; 

When insurrection labors to eflTace 
Free institutions, and, with senseless ire, 

E.xhausts its substance to enslave a race; 
When reason fails, and peaceful hopes expire — 
Then must the cannon argue with its tongue of fire. 

The great Rebellion had been in progress nearly a year when, in 1862, Mr. 
Everhart commenced to raise a company for the nine months' service. It was 
while thus engaged that General Lee invaded Maryland. Governor Curtin 
issued an immediate call for troops, as it was expected that Lee would not stop 
at the border of Pennsylvania and Maryland. A company was quickly raised, 
of which Mr. Everhart was captain, and was immediately ordered to Harrisburg, 
where, with other companies, a regiment was organized and sent to Hagerstown. 
The battle of Antietam was then in progress, the smoke was visible, and the 
guns were heard. The colonel of the regiment being called on to join Mc- 



32 JAMES B. EVERHAKT. 

Clollaii's left wing, convened a council of the captains to take a vote if they would 
march to Antietam. Captain Everhart said it was a disgrace to parley and the 
men must march. lie then went to his company, formed them in line and told 
tliem of their dut}-, and they, without an exception, stood ready to go into the 
engagement. Very many privates from other companies, and one captain, also 
signified tlieir willingness to follow him. While this scene was being enacted in 
the camp, the order to move forward was countermanded. 

In 1863 Captain Everhart raised another company, which became a part of the 
Twenty-ninth Regiment of Emergency Men, who were sworn into the United 
States service, and he was elected its Major. The companies, and detachments 
of them, were scattered along the line of the Pennsylvania Railroad and beyond. 
He, with two companies, occupied an intrenched camp at the extreme end of 
Morris Cove, not far from Bedford, and relieved some companies of militia who 
had temporary charge. Some scouting rebel horsemen hovered around occa- 
sionally, and a few stragglers were captured. After the battle of Gettysburg the 
regiment was encamped at Loudon, and the men were for weeks constantly 
under arms, and part of them had a brush with some rebel troopers. 

After this regiment was discharged Major Everhart applied through a Con- 
gressman to the Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton, for authority to raise a 
regiment for the war, but was unsuccessful. In 1864, on the report of the attempt 
on Washington, Major Everhart was raising another compan}% when the news 
of the rebel retreat put a stop to recruiting. 

In 1876 he was elected to the Senate of Pennsylvania, re-elected in 1S80, and 
there he perhaps prevented the introduction of a resolution expressly affirming 
the right of the Vice-President to decide the electoral vote on the occasion of the 
election of President Hayes. He also opposed the movement, advised by men 
at Washington, to appropriate a million of dollars to arm the State, for the pur- 
pose of seeing the electoral vote counted ; such procedure, he argued, was 
unconstitutional. He offered, a few days before the formation of the Electoral 
Commission, a resolution approving it, by which commission Mr. Hayes was 
afterward elected. He was the only Republican who voted for the resolution. 
The next day, with two other Republicans, he supported a similar resolution 
offered by a Democratic Senator. During his five sessions in the State Senate he 
perhaps prevented much special legislation by constitutional objections. He 
constantly opposed severe penalties, and particularly imprisonment for venal 
offences, as calculated to degrade and not reform, or likely to make the law a 
dead letter. He made a forcible and humorous speech upon the floor of the 
Senate against incarcerating children for picking up hickory nuts, etc. He made 
several speeches on extending the jurisdiction of the justices of the peace to jury 
trials ; on allowing all criminals to testify in their own behalf if they so desire. He 
also spoke in favor of paying the officers and soldiers who went to Pittsburgh to 
suppress the riots; and upon military bands of music. Senator Everhart also 
made able .speeches on the resolution to print a report of the great waterways of 



JAMES B. EVERHAKT. 33 

the State ; on tlie Geodetic Survey of the State ; on Constitutional amendments ; 
on the resolution concerning the deaths of Senators, Governor Bigler, and the 
late Bayard Taylor, Minister to Germany; his speech on the latter was printed 
in pamphlet form by order of the Legislature; on the report of the committee to 
select statues for the rotunda at Washington, and favored that of General Wayne; 
and on the resolution concerning the remains of William Penn. In his speech 
on the graveyard insurance companies, when he introduced the bill to abolish 
them, he said : 

" It is a bill which organizes new corporations on a substantial basis, and pre- 
vents the abuse of old ones. It does not affect vested rights or benevolent 
associations. It starts companies upon a cash capital and large numbers, and on 
the reciprocity of benefits and contributions. It guards them against internal 
frauds and outside impositions. It gives them room for growth, and yet not 
scope for mischief It prescribes conditions which are an earnest of security, 
and which will attract co-operation and confidence, and be likely to make them 
prosperous and useful. Its main purpose, however, is by only allowing policies 
where there is an insurable interest, to prevent the scandalous traffic in the lives 
of old and sickly persons. It is to destroy this system and break down their 
occupation who gamble in the dying; who seek for the subjects of insurance in 
the purlieus of the hospital, the prison and the poorhouse ; who count with im- 
patience the footsteps of the palsied and the respirations of the consumptive, and 
who sometimes hasten, by violence, to realize their bloody greed. It is to eradi- 
cate this system, which multiplies policies without limit, and sells them like 
market wares ; which organizes temptations to fraud and felony ; deludes with a 
promise of instant wealth ; demoralizes all labor and business, and inspires con- 
tempt of decency and fair dealing, and leads, at last, through sin and infamy, to 
impoverishment, imprisonment and the gallows. It is a system which is worse 
than the old South Sea scheme or the Mississippi bubble ; worse than the Tulip 
mania of Holland, or the Multicaulis folly of America. They only squandered 
money ; this is inhuman. The bill is to arrest this mischief, which seems 
spreading like a pestilence. It is to restore the ancient credit of insurances, to 
eliminate the evil elements of speculation, and apply honest methods to mutual 
interests." 

He introduced several beneficial rules for the government of the Senate. He 
never had any particular hobby, but aimed to prevent bad legislation as much as 
possible. He amended a number of bills on all subjects, many, perhaps, for the 
better: one, a tax bill, which might otherwise have prevented Chester county 
from recovering some thousands of dollars of overpaid taxes. He served on the 
General Judiciary Committee for two years, and was considered attentive and 
useful. He was also on the Federal Relations, and important questions were 
often referred to him ; later, he was Chairman also of the Committee on Educa- 
tion. In 1879 the members of the lower House from Chester county were 
instructed for him for United States Senator. 
S 



-_| JAMES B. EVERHART. 

He ne\er accepted a railroad pass, and was the member of the Legislature 
who, when no objections were made to paying, declined to take more than the 
thousand dollars salarj', and who refused the perquisite of postage stamps, after 
the late stationery' law went into effect, though he does not criticise others for 
doing otherwise, or assume any merit for it himself 

He is highly regarded throughout Chester county, and is favorably spoken of 
not only by the county but by the State press, which have copied several of his 
speeches, making favorable comment upon them. 

In politics he has always been independent of rings, yet a consistent Repub- 
lican, sustaining the ticket on the stump and at the polls. 

He has all his life been considered liberal with his means, but never for any 
unlawful purpose ; still he has never made a boast of his liberality in any form. 

In 1882 he was placed in nomination by the Republicans of Chester county as 
their choice for Congressman. The Sixth District being composed of Chester 
and Delaware counties, it was necessary to appoint conferees to meet those from 
Delaware county. The conferees united upon Mr. Everhart as the choice of the 
district. His Democratic opponent was J. Edward Clyde, Esq., of Delaware 
county, and the vote in the November election was: Mr. Everhart, 14,615 ; Mr. 
Clyde, 9,810. In 1884 he was again nominated by a greater vote than before, and 
in November of the same year defeated his Democratic opponent, Dr. Frederick 
Heckel, the vote that year being for Mr. Everhart, 18,593 ; and for Dr. Heckel, 
11,551, Mr. Everhart's majority being the largest ever given for Congressman in 
the district. 

In Congress he was a member of the Committee on Coinage, Weights and 
Measures, interesting on account of the silver question ; and also of the Com- 
mittee on War Claims, a most laborious body, having much law matter to deter- 
mine: and during the entire term he never missed a regular meeting of either 
committee, nor a final vote on any measure before the House. 

During his service in Congress he aided a number of persons in securing pen- 
sions. He secured the establishment of several new post-offices and postal 
routes in the district ; presented to Congress a large number of petitions upon 
various subjects from citizens of the district. Among the bills introduced of a 
public character were the following : To equalize the right of Fishing in the 
navigable waters of the United States; t(> establish the Metric System in gov- 
ernmental affairs; to erect a public building in West Chester; to erect monuments 
to William Penn and General Wayne in Washington. He offered various 
amendments to bills, such as: To prevent payment of salary to Fitz-John Porter; 
to the law for counting the Electoral votes for President and Vice-President; to 
pay the Government bonds in gold or its equivalent ; to provide for designs for 
American ships by Americans; to correct the law of the Presidential succession; 
to secure the payment to certain creditors of taxes refunded ; to prevent hasty 
legislation by the rules of the House, and other amendments. 



JAMES B. EVEKHAKT. ■ 35 

He also introduced a motion in opposition to the River and Harbor bill. He 
made an able speech in favor of the Oleomargarine bill, which was universally 
approved by the Dairymen Associations of the country. He strongly supported 
the passage of the bill authorizing the publication of the Geodetic Survey. He 
introduced a bill authorizing the erection of public buildings in the city of 
Chester, which failed of passage by only one vote. 

In all his speeches before the House his remarks received the closest attention 
from the members, which to those who are familiar with the proceedings of that 
body is unusual. 

He proposed important amendments to other bills : amongst which the one 
that presumes everj' applicant for a pension to have been sound when he enlisted 
was considered a most beneficial piece of legislation. Besides attending carefully 
to the public business, he neglected no private application of his constituents 
connected with his ofifice. 

T. L. O. 

1324618 



Note. — Since the above sketch of Mr. Everhart was written and put in type he has passed away. He 
died at West Chester early on the morning of August 23, 1888, from an attack of dysentery. He was 
surrounded by his family and near relatives at the time of his decease. He died in full possession of his 
f.iculties, and for a considerable time prior to breathing his last was fully aware of the approach of death, 
which he faced with calmness and fortitude. He was buried on Monday, August 27th, at Oakland 
Cemetery, West Chester. 

The Philadelphia Tinies, in an editorial the day after his death, pays the following tribute to his worth 
and character : 

" The death of ex Congressman James B. Everhart will be very widely lamented. In Chester county, 
where he has enjoyed the highest representative honors, his death will be mourned in all circles regard- 
less of partisan faith. Mr. Everhart was a type of the best and truest representative men of the age. He 
was not only honest in purpose, but he was honest in action, and, however his fellow-citizens differed 
from him, he always commanded the respect of friend and foe. In the State Senate Mr. Everhart was 
known as one of the few who were ever faithful to cohviction, and in Congress he maintained the same 
high standard of integrity. Had he been more pliable he would doubtless have died a Congressman, 
but he prefeiTed fidelity to his faith in the right even when weighed in the balance with success .Such 
a man will long live in the grateful memories of his people." 

Other papers throughout the State bore testimony to the esteem in which he was held by the commu- 
nity, and to his high character as a statesman and public man — Ens. 




Hon. Edwin S. Osborne. 



EDWIN SYLVANUS OSBORNE. 

HON. Edwin S. Osborne, Congressman-at-Iargc from the State of Pennsyl- 
vania, was born at Bethany, Wayne county, Pa., on the 7th of August, 
1839. He is a direct descendant of John Osborne, who came from England and 
settled in East Windsor, Conn., prior to May, 1645, and he inherits revolutionary 
blood. His great-grandfather, Thomas Osborne, was a soldier in the Continental 
army, and was killed at the battle of Monmouth, N. J. His grandmother was a 
daughter of Ephraim Oakley, an officer in the Continental army, and Susannah, 
a sister of Colonel Raymond, who served with distinction on the staff of General 
W^ashington during the Revolutionary war. In 1798 she married Cooper 
Osborne, son of Thomas Osborne, and they settled in what is now Bethany, 
Wayne county. Pa. The country was then a wild forest. Here Cooper Osborne 
bought some land, began a clearing and built a log house, and here Sylvanus, 
the father of Edwin S., was born in September, 181 2. Cooper Osborne died in 
18 1 8, leaving his widow with six children to care for. She was a woman of 
great energy and determination of character, and struggled along successfully in 
keeping the home and equipping her children for the active duties of life. She 
died in 1856, having lived long enough to see the wilderness subdued into cul- 
tivated fields, mourned by her kindred and beloved by all who knew her. 

In 1836 Sylvanus Osborne married Lucy, daughter of Cyrus Messenger, of 
Bridgewater, Susquehanna county. Pa., a descendant of Henry Messenger, who 
resided in Boston prior to 1640. Henry Messenger was the first known pro- 
prietor of the land on which now stands the building owned and occupied by the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, and a part of that now covered by the Boston 
Museum. 

After a preliminary schooling, Edwin S. Osborne entered the University of 
Northern Pennsylvania, and later became a student at the New York State and 
National Law School at Poughkeepsie, graduating from the latter in the class 
of i860 with the degree of LL.B. He read law at Wilkes-Barre, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar of Luzorne county on the 26th of February, 1861. 

In April, 1861, when the great civil war broke out, he enlisted as a private in 
Company C, Eighth Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, and served in the cam- 
paign of 1861 with General Patterson's division. Subsequently he was authorized 
by Governor Curtin to recruit a company, and was mustered in as Captain, to 
rank from August 22, 1S62. His regiment was assigned to the First Corps, 
Army of the Potomac. From September, 1862, until Februarj', 1S63, he served 
upon the staff of General Wadsworth. In February, 1863, at his own request, he 
was returned to his regiment, and served with it until June, 1863, when he was 
again detailed for staff duty and appointed Assistant Inspector-General. He 
remained with the First Corps until it was consolidated with the Fifth Corps, 

(37) 



38 EDWIN S. OSBORNE. 

when he was assigned to duty with the First Division of that corps. He 
remained with this division until September, 1864, when he was transferred to 
tlie Third Division of the Fifth Corps, and remained with this command until the 
close of the war. He participated with the Army of the Potomac in all the bat- 
tles in Avhich that army was engaged after he joined it. He was on several occa- 
sions highly complimented for gallant conduct and skilful handling of troops in 
the face of the enemy. He became Major of his regiment, was three times 
brevetted for meritorious conduct, and shortly after the surrender of Lee was 
appointed a Judge Advocate, and assigned to duty in the Bureau of Military 
Justice. While Judge Ad\-ocate he was detailed by the Secretary of War on sev- 
eral important missions, among others to investigate the charges preferred against 
citizens of Pennsylvania held by military authority, and report to the Secretary 
what action, according to the law and evidence, would be proper in each case. 
Through his recommendation those so held were set at liberty, or turned over to 
the civil authorities. He was also sent by the War Department to Macon, 
Andersonville, and other points in the South, to investigate and report upon the 
treatment of the Union soldiers while held as prisoners of war by the Confeder- 
ates. This investigation led to the arrest and trial of Captain Wirz, Confederate 
commandant at Andersonville. He drew up the charges that were preferred 
against Wirz, and prepared the case for trial, which resulted in his conviction 
and execution. After performing this duty he offered his resignation, which, 
after some hesitation, was accepted by the Secretary of War, and he returned to 
Wilkes-Barre and resumed the practice of the law. 

In 1870 he was appointed Major-General in the National Guard of Pennsylva- 
nia, and commanded the troops sent to Scranton in 1 87 1 to suppress the mining 
riots. For his action on that occasion he received the thanks and congratula- 
tions of the Commonwealth through the Governor, and was honorably mentioned 
in his annual message to the Legislature. He commanded the troops at Hazle- 
ton in 1874 during the troubles in the Lehigh coal fields, and at Susquehanna 
during the strike on the New York and Erie Railroad in 1875, and at Wilkes- 
Barre during the riots of 1877. He retired from the National Guard in 1878. 
He was one of the originators of the system, and it was largely through his 
efforts that the Legislature, in 1873, repealed the militaiy tax. 

General Osborne has been a member of the Grand Army of the Republic since 
its organization, and was Commander of the Department of Pennsylvania in 
1883. He was elected a Represcntative-at-large in Congress from Pennsylvania 
in 1884 by the largest vote ever polled in the State, it having exceeded the vote 
for Blaine and Logan two thousand three hundred and thirty-six. His total vote 
was four hundred and seventy-six thousand two hundred and forty. He was 
re-elected in 1886 by a majority that exceeded that of General Beaver for Gov- 
ernor by five thousand nine hundred and sixty-four. He has always been a 
Republican. In Congress he has advocated with force the doctrine of protection 
to American labor, as may be seen by reference to the following extracts from a 



EDWIN S. OSBORNE. 39 

speech delivered July 24, 1886, in the first session of the Forty-ninth Congress 
upon the subject of increasing the Navy with Anicrican-built ships: 

"It has long been a matter of astonisliment that the American Congress has contemphatetl with such 
supreme indifference the dilapidated and utterly inefficient condition into which our once proud navy 
has been allowed to fall. When the Republic was in its infancy, and while still struggling for its exist- 
ence, no flag floated with more confidence than our starry banner, and the heroic deeds of the American 
Navy during those years can never be recalled without emotions of pleasure and pride. The renown of 
our Navy spread through the world and received unbounded praise. From that high eminence we have 
suffered an ignominious fall, and to-day it can hardly be claimed that we have a navy worthy to be so 
called. If this Congress shall succeed in putting under headway any plan that shall result ultimately in 
giving the country such a navy as our wants and standing demand, its work in that regard will receive 
the just plaudits of the nation, and will be remembered with much gratitude through all coming time. . . . 

" Mr. Chairman, we have all the m.aterial in our own country necessary to construct these vessels, and 
why should we go to the foreigner to buy that which we already have? Our mechanics and ship-build- 
ers are as intelligent and skilful as the foreigner. Why should we go to him for his labor? To go 
abroad for anything entering into the building, construction and armament of these vessels is not patriotic, 
it is not just to our own people, it is not American, and I can never consent to do it. Whenever our 
people have been brought in contact with the cheap labor of Europe they have risen in their might and 
repelled it with just indignation. I need hardly ask you to remember the discontent aroused among the 
coal-workers of Pennsylvania when a few years ago the mining corporations threatened and in some 
cases actually did import contract labor to take the place of our citizens in their mines. Nor need I, 
perhaps, call to your mind the degrading influence imported Chine.se labor has had upon American labor 
on the Pacific coast. 

"The sections in this bill to which I object propose, instead of bringing the cheap labor of Europe 
here, that the Secretary of the Navy shall go to cheap labor in Europe with America's money and buy in 
part these proposed ships of war, a proposition I am sure the American people will denounce as a blow 
at their industiies, and an injustice they will be slow to forget. It is our duty to care for our own work- 
men without regard to what can be done by the pauper labor of Europe. The proposition here suggested 
to go abroad for material and armament for these war vessels is but an entering-wedge of the pernicious 
doctrine of free trade, and will not be tolerated by the freemen of America. If we have regard for the 
prosperity of our people, we will never allow the Secretary of the Navy to go abroad to buy a farthing's 
value in material, labor, or armament for these vessels. 

" When the European comes to our country to make a home for himself and his family we extend to 
him a hearty welcome, but our citizens are not willing to adopt a policy which in any respect is more 
beneficial to the foreigner than to ourselves. Any measure which has a tendency to reduce the wages of 
labor should not be advocated for one moment in this House. I believe it is the patriotic duty of the 
Government to build our war vessels and all other vessels at home, even though to do so will cost more 
in wages to workmen than to go abroad. The building of ships is a great industry, and the Government 
should encourage those engaged in it. It will be anything but pleasant for the American people to 
behold the Secretary of the Navy of the United States in the workshops of Europe making contracts to 
build ships of war for the American Navy. Such a spectacle would hardly be creditable to the self- 
respect of our people. 

" Permit me to illustrate how important it is to our people to foster and encourage the art of building 
ships. To build a first-class iron vessel costs about $550,000. Five per cent, only of this cost is for 
material. The balance, or ninety-five per cent., is for labor. This labor begins with the miner and his 
drill, the woodman and his axe. It passes through many other grades and kinds of employment, and 
receives wages ranging from $2 a day for the laborer to S20 a day paid to the skilled designer. When a 
shij. is built in our own yards all this money is kept at home. It goes to the mechanic and laboring 
man, to the merchant and professional man. It furnishes the wages and the profits by which our people 
are enabled to procure homes, to educate their children, and to cultivate the arts of peace. It also repre- 
sents the property upon which taxes are levied and collected to support the Government. For one I am 
not willing to take this money, no, not one cent of it, to a foreign country and pay it to their cheap labor. 
It belongs to our own people and should be kept here. In the name of the millions of freemen of Penn- 



40 EDWIN S. OSBORNE. 

sylvanin I protest against such o. jiolicy, and earnestly hope that the objections to which I have referred 
may be stricken from the bill. 

■• I appreciate fully how important it is to plant our flag boldly and strongly upon the sea, and I am sure 
the d.iy is not far in the future when it will be there to stay. It is our duty to build up a navy ; but it 
must be an American navy, built in our own country, by our own people, and of domestic material. 
Then, indeed, may we begin to see the dawn of that period when our country shall stand forth among 
the nations of the earth a beacon-light to cheer the world, and our flag shall be recognized as an emblem 
of the sujierior greatness and dignity of the American people." [Applause.] 

His position with regard to the labor troubles is shown from the following 
extract from a speech delivered by him in the House on the Arbitration Bill, in 
which he said : 

" Mr. Chairman, I am heartily in favor of the bill under consideration reported by the chairman of the 
committee (Mr. O'Neill, of Missouri), and shall give it my cordial support. I am persuaded to this action 
because, in my judgment, if the bill shall become a law, it will have a tendency to elevate and dignify 
the rights of labor. The conflict now going on, and which has been growing and taking shape in this 
country for more than fifteen years between corporations on the one side and the individual citizen on 
the other, demands legislation hitherto unknown to our jurisprudence. This is true, not so much by the 
action of the individual as through the policy adopted by the States in granting extraordinary corporate 
rights to aggregated wealth. The ordinary rules of law governing personal rights do not meet the exi- 
gencies of the situation. This is so because both sides do not stand on a platform of equality. The 
person must answer for his own individual acts, and though provoked to deeds of violence by the oppres- 
sion of hard masters, yet the provocation, however just, is no shield from punishment. But who answers 
for the corporations? There is no law, statute or common, that will reach and punish her so long as 
she acts within her corporate capacity, when, under the direction of bad influences, she may adopt a 
course of action that will impoverish whole communities. And yet the people must stand in silence, with 
no power for redress. 

" There is, however, one tribunal before which the highest in the land will bow in humble submission, 
and that is the tribunal of public judgment. No man, no body of men, can any more withstand the 
breath of puljlic sentiment than they can blow away with a breath the mist that comes up from the ocean. 
Let us then pass this bill, with a view of affording a means whereby differences arising between parties 
therein referred to may be adjusted without resorting to strikes, violence, or military force. 

" Voluntary arbitration seems to be the desired remedy. It will satisfy the men, it will be accented by 
the corporations, and it will be approved by the people." 

One of the most important measures considered in the Forty-ninth Congress 
was the Presidential Succession Bill. This subject attracted general attention, 
and public judgment appeared to demand that something should be done by 
Congress to avoid entanglements, such as confronted the country at the Presi- 
dential election of 1876. The Senate early in December, 1885, passed what is 
known as the Presidential Succession Bill. General Osborne opposed the bill in 
the House in a speech in which he took .strong grounds against the constitu- 
tionality of the measure, and questioned the authority of Congress to act in the 
premises. In closing he said : 

" I venture to say that no man can be found who would contend fur a moment th.it the executive power 
could be anywhere except as vested by the Constitution. Nor do I think anybody entertains the opinion 
that Congress has the |X)Wcr to .shorten or extend the term fixed by the Constitution. .Such legislation 
would ]>e usurpation, and the men who woulc attempt it would receive, as they deserved, the just con- 
demnation of all citizens who love the Kepublic. Can wc say less of an act pas.sed by Congress that 
would establish a mode for choosmg the Executive other than that i>rescribcd by the Constitution ? 



EDWIN S. OSBORNE. 4I 

" This bill is aristocratic in its tendencies, Ooes not conform to the spirit of our institutions, and if 
passed will be a usurpation by Congress of powers slill vested in the States or in the people. Hence, it 
is "unconstitutional, and should not receive t'ne sanction of this House. 

" In the language of Alexander Hamilton, I would say : ' The fabric of American empire ought to 
rest on the solid basis of the consent of the people. The streams of national power ought to flow imme- 
diately from that pure, original fountain of all legitimate authority.' " 

Time alone can tell whether his objections were well founded. The best legal 
opinion seems to be that he was con-ect, and that the bill should have been 
defeated. 

In the Tariff discussion which has occupied so much of the time of the present 
Congress, General Osborne has taken an important part. On April 26, 1888, he 
made a speech, in opposition to the " Mills Bill " for the reduction of the Tariff, 
in which he said : 

" Pennsylvania, with her vast area of coal and inexhaustible beds of iron ore, early became a manu. 
facturing State. The only available mines of anthracite coal, the purest known in the world, lie within 
her borders. With an intelligent, moral and industrious population as a manufacturing community, we 
have always been foremost amongst the advocates of protection to American industries. 

" In the name of that great Commonwealth I protest against the passage of this bill. It will destroy 
our industries, impoverish our farmers, and degiade our labor. It is not American. 

" Representatives of a mighty people, I appeal to you by every sacred memory in the past, by evei-y 
hope for a glorious future of our beloved country, show yourselves great enough to appreciate the bless- 
ings of our .American institutions, wise enough to legislate for the happiness, prosperity and glory of the 
American people, patriotic enough to stand by the independence, the dignity, the honor, and tlie homes 
of American workmen." 

General Osborne was married to Ruth Ann Ball on October 12, 1S65. She is 
the daughter of William Ball, deceased, late of Carbondale, Pa., and a lineal 
descendant of Edward Ball, who settled in Branford, Conn., prior to 1640, and 
afterwards removed to Newark, New Jersey, where he was Sheriff of Essex 
county in that colony. They have a family of six children, four boys and two 
girls. 

General Osborne is a man of medium size, is quiet and unassuming in his 
manners, loves the comforts of his home, and is ardently attached to his wife and 
family. He is slow to make friends, but havingfprovcd their worth never dis- 
cards them. He has been successful in his practice at the bar, both in acquiring 
a reputation for ability and in making money. He is ardent and eloquent as a 
pleader, logical and forcible as a reasoner, and one who before any jury is 
capable of establishing the merits of his case. As a local orator he is much 
sought after and has made many public addresses before literary societies and 
at public meetings, his services being in special demand among the Grand Army 
Posts on Memorial Day. He is also an excellent stump-speaker and has 
rendered valuable service to his party in that way. In fact he is ready at any 
time to employ his oratorical powers in any good cause. He has elements in 
his character which, when aroused, make him an adversary his opponents will do 
well not to underrate, and he brings to the performance of any duty a quiet 
strensjth and resolution that are marked characteristics. 




Hon. Frank C. Bunnell. 



FRANK C. BUNNELL. 

HON. Fr.-\nk C. Bunnell, a banker at Tunkhannock and now Representative 
in Congress from the Fifteenth Congressional District, was born in Wash- 
ington township, Luzerne county (now Wyoming), March 19, 1842. His 
ancestors came originally from England, and have been settled in this country 
since 1735. At the time of the Indian massacre in the Wyoming Valley Solomon 
Bunnell, the progenitor of the family, was on his way from Connecticut to the 
Wyoming region, and had reached Kingwood, a point near Easton, where he met 
the fugitives retreating from the valley on their return to Connecticut. He 
remained there a short time, and died leaving a widow and several children. His 
grandson, John Bunnell, the grandfather of the subject of this sketch, went to 
Luzerne county, in 18 10, and purchased a tract of land which he converted into 
a large and productive farm, still owned by his son James, and on which Frank C. 
Bunnell was born and reared until he was sixteen years of age. The Bunnells 
were men of mark in their day, and notable as pioneers of strong character and 
upright in their dealings. 

On his mother's side Mr. Bunnell is descended from the Hardings, who were 
identified with the tragic events that attended the early settlement of the Wyoming 
Valley. She was a granddaughter of John Harding, whose brothers Benjamin 
and Stukely were murdered by the Indians while cultivating corn near Pittston 
on the day before the Wyoming massacre, and also a granddaughter of John 
Gardiner, whom the Indians took prisoner at the time the Hardings were killed, 
and subsequently tortured to death.* From the same family are descended ex- 
Judge Garrick M. Harding, of Wilkesbarre, and ex-United States Senator 
Benjamin F. Harding, of Oregon, who succeeded General Baker in the United 
States Senate in 1863. 

Mr. Bunnell when he was sixteen years of age was sent to Wyoming Seminary 



*At the time Mr. Gardiner was t.aken prisoner his wife and children were in Forty Fort. He was 
granted the privilege of seeing his family before taking him into captivity, after the massacre and tliey 
had ransacked the fort. Elisha Harding, who had escaped and reashed the fort, was present at the 
parting of Gardiner and his w'ife, and reports it as most afifecting. His last words were, " I go to return 
no more." He represents him to have been "the noblest, grandest-looking man I ever saw." After the 
interview with his wife a rope was placed around his neck, and then loaded down with goods they had 
pillaged on their march back up the Susquehanna river. A man by the name of Carr, who was taken 
prisoner at the same time and afterwards escaped, reports that Gardiner gave out under his excessive 
burden at or near Standing Stone in Bradford county, and was then handed over to the squaws, who 
tortured him to death. 

Perigreen Gardiner, the father of John, owned the property known as Canonochet, so long occupied by 
ex-Senator Sprague, of Rhode Island. His family and the Stuarts were friends, and they were present 
at church and participated in the ceremonies of christening the child, Gilbert Stuart, who afterwards 
became so famous as an artist. Some of his paintings are at this time on exhibition in the Corcoran Art 
Gallery at Washington, D. C, notably one of President Washington. 

(43) 



44 



FRANK C. BUNNELL. 



at Kingston, Pa., where he remained until the breaking out of the war of the 
RebeUion, when he enlisted, September, 1861, as a private in Company B, Fifty- 
second Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. Quartermaster Dodge, noticing his 
aptness for business, had him detailed to assist him in the Quartermaster's De- 
partment, which he did while the regiment was in camp near Washington during 
the winter of 1861-62. At that time the basement of the National Capitol was 
used as a bakerj' for the army, and Mr. Bunnell had charge of teams, and drew 
bread from there for the regiment, and also clothing from the building now 
occupied as the Corcoran Art Gallery. At that time he had no expectation 
that he would ever return to the capital as a lawmaker. 

In the spring of 1862 he was promoted to be Quartermaster Sergeant of the 
regiment, and served in that capacity, doing the work of the Quartermaster, in 
the absence of that officer while sick, throughout the campaign on the Peninsula 
under General McClellan. At Yorktown, Va., his health failed, and, not improv- 
ing during his furlough, he was discharged in April, 1863, being considered by 
the army surgeon too much shattered in health from the exposure in the swamps 
of the Peninsula for further service. Thus he was compelled to abandon the 
service just as he was about to be commissioned for well-earned distinction at his 
post of duty. 

In 1865 he embarked in mercantile pursuits at Tunkhannock, Pa., and five 
years later established the banking house of F. C. Bunnell & Co., in which 
business he is still engaged. 

In 1872 he was elected as a Republican over Col. Victor E. PioUet, Democrat, 
to serve out the unexpired term in the Forty-second Congress of Hon. Ulysses 
Mercur, who resigned by reason of his election to the Supreme Bench of Penn- 
sylvania; and in 1874-76 and 1878 he was presented as the choice of Wyoming 
count)' as their representative in Congress, but was defeated in the Congressional 
conference. In 1884, however, he was elected to the Forty-ninth Congress as a 
Republican over Hon. George A. Post, Democrat, and was re-elected to the 
Fiftieth Congress over Col. Victor E. PioUet. During his Congressional career 
he has attained distinction as a faithful worker in the committees to which he is 
assigned, and as a representative who attends to the interests of his constituents 
in a painstaking, thorough manner. At this time his popularity is not confined 
to his own Congressional district, but extends over this and other States. His 
votes on all important questions are governed by rare discrimination and are be- 
yond criticism, and, although making no pretense to oratory, his influence and ad- 
vice arc courted on account of his well-known judgment on public and private 
measures affecting the nation's welfare. Wyoming county, though strongly 
Democratic, has always given him a large majority of her votes. 

Although never an office-.seckcr, he has held a large number of minor offices. 
lie was alternate delegate to the National Convention at Chicago in 1880; was 
appointed by Governor Iloyt a member of the Bi-Centcnnial Association of 
Pennsylvania for Wyoming county in 1S82; was a prominent candidate for the 



FRANK C. BUNNELL. 45 

nomination of State Treasurer in 1883, but was defeated by a combination in 
favor of Hon. Wm. Livesey, of Allegheny county; was elected Burgess and 
Treasurer of Tunkhannock in 1884; was a member of its Board of Education 
from 1882 to 1S85, and was elected President of the Board of Trade in 1888. 

Mr. Bunnell has always taken a great interest in farming, and has been elected 
annually President of the Wyoming County Agricultural Society since its organi- 
zation in 1876. He is also a member of Post 98 G. A. R., and prominent in 
Freemasonry, belonging to the Lodge, Chapter, Council, Commandery and Con- 
sistory, and has held offices in most of these bodies. 




Hon. John Patton. 



JOHN PATTON. 

HON. John Patton, now representative in Congress from the Twentieth 
Congressional District, was born in Tioga county, Pa., January 6, 1823. 
His paternal grandfather. Col. John Patton, was born in Sligo, Ireland, in 
1745. Emigrating to America, in 1761, he settled in Philadelphia, where he 
soon became a prosperous merchant. During the Revolution he served as Col- 
onel of the Sixteenth Regiment, Pennsylvania line. He had charge of the 
defences of the city of Philadelphia, and in the most critical period of the conflict 
was among the number of patriotic merchants who with Robert Morris raised, 
on their own private bond, the sum of ;^26o,000 to aid Washington in his need. 
He was an honorary member of the Society of the Cincinnati, and in 1789 
moved to Centre count}% where he built the old Centre Furnace in 1791, the first 
one in blast west of Harrisburg. He died in 1 804, at which time he was Major- 
General of a division of the State militia. 

John Patton's maternal grandfather, Philip Antes, served in the war of 181 2. 
He organized the first society, and aided in building the first Methodist Episcopal 
Church — Old Eagle Chapel — in Centre county in 1806, and gave the ground for, 
and aided largely in building, the first M. E. Church in Clearfield county, in 1829. 

His father, John Patton, was a Lieutenant in the United States Navy, serving 
under Commodore Stephen Decatur. In 1826 he settled in Clearfield county, 
and two years later (1828) moved to Cur\vens\-ille, when John, his son, the 
subject of this sketch, was five years of age. 

His mother, Susan Antes Patton, was a woman of remarkable energy and 
earnestness of character, and to her wise forethought and Christian influence 
Mr. Patton attributes much of his success. She was a member of his household 
for the last thirty-eight years of her life, being a widow, her husband dying in 
1848; and the intercourse between mother and son was of the most delightful 
character. She died at the ripe age of ninet)"-two, and her name is held in hal- 
lowed remembrance by all who knew her. 

Mr. Patton's early education was very limited, owing to the want of facilities. 
The country was new. Public schools were not then, as they now are, the 
crowning glory of the State. His mind and body, however, were disciplined in 
that severe though useful school — that of adversity. At the early age of twelve 
he went into a store as errand boy, and in 1844 he commenced business for 
himself as a merchant and lumberman with borrowed capital, and continued in 
it for sixteen years, having accumulated a fair competency. For the last twenty- 
three years he has been engaged in banking, and at present is President of one 
of the most successful institutions in Central Pennsylvania. 

In politics Mr. Patton was a Henry Clay Whig, and in later years an active 
Republican. In 1852 he was a delegate to the National Convention of the Whig 

(47) 



4$ JOHN PATTON. 

party at Baltimore that nominated General Scott for President. In iS6o he was 
a delegate to the Chicago Convention, and helped nominate Abraham Lincoln. 
In tlie same year, at the earnest solicitation of friends, he became a candidate 
and was elected to the Thirty-seventh Congress by the Twenty-fourth District, 
carrj-ing the strong Democratic district, and likewise the Democratic county of 
Clearfield for the first time in its history. The records show that he served his 
constituents well during that trj'ing period. As there was little legislation 
needed for his district during his term, Mr. Patton devoted a large part of his 
time to looking after the wounded soldiers of the army, the dead and d}'ing, and 
the visiting of battle-fields, thus developing that catholicity of spirit which has 
ever since been one of his marked characteristics. He was a warm, personal 
friend of Lincoln, and one of the Pennsylvania Electors in 1 864 when Lincoln 
was re-elected. It was in accordance with his motion that all the pay, mileage, 
etc., of the Electoral College was donated to the United States Christian Com- 
mission in aid of the suffering soldiers. 

In 1848 he was appointed aide to Governor Johnson, with the rank of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel ; and in June of the following year was commissioned Brigadier- 
General of the Fourth Brigade of the Fourteenth Division of Uniformed Militia, 
composed of the counties of Juniata, Mifflin, Centre, Huntingdon and Clearfield, 
by a strange coincidence commanding a brigade of the same division his grand- 
father was Major-General of in 1794. 

Mr. Patton is a member-elect of the Fiftieth Congress, having overcome an 
adverse majority of 2,500, and for the second time carrying Clearfield county. 
He has never been an office-seeker, but was induced to run for offices of trust 
and responsibility only after the urgent requests of a large number of men com- 
posing the best elements of the party he represents. He has declined a re-elec- 
tion at a time when his district was conceded to have a majority of 2,000. 

Mr. Patton has been a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church for thirty- 
seven years, keenly alive to all its interests, and a liberal contributor to every 
worthy object in that church, and also to every other church in the vicinity. 
He has been a Director of Dickinson Seminary, and a Trustee of Dickinson 
College and of Drew Theological Seminary, and was a delegate to the General 
Conference in 1872. He has a fund of ^12,000 in the Church Extension Society, 
known as " The Patton Loan Fund," for the building of churches upon the 
frontiers, and has given thousands of dollars to colleges and schools at various 
times. He built the " Patton Graded Public School " at Curwensville, a building 
that is worth 525,000, and then presented it to the Public School Board. Super- 
intendent Higbcc said that this act of liberality stood alone in the annals of the 
public schools of the State— an individual gift of the donor while living. 

His liberality is too well and too widely known to need further endorsement. 
It may be truly said of him that no deserving person and no worthy cause ever 
failed to receive from his hands the help .solicited. In his peculiar characteristic 
manner he sums up the work of his life as " a little politics and a little giving." 



»'W«ii- 






MATTHEW STANLEY QUAY. 

IN looking over the history of Pennsylvania one is ever confronted with the fact 
that very many of the men who have made a broad mark upon its pages 
bear the stamp of the Scotch-Irish race. It has passed into a tradition that its 
descendants are noted for their strength of body and mind, for their aggression 
and undaunted courage. Take from the pages of the history of this Common- 
wealth, and indeed of the nation, the long list of men who have sprung from 
Scotch-Irish parentage, and there would be many a blank page. A glance at the 
face of the subject of this sketch and a review of his character is convincing proof 
that he is from one of the sturdiest families of this sturdy stock. 

The family tradition runs that about 1710 three brothers by the name of Quay 
left the Isle of Man, emigrated to America, and settled in Canada. As early as 
17 1 5 one of the brothers left the Dominion and settled in that part of Pennsyl- 
vania which is now Chester county. From this plant the Quay family of Penn- 
sylvania sprang. Joseph Quay, grandfather of the ex-Secretary of State, 
was the eldest son of the man bearing the same name who first made a home 
upon Pennsylvania soil more than fifty years before the Revolution. It is said 
that he was a strong man, intellectually and physically, but fond of fun and frolic, 
and of an adventurous disposition. He came honestly by his inclinations, for his 
father before him was fond of sports, and loved the life of a soldier, and had seen 
service in the early French and Indian wars. Joseph Quay served in the Revo- 
lutionary war; and again in the war of 181 2 the family name appears among the 
first of the volunteers in the defence of the new Republic. Joseph Quay was a 
saddler by trade, and while plying his vocation in Chester county he fell in love 
with the daughter of a well-to-do gentleman by the name of Anderson, also of 
Scotch-Irish stock, so that the subject of this sketch springs from that lineage on 
both sides. After a short courtship the two were married, but even this did not 
curb Mr. Quay's disposition for fun rather than business, and he spent what jarop- 
erty he could gather in the sports of the field and turf While thus engaged a 
son was born, whom he named Anderson Beaton Quay, after the father of his 
wife. 

This son was of studious habits and early in life showed a disposition for the 
ministry. He followed the traditional bent of his race, became a Presbyterian 
clergyman, and made a circuit in York, etc., extending up into Franklin county. 
Colonel McClure's father was a deacon in the church where Anderson Quay 
preached, and often when a boy waited upon him while stopping at his father's 
house. He even met and knew the son, who has since been his political oppo- 
nent, when both were boys. 

Matthew Stanley Quay was born at Dillsburg, York county, on September 
30th, 1833. Recalling the struggles and friendships of his early life before he left 
7 (49) 



50 MATTHEW S. QUAY. 

Chester, he named this son after General Matthew Stanley, of Brandywine Manor, 
in that county. When young Quay was six years old his father left the mission 
in York and Franklin, went to Pittsburgh and thence to Beaver county, and for 
several years thereafter ministered to congregations in various sections of western 
Pennsylvania. He was a strong, earnest man, and his name is to this day men- 
tioned with great respect by those who remember his ministerial efforts in both 
eastern and western Pennsj-lvania. Matt. Quay, as he was universally known in 
early as well as in later life, received the rudiments of an English education from 
his father and in the common schools of the sections where he happened to be 
preaching. He adv^anced so rapidly in his studies that before he was sixteen 
years of age he was sent to Jefferson College, in Washington county, where he 
graduated with honors just after passing his seventeenth year. He soon after 
began the study of law in Pittsburgh with Judge Sterrett, but he had not pursued 
his studies long before a desire for travel became stronger than the disposition to 
fit himself for a profession, and he and a college friend started for the South. 
Thej- spent nearly a j-ear in travelling through that section. They happened 
there when the agitation of Union and dis-Union questions had begun, and he 
returned to Pittsburgh on a visit to his parents, with the intention of returning to 
Louisiana and starting a Union paper, with his college friend, at Shreveport. 
His mother, however, objected to his making his home in the South, and she had 
sufficient influence over him to restrain his youthful ardor, and for a time he 
remained at home. After a time, however, he broke away from the restraint of 
home and went South and settled in Texas when that State was next to a wilder- 
ness. The story of his sojourn in the Lone Star State constitutes a very inter- 
esting chapter of his life. He lectured a little and finally went to teaching school 
in Colorado county. While so engaged the Comanche Lidians became very 
troublesome, and an act was passed authorizing the raising of a regiment of 
mounted rangers for service against the Indians. 

Young Quay closed up his school, took what little money he had, bought a 
pony and a rifle, and started for Austin, the capital of the State. He reached 
there the day the Legislature adjourned, and the bill for the organization and 
payment of the regiment failed to pass the Senate. This was his first lesson in 
the uncertainty of legislation. He has had many since that time, but none more 
serious. On the same day the news of the inauguration of President Pierce and 
the announcement of his Cabinet was received. 

" I shall never forget," said Mr. Quay, in speaking of his arrival in Austin, 
"the ludicrous scenes in the streets of that town on that eventful and, to me, 
unfortunate day. The town was full of young men, each with a pony and rifle, 
but without a dollar in their pockets and many miles from home. All had come 
down as I had, expecting to j<jin the regiment, and had invested all their cash in 
an outfit for the service." In this crowd of disappointed frontiersmen young 
Quay .sat upon his pony, with a rifle slung over his siioulder and his big som- 
brero shading the rays of the setting sun from his face, wondering what to do. 



MATTHEW S. QUAY. 5^ 

He decided to sell his pony and rifle and return to New Orleans. He did so, 
and got just about money enough to take him there. This decision changed the 
current of his life, and when he started to leave Texas he took the first step 
toward the prominence he has gained. 

He reached the Crescent City in the midst of the cholera season, and in that 
year the scourge was at its worst. People died so rapidly that they could not be 
buricil. It may be imagined that he (.lid not tarry long, but pushed on North, 
and finally, after a struggle, reached the home of his mother in Beaver county. 
His last experiences South made the quiet of his Pennsylvania home agreeable 
to him, and he at once resumed his legal studies with R. P. Roberts, then an 
eminent lawyer in that county, who was afterwards a Colonel in the late war. 

In 1S54, ten days after he was twenty-one years of age, he was admitted to the 
bar. In 1855 he was appointed Prothonotary of Beaver county. In 1856 he was 
elected to that office and re-elected in 1859. In 1861 he resigned the Prothon- 
otaryship and enlisted in the Eleventh Pennsylvania Reserves, and was soon 
thereafter made a First Lieutenant. Before his regiment was ordered into active 
service Governor Curtin appointed him Assistant Commissary-General upon his 
staff, with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, and he was sunnnoned to Ilarrisburg 
to enter 'upon his duties. 

His capacity for dealing with men and meeting emergencies soon attracted 
the attention of all with whom he came in contact. His great capacity for work 
and for mastering the details of whatever service devolved upon him in the 
organization and preparation for active service of the great number of troops 
Pennsylvania was then mustering for the field, gave him a high place in the 
esteem of the authorities, and when the military staff of the Governor was 
abolished. Governor Curtin made him his private secretary. In this office his 
good judgment and great capacity for work were as apparent as in the perform- 
ance of his military duties. Much of the great strain upon the executive 
department, consequent upon the war and the organization of great bodies of 
troops, naturally fell to his lot, but he proved equal to every emergency, and 
won and held the good opinion of all with whom he came in contact. 

After serving something more than a year in this capacity, Governor Curtin 
gave a public recognition of his efficient service by making him Colonel of the 
One Hundred and Thirty-fourth Pennsylvania Infantry. He assumed command 
of that regiment early in August, 1862. The regiment left Harrisburg for 
Washington in the latter part of August, and on the 30th of that month made a 
forced march toward the battle-field while the second contest at Bull Run was 
being fought. It did not reach there in time to participate in the fight, and 
returned to the defences about Washington. In the Antietam campaign it made 
another forced march towards South Mountain, but reached the battle-field of 
Antietam just too late to participate in that fight. The regiment remained in 
camp near the battle-field until the 30th of October. While there, Colonel 
Quay was stricken with typhoid fever, and his friends for some time despaired 



:;2 MATTHEW S. QUAY. 

of his recover}". In November the regiment moved without its Colonel to the 
neighborhood of Fredericksburg, Va. Colonel Quay returned to his regiment 
early in December, but so reduced by disease as to be totally unfit for duty, and 
it was thought by his closest friends that he would not live long. Upon the 
advice of eminent surgeons he resigned his commission, and the acceptance of 
it arrived upon the eve of the battle of Fredericksburg. Although no longer an 
officer in the army, and with every preparation made to start for home at once, 
he was unwilling that the regiment should go into battle without him. He, of 
course, could not command it, so he volunteered as an aide upon the staff of 
General Tyler, who commanded the brigade in which his regiment was serving, 
and participated in that great battle. In his official report of that fight. General 
Tyler bears the following striking tribute to Colonel Quay's gallantry. 

He says : " Colonel M. S. Quay, late of the One Hundred and Thirty-fourth, 
was upon my staff as a volunteer aide-de-camp, and to him I am greatly 
indebted. Notwithstanding his enfeebled health, he was in the saddle early and 
late, ever prompt and efficient, and especially so during the engagement. It is 
told of him that when he went into the fight he was all ready to start home, and 
that his men had sent considerable money by him to friends and kindred in 
Pennsylvania. But that so intent was he upon going into the fight with the 
regiment his health had forced him to leave just on the eve of battle, that when 
General Tyler accepted his services as a staff officer he forgot money and all 
else, and went into the action with it on his person." 

He returned to Pennsylvania immediately after the battle of Fredericksburg, 
and Governor Curtin at once appointed him Military State Agent at Washing- 
ton, a position of great labor and responsibility. No State in the Union was 
more earnest in the care of her soldiers than Pennsylvania. Its Governor had 
promised at the outbreak of the Rebellion that no soldier killed in battle or 
dying of disease should be buried off her soil. Governor Curtin's object in 
appointing a man of Colonel Quay's ability to the position of State Agent at 
Washington was, that the provisions of that agreement might be carried out to 
the letter. This imposed upon him delicate and onerous duties — such as a 
watchful care over the sick and wounded, the forwarding of dead bodies home, 
and generally a watchful eye over the interests of Pennsylvania soldiers in camp 
and on the field. Although quite feeble during mo.st of the time he held that 
position, thousands of Pennsylvania soldiers have borne tribute to the fidelity 
with which he performed that trust. 

In 1S63 the Legislature created the office of Military Secretary, and Governor 
Curtin, recalling the faithful energy and careful intelligence ot his former private 
secretar)', at once transferred Colonel Quay from the position of Military State 
Agent at Washington to the post of Military Secretary at Harri.sburg. Soon 
after he had taken his new position, the death of Colonel Sees, Superintendent 
of Transportation and Telegraph, imposed the additional duties of that position 
upon him. He held these two important offices and the closest confidential 



MATTHEW S. QUAY. 53 

relations with the Governor for two years or more, during which time his duties 
were of the most exacting character. 

In 1865 he resigned these positions to take his seat in the Legislature from 
the counties of Washington and Beaver, to wliich he had been elected in 1864. 
He was made Chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means of that body, 
and some of the most important legislation enacted during his first legislative 
service bore the impress of his intelligent work. His first memorable political 
contest was in 1866, when he was the presiding genius in the political move 
which resulted in the election of James R. Kelly as Speaker of the House. In 
this fight he began to develop into the sagacious political leader he has since 
become, and being a friend of Governor Curtin's, he was naturally led into 
antagonisms with the then ruling power in Pennsylvania politics. 

When he first came to Harrisburg, at Governor Curtin's bidding, he naturally 
met Colonel A. K. McClure, then a power in the Republican party. He was 
the recognized leader of the political forces Governor Curtin represented. 
McClure and himself renewed the acquaintance began in their childhood days, 
when Colonel Quay's father preached in Colonel McClure's neighborhood and 
spent Sunday at his father's house. They became friends, and although they 
are now and have been for years widely apart in politics, and have had hard 
fights, their personal relations have never been disturbed. I have heard Colonel 
McClure say of Colonel Quay's services upon the staff of the Governor: " His 
services were invaluable to Governor Curtin, both as a soldier and civilian 
during the war, and he was true to his political interests after it, as long as 
Curtin was a candidate for place within the Republican party. He is a bold 
fighter, but a faithful friend." 

It is no wonder, then, that a man of Colonel McClure's sagacity should, when 
Colonel Quay entered political life, make him a political friend, ally and coun- 
sellor in the great moves he was then making to control the Republican party 
of the State in the interest of Governor Curtin. He was just the man to see the 
power in Colonel Quay for such service ; therefore it was not strange that when 
he went to the Legislature Colonel McClure looked upon him as the strongest 
weapon at command with which to fight Governor Curtin's opponent. 

The Legislature of 1867 met under most peculiar circumstances. Governor 
Curtin, General Simon Cameron, Thad. Stevens, Colonel Forney and General 
Morehead were candidates for the United States Senate. Curtin had a majority 
of the Legislature, as it is claimed, to his candidacy, and the test vote was to be 
upon the Speakership. Colonel Quay was selected as Governor Curtin's candi- 
date, but he was, after a verj' bitter fight, defeated by a combination of the forces 
of all the candidates for United States Senator against him. 

The defeat of Colonel Quay for Speaker settled Governor Curtin's fate for the 
Senatorship, and General Simon Cameron was elected. Governor Curtin then 
dropped out of politics as an aspirant for place within the State. Alexander 
McClure left the State and quit politics, and Colonel Quay went boldly to the 



54 MATTllKW S. QUAY. 

front as a leader. Mis defeat for the Spcaker.ship only sharpened his appetite 
for other contests, and in the winter of 1868 the war between the factions was 
renewed, and Colonel Quay scored a victory in the election of Mr. Irwin, the 
anti-Cameron candidate, for State Treasurer. This same year Governor Curtin 
was sent to Russia and Colonel Quay was left to fight by himself. 

In that year he was made Secretary of the Republican State Central Com- 
mittee, and that campaign bore the marks of his organizing skill and untiring 
industry. Curtin having been provided for, this campaign settled the differences 
within the Republican party, and in 1869 John Scott was elected United States 
Senator. Robert W. Mackey was that year chosen State Treasurer through 
Colonel Quay's efforts. He really created Mackey a political power in this 
State. This result brought Colonel Quay and Robert W. Mackey, since counted 
the boldest and most sagacious political leader in the country, into close 
sympathy and thorough working union. In the campaigns which followed, 
bearing the stamp of their work in every line, their names as political leaders 
became as wide as the limits of the country. 

Colonel Quay always had a taste for journalism, and, during the campaign of 
1869 established in Beaver a paper called the Beaver Radical. He issued it 
without notice and without a single subscriber. But it was conducted with such 
rare ability and energy that it at once took a leading position among the papers 
of the State and secured a strong patronage. As long as Colonel Quay's name 
was associated with it it was more largely quoted than any other paper in the 
State of Pennsylvania. Its editorials were terse and forcible and its general 
tone bold and uncompromising. In the bitter and memorable contest which 
resulted in the election of General John F. Hartranft as Governor, the Beaver 
Radical and its editor bore an important part. Indeed, but for the work of 
Colonel Quay and Mr. Mackey, it is doubtful whether the Republicans could 
have saved the State. There was a most bitter and unrelenting assault made 
upon Governor Hartranft, and it took untiring energy and careful organization 
to secure his election. When Hartranft was inaugurated as Governor, he made 
Colonel Quay Secretary of State, and he held that position until he was made 
Recorder of the City of Philadelphia. While holding the latter place he was very 
widely spoken of for the United States Senatorship, and but for the fact that his 
party fealty and devotion to friends had led him to make sacrifices which had 
been taken advantage of to create popular prejudice against him, he would have 
at that time been elected United States Senator. After he left the Recorder's 
office he was made Secretary of State by Governor Iloyt. 

In November, 1885, Colonel Quay was elected State Treasurer by nearly 
50,000 majority, and while .still the incumbent of that office was chosen by the 
Legislature of 1887 United States Senator, to succeed Senator Mitchell, whose 
term c.\[)ircd March 4th of that year. 

A man who has played as hold and broad a hand in politics as Colonel Quay 
naturally could not have escaped violent criticism, no matter how correct his 



MATTHEW S. QUAY. 55 

acts. It wa.s not in tlie nature of thincjs, that, with his stronjj;', positive nature, 
wliich never considered retreat, oftentimes lack of poHcy, and the use of power 
necessary for party success, that he should not have made enemies and created 
antagonisms, even among the timid of his own party, that could not easily be 
healed. He has been severely criticised, but it has never seemed to disturb him 
or to change his purpose when fixed. When Robert VV. Mackey died, he was 
left as the undisputed leader of party action, the man whose judgment was law 
and whose political wisdom and boldness were worth a regiment of half-hearted 
politicians. He has shown matchless powers as a political leader ever since he 
entered public life, and no matter what enemies may say of him there is no man 
who does not respect his intelligence, admire his courage and recognize his com- 
manding power in political movements. 

He is a true man, an earnest and uncompromising friend and an unrelenting 
foe. These qualities have made him ofttimes stand for the shortcoming of friends. 
It is not time for people to judge him or his acts dispassionately, for his grip is 
j'ct too strong upon the handle of political power to silence the tongue of 
vituperation or to direct the public mind to a dispassionate criticism of his acts. 
When he is gone the country, and especially his State, will recognize his worth 
and sift his qualities of head and heart to find many more grains of gold than 
dross. 

No man who does not know Mr. Quay's character can appreciate the qualities 
of the man. The fact that he has been so long the master of political chess- 
boards, and consequently a target for all sorts of criticism, has fixed him in^he 
minds of the people as a very different man from his real self He is a remark- 
ably studious man, and his stock of information on all subjects is surpassed 
by that of few men in the country. He is a careful reader of history, science 
and current literature, and possesses many fine traits of character. He is liberal 
handed, steadfast in his friendships, as genial in his social relations as he is often 
rugged in politics. A. W. N. 

Since the above was written Mr. Quay was honored by being selected as 
Chairman of the Republican National Committee and also as Chairman of the 
Executive Committee of that body. As such he had controlling charge of the 
canvass for his party during the Presidential contest of 1888. As a delegate to 
the Chicago nominating convention Mr. Quay was a staunch supporter of Senator 
Sherman, of Ohio, but it was with the hearty approval of General Harrison, the 
successful nominee, that Senator Quay was appointed the Chairman of the 
National Committee to conduct the canvass. The appointment elicited the warm 
approval of the leading men of his party, and was acknowledged to be a wise 
one by the opposition. [Eds.] 




Hon. John H. Mitchell. 



JOPiN H. MITCHELL. 

HON. John H. Mitchell, United States Senator from the State of Oreg-on, 
was born in Washington county, Pa., June 22, 1835. His boyhood days 
were passed upon a farm in Butler county. Pa,, to which locaHty his parents had 
removed when he was two years old. Bright and apt, and giving signs of marked 
intelligence, his parents determined that he should be given an opportunity to 
gratify his thirst for knowledge. So he was sent to the Witherspoon Institute, 
an establishment ranking high among the educational institutions of the State 
of Pennsylvania. Diligent in his studies and ambitious to take advantage of 
the opportunities thus afforded him, young Mitchell became, as was to be 
expected, the leader of his class, and in due time graduated with high honors. 

Choosing law as the profession to which he desired to devote himself, he entered 
the office of Hon. Samuel A. Purviance, then the leading attorney of that por- 
tion of Pennsylvania of which in those days Butler was the centre. Mr. Purviance, 
who was subsequently Attorney-General of the State, was at the time Mitchell 
entered his office a member of Congress, and was a man of national reputation. 
Under the instruction of Purviance, who took a great interest in his pupil, the 
young student made rapid progress in overcoming the intricate windings of the 
subtle law. To read law is one thing, to read and understand it is. another. 
Young Mitchell was not satisfied with the mere reading; his nature was such 
that he could not content himself with memorizing — he must comprehend his 
subject; in other words, make it part of himself This thoroughness which 
marked him as a student of the law has remained one of the strongest character- 
istics of the man, and has had much to do with his success in life. Admitted to 
the bar in 1856, he soon after removed to the Pacific Coast, an inviting field for 
self-reliance, genius and ambition. A remarkable set of men were those who 
laid the foundations of constitutional liberty on those far-off shores, and the com- 
monwealths they created are the best monuments to their ability, energy and 
indomitable will. They were of a superior race, the flower of the youth of the 
older States ; men of calibre and will and expanding thought. And in this con- 
nection it may be well right here to call attention to a fact not generally recog- 
nized, that it was from among this body of men came the leaders who successfully 
waged the battle for the Union. Grant passed his early manhood on the Pacific 
Coast, and the lessons he there learned, and the persistency which was charac- 
teristic of the type of manhood of which we are speaking, he carried into the war, 
and the same spirit which overcame the perils of the desert and laughed at the 
obstacles of towering mountains and reduced the savage to abject fear conquered 
the rebellion. Sherman was a banker in San Francisco, Phil Sheridan a lieuten- 
ant in Oregon, and Joe Hooker a civil engineer amid the wilds of Rogue river in 
Oregon. Baker, the orator, the soldier and statesman, was preaching the " doc- 
** (57) 



58 JOHN H. MITCHELL. 

trine of the new crusade " in the land of the Argonauts. Brave, generous men ! 
A grateful country recognizes their worth, and does homage to the memory of 
those who have passed over to the majority. A man of small ideas and petty 
puiposes could make no headway in a current of humanity like this. That 
Mitchell succeeded amid such surroundings is the best evidence as to the quality 
of his manhood. 

His first conspicuous public appearance was at the formation of what was 
known as the Union party in Oregon. There was a sentiment on the Pacific 
Coast at the outbreak of the war of the Rebellion in favor of the estab- 
lishment of what was to be known as a Pacific Coast Republic. Lovers of 
the Union were aware that if this scheme was successful the fate of the nation 
was to be despaired of, and that this peril, though insignificant in comparison 
with others which then threatened its existence, would be sufficient to hasten 
and bring about the success of those who elsewhere were determined upon the 
destruction of the Union. It was at this juncture that Mitchell first came to the 
front as a political leader, and his voice and influence were on the side of the 
Union. The welding of the Union sentiment into a political organization stood 
as a menace to the schemes of those who were plotting the establishment of this 
Pacific Republic, and in the face of this organized protest the plotters were com- 
pelled to abandon their proposed project. And thus was a great national calamity 
avertsd. As the representative of the Union party, Mitchell was elected to the 
State Senate of Oregon, and was chosen presiding officer of that body. Growing 
in popularit}- he soon became the recognized leader of his party, and in 1866 
(although not a candidate in the meaning of that term) came within one vote of 
the caucus nomination for United States Senator. 

In 1872 he was elected to the United States Senate for the term commencing 
March 4, 1873. He was assigned to the Conmiittee on Privileges and Elections, 
then one of the most important committees of that body, and was also given a 
place on Railroads (of which he afterward became Chairman), Transportation 
Routes to the Seaboard, Claims, and Commerce. During the struggle which 
followed the Presidential campaign of 1876, Mr. Mitchell was for a time acting 
Chairman of the Committee on Privileges and P^lcctions. Governor Morton, 
the Chairman, was incapacitated from serving owing to his being a member of 
the I'^lectoral Commission. The duties thus devolved upon him were onerous 
and grave, as much depended upon the course of that committee as to what 
would be the outcome of a contention that contained within its environments 
the horrid .spectre of another civil war. A mistake, no matter how trifling, 
would have precipitated upon the country a struggle, the result of which was 
beyond human ken, and the contemplation of which even at this distant day 
causes one to shudder. That Mitchell met the responsibilities imposed upon 
him with excellent judgment is evidenced by the lesult. The preparation of 
the Republican side of the case depended largely upon the result of the inves- 
tigations that were being pursued by the Committee on Privileges and Elections, 



JDHN )I. MITCHELL. 5g 

and so tlioroughly were these iiivestii^ations conducted that it was made mani- 
fest that truth and equity were on the side of the RepubUcan contestants. 
Public sentiment acquiesced in tlie judgment of the conniiittee, and the decis- 
ion of the Electoral Commission, based in a large measure upon the labors 
of that committee, was sustained by the country, and Mr. Hayes was safely 
seated in the Presidential chair. 

The same indomitable energy that marked Mr. Mitchell's conduct on this 
occasion is also typical of his efforts in behalf of the interests of his State. The 
Columbia river, a majestic stream, second only to the " Father of Waters," and 
draining a country richer by far than the famous valley of the Nile, is obstructed 
at several places, particularly at The Dalles, where the immense volume of water 
rushes through a narrow gorge at lightning rapidity, and at the Cascades, 
where the waters tumble and dash over countless boulders of immense size, 
creating eddies and swift currents, so that navigation at these two points is impos- 
sible, and as a result portages have to be made and a trans-shipment rendered 
necessary. To overcome these obstacles and make the Columbia a free river 
(for it is apparent that those who control the portages also control, or, perhaps, 
what is a better and truer expression, own the river) has been the prayer of the 
people of Oregon for years. Various projects to overcome these obstructions 
were from time to time presented and discussed, and finally laid aside, as such 
projects usually arc unless backed by some earnest man. Among the first steps 
taken by Mr. Mitchell soon after his election to the Senate was to secure the 
aid of the national go\'ernment in removing these obstructions. After countless 
difficulties he finally succeeded in obtaining an appropriation for the construction 
of a system of locks at the Cascades, and this work, though not progressing with 
the activity that its importance demands, but still with the same sort of activity 
that marks all enterprises under the supervision of- the government, v/ill be 
finished in a year or two. In the meantime he did not relax his efforts to get 
the Government committed to some plan for overcoming the obstructions at The 
Dalles, and so persistent and energetic have his efforts been that at the present 
session (First Session, Fiftieth Congress) the Senate has passed his bill for a boat 
railway, for the commencement of which $500,000 ai'e appropriated ; and when 
this work is completed, and the last obstruction to the free navigation of the 
Columbia is thus removed, " a mighty river will go mingling with his name 
forever." 

At the close of his first term the Democrats had succeeded in getting control , 
of the Legislature ; and it is claimed that their success was brought about through 
the instrumentality of a company that controlled the navigation of the Columbia 
river, and was opposed, as a matter of course, to any effort to rend that stream 
from the grasp of a soulless and selfish monopoly. Be this as it may, the Demo- 
crats were successful. In 1882, the Republicans again being in majority in the 
Legislature, Mr. Mitchell received the nomination for Senator, two-thirds of the 
Republicans in the Legislature voting for him in caucus. P'or forty days the 



60 JOHN H. MITCHELL. 

Legislature ^ballotted without result, IMitchell during most of the time receiving 
forty-five votes, or within one necessary to elect. This failure to elect was 
broucrht about by a bolt of a few malcontents, actuated by personal motives and 
aims, but on which, however, they ha\e ne\'er realized. Seeing that his election 
was impossible, Mr. Mitchell threw his influence in favor of his former law 
partner, J. N. Dolph, who was elected in the closing hours of the session. In 
18S5 the Legislature failed to elect. At a called session Mr. Mitchell, though 
no't a candidate, was elected by the votes of both Republicans and Democrats, it 
being the almost universal wish of the people of the State that he be returned to 
the Senate. In the present Congress he is Chairman of the Committee on 
Transportation Routes to the Seaboard, and is a member of the Committees on 
Claims, Post-offices and Post-roads, Railroads, and Mines and Mining. 

As a lawyer Mr. Mitchell is clear-headed and quick to appreciate and appre- 
hend a point. His legal arguments are perspicacious, and marked by thorough- 
ness and research. In the debate in the Senate on the Inter-State Commerce 
Bill he took a position as to the proper construction of that measure, which has 
been followed by the courts when called upon to construe the law, and the 
decisions of the Commission have been on a line with his argument — an argu- 
ment, too, which was contravened by some who have the reputation of being 
able law>-ers, but who in this instance appear to have misconceived the scope 
and purposes of the bill. 

True to his friendships, Mr. Mitchell has the largest personal following of any 
political leader on the Pacific Coast, and this following is by no means confined 
to Republicans, but his admirers are to be found on the other side of the party 
wall, and are no less enthusiastic in their praises of him than those of his followers 
who are of the same political faith with him. The future has much in store for 
him ; for it is hardly to be supposed that ability, energy and sincerity are to be 
overlooked. The country must ever rely upon its earnest men — men of deep 
convictions, courage, sincerity and honesty of purpose ; and such a man is John 
H. Mitchell. 




Hon. Andrew G. Curtin. 



ANDREW GREGG CURTIN. 

THE infant Republic had concluded its second conflict with the mother 
country and the European wars provoked by Napoleon had been settled. 
The rush of immigration from the Old World to the New began immediately 
afterward, and was a prominent figure in that epoch which marked a marvellous 
change in our government. Up to 1815 a conservative mental force had held 
sway, but at that time progressive materialism succeeded it, and the era which 
followed hard upon this decisive change marked the beginning of a new life and 
new prospects for the nation. 

This change, like all radical political disturbances, provoked bitter animosities, 
and party spirit ran high. In the conflicts which grew out of the ascendancy of 
material force, new resources were developed, new theories of government 
advanced, fresh ideas of constitutional construction born, and new roads cut into 
the wilderness of science, as applied to the practical demands of the new nation. 
In 1 8 16-17 Calhoun gave his powerful mind to the problem of the future, and made 
his great fight for internal improvements by the Federal Government. The veto 
power destroyed his work, which, had it been successful, and been equitably applied 
to all the States of the Union, would have made the recent sectional war impossible. 

Amid these rnighty changes, and just as the nation had crossed the threshold 
from conservative inaction to progressive action, Andrew Gregg Curtin was born 
at Bellefonte, Centre county. Pa., April 22d, 18 17. In the same year the United 
States Bank was established in Pliiladelphia, and in 1820-21, when the States 
numbered only twenty-four, the agitation of the Missouri question began — an 
agitation which ended in secession and war, which made Andrew Gregg Curtin 
an eminent figure in American history. 

Seventeen years before his birth his father, Roland Curtin, settled in Belle- 
fonte and began the manufacture of iron. He was a pioneer in this great industry, 
which has now grown to such gigantic proportions in this State. He is said to 
have erected one of the first, if not the first, iron furnaces built in Pennsylvania. 
He emigrated from Ireland seven years before settling in Bellefonte, and brought 
with him to this country wealth and a good education, obtained at the French 
capital. His wife was the daughter of Andrew Gregg, a noted politician, who 
served as United States Senator, Member of Congress, and Secretary of State. 
So, in birth and advantages. Governor Curtin was favored above the lot of most 
men. He was a decided favorite with his grandfather, as well as with his father, 
and exceptional care was taken in his education. He began his school life in 
private institutions in Bellefonte, and after a term of school at Harrisburg, ended 
his academic education at Milton. 

At the time of his graduation, William W. Potter, who was afterward in Con- 
gress, was practising law in Bellefonte, and with him young Curtin began the 

(6,) 



(53 ANDREW G. CUKTIN. 

Study of the law. He finislicd with Judge Reed, then one of the great attorneys 
of the State, after graduating from the law department of Dickinson College, at 
Carlisle, Pa. He was admitted to the bar in his native place, and began the 
practice of the law in 1S37. He at once took a leading position in his profession, 
but was noted as an advocate rather than as a close practitioner. His powers as 
a speaker naturally turned him in the direction of politics, and when only twenty- 
three years of age he made a State reputation as an orator in the campaign of 
"Tippecanoe and Tyler too." He was an ardent Whig, and in 1844 made a 
canvass of the State for Henry Clay. The reputation he had made as a speaker 
in 1840, in behalf of General Harrison, gave him leading rank on the stump in 
1844. His successes in this campaign stamped him as a man of not only great 
oratorical power but of keen wit and humor, and of political foresight far beyond 
his years. The old Whigs, referring to that memorable campaign, always asso- 
ciate with it his brilliant efforts in behalf of the idol of their party. From this 
campaign Mr. Curtin's political advancement dated, and his reputation as an 
advocate grew. 

In 1848 he was a Presidential elector, and his efforts in behalf of General 
Taylor were everywhere recognized as contributing to his election. In 1852 he 
was again upon the electoral ticket, and in the forefront of the battle for the 
Whig part}'. In 1854 his leading position as a man and politician was so well 
recognized that his party desired him to become its candidate for Governor. He 
declined the honor, but gave his best efforts to the election of his personal 
friend, Mr. Pollock, who, after his success, appointed him Secretary of State. In 
those days this position was one of greater power and influence than at present, 
for in addition to the regular duties of Secretary of State those of Superintendent 
of Public Schools were added. 

To his work in the latter position Mr. Curtin gave much attention and thought, 
and inaugurated many of the reforms which have given the public schools of 
Pennsylvania a front rank in the educational institutions of the country. 

In the years from 1854 to i860, when the Republican party was springing 
into life as a result of the agitation of the slavery question — an agitation begun 
at the time of Mr. Curtin's birth — he naturally took a leading position in the 
stirring events which attended the birth of the new party, and in i860 was 
made its candidate for Governor. This honor was the more conspicuous be- 
cause of the all-important questions then pending, and because the future of the 
party, virtually born with his nomination, depended almost entirely upon his 
success. 

The election of Lincoln absolutely depended upon the two doubtful States, 
Pennsylvania and Indiana. Both of them held their State elections in the 
October preceding the November election, and it was therefore essential, nation- 
ally, that these two States shf)uld declare for the Republican candidate to insure 
his election. When the convention met at Chicago, it was apparent that Seward 
was the choice of a large majority of the delegates. But it was morally ccrtairi 



ANDREW (;. CUKTIN. 63 

that Pennsylvania could not be carried for the Republicans with Seward as the 
Presidential candidate ; for it had been cliarged, and was believed, that he had 
been elected Governor of New York as a Whig, upon an understanding with 
Bishop Hughes that the school fund of the State was to be divided with the 
Catholic educational institutions. Hence the native Americans in the Republican 
party, who came to it after the death of the Know-Nothing party, were bitterly 
opposed to him. It will thus be seen that at the outset of Mr. Curtin's career as 
the Republican nominee for Governor, his own position, as well as the position 
of his State, attracted the attention of the whole country. 

The Pennsylvania delegation in the Presidential Convention of i860 was a great 
one. It was instructed for General Simon Cameron, with John McLane, of Ohio, 
as its second choice. Thaddeus Stevens and David Wilmot were the leading 
men in the delegation, Stevens favoring the nomination of McLane after Cameron, 
and Wilmot favoring Lincoln, after his name was prominently mentioned. The 
necessity of cany ing Pennsylvania in October to the success of the Republican 
ticket in November being so apparent, Mr. Curtin went to the Chicago Conven- 
tion. Colonel A. K. McClure, who was, in that year, Chairman of the Republican 
State Committee, went with him. They were not there, as has been generally 
understood, in opposition to General Cameron's nomination, for they regarded 
that as impossible. They went there to secure the nomination of some candidate 
with whom Pennsylvania could be carried in October. It would be hard to pict- 
ure the important part which Mr. Curtin and his position played in the nomina- 
tion of Mr. Lincoln. He and Henry S. Lane absolutely decided the contest in 
Lincoln's favor. 

While the convention was largely in favor of Mr. Seward, the importance of 
carrying Pennsylvania and Indiana was so great that most of the Seward dele- 
gates outside of New York were willing to forego their preference and nominate 
a candidate acceptable to Mr. Curtin and Henry S. Lane, the candidates for 
Governor in the two October States. 

The first duty of many delegations from the different States after their arrival 
in Chicago was to appoint committees to wait upon Mr. Curtin and Henry S. 
Lane, and ascertain their preferences as to a candidate, and their judgment as to 
the strongest name in their States. There were a number of names which were 
to go before the convention, Mr. Seward having a majority of all the delegates ; 
but Mr. Curtin and Mr. Lane were so certain that their States could not be car- 
ried with Mr. Seward as the candidate, that a large number of the Seward dele- 
gates decided to seek for some other candidate. The day before the convention 
met the Vermont, Massachusetts, and other Seward delegations asked the Penn- 
sylvania delegation to name three candidates who would carry the State. They 
held a meeting and named General Cameron as their first choice ; John McLane, 
Mr. Stevens' candidate, as their second, and Abraham Lincoln as their third. 

The circumstances under which Mr. Lincoln was named were both peculiar and 
interesting. While General Cameron's aspirations had led him to seek the Presi- 



64 ANDREW G. CURTIN. 

dcntial nomination, Mr. Lincoln had been decided upon by General Cameron and 
his friends for Vice-President if Cameron should secure the nomination. Flourish- 
ing Cameron and Lincoln clubs had been organized in Illinois long before the con- 
vention met. Next to Mr. Seward, Mr. Bates, of Missouri, was the strongest 
candidate among the delegates to the convention, and there was a strong feeling 
in favor of Bates in the Pennsylvania delegation. So when their third selection 
of a name was to be made, the Cameron men in the delegation under the lead of 
Mr. Wilmot, who was really in favor of Mr. Lincoln, chose Lincoln by a majority 
of t^vo votes, they believing him to be the weaker candidate, and that Cameron 
could thus secure the nomination, and Lincoln be made candidate for Vice-Presi- 
dent. Pennsylvania's action was ratified by Mr. Lane and his friends, and the next 
day. when the convention met, and both Cameron's and Mr. McLane's nomination 
became impossible, Pennsylvania named Mr. Lincoln, who had been made its 
third choice by Mr. Cameron's friends and an accident, and he was nominated. 
Had it not been for the Cameron men in the delegation, who believed that the 
chances for the success of their candidate would be better with Mr. Lincoln than 
with Mr. Bates, the latter would have been their choice and the nominee of the 
convention. From this recital the commanding position of Pennsylvania, of its 
candidate for Governor, and of its Republican leaders, in the party and toward 
the Presidential candidate of that year, can be understood. 

That campaign, from Mr. Curtin's nomination down to the day of the election, 
was a political romance, the like of which has never been known in this country. 
The Presidential nominating convention over, Mr. Curtin turned to the duties of 
his own canvass with characteristic energy, and the history of the first contest 
of the Republican party in Pennsylvania would make an interesting volume. The 
details of the work were in the hands of Colonel A. K. McClure, as Chairman 
of the State Committee, and the management of the campaign was simply 
matchless. It was carried on with a spirit and energy hitherto unknown in the 
political history of the State. Mr. Curtin made a personal canvass, which was 
then, as it is now, regarded as the most brilliant ever conducted in Pennsylvania. 
He was elected in October, by a large majority, as was Henry S. Lane in Indiana ; 
and the Presidential election of i860 was thus virtually decided in favor of the 
Republican party. 

The wisdom of the selection of Governor Curtin by the Republicans was jus- 
tified from the day he assumed the position to which he had been elected in the 
intelligence with which he dealt with the grave questions forcing themselves upon 
him as the Executive of a great State, with the nation upon the threshold of a 
.sectional war. He was wise, discreet, conservative and able in the discharge of 
his important and delicate duties, during the trying days when all were endeavor- 
ing to peaceably prevent rebellion. He was patriotic, firm, aggressive, and even 
stubbornly courageous when all efforts failed and the war came. It followed 
clcse upon his inauguration as the Chief Executive of the State, and when the first 
gun was fired, he .sprang to the duty of raising troops for the general Government, 



ANDKICW C. CURTIN. 65 

with an energy and spirit unequalled by any other State Executive. He encour- 
aged enlistments in every possible way, and in an eloquent war speech just after 
the fall of Sumter he kindled camp-fires upon almost every hearth in Pennsylva- 
nia, and called more into service than was asked for by the General Government. 
In this speech he promised that Pennsylvania should permit none of its soldiers 
to be buried in other soil ; that wives and children should be the wards of the 
State ; that widows of soldiers should be protected and their orphans cared for 
and educated at the expense of the Commonwealth. 

" How has this promise of yours been kept?" was asked of him, more than 
twenty years after it was made, and seventeen years after the war was ended. 

" Religiously," he answered. " Commissioners were placed in every corps of 
the army, and every Pennsylvania soldier found, wherever he went, the repre- 
sentative of his State, specially charged with the task of looking after his neces- 
sities. If he was sick in the hospital, if he was wounded in battle, if he was on 
the march or in camp, he found that his State had a watchful eye over his com- 
fort. Pennsylvania was the first State to do this, and no Pennsylvania soldier 
ever fell in battle whose body was not sent home for burial, if his body had been 
identified and application made therefor. 

" The State did care for the wives and children, has protected the widows and 
educated the orphans. Sixteen thousand soldiers' orphans have been educated 
in the different soldiers' orphan asylums throughout the State, provided by the 
gratitude of Pennsylvania for the valor and patriotism of her soldiers. A mar- 
vellous fact is that out of nearly sixteen thousand who have been educated in these 
schools, only two have ever been accused of crime. In the history of the world 
there has never been a nation that has provided for its soldiery with anything like 
the watchful generosity with which Pennsylvania has kept the promise I made as 
its Executive at the beginning of the war." 

The career of Governor Curtin, as Executive of Pennsylvania, is naturally the 
most important in all his eventful life. It cannot be written in a single article, 
hardly in a volume. With the organization and supervision of the vast body of 
troops which Pennsylvania gave to the army of the Union, his name and deeds 
were intimately associated. While he took an interest in all the Pennsylvania 
troops, the reserves — that corps which gave Reynolds, Meade and Sedgwick to 
the army — seem to hold the strongest place in his heart. Besides looking after 
the comfort of the soldiers, he advised and formulated the legislation which will 
make Pennsylvania pre-eminent in history for the evidences of respect and grati- 
tude shown her soldiers in the war for the Union. Before his first gubernatorial 
term was concluded, the condition of his health became so precarious that his 
friends decided he must not be a candidate for re-election. So broken was he 
from the effects of his labors, that it was decided long before the convention 
was held that he could not stand the excitement of renomination, much less the 
labors of a canvass. It was therefore settled among his friends that he should 
go abroad instead of again accepting the Republican nomination for Governor. 
9 



66 ANDREW G. CURTIN. 

So Mr. Lincoln was approaclied upon the subject of a foreign mission, and the 
storj' of the interview with the mart\'r President must necessarily form an inter- 
esting part of this sketch on account of the persons who were present. Imagine 
General Simon Cameron, Colonel John W. Forney and Colonel A. K. McClure, 
in conference at the rooms of the former in Washington, all in accord as to the 
desirability of securing a foreign mission for Governor Curtin. Of course, all 
were actuated by different motives : Colonel McClure, because he was interested 
in the safety of the Governor's life, the other two because Curtin's presence at the 
head of the State government was not in accordance with their ideas of the eter- 
nal fitness of things. This trio, inharmonious on every subject save the pro- 
priet}- of giving a foreign mission to Governor Curtin, took a carriage and drove 
to the White House. The President, so one of the party said, seemed somewhat 
amused at seeing the three men together, but readily appreciated the situation 
when tlie object of the visit was stated. 

" There is nothing within my gift to which Governor Curtin is not entitled; 
but, gentlemen, there are no first-class missions vacant. Whose mission shall 
I give him ? " said Mr. Lincoln, relating the story of the young man who, when 
his father advised him to take a wife, inquired, " Whose wife shall I take ? " 

One of the party suggested that a second-class mission might do. Colonel 
McClure said that unless a first-class mission could be tendered the conference 
might as well end. The result of the interview was that Mr. Lincoln wrote to 
Governor Curtin offering him a first-class mission, and Colonel McClure carried 
and delivered the letter. 

Before any decision was reached, a large majority of the counties in the State 
had instructed for Governor Curtin, notwithstanding it was understood that he 
was not to be a candidate. When the convention met he was unanimously re- 
nominated, and was elected by an overwhelming majority. He therefore com- 
pleted a term of service as Governor of Pennsylvania during which transpired the 
mightiest events in the history of our Government. It was the aspiration of his 
friends that he should be made United States Senator at the end of his second 
Gubernatorial term, but the influences which had ever been hostile to him pre- 
vented. In 1868 he was a prominent candidate for nomination for Vice-President 
with General Grant, but defeated. Soon after the latter's election. Governor Cur- 
tin was nominated and confirmed as Minister to Russia, and spent nearly four 
years at St. Petersburg. 

He returned home in 1872, and took part in the Liberal Republican move- 
ment which nominated Horace Greeley. He was very prominently spoken of 
for the second place on that ticket, and was the choice of the Pennsylvania dele- 
gation in the Greeley Convention for President. His connection with the Liberal 
Republican movement, and the fact that his power and influence in the Republi- 
can party, which was eminent while he remained in the country, but which had 
been broken during his absence, carried him into the Democratic party, where he 
by no means seems at home. 



ANDREW G. CUKTIN. ^ij 

He was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1872-73, and for a few 
years after had little to do with politics. The political influence which controlled 
the Republican party of the State seemed, so his friends say, to have put up a 
bar against his return to his okl part)'. So, when he wearied of the quiet of 
business hfe, and longed for politics, he found a place in the Democratic party, 
and in 1878 was nominated for Congress, fie was defeated by a Greenbacker 
during the financial craze and by the action of some of his new-found asso- 
ciates, who opposed him on account of his war record and the hard blows he 
had dealt them in the campaigns of the old Whig and Republican parties. 

He was nominated repeatedly by the Democrats of his Congressional district, 
and served with credit and honor until 1886, when he declined a renomination, 
preferring to spend the remainder of his days away from the annoyances of 
public life. 

Governor Curtin li\es in the most conspicuous house on the principal street 
of his native town. He is surrounded by all the comforts that good taste 
can suggest and money buy. His stone house looks almost like a castle, and it 
is large enough to accommodate his troop of friends who come and go as they 
will. His hospitality is lavish, and even the poor, homeless tramp upon the high- 
road gave a striking illustration of it by marking upon his gate-post for the infor- 
mation of all tramps who might come after: "This house is good for a square 
meal." Four daughters and one son are still living, as is his wife, formerly Miss 
Catherine Wilson, daughter of Wm. J. Wilson, of Centre county. While the ex- 
Governor has accumulated enough of this world's goods to make himself and his 
family comfortable, he is by no means very wealthy. Those who ought to know best 
estimate his accumulations at less than a quarter of a million dollars. When his 
father died he left the iron business he had created and the property he had 
secured to his seven children. Governor Curtin and his brothers kept it intact, and 
applied to its management their best business skill. For a time it was a hard, 
unremunerative struggle; but when the iron business thrived the property grew 
in value, and its gains have left the family comfortable. 

It is impossible to give here more than a glance at such an eventful life as that 
of the subject of this sketch. One is obliged to omit much that is interesting in 
recording the striking acts of his life which attracted public attention to him. 
Governor Curtin is, in his social life, the same genial companion and attractive 
conversationalist, and his spirits do not seem to droop with his increasing years. 
He is full of stories of the past, and he still loves to speak of the prominent feat- 
ures of his political career ; but none of them kindle such fire in his eyes, or give 
such strength to his voice and eloquence to his tongue, as a revival of the memo- 
ries of the war, and a reference to his career as Pennsylvania's War Governor. 



ds> 






^] 



«i.* 




Hon. James H. Campbell. 



JAMES HEPBURN CAMPBELL. 

HON. J.AMES IL Campbell, lawyer, diplomatist and ex-member of Congress, 
was born at Williamsport, Pa., February 8, 1820. He is a son of the 
late Francis C. Campbell, who was for many years a leading member of the bar 
in that city, and was distinguished for his culture and literary tastes and integrity 
of character. John Campbell, father of Francis and grandfather of James Hep- 
burn Campbell, studied theology, and desiring to attach himself to the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, went to England for ordination, there not being at that time 
any Bishop of this church in America. He was ordained by the Bishop of Lon- 
don, and was for some years rector of All-Saints' Church, Hertford county, Mid- 
dlesex, England. He here married Miss Catharine Cutler, daughter of the 
Mayor of the town in which his charge was situated. On the urgent request 
of his father, who was living in this countrj', he returned to Pennsylvania, where, 
as his tombstone in the cemetery at Carlisle informs us, he was for " more than 
thirty years rector of St. John's Protestant Episcopal Church at Carlisle." The 
mother of Mr. Campbell was a daughter of the late Judge James Hepburn, of 
Northumberland, Pa. 

Selecting his father's profession, James H. Campbell was admitted to the prac- 
tice of the law in 1841, having graduated at the Law Department of Dickinson 
College, Carlisle, under the instruction of the late Judge Reed. He selected 
Pottsville, Pa., as his arena, and soon became distinguished for his legal learning, 
impassioned eloquence and personal magnetism, which secured for him a large 
and lucrative clientele, as well as a widespread reputation ; so that for more than 
twenty-three years he ranked among the most eminent men at the bar. 

In 1844 he was chosen to represent his Congressional District in the Whig 
National Convention at Baltimore, at which Henry Clay was nominated for the 
Presidency. Li the campaign which followed, the young delegate was one of 
Clay's most fervid and enthusiastic supporters. Li the previous campaign of 
1840 Mr. Campbell had also been a representati\-e to the Young Men's Ratifica- 
tion Convention, held at Baltimore, after the nomination of Wm. Henry Harrison. 
Upon both these occasions his youth and rare ability elicited the most favorable 
comment and prediction from leaders of his party. In October, 1854, although 
residing in a district largely Democratic, composed as it was of the counties of 
Schuylkill and NorJiumberland, he was elected, as a Whig, a member of the 
Thirty-fourth Congress. This was a period of bitter struggle over the Territories 
of the United States, between the advocates of slavery on the one hand and those 
of freedom on the other. It was of the first importance to the Whigs (or, as now 
known, the Republican party) to secure a Speaker who would guard the admis- 
sion of new States to the Union, by appointing territorial committees opposed to 
the extension of slavery. This it was which gave deep significance to the pro- 

(69) 



JO JAMES H. CAMPBELL. 

longed struggle in favor of N. P. Banks, which only terminated in February by 
the election of that gentleman as Speaker of the Thirty-fourth Congress. Mr. 
Campbell at once appreciated the importance of this contest, and threw the whole 
weight of his influence, both in Congress and with the Pennsylvania delegation, 
for N. P. Banks. The value of his support was recognieed by the new Speaker, 
who consulted him as to the position on committees which would be most con- 
genial to his tastes. " Place me," answered Mr. Campbell, " where I can best 
ser\-e the industrial interests of my State." This was done by naming him on the 
Committee of Ways and Means, where, although a new member, and one of the 
youngest men in the House, he led the opposition of all measures tending to a 
reduction of the Tariff. The Chairman of the Ways and Means having reported to 
the House a bill for that purpose, the battle waged against it by Mr. Campbell and 
his colleague, Mr. Covode, attracted the attention of Hon. James G. Blaine, who 
makes special mention of it in his published reminiscences of men of his time. 

In 1858 Mr. Campbell was re-elected to Congress, and took an active part in 
opposition to all those measures of President Buchanan's administration which 
had in view the extension of slaver}^ to the Territories. In i860 his speech 
against the resolutions known as the " Crittenden Compromise " made a profound 
impression, and attracted general attention. 

In that period of deep national anxiety, when dissensions between the States 
were rapidly advancing to a tragic culmination, the minds of all thinking men 
were strained to the utmost in endeavor to devise plans which might avert the 
impending catastrophe. One of these plans was embodied in a resolution of the 
House of Representatives, calling for the appointment of a committee, to be 
composed of one member from each State, to consider the political condition of 
the Union, and to report to the House a measure, or measures, to reconcile exist- 
ing difficulties. It was a grave and solemn final effort, as it were, undertaken in 
the very teeth of the crisis, and the members of this committee (known to his- 
tory as the " Committee of Thirty-three," Hon. Thos. Corwin, of Ohio, Chairman) 
were carefully selected, each one being an influential and representative man of 
his State, and many of them of national distinction. There could be no more 
eloquent expression of the estimation in which Mr. Campbell was held in these 
national councils than the fact of his being appointed on this committee to repre- 
sent Pennsylvania. His constituency demonstrated tlieir appreciation by return- 
ing him to Congress in i860 for a third term by a largely increased majority. 
In the stormy times which followed he voted for and advocated every measure 
calculated to strengthen the Government and suppress the Rebellion. 

On President Lincoln's proclamation calling for 75,000 troops for three months' 
service, which was the official announcement of war, Mr. Campbell went at once, 
on April 17, 1 861, to the National Capital to aid in its defence. He passed 
safely through the ruffian mob of Baltimore, which was streaming out from that 
city to destroy the railroads, and thus cut off the expected troops from the North. 
The train carrying Mr. Campbell was the la.st to pass in safety. It was closely 



JAMES 11. CAMPBELL. 7 1 

followed by the one conveying a Massachusetts regiment, which had to fight its 
way through the infuriated city. All communication between the capital and 
the North by rail or wire was now cut off The rebels were encamped on the 
other side of the Potomac, and, with the exception of a small force of the regular 
ami}', a few marines, five> companies of volunteers from Pennsylvania and the 
Massachusetts regiment already spoken of, the capital was unprotected, and 
might easily have fallen into the hands of its enemies had they had the courage 
to strike promptly. In this stress, when every man was of importance, the 
visitors and strangers present in the beleaguered city formed themselves into a 
battalion, elected Cassius M. Clay to the command, and offered its services to the 
Government. Mr. Campbell was a member of this impromptu organization, 
which was regularly mustered into the service, and nightly took his share in the 
strict patrol necessary for the protection of Washington, being now on watch at 
the White House, and again at the Navy Yard, seeing the camp fires of the 
enemy just across the river, until a route was improvised by the Government by 
which the forces of the North came pouring in. Clay's temporary battalion, 
being no longer needed, was disbanded, and Mr. Campbell was elected Major of 
the Twenty-fifth Regiment of Pennsylvania Infantry (Col. Henry L. Cake), which 
was now in Washington. He was engaged in active duty with that regiment 
until the expiration of the three months' service, when it was honorably mustered 
out. Resuming his seat in the House, where he was appointed Chairman of the 
Select Committee on the Pacific Railroad, he reported a bill in favor of the mid- 
dle route, the southern one being impracticable on account of the attitude of the 
Southern States. Indeed the whole scheme was at that time held to be imprac- 
ticable, in view of the Government having a great war on its hands ; but Mr. 
Campbell, by his tact, ability and personal magnetism, was able to carry to a 
successful conclusion his bill complete in all its details, under which the road was 
subsequently built. 

In 1863, during the invasion of Pennsylvania by General Lee, Mr. Campbell, 
with the late lamented General James Nagle, raised a regiment of i,lOO men, and 
proceeded to the seat of conflict. General Nagle, then Colonel of the Thirty- 
ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers, was appointed Brigadier-General, leaving Mr. 
Campbell its Lieutenant-Colonel in command. After it was mustered out of 
service, August 2, 1863, President Lincoln offered Mr. Campbell the appointment 
of Judge (under the treaty with Great Britain) of the Court for the Suppression 
of the African Slave Trade, to reside at Capetown, Africa. This he declined. 
In 1864 President Lincoln appointed him United States Minister to Sweden and 
Norway, which he accepted, took up his residence in Stockholm, and remained 
there three years. Mr. Lincoln's appreciation of the subject of this sketch was 
characteristically expressed when the Governor of Pennsylvania, Andrew G. 
Curtin, advanced to him the reasons why Mr. Campbell was worthy of a diplo- 
matic appointment. As soon as the President perceived the drift of Mr. Curtin's 
remarks, he interrupted him with a cordial " Campbell needs no setting up here." 



--> JAMES H. CAMPBELL. 

Afterward, when takiiii; leave of the departing minister, Mr. Lincohi remarked 
to him : ■■ Oh ! Campbell, if you should go up the coast of Norway and see the 
Maelstrom, an J arc not drawn in, I wish you would write me a description of it." 
The summer of iS66 was spent by him in travel within the Arctic Circle; he 
visited the most northern town in the world (Hammerfest), lived under the mid- 
night sun, and saw the Maelstrom ; but the lamented President had been assassi- 
nated. 

In March, 1867, President Johnson tendered to Mr. Campbell the diplomatic 
mission to the United States of Colombia, South America. No such appoint- 
ment had been sought by Mr. Campbell, and he returned the commission which 
had been sent him, giving as a reason that " his views of public and political 
questions were not in harmony with those of the Executive." He returned to 
America in the autumn of 1867, and resided for some time in Philadelphia, 
engaged in the practice of his profession, but finally quitted it in large part for 
the country and agricultural pursuits, of which he had always been extremely 
fond. 

He was married in 1843 ^ Juliet, eldest daughter of the late Chief-Justice 
Ellis Lewis, of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, a lady of rare character, cul- 
ture and literary attainments, sketches of whom are to be found in both May's 
and Griswold's " Female Poets of America." By her he had five children, two 
of whom are now living. His daughter, Mrs. J. Campbell Ver Planck, has 
achieved distinction in dramatic and other lines of literature. 

Mr. Campbell has alwaj's been an advocate of Protection to American Industry, 
following in his views the teachings of Henry Clay. His political history is best 
summed up by saying that he ardently and actively supported the nominations 
to the Presidency of Mr. Lincoln, General Grant, General Garfield and Mr. 
Blaine. Always a brilliant and impassioned orator, he rendered many minor 
services to his party in various campaigns, when his glowing and ready extem- 
poraneous speeches carried the additional weight of an absolutely unblemished 
record, which even his political opponents had never attempted to assail. 

E. T. F. 




I 



Hon. William H. Koontz. 



WILLIAM HENRY KOONTZ. 

HON. William II. Koontz, ex-Representative in Congress of the Sixteentli 
District of Pennsylvania, was born July 15, 1830, in the beautiful town 
of Somerset, the capital of the county of that name. It is one of the oldest 
towns in the southwestern part of the State, and has been the home of many 
distinguished lawyers and statesmen, and counts among its most honored citi- 
zens the gentleman whose name heads this sketch. His grandfather, Samuel 
Koontz, came from Lancaster county, and was one of the earlier settlers of 
Somerset. His father, Jacob Koontz, was a farmer, and was born and reared in 
the town of Somerset ; so that the family have been closely identified with that 
place since its earliest historj'. It was here that the late Judge Jeremiah S. Black 
commenced the practice of the law, and filled his first public position — that of 
Deputy Attorney-General for the county. 

Mr. Koontz received a common school education, and studied law with Messrs. 
Forward & Stutzman, a leading law firm of Somerset, and was admitted to prac- 
tice in 185 1. In 1853 he was elected District Attorney, which office he filled 
with ability for three years. He was an original Republican, and in 1857 was 
nominated for State Senator, but was defeated owing to local issues. 

In i860 he was a delegate to the National Republican Convention which met at 
Chicago, and Mr. Koontz was one of the first to cast his vote for Abraham Lincoln. 
The same year he was elected Prothonotary of his county, and served for three 
years. He always took an active part in local. State and National politics, 
speaking whenever called upon, and occupying a seat in many prominent politi- 
cal bodies. It was highly proper, therefore, and a credit to the district, composed 
of Somerset, Bedford, Fulton, Franklin and Adams counties, when, in 1864, the 
rising lawyer of Somerset was sent to Congress by his party, and still more 
creditable to the district when, in 1866, he was re-elected. He was a conspicuous 
member during the exciting period of President Johnson's term. He was a 
member of the House Committees on District of Columbia and Expenditures of 
the Interior Department. But it was as an advocate of the Reconstruction 
measures which occupied so much of the attention of the Thirty-ninth and 
Fortieth Congresses that Representative Koontz did his most effective work. 
Vice-President Wilson, in his " History of the Reconstruction Measures," says 
of him : " Mr. Koontz, of Pennsylvania, was for the protection of the people of 
the South who had been true to the Union, without regard to race or color," 
and quotes from Mr. Koontz's speech on the subject as follows: 

" Tile great duty rests upon us to finish the work v.luch was not completed by warfare. The shackles 

of four million slaves were melted by the fierce fires of civil war; but the animus of slavery, its passions 

and prejudices, yet remain. It is our duty so to legislate .is to remove the last relic of a barbarism that 

would have suited the dark ages, and to conform our institutions to the advanced condition to which we 

10 (73) 



74 



WILLIAM H. KOONTZ. 



have hccn lirouglit by the miglity revolution just ended. And when this shall be done, the Great 
Republic, freed from the dark stain of human slavery, will start upon her mission to promulgate, by pre- 
cept and example, the immutable and eternal truth of the equality of man, and before whose resistless 
march kingdoms and powers and all the systems built upon caste and creed for the oppression of man 
will be swept from the face of the earth and known no more forever." 

Mr. Koontz spoke earnestly in favor of a resolution for the relief of the desti- 
tute in the South, believing it to be a measure dictated by the teachings of Chris- 
tianit)-, as well as a " most powerful measure of Reconstruction," and he again 
addressed the House on a supplemental Reconstruction bill. 

Although at first opposed to the impeachment proceedings, he finally favored 
them. In a speech delivered March 2, 1868, he argued that the violation of the 
Tenure of Office Act was ?ufficient ground for summoning Mr. Johnson to the 
bar of the Senate, closing with the remark : " If the highest officer of the Gov- 
ernment has violated the law, and subjected himself to removal from office, a law- 
abiding and intelligent people will acquiesce in the verdict." 

Among the speeches he made was one in which he eulogized Hon. Thaddeus 
Stevens as " ripe in years and wisdom, and honored with the confidence and love 
of his fellow-countrj^men." 

It should be mentioned in recounting Mr. Koontz's career, both in public life 
as well as a legal advocate, that he is one of the ablest speakers in the State. 
He is clear in his utterances, pleasing in his address, and has a conception of the 
soundest and best arguments for his subjects. At Lancaster, June 15, 1880, he 
delivered an address before the literary societies of Franklin and Marshall Col- 
lege on "American Politics," which received the highest praise from the press 
and public. In 1875 he spoke in the Ohio canvass. He made addresses in 1876 
in the political campaign in Pennsylvania, Ohio and Maryland, and took the 
stump in the Garfield campaign in 1880 in Pennsylvania and Maryland. In 1884 
he canvassed a considerable portion of the State of Pennsylvania, and also spoke 
in Mar}'land, and in 18S7 made several speeches in Ohio. Among the many 
political conventions to which he was a delegate and alwa}'s a prominent figure 
was that which nominated General Geary for Governor, and that which named 
Judge Stcrrctt, although Mr. Koontz was an ardent supporter of Judge Agnew, 
who received nearly one hundred votes. In 1880 he was a member of the con- 
vention which selected delegates to Chicago, where General Garfield was nomi- 
nated for President. He went to Harrisburg on this occasion as Senatorial dele- 
gate for Bedford, Fulton and Somerset counties. He was a Blaine man, and 
acted against the dominant ring, and the Committee on Credentials refused to 
seat him on account of his avowed friendship for Mr. Blaine ; but a representative 
delegate of the district resigned in his favor, and Mr. Koontz was seated in spite 
of the anti-Blaine men. At a mass meeting of the Republicans held in Somerset 
on April 27, 1881, which was addressed by Mr. Koontz, the action of those in 
control of the party was vigorously denounced in a resolution, which was 
unanimously adopted by the meeting. 



WILLIAM H. KOONTZ. 75 

As an original Independent Republican, in opposition to the dictation of the 
party managers, his record begins long before that of Mr. Wolfe, of Union county, 
and is clear, consistent and unswerving. He always denounced the selfish and 
designing men who usurped the high prerogative of ruling the Republican party 
and controlling it regardless of the wishes of the people. 

A short extract from his scholarly address on "American Politics," before 
referred to as having been delivered at Lancaster, will serve to show the high 
character of his conception of the duties of citizenship. He denounced machine 
politics as " more dangerous to the country than any other evil that now threatens 
it, communism not excepted," and pointed the remedy in the ballot and in 
attending the primaries. The address concluded with this excellent admonition, 
which we quote : 

" Let me admonish you, then, to guard this sacred trust ; to help educate your fellow-countrymen up 
to the highest standard of American citizenship ; to guard the ballot as you would the apple of your eye. 
And if all the young men who this year go forth from the various institutions of learning throughout the 
land resolve to do all in their power to purify American politics, then, indeed, would we realize, in fact, 
that ideal republic seen by the mental eye of John Milton, when looking down through the vista of time, 
he exclaimed : ' Methinks I see a noble and puissant nation rousing herself like a strong man after sleep, 
and shaking her invincible locks; methinks I see her as an eagle, mewing her mighty youth and kindling 
her undazzled vision at the full midday beam, purging and unsealing her oft-abused sight at the very 
fountain itself of heavenly radiance.' " 

Mr. Koontz was a personal friend of President Garfield, and his tribute to him 
in the Disciple Church, in Somerset, September 26, 188 1, was masterly and 
exhaustive. He has been prominently identified with railroads in the south- 
western portion of the State, and has served for many years as a Director of the 
Pittsburgh and Connellsville, the Somerset and Cambria, and Berlin Railroads. 

Since the close of his Congressional career, in 1S69, he has devoted himself 
almost exclusively to the practice of his profession in Somerset, Bedford and 
adjoining counties. He has been for nearly twent>' years on one side or the 
other of eveiy important case tried in the courts of his county, and was success- 
ful in nearly all of those brought by himself. Being a close student, a clear 
thinker, a logical reasoner, and presenting his points and facts with a clearness 
and force almost irresistible, he has attained the highest standing in the profession 
in the counties in which he practiced. His professional reputation is exceeded 
by that of no one who practices at the same bar with him. His powers as an 
advocate are of the first order, and his discussions of all legal questions are 
admirable specimens of forensic skill. 

In concluding this imperfect sketch of one of the most prominent of the citizens 
of the State, it can truly be said that no man has ever resided in his locality who 
more thoroughly enjoyed the esteem and confidence of his fellow-citizens. In 
his beautiful mansion, where he entertains his friends, he is respected and loved 
as a whole-souled, genial gentleman, whom it is a pleasure to know and honor. 

Sol. Foster. 




w 



Hon, Samuel B. Dick. 



SAMUEL BERNARD DICK. 

IT is not often that a man is so tlioroughly American that he can trace his 
ancestry resident in this country to before the Revolutionary War. The 
Dick family began in Pennsylvania very early in its histoiy. The first of the 
American plant found its way to this land of freedom from the north of Ireland. 
For many generations they are Scotch-Irish on both sides of the family tree. 
Not a single instance can be traced until within very late years where there has 
been an intermingling of this strong physical and mental strain with any other 
national it)-. 

William Dick was one of the earliest and strongest representatives of this 
family in America. He came from near Belfast, and his wife, Anna McGunnegle, 
daughter of a strong Scotch-Irish family, was born at Carlisle in 1768. This 
union produced some very strong men, physically and mentally. John Dick 
was one of five sons, and grew up to a useful and notable life in Western Penn- 
sylvania. As merchant, politician and soldier he left his impress on that whole 
region. From the forks of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers, where the 
busy city of Pittsburgh stands, William Dick — his father — moved to the spot 
where Meadville is now making its way to the dignity of a provincial city. He 
went there in 1794 when John, his second son, was an infant. John Dick was a 
magnificent specimen of manhood — tall, fine-looking and full of the vigor of a 
strong, physical and intellectual life. He was a natural soldier, and, as one of 
the first generals of militia in this State, impressed his individuality and prowess 
upon the young men of that locality as he impressed his business and individual 
life upon every phase of the industrial, educational and material advancement of 
that region. Growing in power and usefulness beyond his immediate surround- 
ings, he for three consecutive terms represented his district in the Congress of 
the United States with becoming dignity and credit to all concerned. Few men 
or families have lived who have been so thoroughly identified with the building 
up of a part of a great commonwealth as have the Dicks in Western Pennsylvania. 

John Dick, besides having been General of Militia, Congressman and the occu- 
pant of various offices of honor and trust, was one of the first Associate Judges 
of Crawford county. Although he was a Whig through all his life, he carried a 
Democratic district whenever he chose to be a candidate for office. Like most 
other Whigs he drifted into the Republican party at the very beginning, and in 
1856 was urged by Thurlow Weed to become the Vice-Presidential candidate on 
the ticket with John C. Fremont. He.was then a notable banker in Meadville, 
and the head of the house of J. & J. R. Dick, which subsequently became J. R. 
Dick & Co. It is still in existence, and has been for nearly forty years one of 
the leading financial institutions of that industrial region. 

Samuel Bernard Dick was the third son of the Hon. John Dick. He was 

(77) 



78 SAMUEL B. DICK. 

born at Meadville, Pa., on the 26th of October, 1836. His early life was passed 
in a good atmosphere. His father was a prominent man in mercantile pursuits 
long before he was able to take much interest in material affairs. When he was 
quite }-oung, he began laying the groundwork of a good English education. 
From the district school he graduated into the Allegheny College at Meadville — 
a rather ambitious institution of learning, even in those days. It still flourishes 
as one of the higher evidences of our educational advantages in the State. Young 
Dick left the college just before taking his final degree, and entered the flourish- 
ing banking house of his father. There he laid the foundation of his business 
career, upon which he has built to great purpose. 

Samuel B. Dick was following the ordinary life of a successful banker in the 
city of Meadville when the sound of cannon at Charleston aroused the country 
to arms. He at once organized the Meadville Volunteers, the first company 
which marched from that town at President Lincoln's first call for three months' 
men. Pennsylvania's quota was filled so rapidly that this company, with many 
others, was left in camp at Pittsburgh, and did not participate in the first phases 
of the civil conflict. It was destined, however, for a higher purpose and a more 
ambitious place in the great army that was to spring up after the misfortunes of 
the first Bull Run. It became a part of the Ninth Regiment, Pennsylvania 
Reserves, an organization which has a place in history second to none that was 
ever formed for purposes of war, and which graduated more great soldiers than 
any other single organization of like strength in the army. Its first brigade 
commanders were George G. Meade, afterwards the head of the Army of the 
Potomac ; John F. Reynolds, Commander of the First Corps, who fell at Get- 
tj'sburg ; and E. O. C. Ord, who afterwards became one of the most distinguished 
corps commanders of our armies. 

The Ninth was one of the strongest regiments in the organization. It saw 
service early and late in the mighty conflict. Wiien the Reserves left the State 
and reached contested soil they at once went into active service. The battle of 
Drainsville, Virginia, was a notable little clinch in our civil conflict, yet it was 
one of those accidents of war upon which often hinges great history. It took 
place on the 20th of December, 1861. That day the Ninth Pennsylvania Regi- 
ment was leading General Ord's advance. An encounter was the result; for it 
was Ord's reputation, even at that early date, that he was always hunting a fight. 
That tradition stuck to him as long as the war lasted. On that eventful day in 
the history' of our national struggle Samuel B. Dick was wounded — so severely 
wounded that it was supposed he could not recover. When the record of the 
day was made up, among the casualties the words " mortally wounded " were 
written opposite his name. After months of sickness, during which he hung 
between life and death, he finally recovered. 

In April, 1862, he rejoined his regiment to again lead the brigade's advance in 
the seven day.s' fight before Richmond. From there his command took its way 
to the .second battle of Bull Run. It reached there just in time for that engage- 



SAMUEL R. niCK. 



79 



ment after a liazardous and severe march, while Fitz-John Porter's fresh troops 
lay within sound of the battle without reaching the scene of the conflict. In 
that fight the Ninth Pennsylvania Reserves lost, in killed and wounded, one 
hundred and eight men and thirteen officers. South Mountain and Antietam 
came next on the record. Pope's disaster at Bull Run had cost him his place. 
McClellan was again summoned to the command of an army whose idol he was. 
The battle of South Mountain was a notable event in the history of Mr. Dick. 
He commanded the regiment in that fight, and in the desperate and bloody work 
of the day made a brilliant record for himself His command swept over and 
planted the first Union flag on South Mountain which announced McClellan's 
victory. It was noted as a brilliant piece of work, and the young officer was 
immediately recommended for promotion to the grade of Brigadier-General by 
every one of his superior officers from the brigadier up to the commander of the 
corps. Gallant and meritorious services at the battle of South Mountain were 
the reasons assigned for this early recognition of gallant conduct. 

The severe work of the time told upon the health of the young man, who had 
thus earl)^ in war made a brilliant record for himself as a soldier. A wasting 
fever took possession of him, and he was sent home in December, 1S62. In 
February, 1863, the physicians pronounced his health so shattered that there 
was no chance for his recovering away from the comforts of home. He resigned 
his commission, and reluctantly relinquishing his command returned to Meadville. 

The early summer of 1863 was filled with important incidents to the country, 
and in them Mr. Dick took a lively interest. When Lee was throwing his 
battalions rapidly towards the soil of Pennsylvania, Governor Curtin telegraphed 
to Captain Dick to go to Pittsburgh and take charge of the minute-men then 
assembling to do duty in the grave emergency. He responded promptly, 
organized several battalions, and then, as Colonel of the Fifty-sixth Penn- 
sylvania, marched into Western Virginia. He was ordered to New Creek to 
relieve General Kelly in command at that place. For some time he com- 
manded along the border and then returned to Meadville. The close of the war 
found Colonel Dick grown to man's full estate and occupying a strong position 
in the community which his father had done so much to build up. Public spirit 
is a crowning characteristic of the Dick family. No enterprise tending to build 
up Meadville, or the region of which it is the capital, but that the elder as well 
as the younger Dick has taken a large hand. 

War had hardly closed before the demands of peace called S. B. Dick to 
assume new responsibilities. Meadville felt the pulse of the oil fever, and, in the 
wonderful improvements which it brought to Western Pennsylvania, the Dicks 
were again leading factors. Business thrived. In those days money was rapidly 
made, and as rapidly lost; but through all the fluctuations of wild speculation 
the banking house of J. R. Dick & Co. enjoyed the highest credit. 

After independence had reached Mr. Dick, he had ambitions to follow his 
father's footsteps to Congress. In 1870, and again in 1876, he was the unani- 



So SAJICEL B. DICK. 

mous choice of his own county, but was beaten by the combination of the 
other counties of the district against him. In 1878, however, he was nominated 
and elected, and would have been re-elected but for the absurd rule which pre- 
vails in that district of rotation among the different counties. His service in 
Congress was too brief to permit him to show much of his quality as a legislator, 
yet during his short term of service he was popular beyond almost any man in 
the delegation, and had a practical influence that was felt by his constituents for 
good ever}- day. His retirement from Congress was regretted by his associates 
and constituents. Ill health for some time after his Congressional career kept 
him from mingling much with the outside world ; but after a year of suffering he 
became vigorous again, and for the last seven or eight years his usefulness to his 
section and his State has been great. He was the head and front of Pennsylva- 
nia's share in the great Yorktown celebration, and to his hard work much of its 
success was due. In e\-ery enterprise which has succeeded in Meadville and 
vicinit}', or is on its way to success, Samuel B. Dick has a large share. It 
would seem that he is either President or Treasurer of nearly every enterprise 
in that whole region. 

One of the most notable events in the career of Mr. Dick was his connection 
with the Senatorial struggle of 1880. That was the year in which the Indepen- 
dent Republican movement made itself felt inside and outside the Republican 
party. In the long and bitter contest which occurred between Galusha A. Grow 
and Harr\' Oliver, Mr. Dick was more generally the choice of all parties as a 
compromise candidate than any other man in the State. At one time the 
arrangements were made for his election, but by one of those accidents which 
thwart the best efforts of men John I. Mitchell was chosen. 

Mr. Dick's career as a citizen, soldier and politician has been a highly hon- 
orable one. He is a man of strong friendships, and naturally of strong enmities. 
He has a degree of tenacity, candor and courage about him that is worthy of 
emulation. He inherited these strong qualities from the faithful and prosperous 
people who have lived before him. He came of a long line of natural soldiers 
on both sides. George Dick, his father's brother, was killed in the Patriot war 
in Texas, and Iiis own brother George died in the army just before the war. At 
the time of his death he was the Adjutant of Gen. Robert E. Lee's regiment. 
Major McGunncgle, of the regular army, was an uncle on his father's side. In 
fact, no war has been fought in this country, beginning with the Revolution, in 
which his ancestors have not taken an honorable part. They were also good 
citizens as well as good soldiers, and when each succeeding conflict which had 
summoned them to arms was over, they returned to the walks of private life to 
aid in the building up of a new country. His uncle, David Dick, built the first 
.steamboat that plied the Allegheny river ; he also invented the first anti-friction 
power press, and in otlicr ways was, with his brother John, a benefactor to the 
region in which he lived. The same may be said of the head of the Dick family 
of to-day. 



SAMUEI, n. DICK. 8 1 

One of the most notable features of Samuel 11 Diclc's life has been his strong 
position in the Masonic fraternity. He began as a Mason as far back as 1857, 
before he was of age. He has filled every grade of official position in that high 
order up to Grand Master of the State. Nearly every place in the Grand Com- 
mandery, as well as the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, has felt the touch of a 
new impulse during his occupancy of the office. His service as Grand Master 
of Masons of Pennsylvania, which began in 18S3, was notable for a spirit and 
energy such as had never before characterized the administration of that office. 
The position is second in influence only to that of Governor of the State ; yet its 
exacting duties were so conscientiously and ably performed that it is a tradition 
to-day among the Masons of Pennsylvania that during Samuel B. Dick's occu- 
pancy of the highest honors within the gift of the order there was more cordiality 
of effort, more interest of action, and more general enthusiasm in the order than 
at any time within the history of the Grand Lodge. 

Mr. Dick is now fifty years of age, but is still full of the energy of a strong 
lineage. He has kept his distinguished father's name green in the memory of 
the people among whom his ancestors made their names honorable for so many 
years. He is just in the prime of life, with a long line of good deeds behind him. 
The future would .seem to have in .store more valuable fruits both for himself and 
his people than have yet been gathered by energy, courage and an upright life. 
" ¥. A. Burr. 




Hon. a. Herr Smith. 



ABRAHAM HERR SMITH. 

HON. A. Herr Smith, for twelve years a representative in Congress from the 
Nintli Congressional District, and now a prominent law)-er of Lancaster 
city, was born in Manor township, Lancaster county, near MillersviUe, Pa., 
March 7, 181 5. 

He was the only son of Jacob and Elizabeth Sinitii, ncc Herr, and had the 
misfortune very early in life to lose both his parents, his father when he was 
under three and his mother when he was twelve years of age. His father died 
February 23, 18 18, and his mother, June 28, 1827. 

His preparatory education was obtained at Prof John Beck's Academy at 
Lititz, and at the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia. He studied engineering and 
surveying with Joshua Scott, Esq., civil engineer, in Lancaster, and assisted to 
survey the Pennsj'lvania Railroad through Lancaster, from the Big to the Little 
Conestoga. He spent two years in Henry P. Carson's store in Lancaster, and 
then went to Haddington College, near Philadelphia, and afterwards to Dickinson 
College, Carlisle, where he graduated in 1840. Among his classmates were 
D. G. Eshleman, a prominent member of the Lancaster Bar, Congressman Charles 
O'Neill, of Philadelphia, Spencer Baird, now deceased, of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tute, and George R. Crooks, D. D., LL. D., of the Drew Theological Seminary. 
His vacations, when not travelling, were spent with his uncle, Abraham Smith, 
of Strasburg, whose kindly interest in his welfare he has never forgotten. 

Immediately after his graduation, he commenced the study of law in the office 
of John R. Montgomery, a distinguished member of the Lancaster Bar. On the 
20th of October, 1842, he was admitted to practice in the various courts of Lan- 
caster county. He brought to the practice of his profession a mind well stored 
with general knowledge, as well as legal lore, strong common sense, a well- 
balanced judgment, a ready pen and a rhetoric precise, clean and forcible. With 
these accomplishments, added to attractive manners and address, he soon rose to 
the highest rank in his profession. 

From early life he gave much attention to politics. The Whig party was 
organized while he was a boy, and its principles and men had for him a magnetic 
attraction, and he espoused its cause in his youth with his pen, and in his riper 
years both as a writer and an orator. While he was yet too young even to be a 
member of his party, he was far in advance of it ; for he was an Abolitionist 
before the abolition of slavery became a political tenet. During his collegiate 
course at Haddington he wrote an address for an exhibition exercise, so strongly 
anti-slavery in its views that the faculty refused to permit its delivery. On the 
breaking up of the Whig party in 1S56, he therefore very naturally became an 
ardent supporter of the Republican party. 

Mr. Smith from early life was a close student and a great reader, and even in 

(83) 



S4 A. HERK SMITH. 

his youth became distinguished both as an essaj-ist and as a ready, fluent and 
forcible speaker. Many of his school essays found their way into the newspa- 
pers of that day, and attracted much attention on account of their originality of 
thought and strength and elegance of diction. Being regarded as a young man 
of probity and abilit}-, he was induced to enter the political arena, and in 1843 
he was elected a member of the Legislature of Pennsylvania, and re-elected the 
following year. In 1845 he was elected to the State Senate for one term, three 
j-ears, during the latter part of which he was the candidate of his party in caucus 
for Speaker of the Senate, and failed only because he refused to vote for himself 

His career in the Legislature was one of marked ability and usefulness, very 
gratifying to his constituents, and valuable to them and the State at large. He 
was the author of the law imposing a tax for the payment of the interest on the 
State debt, a measure by no means popular at the time and bitterly opposed, but 
necessary to save the State from repudiation. Prior to that time the interest on 
the State debt had been paid in scrip, and the State bonds were sold at about 
one-third of their par value. Immediately after the passage of the bill the interest 
was premptly paid in money, and the bonds rose to par. 

He advocated the sale of the Public Works, which were a great expense to the 
State. He abolished the Mayor's Court of the City of Lancaster. This court 
had been a useless and expensive piece of judicial machinery, but having existed 
for many years had a fixed abode in the customs of the people. He also refused 
to sanction the renewal of the District Court of Lancaster County, when it 
expired by limitation. He was an earnest advocate of the Married Woman's 
Act which became a law in 1848. He also advocated and voted for the passage 
of the law which made the Common School System obligatory upon the districts 
of the State, thus doing away with the triennial election, which permitted the 
voters of every district to accept or reject the system. This necessary change 
perfected the school system in Pennsylvania. He was ever strongly devoted to 
rigid economy and governmental reforms, and watchful of the details of legisla- 
tion. Returning to the practice of his profession he uninterruptedly followed it 
until the fall of 1872, when he was elected on the Republican ticket to the Forty- 
third Congress, and by re-election served in the Forty-fourth, Forty-fifth, Forty- 
sixtji. Forty-seventh and Forty-eighth Congresses ; a high compliment, and never 
before paid to a Congressional Representative from Lancaster county. In this 
district the unwritten rule has limited the period of the Representative in Con- 
gress to two terms. To this rule there have been the following exceptions : 
John W. Kittera, 1791 to 1801, five terms, ten years; James Buchanan, 1821 to 
1831, five terms, ten years; Thaddeus Stevens, 1859 to 1868, four and a half 
terms, nine years; and Mr. Smith from 1873 to 1885, six terms, twelve years. 

Mr. Smith did efficient service on the Committee on War Claims for si.v years, 
and .served on tlie Committee on Appropriations, Agriculture, Pensions and 
other important committees. As a member of the Committee on War Claims, a 
committee first raised in 1873 on the suggestion of President Grant, he rendered 



A. IlERR SMITH. 85 

valuable services in the rejection of fraudulent claims, running up to many mil- 
lions of dollars. The reports made by him are referred to constantly by the 
present committee, and greatly aid to settle definitely the law and the facts 
whenever the claims are renewed. Against the seductive free pass system, he, 
by word and example, entered his stern protest, promptly returning to the liberal 
donors their paste-board annuals. When asked the reason for his conduct by a 
director, he answered: "You do not give the pass to the mendicant; why 
give it to the salaried Judge and Legislator? They pay their toll on the turn- 
pike, their discount in bank, and ought also pay their fare on railroads." This 
colloquy occurred in 1873 at Mr. Smith's first Congressional session, and put a 
stop to free tickets on the street railroads in Washington. Mr. Smith took a 
bold stand against the constructive mileage allowed members of Congress, show- 
ing its abuses, and which, through his exposure, were to some extent coirected. 
He favored the payment of pensions directly by the Treasurer of the United 
States instead of Pension Agents, thereby saving money to the pensioner and 
protecting the Government against loss. He ably opposed, on legal grounds, the 
creation of the Electoral Commission, holding that the Vice-President, under the 
Constitution, was the custodian of the returns, who must present the same to the 
two Houses when they meet in convention, and have them opened in their 
presence and counted, neither House having any right to control the result, 
their presence only being necessary as witnesses of the result. 

Mr. Smith favored the resumption of specie payments by the Government, and 
the coining of silver for fractional currency only, and opposed the coinage of the 
needless silver dollars. He advocated and voted for the bill to restrict Chinese 
emigration. He also supported and voted for the civil service bill ; and in the 
distribution of Congressional patronage favored promotion, and, other things 
being equal, gave the soldier a preference. 

He has always been an earnest advocate of a protective tariff, as best adapted 
to raise revenue, to protect labor and make the nation independent in peace and 
war. In a brief speech, in the House of Representatives, on P\'bruary 20, 1875, 
he indicated the true theory of protection. 

" In 1791," said Mr. Smith, " the encouragement of manufactiu'es was found to be the true interest of 
all parts of the Union. In 1875 it is still the true American policy. Our fathers adhered to it and the 
country prospered. Let not their descendants in an evil hour be misled by free trade visionaries. Some 
of our Western friends, I fear, have been indoctrinated with this financial heresy. In a burst of wild 
indignation they denounce every manufacturer as a common robber. Incidental protection, in their 
judgment, is legalized swindling. In their blind zeal they wholly ignore what is painfully obvious to 
all others, that in breaking down the American manufacturer they play into the hands of English mo- 
nopolists. New England and Pennsylvania have fully realized that there is no conflict between the 
farming and manufacturing interest. Let the West profit by their example, and utilize the great advan- 
tages of soil, water, iron and coal found either separately or combined in almost every locality. What it 
needs most is a home market. 

"Let a familiar illustration point the moral. Said a farmer recently to me, as he sat down in my 
office, ' I do not visit your city as often as formerly,' < Why not?' I replied. 'I take,' said he, 'my 
products to the factoiy store in the village, and get in return for the same either cash or its equivalent.' 



86 A. HERR SMITH. 

I commend this homely practical argument to my free-trade theorist, who must needs travel to Canada or 
cross the ocean to buy his fabrics. In a word, the w hole occult science is in a nutshell ; let the producer 
and consumer join hands. Such proximity must secure community of interest. 

" Without protective duties the American cannot compete with the European manufacturer. Here the 
laborer is not a mere hewer of wood and drawer of water. Here he is pre-eminently a man with all that 
appertains to elevated manhood. His children must be clothed and fed and educated and duly prepared 
to discharge the full duties of intelligent citizens. Pauper wages have been justly again and again repu- 
diated by the American people. Ta.\ the luxuries, not the necessaries of life." 

His speeches made in Congress were able and exhaustive, indicating great 
research and thorough knowledge of the subject discussed. These, with his let- 
ters and articles on the political issues of the day, were highly commended by 
the press and reading public. 

Mr. Smith, as a Legislator, either in State or National affairs, was conscien- 
tiously honest and never suffered a political caucus to dictate his legislative 
action. After full and careful investigation he followed his convictions, whether 
in harmony with his party or not. The Fitz-John Porter case is in point. It 
had, substantially, assumed a party aspect — the Democrats being for, the Repub- 
licans against the bill. Mr. Smith, having with great care read the evidence on 
both sides, reached the conclusion that the general had been wronged, and, 
therefore, with nineteen other Republicans voted for the bill, although assured 
in advance that the vote would be used against him in an approaching Congres- 
sional contest. 

Mr. Smith, during his seventeen years of public service at Harrisburg and 
Washington, never dodged a vote ; and the writer of this sketch has heard him 
say that upon a careful review of his votes, for and against legislative measures, 
he would not, if he could, in a single instance reverse his judgment. 

On Mr. Smith's retirement from Congress, the editor of the Lancaster Inquirer, 
who had been his rival and political opponent, with commendable frankness, in 
his paper of March 14, 1885, said: 

" In retiring from a long public career Mr. Smith is entitled to kindness and courtesy from all his 
fellow-citizens. He has made some mistakes, notably his vote in favor of the Fitz-John Porter and the 
anti-Chinese bills, but much of his public career is entitled to high praise. He leaves official life clean- 
handed and without a taint of corruption, and this is a good deal to be said of one who has been in 
official position so long. His faithfulness in this respect will be remembered long after the mistakes he 
has made are forgotten," 

Soon after his graduation Mr. Smith was elected a Trustee of Dickinson Col- 
lege, Carlisle, and later of Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster. 

He is a Director and Solicitor of the First National Bank of Lancaster, and 
has occupied that two-fold position ever since the organization of the bank, in 
1864. 

He was one of the original stockholders in the first cotton mill in Lancaster, 
and, although attended with loss, the experiment was never regretted by him, as 
it became the nucleus of the present mills, which yield their more fortunate 



A. HERR SMITH. 87 

investors a handsome income, and give their numerous employes — men, women 
and children — constant work and liberal pay. In a word, all the industrial enter- 
prises in the city, as well as its literary and charitable institutions, have ever 
found in Mr. Smith a warm and substantial friend. 

Mr. Smith's ancestors on both sides came from Germany, and settled in Lan- 
caster county about the year 1723 — those on the paternal in Pequea, and those on 
the maternal side in Manor township. Soon after their arrival they purchased 
large tracts of land, and in addition to cultivating the same the father and paternal 
grandfather of Mr. Smith followed the millwright and milling business, and he 
has in his possession the scientific drafts and plans, made by his father, of mills 
erected by him. 

The land on the mother's side came through John Penn, and remained for 
three generations in the Herr family. His maternal grandmother, Barbara Herr, 
nee Eshleman, died September 16, 1839, in her eighty-second year, in the old 
family mansion, where Mr. Smith was born, and his maternal grandfather, 
Abraham Herr, died November 26, 1823, at the age of seventj'-two. 

The old stone building, erected in 1764 by Mr. Smith's maternal great-grand- 
parents, David Herr and Barbara Herr, is still occupied, and while the wood 
work has been replaced, the fort-like walls and arched and cemented cellars are 
as good as new, and seem fully capable of resisting Old Boreas for generations 
yet to come. 

Mr. Smith was never married, and he and his only sister, Eliza E. Smith, also 
unmarried, live in their unpretentious home on Lime street, Lancaster, dispensing 
hospitality and charitj' without show or parade. 

Miss Smith was educated at Linden Hall Seminary, Lititz, and at Miss 
Edmond's school, Philadelphia, and, as an unobtrusive philanthropist, has spent 
the best years of her life, and much of her and her brother's means, in educating 
the worthy poor of both sexes, some of whom have fallen asleep, but others yet 
live and trace their success in life to the timely aid which came from their unsel- 
fish benefactors. 

Although not engaged in the laborious duties of his profession, the law still 
has attractions for Mr. Smith, and he may be found almost daily in his office, 
and, surrounded with his books or friends, modestly enjoying the ease and 
comfort which naturally come from his well-earned " success in law, business and 
politics." E. T. F. 




Hon. Simon Cameron. 



SIMON CAMERON. 

SIMON' Cameron, the most widely known of the statesmen of Pennsylvania, was 
born at Majtown, Lancaster county, on March S, 1799. He is the son of 
Cliarles and J^Iartha Pfoutz Cameron. On the paternal sitle he is descended 
from the Clan Cameron of Scotland, who cast their lot with the unfortu- 
nate Charles Edward, whose star of hope sank on the field of Culloden. Donald 
Cameron, his great-grandfather, was a participant in tliat memorable battle, and, 
having escaped the carnage, made his way to America, where he arrived about 
1745-46, and afterwards fought under the gallant Wolfe upon the heights of 
Abraham, and was in continuous service throughout the war with France. 
Simon Cameron, the grandfather of the subject of this sketch, was an early 
participant in the war of the Revolution, and, witii his brother John, took the 
oath of allegiance, June 7, 1778. This brother was the great-grandfather of 
Gen. Henry H. Bingham, of Philadelphia. On the maternal side Simon Cameron 
is descended from Conrad Pfoutz, an emigrant from the Palatinate, Germany, who 
settled in Lancaster county, and Pfoutz Valley, in Perry county, perpetuates the 
name of John Pfoutz, a hero of the border warfare of Pennsylvania in the days 
when the treacherous Delawares and the perfidious Shawnees sought to desolate 
the homes of the early pioneers of the State. Charles Cameron married Martha 
Pfoutz, and they had a numerous and remarkable progeny ; for the history of our 
country gives but few instances of the attainment of such a measure of success in 
life by an entire family, and of its members Simon Cameron is the most prominent. 
When young Cameron was about nine years of age his parents removed to 
Northumberland county, where his father shortly afterwards died, and he was 
thus early in life cast upon his own resources. There were then few advantages 
offered by public schools, and his educational facilities were exceedingly limited. 
Having an unquenchable fondness for books, he was unable to perceive any 
other means so likely to satiate his appetite as employment in a printing-office. 
It seemed to him the chief centre of thought in the conmiunity in which destiny 
had fi.xed his lot. He therefore engaged, in 18 16, as an apprentice to the print- 
ing business with Andrew Kennedy, editor of the Northumberland County Gazette, 
of Northumberland, Pa., where he continued one year, when his employer, owing 
to financial reverses, was obliged to close his establishment. Being thus thrown 
out of employment he made his way by river-boat and on foot to Harrisburg, 
where he secured a situation in the printing-office of James Peacock, editor of 
the Rcp2ibliean, with whom he remained until he had attained his majority. In 
January, 1821, he went to Doylestown, Pa., at the solicitation of Samuel D. Ing- 
ham, afterwards Secretary of the Treasury. Ingham, then Secretary of the State 
of Pennsylvania, published the Bucks County Messenger. Young Cameron, as 
editor of this paper, e\inced a breadth of information which, in a man of his 
limited opportunities, seemed astonishing. In March of the same year he entered 
12 ' (89) 



90 SIMON CAMERON. 

into partnership with tlic piibUslier of the Doylcstmvn Democrat, and the firm 
merged their pubhcations into the Bucks County Dcuiocrat, which connection was 
continued until the close of the year 1821, when the establishment passed by- 
purchase into the hands of Gen. W. T. Rogers. The succeeding winter Mr. 
Cameron spent in the office of Messrs. Gales and Seaton, publishers of the 
Niitiouiil lutclligcuccr at Washington, D. C., as a journeyman printer. He 
returned to Harrisburg in 1822, and entered into partnership with Charles 
Mowry in the publication of the PcunsylvcDtia Intelligencer, then the organ of the 
Democratic party at the State capital, and which enjoyed the official patronage 
of the State administration. He was elected one of the printers of the State — a 
position that he held for seven years, having been the early friend and supporter 
of Governor Shultz. Upon his ceasing to be State printer he was honored by 
that executive with the appointment of Adjutant-General of Pennsylvania, the 
duties of which office he discharged with ability and to the satisfaction of the 
public. 

General Cameron at an early period took a deep interest in the development 
of internal improvements, and received extensive contracts upon the Pennsylva- 
nia Canal, then in process of construction. In 1826 he began the section between 
Harrisburg and Sunbury, and after this was well under way he took one or two 
sections of the western part of the canal. When Louisiana granted a charter to 
the State bank of that Commonwealth, it provided that the bank should build a 
canal from Lake Ponchartrain to New Orleans. General Cameron took the con- 
tract for that work, which was then regarded by engineers as the great under- 
taking of the time. In 1831 he started for New Oileans. He employed twelve 
hundred men in Philadelphia, and sent them by sea to that city, he with his 
engineers and tools going down the Mississippi river, embarking at Pittsburgh. 
He spent nearly half a year upon the undertaking, and demonstrated beyond a 
doubt its feasibility. He was recalled from his work on the Lake Ponchartrain 
Canal by a summons from Major Eaton, Secretary of War under President Jack- 
son, who requested him to return to Penn.sylvania and organize a delegation to 
the National Convention, which had been called to meet in Baltimore. This was 
in the interest of Martin Van Burcn for the Vice-Presidency. Calhoun, who had 
served eight years, had quarreled with Jackson during his second term, and had 
othcrwi.se put himself into antagonism to the prevailing popularity of the Presi- 
dent. General Cameron obeyed the summons, came home, and organized a 
delegation that went to Baltimore and worked for the success of Mr. Van Burcn. 
This was the first National Convention ever held in the United States. Mr. 
Camcjon was requested to accept the permanent chairmanship, but declined, and 
a gentleman from North Carolina was selected. After the National Convention 
at Baltimore he was appointed a xisitor to West Point by General Jackson ; and, 
after performing liis duties on the Ihulson, he made his first trip to New Eng- 
land. He went with a brother of l')isliop Potter, of Penns)lvania, and thoroughly 
inspected the paper mills and other manufactories of that secti(Mi. 



SIMON CAMERON. 9I 

In the winter of 1832 the Legislature chartered a bank at Middletown, and he 
became its cashier. From the first the bank was successful, but the duties of 
cashier were so limited that General Cameron sought other fields of labor and 
usefulness, although he remained there twenty .-five years. He projected and 
created the railroads from Lancaster to Middletown, from Harrisburg to Sun- 
bury, from Harrisburg to Lebanon, and at the same time gave encouragement to 
the Cumberland Valley Railroad. In this connection it may be stated that the 
Northern Central Railroad from Harrisburg to Baltimore was alienated by him 
from Baltimore interests, and made a Pennsylvania institution. He was at one 
time President of four railroad corporations, all operating lines within a few miles 
of the spot where he was born. 

In 1838 President Van Buren tendered to General Cameron the appointment 
of Commissioner with James Murray, one of the most respected citizens of Mary- 
land, under a treaty with the W'innebago Indians, to settle and adjust the claims 
made against the Indians by the traders. These claims were for goods furnished 
the Indians during a long period of years, and the sum appropriated by the treaty 
was three hundred thousand dollars. In many cases the commissioners found 
the claims of the traders unjust, and every account allowed by them met with 
the approbation of the commissioners appointed by the Indians. In their settle- 
ment of some of the claims (the aggregate amount having been reduced from 
over a million to about two hundred and fifty thousand dollars) the traders 
refused to accept the award, and went to Washington with charges against the 
commissioners. The charges were met by a demand for re-examination, which 
resulted in the appointment of a new commission the following year, under whose 
direction the Indians were assembled in council, and who approved, by a united 
vote of their council, the entire acts of Messrs. Cameron and Murray, and the 
account thus adjudged was paid by the Government. 

In 1845, when James K. Polk tendered the office of Secretary of State to James 
Buchanan, and that gentleman resigned his seat in the Senate of the United 
States, an election to supply the vacancy became necessar}'. General Cameron 
was at that time in recognized sympathy with the Democratic party, and was 
selected as the representative of that wing of it which advocated the policy of a 
protective tariff. The regular caucus nominee of the Democracy, however, was 
George \V. Woodward, which selection was regarded as a free trade triumph, 
rendering it possible for some other Democrat known to be honestly devoted to 
the ever-cherished policy of the State to be elected by a union of the Whigs, 
Native Americans and those Democrats in favor of protection to home industries. 
The result was the election of Simon Cameron to the United State? Senate for 
the term ending March 4, 1849. He served his State faithfully in that body, 
and proved himself true to the great interests committed to his charge, and he 
never wearied in the support of the principles on which he was elected. It may 
be here stated that President Polk at first chose to ignore Mr. Cameron, de- 
claring his election to the Senate as having been outside the party organization; 



C)2 SIMON CAMERON. 

but this treatment, lie found to liis cost, was not conducive to his own peace of 
mind, and he sent for Senator Cameron, made a truce with liim, and thereafter 
asoided antagonizing him. 

In 1S57 the combined opposition members of the Legislature, consisting of 
Wliigs, Native Americans and tariff Democrats, selected Mr. Cameron as their 
candidate to fill the place of Senator Brodhead, whose term of service expired on 
the 4th of March of that year. The Democratic caucus nominated Col. John W. 
Forne\-, then the intimate friend of James Buchanan, who was just entering upon 
his term as President, and had written a letter to members of the Legislature 
naming Colonel Forney as his choice to the Senatorship. The united votes of 
the opposition, with three Democratic votes — two from Schuylkill and one from 
York counties, in both of which Senator Cameron possessed great strength and 
popularity on account of his firm devotion to their industrial interests — resulted 
again in his election. He took his seat in the Senate on the 4th of March, not- 
withstanding the futile assaults of his colleague from Pennsylvania, Mr. Bigler, 
upon his title to the place, and which that body refused to consider. General 
Cameron's return to the Senate brought him again prominently before the public, 
and in the political movements which preceded the campaign of i860 he was 
named as the choice of Pennsylvania for the Presidency, and his name was early 
a.ssociated with that of Mr. Lincoln in connection with the Republican National 
ticket. 

General Cameron's national career began at the Chicago Convention in i860, 
when the Republican party crystalized into a national organization, and declared 
its open, clear and stern antagonism to slavery. With intuitive sagacity the 
advocates of slavery recognized in the Republican party the force which would 
ultimately overthrow them, and men like Senator Cameron were recognized as 
the leaders of that force. There was no mistaking the object on which it entered 
the campaign of i860. When Mr. Lincoln was nominated. Senator Cameron 
made himself felt in such a manner as to win the confidence of that illustrious 
statesman and patriot. After the great political battle of that year Mr. Cameron 
was the first to whom Mr. Lincoln turned for counsel. The offer of a cabinet 
position by the latter to the former was a voluntary act, and that appointment 
would have been made the first in the selection of his constitutional advisers had 
not intrigue interfered to defer it at the time. Mr. Lincoln looked upon Mr. 
Cameron from first to la.st, not only as a political, but as his warm personal 
friend; and there were no such relations exi.sting between the President and the 
other members of his cabinet. This fact was well known when the cabinet was 
organized, provoking antagonisms which General Cameron could not meet and 
combat, as was his wont with opposition, and creating jealousies which operated 
stealthily against him. While he was in the War Department, as Secretary of 
War, his counsel was not only potential in cabinet meetings, but was sought by 
the President in [)rivate, and heeded in such a marked manner as to create a 
feeling of hostility which caused the President much annoyance. Then, too, 



SIMON CAMERON. 



93 



believing that the civil war would require all the available resources of the 
nation to preserve the Union, and doubting the speedy settlement of the trouble, 
lie began, as head of the War Department, a scale of preparations to combat it 
which puzzled the oldest officers in the army and chagrined the leaders of the 
Rebellion, who had counted much on the supineness and lethargy of the North- 
ern people. General Cameron frustiatcd this hope by his energy, but he had 
the rest of the cabinet unanimously against him. When he sought to furnish 
the necessary supplies to the arm\', he was met by a sickly sentimentality about 
settling the war by diplomacy. The Confederates resorted to the ruse of diplo- 
macy by means of commissioners for the purpose of retarding this activity, but 
at tlie same time General Cameron was filling up the arsenals which had been 
despoiled and depleted by the former Secretary of War, and was supplying the 
army with large quantities of ordnance and commissary and quartermaster's 
stores. His action naturally aroused the opposition of the sordid and jealous, 
alarmed the timid, and excited the suspicious. The minister who had thus 
labored to equip his country for its struggle with treason, the proportions of 
which he alone seemed fully to appreciate, was assailed for each and all of these 
acts. 

Mr. Lincohi had the fullest confidence in his Secretary of War. He believed 
in his sagacity and relied on his courage, but he could not wholly withstand 
clamor — the outgrowth of timidity on one side, and the cunning greed of the 
unscrupulous on the other — so that General Cameron, to relieve President Lin- 
coln from embarrassment, resolved to resign, and, on the nth of January', 1862, 
returned the portfolio of the War Department to the President, but in that act 
he commanded the continued confidence of Mr. Lincoln, who, on the day that 
he accepted his resignation, nominated the retiring Secretary for the most im- 
portant diplomatic mission in his gift — that of Minister to Russia. Nor was this 
all. Mr. Lincoln insisted that General Cameron should name his own successor, 
an act which no retiring cabinet officer ever did before or since. He named 
Edwin M. Stanton, who liad been his legal adviser during his term in the War 
Department. 

The mission to Russia involved the safe and sagacious handling of our rela- 
tions with the Czar's go\'ernment at a moment when they demanded the most 
prudent direction. The friendly relations which existed between that colossal 
power of the north and the great republic of the west dated back in their amity 
to the time when the Empress Catharine declined to take part with England in 
the suppression of the American colonists in their struggle for independence. 
General Cameron restored this friendly feeling, and thus frustrated English and 
French intrigue to organize an alliance, with Napoleon HI. at its head, in the 
interest of the Southern Confederacy. The country has never fully appreciated 
tills fact, because it was a part of its diplomacy which admitted of no correspond- 
ence. This object accomplished. General Cameron's mission to Russia was 
virtually concluded, there being nothing more to do in St. Petersburg in fact. 



94 SIMON CAMERON. 

but to maintain wliat Had been established, and he could with .safct}- ask for his 
credentials and retire. 

The relations between Mr. Lincoln and General Cameron were alwaj-s cordial, 
and immediately upon his reaching the United States the latter was the accepted 
citizen counsellor at the White House. At this time efforts were being made to 
defeat the renomination of Mr. Lincoln. It was a period of great solicitude to 
the President, who, with characteristic modesty, declined to make any nioveniciit 
in his own behalf In the winter of 1864 the intrigue referred to was talked of 
in political circles at Washington as a success. General Cameron visited the 
National Capital repeatedly at that time, and upon reaching his farm, after a 
return from one of these visits, had a paper prepared embodying the merits of 
Mr. Lincoln as President, setting forth his fidelity and integrity in his first 
administration, and declaring that his renomination and re-election involved a 
necessity essential to the success of the war for the Union. That paper was 
submitted to the Republican members of both branches of the Legislature of the 
State of Pennsj-lvania, every one of w hom signed it, and in this shape it was 
presented to Mr. Lincoln and telegraphed to the country at large. Its publica- 
tion accomplished all that the forethought of the author and originator antici- 
pated. In three weeks after the issue of this letter, it was a curious spectacle to 
watch the precipitation with which the Republicans in all the States hastened to 
declare in favor of Mr. Lincoln's renomination ; so that there was no opposition 
to him when the National Convention assembled. 

From" 1864 to 1866 General Cameron took a very active part in the politics 
of Pennsylvania, giving to the organization of the Republican party a prestige 
that enabled it to bear down all opposition. He was the one leader of the party 
who could rally it in despondency, and hold it in fidelity to its pledges. 

In 1867 lie was again elected to the United States Senate — a position that he 
has filled for a greater number of years than any other man sent to that body 
from the State of Penns\'lvania. His influence in National legislation was as 
great as that of any other man in the Senate. The singularity of this influence 
is the more remarkable when it is remembered that he seldom participated in 
debate. He made no pretension to oratory, but his talk was sound, his argu- 
ments lucid, and his statement of fact impregnable. What he lacked in fervid, 
flashing speech he made up in terse, solid common-sense. From the time that 
he entered the Senate to the time when he resigned his seat in 1877 — a continu- 
ous scr\'icc of eleven yeans — he was recognized as one of its most useful and 
reliable members, and at the date of his resignation was Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Foreign Relations — a position only accorded to a Senator of admitted 
.statesmanship. He was foremost always in practical legislation. His opinion 
on questions of Commerce, Manufactures, P'inance, Internal Improvements, 
Fortifications and the Public Domain were always accepted as guiding counsel. 
He encouraged the building of the first Pacific Railroad, was a warm supporter 
of the policy of opening public huuls to actual settlers, and no man in Congress, 



SIMON CAMERON. 95 

before or after he left it, did more, and few as much as lie, for the protection, 
fostering and promotion of American industries. He lost no opportunity to 
advocate and further the organization of new States, and regarded the expansion 
of the boundaries of the Union as the onl)- true course to preserve the equihb- 
rium of power between the sections. He made lii.story as few other statesmen 
in this country created it, b}' producing results in the practical walks of life, such 
as make men prosperous and happy, that stimulate the commerce of the country, 
\vhereb\- it has been constantly rendered powerful abroad and a blessing to its 
people at home. 

Sixty-five years of active political control is a record made by only one man 
within the history of the United States, and when he shall have passed away a 
career will end that is made up of political and financial successes such as have 
belonged to no other man now Hving in this republic. Simon Cameron's career 
has been conspicuous in many respects. He is the only citizen handling great 
affairs that has kept pace with the young men who have grown into political 
control during his remarkable life. More than two generations have grown up 
since he has been a power in politics. Yet he has kept pace with and controlled 
each in turn. He has never dropped out of public view and become a tradition, 
as most men do as they grow old. To-day the 3-oung men of Pennsylvania 
know him and respect him more highly than any other public man in the State, 
and his power, when he chooses to exercise it, is as great as ever. Ex-Senator 
Conkling once said that Simon Cameron was the wisest politician that ever lived. 
When the sum of his life comes to be made up, it will be found that he was far 
more than a politician. He has grown from the humblest circumstances to the 
broadest control of affairs in the lajid. He has risen from printing-offices and 
poverty, and has helped to make and unmake every President from James 
Monroe's time, a range of years covering almost the allotted life of man. His 
power has not been the result of accident. He has made his great place by the 
performance of acts of kindness and careful study and recognition of the influ- 
ence of e\'en the humblest. In the da)-s of his greatest power and influence he 
never forgot a Pennsylvanian. He kept close to the people, and they have kept 
close to him. This is the secret of his influence with and affectionate liold on 
the masses. It is now a little more than ten years since General Cameron 
resigned from the United States Senate, his son, Hon. J. Donald Cameron, 
succeeding him. His days have not, however, been spent in idleness. He has 
personally managed his vast business affairs, and at the same time has taken an 
active interest and an important part in politics. He was a very important factor 
in the campaign that elected President Garfield. Since he has retired from the 
Senate to spend the last days of his life free from the turmoil of active politics, 
he has been a great traveller and reader. In the year 1S87, when in his eighty- 
ninth year, he, in company with some chosen friends, made a trip to Europe, 
where he was received with marked and distinguished honor by representatives 
of the English Government and nobility, and many prominent private citizens. 



96 SIMON CAMERON. 

This extended and triil_\' remarkable voyage for one of his years was not attentled 
by any unfavorable consequences to his health, for upon his return his step was 
as elastic, and his mind as active and vigorous, as tiiey were when he left his 
native sliores some months previous to undertake a journey that many a much 
younger man would have hesitated to enter upon. 

His record has been a long and honorable one, and it may be truthfully said 
of him as of few men, that his name will live as long as the world shall stand. 

William H. Egle. 

Fkank. a. Burr. 




Hon. Benj H. Brewster. 



BENJAIMIN HARRIS BREWSTER. 

HON. Benjamin H. Brewster, late Attorncj'-Gcncral of tlic United States, 
was born in Salem county, N. J., on October 14, 1S16. He was the 
eldest son of P>ancis E. and Maria Hampton Brewster, and on botli sides was 
related to the Carrolls, Harrises, Duwils, Newcombs, W'estcots, Carjienters, 
Elmers, and others of the principal families in Southern New Jersey, liulh of 
his grandfathers were surgeons in the Revolutionary Arm)-, and owners of 
landed estate in New Jersey. His father remo\-ed from Salem county to Phila-. 
delphia, and achie\'ed eminence at the bar of that city, acquiring a large and 
lucrative practice. His son, after recei\-ing all the educational facilities afforded 
by the leading private schools of the city, was sent to Princeton College, where 
he graduated in 1834. He then entered upon the study of law as a student in 
the office of Eli K. Price. Eour \'cars later he was adiuitted to practice, being 
at that time about twenty-two years of age. He immediately assumed a promi- 
nent place in his profession, although those were the days of Binney, Sergeant, 
Meredith, and other great lawyers, who spread the fame of the bar of Philadel- 
phia far and wide. Mr. Brewster continued to rise rapidly, and for more than 
thirty years held a place in the front rank of Philadelphia law)-ers. It has been 
said that no member of that bar of the present day had so e.xtended a reputation, 
and no one had been oftener summoned abroad to argue important cases. 

Mr. Brewster's inclination for public life was first evinced in 1S46, when, at the 
age of thirty years, he was appointed bj' President Polk to be Commissioner to 
adjudicate the claims of the Cherokee Indians against the United States. Upon 
the successful termination of this emploj-ment, Mr. Brewster resumed the practice 
of his profession in Philadelphia, and held no public office again until 1867, when 
he was appointed Attorney-General of Pennsylvania by Governor Geary, which 
position he held until 1869, when he resigned. Whilst holding that office he 
corrected the abuse of remitting sentences in the criminal courts, by means of 
which, unknown to the people, convicts were let loose from their cells before the 
expiration of their terms of imprisonment. He also put an end to the Gett\-s- 
burg lottery, which he deemed to be a scheme to defraud the public under the 
pretext of helping the soldiers' orphans. 

Upon his resignation of the office of Attornej'-General of the State, he once 
more returned to his private practice, which was very extensive and lucrative. 
He was in great demand as a campaign orator, and was frequently heard on 
National topics. In the ante-bellum days Mr. Brewster was a Democrat in his 
political opinions ; but on the breaking out of the Rebellion, in 1 86 1, he became 
most zealous in the support of the Go\'ernment, and his powerful appeals to the 
loyalty of the people in those exciting times will long be remembered. Thence- 
forth he was a Republican, although he never was an active politician. In 1876 
'3 (97) 



qS benjamin H. BREWSTER. 

lie was placed at the head of the Republican Electoral Ticket in this State, and 
cast his \ote in the Electoral College for Hayes and Wheeler. 

During the whole of his professional career up to this time Mr. Brewster had 
confined his practice almost exclusively to cases in the civil courts, seldom 
appearing at the bar as counsel in a criminal case. In September, 1877, how- 
ever, lie consented to have his name presented to the Republican City Conven- 
tion, which was to nominate a candidate for District Attorney, upon which 
officer the prosecution of criminal suits devolves. There were three other can- 
didates before the convention — ex-City Solicitor C. H. T. Collis, Judge M. Russel 
Tiiayer and George S. Graham, the present incumbent of the position. For two 
terms the Democrats had had possession of this important office, and Mr. 
Brewster's adherents hoped that his high reputation would, if he was nominated, 
at last turn the tide. The convention was a boisterous one, and the struggle 
o\cr the nomination was fierce and bitter. Before the balloting began Collis and 
Graham withdrew, and the result was Mr. Brewster's defeat, the vote standing 
forty-seven for him to a hundred and forty-three for Judge Thayer. The can- 
didacy of the latter was futile, however, for Henry S. Hagert, the Democratic 
candidate, was elected by a small majority. Before the election was held, Mr. 
Brewster was nominated by the so-called United Labor party, and, although he 
declined the nomination in consequence of the written pledge that he had given 
the Republican convention, his name was printed on tlie Labor Party's tickets, 
and four thousand five hundred and seven votes were cast for him at the polls. 
If he had received the Republican nomination, he would have been elected. 

After that memorable campaign Mr. Brewster ceased to take an active part in 
political affairs. His name, however, was before the Legislature during the five 
weeks struggle over the United States Senatorship in the early part of 188 1, and 
on several occasions his election as a compromise candidate seemed imminent. 
Toward the close of the same year, after the death of President Garfield, he was 
formally retained by Attorney-General MacVeagh to assist in the prosecution of 
the Star Route frauds. This led directly to his promotion to the office of 
Attorney-General of the United States, as successor to Mr. MacVeagh, in which 
position he gave general satisfaction to all outside of Star Route circles, and it was 
rightly taken as an indication that President Arthur was determined to pursue 
the Star Route prosecutions with vigor. Mr. Brewster's name was sent to the 
Senate on December 16, 1881. Three days later the nomination was unani- 
mously confirmed by the Senate, and on January 3, 1882, Mr. Brewster assumed 
charge of tiie Department of Justice. The appointment was made the occasion 
of a testimonial to Mr. Brewster by the members of the Philadelphia Bar, who 
entertained him at a banquet at the Aldine Hotel on the evening of July 12th. 
Tiic affiir was a very brilliant and enjoyable one. The guest of the evening, 
however, spoke only a few moments. In the course of his remarks he said, sig- 
nificantly: "I have entered the office with honor, and with God's help I will 
leave it without disgrace." 



BENJAMIN H. BREWSTER. 99 

To this pledge Mr. Brewster remained faitiiful during his term of office at 
Washington, which ended only when Mr. Arthur retired from the Presidency, in 
March, 1S85. As stated above, he had become associated with the Government 
counsel in the Star Route prosecutions in September of the preceding year, and 
he pushed them forward with all possible vigor. When the first cases finally 
came to trial, Mr. Brewster, in his closing argument in September, 18S2, made 
one of the finest and most notable of the forensic efforts of his long career at the 
bar. Ilis singularities of appearance, dress and methods kept the interest alive 
even when the argument grew dry. His eccentricities of manner were never 
more marked, but they added to the picturesqueness and force of his .speech. 
The ultimate outcome of the trials was a practical miscarriage of justice, but the 
Attorney-General did his full duty from first to last. The other matters in which 
lie was concerned were chiefly of the routine character which fall within the lines 
of the office. 

After Mr. Brewster's retirement from the Attorney-Generalship, he left Wash- 
ington, where he and his wife had been for over three years among the most 
prominent figures in social circles, and again took up his residence in Philadel- 
phia. He did not, however, become as active at the bar as he had been in the 
past, and he virtually retired from the practice of his profession. In September 
of that year he sold his splendid law library, which contained all the standard 
works and reports and many rare volumes, to the University of Pennsj'lvania, for 
$18,000, a sum far below its cost. His desire in so doing was to preserve intact 
the collection, to the formation of which he had given much time and money, 
and which had become one of the finest and most complete in America. 

Mr. Brewster was a learned man on many subjects besides the law, especially 
on ecclesiastical history, and some of his most noted literary efforts were his- 
torical sketches of famous pontiffs and saints. His lectures on ecclesiastical 
history, delivered for charitable purposes, attracted a great deal of attention. 
One of his finest efforts in this line was a lecture on Gregorj' VII., or Hildebrand, 
the despot of the church, who made the haughty Emperor of the Germans crawl 
before him in the snow ; another was his discourse on Thomas A'Becket. 1 le 
was remarkably familiar with the writings of the most noted ancient and modern 
authors, and his private conversation, not less than his public efforts, was enriched 
and enlivened by the most apt illustrations and quotations. The charm of his 
voice and manner was as marked as his discourse. Among the most remarkable 
of his public orations was one delivered at a meeting of excursionists held near 
Fort Harker on the Pacific Railroad in 1867; a speech in the Cooper Institute 
during the campaign of 1S68 ; a lecture at the Academy of Music, Philadelphia, 
on Frederick the Great; and his matchless addresses at the laying of the corner- 
stone of the new Public Buildings, and on Pennsylvania Day at the Centennial 
Exhibition in 1876. 

Mr. Brewster, though he held public office, was never a place-hunter, and had 
but little respect for those who sought high positions for selfish ends. He 



lOO BEN'JAMIN II. EREWSTF.R. 

claimed tliat the liigliest public distinctions in this country have no attraction for 
right-minded men, unless they are the unsought reward of personal worth, dig- 
nit}- of character, mental ability and a blameless life. 

Mr. Brewster was one of the best known and familiar figures on the streets of 
Philadelphia. His features had been sadly marred by a terrible accident which 
befel him in childhood. The accounts of the origin of this life disfigurement 
have been numerous and varied. The facts as they have been related by Mr. 
Brewster himself are these: When a child in frocks his apron caught fire from a 
stove, and he screamed in fright. Although his mother was attracted by his 
cries, she did not hurry to the scene on account of the impression that the chil- 
dren were quarrelling. When she did reach the scene of the accident the future 
great lawyer was writhing in spasms on the floor. He was picked up and 
wrapped in a fur mat. The flames burned a hole in the mat, and for many j'cars 
it was kept in Mr. Brewster's house as a mournful relic. The disfigurement 
which resulted had doubtless much to do with the eccentricities of dress and 
manner for which he was remarkable through life. Year by year in early life his 
dress had become more noticeable for its peculiarity, until it finally settled down 
to the picturesque pattern with which his fellow-townsmen were familiar in later 
days. He wore almost invariably a light-colored coat, with a vest of velvet, cut 
low so as to expose a shirt front of the finest cambric ruffles, and below his per- 
fectly cut pantaloons were seen the old-fashioned gaiter tops of perfect white. 
He wore a standing collar, a black stock, ruffled cuffs and a white fur beaver hat, 
and always displayed an old-fashioned fob chain, with a heavy gold seal attached. 
Notwithstanding the fact that his costumes were of antique styles, Mr. Brewster 
could no't be called anything but a well-dressed man. 

For many years he lived in the plain but comfortable and luxuriantly furnished 
liouse on Walnut street above Seventh, where he had his office. Shortly after 
his retirement from the Cabinet he removed to a house on Twelfth street below 
Walnut, where he continued to reside until the time of his death, which occurred 
there early in the morning of April 4, 1888. He had been troubled for a long 
time with a complication of organic diseases, but his condition had not been 
considered alarming until some ten days prior to his death, the immediate cause 
of which was uraemia, or blood poisoning, resulting from paralysis of the kidneys 
and inflammation of the bladder. He was twice married. His first wife was a 
lad\- of foreign birth, Elizabeth Myerbach de Rcinfeldts, to whom he was wedded 
in 1S57, and who died in 1868. His second wife, to whom he was married in 
1870, and who died in March, 18S6, was a daughter of the late Hon. Robert J. 
Walker, Secretary of the Tieasury under President Polk-. While Mr. Brewster 
was Attorney-General, in President Arthur's Cabinet, Mrs. Brewster was one of 
the accepted leaders of Washington society, in whicli she was very popular, not 
less for her great beauty and generous hospitality, than from her true womanly 
qualities. ]5y her he had one child, a son, born in 1872, who bears his father's 
name. C. R. D. 




Hon. Daniel Agnew. 



DANIEL AGNEW. 

THE outbreak of the rebellion found the Supreme Court of the United States, 
most of the State Supreme Courts, and by far the larger number of the 
lower courts, Federal and State, in the hands of those whose political training 
inclined them to excuse, if not to approve, the cause of those who were seeking 
to betray the Union to its destruction. The Pennsylvania bench was no excep- 
tion to this rule. The majority of its Supreme Court were as little able as Presi- 
dent Buchanan then seemed to be, to find any law or precedent to justify national 
self-preservation or to authorize the suppression of a gigantic rebellion. One of 
this majorit)-, Judge George \V. Woochvard, when the dissolution of the Union 
seemed imminent in 1 86 1, declared, " If the Union is to be divided, I want the 
line of separation to run north of Pennsjdvania." Later, this same Judge was 
very properly chosen to formulate the decision of the Democratic majority of the 
court which disfranchised the Penns\'lvania soldiers in the field. These and kin- 
dred acts so highly recommended Judge Woodward to his party that in the criti- 
cal days of 1863, when the cause of the Union was trembling in the balance, he 
was selected to contest the re-election of Governor Andrew G. Curtin. Chief- 
Justice Lowrie, who was in entire accord with his colleague on the bench, Judge 
Woodward, and the author of a then recent decision of the State Supreme Court, 
declaring the national draft law unconstitutional, was a candidate for re-election. 
In selecting a candidate to run against Chief-Justice Lowrie, the Republicans or 
Union men looked for a jurist of high, legal attainments, who was firm in his 
convictions and of approved loyalty. All this and much more they found in 
Judge Agnew, of the Seventeenth Judicial District, whose services to the Union 
cause had made his name well known throughout the State. The ticket thus 
composed of Andrew G. Curtin for Go\'ernor and Daniel Agnew for Supreme 
Judge proved too strong for the opposition, and carried the State in October by 
15,000 majority. By virtue of this popular decision Pennsylvania's great War 
Governor was retained in the position he had filled so worthily and well, and the 
State Supreme Court received an infusion of fresh blood, new thought, intense 
energy, and high patriotic impulse, which at that time it sadly needed. Judge 
Agnew's accession brought that court into harmony with the Union sentiment of 
the State and added immediateh' and in a marked degree to its strength and 
influence as a judicial body. 

Judge Agnew is a Penns)-l\-anian onl)- by adoption and a life-long residence. 
He was born in Trenton, N. J., Januar)' 5th, 1S09, and while }-ct a lad his parents 
came to Western Pennsylvania, on their way to the State of Mississippi, and after 
a brief sojourn in Butler county, settled in Pittsburgh. There young Daniel lived, 
increasing in wisdom and stature until the dawning period of manhood, when he 
left the parental roof to go a little farther west and grow up with Beaver county. 

(10.) 



102 DANIEL AGNEW. 

His father. James Agnew, M. D., was a native of Princeton, N. J., and graduated 
at its college in 1795. He studied medicine with Dr. McLean, the father of 
President McLean; took his degree in medicine at the University of Pennsylva- 
nia in iSoo, and remained a year in Philadelphia under Dr. Benjamin Rush. His 
mother. Sarah B. Howell, was the eldest daughter of Governor Richard Howell, 
of New Jersey, who was a major of the New Jersey Continental line in the army 
of the Revolution. His paternal grandfather, Daniel Agnew, came from the 
County Antrim, in the north of Ireland, in the year 1764, and settled in New 
Jersey. On his mother's side he belonged to the Howells of Caerfille, in Wales. 
The father of the future Chief-Justice was for a time uncertain where he should 
permanently pitch his tent. ' The century was just opening ; a new country was 
all before him where to choose, and he was embarrassed by this wide range of 
choice. He first practised his profession for several years in Trenton, New Jer- 
sey, and then went to Mississippi in 18 10. He returned in 18 13, riding on horse- 
back all the way from Natchez to Princeton, through the Indian country then 
known as the " wilderness. In the following October he started on his return 
journey to Mississippi with his family, intending to remain during the winter at 
the house of John L. Glaser, the owner of a furnace in Butler county, whose wife 
was a sister of Mrs. Agnew. But Mrs. Agnew, becoming alarmed at the wildness 
of the West and the dangers of navigation, then made in arks or flat-boats, declined 
to make the voyage down the Ohio and Mississippi, and the whole party came to 
a halt in Butler county. It was through this circumstance that Mississippi lost 
and Pennsylvania gained Daniel Agnew as one of its citizens. The family were 
not unrepresented in Mississippi, however. Mrs. Agnew's brother established 
himself there, and her niece, Varina Howell, Judge Agnew's first cousin, is the 
present wife of the ex-Confederate chieftain, Mr. Jefferson Davis. 

Daniel Agnew was educated at the Western University, in Pittsburgh, and studied 
law under Henry Baldwin and W. W. Fetterman. He was admitted to practice 
in the spring of 1829, and opened an office in Pittsburgh. Not succeeding as he 
wished, he went to Beaver in the fall of the same year, intending to return in a 
year or two. He soon created a practice, however, which once gained by a young 
kiwyer is not lightly to be given up, and this fact, in connection with another, 
decided him to remain in Beaver permanently. The other potent influence on his 
decision was a Miss Elizabeth Moore, daughter of General Robert Moore, a 
leading lawyer and Representative in Congress, who had lately died. In the 
abundant leisure afforded by a law practice still in the future, he wooed and won 
this lady, who has now shared his joys and sorrows, his honors and his cares, for 
fifty years, and still lives, no less hale and hearty than the Judge himself, rejoicing 
in the more constant companionship which the termination of her husband's long 
engrossing public duties now brings to her. Land titles were un.scttled in that 
western country, and in the extensive litigation growing out of this circumstance, 
young Agnew early had a chance to show what he was made of, and he was 
prompt to improve it. He soon gained a lii_L;h standing as a land lawyer, and 
with it a large practice. 



DANIEL AGNEW. IO3 

His first service to tlic State at lars^e was in 1837, as a member of the Consti- 
tutional Convention which in that and the >-ear following sat in Ilarrisburg and 
riiiladelphia, forming a series of amendments to the constitution of 1790, and 
which subsequently became a part of it. Mr. Agncw drew up the amendment 
offered by his colleague, John Dickey, as to the appointment and tenure of the 
judiciary, known as Dickey's Amendment, afterwards modified by the amend- 
ment of 1850. 

It is proper to correct here a false charge brought against Judge Agnew by 
political enemies : that he voted in the Convention to insert the word " white " 
in the article upon elections. On the question of insertion, he voted always 
against it; but after failing in that, voted for the section as a whole, on account 
of other most important amendments intended to prevent fraudulent voting. . 

In June, 185 i, he was appointed by Governor Johnston President Judge of the 
Seventeenth District, then composed of Beaver, Butler, Mercer and Lawrence 
counties. In the following October the people confirmed the appointment, elect- 
ing him for a term of ten years. In 1861 he was re-elected without opposition 
at the call of the members of the bar of all parties. 

He did not, however, consider that his duties as Judge superseded his duties 
as a citizen, and when the rebellion broke out, he became known at once as an 
ardent and active supporter of the Union cause. The Virginia Pan-Handle made 
Beaver a border county, and brought the atmosphere and spirit of secession into 
its very midst. A Committee of Public Safety of one hundred members was 
appointed, and Judge Agnew made its Chairman. Later, he was a zealous par- 
ticipant in the formation and maintenance of the Christian Commission. As a 
judge, all his energies were bent to preserve peace and order, and to check the 
budding treason, which had the temerity to show its head in the Seventeenth 
Judicial District. Other judges, even such as were in sympathy with the Lincoln 
Administration, were in doubt and perple.xity as to their proper course in regard 
to the new issue which was suddenly sprung upon them. Judge Agnew, how- 
ever, never hesitated. In him sound learning and sound sense went hand in 
hand ; and he found no difificulty in making the eternal principles which underlie 
all law apply to every time and every emergency. He was the first of the State 
judges to take cognizance of the«aiders and abettors of rebellion around him, 
and enforce the necessity of obedience and the paramount duty of loyalty to the 
government. In May, 1861, more than four years before President Johnson 
talked of making treason odious, Judge Agnew instructed the grand jurors of 
Lawrence county that treason was a crime, and all who had any part or lot in it 
were criminals before the law. In this charge he combated with overwhelming 
conclusiveness the doctrines held by the Northern allies of rebellion that aid to 
the enemies of the United States, which the Constitution defines to be treason, 
meant foreign enemies only. He instructed the Grand Jurj' that where a body 
of men were actually assembled for the purpose of effecting by force a treasona- 
ble purpose, all those who perform a part, however minute or however remote 



lO^ DANIEL AGNEW. 

from the scene of action, were actually leagued in the general conspiracy, and 
were to be considered traitors. 

These were words fitly spoken and nobh' spoken, at a time when treason was 
noisv and aggressive, and our leading public men were still under the delusion 
that it might be put down by soft words and gentle dalliance. Had other 
Northern j-idges everj-where displayed the same spirit, the progress of our arms 
would not have been so often obstructed and the war prolonged by a disheartening 
and demoralizing fire in the rear. In answer to those who denied the power of 
the government to maintain itself against domestic assaults, he wrote and de- 
hvered a careful and elaborate address on the " National Constitution in its 
adaptation to a state of war." This address was so timely and so strong, 
breathin<T such a lofty spirit of patriotism, and evidently drawn from such rich 
stores of le^^al knowledge, that it at once invited public attention to its author, 
whose fame had been before confined to Western Pennsyh'ania. By special 
request of the members of the Legislature Judge Agnew repeated this address in 
Harrisbur<T in February, 1863. Secretary Stanton called for a copy of it, and 
the Union League, of this city, determined to scatter it free-handed. Two large 
editions of it were published by the League, and when Chief-Justice Lowrie's 
term in the Supreme Court was about to expire, the author of the address, 
while absent in the West, and without an effort on his part, was nominated by 
the Republicans to succeed him, and elected in October, 1S63. 

As a member of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, Judge Agnew was early 
called to make a practical application of the doctrines, of which, as a citizen and 
judge of a lower court, he had been a zealous advocate. A majority of the 
bench, consisting of Chief-Justice Lowrie and Judges Thompson and Woodward, 
had pronounced against the constitutionality of the draft law. Judges Strong 
and Reed dissented. The question came up again immediately after Judge 
Agnew's accession to the bench, and, as the senior members of the court were 
evenly divided, it devolved on this new judge to decide the question, and his 
first opinion as Supreme judge was in affirmation of the constitutionality of the 
draft law (see 9th Wright, 306). He thoroughly believed in the right of the 
government to suppress insurrection and to enforce obedience to its laws. 

Soon after the question of the constitutionality of the draft acts of Congress 
had been decided, an important question of marine insurance came up in- 
volving the true status of the seceding States. It grew out of the capture of the 
merchant vessel " John Welsh " by the Confederate privateer " Jeff Davis." 
The question was whether the letters of marque of the " Jeff Davis," and the 
nature of the service in which she was engaged, divested her capture of its 
piratical character. Woodward, then chief-ju.stice, in an elaborate opinion, sus- 
tained the capture as an act of war by-a de facto government, and on that ground 
held it to be within an exception in the policy. 

The effect of this status of the rebel government was too important to be 
suffered to go out as the doctrine of the Supreme Court of Pennsj'lvania, and 



DANIEL AGNEW. IO5 

was combated, therefore, by Judge Agnew in a vigorous opinion. He held that 
secession and confederation were nullities — that the United States was the 
supreme government both dc jure and dc facto, not displaced — its functions tem- 
porarily suspended in certain districts, but its actual existence continued every- 
where within its rightful jurisdiction, coupled with actual possession of 
important posts in every seceding State, and necessarily excluding all other 
sovereignties. That a rebellion or attempted revolution by a portion of a peo- 
ple, taking the form of a government, but leaving the true government in esse, 
actively and successfully asserting its rightful authority, with important posses- 
sions, does not constitute a (/(• faclo government, for the reason that it in no 
sense represents a nation in fact, nor e.xcrciscs its sovereignty. He, therefore, 
denied Judge Woodward's conclusions of an accomplished revolution — the posi- 
tion of an independent power dc facto — and the abrogation of the Constitution in 
the seceded States, leaving them under the laws of war and of nations alone. 

Pennsylvania was the third State in which the constitutionality of the act of 
Congress, authorizing the issue of treasury notes and making them lawful 
money and a legal tender for debts, was called in question. The Court of 
Appeals of New York and the Supreme Court of California sustained the act, 
and Judges Agnew, Strong and Reed, overruling Chief-Justice Woodward and 
Judge Thompson, brought, in turn, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court into line. 
Judge Agnew differed from his colleagues in holding that a specific contract for 
payment in coin was not payable in treasury notes, but that the latter were 
receivable only for debts payable in lawful money. Judge Agnew had, however, 
ruled the same question, sustaining the legal tender clause, while in the Com- 
mon Pleas of Butler county, as early as the summer of 1S63, in the case of 
Crocker ^.y. Wolford (Pittsburgh Legal Journal, September 14th, 1863). 

The war of the Rebellion brought into existence immense armies. While the 
constitutional power of the government to draft men into service was supported 
as essential to the safety of the nation, it yet fell heavily upon the people, and 
the distribution of its burthens was exceedingly unequal. 

The necessity as well as the hearts of the people demanded these rigors of the 
system to be relieved as far as possible. This led to a S3'stem of bounties paid 
by the counties, towns, and townships of the State, to induce those who could 
be better spared, to enter into the service as substitutes for the drafted men. It 
was opposed, however, by those whose sympathies were not with the cause of 
the Union ; and the right to raise money by taxation to pay these bounties was 
strongly denied on constitutional grounds. The question came up to the 
Supreme Court in Speer vs. Blairsville (14th Wright), and was argued in opposi- 
tion to the power to tax by ex-Chief-Justices Black and Lowrie. It was settled 
conclusively in favor of the power in an opinion by Judge Agnew, both able and 
eloquent, which placed it beyond future cavil. 

Another phase of the war arose in the question of the right of deserters from 
military service to vote at State elections. Two cases came before the Supreme 
14 



I06 DANIEL AGNEW. 

Court, Hubcr 7'S. Reilly f^d Smith), and IMcCafferty 7'S. Guyer (9th Smith). In 
the first case a majority of the court held that the electoral .franchise of a deserter 
from militarj- service could not be taken away by an act of Congress without a 
conviction of desertion by a court-martial, and that a board of election officers 
was incompetent to try the fact. Justice Strong, who wrote the opinion, put the 
decision on this ground, conceding that the act of Congress was not an ex post 
facto law, and that Congress had power to pass it. Judge Agnew, in an elabo- 
rate opinion, not then published, maintained that the question before the Elec- 
tion Board was in no sense a trial for a penalty, but an inquiry into a personal 
privilege claimed by one offering to exercise it, and the real question was one 
of fact only, desertion, triable as any other fact, in relation to citizenship, by the 
Election Board ; the consequence being declared by Congress, whose right to 
declare it was not denied by Justice Strong. In McCafferty vs. Guyer the ques- 
tion came up under a State law, authorizing the Board of Election officers to try 
the fact of desertion. Justice Agnew took the ground that the whole question 
was resolved into a single one : Is a deserter, proscribed by act of Congress, a 
freeman under the election article of the Constitution ? In a most elaborate and 
convincing opinion he traced the origin of the term " freeman " from the earliest 
period into the Constitutions of 1790 and 1S38, and proved that a proscribed 
deserter was not a freeman within the meaning of the term in the Constitution, 
and the Election Board being authorized by statute to determine the fact, 
IMcCafferty was rightfully denied a right to vote. 

In all these war questions Judge Agnew stood resolutely by his country. 
The effect of adverse decisions will be seen if we note the influence they would 
have had on the ability of the government to carry on the war to suppress 
insurrection. 

Without the power to draft, the military arm of government would be power- 
less. Without money to carry on the war it would be ineffectual. Without the 
power to pay bounties the hardships of war would fall on classes least able to be 
spared. With a dc facto standing of the Confederate government, it would have 
been entitled to recognition by European powers ; its prize-court decisions would 
be recognized as a valid source of title ; its ports would be opened by foreign 
powers, and various obstacles thrown in the way of the United States to prose- 
cute its lawful authority. With a right to vote by deserters the whole policy of 
the State might be changed and its safety endangered. 

An important question upon the status of negroes in Pennsylvania arose 
before the adoption of the post bcllum amendments of the Constitution of the 
United States, and before the passage of the Pennsylvania act of 1867, making it 
an offence for a railroad company to discriminate between passengers on account 
of race or color. A considerable time elapsed before the case was reached in 
the Supreme Court in 1867, and public opinion then ran high in favor of the 
rights of colored persons. The court below decided against the right of the 
railroad company to direct a negro woman to take another seat; but " one in all 



DANIEL AGNEW. lO/ 

respects as comfortable, safe, and convenient, and one not inferior to the one 
slie left." This was a written point. Judge Agnew, whose courage is equal to 
his convictions, stood with two of his brethren. Woodward and Thompson, for 
reversal. He saw that as the Constitution 2.n6. judicial precedents stood when the 
case arose, it was impossible to deny with honesty that the legal status of the 
negro, both civil and political, differed from that of the white man ; and that the 
social status was even piore dissonant — that the rights of carriers and the 
repugnance of races necessarily involved a reasonable power of separation of 
passengers as a part of the carriers dut)', in the preservation of the public peace, 
and the proper performance of his public obligations. His opinion (found in 
6th Smith, 21 1) is as unanswerable in argument as it was faithful to duty; 
though at the time of its delivery (in 1867) the progress of public opinion, after 
the close of the war, led ma-ny who were ignorant of the time and circumstances 
under which the case arose, to suppose he was wrong. Of all the judges who 
heard the argument, Judge Read alone dissented, and Judge Strong, who was 
absent at the argument, afterwards told Judge Agnew that he agreed with him 
— that his opinion was right. 

A great question arose af^er Judge Agnew became Chief-Justice, perhaps the 
most important of the many arising during his term of office. A majority of the 
convention called to propose amendments to the Constitution, to be voted upon 
by the people, conceived that its powers were not restricted by the call under 
which it was convened ; and claiming absolute sovereignty, undertook to dis- 
place the existing election laws in the city of Philadelphia, by an ordinance, 
without any previous submission of the new Constitution to the people, as 
required by the laws under which the convention was called and authorized. 
The case came before the Supreme Court on a proceeding to enjoin the con- 
vention appointees from interfering with the lawful election officers. After the 
hearing an eminent member of the court thought it better to dismiss the bill on 
the ground of want of jurisdiction. But the effect of this would have been to 
leave the ordinance in force, and to countenance the exercise of an unlimited 
power not conferred by the people, and which might in future cases be danger- 
ous to their liberties. 

Finally, however, the court unanimously agreed to meet the question on its 
merits, and enjoin the appointees of the convention from interfering. The opin- 
ion was written during the night following the argument, and considering time 
and circumstances, was perhaps the most able delivered by Judge Agnew during 
his term. It was supplemented by an opinion in Wood's Appeal by Judge 
Agnew, in which the claim of absolute sovereignty was discussed upon funda- 
mental principles, and the same conclusion reached. The two cases. Wells vs. 
Bain and Wood's Appeal, are found in 25 P. F. Smith, 40 and 59. 

The ruling of Judge Cox as to the qualifications of jurors in the Guiteau case, 
recalls the fact that Judge Agnew was the first judge in Pennsylvania to modify 
the rule which excluded jurors who had formed opinions in capital cases, and 



108 DANTEL AGNEW. 

admit them if tlieir opinions were not so fixed but that they could still tiy the 
prisoner on the evidence, freed from the influence of previous impressions. This 
he ruled when Judge of the Seventeenth District. Afterwards on the Supreme 
Bench he rendered several decisions to the same effect. In the Ortwein murder 
case, decided in Pittsburgh in 1874, Chief-Justice Agnevv considered at length 
the plea of insanity as a defence in murder trials, and laid down some rules which 
would have been ill-relished by Guiteau, if made to apply to his case. In his 
opinion Judge Agnew said : " The danger to society from acquittals on the 
ground of a doubtful insanity demands a strict rule. Mere doubtful evidence of 
insanity would fill the land with acquitted criminals. To doubt one's sanity is 
not necessarily to be convinced of his insanity. A person charged with crime 
must be judged to be a reasonable being until a want of reason positively 
appears. Insanity as a defence must be so great as to have controlled the will 
and taken away the freedom of moral action. When the killing is admitted, and 
insanity is alleged as an excuse, the defendant must satisfy the jury that insanity 
actually existed at the time of the act; a doubt as to the sanity will not justify 
the jury in acquitting." 

To give any adequate idea of the impress which Judge Agnevv made through 
his decisions upon the law of Pennsylvania is beyond the scope of this sketch. 
Every Monday morning during the sessions of the Supreme Court brought a full 
budget of his decisions, and every day of his vacation was spent in preparing 
opinions in knotty cases reserved for that time of greater leisure for careful 
elaboration. Until 1874 the Supreme Court consisted of but five judges, while 
it had all the work which was afterward found sufficient for seven. Ill health 
prevented Judge Williams from assuming his share of the labor of the bench, 
and disinclination fir work was an impediment in other quarters, so that before 
the reorganization of the court the labor incident to its duties fell almost entirely 
on two or three of its members. The reports of that period, as well as for the 
entire fifteen years Judge Agnew was on the bench, bear testimony to his pro- 
digious industry. They show him also to be one of those broad-minded judges 
who have regard to the meaning and spirit of a law rather than its letter. The 
whole body of his opinions as therein recorded illustrate at every step the keen- 
ness of his intellect, the soundness of his judgment, and the extent and precision 
of his legal learning. He became Chief-Justice in 1873, and continued until Jan- 
uary', 1879. In permitting him to retire from the bench in that year, the State 
lost from its Supreme Court one of the strongest members and best judicial 
minds that body ever possessed. 

Perhaps the most marked characteristics of his judicial career was his deter- 
mined support of the sacredness of the fundamental rights of persons, as declared 
and maintained in the Constitution. His opposition to all infringements upon 
these rights was constant and unwavering. This may be seen in many opinions 
and addresses. He held that the maintenance and protection of these rights 
were the true end of all good government, and nothing short of a real public 
necessity should be permitted to override them. 



DANIEL AGNEW. lOQ 

Another leading characteristic is the rapidity with whicli lie writes. Besides 
the case of Wells vs. Bain, another example may be seen in the contested elec- 
tion cases in 15 P. F. Smith, 20, the opinion being written during the night after 
the argument. 

Judge Agnew never was a politician in its ordinary sense, and never filled a 
political office. He avoided both the Legislature and Congress, preferring to sit 
as an independent judge, acknowledging no political favor, and returning a full 
equivalent for office by his services on the bench. In early life he was a 
National Republican, supporting the American system of Henry Clay, especially 
the tariff of which his preceptor, Judge Baldwin, was an eminent advocate. He 
joined the Whig party at its formation in 1832-33, and remained a Whig until 
its extinction in 1854. He advocated on the stump the election of Harrison in 
1840, Clay in 1S44, and in 1S48 he was an elector on the Taylor and Filmore 
ticket, and canvassed Western Pennsylvania zealously in its support. After his 
election to the bench in 185 i, he withdrew from active participation in politics, 
except as events of unusual importance called him out. He openly opposed the 
Know-Nothing movement in 1854, and two years later he assisted at the forma- 
tion of the Republican party in the convention in Lafayette Hall, in Pittsburgh. 

Judge Agnew's original intention was to retire from the Supreme Bench at the 
end of his fifteen years' term. The continued absence from home, which its 
duties necessitated, had all along been exceedingly unwelcome to his wife. His 
life, too, had been a busy and laborious one, and, though still in the full vigor 
of his powers, he thought that at the age of seventy he was entitled to a rest. 
He made known to some of his political friends his intention not to be a candi- 
date for re-election, but was induced by them to remain silent, and was subse- 
quently brought out by them as a candidate, seemingly with the intention of 
using his name to head off other candidates, and then sacrificing him in turn. 
The double dealing and cross purposes of this period are all laid bare in Judge 
Agnew's open letter, published a few da}-s before the election of 1878, and it is 
unnecessary to recapitulate them here. It is enough that he changed his pur- 
pose and resolved to go into the convention, if he did not have ten votes. In" 
that body, with all the regular part}' machinery against him, he developed an 
unexpected strength, but the bosses had decided to put him aside, and from 
their decree there was no appeal. 

Representatives of the National party, knowing that Judge Agnew could com- 
mand a large personal following independent of any party, requested permission 
to propose his name for Supreme Judge in their convention, but this he refused. 
Subsequently he was, without his consent, put in nomination by the State Com- 
mittee of the National party. Of the nomination he never received official notifi- 
cation, nor was it designed that he should. He was not in sympathy with the 
economic teachings of that party. He believed only in a coin currcnc}', or one 
based on coin, having an undoubted representative value, and his thorough 
republicanism was unquestioned and unquestionable. This the National leaders 



no DANIEL AGNEW. 

knew, but they thought his name would aid their ticket, and the)- placed it on it 
without troubling themselves further about his consent. A similar proposal, 
made by the Temperance Convention of that year, Judge Agnew expressly de- 
clined in a letter to its chairman, on the ground that having been an "ostensible" 
candidate before the Republican Convention, he could not honorably put himself 
in the front of another party. He determined to hold himself free from any 
entanglement, and it was a fear of such a charge being made after the election 
which brought out his open letter before it. During the canvass he was offered 
the attorney-generalship in writing, under the incoming Republican administra- 
tion, on condition of withdrawing from the National ticket. Through his son he 
declined this proffer expressly on the ground that he was nominated without his 
participation, had not accepted, and had nothing to decline. 

Judge Agnew is still in the full enjoyment of physical health and activity, and 
of mental vigor. Since his retirement he has lived a quiet and comparatively 
uneventful life among his old friends and neighbors of Beaver. Great changes 
have occurred in State and nation since that stripling lawyer went there pro- 
specting for litigation fifty-two years ago, but the essential features of that staid 
old county-seat remain unchanged. Six children have been born to Judge and 
Mrs. Agnew, two of whom, their eldest son and eldest daughter, are dead. The 
latter was the wife of Colonel John M. Sullivan, of Allegheny City, and died in 
1874. Of the others, there are two sons, both lawyers: the elder, F. H. Agnew, 
now in the Senate of Pennsylvania, is practising in Beaver, and the younger, 
Robert M. Agnew, in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. One of his daughters is the wife 
of Hon. Henry Hice, of Beaver, President-Judge of the court Judge Agnew for- 
merly presided over. The other daughter is the wife of Rev. Walter Brown, of 
Cadiz, Ohio. 

The degree of Doctor of Laws has been twice conferred on Judge Agnew, first 
by Washington College and then by Dickinson. Occasionally he indulges in 
writing or speaking on legal and public subjects to keep from rusting out. On 
General Grant's return from his tour around the world. Judge Agnew was 
selected to deliver the address in Pittsburgh, and in the succeeding canvass for 
nomination he favored that of General Grant for the Presidency as best calcu- 
lated to produce national unity. After the nomination of General Garfield he 
went ardently into his support and delivered, at Pittsburgh and New Brighton, 
two well-considered and strong speeches in his favor. 

The State would do itself a high honor if it should select such a man 
to represent it at Washington, or to be its Chief Executive. Judge Agnew's 
numerously published addre-s.scs, to which, for lack of space, scarcely any 
allusion has been made, and his opinions, involving great public questions, 
as recorded in the State reports, show that he is no mere lawyer, but has all the 
grasp of mind and breadth of view of the true statesman. 




Hon Ulysses Mercur. 



ULYSSES MERCUR. 

ULYSSES Mercur, Senior Associate Justice, who became Chief-Justice of the 
Supreme Court of this State, January i, 1883, was a native of Pennsylvania, 
having been born in Towanda, Bradford county, August 12th, 1818. His father 
was of German descent and removed from Lancaster to Towanda about 18 10, 
when Northern Pennsylvania was ahnost an unbroken wilderness, and the village, 
now one of the most picturesque and thriving towns in the State, an isolated 
hamlet, nestling in the forest on the west bank of the Susquehanna. He was a 
young man who had enjoyed good advantages for those days, was possessed of 
a bright intellect, great energy and strict integrity — traits which rendered him 
both conspicuous and useful in a new country. Soon after the organization of 
the county in 18 12, he was appointed county treasurer, a position for which he 
was well qualified. Not long after settling in Towanda he married an estimable 
lady, who bore him five sons and a daughter. The sons grew to manhood and 
became prominent business men, noted for their abilit\% enterprise, honesty and 
success. 

Ulysses, the fourth son, after receiving his preparatory education, entered Jef- 
ferson College, Cannonsburg, Washington county, at the age of twenty. In col- 
lege he was noted for his studiousness and extraordinary perceptive faculties. In 
his junior year he was chosen disputant of his class society in a joint discussion 
with the senior society of which the late Clement L. Valandigham was disputant. 
The discussion was decided in Mercur's favor, which so annoyed Valandigham 
that he resolved not to leave college until he had another opportunity of cross- 
ing swords with his rival of the junior class. The opportunity was given him 
and he was again worsted, Mr. Alercur coming off victorious the second time. 
During his last year in college Mr. Mercur found that the mastery of his studies 
did not require all his time, and, having decided to adopt the law as a profession, 
entered the office of Hon. Thomas M. T. McKennan, author of the " Tariff of '42 " 
and father of Judge McKennan, of the United States District Court. After gradu- 
ating with high honors he returned to his home in Towanda, where he entered the 
office of Edward Overton, Esq., the ablest lawyer in northern Pennsylvania at that 
time, to complete his legal studies. On his adinission to the bar a year later he 
commenced practice as a partner of his late preceptor. His intuitive love for 
the profession and thorough knowledge of "the books" acquired by close study, 
were supplemented by strict attention to business and untiring industry — virtues 
which seldom fail of success. On accession to the bar he was brought into con- 
tact with such able and distinguished attorneys as Edward Overton, Judge Wil- 
liston, William Elwell, William Watkins, David Wilmot and others, who rendered 
the bar of Bradford county famous for ability and personal worth. The j'oung 
member soon reached the front rank, and before he had been many years in prac- 
tice was acknowledged tlie peer of his ablest associates. 

(11.) 



112 ULYSSES MERCUR. 

As a practitioner he M-as conscientious, and never advised litigation mcreK- to 
get a " retainer." Tliis reputation won for him the most imphcit confidence of 
the people, and few important cases were tried in the court while he was practis- 
ing at the bar tiiat he was not employed in. It is no flattery to say that as a 
jurj" lawyer he was unsurpassed in the State. 

As an evidence of Mr. Mercur's transparent candor and honesty in his rela- 
tions to clients, and his desire tojmpress upon students the sacred obligation to 
profound secrecy and fidelity in their business relations with those by whom they 
might be professionallj- employed, it is said that he never retired to the " consul- 
tation room " with clients, but compelled them to state their cases in presence 
of such students as were present — assuring them that nothing they might dis- 
close would ever be repeated. 

One characteristic of Judge !\Iercur remembered by the citizens of Towanda is 
the untiring industry with which he labored at his profession. While Judge 
W'ilmot, the leading lawyer in the town, who was always noted for a tendency 
to avoid close application to his desk, was at the village store in the evening, 
telling stories to the crowd of rustics, young Mercur was at his office writing 
deeds or poring over his books in search of authorities for use in court. " At 
any hour," said an old citizen of Towanda, recently, " Mercur could be found at 
his office. In those daj-s I used to go home very late at night and there was 
always a light in his office." Judge Wilmot was strong with a jury, but he relied 
on an infinite fund of wit and turning to use some trifling circumstance brought 
out at the trial, but Judge Mercur studied cases thoroughly and always went into 
court well prepared. 

Seventeen years of close application to his extensive business told on his con- 
stitution, and in the winter of 1S60-61 he was compelled to give up work for 
several months, and the respite restored his health and gave him a new lease of 
life, which abstemious habits and careful observance of the laws of health pro- 
tected to the time of his last illness. 

On the election of Judge Wilmot to the United States Senate in January, 1861, 
he resigned the president judgeship of the Twelfth judicial district, and Mr. Mer- 
cur was appointed to fill the vacancy. Me discharged the onerous duties with 
such entire acceptability to the bar and people, that at the ensuing election he 
was chosen for a full term without opposition, the district being composed of the 
counties of Bradford and Susquehanna. 

In 1862 a division in the Republican party in the congressional district com- 
posed of the counties of Bradford, Columbia, Montour, Sullivan and Wyoming 
resulted in the defeat of the regular nominee. To prevent a similar di.sa.ster in 
1S64, Mr. Mercur was prevailed upon to accept a unanimous nomination and was 
triumphantly elected by over 40,000 majority, being more than 4,000 more than 
General Hartranft, the candidate for governor, had at the same time. He was 
renominated for three consecutive terms, and before the expiration of his fourth 
term, in 1872, was nominated by the Republican State convention for Judge of 
the Supreme Court, the position held to the date of his death. 



ULVSSES MERCUR. I I 3 

Judge Mercur has filled many prominent political positions of honor. He was 
a delegate to the first Republican State convention, which was held in Philadel- 
phia, and also to the National convention that nominated John C. Fremont. He 
was chosen an elector for Lincoln in i860. One of the present United States 
Senators and two of the president judges of Common Pleas Courts in this State 
were law students under his tuition and graduated from Iiis office. Although 
Chief-Justice Mercur always took a deep interest in political affairs from the time 
the anti-slavery question became prominent, he never allowed this to interfere 
with his devotion to the law and its practice. Of Judge Mercur's reputa- 
tion on the bench and in Congress it is unnecessary to speak, and we shall only 
remark in passing that his record was an honor to his constituents, and one of 
which any gentleman might justly feel proud. His public record was singularly 
free from demagogy and tricks of the average politician, while in his private life 
he was as pure as the mountain stream. His political advancements, like his 
business success, were solely due to marked ability and personal worth. During 
his nearly quarter of a century in public life his bitterest political opponents 
never even intimated anj-thing derogatory to his honor as a gentleman and' strict 
fidelity to the trusts confided to his keeping. 

His eminence as a jurist was evidenced in his nomination for the high position 
he held, without having canvassed for the office, over some of the ablest judges 
in the State. 

In Congress Judge Mercur was not a " talking member," though he had few 
equals in debate, but he was looked up to as one of the most useful representa- 
tives. He was a member of the judiciary committee, and took an active part in 
preparing the reconstruction measures rendered necessary by the secession of 
the Southern States. It was during the discussion on one of the bills on that 
subject that he made use of this memorable sentence : " If they (the people of the 
States lately in rebellion) will not respect the stars they must feel the stripes of 
our glorious flag." One important measure which he was instrumental in pass- 
ing through Congress deserves to be placed beside the Wilmot proviso and Crow's 
homestead bill. We refer to the act exempting tea and coffee from duty, thus 
reducing the price of these almost necessary articles of diet, which are needed 
alike by the rich and the poor. 

In politics Judge Mercur was originally a Democrat (though his brothers w^ere 
all active Whigs), adhering to the Free-soil wing of the party, having been edu- 
cated in the same political school with Wilmot and Grow. He was one of the 
first to protest against the scheme to enslave Kansas and Nebraska, and took an 
active part in the organization of the Republican party, which we believe had its 
birth in Towanda, as early as February, 1S55, when a meeting was called to give 
expression to the indignation of the people of the North at the repeal of the 
Missouri compromise. He was also a delegate to the preliminary State conven- 
tion in Pittsburgh, and an elector on the Lincoln ticket in i860. Judge Wilmot 
always esteemed him his friend and confidential adviser in politics as well as 
15 



I 14 ULYSSES MERCUR. 

legal affairs. When Wilmot was iin'ited by President Lincoln in the spring- of 
1S61 to act as peace coniniissioner at Washington, before accepting the appoint- 
ment he visited Judge Mercur, and after a full consultation decided to go and, to 
use his own words, " try to prevent a patched-up compromise," which would 
leave the differences between the two sections of the Union as far from being set- 
tled as before. 

In 1850 Judge Mercur was married to a daughter of the late General John 
Davis, of Bucks county, and his domestic life was very happy. Five children 
were born to him, all of whom are still living. The eldest, Rodney A., is a pros- 
perous young lawyer of Towanda ; two other sons. Dr. John D. and James W., 
attorney-at-law, reside in Philadelphia. The only daughter married B. Frank 
Eshleman, Esq., a successful lawyer of Lancaster, this State. The youngest son 
is now in school preparing for college. 

The judge was a communicant of St. Stephen's Church, was a strict Sabbatarian, 
and Sunday seldom failed to find him in the house of worship. His family were 
connected with the Episcopal Church, and he was a liberal supporter and con- 
stant attendant upon the services of the church. 

Li the new position which Judge Mercur assumed, as chief-justice, he attained 
the same eminence and distinction as in the other stations he had been called 
upon to fill, and the historian of the judiciary of the Commonwealth will write 
him among the ablest, wisest and purest who have worn the judicial ermine and 
adorned the Supreme bench. 

Up to the year of his death the judge was in possession of clear, unclouded 
mental vision and vigorous, well-preserved physical health — literally having " a 
sound mind in a healthy body." The industrious habits of younger days still 
clung to him, and during the short recesses of court he spent at his elegant resi- 
dence in Towanda he was not often seen idle, but busied himself in the investiga- 
tion of intricate legal questions, writing out opinions, etc. 

Genuine sociability and hospicalitj' are family characteristics, and the judge was 
not lacking in these qualities. He was always " at home " to his friends, and 
was one of the most entertaining of hosts. 

From honest convictions he was a pronounced, thorough Republican, but was 
not a bigot, and always treated his political adversary with gentlemanly respect. 
Some of his greatest admirers and warmest personal friends were not members 
of his political household. 

The old "Wilmot district" has never produced a man of whom the people 
liave greater reason to feel proud, nor one who will ever have a waiiiicr place in 
their hearts than Judge Mercur. 

Judge Mercur was .stricken suddenly by illness on Mny 26, 1887, while on a 
visit to his son, James Watts Mercur, at Wallingford, De'.aware county, Pa. The 
illness proved fatal on the 6th of June, 1887. It is needless to .say that the 
.Su[)reme bench lo.st one of its ablest members and the community an honored 
citizen. 




Hon. George Sharswood. 



GEORGE SIL\RSWOOD. 

HON. George Sharswood, late Cliicf Justice of the Supreme Court of Penn- 
sylvania, was born in Philadelphia, July 7th, 1 8 10. That city was always 
his home, and his nearly three-quarters of a century residence within it saw it 
increase in population nearly ten-fold. As the name indicates, the Sharswood 
family is of English origin. The first of the American line, George Sharswood, 
the great-great-great-grandfather of the Chief Justice, emigrated from England 
and settled in New London, Conn., about the year 1665. Another George 
Sharswood, grandson of the first George, and great-grandfather of the Chief 
Justice, was born at Cape May, N. J., October i8th, 1696, and came to Phila- 
delphia in the year 1706, a lad ten years old. James Sharswood, grandfather of 
the Chief Justice, was born in this city, March iSth, 1747, o. s. He received a 
sound education, and early in life showed himself to be an enterprising, public- 
spirited citizen. He was a captain of volunteers in the revolution, but a spinal 
injury previously received made it necessary for him to cut short his army career. 
He was afterward one of the originators of the Democratic party, served in the 
City Councils, and at one time was one of the representatives from Philadelphia 
in the General Assembly. He was appointed by Governor Snyder an Associate 
Judge of the Common Pleas of this count)', which could then be held by a lay- 
man, but declined the honor. In early life he was engaged in the lutnber busi- 
ness, but in his later years he seemed to have given more or less attention to 
banking. Throughout his long life he enjoj'ed in a high degree the confitlence and 
respect of the people of Philadelphia. He died in 1836, in the eight)--ninth 
year of his age. He had two sons, one of whom, George Sharswood, died at 
the early age of twenty-two, leaving an infant son, also named George Shars- 
wood, and who is the subject of this sketch. The elder Sharswood accepted the 
legacy, cared for and educated his grandson, and at his death left such a com- 
petence as to enable the latter in the practice of his profession to be independent 
and indifferent, if he chose, to its pecuniary rewards. 

At the age of fifteen George Sharswood entered the Sophomore class of the 
University of Pennsylvania. He there exhibited the same studious habits which 
characterized his whole life. On his graduation in 1S28 he received the highest 
honors of his class, and delivered the Latin Salutator}'. On August ^yl, 1828, 
less than a month after leaving college, he was registered as a student of law in 
the office of Joseph R. Ingersoll, one of the ablest representatives of the Phila- 
delphia bar. Years afterward, as a testimonial of the respect and esteem which 
his instructor in the law had inspired, he dedicated his little work on " Profes- 
sional Ethics" to Mr. Ingersoll, addressing him as "My Honored Master." 
Either through the advice of his preceptor, or moved by his own good judg- 
ment, young Sharswood seems to have determined to become a lawyer before he 

("5) 



Il6 GEORGE SIIARSWOOD. 

became an attorney. Instead, tlierefore, of tlie usual two or three j-ears of 
superficial skimming or undigested cramming of the dozen or more of the usual 
law student's text-books, he de\oted himself, from the time he was eighteen until 
twent\--threc years of age, to a comprehensive and systematic course of study 
which would appal a less industrious man, and one which a man impatient for 
the immediate rewards of his profession would not thinjc of undertaking. 

In his note to Blackstone's introductory chapters "on the study of law in 
general," Judge Sharswood gives a list of books for law students, the careful 
study of which he thinks is not beyond the reach of any young man of industry 
and application, in a period of from five to seven years. This list includes twenty- 
five works on real estate and equity, nine works on practice, pleading and evi- 
dence, nine on crimes and forfeitures, eleven on national and international law, and 
the cases on this subject in the Supreme Court of the United States, ten works 
on constitutional law, and with the cases in the United States Supreme Court 
reports, nine works on the civil law, eighteen works on the persons and per- 
sonal property, and four works on executors and administrators. This is exclu- 
sive of Blackstone and Kent, which he says must first be read again and again. 
It is further repommended that the leading cases referred to in these eighty-nind 
works be examined when possible. The Judge was, however, more merciful to 
his disciples than he was to himself, for the course of preparatory legal reading 
which he laboriously pursued during his novitiate number over one hundred 
volumes. In one of his addresses to his class of law students in the University 
of Pennsylvania, Judge Sharswood gives the list of works which formed a part 
of his early reading, and which he recommends to all other law students. This 
list is both curious and valuable, and is as follows : 

In Real Estate: Lord Hale's History of the Common Law; Reeves' History of the English Law; 
lJ.alrymple's Essay; Sullivan's Lectures on Feudal Law; Sir Martin Wright's Introduction; Robertson's 
History and Hallam's History; Sir H;nry Finch's Nomotechnin; the Doctor and Student; The Prefaces 
to Lord Coke's Reports; Litileton's Tenures and The First Institute; Preston on Estates; Fearne's Con- 
tingent Remainders, not always read by the American student, and more rarely comprehended ; Shep- 
pird's Touchstone; Preston on Abstracts of Title, and Preston's Treatise on Conveyancing; Hallow's 
Equity; Jeremy's Treatise on E(|uity, and Story's Commentaries on Etjuity ; Powell on Mortgages; 
li.icon's Rcailing on the Statute of Uses; S.inclcrs on Uses and Trusts; Hill on Trustees; Lewis im 
Perpetuities; Sugden on Powers; Chance on Powers; .Sugden on Vendors and Purchasers; Woodfall 
on Landlord and Tenant; Koscoe on the Laws of Actions; Cruise on Fines, etc.; Pigoit on Common 
Recoveries; Powell's Essay, and Jarman on Wills. 

In Practice, Pleading, and Evidence: The Introduction to Conipton's Practice; Tidd's Practice; 
Stephen on Pleading; IJroom's Parties to Actions; Greeideaf on Evidence; Selwyns Nisi I'rius; Leigli's 
Nisi Prius, which he has enriched with valualjle notes; Mitford's Pleading in Equity; Story's Equity; 
B.irton's Historical Treatise; Newland's Chancery Practice ; Cresley on Evidence, and the fourth part 
of the Institute. 

In Crimes and Forfeitures: Hale's History of the Pleas of the Crown; Foster's Crown Law; Yoike's 
Consideration on the Law of Forfeiture; The Third Part of the Institutes; Chitty on Criminal Law and 
Ku'.tell on Crimes; this work with his notes, and it hns passed llirough eight editions. 

In National and International Law : Puilamaqui's Natural and Political Law; Grotius dc Jiiic lielli 
ct Pads; Rutherford's Institutes; Vattel's Law of Nations; Hynkershock's Questiones, Publici Juris; 
Wicqucfort's Ambassador ; IJynkershock's d6 foro Legatorum ; Mcintosh's Discourse; Whcaton's His- 



GEORGE SIIAKSWOOD. II7 

tory of llie Intern.itional Law; Whoalon's International Law; Robinson's Admirally Reports anil Cases 
in the Supreme Court of tlie United Stales. 

In Constitutional Law: The Seeond Pari of Lord Col^e's Institutes; Ilalhim's Constilulional History 
of England ; Millar's Historical View of tlie Knglish Constitution ; Wynne's Eunoinus; De Lolme on 
the English Constitution, with Stephen's Inlroduciion and Notes; The Federalist; Rawle on the Con- 
stitution; Story on the Constitution; Cases decided in llie Supreme Court of the United Slates. 

In the Civil Law: Butler's Hor.v Jundica:; Gibbon's History of the Decline and Kail, chap. 44; 
Justinian's Institutes; Savigny's Traite de Droit Roniain ; Savigny's Hi.-.toire clu Droit Roniain au Moyen 
Age; Taylor's Elements of the Civil Law; MackeKly's Compendium; Cuhjuhoun's Summary of the 
Roman Civil Law, and Domat's Civil Law. 

In Persons and Personal Properly: Reeves on the Dimiestic Relations; Bingham's Law of Infancy 
and Coverture; Roper on Husband and Wife; Angel and Ames on Corporations; Les Qiuvres de 
Pothier; Smith on Contracls; Story on Bailments; Jones on Bailments; Story on Partnership; Byles on 
Bills; Story on Promissory Notes ; Abbott on Shipiiing ; IJuer on Insurance; Emerigon Trail6 des As- 
surances ; Boulay-Paty Cour de Droit Commercial, ami Story on the Conflict of Laws. 

On Executors and Administr.it ors : Roper on Legacies; Toller on E.Keeutors; Williams on Executors, 
anil llie Law's Dispo.-ial, by LovelasS. 

In lii.s own study of these works lie, no doubt, anticipated the advice he sub- 
sequently gave to all law students, and pursued " a methodical stud\' of the gen- 
eral system of law, and of its grountls and reasons, beginning with the funda- 
mental law of estates and tenures, and pursuing the derivative branches in logical 
succession, and the collateral in due order." This is, he said, the most effectual 
way of making a great lawyer. Judge Sharswood's own life furnishes one of 
the rare instances in which such a thorough and extensive course of legal study 
has ever been successfully accomplished. 

On September 5, 1831, he was admitted to the bar, but did not on that account 
intermit his studies, rather gave them a wider range, blending with them some- 
thing of classical literature, and giving some attention to the modern languages. 
Until raised to the bench, fourteen years later, he enjoyed a fair share of profes- 
sional business, but his real calling was that of a judge and not of an advocate, 
and these intervening, as well as the preceding years, maj' be considered simply 
as preparatory to his real life work. 

In 1834 he published the first of a long series of contributions from his pen 
to the literature and learning of his profession, being an article in the American 
Quarterly Review for June of that year on " the Revised Code of Pennsylvania." 
In the year following he was elected one of the vice-provosts of the Philadelphia 
Law Academy. In the same year appeared an American edition of " Roscoe on 
Criminal Evidence," enriched by notes and references by Mr. Sharswood. This, 
his first work as an annotator, has run through seven American editions. In 
1837 he was chosen one of the representatives of the city of Philadelphia to the 
State Legislature, and the }-ear following was elected a member of the Select 
Council of this city. During the j'cars of service in the Legislature, State, and 
municipal, his legal publications were in a measure suspended, but he found time 
to edit an American edition of Leigh's " Nisi Prius," which was published in 
1838. This contains in addition to Judge Sharswood's copious notes his inter- 
esting little treatise on account render. 



IlS GEORGE SHARSWOOD. 

The affairs of the United States Bank- were at that time the subjeet of great 
pubUc interest in the countrj', and especially to the citizens of Philadelphia. It 
had long been the foot-ball of politicians, and in its later years had drifted into 
a course of reckless speculation, and illegitimate methods were resorted to b)' its 
management to bolster its failing credit. In January, 1S41, a committee was ap- 
pointed by the stockholders to examine into the affairs of the bank, and George 
Sharswood was made its secretary. To him was delegated the important and 
difficult task of preparing tlie report, which occupies four closely printed columns 
of the U/iitcd Stales Gaacttc of April Sth, 1841, and is reproduced at length in 
Benton's " Thirt)- Years' View," II. 370. He was also the author of the second re- 
port of this committee, answering attacks made upon the first report. In the 
fall of the same year he was elected the second time to the lower branch of the 
Legislature, and in 1S42 he was returned a third time, making his legislative ex- 
perience in all three years. The journal of the House for this period shows him 
to have been one of the active working members of that bod_\'. His name ap- 
pears frequently in connection with proposed legislation, and he is .said to have 
fulfilled the most sanguine expectations of his constituents. 

In 1S43 the Messrs. Johnson, of this city, began the publication of a quarterly 
law magazine of a high order of merit called the American Lata Jilagasi?ie. 
Mr. Sharswood was made its editor, and gave it character and standing. After 
twelve i.ssues, beginning April, 1843, and ending January, 1846, it was discon- 
tinued. These numbers are still accessible, bound in si.x con\cnient volumes. 
They constitute a rich mine of legal lore, valuable to both student and practi- 
tioner. As the magazine does not itself specify the author of the several articles, 
those written by Judge Sharswood are here indicated for the benefit of the 
readers of the present day. In the first number, July, 1S43, 1''^ wrote " Past 
Nuptial Settlements" and "The Security of Private Property." In the October 
number, 1843, " Personal Hereditaments ; " in the January number, 1844, " Eng- 
lish Law Reform;" in the April number, 1844, "Transfer of Personal Property 
by Judgment ; " in the July number, 1844, he has two articles, one "On the 
■ Competency of Witnesses," the other " Riots, Routs, and Unlawful Assemblies ; " 
for October, 1844, he wrote " Compound Interest." For the remaining numbers 
he docs not seem to have contributed any general article, but continued the 
work of editing. The critical notices of all the numbers were generally written 
by him, and tlie digest of cases always. His edition of Stephens' " Nisi Prius" 
bears date 1844, and in the same year appeared his first edition of " Russell on 
Crimes," which subsequently passed through nine American editions. 

His publisjied works, his public services, and his growing reputation at the 
bar, all contributed to extend the knuwK-tlgc of his name and worth at this time. 
When, therefore, on April 8th, 1S45, Go\-crnor Shunk nominated George Shars- 
wood Associate Judge of the District Court of Piiiladelphia, the nomination was 
unanimously confirmed by the .Senate, and was as universally approved by the 
bar and the public. The next d.iy he took his seat on the bench, being but 
thirty-five years of age, and has remaineil continuousl\- in judicial position e\er 



GEORGE SlIAKSWOOD. H9 

since. On tlie resignation of Judge Jones, February ist, 1S4S, Judge Sharswood 
was nominated and unaniiiiousl)- confirmed President of the court. By an 
amendment of the Constitution, atlopted in 1850, the judiciary was made elec- 
tive, and all the judges in the State were compelled to submit their claims to 
popular approval. Other judges had a close contest for their scats, others again 
were displaced. The intelligent and discriminating action of the people in Judge 
Sharswood's case furnishes a strong argument in behalf of the elective judiciary 
system. The Democratic Convention gave him a unanimous nomination, no 
other name being even mentioned. The Whig Judicial Convention met later, 
and, in face of the fact that Judge Sharswood was a consistent old-school Demo- 
crat, they recognized his pre-eminent fitness for the position he held by guberna- 
torial appointment, and he was nominated on the first ballot, receiving every 
vote. The Native Americans, Temperance, and Workingmen followed suit, so 
that Judge Sharswood entered the campaign, such as it was, with the nominations 
of five conventions and no opposition. He began his term of ten years in Janu- 
ar)', 1S52, and as its expiration approached in iS6i,hewas re-elected without 
opposition for a second term of ti-n years, of which he served but six, when he 
received from the people of the State a richly merited promotion to the Supreme 
Bench. 

During the twenty-two years covering the period of his judicial labors in the 
District Court, Judge Sharswood delivered written opinions in over four 
thousand cases ; of these, one hundred and fifty-six only were carried to the 
Supreme Court for revision ; of this number one hundred and twenty-four 
were affirmed. He sat for ten months each year, with a thousand cases brought 
to trial before him and his associates, and nearly two thousand brought to a 
term. 

In addition to these labors of his judicial office this was the most fruitful period 
of his contributions to general legal literature and of his incidental services to 
his profession. In April, 1S50, he was chosen Professor of Law in the University 
of Pennsylvania. In 1852, when a full faculty was organized in that department 
of the University, Judge Sharswood was appointed to the chair of the institute 
of law, and continued to perform its duties until April 21st, 1868, when, having 
been elected to a seat on the .Supreme Couit, he deemed it advisable to resign. 
During this period he delivered many introductory lectures, a selection from 
which he afterwards republished in book form under the title of " Law 
Lectures." The little volume is inscribed " To George W. Biddle, Esq., of the 
bar of Philadelphia. In testimon\- of a close and unbroken friendship of more 
than a third of a centur}-, and of the higliest admiration of his qualities as a man, 
a citizen, an advocate and a jurist." These lectures are nine in number, and may 
be read with pleasiu'e and profit by the beginner in law, and those grown gray in 
its practice, and by laymen as well. The subjects chosen are : " The Profession 
of the Law," " Legal Education," " On the Relation of Law to ]\Ioral Science," 
" On Commercial Intcgrit}-," " On Natural Law," " On the Civil Law," " On the 
Common Law," " On the Feudal Law," " On Codification." A lecture on " The 



I20 GEORGE SHARSWOOD. 

Common Law of ronns\'l\-.inia," delivered before the Philadelpliia Law Academy 
in 1S55, while not included in this volume, is a valuable supplement to it for 
Pennsylvania students. 

His industry' and intellectual fecundity at this period of his life approached to 
the marvellous. In addition to the labors of the important and exacting^ judicial 
position which he occupied, and of the University professorship, which he filled 
so well, he continued his work as author and annotator without interruption. In 
1852 he published his first edition of " Byles on Bills," which in the four j'ears 
following ran through four editions. The preface and notes of the American 
editor were republished by Mr. B)'les in the eighth English edition of his work, 
and acknowledged by him in high terms of commendation. In 1S53, Judge 
Sharswood undertook the work of editing the successive volumes of the English 
Common Law Reports republished in Philadelphia for the use of the American 
bar. His labors in this field may be seen in the notes and references which ap- 
pear in these reports from volume 66 to volume 90 inclusive. In the Prince- 
ton ^tt'/t'ti' for October, 1853, there is an article on "Religious Endowments" 
from his pen. In 1854, he published his little work on " Professional Ethics." 
This is a little gem of a book of such fascinating interest that lawyer or layman 
who once begins it will read it to the end, and be the wiser and better for the 
reading. It is now in its fourth edition. 

The same year in which his " Professional Ethics " appeared he was elected 
Provost of the Philadelphia Law Academy. His fame had by this time far out- 
grown the limits of his State, and in 1856 Columbia College and the University 
of the City of New York honored themselves and honored Judge Sharswood by 
conferring on this learned Pennsylvania jurist the degree of Doctor of Laws. 
In this year he published his " Popular Lectures on Commercial Law." These 
were originally prepared for the students of Crittenden's Philadelphia Com- 
mercial College, and are for the use of merchants and business men. In 1859 
he gave to the public the work by which he is most widely known, his edition 
of" Blackstone's Commentaries." This work met with instant and universal ac- 
ceptance in this country. It was made the text-book in all the law schools of 
the United States, and was pronounced by our most eminent instructors in the 
law as the best edition of Blackstonc ever published. 

After the publication of his " Blackstone's Commentaries " Judge .Sharswood's 
extra judicial labors show considerable abatement. He still continued to dis- 
charge the duties incident to Professor of Law at the University. He repub- 
lished from time to time new editions of his works, and delivered an occasional 
public address. The war, in stimulating business, increased the work of the 
courts, and was not in its influence favorable to the calm pursuits of authorship. 
Judge Sharswood saw the inevitable struggle in advance, and being first of all a 
patriot, he took his position accordingly. 

He was a consistent Democrat in his views of the relations of the States to 
the General Government, though seemingly adopting the Jacksonian view of the 
right of secession and the primal duty of maintaining the Union. When the 



GEORGE SHARSWOOD. 121 

question of the constitutionality of the legal tender act came before him in cases 
involving the sufficiency of a legal tender in greenbacks as payment in contracts 
made before the passage of the act, he decided against the validity of the act, 
holding that contracts between citizens should be held inviolate. 

In 1867 Judge Shars.vood was selected by the State Convention of the Demo- 
cratic party as its candidate for the prospective vacancy on the Supreme Bench, 
on the retirement of Chief Justice Woodward. The Republican nominee was 
the late Judge Williams, of Pittsburgh. It was a year of Republican successes, 
all the other October States — Ohio, Indiana, Iowa, and even West Virginia — 
gave large Republican majorities. Pennsylvania would undoubtedly have done 
the same except for the large Republican vote cast for Judge Sharswood in 
Philadelphia, which made his total vote in the State exceed that of his Republi- 
can competitor by just 922 votes. Two years later, Judge Williams was again 
a candidate, and this time receiving the usual party vote, was elected by nearly 
nine thousand majority. On the occasion of Judge Sharswood taking a farewell 
leave of the District Court, over which he had so long and worthily presided, 
Mr. David Paul Brown, speaking on behalf of the Philadelphia bar, said that in 
the recent contest Judge Sharswood had been the candidate of both political 
parties, and that there was not a single member of the Philadelphia bar but had 
stood by him. A judge could not ask for a higher commendation or for a 
stronger proof of appreciation than the unanimous and enthusiastic support of his 
bar irrespective of party distinction. 

In January, 1868, Judge Sharswood began his fifteen years of faithful and 
efficient service on the Supreme Bench of his native State, carrying there the 
same habits of industry and thoroughness which have been his life-long traits, 
the fruit of which may be seen in his published opinions scattered through some 
fifty volumes of State Reports. In these opinions may be found examples of 
clear judicial reasoning that will delight the logician, even though himself un- 
learned in the law. The law student will find them full of valuable information 
and suggestions, and the future historian of Pennsj'lvania in searching for the 
origin and reason of our laws and customs, will find his labors abridged, and 
to a large extent anticipated in the instructive opinions by which Judge Shars- 
wood was wont to support his judicial decisions. 

The labors of a Supreme Judge are so engrossing that during the last fifteen 
years of his life Judge Sharswood did little outside work. From time to time 
he had issued new editions of his earlier works, and has delivered an occasional 
public address before the alumni or literary society of the University of Penn- 
sylvania. He, however, found some time for his favorite work of annotating, 
and in 1873 he published his edition of " Tudor's Leading Cases in Mercantile 
and Maritime Law," and his " Starkie on Evidence" appeared in 1S76. 

On January 6th, 1S79, the Supreme Court opened its session with the Hon. 
George Sharswood as its Chief Justice. The occasion was one which the Phila- 
delphia bar could not allow to pass unnoticed, and Mr. George W. Biddle, in be- 
16 



122 GEORGE SHARSWOOD. 

half of that bar, addressed the new Chief Justice in just and fitting terms, con- 
chiding as follows : 

•■ To-day the wliole bar of Philadelphia, by a spontaneous outflow of feeling, 
welcomes one of lier own sons to the highest judicial place in the commonwealth, 
and rejoices to witness the fulfilment of its own cherished hopes, and of your 
honors. Many of }-our old companions at the bar — would, alas ! that they were 
more — have been permitted to behold this complete rounding to your legal and 
judicial life, and to see in this, the last step of your professional career, the 
proper consummation of a life of study, of duty, and of virtue. That you may 
continue to exhibit during the full term of your Chief Justiceship all the qualities 
which have made your judicial name conspicuous, is the ardent desire of all here 
present, who, through my lips, now offer to you their words of gratulation, and 
ask God to speed and prosper to the end the good and faithful servant." 

Of Judge Sharswood's labors as Chief Justice his associate. Judge Paxson, 
thus testifies : 

" During the first two years after he became Chief Justice he wrote but few 
opinions beyond the Per Curiams. These, however, were remarkable. They 
always touched the real point in the case, and for crisp, clear models of judicial 
writing have never been excelled in our court. During his last year, however, 
he wrote a considerable number of important opinions, and I think the profession 
will agree with me, when they come to be reported, that they are at least among 
the best in our books. They were the last flame of his great intellect, burning 
up clearer and brighter ere it was to be extinguished in death." 

His fifteen years term on the Supreme Bench of Pennsylvania closed January 
1st, 18S3, and with it George Sharswood ended nearly forty years of continuous 
judicial service. Shortly after his retirement from the Supreme Bench it became 
necessar}' to appoint a Commission to codify the Acts of Assembly, and Judge 
Sharswood with one consent was named as the person most fitted to preside over 
this important undertaking; but it was not to be. His work was finished. 
Though of stalwart frame and an unintermitting laborer in his profession. Judge 
Sharswood was for many years a great physical sufferer from a chronic and pain- 
ful disease. He went upon the Supreme Bench a confirmed invalid. During 
the last fifteen years of his life he has himself said that he never had a working 
hour that was free from suffering. His later years were clouded and saddened 
by the death of his only son, whom he loved with all the power of his strong 
nature, for whom he had anticipated a brilliant and honorable future, and to 
whom he looked for solace and comfort in his declining years. On May 28th, 
1883, after a brief illness, death came to release him from his long term of 
suffering. 

At a meeting of the members of the bar of Philadelphia, called to pay a 
tribute to the memory of the distinguished and honored brother, whom they had 
just seen, a letter was read from Mr. George W. Biddle, which contains such 
an admirable analysis and just estimate of his life-long friend, the late Chief 
Justice, that the greater portion of it is given here : 



GKOKCE SIIAKSWOOD. I 23 

"Judgje Sharswood was formed for an active career, ami, with full knowledi^c 
of the bent of his mental and moral faculties, he had earl)- traoxl the plan which, 
fortunately for himself and his fellow-citizens, he was given time to fill up and 
to complete. For man\- years before he began to give the fruits of liis work to 
the public, he had read widely and thought deeply, not only upon [jrofcssional 
subjects, but about ethics and politics. Although quite }-oung when he first 
served as a member of the Legislature, and in the councils of his native city, he 
brought to his duties a thorough knowledge of precedents, as well as a mastery 
of the principles by which his official conduct was to be guided. I-'or, while 
eminently practical, he was to the last degree the opposite of empirical. His in- 
ductions were from the widest generalizations, his information minute in its 
accuracy, and drawn from every source within his reach. 

" While at the bar, a dozen j'cars or so before he was called to the Bench, his 
position was rather that of the counsellor and adviser than of the active Nisi 
Prius law\'er. His mind was really too true for him to be a complete advocate, 
his temperament too calm and judicial to take delight in the conflicts and triumphs 
of the forum. An excellent debater, quick to detect the fallacy of his opponent's 
argument, strong to enforce his own views, he was yet wanting in the ability to 
shift his ground readily and quickl)-, in the alacrity to advance and support a 
position of doubtful value, and in the thorough s)-mpathy with a client whose 
cause he felt or suspected to be weak in any of its essential elements. He was 
formed by nature and by training to be a judge. And when Governor Shunk 
appointed him, before he had completed his thirty-fifth year, to the Bench of the 
principal civil court of this county, the chief magistrate of the State conferred a 
boon of almost priceless value upon our community. There he sat for nearl)- a 
quarter of a century, dispatching the judicial business of Philadelphia with an 
ease and satisfaction to the suitor and to the bar, which a profound conviction of 
the value of justice, aided by a thorough knowledge of the law, and a perfect 
familiarity with the methods and forms of business, enabled him to do. 

" The rest of his career is known to the whole State. Equally at home in the 
decision of a cause requiring a complete acquaintance with technical law, as of 
one demanding the knowledge of the broad rules of conmiercial usage, or the 
principles of constitutional law and scientific politics, he gave to the bar of 
Pennsylvania, in simple, clear, nervous language, the exposition of the legal doc- 
trine upon which the subject which was brought before him for judicial solution 
depended. 

" He has left us, too soon, indeed, for his friends to whom his place can never 
be supplied, but not too soon for himself, for his profession, for the community to 
whom he always gave good measure, heaped up, pressed down, and running 
over. To the j-ounger members of the profession — and to them his feelings 
alwaj-s went out in warmest expression — he has given an example of moderation, 
of integrity, of devotion to dutj', of rich acquirements, and exalted exercise of 
talents, which has never been surpassed by any of the great men in judicial 
station who have gone before him." 




Hon. Henry M. Hoyt. 



HENRY MARTYN IIOYT. 

T T ENRY Martyn Hoyt, cx-Govcmor of Pennsjlvania, was bom in Kincjston, 
A J- Luzerne county, Pa., June 8th, 1830. Me is a descendant of Simon 
Hoyt, who was tlie first member of the Ho)'t family wlio immigrated to 
New England. In Drake's " History of Boston," we find " Simon Hoyte " on 
the " List of the names of such as are known to have been in Salem and about 
the north side of the Massachusetts Bay before and in the year 1629." The 
name of " Simon Hoytt " appears on the first list of " such as took the oath of 
freemen "in Massachusetts, May i8th, 1631. We find " Symon Hoite " men- 
tioned in the Dorchester records in 1633. On the Sth of October, in the same 
year, " Symon Hoyte " was chosen one of that town's committee to " see to " 
fences " for the east fielde." 

Walter Hoyt, son of Simon, born about 1618, was in Windsor in 1640. From 
there he went to Fairfield county, Conn., and was one of the early settlers 
of Norwalk, where the name was frequently spelt Haite or Hyatt. He was a 
fence viewer there in 1655, and a deputy to the October sessions of the General 
Court in 1658, 1659 and 1661. He was confirmed as sergeant of a company at 
Norwalk by the " General Court of Election, Hartford, May 19th, 1659." He 
was a deputy in May and October, 1667, and one of the proprietors named of 
the town of Norwalk confirmed by the General Court in 1685. He died about 
1698. 

John Hoyt, son of Walter, was born July 13th, 1644, at Windsor, Conn. 
He was a freeman in Norwalk in 1669. He removed to " Paquiack," or Dan- 
bury, before June, 1685. Rev. Thomas Robbins, in a century sermon, delivered 
in Danbury, January ist, iSoi, says John Hoyt was one of the eight original 
settlers of Danbury in 1685. The births of five of his children are recorded at 
Norwalk from 1669 to '79 with the spelh'ng Haite. 

Thomas Hoyte, son of John, was born at Norwalk, January 5th, 1674, and 
died before 1749, but was living in 1727. 

Comfort Hoyt, son of Thomas, was born February 20th, 1724. He lived in 
Danbury, and died May 19th, 1812. His tombstone states that he and his wife 
" lived together in the married state 62 y." 

Daniel Hoyt, son of Comfort, was born May 2d, 1756. He was a farmer; 
lived in Danbury, Conn., and Kingston, Lu/x-rne county, Pa. He died in 
1824. He was a freeman in Danbury in 1778. He removed to Pennsylvania 
about 1795. 

Ziba Hoyt, son of Daniel, was born September Sth, 1788, in Danbury, Conn. 
He afterwards removed to Kingston, Luzerne county. Pa., where he died, 
December 23d, 1853. He was First Lieutenant of the " Wyoming Matross," an 
artillery organization connected with Col. Hill's Regiment, Pennsylvania Militia. 

('-5) 



126 HENKV M. HOVT. 

Ho loft for the westorn frontier in 1S13, and his bravery and coolness in the 
campaign about Lake Erie has become a matter of history. Col. Hill, in his 
report to Gen. Tarryhill of one of the engagements, says : 

" I cannot close this report without bearing testimony of the good conduct of 
this company. This being the first time the company was ever under fire, it was 
hai\lly to be expected that their conduct would come up to the standard of tried 
and practical veterans. Great praise is due to Capt. Thomas and Lieut. Hoyt 
for their cool bravery and soldier-like bearing." 

Lieut. Hoyt afterwards accompanied Gen. Harrison to the river Thames, 
where he participated in that battle. The British were under Gen. Proctor, and 
the Indians under Tecumseh. 

These were the ancestors of Henry M. Hoyt. At a family reunion, held at 
Stamford, Conn., in 1866, at which there were six hundred persons of the name 
of Hoyt present. Gen. Hoyt said : 

" I come from Pennsylvania, strong and great, the keystone of the federal 
arch ; I come as one of her delegates, as a ' Pennsylvania Dutchman,' if you 
please, and, if necessary, to vindicate her thrift, her steadfastness, and her insti- 
tutions, not in competition or contrast with Connecticut, but as a co-equal and 
a co-worker in the field of ideas, of which New England is not the exclusive 
proprietor. We are all ' Yankees,' and the Yankee should, will, and must 
dominate the country' and the age. These hills have borne great crops of great 
men which at last is the best product — men attuned to the keynote of our social 
structure : the importance, the inviolability, the integrity of the manhood of the 
individual. I am in entire accord with all I have heard said here of Connecti- 
cut and Massachusetts; but, within the proper limits of 'State rights,' I am for 
my own Commonwealth. I revere and love the solidity of the mountains, the 
men and the civilization of the State of my birth. I hold that my grandfather 
did a smart thing, if he never did a great thing, to wit, when he left Dan- 
bury, Fairfield count)^ Conn., and went to the Wyoming Valley, in Penn- 
sylvania." 

Bishop Peck, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Gen. W. T. Sherman and 
Senator John Sherman are relatives of Governor Hoyt, their mothers being 
HoyLs, as arc also Hon. Joseph G. Hoyt, of Maine ; Dr. Enos Hoyt, of Fram- 
ingham, Mass. ; Dr. William H. Hoyt, of Syracuse, N. Y. ; Rev. James Hoyt, 
of Orange, N. J. ; Rev. Cornelius A. Hoyt, of Oberlin, Ohio ; Rev. James W. 
Ho\t, of Nashville, Tcnn. ; Rev. O. P. Hoyt, D. D., of Kalamazoo, Mich., and 
other distinguished Hoj-ts. 

General Hoyt remained at home working on his father's farm until the age of 
fourteen, when he entered the old Wilkes-Barrc Academy, and subsequently 
Wyoming Seminary, where he prepared for college. He entered Lafaj'cttc Col- 
lege, at Easton, Pa., where he remained for two >cars. At the end of that 
period, through the retirement of Dr. Junkin, the college was for a while closed, 
and Mr. Hoyt then entered Williams College, at Williamstown, Ma.ss., and 
graduated in 1841^. In 1S50 he was a teacher in the Academy at Towanda, and 



HENRY M. IIOVT. 12/ 

in the subsequent year lie returned to Kingston, having been elected Professor 
of Mathematics in the Wyoming Seminar)-, which position he held for another 
year. He also taught the Graded School in Memphis, Tenn., for one year. 
Subsequently he became a student at law in the office of the late George \V. 
Woodward, ex-Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. After the 
appointment of Judge Woodward to the bench, Mr. Hoyt continued his studies 
in the office of the late Hon. Warren J. Woodward, and was admitted to the 
Luzerne county bar, April 4th, 1853. In 1855 he was a candidate for District- 
Attorney on the Whig ticket, but was defeated by Gen. Winchester by a small 
majority, and in 1856 he took part in the Fremont campaign. 

In 1861 Gen. Hoyt was active in raising the 52d Regiment of the Penns)-1- 
\'ania Volunteers. The national cause found no more ready supporter than Mr. 
Hoyt, and he was commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel of the 5 2d Regiment in 
August, 1 86 1. In 1863 he was appointed Colonel. On the Peninsula he was of 
Naglee's Brigade, and participated in the reconnoissance from Bottom's Bridge 
to Seven Pines in advance of the whole army, and commanded the party which 
constructed the bridges across the Chickahominy. When the battle of Fair 
Oaks opened, he rendered signal service by communicating to Gen. Sumner the 
exact position of the Union troops, joining Sumner's column as it moved to the 
support of Heintzclman in that battle, and fighting under him to the end. This 
brigade had the honor of being selected to hold the enemy in check at the pas- 
sages of the Chickahominy, and when recalled joined Franklin at White Oak 
Swamp, in both situations exhibiting the most undaunted courage. At the close 
of this campaign, Col. Hoyt was ordered first to North Carolina, and thence 
to South Carolina, where he was engaged in the siege of P'ort Wagner, the first 
serious obstacle to the reduction of Charleston. The operations were laborious, 
and conducted under the terrible fire of the enemy, and the more wasting effect 
of the summer's heat. P"or forty days the work was pushed. When all was 
ready a hundred heavy guns opened upon devoted Wagner, and the troops were 
held in readiness to assault. Col. Hoyt having been assigned the task of charging 
Fort Gregg; but before the time for the movement had come, the enemy evacu- 
ated and the stronghold fell without a blow. In June, 1864, a plan was devised 
to capture Charleston by surprising the garrison guarding its approaches. The 
attempt was made on the night of July 3d, 1864. The following extract from 
the Charleston Jllcrcuiy, of July 6th, 1864, says : 

"The second column, under the immediate command of Col. Ho)'t, of the 52d 
Pennsylvania Regiment, attacked the Brooke gun and landing in overwhelming 
numbers. Lieut. Roworth, of the 2d South Carolina Artillery, was compelled to 
fall back, after himself and men fighting bravel)'. The encm}', cheered by this 
success, with their commander at their head waving his sword, advanced in 
heavy force upon Fort Johnson, but there they were received with a terrific fire 
by the light and heavy batteries on the line." 

The " overwhelming numbers " therein referred to were Hoyt's one hundred 
and twenty men against the four hundred Confederate garrison. Col. Hoyt was 



128 HENRY M. IIOVT. 

liiglil)- complimented for his deportment in this action by a general order issued 
bv Gen. Foster, commanding. In this encounter Col. Hoyt and nearly the 
whole of his command were captured. Gen. Foster says : 

" Col. Hoyt bestows unqualified praise on the officers and men who landed 
with him ; of these seven were killed and sixteen wounded. He himself dc- 
ser\'es great credit for his energy in urging the boats forward and bringing them 
through the narrow channel, and the feeling which led him to land at the head 
of his men was the promptings of a gallant spirit, which deserves to find more 
imitators." 

Gen. Schemmelfinnig said of Col. Hoyt, after recounting the preliminaries : 

"After this you placed )'ourself at the head of the column, and led them most 
gallant!)-, faithfully carrying out, as far as possible with the small number of men 
who landed with j-ou, the orders given you by me. Had you been supported, 
as your brave conduct deserved, it would have ensured the success of the impor- 
tant operations then being carried on in front of Charleston." 

Col. Hoyt, with other Union officers, was sent to Macon, Georgia, and subse- 
quently to Charleston. While in 7-oittc from Macon to Charleston Col. Hoyt, 
with four other officers, escaped from the cars. After several days and nights of 
wearisome but fruitless efforts for liberty, they were recaptured by the rebels with 
the aid of bloodhounds. He was one of the fiftj' officers, including brigadier- 
generals, colonels, lieutenant-colonels, and majors (Gen. Dana and Lieutenant- 
Col. Conyngham being among the number), who were placed under the fire of 
our own guns in retaliation for some supposed violation of the usages of war 
by the Federal Government in the siege of that city. After his exchange he re- 
turned to his regiment, and at the close of hostilities, which occurred not long 
afterwards, resumed the practice of his profession. Col. Hoyt was breveted 
Brigadier-General for meritorious conduct, and his old comrades join heartily in 
declaring that it was well-earned. 

In 1866 Col. Hoyt was elected a member of the School-Board of Wilkesbarre 
in connection with Hon. Henry W. Palmer, and during his incumbency the 
present Franklin street school building was erected. Hon. D. L. Rhone and 
George B. Kulp were also members of the same board, and principally through 
their efforts the present Washington street school building was erected. This 
was before the election of Messrs. Hoyt and Palmer to the School-Board. 

In 1867 he was appointed Additional Law Judge of the county of Luzerne. 
His record on the bench was of the first order. He was able, fearless, faithful, 
and dignified. In the fall of the .same year he received the nomination of the 
RepuJjIican party for the same position, and, although running largely ahead of 
his ticket, was defeated by Gen. Dana, the Democratic candidate. The county 
at that time was strongly Democratic. 

Gen. Ho}-t's reputation as a lawyer is second to none. His legal knowledge 
is not only broad and comprehensive, but accurate to the sliglitest detail. His 
arguments arc concise, logical, and philosophical — too much so, perhaps, for 
success before juries, but of the utmost value and importance in legal discussions 



HF.NKV M. IIOVT. 1 2n 

before tlie courts. lie is trul}' learned in the law. As a counsellor lie is pre- 
eminently valuable. During the time he practised at the bar his ad\ice was 
sought after by his brethren in important and critical emergencies, and, when 
given, all who knew him knew it niiglit be relied upon. His knowIedi;e of the 
fundamental principles was so thorouLjh that the greatest respect ^^•as always ex- 
pressed by lawyers for even an "off-hand" opinion on matters under discussion 
at the various meetings of the members of the bar. He was attorney for many 
of the large banking, mining, and railroad corporations. But his education and 
study were by no means confined to legal matters. Mathematics in its highest 
branches is his favorite pursuit ; while histor)', philosophy, science, theology, and 
general literature are alike studied with great zeal and relish, all contributing 
abundantly to enrich a mind well capable of enjoying their most hidden 
treasures. 

The training whicli Governor lioyt received in early life as farmer boy, as 
scholar, and as teacher, alwa\-s within the influence of his father's example, 
taught him, at least, the value of thoroughness and accurac}- in whate\'er is un- 
dertaken. And it may well be stated, as characteristic of the man, that to what- 
ever subject he has gi\-en his attention he has spared no effort to reach the very 
marrow of it, and understand it in all its details. His library is large, and ex- 
tends over a very broad field of literature. 

In 1869 Col. Hoyt was appointed Collector of Internal Revenue for the coun- 
ties of Luzerne and Susquehanna, but resigned the position in 1S7J. 

In 1875 he became Chairman of the Republican State Committee, and he 
contlucted the campaigns of that and the succeeding year with success. 

In 1 8/ 8 he was nominated by the Republican party for the position of Gov- 
ernor of the State of Pennsylvania. It was at the time of the greatest excite- 
ment in the State on the question of the resumption of specie payments. Many 
believed that no one could be elected on an unqualified hard money campaign ; 
but the General, scorning all subterfuges, sounded the key-note of the campaign 
in his first address by declaring : " Professing to be an hone.st man, and the can- 
didate of an honest part}', I believe in honest money." In June of the same 
year, in some remarks he made at the Du Quesne Club, at Pittsburgh, he used 
the identical language. We make this statement because it is generally supposed 
that Hon. Galusha A. Grow is the author of the sentiment. He was elected by 
a large plurality, and inaugurated Januaiy 14, 1879. His term was for four j'ears, 
he being the first Governor who, in pursuance of the new Constitution, served 
for that period. The oath of office was administered by the late Hon. Warren 
J. Woodward, his former instructor, and then a Judge of the Supreme Court of 
the State. 

Subsequent to his election Governor Hoyt wrote for the Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania a " Brief of a Title in the Seventeen Townships in the County of 
Luzerne : A Syllabus of the Controversy between Connecticut and Penn- 
sylvania." 

17 



130 HENRY RI. HOVT. 

Being positive hy nature in all the habits of his mind, he is naturally positive 
in his political views ; but in all political discussion he has shown that his posi- 
tiveness is not a result of partisan bitterness, but a conclusion from a thorough and 
careful study of the Constitution and history of his country. 

His official correspondence and veto messages abundantly illustrate the accu- 
racy of thought and legal ability above mentioned. They are models of con- 
ciseness, and, so far as they go, are studies in the science of government. No 
bill was ever passed over his veto ; but, on the contrary, the vetoed bill invari- 
ably showed a loss of strength after the reasons for the veto had been made 
known. 

During Governor Hojt's administration no extraordinary' or unusual opportu- 
nity presented itself for the display of executive ability, but it will be marked as 
among the most peaceful and successful the State has enjoyed. At the time of 
his inauguration, through a variety of causes, the treasury was in an unsatisfactory 
condition, several hundred thousand dollars of dishonored school-warrants being 
afloat for want of sufficient funds for their redemption. By wise adjustment of 
tlie revenue laws, and a vigorous collection of delinquent taxes, the finances of 
the State were brought into excellent condition, so that every demand was 
promptly met, and when he retired suflficient funds were on hand for every 
purpose of governmental expense, beside large annual additions to the sinking 
fund. The State debt falling due during his term was refunded at ver)' fav- 
orable rates of interest, so that an annual sa\ing of several hundred 
thousand dollars was made in the interest account. The credit of tlie State 
was never so good as at that time, and was fully equal to that of the general 
government. 

A valuable reform in the method of punishing persons convicted of first of- 
fences, especially the young, has been adopted through the exertions of Governor 
Hoyt, and is to be carried into effect at the reformator\' prison now in process of 
construction at Huntington. To this subject of the punishment of convicts, 
Governor Hoyt has given thorough examination and study. Through his in- 
fluence exclusively the General Assembly were induced to change the plan of 
building a State penitentiary into one for constructing a reformatory on the most 
approved and successful models, for the purpose of providing a place where un- 
fortunate criminals, not yet hardened in crime, might be brought under good in- 
fluences, and at the end of their terms of punishment have a chance, at least, of 
restoration to society as useful and honest citizens. Whatever benefit results 
from this wise humanitarian effort, the State will owe to the forethought and in- 
dustry of Governor Hoyt. 

The extirpation of the so-called medical college, located in Philadelphia, which, 
by the sale of bogus diplomas, had for a long period brought disgrace on the State 
and nation, as well as the destruction of upwards of two hundred fraudulent 
insurance companies, had the active co-operation and su[)port of the Governor. 

In addition to the literary work already mentioned. Governor Iloj-t has deliv- 



HENRY M. IIOVT. I3I 

ered a number of addresses on different occasions which have secured for him the 
reputation of being tlie most scholarly and cultivated Executive the State has 
ever had. Notably, one at the opening of the Pan-Presbyterian Synod in Phila- 
delphia, and one at an agricultural fair at the same place. The first attracted 
very general attention from theologians of this and other countries there assem- • 
bled as displaying a remarkable familiarity, not only with all church history, but 
also with the tangled and abstruse theological dogmas, disputes, and doctrines 
of ancient and modern times, not usually within the knowletlge of laj'men. But 
perhaps his most scholarly address was that delivered in October, 18S2, formally 
closing the Bi-Centennial Celebration. 

Among the last and most valuable of his acts will be regarded in the history 
of our times his opposition to a sj'stem of personal politics, which had grown to 
such proportions as to threaten the integrity and freedom of our institutions. In 
his letter declining to act as Chairman of a distinctive political meeting while 
holding the office of Governor, written during the campaign of 1S82, he stated 
his convictions, and asserted "the inherent right of the freemen of a Republic to 
declare the ends and aims of public conduct." He rose to the height of the 
inspiration of the founders of this Republic in his declaration that "where in all 
the space between abject submission and rebellion, no place is given for appeal, 
argument, or protest, i-cvolution is an appropriate remedy." And he only repeated 
the lessons of the history of the abolition movement and many others when he 
asserted that "peace will never come until the moral forces in politics which you 
have organized prevail." His position was taken with great pain at the thought 
of the possibility of offending some sincere friends ; but being satisfied of his duty, 
and knowing better than they could the dangers arising from the political system 
which used public trusts solely for private and personal schemes, he sounded the 
alarm, and took his place, as he did in the attack on Charleston, in front of his 
friends. However much men ma\-, in the excitement incident to a hard political 
struggle, differ from him in judgment, no man, friend or foe, can deny the moral 
courage behind the act. As to that there is no room for debate. 

Governor Hoyt retired from office in January, 1883, and shortly resumed the 
practice of his profession in Philadelphia. Of his retirement an editorial in the 
Telegraph appropriately and justly said : 

Henry M. Hoyt retires from the Execuliva Chair of the State to-day with the marked respect and cor- 
dial esteem of the people of the whole Commonwealth. His administration, especially in view of its 
poliiical surroundings, during the past four ye.irs, has been fully equal to all just expectation. Had he 
at any time attempted to inaugurate a new era, to bring about the retrenchment and reform which the 
people in November last imperatively demanded, his effort.s would have been futile, on account of the 
hostility of the entrenched machine. The bosses had not yet been admonished and chastened, and they 
ridiculed the advocates of reform. It is well known that Governor Hoyt foresaw the storm that was 
inevitable, and that he earnestly warned his political associates to mend their ways; but his wise counsel 
was not only rejected — the defiant managers sought to compel his public abjuration of the views imputed 
to him. Then came the crisis and Governor Hoyt was equal to it. Just at the right time he struck the 
enemies of the people a staggering blow, speaking words of crushing truthfulness that demoralized the 
machine and its apologists. Remembering the vindictiveness of certain political leaders and their open 



-132 



HENKV M. HOVT. 



threats to destroy the Executive, the fnct that two months have passed without attack since he manfully 
took his st.ind tur honest and reputable political management ami pure government, conclusively shows 
that ihere is n^ithing even in the inner history of the outgoing administration of which its friends may be 
ashamed, while the public record of four years is found to excel in every essential particular any of ils 
later predecessors. Personally Governor Hoyt stands conspicuous as the ablest and best-equipped man 
who has occupied the Executive Chair since Governor Curtin's time. Could the secret history of his ser- 
\ice as Governor be written, it would undoubtedly be seen that he has withstood greater pressure from 
evil sources than any of bis Republican predecessors at least. Being a man of quiet and unostentatious 
nature, not given to political or official "posing" after the manner of the demagogues of the time, he has 
fought his battles beyond the range of the public eye, with characteristic dignity and independence, not 
soliciting public sympathy or public approval. He has been content to let his acts speak for themselves, 
and has silently endured public misunderstanding and criticism that would have crushed a weaker man. 
A Butler or a Elaine would have pursued a vastly different course, but the people would only have been 
deceived, not protected or served. Governor Hoyt's last message was an exceptionally able State paper, 
and its concluding references to the political evils and needs of the times will become historic, affording 
the student of the future a curious subject of study. This appeal for a new departure in political methods 
was the echo of an aroused public sentiment, and its force will be felt in the years to come. Governor 
Hoyt will be followed into retirement by the best wishes of all good citizens, irrespective of paity. 

In conclusion of the sumnian- of the cliaracteristics of Governor Hoyt, here 
feebly portrayed, we would say that in him there is not on!)' the intellectual 
power manifest in his writings and his labors at the bar, but there is a rare intel- 
lectual and moral candor, an honesty of thought, an unselfishness of purpose, and 
a warmth of affection, known best to them who know him best, and appreciated 
by his friends. In conversation he always says something worth remembering. 
It is a flash of insight into some object or other. Wit, energy, determination, 
sincerity, are his characteristic qualities — a man who believes least of all in idle 
complainings and questionings. Dilettantism has no place in his compositioij. 
Sincere in his conviction of the beneficence of the results, he has shown himself 
willing to adopt the best methods effectual for their attainment. If no sufficient 
aid of the kind most desirable is present or assistant, yet in no case is the alter- 
native of idle laisscz fairc and complaint to be adopted. With clear insight into 
the heart of things, both as to their present bearing and future prospects, he has 
never been known to avoid a responsibility, or betray a friend. His unselfishness 
appears at times like a lack of self-appreciation, which might be, if it has not 
already been taken advantage of by scheming, if less able associates. 

Governor Hojt was married on the 25th of September, 1855, to Mary E. 
Loveland, daughter of Elijah Loveland, a native of Vermont, but who removed 
to King.ston in 1812. Her mother is of the ninth generation of the descendants 
of Thomas Buckingham, one of the Puritan fathers, who emigrated from England 
to Ma.s.sachusctts among the first of his class, in June, 1637, and who is the 
ancestor of the vast family of American Buckinghams, .so many of whom have 
gone high up the ladder of distinction in the profe.ssions and in politics in various 
sections of the Union. Mr. and Mrs. Hoyt have three children living, one son 
and two daughters. The son, Henry M., .studied law in I'liiladelphia with lion. 
Wayne McVeagh, and graduated in the law department of the University of 
?enn.sylvania. He is now a practicing lawyer in Pittsburgh. 




Hon. William A. Wallace. 



WILLIAM A. WALLACE. 

HON. William A. W.\ll.\ce, e.x-Unitcd States .Senator from Penn.syK-ania, 
and for fifteen years a State Senator, was born at Huntingdon, November 
28, 1827. He is descended from sturdy Scotch-Irish stock on both sides. Ilis 
father, Robert Wallace, emigrated to this country in 1S19, and for a time taught 
school in Mifflin county. He finally became a la\v}-er and settled in Hunting- 
don. He was a gentleman of education, but of limited means, and it was not in 
his power to give his children superior educational advantages. He taught 
school, edited a newspaper and practiced law, his most prominent position in the 
legal profession being reached when he was elected District Attorney of Hunt- 
ingdon count)-. In 1836 he removed to Clearfield when that count)' was a wil- 
derness, and the great interests which have since made it famous were hardly 
dreamed of 

Senator Wallace was but eight years old when his father removed to Clearfield. 
Although so j'oung, he had had some educational opportunities in the public 
schools of Huntingdon. When he went to Clearfield he pursued his studies as 
best he could in the schools of the place, but no opportunit)' was offered him to 
gain more than a fiirl\' good English education and the rudiments of the classics. 
He began the stud\' of the law when a little more than sixteen years of age in 
his father's office, and helped to support himself by doing clerical work in the 
offices of the Prothonotary, Sheriff, Treasurer and Commissioners of the county. 
He applied himself with great earnestness to work and .study, and his employ- 
ment in the county offices gave him a knowledge of titles and survej-s which was 
of great value to him after he was admitted to the bar, as the bulk of the cases 
in that county were ejectment suits and other litigations growing out of disputed 
titles to land and lines of survey. He was admitted to the bar in 1847, before he 
was twent)- )-ears of age. His father, in the meanwhile, had moved to Blair 
count)', and left him to make his wa\' by his own efforts. For a time it \\as a 
hard struggle, and he was compelled to earn his living in part by teaching school. 
During this time, however, he devoted himself to the practice of law, and by 
hard work- gained a foot-hold. He was painstaking, conscientious and untiring, 
and when he got a case he prepared it with a care that soon attracted attention, 
and his practice began to increase. Many prominent lawyers then practiced at 
the Clearfield bar, among them Andrew G. Curtin, Judges Hale, Linn and the 
younger Burnside, and the class of cases he was engaged in were mostly eject- 
ment suits, which were of such importance that the parties to the litigation had 
the means to employ the best talent. Attrition with strong minds and the char- 
acter of the litigation rapidly developed his force as a lawyer and gave him a 
large practice. 

The hard work required and his close application told upon his health, so that 

{'33) 



I ■_(. WILLIAM A. WALLACE. 

in 1S62 lie accepted the nomination of the Democrats for tlie State Senate as a 
relief from the drudgery of his practice, and in the hope that the change of scene 
and action might benefit him. It was impossible to make an active canvass or 
reall\- an\- campaign at all, as the war and the invasion of the State by the 
Confederates at the time absorbed every other thought. Each of the candidates 
had therefore to rest their case with the people without the usual excitement and 
interest attending upon political movements. He received his full party vote in 
the other counties of the district, but in Clearfield he ran so far ahead of his 
ticket that he was elected by a good majority. For thirteen years after his first 
election he was returned to the Senate, and, notwithstanding the bitter assaults 
that were made upon his political action, at each election he ran ahead of liis 
ticket in his own county. 

He went to Harrisburg with merely a local reputation, but he soon made his 
name known throughout the whole State, and in a very few years it was known 
throughout the whole country. His election to the State Senate gave the Demo- 
crats a majority of one on joint ballot, and his vote made Charles R. Buckalew 
United States Senator in that year. 

So rapidly did Mr. Wallace develop into a power in his party that in 1865 he 
was, without his consent, made Chairman of its State Central Committee. He 
found the democracy split and demoralized, and at once addressed himself to the 
work of organization, in which he developed unusual tact and ability. In this 
year the only State office to be filled was that of Auditor-General, and there was 
no great interest taken in the canvass. Gen. W. H. H. Davis was the Demo- 
cratic candidate, and was defeated. In the succeeding year, although his party 
was in better working condition than during his first year as Chairman, he went 
into the canvass to see it again defeated with Heister Clymer as its candidate for 
Governor. In 1867 Judge Sharswood was the candidate for Supreme Court 
Judge, and Mr. Wallace at the head of the State Committee conducted such an 
adroit and noiseless canvass that the Republican candidate was defeated. In 
1868 the most memorable canvass of his career as a political manager was made. 
Se\'mour and Blair were the candidates for the Presidency and Vice-Presidency 
against Grant and Colfax. The October election in Pennsylvania was the pivotal 
contest, and the issue was made and fully tested there. He not only gave his 
party a splendid organization, but good heart, and brought it to the polls in such 
excellent working condition that the Democratic candidate, Hon. C. E. Boyle, 
was defeated by less than ten thousand votes in the October election. A change 
of less than one per cent, would have reversed the decision, and might have 
beaten Grant in the November election. Even with the prestige of Grant's name 
and popularity, his majority was less than twenty-nine thousand at the Presiden- 
tial election. The contest that year in Pennsylvania was one of the bitterest 
ever known in the history of the politics of the State, and the Democratic party, 
under the leadership of Mr. Wallace, was in better condition than for many years 
before or perhaps since that time. 



WILLIAM A. WALLACE. 1 35 

In 1S71 the Democrats obtained control of the State Senate, and Air. Wallace 
was, by almost unanimous consent of his party, chosen Speaker of that body. 
In 1872 he was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention at Baltimore, 
and voted against Horace Greeley, but followed his party in supporting him for 
the Presidency after his nomination. In the same year, while yet a State Sena- 
tor, and in the very zenith of his power in the Democratic party in the State, Mr. 
Wallace was chosen Vice-President of the Texas Pacific Railroad Company, for 
the purpose of looking after the legal questions arising from the complicated 
character of its charter rights under Texas, Louisiana and United States laws. 
When he accepted that position it was with the distinct understanding that his 
services were only temporary, and related exclusively to the legal questions that 
would naturally arise out of the title and over the construction of the subsidized 
road. He went to Texas, and attended to his duties with great satisfaction to 
the managers of the company, returning when the Senate met to resume his 
duties in that body. 

In the election of 1S74 his party had secured control of the Legislature on 
joint ballot, and by common consent Mr. Wallace was turned to by his party as 
its candidate for the United States Senate. In the few years that had elapsed 
since he walked into the Senate chamber a pale, delicate and almost unknown 
)'oung man, he had outstripped many Democratic leaders of less force but more 
pretensions. Of course, several prominent leaders of his party were candidates 
for the nomination for United States Senator, but Mr. Buckalew was the strongest 
opponent that Mr. Wallace had. It did not need the expression of the Demo- 
crats in the Legislature to show that Mr. Wallace was the choice of two-thirds 
of them. So pronounced was the feeling in his favor that long before the Legis- 
lature met Mr. Buckalew and other Democrats raised the question that Mr. 
Wallace was not eligible to the Senatorship on account of his being a State 
Senator. The question was debated at great length and with much feeling in 
circulars and the newspapers, and strenuous efforts were made to influence mem- 
bers of the Legislature by the arguments that Mr. Wallace could not take his 
seat if elected. It was of no avail, for when the Democratic caucus met there 
were only six votes out of one hundred and twenty-one cast for all opposing 
candidates. In the winter of 1874, the one prior to that in which Mr. Wallace 
was elected United States Senator, the Legislature was engaged in framing the 
acts necessary to carry into effect the provisions of the new constitution. To 
this work Mr. Wallace earnestly addressed himself, and much of the important 
legislation of that session bears the impress of his mind and work. The general 
Act of Incorporation, which is regarded as one of the best of the kind on the 
statute books of any State in the country, was his work, and the law regulating 
and classifying cities and providing for their debts also came from his hand. 

Mr. Wallace took his seat in the Senate of the United States on the 4th of 
March, 1875, and almost immediately assumed a leading position in the national 
councils of his party. His reputation as a man of political force, gained by prac- 



136 WILLIAM A. WALLACE. 

tical service in Pennsylvania, followed him in the broader work at the Capital of 
the Republic, and he had been in the Senate but a \ery short time before his 
judgment was sought and his advice taken upon all matters of party manage- 
ment. During his term in tiie Senate he served upon the im[50itaiit Committees 
of Finance, Appropriations and Foreign Relations. At the time when the 
Democrats drifted towards the Greenback heresy Mr. Wallace was of great ser- 
vice to his party in inducing it to take conservative action upon leading ques- 
tions, and in tempering and controlling the bitterness of opposing factions. In 
all the political events transpiring during his six years at the National Capital, 
Wr. Wallace held a foremost place, and, although antagonized at every step by 
his rivals for leadership in the State, he maintained his position, and" almost 
universally scored a victor}- over his adversaries. 

Mr. Wallace's career as a lawyer is as eminent as his record as a politician. 
Starting without opportunities or influential friends, he rapidly rose to a promi- 
nent place among the leaders of the bar of the State. While serving in the 
Senate he did not neglect his legal work. During the labor troubles in the 
Clearfield region he took a judicious and equitable part between the coal opera- 
tors and the striking miners. Although counsel for the commonwealth and the 
coal operators, he was never violent in his denunciation of the workmen. In the 
great trial which took place at Clearfield when the leaders of the labor strikes 
were arrested for conspiracy, and the question of the organization and ^conduct 
of the labor unions was up for judicial investigation, Mr. Wallace was counsel for 
the coal operators in their actions against the miners. The late Senator Matt 
Carpenter, Judge Hughes, of Pottsville, and other eminent lawyers, defended the 
action of the labor union. Judge Orvis presided, and the trial was a long and 
desperately fought legal battle. John Siney, the head of the labor unions, was 
acquitted because no overt act could be proved against him ; but Xingo Parkes 
and other prominent labor unionists were convicted and sent to the j^ciiitcntiary. 
Mr. Wallace interposed in behalf of the convicted men, and urged upon the court 
the utmost clemency. He took the ground that the moral effect of the convic- 
tion of the leading strikers was greater than a harsh execution of the law. In 
all the many labor troubles that have occurred in Clearfield county Mr. Wallace 
has taken a prominent part as assistant counsel to the law officers of the county. 
Me has also represented the large coal operators in that region, and by his judi- 
cious advice and discreet interposition between contending forces law and order 
have been very well preserved, and never have troops been called into the county 
to preserve the peace as they have in nearly every other mining district in Penn- 
sylvania. In the labor riots in 1877, as in all others that have occurred in the 
Clearfield region, Mr. Wallace's action and advice were effective and all-important. 
He took a judicious ground between the workmen and the operators. He held 
that the men had the riglit to strike, but no right to prevent others working, 
and the quiet but firm position assumed by the operators and authorities under 
his advice prevented blood.shcd and restored order in the region. The qualities 



WILLIAM A. WALLACE. I 37 

of mind that Mr. Wallace early exhibited specially fitted him for dealing with 
the delicate questions which this condition of things imposed. He was always 
noted for great courage, tact and good judgment. Untiring energy and tenacity 
are among his most striking characteristics, and his powers of endurance and 
capacity for work are simply remarkable. 

The case of Turner 2's. The Commonwealth, reported in Fifth Norris, gives a 
fair illustration of the tenacity of purpose with which Mr. Wallace fights his legal 
battles, and follows a trail in spite of all obstacles. lie was counsel for the 
defence, and feeling ran high against his client, who was convicted of murder in 
the first degree, and sentenced to be hung. Mr. Wallace took the case to the 
Supreme Court, and his argument for a reversal of the judgment of the lower 
court is regarded as one of the strongest ever delivered before that tribunal. It 
was also a successful one, for the decision of the court was reversed, and a new 
trial ordered. He secured a change of venue from Clearfield to Clinton county, 
and the case was retried. The Commonwealth was struck in one of its weakest 
points, and after one of the most dramatic scenes ever witnessed in a court-room 
in Central Pennsylvania, his client was acquitted. Mr. Wallace had given three 
years of hard work to the case, and illustrated in a striking manner those quali- 
ties of mind and body that have brought him fortune and fame. 

Since Mr. Wallace left the Senate he has been devoting himself assiduously to 
the practice of his profession, and to bringing returns from his large landed estate, 
which had been neglected during his official life. During the last few years he 
has done more to develop the bituminous coal interests of the Clearfield region 
than has ever been done before, and he is now reaping the reward of his industry 
and enterprise. He is apparently giving little attention to politics, and \'et he is 
a keen observer of events, and is keeping his eye upon the condition of the party 
in all parts of the State. He seems to have lost political ambition for the time 
being, but his influence is nevertheless powerful in the councils of his party, and 
when the time comes for political action he will doubtless be found taking part 
in shaping his party's course. He has a pleasant and elegant home in Clearfield, 
three sons who are in business with him, and two daughters who grace his 
household. He has a large librar)', in which he spends most of his time. It is 
but natural that a man of his stiength of character, habits and disposition, and 
one who has borne such a conspicuous part in shaping political controversies, 
should be assailed and criticised. It is to his credit that he has many and bitter 
enemies, and still more to his honor that he has been able to meet them with 
success, and to rise to his present eminence by sheer force of character, energy 
and ability. 

IS C. R. D. 




Hon. Simon P. Wolverton. 



SIMON PETER WOLVERTON. 

HON. Simon P. Wolvekton, now representing the Twenty-seventh District 
in the State Senate, was born, on the 28th of January, 1837, in Rush 
township, Northumberland county. He was the son of Joseph and Cliarity 
Wolverton. His mother was a daughter of William Kase, a prominent resident 
of that part of the county. She was a woman of great natural ability and strong 
will. Although she had never had the advantages of more than an ordinary edu- 
cation, she knew its value, and did everything in her power to encourage her 
son in his efforts to acquire the benefits of a college course. Mr. Wolverton 
declares that he owes his success in life more to the influence of his mother than 
to any other person. 

Up to the age of seventeen he worked on his father's farm, availing himself of 
such educational advantages as the common schools of the district at that time 
afforded. At the age of seventeen he became a teacher, and after his first winter's 
term commenced preparation for college at the Danville Academy, attending the 
institution during the summer and fall months and teaching during the winter, 
while keeping up in his class by semi-weekly recitations, opportunity for which 
■was afforded him through the kindness of the principal, Prof Joel E. Bradley. 
Subsequently he entered the Freshman Class of the Lewisburg University, in its 
third term, in the spring of 1857. At the end of the Sophomore year he left col- 
lege with the intention of studying law, as he was entirely dependent upon his 
own resources, and for this reason felt that he was compelled to forego the 
advantages of a full collegiate education. He again resorted to teaching as a 
stepping-stone to his chosen profession, and taught one term of school in Dan- 
ville. After teaching six months, he determined to return to college and join his 
class in the fall of 1859, providing the faculty would allow him to take two years 
in one, as he believed he could succeed in so doing and graduate with his class. 
He was allowed the privilege of doing this, and made the effort. During the 
Senior year he went through with the regular studies of both the Junior and 
Senior years, reciting almost continuously during the day and studying during 
the night. In July, i860, he graduated with his class and took the second 
honors over those who had attended college continuously. The effort that he 
was required to make to accomplish this formed in him habits of study and close 
application which have proved of great advantage to him in after life in his 
profession. 

After he graduated he went to Sunbury, and took charge of a school known 
as the Sunbury Academy, and began the study of law. He read under the 
instruction of Hon. Alexander Jordan, an eminent jurist, who served as President 
Judge of Northumberland and adjoining counties for twenty years. In April, 
1862, he was admitted to the bar at Sunbury, where he has since practiced his 
profession. 

(>39) 



I40 



SIMOIn' p. woi.verton. 



In September, 1S6:!, Mr. Wolvcrton raised a companj' 01 emergenc}' men, of 
which he was Captain, and ser\-ed in the Eighteenth Regiment, Pennsylvania 
\"olunteers. In June, 1863, he was chosen Captain of Company " F " of the 
Thirt)--sixth Regiment, Pennsj-lvania Volunteers, under the call of Governor 
Curtin for ninety daj-s' men to resist the invasion of Pennsylvania by the Con- 
federates under Lee. 

In No\-ember, 1878, he was elected to the State Senate to fill the \'acancy 
caused by the resignation of Hon. A. H. Dill. He was re-elected for four years 
in November, 1S80, and again re-elected in November, 18S4, for another term 
of four years. Although a Democrat, and his Senatorial district stronglj' Repub- 
lican, he carried it by large majorities three times. As the elections in his 
district took place each time during a Presidential canvass, when party lines 
were closely drawn, his vote shows in what esteem he is held by those who 
know him. During his ten years in the Senate he has occupied a prominent 
position, and ranked as one of the leading lawyers of that body. During the 
session of the Senate, in 1887, he was nominated by the Democrats of both 
Houses as their choice for United States Senator. He was also the candidate 
of his partj', which was, however, in the minority, for the Presidency of the State 
Senate. During his service in the Senate he was the author of many important 
acts which may now be found upon our statute books. 

Mr. Wolverton has ahvaj-s taken an active interest in the material welfare and 
progress of his section, and was one of the principal movers in the construction 
of the Danville, Hazleton and Wilkes Barre Railroad, running from Sunbury to 
Hazleton. He was also an active promoter of the organization and building of 
the Shamokin, Sunbury and Lewisburg Railroad, between Shamokin and West 
Milton, making a connection between the coal regions and Williamsport. He 
has been President of the company since its organization. 

He has acted as counsel for the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company 
for over twenty years, and has been emplo}-ed in most of its important suits in 
his own and surrounding counties. 

On the 29th of November, 18S5, he was married to Elizabeth D. Hendricks, a 
daughter of Benjamin Hendricks, of Sunbury, and has three children — Mary G., 
Elizabeth K., and Simon P. Wolvcrton, Jr. 




Hon. Francis W. Hughes. 






{^i^ 






^/ i-rr^ 






^■^^^()i^^* 



FRANCIS WADE HUGHES. 

FRANCIS Wade Hughes, of Pottsville, was bom August 20th, 18 17, in Upper 
Merion township, near Norristown, Montgomery county, and is now sixty- 
seven years of age. His father, John Hughes, was one of the principal men of his 
neighborhood ; was a gentleman farmer, who leased the larger part of his estate 
to tenants, and in his time was regarded as wealthy. His mother was a daughter 
of Benjamin Bartholomew, ^\•ho commanded a cavalry company throughout the 
entire Revolutionary war. Both on the paternal and maternal sides liis ancestry 
Was among the original settlers of the colony of Pennsylvania. Hugh Hughes, 
a remote ancestor, came to this country from Wales prior to the time of William 
Penn and settled upon the estate where Mr. Hughes was born, and which is still 
owned by his brother, Benjamin Hughes, of Bridgeport, Pa. The small Welsh 
colony, of which Hugh Hughes was one, settled on the banks of the Schuylkill, 
in close proximity to the early Swedes. Owing to the large number of Swedish 
emigrants and frequent intermarriages, the memory of the early Welsh settlement 
is now chiefly retained in names of streams and localities in that neighborhood. 
The Hughes family was prominent in Colonial and Revolutionary days, and at 
an earl)' period were recognized as having a \-oice by reason of birthright in the 
affairs of the old Swedish churches. The Bartholomews were also among the old 
settlers, but resided in Chester count)', and were of French Huguenot extraction. 
That F. W. Hughes should be a law)-er was determined for him whilst he was 
yet a boy. The family tradition is that when )'oung his fuller, mother and friends 
regarded him as mischievous. Such estimate of his character he, however, in- 
dignantly repelled. The pure benevolence of breaking the eggs to assist the 
setting hen or the uiTcovering of garden seeds to promote vegetable growth, or 
kindred efforts, were not appreciated as intended, and brought him often into 
what he considered unmerited disgrace. He had a great love for animal pets, 
but his affection was sometimes displa)'ed in efforts more satisfactory to himself 
than comforting to his subjects. He was simply a boy in robust health, with 
quick intellect and overflowing animal spirits. What he next would do was not 
only a mysterj', but a fear to parents controlling children with all the straight- 
laced notions of b)-gone days. After some speciall)' anno)'ing prank, his father, 
almost in despair, shaking him, said : 

" Frank, wh)' do you do such things ? Your brother Coll never does." 
In the midst of tears the boy replied, " There's no credit to Coll for that." 
" Why not ? " asked the father, indignantl)-. 
" Because Coll never wants to, and I want to all the time." 
The truth embodied in this reply startled the old gentleman. He hesitated a 
moment, and then exclaiming, "By Jove! there's something in that," turned 
away. 

('4.) 



142 FRANCIS W. HUGHES. 

The boy displayed quickness, abilit}-, and fine reasoning powers. The father 
e.\erciscd intelligence in giving a career in life to his sons, and in tiiis case it was 
soon determined. " Frank," said the father, " shall be a lawyer, Coll a clergy- 
man." His judgment was good, as it was also as to the professional or business 
careers of his other sons. 

Rev. David Kirkpatrick, of Milton, Pa. (the father of Judge Kirkpatrick, of 
Pittsburgh), at that time deservedly enjo\'ed the reputation of being one of the best 
instructors of youth in the State. To his care was the subject of our sketch con- 
fided. Among his schoolmates were numbered ex-Governor Curtin, ex-Governor 
Pollock, Hon. Samuel Calvin, and others who have since risen to eminence in 
the State and nation. As a student, although j-oung, he made rapid progress in 
cla.ssical as well as mathematical studies, and was held in high esteem both by 
his teacher and his schoolmates. 

In the autumn of 1834 he commenced the study of law in the office of the late 
George W. Farquhar, of Pottsville, and the following winter he entered the office 
of John B. Wallace, of Philadelphia. He had as fellow-students there John W. 
and Horace B. \\'allace, sons of his preceptor, and also the late William Parker 
Foulke, Esq. It is rare that four young men of such great ability are found in 
one office, and so able, earnest, and untiring a preceptor as Mr. W^allace is still 
more rare. j\Ir. Wallace had retired from the active practice of the law and de- 
voted himself to the instruction of his students. The zeal of the teacher was 
equalled by the industry- and ambition of the scholars. A knowledge of pleading, 
acquired at that time, Mr. Hughes has often since displa}-ed in the trial of causes, 
exciting the wonder and astonishment of bench and bar. Mr. Wallace died 
during the latter part of the year 1S36. After his death young Hughes entered 
the law school at Carlisle, which was then under the control of Hon. John Reed, 
President Judge of that judicial district. At the law school he again met e.x- 
Go\-ernor Curtin and others of his schoolmates of the Milton Academy. Not- 
withstanding his youth he took a high position ; the extent of his learning, the 
ficility of its acquirement and the brilliancy and clearness of its expression is 
still fresh in the minds of his fellow-students. 

In August, 1837, he was admitted as a member of the Schuylkill counts- bar, 
and immediately commenced the practice of his profession in Pottsville, where 
he passed his life. In obtaining business he had no long struggle to encounter. 
His success was immediate, brilliant, and has been continuous. His practice 
was alwaj-s very lucrative ; it extended to all branches of the profession, and his 
cases important. He probably tried more causes than any lawyer in Penn.sylva- 
nia, whilst at the same time his office practice was very large. He was in 1839 
appointed Deputy Attorney-General by Hon. Ovid F. Johnson, then Attorney- 
General. He resigned three times, but was subsequently reappointed, and held 
the position altogether eleven years ; his knowledge of criminal law was con- 
.sequcntly thorough, but the great bulk of his practice had always been in the 
civil courts. He ranked amou;^ the fust df the few great land lawyers, was a fine 



FRANCIS \V. HUGHES. I43 

equity practitioner, and understood patents and commercial law. He prepared a 
case rapidly, but examined and cross-examined a witness with rare ability, and 
excelled in the management of a case. He had few equals in the country as a 
nisi pruts lawyer, although his extended reputation had perhaps been acquired in 
the argument of cases in the superior courts on appeal. Mr. Hughes, at no 
period of his life, was willingly concerned for the prosecution in homicide cases, 
and for a period of twenty-five years refused such engagements. He had, how- 
ever, very frequent engagements for the defence, with invariable success to the 
extent of preventing a conviction for murder in the first degree. He always 
gave the subject of criminal jurisprudence a great deal of thought, and whilst he 
could not be said to be opposed to capital punishment to the same extent or for 
the .same reasons which influence its opponents generally, yet he doubted the 
efficacy of capital punishment in any point of view. 

Nevertheless, when what are known as "Molly Maguire" cases came on for 
trial, he took an active part in the prosecution in Carbon, Schuylkill and Colum- 
bia counties. Owing to peculiar circumstances capital punishment of the crimi- 
nals seemed to be the only remedy for the evils that afflicted the community. 
To discuss fully the nature of the Molly Maguire organization is not possible, 
nor would it be proper in this article, yet a few words upon a subject so widely 
known, and yet so little understood, may not be amiss. For a number of years 
life and property in the anthracite coal fields of Pennsj'lvania were at the mercy 
of organized murderers. Men of high repute were shot down in populous neigh- 
borhoods in the broad light of day; property was burned and otherwise de- 
stro}-ed ; communities were terrorized, and yet the criminals escaped either without 
the form of a trial or if tried were, through perjured testimony, acquitted. Be- 
yond the known crimes, accidents in mines, involving the loss of human life, 
carried with them the suspicion of criminal outrage. Labor against the will of 
the laborer was controlled to its own disadvantage by an unknown, an irrespon- 
sible and a criminal power. Organized crime attained political power, legislative 
honors were obtained, and in at least one instance, through a nomination, a place 
among the judiciary was claimed, but fortunately not granted. When by accident 
there was a conviction for a lower grade of crime, untiring efforts, very frequently 
successful, were made for the pardon of the criminal. Murders were becoming 
of almost weekly occurrence, yet to all appearances the murderers were unknown. 
All rights of person and property were set at defiance ; a reign of terror in a 
highly civilized, order-loving community seemed imminent, and vigilance com- 
mittees were being formed. The ordinary detective was at fault because the usual 
motives of jealousy, revenge, or hope of gain seemed wanting. So great an as- 
cendancy had the Molly Maguire organization obtained through its terrorism that 
the utter abandonment of the best coal region in the world to criminals seemed 
probable. 

And yet throughout the coal region there were not over six hundred members 
of the organization, probably not near that number acquainted with its guilty 



144 FRANCIS W. HUGHES. 

puq^oses, but in repelling an attack the}- waged no uneven battle. Acting under 
charters of the Ancient Order of Hibernians, they asked for sympathy and ob- 
tained material aid from that organization. By birth Roman Catholics, though 
in open conflict vith the church, they proclaimed a religious persecution as being 
waged against them. By reason of their Irish birth they sought and obtained 
the sympathy of Irish people who held their order and their crimes in utter de- 
testation. Although, but in rare instances, connected with labor organizations, 
they charged that the prosecutions were inspired by a hatred to laboring men, 
and, to a larger extent outside of the region than in it, inspired that belief 

A knowledge of the criminals was obtained. The requisite proofs, through the 
efforts of Mr. Gowen and the instrumentality of the Pinkertou Detective Agency, 
were at hand ; that they should suffer the highest punishment known to the law 
was absolutely required. That they should neither escape through perjured tes- 
timony or be inspired by the hope of pardon through political influence was 
necessary. Capital punishment in their case seemed the only remedy for the 
ills under which the community suffered. Acting under this belief, Mr. Hughes 
actively, earnestly, and successfully took part in the prosecutions. The result 
has justified the efforts made. The lesson has been taught that punishment, if 
delayed for j'ears, will follow crime, and life and property in the coal regions are 
again under the protection of the law. 

Mr. Hughes' life was that of a lawyer. In his profession was centred his 
great ambition, and in it he made his greatest efforts. At the same time he 
took an active interest in politics as well as engaging in extensive business 
operations. In 1S43 he was elected as a Democratic candidate to the State 
Senate in Schuylkill county, only one hundred and forty-nine votes being cast 
against him. A.fter serving in the Legislature one year, in 1844, he resigned his 
position and returned to the practice of the law. In the fall of 1844, during the 
Presidential campaign, he, as a supporter of Polk and Dallas, engaged in a joint 
debate with Joseph G. Clarkson, Esq., of Philadelphia, who was not only his 
senior, but also had an established reputation as apolitical speaker. The debate 
was on the general political issues of the day, and e.xcited much attention through- 
out the State. It did much to establish his reputation as a trained speaker, and 
even his oppcr.ents, much as they disliked his political views, admitted that in 
the special controversy he was the victor. While in the State Senate he formed 
warm friendly relations with the Hon. William Bigler, who, when elected Gov- 
ernor in 1851, appointed him Secretary of the Commonwealth. This office he 
filled until 1853, when he succeeded Judge James Campbell as Attorney-General, 
remaining in that office until the early part of 1855. As Secretary of the Com- 
monwealth he was Superintendent of Common Schools and took great interest 
in the organization of the common school system of Pennsylvania, which, with 
slight and comparatively immaterial modifications, is still maintained. He was the 
author of the Common .School Act of 1854, and his decisions as Superintendent 
of Common Schools relative to the construction of the law are referred to in the 



FRANCIS W. HUGHES. 14 5 

digests, and are regarded as authority. He co-operated with Governor Biglcr in 
the more effective collection of the revenues of the State, especially in taxes due 
from corporations, and in the conversion of a large portion of the State debt from 
a six to a five per cent. loan. He was earnest in his advocacy of the rights of 
women. He did not advocate their right to vote, but claimed that the sphere 
of their employment should be enlarged and their pay be made commensurate 
with their service. In his reports as superintendent he urged the more general 
employment of female teachers at adequate salaries. In 1856 he was on the 
Democratic electoral ticket and voted for James Buchanan for Presitlent of the 
United States. He was in politics a Democrat, and had frequently been a dele- 
gate to county, State and national conventions, over many of which he presided, 
and in others, on the committee on resolutions, influenced their counsels. 
In politics, as in law, he was ever recognized as a power brilliant, frequently 
irresistible. As, however, a politician of the old school, he believed in the power 
of organization, but regarded parties as the representatives of principles, not as 
mere machines for the advancement of politicians. He had always been a strong 
advocate for the protection of American industry through the medium of a tariff, 
and the position of the Democratic party in this respect was embraced in his 
debate with Clarkson, referred to above. His position was that the primary 
object of duties upon imports is to collect revenue, but that in the adjustment of 
such revenues such discrimination on imports should be made as to give adequate 
protection to American industry. He was not a pro-slavery man, and he would 
liave seriously objected to its introduction into the State of Pennsylvania, and 
would not, in his own behalf, have dealt with negroes as property. He was in 
feeling opposed to the institution. 13ut he recognized the fact that good men 
differed from him in opinion, and he did not claim such difference of opinion 
amounted to criminality on their part. He admitted the binding force of the 
Constitution in the recognition of slave property. Upon this question he de- 
nounced the "higher law" doctrine of the abolitionists as subversive of all rights 
and as tending to anarchy and the overthrow of constitutional freedom. He saw 
at an early day the threatened danger to American institutions, and in order to 
avert such danger he earnestly advocated a strict adherence to both the letter 
and spirit of the Federal Constitution. 

Prior to the war his political opponents ridiculed him as an alarmist. When 
his forebodings were realized, he was by some denounced becau.se of his fore- 
knowledge. He regarded a civil war with dread, and hoped until the last to 
avert it. As a consequence, at the peace convention, which met in Harrisburg 
in 1 86 1, of which he was a prominent member and on the committee on resolu- 
tions, he earnestly continued his efforts. When, however, the resort to arms 
was inevitable, his support of the Union was prompt, energetic and valuable. 
He denied utterly any right of secession. He claimed that the government was 
one of the whole people, not a confederation of States. He aided in fitting out 
two of the first five companies that reached Washington. He maintained with 
'9 



146 FRANCIS W. HUGHES. 

voice and pen the legal right of the government to put down rebellion with 
force of arms. As early as July 4th, 1S61, in an oration delivered at the court- 
house in Pottsville, he argued against any legal right of secession on the part 
of anv State, and insisted upon the duty of the general government to put down 
rebellion by force of arms. This address was generally published and com- 
mended at that time. He aided in the raising of regiments when the invasion 
of Pennsylvania was threatened by the forces of Lee, and one regiment was 
familiarly known as his regiment. 

But he was a Democrat, chairman of the State executive committee in 1862, 
and in the heated political discussions of those days was denounced by his po- 
litical opponents. It is said that his old friend, the late John W. Forney, re- 
marked, when he learned of his appointment of chairman of the c.xecuti\'e com- 
mittee in 1862 : 

"I know Hughes, and there is no child's play before us. We must overwhelm 
him b)- an a[ipeal to the war feeling of the people." 

Mr. Hughes asserted that the secessionist and abolitionist were both enemies 
of the Constitution ; that the one should be put down by force of arms, the other 
at the ballot box. The tactics of Colonel Forney were adopted. The address 
of the State conmiittee was denounced as traitorous, and Democrats as hostile 
to the war. Hughes demanded that principles should be discussed. The right of 
Democrats to open their head-quarters or hold mass meetings was, on the other 
hand, denied. Democrats claimed the right of free speech and the right to peace- 
ably assemble to discuss political questions. The position taken by Mr. Forney 
and the Re[3ublican press was untenable. Popular sympathy on these questions 
favored the Democrats. P^fforts were made to have Mr. Hughes arrested, which 
might have proven successful had it not been that Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, then 
Secretary of War, was his personal friend. He was assured there should be no 
order for his arrest without his being first served with specifications and allowed 
a hearing. As no charges could have been sustained, no order was issued. The 
Democrats carried the State, owing in part to Mr. Hughes' skilful management, 
and in part to the mistaken policy adopted by the Republicans in the campaign. 
In 1862 the President's emancipation proclamation was issued. This, as an act 
of arbitrary power, Mr. Hughes denounced. 

In regard to this important act of the administration, it may be said Mr. 
Hughes' views later changed. He .still held the act to have been arbitrary and 
without con.stitutional right, unless as a war measure, and justifiable under the 
law of .self preservation, which he contended was as applicable to nations as to 
individuals. He afterward spoke with respect of the bold, open course pursued 
by Thaddeus Stevens at that time, as contrasted with the dishonest course of 
others who .sought to vindicate certain enactments of Congress as within the pro- 
visions of the Constitution. Mr. Hughes also maintained that the right of a 
nation to defend and maintain its own existence is a right inherent in the fact of 
the existence of such nation, and in the case of our Federal Government exists, 
in the words of Thaddeus Stevens, "outside of the Constitution." 



FKAN'CIS W. HUGHES. 



147 



As might have been expected, the extreme and unjust denunciation of Mr. 
Hughes in 1862 by his pohtical opponents made him ven- po])u!ar in his own 
party. He was a candidate before the Democratic Legislative Caucus for nomi- 
nation for the United States Senate in 1863. He liad made little or no canvass, 
but the outside pressure was strongly in his favor. Hon. Charles R. Buckalew, 
h(nve\-er, received the nomination and election. The defeat of Mr. Hughes 
■was ascribed by his friends to tlie Berks count)- represcntati\-es under the lead 
of Hon. Hiester Clymer. This was resented by Schuylkill county Democrats, 
especially as Mr. Clymer had been a former resident of the county and professed, 
and no doubt felt, a warm personal friendship for Mr. Hughes. The late Hon. 
Warren J. Woodward, then President Judge in Berks county, was a devoted 
frientl of Mr. Buckalew, and his influence, doubtless, had its effect on the repre- 
sentatives from that county. Mr. Cl)-mer was a candidate for the Democratic 
nomination for Governor in 1863. He had a number of very warm friends in 
Schu\-lkill county, but the general feeling among the Democrats there was that 
he should be defeated for the nomination. Mr. Hughes was a member of the 
State Convention. He urged that he had no personal feeling against Mr. Cly- 
mer, but he was overruled by his fellow delegates from Schuylkill county, and 
opposition to Mr. Ch'mer's nomination was determined on. The difficulty was 
as to a candidate. Hon. Wm. H. Witte, of Montgomerj', was very strong, but 
Mr. Hughes feared that he would show his full strength on the first ballot. He 
was, however, selected as first choice. Mr. Witte understood the position of the 
Schu\'lkill delegates, but, of course, disagreed as to their opinion of his strength. 
When the balloting commenced a number of names as a second candidate had 
been discussed, but none agreed upon. 

Mr. Hughes' prediction as to Witte was justified by the result. He showed 
his strength in the early ballots, but his friends were steadfast. Chief-Justice 
George W. Woodward started with about eight votes, which he retained. Whilst 
the third ballot was being taken, Mr. Hughes asked quiet!)- who represented Judge 
Woodward, was speedily in communication with his representative, and asked 
him to make no attempt to do more than hold his vote. In the meantime Mr. 
Witte had shown his full strength, about forty-four votes out of 133, and Mr. 
Hughes had sent to him asking permission to withdraw his name. He received 
in reply, " one ballot more." This was repeated, ballot after ballot, until when 
the tenth ballot was taken Mr. Clymer was only short a very few votes of a nomi- 
nation. The eleventh ballot was being taken, and Mr. Clymer's nomination ap- 
peared inevitable when Mr. Witte sent word that his name should be withdrawn. 
In an instant Mr. Hughes was on his feet, standing on his chair. He withdrew the 
name of Hon. William H. Witte, which was greeted with applause, and com- 
menced amid confusion a speech in which, with great eloquence, he introduced 
the name of Hon. George W. Woodward and made an appeal for his nomination. 
The effect was electrical ; cries of " by acclamation " were raised, but a ballot was 
had in which the nomination of Woodward was effected and in a moment there- 



148 FRANCIS \V. HUGHES. 

after made unanimous. In 1866 the Schuylkill county delegates supported Mr. 
Clymer for the nomination. Mr. Hughes was a delegate to the convention held 
in Philadelphia in the early part of Johnson's Administration, and supported the 
general policy of that convention. 

Mr. Hughes always insisted upon the right of the government to abso- 
lutely control the issuance of money as well as the amount of the issue, contend- 
ing that where the amount of gold and silver was not sufficient for the legitimate 
demands of trade, such amount should be supplemented with paper legal tender 
issues direct b)- the government instead of non-legal tender paper issues through 
the medium of banks. He contended that this was true Democratic doctrine, 
and as a consequence favored what was then known (in 1875) as the Ohio idea, 
and in the Democratic Convention held at Erie that year, he, as Chairman of the 
Committee on Resolutions, succeeded in having similar principles incorporated in 
the platform. 

In 1876, at the Democratic Convention which met at Lancaster, and which 
Mr. Hughes did not attend by reason of temporary indisposition, the doctrines 
of the Erie Convention were repudiated. In an open letter he asserted that their 
action was not Democratic, and supported Peter Cooper, the candidate of the 
Greenback party, as President. He was thereafter influential in the Greenback 
party; was President of the National Convention at Toledo in 1876, and of the 
State Conventions — 1877, at Williamsport; iS/S. '" Philadelphia, and 1880, in 
Harrisburg. He maintained the principles which induced him to connect him- 
self with the organization during the remainder of his life. 

In the Presidential campaign of 1880 he became satisfied that certain of its 
leaders were improperly controlling it with the object of advancing personal 
views and ambitions foreign to its legitimate purposes. He was not willing to 
lend his influence in favor of such aims, and at once severed his connection with 
the party. 

But notwithstanding the interest he had taken in politics Mr. Hughes was 
never a politician in the h,ense of being an aspirant for place. In 1863 he would 
have been gratified to attain the position of United States Senator, but even then 
did not make a canvass such as his friends think he should have made, and which 
they think would have insured his election. 

Mr. Hughes was always very active as a business man outside of his profes- 
sion. He originated and aided in many enterprises ; in the purchase and im- 
provements of lands; in the opening and improvement of coal and iron mines; 
in the establishment of iron works and other factories. 

About 1883 Mr. Hughes' health became impaired, and though for several 
years after he attended to business, struggling with an iron will again.st the 
inroads of weakening illness, in 1885 he began to fail rapidly, and on October 
22d of that year he breathed his last. 

Mr. Hughes was a gentleman of fine personal appearance, dignity of manners 
and character, pleasing address and amiable disposition. I le was universally 
respected, and popular with political opponents as well as friends. 




Hon. H. Jones Brooke. 



HUGFI JONES BROOKE. 

HON. H. Jones Brooke, for many years a State Senator, was born December 
27, 1805, and was the eldest of five cliildren born to Nathan Brooke and 
Mary (Jones), his wife. His fatlier was a well-to-do farmer, whose estate com- 
prised the valley of the Gulf Creek, in Radnor, adjoining Montgomeiy county. 
His ancestors were the sturdy yeomanry of the early emigration from E!ngland 
and Wales. Those of his father were Qiiakers, and settled in and near Limerick 
(now Montgomery count)'), and of his mother, Episcopalians, who settled in 
Newtown and Radnor, and were among the founders of St. David's Church, 
Radnor. His father djing when he was but nine years old, he was brought up 
under the joint care of his mother and his paternal grandfather, who were well 
fitted to prepare him for the active duties of life. His education was of the 
character obtainable at that day in the local schools. At the early age of fifteen 
he took charge of the farm, and thenceforward led a life of active usefulness. 

The prominence of his grandfather, who had been a Revolutionary officer, and 
was a large land -owner, as well as extensively engaged in industrial pursuits, 
brought him into early participation in the administration of public affairs, and 
he almost continuously served his fellow-citizens in local matters, besides terms 
in both branches of the State Legislature, always being on important committees, 
mostly in leading positions, and his advice was frequently sought in National and 
State, as well as local, corporate and personal affairs. 

In corporations he was largely interested ; and the Delaware Mutual Safety 
Insurance Company, the First National Bank of Media, the Twelfth Street 
Market Company, and the Media Gas Company were among those of which he 
was either the originator or a corporator, and assisted in the administration as 
president or director until his death. There were many other public interests 
with which he was or had been connected. To him Philadelphia is largely 
indebted for its present system of market-houses, he being the originator, and, 
until he refused to serve longer. President of the Farmers' Market Company. 

In 1853 he purchased the farm in and adjoining Media, lying between the 
State (street) road and Ridley Creek, and removing from Radnor thither, thence- 
forward gave liberal attention to the development of that town, building with his 
own means the Chestnut Grove House, Brooke Hall Female Seminary, many 
private residences and other buildings, and aided largely in the construction 
and management of the Philadelphia, Media and West Chester Railroad that 
passes through it. The PennsyK'ania Training School for Feeble-Minded Chil- 
dren near Media was located through him, and largely developed through his 
legislative influence in securing appropriations from the State for its building and 
maintenance. Both as an officer and citizen it had his earnest, sympathetic ad\ice 
and assistance until his death, 

(149) 



150 H. JONES BROOKE. 

In the suppression of the Rebellion he took an acti\e part, and when asked by 
the Secretary of War to assist in developing the Commissary Department he 
went earnestly to work, and served both in the field and at post with benefit alike 
to tile government and the soldier until impaired health from overwork enforced 
his resignation. 

In- politics he was a Whig, and early became a Republican because of his anti- 
slavery convictions, which caused liim to refuse a marshalship that might involve 
his official enforcement of tlie fugitive slave law. In business he spoke of him- 
self as a farmer, but, as before mentioned, he was that and much more. In 
religion he made no public profession, but was a regular and constant attendant 
at the services of the Protestant Episcopal Church. St. David's, Radnor, and 
Christ Church, Media, especially shared in his labors and his means. Of the 
latter he was the originator. He was especially interested in the amusement and 
instruction of the young, and was always ready at proper times to participate in 
the one or aid the other; and many were indebted to him for his good advice 
and material assistance for their start in life. 

He married, April 16, 1829, Jemima Elizabeth, daughter of Nathaniel Long- 
mire (a manufacturer) and Elizabeth (Green) liis wife, who, with his family, had 
emigrated from Nottingham, England. They had nine children, of whom 
tliree died in early childhood. The others — Nathan (died 1885), Francis Mark, 
Hannah Maria, wife of John L. Evans, Benjamin, Hunter, Sarah Ann, wife of 
George M. Lewis — and his widow, survived him. 

After an honorable life of uninterrupted usefulness he died, December 19, 1S76, 
and was buried at St. David's, Radnor. 



\V^.'- 




Hon. Charles S. Wolfe. 



CHARLES SPYKER WOLFE. 

A SHORT time since the public prints contained a statement showing the average 
age at whicli the marked men who have attained fame in the various de- 
partments of human endeavor achieved their distinction. Tlie most striking fact 
developed by this statement is found in the demonstration tliat the large majority 
of men of force and extraordinar_\' abilit)- since the dawn of civilization have been 
on their wa\' to prominence before passing the meridian of life. There are, of 
course, a few notable exceptions to this general rule, as in the case of Moses the 
1 L-brcw lawgiver, Cromwell the Puritan ruler of England, and Knox the great 
Scotch divine ; but the generaF tendency of all experience points with an unerring 
certaint)- to the conclusion that any notable human success must be achie\-ed 
\\hile the subject is in the lieyda)' of his powers, ph\'sical and mental. The sub- 
ject of this [iresent sketch adds another to the long list of examples which go to 
prove the truth of this proposition, he being the j'oungcst man now in public 
prominence in this Commonwealth. 

Ch.^rles Spvker Wolfe was born at Lewisburg, L-nion county, April 6, 1S45. 
Mis father, Samuel Wolfe, was of Pennsylvania Dutch extraction, his ancestors 
having originally emigrated from Berks county some time prior to the breaking 
out of the Revolution. One of his direct ancestors was killed by the Inilians in 
one of their predatory excursions, about the time of the fuiinus Wyoming mas- 
sacre, and is buried upon a farm a short distance from Lewisburg. Samuel 
Wolfe married Catharine Lawshe, a descendant of one of the pious Huguenot 
families who were dri\en from I' ranee on account of their religious con\-ictions. 
It will be seen, therefore, that Mr. Wolfe continues in his own nature the solid 
and enduring qualities of the Pennsyl\-ania Dutchman with the \'ersatilit_\- and 
brilliancy of the French race. Samuel Wolfe was the leading grain-dealer of 
the West Branch section in his da)-, ha\'ing extensi\e transactions with the 
farmers and business men of a large section of country. He bought the wheat 
from the farmers' wagons, and shipped it to Baltimore, Philadelphia and other 
jxiints by canal, which was the method of transportation in those da_\'s. His 
reputation for honesty and upiightness was so firmly established o\'er a wide 
extent of country where he was well known that his word was never questioned. 
This reputation provetl to be a legacy of great value to his son, as in after \'ears, 
^\■hen Charles, then little more than a beardless j-outh, started out among the 
people to make his first can\-ass for a legislati\-e nonn'natiun, he was in\ariabl\' 
greeted with the remark, that if he was as good a man as his father the district 
would have reason to be proud of such a representati\'e. 

Samuel Wolfe was one of the original founders of the " Uni\-ersit)' at Lewis- 
burg," where his son was afterwards etlucated, and held the position of treasurer 
to the institution at the time of his death, which occurred when Charles was only 

(151) 



15- CHARLES S. WOLFE. 

five )-ears old. By dint of his industrious and enterprising business methods lie 
had accumulated a fair competency, so that his widow and children were left in 
comfortable circumstances and the latter given a good education. Charles was 
admitted to college in iS6i, having been awarded the higliest prize given his 
class at the preliminarA- examination. He was at this time in very delicate health, 
and in consequence was compelled to leave college one year, and did Yiot gradu- 
ate till 1866, when he was awarded the highest honors of his class. The inter- 
vening year he spent in Minnesota with a party of civil engineers who were sur- 
veying the Winona and St. Peter's Railway. At the expiration of his collegiate 
course he immediately entered the Harvard Law School, and graduated there- 
from at the expiration of the usual two years' course. During his college course 
he had enlisted in Captain Lambert's Company of Independent Cavalry, and had 
.served in the famous Fishing Creek Confederacy campaign, and also was with 
his company in one of the Cumberland Valley campaigns, where he served as 
orderly to General Couch. He kept up his studies during the period of his mili- 
tarv service, so as to be able to keep pace with his class. He married during 
his last year at Harvard, and upon the completion of his law course at that insti- 
tution he returned to his native town and engaged in the practice of his chosen 
profession. Here, by his superior natural abilities and his indefatigable industr}', 
he soon established a lucrative practice, which has been constant!)' increasing 
until, at the present time, although he has associated two able assistants with 
him, he finds himself unable to keep up with the demands made upon him by his 
clients. His powers of endurance are extraordinary, as he will frequently, when 
engaged in preparing some important case, continue at his work for from twenty- 
four to thirty-six hours without rest or sleep. He has achieved aver}' high place 
in his profession, standing to-day in the very front rank among the lawyers of 
this Commonwealth. 

His most notable characteristics as a professional man are thoroughness in 
research and the power to state his positions in clear and forcible terms. Every 
person who has had the opportunity to hear him argue a point of law or a legis- 
lative proposition has been forcibly struck with those traits of his mental power. 
He first goes to the bottom of ever}' subject with which he grapples, and then 
states his points in terms so clear and forcible that even a child might understand 
them. But while he has achieved notable success for one so young in his chosen 
profession, Mr. Wolfe is best known to the people of this Commonwealth as an 
able, honest and courageous legislator. 

He was first chosen to represent the counties of Union and Snyder in the 
Lower House of the General Assembly in 1872, and was re-elected the following 
j'ear. In 1874 he was elected to represent Union county, and took an active 
part in preparing the body of legislation enacted in that year for the purpose of 
putting in force the provisions of the new Constitution. He was associated in 
that famous body with John I. Mitchell, since United States Senator, Judge Orvis, 
of Centre county, Ncwmeyer, of Allegheny, Stranahan, of Mercer, and others of 



CHARLES S. WOLFE. 1 53 

scarcely less distinguished ability and experience; and, although the youngest 
member of the body, was considered one of the most active and useful legislators 
who had the honor to represent this Commonwealth in that memorable session. 

He was again elected for the sessions of 1875-1876, and, although the Demo- 
crats were in the ascendency in this body, he divided the honors of the Republi- 
can leadership with John I. Mitchell, and made himself famous by his conduct of 
the notorious Boom bill investigation, and his management of the proceedings 
which resulted in the trial and expulsion of Lynott, of Luzerne, and Emil J. 
Petroff, of Philadelphia. In 1876 he was unanimously nominated by his county 
for the State Senate, but was beaten in the conference, and the Republicans were 
beaten in the district and have never been able to elect a Republican Senator 
from the district since. 

During the session of 1S77 Simon Cameron resigned his scat in the United 
States Senate and successfully transferred the Senatorial toga to his son for the 
remainder of his term. As the Legislature of 1879 would be called upon to elect 
his successor, Mr. Wolfe, who was a determined foe of the Cameron dynasty, 
offered himself again as a candidate for the Lower House upon the distinct issue 
that he would not vote for Cameron under any circumstances, and was over- 
whelmingly nominated and elected. When the Legislature of that year assembled 
the House was no sooner organized than under the call of the chairman of the 
State Committee the Senatorial caucus was called, although near two weeks in 
advance of the election. There were many protests and mutterings among the 
members and Senators at this haste, but the party lash was applied, and Mr. 
Cameron was nominated. Twenty-seven members and Senators, including Mr. 
Wolfe, absented themselves from the caucus, and if these had all stood firm Mr. 
Cameron's defeat would have been assured. But an adjournment was effected 
for one week under the plea of the necessity of time for the Speaker to make his 
committees, and the members were scattered to their several homes, where such 
pressure was brought to bear upon them that all but five yielded and Mr. 
Cameron was elected. Mr. Wolfe and his few " kicking " companions looked 
forward to the balance of the session with anything but pleasurable anticipations, 
as threats of ostracism and " boj-cotting " were indulged in very freely by the 
adherents of the so-called " machine." But this period of depression was of 
short duration, as Mr. Wolfe was a man of such aggressiveness and ability that 
in a short time he was able to turn the tables against his enemies, and assume his 
natural place as the leader of the House. This session was destined to witness 
one of the most stubborn and exciting legislative contests ever known in the 
history of the Commonwealth. 

The Pittsburgh riots, which had taken place in 1S77, had been accompanied by 
the destruction of an immense amount of property. By a special enactment 
Allegheny county was made responsible for all such losses occurring within her 
borders. These losses amounted to such an enormous sum that the people of 
the county applied to the Legislature for relief, and a bill was introduced appro- 



154 CHARLES S. WOLFE. 

priating $4,000,000 for that purpose. The balance of the State objected loudly 
to being taxed to pay this claim, and a determined opposition to the passage of 
the bill was soon organized. Mr. Wolfe led the opposition, although ably 
seconded by the late Edward Law, Benjamin L. Hewit and others. The contest 
became very violent; and was so close that for a long time it seemed verj' doubt- 
ful as to the final result. At last some of the friends of the measure, despairing 
of passing it by ordinary influences, undertook to compass its success by 
bribing and were detected and exposed. 

A committee of investigation was appointed, of which ]\Ir. Wolfe was a mem- 
ber, and, after a thorough and searching examination, made a report recommend- 
ing the expulsion of four members. The friends of the measure very unwisely 
banded together and prevented their expulsion, which required a two-thirds vote, 
and thus forced resort to criminal prosecution to purge the Legislature of the 
stain. This committee was composed of Messrs. McKee, Wolfe, Mapes, White, 
Hackett, Bradford, Kirke and Sherwood. As in all former reform measures 
connected with the Legislature of this Commonwealth since his first entrance 
into public life, Mr. Wolfe was once more the leading spirit in this endeavor to 
bring to justice the men who had attempted to corrupt legislation at its fountain. 
Eminent counsel were emploj'ed, including Judge Black, Matthew H. Carpenter, 
of Wisconsin, Franklin B. Gowen, Judge Simonton, of Harrisburg, George H. 
Irwin and others, and the suits were undertaken in dead earnest. 

One great obstacle which stood in the way of success was the fact that the 
Legislature had made no provision for the expenses of the trial, and such emi- 
nent counsel could not be obtained for nothing. But the determined Wolfe and 
his compatriots, nothing daunted, proceeded at once to obtain the necessary 
funds by private subscriptions, and pushed the suits with unabated vigor. Every 
obstacle which ingenuity, trickery and legal acumen could interpose was placed 
in the way of the prosecution. An extra grand juryman was smuggled into the 
grand-jury room, thus furnishing a technical pretext for the quashing of the 
first series of indictments. New bills were immediately presented and indict- 
ments obtained, and when the defendants had exhausted all means of delay and 
were compelled to face a jury of their peers, by the advice of their counsel four 
of them pleaded guilty, and one, Emil J. Petroff, was tried and convicted. 

The effective work of the committee which had thus pushed these prosecutions 
to a successful issue was to be neutralized by the action of the Pardon Board, 
which remitted the penalty of imprisonment within less than twenty-four hours 
after sentence was passed. The moral effect, however, of the convictions was 
not destroyed. From the hour that sentence was passed upon the guilty parties 
the political atmosphere of the State has been undergoing the process of purifi- 
cation. The bribe-giver and the bribe-taker in the councils of the Common- 
wealth saw in the result of the trials the rise of a new spirit, and it is a fact 
worthy of record that from that time to this the Pennsylvania Legislature has 
been more elevated in tone, more obedient to the will of the people, and freer 



CHARLES S. WOLFE. 155 

from the presence of the professional corruptionist than it had been for ten years 
previous. In all the tedious work of this laborious prosecution Mr. Wolfe was 
the acknowledged leader, and to his untiring energy, his wise counsels, and his 
relentless determination to vindicate the fame of the State, must be attributed in 
great degree all the good effects that followed. 

In connection with this chapter of Mr. Wolfe's public record there is a fact 
never yet published, which, in justice to the patriotic manhood of Pennsylvania, 
should now be given its place in histor\-. It is that the prosecution and convic- 
tion of the Riot bill bribers was accomplished without the expenditure of a 
single dollar of the public funds. All the expenses of the trial — and they were 
greater than those of any other State trial in the history of the Commonwealth — 
were paid by private subscriptions. 

It is not improbable that the success which attended Mr. Wolfe's efforts to 
punish crime in high places had something to do with the organization of the 
reform movement which within the past five }'ears has wrought such wholesome 
results in the municipal affairs of Philadelphia. 

The fame acquired by Mr. Wolfe in his crusade against the Riot bill corrup- 
tionists led to his overwhelming re-election to the House in i8So, where he 
found himself again surrounded by his comrades in the celebrated prosecution. 

The Legislature elected simultaneously with Garfield's elevation to the Presi- 
dency was thoroughly Republican. In the House the partv had a majority of 
forty-three votes, and in the Senate a majority of si.vtcen. The interest of the 
session centered upon the election of a successor to William A. Wallace in the 
United States Senate, and the people of the State had formally and informally 
expressed their preference for Galusha A. Grow for that position. To the radical 
wing of the party Mr. Grow, because of his abilities, independence and ante- 
cedents, was thoroughly distasteful, and the edict went forth that he must be 
defeated. Representatives who had been instructed b\- their constituents to sup- 
port Mr. Grow were persuaded by the peculiar methods of the machine to ignore 
their obligations and indorse a candidate selected by Cameron. To prevent the 
nullification of the popular will it became necessary to resort to aggressive 
measures. A bolt was organized, and fifty-six Senators and Representatives, 
prominent among whom was Mr. Wolfe, refused to enter the party caucus. The 
bolters carried with them the balance of power, and held the machine at bay all 
through the hostile contests that followed. They voted for Mr. Grow steadily 
until he withdrew, and then transferred their strength to Thomas M. Bayne, of 
Allegheny, whom they continued to support until a joint committee appointed by 
the conflicting parties waited upon John I. Mitchell as a compromise candidate, 
Mitchell being finally elected by a practically unanimous vote. Throughout 
this contest, from its inception to its consummation, Mr. Wolfe was a foremost 
and effective worker against the machine, sharing with Senators Lee and Stewart 
and Representatives Law, McKee and others all the trying labors of organization 
and policy. 



156 CHARLES S. WOLFE. 

Tlic Senatorial contest fairly settled, the next important work of the session 
was tiiat which arose in connection with the reform legislation proposed by 
members from Philadelphia. The legislation in question consisted of acts re- 
pealing the Delinquent Tax bill, abolishing the Recorder's office, and kindred 
measures. Owing to the delay caused by the Senatorial struggle it was impos- 
sible to reach these bills in their regular order, and it was therefore necessary to 
make their consideration a special order, which required a two-thirds vote. But 
notwithstanding the fact that a clear majority of the House favored the bills, the 
machine was enabled to defeat their enactment by withholding the votes neces- 
sary to a special order. In Mr. Wolfe the gentlemen in charge of these bills, 
Messrs. McKee and Law, found a ready and powerful coadjutor. 

In his legislative career Mr. Wolfe displays the same effective oratory that 
marks his services as a legal advocate. His argument against the constitution- 
ality of the Riot bill, founded upon the debates in the Constitutional Convention, 
has been pronounced a masterpiece by the best legal minds of the State ; and 
the opinion of the Supreme Court, declaring Allegheny county responsible for 
the losses incurred in the riots, might almost be called an abstract of his argu- 
ment. Notwithstanding the snap and fire and eloquence of his oratory on the 
political stump or in some quiet churchyard, where the graves of soldiers have 
just received their offerings of bud and blossom, Mr. Wolfe's greatness as a 
speaker rises to its loftiest height in the heat of some fierce debate in the halls 
of the Legislature. It needs opposition, friction, contradiction or the blind as- 
sault of an infuriated antagonist to rouse his latent energies, and when that is 
done, he rises like some wild mountain torrent, and with logic, invective, ridicule 
and withering satire sweeps all before him. 

Thus far this essay has dealt with Mr. Wolfe as a man, a lawyer and a legis- 
lator. We have now to consider him as an agitator and popular leader. 

The inauguration of President Garfield was hailed as the signal for purer 
morals in Pennsylvania Republicanism. Garfield was in hearty accord with the 
Independent spirit which had but recently forced the election of Mitchell to the 
Senate. He had announced his purpose to recognize all elements of the party 
equally, and by his own record and the antecedents of his nomination stood dis- 
tinctly committed against the proscriptive policy which had been so long pur- 
sued by the radical wing of the party in this State. The courageous independ- 
ence of the Federal Administration and its evident determination to see fair play 
to all sides had the effect of bringing about a change in the tactics of the leaders 
of the Pennsylvania machine, and they evinced a disposition to meet the Liberal 
element half way in the work of reconciliation. In the preliminary canvass and 
consultation William F. Davies, of Bradford county, one ot the State Senators 
who had bolted the Senatorial caucus the winter before, was suggested by the 
Independents as an available man for .State Treasurer, and the machine managers 
with little or no dissent offered to support him and make him the nominee of 
the convention. Accordingly the customary machine jjolicy of nominating a 



CHARLES S. WOLFE. 157 

candidate solely with a view of his acceptance to Cameron was abandoned, and 
there was a tacit if not an explicit understanding that Davies was to be the party 
nominee. 

On the 2d of July occurred an event which ultimately caused a reversal of the 
moderate policy thus introduced by the Radicals and a return to the arbitrary 
methods which alone arc responsible for all the dissensions which have since dis- 
tracted the Republican organization. So long as there was a probability of 
President Garfield's recovery from the wound inflicted by Guiteau, so long the 
machine leaders professed a willingness to acquiesce and assist in the nomina- 
tion of Davies. But as the summer wore on and the patient sufferer in the White 
House drifted nearer and nearer the borderland of death, the machinists began 
casting about for a pretext on which to violate their pledges. They saw in the 
death of Garfield the accession to power of an administration headed by a man 
whose whole political career had been dominated and controlled by the party 
machine ; they saw that Arthur's elevation to the Presidential office would revo- 
lutionize the entire policy of the government and place it again in the hands of 
the desperate leaders who had been ingloriously beaten at Chicago; and, with 
the cunning of their craft, they resolved that Pennsylvania should present her- 
self to the new dynasty in the attitude of a supporter of Stalwart policy. To 
accomplish this purpose the pledges of fealty to Davies were cast to the winds 
and the forces of the Radical wing of the party were concentrated to nominate 
a candidate whose record should harmonize with the third-term idea. 

Mr. Wolfe as a spectator attended the convention which nominated General 
Bailey. He saw that body in complete submission to the men who in two 
National Conventions had stifled the voice of Pennsylvania by binding her in 
slavery to the unit rule ; he saw it controlled by the Pardon Board, that had de- 
stroyed at a blow the fruits of the Riot bill prosecutions, and he saw the same 
organization compel the nomination of a gentleman who stood with the " 306," 
in defiance of the people's will, at Chicago. 

Hot with indignation at what he deemed abase stultification of the Republican 
party, Mr. Wolfe retired to his quiet home in Lewisburg, chagrined and humil- 
iated. The action of the convention had placed him in a position that offered 
but one alternative — he must either indorse the nominee of the convention and 
thus tacitly approve the action of the Pardon Board, which wiped away the re- 
sults of the great triumph of his life, or come out in open rebellion against the 
machine. One thing meant self-stultification and the other meant sacrifice of 
political prospects. He chose the latter, and without a word of consultation 
with his friends he announced himself as an Independent Republican candidate 
for State Treasurer. 

The history of the brief campaign which followed constitutes one of the most 
picturesque chapters in the political annals of Pennsylvania. In the four weeks 
intervening between his announcement and the day of election, he spoke in nearly 
every city in the State, his speech in every instance ringing with brave words for 



1 5$ CHARLES S. WOLFE. 

rjform in methods of party management. His appeal to the people evoked a 
response which fully justified his courageous attitude and opened the way for the 
organized opposition which has since appeared against the machine. 

The great success of this personal campaign startled and alarmed the machine 
leaders, and efforts were made to heal the division in the Republican party caused 
by Mr. \\'olfe's revolt. A conference of Independent Republicans took place at 
Philadelphia, January I2th, 1S82, at which Mr. Wolfe made a speech. A resolu- 
tion was adopted, calling for a State Convention on May 24th, for the purpose 
of nominating a State ticket. The machine leaders had decreed the nomination 
of General Beaver for Governor of the State, and while the Independents had no 
personal objection to him, they were determined that nominations made at tlie 
parlor caucuses of a few assumed leaders should be rebuked. Every prepara- 
tion was therefore made for the selection of the best representatives of the Inde- 
pendent element as delegates to the coming Independent Convention. In this 
work I\Ir. Wolfe was as usual the master spirit. Prior to the time for the as- 
sembling of the convention, however, a Peace Conference was arranged com- 
posed of five representatives of each faction. Mr. Wolfe was a member of this 
conference on the part of the Independents. The conference met on the evening 
of May 1st, and recommended the adoption of what was afterwards called the 
Continental Conference rules for the government of the party, but failed to make 
them applicable to the coming Republican Convention, which was to meet on 
May loth. The convention met on that date and carried out the prearranged 
programme in making its nominations, and while making a show of adopting 
the recommendations of the Peace Conference, refused to adopt the really vital 
propositions contained therein. The Independent Convention met May 24th 
and proceeded to nominate a ticket with Senator John Stewart at its head as the 
candidate for Governor. Mr. Wolfe was present as a delegate and took a very 
prominent part in the proceedings of the convention. He afterwards participated 
in the campaign in the most active and effective manner, speaking in every im- 
portant city in the State, and witnessing as the result of his labors the final and 
complete overthrow of the oligarchy which had so long controlled the Republi- 
can part>' of Pennsylvania. During the campaigns, from 1883 to 1885 inclusive, 
he took no active part, attending .strictly to his constantly increasing law prac- 
tice ; but in 1886 his proud spirit of independence again asserted itself, and he 
not only advocated the cause of Prohibition, but accepted the candidacy for 
Governor of that party, and made one of his characteristic, thorouglily aggressive 
and extraordinarily able canvasses. Though he fell far short of the vote lie had 
received for State Treasurer, he succeeded in fully arousing the people, and the 
principles he advocated bore fruit at the subsequent session of the Legislature, 
Januar)', 1887, when the subject of Temperance received more attention than for 
many years before. 

Perhap,s the first inquiry to suggest itself to the casual visitor to Mr. Wolfe in 
liis own home would be, " Why does a man with these surroundings permit him- 
self to be drawn into the turmoil of political warfare?" A home which in its 



en aki.es s. WOLFE. 159 

material elements combines all the luxury and elegance at the command of 
abundant means; a home in which refinement and domestic happiness reign 
supreme ; where a womanly wife and sweet-voiced children worship the house- 
hold gods in happy simplicity — all these possessions, added to a large and profit- 
able professional practice, amply justify the visitor's query. 

The explanation of it all is that the man is by nature and instinct a politician 
and a leader. To him the heat and strife of a great political contest are meat 
and drink and air. He is a fighter by choice and a leader by force of character. 

The duty of a friend in writing of a friend should conform with Othello's in- 
junction to his chronicler, " Speak of me as I am." Wolfe's personal character 
is that of the radical. His perceptive powers are keen, his convictions immov- 
able and his manner impetuous. He is impulsive and combative in the highest 
degree. He lacks patience ; he is intolerant of those who lack his own power 
of reaching quick conclusions, and his brilliant manner of thought and speech 
sometimes dazzles and misleads his own judgment. With these qualities he 
combines a conscientiousness which shines conspicuously through his every act, 
and a fidelity to his duty which always compels respect, if it sometimes fails to 
command approval for his conduct. 

What the future of this man may be is largely to be determined by the out- 
come of the great political contest which he helped to inaugurate and of which 
he has ever since been a conspicuous leader. He possesses the elements of true 
political greatness and occupies a position whose individuality is more vividly 
defined than that of any man of his years who ever appeared in Pennsylvania poli- 
tics. But whether his career hereafter shall be brilliant or without lustre, the 
impartial historian will write him down as one of the fearless few who were brave 
enough to .sacrifice the prospect of political advancement to a sense of duty to 
the Commonwealth. 




Hon. John J. Macfarlane. 



JOHN JAMES MACFARLANE. 

HON. John J. Macfarlane, Senator from the I-'ourth District of Pcnn- 
s}-lvania, and President of the American Life Insurance Company of 
Philadelphia, was born in that city on the 5th of June, 1S46. His parents both 
came from the North of Ireland, and were descendants of a long line of what is 
known in history as the Scotch-Irish stock, which has made itself felt in every 
walk of life — civil, political and military. The son inherited the sterling qualities 
of this excellent race, and very early in life manifested the physical and mental 
traits that characterize the sturdy Scotch-Irish lineage wherever found. Mis 
education was begun in the public schools of the city of his birth, and completed 
in the Central High School. The lad made no holiday of life. From early 
childhood his career has been marked with determined effort and laborious 
application. When he worked or studied he applied all his faculties to the task 
before him, and never left it until he had completely mastered it. If he played, 
he entered into the sport with all the ardor of his nature. As he grew toward 
and into manhood, the same energy and application marked his course and dis- 
tinguished him from the mass of his associates. When he left school he almost 
immediately became prefect of Girard College, the date of his accession to that 
place in the institution being 1864, when he was but eighteen years of age. He 
held and successfully filled the position in the college until 1871, when he relin- 
quished it to accept the position of Principal of the Chestnut Hill Grammar 
School, which rapidly achieved a foremost rank among the public schools of 
Philadelphia under his proficient and painstaking management. Stephen A. 
Douglas is authority for the statement that the best place to study human nature 
and human government is from the teacher's desk in the public school, and one 
of the foremost lawyers at the Philadelphia Bar asserts that no man can become 
a proficient lawyer who has not served half a dozen years of his life as a school 
teacher. Be this as it may, history avouches that many of our most astute 
statesmen and successful politicians and lawyers have served such an apprentice- 
ship in teaching. A generation ago those known as self-made men used the 
teacher's platform in the public schools as a stepping-block to their chosen 
profession. 

Mr. Macfarlane served an extended apprenticeship in the vocation of a public 
school teacher, remaining in his chair as Principal of the Chestnut Hill Grammar 
School until 1881, a period of nearly eleven years. His inherent ambition made 
him desire a wider sphere for advancement, and with the shrewdness and courage 
of his lineage he chose an occupation which, as a reward for close application, 
hard labor and shrewd intelligence, promised correspondingly large rewards. 
He embarked in the insurance business, and, with his characteristic thorough- 
ness, applied himself to the task of mastering the details of the business. His 
21 (161) 



l62 JOHN J. MACFARLANE. 

foresight suggested this step as necessary to gradual advancement and ultimate 
success in attaining the foremost stand in the vocation which he had determined 
upon as the business of his life, and his foresight speedily fruited into prophecy 
as he promptly and steadily went forward and upward in his profession until he 
attained the topmost round of the ladder. 

Mr. Macfarlane came into public notice and public life by his campaign for the 
office of State Senator from the Fourth Senatorial District in 1882, in which he 
was elected by a flattering majority. His career in the Senate has been marked 
by a wide knowledge of men and a comprehensive grasp of affairs. His probity 
and courage have commended him to his fellow-citizens and the tax-paj'ers, and 
his courtesy and painstaking devotion to duty have won for him the regard of his 
colleagues and the confidence of his constituents. He has earned the name of a 
reformer for the sake of reform, and not alone for the ephemeral fame that would 
serve as a stepping-stone to selfish aggrandizement and personal profit. His 
reform was not " a promise made to the ear and broken to the hope." Nor is he 
radical or revolutionary in his language, methods or measures. He is conserva- 
tive in all things. Assured that great bodies move with proverbial tardiness, he 
was satisfied to go forward slowly and safely ; so no backward step was taken. 
That his constituents appreciated his intentions, efforts and achievements, they 
hastened to attest at the first possible opportunity'. This occurred at the expira- 
tion of his first term as Senator, which was in 1SS6. He was again nominated 
and elected \\ith increased manifestations of public favor, and will hold the office 
until 1890. 

Upon his entrance into the Senate he was compelled to differ with man\- of his 
political associates on matters of legislation pertaining to Philadelphia. P'irst 
came the bill to abolish the office of Collector of Delinquent Taxes, which was 
finally passed ; then the repeal of the Recorder's bill. The existence of these 
offices had caused considerable trouble and dissatisfaction in Philadelphia, and 
their recission now saves the community hundreds of thousands of dollars a j'ear. 
He became a leader of the Republican side in all matters relating to the appor- 
tionment legislation during the eleven months' session of 1883, and his speeches, 
which were printed and sent broadcast over the State, were used by most of the 
speakers during the canvass following as the basis of their addresses, and con- 
tributed largely to the success of the party in that year. During the session of 
1885 and 1887 he was made Chairman of the Finance Conmiittee in acknowl- 
edgment of his special qualifications, and became as much an authority in all 
matters of financial legislation as he had formerly in that connected with appor- 
tionment. He has always taken the side of the people, even when it seemed to 
presage his political death or loss of influence, and his constituents feel that he 
honestly represents them, for no one has ever been said to control his vote. 
Many of the prominent citizens of Philadelphia have said that it would be a pub- 
lic calamity if his new business should cause him to retire from public life. He 
was the active man in securing the insertion in the Hi"h License bill of the 



JOHN J. MACKARLANE. 1 63 

requirement tliat all licenses should be granted by the Judges in Philadelphia 
and Allegheny counties after it had been struck out in the House. 

Meanwhile the star of his destiny in the insurance firmament had been mount- 
ing higher and higher. With a shrewd Scotch regard for the old maxim that 
" He who best helps himself, most helps the world," he had not neglected his 
business interests while attending to political campaigns and public duties. His 
tliorough mastery of the details of the insurance business, his unimpeachable 
integrity, and his comprehensiv'c intelligence marked him for a rising man in the 
insurance world, and he went forward with a steady, self-reliant step until, in 
April, 18S7, he was elected President of the American Life Insurance Company 
of Philadelphia, and soon made the impress of his energy and systematic labor 
felt on its affairs. 

Amongst other posts of trust or honor held by Mr. Macfarlane is that of 
Director of the Bank of America, and also of the Seventh National Bank. 

Mr. i\Iacfarlane is not entirely without a military record, although he was too 
young to have attained prominence during the war. When not yet sixteen years 
of age he served in the Keystone Battery in the year 1862, and in the following 
year (1S63) was enrolled in Miller's Independent Battery. 

Although but fort}'-two }"ears of age, and consequently in the early pride of 
manhood's pli)-sical and intellectual vigor, he already has a record which few 
men of three-score )-ears can boast, and the promise of a successful, useful and 
honorable life ahead of him, which promise, precluding accidents, disease or 
premature death, will assuredly be realized steadily and rapidly, else the past is 
no criterion of the future, and coming events do not cast their shadows before. 

I. L. Vansant. 




Hon. John E. Reyburn. 



JOHN EDGAR RKYBURN. 

HON. John E. Revdurn, Senator from the Fifth Senatorial District, was born 
at New CarUsle, Clark county, Ohio, on February 7, 1845, and is the only 
son ofWilliamS. Reyburn, a successful merchant and manufacturer of Philadelphia, 
to which city his parents removed during their son's childhood. In the exercise 
of every care to prepare him for a useful life private tutors were employed to 
direct his mental training, until prepared for an academic course, when he entered 
Saunders' Institute at West Philadelphia, where he completed his schooling. On 
graduating he took up the study of law in the office of the late E. Spencer Miller, 
I^sq., and was admitted to practice at the Philadelphia Bar in 1870. In tlie fall 
of that )'car, being of the age of twenty-five, he was elected a Representative to 
the State Legislature from his district, and immediately took a leading part, 
standing well to the front of much older and experienced men; and, although it 
was his first term, he was elected to serve upon the general Judiciary Committee 
which framed the law providing for the New Constitutional Convention which 
formulated the Constitution of 1873. He also took an active part in all the leg- 
islation of that session, achieving considerable honor for one so young. He was 
re-elected in 1874, and again' in 1875, to what was known as the "Centennial 
Session," in which he took a prominent and commanding position. 

During these times he was active in promoting all the measures for carrying 
into effect the Constitutional Amendments then proposed by the General Judiciary 
and Constitutional Reform Committees, of which he was a member, and in which 
were associated with him as colleagues some of the ablest men in the State. He 
also took a prominent part in the formation of the special laws then enacted 
relating to cities of the first, second and third classes, and in the support of all 
measures looking to the interest of the great Centennial Exhibition; in fact, 
during these sessions he participated in all the work of his party in the Legisla- 
ture, and was virtually a leader of the Republicans in the House, although the 
party was in the minority. 

Returning from the session of 1876 with the esteem of his colleagues and the 
confidence of his constituency, he was in that year nominated by the Republican 
party and elected to the State Senate for the term of four years, to succeed the 
Hon. Elisha W. Davis, then President of the Senate ; and prominent as was that 
gentleman at that time, his young successor, by reason of his preparatory training 
in the House, was enabled to take a part which was fully as conspicuous and 
useful. 

He was prominent in enacting the legislation which resulted from the labor 
riots of 1877, and was one of the hardest working members of the committee 
having those matters in charge. He has been a member of the Committee on 
Appropriations for four sessions, two of which he was its Chairman, and during 

(■•^5) 



l66 JOHN E. REVBL'KN. 

that time over ^25,000,000 were appropriated, and all of his recommendations 
were favorably acted upon. He has held the office of Senator from his district 
from 1876 down to the present time, being a continuous service in that branch 
of eleven years, and none have acquired a higher reputation for personal and 
official integrity, firmness of purpose and other sterling traits of character. This 
being his reputation throughout the commonwealth, his general popularity led 
the leaders of the Republicans in the troublesome times of 1883, when the 
" Independent Party " practically held the balance of power, to .select him as the 
standard-bearer of the Regulars or Stalwarts as they were then known ; and his 
selection as President /;'tf tcDi. of. the Senate is often referred to as a very fortunate 
outcome. If the party had selected a weaker man, it is doubtful whether the 
Republican organization could have been held intact long enougii to form a line 
to repel the assaults of those who had for many months planned its ruin and 
were to the last confident of success — all of which his selection averted, and to 
the satisfaction even of those who at that time opposed him. 

As a man he has the respect of all — exemplary in his habits, interesting in 
conversation, affable in manner, and in his bearing towards all no one is more 
democratic. 

As a parliamentarian he is able, far-seeing and active, and as a Senator on the 
floor no one is better versed in all legislation concerning the commonwealth, its 
finances, its corporations, and particularly in laws that affect the government of 
cities. His advocacy of legislation relating to the city of Philadelphia on the 
one hand, or his opposition on the other, practically settles its fate. 

His name is frequently mentioned in connection with the Governorship of the 
State, Congressional nomination and the Mayoralty of the city on account of his 
availability; but he is"not so ambitious as to favor the solicitations of his friends 
in this respect. Although he has never pursued the active practice of his pro- 
fession, he has kept abreast with its progress by keeping himself well acquainted 
with its decisions. His resources financially permit of leisure time which he 
devotes to politics, and that his political course has proved successful is admitted, 
not only by the friends who appreciate his fidelity, but even by his political 
opponents. Many as have been the conflicts in which he has been engaged, it is 
conceded that he continues to grow in popular favor with his constituency, and, 
as he is still a young man, his life is full of promise if he is vouchsafed the 
ordinary length of years. His wealth does not consist entirely of his ample 
means, but a greater treasure — a conscience at ease, a mind constantly elevated 
and active in the interest of the public welfare and good government, and a repu- 
tation free from stain to descend as an inheritance which neither gold can pur- 
chase, envy diminish, nor the flight of time destroy. Jno. C. Gkady. 




Hon. Robert P. Allen 



ROBERT PORTER ALLEN. 

HON. Robert P. Allen, a prominent lawyer of Williamsport, and formerly- 
State Senator from the Twenty-fourth District, was born in South Wil- 
liamsport, Lycoming county, on February 6, 1835. His father, Charles Allen, 
was of flnglish descent, and came to Lycoming county from New Jersey about 
the year 1800. His mother was Rachael Porter, who was of Scotch-Irish 
extraction. They lived all their married life, of nearly fifty }-ears, on the home- 
stead farm in South Williamsport, where their son, Robert P. Allen, was born. 
He began attendance at school in the city of Williamsport at an early age, and 
graduated from the Dickinson Seminar)- in 1S52. He then entered the Sopho- 
more Class at Lafayette College, and graduated in 1855. After this he studied 
law with General Robert Fleming in Williamsport for a j'ear and a half; then 
entered the Harvard Law Scliool at Cambridge, Mass., from which he graduated, 
and was admitted to the bar of L}-coming county in January, 1858." Beginning 
practice, he was almost immediately very successful. In the fall of 1875 Mr. 
Allen was elected a member of the State Senate from the Twent_\--fourth District — 
composed of the counties of Sullivan, Lj-coming, Montour and Columbia — for 
the term of one year under apportionment of terms provided by the new Consti- 
tution of 1873, and was re-elected for the term of two years in the fall of 1876. 
In the election of 1875 Mr. Allen received in the district 11,315 votes, his oppo- 
nent, Mr. William A. Lyon, having 5.716. The people were so well pleased with 
his good judgment and his attention to the interests of the party he represented 
during his first term, that a second term was gi\-en him, as noted, the ballot 
showing the estimation in which he was- held. Mr. Allen at this time recci\-cd 
12,606 votes, and Hon. Michael Stccl< 8,411. The latter gentleman had pre- 
viously been Territorial Governor of New Mexico, and was a very prominent 
man. During Mr. Allen's service in the Senate he took an active part in all 
debates, notably in those concerning the bill to reduce Boomage, the Sheriff's 
bill of Philadelphia, and the Recorder's bill of the same city. Since his last term 
he has entirely devoted himself to the practice of law. 

Mr. Allen was elected a member of the Executive Committee of the Demo- 
cratic State Committee in 1883, and was re-elected to serve during the Presi- 
dential campaign. The next sunmier he was unanimously elected a delegate 
in the Sixteenth Congressional District to the Democratic National Convention, 
which was held in Chicago, and nominated Mr. Cleveland. Mr. E. L. Keenan, 
of McKean county, was Mr. Allen's colleague. Mr. Allen was a member of 
the State Democratic Convention of 1885, and was nominated and elected 
Temporary Chairman. Upon being conducted to the chair by Hons. Richardson 
L. Wright and \'ictor E. Piolett, he addressed the convention as follows : 

Gentlemen of the Convention : — I thank you for the honor you have given me by calling upon 

O67) 



1 68 ROBERT P. ALLEN. 

mc to presiile temporarily over your deliberations. I feel complimented in being conducted to the chnir 
by tlie two veterans of Democracy who have just shown me that attenlion. 

This is the first Democratic Convention held in ihe State, not since the election, but since the inaugu- 
ration of a Democratic President. Without offices or patronage Democratic principles have kept life in 
the Democratic party for twenty-five years, and we can rejoice that now these principles are being put 
in j-raciice by the new administration of our National affairs at Washington 

The Constitution of 1S73 of Pennsylvania contains some wise provisions as to the right of corporations. 
These public corporations were created for the public good, and they bring great benefits to the people, 
when they are restricted to the exercise of the legitimate powers granted to them by the State. The 
great corporations are only the creatures of the Stale to perform certain well-defined acts for a public 
purpose and for the public welfare ; and all tlie people demand is that they should be kept within the 
laws of their creation. 

The Constitution of 1S73 places some important and very salutary restrictions upon corporations, 
and especially upon the great carrying companies of this State, the conduct and control of which is so 
vitally connected with the development, and taking to market of the varied and immeasurable natural 
products with which our gre.it Commonwealth is blessed. The natural wealth of Pennsylvania to-dny is 
largely to be measured by the contrul that shall be enforced over its great corporations. All that should 
be sought for is to keep them within the bounds of our constitutional limitations in the use of their fran- 
chises. Many of the wisest of these restrictions the Republican parly have disregarded by refusing, 
during the lime that they have had control of the Legislature, to enact proper laws to carry them into 
ellect; and the Republican p.irty in this Slate has uttered no voice in favor of a just and honest enforce- 
ment of our new constitution. We have before us now the vital question, whether the fundamental law 
of the State shnll cuntinue as to many of its provisions a dead letter. The Governor and his chief law- 
officer are resolutely and patriotically engaged at this time in trying to enforce the constitution, and to 
carrj' into practical operation some of its restraints upon public corporations; and it is our duty as a 
convention, and as citizens, looking to the public good, to uphold them in their efforts. 

In all these positions he displaj'ed talents wliich belong rather to the statesman 
than to the politician, and his name has been frequently mentioned in connection 
with the Gubernatorial cliair. He has also been connected with various corpora- 
tions. He is a Director in the Lumbermen's National Bank, the Williamsport 
Gas Company and the Williamsport Water Company, and is President of the 
Williamsport Passenger Railroad Company; and is a member of the Board of 
Trade, a Director of the Williamsport Hospital and a Trustee of Lafayette Col- 
lege, Easton, the institution from which he graduated. He is attorney for the 
Fall Brook and the Reading Railroads, and other large corporations. He is a 
member of the Presbyterian Church. 

At the breaking out of the war Mr. Allen enlisted in Company A, Eleventh 
Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, and was with his company during the three 
months' service of 1861. He was Adjutant of the Third Regiment, Pennsylvania 
Volunteers, in 1862. 

Mr. Allen was united in marriage, on January 5, 1S64, to Miss Ellen E. Flem- 
ing, eldest daughter of Gen. Robert Fleming, and has six children. He occujiies 
a handsome mansion at 605 West I'oiirth street, Williamsport, and is one of that 
city's most respected citizens. In the nitmerotis high positions which he has 
held lie has so acquitted himself that it would be indeed diffictilt to find a man 
equally prominent held in sucli high and general esteem. His reputation is very 
enviable and tlioroughly merited. 




Hon. Joseph M. Gazzam. 



JOSEPH M. gazza:\i. 

A DISTINGUISHED lineage, traceable back for more than a century, is of itself 
alwa\-s a source of pride, but it becomes a matter of greater pride when one 
can point to an ancestor who has suffered for humanity's sake. To such Joseph 
M. Gazzam can lay claim. The founder of Mr. Gazzam's paternal ancestry in 
America was compelled to leave his native land because of his philanthropy. 
William Gazzam, Joseph's grandfother, was an English journalist of the liberal 
school, who published a paper at Cambridge, England, towards the close of the 
last century. Like Pitt, Burke and many other high-minded Englishmen, he 
advocated the cause of the American colonies, and expressed a love of freedom 
which greatly offended the government of George III. His liberal articles 
became so offensive to the royal household that steps were taken to arrest him, 
but, being warned of the movement, he made a hasty flight. It was earl)' in 
1793 when he sailed from London for America. The following letter will convey 
some idea of his hast}- exit : 

London', Febniarv ~th, 1793. 

To Rev. Dr. Roger?; the Rev. Dr. Eiisticks, of rhiladelphia ; the Rev. Dr. Fo-ler, of New York; 
the Rev. Dr. Edwards, of New Haven, Conn. ; the Rev. Dr. Sdhnan, of Boston ; the Rev. Dr. Hood, 
of Le.Kington, Ky. ; or any other of my .-\merican correspondents to whom tliis may come : 

This is to certify that William Gazzam, the bearer of these lines, is an honorable Member of the Con- 
gregational Church at Cambridge, under the pastoral care of Rev. Mr. O . lie has been driven 

from his own country only for speaking in behalf of the rights of mankind, perhaps incautiously. So 
hasty was his removal, that his much-loved Pastor had no opportunity to give him testimoni.ds. lie is 
united with one of our Baptist families and with others of our friends, whose names would gladly be 
united in recommending him and his attention to our foreign friends, with the name of their obliged and 
affectionate Brother and Servant, John Rippon. 

The writer of the above letter was the celebrated Dr. John Rippon, author of 
" Rippon's Hymns " and a Baptist preacher of considerable fame in England. 

William Gazzam came to Philadelphia, where he engaged in business. The 
Philadelphia Directory of 1796 contains the following line : " Gazzam & Taylor, 
merchants. No. 20 North h'ront street." The next \'ear another member was 
taken into the business, and the firm-title became " Gazzam, Ta^-Ior & Jones, No. 
36 North Front street." .Some time about iSoo or 1801 the secoiul member 
withdrew. The next heard of Gazzam & Jones was in Carlisle, Cumberland 
county, where they transacted a general mercantile business for about a year, 
when the copartnership was dissolved, Mr. Gazzam having been appointed, by 
President Madison, collector and surve\-or of the port of Pittsburgh, to which 
place he removed in 1802, and where, in 181 1, he died. He was married twice, 
his second wife being of Philadelphia, and it is through the descendants of this 
latter union that Joseph M. Gazzam traces his line. The fourtli son of William 
Gazzam and his wife, Ann Parker, was Dr. Edward D. Gazzam, who was the 
22 (,69) 



170 JOSEPH M. GAZZAM. 

father of Joseph M. lie was born in Pittsburj^li in 1S03, and commenced ihe 
stud)- of law under the preceptorship of Hon. Richard Biddle, but on account 
of ill-health was compelled to abandon his profession after practising about two 
years, when he took up the study of medicine. Dr. Gazzam held quite a 
prominent position in the political arena of Pennsylvania. He was reared a 
Democrat, but like many of the same opinion was opposed to the extension of 
slavery. Such views caused him to sever his allegiance to the Democratic party, 
and in 1 848, with Salmon P. Chase, sowed the " Free-Soil " seed at the Buffalo Con- 
vention from which sprang the Republican party. In the same year he was 
the "Free-Soil" candidate for Governor of Pennsylvania, his opponents being 
Hon. William F. Johnson, the Whig candidate, and Morris Longstreth, the 
Democratic candidate. The contest was a warm, earnest and exciting one, the 
Whigs being the victors. In 1855 he nominated for Canal Commissioner 
Passmore Williamson, of Philadelphia, who was at the time in prison for \iolat- 
ing the Fugitive Slave Law. Dr. Gazzam was at the same time the " Free- 
Soil " candidate for State Senator; the party was then called the " Union Party." 
His opponents were Hopewell Hepburn, Democrat, and Paul A. Way, Fillmore- 
American. Dr. Gazzam was elected over his opponents by about one thousand 
majority, and was therefore the first Republican State Senator from Allegheny 
count}-. In 1S57 he declined to allow his name to be presented before the Re- 
publican State Convention for Governor. 

At the breaking out of the war he and Dr. jMcCook were the first persons to 
move towards preventing Secretary of W^ar Floyd from removing the guns and 
other property of the government from the Allegheny Arsenal. They took a 
great interest in this matter, and it was largely due to their efforts that this 
arsenal was not dismantled, like were many others throughout the Northern 
States. Dr. Gazzam communicated with the Secretary of War upon the subject 
of munitions of war, to which he received the following letter of reply : 



{• 



Ordnance Office, 
Washington, May yi, 1S61. 
E. D. Gazzam, Esq., Chairman, Pillsburgh, Pa. 

Sir: Vour telegram May isl, to the Secretary of War, .about powder now held liy the Committee, is 
received and sent lo this office. If any of the powder is needed by the commanding officer at Allegheny 
Arsenal, and is, in his judgment,-of suitable quality for the United States service, it may be delivered 
to him. The Commiilce niu-t use ///tvV discretion about the residue, throwing evei^y proper guard around 
the disposition to be made of it. 

Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Jamks W. RH'I.ky, Lieiitenaitt-Colonel UnitcJ Slates. 

The powder referred to in the above letter was seized by the Committee of 
Safety when about being shipped to some Southern point. 

In 1867 Dr. Gazzam moved to Philadelphia, where he died, February 19th, 1878. 

On the maternal side Mr. Gazzam is descended from Austrian-Irish parentage, 
the story of the union of which is quite a romance. Shortly after peace was 
declared between tlie United States and Great Britain, the Fiiiperor Joseph II., 



josEiMi M. (;a/./..\m. 171 

of Austria, sent to tlic new republic, as resilient minister, Baron Antonio De 
Beelen de Berthoff, who was accompanied by his wife and their only son, Anionic 
Constantine, a lad fifteen years of age. The Baron De Beelen was minister 
from 1783-87, but did not return to his own country at the expiration of his 
mission on account of political troubles. He settled first in Chester county and 
then moved to Lancaster county, where in a sequestered cemetery, on the banks 
of the Conewago, he and his wife were buried. The son Antonie moved to 
Pittsburgh. Some time in the latter half of the last century Patrick Murph}', an 
Irish gentleman of learning, became a tutor in the family of an Irish nobleman. 
His time was devoted to the instruction of the daughter of the nobleman, but a 
warmer and closer friendship sprung up between teacher and student, which 
resulted in a runaway match. Mr. Murphy and his young bride found a home 
in America; he became an officer in the Continental army. His wife died at the 
time of their only child's birth, who was given the name of Elizabeth Antoinette. 
Captain Murphy was in great trouble about finding a suitable person to take 
charge of his little daughter, but finally secured the services of a young married 
woman at Carlisle. The woman became greatly attached to her foster-child, 
and, in after years, being a widow, refused to surrender the child to Captain 
Murphy, and plainly told him that the only way he could get possession of his 
daughter was to marry her, the foster-mother, which he did. Some years after 
he lost his life in the Monongahela while trying to save a drowning child. 

Antonie De Beelen made the acquaintance of Elizabeth Antoinette Murphy, 
made her his wife and had by her several children, one of whom, Mary, became 
the wife of Dr. Simpson, of Pittsburgh, and the mother of the wife of the late 
Benjamin Rush, Esq., of Philadelphia. Another daughter, Elizabeth Antoinette, 
married Dr. Gazzam. She died in Pittsburgh in 1871. 

Joseph M. Gazzam, the second son of Dr. Edward D. and Elizabeth Antoinette 
Gazzam, was born in Pittsburgh, December 2d, 1842. As a child his health was 
delicate, and it was not until he had attained the age of fourteen that his parents 
thought it advisable for him to attend school. His education was not, however, 
neglected, for up to that age he received very careful tuition from his father. At 
fourteen he entered the Western University of Pennsylvania, where he remained 
for three and a half years, when he was compelled to abandon his studies 
temporarily on account of ill-health. He then started on an extended tour of 
the Western States, whereby he was greatly benefited. In 1861 he entered the 
law ofifice of David Reed, Esq., of Pittsburgh, with whom he commenced read- 
ing law, and was admitted to the Allegheny bar three years later. He im- 
mediately took a prominent and leading position among his legal brethren, and 
soon acquired a very extensive criminal practice. In June, 1864, six months 
after his admission to practice, he was intrusted with no less than twenty cases 
which were tried before the Quarter Sessions. He, however, became disgusted 
with the criminal practice and tried no more cases of that character excepting for 
regular clients. In the ci\il courts he conducted all manner of cases. In 1S72 



1-2 JOSEPH M. GAZZAM. 

he formed a law partnership with Hon. Alexander G. Cochran, to whom he 
relinquished the court practice almost entirely. The firm of Gazzam & Cochran 
continued until 1879, when, owing to the removal of Mr. Cochran to St. Louis, 
it was dissolved. During Mr. Cochran's term in Congress, Mr. Gazzam attended 
to all their extensive business, including the trial of cases in courts, only leaving 
minor details to their clerks and students. In 1867 he was admitted to practice 
in the Supreme Court of Penns)-lvania ; in 1869 to the Circuit and District 
Courts of the United States; and in 1870, on motion of Hon. Benjamin F. 
Butler, he was admitted to practice in the Supreme Court of the United States ; 
being one of the youngest attorne)'s that had ever been admitted to practice 
before that honorable body. In 1869 he was elected a Director for Pennsylvania 
in the United States Law Association, an association representing leading 
attorneys throughout the United States and elsewhere. He retained the director- 
ship until his removal to Philadelphia in the fall of 1S79, where he has a very 
extensive and lucrative practice. 

He early developed a penchant for the political arena, and from his high- 
toned bearing and desire to see political affairs transacted in an honest manner 
he soon attracted the attention of the citizens of the First ward of Pittsburgh. 
In 1869 he was nominated by the Republicans for the Common Council of that 
ward, and elected. At the time of his nomination the press of the city, unitedly 
and irr;espective of party, spoke in the very highest terms of him, as being 
" liberal-minded and progressive." He contended often and earnestly in council 
for economical government and for many improvements, both of a moral and 
sanitary character, in the public departments. 

In 1873 he visited Europe and was absent for six months, and on his return 
to his native land was more thoroughly American than ever, believing that he 
lived in the greatest and grandest country of the world. 

In 1876 Mr. Gazzam became the Republican candidate for State Senator from 
the Fort)'-third Senatoria^l District, comprising the First, Fifteenth and Twenty- 
third wards of Pittsburgh, which included the entire business portion of the city. 
This district is probably the second wealthiest in the State. Mr. Gazzam 
defeated his Democratic opponent, Hon. J. M. Irwin, by a large majority. In 
the County Convention he was nominated by acclamation, succeeding Plon. G. 
H. Anderson, son-in-law of Hon. George Darsie, who defeated Dr. Gazzam in 
1837, thirty years before, in the same district for the Senate by one vote. In 
1877 Mr. Gazzam took his seat in the State Senate, his position being on the 
left of the Speaker and immediately in front of his warm personal friend, Hon. 
James B. Everhart, of Chester county. He had not long been a member of 
that body before he was recognized as one of the most clear-headed and 
thoughtful of its members. During his first term he presented a very large 
number of petitions and remonstrances, besides introducing a great number of 
bills, nearly all of which became laws. The session of 1878 was also equally 
busy for him, as well as his last year, 1879. Among the most important bills 



JOSEPH M. GAZZAM. 173 

tliat he succeeded in having made a law was one for the protection of tlie 
property of absent persons so that it would not go to ruin. By this law the 
courts were enabled to appoint an administrator to look after the estate until it 
was definitel)- known what had become of the absentee, or until death was pre- 
sumed by law. He also secured the passage in the Senate of a supplement to 
the act of 1874, extending to women the right to act as incorporators of chari- 
table, benevolent and missionary corporations. Although this bill failed in the 
lower House, it subsequently became a law. He secured the free railway law 
for Pittsburgh and Allegheny City, whereby several important roads have been 
constructed through those cities resulting in increased railroad facilities. One 
of the most important bills which he favored and which became a law was an 
act providing for the receiving, opening and publishing returns of the election 
of State Treasurer and Auditor-General when the Legislature was not in regular 
session. This law has saved the State many thousands of dollars. In his speech 
in support of the bill he said : 

" Now, Mr. President, I trust that this bill will not be postponed, but that we will 
pass it, and I know that there is no bill before the Legislature to-day which will 
meet with more universal approval. There will be a sigh of relief go out from 
Lake Erie to tl;e Delaware through the business communit}'. The great trouble 
is, we have too much legislation, too many laws. We meet here one year and 
pass a lot of acts, and the next year we follow it up by repealing those acts. I 
say the people of Pennsylvania would be benefited (with all due respect to my 
brother Senators and members of the House) if this body would adjourn for five 
years ; and if the Senate and lower House of Congress would adjourn for ten 
years it would be beneficial to the people of this State and of the United States 
at large. The continual agitation of enacting new laws has a pernicious influence 
upon the business community." 

Some of the Senators who advocated frequent and long sessions of the Legis- 
lature accused him of demagogism, but the sentiment of the people was with 
Mr. Gazzam in his advocacy of this bill. 

His chief aim in legislation was to perfect the laws, remedy the evils that 
existed in them, and to abolish those that were not for the benefit of the whole 
State. As a legislator, Mr. Gazzam was watchful, earnest, upright and active. 
He has great literary taste and is a close student. When he left Pittsburgh and 
took up his residence in Philadelphia he was as warmly received in the latter 
city as his departure was regretted in the former. He is not connected with 
many organizations, but belongs to several prominent ones, notably the Union 
League, Union Republican Club, The Medical Jurisprudence Society and is a 
life-member of the Pennsj-lvania Historical Society. He is also a director in 
nine corporations, including two railroad companies. 

In 1878 he married Miss Mary Anna Reading, only child of John G. Reading, 
one of Philadelphia's prominent and successful business men, who is a great- 
grandson of John Reading, a distinguished Governor of New Jersey in colonial 
days. 

T. L. O. 




Hon. John C Grady. 



JOHN C. GRADY. 

Sixr.LENESS of aim, earnestness of purpose, and steadfastness of determination 
to accomplish tlie ends sought have always been the leading characteristics 
of those achieving enterprises of enduring success. While some men are made 
by opportunities, some men make opportunities and many have opportunities 
thrust upon them, others again in the struggle which ends in the survival of 
the fittest make a mark in the higher aims of life, in spite of a difficult 
beginning, and from these examples carefully considered we gain lessons 
that make existence valuable to ourselves and to our kind. In few men of the 
State of Pennsylvania is this more strikingly 'exemplified than in John C. Grady, 
President of the State Senate of Pennsylvania, whose career illustrated in these 
lines sustains the maxim, that the opportunity depends very much on how the 
self-made man makes himself Whether the points of his career are profitable 
for the study of his fellow-men remains with himself, whatever circumstances 
may do for him. It is to the infinite credit of this citizen that what he has sup- 
plemented to his inherited aptitude has brought him into the conspicuous places 
which he has occupied. 

What makes the career of John C. Grady doubly interesting is that through 
ordinary chances and uncompromising surroundings he has carved a way to high 
position. Still on the threshold of life, so far as years go, he has attained the 
distinction of success in business and public life. And wherever his talents have 
been directed, he has made the mark of a student and a disciplined lawyer. His 
life has been a busy one from its beginning. 

Born in Eastport, a small town on the rock-bound coast of Maine, October 
8, 1847, being the eldest son of an industrious, hard-working father possessed of 
very limited means, and maternally of an intelligent Puritan mother who in 
early life was a school-teacher, so the subyect of this sketch has made the most 
of the sturdy traits which this lineage gave the one fortunate enough to inherit it. 
Early taught by his mother, then grounded in the common schools and business 
institutions, he has enlarged his rudimentary knowledge of books by the obser- 
vation of men and the conditions that govern the life of the best type of the 
American citizen. Added to this a mind remarkably clear in perception, accurate 
in judgment, persistent in action, and we have the groundwork of a genius which 
de\-elopment has proved fully equal to the various situations calling forth rare 
qualifications to meet their requirements. With a conscience ever watchful he 
has avoided the dangerous rocks which have brought ruin to so many of our 
public men. 

Practically, h.is career began in Philadelphia as a bookkeeper in the employ 
of Gould & Co. It is not probable that his associates remarked the strength of 
the future legislator in the self-absorbed, plodding young bookkeeper wlio came 

('75) 



17^ JOHN C. GKADY. 

anion;:; them fresh from a mercantile college. But it is still remembered b_\' all 
who know him that he was a pattern of assiduous attention to his allotted tasks, 
and it was as an intelligent and zealous accountant that he recommended him- 
self to his employers. It is also true that as an untiring worker well equipped 
with strong powers he has made his mark on the politics of Pennsylvania. 

That his success has been no caprice, or the result of happy chance, is shown 
in the course he has pursued. Looking at the future, clear-eyed and determined, 
very early in life he gauged his own ambitions, and while forced to begin the 
struggle of life in the busy surroundings of a great mart, he bent his energies to 
keeping books by day and the acquirement of the rudiments of law b)^ night. 
As a boy he fixed his hopes on that profession, which has proved the highway 
to success, and pursued the hard way that leads to it with a resolute pertinacity 
not often seen in the youths harassed by the sordid cares of bread-winning. He 
was but twenty-one when he carried on the double duty of bookkeeper and stu- 
dent of law. The amount of work, the self-denial and the courage such exactions 
imply can only be estimated when we reflect on the thousands who enter law and 
fail, even when the burden of earning a living does not fall upon them. 

He was admitted to practice in the courts of Philadelphia in the aututnn of 
1 8/ I. Very soon thereafter he was conceded a standing as an attorney of con- 
siderable knowledge, admirable powers and ceaseless application. Ample oppor- 
tunity came to him early to test his untried faculties, not the least significant of 
wiiich was his immediate retention by his early employers as counsel for the firm 
with whom he had begun his career, a charge he holds to this day. 

Almost simultaneously with his conquest of law he embarked impulsively in 
politics. Ill the year 1872 the country was distracted by one of the most 
violently-contested Presidential contests known in our annals. A large following 
of Republicans joined the Democratic party under the standard of Horace Greeley, 
antl for a time the historic party of Lincoln seemed doomed to irrevocable wreck. 
With the glories of the party in his mind, and an unwavering trust in the prin- 
ciples early instilled into him by war, Mr. Grady took active hold of such agen- 
cies as came within his reach, and found himself so well appreciated that he was 
elected President of the district organization of his neighborhood. He was soon 
recognized as a force, counted upon as a power, and accepted as a leader, not 
only in his own district, but among the men who then marshalled the forces in 
the Keystone State. Indeed, those who came to know him declared the young 
attorney a born politician. Certainly the swiftly progressive promotions, thrust 
upon him, demonstrate the accuracy of the judgment. 

In 1874 he was urged to accept a nomination for the Legislature, which in that 
District was equivalent to an election, but wisely declined. The time seemed to 
him premature, for he still had a legal practice to put in such shape as to permit 
his withdrawal for a time into politics. I'ul in 1876 the time \\as more riin-, and 
he was ready; equipped as very few young men are who begin ]i<ilitics. lie was 
first elected State Senator from the Seventh District, under the new four-year 



JOHN C. GRAnV. 177 

tciuire provision of the New Constitution, and his majority was greater than his 
party's, in that Presidential year when the Repubhcan vote fell off in all the 
Northern States. He entered the Senate the youngest man in the body, but soon 
took a place among the older members. He was marked during his term as a 
sagacious counsellor, an enlightened lawmaker, and a most able party manager. 
He was renominated in 18S0, and elected without o-pposition. 

During his second term he signalized his fitness for leadership by the part he 
played in the solution of a very perplexing political problem which threatened 
the supremacy of liis party. The caucus nominee for United States Senator had 
been rejected by a large number of men known as Independents. Months of 
angry recrimination and intrigue followed. The party in the State was alarmed. 
Every form of warfare was applied and exhausted, when Senator Grady extricated 
his colleagues from the deadlock. He obtained a letter of declination from the 
bolter's candidate, and secured a compromise with the regulars, of which he was 
one, that saved a United States Senator to the State and the party. This achieve- 
ment was pronounced a masterpiece of diplomacy at the time, and gave the astute 
young negotiator of it commanding influence. 

To show their confidence in him, the Republican leaders intrusted him with a 
mission to General Garfield, then the President-elect. Senator Grady visited 
Garfield at Mentor, where discussions were going on with eminent members of 
the Republican party and the conduct of the coming administration mapped out. 
The impression the young Senator made upon Garfield is shown in his subse- 
quent selection of the Keystone ambassador to fill the post of Surveyor of the 
port oT Philadelphia, an office which was at the time dividing the party in Phila- 
delphia into violent factions. Writing with his own hand, Garfield offered Sen- 
ator Grady the disputed post, urging him to accept the place not only because 
of his fitness, but because his presence there would sootlie the contending factions. 
But the law-maker wisely declined to leave the more honorable, though less lu- 
crative, post of Senator. On his return from his official mission to Mentor the 
Legislature selected him as a Delegate to represent Pennsylvania at the memor- 
able Yorktown Centennial celebration. 

Perhaps the most conspicuous service he has rendered his State was his con- 
duct of the investigation of the Standard Oil Company's methods. As Chair- 
man of the Committee he met the ablest attorneys of monopol)', and it was the 
general verdict of the press and public that he had been very thorough in the 
discharge of his duty. 

His constituents were not slow to recognize the brilliancy and value of their 
member. In 1884, against his inclination and wishes, he was compelled to accept 
a third election. His colleagues of the Senate were equally ready to mark 
their appreciation of Mr. Grady's powers. He was chosen by them for the most 
distinguished place in the gift of the Senate. As Chairman of the Judiciary Com- 
mittee his trained legal mind shone to its highest advantage. He was a second 
time forced to accept that important chairmanship, although reluctantly; for 
23 



178 JeHIN C. GKAllV. 

however pfrcat the honor, the labor i' constant and wearing. The chief member 
of the Judiciar\- Committee is in a po-^ition hartll)- less responsible in the various 
calls made upon the incumbent, than the chief of the State Judiciary. Exhausti\e 
knowledge of law and men is inseparable to the administration of this difficult 
post. Familiarity with the application of the laws, their historical development 
and practical application are the least of the resources demanded of the head of 
the Judiciary Committee, and it is the crown of Senator Grady's achievement that 
he has been acknowledged equal to the great place. 

During his services on this Committee he has brought to solution some of the 
ver\' gravest problems in the practice of law. It was he who rid the State of the 
anomalous conditions which enabled detectives to seize our citizens and drag 
them to another State without process of law, or accountability to the laws of 
the State or the injured citizen, the usual pretence being the alleged transgression 
of the laws of the State to which he was to be taken, while in reality it was to 
satisfy the malice of an enemy, frequently, in his helpless condition, to enable a 
creditor to e.xact the amount of a claim whether just or unjust, and often ena- 
bling the unscrupulous to successfully perpetrate blackmailing schemes. This 
act for the protection of the citizens of Pennsylvania attracted considerable atten- 
tion, and has since been incorporated in the laws of New York and other States ; 
and representatives from those States that have failed to enact it met the repre- 
sentatives of the States that have done so in convention during the past summer 
to prepare a law that will unify the practice, and the only wonder now is that 
such great States as Pennsylvania and New York permitted the existence of so 
great an evil until the passage of what is known as the Grady Act. I"or his 
efforts in this direction these two great commonwealths owe him their lasting 
gratitude. At the beginning of the last session he was again chosen as chair- 
man of the Judiciary Committee, thus holding continuously for six years the 
most important chairmanship, and at the close of the session he was chosen 
President pro tem. of the Senate, and will, during the next session, be its presid- 
ing officer in the absence of the Lieutenant-Governor. 

A man's public conduct must be, to a great extent, the reflex of his private 
hfe. The traits and agencies, the good sense, large insight and definite purposes 
which have marked Senator Grady's career are the expressions of his daily con- 
duct. I le is a steadfast friend, considerate adversary and a high-minded member 
of society. He is a strong partisan without narrowness; zealous for his princi- 
ples, without bigotry. His manner is winning nntl his bearing, under the most 
trying circumstances, serene. 

Possessing an clastic temperament, he seldom regrets what is unattainable, 
but is always happy in devising new measures to accomplish desired ends. 
His remarkable judgment enables him to gauge in an instant those with whom 
he comes in contact. 

Still in the prime of his years and jniblic career, it is not rash to prophecy the 
utmo.->t rewards of public favor for such determination and abilities as have 
marked his course from the beginning. ¥. A. Burk. 




Hon John E. Faunce. 



JOHN EGNER FAUNCE. 

HON. JoHX E. Faunce, ex-Spcaker of tlie House of Representatives, was born 
in MiUersburg, Dauphin county, October 29, 184O. Soon afterward, his 
father having been elected Sheriff of the county, removed his family to Harris- 
burg, and the subject of this sketch spent his boyhood days in that city. He 
received his rudimentary education in the pubh'c schools, and subsequently 
became a student at Dickinson College, Carlisle, from which institution he 
graduated in 1863. He at once registered as a student-at-law in the office of the 
Hon Charles Ingersoll, of Philadelphia, and simultaneously entered the Law 
Department of the University of Pennsylvania. Graduating in 1865, he was at 
once admitted to practice in the Common Pleas Court of Philadelphia as well 
as in the Supreme Court of the Commonwealth, and began the practice of his 
chosen profession in the city of Philadelphia. 

Mr. Faunce early imbibed a fondness for politics, and took an active interest 
in tiie political affairs of his adopted home. In 1868 he was chosen Delegate to 
the Presidential Convention which met in New York and nominated Horatio 
Seymour for President. The election was the result of a spirited contest, and 
may be regarded as the beginning of Mr. Faunce's political experience. In 1 874 
he was nominated by the Democrats of the Seventeenth Assembly District of 
Philadelphia for the Legislature, and having been elected by an extraordinarily 
large majority, he took his seat in that body at the opening of the important 
session of 1875. That session was the first held with the increased membership, 
and as most of the laws had to be conformed to the provisions of the new Con- 
stitution, a great amount of labor was put upon the leading members, and the 
work they performed was of the greatest moment. Mr. Faunce's first service in 
the body, though indicating the masterly ability subsequently developed, was 
characterized by a modesty that challenged attention. Nevertheless he soon 
became the recognized leader of his party on the floor. For the first time in 
nearly a quarter of a century the Democrats were in the majority in the lower 
branches of the Legislature, and the leadership of the party became a matter of 
grave importance. But Mr. Faunce, though young in years and experience, rose 
to the emergency, and his leadership was distinguished for sagacity, prudence 
and zeal. His speeches were models of cogent and incisive rhetoric, and no 
matter how intense the feeling on a subject under consideration, the moment 
Faunce took the floor the most profound and respectful attention was given to 
him by the members on both sides of the chamber. At each election since, 
including the last one, Mr. Faunce has been re-elected by the same constituency. 
His grf at success excited jealousies, and his manly independence and unswerving 
integrity engendered enmities which have striven repeatedly to compass his 
defeat, but all the efforts were unavailing. He had been faithful to his public 

(■79) 



]5o JOHN E. FAUNCr:. 

duties as well as pure in his private life, and the best sentiment of the community 
sustained him by its votes, and honored itself by his repeated re-election. 

At the session of 1S77 he was nominated by his associates of the Democratic 
party for Speaker, but being in tlie minorit\- he was defeated. In 1S79 and 188 1 
the compliment was again, conferred, and with the same result. In 1883 the 
conditions were changed, and though certain pernicious influences were arrayed 
against him, and every element of opposition concentrated in a bitter fight, he 
was nominated almost unanimously, and elected. He served during the pro- 
tracted and acrimonious session of that year, and his scr\ices were distinguished 
for fairness, promptness and ability. During the entire eleven months covered by 
the session the Speaker was not absent from his seat during a single sitting. 
Only once he left half an hour before the adjournment. Though political dis- 
cussion was intense and party antagonisms irreconcilable, his rulings were never 
questioned, and the record of his Speakership stands to-day the recognized 
model of excellence, fairness and abilit}'. 

In 1878 ]\Ir. Faunce was prominently mentioned for the Democratic nomina- 
tion for Lieutenant-Governor, and he was supported by a large contingent in 
the convention, which was held in Pittsburgh that year. After the second ballot, 
when it was discovered that the Western counties were implacable in their 
demand for that position on the ticket, Mr. Faunce's name was withdrawn at his 
own request, and the Hon. John Fertig, a representative of the oil producing 
interests, was nominated. His name has been canvassed for various State offices 
since, and every convention has had a considerable number of delegates who 
were earnestly desirous of nominating him for some important ofifice ; but he has 
invariably refused to allow his friends to carry out that purpose. In fact, he has 
on several occasions signified his desire to withdraw from active participation 
in public affairs ; but in this he has been overruled. Nominations come to him 
unsolicited, and his sense of duty to his party and the State impels him to 
yield to the demand of his constituents so far as to continue to serve them in 
the Legislature. 

In his profession Mr. Faunce has been as successful as in his political career. 
Associated with the late Judge Greenbank, he has forged to the front rank at a 
bar proverbial for its ability. His practice has been mainly in the Common 
Pleas and Orphans' Courts, though his office practice is both large and lucrative. 
On legal points his opinions take rank among the foremost of the jurists and 
great lawyers of the city. 

While Mr. Faunce was engaged in his academic labor at Dickinson College 
tlic State was invaded by the rebel army, and he laid down his books to take up 
arms in defence of the territory of the Commonwealth. He enlisted as a private, 
and served until the danger had passed, when he returned to his college duties. 
As soon as the school term was ended and his education completed, he enlisted 
in the United States service, and remained in the field until his regiment was 
regularly mustered out. lie joined the Nineteenth Penn.sylvania Cavalry, Colonel 



JOHN E. FAUNCK. iSl 

Wynkoop, and served for a time with the Vust New York Cavalry, witli which 
troop he was at the battle of Gettysburg^ and participated actively in the fiL^ht. 

Mr. Faunce conies from a distinguished ancestry. His father was contemporar)' 
with and closely allied to James Buchanan, Alexander Ramsey, Simon Cameron, 
Arnold Plumer, George M. Dallas, Judge Wilkins, and other leaders of the 
Democratic party of forty years ago. Between himself and Governor Ramsey 
tliere existed the closest friendship. Indeed, the two had agreed to join hands 
in developing the Northwest at the time that Ramsey left his home in Harris- 
burg to locate in Minnesota. Mr. Faunce, who had been a contractor in th : 
building of a portion of the Pennsylvania Canal, was. detained by reason of fail- 
ure to get a prompt settlement with the State. While he was awaiting the 
convenience of the authorities he was nominated by the Democrats for the office 
of Sheriff of the county. The Democratic nomination in Dauphin county was 
at that time regarded as an empty honor, and though Mr. Faunce had protested 
against the use of his name for the place, when the nomination was unanimously 
conferred on him, accompanied by the assurance that his acceptance would tend 
to the benefit of the party, his sense of duty to his political associates constrained 
him not only to accept the responsibility, but to put his energies into operation 
that the party might be strengthened ; and to the surprise of everybody he was 
elected by a large majority, and became the first Democratic Sheriff of the 
county, and one of the most able and efficient that has ever served the people. 
That fact altered his own plans of life, and no doubt was the event that shaped 
the destinies of his distinguished son. G. D. H. 



..^»^^ 




Hon. Thomas V. Cooper. 



THOMAS VALENTINE COOPER. 

HON. Thomas V. Cooper, State Senator from the Ninth District of Pennsyl- 
vania, and Chairman of the State Central Committee of the Republican 
party, was born at Cadiz, Jefferson county, Ohio, on January i6, 1835. Not- 
withstanding the accidental circumstance of his birth, he is a thorough Pcnns)l- 
vanian. In the latter part of 1834 his father. Dr. J. W. Cooper, for many years 
a resident of West Chester, Pa., moved his family to Cadiz, where his son, 
Thomas V., was born three months later; but he soon tired of life in what was 
then a frontier State, and his longing for the fertile valley of Chester county 
brought him back to Pennsylvania in 1835, where he resided until his death, in 
1SS5. 

Mr. Cooper was educated in the public schools of West Chester and Philadel- 
phia, and for a time attended the well-known boarding school of Joshua Hoopes. 
At the age of sixteen, however, he was compelled to give up his studies, and was 
apprenticed to Evans & Vernon, of the Wibningtoii Republican, to learn the art 
of printing. He took to the trade naturally, and soon mastered it. His father 
purchased the last year of his time, and presented him with his freedom from 
apprenticeship. Before he was twenty young Cooper entered into partnership 
with Dr. D. A. Vernon in the publication of the Dclazoarc Autcricaii. He has 
continued in that business ever since, with the exception of the three years spent 
at the front during the late war, most of the time as a private soldier, and has 
made the paper one of the best known and influential country weeklies in the 
State. At the breaking out of the war he dropped his business, which was just 
beginning to be lucrative, and aided in raising Company F, Fourth Pennsylvania 
Regiment, which was commanded by Colonel John F. Hartranft, afterward Gov- 
ernor of this State. Mr. Cooper was elected First Lieutenant, and served with 
his regiment in that capacity. In 1862 he again entered the service, enlisting in 
Company C, Twenty-sixth Pennsylvania Volunteers, as a private, and served in 
that capacity until the close of the war, his regiment being attached to the Second 
Di\"ision of the Third Army Corps. He participated in many of the battles of the 
Peninsula and in Virginia and Pennsylvania until after Gettysburg, when he was 
detailed by order of Secretary Stanton to take care of the Government printing 
office at Camp Distribution. He also edited, while thus detailed, a newspaper 
known as the Soldiers' younial, for a year and a half and turned over the whole 
profit, gi,8oo, to the Sanitary Commission. When discharged from the service 
he was offered the position of Superintendent of the Bureau of Military Printing 
by Mr. Stanton, but declined it. He returned home, and entered the office of tlie 
American as the partner of Dr. Vernon. 

Mr. Cooper early took an interest in public affairs. At the age of fifteen he 
developed a taste for politics, and became a member of the debating societies 

fS3) 



IS4 THOMAS V. COOrER. 

and lyceums of his county. He mingled freely in debates, and soon became 
known as an excellent speaker. In i860 he went to the Chicago Convention as 
an alternate, and was an avowed Lincoln man. Two of the delegates from his 
di.-itrict — William Darlington, of Chester, and John M. Broomall, of Delaware 
county — voted for Mr. Lincoln steadil}-, though the Pennsj-lvania delegation 
supported Simon Cameron. 

Though he took a prominent part in State politics both in conventions and 
through his paper, it was not until 1869 that he became a candidate for office. 
In that year he was nominated for the Assembly over six competitors in the 
county convention on the first ballot, and was of course elected, the county 
being largely Republican. In 1870 Mr. Cooper was again a candidate for the 
Assemblj- ; but he found a strong opposition to him in his own party, headed by 
^ State Senator H. Jones Brooke, who had been for many years the most influen- 
tial man in the party in the county. Young Cooper at once determined to enter 
into a contest with Mr. Brooke, and a war ensued which distracted the Republican 
part)' for several years. Mr. Cooper received the regular no'iiination for the 
Assembly, but Mr. Brooke and his friends supported Hon. Tryon Lewis, a 
Democrat, and elected him. This rebuff aroused all the fighting qualities of Mr. 
Cooper, and he gave early notice the following )-ear that he would again be a 
candidate for the Assembly. He took the stump and made a thorough canvass 
of tlie county, and in the end carried every delegate in the county convention 
but two, and was elected at the polls. In 1872 he declined a nomination, but in 
1873 he pitted himself against his old antagonist, Mr. Brooke, who was then up 
for re-election to the State Senate in the Chester and Delaware District. Some 
of Mr. Cooper's friends thought it folly to continue the contest in this way, as 
they very much feared that Mr. Brooke would beat him ; but the determined 
}'oung editor said that his battle with Mr. Brooke could only be settled in a 
square combat, and he proposed to make it. The contest was one of the most 
remarkable that ever took place in the State. It lasted nine months, and so active 
was the can\ass that the contestants travelled from house to house soliciting 
votes. 

Senator Brooke was a power at this time. He had the warm support of 
General Cameron, who had been his life-long friend. He had a large and pow- 
erful political acquaintance throughout the State, and influential family connec- 
tions in his district ; besides, he was a shrewd, far-seeing man, who had long 
been active in politics, and who was fully acquainted with the arts of the politi- 
cian. The struggle enlisted the whole party on one side or the other. When 
the votes were counted Mr. Cooper had a majority of six delegates and four 
hundred in the ])opular vote, and was nominated for Senator. The Brooke fac- 
tion, however, determined to continue their opposition, and nominated Dr. Hil- 
bourn Darlington in an irregular convention, Mr. Brooke himself, who was too 
good a party man to take a bolting nomination, having declined to run. The 
Democrats had nominated Tryon Lewis, Mr. Cooper's old antagonist, and a most 



THOMAS V. coopr.K. i,S5 

interesting tliiee-corncred contest ensued before the people. With characteristic 
dash and energy Mr. Cooper challenged his opponents to meet liini on the stump, 
but they wisely declined to do so. Me spoke nightly to the people of the dis- 
trict, and in the end was elected over both of his competitors. This contest gave 
Mr. Cooper much repute, and placed him in an impregnable position with the 
people of his district. In 1876 Delaware county was a Senatorial District, and 
Mr. Cooper was unanimously renominated for the Senate, and elected almost 
without a contest. In 1880 — a bad year for third-termers — he came before the 
people for the third time. W. B. Broomall disputed the nomination with him, 
but Cooper carried nearly every district. The contest was an animated one, and 
a determined effort was made to defeat Mr. Cooper at the polls, but he was 
elected by a very large majority. 

It is in the capacity of a legislator that Mr. Cooper has done his greatest 
ser\ice to the State. It is rather curious, but though a young and vigorous 
man (he does not appear to be over fort\'), Mr. Cooper is the oldest member in 
the Legislature in consecutive service. Others served at Harrisburg before he 
did, but none have been continuously in the office as long as Mr. Cooper. It 
was not until he was serving his second }'ear in the house that Mr. Cooper took 
a prominent position on an important question. He successfully opposed Mr. 
Buckalew's proposition to elect the niembei's of the Constitutional Convention by 
the cumulative plan of voting. Mr. Cooper made a speech which con\-inccd the 
House that the measure was not one that ought to pass. The result was that 
Mr. Cooper was made Chairman of the Conference Committee considering the 
measure instead of Mr. White, of Allegheny, who fa\'ored the plan. Cooper 
fought one of his determined battles in the committee, keeping it up three weeks, 
and in the end defeated Mr. Buckalew by parlianientar\' proceedings in the 
House. In the celebrated contested election case of McClure vs. Gray for a seat 
in the State Senate, Mr. Cooper strongly antagonized the bill which was pro- 
posed, and was designed to prevent Colonel McClure from filling his position. 
The bill was backed by leading Republicans, who determined to put it through 
the Legislature. Mr. Cooper characterized it as a partisan trick which really 
denied to Colonel McClure the right of contest. A \ery bitter struggle took 
place, which excited great interest in all parts of the State. During the debate 
Speaker Benjamin Hewitt, who was then Chairman of the Committee on Ways 
and Means, formally read Mr. Cooper out of the party because of his action. 
Cooper sat in his seat and listened with burning indignation to the remarks of 
the Blair county member; but he changed the scene, which threatened to be 
serious, to one of the most humorous ever witnessed in the House. Imitating 
Mr. Hewitt in gesture, position, language and tone, Mr. Cooper read him out of 
the party amid loud laughter. When the fight began Mr. Cooper had twenty- 
seven Republicans behind him ; but such was the power of the machine in those 
days that on!)' three of these stood by him at the close, and he was apparently 
beaten ; but he won his point by his skill in parliamentary tactics, and Colonel 



iSlI THOMAS V. COOPER. 

McCIure got his seat after the most memorable legislative contest in the history 
of the State. On a number of occasions Mr. Cooper displayed an independence 
which won him praise in all parts of the State. After his election to the 
Senate, the first speech that he made that attracted attention was a pointed one 
on the Centennial E.xhibition that was widely copied and read. He introduced 
and advocated for four years the celebrated apprentice bill, which prevcnt.s trade 
unions from denying the admission of apprentices to any trade in tlie Com- 
monwealth. While Mr. Cooper was urging the passage of this measure he 
antagonized a portion of the labor element. It was during the days of the 
" i\Iollie Maguires," and some of the leading men in the miners' union opposed 
hini strongly. He received a number of threatening letters, but with his old 
perseverance he went on, and the bill passed both Houses, and is now a law. 

It would be tedious to recite Mr. Cooper's connection with important legisla- 
tion. Since 1876 he has been the leader of the Republican side of the Senate, 
and on him has fallen the brunt of all political contests. In 1878 he was elected 
Siicaker of the Senate, and was re-elected in 1879. His thorough knowledge of 
parliamentar}- law, and his metliod of getting through with the business of that 
bod\-, made him a very popular presiding officer. 

Mr. Cooper was chosen Chairman of the State Central Committee in 1881, and 
still remains in that position. His conduct of his first campaign was a master- 
piece of political work. The difificulties were the comparative insignificance of 
the office to be voted for, and the uncertainty as to the vote that Mr. Wolfe, who 
ran as an Independent Republican, would poll. Mr. Cooper confidently went to 
work, and persisted until the Republican ticket was elected. 

The personal appearance of Mr. Cooper gives no evidence of his strength of 
character. He is rather below'the medium height, and there is hardly an expres- 
sive feature in his face. When speaking he becomes greatly interested in his 
subject, and enunciates clearly and with great earnestness. A feature of his 
strength is that he is never known to be angry, and is cool in facing any diffi- 
culty. Withal he is kind-hearted and charitable, and he makes friends readily, 
who soon learn to regard him highly. 

Mr. Cooper is the author of a work, entitled "American Politics," which 
appeared in 1882, and enjo)-s an established sale, thirteen editions already having 
been published. It is an extremely valuable book in many respects, being a 
collection of facts in relation to the political parties of the Government from its 
early days which would be hard to find in any other place. This collection gives 
an indication <if the bent of the author's mind, and proves him to have tact and 
judgment as a collector and cnnipilcr of out-of-the-way facts. 

Since 1882 he has continually served as State Senator and as Chairman of the 
Republican State Committee, and is everywhere known as the leader of the 
Senate. The.se years have been crowded with political events, in all of which he 
has taken so prominent a part that througiiout Pennsylvania his name is a 
" household word." . l'- M- B- 




\ "!>» 



\'' 



Hon. John F. Dravo. 



JOHN FLEMING DRAVO. 

HON. John F. Dkavo, a member of the State Legislature and late Collector 
of Customs at the Port of Pittsburgh and President of the Chamber of 
Commerce, was born in West Newton, Westmoreland county, October 29, 18 19, 
but spent most of his youth near Elizabeth, Allegheny county, Pa. lie is of 
French extraction, his grandfather, Anthony Dravo, having l;een a native of 
France, who settled in Pittsburgh at an early day in the history of that city. 
Mr. Dravo was educated in the common schools and at Allegheny College, 
where he remained two \'ears until compelled to withdraw on account ol ill 
health. He taught school for a while, and having early identified himself with 
the Methodist Church, he has frequently occupied the pulpit as local preacher in 
the houses of worship of that denomination. In 1836 he took up his residence 
in Pittsburgh, but four years afterwards removed to McKeesport, Allegheny 
county, and there engaged in the mining and shipping of coal. While there he 
founded the town of Uravosburg on the Monongahela ri\er, eleven miles from 
Pittsburgh. In 1S68 he sold his coal interests and embarked in the coke manu- 
facture at Connellsville as General Manager and Treasurer of the Pittsburgh 
Gas, Coal and Coke Company. At that time the coke manufacture was in its 
infancy, but during his connection with it the trade developed, until it is now 
one of the leading interests of Pennsylvania. The company with which he was 
connected began with forty ovens, and when he retired from the presidency, in 
1883, it had three hundred ovens with a producing capacity of 15,000 bushels of 
coke per day. During his long connection with the coal and coke interests in 
and about Pittsburgh his urbanity of manner and unfaltering integrity made him 
a general favorite with river rnen, by whom he is known as Captain Dravo, and 
for many years he was President of the Pittsburgh Coal Exchange. 

Early in life he became imbued with anti-slavery and temperance sentiments, 
and during his life he has made liundreds of speeches advocating those princi- 
ples. Conmiencing public life as a Henr\- Clay Whig, with strong anti-sla\-ery 
convictions, in 1 848 he ran on the Free Soil ticket for the Legislature from 
Allegheny count)', thus anticipating the organization of the Republican paity 
some six years later in Lafayette Hall, Pittsburgh, Feb. 22, 1S54. When the 
Republican party was formed he identified himself with it, and has ever since 
been regarded as a stalwart Republican. Possessing oratorical abilities of a high 
order, he has generally been called upon to take a leading part in the campaigns 
of his part)', and his speeches are effective because his hearers realize that he 
believes what he utters, and feels what he speaks. While his speeches have 
been confined in the main to the discussion of financial and tariff questions, he 
can rise with the occasion into the realm of true eloquence, as the peroration of 
his address on the death of General Grant, delivered at the memorial service 
held at Beaver Falls, evidences : 

('87) 



iSS JOHN F. DRAVO. 

■■ How potent is a good name! Behold the men lie conquered, the command- 
ers lie defeated, with affectionate hearts and reverent hands, uniting with others 
in bearing his body to the tomb. 

•• The American home is a symbol of the advancement of the race and proph- 
ecy of the permanency of our institutions, and it is a matter of profound thank- 
fulness that Grant, the eminent citizen, the distinguished soldier, was as conspic- 
uous for the purity and fidelity of his home life as he was successful in the realm 
of battle. Unaffected devotion to the loved ones ; unswerving fidelit\- to its 
sanctities ; thoughtful for its comforts ; tender as a child in his relations, gi\ing 
without stint and receiving in like measure the tokens of love, nialce up a picture 
of familj' purity and felicit}', and constitute a legacy to the present and coming 
generations beyond all price, and worth}- of the imitation of all. 

" Was there ever born of woman a human character more rounded and com- 
plete? As a toiler he was industrious and not ashamed to make an honest liv- 
ing in honest ways and by honest means. As conmiander of mighty armies 
that never suffered defeat, as the gainer of victories great as the historian's pen 
ever recorded, he was as modest as a maiden, unassuming as a child. As ruler 
of a great nation, he was as gentle and considerate as the humblest citizen. As 
a traveller around the globe, receiving the testimony of respect from the great 
and learned of the earth, and from emperors and kings such full, free and hearty 
recognition as no other traveller ever received. Reaching the shores of his 
native land, an ovation without a parallel in the history of the Republic awaited 
him. Amid it all, and through it all, he remains the same quiet, unassuming 
citizen that he was at the commencement of his wonderful public career. 

" In the last year of his life, as already intimated, financial disaster came to 
him and his household, as sudden and complete as a western cyclone. As in 
all the emergencies of his eventful life, he was equal to the occasion. Mindful 
of those dependent upon him, he at once commenced writing a history of the 
tremendous events through which he had passed, that the income from the sale 
might sustain his loved ones when he was gone. Thus a personal calamity will 
be turned into a public good — for who is not anxious to read the story of our 
nation's second great struggle as told by the most conspicuous actor in that 
struggle him.sclf ? 

"A common fate awaits the race, great and small, fmied and unfamcd. The 
pale horse and rider will overtake us all, sooner or later, and wind up the his- 
tory of our eartlily pilgrimage. So a few months ago disease fastened upon the 
life of this great man. Months in advance the sentence of death was pronounced, 
and General Grant learned that in a short time he must bid firewell to the scenes 
of time. He heard the sentence calm and unmoved, and through months of 
suffering and pain, with a loving heart, he toiled away at his self-assigned task, 
fighting off death until he could finish his work, in tlie meantime displaying such 
Cliristian patience and giving utterance to such tentler sentiments of universal 
charity and love as to endear him, not to our nation alone, but to the woild of 
mankind at large, thus demonstrating that his greatness was inborn. 



« JOHN F. DKAVO. I89 

"And now, good citizen, licroic leader of armies, wise and patriotic ruler, 
modest traveller, Christian sufferer, as the civilized world looks on in sorrow, 
we commit tliy mortal remains to the dust. Thou didst not live in vain nor die 
in vain. Although to generations to come the story of thy life will be told to 
encourage the }-oung to noble deeds of doing, and thy patient sufferings to for- 
tify the afflicted, on each returning memorial day, as long as the nation lives, 
thy grave will be strewn with flowers b)' a grateful people." 

During his Presidency of the Chamber of Commerce he manifested a deep 
interest in the improvement of the Monongahela and Ohio rivers, and the letters 
he wrote and speeches he made on the subject would fill a volume. He has 
frequently been sent to Washington to represent the interests of Pittsburgh 
before Congressional committees, and the argument that he delivered before the 
House Committee on Rivers and Harbors was pronounced "admirable." 

In 1 88 1 he was appointed by President Garfield Collector of Customs ami 
Surveyor of the Port of Pittsburgh, and when there was some dela\- in his con- 
firmation by the United States Senate, in consequence of political cabals, his 
popularity with the people was strikingly manifested. The business men of 
Pittsburgh, without distinction of party, united in petitioning for his con- 
firmation, and the local journals of Beaver count}^ where he resides, were earnest 
in their advocacy of his claims to the position. " What ? " said one, " does not 
a life of faithful and efficient service to the Republican party, a life of de\-otion 
to every beneficent enterprise calculated to lift and benefit mankind, the most 
liberal gifts to educational institutions and equally liberal gifts for the establish- 
ment of churches and the support and maintenance of the gospel — do not these 
acts, as well as others that might be named, make the nominee worthy of con- 
firmation by the United States Senate ? " These powerful appeals prevailed. 
He received his commission May 20, 1S81, and for four years was a most effi- 
cient and capable officer. 

Besides the offices held by 'Sir. Dravo already alluded to, he has been Director 
in the Tradesmen's National Bank and People's Insurance Company, Trustee 
of Allegheny College, at Meadville, President of the Beaver Female College, 
Director of the Allegheny County Home for eight )-ears, and Director and Vice- 
President of the Pennsylvania Reform School for four years. 

In the fall of 18S6 he was selected by the people of Beaver county to repre- 
sent them in the State Legislature, and at the first session he was made Secretary 
of the Committee of Ways and Means, and also of the Committee on Constitu- 
tional Reform — an unusual honor for a new member. During the session he 
also had the honor of introducing the " Constitutional Prohibitory Amendment " 
which passed the Legislature, and of nominating Col. Quay for U. S. Senator. 

In 1842 Mr. Dravo married Miss Plliza Jane Clark, and for nearly half a cen- 
tury has lived with her in congeniality and happiness. They have had a family 
often children, of whom five are now living, four having died in infancy and one 
in young womanhood. E. T. F. 




Hon, Robert Adams, Jr. 



R0I5KRT ADAMS, JR. 

HON. Robert Adams, Jr., ex-Senator from the Sixth Senatorial District of 
Pennsylvania, was born in the city of Pliiladelphia, February 26, 1849. 
His father was Robert Adams, a distinguished merchant of that city, and his 
grandfather was Robert Adams, of" Lifford Hall," County Tyrone, Ireland, who 
left the family-seat to seek his fortune in America in 1793, and settling in Phila- 
delphia became a leading merchant of that place. His mother was Matilda 
Maybin, daughter of Captain William H. Hart, also a merchant and prominent 
citizen of the same city. 

Robert Adams, Jr., began his educational course at the boarding school of 
Rev. Dr. Clemson at Claymont, Del. From there he entered the classical 
institute of the Rev. J. W. Faires in Philadelphia, where he was prepared for 
the University of Pennsylvania, at which institution he matriculated in the class 
of 1869. During his entire course Mr. Adams ranked among the distinguished 
students, and won the prize for declamation offered in the Freshman year. In 
1868-69, during his Senior year, his health broke down, owing to over-applica- 
tion and to having contracted a heavy cold. This necessitated an absence of two 
months from his studies, which he spent in the South. Notwithstanding this, 
however, upon his return in the spring he successfully passed his examination, 
but could take no honors. The Faculty paid him the great compliment of giving 
him one of the speeches at commencement, a reward granted as a rule only to 
" honor men." 

After leaving college Mr. Adams went abroad for a year and travelled through 
the principal countries of Europe, and on his return was entered as a law student 
in the office of George W. Biddle, Esq. At the end of the winter, his health 
again becoming impaired, he secured a position in the United States Geological 
Survey, which, under Prof F. V. Hayden, was starting to explore the then (1870) 
unknown region of the Yellowstone. Mr. Adams also represented the I-Icrald 
and Evening Post o{ New York, and the Iiiqnira- s.nd-Tclcgraph of Philadelphia, 
as special correspondent, and the accounts of the wonders of that remarkable 
country were by him first given to the public, and established his reputation as a 
descriptive writer. He continued in the survey five consecutive summers, acting 
in various capacities, and so thoroughly gaining the confidence of his chief that 
upon the resignation of Captain Stevenson, the executive officer. Professor 
Hayden offered the place to Mr. Adams ; but he, having been admitted to the 
bar and already successfully practicing, was obliged to decline. He continued 
his law business until 1877, when, on the death of his grandfather. Captain Hart, 
he inherited a competence and retired, living in Philadelpkiia and making occa- 
sional visits to Europe. 

Mr. Adams was of too active a mind and disposition to lead an idle life, and 



IQ2 ROBERT ADAMS, JR. 

his tastes and favorite studies had always inclined towards public questions; so 
that, when the death of his schoolmate, Edward Law, left vacant tlie seat of 
Representative from liis legislative district, he began a canvass for the nomination 
to succeed him. At the same time Colonel A. Wilson Norris, who represented 
the Senatorial District, declined a renomination. The district was rent asunder 
by the factions of the Stalwarts and Independents, and the party was looking for 
some one to lead it to victory. The active canvass of Mr. Adams for Represent- 
ative called attention to him as an aggressive worker, and he was nominated by 
the Republicans for the State Senate. The Independents promptly nominated 
Mr. Henrv" Reed, now Judge of the Common Pleas Court of Philadelphia, and the 
Democratic party indorsed him. Then began a political struggle such as is 
seldom waged. Both candidates were personall)' above reproach, and nothing 
occurred during the canvass to cause regret to either. It was the disastrous 
year of 1882 when General Beaver was defeated, and the Independents carried 
many legislative districts. There were none where, as a rule, the Independent 
spirit existed stronger than in the Sixth Legislati\'e District, but Mr. Adams was 
elected by a little less than half the usual majorit\'. 

Senator Adams entered upon his duties with the ardor that comes alone from 
interest in the work. He was overwhelmed with bills placed in his charge. 
The very citizens who had tried to defeat him showed their confidence by placing 
in his hands their pet scheme — the Reform Charter for Philadelphia. The State 
Medical Societ)''s Act to Establish the State Board of Health, which had failed 
ti) pass for twelve years, and the Wayfarers' Lodging-House Bill of the Society 
of Organized Charity were also committed to his care; while the Master Plumbers' 
Association Bill, the Plumbing Inspectors' Bill, and others of a sanitary and 
reform character were offered by him and became laws during his term, though 
many of them had to lie over until the session of 1885 before their final passage, 
and their success was largely due to the tireless energy and thorough preparation 
for debate of the Senator in whose hands they had been placed. In debate he 
distinguished himself by quickness, adroitness and good judgment. Alert and 
nervous, he was yet suave and genial. When party questions absorb attention 
Senator Adams, who is an ardent Republican, throws his whole soul into the 
conflict. He is a Hotspur in partisan debate, and so warm in his enthusiasm 
that old party leaders wa.x strong in admiration. 

In the fall of 1886 Mr. Adams was a candidate for renomination, but owing to 
the enmity of certain party leaders, incurred by his support of the Ref irm Charter 
of Philadelphia, and to the treachery of others, he found it impossible of accom- 
plishment, and voluntarily retired from the contest. Mr. Adams was supported 
for re-election by every Republican and Independent newspaper in Pliiladel[)hia, 
and liis course and work as a legislator was highly commended. On his fiilure 
to secure the nomination, he was asked to run on an Independent ticket, but 
declined. 

Mr. Adams' other public services have been numerous and \aricd in character. 



ROBERT ADAMS, JR. Iqj 

Me is descended from a military family. One of his paternal great-grandfathers 
was a Captain in the First Pennsylvania Infantrj-, and served through the Revo- 
lutionar)- War, and from him he inherits the Eagle of the Society of the Cincin- 
nati. His mother's father, Captain Hart, served in the War of 1S12, ami after- 
wards was for sixteen years Captain of the famous Citj' Troop. In 1874 Mr. 
Adams joined this last-named organization and served until 1882, when he was 
appointed Judge Advocate of the First Brigade, National Guards of Pennsj-Ivania, 
with rank of Major, which position he filled with credit until 1887, when he was 
appointed on Governor Beaver's staff with rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, thus 
making nearly fifteen )-ears of continued service in the National Guard. 

Colonel Adams' only experience of active military service was in the West in 
1872, when at Fort Hall, Idaho Territory, he accompanied a detachment of the 
Sixteenth United States Infantr\- as a \'olunteer in an expedition against the 
Indians, and in 1875 when, with the United States Geological Survey in Utah, 
the party was attacked b)- the Pi-Ute Indians, and only escaped after a fii;ht of 
nineteen hours. Prof James T. Gardner, in his official report, sa\-s : " I cannot 
bestow too much praise upon Robert Adams, S. Madeira, Charles Kclscy and 
Cuthbert Mills for the aggressive energy that they showed in the fight. To the 
first two I was constantly indebted for excellent advice." 

Mr. Adams' literary work has been of rather a desultory character, and mostly 
on topics that interested him personally, or which he was advocating for the 
public good. In 1S75, at the in\itation of the Ladies' Centennial Committee, he 
delivered a lecture at the Academy of Music to a large autlience on "The W'on- 
ders of the Yellowstone Park-," which netted a handsome sum for the National 
celebration. He wrote for the Century an article on the " State in Sclui_\lkill," 
being an account of the oldest social cUib in the world. In 1SS3 he was elected 
Biennial Orator of the Philomathean Society of the Univei'sit)' of Pennsylvania, 
and read a paper on " Must the Classics Go ? " During the winter of 18S4, there 
being no session of the Legislature, he returned to his Alma Mater and entered 
the Wharton School of P'inance and Political Pxonom)-, in order to further fit 
himself for his public duties, and took his degree of Ph. B, The following 
winter, by invitation of the Faculty, he lectured to the students on " Legislative 
Procedure," and on invitation of the Social Science Association he prepared and 
read before it a paper on " Wife Beating as a Crime," and its relation to taxation. 
Senator Adams has participated in every political campaign since his entrance 
into political life in 1882, and his services have been much in demand b}- both 
the State and City Committees as a speaker on the hustings. 

Many societies have been benefited by Mr. Adams' active membership. In 
his college days he belonged to and became IVIoderator of the Philomathean 
Society of the University of Penns\'lvania ; he also joined the Delta Psi Fraternity, 
and presided over the great meeting of the Brotherhood held in Philadelphia in 
1876, and recenti}' was elected President of the Wharton School Association. 
He is an active member of the Hibernian Societ}-, which his grandfather joined 
25 



104 ROBERT ADAMS, JR. 

in lSo6; also of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania and the Franklin Insti- 
tute. Mr. Adams has always taken a lively interest in all social and society 
matters, and is a prominent member of the Union League, the Philadelphia, the 
Penn, the Rabbit and the Fish House Clubs of Philadelphia, and of the Union 
and St. Anthony Clubs of New York. 

Mr. Adams, since his retirement from the Senate, has held no political office. 
His name is frequently mentioned in connection with the Congressional nomina- 
tion for his district. He is still a young man, and, with his Legislative record, 
his ability and special education, should have a successful career before him. 

C. R. D. 




Hon. Boies Penrose 



BOIES PENROSE. 

HON. Boies Penrose, State Senator for the Si-xth District of Pennsylvania, 
was born at his present residence in tlie Eightli Ward, Philadelphia, on 
November i, i860. He is the son of Professor R. A. F. Penrose, M. D., LL. D., 
of the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania, and a nephew of 
Judge Clement Biddle Penrose, of the Orphans' Court of Philadelphia county. 
Mr. Penrose is a direct descendant of William Biddle, one of the proprietors of 
the province of New Jersey, a friend of William Penn, and the founder of the 
Biddle family of Philadelphia. Nicholas Scull, Surveyor-General of Pennsylva- 
nia in the old Colonial days, was also one of his immediate ancestors. Philip 
Thomas, private Secretary to Cecil Calvert, Lord Baltimore, and founder of the 
Thomas family of Maryland, was a direct ancestor on his maternal side, and he 
is descended from some of the best stock in New England. His great-grand- 
father, J. S. Boies, of Boston, Mass., when a mere lad assisted in erecting the 
breastworks on Bunker Hill the night before the famous battle. 

Mr. Penrose was educated at the Episcopal Academy, located at the corner of 
Juniper and Locust streets, Philadelphia, and by private tutors. He entered 
Harvard College at the early age of si.xteen, and graduated in 1881, being one 
of five out of a class of nearly 250 members selected by a competitive e.xamina- 
tion to deliver an oration on commencement day, his subject being " Martin 
Van Buren as a Politician." He also received " honorable mention " for his 
studies in political economy. 

He studied law with Wayne MacVeagh, United States Attorney General under 
President Garfield, and George Tucker Bispham, Professor in the Law School of 
the University of Pennsj-lvania. He was admitted to the bar in December. 1SS3, 
and soon afterwards entered into partnership with S. Davis Page, Esq., who was 
appointed United States sub-Treasurer at Philadelphia by President Cleveland, 
and Edward P. Allinson, Esq., the firm being Page, AUinson & Penrose. 

In 1884 he was nominated on the Republican ticket and elected a member of 
the Pennsylvania House of Representatives from the Eighth Ward of Philadel- 
phia, succeeding the Hon. William C. Bullitt, a Democrat. In the session of 
1885 he voted for Hon. J. Donald Cameron for United States Senator. He also 
took a prominent part in the passage of the " Bullitt Bill," the reform charter fur 
Philadelphia, and other important measures. 

In November, 1886, he was elected to the State Senate from the Si.xth District, 
composed of the Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Wards of Philadelphia, a district 
which, embracing as it does the heart of the city, is the richest and most influen- 
tial in the State. He succeeded Hon. Robert Adams. Mr. Penrose's grand- 
father, Hon. Charles Bingham Penrose, formerly represented a portion of the 
same district in the State Senate, and, dying during his term of service, was suc- 

(«95) 



Iq6 BOIES PENROSE. 

cccded b\' the Hon. Samuel J. Randall. Col. A. K. McCliire recalled some inter- 
esting reminiscences in the Tiuns. upon the occasion of Mr. Penrose's nomination 
to the House in the follow ing language : 

•• The nomination of Mr. Boies Peniose for the Legislnture in the Eighth Ward recalls the fact that 
the name he lie-irs is illustrious in the leyisl.itive annals of the State. His grandfather, the late Charles B. 
Penrose, was a Senator from the Cumberland District nearly half a century ago, and he was one of the 
central figures of the only Anti-Masonic State Administration. Elected to the Senate originally as a 
Democrat, he severed his connection with his party on the issue of rechartering the old United States 
BanI; as a Slate institution, and he was one of the most trusted advisers of the Ritner reign. He subse- 
quently became a resident of rhiladeli>hia, and was returned to the Senate by the Republicans, or the 
People's party, as it was then called, and he w.as the one man wdio, more than any dozen, compassed the 
defeat of Colonel Forney and the election of General Cameron to the Senate in the Democratic Legisla- 
ture of 1857. The Democrats had three majority on joint ballot, and they had nominated Colonel 
Forney as their candidate with the active approval of Buchanan, then President-elect. The Republicans 
had no love for Cameron, but they were smarting under the defe.it Colonel Forney had given them, as 
they alleged, by frauds in this city, and they were willing to accept Cameron to defeat Forney, but they 
refused to make Cameron their candidate unless positively assured of his election. Senator Penrose 
pressed Cameron upon the Republican caucus on the ground that he coidd be elected, but they were 
slow to believe that the Democratic majority could be broken in the President's own State just on the 
threshold of his power. The caucus finally so far yielded to Senator Penrose's importunities as to appoint 
himself and two other trusted members to inquire into the matter, and commanded them to report favor- 
ably only on the pledge of Democratic members personally given to the committee, but conceding that 
the names of the bolting Democrats need not be given. Penrose and his committee retired and met Lebo, 
Maneer and Wagonseller, three Democratic members of the House who gave their pledge to vote for 
Cameron on the first ballot. The committee reported that they had seen three Democratic members and 
had their pledge to vote for Cameron, whereupon the Republican caucus agreed to give a unanimous 
vote for Cameron on one ballot. They so voted, Lebo, Maneer and Wagonseller fulfilled their pledge, 
and Cameron was elected. Mr. Penrose died before his term expired, and the lapse of a quarter of a 
century since his death leaves his name unfamiliar to the active politicians of the present. His sons have 
well maintained the distinction of the elder Penrose, although they have not become legislators. One of 
them graces the Orphans' Court of this city, and now the grandson, in the freshness of youth, is about to 
take up the legislative mantle of his distinguished grandsire." 

In the session of 1S87 Mr. Penrose voted for the election of Hon. Matthew S. 
Quay for United States Senator, having seconded his nomination in the Repub- 
lican caucus. He took an active part in the debates of that session on the various 
bills relative to railroad discriminations and upon other matters of importance to 
tlie city of Philadelphia. 

He has always taken a great interest in questions of municipal reform, and was 
a member of the convention of the Republican party that nominated Edwin H. 
I'iticr, who was subsequently elected the first Mayor under the new city charter 
known as the " Bullitt Bill." In 1886, at the request of the Faculty of the Johns 
Hopkins University of Baltimore, he, in connection with his partner, Mr. Allin- 
son, wrote a history of the government of the city of Philadelphia. This work 
is the second volume in a series of similar subjects published by the University 
and edited by Professor Herbert Adams, and is entitled, "The Second Extra 
Volume of Studies in Historical and Political Science." The work traces the 
development of the municipality from its beginning to the adoption of the 



BIJIES PENKOSIC, 



197 



" Bullitt Bill " in the broad, scientific manner first apjjlicd to American local 
institutions by Professor Freeman, the famous English historian, upon his visit 
to this country a few years ago, and subsequently carried out in the scries of 
historical investigations instituted by the Joiins Hopkins University. It was in 
the preparation of this work that Allinson and Penrose discovered the first 
charter of Philadelphia, probably the most interesting and important discovery 
of an original document relative to local history that has been made for many 
years. Previously the charter of 1701 had been considered the first charter of 
the city, and Edward Shippen the first Mayor. Allinson and Penrose, ho\ve\'er, 
after laborious research, discovered a charter granted b\- Pcnn in 1699, under 
■\\hich Humphrey Murraj' was ]\Ia\^or. This charter was in the possession of 
Col. Ale.xander Biddle, in whose family it had been for over a hundred )-ears. 

Air. Penrose and his partner ha\-e also contributed all the articles upon muni- 
cipal subjects to the American and English Eucyclopccdia of La-u', and among 
their more recent contributions may be mentioned an article on " Ground Rents 
in Philadelphia as Affecting the Growth of Small I'reehold Tenures," whicli 
appeared in the Harvard Economic Rci'iczv for 1SS8. 

Mr. Penrose is a member of the Union League, the Union Republican Club, 
the Young Republican Club, and other social and political organizations, and 
possesses the warm, personal regard of his friends and associates. 

C. R. D. 




Hon. William Gable 



WILLIAM GABLE. 

HON. \ViLLL\M Gable, ex-Representative from Nortlutmberland county, was 
born in Schuylkill county, near the present city of Pottsville, June 26, 
1S37. His ancestry for three generations are descended from the hardy, consci- 
entious inhabitants of the F"atherland, devoted to duty and sterling in their 
honesty, who migrated to this country and helped to found the State. John 
Gable, the grandfather of the subject of this sketch, came to this country from 
Hesse-Castle with his parents, a boy in years, and settled in Berks county, Penn- 
S)'lvania. The news from Lexington found him a youth budding into vigorous 
manhood, and awakened within him the latent spark of patriotism that Bunker 
Hill kindled into a flame. John Gable entered the patriot army, and followed 
its varying fortunes from the beginning of the Revolutionary war until its close 
at Yorktown. He raised a family, and the same spirit that inspired the father to 
do battle for the cause of liberty and independence, sent his son forth to battle 
against the British in 18 12. When the war was over he married, and later in 
life moved to Schuylkill county. He was the father of William Gable, who in 
turn has laid aside the implements of peace to take up the weapons of war and 
assist in preserving the nation his grandfather helped to found, and in defence of 
which his father fought. 

In the enjoyment of the stupendous improvements of the half century that has 
passed since the birth of William Gable, it is difficult to survey in retrospect the 
privations, the hardships, the meagre advantages that fell to the lot of the Schuyl- 
kill county lads in early days. Free schools were a luxury scarcely dreamed of, 
and when they came forth from shadow into substance, the teachers themselves 
had scarcely the rudiments to impart imperfectly to the taught. Private schools, 
■where they existed in the mountains of Pennsylvania, were little better. It was 
in the midst of these discouraging conditions that young Gable passed his )-outh 
until he attained his sixteenth year. He then engaged in mechanical engineer- 
ing, for which he had developed an aptness. 

His first vote in a Presidential election was given to the candidates of the 
Republican party in i860, and when the issue came, and with it its dreadful 
realizations, he was among the first to go to the rescue of the imperilled nation. 
He enlisted as a private in Captain Jenning's company at St. Clair for three 
months. The company was assigned to the Fourteenth Regiment, and went into 
Camp Curtin, Harrisburg. The regiment received its baptism of fire at P^alling 
Waters, which, at the time, was considered a momentous event, but as the war 
progressed it sunk into the insignificance of a skirmish. The regiment made an 
unimportant tour of the "sacred soil of Virginia" to Martinsburg, Bunk-er Hill 
and Harper's Ferry, from which place, the term of service having expired, it was 
sent to Carlisle, Pa., and mustered out. Gable returned to St. Clair. 



200 WILLIAM GABLE. 

About tliis time Captain William J. Palmer, who was in command of tlie 
Anderson Troop in the Southwest, received permission to recruit a regiment of 
cavalrj- in Pennsylvania to act as body-guard to General Buell. This was the 
Fifteenth Regiment of Penns}'lvania Cavalry, better known as the Anderson 
Cavalr}-, named in honor of Robert Anderson, the hero of Fort Sumter. In its 
formation, in order that it might be a picked body of men, each county in the 
State was to be allowed to furnish eight men, and their acceptance depended on 
the candidates being not only perfect in their physique, but they must possess 
the qualities that go to make up the gentleman. William Gable applied for 
admission from Schuylkill county, and was accepted. The company was sent 
to Carlisle Barracks, where it was drilled by officers detailed for the purpose 
from tlie regular army. When General Pope was defeated at the second battle 
of Bull Run, and the battle of y\ntietam was in prospective, the Anderson Cavalry 
went to Chambersburg, pressed into service a sufficient number of horses, and 
took part in that memorable conflict. Here, at the very outset, its colonel was 
taken prisoner, and did not rejoin the regiment for more than a j-ear. The bat- 
tle fought and won, the regiment went back to Carlisle, and shortly afterwards 
was transferred to Louisville, Kentuck)', where it was supplied with horses 
and marched to Nashville, arriving in time to participate in the battle of Stone 
river, in which it lost seventy men in killed and wounded, including two acting 
majors — Rosengarten, of Philadelphia, and Ward, of Pittsburgh. It may be well 
to state here that owing to the peculiarity of regimental organization, by tacit 
agreement, both these officers, equally efficient and worthy, remained with the 
regiment with but one exercising priority right to the command. The Anderson 
Cavalry participated in the battle of Chickamauga, at the close of which William 
Gable was promoted from a private to a Sergeant for services on the field. The 
regiment then joined the Army of the Cumberland, and participated in its prin- 
cipal engagements under General Thomas. In 1864 Gable went before the 
E.xamining Board at Nashville, Tenn., received a commission as First Lieutenant, 
was assigned to the One Hundred and First United States Colored Infantry, and 
sent to Gallatin, Tennessee, to recruit a company. This accomplished, he joined 
the regiment at Clarksville, was sent to Nash\ille, and was there doing guard 
duty until the regiment was mustered out January 21, 1866. 

At the close of the war Mr. Gable engaged in raising cotton in Arkansas, but 
the surroundings not being congenial, he gave it up after a six months' trial and 
went to Washington. His object was to appear before the Examining Board as 
a candidate for a commission in the regular army. He called on General Grant, 
who gave him a cordial reception, and lent his influence to secure a position to 
prepare him for the examination. In the meantime Congress passed an act 
reducing the army, which effectually put a quietus on Mr. Gable's military 
aspirations. 

In November, 1869, he came to Shamokin and engaged with his brother in 
operating tiie Lancaster Colliery, and later, when the Mineral Railroad and 



WILLIAM GABLE. 20I 

Mining' Company was organized, lie was made outside Superintendent at the 
Luke Fiddler Collier}', in which position he remained until 1S74, when he 
became General Manager for the Enterprise Coal Company. Here he remained 
until 18S4, passing through all the troublous times incident to " Molly Maguire- 
ism." In 1 885 he was nominated by the Republicans of Northumberland county 
for the Assembly, and, although the county was hopelessly Democratic, he suc- 
ceeded in overcoming the majority of upward of one thousand, and secured an 
election, being the second Republican up to that time who had been successful 
in the histor}- of the count}'. As a legislator he was untiring in his zeal in the 
interests of his constituency as well as the general welfare of the Commonwealth 
at large. He was Chairman of the Committee on Pensions and Gratuities, and, 
under the rules which appl}' to the second member, was Secretary of the Com- 
mittees on ]\Iines and Mining and of Geological Surveys. The duties involved 
in this alone were enough to monopolize the time of a less energetic man. Not- 
withstanding this he took an active part in the proceedings on the floor, and was 
closely identified with a large amount of very important legislation. Among 
other things he succeeded in securing the passage of a bill creating an additional 
law judge for Northumberland count}', which was, however, vetoed by the 
Governor. 

He had charge of the Geological Survey Bill, and only by the most untiring 
effort did he succeed in securing its enactment into a law. Hall's Island, in the 
Susquehanna opposite Georgetown, up to this time, although a ver}' valuable 
property, was enjoying immunity from certain taxes by reason of its being an 
independent school district. Through Mr. Gable's exertion the law so exempting 
it was repealed. 

He was one of the committee of fifteen Republican members of the Legislature 
appointed by the party caucus to draft an Apportionment Bill, and was earnest in 
])is opposition to the measure which was finally passed, and was vetoed by Gov- 
ernor Pattison. Mr. Gable was a delegate to the State Convention that nominated 
Gen. James A. Beaver for Governor for the first time. 

At the expiration of his term as Representative, he assumed the proprietorship 
and management of the National Hotel at Shamokin, which he still continues. 
In 1887 he ran for the Assembl}^ a second time, but, owing to complications 
arising from the presence of a ticket placed in the field by die Knights of Labor, 
he was defeated. 

Mr. Gable is a member of the Masonic Order, of the Military Order of the 
Loyal Legion. Grand Army of the Republic and Union Veterans' Association. 
He was also Captain in and Commissary of the Seventh Regiment, National 
Guard, of Pennsylvania, from its organization until mustered out of service. 

In 1859 he was married to Miss Mary J. Bloom, of Pottsville. 
26 




Hon. Thomas Adamson. 



THOMAS ADAMSON. 

HON. Thomas Adamson, now Consul-General at Panama, and one of tlie 
most experienced and popular officers in the Consular service, is tlie son 
of Charles and Mary Corson Adamson, and was born in Schuylkill township, 
Chester county, Pa., April 5, 1827. He is of the fifth generation in descent from 
John and Ann Adamson, who emigrated from London, England, in 1691, as 
followers of William Penn. His ancestors on the paternal side for many genera- 
tions belonged to the religious Society of Friends, and were noted for their firm 
adherence to what they considered to be the right, without regard to any result- 
ing unpopularity. On the maternal side he belongs to three important families of 
Pennsylvania, the Corsons, the Dickinsons and the Dungans. The Corsons of 
Pennsylvania trace their descent from a Huguenot family, who fled from France 
in 1675 to seek religious liberty in the new world. The head of that family in 
Montgomery county was Joseph Corson, who settled near Plymouth Meeting in 
1786, and was the grandfather of the subject of this sketch. Joseph Corson's 
mother was a descendant of the Rev. Thomas Dungan, a Baptist clergyman, who 
fled from Ireland on account of the persecution of his sect during the reign of 
Charles II. His wife was Hannah Dickinson, whose family trace their origin to 
Walter de Caen, of Kenson, one of the Norman companions of William the 
Conqueror. 

The author of " Biographies of Men of Montgomery County" says he has no 
knowledge of any man of the county from whom are descended so large a number 
of cultivated and distinguished offspring, both in the male and female branches, 
as are descended from Joseph Corson. 

The parents of Thomas Adamson were among the earliest Abolitionists of 
Pehns\'lvania, and their son was imbued with their sentiments on. the subject of 
slavery from his early youth. The daily discussion of the subject to which he 
listened, or in which he took part, tended to develop his reasoning powers, and 
the odium which attached to the friends of the oppressed negro on!}' served to 
strengthen his convictions, and to make him perfectly indifferent to any argument 
which his conscience could not approve. 

His scholastic education was acquired in the common schools and at Tree- 
mount Seminary, Norristown, then in charge of Rev. Samuel Aaron, a man of 
remarkable intellectual force and marvellous eloquence. 

On leaving school young Adamson entered upon a mercantile career, the 
training for which subsequently proved of great value to him in his official life, 
which commenced on the 25th of November, 1861, when, on the recommenda- 
tion of the Hon. Thaddeus Stevens and other distinguished Pcnnsylvanians, he 
was appointed by President Lincoln as Consul of the United States at Pernam- 
buco, Brazil. When this appointment was made the post did not appear to be 



204 THOMAS ADAMSOX. 

one of great conseqiiencc, but tlie accident of war made it one of the most 
important of our consulates; for it was in tlie vicinity of Pernanibuco that the 
Anglo-rebel cruisers " Alabama," " Florida " and " Georgia " committed their 
most serious depredations on our commerce. It was within that jurisdiction that 
most of the crews from the captured vessels were landed, and it was from vessels 
calling at that port that late news of the movements of the piratical cruisers 
could be obtained and forwarded to our naval commanders. 

In May, 1S63, Mr. Adamson had under his charge 294 of the men taken 
prisoners by the "Alabama" and " Florida," for whom he had to provide. At 
that time the United States Government had given notice that no drafts agnii\i;t 
it would be accepted if made paj-able in gold, and no merchant or banker in 
Brazil would buy a consular draft which was made payable in a rapidly depre- 
ciating paper currency. At this juncture the personal character of the Consul 
proved of value to his Government. lie had secured the entire confidence of a 
wealthy merchant and banker, Mr. John Mathues, head of the firm of Mathues, 
Austin &Co. ; and to him Mr. Adamson applied, telling Mr. Mathues plainly 
that he was a poor man, that he had positive orders not to draw on the Govern- 
^ment for gold, and that he required some five or six thousand dollars to feed, 
clothe and send home the captured seamen under his charge. The money was 
handed over without a moment's delay. In consideration of the circumstances 
the United States Government afterwards permitted the Consul to draw for the 
amount in gokl. 

During the same month the " Florida " arrived at Pernanibuco, where she 
landed forty-nine prisoners, and was permitted by the authorities to enter the 
port to take coal. The Consul made a vigorous protest against such permission 
being accorded to the " Florida," and in his official correspondence and discus- 
sion of the case he was pitted against the President of the province. Dr. Joao 
Silveira de Souza, who had recently been a professor in the law school of Per- 
nanibuco, and was subsequently Minister of Foreign Affairs of the empire. The 
President of Pernanibuco was also assisted by Don Francisco Balthazar de 
Silveira, an eminent Judge of the Supreme Court, and who has since become the 
chief legal adviser of the imperial government. For a novice in the consular 
service the position was an extremely trying one ; but the new Consul felt, when 
he entered the public .service, that the way to hold a high place was to acquire 
the ability to fill it, and he had employed his spare time in studying international 
law and the laws which govern maritime warfare. His management of the dif- 
ficult cases he had to deal with secured for him the approval of the Department 
of State and the commendation of Gen. James Watson Webb, the Envoy-Extra- 
ordinary and Mini.stcr-Plcnipotentiary of the United States at Rio de Janeiro. 
Consul Adamson's vigilance in thwarting the designs of the rebel cruisers, liis 
economy in the expenditures of his office, and the extreme care .shown by him 
in all public affairs attracted the attention of the Department of State, and finally 
led to his appointment, on the 1st of June, 1S69, as Consul at Honolulu, the scat 



THOMAS ADAMSON. TO^ 

of Government of the Hawaiian Islands, and the refitting port for our vessels 
engaged in the Arctic and Pacific whale fishery. 

On reporting to the Department of State to receive his instructions, Mr. 
Adamson was informed that he had been selected from a very large number of 
applicants for the position, because the Department believed that he was the man 
of the consular service who would do as he was ordered ; that in carrying out his 
instructions lie might make himself unpopular; that the Department would be 
disappointed if there were not many complaints made against him ; and that, so 
far as possible, he should be sustained ; but it was also plainly intimated that he 
must, if necessary, be willing to sacrifice himself for the purpose of carrying out 
the views of the Department. Amongst the duties to be performed were several 
extrernely difficult tasks, including a reduction of the very heavy expenditures 
incurred at Honolulu for many years in connection with the United States 
Marine Hospital at that port ; the collection of the three months' extra wages on 
discharge of seamen — a legal but very unpopular measure with the masters of 
whaling vessels; and the protection of seamen from frauds in the settlement of 
their wages. Mr. Adamson performed his difficult task to the full satisfaction of 
his superiors, and received in official form the thanks of the Department for his 
faithful administration ; but, as had been foreseen, he incurred the displeasure 
of the New Bedford whaling interests, and the New England representatives in 
Congress had sufficient influence to prevent his nomination from being acted 
upon by the Senate, although President Grant e.xerted his influence to have him 
confirmed. 

Mr. Adamson remained in charge of the consulate at Honolulu as Acting 
Consul until the latter part of October, 1870. During all his residence there he 
was on particularly friendly terms with the Hawaiian Government, the mission- 
aries and clergy of the island, and the respectable people of Honolulu in general; 
and on leaving there he was presented by the citizens with a sandal-wood cane 
mounted with a solid gold head, and by the Protestant clergymen with a hand- 
somely bound Bible printed in the Hawaiian language. 

On his return home in November, 1870, the Hon. Hamilton Fish, then Secre- 
tary of State, tendered to Mr. Adamson the appointment to the Consulate at 
Singapore, East Indies ; but, as he needed rest and did not wish to displace the 
worthy incumbent of that post, he asked permission to hold his decision in 
abeyance for a time, which was granted. 

In a personal interview which the Hon. Simon Cameron, Senator from Penn- 
sylvania, had with the honorable Secretary of State in regard to another appoint- 
ment for Mr. Adamson, that official remarked that Mr. Adamson had converted 
the Consulate at Honolulu, which formerly cost the Government some ^30,000 
a year, into a source of revenue, and that during his first full quarter at Honolulu 
he had sent to the United States Treasury over ;gi 1,000 on account of the fund 
for relief of seamen. On the 2d of February, 1S71, at the special instance of the 
Hon. William D. Kelley, M. C, and the Hon. Leonard Myers, M. C, and in 



206 THOJIAS ADAMSON. 

recognition of Iiis valuable senices at Honolulu, President Grant commissioned 
Mr. Adanison as Consul at Melbourne for the important British Colony of 
\'ictoria, Australia, to which post he immediately proceeded. 

Within a few months after his arrival at Melbourne he received from one of 
the Cabinet Ministers of the Hawaiian kingdom an intimation that, if he would 
express his willingness to accept it, he would at once receive from his Majesty, 
King Kamehameha V., the appointment as Minister of Foreign Affairs of Hawaii. 
The position was the premier one of the country, and very desirable from many 
points of view ; but, while Mr. Adanison fully appreciated tiie honor done him by 
the suggested appointment, his ambition was limited to the ser\ice of his own 
country. 

He devoted himself with energy to the duty of promoting measures to increase 
the commerce of the United States with the great Australian Colonies, and to 
overcoming any prejudices which might retard the intercourse between the 
respective countries. 

As a natural result of his early training, he took an active interest in works of 
benevolence, and thus happily dispelled the prejudices of those who thouglit a 
foreigner could desire the good only of his own countrymen. He was one of the 
founders of "The Victorian Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals," and 
also of " The Victorian Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society," both of which held 
their meetings at the United States Consulate for several years. He was also a 
member of the Board of Managers of the Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, of 
the Victorian Asylum and School for the Blind, the Seamen's Mission, and other 
public institutions. 

His usefulness was recognized by his promotion, on the 17th of June, 1874, to 
the rank of Consul-General at Melbourne, with jurisdiction over all the United 
States Consulates in Australia, New Zealand and Tasmania — a territory of greater 
extent than that of any other Consulate-General of our service. 

During his term of office at Melbourne he prepared the evidence, to be used 
before the tribunal at Geneva, for arbitrating the Alabama claims, in the case of 
the claim of the United States for damages done to American commerce by the 
Anglo-rebel cruiser "Shenandoah" after her departure from Melbourne, and 
thus assi.sted in fixing upon the British Government the responsibility for the 
acts complained of, and for which /'i, 250,000 sterling were allowed. He also 
discussed with the Colonial Go\ernment several important cases affecting our 
shipping interests, resisting successfully its claims in the premises, and securing 
for himself the renewed approval of the Department of State at Washington. 

In 1877 lie obtained leave of absence to visit his home in Philadelphia, whither 
his wife and sons had gone a few months before in order that the latter might 
enter the University of Pennsylvania. On his departure from Melbourne he was 
honored by the citizens with a public farewell and the presentation of an illumi- 
nated address and ser\ice of plate at the Town Hall, and was also the recipient 
of several complimentary adtlresses from the various benevolent societies with 
which he had been connected, and from his colleagues of the Consular corps. 



THOMAS ADAMSON. 20/ 

Before Mr. Adamson's leave of absence had expired, the lion. Wni. M. Evarts, 
tlien Secretary of State, had recommended President IIa\es to transfer him to 
the Consulate-General at Rio de Janeiro in order to assist in carrying^ out the 
views of the Secretary of State in regard to increasing our commerce with Brazil. 

The nomination was accordingly made, but the action of the Senate thereon 
was delayed for a time b)' a Senatorial friend of the incumbent at Rio de Janeiro. 
Pending such action the Department of State called Mr. Adamson to Washington, 
and ordered him to prepare for service as a special Commissioner to the Samoan 
Islands to investigate certain complications which had arisen there, and to make 
a treaty with the king of those islands. He proceeded at once to study the case 
in hand, and to prepare for his contemplated mission ; but before arrangements 
for his departure had been completed commissioners from Samoa arrived at 
Washington, and the treaty was made there by the Hon. W. M. Evarts and the 
Envoy E.xtraordinary of the Samoan Government, and ratifications exchanged on 
the iith of February, 1878. 

The appointment of Mr. Adamson as Consul-General of the United States at 
Rio de Janeiro having been confirmed, he was duly commissioned on the loth 
of April, 1878, and soon afterwards proceeded toward his post, with orders to 
stop on the way at Pernambuco and make an investigation into the administra- 
tion of the Consulate at that port, which duty was performed to the entire 
satisfiction of his Government. 

On arriving at Rio de Janeiro he found the Consulate office like an old ship — 
worm-eaten and covered with barnacles. The Vice-Consul-General was a Portu- 
guese subject, who had been clerk to the Consulate for upwards of twent}- years, 
and who, through the ignorance of his principals of the Portuguese language, 
had made himself master of the situation, and had connected that office with 
many very questionable practices. Besides the grave abuses which he had 
permitted to grow and almost to become vested riglits of the parasites who fed 
upon the Consulate, there was a new difficulty to contend with which grew out 
of the laudable efforts of the honorable Secretary of State to increase our for- 
eign commerce. 

Plausible adventurers established themselves at Rio de Janeiro as commission 
merchants, dealing only in American goods. They invited consignments, for 
which they seldom made any returns, except when by doing so they hoped to 
receive other and more valuable consignments. They demanded of Mr. Adam- 
son that he should report them as trustworthy persons, and on his failure to do 
so they complained that he was an obstacle to commerce. The position of the 
Consul-General was as difficult as when he was sent to Honolulu to break up 
time-honored swindles there, and he was further embarrassed by the fact that he 
met with opposition from quarters whence he should have received support. 
Relying, however, on the knowledge that he was in the right, and would be 
supported by his Government, he requested the Department of State to cause a 
full investigation of all the points at issue to be made. A special agent, thor- 



2oS THOMAS ADAMSON. 

oiighly versed in consular duties, was detailed for that purpose, and, after a 
searching examination, he found the Consul's course without a blemish, and 
reported that he iiad never before found a consulate so well managed as that at 
Rio de Janeiro, or a Consul so efficient as Mr. Adamson. 

Mr. Adamson continued in charge of the Consulate-General at Rio de Janeiro 
until 18S2, when the increased political importance of the Isthmus of Panama, 
caused by the commencement of the Inter-Oceanic Canal projected by Count Fer- 
dinand de Lesseps, demanded that our growing American interests there should be 
committed to the care of a thoroughly discreet and experienced officer. On the 
17th of April, 1S82, Mr. Adamson was appointed to the Consulate at Panama; 
but he remained for some six months longer at Rio de Janeiro, in order to deliver 
over the Consulate-General there to his successor. On his return to the United 
States he took an early opportunity of paying his respects to the new administra- 
tion. On calling on the Hon. F. T. Frelinghuj-sen, then Secretary of State, Mr. 
Adamson remarked that it appeared that he had " been promoted backward from 
a Consulate-General to a Consulate." The honorable Secretary replied that he 
ought to feel highly complimented, as the post was likely to be one of the most 
important in our service. He also promised that the Department would endeavor 
to have the office raised to that of a Consulate-General, and to have the salary 
increased, both of which were afterward accomplished. 

On his arrival in Panama he was immediately called to take action in a case in 
which the local authorities had exceeded their just powers, and violated the- 
plain provision of the Consular Convention between the respective countries, by 
imprisoning an officer and two mariners of an American steamship for a matter 
which did not come within their jurisdiction. The affair became the subject of 
diplomatic correspondence between the Hon. Wm. L. Scruggs, Minister-Pleni- 
potentiary of the United States at Bogota, and the Secretary of Foreign Affairs 
of the Colombian Government. Mr. Scruggs, referring to Mr. Adamson's dis- 
cussion of the affair with the President of Panama, declared that his arguments 
were unanswerable and covered the whole ground, making his own side of the 
case comparatively easy in his controversy with the Government of Colombia. 
It may be added that Mr. Adamson's views of the case were fully sustained by 
the Department of State at Washington, and finally admitted by the Colombian 
Government. 

The state of political affairs in Colombia had been gradually becoming more 
and more disturbed, and finally in June, 1884, the manifestations of coming 
trouble were unmistakable at Panama. General Benjamin Ruiz commenced the 
revolt in Panama, and during the following months Consul-General Adamson 
was continually on the alert to protect American interests and to report all signs 
of disturbance to his home Government. In December of that year communica^ 
tion with Bogota was cut off, and for five months our Minister there could not 
communicate with Washington. This left Consul-Gcneral Adamson as the only 
representative of the United States in Colombia with whom our Government 



THOMAS AOAMSON. 2O9 

could communicate, or from whom it could receive information of the progress 
of tiie revolution. Between November, 1884, and April, 1SS5, Panama had six 
different rulers, constitutional and revolutionary. The town was taken by assault 
of the Rebel forces on the i6th of March, evacuated by them on the 17th, and 
retaken on the 31st of March, 1885. *^''^ t^'"-' ^'^^^ named day a notorious guerrilla 
chief Pedro Prestan, had captured the cit)- of Colon, imprisoned the United States 
Consul at that place, and several prominent American citizens, threatening to 
shoot them. On the evening of the same day he burned the city, thus rendering 
twelve thousand people homeless in a few hours. 

These incidents caused the Government of the United States to send a large 
military force to the Isthmus of Panama, to protect y\merican interests and to 
fulfil our treaty obligations there. At one time there were over twelve hundred 
United States marines and "blue jackets" on shore, and lor a short time the)' 
occupied and controlled the city of Panama. The e\ents of those days were 
such as required the utmost watchfulness and prudence on the part of the agents 
of our Government, and especially so on the part of the ranking officer, Consul- 
General Adamson, to whom all classes of people came for protection and advice. 
His exertions were unremitting, and his prudence averted serious and imminent 
dangers, and finally assisted materially to bring about the peaceable surrender 
of the revolutionary forces to those of the National Go\-ernment. To him the 
people of Panama accorded the credit of saving their cit)' from the terrible fate 
\vhich had so recently befallen their sister cit)'. Colon. 

While all these tragically interesting events were in progress, and the Isthmus 
was daily experiencing some new horror of fratricidal war, there was a constant 
necessity for action upon the various emergencies as they arose, and as to which 
it was simply impossible to await orders from Washington. But the Consul- 
General felt himself strengthened b)' the confidence shown him b)- the new 
administration which had just come into office at Washington, the new Secre- 
tary of State, the Hon. Thomas F. Bayard, sending him this message: 

"The department trusts to your judicious management and the wise discretion 
which your long experience in the service enables you to exercise during the 
present trying times, and will omit no proper effort on its part to sustain )-ou." 

On the 29th of April, 1885, the National forces having arrived in the Ba)' of 
Panama, a conference was held between the commanders of the National and 
Revolutionary forces, which resulted in the surrender of the city by the Revolu- 
tionists, and the entrance of the National army on the following day. The ser- 
vices of Consul-General Adamson at that time were recognized by the commander 
of the National forces in a letter bearing date May 2, 1885, thanking him for his 
"efficacious co-operation in the bloodless pacification of Panama." 
« The return of peace to Colombia enabled Mr. Adamson to devote himself 
more thorough!)' to many duties of a more quiet nature, but not of less value to 
the interests of his couiitrv. The influence that he had acquired made it possible 
to arrange many matters with the authorities before they could become sources 
^7 



2IO THOMAS ADAMSON. 

of irritation, and it is in this quiet way that much of the best work of a Consular 
officer is really performed. The fact that a foreign agent of the Government is 
not making a noise is by no means a proof that he is not doing good work. 

Political jealousies between Colombian statesmen again brought the Consul- 
General to the front in March, iS86. One of the results of the recent Civil War 
in Colombia had been to con\'ert the former " sovereign State of Panama" into 
the National Department of Panama. A new governor was sent to Panama in 
February, iS86, and he had been but a few weeks in office when he arbitrarily 
suspended the publication of the principal newspaper of Panama, Tlie Star and 
Hira/J, because the paper had declined to publish as an editorial an article which 
reflected upon the integrity of a previous governor. The Star and Hirald 
belonged to a company of American citizens incorporated under the laws of the 
State of New York. The Constitution of Colombia guaranteed the liberty of the 
press ; the publishers had not violated any civil law ; martial law did not then 
prevail, and our treaty with Colombia was plainly violated by the interference of 
the governor with the legitimate business of Americans who had established 
themselves at Panama in accordance with the terms of the treaty. 

The governor who committed this act. Gen. Ramon Santo Domingo Vila, was 
an eminent diplomat, statesman and soldier. He had represented his country at 
Washington, and was looked upon as a probable future President of Colombia. 
Consul-General Adamson was not deterred by the prestige of the governor, but 
firmly vindicated the rights of the publishers of Tlic Star and Herald ; and his 
arguments received the approval of the Government of the United States, and 
resulted in the removal of the offending officer from the governorship of Panama. 

[We are indebted to F". O. St. Clair, Esq., Chief of the Consular Bureau at 
Washington, for many of the foregoing facts in Consul-General Adamson's career, 
and regret that we cannot afford space to give his memorandum in full.] 

On the 25th of March, 1856, Mr. Adamson was married to Sarah Victorine 
Wright, daughter of the Rev. Joseph Wright, by his second wife — Elizabeth 
Ann Comegys. They have two sons. The elder, Joseph Wright Adamson, is at 
present tlie Vice-Consul-General of the United States at Panama, and the younger, 
Charles, is a member of the Philadelphia Bar. 




Hon. J. Simpson Africa. 



J. SIMPSON AFRICA. 

JSniPSON Africa, ex-Secretary of Internal Affairs of Pennsylvania, was born 
• at Huntingdon, Pa., on the I5tli day of September, 1832. On his paternal 
side he is of German ancestry, his great-grandfather, Christopher Africa, having 
emigrated from near Hanover, then in the kingdom of Hanover, now part of 
Prussia, and settled at Germantown, Philadelphia. Subsequently he became a 
resident of Hanover, York county. One of his sons, Michael, the grandfather 
of the subject of this sketch, married Miss Catharine Graffins, at York, and 
removed to Huntingdon in 1791, where he purchased the property now owned 
and occupied by his grandson. He was one of the founders of and an elder in 
the Lutheran church in that town. There Daniel Africa, the father of J. Simpson, 
was born in 1794. He was a man of prominence and influence, was Deputy 
Surveyor of Huntingdon count)- from 1824 to 1830, and was a Justice of the 
Peace for twenty-two years. He had an extensive knowledge of the law, an 
unusual accomplishment for the magistrates of his day. With many of the 
English and American decisions he was familiar, especially those of the Penn- 
s}-lvania courts, and kept a record of a great number of important cases, many 
of these relating to the land laws. His son was his constant student and 
companion. 

The great-grandfather of Mr. Africa, on his mother's side, was James Murray, 
who was born in Scotland, and came to America at an early age, about the }'car 
1730. He settled in Paxton, Lancaster (now Dauphin) count)', and was a Cap- 
tain of one of the Lancaster companies in the Revolutionary War. One of his 
daughters married John Simpson, of Bucks county, who was also a soldier of 
Revolutionary da)-s. This couple were the parents of the wife of Daniel Africa, 
and from such stock is J. Simpson Africa directly descended. 

Mr. Africa was educated in the common schools and at the Huntingdon 
Academy. These gave him all the opportunities that were necessary to fit him 
for the active and successful business life which was destined to be his. He has, 
however, been a close student notwithstanding — a necessary requisite for any one 
engaged in practical professional pursuits. After completing his academic 
studies, he began the practice of surveying and civil engineering with his fatlier 
and his uncle, James Simpson, who was his principal instructor. His first work 
as a civil engineer was in 1853 with the now venerable Samuel W. Mifflin, of 
Louella, Delaware count)-, then Chief Engineer on the Huntingdon and Broad 
Top Railroad. The locating of the road was begun in January of that yea., at 
wliich work Mr. Africa was engaged but a few months, having been called away 
by other duties. An intimate friendship then sprang up between himself and 
Mr. Miffljn, which remains uninterrupted to the present time. 

The first public office to which Mr. Africa was chosen was that of County 



212 J. SIMPStl.N AFRICA. 

Sur\e\-or of Huntinc^don. When elected he had just passed his t\vent)'-first 
\ear. This was in October, 1S53. The usual Whig majority in the county at 
that time was between six hundred and seven hundred, but he overcame this, 
and had a majority of 165. The result was a great surprise to his opponent. 
In 1856 Mr. Africa was a candidate against his will for re-election. This being 
a Presidential year, of course party lines were strictly drawn, and he being 
indifferent as to the result of his own election, there was a tie vote between Mr. 
Africa and his Republican competitor. He held over, however, for a few 
months, when, insisting that the court should make an appointment, his oppo- 
nent was selected. 

Mr. Africa's long experience as a surveyor, his field extending nearly over the 
whole State, together with his uiuleviating carefulness and accuracy, made him 
invaluable in suits where the land titles of Pennsylvania were involved. In fact, 
no suits of this nature were tried in the Huntingdon county court, and but 
few in the neighboring counties, in which his services were not required to 
unra\el the m)-steries of the law and aid in the administration of justice. He 
has been pronounced by competent authority the best surveyor in Central Penn- 
s\-l\'ania, and has not his superior in the State, if, indeed, anywhere outside its 
limits. 

In 1S53 Mr. Africa iielped to establish the Slanding Stone, an independent 
newspaper at Huntingdon, and continued one of its editors and proprietors until 
it was discontinued, two years later. The reasons for its discontinuance were 
that the publishers were engaged in other business which required nearly all their 
time and attention. It was disposed of to a party of Altoona gentlemen, and 
from it has sprung the present successfully conducted and prosperous Altoona 
Tribune. Mr. Africa would have made his mark as an editor. He is well quali- 
fied for editorial work, being an able, pungent writer, with a pure English style. 
All of his official documents and other writings attest the truth of this assertion. 
On all matters of local history he is considered an authority. He was the writer 
of the sketch of Huntingdon county in Egle's " History of Pennsylvania," and 
is given much credit for the information furnished in Lytle's " History of Hunt- 
ingdon County." He is also the author of an interesting and exhaustive 
" History of Huntingdon and Blair Counties," published in 1883. 

In 1858-59 he was chosen one of the clerics of the State Senate of Pennsyl- 
vania, and in 1859 was elected to represent his native county in the Legislature, 
despite the fact that Huntingdon was even more strongly Republican than it had 
been Whig. He proved one of the ablest and most respected members ol the 
body, served on the most important committees, and both on the floor and in the 
committee-room exercised a controlling influence in the proceedings. 

During the civil war, from 1861 to 1865, Mr. Africa, while yielding a willing 
obedience and helping liand to the Federal authorities in suppressing the re- 
bellion, maintained a steadfast adherence to the Democratic ]iarty ; never for a 
moment permitting his allegiance to that organization or his faith in its ultimate 



J. SIMPSON AFRICA. 213 

triunipli to falter. On tlie 20th of May, 1863, a lawless mob, incited to the act by 
a number of cvil-di.sposed persons, broke into the office of the Democratic organ, 
the Huntingdon Monitor, then published by J. Irvin Steel, and the press, materials, 
etc., were thrown into the street and entirely destroyed. This roused the 
Democracy, not only of Huntingdon county, but of the entire State, to the 
highest degree of indignation, and the next day the following circular, signed 
by the leading Democrats of the county, was issued and had a wide dissemina- 
tion : 

'• MoNiTOK Extra. 

" Huntingdon, Pa., May 2isl, 1863. 
'* To the Democracy of Huntingdon county : 

".\\\ important hour in the history of our country is upon us. The question which presses itself home 
to every freeu)aii now is, Shall the rights and liberty of the citizen be preserved, or shall the violence of 
a bloody mob override the majesty of the law and destroy both property and life ? In a crisis like this 
we appeal to the sovereign people — they are alike the source of virtue and of power, and their will to be 
obeyed needs but to be known. True to the sublime cause of constitutional liberty in the early struggles, 
they will not de-^crt it now when the fires of persecution light its grand march to victory ! 

" Feeling deeply, as all citizens who love law and order must feel, the outmge coinmitted on the 
office of The Monitor, on Wednesday, the 20th inst., we hereby unite in a call for a mass-meeting of the 
Democrats of Huntingdon county, to be held in the Court-IIouse, on Friday, the 2gth of May, at one 
o'clock P. M., to give expression to our utter abhorrence of such violence and brutality, and to renew our 
allegiance to the rights of the citizen and the Constitution of the Union. 

"Freemen of Huntingdon county, shall your voice be hushed by the mob? Shall your property be 
destroyed, and your persons endangered, and that, too, in the name of liberty? Never! By the sacred 
altars of our fathers, we swear — never ! 

" Then come in numbers and in power to the mass-meeting, and in obedience to the law of the land 
let us both assert and maintain our rights. The Monitor must be re-established, and every moment of 
delay breeds peril lo our cause. Let there be a thousand Democrats in council. There is no man w ho 
loves liberty that cannot devote one day to its holy cause. 

"John S. Miller, R. Bruce Petriken, \V. P. McNite, A. Johnston, J. Simpson Africa, E. L. Evcrhart, 
F. llefright, F. B. Wallace, William Colon, A. P. WiUon, G. Ashman Miller, John H. Lightner, George 
Mears, R. Milton Speer, Joseph Reigger, Daniel Africa, Valentine Hoover, A. Owen." 

There was a tremendous gathering of the Democracy of the count}- in response 
to this call. General George W. Speer presided, assisted by fifty vice-presidents 
and twenty-two secretaries, representing each township and borough in the 
county. An address was delivered by the late Hon. George Sanderson, then 
editor of the Lancaster Intelligencer, Mayor of Lancaster and President of the 
Democratic State Editorial Association. The Committee on Resolutions, 
after a lengthy preamble, reported a series of resolutions, setting forth the rights 
of individuals and the press under the Constitution of the United States as well 
as that of the State of Pennsylvania, and determining that " we will immediately 
re-establish The Monitor upon a firm and permanent basis, and yield it a generous 
support as the organ of our faith." The paper was re-established, and is to-day 
in a prosperous condition, S. E. Fleming & Co. being the publishers. This 
incident is recalled and related to show that Mr. Africa was never afraid, e\'cn in 
the darkest hours of our country's history, both by pen and voice, to boldly and 
unflinchingly advocate the rights of the people and the press. 



214 J- SIMPSON AFRICA. 

In the local afTairs of Huntingdon borough he has alwa^'s taken and continues 
to take a leading part. In every public improvement he has contributetl the 
influence of his might and superior judgment. He has served as a member of 
the Borough Council, the School Board, was for two years one of the three 
Burgesses, Chief Burgess in 1874, and at the time of his election to the Secre- 
taryship of Internal Affairs was Cashier of the First National Bank of Hunt- 
ingdon. 

Meanwhile Mr. Africa had become prominent in State affairs, and when the 
Department of Internal Affairs was created b)' the New Constitution of 1873, 
the following year the late General William McCandless, of Philadelphia, was 
chosen its first secretary. In casting about for his Deputy Secretary, the General 
appointed Mr. Africa to that position, for the reason that above all others he was 
the one most eminently fitted. The entire labor of organizing this new department 
of the State government rested upon him. An addition to the old Land Depart- 
ment building was necessaiy in order to accommodate tlie vast amount of business 
which was devolved upon the new department. The plans for the arrangement 
and improvement of the interior of the edifice were made by Mr. Africa, and 
under his direct personal supervision carried out. The result was that the 
structure in all its appointments is the finest and most complete of the public 
buildings of the State, and there are few which surpass it am'where. 

In 1878 he was nominated as the Democratic candidate for Secretary of In- 
ternal Affairs. It will be remembered as an intensely aggressive and bitter cam- 
paign, especially in reference to the gubernatorial nominees, who were, respect- 
ively, Andrew H. Dill, the Democratic, and Henry M. Ho}'t, the Republican. 
Colonel Hoyt was elected by a majority of upward of 22,500, while Mr. Africa 
was only defeated by a majority of 12,159. His majority in Huntingdon county 
was 541, while Governor Hoyt's was only 337. This showed the continued hold 
Mr. Africa had upon the people of his native county, and also the estimate of 
him by the men of all parties in the State. 

In 1880 President Hayes appointed him Supcn'isor of the Census for the 
Seventh District of Pennsylvania, comprising fourteen counties in the central 
part of the State, and extending from Clearfield to York. The appointment was 
unsolicited, but was made at the request of a number of leading Democrats of the 
State. The same vigor, the same care, the same intelligence, were exercised in 
the conduct of this office as he was wont to do in other positions, and the com- 
pletion of his labors was highly complinvntary to himself, and extreme!)- satis- 
factory to General Francis A. Walker, then Superintendent of the Census at 
Washington. 

As the campaign of 1883 approached, there developed a great unanimity of 
sentiment that Mr. Africa should again be the nominee of the Democracy of the 
State for the Secretaryship of Internal Affairs. In bringing about this desirable 
result he took no part ; but in this, as in other cases, was ready to obey the 
behests of liis party. The unanimous nomination was therefore conferred upon 



J. SIMPSON AFRICA. 215 

forehead, and his head is covered witli a luxuriance of brown hair, while his 
neatly-trimmed beard and mustache of the same color are slightly tinged with 
gra)'. His deep-rooted moral and religious convictions are the basis of his 
admirable character, so imperfectly sketched in the preceding paragraphs. He is 
a member of the Presbyterian Church of Huntingdon, is one of the Board of 
Trustees, and Treasurer of the congregation. 

His domestic relations are of the most pleasant character. On the ist of 
January, 1856, he was married to Dorothea C, daughter of Joshua Greenland, 
then Sheriff of Huntingdon county. Of this marriage there are three surviving 
children, viz., B. Franklin, draughtsman in the Department of Internal Affairs; 
James Murray, a student in the Polytechnic Institute, at Troy, N. Y., and Walter 
G., Treasurer of the Huntingdon Gas Company and a practical surveyor. 




Hon. Samuel G. King. 



SAMUEL GEORGE KING. 

HON. Samuel G. King, Mayor of Philadelphia from April 4, 1881, to April 7, 
1884, was born in the district of Northern Liberties RLiy 2, 18 16. His 
father, George Michael King, was a coppersmith by trade, and carried on his 
business successfully in the Northern Liberties for many years, respected by all 
who knew him for his industry and integrity of character. The mother of 
Mr. King, whose maiden name was Mary Gougler, was a woman of rare excel- 
lence, much admired in her circle of acquaintance and exemplary in her life of 
devotion to her family, which she fully e.xhibited in her care and education of 
the children left to her motherly guardianship after the death of her husband, 
which occurred the same year that Mr. King was born. The influence in early 
life of this pious, intelligent and devoted mother had much to do with implanting 
in Mr. King the seeds of a true character which afterward grew and brought 
forth good fruits, and which niar]<ed his progress onward through business and 
iipu-nrd in all his political career from Rev-enue Inspector, in 1854, to the chair 
of Chief Magistrate of Philadelphia, in 1 88 1. Mr. King belongs to the t\-pe 
known as " self-made men." 

His education was such as the schools and academies of the day could give. 
He finished his tuition at the Friends' School, then at the corner of Dihv\-n and 
Green streets. The moral influence of that school upon his after life has been 
such that, although by birth and family association a Lutheran, he has ever since 
attended Friends' meeting. In religion he is broad and liberal, seeing good in 
all forms, freely allowing to others that which he claims for himself— the right 
to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience. 

After leaving school he learned the trade of brush-making with a relative. 
When he became of age, having established a character for industry, temperance, 
frugality and probity, he began business for himself, in which he prospered, 
establishing a brush manufactory on Second street near Callowhill, where he 
continued fourteen years, acquiring by prudent management of his affairs what 
he considered a competency. He retired from business with an honorable 
reputation among those with whom he had dealings. His prompt and charac- 
teristic answer to those who criticised his action in thus early retiring from busi- 
ness was: " I know when I have enough, and I know how to take care of it." 
He has certainly proved the correctness of his remark. 

In politics Mr. King is a liberal Democrat — in national affairs adhering to the 
Jeffersonian doctrines of his party, while in municipal matters he has been a 
leader in all reformator}' measures, caring more for honesty and integrity in the 
execution of public trusts, and the management of cit\' affairs, than for personal 
preference and party triumph. In politics, as in business, he began at the bot- 
tom of the ladder. Commencing with election inspector, and serving on various 
2S (317) 



2lS SAMUEL C. RIN'G. 

minor committees and as delegate to conventions of his party, he steadily rose 
to more important positions. He had a particular friend in Mr. Charles Brown, 
who was Collector of the Port of Philadelphia in 1S54, and who desired his 
services in connection with certain important duties connected with that office, 
and he accepted a position under him, and remained several years associated with 
that gentleman, w ho valued him for his services, his honesty and integrity. 

He was elected October 8, 1861, to Select Council by the Democratic citizens 
of the Eleventh Ward, and entered that body January 6, 1862, succeeding Daniel 
S. Bidelman. In this position Mr. King began to show his distinguishing habits 
of cliaracter as a careful, economic, but earnest and progressive representative of 
the people. The citizens of the Eleventh Ward soon learned his value, and with 
excellent judgment retained him as their representative for twenty years. His 
pleasant manner and courteous behavior towards his fellow-members gave him 
great influence, which he was not slow to use for the cit\-'s benefit. Only by 
carefully tracing the record of an official's public life in his votes and acts is it 
possible to come to a knowledge of his value and real character. And so in 
tracing the records of Select Council for the actions of Mr. King for twenty 
years, at a time and under circumstances calculated to develop all the good or 
evil in a man, he stands forth as a guardian of the people's municipal rights and 
a loyal patriot in the darkness which shadowed the country from i860 to 1864. 

The journal of Select Council from 1862 to 1881 will show the tendency of his 
mind to have been consistent and progressive in all things involving the best 
interests of the people. His name was intimately connected, either as leader, 
originator or advocate, with all the reform measures which have added so much 
to the fair fame of the cit}-. Among them maybe mentioned the following: 
Fi.xing the amount of City indebtedness; restricting Council expenditures in 
approjjriations to the amount of ta.K collected ; funding of the floating debt ; the 
million dollar loan bill for school purposes; establishing the Board of Revision 
of Taxes; extension of Fairmount Park; advocating the return by the National 
Government of twelve million dollars advanced by the city during the war; and 
he was an earh' and earnest advocate for the holding of the Centennial K.xhibition 
in Philadelphia. 

The election nf Mr. King to the Mayoralty was the crowning act in his politi- 
cal life, and the manner in which he performed the duties of tliat office for three 
years, constitutes a creditable portion of the cit}''s history. He was inaugurated 
April 4, 1 88 1. ha\'ing heen elected the preceding February, receix'ing "8,215 
votes, a majority of 5.787 o\'er William S. Stoklev, who was the choice of the 
Republican party (which was the majority part}'), and who had been three times 
previously elected Mayor. This result was attributed to two things: Mr. King's 
popularity as an honest, intelligi'iit and fearless representative of the people, and 
the organized action of the " Committee of One Hundred," a body of independent 
citizens wlio had resolved to effect certain needed reforms in the management of 
cit}' affiirs, and to suppress the growing and festering corruptions of " Ring" 
rule and the imperious domination of" Boss" power b}- the self-selected few. 



SAMUia. n. KING. 219 

Mr. Kinsj's first ofiicial act was the delivery of his inaugural adilress before 
City Councils after taking the oath of office. In it lie promised an honest 
administration of the municipal government, a promise faithfull)- fulfilled. As to 
the police, he said : 

" It will be my duty to free the city from a partisan police. An observation 
of man)' years has convinced me that a police force, in order to be effective, must 
be entirely disconnected from politics, and that its members should hold their 
positions as long as they conduct themselves honestly, soberly and efficiently. 
Under my administration the members of the police force will not be permitted 
to interfere in elections or in the nominating conventions of either parties. As- 
sessments on the police force for political purposes shall no longer be tolerated. 
If corporate bodies and wealthy citizens will continue to contribute their money 
with the knowledge that the mone\' thus contributed is used to corrupt elections, 
it shall be known that during my administration the police of Philadelphia shall 
not be made accessories to such crimes b\- contributions for such nefarious 
purposes which strike at the foundations of our civil government." 

Well and trul)- did he hew to this line, almost the first official order relating to 
the police force being the great surprise of his term — the appointment on that 
force of men of color. At a single blow he cut through the color line and 
crowned his own manhood by recognizing the brotherhood of the human race, 
and establishing the equal rights of all citizens under the National Constitution. 
This was a bold act. It required more courage, under all the circumstances, 
than was generally known. He stood fast while the storm of indignation swept 
around him, firm in his sense of the justice of his action, regardless of the vitu- 
peration and abuse of his own party or the sneers of his political opponents. His 
proclamation relative to the Fourth of July celebrations spread his fame in all 
the great cities of the Union. He urged the people to desist from the foolish, 
dangerous and wasteful expenditure of money for fire-works, which not only 
increased the danger to life, but caused great financial loss as well, b\' e.xtensive 
conflagrations on the day for celebrating our National Anniversary. The laws 
relative to the sale and use of dangerous explosives were, by his order, strictly 
enforced, and it is due to the people to say that they cheerfully acquiesced in 
this new form, and promptly seconded his official leadership by seeking higher 
planes of grateful jubilation to mark and signalize the annual return of Independ- 
ence Day. The dangerous habit of carrying concealed deadly weapons had 
been largely on the increase for some years. Mr. King's moral training again 
made him the right man in the right place, as evidenced by his funous order 
against carrj^ing re\'olvers, and ordering the arrest of all who were even suspected 
of doing so. These great moral reforms were carried into successful operation 
during the first year of Mr. King's term as Mayor. 

His second year was equally prolific in the line of reform and econoni)', as far 
as his influence extended. His second message to Councils contains this para- 
graph which shows how fully he had in his mind the growing interests of his 
native city : 



220 SAMUEL G. KING. 

" In all that pertains to an enliglitened and economical administration of our city 
government, including a full and unfailing supply of pure water; a thorough 
repa\ing of our principal streets with Belgian blocks or other improved pave- 
ments ; extending the electric light system to our principal avenues, and espe- 
cially to the Delaware river front ; a thorough system of sanitary regulations 
which will insure clean streets and the health of our people — in all such measures 
you may be assured of my earnest and energetic co-operation." 

The same message refers to the Bi-centennial celebration of the founding of the 
State of Pennsj-lvania, which took place in September, 1882, in these words: 

" Great have been the changes in our State and city since William Penn em- 
barked, September 12, 1682, at Deal, England, on the ship IVclcoiiic, and landed 
first at Newcastle, October 27, then at Upland, Chester, October 29, and then 
at Philadelphia about October 30, 1682. From that time to the present are 
presented marvels of human histoiy. First the wilderness, then the march of 
progress, and now advanced civilization. A State with a population of over four 
millions of people; a government with equal freedom for all ; a city of a million 
inhabitants, with resources of commerce, manufactures, and a classification of 
industries, professions and institutions so marvellous that a very limited display 
occupied six daj's in review." 

His early training under the peace influence of the Society of Friends is beau- 
tifully reflected by these words in the same message : 

" Hitherto it has been the custom of nations to celebrate their historic periods 
by grand military displaj-s of brute force; but this American Bi-centennial cele- 
bration was the display of the industries of peace and the social and scientific 
resources of a government by and for the people." 

Another important feature in Mr. King's second year of administering the du- 
ties of the office of Mayor was the retaking of the census of the city relative to 
manufactures and other industries, which was done by the police force, and which 
resulted in adding greatly to the figures given in the general census of 1880, 
taken by the national government; as, for instance, it was shown that there were 
over 11.000 industrial establishments instead of 8,300, and about 235,000 persons 
employed instead of 173,000, etc., etc. 

His third year gave many proofs of his anxiety for the public good. lie rec- 
ommended a mounted suburban police for outer wards, began the new police 
patrol system, and advocated the increase of electric lighting in our streets. lie 
sent to City Councils a message on January I, 1S83, which marks the charac- 
teristics of his mind. In it are many useful suggestions, relating to the water 
supply, reduction of the city debt, economy in the several departments, building 
of .school-houses, completion of the new City llall, improving the navigation of 
the Delaware and .Schuylkill rivers, and reduction of taxation. In February of 
the .same year he .sent a mes.sage to Councils evincing his great interest in the 
civilization of the Indians, and fully approving a plan for their protection, educa- 
tion and admission to citizenship. During Mr. King's term the public debt was 



SAMUEL G. KING. 221 

decreased $2,977,483. By those who are tlioughtful and observing, the admin- 
istration of Mayor King is becoming more and more appreciated. It was a con- 
stant march for the good of the city and the advantage of the ta.K-pa}-er. 

Mr. King was nominated for a second term, and received the support of thou- 
sands who vahied honest}' and integrity of character in pubhc office more than 
partisanship. He was not re-elected, however. The causes which led to his 
defeat need not be discussed here. He came out from the highest office in the 
gift of the citizens of a great municipality with clean hands and a character 
unstained by the touch of corruption. His parting words were these: 

" To the people by whose choice I was called to the Mayoralty, I deem it 
proper to say officially that I shall not cease to labor for their prosperity. I 
shall ever cherish the municipal institutions of my native city, and sincerely hope 
that such reforms as have been begun may be continued, and others from time 
to time commenced and perfected, in order that honesty in public office, low tax- 
ation and a gradual and certain reduction of the city debt may be secured to the 
people." 

It is almost beyond possibility for a citizen to hold the high office of Mayor of 
a great city like Philadelphia for e\en a single term of three or four }'ears with- 
out making many enemies, and Mr. King was no exception to this rule. He 
gave offense to many because he rose abo\'e partisanship, and conducted the 
office upon a purely business basis, refusing to permit the corrupt methods, too 
frequent in politics, to have a foothold. The crowning act of his adminis- 
tration was bitterly denoimced and criticised by many who had not y<.t been 
educated to the point of accepting the results of the baptism of blood which the 
country had undergone to redeem it from the stains of slaver)'. The appoint- 
ment of colored men on the police force aroused the ire of the more ignorant in 
Mr. King's own party, and the sneers of the most bitter of his political opponents; 
but he believed it a just act, and did not hesitate in putting it into effect. 

While Mr. King was cautious and discreet he displayed unusual judgment in 
his public acts, and was a most conscientious and industrious official. His 
powers of endurance and his industry were remarkable. He was inxariably one 
of the first to arrive at his office, where he remained, with the exception of an 
hour and a half for his dinner, until a late hour, giving personal attention to every 
detail of the office, and investigating matters for himself When he acted upon 
his own knowledge and convictions he made few mistakes. He insisted upon 
strict discipline in the police force, yet was lenient, kind-hearted and forbearing, 
giving every man a fair hearing when brought before him for reprimand or pun- 
ishment. He was deemed too slow and conservati\-e b}' many, b-at when he 
made up his mint! he acted prompt!)' enough, and with firmness. He was 
essentially a safe man to be at the head of the municipal government. 

Mr. King was not at all ambitious to be a leader, and never strove after or 
posed for effect. Few occupants of the office of Mayor have been so retiring 
and seclusive in their manners as was Mr. King. He carefully avoided attending, 



222 SAMUEL G. KING. 

and declined all participation in, festivities or social entertainments which were 
not connected in some way with the duties of his office. In this respect he gave 
offense to many by declining to accept invitations to public and private enter- 
tainments at which he did not consider his duty required his attendance. By 
tills course, however, he was enabled to take good care of his health, and kept 
up the dignit}' of the office; and it cannot be said that he in any way lowered 
that dignity which belonged to the highest office in the gift of the voters of his 
native city. 

The political uphea\-al which carried Mr. King into the Mayoralty' was of a 
very peculiar character, and the wisdom of the people in choosing him was 
verified b}' the course which he pursued. The movement which elevated him 
was moral as well as political. It was not only an effort to throw off the domi- 
nating influence of the few bosses, but to uproot their corrupt and unscrupulous 
methods. Mr. King's occupancy of the chair of Chief Magistrate of Philadelphia 
reflects, in a clear light, the unswerving qualities of his character in his defiance 
of all efforts to drag him down from the high level upon which such an election 
had placed Inm. He steadfastly held to the moral standard of those who trusted 
him w^ith power, and his record bears investigation with credit to himself and to 
the wisdom and judgment of those who were instrumental in placing him in the 
position he so conscientiousl)' and acceptably filled. No man attains perfection 
either in or out of office ; but Mr. King made few mistakes, and none that were 
culpable. If he erred at all, it was on the side of prudence and caution. 

Since his retirement he has had many opportunities to gratify ambition in a 
business way had he felt disposed to entertain them. He has been offered the 
Presidency of several trust companies and banks, but declined them all, preferring 
the peaceful walks of retired life. 

It is not known to man)' of his friends that for years Mr. King has cultivated 
a taste for poetry, and his productions in verse are full of delightfully expressed 
soul-breathings. His " Faith, Hope and Charity," " Birds and Flowers," " Green 
Leaves Under the Snow," " Rosy-Breast Robin," and his most recent produc- 
tion, " Cricket on the Hearth," are attractive compositions, glowing with the true 
.spirit of the poet. 

Mr. King greatly enjo)-s the beauty of the Park, which he has done so much 
to make a pleasure-ground for the people. In the spring and autumn he takes 
his daily walks there wlien the weather is clear. The summer months he spends 
at Saratoga Springs. His prudence, temperance, regularity of living and careful 
business habits have secured for him an ample fortune, enabling him to enjoy 
existence and have made his latter days bright with the simshine of a well-spent 
life. He can be pointed to as a shining example of a model public officer, enjoy- 
ing retirement at an age ripe with the fruits of honor, integrity and industry. 
His patriotism is undoubted; his honesty unquestioned; his public services un- 
fcirnished by any stain, and he walks the streets of liis native city honored and 
respected. George F. Gordon. 




Hon. Edwin H. Fitler. 



EDWIN HENRY FITLER. 

HON. Edwin H. Fitler, the first Mayor of Philadelphia under the new 
City Charter, was born in that city Decembera, 1825. His father, Wil- 
liam Fitler, was a prominent and successful tanner and leather dealer at Second and 
Otter streets. The old Fitler mansion at that corner still stands, and, although 
no longer occupied by the family, is often referred to by them as a place of 
pleasant memories. 

Mr. Fitler received an academic education, and proposed to devote himself to 
the practice of law. W'ith this end in view he entered the office of Charles E. 
Lex, studying conveyancing at the same time with his brother, Alfred Fitler. 
The bent of his mind, however, was mechanical, and after four years of study he 
decided to abandon the profession and follow his natural inclinations. The 
knowledge thus acquired, however, had proved exceedingly valuable to him, and 
has been one of the sources of his remarkable success in business. lie can say, 
as can few manufacturers, that in a business of forty years he has been able to 
avoid being invoK'ed in a single litigation. He entered the cordage house of 
George J. Wea\-er at Germantown avenue and Tenth street, and in two years had 
so mastered the details of the business that he was qualified to take the place of 
any skilled workman in the trade, and was admitted as a partner in his twenty- 
third }'ear, the firm becoming George J. Weaver & Co. Under his nianngement 
labor-saving machincr)- was introduced, and as improvements appeared were at 
once adopted, thus largely increasing the business and reputation of the firm. 
Many of the improvements in the machinery are of Mr. Filler's own conception 
and application. It is greatly to his credit that his inventions ha\-e alu-a\-s been 
given freeh' to the public, and never patented. In 1859 he purcha-ed the inter- 
est of his partner, Mr. Weaver, and the firm became Edwin II. Fitler & Co. — a 
name which has become a trade-mark throughout the world. The firm consists 
of himself and his two sons, Edwin H. Fitler, Jr., and William W. Fitler. As 
the business increased, the old factory became too cramped for their operations, 
and in 1S80 the works were removed to Bridesburg. The present plant covers 
fifteen acres of ground, filled with the best modern machiner\', and the product 
is the largest in the United States. The esteem by which he is held by his col- 
leagues in the trade was evidenced by his election as President of the American 
Cordage Manufacturers' Association. Mr. Fitler's relations with his emplo\-es 
deserve special mention in these days of labor agitation. Many of his workmen 
have been with him for from twenty to thirty years. The cordial and friendly 
intercourse which is apparent upon his visits to the works shows that a warmer 
relation exists between him and his operatives than mere contracts for wages and 
service. There has never been a strike at the Fitler Cordage Works. 

While thus closely devoted to the advancement and personal management of 



224 EDWIN H. FITLER. 

his business, !\Ir. Fitlcr has recognized his full duties as a citizen. At the out- 
break of the civil war he threw the whole weight of his personal influence in 
favor of the National cause, and his money, time and business counsel were often 
asked and freely given to the government. His own patriotic spirit spread to his 
employes, and, although their enlistment involved hea\'y pecuniary sacrifices and 
much business inconvenience, he not only cheerfully encouraged it, but person- 
ally saw that no company left the city better equipped for the duties of tlie field 
than that organized at his own works. His prominent position in the Union 
League brought him into the political arena, where he was alwa\s known as an 
earnest advocate of Republican principles and the selection of competent men for 
ofiice. When his counsels were overruled, the political leaders found that they 
were the losers. 

Mr. Fitler's financial position, second to none in the cit\-, rests not so much 
upon his wealth as his high sense of honor and known integrit)'. His word 
when given is never qualified or questioned. As a business man he is known 
for his keen perceptions, his ready grasp and apprehension of all the points of the 
subject, and the rapiditj' and correctness of his decisions. No better illustration 
of his promptness and energy can be given than to mention that on two occasions 
when his Germantown avenue works were destroyed by fire the contracts for 
rebuilding were signed before the firemen left the ground. His counsel and 
advice are often sought by others, and always cheerfully given. In political 
affairs, while unswerving in his own Republican faith, his course has alwa\'sbeen 
marked b_\- a wise and liberal forbearance towards those who sincerel)- and hon- 
estly differed with him in their opinions and purposes. He is noted for his hos- 
pitality, and while maintaining the social position to which he is entitled by his 
circumstances, he avoids all unnecessary displa)'. 

Mr. Fitler is a Director of the National Bank of the Northern Liberties and 
the North Pcnnsj-lvania Railroad Company. He is also Vice-President of the 
L'nion League, and is, cx-officio, a Director of the Park Commission ; a member 
of the Board of City Trusts, the Public Buildings Commission, and a Manager 
of the Ldwin Forrest Home. In 1875 and 1876 he was a member of the Cen- 
tennial Board of Finance, and did his full share of the work which made that 
exhibition a success and credit to the city of Philadelphia. 

The passage of an " act to provide for the better government of cities of the 
first class in this commonwealth" by the Legislature on June I, 1885, was the 
most important event in the history of Philadelphia since the consolidation. By 
it the wliole system of the government of the city was changed, and the Mayor 
assumed responsibilities and duties greater than those resting upon the chief 
officer of any other municipality in the country. The ends and aims sought to 
be attained by this change had been widely disseminated in the public press and 
canvassed by the people. It is probable that no public measure was ever as fully 
discussed by the great body of citizens as tliis one, pending the passage of the 
bill. The office of Mayor was clearly understood by all to be one that, if filled 



EDWIN II. FITI.EK. 



225 



b\' a dcsij^nin*:^ or incompetent incumbent, could be used to the great detriment 
of the public interests. Moreover, the position was further complicated by the 
fact that there were no precedents to be followed; and that the new Abu-or 
would have to formulate and lay out a course of action to be followed b\- his 
successors, and select men competent to understand and carry out his plans. 
Hence it was seen that the new incumbent must not only be a man of wide 
experience and business sagacity, but also one who would stand to his opinions 
and convictions against strong political and social pressure. With singular 
unanimity Mr. Filler's name was at once suggested not only in all the councils 
of the Republican party, but in the conferences of the independent citizens; and, 
although he knew that the proper fulfilment of the duties of the office would 
involve heav)' personal and pecuniary sacrifices, true to his previous record, he 
accepted the nomination. The enthusiasm aroused by his Stirling political prin- 
ciples and prominent business and social position, together with his incoiruptible 
integrit}', was marvellous. All attempts to array the opposition of the worlcing 
classes against him on account of his wealth met with signal failure, and in 
February, 1 887, he was elected by nearl)' 30,000 majority, the largest ever given 
to any Mayor of the city. His course since he assumed the office has amply 
sustained the expectations which had been raised, and has won the hearty appro- 
val of all the best citizens, irrespective of party. With him professional politicians 
ha\e no influence, nor has he sought to advance any personal aims by the power 
thus placed in his hands. His liighest ambition is to faithfully enforce the laws, 
and lay a broad and safe foundation for his successors to carry on and complete 
the work, for which the charter was framed and intended to accomplish. 

Mr. Filler's name was presented by the united vote of the Philadelphia dele- 
gates to the Republican National Convention, recently held at Chicago, supple- 
mented by the votes of several delegates from his own and other States, as their 
choice for President of the United States, and while he did not in any sense seek 
the office, he naturall)' appreciated the lionor conferred by their advocacy of him 
for the nomination. 
29 



•^ 



f \ J 



'^ 





Gen. Winfield S. H/xncock. 



GEN. WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. 

Major-General WiNFiELD S. Hancock, whose fame as a soldier belongs not 
to Pennsylvania alone, but to the whole country, was born at Moiitgom- 
eryville, Montgomery county, February 14, 1S24. While he was yet a child the 
family removed to Norristown, where his father, Benjamin F. Hancock, engaged 
in the practice of the law. Here he attended the academy until his sixteenth 
year, when he received an appointment to the West Point Military Academy, 
from which he graduated number eighteen in his class, June ^,0, 1844. Among 
those who were his classmates in that institution were Grant, McClellan, Buell, 
Rosecrans, Reynolds, Longstreet, Pickett and Stonewall Jackson. It is said 
that when General Scott asked young Hancock on his graduation to what regi- 
ment he wished to be assigned, he answered: "The one which is stationed 
farthest West." Accordingly, he was appointed, July i, 1844, Brevet Second- 
Lieutenant in the Sixth Infcintry, then stationed at a frontier post in the Indian 
Territory. On June 18, 1846, he was commissioned Second-Lieutenant, and 
thereafter was conspicuous during the war with Mexico for gallantry displayed 
in the several contests at San Antonio, Molino del Rey, Cherubusco and the city 
of Mexico, in recognition of which he was, in August, 1S48, brevettcd First- 
Lieutenant, to take rank from the date of Cherubusco. After his return he was 
made Regimental Quartermaster, and served as such until 1849, when he became 
Adjutant of his regiment. In November, 1855, he was appointed Captain and 
Assistant Quartermaster, and at the outbreak of the late Civil War he was sta- 
tioned at Los Angeles, Cal. Here he exercised a powerful influence in calming 
the storm of passion and fanaticism which threatened to sepaiate that section 
from its allegiance to the Union. Relieved at his own request, he hastened to 
Washington, reported for service, and was assigned to duty as Chief Quarter- 
master on the staff of Gen. Robert Anderson ; but before entering upon his duties 
he was appointed by President Lincoln a Brigadier-General of Volunteers, Sep- 
tember 23, 1861, and placed in command of a brigade of four regiments attached 
to the division of Gen. W. F. Smith. 

When the Peninsular campaign opened in the spring of 1S62 this division, with 
Hancock's brigade in advance, was the leading column. By his brilliant charge 
on the enemy at Williamsburg he won the brevet rank of Major United States 
Arm_\', and the cognomen of " Superb." His conduct during the campaign on 
the Peninsula led the General-in-chief to urge his promotion to Major-General 
United States Volunteers, and subsequently to three brevet commissions in the 
regular army. He was made a Division Commander on the field of Antietam. 
He was subsequently conspicuous for bravery at Fredericksburg, where, though 
badly wounded, he refused to quit the field. A second time he was recommended 
for promotion as Major-General of Volunteers, and this time he obtained it. For 

(227) 



22S GEX. WINFIELD S. HANCOCK. 

gallantry at Chancellorsville, June lo, 1863, he was assigned by President Lincoln 
to the command of the Second Corps, and led it in the movement to oppose the ad- 
vance of Lee in his second invasion of the North, which culminated at Gett\-sburg. 
After the death of General Reynolds, and during the absence of General Meade, 
he practically commanded the army during that famous battle. Not a plan of 
his was changed, and the result of that desperate struggle attests his military 
genius. Just at the final struggle on July 3d, when Pickett's charge had spent 
its strength, he fell severely wounded, and was borne from the field, and his fall 
probably prevented the Confederate retreat from being turned into a rout. He 
did not report for duty again until December 15, 1S63, when he was prominently 
named in official circles as the future commander of the Army of the Potomac, 
but he disclaimed all desire for that position. Being phj-sically disqualified for 
field duty, he was assigned to recruit liis depleted corps. All through the North 
an ovation from patriotic citizens was given him, and swords of honor were pre- 
sented him. He rejoined his command, March 18, 1864, and at the battle of the 
Wilderness, May 5th, was again wounded, though he would not quit the field. 
Here he won his Brigadier-Generalship, regular army. He was actively engaged 
in the campaign of 1864 until June 17th, when he was compelled to turn over 
the command of his corps on account of the wound that he received at Gettys- 
burg, which had never healed. He shortly after resumed duty, and for five 
months was in every contest and victory. He returned to Washington in 
November, 1864, where he undertook the task of recruiting a veteran corps of 
fift\' thousand men. In February, 1865, he was appointed to command the 
Middle Department, with head-quarters at Winchester, Va., where he remained 
watching the enemy until Lee's surrender. On March 13, 1S65, he was brevetted 
Major-General United States Army, for "gallant and meritorious services at 
Spottsylvania," and July 26, 1866, he was promoted to Major-Generalship in the 
army, and assigned to the Department of Missouri. 

In the subsequent year, August 26th, he was transferred to the Fifth Military 
District, comprising Texas and Louisiana, succeeding General Sheridan ; and 
while here issued his famous General Order No. 40, jjlacing the military in sub- 
ordination to the civil authorities, and which, though containing declarations 
that will be forever classic in the literature of civil liberty, was in antagonism to 
the general sentiment then prevailing at the North, and led to his transfer, at his 
own request, from that department to the Division of the Atlantic, with head- 
quarters at New York. 

After General Grant became President he \\'as sent, March 5, 1869, to the 
Department of Dakota; but on the death of General Meade, wjiich took place 
November 6, 1872, he was again assigned to the Division of the Atlantic, and 
retained that command until his death, with head-quarters in New York City 
until 1 8; 8, and subsequently on Governor's Island. 

General Hancock, though a soldier and not a politician, was frequently men- 
tioned as a Democratic candidate for the Presidency, and in the convention held 



GEN. WIXFIELD S. HANCOCK. 229 

at Cincinnati in iSSo he rccei\-cd the nomination on tlie .second ballot; and at 
the election in the following November, out of eight million eight hundred and 
ninety-one thou.sand and eighty-eight \'otes, he rccei\ed four million four hun- 
dred and forty-two thousand and thirt_\--fi\'e, lacking onl\' seven thousand and 
nineteen votes of the majority. On the evening of the day of the election he 
retired to bed at seven p. M., and when at five o'clock on the following morning 
he was told by his wife, " It has been a complete Waterloo for \^ou," he replied : 
"That is all right; I can stand it," and in another minute he was asleep. He 
accepted his defeat as a soldier, atul kept on the even tenor of his way, only 
appearing in public when his presence was required to add grace to some public 
pageant. His last notable appearance was at General Grant's funeral, of which 
he took full charge. This was soon followed by his own illness, which termi- 
nated fatally, February 9, 1886. Though the apparent cause of liis sickness was 
a virulent carbuncle, which appeared on his neck, it is said that he really died 
from diabetes. He was buried at Norristown, February 13th. 

In his youth Hancock was a tall, thin and rather effeminate-looking stripling, 
but in his prime he was a model of manly strength and beauty. He was a clear 
and independent thinker and a good writer, and though mere politicians, as 
O'Connor remarks, may affect to sneer at his political utterances, some of them 
will probably survive and receive approval when his critics are forgotten. No 
man was more generally and sincerely loved. He was courteous to all men, and 
faithful to his friends. His funily affections were particularly strong. The pet 
names of his wife w^ere the last words that he spoke. The death of his only 
daughter in 1S75, and that of his onl)' son at the close of 18S0, were calamities 
that made him feel that all earthlv' honors were no more than " a peck of refuse 
wheat." In his last days he was wrapped up in devotion to his grandchildren. 
It is as a soldier, of course, that he will be known to postcrit)-, and on his military 
achievements his fame must rest. 

Doubtless his place is among the foremost of those generals who never fought 
an independent campaign, for in every dut}' of soldiership, except the highest, he 
was tried and never found wanting. He was not onl\' bra\e himself, but had the 
ability to inspire masses of men with courage. He was quick to perceive oppor- 
tunity amid the dust and smoke of battle, and quick to seize it. He was impul- 
sive, and yet tenacious. He had the bra\'ery that goes forward rapidly, and the 
bravery that gives way slowly. Above all, he was loyal — loyal to the soldier 
under him, loyal to the commander abo\'e him, and loyal to the nation over all. 
He was not only in every great battle of the Army of the Potomac, but in the 
brunt of every great battle, and it is his peculiar glory that no comrade ever 
complained of him. He was a friend of McClellan, and did him valuable ser- 
vices ; Burnside could rely on him for all that ability could do to amend the work 
of folly ; Hooker put full faith in him ; Meade could trust him to choose the field 
of battle and almost fight it; and he was to Grant as his right arm. All men did 
him honor. Doubleday, who quarrelled with Howard, had nothing but praise 



2 -o PEN. WINFIELD S. HANCOCK. 

for Hancock. Sickles, wlio quarrelled with Meade, was prompt to do homage 
to Hancock for the succor given to him at Gettysburg. E\en the military critics, 
who delight to explain the blunders and shortcomings of soldiers, have united in 
commendation of him, and pronounce his record almost without a flaw. 

Grant says of him : " Hancock stands the most conspicuous figure of all the 
general officers who did not exercise a separate command. He commanded a 
corps longer than any other one, and his name was ne\'er mentioned as having 
committed in battle a blunder for which he was responsible. He was a man of 
very conspicuous personal appearance — tall, well-formed, and, at the time of 
whicli I now write, young and fresh-looking. He presented an appearance that 
would attract tlie attention of an army as he passed. His genial disposition 
made him friends, and his personal courage and his presence with his command 
in the thickest of the fight won him the confidence of the troops serving under 
him." 

General McClcllan sa}'s of him : " Hancock received a brigade early in the 
formation of the Arnij' of the Potomac. He was a man of most chivalrous 
courage, and of a superb presence, especially in action. He had a wonderfully 
quick and correct eye for ground and for handling troops ; his judgment was 
good, and it would be difficult to find a better corps commander." 

Gen. Francis A. Walker, in an address before Vermont veterans, said of Han- 
cock : " While he was not master of the science of logistics, like Meade and 
Humphrevs, he could conduct a long march over bad roads, with artillerj' and 
trains, better, in my humble judgment, than any other officer of the war, Federal 
or Confederate." 

Perhaps his best eulogy is the blunt declaration of General Sherman to a 
reporter in search of adverse criticism during the Presidential canvass of iSSo: 
" If )-ou will sit down and write the best thing that can be put in language about 
General Hancock as a gentleman and an officer, I will sign it without hesitation." 

On January 4, 1850, while stationed at St. Louis, he married Almira Russell, 
of tiiat city, who survives him, and, after a life of wifely devotion, has written in 
her widowhood a volume of reminiscences which is one of the most graceful 
tributes ever oaid to a deceased husband. 

E. T. F. 




GtN. Absalom Baird. 



GEN. ABSALOM BAIRD. 

BREVET Major-General Absalom Baikd, the present Inspector-General of 
the United States Army, was born in Washington, Pa., August 20, 1824. 
His great-grandfather was John Baird, who served as an officer in the army of 
General Forbes, which captured Fort Duquesne from the French in 1758. John 
Baird did not live to return from this expedition; but he left an only child, 
Absalom Baird, born in Chester county, Pa., who served throughout the entire 
war of the Revolution in the medical staff of the army commanded by General 
Washington. Dr. Absalom Baird afterwards lived in Washington, Pa., where he 
practised medicine, and at the same time held prominent offices, the gift of his 
fellow-citizens. He was Lieutenant of the county to provide for defence against 
the Indians ; was Sheriff of the counts', and served for some time as State Senator. 

William Baird, the youngest son of Dr. Absalom Baird, was the father of 
General Absalom Baird, and was a man of many varied attainments, an accom- 
plished scholar, and an orator of elegance and force. General Absalom Baird 
graduated from Washington (Pa.) College in the class of 1841, and then for three 
years studied law in the office of the Hon. Thos. M. T. McKennan, well known 
at that day as a man of many brilliant qualities, he being the second person that 
filled the position of Secretary of the Interior, and representing the district in 
Congress for many years. 

The family of Absalom Baird, as can thus readily be seen, is fully identified 
with the early history of Pennsylvania, and from that State he entered the United 
States Military Academy at West Point in 1845, grailuating ninth in a class of 
forty-three that included such names as Gillmore, Parlce, Benet, Holabiid, Saxton, 
and others not unk'nown on the roll of fame. Having been assigned to the First 
Artillery, he quickly found himself engaged in hostilities against the Seminole 
Indians (1S50-53), and was recalled to West Point as Assistant Professor of 
Mathematics, in which position he served for nearly seven \'ears. After another 
interval of frontier serx'ice in Texas, the outbreak of the War of the Rebellion 
found him on duty at Fortress Monroe, fiom whence he was ordered to Wash- 
ington to take command of Magruder's Battery, Colonel Magruder being then 
absent. This battery (afterwards famous as " Ricketts' ") was one of the chief 
reliances for the defence of the National Capital in these early days of the war, 
and Lieutenant Baird's disposition of it was both skilful and effective. Having 
commanded the battery during the eventful period from March 10 to May 11, 
1 86 1, the Manassas campaign found him the Adjutant-General of T\-ler's Divis- 
ion, in which capacity he was engaged in the action at Blackburn's Ford, July 
18, 1 86 1, and in the battle of the First Bull Run, three days' afterwards. As 
Assistant Adjutant-General he was assigned to duty in the Adjutant-General's 
office at Washington, and in this position his well-known executive abilities were 



2T,2 C.r.N'. AnSALdM UAIKH. 

bi"oiiL;lit prominently into play duriny; the eonfusion and disorder attendant upon 
tlie defeat of the National forces — a due recognition of these abilities procuring; 
for him the rank of Major and Assistant Inspector-General November 12, 1 861. 
As such he served with the Fourth (Keyes's) Corps of the Army of the Potomac, 
acting as Inspector-General and Chief of Staff, and was engaged in the siege of 
Yorktown, April 5 to May 4, 1S62, and at the battle of Williamsburg, May 5, 

1862. The general afterwards became so thoroughly identified with the exploits 
of the Western army that many, who know his history intimately in connection 
with Western campaigns, seem to be unaware that he had also " stood the 
brunt " of Eastern fighting at Manassas and on the Peninsula. Having, hew- 
ever, beeji made a Brigadier-General of Volunteers, April 28, 1S62, a week before 
his participation in the battle of Williamsburg, he was assigned to the command 
of the Twenty -seventh Brigade of the Army of the Ohio, and at once turned his 
face westward to begin a career of which any soldier might be proud, and which, 
commencing with the capture of Cumberland Gap in June, 1862, only terminated 
with the surrender and consequent dispersion of the rebel army under General- 
J. E. Johnston at Durham Station, North Carolina, April 26, 1865. During the 
whole of this period, without intermission, it can be said of General Baird that he 
was constantly in the field ; and how gallantly he performed his part, how bra\'e 
and meritorious his conduct proved to be, is readily learned from the mere 
enumeration of the honors conferred upon him b}- his countiy — honors that were 
well earned and worthil}' bestowed. 

After the evacuation of Cumberland Gap, September, 1862, General Baird was 
given command of the Third Division of the Army of Kentucky, and was 
engaged at the defence of Franklin and the repulse of Van Dorn's assault upon 
tliat place, April 10, 1S63. In the Tennessee campaign of General Rosecrans 
he was engaged in all the arduous operations preliminary to the battle of Chicka- 
mauga, September 19-20, 1863. On the part of General Baird and his division 
tliese included the advance upon Tullahonia, capture of Shelbyville, June 27, 

1863, crossing the Cumberland mountains and Tennessee river, and the action at 
Dug Gap, September 11, 1863. 

Upon the heroic conduct displayed by General Baird at the battle of Chicka- 
mauga it is needless to dwell at length. If General George H. Thomas has been 
called the " Rock " of Chickamauga, assuredly General Baird may be justly con- 
sidered as one of the main strata of that rock ; for the gallant struggle made by 
him and his division stands brightly out amid the confusion and disaster of that 
conflict. The mere fact that, according to Van Home (" History of the Army 
of the Cumberland"), Baird's division lost 2,213 ""-''i. will go far to prove how 
.stubborn was the resistance offered by it to the onslaught of the foe ; and had all 
done equally as well, Chickamauga might easily have been one of the grandest 
victories of the war for the National cause. In this connection we cannot rcfiain 
from quoting the remark of General Hazcn, who himself acted a very gallant 
part on chis bloody field : " . . . In carefull)' stud)ing this battle, one cannot fail 



GEN. ABSALOM BAIRD. 233 

to be impressed with the most worthy and heroic service of two division com- 
manders, who stand out conspicuously from all the rest — Brannan and Baird " 
{" Narrative of Military Service, W. B. Hazen, Boston, 1S85 "). For his conduct 
in this battle General Baird received the brevet of Lieutenant-Colonel in the 
regular army, dated September 20, 1863 : " For gallant and meritorious services 
at the battle of Chickamauga, Ga." 

With the rest of the Army of the Cumberland Baird's division underwent 
what is known as the "Siege of Chattanooga," scanty rations and much hardship 
being the most prominent features connected with that episode. But an ample 
opportunity for revenge presented itself when, at the sound of the signal guns 
from Orchard Knob, the divisions of Baird, Wood, Sheridan and Johnson rushed 
upon the intrenched foe at Missionary Ridge, and with an ardor that could not 
be abated, without orders from the general commanding the army, succeeded in 
driving Bragg's masses from the sunmiit of the Ridge, a position in which they 
vainly deemed themselves impregnable. In this assault General Baird's division 
held the extreme left of the line, and, after capturing the rifle-pits at the foot, 
gallantly rushed upon the main line, capturing many guns and prisoners and 
losing many men in return. From his own report we quote : " The rebel troops 
which had occupied the works were in retreat up the mountain, while numerous 
batteries, both in our front and far to our right and left, opened upon us a heavy 
cross-fire from the crest. For a time this cannonade was indeed severe ; the 
atmosphere seemed filled with messengers of death, and shells bounded in every 
direction." . . . The question as to who first reached the summit of the Ridge 
gave rise to some contention and bickering ; but how free from any feeling on 
this point was General Baird can be seen by quoting further from his report, 
wherein he says: " It is difficult to determine questions of slight precedence in 
point of time in a rivalry of this nature, and when all act nobly they are unim- 
portant." His division lost in killed and wounded in this battle 565 men (there 
were none missing), out of an effective force engaged of 1,679, officers and men. 
Missionary Ridge procured for General Baird the brevet of Colonel in the 
regular army, dated November 24, 1863 : " For gallant and meritorious services at 
the battle of Chattanooga, Tenn." 

During the period of inactivity following the battle of Missionary Ridge, 
General Baird's division was located at Ringgold, Ga., to hold the gap in Tay- 
lor's Ridge through which the railroad from Chattanooga to Atlanta passes. 
In this position he was twenty-four miles in advance of our army at Chattanooga, 
and but sixteen miles from Dalton, where the main rebel army was encamped. 
The only troops that were in supporting distance of him were the divisions of 
General Johnson and General Davis, who were posted about seven or eight miles 
distant, and who each had a point of his own to guard. It was perfectly prac- 
ticable for the rebel army to cross the mountain any night on either side of 
General Baird, and surround his entire command. But with his usual watchful- 
ness and constant alertness he held this perilous position for many weeks, being 



234 f'EN. ADSALOM BAIl'tD. 

thus in fact tlic advancc-cruard of the army l\-ing around Chattanooga, and tin's 
position he onlj- quitted when tliat army, in the early part of May, 1S64, began 
its general advance movement for the invasion of Georgia. 

In the campaign and series of tremendous struggles that then ensued, com- 
mencing with the turning of General Johnston's army out of Dalton, and finally 
ending with the capture and subsequent destruction of Atlanta, General ]5aird 
performed an important part at the head of the Third Division of the Fourteenth 
Corps. From the battle of Resaca, May 14, 1864, onward his division was con- 
stantly either fighting or marching in pursuit of the enemy, who certainly did not 
yield without exacting a bloody compensation in return. Engaged in the move- 
ment against Pine Mountain, with almost daily severe engagements, from May 
28 to June 20, 1864 ; then in the battles about Kenesaw Mountain from that date 
to July 2 ; again at the fight at Vining's Station, July 9; the combat at Peach 
Tree Creek, Julj- 20, and Utoy Creek, August 4 and 5, the division under its 
commander behaved most gallantly, winding up the campaign wrth the sanguin- 
ary battle at Jonesboro' on September i, the city of Atlanta falling next day. 
In this battle Ivste's brigade of Baird's division lost 330 men, and General Baird 
had two horses killed under him within the space of ten minutes. For his ser- 
vices in this and the following campaign General Baird recei\-ed the brex'et of 
Major-General of Volunteers, dated September i, 1864 : " For faithful ser\-iccs and 
distinguished conduct during the Atlanta campaign, and particularly in the bat- 
tles of Resaca and Jonesboro', and for general good conduct in command of his 
division against Savannah." 

The same month found Sherman's army engaged in the pursuit of General 
Hood, who sought by operating on Sherman's line of communication to turn his 
army northward once more, and in this pursuit General Baird's division again 
had its full share of active movement. But the march to the sea being finally 
determined upon by General Sherman, Hood was turned o\'er to Thomas, 
Atlanta was given to the flames, and the army marched out gayly to pursue its 
course to Savannah. Sherman himself tells us in his " Memoirs " that " the most 
extraordinary efforts had been made to purge this army of non-combatants' and 

of sick men ; so that all on this exhibit may be assumed to have been 

able-bodied, experienced soldiers, well armed, well equipped and provided, as far 
as human foresight could, with all the essentials of life, strength and vigorous 
action " (Vol. H., p. 172). Still in command of llie Third Division of the Four- 
teenth Corps, General Baird, forming part of that gallant array of brave hearts, 
found himself" marching through Georgia." 

About this period Major Nichols, an aide on the staff of General .Sherman 
during this march, gives a very vivid pen-and-ink pnitr.iit of General Baird, 
^\hich brings him before us as he appeared to his confreres in arms: "General 
Baird is one of the most elegant officers of the army. Of medium stature, fine 
form, a prepossessing face, tawny side whiskers and full mustache, a clear blue 
c\c and a fair complexion, he personifies the iileal of a gentleman and a soldier. 



GF.N. ABSALOM r.AIRD. 235 

Mis manners are perfect and in harmonj' with Iiis appearance. Besides this, he 
is an accomplished soldier, distinguishing himself upon every occasion" ("Story 
of the Great March," G. \\'. Nichols). And, saving that time has whitened the 
tawnv mustache and somewhat aged the lorni, the same description would fit- 
tingly apply to the present Inspector-General of the United States Army. The 
march through Georgia proved to be mainly uneventful, though the division 
was engaged in numerous small actions and skirmishes from November i6 to 
December 13, 1864, and was present at the surrender of Savannah on December 
21, passing the Christmas and New Year in that city, which Sherman presented 
to President Lincoln " as a Christmas gift." Not long did the army tarr)' in 
Savannah, for its face was set northward, and it began the long, tedious march 
through the Carolinas, General Baird's division being on the extreme left, or 
inland wing of the army, briishiiig away the puerile attempts tif tlie enemy to 
delay their onward progress, assisting Kilpatrick's ca\'alry in its advance, wit- 
ne.ssing at a distance the burning of Columbia, and at length finding itself face to 
face with the rebel arm\- under General Johnston, their old antagonist, at Ben- 
tonville, N. C, March 20, 1S65. Mere the division was seriously engaged for the 
last time, and after being present at the capture of Raleigh, April 13, and the 
surrender of Johnston and his army at Durham Station, thirteen da\'s later, the 
holiday march to Washington commenced, and General Baird had the pleasing 
satisfaction of marching at the head of his division through the city of Richmond, 
then presenting but a sorry sight after its recent tribulation of fire. And, proud- 
est day of all, that 24th of May, 1865, when the Western army marched through 
the Capital of tlie Nation up Pennsylvania avenue, past President Johnson and iiis 
Cabinet, with streets lined by thousands of their fellow-citizens cheering them 
on. To quote General Sherman : " ... Sixty-five thousand men, in splendid 
physique, who had just completed a march of nearly two thousand miles in a 
hostile country." And then, " Grim-visaged war smoothed his wrinkled front," 
and General Baird and the old fighting Third Division of the Fourteenth Corps 
parted company forever. 

For his services dm'ing these campaigns General Baird received the brevet, 
dated March 13, 1865, of Brigadier-General " for gallant and meritorious services 
in the capture of Atlanta, Ga. ; " and he was further brevetted, the same date, 
Major-General United States Army " for gallant and meritorious services in the 
field during the Rebellion." 

The war being now ended, the mass of the volunteer army was mustered out 
of the service, and with it nearly all of the officers who had served as generals 
of volunteers, a few only of these latter being retained, consisting of such of them 
as had rendered particularly marked service, this being done more as a compli- 
ment to them than anj'thing else. The Army Register for 1865 contains the 
names of 282 brigadier-generals, while on the register for 1866 there are but 
eighteen, including the name of General Baird, who was not mustered out until 
September i, 1866. After serving some time at Louisville, Ky,, he was assigned 



230 



GEN. ABSALOM UAIKD. 



to the command of a district comprising Delaware and the eastern shore of 
Mar}-land, which he held until he was urged to take charge of the affairs of the 
Frcedmen's Bureau, etc., in the State of Louisiana. He filled the position of 
Assistant Commissioner for that State, with head-quarters at New Orleans, from 
November, 1865, to September, 1866, he being at the same time military com- 
mander of the Department of Louisiana under General P. H. Sheridan, who was 
then in command of the Division of the Gulf. General Baird's administration of 
this office was characterized by firmness and justice, and perfect impartiality in 
his decisions between good men and bad men, between rebels and Union men ; 
and too much credit cannot be given him for his unswerving devotion to duty 
while engaged in the management of the bureau, and its attendant trials and 
annoyances. Strong inducements were held out to him by persons surrounding 
President Johnson to perform political acts, on his own responsibility, which they 
were unwilling to be held accountable for. This he would not do, but insisted 
strongly on having definite and distinct orders for all unusual acts required of 
him. There was intense hostility at the time between President Johnson on the 
one hand and Secretary Stanton and Congress on the other, and it speaks well 
for General Baird that Secretary Stanton at all times sustained his administration, 
and showed entire confidence in him. 

It was during this situation that the terrible and bloody riot of Jul}-, 1866, took 
place in New Orleans, upon which General Baird declared martial law at once, 
and took possession of the civil government of the city. For this action he was 
relieved from duty by President Johnson, and mustered out of the volunteer ser- 
vice; but his action ^^•as approved by Secretary Stanton and by Congress, and 
his policy was continued by General Sheridan, who went much further than Gen- 
eral Baird in his measures to restrain the lawless reactionary rebel element 
remaining in the community. 

So, after four years and a half of service as a general officer. General Baird 
returned to his duties as a Major and Assistant Inspector-General, proudly con- 
scious that in all that period there was no stain upon his gallant and loyal record. 
After serving in the Inspector-General's Corps as Lieutenant-Colonel and Col- 
onel, he was commissioned Brigadier-General and Inspector-General, United 
States Army, September 22, 1885, which position he still holds. In July, 18S7, 
he was selected by the Secretary of War and the General of the Army to witness 
and report upon the autumn manoeuvres of the French army. Accompanied by 
an officer of lower rank, he spent August and September of that year in viewing 
the Fnglish and French armies. He had the honor of receiving from the Presi- 
dent of the French Republic the Cross of a Commander of the Legion of Honor. 
He is Hearing the end of his term of service in the army, and when he retires 
there will be but one opinion of his record, and it will be voiced in the words: 

" Well done, thou good and faithful servant." 

David I'^nzGiiKALU. 




Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis. 



GEN. SAMUEL DAVIS STURGIS. 

PENNSYLVANIA has many sons wlio have won distinction as officers of the 
regular army, and among the most deserving of honorable mention is 
Brevet Major-General Samuel D. Sturgis, who, after having served his country 
fiilhfully and well for more than forty years, participating creditably in two im- 
portant wars, has recently been placed on the retired list with the rank of 
Colonel United States Army. 

General Sturgis was born at Shippensburg, Cumberland county, June il, 1S23. 
He is the son of James and Mary Sturgis, both of whom died at Burlington, 
Iowa, at an advanced age. The progenitor of the family in this country was 
William Sturgis, who emigrated from County Armagh, Ireland, and settled in the 
Juniata valley about 1745. His wife's sister married Rev. John Davis, from 
whom are descended Rear-Admiral Da\is of the United States Navy, and his 
fatlier, Hon. John W. Davis, who for many years was a member of Congress 
from Indiana, Speaker of the House of Representatives and Minister to China. 
One of William Sturgis' sons, also named William, was a Lieutenant in the 
United States Army, and fell at the battle of Lundy's Lane. This circumstance 
led General Scott, " the hero of Lundy's Lane," to interest himself in securing for 
the nephew, now General Sturgis, an appointment to the Military Academy at 
West Point, where he was entered as Cadet at Large, July, 1842. He remained 
at the Academy four years, graduating in the class of 1846, which also included 
Generals McClellan, " Stonewall " Jackson, Foster, Reno, A. P. Hill, Pickett and 
Wilco.x. 

Immediately after graduating he was appointed a Brevet Second Lieutenant 
in the Second Dragoons and assigned to the company of the noted Captain 
Charles May, then in Mexico with General Taylor. He participated in the 
memorable campaign which included the victories of Palo Alto, Resaca de la 
Palma and Buena Vista. On February 20, 1847, two days before the battle of 
Buena Vista, he had volunteered to reconnoitre the enemy from a mountain, 
behind which they were supposed to be concentrating. In the performance of 
this duty he was captured and held a prisoner for eight days. The firing upon 
him, however, discovered the enemy's presence, and Captain May, who escaped, 
returned to General Taylor's camp at Aqua Neuva, thirty miles distant, where he 
reported the probable death of the young Lieutenant. The information thus 
obtained of the enemy's presence and position caused General Taylor to fall 
back to the strong position at Buena Vista, which was afterwards so successfully 
defended by his little army against four times its number. So much had the 
result of Lieutenant Sturgis' reconnoissance to do with the plans of the engage- 
ment which followed that Carleton, in his history of the battle, gave him great 
credit for his services. At the close of the Mexican war he marched via Chi- 



-jS C,E\. SAMUEL n. STIKGIS. 

Iniahiia, the Gila river and tlic Colorado desert to Los Angeles, California, a 
journey that occupied six montiis. Here he was engaged on frontier service for 
over two years, when he was ordered to New Mexico, where he remained three 
years. While en route to his new station he was appointed Regimental Quarter- 
master and stationed at the head-quarters of the regiment at Fort Leavenworth, 
then in the Lidian Territory. 

In 1S52 he resigned his position as Quartermaster, and proceeded to join his 
company in New Mexico, accompanied by his wife and infant daughter, reaching 
Albuquerque, after a series of mishaps and delays, on the seventy-second day 
out from Leavenworth. Here Colonel E. V. Sumner, at that time commanding 
the department of New Mexico, requested him to accept the position on his 
staff of acting Adjutant-General, which he did, retaining the position for over a 
year and until Colonel Sumner was relieved by the arrival of General Garland, 
who brought with him a regular Assistant Adjutant-General. 

On January 16, 1S55, he commanded an expedition against the Apache 
Indians, in which he gained a brilliant victorj'. For this achievement the Legis- 
lature of New Mexico passed a resolution giving him a vote of thanks, and also 
one asking the President to promote him. In compliance with this request he 
was on March 3, 1855, commissioned a Captain in the First Cavalry, which 
regiment he joined in the following summer at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. 

In this and the succeeding years of 1S56 and 1857 he aided in keeping the 
peace during the troubles which convulsed Kansas at that time, and also operated 
against the Cheyenne Indians, under Colonel Sumner, taking part in the battle 
of "Solomon's Fork " of the Kansas river, July 29, 1857. In 1858 he went 
with the Utah expedition, and when this was abandoned he marched with his 
company south to Fort Arbuckle in the Indian Nation. He afterward assisted 
in establishing a new post, three hundred miles west, on the False Wachita, 
which was named Fort Cobb. From this post he marched, in June, i860, in 
command of the " Southern Column," consisting of six companies of the First 
Cavalry and a considerable body of friendly Indians, to operate against the 
Kiowas and Comanche Indians. Two other columns, one under Colonel Crit- 
tenden and another under Major Sedgwick, started from New Mexico with the 
same object, but Sturgis' column was the only one that succeeded in overtaking 
the Indians, and in the engagement which followed so thoroughly broke them 
up and scattered them, that the Secretary of War in his annual report said, that 
he " anticipated no further trouble in consequence of Sturgis' successful opera- 
tions against them." This expedition was determined by the arrival of a scout 
bearing a despatch from the Secretary of War directing Sturgis to give over the 
further prosecution of his campaign, march his troops to Fort Smith and settle 
the difficulties then existing between the Indians and the white settlers, upon 
what was called the " neutral lands." After having made a satisfactory settle- 
ment of the points in di.spute, he returned to Fort Smith, where the opening of 
the civil war found him with his little family, consisting of wife and three chil- 



GEN. SAMUFX P. STURGIS. 239 

dren, and a small garrison amounting to not over one luinclrcd enlisted men. 
After the firing upon Fort Sumter all his officers, Cnptaiii Mcintosh and Lieu- 
tenants Lomax and Jackson, resigned and went south, so that wlicn Iiis post was 
attacked on April 23d by a large force sent against it fro'ii Little Rock hy 
Governor Rector, consisting of two steamboats loaded with troops and ten pieces 
of artillery, he had not a commissioned officer left to assist him. 

Being already surrounded on the land side of the post by the militia of Van 
Buren and of the town of Fort Smith, eight companies of which were posted on 
the avenue in front of the gates ready to intercept his retreat when he should be 
summoned by the river expedition which had arrived at Van Buren, four miles 
below. Captain Sturgis quietly prepared to evacuate the post, then no longer 
tenable, and save all public property possible. Accordingly, at 9 o'clock P. M., 
April 23, iS6i,the two companies were silently mounted, and, with twenty-four 
loaded wagons, passed out of a side gate, and, without discovery, crossed the 
Poto river and began the march to Fort Wachita, one hundred and sixty miles 
distant. This was reached in safet)^ Captain Sturgis by his prompt action thus 
saving all the arms, ammunition, stores, horses, etc., which would have been 
very valuable to the rebels. 

An incident deserving mention as illu.strative of the bra\'ci-)' and patriotism of 
the wife of Captain Sturgis, and showing her fitness to be the wife of an army 
officer, occurred at the evacuation. In order not to attract attention to the pro- 
posed night movement by preparation, nor to impede or embarrass the march of 
the troops by having to care for her comfort, Mrs. Sturgis determined to risk the 
danger and annoyances of capture in the fort. In company with her three 
children she was found by the Confederate Colonel Borland, when he took pos- 
session an hour after the evacuation, sitting on the porch of the commandant's 
quarters ready to surrender at discretion. Mrs. Sturgis and her children were 
permitted to leave for St. Louis on the last boat which was at that time allowed 
to communicate with the country north of the Ohio river, and they arrived 
safely in St. Louis a week after the evacuation. 

Upon reaching Fort Wachita he, with his force, joined the troops under the 
command of Lieut.-Col, W. H. Emory, which were just about evacuating all that 
part of the country, and they marched to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. After 
reaching this post Captain Sturgis, who was promoted Major of the First Cavalry 
on May 3, 1S61, as a recognition of the important service which he had rendered 
in successfully removing the stores and munitions from Fort Smith, and upon 
whom the command had devolved, soon after organized a force of some two 
thousand three hundred men, consisting of the First and Second Regiments of 
Kansas Volunteers and some regular troops, and marched down along the Mis- 
souri border, hoping to intercept the flight of Governor Claiborne Jackson and 
the officials accompanying him. This, however, was rendered impossible owing 
to a heavy rise in the Grand river, just after the fugiti\-es had crossed over, by 
which the whole country was flooded, and, as the bridges were all burned or 



C40 GEN. SAMUEL D. STURGIS. 

destroyed, IVInjor Sturgls was compelled to change his course and joined forces 
with General Lyon, then marching towards Springfield, Mo. 

Ha\ing reached the vicinitN- of Springfield, General L\-on established his head- 
quarters there and assigned Major Sturgis to the command of the troops in a 
camp, some twelve miles from the city, which he named Camp McClellan. 
Realizing the great danger threatening the largely outnumbered Union forces 
from the Confederate hosts that were then gathering against them, General Lyon 
called a consultation of his officers, and it was determined that but one alterna- 
tive remained — to endeavor by a hasty march to surprise the enemy, to make 
battle, confound and scatter them, and, before they could recover, retreat to a 
stronger position. This resolve — a sort of forlorn hope — was acted upon, and the 
little army marched forth and encountered the enemy at Wilson's creek-, on 
August 10, 1861. General Lyon, supported by Major Sturgis, led the attack in 
front, while Sigel was directed to conduct a flanking movement, which he suc- 
cessfully made, but the results of which were soon lost through an error of that 
officer, b}'' which his men were routed and driven from the field. Meanwhile 
Lyon had attacked the enemy, and while leading a Kansas regiment whose 
Colonel had fallen he was killed, and the command devolved upon Major Stur- 
gis. Notwithstanding he was known to but few of the men and that they were 
auare of the fact that Sigel had been routed and Lyon was dead. Major Sturgis 
was equal to the occasion. Inspiring his men by his coolness and bravery he 
fought the overwhelming force of the enemy for almost three hours, beating in 
detail their centre and right, and compelling them to fall back in disorder. 
Finding that his ammunition was about c.xhawsted he took advantage of the con- 
fusion of the enemy while they were in no condition to follow him and ordered 
a retreat, which he accomplished in good order, safely reaching Springfield, where 
he was joined by Sigel, and to whom under the belief that he was commissioned 
a Colonel, he accorded the command. The next day, however, having ascer- 
tained that Sigel was without a commission, he resumed the command and con- 
tinued the retreat to RoUa, Mo. For his services in this campaign he was brevetted 
Lieutenant-Colonel in the regular army and commissioned a Brigadier-General 
of Volunteers dating from August 10, i86l,the order conveying the brevet read- 
ing, ■' for gallant and meritorious services at the battle of Wilson's Creek." * 

* The part taken by General Siurgis in the battle of Wilson's Creek has never received proper recogni- 
tion except in the conferring of the raflk of Brevet Lieiitenant-Cohmel United Slates Army, and of 
Brigadier-General of United Stales Volunteers, which show, indeed, that his services were understond 
and appreciated by Tresident Linc.jln, but the Germans of St. Louis and those politicians who catered to 
that clement did all in their power to exalt the part taken by Franz Si^el, who was put forward as the 
represeniative German in the Union army, and in order to do so they sought to ignore the services of 
Major Sturgis in that battle. Sigel successfully made his attack as directed by General Lyon, but by 
want of caution was led into mistaking another portion of the Confederate forces for the main body of 
Lyon's lroo|>s, and was defeated in a few minutes, and, after losing five of his six guns, which were 
turned against the Unionists, he and the thirteen hundred men under his command were driven off the 
field and took no part in the desperate fighting that occurred after Lyon fell. Even authorities that are 



GEX. SAMUEL D. STUKGIS. 24! 

Genera! Sturgls was soon after tliis placcti in cliarLjc of the troops at the St. 
Louis Arsenal, and early in September was sent in command of a force to co- 
operate with General Pope in North Missouri against a rebel column under 
Generals Harris and Green. These Confederates having been driven south of 
the Missouri river, he was sent in command of about eleven hundred men, con- 
sisting of the Twenty-seventh and a portion of the Thirt\--ninth Ohio Volunteers, 
all raw troops and without artillery or infantry, to the relief of Colonel Mulligan 
at Lexington, Mo. After hard marching by day and night he reached the river 
opposite Lexington at daylight on the morning of September 20th, just after the 
gallant Mulligan had surrendered. The enemy sent a force of three thousand 
men across the river to attack General Sturgis' force, who, realizing his inability 
to successfully oppose them, retreated to Liberty, Mo., and then took boat for 
Kansas Cit)-. In October of that j-ear he partici[)ated in General Fremont's 
movement against Springfield, Mo., hax^ng command of the right wing. In 
November he served as cliief of staff to Major-Gencral Hunter, commanding the 
Department of Missouri, and started on a tour of inspection of the Ohio and Mis- 
sissippi river posts in December. 

In the spring of 1S62 he was placed in command of the district of Kansas, 
with head-quarters at Fort Leavenworth, and, after bringing something like order 
out of chaos there, was ordered to Washington, D. C, where he was placed in 
command of the defences of the National Capital — some fifty-eight fortifications and 

generally accurate appear to have been misled by accepting p.irti-nn and unofficial reports, current at the 
time, whicli were contrary' to the true facts. For instance, Appleton's Cyclopedia, in the biographical 
sketch of General Lyon, states in subsiance as follows: — " M.aj. Samuel D. Sturgis, who assumed the 
comm.md when Lyon fell, soon after orlered a retreat." .^nd Colonels H.iy and N'ic day, in th.at 
portion of their *' History of Abraham Lincoln,'' published in the June [iSSS] numljer (jf the Cfufitry 
magazine, commit the same error in stating that the principal fighting Iiad occurred and that the b.ittle 
had been virtually won before Lyon was killed, and lead their readers to infer that Major .Sturgis retired 
with his force when Lyon fell without further fighting. A reference to the " Official Records of the 
Rebellion," pulilished by the War Department, will show the following to be the iriie facts of the case. 
In Vol. Ill, Series I, p. 64, and succeeding, may be found the statement in the Official Report of 
M.ijor .Sturgis that General Lyon was killed about 9 A M., but the battle did not cease until 11.30 A. 11. 
General Lyon fell in the full belief that the day was lost, as is shown in the Official Report of Major 
(now Major-General) John M. Scofield, who was a member of General Lyon's staff. Commencing on 
page 61 occurs the following: — "Early in this engagement, while General Lyon w-as leading his 
horse along the line on the left of Captain Totten's battery, ***** he received a wound in the leg 
and one in the head. He walked slowly a few paces to the rear and said : — ' I fear the day is lost. ' " 
And on page 63 he refers to the closing of the battle "at about 11.30 A. M ," etc. So that al- 
though Lyon fell early in the combat, and when he believed that he had lost the day. Major Sturgis 
took command and carried the battle on through nearly three hours of bloody work, virtually defeating 
the enemy, bef ire he ordered a retre.it. In fact, by a reference to the Official Reports of M.njor Halde- 
man, Lieutenant-Colonel Merritt, of Captain (afterwards Brigadier-General) James Totten, of Captain 
(afterwards Brigadier-General) Fred. Steele, and others, it is clearly sho^^■n by the whole context that 
the hardest fighting occurred under Major Sturgis' command, afUr Gener.al Lyon was killed. We make 
this statement in justice to General Sturgis, as we believe that he h.as not been accorded the proper credit 
for the gallant fighting and careful generalsliip which he displayed at this bnttle, nor for the skilful and 
m.asterly retreat he conducted, the repute for which has frequently been given to Sigel, who was not in 
command. — [Eds.] 



242 C.E\. SAMUEL D. STURGIS. 

about twenty-two tlioiisand men. Tliis cliarge he resigned about August 25, 
1862, to take coniniand of a force for the relief of General Pope, who was being 
severely pressed by the enemy in Virginia. He joined General Pope at War- 
renton Junction on the morning of August 27th, and took part in the second 
battle of Bull Run, August 29, 1862. General Pope, in his official report of the 
battle, says: "General Sturgis deserves high praise not only for the valuable 
services rendered in the battle, but also for having reached the battle-field by 
passing a division which did not reach the field at all." 

On the reorganization of the army, after the second battle of Bull Run, he 
commanded the Second Division of the Ninth Corps, Army of the Potomac, and 
took part in the battles of South Mountain, September 14th, and Antietam, Sep- 
tember 17th, and in several skirmishes while in pursuit of the enemy. It was 
General Sturgis' division that stormed and carried the bridge at Antietam, com- 
monly called ■' Burnside's Bridge," on the left of the line. After he had sent in 
the Second Marj'land and the Ninth New Hampshire, and they had been driven 
back with great slaughter, he selected the Fifty-first Pennsylvania and the Fifty- 
first New York regiments, and, heading them himself, carried the bridge at a 
charge and under a fearful fire. General McClellan, recognizing the gallant work 
done by General Sturgis, directed General Burnside, to whose corps (the Ninth) 
Sturgis' division belonged, to have the division paraded, and say to them " that 
by their gallantry at the bridge they had relieved his right wing and saved the 
day." This order General Burnside obeyed. 

He continued with the Army of the Potomac in its march along tlie Blue 
Ridge, participating in its Rappahannock campaign, and took part in the battle 
of Fredericksburg, December 13, 1S62. For his services in this battle he was 
brevetted a Major-General in the regular ami)'. When the Ninth Corps was 
sent W'est in the spring of 1S63, he accompanied it and was engaged in the 
operations in Central Kentucky until July of that )-ear. He then acted as Chief 
of Cavalry for the military Department of the Ohio, and was engaged for a time 
in organizing the militia of Cincinnati during Morgan's raid. He continued as 
such until the siege of Knoxville, Tenn., in September, 1S63. On October 27th, 
of that )-car, he was promoted Colonel of the Si.xth Cavalry, United States Army, 
and during the winter of 1863-64 he had command of a body composed of some 
five tliousand c,i\alry and some infantry and artillery, with which he operated in 
front of General Longstrcet's army in Ivist Tennessee. On December 29, 1863, 
he fouglit the battle of Mossy Creek, in which he defeated the rebels with very 
heavy loss, and drove them in upon their main army. On January 13, 1864, he 
captured the Confederate General Vance and his commanil, and on January i6th 
was engaged in an action near Dandridgc. I Ic fought the battle of P'air Gardens, 
Tenn., on January 25th, routing General Martin's division of rebel cavah_\-, cap- 
turing his artillery and driving him across the I'rench Piroad ri\'i:r upon the 
enemy's main army under Longstreet. ( )n I'ebruary 2d he attacked and 
dcstroj'ed a camp of rebels and Indians near Onallatowii, N. C. 



r.EN. SAMUEL D. STURniS. 243 

In May, 1864, he comniandctl an cxpctlition which started from iMeniphis 
against General Forrest, who occupied Jackson, Tenn. He eni^ar^cd that com- 
mander at Bolivar and drove his force as far as Ripley, and thus cleared that 
portion of the country of rebel troops. On the ist of Jime follouinp; he marched 
ai;ain from Memphis with orders to penetrate to the soutli and find and ene;aye 
Forre■^t, who was reported to be organizing a large force for a fresh raid. Gen- 
eral Sturgis' command was a heterogeneous one, made up of fiactions of regiments, 
all -Strangers to eacli other and to their commander. Added to this the rain fell 
in torrents during the entire march, which was through a country with bad roads 
and altogether barren of supplies for either man or beast; so that after marching 
ten days he encountered the enemy in strong position and fresh from the rail- 
roads, and was defeated at the battle of Brice's Cross Roads, near Gun Town, 
June loth. 

From July, 1S64, to August 24, 1865, he was in command of the Si.xth Cav- 
alry awaiting orders, and on the latter date was mustered out of the volunteer 
ser\-ice. Besides the brevets previously mentioned. General Sturgis had received 
the following brevets: Brevet Colonel, United States Army, August 29 1862, 
"for gallant and meritorious services in the battle of Second Bull Run, Va.," 
Brevet Brigadier-General, United States Arm\', March 13, 1S65, " for gallant and 
meritorious services in the battle of South Mountain, Md.," and Brevet Major- 
General, United States Arm\% March 13, 1865, "for gallant and meritorious ser- 
vices in the battle of Fredericksburg, Va." 

After being mustered out of the volunteer service he went to Texas in com- 
mand of his regiment, then the Sixth United States Cavalry, and after remaining 
on frontier dut\' for two years he was ordered to Washington, D. C, and placed 
on a board of officers for the revision of the tactics for the cavalry service. He 
remained on this duty until April, 1S69, and on May 6th was appointed Colonel 
of the Seventh Cavalry, and joined his regiment in camp near Fort Hayes, Kansas. 
During the winter of 1869-70 he was in command of Fort Leavenworth, and 
from there was ordered with his regiment to the South for the repression of the 
Ku-Klu.x, with head-quarters at Louisville, K\'. From April, 1873, to May, 
1877, he was stationed first at St. Paul, Minn., then at St. Louis, Mo., in charge 
of the mounted recruiting serxice there, and later at Fort Lincoln, Dakota. In 
Miiy, 1877, he marched with his regiment from the last-named post to operate 
against the Sioux Indians north of the Yellowstone, but was deflected to mo\'e 
against the Nez Perces, whom he encountered on the Yellowstone river in a 
battle which lasted the greater part of a da)-, the Indians being defeated but 
escaping north in the night. He was on leave of absence from October, 1877, to 
Februar}', 1878, when he again assumed command of his regiment and the middle 
district of the department at Bear Butte, Dakota, and selected the site of the 
new post of Fort Meade. He remained in command there until the spring of 
1 88 1, when he was appointed by President Garfield as Governor of the Soldiers' 
Home at Washington, D. C, which position he retained until the spring of 1885, 



244 <~•E^'■ SAMUEL D. STCRGIS. 

when he returned to tlie command of his regiment at Fort Meade, remaining 
there until lie was retired from service by operation of law on June ii, 1886, at 
the age of sixty-four and after forty years of active service. The warm affection 
entertained by his soldiers for him was shown upon this occasion. An article 
which appeared in the Chicago Tiiiics says: "There was a grand turn-out of 
the citizens of Fort Meade and from Deadwood to witness the ceremonies, and 
many of the old soldiers whose terms of enlistment had long since expired, and 
who are in business or on farms in the vicinity of the post, were in to see their 

old commander An occurrence took place just as the veteran was 

leaving the grounds which must have gratified him exceedingly. He had taken 
leave of the officers, entered his carriage and started on his way when, at the 
confines of the fort, he found all the enlisted men of the garrison formed in line, 
of their own accord, to give him a last good-bye. General Sturgis was very 
much affected by this demonstration, and when he alighted and undertook to 
address them, his emotions choked his utterance. He re-entered his carriage, 
and amidst a tempest of cheers and farewells drove away." 

While stationed at Fort Leavenworth General Sturgis was married, July 5, 
1 85 1, to Miss Jerusha Wilcox, daughter of Dr. J. C.Wilcox, of the Western 
Reserve, Ohio, and has had eight children born to him — five sons and three 
daughters. Three of the sons died before attaining their fifth \-ear. His eldest 
son, James Garland Sturgis, graduated at West Point in 1S75, and was killed on 
June 25th of the following year at the Custer massacre in the battle of the Little 
Big Horn River. His other son, Samuel Davis Sturgis, Jr., born at St. Louis, 
August I, 1 861, entered West Point in 1880, graduated in 1884, and is now a 
Second Lieutenant in the First Artillery. The eldest daughter, Nina Linn 
Sturgis, was married to Mr. Hercules L. Douseman, of St. Paul, Minn., who died 
in 1886, leaving his widow with five children, but well provided for. His second 
daughter, Ella Maria, is the wife of Hon. John D. Sauter, son of Gen. John 
Sautcr, a gentleman well known throughout the Northwest, with the progress 
of which he is intimately identified. Mr. and Mrs. Sauter reside in Mitcliell, 
Dakota, where he is President of the Fir.'l National Bank. The youngest daughter, 
Mary Tj'lcr Sturgis, is still unmarried. 

Two of General Sturgis' brothers have been in the service of the United States. 
Dr. W'illiam Sturgis, his eldest living brother, now residing at Macon, 111., entered 
the army July 21, 1862, as an assistant surgeon, and served in various capacities 
from time to time ; first as medical officer in charge of the sick and wounded of 
about two thousand rebel prisoners, and then as acting Superintendent of Hospitals, 
but for the most part as Surgeon in charge of the United States General Hospital 
at Camp Butler, 111. He resigned some time after the war in 1866. His j'ounger 
brother, Hcnrj' Bacon Sturgis, served throughout the war on Geneial Sturgis' 
staff, with the rank of Cajjtain, and resigned June 21, 1S65. He resides in 
Nebraska. 

C. R. D. 




Gen. Washington L. Elliott. 



GEN. WASHINGTON LAFAYETTE ELLIOTT. 

BREVET Wajor-Gexeral WASHINGTON L. Elliott, only soil of Commodore 
Jesse Duncan Elliott and Frances Cain Vaughn, was born at Carlisle, Cum- 
berland county. Pa., on March 31, 1825. He accompanied his father on a cruise 
in the West Indies in 1831-32, and again to France in 1S35 on board the frigate 
" Constitution," bringing to the United States our Minister to France, Hon. 
Edward Livingstone. On this cruise young Elliott was an acting midshipman 
in the United States Navy, but on his return to the United States he went to the 
preparatory^ school of Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa., and subsequently to the 
college, leaving the Sophomore Class in 1841 to enter the Military Academy at 
West Point, where he remained until June 30, 1844. He began the study of 
medicine, but owing to the tleath of his father, in December, iS45,he was unable 
to complete his medical education, and re-entered the arm\' in May, 1846, as a 
Second Lieutenant in a regiment of mounted riflemen. He was acting Adjutant 
of this regiment during its organization, until replaced by the extra First Lieu- 
tenant appointed to fill that position. 

In December, 1846, he was ordered to Mexico, and was with General Scott's 
command from the mouth of the Rio Grande to its landing at Vera Cruz in 1S47. 
Being disabled by rheumatism, he was sent north from Vera Cruz, and was 
ordered upon recruiting service, remaining until the return of the troops 
from Mexico in August, 1848. He was promoted I-^irst Lieutenant on July 20, 
1847. During the winter of 1848-49 he was at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and 
in May, 1849, left for Fort Laramie, Wyoming, then Nebraska Territor}-, his 
company forming part of the garrison of that post, where it remained until 
October, 185 i. His regiment was, in 1852, transferred to Texas for service on 
that frontier, and he was its Quartermaster from April i, 1S52, until promoted 
Captain July 20, 1854. He was actix-el}' empIo}'ed against the Indians on the 
borders of Texas until 1856, when he was transferred to New Mexico, and was 
actively employed against the Indians of that territoiy until the " War for the 
Union," in 1861. 

On the call for volunteers bj' the President in April, 1861, he was ordered to 
EIniira, N. Y., as mustering officer, but was soon ordered with recruits from 
Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, to New Mexico'and Fort Leavenworth. These 
recruits were sent to Southwestern Missouri as part of Gen. Nathaniel L\'on's 
command. Captain Elliott being assigned to Company " D," First United States 
Cavalry (now Fourth Infantry), and, as senior officer, to the command of the five 
companies of cavalry composing the regiment. 

After the death of General Lyon and the return of his army to St. Louis, Cap- 
tain Elliott was tendered the Colonelcy of the Second Iowa Ca\-alry by the 
Governor of that State, his commission being dated September 14, 1S61. His 

(-45) 



::46 gen. Washington l. elliott. 

promotion as Mnjor of the First United States Cavalry bears date November 5, 
1 861. After his regiment was organized it was sent to Benton Barracks, near 
St. Louis, Mo. ; tlience to New Madrid, forming part of Gen. John Pope's com- 
mand for the operations at Madrid and Island Number Ten. It was thence 
transferred to General Halleck's command in front of Corinth, Miss. There it 
was brigaded with the Second Michigan Cavalry, of which Lieutenant-General 
P. H. Sheridan was then Colonel, and the brigade was commanded by Colonel 
Elliott. His brevet of Lieutenant-Colonel United States Army was conferred 
for " gallant and meritorious services in the capture of Island Number Ten on 
tlie Mississippi river." His brevet of Colonel was for "gallant and meritorious 
services in the raid on the Mississippi and Ohio Railroad, and in the siege of 
Corinth, Miss." This was the first cavalry raid of the war, and for its successful 
conduct Colonel Elliott was appointed Brigadier-General of Volunteers, June 11, 
1862. 

In August, 1S62, he was ordered to the Army of Virginia as Chief of Cavalry, 
and was engaged and slightly wounded in the second battle of Bull Run, August 
30, 1862. From September, 1862, until February, 1863, he was on duty organiz- 
ing cavalry regiments for sei-v'ice against the Indians in the Northwest. From 
Februarj', 1863, until October, 1863, he was on duty in the Shenandoah Valley 
and in command of the Third Division, Third Army Corps, when he was ordered 
to report to General George H. Thomas, and by him assigned as Chief of Cavalry 
in the Army of the Cumberland. He was actively engaged during the winter 
of 1863-64 in East Tennessee, and in the Atlanta campaign until October, 1864. 

In December, 1864, he was assigned by General Thomas to command the 
Second Division, Fourth Army Corps, and participated in the battles around 
Nashville. On March 13, 1865, he was brevettcd Brigadier-General United 
States Army for " gallant and meritorious services in the battle of Nashville, 
Tenn.," and Major-General of Volunteers for " gallant and meritorious services 
in the battles before Nashville, Tenn.," and Major-General United States Army 
for " gallant and meritorious services in the field during the war." From August, 
1865, to March i, 1866, he was in command of the district of Kansas, when he 
was "honorably mustered out" of the volunteer service. He was promoted 
Lieutenant-Colonel of the Fir.st United States Cavalry, Augu.st 31, 1866, and was 
assigned to duty in tlie Pacific States and Territories until April 4, 187S, when 
he was promoted Colonel of the Third United States Cavalry. At his own 
request, after over thirty years service, he was retired March 20, 1879. 

After his retirement from the army General Elliott was appointed Vice-Presi- 
dent of the California Safe Deposit and Trust Company, and while attending to 
his duties in the office of this company he was suddenly stricken by an attack 
of heart di.seasc which terminated fatally, June 29, 18SS. llis decea.se was 
widely noticed by the press of the country and lamented by the people. 




Gen, John R. B 



ROOKE. 



GEN. JOHN RUTTER BROOKE. 

GEN. John R. Brooke, one of the most popular and distingui.shed officers in 
the regular army, was born in Pottsgrove township, Montgomcr\' county, 
July 21, 1S38. His fother, Major William Brooke, had been a captain in the 
American army in the war of 18 1 2, and his mother was a daughter of David 
Rutter, one of the early iron manufacturers in the State, residing near Pottstown. 
The family is an old one, and its record in this country dates from 1692, when 
John Brooke and his wife, with two sons, James and Matthew, emigrated from 
Yorkshire, England. Before sailing the father had purchased from William 
Pena fifteen hundred acres of land, to be taken up an^'where between the Dela- 
ware and Susquehanna rivers where unoccupied or unclaimed plantations ct)uld 
be found. The parents died soon after landing, and the sons took up a tract 
in Limerick township, now Montgomery county, where they settled. Matthew 
Brooke had four sons, one of whom, also named Matthew, was the father of 
Thomas Rees Brooke, whose son William, above referred to as an officer in the 
war of 1812, was the father of Gen. John R. Brooke, and lived and died on a 
farm that was part of the original family purchase. 

Gen. Brooke's education was obtained in the common schools of his native 
county and at Bolmar's famous seminary at W^est Chester, where he received a 
full English course. He was in his twenty-third year when President Lincoln's 
call for seventy-five thousand volunteers appeared, to which he responded with 
alacrity and enthusiasm. He at once recruited a company for three months' 
service, and became its Captain, his commission bearing date April 20, 1S61. 
After their discharge on the expiration of the term of enlistment, he began to 
recruit a regiment for three years' service. On the 17th of August, 1861, he was 
commissioned Colonel of the Fifty-third Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers, 
and on their arrival at Washington, on the 7th of November following, the\- were 
mustered into the United States service, and becanie a part of the Army of the 
Potomac, the regiment being assigned to the Third Brigade, Second Army 
Corps. 

It was not, however, until Sunday, June i, 1862, that the command participated 
in a general engagement. This was at Fair Oaks Station, where Colonel 
Brooke's regiment was under fire for four hours, and held their position, under 
fearful odds, against some of the best troops of the enemy, directed by their ablest 
commanders. " Here," says General Walker, in his " History of the Second 
Army Corps, '■ Col. John R. Brooke, leading the Fifty-third Pennsylvania for the 
first time into fight, displayed that cool daring, that readiness of resource, that 
firmness of temper which were to raise him high among the most illustrious of 
the young soldiers of the Union, while his splendid leginient responded to e\'ery 
call with easy courage and prompt manoeuvre." In this battle of Fair Oaks 

(247) 



24S GEX. JOHN R. BROOKE. 

Colonel Brooke had a horse shot under hhii, and his command lost ninct}--four 
killed, wounded and missing. 

When th% army was ordered to evacuate Fair Oaks and fall back to the 
James river, Colonel Brooke's command was detailed as part of the rear guard, 
and was almost continually under the fire of the enemy's artillery. It was his 
regiment that destroyed the bridge over the ^^'llitc Oak Swamp, and held the 
enemy in check when they attempted to rebuild it. At the battle of Malvern 
Hill, which followed, his regiment was in the reserve, and did not become actively 
engaged. After this battle they retired to the James river and went into camp, 
nothing of interest transpiring. 

Colonel Brooke commanded French's brigade during the time that general was 
at the head of the division. The command left Harrison's Landing for Newport 
Kews when the Army of the Potomac retired from that place. Here they took 
transports for Alexandria, and were immediately marched to the front, partici- 
pating in the second battle of Bull Run. From there he went to the Antietam 
campaign, and in that battle was in the thickest of the fight on the right in com- 
mand of a brigade. General Walker, in his book describing Colonel Brooke's 
part in the battle, says : 

" He threw his force, composed of the Fift3'-seventh and Sixty-sixth New York 
Regiments and his own, Fifty-Third Pennsylvania Regiment, into a gap in the 
Union lines, which the Confederates had discovered and were seeking to pene- 
trate. He led the brigade in person, seeming to be ever\-wherc." 

In his official report General McClellan particularly mentions Colonel Brooke 
and his brigade for the efficient service they rendered. Colonel Brooke remained 
with the Army of the Potomac, and while at Harper's Ferry was sent out in 
charge of a large command under General Hancock to make an important 
reconnoissance. The enemy were found at Charlestown, where an engagement 
took place. After accomplishing the object of the expedition the command 
returned to Harper's Ferry. 

In the battle of Fredericksburg Colonel Brooke, besides commanding his own 
renowned Fifty-third Regiment, was instructed to also look after the Twenty- 
seventh, which he did most efficiently and gallantly. His command lost heavily, 
his own regiment going into the fight with sixteen officers and three hundred 
men, and coming out of it with but six of the former and one hundred and thir- 
teen of the latter, they having been part of the force sent to assault the enemy 
and drive them from Marye's Heights and from behind the famous stone-wall. 
He remained with the army during the winter, and took part in Iknnside's mud 
march ; also in the battle of Chanccllor.sville, which occurred early in May. 
Colonel Brooke had been assigned to the command of the I'ourth Brigade, First 
Division, Second Army Corps, in April, 1S63, which was formed for the express 
purpose of giving him a command worthy of his ability as a reward for and in 
recognition of his services and fine action at Marye's Heights. The promotion 
in rank whicii lie had clearly earned, however, was not accorded him, a mistake 



GEX. JOHN R. ERnOKE. 249 

at that time too frequcntl}- made by the authorities in \\\isliiiic;ton. W'itlioiit 
enjoying the rank and honor that he deserved and had won by dt.s[)cratc fi|:;htiiii;, 
he liandled this brigade as only a Colonel at Chancellorsvillc, niid on the march 
from in front of Fredericksbuig to Gettysburg, where he arrived with the troops 
on the evening of July 1st. Early the next day his force was undci- arms, and in 
the afternoon he was ordered to move to the left of the line near Round Top, to 
assist in defeating Longstreet in his attempt to capture that position, lie led his 
brigade on a charge through that terrible fight in the wheat fiekl, driving the 
enemy nearly a mile. Walker, in his " History of the Second Army Corps," 
describes this charge in these words : 

"And now from the rear approaches Biooke. Relieving the regiments of Cross, which fall back to 
the road — all liut ihe regiment and a half on the left — he flings his Ijrigade with one mighty effort upon 
the enemy. He will not be denied. On through the wheat field in spite of all, across the rivulet choked 
with the dead, into the woods, up the rocky slope, clean into the open space beyond and into Ihe very 
sight of the Enimetsburg road, Brooke pushes on in his splendid charge, driving Senime's Georgia brigade 
before him. But impetuous as has been his advance he has not outstripped Zook's brigade, which comes 
up on his right — Zook's brigade no longer, for that intrepid leader has fallen with a mortal wound. 
Roberts, too, of the One Hundred and Fortieth is killed. Brooke assumes command of the entire line 
thus thrust out on the extreme verge, far beyond Birney's original position, and there anxiously awaits 
the arrival of reinforcements which shall make his flanks secure. But none appear; the enemy are 
pressing him actively in front and on both flanks; his retreat is threatened; Brooke sees that he must 
retire; at the word his regiments let go their hold and fall back. Strieker on the left handles the Second 
Delaware with great courage an* address, beating back the enemy who seek to cut off the retreat; while 
Frazier with the One Hundred and Fortieth performs a like soldierly ofifice on the right, and thus this 
gallant command falls back to the road, having lost one-half its numbers." 

In this fearful assault Colonel Brooke was wounded, but did not leave the 
field. His command was also engaged in the third da}''s battle at Gcttysbin-g. 
After the battle he followed in the pursuit of Lee until the Confederate General 
had passed be}-ond the Rapidan. 

In the fall of 1863, while a portion of the Army of the Potomac was in New 
York on duty in suppressing the draft riots, Lee made an attempt on the right 
of Meade's line, which resulted in a number of combats, and compelled i\Icade 
to retire to Centreville to more thoroughly secure Washington. In this move- 
ment Brooke was actively engaged in several encounters with the enemy. The 
manoeuvring of the armies resulted in the occupation of the ground held by each 
before it commenced. Then followed the Mine Run campaign, in whicli his 
command took a prominent part. This military movement closed the active 
operations in the field until the following spring, which found him still com- 
manding the Fourth Brigade. 

When General Grant reorganized the Army of the Potomac, in March, 1864, 
Colonel Brooke, who for a year had commanded the brigade above mentioned, 
was now, with his force, still retained in the First Division, Second Army Corps, 
under General Hancock. Colonel Brooke, or, rather. General Brooke as it 
should have been, at once took an active part in the battles of the Wilderness 



:-;0 OEN'. JOHN R. BROOKE. 

and the To river. On the 1 2th of May, at Spottsylvania Couit-I louse, liis brigade 
was in the advance in Hancock's famous charge on the eneni\-. In this the 
grandest diarge of the war, Brooke distinguished himself again for iiis bravery 
and skill. His command captured several pieces of artillery, and immediately 
turned the guns of the eneni}' upon the foe, doing good execution. An entire 
rebel division, witli its commander. General Johnson, were taken prisoners. 

The retreat from the south to the north bank of the Po led to a blood_\' battle, 
in which the brigade of Brooke was engaged. General Hancock, in his official 
report, remarked : 

" During the he.it of this contest the woods^on the right .ind in the rear of our troops tool; fire. The 
flames had now approached close to our line, rendering it almost impossilile to retain the position longer. 
The last bloody repulse of the enemy had quieted him for a time, and during 'his lull in the fight Gen- 
eral Barlow directed Brooke and Brown to abandon iheir position and retire to the north bank of the 
Po. Their right and rear enveloped in the burning woods, their front assailed by overwhelmmg numbers 
of the enemy, the withdrawal of the troops was attended with extreme difficulty and peril, liut the move- 
ment was commenced at once, the men displaying coolness and readiness such as are rarely exhibited in 
the presence of dangers so appalling. It seemed, indeed, that these gallant soldiers were devoted to 
destruction. The enemy, perceiving that our line was retiring, again advanced, but was again promptly 
checked by our troops, who fell back through the burning forest with admiral ile order and deliberation, 
though in doing so many of them were killed and wounded, and many of the latter perished in the flames. 

"One section of Arnold's battery had been puslied forward by Captain Arnold duiing the fi^jht to 
within a short distance of Brooke's line, where it had done efieciive service. When ordered to retire the 
horses attached to one of the pieces, becoming terrified by the fire and unmanageable, dragged the gun 
between two trees, where it became so firmly wedged that it could not be moved. Every exertion was 
made by Captain Arncld and snme of the infantry to extricate the gun, but without success; they were 
compelled to abandon it. 77iis !i'(7s Ike first gun ei'er lost by the Secoinl Corp. 

" Brooke's brigaile, after emerging from the wood, had the open plain to traverse between Block 
House Road ami the Po. This plain was swept by the enemy's musketry in front, and by their artillery 
on the heights above the Block House bridge on the north side of the river. Brown's brigade in letiring 
was compelled to pass through the entire woods in its rear, which were then burning furiously. Although 
under a heavy fire, it extricated itself from the forest, losing very heavily in kdled and wounded. Col- 
onel Brown crossed the river some distance above the pontoon bridge, forming his troops on the right of 
Brooke, who had also crossed to the north bank on the pontoon bridge. 

" I feel that I cannot spe.ak too highly of the bravery, soldierly conduct and discipline displayed by 
Brooke's and Brown's brigades on this occasion. Attacked by an entire division of the enemy (Heth's), 
they repeatedly beat him back, holding their ground with unyielding courage until they were ordered to 
withdraw, when they retired with .such order and steadiness as to merit the highest praise. Col. James 
A. Beaver, One Hundred and Forty-eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers, and Lieut. -Col. D. L. Strieker, 
Second Delaware Volunteers, are particularly mentioned by Colonel Brooke for marked services and 
conspicuous courage." 

Colonel Brooke was made a Brigadier-General of Volunteers for his gallant 
and meritorious scr\-ices in the battle of Spottsylvania Coiirt-House, May 12, 
1864. Colonels Miles and Carrol received a similar promotion, and General 
Walker remarks in his history of the corps : " Three finer examples of fiery valor 
in battle, of the steady and faithful performance of duty even to the dreariest 
work of routine in camp and on the march, could not Jiave been fotind in one 
group in all the armies of the United States. ***** Generals Miles and 



GEN. JOHN K. BROOKE. 25 I 

Brooke had been conspicuous in even- battlc-ficld since tlic Siinda)' morning at 
Fair Oaks, not more for their indoniitajjle braver}' than for their conmiant! over 
men; their cahn intelhgence, over which the smoke of battle never cast a clout!; 
their restless energy in assault; their ready wit and abounding resources amid 
disaster.'' 

General Brooke remained in command of this brigade, and participated in all 
the battles and skirmishes in which the Second Corps was engaged. On the 
3tl of Jiuie while leading liis brigade on a charge at Cold Harbor against the 
rebels, who were in a fortified position, lie was struck in the side by a grape shot, 
and so severely wountled in two places that for some time his recovery was con- 
sidered very doubtful, compelling his retirement from active service for a time. 

While still suffering from the wound, however, lie reported at Washington for 
dut}', and was assigned as President of a general court-martial sitting at Carlisle, 
Pa., and afterwards detailed at Washington, D. C, to examine officers for a 
veteran corps that General Hancock had been authorized to raise. 

On August I, 1864, he was promoted to be brevet Major-General of Volun- 
teers, and after Hancock had organized the Army of the Shenandoah, he com- 
manded the second division under him. At the end of the war his division was 
mustered out, and on the first of February, iS66, General Brooke resigned his 
commission. He returned home, and after a very brief period engaged in the 
iron business at Thorndale, Chester county. While there, and unsolicited on his 
part, the War Department tendered him a Lieutenant-Colonel's commission 
in the Thirty-seventh United States Infantry. The offer of the command was 
at the time a surprise to him, but as he had a taste for the profession of arms 
he conchided to accept. His commission is dated July 28, 1866. On taking 
this command Colonel Brooke was first stationed at Fort Union, New Me.xico, 
and afterwards at Fort Stanton in the same Territor}-. On the 2d of March, 
1867, about a year afterwards, he was brevetted Colonel and Brigadier-General 
in the United States Army. 

On the 15th of March, 1S69, he was transferred to the Third United States 
Infantr\', and for several years was stationed with the regiment at I'ort Shaw in 
the District of Montana Territory. On April 6, 1SS8, he was promoted to be 
Brigadier- General in the United States i\rmy. 

General Broolce was married on December 24, 1S63, to Louisa H., daughter 
of Leonard F. Roberts, of W^arwick, Chester county. She died October 22, 
1 86", lea\-ing two sons, William and Louis Roberts Brooke. Since his transfer 
to the regular arm\- he was married on the 19th of September, 1S77, to Miss 
Mary L., daughter of Hon, Onslow Stearns, of Concord, New Hampshire, ex- 
Governor of that State. 

C. R D. 




Gen. S. Wylie Crawford. 



GEN. SAMUEL WYLIE CRAWFORD. 

GEN. S.\MCEL W. Ck.uvfokd, LL.D., was at the birth and death of tlie Con- 
federacy. He heard the sound of the first Ljun of the rebellion, and felt 
its deadly purpose in the shock of its thud against Fort Sumter. In his life 
romance and reality have so mingled that the record of his career is a stor)' of 
adventure and achievement. His experience takes a wide range, both in war and 
in peace. He has been physician, soldier, traveller and authoi", and, best of all, 
he has been a success at each. ]\Iuch of the power wliich enabled him to win 
at everything he undertook came from a line of strong ancestr}-, both pln'sically 
and mentally. On the paternal side his people came of the lowland Scotch of 
A\T and Renfrewshire for centuries back. Margaret Wylie brought into the 
family, by her union with his grandfather, Nathan Crawford, a stmdy strain of 
characteristics of mind and bod)- from the " Scot " of the North of Ireland. This 
union resulted in producing offspring endowed with the best traits both of head 
and heart of the Scotch-Irish stock-. 

When this marriage was yet \-oung the Crawfords started f:)r the Uniteil States, 
intending to land on the shores of \'irginia to join a settlement of Sccjtch Cmen- 
anters, then located on the soil of the " Old Dominion." Storms, however, 
carried them fiu'ther South, and towards the close of the century theysaileel into 
the harbor of Charlestun. Here the elder Samuel W\'lie Crawford was born. 
From the chief city of South Carolma Nathan Craufoid mo\ed with his )-oung 
wife and son into the interior, and settled upon the baid-:s of Fisher's Creek, in 
Chester District, S. C, in a neighborhood peopled with citizens from his ow-n 
country. Here they lived until August, 1794, \\hen both parents died of the 
j'cllow fever, leaving a bo\- and girl orphans. I)r. Samuel Brown \\'\lie, a 
brother of Mrs. Crawford, who was an eminent schol.u' and citizen of Philadel- 
phia, 'went down b\- sailing vessel and brought the chiKlren to PennsyK-ania. In 
Philadel[)hia the elder Crawford was educated at the Univer.^it)- of Pennsyhania. 
He was ordained in the ministr\-, as main- of his ance.st^rs had been before him. 
Teaching the doctrine of the Coxenanters, or instructing }-outh in the better class 
of education, was as conspicuous a trait in the Crawford famil)- as their courage 
and industr)-. After his ordination he had a call to Franklin count)-, and settled 
along the banks of the Conecocheague Creek-. Here he preached and taught 
until called to the charge of the Chambersburg Acadeni)-. In those da)-s this 
was quite a pretentious educational institution, and is still a feature of the higher 
life of that section. Four miles from Chambersburg, on the Conecocheague 
Creek-, was a farm which had earl)- struck the fanc)- of Rev, Mr. Crawford, and 
he purchased it. At the beginning of his earl)- teachings he married Aliss Jane 
Agnew, of New York, one of the prominent famil)- beaiing that name, and so 
long noted as successful merchants. She was of P'lench Huguenot descent, her 

(-53) 



254 f-EN. SAMUEL \V. CKAWFOKD. 

grandfather having fled from Normand}', in France, after the revocation of tlie 
Edict of Nantes, with his infant son, tlie grandfather of General Crawford, in his 
arms. Of this union Samuel Wylie Crawford was born. He first saw the light 
and was cradled at Alandale, the old homestead on the Conecocheague, which is 
still in possession of the Crawford family. He was called for his maternal unde, 
and, while the son was yet j'oung, the parent was called to the charge of the 
Academical Department of the University of Pennsylvania, and here Samuel 
\\'\'lie Crawford, the younger, was gi\en a classical education, receiving the 
degree of A. B. 

Having graduated later with distinction from the Medical Department of the 
University, Dr. Crawford obtained through the Hon. Joseph R. Chandler, M. C, 
the required authority, and presented himself before the Board appointed to 
examine applicants for the position of Assistant Surgeon in the army. This 
board met in New York, and young Crawford, while awaiting his turn, was the 
guest of" Stonewall " Jackson, ther. an officer of the First Artillery, stationed at 
Fort Hamilton. But six passed of tl.e many who applied, and Dr. Crawford 
stood first of the number. He was sent to the frontier as soon as there was an 
opening, and sailing for Texas, in iS5i,he ser\ed at different forts, and was 
finally ordered to El Paso, where he remained for three j'cars. Being then 
ordered East, he obtained leave from Jefferson Da\'is, then Secretary of War, to 
visit Mexico. He travelled through that country by easy stages, using his own 
conveyance, and arrived at the r ity of Mexico. The American Minister there 
finding that Dr. Crawford spoke the language fluently, asked that he might be 
retained for semi-diplomatic service. The request was granted, and Dr. Craw- 
ford remained for some time, during which he made the perilous ascent of the 
noted volcanoes Popocatapetl and Iztachihuatl, and for which he was compli- 
mented by being made a corresponding member of the Geographical Society of 
Mexico. Having been sent to Washington with important treaty dispatches, 
and his work in this line being finished, he was ordered by the War Department 
to Newport, and thence, after two years, to the Western frontier. Here he saw 
scnice, abundant and severe, in Kansas, in the upper Missouri region and on the 
Platte. A portion of this time he was attached to the Second Regiment Infantry, 
which he joined near the end of the Kansas war at Fort Scott, Kan. — a regiment 
he was in after years to command as its Colonel, and of which Nathaniel Lyon 
was then one of the captains and an officer of the garrison. While at Fort 
Laramie, in iS6o, he was ordered I-'ast for examination and promotion. The 
introduction to his lately published work, entitled "The Genesis of the Civil 
War," tells how he became very quickly involved in the stirring scenes that 
opened the great strife, and describes his receipt of the telegraphic order fT'om 
the War Department to repair at once to Fort Moultrie, and report to the com- 
manding officer there for duty. At that time it was an unusual way of transmit- 
ting the commands of the department, and the imperative terms of the order 
impressed him with its inipurtance. He left Ncwjjort, where he was stationed 



GEN. SAMUEL W. CRAWFORD. 



■55 



awaiting orders, and proceeded at once to Ciiarleston, S. C, where he learned 
that his predece.s.sor had just died of what was beUcved to be yellow fever, hut 
the disease proved to be " break bone" fe\-cr, or i/oii^iir, which was vcr)' L^'cneral 
in the coninuinity, but there were no more f.ital results from it. Dr. Crawford 
was one of the few medical men in the conimunit)', and was thus brought into 
close and friendly relations with the resitlents. His sudden transfer to Fort 
Moultrie was the means of giving him a fa\orable opportunit}' of noting, studying 
and commenting upon the social and political phases of the secession mo\ement 
just as it began to take shape imniediatel)' after Mr. Lincoln's election. 

The stor\- of Sumter is a long and interesting one. Its defence was heroic, 
considering the primitive conditions of our war material. Only two or three 
men were killed, and several wounded ; but it was more important in its results 
than many battles where the loss in killed and wounded footed up many hun- 
dred. The bombardment of Fort Sumter lasted less than thirty-six hours, but, 
when the handful of Federal troops which had defended it surrendered what Awas 
left, havoc seemed to have reigned. The last officer to leave the surrendered 
fort was Assistant Surgeon Crawford, who remained by the side of a wounded 
man. The " Isabel," with the command on board, awaited his coming, and then 
sailed out to join the fleet beyond the bar, which had come down too kite to gi\e 
relief to Sumter. 

The stern realities of war weie now to be faced. The little handful of troops 
which had left Fort Sumter in ruins had readied New York harbor, and were 
resting on Governor's Island. They were the subject of much curious inquiry. 
They had witnessed the first stroke of war, and the officers, especially, were 
honored everjavhere, and called upon to tell and retell the stor\' of the bombard- 
ment and defence. Tragic as it was, it was very soon dwarfed by the dramatic 
stories of the fresh combats which followed each other in rapid succession. The 
line officers who came from Fort Sumter were rapidly promoted. It was not so 
easy to reward a surgeon, though equalh' deserving with the rest. Major 
Anderson had mentioned Dr. Crawford in his dispatches for efficient services, 
both as surgeon and commander of troops. He had gone further, and recom- 
mended that he be brevetted for gallant and meritorious services at Sumter; but 
for this there was no precedent. The President, in his practical way, very soon 
solved the problem. Mr. James Lesley, Jr., the chief clerk of the War Department, 
telegraphed Assistant Surgeon Crawford to come to Washington. He secured 
leave of absence and went to the National Capital. On his arrival, the President 
tendered him the position of Major of the Thirteenth Infantr)', or of the Lieu- 
tenant-Colonelcy of the Sixteenth. After taking time for consideration. Dr. 
Crawford accepted the majority of the Thirteenth Regiment, of which William 
Tecumseh Sherman was the Colonel, and Philip H. Sheridan the senior Captain. 
He was commissioned the 14th of May, 1861, and reported to Gen. W. S. Rose- 
crans at Gauley Bridge, West Va., in October, 1S61. His first duty was as 
Assistant Inspector-General of the Department. He served directly with the 



256 r.EX. SAMUEL W. CKAWtTiKD. 

troops, however, and rendered efficient service during the wliole of Rosecrans' 
West Virginia campaign. Upon its conclusion he was recommended by his 
commanding General for appointment as Brigadier-General of Volunteers. 

On April 25, 1862, he was gi\en his first star, and ordered to report to Major- 
General Banks, commanding the Department of the Shenandoah. He joined him 
at Strasburg just as Jackson and Ewell were moving upon Winchester, and at his 
request acconipanied him personally through that battle. He was commended 
for meritorious services in General Banks' reports and dispatches to army head- 
quarters. When the Army of the Shenandoah was reorganiaed he was given 
the First Brigade of the First Division (Williams'), and on the istof June led his 
command up the Valley of Virginia. During all the summer operations which 
followed in that section General Crawford took a prominent part. On the 8th 
of August he was thrown forward with his command to check the advance of 
the enemy's forces that were moving under Jackson towards Culpepper. He 
took up a strong position on Cedar Run, supporting Bayard and his cavalry 
under an artillery fire, maintaining his position until the arrival of his corps on 
the morning of the 9th. In the battle which took place, he commanded on the 
right, conducting a desperate charge of his brigade on the enemy's left, in which 
and in the subsequent hand-to-hand fight he lost half of his command. He was 
again commended by the commanding General for efficient service. 

At the second battle of Bull Run he commanded the First Division of his 
Corps, but was not engaged. He moved with it into Maryland on the 4th of 
September, arriving at night on the field of South Mountain. At the battle of 
Antietam he commanded his brigade until General Mansfield was killed, and 
then took the First Division for the balance of the fight. In the engagement on 
the second day he was severely wounded while personally commanding the First 
Division of his Corps. He refused, however, to lea\e the field, and remained on 
duty although suffering severely from his wound. For his gallant conduct in 
this engagement he was highly mentioned in the report of his immediate com- 
manding officer, and in the official reports of General McClellan. After the bat- 
tle he was removed to his native home for treatment. It was a long time before 
he was fit for duty again. Before he was in condition to take command in the 
field he applied for some light duty, and was ordered to report as a member of 
Rick'ctt's Military Commission, which convened in Washington, February 2, 
1S63. When able to mount his horse he was relieved of this duty at his own 
request, and ordered to report to General Heintzelman, conmianding the defences 
of Washington. At the request of Go\'ernor Curtin, General Cameron and Col. 
A. K. McClure, he was placed at the head of the Pennsylvania Reserves. He 
assumed command of that famous tli\ision, composed of Sickel's, Fisher's and 
McCaiullcss' brigades — troops which had once been led by Meade, Rej-nolds and 
McCall. By a forced march he joined the Army of the Potomac with his com- 
mand at F"rederick, Md., on June 23d, and was assigned to the Third Di\-ision of 
the Fifth Corps, under Sykcs. 



GEN. SAM TEL \V. CRAWFORD. 257 

The battle of Gettysburg iniiiiediatel)' followed, and in the second day's fight, 
when the troops in front were giving way before the onset of Longstreet's corps, 
General Crawford's division was thrown forward in front of Little Round Top, 
and had that terrible combat in and near the wheat field near the Devil's Den 
which has passed into history as one of the chief incidents of that blood}' event. 
-Twenty officers and two hundred men were lost in an hour from Crawford's 
division. For this work he was brevctted a Colonel in the regular arm\', and 
the order read; " For gallant and meritorious service at the battle of Gettysburg." 
After the war he purchased and still owns the Devil's Den, and the ground over 
which his troops foOght in the battle. 

In all of the operations that followed Gettysburg the Penns\-lvania Reserves 
took their full share of dut}-; but there were little more than skirmishes during 
the fall and winter, and they were not called to face the hazards in a great 
engagement until the tussle in the Wilderness. When the army was reorganized, 
on the 25th of March, 1864, and the First Corps was consolidated with the Fifth, 
General Crawford was retained as commander of the Third Division of the Fifth 
Corps, under Major-General Warren. 

From the Wilderness to Cold Harbor General Crawford commanded that 
dix'ision and shared the fortunes of Grant's army. On Way 5 and 6, 1S64, he 
was engaged with his di\-ision in the heavy fighting in the Wilderness. At 
Spottsylvania the division lost hcavil}', and from the morning of the 8th until the 
I ith of May it was almost continuously engaged. The severe work done by the 
division may be read in the terrific losses it sustained. From Spotts\'lvania to 
Cold Harbor the record of hard fighting was the same. Then followed the 
combat of the North Anna, and other minor engagements incident to the moving 
of a large arm\- in a hostile countr_\-. Bethesda Church followed soon after. At 
this place General Crawford performed most important service with his di\ision, 
and inflicted a heavy loss on the enemy in both officers and men. The combat 
was notable from the fact that it was fought by the Pennsylvania Reserves and a 
brigade of New York heav}- artiller\', the Reserves being within one day of the 
expiration of their term of scr\'ice. It was one of those examples of sturdy 
heroism which characterized that fiinous organization during the entire war. At 
the moment it was called upon to fight this battle its muster-out rolls were being 
prepared, and thoughts of home filled the minds of its members. One day later 
at Bethesda Church the command was mustered out after more than a }'ear of 
service under General Crawford, during which it had never been beaten, and had 
made a record for gallant and meritorious conduct which will live as long as 
heroic deeds are chronicled in history. All of the Reserves, however, did not go 
home. Two thousand of them re-enlisted and became veterans, serving until the 
end of the war. The fame of the " Bucktails " was perpetuated in name and 
deeds until Lee's surrender, and the One Hundred and Ninetieth and One Hun- 
dred and Ninety-First Regiments of the Pennsylvania Volunteers — the old 
Reserve Division — was represented until the last gun at Appomatto.x; but these 
veterans were taken from General Crawford's command. 



2^S GEN. SAMUEL \V. CK.WVFORD. 

The twenty-two regiments of the First Corps wore shortly after, by order of 
General Grant, consolidated into a division and assigned as the Third Division 
of the Fifth Corps. To this General Crawford was assigned as a commander, in 
which position he continued until the end of the war. With the division he 
participated in the .siege of Petersburg, the battle of Weldon Railroad and other 
engagements, and in Sheridan's terrific onslaught at Five Forks, which was the 
death-blow to Lee's army, he performed most conspicuous services. For his 
part in this battle he was brevetted a Brigadier-General in the regular army " for 
gallant and meritorious service." From Five Forks until Lee's surrender at 
Appomattox the storj' of hard work and good deeds was the same. The record 
was then made up, and upon the recommendation of his superiors he was bre- 
vetted a ]\Iajor-General of Volunteers " for conspicuous gallantry in the battles 
of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania Court-House, Jericho Mills, Bethesda Church, 
Petersburg and Weldon Railroad," and " for faithful services in the war" he was 
brevetted a ALnjor-General in the regular army. 

After the close of the war General Crawford was granted a long leave of 
absence on account of disability from wounds received in battle. He finally 
made application to be assigned to duty, and took command of his regiment, the 
Second Infantry, \\ ith head-quarters in Kentuck}^ While on this duty he was 
made Colonel of the Sixteenth Infantrj', which was later consolidated with the 
Second, losing its identity in the army li.st and becoming the Second Regiment 
of the peace footing. Thus, by one of those curious freaks of destiny. General 
Crawford succeeded to the command of a regiment of which, in 1S59, he had 
been the Assistant Surgeon. 

After the consolidation and the concentration of his troops at Atlanta, Ga., he 
was assigned to duty as military commander in Alabama. He established his 
head-quarters at Huntsville, and for three years commanded the troops in that 
State, to the mutual satisfaction of the Government and the people among whom 
he was stationed. The strain of the war, however, had been so great upon Gen- 
eral Crawford that he began suffering again from his wounds, and he was retired 
upon his own application. The full grade of Brigadier-General of the regular 
army was conferred upon him by special enactment. This, with the rank of 
Mnjor-General by brevet in the regular army, he still holds. 

Years of active public service, both in war and in peace, had endowed General 
Crawford with a thorough knowledge of his own country. He had travelled 
extensively and seen much. His retirement gave him the opportunity to widen 
the range of his knowledge, and almcst immediately after he left active 
service he went abroad ; first with a view of visiting the sanitary institutions in 
the south of France, with the Impe of there obtaining relief from the distress 
caused by the wound received in the war. At all the favorite resorts of the 
literati and military men General Crawford was a welcome guest. From the 
Dukeof Cambridge, Commander-in-Chief of the British army, and Lord Wolscley 
as well as some of the other leading generals of Fngland, he received attentions, 



GEN. SAMUEL W. CRAWFORD. 



-59 



both military and .social, and .'^tood high in their esteem. While in Pari.s he 
became interested in the operations of Don Carlos in Spain, .so he left the 
capital of France, and passing the Pyrenees in a private conveyance, joineil Don 
Carlos at Los Arcos, and saw him fight the battle of Viana on the Ebro. After 
an interesting and extensive trip in Spain he returned to Paris, and was im- 
mediately sent for by Mr. Washburn, the American Minister. The demands of 
the American Government for the release of the " Virginius " and indemnity for 
the outrages committed at Santiago de Cuba were to be sent by special messenger 
to Madrid. Mr. Washburn had an interview with General Crawford and offered 
him this important mission, which he accepted, and the same night left for Spain, 
reaching its capital after a rough passage. At that time relations between tlie 
United States and Spain were very much strained and our Minister at Madrid 
was almost a prisoner in his own house. Immediately upon his arrival at the 
Spanish capital General Crawford reported his mission to the American Minister, 
who at once proceeded to inform the Spanish Government of the demands made 
by the United States. The reply of the Spanish Premier was prompt and satis- 
factory. In less than forty-eight hours after his arrival General Crawford left 
Madrid for the United States with Spain's acquiescence in the demands of his Gov- 
ernment. After delivering the dispatches to the Secretary of State, Hon. Hamil- 
ton Fish, in Washington, he remained in this country for some time visiting 
friends and then again sailed for the old world. 

During this trip he visited all the old Eastern countries, traversing the deserts 
in his visit to Syria. Eg\'pt, Turkey and Palestine, and all the old lands rich in 
Biblical lore were carefidly explored and new acquaintances made and fresh 
mines of information tapped. His classical training had developed a fondness 
for archaeological study, and it was while at Aleppo, in Syria, in 1876, that he 
made a copy of the famous Aleppo Stone, of which the Biblical Archseological 
Society of Great Britain has reproduced a sketch from the drawing made by him 
under great difificulties. Upon his first attempting to sketch it the Moslem 
students drove him off, for it was worshipped by the Turks for its supposed cura- 
tive qualities ; he then appealed to the Pasha, who granted him protection while 
he made the drawing. It was fortunate for history that he did, for a year later, 
the Moslems, in their fanaticism, destroyed it, and but for General Crawford's 
perfect sketch, which the Archaeological Society of Great Britain has preserved 
in enduring form, no authentic record of it would remain. 

After these years of travel General Crawford, owing to trouble from his 
wounds, has been compelled to remain in America, excepting a short trip which 
he made to Iceland. For the past few years he has been engaged in putting in 
shape his notes of travel, but the major part of his time has been devoted to 
writing his book on the " Genesis of the Civil War, ' which has but lately been 
published, and is a story of Sumter, political and military. Only three of the 
officers of the little garrison at Fort Sumter are still alive. General Seymour is 
an artist in Italy ; General Doubleday is still compiling his memoirs, and is en- 



260 GEX. SAJirEL W. CKAWFOKD. 

gaged in tlic active affairs of life; and General Crawford, the j'oungest of 
them all, though physicalh- disabled, looks hopcfulh' forward still to years of 
intellectual usefulness. 

The history of the war records few such examples of rapid promotion, success- 
ful effort and efficient service. Warren, who fell at Bunker Hill, was a physi- 
cian ; so was General Cialdini, who commanded the Italian army. Save in 
General Crawford's case, and in these two instances, no officer has ever risen to 
a high military command from the medical staff The case of General Crawford 
is all the more notable from the fact that, while he was not a West Point gradu- 
ate, he never failed in maintaining his position, and commanded the respect of 
all his comrades in the army, whether graduates of the military academy or men 
appointed from civil life. 

In the higher branches of civil life General Crawford has also obtained a com- 
manding position. After the close of the war the University of Pennsylvania 
conferred upon him the degree of LL.D. Not long after his first trip to Europe 
he was made a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society of England, and also 
a Fellow of the Biblical Archaeological Society of Great Britain. He is also a 
member of the Historical Society of Pennsj'lvania, a corresponding member of 
the New York Historical Society, as well as a member of the American Geo- 
graphical Society and the Archaeological Institute. He was twice a delegate of 
the American Geographical Society to the Geographical Congress in Europe. 
His immediate family connection with the University of Pennsylvania, his Alma 
JMatcr, has been long and honorable through a series of years, stretching back 
to the early part of the century. His great-uncle, Rev. Samuel B. Wylie, D. D., 
had been the Vice-Provost of the University and the distinguished Professor of 
Languages for many years. His father. Rev. Samuel W. Crawford, D. D., was 
the Principal of the Academical Department, and was eminent as well for his 
scholastic attainments and his admirable system of instruction as for the purity 
of his personal character. Two years ago General Crawford was chosen one of 
the Vice-Presidents of the Society of the Alumni of the University, which posi- 
tion he yet holds. He has recently presented to the Trustees of the University 
si.K hundred and eighty-seven bound volumes and three hundred unbound 
volumes, comprising works of great value on Herculaneum and Pompeii, and a 
varied collection of works on Philosophy, Archaeology, Science and Art. 

In 1885 the Pennsylvania Reserve Association presented to the State a full- 
length military portrait of their old commander. It was received by the Gov- 
ernor (Hoyt) in a glowing and api)reciative rcs[ionse, and now has a permanent 
place in the Capitol among the distinguished men of Pennsylvania. 

General Crawford is now enjoying tJiat higher phase of intellectual existence 
which comes to a man of his mature years who has lived a useful life of achieve- 
ment, and stored away mines of informatiun yet to be tirawn upon. In the x'cars 
to come his pen is t(j be as ready in giving them to the world as his sword 
was efficient in the defence of his coimtry. P'kank A. Bukr. 




7 



Gen. E. Burd Grubb. 



GEN. EDWARD BURD GRUBB. 

GENERAL E. BuRD Grubb, now residing at Edgewatcr Park, N. J., son of 
Edward Burd and Eupheniia B. (Parker) Grubb, was born, November 
13, 1S41, in Burlington, N. J., and, while not strictly speaking a Pennsylvanian, 
his immediate ancestors were, and his business and social relations have been so 
intimately connected with Philadelphia and Philadelphians that he is looked upon 
as a citizen of that place. He is descended from distinguished Revolutionary 
stock. His great-grandfather. Col. Peter Grubb, who commanded the Second 
Regiment of Pennsylvania Associators in Washington's arm\- during the Revo- 
lution, married Mar)' Shippen Burd, daughter of Col, James Burd, one of General 
Washington's staff, and owned the whole of the Cornwall Ore Mines. His 
father, a native of Lancaster count)-, Pa., an e.xtensive miner of iron ores and 
manufacturer of pig-iron, died, August 27, 1S67, at Burlington, where he had 
resided many )'ears. His mother, a daughter of Isaac B. P.irker, of Carlisle, 
Pa., was also a Pennsx'K'aninn b\- birth. 

General Grubb received his preliminar)' education in the grammar school of 
his native cit)', and matriculated in Burlington College, from which he graduated 
with first honors in 1S60. In response to President Lincoln's c.dl of Ma)' 3, iS6r, 
he entered the service as Second Lieutenant of Compan\- C, Third Regiment of 
New Jersey, going into camp at Camp Olden, near Trenton. On June 2S, 1S61, 
the three New Jerse)' regiments reported to General Scott at Wa.-^hington. The 
following July the Third Regiment formed one of the reserve regiments, and 
participated in the first battle of Bull Run. At Fairfax, after the battle of Bull 
Run, the Fourth New Jersey Regiment was added, and the whole force (First 
Brigade) was placed under command of Brigadier-General Philip Kearney. 
When General Kearney took possession of Manassas Lieutenant Grubb was 
promoted to a first lieutenancy, and assigned to Company D, Third Regiment. 
The brigade being soon after attached to the First Division of the First Army 
Corps, embarked from Alexandria for the mouth of the York river. General 
Kearney being assigned a di\i.sion, Colonel Ta)-lor assumed command, and 
Lieutenant Grubb was appointed to a position on the latter's staff, where he 
remained until that officer's death. After the battle of Gaines' Mills, on June 
27th, the New Jersey Brigade (tlien the First Brigade, First Division, Sixth Army 
Corps), numbering two thousand eight hundred men, had left to answer at roll- 
call but nine hundreil and sixty-five. The brigade was encamped near White 
Oak Creek, directly between the fire of the rebel and Union forces, when the 
former with si.xty pieces of artillery commenced a galling fire. The New Jersey 
troops quickly formed in line, and Lieutenant Grubb was immediateh' sent for 
orders to General Slocum's ln;adquartcrs in the face of the cnem)-'s fire. Not 
finding that officer he returned, but orders being imperativel)' necessary he gal- 

(201) 



26:: GEX. E. BURD GKL'UB. 

lantly repeated his cLingcrous ride, this time being successful. At Bull Run 
Bridge, 1S62, General Taylor, without either ca\ahy or artillery to support him, 
bore the brunt of the battle, being nobly sustained by his men ; but the day was 
lost to the Union forces, and General Taylor fatally wounded. 

" Stonewall " Jackson said he had rarely seen a body of men who stood up so 
gallantly in the face of such overwhelming odds as did General Ta}'lor's com- 
mand. After the battle, in which General Kearney was killed and Jackson 
repulsed. General Pope withdrew the army to their intrenchments on the bank 
of the Potomac, the First Brigade resuming its old position at Camp Seminary. 
Here Colonel Torbert succeeded General Taylor, and Lieutenant Gruhb was 
assigned to a position on his stafT, having previously held and returned the com- 
mission as Captain of Company B, Third New Jersey Volunteers. Subsequently 
General Torbert's brigade distinguished themselves in the charge at Ciaiiipton's 
Pass, of the South Mountain, Md., where the}' annihilated Cobb's Legion and 
drove the rebels from the defences, capturing the position, September 14, 1S62, 
Lee retreating across the Potomac, leaving his dead on the field. The enemy lost 
fifteen thousand men. The Fifteenth and Twent)'-third Regiments were added to 
the brigade, and on November 23d Lieutenant Grubb was promoted to !\Lijor of 
the latter regiment, and on the 26th of the following month was again promoted 
to be Lieutenant-Colonel of the same for gallant conduct at the battle of Freder- 
ick.sburg. On December 12th the brigade crossed the river to take part in the 
battle of Fredericksburg. General Torbert, in his official report, states that 
" Major Grubb, of the Twenty-third, deserves great credit for the manner in 
which he fought a part of the regiment." Another authority says that it was 
" due to him that the right of the regiment, when thrown into confusion by the 
terrible fire to which it was subjected, was rallied and led into the thickest of the 
combat at Fredericksburg." 

The command was subsequently engaged at Chancellorsville, and here the 
same writer, speaking of Colonel Grubb, states that "alwa\-s at the head of his 
regiment, mounted until his horse was shot from under him, then on foot, still 
animating the m'en and leading them on, himself the farthest in the front and 
last to leave the field, seeming to bear a charmed life, he moved from point to 
point calm and cool, the men nerved to daring by his example, until further 
exertion no longer availed." The Twenty-third afterwards went into cani[) at 
White Oak Church. A mutiny had almost broken out in the regiment by reason 
of receiving orders to cross the Rappahannock- instead of being mustered out at 
Wasiiington, tluir term of scrxicc Itaving expired, when Colonel Grubb addressed 
them at evening parade so forcibly that the\' reconsidered their action and said 
tliey would go. Crossing the ri\'er the)- threw up a breastwork in front of the 
city and heights of Fredericksburg, upon which the eneni)- o[3ened fire, but with- 
out inflicting loss. Finally orders were recei\'cd to niaich for home. LTpon 
reaching Bevcrl)', N. J., a short delay ensued before the men could be mustered 
out. Late in June Lee marched into Pennsylvania, and llarrisburg was threat- 



GF.N". E. r.UKU r.RLT.B. .-^f, 5 

ened. ^\'I^en Governor Parker's proclamation was issued less than half the 
Twenty-tliinl was in camp. Colonel Gnibb, after assembling the men, as!<e(l all 
M ho wiuilii follow him to the assistance of a sister State to step forward, when 
the entire force \dhinteeretl. The regiment was received with hearty cheers in 
Philadelphia, but cokll}- in Harrisburg, though the\' were the first regimental 
organization to reach the cit\'. The)' at once thiew up rifle-pits on the banlcs of 
the Susquehanna, and from the Colonel down they worked with a will ; but, 
before the labor was completed, were recalled to Beverly, and were mustered out. 

Colonel Grubb was a popular officer. A strict disciplinarian, he managed to so 
direct those of his command that duty became a pleasure, and he never asked 
his men to face any danger which he was unwilling to share. In Jul>-, 1S63, he 
was commissioned by the Governor to take command of the camp at Beverly, 
where he recruited and sent to the front the Twenty-fourth. By request of 
Governor Parker he raised the Thirty-seventh Regiment, and leaving Trenton, 
June 28, 1864, reported to General Grant at City Point, and was ordered by him 
to repoit to General Butler at Bermuda Hundred. Landing at Point of Rocks, 
July 1st, they were assigned to picket and garrison duties. On August 28th they 
marched to the extreme front at Petersburg, where they did duty in the trenches 
until their term of service nearly expired. On September 25th they were highly 
complimented in general orders by Major-General Birne}% as being exceptionally 
a superior regiment of one hundred da)'s' men. On March 4, 1865, Colonel 
Grubb was made Brevet Brigadier-General of Volunteers for meritorious service 
before Petersburg. 

After his retirement from the service he resided until about 1873 in Burlington, 
where he became a member and President of Common Council for two j-ccus, 
and Trustee of St. Mary's Hall and of Burlington College. 

Upon the death of his father, in 1S67, General Grubb assumed the manage- 
ment of large iron interests in Dauphin, Lancaster and Lebanon counties. Pa. 
The well-known Cornwall ore-banks of Lancaster count}' are among his inteiests, 
though at one time they were owned b)' the family exclusivel)', the title having 
been received direct from William Penn. 

General Grubb has travelled extensivel}' through the P'astern Hemisphere, and 
his wife was the first white woman to pass through the entire length of the Suez 
Canal, the trip having been made in the comp,ui\' of her husband in Baron De 
Lesseps' steam yacht, he having letters of introduction to that eminent engineer. 
Ui^on his return to the United States he prepared an account of his tia\'els, which 
was publisheti in Lippiiicolf s Mdj^d^iiic and extensi\ely cojiietl. and he was elected 
a member of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

In 1878 General Grubb built the first coke pig-iron furnace in the State of 
Virginia at Lynchburg, and opened and operated largel)' the iron mines along 
the James ri\er. He is President of the Lynchburg Iron Company. 

General Grubb is a member of the Philadelphia Club, the Clover Club, the 
Union Club of New York and the New York Yacht Club, and has taken two of 



26a. GE^'- E. nURD GRUBB. 

tlie Bennett Prize Cups. He is also a nicmbor of the Society of the Cincinnati, 
the Loyal Legion, the Grand Army of the Republic, and the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania. 

He commanded the New Jersey Battalion in the Centennial ceremonies at 
Yorktown. Va., in October, l88i, and is Captain of the Philadelphia City Troop, 
an organization which served in the Revolutionary War as the body-guard of 
General Washington, and which has been kept up in Philadelphia ever since. 
On February 9, 188S, General Grubb was elected Department Commander of 
the Grand Army of the Republic for New Jersey, over Capt. Charles Merritt, by 
a vote of three hundred and seventy-seven to one hundred and twenty-three. 
He is an actire member of the Republican party. In 1874 he removed to 
Edgewater Park, just above Beverly, N. J., where he resides in a delightfully 
situated country-seat with a park of twelve acres, handsomely laid out and 
fronting the river. He married, in 1863, Elizabeth Wadsworth, daughter of 
Rev. Courtlandt Van Rensselaer, an eminent Presbyterian clergyman, and the 
son of Stephen Van Rensselaer, the " Patroon," of Albany, N. Y. She died in 
Philadelphia, April 17, 1 886, leaving one child, a daughter. 




J 



Gen. Harrison Allen. 



GEN. HARRISON ALLEN. 

GENERAL Harrison Allen, soldier, lawyer, legislator and ex-Auditor-Gencral 
of Pcnnsj'lvania, was born in the town of Russellburg, Warren county, 
December 4, 1S35, his parents being Samuel P. and Mary (Thompson) Allen. 
On his mother's side he is of American-German extraction ; on his father'.s, of 
Scotch-L-ish descent, the noted Gen. Anthony Wayne having been his father's 
great-uncle. 

General Allen was reared on a farm until he reached the age of eighteen years, 
and during the winter months attended the district school. He was unusually 
industrious as a .student, improving his leisure hours and gaining all the infor- 
mation to be acquired in the schools which the neighborhood afforded. He 
possessed a retentive memory, was quick to comprehend an idea and to act upon 
it, it being his aim to know his duty and to do it. In the school he was an 
excellent declaimer, and exhibited ability and taste for such exercises. In the 
autumn of 1S54 he attended the academy at Jamestown, N. Y., and during that 
and the following winter taught school at Farmington, in his nati\'c countv, 
meeting with excellent success. During 1S56 and 1857 he was a student in the 
academy at Randolph, N. Y., where he stood high in his classes, and received 
the highest honors of the school and the literary society of the academy. In the 
spring of 1S57 he left school to engage in business, of which "lumbering" was 
an important part, in order to earn the money to sustain himself and prosecute 
his studies. In 1S57 '''"<^' 1858 he attended the Freedonia Academy. Here he 
again won distinction, securing the highest honors, one of which was his election 
to the Presidency of the literary society with which he was connected. In 1859 
he entered the law office of Judges Johnson and Brown, of Warren, where he 
remained until the sj^ring of 1S61. 

Having a taste for military affairs, he devoted considerable attention thereto, 
and served as aide dc camp (with the rank of Captain) on General Brown's staff. 
Twentieth Division Pennsylvania Militia, and was promoted by election to Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel oi"the regiment in his count}'. At the outbreak of the Rebellion 
he volunteered, April 20, 1861, for three months' ser\'ice as a private, and was 
elected by the men Captain of the company. After two months he re-enlisted 
with his company for three years. He was ordered to Pitt.sburgh, and thence up 
the Allegheny river, twelve miles, to Camp Wright. He drove the first tent-peg 
on the ground, and had command of the camp, containing about four thousand 
men, until relieved by Colonel McLean, of Erie. At that time the Tenth Regi- 
ment of Pennsylvania Reserves was organized, including his companx* (at Camp 
Wilkins), and he was elected b)- the men Major of the regiment, and commis- 
sioned by the Governor. He was tendered the Colonelcy of the Eleventh Regi- 
ment of Reserves, but declined it, preferring to serve under Col. John S. McCal- 
34 (265) 



266 GEN. HARKISON ALLEN. 

mont, a West Point graduate, and remain witli his men. The regiment became 
part of the Army of the Potomac. 

In November, 1S62, he organized the One Hundred and Fifty-first Regiment, 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, and was elected Colonel, serving during the term of 
his enlistment. He was brevetted Brigadier-General United States Volunteers 
for meritorious service, and was especially complimented for gallantr}- and 
efficiency by Generals Doubleday, IMeade, Reynolds and Ord. He was in the 
engagements at Drainsville, Port Conway, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, 
Gett\-sburg and W'illiamsport. Here, as a mark of confidence, he was assigned 
by General Doubleday to command the advance line of the division, and suc- 
cessfully routed the Confederates, took possession of tlicir line, and held it — the 
enemy retreating under cover of night. On the expiration of his term of ser\ice 
lie returned to W'arren, and resumed his law studies, and was admitted to prac- 
tice as an attorne}'-at-law. 

In 1S66 he was nominated on the Republican ticket as Representative in the 
Legislature from Warren and Venango District, and was elected. The loUowing 
}-ear he was renominated b)' acclamation, and elected by a majority of eleven 
hundred and eighty-two in his own count)-, running largely ahead of his ticket. 
He served with great credit and to the entire satisfaction of his constituents, 
guarding their particular interests, and also fliithfully conserving those of the 
■vvhole State. During his term he took part in all the important discussions, 
especially signalizing his services by an eloquent speech upon the Constitutional 
Amendment. His influence as a legislator was marked. In 1868 he was a 
delcgate-at-!arge to the Soldiers' National Convention at Chicago, and also a 
District Delegate to the Republican National Convention, by eacli of which 
General Grant was nominated for the Presidency. He took a very active part in 
the campaign which followed, in speaking and organizing. In 1869 he was a 
candidate for the State Senate in the Mercer, Warren and Venango District, 
against a very prominent member of his own party, and after an animated contest 
carried seventy-nine out of the ninety-nine delegates in his own county. The 
contestant, Judge Wetmore, withdrawing, he was nominated by acclamation, 
endorsed by the District Conference, and, after a hard-fought contest, was elected 
b_\- over one thousand majority. During his term in the Senate, as in the House, 
lie was always upon the side of right, and ranked as one of the strongest and 
mo.st faithful members of that body, taking a leading part in all discussions with 
marked ability, lie was earnest in support of all measures pointing to economy 
and reform. During the discussion upon the contested election cases in the 
Senate he received high compliments for his .speech upon the Right of Petition. 
In 1872 he was elected Auditor-General of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 
by the unprecedented majority of thirty-six thousand seven hundred and eighty, 
and entered upon the duties of his office Deccinhcr 2(1 of that )Tar. During tlie 
heated campaign preceding his election to this office the Democrats ol his own 
county passed the following resolution at a ma.ss meeting held by them, giving 
him at the .same time the proud title of "The Poor Man's Friend:" 



GEN. HARRISON' ALLEN. 267 

" He has been almost tlie first in every cliaritable enterprise, and lias tliereby blessed the homes and 
lii;litened ihe hearts of the needy without reference to creed or condition. lie lias not only proven him- 
self a good citizen, a true and brave soldier, but, when fortune had favored him with means, he opened 
his hand in chanty and scattered his gifts liberally to the deserving poor, and many have blessed him 
for his acts of kindness. He has provided homes for the homeless, cheered the fallen, and strengthened 
and encouraged the weak when temptation was dragging them down lo ruin and to ilealh." 

Ill 1S74 he was renominated for Auditor-General by acclamation in tlie 
Republican State Con\-ention. In iSSo he «as elected a delegate to the National 
Republican Con\-ention in Chicago, and was one of the noted three htmdred and 
six members who voted continuously for the nomination of General Giant, and 
possesses the handsome medal which was struck off to commemorate their 
fidelity to the great commander. Me took- pioniiiient part as a speaker in the 
great campaign for Garfield in Indiana and other States. 

In 1S82 General Allen was appointed by the President as United States 
Marshal for Dakota for four \'ears. In iSS6 he was elected Chairman of the 
Territorial Central Republican Committee of Dakota for two years, and in March, 
1887, he was elected Commander of the Grand Army of the Republic for that 
department. His administration has been very successful, resulting in a large 
increase in the number of posts and membership, notwithstanding the unfavorable 
times ; and at the close of his first )-ear he deli\'ered an address that was every- 
where highly commended, and of which we appentl the periM'ation : 

" Comrades : — My duties as commander of this department will soon end. The honor conferred in 
my election, and the kindness, courtesy, united support and fidelity of its officers, and all in this depart- 
ment, I fully appreciate and have sought lo deserve. The condition of our department must be the 
evidence ot success. I surrender the honored trust with great thankfulness for the honor conferred, and 
with the pleasing hope of the future prosperity of our grand and ennobling organization. Its mission is 
good, its purposes are pure and heroic. Be faithful to them and God will prosper it. Let not the voice 
of hunger or suffering be unheeded. Be as prompt to answer to the call of the needy as you were to 
respond to the demand of your country, and blessings will be your reward. Let not the helpless and 
hungered soldier languish at your threshold. Open wide the door, as you will ask at that last great day 
that it shall be opened unto you. Let your lives be evidences of fi.ved principles of right within you, 
that the coming generation may take pride in your present life, as they glory in your heroic past. As 
yciu were sworn to defend it, let the law of your God and your country be your guide. Be temperate in 
all things; in temperance and caution there is safety. 

" Comrades, I cannot permit this ojiportunity to pass without congratulating you and expressing my 
great pleasure in the character evidenced in our members of the Grand Army of the Republic eveiy- 
where. In our post meetings, in our encampments, department and national, we see so positively fixed 
that grand principle of rectitude, temperance, obedience to law, and the requirements of duty so firmly 
instilled by your great sacrifices in defence of law. We may feel justly proud of the temperate and dig- 
nified character of our representatives and our meetings, evidencing the faith of our members that 
temperance means honor, dignity, prosperity and power, while intemperance means degradation, penury 
and want. Avoid it, as the serpent that beguileth, that your children may take heed, and shun its sting. 
Let your motto be, duty, dignity and honor. Let our lives be so marked that the youth of our land ni.iy 
take pride in our example and emulate our virtues. Honor the Government you have saved, in the faith 
of its honotable return. Its dignity and character ennoble you as its defentlers. Teach your children 
to cheri--.h its sublime principles, planted in the graves of our sainted heroes, and watered with the blood 
of their fathers. Let no personal interest mar the perfectness of our brotherhood, nor chill that brotherly 
feeling so strongly cemented on the field of conflict. May our lives illustrate that ennobling motto of our 



2GS GEN. HARRISON ALLEN. 

orcaniz.itinn. ' Fraternity. Cli.irily, nml I.oy.nlty,' so tli.il wlitn the last bugle shall sound we may all 
gaiher under our Great lilernal Commander in tint List grand encampment to receive the proud pKiuJit — 
' well done.' " 

At the present time General Allen is mentioned as the probable choice of the 
Republican Convention as candidate for delegate to Congress. One of the oppo- 
sition journals, the Fargo Daily Sun, recentl}' bore this remarkable testimony to 
his sterling character: 

" Pevhap'; there is not a man in Dakota more widely known and more justly popular than General 
Harrison .\llen. He has been in the Territory long enough to entitle him to the claim of being an old 
settler, and to enable him to fully understand the wants of the entire people. His ability as a statesman 
has never been quesiioned, and his long experience in public affairs h^is given him a prestige which could 
not fail to count at Washington, should he be so fortunate .is to be sent there to represent the great Ter- 
ritory of D.aknta. In addition to all this, General Allen is a thoroughbred gentleman in all that the 
word implies. His honorable and upright dealings, his afllible and pleasing manners, and unimpeachaljle 
integrity have endeared him to all classes of Dakotains, and if the position of delegate is to be held again 
by a Republican, there certainly is no one who could wield a greater influence or more capably represent 
the Territory than the General. The Sun, for one, hopes the Republicans for once will show their good 
sense by nominating him " 




Gen. Horace Porter. 



GEN. HORACE TORTER. 

'^r^iiE name of Porter is a familiar and Iionoretl one in llie liif^lier life of Penn- 
A sylvania. The men and women who have borne it within the borders of 
tliis Commonwealth ha\-e made large contributiiins to its prosperity. David R. 
Porter, the father of IIukace Porter, was Governor of the Ke\'stone State for 
two terms, during \'ears that will be reckoned among the most important of its 
existence, and in man\- ways he made a powerful impression upon the better 
features of its intellectual and material grou'th. Perhaps he was the most dis- 
tinguished man of the long line of usehil and important citizens who brought 
that name to this country, and, b\- their efforts, gave it a lasting place in the his- 
tory of the New World. His immediate family came fro'n near Loiulonderry, 
antl he took a wife whose ancestors were born near Glasgow. Thus he endowed 
his children with the able strain of Scotch-Irish stock from both sides of the 
primary plant. For many generations, both in this and the mother country, the 
men and women of this family have been strong in the head and heart. The 
first of the Porters came to the United States many years ago, and there has 
been no cause, either of sentiment or with arms, fought on this continent in 
which its members have not taken a prominent part. P'arly in the history of 
Pennsylvania the}- settled on its soil. Da\itl R. Porter and his immediate ances- 
tors spent most of their j'ears in the State in which he attained so high a place. 
He was a man of strong intellect, and of man)- winning q\ialities. He inherited 
these attributes from a man who had alread)' made his name prominent in our 
struggle for independence. Gen. Andrew Porter, who served with distinction 
through the revolutionary war, was his f;ither. He, too, was born in Pennsj'l- 
vania in the early Colonial daj's, and was a man who stood high as a mathema- 
tician as well as a soldier. 

Horace Porter was born, on April 15, 1837, in the little mountain to-wn of 
Huntingdon, a short time before his father was elected Gi*\cinor. The boy saw 
vcr_\' little of his nati\-e place, however, for he went to ILirrisburg when quite 
young. His earh' education was obtamed there anil at the high school at Law- 
rence\'ille, N. J. He early learned the luiglish branches, and studied the classics 
with a view of graduating at Princeton. He looked ahead to a professional 
career as a law)-er, or, rather, his parents did for him ; but the tides of his own 
ambition changed the hopes of his famil)-. Most boys, once in their lives, have a 
longing for a soldier's career. Horace Porter was no exception to this rule, for 
he inherited military ardor from his grandfather. Gen. Andrew Porter, of revolu- 
tionary fame. 

West Point early became the aim antl purpose of young Porter. This pen- 
chant took him to the scientific school of H.u'wird College. Very early in life 
he had evinced a strong mechanical turn. When he was twelve years of age he 

(269) 



C-Q GEN. HORACE PORTER. 

in\-cntecl a gauge to indicate the supply of water in tlie tanks wliicli fed the 
steam boilers in his father's iron furnace. Later, he fashioned a bit machine, and 
all through his boyhood days was thinking out and perfecting some new device 
of greater or less value. But to these gifts were added strong intellectual powers 
which subdued his mechanical inclinations, or, rather, carried them into a higher 
sphere of action. 

His training at Ilarwird College produced good results from the first, and in 
1854 he was so far advanced that he set out alone to secure his appointment to 
the military academy on the Hudson. He went to Washington with a letter of 
introduction to President Pierce, and applied for an appointment to West Point 
"at large." He waited some time before securing an interview with the Presi- 
dent, and then found that the list was already full. Although disappointed, he 
returned to school, and then turned in another direction and succeeded. 

Nerr Middlesworth was the Congressman from his district. The next j-ear he 
had the appointment of a cadet, and application was made to him. This singular 
man will be remembered as a most remarkable product of the old Pennsylvania 
Dutch life. He had brains and force, but b5th were as crude as his manners. 
"\'ct, in those day.s, he had great influence in politics, especially in his own State. 
No more picturesque citizen of a new Republic can be remembered than this 
Congressman, to whom Horace Porter applied for an appointment to West Point. 

The second time young Porter went to Washington he carried little more than 
his application for a cadetship and recommendations from his teachers. He 
waited about the doors of Congress until he secured an interview witli 'Sir. Mid- 
dlesworth. This peculiar character heard the boy's story, and said : 

"Well, young man, you are the first on hand. Give me your papers. It is 
an old and a good adage : ' First come, first served,' and I will see what I can do 
for )-ou." 

The lad again returned to college with nothing more definite as to his future; 
but, when he was least expecting it, his appointment came. Nerr Middlesworth 
had kept his word and Horace Porter entered the military academy in 1855. 

His life at the military school was like that of most other boys of his age. 
He accepted the studies and discipline graciously, but was as fond of sport as 
almost any of the lads of his class. He was appointed Cadet Adjutant in his 
first class year. He took most naturally to engineering and ordnance — the two 
highest grades of study. The record tells how well he succeeded in them, for he 
was graduated in 1S60 third in a class of forty-one bright scholars. He chose 
the ordnance arm, anil was first made a brevet Second Lieutenant. He served 
as Instructor of Artillery at West Point for a few months after his graduation, 
and was a successful teacher. It was while he was acting in this capacitj' that 
the commission authorized by Congress to revise the studies at the West Point 
Academy arrived. Four distinguished men composed the Board — Jefferson 
Davis, Senator Focite, of Vermont, Major Robert Anderson, who soon after 
conniianded at Fuit Sumtor, and Henry Winter Davis, United States Senator 



GEN. HORACE PORTER. 27 1 

from Maryland. Tims, while a lad, he was early introduced to tlie man who, 
in less than a year, was to head the conspiracy against the Go\ernment, in which 
the young officer was to play a prominent part. 

After this experience he served for a time at \Vater\'Iiet Arsenal, New York, 
and in April, iS6i, just as rebellion was awakening the country to the realities 
of war, he was promoted to a full Second Lieutenancy of Ordnance. 

Communication with the National Capital was at that time, by the ordinary 
methods of travel, cut off. He was made bearer of important despatches to the 
authorities in Washington, and was compelled to reach it by ascending the 
Potomac river. The journey was full of hazardous incident, and he met with 
many interesting adventures b)- the way. 

On June 7th the exactions of approaching conflict made him a First Lieutenant 
of the same arm of the service. Soon after he was ordered to the staff of Gen. 
W. T. Sherman, who had been assigned to command on the South Atlantic 
coast, and sailed with him from Fortress Monroe as an ordnance officer of the 
Port Royal Expeditionary Corps. At Hilton Head, S. C, and in erecting bat- 
teries of heavy artillery on the Savannah river and Tybee Island, in Georgia, he 
rendered valuable services. 

The first real chance that was offered to test the mettle of Lieutenant Porter 
was at the siege of Fort Pulaski. He was the chief of artillery in that combat, 
and directed the guns against that work, which forced it to surrender. Q. A. 
Gillmore, who afterwards became a famous general, was at that time in command 
in front of Pulaski, and the artillery service of young Porter was so effective that 
he made an extended report upon it, which has been translated into several 
languages. Up to that time no masonry fortification had ever been breached at 
a greater distance than eight hundred yards range. Fort Pulaski was reduced at 
one thousand six hundred yards. This was such remarkable artillery work at 
that time that Horace Porter was brevetted a Captain for " gallant and meritorious 
services at the siege of Fort Pulaski." This was an unusual promotion for one 
so young at this stage of the game of war; yet this was not enough to show the 
commanding general's appreciation of his first really important service. In addi- 
tion to this brevet he presented him with one of the captured swords, on which 
was engraved a suitable inscription testif\'ing to his gallantry. 

In the first attempts to capture Charleston young Porter was in the assault 
made at Secessionville, and received a slight wound in the hand. Soon, there- 
after, he was transferred to General McClellan's staff and acted as chief ordnance 
officer in the transfer of the Army of the Potomac from Harrison's Landing, Va., 
to Maryland, to take part in the bloody engagements of Antictam and South 
Mountain. 

After Antietam he was made chief ordnance officer of the Department of the 
Ohio, and sent West. He remained in that position until he was transferred to 
the Army of the Cumberland. There he was assigned to the staff of Gen. W. S. 
Rosecrans, joined him at Murfreesboro, Tenn., and served wifh marked distinc- 
tion from there to Chattanooga. 



2J2 GEN. HORACE PORTER. 

At the battle of Chickamauga Captain rortcr, as usual, was credited with dis- 
tinguished services. At one time he was instrumental in holding a column of 
the enemy in check at a critical moment in the midst of the retreat by gathering 
some scattered pieces of artillery on a knoll, and surrounding them with some 
fragments of demoralized regiments that were pushing off the field. It was a 
bold stand, and not only served to hold the enemy for a wliile, but gained some 
valuable time in which trains could be got out of the way and sa\-ed. 

When General Grant was assigned to the command of the Western armies, 
and relieved General Rosecrans at the foot of Missionary Ridge, Captain Porter 
was transferred to the staff of Gen. George H. Thomas, and was with him at 
Chattanooga when General Grant assumed his new duties. He met the distin- 
guished soldier, with whom he was destined to occupy such important relations, 
not only in war, but in peace, under peculiar circumstances. Grant had made 
his famous horseback ride over the mountains in the rain, and had reached 
Thomas' headquarters in a rather dilapidated condition. He had probably been 
there half an hour when General Thomas summoned Captain Porter, and there, 
for the first time, he met the future general of the armies. He was sitting in a chair, 
apart from the other officers, with his head bent well forward, so that his chin 
almost rested upon his breast. He had asked enough questions of Thomas to 
be able to appreciate the desperate condition of affairs, and was in deep thought 
when General Thomas proceeded to introduce the young officer to his future 
chief General Grant's clothes were muddy and wet, and this was a rebuke to 
General Thomas' idea of hospitality; so he invited him to go to his room and 
chancre his garments. Gcnei'al Grant declined, but mo\'ed a little closer to the 
blazing fire on the hearth at Thomas' suggestion. Grant asked Porter but a few 
questions that night, but requested his presence the next day. He then invited 
him to accompany him in the inspection of the lines and the location of the 
artillery. 

During the siege of Vicksburg and his other operations along the Mississippi, 
Grant was desirous that Captain Porter should be sent to him for artillery service. 
His efficient work at Fort Pulaski had attracted his attention in the earliest days 
of the conflict. But his request was not granted, and Chattanooga was his first 
meeting-place with the )-oung artillery officer. There was a reciprocal feeling 
between them from the first, and Porter was frequently summoned to head- 
quarters. 

In an interview not long after General Grant's arrival he informed Porter that 
he desired to make him a Brigadier, and give him conmiand of troops in that 
army. He made that recommendation to the War Department, and among the 
papers and explanations which Porter the next day took to Washington from 
General Grant was the request for his promotion. P.ut the authorities at the 
National Capital in those days paid about as much attention to General Grant's 
wishes as to the request of a messenger boy, and his siv^gestions were " pigeon- 
holed." Porter, who, in the meantime, had been made a full Captain of Ord- 



GEN. HORACE PORTER 



~7!> 



nance, after delivering' Ills despatclics, was assigned to duty in that department 
at Washington. 

General Grant was not to remain long at Chattanooga, and Captain Porter did 
not remain long in a Washington office. The battle of Alissionar}- Ridge brought 
Grant into the supreme control of all the armies of the Union. When he came 
East to assume his greater command the j-oung artiller\- and ordnance officer, 
who had early in the war attracted his attention, was at once taken as a member 
of his personal staff, and promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. This 
advancement came a month before General Grant's grapple with Lee in the 
W^ilderness. In this remarkable wrestle in the brush \'oung Porter bore a con- 
spicuous part; so gallant, indeed, that for his services on that field he was bre- 
vetted a Major in the regular army, and the order read : " For gallant and 
meritorious services." 

From the Rapidan to the James he foIlo.wed General Grant's fortunes, winning 
honors in every subsequent engagement by his quickness of decision, promptness 
of action, courage and judgment. He was the bright, attenti\'e spirit of the 
Lieutenant-General's walcing and sleeping hours during those terrible days of 
battle and march which brought Grant's army south of the James. When he 
decided to make the bold move for City Point and beyond, Porter was one of the 
two officers he sent forward to select the point where the army was to make the 
crossing. At the siege of Petersburg Porter was again brevettcd for " gallant 
and meritorious services " in the engagement at Newmarket Heights, Va. 

How well he executed the important trusts confided to him during the depress- 
ing days of 1864, whether of a personal or public character, may be read from 
the record, which sa\'s that on February 24, 1865, he was again brevettcd a 
Colonel of Volunteers for " faithful and meritorious services." 

After Grant broke the enemy's lines, and the pursuit of the Confederate Army 
began, he was a restless and untiring aid, and the sound of the last cannon had 
hardly ceased to echo over the hills about Appomattox, and the capitulation of 
Lee's army announced to the world, before he was made a Brevet-Colonel of the 
regular army. The order which placed this )'oung man so well ahead on the 
army-roll summed up, as the reasons for this honor: "For gallant and merito- 
rious services during the rebellion." 

A little more than a month later he was made a brevet Brigadier-General for 
" gallant and meritorious services on the field during the rebellion." 

The remarkable sum of his military achievements was now ready to be added up. 
The total was eight regular appointments and seven brevets — all " for gallant 
and meritorious services." Besides these substantial results of good deeds done, 
was " honorable mention " in the official reports of every battle and every cam- 
paign wherein he had borne a part. 

General Porter, like many other young officers of ability, had little chance 
through his j'ears of meritorious service to impress his fame or usefulness upon 
the history of battles and campaigns. He was a staff officer, and the commander 
35 



3/4 



GEX. HORACE POKTEK. 



of a single regiment frequent!}- liad his gallant deeds sent out to the world and 
printed in the records of battles, while the often higher services of the staff officer 
were known only to the general he was serving. General Grant felt this, and 
years after the rebellion put in enduring form his estimate of General Porter's 
military work and ability. His words can be found in John Russell Young's 
"Around the World with General Grant." They read : 

" We had a good many men in the war who were buried in the staff and did 
not rise. Horace Porter was lost in the staff. Like Ingalls, he was too useful to 
be spared. But as a commander of troops Porter would have risen, in my 
opinion, to a high command." 

The demands of peace upon General Porter were fully as great as those of 
Avar. He continued the trusted friend of the general of the armies, besides being 
his confidant and reliable aid in military affiirs. The close of the war naturally 
brought the peaceful conflict of " reconstruction." In this strange condition of 
national life, General Porter played an important part. His first duty, after the 
conflict, was in helping to dissolve the great army which the Union had mar- 
shalled for war. In the plans and purposes of sending back into citizenship the 
peerless soldiers who had followed Grant, Sherman, Sheridan and other Generals 
for the preservation of the Union, General Porter performed an important duty. 
It was General Grant's favorite axiom that, " Next to organizing an army, the 
dissolution of it was the most difficult thing." Feeling the importance of this 
work, he intrusted many of its details to General Porter, who in this service bore 
a conspicuous part. 

In the beginning of" reconstruction " he was also charged with various inspect- 
ing tours in the South, to report upon the condition of the people and the manner 
in which they were accepting the terms of surrender, and various delicate matters 
of that description. His reports upon all the subjects were accepted by the 
general-in-chief with as much confidence as though they had been his own 
observations. Later, when General Grant became involved in the political com- 
plications which surrounded the conflict between Andrew Johnson and Congress, 
General Porter's tact was very frequently called into action with good results. 

When General Grant accepted the position of Secretary of War, ad interim, 
during that difficult and trying time, he made General Porter Acting-Assistant 
Secretary of War, and entrusted to him some of the most delicate duties of that 
critical period. Porter was in that crisis not only a friend of the general-in-chief, 
and a soldier to obey all commands, but acted as the diplomat between the War 
Office and the White House through all the strained relations that settled about 
General Grant's connections with the administration then in power. He was 
afterward sent across the continent to report upon the location and distribution 
of troops, rendered necessary by the peace footing. His recommendations were 
always accepted, and the size and location of man)- of the army posts on the 
frontier were the results of his recommendations. 

When General Grant became President General Porter was assigned to di:ty 



GEN. HORACE PORTER. 



275 



M'lth the executive at tlic White House, with his full militar}- rank, and in the 
adtninistration of public affiirs, so far as the executive was concerned, no man 
wielded a more important influence with and for him. His tact, judgment, dis- 
cretion and alert powers of mind and speech rendered him as valuable an assist- 
ant in the highest realm of civil life as in the discharge of the broadest military 
duties. Of all the soldier element which General Grant called about him, or 
k'cpt within his reach, during the }-ears from the close of the war until he ceased 
to be President, no man occupied a higher or broader position than Horace 
Porter. In the attacks which were made upon General Grant's administration 
of civil affairs, no reflections were e\er cast upon General Porter, and he filled 
the full measure of his usefulness to his chief by standing close to him in those 
exciting days, and keeping true to his trust and friendship to the last. When 
the measure of his public life was filled to the brim, and he had witnessed the 
weakness and the strength of men in official position in war and peace, he parted 
conipau}' with the intrigues, disputes and shallowness of public life. He resigned 
a iiigh place in the arnn- onl)- when his full duty to General Grant had been done, 
to accept a position in ci\'il life which he ha<.l had under consideration for some 
time. He then entered the business world to become a successful man in the 
trades and traffics of life. 

Few soldiers ha\-e lived who have done this. He had, before this, rejected the 
solicitations of politicians who sought to nominate him for Governor of his native 
State. It was something of a trial to turn awaj' from the sentiment of succeeding 
to the same high office his father had so worthily filled. But this he did, and 
positively declined to allow his name to be used in the convention. 

His first business position was that of Vice-President of the Pullman Palace Car 
Company. Into this famous organization he came as a new power with a fresh 
purpose. He seemed to drop readily from the realm of high public concerns 
mto the routine of careful railroad management. His duties with the Pullman 
Company brought him to New York, and he branched out into a financial power 
at a very early period. He was one of the projectors of the Metropolitan Ele- 
\-ated Railroad of that city, and was chairman of the Finance Committee that 
raised the money to build it, and Chairman of the Executive Committee that 
erected and put it into operation. In the work of this railroad his power of 
invention came again into play, and he devised the ticket-boxes now used on the 
elevated roads and other appliances for caring for the fruits of the company's 
expenditures. In many of the railroad enterprises of the day he has had more 
or less of a place. He was the first President of the West Shore Railroad; built 
and followed its fortunes until it passed into the hands of the New York Central. 
He is still Vice-President of the Pullman Palace Car Co., and besides the exacting 
duties of that position, is a prominent factor in other great interests. He is a 
Director of the Continental Bank of New York, and a Director in the Equitable 
Life Assurance Society. He lias served as an active Director in the Hannibal 
and St. Joseph Railroad ; Scioto Valley, St. Louis and San Francisco ; Cedar 



2j6 GEX. HORACE PORTER. 

Rapids ; Atlantic and Pacific ; the Ontario and Western, and others of less 
note. 

In addition to Iiis multifarious duties, both as soldier and citizen, he has studied 
much and tra\elled to great purpose. He has thoroughly inspected his own 
country, and familiarized himself with its material and intellectual development, 
as well as its powers and complexion. He has studied French and Spanish, and 
is well ver.sed in the literature of those countries. Unlike most business men, he, 
with all his work, has never neglected the graces of life, but cultivated them. 
He has always taken, and still takes, a great interest in art, literature and music. 
During the several tours he has made through Europe, he has gratified his fond- 
ness for art by studying the works of all the old masters, and in inspecting most 
of the fruits of human ambition of which the Old World can boast. Music is a 
part of his daily life, as well as study and labor. He is a great patron of the 
Opera, and a conspicuous figure about all musical and dramatic entertainments 
of the higher order. 

The full sum of his life cannot now be made up. He is yet comparatively a 
young man, having but just passed his fiftieth year. It is an old adage that 
" Life is not a multitude of years, but a multitude of experiences." If this be 
true, his career has lifted him both in usefulness and knowledge far above his 
years. His life has been, in many respects, a romance, running from the primi- 
tive condition of Pennsyh'ania to the very summit of political, social and business 
influence, both in war and in peace. In the long- range of human endeavor he 
ne\cr lost the confidence of his associates, and his friendship with and for General 
Grant was never dimmed. He saw a great deal of his old chief, even after they 
were separated. He lived beside him at Long Branch in the summer, and in the 
social life of his later years w'as always a conspicuous figure. General Porter 
was beside his coffin after death, and followed his remains to their final resting- 
l)lace. He was selected as the orator of several of the most important memorial 
services that were held, and spoke words of eulogy to the sorrowing soldiers. 
He also wrote brilliantly of his old commander, both before and after he was 
dead. 

His has indeed been a singular career. Few men have combined so many 
strong qualities. His literary work has stood well alongside of his other achieve- 
ments, and his editorial articles and sketches in the old Galaxy and the present 
Century and Harpcr^s Magazines show a high order of literary talent. His gifts 
as a speaker are broader even than his power with the pen. His wit and humor 
liave cnli\'encd many a social occasion, and his pathos and logic have instructed 
many an audience, who have listened to his addresses and lectures in most of the 
larger cities of the Union. 

lie is at the present day in the very fiilncss of all his mental and physical 
powers, ha\'ing apparently many years of usefulness yet before him 

Fka.nk a. Bukr, 




v^ 



Gen. Isaac; J. Wistar. 



GEN. ISAAC JONES WISTAR. 

GENERAL Isaac J. Wistar, Brigadier-General of Volunteers, United States 
Army, was born in Philadelphia, on the 14th of November, 1827. His 
parents were Dr. Caspar Wistar, a physician of high standing, and his wife, 
Lydia Jones, eldest daughter of Isaac C. Jones. Dr. Wistar was a consistent 
member of the Society of Friends, and was descended from Caspar Wistar, who 
settled in Philadelphia in 1714, and became a large owner of real estate, and 
from whom many city titles are derived. He was the eldest son of Hans Caspar 
Wistar, who held a small public office near Heidelberg, under the Grand Duke 
of Baden, which had been hereditary for many generations. 

General Wistar was educated first at the Friends' boarding school at West- 
town, Chester county, and afterwards at Haverford College, Pennsylvania. In 
1849 he went to Califoinia, overland, losing one-fourth of the party by attacks 
from hostile Indians on that long and then almost unknown road. He served as 
a foremast hand on the Pacific for several voj-ages, and afterwards passed two 
years in the service of the Hudson Bay Company as a " free trapper," or courier 
dcs bois, mostly in the far Northwest, wintering during one season as far north 
as the head waters of the Mackenzie river. Having been severely wounded in a 
conflict with the Rogue River Indians, he returned to San Francisco and studied 
law with Crockett & Page, who were distinguished lawyers of that day, the for- 
mer afterwards becoming Chief Justice of that State. He was admitted to the 
bar in 1853, and formed an association with the famous Col. Edward D. Baker, 
of Illinois, acquiring a large and important practice, both civil and criminal. 

In 1859, Baker having been elected from Oregon to the Senate of the United 
States, their professional connection was dissolved, and Wistar returned to Phila- 
delphia, where he recommenced the practice of the law; but in April, 1861, in 
conjunction with Baker, he raised and organized, under a special order of the 
President, the so-called "California Regiment" of sixteen companies, si.xteen 
luindred strong, of which Baker became the Colonel and Wistar the Lieutenant- 
Colonel. 

On the 2ist of October, t86i, the right battalion of that regiment, with por- 
tions of the Fifteenth and Twentieth Massachusetts Regiments, owing to some 
confusion of orders, were attacked in an untenable position at Ball's Bluff Va., 
by an overpowering Confederate force, and, after a prolonged and desperate 
defence, were cut to pieces, the California battalion saving its colors, but losing 
over si.xty per cent, of its force engaged, including Baker killed and Wistar 
severely wounded in three places. After a long illness Wistar recovered, but 
with his right arm permanently crippled, and became Colonel of his regiment, 
which was then, at the request of the State authorities, taken over from the roster 
of the United States and placed upon that of the State of Pennsylvania ; and thus. 

(277) 



2~S GE\. ISAAC J. WISTAR. 

although the first tliree )-ears' regiment that was enlisted in the volunteer ser\'ice, 
it became the Seventy-first of the Pennsj-lvania line. It was brigaded in Sedg- 
wick's famous division of the Second Corps, and soon became well known 
throughout the gallant Army of the Potomac. 

General Burns, its brigade commander, has declared that at Glendale his bri- 
gade, with the Nineteenth Massachusetts, held fort}' thousand Confederates, com- 
prising the Corps of Longstreet and Hill, with Magruder in supporting distance, at 
bay during the vital half hour when thc\- attempted to pierce the centre of the 
Federal army on its march to Malvern Mill. At Gettysburg the Seventy-first 
and Sixt\--ninth Regiments held successfully, though with terrible loss of life, the 
crucial position at the " Bloody Angle," and it ^\as against their steady front 
that the memorable assault of Pickett spent its force in \ain. Thus on two 
momentous occasions it was the lot of this regiment, \\ ilh its gallant brigade 
associates, to meet and foil two great attempts to pierce the Union centre and 
cut the army in two. The success of cither would, in all probability, have 
modified materiall}' the issue of the war, and produced far-reaching consequences 
upon which it is now useless to speculate. 

At the great battle of Antietam, after the repulse of the Corps of both Hoolcer 
and Mansfield, the division of Sedgwick foi'ded the Antietam creek, and advanced 
a mile over level ground in column by brigade under aitillery fire to the assault 
of Jackson's position. Here one of the bloodiest actions of the war took place, 
and in it Wistar was again severeh- wounded and left on the ground intei'medi- 
atc between the two armies, whence he was rescued tweh'e hours later under 
cover of night, speechless but living. For his services on that occasion he was 
appointed Brigadier-General, and commanded successively a brigade and division 
in the Eighteenth Army Corps, where he became well known to the country in 
many celebrated battles and for some enterprising distant expeditions. His 
effort to surprise the defences of Richmond, in February, 1864, displayed some 
of the most remarkable infantry marching of the war, and came very near accom- 
plishing a successful entry by the back door into the Confederate capital. 

At Charles City Court-House during the same winter, by a long and rapid 
march with one brigade of cavalry, he surprised and captured two entire regi- 
ments of Confederate cavalry, losing scarcely a man. The activity of his opera- 
tions in the vicinity of Richmond during the winter of 1863-64 attracted public 
attention, and received .special mention in the President's message. At the 
bloody battle of Drury's Bluff, May 16, 1S64, his command was the last on the 
line of battle of the Eighteenth Corps, from which it retired at leisure under 
orders to become the rear guard of the Army of the James in the retreat to 
Bermuda Hundred which ensued. 

At the conclusion of the war, .shattered by wounds and broken in health, he 
declined all invitations to a political career, and accepted the Presidency of the 
Union Canal Company, from which, in 1867, he was called to the charge of all 
the canals controlled by tiie Penn.sylvania Railroad Company in Pennsjlvania, 



GEN. ISAAC J. WISTAR. 279 

and soon afterwards of tliose whicli it acquired in New Jerse\', being in all about 
four hundred and thirty miles. At the present time, and for many j-ears past, he 
has also had charge of all the coal-mining interests controlled by that great cor- 
poration, employing in the aggregate about eight thousand men of all ranks, and 
producing about two million five huntlred thousand tons per annum. 

At the celebrated reunion of the sur\'i\'ors of the Philadelphia Brigade and 
Pickett's Division at Gettj-sburg held at the " Bloody Angle" on the 3d of July, 
1887, he took an active part, making his first and only public utterance since the 
war in the cause of concord and fellowship. His short address, delivered with a 
choking voice on that memorable spot in presence of the battered survivors of 
both armies, with the widow of the gallant Pickett sitting by, presented a unique 
and thrilling scene. The emotion and feeling of those scanty remnants of the 
two famous corps who had almost mutually destroj-ed each other on the same 
spot a quarter of a century before was indescribable, and the speaker's voice was 
constantly interrupted by the uncontrollable emotion of himself and others. The 
following is the address as reported in the Philadelphia Press of July 7, 18S7 : 

Comrades and Friends: — Upon me ha"; been confcrreil the honor of delivering tliis completed 
monument to the cu>toily and ]nous care of the Uatllefield Memorial Association. 

We hope it may endure while these surrounding hills shall stand, not simply to mark for posterity this 
spot on which such momentous events transpired, but as a memorial from us few survivors to commemo- 
rate the far greater number of our glorious dead. 

You must give me a minute to recover myself. I cannot look on your small arr.ay — pitiful indeed in 
nunil;)ers, though in nothing else — without contrasting it with the numerous and gallant body 1 once led, 
and the feeling is too much for me. 

Your regiment, the Seventy-first of Pennsylvania, was mustered in on the l5th of May, lS6l, by a 
captain of engineers, who afterwards became one of the greatest and most distinguished soldiers of our 
country, and whose great fame and reputation are among the most precious possessions of his fellow- 
soldiers and countrymen. General William F. Smith. 

It served out its term in the Second Corps of the Army of the Potomac, but I w ill not enter on its 
history, wdiich is well known to every gallant soldier of that army. It was entitled to be mustered out 
on the i6ih of May, 1S64, when the army was locked in tleadly embrace with the brave Army of North- 
ern Virginia; but, at the call of its corps commander, cheerfully remained and participated in the bloody 
assaults at Cold Harbor, where an hi-torian has justlv said tliar the Second Corps suffered losses from 
which, though it recovered and continued in service till the last day of the war, it was never afterwards 
exactly tlie same body it had been. 

I cannot speak to you with calmness. If yoit think I can or ought to look on the scanty and battered 
remnant of your once splendid array unmoved, you are wrong. I cannot do it. 

Enough, however, has been said here by far better orators, though one hundred times as much would 
be inadequate to express the reminiscences and solemn thoughts wdiich this historic spot and our dwindled 
ranks of scarred and battered survivors send surging through our breasts and welling from our eyes. 

I cannot look into your faces and speak with steady voice. I can say no more now, but will express 
one single sentiment which I believe will reach all of our hearts. That while life remains for this small 
remnant, we may every one of us, till our last breath, continue to cherish for our friends and comrades, 
affection, love and personal friendship, and to share with our gallant enemies of long ago — enemies, 
thank God, no longer — peace, concord and fellowship under one common flag forever more. 

C. R. D. 



':f' 



^ ^ 



>** 




Gen. Joshua T. Owen. 



JOSHUA THOMAS OWEN. 

AMERICA owes a large part of her wealth and influence to her adopted citi- 
zens. Some of her most prominent men were born in other lands, but 
gave this country the benefit of their life-work, and the strong infusion of foreign 
blood which has permeated the veins of the Republic from the day of its inception 
until now has had much to do in developing its character and moulding its career. 
A worthy example of the better class of this foreign-born element of the Ameri- 
can people was General Joshua Thomas Owen. He was a t\-pical Welshman — 
quick-witted, level-headed, industrious and always bound to rise in the world. 

He was born and spent his childhood in Caermarthenshire, South Wales, his 
father, David Owen, having removed to that section from Glamorganshire after 
marrying Jane Thomas, a Glamorganshire lass. The father was a manufacturer 
of woollens. Joshua was born March 29th, 1 821, and was eleven years old when 
David Owen concluded to try his fortunes in the New World across the sea. 
The family, consisting of the father, mother, ten sons and one daughter, came 
to America in 1832, and settled in Wellsboro, Tioga county, Pennsylvania. It 
was away back in the woods. The two or three railroads that were then strug- 
gling to establish the system which was to cover the country fifty years later 
with an iron net-work were slowly struggling into existence, and it seemed about 
the last spot on earth for an enterprising manufacturer to start a woollen factory. 
What took the shrewd Welshman there we do not know, but it did not take 
him long to find out that it was not the place for him. In 1S35 he took his 
family to Baltimore, where he and his son Caleb engaged in the business of 
publishing and selling books. 

During all this time young Joshua's education was being attended to, and at 
the age of eighteen, after a preparatory course at the Baltimore High School, he 
was ready for college. He entered Jefferson College, in Washington county, 
Pennsylvania — then under the presidency of Dr. Matthew Brown — and grad- 
uated in the class of '45. He returned to Baltimore, and, the senior member of 
the firm of Owen, Kurtz & Co., book publishers, having died, Joshua took his 
place and carried on the business with Mr. Kurtz for about a year. 

In 1849 he removed to Philadelphia, where he engaged in teaching at the 
Chestnut Hill Academy, in conjunction with his brother. Dr. Roger Owen, who 
was afterward pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Chestnut Hill. He did not, 
however, intend to make teaching his profession. In the same }-ear he entered 
the law office of Samuel H. Perkins, and was admitted to the bar in 1S52, though 
he did not begin the active practice of his profession until 1S54. The ne.xt year 
he was elected a member of Common Council from the Twenty-second ward of 
Philadelphia, and in 1856 was sent to the Pennsylvania Legislature as a Demo- 
cratic member on the general ticket. He served one term in the Legislature, 
36 (2S1J 



2S2 GEN', JO.SIIL'A T. UWEN. 

then retired to private life, and liad built up a lucrative practice in his profession, 
when the War of the Rebellion broke out, and the eloquence and ardor of Hon. 
Saiinicl J. Randall induced him to volunteer. He enlisted as a private in the 
First City Troop of Philadelphia, but was shortly afterward elected Colonel of the 
Twenty-fourth Regiment, PennsyK'ania Volunteer Militia (three months' men). 
When this term of enlistment expired he organized the Sixty-ninth Regiment, 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, to serve for three j'ears. He saw a great deal of ser- 
vice with this command, and did so much good work that on November 29th, 
1862, he was made a Brigadier-General. The Senate failed to confirm the ap- 
pointment at that time, biit in June, 1863, it was renewed and then confirmed. 

Bates' history records the first successful bayonet charge of the war as the 
achievement of General Owen at the battle of Glendale in these words : 

" During the night the corps moved on to White Oak Swamp, where it rested 
until morning, and then resumed the march to Charles Cit)' Cross Roads. The 
way was impeded by the trains and the progress was slow. After passing the 
junction of the Charles City with the Quaker Road, the brigade halted and was 
resting b}' the wayside. It was past two o'clock in the afternoon, when suddenh' 
a terrific artillery fire was opened by the enemy on the Pennsylvania Reser\-e 
Corps, holding the New Market Road, followed by a continuous discharge of 
infantry, accompanied by the well-known rebel yell. The enemy had approached 
under cover of a curtain of timber and, unheralded, was making a furious as- 
sault. At full speed General Sumner rode towards the spot where the regiment 
was resting and ordered Colonel Owen to lead forward his men at double-quick. 
As they moved over the open field, ploughed by shot and shell. General Hooker 
came on to meet them, crying out, with his usual enthusiasm in battle, to Gen- 
eral Sumner as he approached : ' McCall holds them as in a vice, \'et he must 
give way soon unless assisted. I am strong enough to the left of this road. If 
you will hold this open ground, I don't care how soon they come.' ' I iiave 
brought you,' said Sumner, 'the Sixt_\--ninth. Put it where )-ou please, for this 
is your fight. Hooker.' The regiment was immediately brought up and posted 
across the field in a slight depression of the ground with a battery a little in the 
rear. Turning to Colonel Owen, General Hooker said, with an expression of the 
utmost determination : ' Hold this position and keep the enemy in check at all 
haz:u-ds.' As was predicted, the division of McCall was forced to retreat, and 
the wounded and stragglers began to pour back to the rear. On pressed the 
enemy in pursuit. To give his men assuiancc, Colonel Owen ordered them to 
kneel. Soon the rebel line emerged from the woods within fift)' yards, when it 
was brought to a halt by a volley from the well-poised muskets of the Sixt)-- 
ninth. But now the enemy swarmed out from the woods in masses and began to 
extend his line on either flank of the regiment. It was a critical moment. The 
order to fi.x bayonets and charge was given, and springing to their feet the men 
rushed on in the most daring and impetuous manner, driving the enenn- in utter 
rout, pursuing him beyond his original ground and holding it undisturbed until 



GEN. JOSHUA T. OWEN. 283 

midnight and until withdrawn. General Hooker comphnicnted Colonel Owen 
on the field for having made this, ' the first successful bayonet charge of the war.' 
The loss was seven killed, twenty-two wounded and five taken prisoners." 

General Hooker thus officially complimented Colonel Owen and his regiment : 

"About three o'clock the enemy commenced a vigorous attack on McCall, 
and in such force that General Sumner voluntarily tendered me the services of 
a regiment which was posted in an open field on my extreme right and under 
shelter from the enemy's artillery. This was the Si.xty-ninth Regiment Penn- 
s}-lvania Volunteers under Colonel Owen. . . . After great loss the enemy 
gave way and were instantly followed with great gallantry by Grover at the 
head of the First Massachusetts Regiment, while the Sixty-ninth Pennsylvania, 
heroically led by Owen, advanced in the open field on their flank, with almost 
reckless daring. As Colonel Owen has rendered me no report of the opera- 
tions of his regiment, I can only express my high appreciation of his services, and 
my acknowledgment to his chief for having tendered me so gallant a regiment." 

General Owen was present and took part with his brigade in the battles of 
Ball's Bluff, Fair 0<iks, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, 
Mine Run, Morton'.s Ford, Bristow Station, the Wilderness, Spottsylvania and 
Cold Harbor, and was honorably mentioned by Generals Sumner, Hancock, 
Sedgwick, Howard, Hoolvcr, McClcllan, Meade and Warren. 

General Owen remained in the army until August loth, 1S64, when he re- 
signed because of difficulties with his commanding officer. General John Gibbon, 
and was honorably mustered out. Returning to Philadelphia, he resumed the 
practice of law, and in 1S67 was elected Recorder of Deeds, which office he held 
for one term — three years. He then went to New York and founded the Daily 
Register. This at first was a newspaper devoted chiefly to commercial business, 
but upon the downfall of the Tweed dynasty it began publishing the calendars 
of the courts, and in 1874, under an act of Assembly, the President Judges of 
the Courts appointed it the official organ of the courts of record in New York 
cit\', a position which it still holds. General Owen had associated with him 
John Bryan and General Anson G. McCook. The General, however, continued 
his residence in Philadelphia, and in the spring of 1884 was honored by his fel- 
low-citizens of the Twenty-second ward by an election to the Common Council. 
He died at his residence at Chestnut Hill on November 7, 1887. 




4 This book belongs to ^ 
AUSTIN BOTE :^, 
"EIBEPCBT. PA. 



Please Eecmii 1^^ 




Gen. William Lilly. 



WILLIAM LILLY. piep P^f^- /^-T /V^fS. 

AGENTLEJiAN wlio ouglit to be an authority on the subject said, some 
years ago, that few men or corporations make money in tlie business 
of mining anthracite coal. There is little doubt of the truth of this, though 
the reasons for it are not apparent to the average man who usually looks upon 
the bnsiness as a peculiarly profitable one; and of this fact he sees what is good 
evidence all about him. To be a successful producer of the great commodity of 
which Pennsylvanians have a monopoly, requires the highest business sagacity 
and a thorough knowledge of the trade of the world. And even with these 
qualifications and the prudence and care which is always requisite in ordinary 
transactions, it sometimes happens that unforeseen events undo the work of the 
coal producer and bankrupt him almost in the midst of his prosperity. William 
Lilly, of Mauch Chunk, is one of the comparatively few men whose business 
sagacity has been sufficient to overcome the obstacles to wealth which constantly 
rise up before the producer of anthracite coal. Beginning life in humble cir- 
cumstances, he has grown to be a large coal producer, and one of the foremost 
men in his section of the State. Jlz/te j^g" 

He was born of sturdy revolutionary stock in Penn Van, N. Y., in 1821, and 
removed with his father, Colonel William Lilly, to Carbon county, Peu.nsyl\-auia, 
in 1838. As a boy he obtained employment in the Beaver Meadow Railroad 
Company. The line ran from the mines in the upper end of Carbon count_v, to 
the canal in Parryville, and it was the onl}' steam railroad in the Lehigh Valley 
for many years. The great anthracite coal trade was still in its infancy, and for 
years the little road carried coal over the mountains, and down the winding 
Lehigh to Mauch Chunk, where it was reshipped to Philadelphia and New York 
in boats. Young Lilly was soon advanced to a conductorship, and finally to a 
more important position, which grew as the coal trade developed. He kept 
himself fully posted as to his business, saved some money and soon became a 
valuable man to his employers. In twelve years he was far ahead of his boyish 
companions on the road to success, and when he was twenty was elected Colonel 
of one of the militia regiments of the Lehigh Valley. He took great interest in 
military matters, and was a prominent figure on training days. In a few years 
he was elected a Brigadier-General, the youngest man in the State who had at- 
tained so high an honor. Beginning to take an acti\-e part in politics, as 
early as 1850 he was elected to the lower house of the State Legislature. He 
made an efficient member, and was re-elected for the succeeding term. He 
barely missed being chosen Speaker, an office which fell to Hon. John Cessna, 
who, like General Lilly, was then a strong Democrat, and who, with the 
General, changed his views at the beginning of the war, and became a pro- 
nounced Republican. During the next eight years General Lilly was ac- 



2S6 ' WILLIAM LILLY. 

tivcl)- engaged in business, but he still took a leading part in the politics of the 
State. 

In 1859 '''^ associated himself with Ario Pardee, the late J. Gillingham Foil 
and George B. ]Markle in the coal business, at Jeddo, in Luzerne county. The 
enterprise was a venturesome one, but good management soon placed it on a 
paying basis. The war came on and the coal and iron trade began to be 
remunerative to a degree never before known. In a few years General Lilly was 
a rich man, and paid the government 360,000 per annum as income tax. He is 
largely interested in the iron trade, and is a heavy holder of the securities of a 
number of corporations in the Lehigh Valley and elsewhere, and of the leading 
railroads of the country. In many of these companies he is a director, and he 
takes an active interest in their affairs. 

Until the autumn of 1S62, General Lilly was, as has been said, an active 
Democrat. About that time he went to XVashington, as was his usual custom 
after the opening of Congress, and met the leading Democrats of the country. 
The time was an exciting one. The war had been going on for more than a year 
and the Union arms had met with reverses which almost made the struggle 
doubtful. Strong a Democrat as he was, General Lilly had never for a moment 
wavered in his loyalty to the Union cause, and he had never doubted the final 
success of the Federal arms. A few conversations with prominent Democratic 
Congressmen soon convinced him that he could not remain in the Democratic 
party and Jbe as true a Union man as he desired to be. One day when he visited 
the House of Representatives he found fifty-fi\-e Democrats voting against a war 
measure, and he learned personally from more than thirty of these that they 
were strongly in s}-mpathy with the rebels. lie expressed to a number of 
gentlemen his firm belief that the rebellion would not be successful. One mem- 
ber replied : " I would like to see any Democrat on this floor who wants to see 
it put down." In further conversation General Lilly found that there were but 
few real L'nion men among his Democratic acquaintances in the house. Among 
them were the late Hcndrick B. Wright, of the Luzerne district, and General 
Joseph Baily, of Perry county. When General Lilly had surveyed the political 
field to his satisfaction he said to a Pennsylvania member: 

" I don't care about breaking personal friendships, but I have come to bid you 
a political good-b\'." 

" What's the matter ? " asked the astonished Congressman. 

" Well," was the reply, " I have made up my mind never again to vote with a 
party which has failed to support the government in its hour of trial and need." 
Returning home General Lilly became a working Republican, and has remained 
one ever since. 

He has attended no less than six National Republican Conventions, as dele- 
gate or alternate, and has been a member of every important Republican State 
Convention since 1863. Ho was a strong protective tariff man when he was a 
Democrat, and since, and occupied the chair at the great New York Tariff Con- 



WILLIAM LILLY. 28/ 

vcntioii of 1881. Mc there stated his bchef to be tliat the industries of the 
United States should be protected and fostered to the extent of givin;^' them the 
preference in their own market. In local State politics he has always been on 
friendly terms with all Republican politicians in the commonwealth, though he 
has never been the henchman of any leader or clique. He has never asked for 
an office, though his friends have frequently mentioned his name in State Con- 
ventions for the governorship. On one occasion he received the second highest 
vote on the last ballot for that office, and his name was freely mentioned in con- 
nection with the nomination in 1S82. 

Fifteen years ago General Lilly became impressed with the fact that the time 
had come for the revision of the Constitution of the State. He urged his views 
upon his friends privately, and at the Republican State Convention of 1867, at 
Williamsport, he presented and advocated a resolution committing the party to 
his project of amending the fundamental law of the commonwealth. Being a 
member of the Committee on Resolutions he was successful in placing it in the 
plattorm. It was not, however, until some years later that the Legislature passed 
a bill which present jd the subject to the people of the State, and the Convention 
to revise the Constitution was called b}' a large majority of the popular vote. 
At a subsequent election General Lilly was chosen a Delegate-at-Large, having 
been unanimously named by the State Convention for that position. He took a 
very acti\-e part in the proceedings of the Convention, which sat for nearly a 
year in Philadelphia in 1872-73. His attention to his duties was very exact — 
during the whole period he ne\'cr missed a roll-call. Serving on the chief com- 
mittees and often occupying the floor he gave his whole time to his duties, and 
took up his residence in Pliiladelphia that he might be able to do so. When 
the labors of the Con\'cntion were o\'er, he expressed himself as satisfieil with 
what the Convention had done. .Since the new Constitution went into effect he 
has thought that some of its provisions might be modified with propriety and 
with benefit to the State. 

General Lilly is still in the prime of life, though more than sixty years old. An 
active out-door life and a careful mode of living have given him at sixty-three the 
health and strength of a man of forty. In his habits he has always been a most 
temperate man. Since the year 1S42 no intoxicating drink has passed his lips, 
and he has not used tobacco for more than thirty years. In appearance General 
Lilly is above the medium height, and robust in person. He wears long flowing 
whiskers, which are just beginning to be tinged with gray. He lives in an ele- 
gant mansion in Mauch Chunk. General Lilly has large wealth, and uses it lib- 
erally. His many charities are only known to the recipients of them. During 
the whole war he supported the families of five soldiers, and he now relieves the 
necessities of a large number of needy persons by paying them a regular annual 
income. In Mauch Chunk he is foremost in all town improvements, and he is 
extremely popular at home. Since 1840 he has been a leading Alasun, becoming 
Master of his lodge, District Deputy and Grand Master. Ro\al Arch Chapter, 



28S 



WILLIAM LILLY. 



No. I Si, is named after him, and he is an Eminent Commander of the Knights 
Templar and a Hfe member of the Blue Lodge Chapter and two commanderies. 
Of late years his time has been so occupied that he has not given the attention 
to ^Masonry that he formerly did. 

His reading and tastes have led him in the direction of a man of culture. He 
is a hfe member of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a member of the 
society of American Mining Engineers. He has a large and well-selected library, 
and for years has devoted himself to a careful course of reading. In his residence 
there is a gallery of fine paintings. General Lilly's habits are quiet and unosten- 
tatious. He rises early, and manages his large interests with hardly the aid of 
a clerk. Wherever he is known it is as a man of stainless honor. He has ene- 
mies, as everj' man of character, determination and decided opinion has, but no 
man hves who will say that William Lilly ever did a dishonorable act. 






j£ ^..^ oV:z£^ /^ 



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■iyi 






News Letter From 
the Mauch Chunks 



At a public sale held Monday. af- 
ternoon the property of Mrs. Juliu.s 
Remmel on Broadway, wa.s sold to 
James M. Breslin, the well known 
lawyer, for $3,650. It wa.s formerly 
the home of General William E. Lilly, 
deceased and is one of the finest pro- 
perties In Mauch Chunk. The pro- 
1 perty in prosperous times would 
easily command $25,000. 




J- -J 







Col. Edward M. Heyl. 



COL. EDWARD MILES IIEYL. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Edward M. Hevl, Inspector-General United States 
Army, was born in Philadelphia, February 14, 1844. lie is a descendant 
of Rev. Jolin Thomas Heyl, of an old and illustrious family of the Grand Duchy 
of Baden, Germany, who came to America in 1730. Colonel He}'rs great-grand- 
father, John Heyl, served in the Continental Army during the Revolution, and 
was with General Washington at Valley Forge. His grandfather, Philip Heyl, 
of Philadelphia, was a large vessel owner and shipping merchant, engaged in the 
West India trade. He was captiu'ed by an linglish man-of-war on one of his^ 
ships during the War of 18 1 2, and sent to Dartmoor Piison, where he was 
confined over a }'ear. David Seeger Heyl, Colonel Heyl's father, was formerly 
a merchant of Philadelphia, and subsequently removed to Camden, N. J., where 
he was Collector of the Port for some years. He was married on October 12, 
1836, to Caroline Julia Heath, of Philadelphia, who was Colonel Heyl's mother, 
a daughter of Charles Pettit Heath, a descendant of a prominent New Jersey 
family which originally came from Lancashire, England, and settled in New 
Jersey in 1670. Charles P. Heath received his early training in that State, and 
graduated from Princeton College; after which he came to Philadelphia, where he 
made his permanent residence, and was associated with its interests at that time 
in connection with the prominent men of his day. He was a member of the 
First Troop, Philadelphia City Cavalry, 1818 to 1821. He married Esther 
Keeley, a daughter of Matthias Kceley, a well-known West India merchant of 
Philadelphia before and after the Revolution, whose wife, Hannah Thomas, was a 
great-granddaughter of Anthony Wayne, of Yorkshire, England, who com- 
manded a squadron of horse under William of Orange at the Rattle of the 
Boyne, and afterwards came to America and settled in Pennsylvania in 1722. 
He was the grandfather of Major-General Anthony Waj-ne, of Revolutionary 
fame. 

Colonel Heyl received his elementar}' education at Plainfield Academy, near 
Carlisle, Pa., and later became a student in the Medical Department of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. While a student there, and when but seventeen j-ears 
of age, he enlisted on the 12th of August, 1 861, in Company E, Third Pennsyl- 
vania Cavalry, and was appointed First Sergeant on October 1st following. On 
April 3, 1862, he was made a Second Lieutenant of Company M of that regi- 
ment, and received his promotion to the First Lieutenancy of Company I on 
April 1st of the following year. He became Captain of the company on August 
4, 1863, and was mustered out at Philadelphia on August 24, 1864. Captain 
He}'l served throughout the war with the Army of the Potomac, and participated 
with distinction in the following battles and skirmishes: In 1862 at the siege of 
Yorktown, battles of Williamsburg, Hanover Court-House, Savage Station, Jor- 
37 C2S9) 



2C)0 COL. EDWARD M. IIEVL. 

dan's Foixl, Charles' City Cross-Roads, Rlalvcin Hill, Antictam, Unionville, 
Sheplieidstown, Four Locks, Hartwood Church; in 1S63 at Kelly's Ford, in 
Stoncnian's raid, at Ashby's Gap, Amissville, Piedmont, Brandy Station, Aldie, 
Upperville, Middleberg, \\'estminster, Gettysburg, Fountaindale, Old Antietani 
Forge, Harper's Ferrj-, Shepherdstown, Salem Road (near Warrenton), Culpepper 
Court-House, Rapidan Station, Occoquan (or Yates' Ford), New Hope Church, 
and Parker's Store; in 1S64 at Todd's Tavern, Warrenton, Wilderness, Spott- 
sylvania Court-House, Guinney's Bridge, North Anna, Totopotomoy, Cold Har- 
bor, and siege of Petersburg. He was captured at Hartwood Church on 
November 28, 1862, and confined as a prisoner at Libby Prison, Richmond, Va., 
until February 2, 1863. At Kelly's Ford he was especially commended for gal- 
lant conduct and conspicuous bravery, where, on the 17th of March, 1863, he was 
selected to report to General Averill, with twenty-five picked cavalrymen, to 
lead the " Forlorn Hope " at daylight on that day. He charged with this 
detachment over the river, where the enemy's pickets made a bold stand. They 
were, however, driven back after a desperate resistance, in which a number of Lieu- 
tenant Heyl's squad were killed or wounded. The way was thus opened for the 
entire cavalry command, which soon after crossed and the memorable cavalry 
battle of Kelly's Ford was fought. He was also commended for valor and gal- 
lant soldierly qualities at the battle of Antietam, where, then only a Second Lieu- 
tenant, he rallied a broken retreating infantry regiment and charged with it, 
driving the enemy back and recapturing several guns and stands of colors. At 
this time Lieutenant Heyl was but eighteen years of age. 

At the close of the war he was appointed First Lieutenant in the Ninth United 
States Cavalry on July 28, 1866, and joined his regiment at New Orleans in 
February following. He was from there ordered with his company to North- 
western Texas, where he was actively engaged in the field scouting. He was 
promoted Captain of Company M, Ninth Cavalry, July 31, 1867, and joined the 
company at Fort Brown, Texas, on January i, 1868. He served at Forts Mc- 
intosh, Clark and McKavett, covering a period of three years. While in the 
field scouting he had a fight with the Lipan and Muscalera Indians on the Rio 
Pecos, Texas, June 7, 1S69, and was mentioned in General Orders, Head-quar- 
ters Fifth Military District, for gallantry. For his fight with Kiowas and Co- 
manche Indians, September 16, 1S69, near the headwaters of the Salt Fork of 
tile Brazos river, he was again mentioned for gallantry in General Orders, Head- 
quarters Fifth Military District. Captain Heyl also had a fight with Comanche 
Indians on November 24, 1S69, on the South Fork of the Llano river, Texas, 
and was severely wounded by an arrow in the left side. He was mentioned for 
gallantry in this engagement in General Orders No. 229, Head-quarters of the 
Fifth Military Di.strict, December 13, 1869. For his action in these three 
engagements he was also rccoinmcmled by the Department Commander for a 
"brevet" as major. From May to October, 1870, he was engaged in an e.xpedi- 
tion against Lipan and Apache Indians on the Pecos river in Texas. 



COL. EDWARD M. IIEVL. 29 [ 

On January i, 1S71, Captain IIcj'l was transferred to Company K, Fourth 
United States Cavalry, and joined the company at Fort Brown, Texas, in Feb- 
ruary. He left Fort Brown with his company on June i, 1871, and marched to 
Fort Richardson, Texas, a distance of one thousand miles. He served at Fort 
Richardson from July, 1 871, to June, 1872. From September to December, 
1 87 1, he was on an expedition against Comanche and Kiowa Indians, and had 
an engagement with Comanche Indians, near Fresh Fork, Brazos river, October 
nth. He was again in the field during February, March and April of 1872, 

He left Fort Richardson in June, 1872, in command of Company K, Fourth 
Cavalr)', and Company I, Eleventh Infantry, as escort to the Texas and Pacific 
Survey Expedition, from which he returned, June 5, 1873, and took station at 
Fort Clark, Texas. During this expedition, which lasted one year, the conmiand 
had several engagements with Comanche and Kiowa Indians. 

He was in the field from July 1st to December 23, 1873. He changed station 
from Fort Clark to Fort Duncan, Texas, April 6, 1874, and was engaged in 
active service from May lOth to July 2d of that year. 

Captain He\'l left Fort Duncan, August 4, 1874, on the Cheyenne and Kiowa 
expedition, marching b)' way of Forts Clark, McKavett and Concho to the head- 
waters of the North Fork of the Brazos river and Canon Blanco, Texas, where 
a supply-camp was established, and Colonel Mackenzie assumed command of the 
entire expedition. In scouting the Staked Plains, the headwaters of the Red 
river and Tule Canon, the command had several skirmishes with Cheyenne 
Indians and a fight at Cito Blanco Canon on September 28, 1874. On November 
I, 1874, the command struck the main camp of the Cheyennes and Kiowas. The 
attack was made at daylight, and after an engagement, which lasted until three 
o'clock that afternoon, the entire camp was destro}'ed, and over twelve hundred 
ponies were captured. 

Upon the conclusion of this expedition he was stationed at Fort Sill, Indian 
Territory, and was actively engaged in the field, including an expedition against 
the Comanches on the Staked Plains, Texas, from November 1st to December 
16, 1876. On November 22, 1876, he captured a part)' of Mexicans, with thirty 
stolen horses, at Canon Rescata, Texas. They had been raiding in the settle- 
ments, playing Indian and stealing horses. He was in the field from March to 
September 30, 1877. 

Captain Heyl changed station to Fort Clark, Texas, January i, 1878, and was 
in active field service most of the time until May 28th of that year, when he left 
for camp on Devil's river, where Colonel Mackenzie had assembled a large force 
for the purpose of making a raid into Mexico. The command crossed the Rio 
Grande into Mexico at three p. m., June 12, 1S78, and marched to Remillena, 
Mexico, where they were met by the Mexican troops. Skirmish lines were 
thrown out, and the Mexicans retreated. Mackenzie recrossed the river to 
Texas on June 22d. 

Captain Heyl was kept actively engaged in the field until October i, 1878, 



2g2 COL. EDWARD M. IIEVL. 

when he was ordered to New York City, and stationed tliere on recruiting 
service until October i, iSSo. He rejoined his regiment at Fort Riley, Kan- 
sas, on January i, iSSi, and left there on May 9th, of that year, on the Ute 
campaign. Having arrived at Fort Garland, Colorado, he marched to 
the Uncompahgre Ute Agency, Colorado, and camped near Cantonment, 
where he was engaged in removing the Indians until September of that year, 
wiien he marched from the agency in command of six companies of the Fourth 
Cavalry for Arizona, to take part in the Apache campaign, arriving at Fort 
Apache, Arizona, on September 26th. On October 12th he was at Camp 
Thomas in command of a battalion of six companies of Fourth Cavalry, and a 
battalion of two companies of the Ninth Cavalry. On October 17th he left 
Camp Thomas with the battalions under his command and marched to Fort 
Apache. The Apache campaign being over, he marched to Fort Wingate, New 
Mexico, and took station there November ist, where he remained until November 
21, 1 88 1, when he was granted sick-lea\e and went to Las Vegas Hot Springs, 
New Mexico. On January 16, 1SS2, he was ordered to Philadelphia, Pa., on 
recruiting service, where he remained until October 18, 1883, when he was 
relieved from that service and joined his company at Fort Wingate, New Mexico. 
While stationed here he was in the field and settling difficulties with the Navajo 
Indians on the San Juan river. New Mexico, until June 29, 1884, when he 
changed station to Fort Apache, Arizona. 

Captain He\l was detailed as Acting Assistant Inspector-General, Department 
of the Fast, Jul\' 10, 1SS4, and assigned to tint)' August 6th following. lie 
remained on General Hancock's staff from that tlate until March 11, 1885, 
lia\'ing been appointed Major and Inspector-General, and assigned to duty in that 
capacity in the Department of Texas. He was promoted Lieutenant-Colonel 
and Inspector-General, September 22, 1885, on duty in the Department of Texas, 
where he is at the present date, March, 1888. 

Colonel Heyl is a member of the Lo\-al Legion, the Society of the Army of 
the Potomac, the Grand Army of the Republic, and of the Society of the Cavalry 
Corps. He was married on October 6, 1886, to Mary Delphine Turner, a daugh- 
ter of Major Henry S. Turner, formerly Captain I'irst Dragoons, United States 
Army. She is a granddaughter of Major Thomas Turner, United States Army, 
and Eliza Randolph, great-granddaughter of Col. Robert Randolph and Elizabeth 
Carter, all of Virginia. Her mother was Julia M. Hunt, daughter of Ann Lucas 
and Captain Theodore Hunt, United States Navy, of St. Louis, Missouri. 

Colonel Heyl is a brother of Surgeon Theodore C. Heyl, United States Navy, 
and Lieut. Charles H. Heyl, United States Army. His sister Helen married 
Hon. William J. Scwell, United .Slates Senator from New Jersey. 




Col. Samuel H. Starr. 



COL. SAMUEL HENRY STARR. 

COLONEX S.4MUEL H. Starr, wlio was retired after nearly forty years of dis- 
tinguished services in tlie United States Army, serving in all capacities 
and losing his right arm " from a wound in the line of duty," is now a resident 
of Philadelphia whom Pennsylvania is proud to recognize and adopt as a citizen, 
fcle was born at Leyden, N. Y., July 31, 1 8 10, but at an early age was taken to 
Rome, in that State, where he received his education. 

His father, who was a man of much more than ordinary intelligence and 
remarkable for his wonderful memory, was a hotel proprietor in that town, and 
entertained General Lafayette when he made his memorable visit to this country. 
His mother was a daughter of Rev. Henry and Achsah Ely, of Connecticut. 

When the Nullifiers of South Carolina threatened trouble in 1837, Colonel 
Starr entered the army as a non-commissioned officer, and was stationed at Fort 
Moultrie. From 1834 to 1837 he served in the campaign against the Creek and 
Seminole Indians in Alabama and Florida. In the latter year he retired from the 
service, but upon the declaration of war with Mexico he re-entered the army as 
a Sergeant in the Corps of United States Engineers, and participated in all of the 
principal battles. He \\'as engaged in the siege of Vera Cruz, the battles of 
Cerro Gordo, Contreias and Cherubusco, and led the forloin hope at the storming 
and capture of Molino del Rev. He took part in the capture of the Castle of 
Chepultepec and of the cit\' of ^Mexico, and continued in Mexico until the con- 
clusion of peace, in 1848, ha\-ing been engaged in seventeen pitched battles. 

He was appointed brevet Second Lieutenant, Second Dragoons, United States 
Army, June 28, 1848, " for distinguished services in the Mexican war," and served 
in Texas from 1848 to 1854, and in Kansas during the Border Ruffian troubles in 
1855. He also ser\'ed in the Sioux Indian and Utah cxiieditions of 1855-56, 
and in the Western Territories until i85i. During this time he had risen by 
successive promotions, and had become a Captain in the Second United States 
Dragoons, June 14, 1858. 

In the war of the Rebellion he was assigned to the staff of Brigadier-Genei'al 
J. K. F. Mansfield, 3.s aide dc camp, and in Ma\', 1S61, was appointed Pioxost 
Marshal of the city of Washington, D. C, and subsequently was ordered on 
mustering duty to St. Johnsbury, Vt, and Philadelphia, Pa. In August, 1861, 
he was appointed by Go\'ernor Olden, Colonel of the Fifth Regiment, New Jersey 
Volunteers, and in September received leave of absence from the War Depart- 
ment to accept the command. In December, 1861, four New Jersey regiments 
were ordered to report to General Hoolcer, near Budd's Ferr\-, Md., and were 
formed into a brigade as a part of the Army of the Potomac, and Colonel Starr, 
the senior officer, was appointed to its conmiand. He continued in command of 
the brigade, devoting his energies to its drill and discipline during the winter 

(293) 



294 



COL. SAMUEL H. STARR. 



and spring of 1S61-62, and also during tlie movement of tlic army down the 
Potomac to Fortress Monroe and its advance up the Peninsula and at the siege 
of Yorktown until May, 1862. Here, at the close of the siege, he was relieved 
from the command of the brigade, which was of his creation, and resumed com- 
mand of his regiment. 

On Mav 4, 1S62, he was engaged at the battle of Williamsburg, where his 
regiment lost hea\il_\- and he was ^\■ounded. lie was placed again in command 
of the brigade, and \\'as engaged at the battle of Fair Oaks, May 31st, and at 
Seven Pines, June 1st. Again resuming the command of his regiment, he was 
engaged with it at the battles of White Oak Swamp, Chickahomin\', Seven Da}-s' 
battles and Malvern Hill during the retreat of the Army of the Potomac to Har- 
rison's Landing in 1862. He resigned his comnn'ssion in the volunteer service, 
and his leave of absence was jecalled October 20, 1862, ha\'ing in the meantime 
been brevetted Major, United States Arm}', " for gallant and meritorious services 
at the battle of Williamsburg, Va." 

General Hooker's report of this campaign says of Colonel Starr while in com- 
mand of the brigade: '' His energy and courage were conspicuous in e\er\- pait 
of the field." He was promoted Major, Sixth United States Cavalry, April 25, 
1863. The command of the brigade of regular cavalry de\'olved on him June 
13th, and in the action at Upperxille, \'a., June 2ist, he \\as wounded in the side 
b\- a sabre thrust received during a charge on the rebel cavaliy. 

During Lee's march for the invasion of Maryland and Pcnnsyl\-ania Colonel 
Starr hung on the flank of the Confederate army with his ca\'.ilr_\', skirmi.shing 
frequently with the enenn- until they crossed the Potomac into Maryland, and on 
the 3d of Jul)', at Fairfield, Pa., with the Sixth United States Cavalr\', reduced 
by casualties to less than three hundred men, he engaged two brigades of the 
enemy's cavalry, checlced their advance, and after a se\ere engagement, in which 
the reginient lost heavily, frustrated the object of the Confederates to make a 
flank attack upon a Union brigade.* Colonel Starr was severely wounded in 

* This wa'; renlly one "f the fiercest cavalry engagements thnt was ever fought in civilized warfare, and 
of wliich li'tle mention lias been made in history. Cuinnel Harper, late Grand Commander G. A. R. 
Deparlment of Pennsylvania, in an address recently delivered at Allenlown, spoke of it as follows: 

" Comrades, they hold up to our view as a hero the leader of that desperate charge, but they neglect 
to give credit to those loyal and brave men who not only resisted, but repulsed that terrible onslaught. 
Bui what appears to me worse than all is the fact that they forgot to even mention the greatest act of 
heroism and bravery in the history of the civil war, namely, the struggle that occurred in that litlle hamlet, 
Fairfield, Pa., where a handful of our cavahy, under ihe leadership of Major S. H. Slarr, attached two 
brigades of cavalry and a liattery of artillery. Confederate troops, and for several hours successfully with- 
stood and repulsed charge after charge uniil reinforcements came to iheir rescue, although niiie-tenlhs of 
them were killed, wounded or taken pri-oners. This heroic act on iliL-ir part completed the success of 
our arms, and drove the enemy in dismay from Pennsylvania soil, and to ihcm belongs an equal share of 
honor." 

The order given by Mijor Starr on ihat memorable occasion was in these words : " P.y Fours, Forward 
March, Trot, Call.'p, Ciiak';k," and these are watchwords of the survivors of the United States Sixth 
Cavalry at their annual reunions. 



COL. SAMUEL IL STAKR. 295 

tliis action, receiving a sabre stroke on tlic head and a pistol ball through the 
right arm, which shattered the bone and rendered amputation neccssar)'. Tliis 
was performed foiu' inches below the shoulder joint, Julv 4th. He was taken 
prisoner after the action while l\'ing wountletl at the luiuse of Mrs. lll^lhc, in 
Fairfield, but was immediately released. I'or "gall, nit and meritorious services 
in action at Upper\ ille, Va.," he was bre\'etted Lieutenant-Colonel, United States 
Army, June 21, 1863, and " for gall. uit and meritorious services in the Gettys- 
burg campaign," he was brevctted Colonel United States Army, Jul}- 2, 1863. 

Upon recovering sufficiently to return to diity he was assigned as Chief Mus- 
tering and Disbursing Officer foi- the St.Ue of Ohio from October, 1863, to Sep- 
tember, 1864, when he was orderetl to join Sheridan's army in the Shenandoah 
Valle\', Va. Me conmianded Remount Camp, Pleasant Valley, Mtl., in Novem- 
ber, 1864, and was Special Inspector of Cavalry for the Armies of the Potomac 
and the James froiii No\'ember, 1864, to August, iSrjj. In October, 1865, he 
was ordered with his regiment to Te.xas, and placed in comm.uul of Austin. 
Later he was appointed to the command of the post at T_\'ler, Smitli county. 

A local paper, referring to his administration there during the trying recon- 
struction period, contained the followmg: " For the benefit of those who may 
feel disposed to still hang out against a just and peaceful restoration of affairs in 
the countj% we would say that the}- might as well ' ca\'e,' for there will be neither 
foolishness nor child's-[3lay v\'ith Colonel .Starr. He is one of)-our matter-of-fact 
sort of men, and has but one way of doing things — that way which he believes 
to be right, fearlessly and regardless of consequences. We don't believe that the 
present attempt of the Government to protect Union men in Northeastern Te.\as 
will end in an ignominious fizzle. If necessar}', Uncle Sam will send us more 
Butlers, Buells and Starrs." 

While in Te.xas he served on two militar)' commissions, one held at Houston, 
and the other at Jefferson, being President of one. Upon his withdrawal from 
these bodies, it was said in a paper that " Colonel Starr has thought proper to 
ask to be relieved from the military commission, and that his request has been 
granted. We deeply regret this, for Colonel Starr's earnest efforts to fully 
Understand the case peculiarly qualifies him to discharge his whole duty as a 
member of the court. He retires with the fiillest confidence of the anti-mob 
portion of the community, but the wdiole tribe of desperadoes, and their sympa- 
thizers, will chuckle with inward delight at the success of the pressure that has 
been brought to bear upon the incorruptible old veteran. All lo)'al men and 
lovers of justice are proud to give their heartiest grip to the remaining hand of 
the one-armed soldier, and to express their sincere and unqualified appro\'al of 
his course. Let us venture a suggestion why the old, one-armed veteran. Colonel 
Starr, asked permission to withdraw from the commission. The entertaining for 
a moment by the Judge Advocate charges ineferred by the lawyers after the case 
had closed wounded the old hero's sense of honor, ami induced him to talce the 
step, notwithstanding, had the charge gone to the court, it would probably lia\'e 
overruletl the objections of the council." 



29<5 COL. SAMUEL H. STARR. 

On December 15, 1S70, he was placed on the '•ctired list "on account of long 
and faithful service, and wounds received in action," with full rank of Colonel 
United States Arm\-. 

He joined some years ago the military order of the Loyal Legion, and is now 
living very quietly at his residence in Philadelphia. 

In 1 84 1 Colonel Starr married Eliza Kurtz, of New York city, a descendant 
of John Hart, of New Jersey, who was one of the signers of the Declaration of 
Lidependence. They have four children living — Achsah Kate, married to Wil- 
liam Dougthett Price, son of Dr. William D. Price, of Florida, and grandson of 
Governor Duval, of Florida, who was the executive of that State during Jack- 
son's administration, and a nephew of Judge T. Duval, of the United States Court 
in Texas ; Annie M., married to Samuel Calvin Hayes, a direct descendant of 
John CaKin ; lo Ursula and Samuel Benjamin Starr. 

His daughters, to whom we are indebted for most of the facts in this sketch, 
remark : " His faithful services have never been properly recognized by the 
Gov'ernment, but he looks inward and upward for his reward." 




Col. Henry C. Demming. 



COL. HENRY CLAY DEMMING. 

COLONEL Henry C. Demming, though born in Geneva, New York, September 
28, 1842, has been a resident of Pennsylvania during all the mature years 
of his Hfe, and is now one of the prominent citizens of the capital of the State. 
He is a direct descendant, on his father's side, of that John Deming whose 
name appears in the liberal charter of 1662 granted b)' Charles H. to the colony 
of Connecticut, and afterwards concealed in the famous Charter Oak, and who is 
mentioned in Savage's " Genealogical Dictionary of New England" as one of the 
principal settlers of Wethersfield, Conn. His mother, whose maiden name was 
Sarah Vierna Carpenter, was a native of Bennington, Vermont, and the surnames 
most familiar on the maternal side are Carpenter and Hildrcth. They seem to 
have been among the earliest settlers of Vermont. 

Before he was three years of age young Demming had been taught his letters 
by his mother, and when about thirteen years old he was prepared to enter upon 
a classical course. During his vacations he spent considerable time in the 
printing offices of his native village, sometimes woiking as roller-boy at the 
hand-press, and this led to his gi\'ing up his class studies and becoming an 
apprentice in the Gincz'a Gazette office. This apprenticeship, however, was sum- 
marily cut short, and he went to work on his uncle's fruit and horticultural farm, 
and helped to bring into profitable bearing the first vineyard of the many now 
dotting the high-ascending slopes surrounding the charming Seneca Lake. 

His advent into Pennsylvania occurred in the summer of 1859, and, after many 
vicissitudes in search of employment, he entered Harrisburg on a bleak Novem- 
ber day as a mule driver on the canal en route for the Paxton furnace with a boat- 
load of coal. The canal suddenly freezing up, navigation was declared closed 
for the season, and j'oung Demming sought employment in the printing office of 
the Harrisburg Patriot and Union, and contracted to complete his apprenticeship 
in that establishment. Before the apprenticeship agreement expired the Rebel- 
lion broke out, and it was with great reluctance that he was obliged to forego 
the opportunity to enlist when the first call for volunteers appeared. On Sep- 
tember ID, 1861, however, he tendered his services as private to Captain (after- 
wards Major) Charles C. Davis, of Company " I," Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, 
which regiment was then in Camp Cameron, near Harrisburg, drilling and await- 
ing orders to proceed to the front. Unfortunately, in a short time, he became 
involved in a hand-to-hand struggle with some drunken Welshmen who had 
deserted the regiment and he was advised to retire, as they threatened to take 
his life if he remained. 

A second call having been made for three months' men. Mr. Demming imme- 
diately enlisted as a private, and, without personal solicitation, came within a few 
votes of being elected Second Lieutenant of the company. 

3S (297) 



29S COL. IIKNKV C. DEMJIIXG. 

On the call for nine months' volunteers the records show that young Demming 
was tlie first man to enlist as a private, connecting himself with Company "A," 
One Hundred and Twenty-seventh Pennsj-lvania Volunteers. Being wounded 
in the right foot the first day in Camp Curtin by another man in the ranks acci- 
dentally dropping a musket upon it, he was taken to the camp hospital, where he 
was soon after detailed to assist the medical officers by keeping the records of 
their examinations of volunteers, and was subsequently detached for duty in the 
mustering office of Capt. Richard I. Dodge, of the regular arm)'. During this 
service ever)' opportunity was taken advantage of to drill with his compan)', or 
to accompany it when ordered to do special service — a not infrequent compli- 
ment, as by hard and persistent drilling by an accomplished captain they had 
attained a proficicnc\- which led to a special request to displa)' their skill in the 
various e\-olutions of a military compan)- before President Lincoln and regular 
ami)" officers at Washington. During and following his detached-duty service 
he was sent on important missions South, once to escort a body of convalescent 
soldiers, being appointed a Sergeant for the purpose, and subscqucntl)^ to the 
Arm)- of the Potomac, near Fredericksburg. 

After nearl)' a )'ear's service as a private soldier )'0ung Demming appears on 
the militar)' roll as a Corporal of an independent company, formed for the pur- 
pose of assi.sting in the protection of Pennsylvania from invasion in 1863. In 
this capacit)^ he did special service in the darkness of the early morning of the 
memorable 2d of July when portions of the invading hosts were sweeping down 
the Cumberland Valle)' to destroy Pennsylvania's capital and devastate the 
neighboring country. Corporal Demming was the principal in capturing in the 
Susquehanna river, opposite the present residence of Hon. Simon Cameron, in 
Harrisburg, a Confederate captain and scout who had nearly accomplished his 
mission, and, with a map of the fords of the Susquehanna from near Mar)'sville 
to just below Harrisburg, was quite prepared to return to the Confederate cavahy 
advance, less than five miles away, to report favorably upon a plan to burn the 
public buildings and levy excessive tribute upon the citizens of the State capital. 
Mention of this event was made at the time in the daily papers of Harrisburg, 
and an account of it also appears in Bates' " Ilistor)' of Pennsylvania Volunteers," 
Vol. V. A day or two afterward he \'oIuntceretl to help convey four hundred 
thousand rounds of ammunition to the Union armv- near Gettysburg. 

A few months thereafter Corporal Dciuming re-cnlisted as a private, and was 
unanimously elected First Lieutenant of his comjian)', and subsequentl)' promoted 
to Quartermaster of his regiment, the One Hundred and Ninety-Fourth Penns\l- 
vania Volunteers, and afterwards acted as Qu.irtermaster, Commissar)' and 
Ordnance Officer under Gen. James Nagle in I\lar)'land, Third .Separate Brigaile, 
Lighth Army Corps. 

He then recruited a sufficient number of men to be entitled to a captaincy, but 
the emergency of the Government induced him to accept the J'irst Lieutenancy 
of the company, which was sub.sequently assigned as Company "I" to the 



COI„ HKNKV C. DEMMING. 299 

Sevent}--scventli rcnns_\I\-auia Veteran Volunteers, First Brigade, First Division, 
Fourth Arni\' Corps, in the Ami)' of the Cumberland, under Maj.-Gen. George H. 
Thomas. Here Lieutenant Deniming participated in the last campaign in Ten- 
nessee, and then in the memorable campaign of Gen. P. II. Sheridan in Texas, 
at the close of the war. In one of these campaigns Lieutenant Demming was 
assigned to dut\- on the staff of the corps commander, Maj.-Gen. D. S. Stanley, 
and then as mustering officer on the staff of the lamented Gen. George A. Custer. 
"While acting in this latter capacity he aided in mustering out General Grant's 
original regiment, the Twenty-first Illinois Volunteers, and in January, 1866, he 
mustered in the last two volunteers of the war of the Rebellion, it having been 
ascertained that while they had served faithfull)' as soldiers they had never been 
duly mustered into service. Declining to accept a commissioned office in the 
Freedmen's Bureau, he was honorably discharged and returned to Harrisburg 
about April i, 1866. Lieutenant Demming was subsequently elected to the 
Captaincy of a company of the " Boys in Blue," and was then promoted to Major 
and Judge Advocate by Gov. John \V. Gear}-, serving in that capacity on the 
staff of Maj.-Gen. Thomas J. Jordan, commanding the Fifth Division of the 
National Guard of Pennsjdvania, from October 12, 1870, until honorably dis- 
charged, June 30, 1S74. On Januar\- 30, 18S4, he was appointed by Governor 
Pattison an aide dc catiip on his staff, \v:th the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, and 
served as such throughout that official's term. He was recommissioned in 
Januar)-, 1SS7, as Lieutenant-Colonel by Governor Beaver, and appointed on his 
staff, being the senior of his rank thereon, and served until June 11, 1S87, when 
he resigned, and was honorably discharged. 

On September 11, 1S87, Go\'ernor Scales, of North Carolina, tendered him a 
place on his staff as special aide, with the rank of Colonel, which he accepted in 
time to appear with the Governor at the Centennial Celebration of the Constitu- 
tion of the United States, held in Phikidelphia the same month. This position 
he still holds. Several times during the war he recei\ed injuries which required 
treatment at the hospitals, but the most serious ailment from which he suffered 
was a violent attack of t}-phoid fever contracted near Nash\-ille, Tenn., from 
which he would in all probability have died had not the devotion of his wife, a 
native of Middletown, Pa., impelled her to leave her home at Harrisburg and go 
to him in the field, travelling a part of the way through a country infested with 
guerillas, and care for her husband until he was sufficiently recovered to bear 
removal home. During his terms of service Colonel Demming received less than 
;giOO in bounties of every description. 

In civil life, since the war, he has usually followed the occupations of journalist 
or stenographer, although as far back as i860 he excelled as a printer, his com- 
position bill for one week, while employed on the Harrisburg Tclcgrapli, exceed- 
ing ninety thousand ems, much of the work being " solid matter," a record 
that had not been equalled in Harrisburg at that time. He was the city editor 
of the Harrisburg Daily Telegraph while still a minor. He has from time to 



300 COL. HENRY C. DEMMING. 

time been a contributor to a number of the leading periodicals of the United 
States and Canada, and until recently was a correspondent of several of the great 
dailies. The Fanner's Friend, printed at Mechanicsburg, Pa., and enjo)-ing per- 
haps the largest patronage of an\- agricultural paper in Pcnns)lvania, was started 
jointly by its present proprietor and Colonel Demming. 

Since his school-days he has always been a student. He read law, with Hon. 
A. J. Herr, ex-State Senator from the Dauphin District, as his tutor, and devoted 
considerable attention to the study of medicine and the physical sciences. As- 
tronomy, geologj^ and mineralogy have been special studies, together with the 
acquirement of some knowledge of modern languages. Having devoted consid- 
erable time for several years past to practical mining he has acquired quite aa 
amount of knowledge in that direction, and he has had numerous notices in the 
public press relative to his work and success in discovering and developing 
valuable deposits of iron ore and other minerals in Pennsylvania, Maryland and 
tlie South. 

During the past three or four years he has given a great deal of time and 
attention to the development of several mines in Western North Carolina, and 
has brought to public notice a number of \aluable gem minerals found in the 
South. His collection of gems and gem materials, made principally through the 
Marion Bullion Company and the Marion Improvement Company of North 
Carolina, is now perhaps as large, varied and unique as any other private col- 
lection of American precious and semi-precious stones. Colonel Demming's 
specialty, however, for a number of }-ears has been phonographic reporting. 
Beginning with a "Pitman's Manual of Phonography" in 1S62, which he still 
had with him on his final discharge from the army in 1866, he continued studj-ing 
the art until the " Reporter's Manual" was mastered. In the winter of 1866-67 
a position as amanuensis was secured on the Pennsylvania Legislative Record. ■ 
During eight sessions of the Legislature he was emplo)'ed, two years as an 
amanuensis, and then as a verbatim reporter. Tiiroughout two of the annual 
sessions he did the entire verbatim reporting of the House of Representatives — a 
large, unwieldy, often disorderly body, but with such satisfactory results that on 
several occasions .special appropriations were made him by the Legislature, the 
highest at any one session being 5 1,000. Before the close of the session of 1874 
Colonel Demming was obliged to lay aside the stenographer's pen by reason of 
the breaking out afresh of an army injury, on account of which since the rebel- 
lion he has undergone surgical treatment six times without cure. The same 
year he was enabled to resume reporting to a limited extent, and his professional 
engagements have steadily increased until he is now the " official " of four of the 
judicial districts of Pennsylvania, has regularly the reporting of all the civil cases 
in which the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is a party, besides having been 
special official stenographer of the Department of Justice of the United States, 
and held other equally important positions. In addition to these official appoint- 
ments he has been the stenographer of the Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture 



COL. HENRY C. riEMMING. 3OI 

since its orc^anization in 1S77, docs the stenographic reporting for the Pcnnsyl- 
\ania Agricultural Society (of which he is a member of the Executive Cmn- 
mittee), and of various governmental departments of Pennsylvania, l)csides the 
stenographic work for a large number of medical, educational, scientific and 
other organizations, one of the most technical of which has been reported by him 
for nearly twenty years. In this line of work his engagements have extended 
into more than half the States of the Union and into Canada. The office facili- 
ties for the work have graduall\- grown to such an extent that an ex-president 
of the London Stenographers' Socict}-, on \-isiting it, said it was the largest and 
most perfectl}' equipped stenographer's office in the woild. 

As an author on stenographic subjects most of his productions appeared for a 
number of \"ears in the proceedings of the New York State Stenographers' Asso- 
ciation, with which Colonel Demming became connected as an honorary member 
soon after its organization. On one occasion that leading association awarded 
him the first prize for the best address on Stenograph}% " competition open to 
the world." Several learned bodies, including the Bi-llcs-Lcttrcs Society o*" Dick- 
inson College, Carlisle, Pa., ha\-e conferred marks of honor upon him in recogni- 
tion of his literary merit. 

Since the organization ol the International Stcnograj^hers' Association Colonel 
Demming has been an active member, being honored with the first Vice-Presi- 
dency for the United States in 18S2, and elected President at its session in 
Toronto, Canada, in August, 1 883. The following }-ear the association met at 
Harrisburg, Pa. This meeting was the most enjoyable one in its histor\'. l-^-ery 
railroad and man\' other corporations of note in the city had previously tendered 
courtesies, the officials of the Pennsylvania Railroad granting the use of special 
trains to several points of interest on their roads without cost to the members of 
the association or invited guests. The use of the Capitol w.is proffered them by 
resolutions passed by both branches of the Legislature, and the Gox'ernor hon- 
ored them by a special reception at the Executive Mansion. In 1887 Colonel 
Demming was made a delegate to the International Congress in London, and 
has since been invited to attend the meeting of that body wliich is to be held in 
Munich, Germany, in 18S9. 

In political matters he has served the city of Harrisburg in her council cham- 
bers, and had the distinction of being named as a candidate for delegate to the 
convention which remodelled the Constitution of Pennsylvania. He was once 
nominated by a minority party for member of Congress, but without hope of 
election, although he received three times the vote of the regular ticket. 

At an early age he sought out and became a member of the most reputable 
and prominent organizations and societies of his community, and is a life-member 
of several, including the Masonic fraternity. The list embraces twenty-seven, of 
which eleven are secret and sixteen are non-secret, including six of a religious 
character. In a number of them he has held official positions. As a compli- 
ment to his knowledge acquired in horticultural and agricultural pursuits he was 



OQ, C(.)L. IIF.NKV C. DEM.MING. 

appoiiUcJ Deput)- I\Iastcr of the Patnins of Husbandry, or Grangers, of Pennsyl- 
vania, and for a number of years served as such. He has been made an honorary 
life-member of the Harrisburg Typograpliical Union, and is a foreign associate 
life-member of the Shorthand Society of London, England. He was President 
of the Association of Survivors of the Seventy-seventh Regiment, Pennsylvania 
Veteran Volunteers, and is a member of and takes a deep interest in a number 
of other militar}- associations, especially the Grand Army of the Republic, the 
Lo\-al Legion, the Society of the Army of the Potomac, the Society of the 
Army of the Cumberland, and the National Guard. He has always been a firm 
advocate of the policy for tliis country of ever being prepared for any trouble 
with foreign nations, and believes that ever\' law-abiding American citizen should 
be respected, protected and defended wherever he ma)' go ; that foreign insults 
to Americans or the Ameiican flag should be promptly resented, and the 
offenders properly dealt with and speedily punished ; that with this policy carried 
out our foreign commerce would be larger and more remunerative, our relations 
with other countries more equitable and cordial, and even the foreign missionary 
work of our churches more respected and fruitful. 

Colonel Demming has also been very active in church and Sabbath-school 
work, having been an officer in his church more than twenty years, and a Super- 
intendent of one Sunday-school from the time of its foundation until it was 
seventeen years old, besides holding other important official relations in the 
church of his selection at home and elsewhere. He has been Secretaiy of the 
General Eldership of the Church of God in North America, served as President 
of the Sabbath-school Con\'ention of his church for that part of Pennsylvania 
east of the Allegheny mountains, and Vice-President cf the Pennsj'lvania Sabbath- 
school Association. 

On October 20, 1863, he married Miss Kate E. Whitman, of Middletown, 
Dauphin county, and the union has been blessed with a family of five children. 
The two older of the four boys are now attending college, and the daughter and 
the other two boys are at school making preparation for advancement. 




Maj. Samuel B. M. Young, 



GEN. SAMUEL B. MARKS YOUNG. 

SAMUEL B. M. YouxG, Brigadicr-Gciicral of Volunteers b)' brevet, and now 
Major of the Tliird Reijiment Ca\alr\', Unitetl States y\rni)', can, in the 
opinion of competent judges, disciphne and drill cavahy better than any other 
field ofificer in the service.* He was born at Forest Grove, near Pittsburgh, 
January 9, 1840, and is of Scotch descent, his great-grandfather having emigrated 
from Scotland and settled in Lancaster county ; but the family have been resi- 
dents of Allegheny county since 1790. 

General Young was educated at Jefferson College, and in early life was cm- 
ployed in farmmg, land surveying and civil engineering. The war of the Rebel- 
lion broke out when he had barely attained his majority, and he at once enlisted 
in Company " K," Twelfth Pennsylvania Infantry, and remained with it until the 
expiration of the term of enlistment in August, 1861. He then recruited anil 
organized a troop of cavalry from among the three months' men, and took it to 
Washington, where it was mustered into service as a tem])orary indepencient 
troop, lie hired the services of a well-drilled sergeant from the h'ifth United 
States Ca\-alry, which regiment was camped near by, and in an incredibly short 
time had a well-drilled and thoroughly disciplined body of men. The troop was 
made a part of the Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry in November, 1S61, and he was 
commissioned Captain in the regiment. He was detailed by Genei-al Innis I\I. 
Palmer, brigade commander, to direct and supervise the squadron drills of the 
regiment, and he commanded the mounted patrol and prox'ost guard in Wash- 
ington during a portion of the winter. In March, 1862, he was ordeied with his 
troop to accompany General McDowell's command to Acquia Ci'cck', in steamers 
from W'ashington. Upon arriving at their destination he swam his horses ashore 
and attacked the enem\', capturing two lookouts and driving their pickets about 
ten miles. He was complimented b\' General McDowell in orders, and the troop 
was selected by that commander as his body-guard ; but Captain Yoimg asked 
and obtained leave to join his regiment at the front, and partici[3nted with his 
command in the battles of i\Iechanicsville on June 26, 18G2, and at Gaines' Mill, 
Savage Station, White Oak Swamp, Peach Orchard and Malvern Hill, fought on 
the succeeding five da)'s in the order named. While the battle of Savage Station 
was going on, he was selected b\' Gen. Fitz-John Porter to carrj- an important 
dispatch to General Naglee at White Oak Swamp, and was directed to take two 

* General Mackenzie, in a letter written to General Ord, commanding the Department of Texas, in 
July, 1878, said: "Colonel Young can discipline and drill cavalry lietter than any field officer of the 
cavalry I know of to-day in our aimy, I saw him manoeuvre his brigade under the fire of Lee's infantry, 
on the gth of April, 1S65, and I thought then, and still think, thnt it could not have been done better. 
To him, more than to any other one brigade commander, was il due that Lee was blocked on the 
Lynchburg I'ike." 

(303) 



304 GEN. SAMUEL B. M. YOUNG. 

squadrons of the Fourtli rcnns}-I\ania Cavalry, as it was then known that small 
bodies of the enemy's mounted troops were between the forces of Porter and 
Naglee. Shortly after starting they encountered a superior force of the enemy, 
and Captain Young at once deployed his men, directing them to act as skirmish- 
ers, and thus inferentially to increase their force, to keep up a show of advancing, 
and to continue firing for a couple of hours, and then to withdraw. He, with but 
one officer dressed as a private, and under the guidance of a negro, pressed on to 
carry his dispatches, which he succeeded in delivering after having narrowly es- 
caped, by means of a ruse, from being captured, though the negro guide fell into 
the enemy's hands. He conveyed the first information to Naglee that Jackson's 
force was between him and Porter. Upon reaching Naglee's lines he and his 
companion were at first suspected as spies, but, upon being taken to the com- 
mander's head-quarters, were recognized and most sumptuous!)^ treated by that 
officer, who had the reputation of having the best mess-chest of any general in 
the Army of the Potomac. 

Captain Young was engaged in several reconnoissances and heavy skirmishes 
until September 14, 1862, when he participated in the battle of South Mountain. 
The next da\-, at the battle of Antietam, with one section (two pieces) of Tid- 
ball's Battery, commanded by Lieutenant Dennison, and two squadrons of the 
Fourth Pennsj'lvania Cavah)', Captain Young charged the stone bridge on the 
Sharpsburg Pike under the fire and in complete range of the enemy's batteries. 
Though suffering heavy loss in both artillery and cavalry horses, he got into 
position and maintained it until reinforced. The position was held by the Union 
forces throughout the entire battle. Col. James H. Childs, Fourth Pennsj'lvania 
Cavalr}', temporarily commanding Averill's Cavalry Brigade, was killed by a 
shell after joining the advance to which he had ordered reinforcements. He had 
just expressed the opinion that, if Burnside would gi\e him but one division of 
infantry, he would be in Sharp.sburg in less than an hour. But Burnsiile failed 
to comprehend the situation and avail himself of the opportunity. Two days 
after the battle of Antietam Captain Young received a telegram from Governor 
Curtin notifv'ing him of his promotion to Major, notwithstanding there was one 
captain in the regiment his senior. He was engaged in skirmishing at Thorough- 
fare Gap, Va., on October 17th, and at Hedgeville on the 20th, and took part in 
the cavalry engagements on November 2d and 3d at Union and Upperville, where 
lie commanded three squadrons of the regiment and a section of Tidball's Bat- 
tery, and was also in a skirmish at Ashby's Gap on the 3d. On the 4th he was 
in the cavalry engagements at Markham Station and Manassas Gap, and in the 
actions at Jeffersontown on the 7th and Little Washington on the cSth. He was 
in a cavalry engagement at Corbin's Cross Roads on the loth, and in a skirmish 
the same day at Gaines' Cross Roads. He participated in the ca\'alry engage- 
ment at Waterloo on the 14th. He took- part with his command in the battle of 
Fredericksburg on December 13th, and was actively engaged in skirmishing witli 
Mosby's men between Ilartwood Cluirch an 1 Warrenton, December 2 1st and 



GEN. SAMUEL B. M. YOUNG. 3O5 

23d. While detached to tlic left of Averill 's cavalry, moving south from War- 
renton on December 30th and 3i,st he attacked, with his command of two squad- 
rons, the rear of Gen. J. E. B. Stuart's column at Jeffersonville just at dark, 
capturing several supply wagons and two pieces of artillery. 

In the Fredericksburg and Cliancellorsville campaigns the regiment was not 
seriously engaged, although he was in action at Hartwood Church, February 
25, 1863, in a skirmish at Kelley's Ford on March 29th, and, just one month 
later, in an action at the same place. He was in a skirmish at P^ly's Ford on 
May 2d, and participated in the battle of ChancellorsviUe, May 3d and 4th. In 
the Gettysburg preliminaries, however, at Brandy Station, Aldie, Middlcburg 
and Upperville, Va., June 9th, i8th, 19th and 21st, and the engagement at Man- 
over, Pa., on the 30th, the squadron under Major Young's conmiand won tiie 
conmiendation of General Kilpatrick and both the Generals Gregg, and he was 
complimented on all sides for its effective work. 

After Gen. D. McM. Gregg drove Fitz-Hugh Lee out of his position near 
Middleburg, Va., on June 21, 1863, a running cavalry- and horse artillcr\- fight 
was kept up across Goose creek ioto Upperville, which lies m the mouth of 
one of the numerous gaps through the mountains, which formed the barrier 
between the opposing armies on their hide-and-seek fight and foot race for 
Mar}-land and Pennsj-lvania. In describing the part taken b}- his conmiand in 
this campaign General Young saj-s : 

"Being ch.irged through the day with the protection and sup]-.ort of Tidbali's horie artillery, upon 
arriving at the crest of the hill overlooking the mountain village of Upperville, it looked a^ if Fitz-Hugh 
Lee was making a determined stand until his artillery could get into position well up in the gap. Tid- 
ball could do nothing but keep the road clear without great danger of killing our own men. and as he 
had no use for my cavalry at that particular time we drew sabres, descended the hill rapidly, keeping out 
of Tidball's line of fire until near the foot, when we came into the main thoroughfare, the lattery check- 
ing fire for the purpose, passed through the gap in the lines of the enemy in column of platoons, by fol- 
lowing the road which had been kept clear by the battery while the fight was r.iging on either side, 
wheeled into line to the left and charged Fitz-Ilugh Lee's right wing in reserve. It was perfectly 
glorious for a few moments, and we seemed to be having the highest success until we were taken in the 
re.ir by a small organization, which, however, checked our success only momentarily. Dut the shock 
had been delivered, and the effect had reached to the other side of the road. The enemy's batteries 
from up the gap seemed to open on friend and foe alike, and it might be said that we separated just at 
that particular moment by mutual consent to catch our breath. The enemy fell back sullenly, but in 
good order, under cover of their artillery, into the gap, and we bivouacked for the night in the village and 
cared for the wounded of both sides. These operations, following so soon after Brandy Station, created 
great confidence in our cavalry, and a greater respect for us on the part of the same branch of the enemy's 
service than had previously existed, and this confidence and respect gradually grew and increased until 
the end of the war." 

Gen. D. McM. Gregg's division of cavalry, to which Major Young's regiment 
belonged, was engaged in one of the hardest fought and most bitterly contested 
cavalry engagements of the war, on the right flank of the Union army at Gettys- 
burg, where Gregg met and successfully resisted Stuart in his strong and bold 
attempt to turn that flank and get in the rear of the Northern forces. Following 
the battle of Gettysburg the division, after a rapid march, crossed the Potomac at 
Harper's Ferry in order to .',trike Lee's communications and trains near Shep- 
59 



^o6 GEN. SAMUEL B. M. VOUXG. 

arcistowii. General Young, whose st}-le of writing is as lively as his mode of 
fighting, says : 

"\Ve struck af ihcm, but it took all the next day nntl night, together with the strongest effort on our 
part, lo get over our sorrow and regret fur having done so, and get back to Harper's Kerry with some 
loss. In that affair, my command of some five hundred men dismounted from the Fourth and Sixteenth 
Pennsylvania Cavalry regiments posted behind a stone fence, successfully resisled three successive 
charges made between sunset and dark by a brigade of infantry. My men had exhausted all their car- 
bine ammunition in repelling the second charge. The third charge was made just at dark, and was 
repulsed by the fire of our revolvers, which was held until the enemy's Culors were within twenty paces 
of the slone fence. It required my utmost ability and persuasive powers to hold the men for this List 
assault. During the night we got out of their clutches, but they pressed us hard until daylight, when we 
were covered by friendly guns from the heights on Harper's Ferry. Our success in extricating ourselves 
was due to the superiority and discipline of our men, and to Gen. D. McM. Gregg, who as a soldier and 
division commander, for safety, hard fighting and manoeuvring troops under the strain of highest excite- 
ment, was one of the ablest cavalry commanders produced by the war. 

" On October 12, 1S63, when Lee was putting into execution his plans of passing the flank of Meade's 
army, by way of Culpepper and Warrenton, Va., Gregg's Division was ordered to cross the Rappahan- 
nock at Warrenton .Sulphur Springs, and find and develop the enemy's movements in that direction. 
The Thirteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry crossed the river, deployed a line of skirmishers, and, meeting the 
advancing enemy, soon became hotly engaged. The F'ourth Pennsylvania and First Maine, under Gen. 
J. Irvin Gregg, the brigade commander, advanced rapidly to the support of the Thirteenth; the First 
Maine lo the right, the Fourth Pmnsylvania to the left. This checked the enemy's cavalry until their 
infantry suppurls closed up. I was posted with my battalion on the extreme left and front. The orders 
given to me by Gen. J. Irvin Gregg were : ' Hold in check any force that may come against you ai all 
/uizarj uxaA you hear from me' Being in a woods I dismounted two troops in line in edge of woods 
bordering on a cleareil field, where an enemy, advancing from that direction, would be exposed to our 
fire for several hundred yards without any protection. One troop, mounted, was refused on the left with 
videttfs thrown well out to the kit and front, and another troop, mounted, was held in reserve and as a 
guard for the led-horses. The brigade commander, after disposing the remainder of his troops to deliver 
or receive an attack, was directed lo fall back in order to contract his lines, and accordingly sent orders 
by an aid. Lieutenant Martin, of Philadelphia, for me to fall back and draw in towards the right some 
distance, to a certain designated strip of wood, as there was a gap of several hundred yards that he could 
not otherwise fill up. Lieutenant Martin was severely wounded in attempting to reach me. Although 
ignorant of the fncts I became uneasy, not on account of anything on my front or left, as the only thing 
discovered in either of these directions was a line of skirmishers, which kept up a constant and annoying 
fire but made no attempt to advance on us, but I had sent one orderly followed by another in a few 
minutes, and finally galloped off myself, in order to discover the continuity of our lines to the right. The 
enemy's infantry were through ihisgap, and being in the woods I was close on them before discovering 
it. Wheeling my horse sud<lenly, and paying no heed lo the cry of 'Surrender, Yank ! ' I felt a paralysis 
in my right arm and saw my sabre drop. My horse was as much frightened as myself, and seemed 
to fairly fly back lo my men. The trees, no doubt, preserved both horse and rider from instant death. 
The poor horse, however, tottered and fell while I was biing assisted to mount one of the led horses. 
Being completely surrounded, our only chances for escape were to charge through the infantry to the 
right rear, or into the swamp on the left rear. As this last horn of the dilemma would probably terminate 
in the loss of the entire battalion as prisoners, the other horn was taken, together with a big 'horn' 
from a canteen, which did not cont;iiii vvaler, lo compensate for the loss of blood from my wound, which 
was considerable. The charge was made. Captain Grant, one of the bravest and most gallant oflicers of 
my regiment, riding at my side and leading it. I think he was the only officer in my command that was 
not wounded or captured in that affair. My second horse fell exhausted and dying frc.m wounds in 
aliempting to jump a deep ditch, behind which anotlicr portinn of my regiment had formed wailing for 
us. The 1..SS in my battalion was a little over sixty per cent. The troop, mounted, luit to the left, and 
one troop dismounted, were capture<l almost entire, very few were killed, and a comparatively small 
number wounded. My rightelbow-joint wa.s shattered by a musket ball, and I received some internal 



GEN. SAMUEL B. M. YOUNG. 3O7 

injiiiy on the pommel of my sn<UlIe liy the fall of my horse, which kept me in bed for six nionth.s. 
Lieutenant Martin w.is put in the same box car with me at Cailett Station to he conveyed witli other 
wounded to \V.ishington, and he then told me that he was the third or fourdi messenger Gregi; had sent 
with orders for me to fall back. I resolved that before I ayaiii went iiUo a lit;lil 1 would Imd out the 
meaning of the term, ' at all hazard.' " 

After hi.s convalescence, in June, 1864, he \\a.s as.signcd to iltit)' at Giesboro 
Point, in command of tlie dismotinted ca\-aii-)' of Gregg'.s divi.sioii aw.iiting a 
remount. On the 4th of July all the available men at Giesboro were onlered 
out armed as infantry and put aboard a train for liarper's P'eny, to assist in 
defending that point against Early, who was crossing into Maryland. When the 
troops were all aboard, orders were received placing Colonel Young in command 
of the provisional brigade consisting of his own dismounted cavali)-, numbering 
fifteen hundred men (three battalions of five hundred each), and two regiments of 
one hundred days' infantrx', numbering about six hundred each, in all about two 
thousand seven hundred men. Arriving at Sandy Hook, on the Potomac oppo- 
site and a little below Harper's Ferry, it was learned that Hai[)er's Feir)- had 
been abandoned and was occupied by the enemy, and that Sigel was holduig 
Maryland Heights and a line across the valley to the bend of the river above; 
also that the telegraph wires were cut and some bridges destro)-ed. In writing 
of these operations General Young says: 

" My command was hurried up the heights, and on passing the summit I had a full view of the battle 
in progress. Early had crossed at Williamsport, and sent Breckenii<lge's division down to clean up 
Sigel, while he pushed on towards Washington. Sending the staff officer to report my arrival and 
strength to General Sigel, I started my command on the d<iuble-quick towards Colonel Mulligan's left, 
his weak point, and riding at a gallop, reported to him in person. Sigel was not on the field, but back 
some disiance in his tent. Mulligan approved my action, and told me if I could hold ihat point on his 
left and keep a ceriain battery in action ju^t where it was, he was certain of repulsing Breckenridge. 
Mulligan's programme was carried out, but when the action was holiest, the particular baltery referred 
to was about to limber to the rear, and was only prevented by the officer whom I had placed in command 
of the support with special instructions in reference to it. Bieckenri<lge failed and withdrew, and my 
reserves were deployed to relieve Mulligan's tired men, who had been in the works nearly twelve hnuis. 
By order of General Sigel I was placed under arre.st for not reporting to him in person, and for interfering 
with his pet battery (so I was told). Colonel Mulligan came over in person about dark to thank me for 
miking it possible for him to defeat Breckenridge, and remarked that had I gone in person to find Sigel, 
and halted my command until my return, we would all have been prisoners at the time that he was 
speaking. I then told him that, notwithstanding his success, I w.is a prisoner in even a worse sense 
than being in the hands of the enemy. Some time during the night Mulligan, accompanied by a staff 
officer, aroused me to tell me that I was resiored to my command, and th.it General Sigel was relieved 
and succeeded by General Howe. I learned from a slafif officer that Colonel Mulligan entered a strong 
pirotest .against my humiliation, declaring that my action had enabled him to repulse Breckenridge, and 
having been approved by him, he should share my disgr.ice if it was persisted in. This was character- 
islic, for Colonel Mulligan was one of the most high-minded, brave and conspicuously gallant infantry 
oflieers it was my good fortune to serve with during the war. The next day, .as my brigade inarched 
pisi the tents that had been occupied by General Sigel, we were horrified to hear the column, as if in 
accordance with a preconcerted arrangement, break out in the refrain : 
" 'All flat is drue I speaks mit you, 
I fights no more mit Sigel.' 
■ We were gratified, however, after order was restored, to learn thai Sigel was not within hearing. At 
Mulligan's request my brig.ade was assigned to his division. Early, who had been at the gates of Wash- 
ington, was in a hurry to get back home, and so took the near cut across the Totomac between the 



30S GKX. SAMUEL D. M. YOUNG. 

capital anil Ilaiper's Fern,-. Our cavalry, lUiriiig that campaii^n, was eminently successful in always 
finding out where Early's army h.ul l>een. Wiiglit followed close on Early's heels, with Crook trying to 
strike him on the right flank, but Early reached the Shen.iniloah before Crook could concentrate his 
scattered forces. \Vriglit was ordered back before he reached Winchester, and Crook followed him 
through that place. Early turned back and struck Crook at Ke.arnstown, on July 24th. Here Colonel 
Mulligan was killed, and I received a musket ball in my right arm, shattering both bones close to the 
old wound and destroying the gutta-percha case in which I carried it bound across my breast. The 
lullet first struck my left breast pocket, and cariied with it portions of official papers and cloth into the 
flish of the arm. In October, however, I was back at Giesboro, and on my personal application was 
sent to my own regiment in front of Petersburg." 

Colonel Young was active throughout the entire campaign with Sheridan's 
cavalry from Five Forks to the surrender, and led a charge of his brigade even 
after Lee had capitulated, that fact not being known to him, routing a brigade 
of the enenn' and capturing its colors — the last colors captured from Lee's army. 
He participated during the war in eighteen battles, sixteen actions or engage- 
ments, and in thirteen skirmishes, and was present at many others. He was 
severely wounded at Warrenton, October 12, 1863, at Kearnstown and Win- 
chester, July 24, 1864, and at Hatcher's Run, February 5, 1865. He has received 
four brevets. On March 2, 1867, he was brcvctted Major, Lieutenant-Colonel 
and Colonel, United States Army, for " gallant and meritorious services in 
action" at Sulphur Spring, Amelia Spring and Sailor's Creek, Va., respectively; 
and previously, on April 9, 1S65, he had been brevetted Brigadier-General of 
Volunteers for "gallant and meritorious services during the campaign, ter- 
minating with the surrender of the insurgent army under Gen. R. E. Lee." 

After the wax closed he was mustered out of the volunteer service, Jul}' 6, 
1S65, and in the following year was appointed Second Lieutenant in the regular 
army, from which position he has been promoted until, April 2, 1883, he was 
commissioned Major, Tiiird Cavalry. During these years he has been stationed 
at various forts on the Te.xan frontier, and been engaged in numerous expeditions 
against hostile Indians and marauding Mexicans. From February, 1871, to 
February, 1873, he was on recruiting service at Chicago, and was on duty under 
orders of the Lieutenant-Gcneral at the great fire in that city, October 8 to 15, 
1871. In November, 1881, he was detached for duty at the United States 
Infantry and Cavalry School at Fort Leavenworth, and for nearly four j'ears \\-as 
instructor, at times, in military law, cavalry tactics and hippology. At present 
(May, 1S88) he is in command of Fort Mcintosh, Texas. 

Major Young is regarded as an unusually strict post commander, but he seems 
to possess the love and esteem of his men, who prefer to serve under him in the 
field, and never failed him at the critical moment. He claims that all soldiers 
cannot be governed by one iron rule, aii\' more than all fish, flesh and fowl can 
be cooked together in one iron jiot, and be palatable. He has the reputation of 
commanding the best drilled body of caxalry in the army, and has jiis men and 
tlieir Iiorscs trained to perform evolutions that have surprised and elicited the 
encomiums of military officers generally for the remarkably perfect manner in 
which tliey were executed. E. T. F. 




C APT. John S . Bishop. 



CArT. JOHN SOAST BISHOP. 

JOHN S. Bishop, who has passed tlirough all the grades from private to Colonel 
of Volunteers, and who is now a Captain in the Thirteenth Regiment In- 
fantry, U. S. A., is an excellent representative of the army officers who have been 
educated to warfare in the field. Though his military career has not been as 
brilliant as some who have had better opportunities to display their abilities his 
record is an exceedingly creditable one, and shows that he possesses in a marked 
degree the virtues of the ideal soldier — courage, fidelit}-, !o)-alty, endurance and 
a thorough knowledge of his duties. 

Captain Bishop was born in Philadelphia, March 23, 1834, the eldest of eleven 
children of William and Catharine Bishop, and can claim re\'olutionary blood, 
as he is descended through his paternal grandmother from John Morton, one of 
the signers of the Declaration of Independence. His father was well known 
among the iron men of Pennsjdvania as a successful builder of furnaces and the 
originator of many valuable improvements in them. His grandfathers were both 
men of large stature and great pln'sical strength, and many of their progeny have 
these distinguishing characteristics. Captain Bishop is fully six feet in height, 
and at the age of fifteen, when emjiloj-ed in a rolling mill, he was able to lift five 
hundred pounds easily and to swing a seventy-pound sledge-hammer over his 
head, and now, when past fifty, is able to make a march of thirty miles in a day 
o\-er the plains without perceptible fatigue. On his fiftieth birthday he made a 
march of over thirteen miles in about four hours. 

He was educated in the public schools of Philadelphia, where he was al\va}'s 
among the first in his classes, and served an apprenticeship with Altemus and 
the'Gihons, well-known bookbinders in Philadelphia. On reaching his majority 
he went to Nashville, Tenn., and was emplo}-ed in the office of the Tennessee 
Baptist. While there he became a member of the Shelby Guards, which gave 
him his first knowledge of military evolutions. In 1858 he went to Jacksonville, 
111., and was engaged there with Catlin & Co., in the book business, when the 
first gun fired on Fort Sumter was heard in the extreme limits of the North and 
West. Though he did not enter active ser\ice at that time he performed a use- 
ful part in recruiting and drilling three months volunteers, and the company 
which he then assisted in drilling afterwards furnished fift\'-tu'0 officers for the 
service. In November of 1861 he was commissioned Major of the Thirty-second 
Illinois Regiment, but there being two fractions of regiments desirous of consoli- 
dating he resigned the following month. In Ma\', 1S62, he enlisted in the Sixty- 
eighth Illinois Regiment, was made Sergeant on the organization of his company, 
and on June 4th was promoted to Regimental Adjutant. His regiment was 
sent to Alexandria, Va., to assist in the defences of Washington during the 
second Bull Run campaign and remained there until mustered out, when Captain 

[309) 



T.IO CAPT. JOHN S. BISHOP. » 

Bishop was unanimously recommended by the officers of the regiment for ap- 
pointment as field officer of volunteers. He frequently requested to be sent to 
the front but was refused, his services being valuable with his regiment. 

In 1S63 business called him to Indianapolis, where he joined the Indiana 
Legion, in which he became Captain and served as such during the Morgan 
raid. He retained this commission in the Indiana Legion until June, 1S64, 
when he resigned to enter the volunteer service as Lieutenant-Colonel of the One 
Hundred and Eighth Colored Infantry. Relinquishing a very lucrative busi- 
ness, he organized the regiment at Louisville, Ky., and served with it at Owens- 
boro and Mumfordville, Ky., at Rock Island Barracks, 111., and in the Depart- 
ment of Mississippi. While the regiment was on duty at Rock Island one of 
the sentries recognized his master inside the prison. The master, seeing his 
former slave on the parapet, picked up a stone with the intention of throwing it 
at the sentry, but the latter bringing down his musket, said : " None ob dat, 
massa. I'se de boss, now." The prisoners planned an escape on Christmas eve, 
1864, and in some way had secured two ladders with which to scale the paTapct, 
but the sentries detected the beginning of the rush and two firing at the same 
time killed the two leaders, thus effectually stopping the outbreak. While the 
regiment was at Owensboro, a company numbering seventy men was sent on an 
expedition up the river some twenty miles. On their return they were attacked 
b\' about one hundred and fifty guerillas and armed citizens. After a sharp little 
skirmish, in which three or four of the soldiers were wounded, the command 
captured ten of the enemy, and the report one of the corporals made of the fight 
— " We met "em, we whopped 'em, and cotched ten ob 'em," was as good an 
example of brevity as Caesar's famous despatch. 

During the service of the regiment in the Department of the Mississippi it 
received many compliments for its discipline, appearance and prompt and efficient 
performance of duty. On leaving Columbus Colonel Bishop received an 
address signed by a large number of the citizens complimenting the regiment 
ver)- highh', and expressing their appreciation of the quiet and order which pre- 
vailed during the occupancy by negro troops, comparing them very favorably 
Avith their own soldiers. He remained the senior officer of the regiment during 
its whole period of service, and on September 19, 1865, was promoted Colonel. 
\\'hile guarding the line of the M. & O. R. R. he came into command of the 
District of Columbus, and when General Force was relic\-ed he succeeded to the 
command of the Northern District of Mississippi. He remained with the regi- 
ment until it was discharged at Louisville, March 29, 1S66. The officers and 
men of this regiment contributed over $900 to the Lincoln Monument Fund. 

In 1867, through the influence of Governor, then .Senator, Morton, he received 
an appointment as Second Lieutenant in the Thirtieth Regiment Infantry, U. S. A., 
and joined the regiment near Julcsburg, Neb., in June, 1867. The headquarters 
and part of tiic regiment moved to the site of Fort D. A. Russell, leaving his 
company detached, and he was detailed as Assistant Ouartcrmaster and Com- 



• CAPT. JOHN S. BISHOP. ^11 

missary. He served in tlie Department of tlie Platte, at North Platte (_\vhich 
post he built) and at I'ort Sanders. In March, 1869, the 'riiiiticth Reyinicnt 
consolidated with tiie Fourth Infantry, and in November of that year lie was 
assigned to the Thirteenth Infantry, then serving in Montana, and has been wiih 
it ever since, living the life of a soldier on the frontier, enduring hardshi[)s and 
scarcely ever remaining at any post for a much longer period than a year. His 
first destination was Camp Cooke, Montana, which he was ordered to destroy, 
and to reach it he crossed the main divide of the Roclcy Mountains in January 
in an open sleigh at midnight, during a driving snow-storm. After destroying 
this fort and being the last soldier at the post he marched to Fort Ponton and 
then to Corinne, Utah, a distance of about six hundred miles, all of which, 
excepting seventy miles, he traveled on foot. To cross the Marias river between 
Camp Cooke and Fort Benton, which was then very liigh and running rapidly, 
he dismounted a wagon body, wrapped a "paulin" around it, sent a swimmer over 
with a small rope, then hauled over a larger one, launched his improvised boat 
and had a fl\'ing ferr3^ He swam his mules and passed men and baggage over 
in his boat without sliipping as much as a bucket of water, and surprised his 
captain b}- marching into Benton about sundown. 

While at P'ort Bridger he met with a severe accitlent which kept him from 
duty for a }'ear, and during his absence he was promoted to be I'irst Lieutenant. 
Subsequently he was stationed at Camp Stambaugh, Wyoming Territory, situated in 
the mining region of the South Pass and in a country raided by the Sioux. He 
then went to Fort P'red Steele and from there to the Red Cloud Agency, now 
Fort Robinson, during the Indian troubles, returning to Fort Fred Steele in 
June, 1874, and in October of that year was ordered with his regiment to New 
Orleans during the election excitement, which threatened an outbreak. He was 
stationed in this vicinity until July, 1877, when the labor riots broke out in Penn- 
sylvania and he was sent to W^ilkes Barre, where he served as Quartermaster and 
Commissary and won compliments from General Hancock, Colonel Otis, the com- 
manding officer, and the chief commissary and quartermaster for prompt and 
valuable services.* After leaving Wilkes Barre he went to Baton Rouge, where 
he remained for two years until the abandonment of the post in July, 1879, and 
was the last soldier to leave the post except tlie ordnance sergeant left in charge. 
He served as Regimental Quartermaster at Forts Leavenworth and Wingate, 
and for the next five years was on numerous scouting expeditions after the 
Indians in Arizona and other Territories. From September, 18S5, to September, 
1 886, he was in command of his conipan_\- in an expedition against Geronimo in 



* Colonel Otis, in lecomniending Captain Eisliop for the position of Assistant-Quartermaster or Com- 
missary of Sulisistence, said : " I take pleasure in staling that Lieutenant Bisliop acted in Irath capacities 
most efficiently during the time tlie United States troops were stationed at Wilkes Barre during a few 
monilis l.'.tely passed. His knowledge of the dulies pertaining to these positions is very thorough, and 
his aijility to exercise these duties is of a high order. The zeal and efficiency with which he performed 
his dulies at Wilkes Barre deserve commeinlation." 



-.[J CAFT. JOHN S. BISHOP. 

the ncigliborhood of Horse Sprincjs and in the Tularosa Valley, and on the 
eastern side of the Mogollon IMountains. The compan)' marched over fifteen 
hundred miles in three months, and, although Captain Bishop's command formed 
the rear line, he was complimented for efficient scr\ice b)' his immediate com- 
mander. Colonel Biddle, and many others. 

During all these years of constant change and laborious service he can say 
truly, as he did say to the Secretary of War in his letter dated June 17, 1S78, 
now on file in the War Department : 

*' I have nhvavs endeavored to do my duty failhriilly in whatever position I have been placed, have 
done a great deal of hard work, and never an Imur of fancy duty. How well I have succeeded I can 

refer to numerous testimonials on file. I could add to these without end During all my 

staff services I have never had a stoppage against me, and all my accounts are settled up to the date of 
my present appoinluient." 

After nearl}- twent}' years of active service as Lieutenant he received in March, 
1SS7, his promotion to Captain, and joined his new company at Fort Stanton, 
New Mexico. Captain Bishop is a strict disciplinarian but at the same time is 
courteous and kind, desiring that his soldiers should regard him as their friend 
as well as their officer. He is very fertile in resources, possesses considerable 
artistic taste and mechanical skill, and almost alwa}'s carries with him a lot of 
carpenter and cabinet-maker's tools. He could easily qualify as a sharpshooter, 
for at target practice in 1886 he led the sharpshooters of his department, with a 
score of five hunilred and forty-eight out of a possible six hundred. While in 
Indianapolis he wrote a small book on the war, which liad a sale of sixty thou- 
sand copies. 

In June, 1858, he was married to Mary, daughter of Thomas and Rachel 
Sliepherd, a descendant of one of the old settlers of New York. They have 
three surviving children, two daughters and a son. The eldest is married to V. 
E. Stolbrand, who is Professor in the Colorado State Agricultural and Mechani- 
cal College, and is a son of Gen. E. J. Stolbrand, who was Chief of Artillery at 
the siege of Vicksburg. The other daughter is unmarried and the son, a promis- 
ing young man, si.x feet three in stature, is now employed with the Phoenix Iron 
and Bridge Company, at Phcenixville, Penna. 

Captain Eisho[) is a member of the Masonic fraternity and has been an Odd 
Fellow since 1857. He was an original member of the Grand Army of the 
Republic, as then constituteil in Indianapolis in 1867, and has recently become 
a member of the Kansas Commandery of tl;e Lojal Legion. 




C\PT Otis W. Pollock. 



CAPT. OTIS WHEELER POLLOCK. 

CAPT. Otis W. Pollock, of tlie Twenty-third Infantry, United States Army, 
is a Pennsylvania officer wlio has rendered a great deal of valuable service 
to the Government, both in the late war and on the frontier, and, as many tliinlc, 
has not been adequately rewarded for it. He was born at Erie, August 7, 1833, 
and is the son of Charles and Elizabeth Wilson Pollock. The progenitor of the 
family in America emigrated from Ireland to Pennsylvania about 1750, and since 
1800 his descendants have been farmers near Waterford, Erie county, where 
young Pollock spent the greater part of the first twelve years of his life. His 
maternal grandfather, Dr. John Culbertson Wallace, the first resident physician 
in Erie county, was a surgeon in General Wayne's army during his operations 
against the Indians in the Northwest, and a Lieutenant-Colonel of a regiment of 
Pennsylvania militia in the war of 18 12. Captain Pollock is also a great-grandson 
of ]\Iajor James Gordon Heron, who was an officer in the American army during 
the Revolutionary War, and a member of the Society of the Cincinnati. Pie was 
for a time an Associate Judge of Venango county, residing in I'lanklin, where he 
died, December 30, 1S09. 

Captain Pollock's early studies included survej'ing and civil engineering, and 
at the death of his father, which occurred May 31, 1S50, rendering it necessary 
that he should begin the battle of life early, he sought employment in railroad 
construction. In his eighteenth year he was employed in the construction of the 
Lake Shore Railroad between Erie and the Ohio State line, and before he was 
twenty years of age he was an assistant engineer on the Ohio and Mississippi 
Railroad, and in charge of a subdivision of the construction. Subsequently he 
was engaged upon the preliminary surveys of the Minneapolis and Cedar Valley 
Railroad in Minnesota, and in 1857, while thus employed, was elected County 
Surveyor of Steele county, and served one term. 

In the spring of 1861, while engaged in survej'ing oil lands on the little 
Kanawha river, in what is now West Virginia, the war broke out, and he at once 
entered the service of the Government as agent of the Quartermaster's Depart- 
ment established at Wheeling, under command of Captain Craig. His duties 
comprised the superintendence of the transportation and delivery of munitions 
of war to the different commands in West Virginia, and this he pursued diligently 
until October, 1 86 1, when he was commissioned by Governor Todd a Lieutenant 
in the Si-\ty-third Ohio Infantry, which at that time was being organized at 
Marietta. The organization of this regiment was finally completed by its con- 
solidation with the Twenty-second, under the command of Col. John W. Sprague. 
Pollock was made Regimental Adjutant, and in February, 1862, the regiment 
embarked at Marietta, moved down the Ohio river and reported to General Pope 
at Commerce, Mo. It marched thence with General Pope's command on New 
40 (313) 



!I4 



CAPT. OTIS W. POLLOCK. 



^ladrid. After besieging tlic place, niul finally capturing it, the command crossed 
the Mississippi on transports a short distance below New Madrid, and nioxing 
up the river on the opposite side to a point across from Island Number Ten, 
captured and made prisoners the_^Confederate forces, thus securing Isla'.id Number 
Ten and opening the river as far down as Fort Pillow. 

It now seemed to be the intention that Pope should move down the river with 
liis army, and witli the co-operation of troops from the interior to take Fort 
Pillow, and afterwards Memphis and so on, eventually opening the Mississippi to 
the Gulf. But the battle of Shiloh, which occurred on the 6th and 7th of April, 
caused a change of programme, and before Pope's army had time to disembark 
at Fort Pillow, he received instructions, in obedience to which he returned to 
Cairo, and thence up the Ohio and Tennessee rivers to Hamburg Landing, 
which placed him on the left flank of the combined forces of Grant and Buell, 
which were assembled on the west bank of the Tennessee river at Pittsburg 
Lantliiig. 

Ilalleck, in person, having assumed command, a forward movement was at once 
begun, which resulted in the capture of Corinth on the 30th of May. Just pre- 
vious to the occupation of Corinth by the Federal troops, the affair at Farrington, 
which amounted to quite a respectable battle, was fought by Pope, and in which 
Lieutenant Pollock was engaged. On June 30, 1862, he was promoted to a 
Captaincy in the Sixty-third Ohio Infantry, and in the reports of the battles of 
luka, which occurred September 19th, and Corinth, October 4th, he was men- 
tioned as having rendered gallant and meritorious services. In the latter battle 
his regiment, of which he was Acting Adjutant, occupied the most exposed 
position in the field, supporting Battery Robinett. It repulsed three desperate 
assaults of the enemy, and lost one-half of its numbers in killed and wounded_ 
Only four of its officers came out of the fight uninjured. Subsequently Captain 
Pollock participated with the Ohio Brigade under General Fuller in the engage- 
ment at Parker's Cross Roads, where Forrest was defeated with great loss. 

During the sunmier of 1863 he was on duty at Memphis as a member of a 
general court-martial, and after the union of Fuller's Ohio Brigade with a por- 
tion of the troops that had been engaged in the Vicksburg campaign under Gen- 
eral Sherman, his company was employed in guarding railroads in Alabama and 
Tennessee. 

in March, 1864, Fuller's Brigade moved down the Tennessee river opposite 
Decatur, Ala., then occupied by Confederate troops, and crossing the river just 
before dawn surprised and captured it. At this time Captain Pollock was acting 
Assi.stant Adjutant-Genera! of Fuller's Brigade. Subsequently other troops 
as.seniblcd at this point, and Brigadier-General John D. Stevenson assumed com- 
mand of tlie whole, to w hose staff Captain Pollock was transferred as chief of 
outposts and pickets. 

In tile latter part of April a division was formed from the troops stationed at 
Decatur, and jjlaced under the command of Brigadier-General James C. Veatch, 



CAPT. OTIS W. POLLOCK. -5115 

of Indiana, and ordered to join General Sherman at Cliattanooga. Captain Pol- 
lock was transferred to the staff of General Veatch in the same capacit)' w liich 
he had served with General Stevenson. On arriving at Chattanooga, this divis- 
ion became the Fourth Division of the Sixteenth Army Corps, which, with the 
Second Division, was called the left wing of the Si.xteenth Army Corps — com- 
manded by Gen. J. M. Dodge, of Iowa — forming a part of the Army of the Ten- 
nessee under command of General McPherson. 

The Atlanta campaign began on the 5th of I\Iay, and ended with the battle of 
Janesborough, August 31st. Captain Pollock took part in all the battles and 
skirmishes of this campaign in which the Army of the Tennessee was engaged, 
among which were the battles of Resaca, New Hope Church, Dallas, Kenesavv 
Mountain, Atlanta, on July 22d and 28th, etc. At the battle of Atlanta he 
barely escaped the fate of General McPherson. Not more than ten minutes 
before the general was killed Captain Pollock was on the same spot, ha\ing, 
■^vithout k-nowing it, run into the Confederate line, but managed to get awa)', 
bringing with him a rebel prisoner. In the march of the arm)- under General 
Sherman from Atlanta to the sea he was with it, and was present at the conflicts 
incident to the capture of Savannah, and accompanied the Aini}- of the Tennessee 
in its movement by water from Savannah to Beaufort, S. C. 

At this point he was relieved from his position on division staff, in order that 
he might take command of his regiment — the Sixty-third Ohio Infmtr}- — which 
command he held until the arri\'al of Sherman's army at '^oldsboro, N. C, in 
March, 1S65. During this campaign he was engaged with the enemy while on 
foraging expeditions, and at rivers where the crossing of the army was opposed, 
especially at the Salkehatchie and Edi.sto. Columbia and Cheraw were occupied 
without much resistance. 

At Galesboro, a major having reported for duty, Captain Pollock was assigned 
to the staff of Gen. Frank P. Blair, then in command of the Seventeenth Army 
Corps, in the capacity of Judge Advocate and Assistant Provost-Marshal. While 
there news was received of the fall of Richmond. The movement towards 
Raleigh in pursuit of Johnston began on April loth, and oii the nth the sur- 
render of Lee was announced to the ami)'. Soon after arriving at Raleigh 
Johnston surrendered to Sherman, and the "cruel war" was over. After 
remaining for some weeks in Washington and participating in the grand review, 
the Sixty-third Ohio proceeded to Camp Dennison, and was mustered out' July 
8. 1865. 

Captain Pollock returned to his home in pj'ie, where he remained imtil Feb- 
ruary 23, 1866, when he was appointed by President Johnson a First Lieutenant 
in the Fourteenth Infantr)', United States Ami)', and in September of the same 
}'ear was transferred to the Twenty-third. His subsequent life is that of an 
officer on the frontier, undergoing arduous trials, subjected to constant changes; 
at one time conducting recruits to distant stations, at another establishing military 
posts and often pursuing hostile Indians. In 1867-68, when General Crook was 



3j6 CAPT. OTIS W. rOLLOCK. 

prosecuting^ the war against the Snake and Pi-Ute Indians, Lieutenant Pollock 
proceeded, under orders from him, to Fort Boise, Idaho, a distance of tliree 
hundred and fifty miles, for the purpose of procuring the services of friendly 
Indians in that vicinity to act as scouts. He started on his return on the 8th of 
January, 1868, with twenty-six Indians, two lialf-breed guides and interpreters, 
and four soldiers, all mounted, and a train of about thirty pack-mules. This 
march, which involved the crossing of Snake river and the Blue mountains, 
was performed in the middle of the severest winter that had been known for 
years. The slow progress caused by the ice in the river and the deep snow in 
the mountains, together with the intense cold of twenty-five or thirty degrees 
below zero, came very near resulting in the loss of the entire party from freezing 
and starvation. By dint of energy and perseverance, however, and the exercise 
of the greatest fortitude, he succeeded in bringing the party through without 
losing a man or an animal after a continuous struggle for existence of three weeks 
duration. The different members of the command soon recovered from their 
frost-bites and snow-blindness, and were all well again. 

After different expeditions, such as carrying despatches to General Halleck, 
and conducting recruits to Camp Warner from San Francisco through a country 
infested with hostile Indians, Lieutenant Pollock was ordered on general recruit- 
ing service in the fall of 1868. In compliance with this order he proceeded via 
the Isthmus of Panama to New York, where he reported, and was ordered on 
duty at the depot at Newport Barracks, Kcntuck}', and upon his arrival there 
was appointed Adjutant of the department. 

The act of Congress reducing the infantry arm of the ser\-ice from fort\'-five to 
twenty-five regiments went into effect March 3, 1S69. This required the con- 
.solidation of regiments, and surplus officers were to be placed on a supernumerary 
list. It being understood that the places of those officers who were absent from 
their regiments would be filled by assignments from the supernumerary list, 
Lieutenant Pollock asked to be relieved from the recruiting detail, and to be 
permitted to return to his regiment. Accordingly, he was ordered to join a 
detachment of recruits that was being sent from New York to San Francisco. 
This was the first body of troops that ever crossed the continent on the Pacific 
Railroad. They left New York on May 20th, and arrived at San P'rancisco on 
June 20th, having stopped at Omaha .several days en route. Lieutenant Pollock 
proceeded thence to Fort Vancouver, and delivered over his detachment. P'rom 
there he joined his company at Camp Warren. 

In December, 1869, he was appointed Regimental Adjutant and ordered to 
Portland, Oregon, which was regimental headquarters. In November and 
December, 1870, he was absent several weeks in Alaska, having been ordered to 
Sitka on duty as a member of a general court-martial. In January, 1S71, the 
headquarters of the regiment were moved to Fort Vancouver, and in February, 
1872, the entire regiment was transported from Oregon to Arizona. They pro- 
ceeded by steamer from Portland to San Francisco, thence by steamer to Fort 



CAPT. OTIS \V. POLLOCK. 3I7 

Yuma, via the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Cah'fornia. Lieutenant Pollock, in 
charge of the non-commissioned staff and band, proceeded up tiie Colorado river 
to Ehrensburg, and thence by wagon to Prestcott, a distance of about one hun- 
dred and seventy miles, and there reported to General Crook in command of the 
regiment and department. 

In the fall of 1 8/ 2 Lieutenant Pollock was again ordered on recruiting service, 
to report to the superintendent in New York city. Li obedience to the order he 
had proceeded on his way as far as San Francisco, when he was informed at 
division headquarters that he had been promoted Captain, and in consequence 
the order sending him on recruiting service was revoked by telegraph from 
Washington. He then obtained a six months' leave of absence, and visited his 
home in Pennsylvania. At the expiration of his leave he returned to Camp 
McDowell, assuming command of Company "C" and the post, the command 
consisting of Companj^ " C," Twenty-third Infantry, and Troop " E," Fifth Cav- 
alry. He retained command of the fort until July, 1874, when the regiment was 
transferred from the Department of Arizona to the Department of the Platte, with 
headquarters at Omaha Barracks. Captain Pollock, with his company, arrived 
at Omaha Barracks on September 4, 1874. He remained in command of his 
company at this post imtil May, 1S76, when he was ordered to Sidney Barracks, 
on the Union Pacific Railroad, about one hundred miles east of Cheyenne. He 
remained in command there, the garrison consisting of his own company and 
Company " I," until November, during which time, in addition to other duties, 
he had charge of forwarding supplies to the troops in the field under conniiand 
of General Crook, who was pursuing the hostile Sioux. 

He then received orders to proceed with his command to Fort Fetterman and 
report to General Crook, Department commander. He proceeded by rail with 
the two companies to Medicine Bow, where Colonel Dodge, lieutenant-colonel 
of the regiment, assumed command, and they marched from there to Fort Fet- 
terman. Here what was known as the Powder Run expedition was organized. 
The infantry, composed of nine companies and four companies of the Fourth 
Artillery, were united under the command of Lieut. -Col. R. I. Dodge, and the 
eleven companies of cavalry were under the command of Colonel and Brevet Briga- 
dier-General Mackenzie in person. The expedition proceeded to Crazy Woman's 
Fork of the Powder river, via the cantonment Reno. From this point a camp 
of Northern Cheyennes was located, consisting of about one hundred and thirty 
lodges, in the foot hills of the Big Horn mountains. General Mackenzie, with 
his cavalry, succeeded in surprising the camp, capturing and destroying every- 
thing that it contained, including large quantities of meat, buffalo robes and 
ammunition. Mackenzie's loss was only about twenty-five killed and wounded. 
That of the savages was much greater. They fled to the mountains in a destitute 
condition, and, as the mercury was about fifty below zero and snow in the moun- 
tains was quite deep, they suffered intensely until they reached the camps of 
their Sioux allies. The expedition did considerable marching, but no more 



3lS CAPT. OTIS \V. POLLOCK. 

figluingf, finally returning to Fort Fettcrman, and thence rvV? Fort Laramie to 
Fort D. A. Russel, where it was disbanded. As a result of the campaign, the 
Northern Cheyennes shortly afterwards came in and surrendered, and Crazy 
Horse, the Sioux chief, did the same, and the war was thus ended. The cam- 
paign was made in the coldest winter weather. The troops were constanth' on 
the march, and in tents when the mercury was freezing and the animals were 
perisliing from the cold. 

While the operations mentioned above were in progress, an order was issued 
transferring the Twenty-third Infantry to the Department of Missouri with liead- 
quartcrs at Fort Leavenworth, to which place the companies that were engaged 
in the expedition repaired in Januai}-, 1S77. Captain Pollock proceeded to Sid- 
ney and Omaha, however, for the ptiipose of closing up some business left 
unfinished at the opening of the campaign, and did not arrive at Fort Leaven- 
wortli until the latter part of February 

In July of this j-ear the railroad riots became so formidable that the President 
ordered eight companies of the Twenty-third, under command of Gen. Jefferson 
C. Davis, then its colonel, to St. Louis for the purpose of protecting Government 
propertj* in that vicinity. This included Captain Pollock with his company, " C." 
After remaining there for two or three weeks, and the necessity for their presence 
liaving passed, they were returned to their respective stations. 

In obedience to orders from the general commanding the department, Captain 
Pollock left F"ort Leavenworth on the 21st of July, 1878, and proceeded with his 
company to Fort Hayes, Kansas, and there took station. In the fall of that }-ear 
the Northern Cheyennes, who, after their surrender, had been located by the 
military authorities in the Indian Territory, near Fort Reno, became dissatisfied 
and broke loose from the authority of their Indian agent, and attempted to return 
to their old home in the North. During their progress through Kansas they 
committed many outrages, stealing horses and murdering the inhabitants. Cap- 
tain Pollock's company was ordered from Fort Ha)"es in conjunction with other 
troops, to proceed to a point on the Kansas Pacific Railroad, where it was hoped 
that they might be intercepted in their attempt to cross to the northward. Not- 
w ithstanding the watchfulness of the troops, the Indians succeeded in crossing 
the railroad unobstructed. After long and fatiguing forced marches on their 
trail in pursuit, and when they had passed into the Department of the Platte, and 
were being pursued by fresh troops. Captain Pollo(J< returned to Fort Hayes. 

In the winter of 1879 the Twenty-third was transferred from Kansas to the 
Indian Territory. This was for the purpose of having more troops on hand in 
case of another attempt on the part of the Indians to break out as the Che}-ennes 
had done. Four of the companies were left at I'ort .Sup[)ly, and the remaining 
si.x, including Captain Pollock's, marched to a jioint cm the Noith P'oik of the 
Canadian river near .Sheridan's Roost, and thi re went into camp on March 6th. 
Tliey proceeded at once to build a cantonment, which was accomplished by 
August, and the troops rendered comparatively comfortable. 



CAi'T. nris w. riiT.i.ncK. 319 

On November iSth Captain Pollock ohtaiiud six months' leave of absence, and 
visited his wife's lionie in Alameda, Cal. Just piior to the expiration of this 
leave, five conipanies, Captain Pollock's among the rest, were ordered from the 
cantonment to Colorado for the purpose of keeping quiet the Ute Indians in the 
vicinity of Los Pines Agenc)-, who had been restless, and restore confidence to 
the settlers. Captain Pollock returned to the cantonment and made immediate 
arrangements to join his compan)-, which he did by rail and stage, reaching their 
destination June 3, iSSo, within an hour of the arrival of the command, which 
had marched a large portion of the way. The troops remained during the sum- 
mer encamped along the banks of the Uncompahgre river. 

During the summer what was known as the Ute commission, under the chair- 
manship of Hon. George Manypenny, of Ohio, which had been organized for the 
purpose of negotiating for the relinquishment of the Indian title in Colorado, and 
the removal of the Indians to Utah and elsewhere, arrived at Los Pinos Agenc\', 
and, when it became necessary for them to \'isit the Southern Utes, Captain Pol- 
lock's company was detailed to be their escort. He left Los Pinos Agency with 
the commission, having four six-horse wagons loadttl with forage, rations and 
camp equipage, and two four-mule light wagons. The_\' crossed the San Juan 
range at an altitude of twelve thousand feet to Silverton, encountering great 
hazard of losing the wagons, owing to the difficulty of preventing them from 
running off the beaten track along the edge of the mountains, which was narrow 
and crooked, into the canon hundreds of feet below. Their progress was tedious, 
laborious and dangerous, but the passage was finally accomplished in safety. 
From SiK'erton the route was down the Animas ri\-er to Animas Cit_\-, thence 
across the Florida river to the agency situated on the Pine river, which they 
reached August 15th. From here the commission, accompanied b)' Captain 
Pollock, made a reconnoissance in search of 5. suitable place in which to locate 
the Utes after their removal, and, after following the La Platte to its confluence 
with the San Juan river, returned to the agency. Having completed negotiations 
with the Indians, the commission was escorted to Alamosa, and upon arriving at 
that place Captain Pollock separated from them and returned with his company 
and transportation by another route to the cantonment, located during his absence 
on the Uncompahgre river, about four miles below the Los Pinos Agency. He 
reached Klein's ranch on the Cimmaron river, about twenty-two miles from the 
cantonment, the day following the killing of Johnson, a Ute Indian, son of one 
of the prominent chiefs (Chavanaux), by a freighter named Jackson, who was 
subsequently forcibly taken by the Indians from the ci\ilian escort, who were 
conveying him to Gunnison City for trial, and killed. This resulted in the most 
intense excitement among the white population, and open war between the whites 
and Indians became imminent. The report of the affair made by Captain Pol- 
lock to the War Department, showing it to have been a wanton murder on the 
part of Jackson, and that his fate was nothing more than a case of lynching, which 
was published in the papers throughout the country, no doubt had the effect of 



320 CAPT. OTIS W. POLLOCK. 

quieting the excitement and preventing an outbreak. After arriving at the can- 
tonment, the construction of which had been commenced, he assisted in its com- 
pletion, and with his company formed part of the garrison until October, i8Si- 
During this time he was Superintendent and Chief Operator of the telegraph line 
which had been constructed by the troops to Gunnison Citj^ receiving and trans- 
mitting all the messages passing between Generals Pope and Mackenzie relating 
to the final arrangements for conve)-ing the Utes from Colorado to Utah, which, 
though a delicate affair, was successfully and peaceably accomplished. 

In the fall of iS8i his regiment was ordered to the District of New Mexico, 
Captain Pollock with his company going to Fort Bliss, about a mile above El 
Paso, on the Rio Grande, where he remained performing regular garrison duty 
until June i, 1SS4, with the exception of four months spent in California, on 
leave, in the summer of 1SS3. In June, 1884, the regiment was transferred to 
the Department of the East, and occupied the posts at Fort Porter, Buffalo ; Fort 
Brady, Sault-ste-Marie, and Fort Mackinac. Captain Pollock's company was 
stationed at Fort Porter, where it still remains. 

Captain Pollock is a member of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, of the 
militarj' order of the Loyal Legion, and of the United States Military Service 
Institution. He has been twice married, and has three children, a son by his 
first marriage (Henry Burt Pollock, now a clerk in the Exchange National Bank 
of Little Rock, Ark.), and two daughters by the second marriage — Josephine 
Wallace, born December 29, 1876, at Omaha Barracks, Nebraska, and Winnie 
May, born May 3, 1879, at Alameda, Cal. His first wife was Ellen Thomas, of 
Buffalo, N. Y., and his present wife, Sarah A. (Thompson) Black, is a daughter 
of R. R. Thompson, Esq., of Portland, Oregon. 




Com. Geo. W. Melville, u. s. n. 



COM. GEORGE WALLACE MELVILLE. 

COMMODORE George \V. Melville, the eminent Arctic explorer and now Chief 
of the Bureau of Steam Engineering of the Naval Department of the 
United States, is of noble Scottish lineage, and inherits the remarkable endurance 
that characterizes him from a long line of Caledonian ancestry. He was born 
in the city of New York, January lo, 1841, and his early life differed but little 
from that of other boys of his age and opportunities. His education was ac- 
quired at the public schools and completed at the school of the Christian 
Brothers and the Polytechnique School of Brooklyn. He left school about the 
age of sixteen and shortly after began work in the machine shops of James Binns 
in East Brooklyn, L. I. 

He }vas but a few months past twenty when the Rebellion broke out, and within 
ninety days tliereafter he was enrolled in the service.of his country and began 
thenceforward to exhibit those sterling qualities of'ph)'sical and moral heroism, 
constancy and endurance that distinguished him even amongst hosts of brave, 
constant, self-denying patriots. On the 29th of July, 1861, he was appointed 
Third Assistant Engineer in the United States Navy. Thenceforth Engineer 
Melville's life was an eventful one. He served throughout the war of the 
Rebellion in the North and South Atlantic Blockading Squadrons, and also in 
Wilkes' Flying Squadron. He was on dut}^ on the Brazilian coast and took 
part in the capture of the rebel steamer " Florida " in the harbor of Bahai. 

When the war was over, the army disbanded, and the hastily extemporized 
vessels of the navy diverted again into merchant service, the young engineer 
chose to remain fn the service of the United States. He served successively 
in the West Indies, Brazil and the East India stations and at the various United 
States Navy Yards upon important Government duty during the first few years 
of peace. But his nature was that of an explorer and his restless disposition 
found no charm in ease. The project of searching f:>r the previous expeditions 
that had sailed for the Polar seas, though so full of danger and so little promis- 
ing any substantial results, possessed a charm for his hardy, adventurous spirit 
that gave him no peace until he found himself actuall)' shippcil for the frozen 
zone. He made three vo_\-ngcs in all to the Arctic regions, including the famous 
Polaris Search Expedition in the " Tigress ;" the Jeannette Exploring l'.x|iedi- 
tion, sent out by James Gordon Bennett, of the New York Herald, and the 
Greely Relief Expedition in the " Thetis," sent out by the United States Govern- 
ment to relieve Lieutenant Greely. His exploits on these expeditions have been 
recorded in histories, and need but a brief mention here. 

In the Jeannette Exploring Expedition, Engineer-in-Chief Melville commanded 
the famous whale boat and accomplished the feat of bringing his whole crew 
out alive. He was the first officer of the expedition to unfurl the expeditionary 
41 (3^1) 



-22 COM. GEORGE \V. MELVILLE. 

flag, wliicli he did on Henrietta Island, whither lie had led a detachment to take 
possession of the ne\vl\- discovered land in the name of the United States. 

He led the party that discovered the bodies of Lieutenant DcLong and Jiis 
ill-starred companions. It was under his charge that the rites of Christian 
burial were performed over these niartxrs to science and humanity where 
perpetual winter had embalmed them with its Lerneal breath. They were, how- 
ever, subsequently exhumed by orders of the United States Government and 
their remains brought to their homes, where they were laid to rest with impressive 
ceremonies amid the dust of their kin. In searching for the other boat's crew 
he fought his perilous and painful way, mile by mile, through the rigors of 
perpetual winter and floating archipelagoes of ice along the Arctic coast for o\er 
five hundred miles, survi\ing the privations that had been fatal to so many, and 
persevered until his search was rewarded by the recovery of all the records of 
the "Jeannette" expedition. He penetrated to the mouth of the Lena river in 
his search, and contributed to the geography of the world a new and important 
chart of that region. 

In the Greel)' Relief Expedition he served as Chief Engineer aboard the "Thetis," 
the flagship of the Arctic fleet, and it was to his knowledge of the wants of such 
expeditions that the most important adjunct to success — the fitting out and 
furnishing of the fleet — owed its completeness and proficiency, and which more 
than anything else enabled it to succeed v/here others as brave and hardy had 
failed. The provisions, the clothing and the equipment for retreat as well as for 
advance into the domain of winter were all selected under his supervision and 
direction. 

Engineer-in-Chief Melville has been a resident of Philadelphia for twenty-five 
years, where he is highly esteemed. He is as modest and unostentatious in 
deportment as his career demonstrates him to be bra\-e and' enduring in the 
discharge of perilous duties. 

He has risen from grade to grade in his profession, passing through all the 
stages of promotion. In March, iSSi, he was commissioned Chief Engineer in 
the United States Navy with the rank of Lieutenant Commander, and is at the 
present time Engineer-in-Chief of the Navy and Chief of the Bureau of Steam 
Engineering of the Naval Department with the rank of Commodore, having been 
so commissioned on August 9, 1S87. 

As an instance of his ability to accomplish unusual feats and his capacity for 
extraordinary effort we may mention the fact that in the sunnner of 18S7 he 
performed an unprecedented piece of work. In less than six weeks he pre[)arcd 
the general designs for the machinery of five different vessels of the new navy, 
though when he began his task expert engineers said he was attempting an im- 
possibility. The plans were for the " San I'"rancisco," two nincteen-knot vessels 
and two gun-boats. 

Enginccr-in-Cliief Melville is a member of the Military Order of the Loyal 
Legion, the Grand Army of the Republic and of various Geographical Societies. 

I. L. V. 




Rev. William C. Cattell, d.d. 



WILLIAIM CASSADY CATTELL. 

WILLIAM Cassady Cattell, D. D., LL. D., a distinguished educator and 
preacher, was born at Salem, New Jersej', August 30, 1827. y\s a boy 
he attended the private schools of Salem, and in 1848 graduated at Princeton 
College. Having the ministry in view, he entered the Princeton Theological 
Seminary and graduated there in 1852. 

He began his work as an educator in 1853,35 Associate Principal of the Edge 
Hill School at Princeton. In 1S55 he was elected Pi-ofcssor of Ancient Lan- 
guages at Lafayette College, where his fine scholarship and his remarkable 
ability as a teacher made him ver\' popular among the students. In 1859 he was 
elected a member of the Board of Trustees, and at once dis]:)laycd the executive 
ability that was afterwards so conspicuous when he was placed, four ycius later, 
at the head of the college. 

He resigned his chair at Lafa^-ette to become the fir>t [lastorof the Pine Street 
Presbyterian Church at Harrisburg, where he was installed b_\- the Presl)_\-tcry 
of Carlisle in the spring of i860. A letter from a prominent member of his 
congregation to the writer of this sketch saj's : 

The newly-formed congregation had separated frf)ni the parent church in Market Square to connect 
themselves with the Old .School Asseniljly of the Presbyterian Church. The departure or secession of so 
large and important a portion from llie main body, with llie purpose just stated, was expected to occasinn 
more or less bitterness of feeling. It ihcrefnre required a man of unusual tact and great wisdom to keep 
the breach from widening and to all.iy, as far as possible, all the jealousies arising from a rivalry between 
the two congregations occupying the same grountl and drawing their supplies from a then limited field. 
It is to-day the uniform testimony of both churches that no man could have met the peculiar conditions 
and suited the situation better than Mr. Cattell. Hi.s genial manners, rare tact and hearty s\m]">atldes 
served both to allay animosities and to harmonize conflicting inteiests. Under his ministry, as fiist pastor, 
the Pine Street Church began a career of usefulness which made it perh.-ips the most inHiiential congrega- 
tion in the large Presbytery of Carlisle. In the Sabbath-school, with a reputation e\'en i)eyond the limits 
of the State, he was a zealous co-laborer and a judicious adviser, and on every public occasion his pres- 
ence is still freely sought for and henrtily welcomed. In the community Mr. Cattell was honored for his 
fine scholarship and noble Chii^tian character. 

His pastoral work at Harrisburg began just before the breaking out of the 
civil war, and it continued during the time that city was as one great canip, 
down to the closing days of 1863; and the writer of the letter adds: "In the 
urgent demands made upon the citizens of Harrishurg, when the bloody battles 
fought in Virginia, Marvland and Pennsyh'.tnia filled the hospitals o( the city 
with thousands of wounded soldiers, no one was more acti\'e to relieve the sick 
or more tenderly ministered to the d)-ing, than the pastor of the Pine Street 
Church." • 

The pulpit utterances of such a man could not fail to attract jiiiblic attention, 
and the Harrisburg Tclcgrapli, in referring to one of his sermons repeated by 



324 WILLIAM C. CATTELL. 

request, says: " Tlie crowd on the occasion was greater than any which c\'cr 
assembled to hear tlie delivery of any sermon in the city. The church was 
thronged long before the appointed hour for the delivery of the sermon, while 
the sidewalks in the vicinity of the church were covered with a patient mass of 
men and women anxious to get within hearing distance." 

With what feelings of regret and sorrow the congregation parted from their 
young pastor may be seen from the minute adoj^ted by them, and embodied in 
the following letter from the Session requesting a copy of his farewell sermon 
for publication : 

Dear Sir: 

The undersigned, members of the Session, believing th.it the sermon pre.iched by you on the last 
Sabbath of your pastorate will prove of great interest to the congregation, respectfully request a copy of 
the same for publication and privale distribuiiun. 

We also desire to place on record the following resoUition, unanimously passed at the congregational 
meeting held November gth : 

" Whi:reas, The Rev. W. C. Cattell has requested this congregation to unite with him in asking a 
dissolution of the pastoral relation, with a view to his entering on the diuies of the Presidency of Lafay- 
ette College ; therefore, 

"Ri'soh'eti, That, while we cannot cordially unite with our beloved p.astor in requesting the disso- 
lution of a pastoral rehition in which he has become so endeared to us all, and so blessed of God, yet 
we will throw no obstacle in the way of the decision of the Presbytery; and if they should deem it wise 
and proper to dissolve the pastoral rel.Ttion, we desire to pl.ice on permanent record our high appreciation 
of his services as a faithful preacher, our deep affection for him as a zealous and exemplary pastor, and 
our hearty admiration of those many qualities of head and heart which have endeared him at all times 
as a friend and counsellor; and that we will earnestly pray the great Head of the Church to make him 
eminently useful in the important and responsible duties of his new position." 

Hoping that you will place the manuscrijit of your sermon at our disposal, we remain. 
Yours, very truly, 

F. WvFTir, J. McCoRMicK, Jr., 

II. M. Graydon, J. F. Si:ii.i;k. 

It was in October, 1863, that he was called from the work he so succcssftilly 
conducted at Harrisburg to a new and wider sphere of usefulness — the crowning 
work of his life — to the Presidency of Lafayette College. 

The general depression which followed the outbreak of the war was felt \'cry 
seriously at Lafayette. In August of 1863 President McPhail resigned, and a 
special meeting of the Board of Trustees was called in Philadelphia "to ta'Ice 
into consideration the propriety of suspending operations under increasing 
embarrassments," and it seemed as if the doors of the institution would be per- 
manent!)' closed. 

Professor Ouen, in liis " Historical Sketches of Laf.i)-ette College," says: 

It was at this critical juncture in the history of the college that we find the Board turning their atten- 
tion to one who had been a professor in the institution, Rev. W'illiam C. Cattell, to whom they gave a 
hearty call to return to Lafayette and fill the vacant presidency. Dr. Cattell was at that time pastor of 
the Second Presbyterian Church at Harrisburg. His pastorate was one of marked success and useful- 
ne.ss; an able and devoted preacher, a man of w.irm and symp.ithetic heart, he had won the love of all 
his people, who, when he accepted the proffered presidency, consented to his separation from them with 
the utmost reluctance, and only under the conviction that he was called to a higher work. Tliis indeed 



WILLIAM C. CATTELL. 325 

has proved to be the c:i?e ; but it was a work beset with great (iiflicullies. Dr. Cattell was not ignorant 
of these, nor was he dislieartened by them. He came to his new and enlarged sphere of labor with a 
strong faith in the ultimate success of the enterprise. 

To his earnest zeal in the cause of education he added a knowIedi;e of the ground and a keen insight, 
which enabled hiin to see the wants of the age in the matter of a higher education. His elToits at the 
very outset were characterized by that energy, prudence and tact which always masters difficulties, and 
wliich secured for him at once the heaity cooperation and confidence of tlie friends of the college. 

President Cattell entered upon his duties in October, 1863, and was inaugurated 
in the old college chapel at the ensuing Commencement, July, 1864. Governor 
rollock, president of the Board of Trustees, in his introductory address,* after 
referring to the recent discouragements and gloom of the friends of the college, 
sa)'s : 

At this hour, and in analogy- with nature, now robed in sunshine and smiling after the storm, the light 
of a genial sun now pouring down upon us through the riven and scattered clouds, Lafayette College 
stands revealed in the light of returning prosperity, and all without betokens favor, success and triumph! 
We have met to-day to w itncss tlie inauguration of one well known and appreciated by you all, and who 
has been honored by a most happy, cordial and unanimous selection by the Synod and Boanl of Trus- 
tees. We present him to you as the scholar and the man — the highest style of man — the Christian gen- 
tleman, and one who combines in a remarkable degree the quiet dignity of the Christian niini-ter, the 
accomplishments of the scholar, and the no less important qualifications of an administrative officer. 

And Professor March, in the " College Book " (published by Houghton, Os- 
good & Co., Boston, 1878), says: " He had been everywhere greatly'successful. 
'Tlie new President,' says Ik. I\Iar\-el, who knows him, 'has wondrous winning 
wa)-s.' Things began at once to brighten. The alumni showed new interest in 
the college ; students began to come in ; donations of money were obtained 
wiiich relieved immediate wants ; but the first great ' winning ' was the good will 
of Mr. A. Pardee, of Hazleton, and the demonstration of it (his first gift of 
^20,000 to the college) was described by Dr. Cattell, at a banquetf given to 
liim by the citizens of Philadelphia, in 1S69, upon the eve of his departure for 
Europe." 

Every well-informed friend of education is familiar with the rapid and steady 
growth of Lafayette College under the administration of President Cattell. It 
has been described by the graceful pen of Mr. Donald G. Mitchell (Ik. Marvel) 
in Scribitir's j\lagazine ( December, 1876), and more fully by Professor Owen, in 
his " Historical Sketches of Lafayette College," prepared during the centennial 
year at the request of tlie United States Commissioner of Education. The- 
limits of this sketch will allow only a brief reference to it. 

*See the pamphlet containing the report of the exercises, with President Cattell's inaugural. 

t Thur-day evening, April 29th. The Philadelphia Press of the next day gives nearly a full page to a 
report of this meeting, printing President Cattell's address in full. The other speakers were Governor 
Pollock, Mayor Fox, Professor Traill Green, Dean of the College, Chief-Justice Thompson, of the 
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, Dr. Herrick J.ihnson, then pastor of the historic First Church of Phila- 
delphia, now Professor in the Chicago Theological Seminary, Professor Samuel D. Gross, of the Jefferson 
Medical College, Hon. Henry Barnard, United States Commissioner of Education, and Plon. William 
Strong, afterwards of the United States Supreme Court. 



326 WILLIAM C. CATTELL. 

Tlio number of students increased from thirty-nine in 1S63 to three hundred 
and nineteen in 1S75. It has been the pohcy since then to keep the number at 
about three hundred, rather than to give the professors such work with a larger 
number as would prevent personal and individual attention. The college grounds 
were enlarged b}- successive purchases until they now include nearly forty acres, 
graded, terraced and beautifully ornamented. The two small buildings, which 
were made to answer for the accommodation of the thirty-nine students in 1S63, 
have been renovated and enlarged and new ones have been added. Notable 
among these is Pardee Hall, erected at a cost of nearly ^300,000, and which is 
one of the finest college buildings in America. The whole building, with its 
furniture and scientific equipment, was the munificent gift of Mr. Ario Pardee. 
It was dedicated with imposing ceremonies and in the presence of a vast assem- 
blage, October 21, 1S73. The day was a gala one for Easton and the neighbor- 
hood. The afternoon was a general holiday. All the schools, factories and 
shops were closed, and a procession, gay with banners and music and over a 
mile long, ascended the hill and gathered around the building when it was for- 
mally transferred by Mr. Pardee to the trustees of the college. On the evening 
of June 4, 1879, this magnificent building was totally destroyed by fire. 

But it soon rose from its ashes, rebuilt upon the same site, of the same dimen- 
sions and exterior appearance, but the arrangement of the interior much im- 
proved, as experience with the original building suggested. At the reopening, 
Nox'embcr 30, 1880, Prof F. A. March delivered a most able and scholarly 
address before such a distinguished assembly as has rarely gathered in honor of 
any educational foundation in this country. It included the President of the 
United States, who came in a special car from Washington attended by several 
members of his cabinet, the General of the Army and the United States Com- 
missioner of Education; the Governor of Pcnn.sylvania, with his staff and the 
heads of the State Departments; the Moderator of the General Assenibl)' of the 
Presbyterian Church; the Moderator of the S\nnd of Pennsylvania; and many 
other dignitaries of Church and State, and eminent educators, including many 
presidents and professors in our unixersitics and colleges. 

In 1863 the curriculum of studies at Lafa\-ette was the traditional college 
course, based mainly on the .study of Latin and Greek, but the second year of 
President Cattell's administration was signalized by a large advance in the direc- 
tion of scientific studies. The classical course was still continued. In fact, the 
catalogue stated that the policy at Lafayette would be to give it greater efficiency 
year by year, " not only as the regular introduction to the special professional 
.study of theology, medicine, law and teaching, but also as a thoroughly tried 
means of securing the culture and elevation of mind, and of imparting the useful 
and liberal learning which becomes a Christian scholar." But new courses of 
scientific, technical and post-graduate studies were successively added until 
" under this administration Lafayette has risen to her present conimanding 
position, embracing dej)artments of instruction widely different in specific scope 



WILLIAM C. CATTELL. ^2 J 

and aim, yet brought into stimulating contact, and so into the unity of a har- 
monious progress" (Prof. Owen's Slcetches). Of course this rapid and splendid 
development, tie history of which, says the New York Christian IVcck/y, "reads 
hke a romance," required the expenditure of large sums of money for the new 
buildings with their scientific equipment, and for the support of the increased 
number of professors. And from all sides, in response to the appeals of the 
enthusiastic and e\er hopeful president, came the donations, so that the 
capital stock of the college, which in 1863 was scarcel}- $50,000, rose in a few 
years to nearly a million. The hard times commencing in 1873, and which pro- 
duced for many }-ears such financial distress throughout the countr}', seriously 
crippled President Cattell in his plans for the continued increase of the college 
endowments. But the printed Tables accompanj'ing his annual report to the 
trustees show that in 1879, after four )-ears of heroic struggle, the current expenses 
of the college were fully met and the " capital stock "again increased. These 
Tables report the same gratifj^'ng results each )-ear till the close of his adminis- 
tration, notwithstanding the added strain and toil to the President that followed 
the destruction of Pardee Hall in 1879. 

President Cattell always aimed to continue in the College the Christian work 
begun b\' his pious predecessors. The subject of his inaugural address was 
" The Bible as a College Te.\t-Book." The year following his inauguration a 
religious re\'ival took place, which Professor Owen describes as " peihaps the 
most remarkable of the great revivals that have characterized the recent history." 
And how faithful Dr. Cattell was to the high trust committed to him, as the 
President of a Christian college, may be seen from the glowing and eloquent 
words of Rev. George C. Heckman, D. D., exT^resident of Hanover College, and 
a graduate of Lafayette, who deli\'ered the oration at the semi-centennial of the 
college, June 27, 1882. He says : 

We come back from the pa^t on this semi-centeniii.al to see the heroic failh and fidelity of the origin 
and early histoi-y of Lafayetle College crowned with material and academic glory, for which our fjiih 
long prayed, almost against hope. Oar words are feeble to express our gratitude to God f jr the divine 
benedictions which have crowned the wise, watchful, indefatigable administration of Piesident Cattell, 
and the munificent benefactions of Ario Pardee, William Adamson, John Welles Hollenback, Jolin I. 
Blair and others. We have no tears to shed over some lan'lmarks, immort:il in our cherished recoliec- 
tions, but which have been swept from sight by the march of splendid and substantial improvements. 
We are only too glad in ihe^e filial visits to see our dear Alma Mater with youth and beauty renewed, 
■with a growing vigor that makes her stronger than her sons, and in a more queenly dress than in those 
days of trial and poverty when we drank learning, honor and piely from her bosom. Wc have never 
had any other than feelitigs of admiration and gratitude for the devoti-in, statesmanship and triuin|'Iis — 
financial, academic and religions — which must ever make the administration of President Cattell ilistin- 
guished in the history of Lafayette College and of American education. But believe one who stood as a 
silent, observant boy at the laying of these foundations in those far-off days — though now seemingly so 
near — that what thrills us most and makes this semi-centennial a prolonged " Te Ijeum " is this: that 
the admiiii-tration upon which God has bestowed these successes and prosperities — through light and 
darkness, in ebb and flow, in joyful thanksgiving and glorious achievement — has ever been faithful to 
the divine origin and aim of this Christian college. As we gaze upon those beautiful grounds, so har- 
monizing with the splendid setting of nature ; as we look out upon these many stately buildings and 



32S WILLIAM C. CAT1ELL. 

stuily ihc r.cndemic equipment of our Alma Malcr, we exclaim : "All these, and Christ with all ! " We 
bless tjot.1 and honor our noMe I'lt sulent. 

As a further testimony to his great work, from tliosc who have watched it 
most closely and w ith the deepest personal interest, the following letter from 
Professor March has a peculiar and significant value. It is taken from a report 
in the Coi/cgc Journal, April, 1S82, of a banquet given to President Cattell by 
the Alumni Association of Philadelphia on his return from a visit to Europe : 

Easton, Ta., April, 1SS2. 

The Faculty of Lafayette College desire me to thank the Philadelphia Alumni Association for their 
kind invitation to be present at the reception to be given to President Cattell on the evening of Thurs- 
day, April 13th. 

If there is any reason for which the Faculty might be excused for going off in a body it is that we 
might join the Alumni in honoring the President who has cheerfully met so many trials and borne so 
much toil for the college, who has led its friends to so many triumphs over such great obstacles, and who 
holds such a place in the affection and esteem of all his associates. 

We send our heartiest congratulations. F. A. ^L^RCH. 

But these " many trials " and " much toil " of an administration that led the 
college to " so many triumphs over such great obstacles" could scarce!}' fail, 
after twenty years, to tell upon the President's health. In his report to the Board 
of Trustees at the beginning of the year 18S3, printed in the College Journal o{ 
March, he says : 

With such pleasant recollections of the year just closed (the most delightful to me since my connection 
with the college), and with such a brightening ouilook, I enter upon the twentieth year of my Presidency 
with only one misgiving ; and that is, whether, in the present state of my health, I have the strength fully 
to discharge the arduous and responsible duties which are inseparable from my position. lam deeply 
grateful for the generous and unfailing support of my colleagues in the Hoard and in the Faculty, and of 
the Alumni, but even with this help the continuous anxiety and strain of my ordinary work, and the ne- 
cessity at times of unusually severe and prolonged exertion, seem to me to demand more than my present 
strength. But I am firmly persuaded that the great work here w ill continue with increasing power and 
usefulness, whoe\Lr may be the men honored of God to cairy it on. 

And this foreshadowing of his retirement from the arduous duties of the 
Presidency, taking definite .shape as the year passed on, called forth froin the 
public press, religious and secular, universal expressions of regret and of high 
appreciation of the great work he hatl accomplished for the college. The gen- 
eral sentiment was well expressed in the following editorial from the Philadelphia 
Evcniug Telegraph : 

Lafayette College 'has an unpleasant surprise for its commencement — one that will tinge this usual fes- 
tival occa.sion with .sadness. It is difficult to imagine Lafayette without President Cattell, for the college 
may lie fairly said to be the outgrowth of the tireless energy and personal magnetism oftli.atveryexception.il 
educator. So devoted was Dr. Cattell to this institution that he has worn himself out in its service. 
Two years ago his heabh became so impaired through his ceaseless labors that he was compelled to take 
an unwelcome rest ; the ca-e has not bettered since, and his definite withdrawal from ihe rcsponsiiiiliiies 
cf the Presidency is now announced. Fortun.ately, Lafayette is now founded seciiiely, beyond chance 
of wreck or disaster; any good man can carry on the work at its present stage, and lli.s is the one con- 



WILLIAM C. CATTELL. 329 

snlation that the friends of the college and the friends and admirers of Dr. Cattell have. It may well he 
a lasting salisfaction, in his retirement, tu the distinguished ex-1'rcsident ; who may be asMired tliat his 
name will be honored in tile halls of Lafayeite as long as thai college stands. And perhaps a man could 
not give his suenglh and his life more devotedly and more profitably ih.ui in jus! such a work. 

Dr. Cattell received the honorary degree of D. D. from Princeton, and also 
from Hanover College, Indiana, and that of LL. D. from the University of 
Wooster, Ohio. He was Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Pres- 
byterian Church in 1S63, and again in 1876, when he was Chairman of the 
Assembly's Committee on Education. In 1S72 he was Moderator of the S}-nod 
of Philadelphia. 

He has made several visits to Europe and the East, and his travels and obser- 
vations thereon have formed the subject of numerous lectures and public ad- 
dresses. His preface to the report of the Hon. C. C. Andrews (Minister to Swe- 
den) upon the educational sj'stems of Sweden and Norwa\', made to the United 
States Bureau of Education, shows his interest in all educational matters aixd his 
habits of careful observation at home and abroad. 

He was sent by the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the 
United States as a Commissioner to the Presbyterian Church in Scotland and to 
the Reformed Church in Bc^hemia in 1869, and again in 1881. One of the pas- 
tors in Bohemia, Rev. L. B. Kaspar, of Hradiste, in a letter to the New York 
Evangelist, December 29, 1S81, thus speaks of Dr. Cattell's visits to that 
country : 

Tills is not the first time that Dr. Caltell has come to Bohemia. lie was here in 1S69 and 1S70, 
That welcome visit is still remembered l>y many. It was more than an occasional tourist's trip. At that 
time Sunday-school work was almost unknown in our church. Dr. Cattell noticed this lack, and set 
himself at once on calling attention to it. In public addresses and in private conversation he pressed the 
subject on our pastors and people. Since that lime his name h;is been closely associated with the Sun- 
day-school work in our church. 1 trust that on the present visit he has had the satisfaction of seeing 
that his efforts have not been spent in vain. We have a respectable number of .Sunday-schools now, and 
the work is growing still. And very well may I speak again of Dr. Cattell's r^^dr/i. He was not s.itis- 
fied liy coming to the capital and by looking at matters, as it were, through a telescope, but he spent 
much time in actually going about ihe country from place to place — which is not always very comforta- 
ble, I can assure you. Even this small, out-of-the-way place in the mount,Tinous p.art of Iiohemia (where 
this IcUer iswritien) has had the honor of his presence on a stormy Sunday three weeks ago. 

And another pastor in Bohemia, the Rev. J. E. Szalatnay, of Velim, in a letter 
to the New York Independent, referring to Dr. Cattell's agei^cy in establishing 
Sunday-schools in his countr)', saj-s : " We speak of him as the father of our Sun- 
day-schools." 

In the midst of his arduous college duties. President Cattell found time to de- 
liver frequent addresses at Educational Conventions and Teachers' Institutes in 
various parts of the country which have been widely noticed, especially his 
address before the Pennsylvania State Teachers' Convention in the Academy of 
Music, Philadelphia, upon the place of the " Christian Latin and Greek in Class- 
ical Education," and the address before the same body at 'West Chester, on 
42 



^^O WILLIAM C. CATTELL. 

" Technical Education." In iS6o he delivered tlie commencement oration before 
the literary societies of liis Ahna Mater at Princeton. His speech at the great 
ceremony of the inauguration of the statue of General Lafayette in Union Square, 
New York, was reprinted in France. Among the many articles from his busy pen 
that show his thorough work upon the subjects taken in hand may be mentioned 
his monograph upon what are called the German Peace Churches of Pennsylvania, 
contributed to the " Schaff-Hertzog Encyclopedia," under the title " Tunkers." 

President Cattell's interest in all educational matters has made him many 
friends among the teachers in our public schools, with whom he has always been 
in hearty synipathy. Hence, when he was tendered the appointment by Gov- 
ernor Hoyt of the position of State Superintendent of Instruction, the friends of 
the common-school system looked hopefully for his acceptance. But the inter- 
ests of Lafayette College were too dear to liim, and though the work was conge- 
nial, he declined the appointment. A rumor of his appointment to this office 
having gained currency a year or two before, called forth the following protest 
against his leaving Lafayette by the editor of The Presbyterian, of Philadelphia : 

We know thnt the men who cannot be spared from the places they are filling are just the men who are 
sought after for other places; but clearly, Lafayelte College has the first mortg.age on Dr. Cattell. He 
h.is linked his name so thoroughly with its growth and its splendid success that he ought not lo be sepa- 
rated from it, and therefore, while we recognize the wise forecast of those who have named him for the 
import.int post of .Superintemlent of Public Eilucation in the Commonwe.iUh, we make earnest protest in 
adv.ince against any movement which will remove Dr. Cattell from the post which he lills so worthily 
and so usefully. 

The Lafayette College yournal, publislied by the students, quotes the above 
and adds : 

We thank our friends of The Fresbyterian for this graceful and well deserved compliment paid to our 
worthy President, and we assure them the Doctor will never leave L-if.iyette and "his boys." We can- 
not think of Lafayette without thinking of her genial President, nor do we see how the two could be dis- 
connected. The true prosperity of the college dates from his inauguration as President. Since then he 
has toiled unceasingly for her advancement ; and .all who have wntched the progress of the institution 
for the last ten years can tell with what success his labors have been crowned. He has infused new life 
and energy into every department ; he has enlisted the sympathy of friends on all sides and has attracted 
munificent endowments from wealthy benefactors. 

More than this, he takes great interest in the personal welfare of the students. His sympathies also 
enter into our sports and pastimes, and he enjoys keenly to witness the healthy, vigorous games on the 
college cainpus. He is proud to see "his boys" win applause by their muscular feats, and encourages 
them in that as well as in their more intellectual efforts. The students think of our President not as 
does the world, simply as a most successful financier and as an able executive, but as a warm personal 
fri--nd. Contrary to the usual relations existing between college officers and students, there is, on the 
p.irt of our boys, a strong attachment to our worthy President. In fact, we love the kind-hearted man 
who has ever encouraged us with his smiles, his words, his counsel, his purse and his prayers. 

This loving, hearty testimony of the students fairly illustrates the cordial rela- 
tions existing between tlie President of Lafayette and the j-oung men he is accu.s- 
tomed to speak of as his " boys." They knew tliat in him they had not only a 



WILLIAM C. CATTELL. 33I 

wise mentor and a carefLil conscientious instructor, but a warm and sN'mpatliizinsr 
friend. They found in him a man who, in tlie midst of the serious work of his 
life, still retained the cjuick sympathies, the kindly heart and the " wondrous 
winning ways" of his j-oulh. lie has al\\a\"s used his power of personal mag- 
netism to lift his students, whom he so much loves, into sympathy with all that 
is good and pure and just and righteous ; and he has been truly fortunate in 
inspiring affection such as is seldom seen between men outside the family rela- 
tion. There are hundreds of young men, scattered all over the land, and many 
of them occupying higli positions, who never speak of him but with grateful 
love. Professor Owen, who was one of his students, says in the " Historical 
Sketches : " " His best work after all will not be recorded in the history of great 
buildings, of swelling endowments and new courses of study, but in the hearts 
and lives of the hundreds of young men whose characters were moulded under 
his personal influence. These will never forget the kind-hearted president, 
endeared to them alike as a faithful friend, a wise counsellor, and an eminent 
example of a life devoted with Christian fidelity to a great and good work." 

President Cattell makes no secret of his joy and pride in being thus held in 
lo\'ing remembrance by " his boj's ; " and even in this brief .sketch of his life and 
character we must make room for a few sentences from his address at a banquet 
tendered to him by the Seniors on his return from Europe in 1S82, as the}- so 
well illustrate the peculiarly happy relations always existing between him and 
the students. The address is published, with a report of the other exercises upon 
this pleasant occasion, in the College yonrnal oils\-<i.Yc\\, 18S2 : 

I am glad and <jr.-itefiil to be home again ; and very p'easant to me has been the cordiil welcome I 
have received from my friends in Easton, vvliere I have spent more tlian twenty-five years of my life, and 
from my colleagues in the faculty, with whom I have been so long and so pleasantly associated. But I 
am touched even more deeply by the hearty welcome from the students of the college, which has met 
me at every turn in private, and which culminates this evening in the public and official greeting you 
have extended to me as a class. . . . 

And let me assure you, my dear young friends, that, after all, it is just this intimate and cordial relation 
between the students and myself — of which this evening is such a happy illusiration — that has chiefly 
sustained and nerved me in the exhausting work and heavy responsil)ility which my position, as presi- 
dent nf the college, necessarily involves. I know the many and great opportunities for usefulness this 
position gives, and no man should lightly regard the call of Providence to such a work. I know also 
that to be at the head of a great college, like I^afayette, is generally regarded as an honorable distinction, 
and few men would acknowledge themselves indifferent to this; yet, let me again assure you, that the 
sustaining force which has kept me at work for Lafayette during all these years of toil and care has not 
been so much these things as the happy life I have led here among "my boys." . . . And I huld 
that no other college president has a greater right to be proud of the character and conduct of his boys 
than I have to be proud of mine, or who has reason to love them more — let me rather s.iy, to love them 
as much. (Great applause.) 

On Sunday, June 24, 1883, President Cattell preached in the college chapel 
his last baccalaureate sermon, and on Wednesday presided for the last time at 
the public exercises of Commencement Day, and conferred the Degrees. 

The Lafayette College Journal, edited and published by the students, devotes 



332 WILLIAM C. CATTELL. 

a l.'irge part of its issue for July to the subject of President Cattell's resignation, 
which, the editors sa\', " was not wholly unexpected, but it causes none tiie lesg 
sorrow." And this " sorrow " was expressed in many of the addresses reported 
in this number of the Jounial made by the alumni who had gathered at the annual 
festival, under the shadow of this great loss to the college. A missionary 
from China, Rev. Charles R. Mills, U. D., of the class of 1S53, said, at the 
alumni meeting on Tuesday, " the four sad days of his life were those on which 
he heard of the assassination of Lincoln, the burning of Pardee Hall, the murder 
of Garfield, and the resignation of President Cattell." The Alumni Association, 
by " a rising vote," adopted a minute expressing " their hearty appreciation of 
his distinguished services," and they put upon record " their fervent wish that 
some arrangement may be effected by the trustees and the faculty by which a 
season of prolonged rest may be secured to the President without severing his 
official connection with the college, and they earnestly hope that he will consent 
to any reasonable measures to this end." In the yoitrnal's report of the alumni 
dinner the next day these tributes to the retiring President are renewed. The 
venerable and beloved Dean of the college. Dr. Traill Green, who presided, 
" eloquently alluded to President Cattell's great worth ; he had served with 
six college presidents (at Lafayette and other colleges), and he knew none such 
as Dr. Cattell." The Hon. R. P. Allen, of the class of '55, in responding for 
the trustees, "spoke of the regret and grief with which they had accepted 
the resignation of President Cattell — their only comfort being tiiat he had left 
the college in such a prosperous condition ; " and the Hon. Wm. A. Porter, 
of the class of '39, formerly of the Supreme Court of Pennsj-lvania, " eulogized 
President Cattell, saj-ing he had advised him twenty years ago not to accept 
the presidency, believing the condition of the college to be utterly hopeless! 
He rejoiced that he had been mistaken; but he believed that no other man 
hving could have done what President Cattell has done." 

The following is the minute adopted by the trustees of the college: 

The Doard of Trustees has received ihe resignation of President Cattell with emotions of profound 
sorrow. The Board has most earnestly used its utmost endeavors to persuade Dr. Caltell to withdraw 
his resign.ition and accept an indefinite leave of a1)sence, with entire relief from all cnre and responsi- 
Ijiliiy of the college, but considerations of liis liealih, manifestly brol^en, have obliged him to decline 
their most urgent overtures. 

The Lioard therefuie most reluctantly accepts his resignation, to lake effect on the twenty-fourth day 
of October next, on which day he will complete the twentieth year of his presidency. In this action tlie 
I!oar<l yields to a must painful necessity, and against its strongest wishes that an Administration su fruit- 
ful only of good to the College should be continued as long .as its di»tingui-hed, honored and l)eloved 
I'rc-.ident lives. It yields its own wishes in the fond hope that relief from care may si>eedily bring back 
health and strength to its cherished friend, and to this only. The Board rejoices that though Ur. Cat- 
tell feels obliged to retire from the Presidency of the Faculty, it will still relain him as one of its mem- 
bers, and thus have the great benefit of his wise counsels and earnest devotion in the administration of 
the affiirs of the college. 

Kciohjeil, That a commiilee be appointed to report at a future mceling a suitable minute expressive of 
the Bo.ard's appreciation of the great work for the college performed l>y Dr. Cattell, and iheir deep grief 
at Ih.s sad transaction; and that this report and minute, with Dr. Cattell's letter, be published in the 
next college catalogue. 



WILLIAM C. CAlTi:!.!.. 333 

Dr. Cattcll presided at the public exercises in Pardee Hall on I'^)undeis' Day, 
October 24, i88j. This was his hist official act as President of the college. 
Tiie follow ing week, with his faniil\% he sailed for luirope. His de[)arture was 
the occasion for many heartfelt tributes in tlie jniblic joLirnals, one of theni, in 
The PriSbytcriaii, No\'eniber 12, by a graduate of the college, Rev. Dr. McFet- 
ridge (then a pastor in Philadclpiiia, afterwards Profe.->sor in Macalester College), 
from which we quote a few sentences. Describing the scene upon the deck of 
the steamer, where " members of the B.)ard of Trustees of the college and of the 
Lafayette .Mumni Association of Xew Yoik, and other friends of Dr. Cattell 
from Easton and elsewliere," had gathered to bid the ex-President good-b)'e, Dr. 
McFetridge sa}-s : 

Twenty yeans ago, a.s a member of the Senior Class of Lafayette, we welcomed Dr. Cattell to E.iston 
as our new rrcsklent. Since tlien what change-; h.ive taken place witli that institution — great and grand 
changes, that liave been wrought as by magic under the hand of him who now takes his departure. 
Could we keep out the thouglils that crowded upon us or prevent the unbidden tear? tHher eyes were 
miiist as well as ours, and olher tongues faltered as they baile our beloved friend and President "good- 
bye." Truly it was a " God-be-\vith-thee " in the fullest, heartiest sense. 

Who can estimate the worth of such a man ! — a man in the truest, noblest sense. Can the Presbyte- 
rian Church ever estimate or prize as she ought the woik that this man has done? She may sing his 
praises ever so loudly ; she may cherish his name and memory ever so sacredly; she might load him 
with riches and honors, and then she would not have recompensed him. And can the friends of Chris- 
tian education ever set high enough v.alue on his services? He has shed a lustre on education, and 
made the position of instructor doubly honoral)le. And now as he bids adieu to his native land, 
and to the position in which he cheerfully sacriliced health and thousands of dollars of his private 
means, and in which he won the hearts of so many noble men, and of so many young men who came 
under his personal influence, he can be assured that he will be remembered as the great benefactor of 
Lafayette College so long as the college endures. 

Dr. Cattell spent the winter among the snow-clad mountains of Switzerland, 
at the noted health resort of Davos-Platz. With returning liealth in the early 
summer he visited his numerous friends in dtfferent parts of Europe, especially 
in Boliemia, and then went to Belfast to attend the sessions of the Presb\'terian 
Alliance, to which he had been appointed a Delegate by the Presb\terian 
Church in America. The remainder of the year was spent in the further pursuit 
of heakh in the quiet and restful region of the " Lake country" in the north of 
England and in travelling leisurely through Scotland. 

But at the age of fifty-seven Dr. Cattell's work was not yet done. The follow- 
ing announcement in the journals of tlie Presbyterian Church at the close of the 
year sliows that during Ids absence in Europe he " was elected witli cordial unan- 
imit)'" as the executive of a Board to which the General Assembly of the Pres- 
b}-terian Church has committed a most important and sacred trust : 

The Board of Ministerial Relief hereby announces officially to the churches th.at the I-lEV. Wn.LI.m C. 
CATTELL, D. D.. LL. D., was elected with cordial unanimity as Corresponding Secretary at the annual 
meeting in June. 1SS4. This election tonk place during Dr. Cattell's absence in Europe. In October 
be returned to this country, and after making some preliminaiy acquaintance with the duties of his new 
office, he entered upon their discharge December I. The favorable record of his past services, espe- 



334 WILLIAM C. CATTELL. 

cially ns rrestilent for many years of Lafayette College, is so well known to our cliurclies that llie Bonrd 
is well assureil of Tivorable res|ionse in now commending him to their confidence, as intrusted with this 
new and sacred responsibility. 

Into this tender, delicate and arduous work of caring for his ministerial breth- 
ren worn out in the service of the church, Dr. Cattell has thrown himself with 
the same enthusiasm and with the same marked results that characterized his 
administration at Lafayette : and this sketch may fitly close with a recent com- 
munication in TJic Prcshytcriau, which gracefully brings into a connected view 
tliese two careers. It is from the pen of that eminent scholar and divine, Rev. 
George Burrowes, D. D., who was Dr. Cattell's predecessor in the Chair of An- 
cient Languages at Lafayette, and who has been for many years Professor in the 
Theological Seminary at San Francisco. Referring to Dr. Cattell's recent visit 
to California in the interests of his present work. Professor Burrowes says : 

The presence of Dr. Cattell in our Synod and churches is a great refreshment and blessing, not only 
to his personal friends of earlier years, but to all hearts who have felt the touching power of his words 
and admired the example shown in his laborious devotion to the noble cause eng.iging the closing years 
of a useful and devoted life. lie presented this cause in Los Angeles on Sabbath, October 2, reached 
San Francisco on the following Tuesday, and closed the busy engagements of that week with an able 
and telling address in behalf of his grand cause on S.iturday night before the Synod of the Pacific in 
Oaklantl. 

On Sabbath morning he presented the same subject in a very able discourse to a large congregation in 
Calvary Church, in this city. On the evening of that day he opened up the same great cause in the First 
Church, Dr. Mackenzie's, crowded to the utmost capacity. The next morning he took the steamer for 
Poriland, to attend the Synod of Oregon. It will thus be seen that his work is engrossing and laborious. 
It receives his whole attention, without any time needlessly lost even in intercourse with old friends. 

While listening to him in Calvary Church we were glad to thank God for raising up a man so emi- 
nently qualified as Dr. Cattell for managing with such wisdom, vigor and success the Board of Ministe- 
rial Relief. As his predecessor in his Professorship at Easton, Pa., we knew full well the labor before 
him in undertaking to build up and develop that institution. With the experience got while five years 
there as Professor of Latin and Greek, with eminent ability, and with his growth in grace matured by a 
successful pastorate of three years in the large Pine Street Church, in Ilarrisburg, he biought to his great 
and laborious work in Lafayette College a talent for Im.siness seldom equalled, and enjoyed "the confi- 
dential friendship of Jesus " to a degree snUficient to give him wisdom in every perplexity, strength in 
every effort, and perseverance under every toil. 

His work there speaks fur itself. Under his management that institution developed by a steady 
growth into its present healthful manhood, a peer of which Princeton need not be ashamed, counting 
their students by hundreds, and numbering in their Faculty Professors among the first in the land. To 
Dr. C.iltell as the President has this great success been due. With many another man in his pkace the 
results would have been very ditTerent. 

Yet after accomplishing so great and glorious a wt.rk at Easton, in the midst of success assured, and 
amid co-workers glad to see him ever thus at their head till the end of his days, Dr. Cattell volunta- 
rily rc-i;ins this pust of honor and u.sefulness, and takes the laboring and self-sacrificing post at the head 
of the I5o<rd of .Ministerial Relief. As we li^teneil, in Calvary Church, to his able and touching address, 
while the heart was swelling with emotion, and through eyes dim with tears, we saw the whole congre- 
gati'in wa.s equally moved — none of us could do otherwise than honor the man who thus voluntarily de- 
votes his ripe and rich old age to such a service, and feel it a privilege to f.iU into the ranks after such 
a leader, an'l follow him even into the hardest of the struggle, glad to go in such a duty wherever his 
voice and example may point the way. 




James Hall Mason Knox, d.d. 



REV. JA:\IES mall mason KNOX, D. D., LL. D. 

REV. J.\MES H.\L!- M..\S(iN Knox, D. D., LL. D., rrcsident of Lafayette Col- 
lege, was born in New York, June lo, 1824. If ancestry determines 
life and character, it would not have been difficult to predict for him the marked 
career of usefuhicss in the church wliich he has already had. His father was 
Dr. John Knox, for more than forty j-cars senior pastor of the Collegiate Re- 
formed Dutch Church, of New York, and his mother was the daughter of Dr. 
John M. Mason, the eminent Presbyterian divine. 

He was graduated from Columbia College at the age of seventeen, and after a 
j-ear's interval entered the theological seminary of the Dutch Reformed Church 
at New Brunswick, N. J., and was at the completion of liis course ordained to 
the gospel ministry. Among other calls then received, he accepted one from 
German Valley, Presb\-tery of Newton, N. J. Before entering upon his pastorate 
there, he was married to Miss Louise Wakeman, daughter of Burr W'akeman, 
Esq , of New York. 

He remained at German Valley five years, when he removed to Easton, Pa,, 
in response to a call from the Reformed Dutch Church of that cit)-, Classis of 
New Brunswick. His pastorate at Easton, although only two )'ears in diwation, 
was eminently successful, and his people, as before, parted from him with deep 
regret. His next church was the First Presbyterian, of Germantown, Pa., Sec- 
ond Presb\'te]y of Philadelphia, now Presbytery of Philadelphia North. Here 
he spent sixteen years of useful and devoted labor. It was tluring his stay here 
that Mrs. Knox died, after many years of ill health, lea\-ing two daughters, one 
of whom now survives. Si.\ years later he was married to Miss Helen R. 
Thompson, daughter of Judge Oswald Thompson, long distinguished at the 
Philadelphia Bar and on its bench. Miss Thompson was a lady who added rare 
social and intellectual gifts to her domestic virtues, and has been a fitting help- 
meet to the Doctor, both in his pastoral life and in the larger field to which he 
has since been called. Their son, James H. M. Knox, Jr., is a bright lad, now 
well on in his preparation for college. 

For ten years succeeding his pastorate at Germantown Dr. Knox was settled 
over the Presbyterian Church of Bristol, Pa., a people to whom he became 
deeply attached, and who were equally devoted to him. Nor was it otherwise 
in his former fields. Dr. Knox has everywhere won confidence and love. A 
man of scholarly tastes and of more than common ability as a preacher, he has a 
still higher fitness for the work of the Master in his sincerity and manly char- 
acter, his warm and sympathetic heart. It has been his aim to present the gos- 
pel with .simplicity and earnestness, with singleness of purpose, hiding Idiiisclf 
behind the word of God. And he has had good fruits of his ministry in the 
growth of his churches. The congregations under his charge had been trained 
to liberal giving and to activity in various lines of Christian work. 

(.«5) 



■^■^6 JAS. IIAI.L MASON KNOX. 

In addition to the cares of his own cliurcli, Dr. Knox has been connected with 
many of the Boards and Committees of the cliurch at large, showing in every 
office of tlie kind great wisdom, ripe judgment, and marked executive abihty. 
He has represented his Presbytery several times in the meetings of the General 
A.ssembh", and has invariably been an influential member of that body. 

Along with his other activities, he was for t\\ent_\' )ears a member of tlie 
Board of Trustees of Lafayette College ; had been a factor in the recent striking 
growth of that institution, and so important a factor that, at the resignation of 
Dr. Cattell in 1883, the Board turned to him with the offer of the Presidency of 
the college. Dr. Knox was far from aspiring to such a position ; indeed, he 
accepted it only with the utmost reluctance. No one was more familiar than he 
with the great work of his predecessor, and no one knew better than he what 
gifts of experience and tact and geniality of temperament Dr. Cattell had brought 
to its performance; but the cordial unanimity of the Board overcame his reluc- 
tance, and brought the work before him as one to which he was amply called. 
During the twenty years of Dr. Cattell's administration the college had 
advanced well toward the first rank. New departments of instruction were added, 
new buildings put up. The Faculty was increased to correspond with the larger 
attendance of the students. Upon the retirement of Dr. Cattell, in consequence 
of his broken health due to the long and continuous strain put upon him during 
his twenty years' service as President, Dr. Knox was elected as his successor. 
The good work, so auspiciously begun and so energetically pursued, has been 
continued by Dr. Knox, and with the same earnest efforts to enlarge the endow- 
ments and increase the efficiency of the institution. 

Dr. Knox took his place as President of the Faculty in November, 1883, but 
did not deliver his inaugural address till the following commencement, in June, 
1884. 

As early as 1S61 his Alma Mater, Columbia College, had conferred upon 
him the degree of Doctor of Divinity ; in 1 8S5 she added the degree of Doctor of 
Laws. 

Obviously the time has not yet come to speak of Dr. Knox's work in this 
new field, for he has but just begun it. This much, however, may be said: he 
has taken his place and performed his part thus fu' with quiet di;_;nity and pru- 
dence, and in a manner to commend him to the confidence and esteem of his 
colleagues, of the students, and of all friends of the college. One or two extracts 
from the inaugural address will show both the lijjcr.d conservatism of his views 
of college education and his conviction of tlie supreme importance of the relig- 
ious training of the young. 

" The curriculum of former days has been greatly modified by the demands of 
the present age; but .still the end in view has not been changed. The college is 
not and cannot be a school for apprentices, who will immediately on leaving its 
halls begin to work at their trades. Nor is it a professional sclinol, to send nut 
its graduates as fully prepared men to engage at once in their chosen lile-occu- 



JAS. HALL MASON KNuX. ■\2,J 

pations ; but it is a discipliuary institution in wliicli to train the mind so tliat it 
siiall lay hold of and appropriate the learning needful to fit it for the special call- 
ing in life, whatever tliat calling may be. It is this fountlation work a college 
does." 

And again : " My profound conviction is that a seminary of any sort which 
does not inculcate the principles of true religion, which does not hold and illus- 
trate in its life and with positiveness the fundamental doctrines of Christianity, 
might better not exist." 

Dr. Kno.x, too, has a most profound faith in the future of the institution of 
liis choice. Lafayette College has had lier " great fight of afflictions," and 
through them all " has done good work for God and man." " She has li\'ed," 
lie says, " and sent forth her graduates into all lands, and on errands of uplifting 
power in every department of commanding influence, and by doing it she has 
earned tlie right to live not only, but to be lifted into a condition of prosperity 
such as by her past experience she has been fitted to use riglul\'." 

It is gratifying to be able to say that the internal life of the college over which 
Dr. Knox presides was never more satisfactory and delightful than at present. 
And by this is meant not simply the personal relations existing between the mem- 
bers of the " community of scholars," but the discipline, the standard of diligence 
and scholarship, and the prevalent manliness and high moral tone of the 
students. 

43 




Prof. Fhancis A. March, ll. 



FRANCIS A. ]\rARCH. 

IT has been the good fortune of Lafayette College to have for long periods the 
presence and active influence of eminent and gifted men in the faculty — • 
men whose lives and characters have been inspiration for good to the community 
of scholars, and who have, by their own long-continued and devoted labors, 
illustrated wise educational methods and impressed them upon the college. To 
no one does this remark more fitly apply than to Professor Francis A. March, 
Professor of the English Language and Comparative Philology. 

Dr. March was born at Millbury, Mass., in 1825 ; was educated at the public 
schools of Worcester and at Amherst College, where he graduated in 1.S45 
with the highest honors. For two years after his graduation, he was tutor at 
Amherst College, and after a visit to the West Indies for the benefit of his health, 
he taught at Fredericksburg, Va. In 1855 he came to Lafayette College as tutor. 
The faculty at that time consisted (in addition to President McLean) of the emi- 
nent physician and scholar, Dr. Traill Green, who is still at his post; James H. 
Coffin, the distinguished mathematician; Joseph Alden, afterwards President of 
Jefferson College: William C. Cattell, afterwards for twenty years President of 
Lafayette College; and Alonzo Linn, now the Vice-President of Washington 
and Jefferson College. Such men were not slow to learn the great acquisition 
the facult)^ had made in their new associate. This was happil)' referred to by 
President Cattell at the re-dedication of Pardee Hall in 1880, an occasion that was 
honored by the presence of an immense crowd of distinguished scholars, and of 
men eminent in public life, including the President of the United States and the 
Governor of Pennsylvania. Dr. March was orator of the da)', and in introducing 
him. President Cattell said : 

" During the fall term of my first year at Lafayette as Professor of Ancient 
Languages — this was in 1 85 5 — the faculty found it necessary to ask the trustees 
for an additional teacher. We had heard of a young scholar of great promise, 
a native of Massachusetts, but then residing in Fredericksburg, Va., and we per- 
suaded the executive committee to appoint him tutor in ancient languages. He 
entered at once upon his duties — at a salarj^ I believe, of ^400 — and heard the 
freshmen recite in one of the old basement rooms of the college, then known as 
"the Tombs." I always claim to have been the first to find out that the tutor 
knew more about Latin and Greek than the professor. (Laughter.) Others soon 
found it out too — my claim is only that of being the original discoverer (renewed 
merriment); and I said to the trustees that if we both continued in the depart- 
ment of ancient languages our places should be reversed. But the situation 
was relieved after a year or two by promoting the young tutor to a department 
of his own — one that placed the English language, as a college stud}', upon the 
same footing as the ancient languages. (Applause.) 

" This is not the time nor the place for me to speak of the most fricndl}- and 

(339) 



340 FRANCIS A. MARCH. 

intimate relations tliat ha\'e, without interruption, existed between my collearjue 
and myself, as both of us have steadily grown older during this quarter of a 
centur}-; but I may say here, what all scholars know, that he has come to be a 
recognized authorit\' in philology even in the oldest universities of pAirope, and 
that his great learning reflects honor, not only upon this college and upon 
this countn,-, but upon the age in which we live. (Applause.) It is this great 
scholar. Dr. Francis A. March, who will now address you." 

In 1856 he was raised to the rank of Adjunct-Professor. In 1857 his present 
department was constituted, and he was made " Professor of the English Lan- 
guage and Lecturer in Comparative Philology." This was something new, for 
it had not been usual for colleges to set apart time for the special philological 
study of English, nor to associate coniparative philology with the study of a 
modern language. Whether from some inherent fitness in such an association, 
or from the genius and ability of the man, the experiment was an assured suc- 
cess, and this distinctive feature of Lafayette's curriculum has steadily grown in 
renown. 

In the early years of Professor March's connection with the college, while the 
faculty was still small, he often heard classes in studies outside the range of his 
special department, in Greek and Latin, in Metaphysics, in Constitutional Law, 
and even the Natural Sciences, and everywhere with the same efficiency and 
vigor which has ever characterized his work. 

As an educator, however, he is best known by his admirable method of pur- 
suing the English classics. The following extract from the college catalogue 
gives the outlines of his method : 

"The English language is studied in the same way as the Latin and Greek. 
An English classic is taken up. The te.xt is minutely analyzed, the idioms ex- 
plored, and s\-nonyms weighed : the mythology, biography, history, metaphysics, 
theology, geography are all looked up. The rhetorical laws of fCnglish compo- 
sition, and the principles of epic and dramatic art, are applied to Milton, Shakes- 
peare, and other English classics, line by line. The character of the author, and 
his life and times, are studied, and an attempt is made to comprehend these great 
representative works in their relations to the English literature, and the English 
race. The text is also made the formation of more general study of language ; 
the origin and history of recurring words, the laws by which words grow up 
from their roots in our language, the laws by 'which changes from our language 
to another are governed, are stamped on the mind by continual iteration ; and 
an attempt is made to ground all these facts and laws in laws of mind, and of 
the organs of speech." 

The course is well exhibited in the " Method of Philological .Study of the 
English Language," a little work prepared by Dr. March, and published in 1864. 
It contains passages from five of the great P'nglish classics — Bunyan, Milton, 
-Shakespeare, Spenser and Chaucer — and a few pages of sijccimca questions on 
each selection. 



FRANCIS A. MARCH. ' 34! 

Professor Owen, liimsclf a pupil of Dr. Alarch, says in liis " Ili.storical Sketches 
of Lafayette College," " a.s an educator lie is earnest, thorough and vigorous, 
and his work is characterized by a straightforward energy which secures the 
interest of students, and stimulates the dullest as well as the brightest to vigor- 
ous exertion. It is perhaps not too much to say, that in no class in any college 
is better work done b\' the }'oung men than in his, nor with a more genuine 
scholarly enthusiasm. He will take the little speech of Flavius that opens the 
play of Julius Cjesar, and engage the class for an hour upon it, during which 
time, though it may seem all too short to them, they will have gleaned with him 
far and near, and brought in rich burdens from many fields. It is a matter of 
surprise to the student how many sources of knowledge are compassed in these 
rapid excursions. The classic page itself is but the starting-point ; from it they 
go forth in every direction : to Rome, and the early times of the empire ; to the 
court of Elizabeth, and the history of her reign; to Shakespeare's masterly 
development of human character ; to dramatic art, its aims, rules and devices ; 
and upon the manifold lines of linguistic investigation; the author's diction, the 
inHuences that determine it, the adaptation to character; the forms and relations 
of sentences; the growth, history, uses and relations of words; and so to the 
psychology and physiology of speech. These topics, many of which, as ordi- 
narily discussed, might seem abstruse and unintelligible, arc opened up and illus- 
trated by easy and natural questions growing out of the passage, so that a 
knowledge of the most important principles of art and linguistic science is 
grounded in and associated with the forms of our dail)' speech." 

The whole scheme of linguistic study in the college is shaped and organized 
upon the methods of Dr. March, with a view to the application in daily work of 
the best results of modern research, and to laj'ing the foundation for the thorough 
study of the science of language. A progressive course is laid out in each 
department, and each part studied with reference to some particular set of lin- 
guistic facts. These facts are kept constantly in review, and it is found that the 
student soon learns to work at language with a true scholarly interest, and is all 
the time working toward the real mastery of the laws of speech. 

The studies in Professor March's department at Lafayette have attracted the 
attention of the most distinguished educators, both in this country and in 
Europe. The British Quaricrly, in a review of the higher education in the 
United States, gives some details, and adds : " Nowhere else is the subject 
treated with equal competence and success." The London Athcnccuni saj's : 
"The studies of a philological character carried on at Lafayette College are not 
surpassed in thoroughness by those which we are accustomed to associate with 
German universities." The results of the course, too, in the philological at- 
tainments of its graduates have been in the highest degree satisfactor}', and a 
good many excellent teachers have been trained at Lafayette. 

In 1869 appeared the " Comparative Grammar of the Anglo-.Saxon Lan- 
guage," a work of great value and profound scholarship, which, as Max Muller 



34- FRANCIS A. MARCH. 

says, " even-body praises." The Anglo-Saxon Reader soon followed. In 1874- 
76 he edited four volumes in the Douglass series of Christian classics, viz.: 
Latin Hymns, liusebius, Athenagoras and Tertullian, and from time to time has 
written and spoken upon educational, philosophical and philological subjects, 
especially before the American Philological Association, of which he was Presi- 
dent in 1875. The College of New Jersey, in 1870, conferred upon him the 
degree of LL. D., and in 187 1 Amherst, his Alma Mater, did the same. 

The following tribute by one of Dr. March's pupils may fitly close our sketch 
of this renowned scholar and educator: " He went early and lovingly to the 
great masters of linguistic science, caught the inspiration of their methods and 
of their latest conquests, and has pursued his worlc with results which bespeak 
the highest type of scholar. A man of singular!}- large, clear and canditl in- 
sight, of rigorous intellectual as well as moral integrity, his mind in its ap- 
proaches to truth seems not to ha\'e the hindrances of most thinkers and inves- 
tigators, but to move directly and by the instincts of a sturd)- common sense to 
the ver\- heart and gist of things. If his greatest work, the Anglo-Saxon Gram- 
mar, as he himself modestly suggests, grew up in the light of Grimm, Bopp, 
Curtius, Grein and the rest, it is equally true that this worker in the light of 
others has now become an illustrious giver of liglit — a peer of the masters. 
Much that such a man does must of course be remote from his dail\- duties as a 
teacher, but Dr. March has a full share of the daily instruction in the college 
and frequent contact with large numbers of students, and in truth he enters into 
these duties with heart and life. Any one who meets him as an instructor can- 
not fail to see that for this work his vast knowledge is constantly freshened and 
vivified ; that upon these more elementary phases of his subjects a great light 
is thrown, by which learners kindle their own enthusiasm and are stimulated to 
the most faithful effort. He is not simply a profound scholar shut up to books, 
but a man of skill, of tact, endowed by nature and by training with a manifold 
capacity for intelligent outlook upon this varied world. He knows men and 
things, and is therefore a linguist who in his teaching can make many sources 
of knowledge and many directions of insight tributary to the study of speech ; 
who can measure and bring out the individuality of each student ; who can make 
the bright know that they are recognized, give confidence to the backward and 
diffident, and make all feel that they are in the presence of a man who respects 
lionest effort whatever the degree of success, and who is wedded with a sincere 
and constant love to truth and integrity. Candid and kind, a wise and true 
friend, a noble nature, not only well knowing the needs of students as learners 
and thinkers, but tenderly alive and solicitous where it concerns their higher in- 
terests, it is no wonder that Dr. March is regarded in the whole college commu- 
nity with a feeling akin to reverence. To sit at the feet of such a man, to have 
his guidance in .study and the inspiration of his daily presence, is a high privi- 
lege, and the distinguished place which he holds in the love and esteem of all is 
proof that the privilege is amply appreciated." 




PRES'r Adam H. pErrEROLF, ll.d. 



ADAM H. FETTKROLF. 

ADAM H. Fetterolf, Ph. D., LL. D., President of Girard College, is the son 
of Gideon Fetterolf, and was born in Montgomer}' county in 1842. lie 
is in the prime of a life the adult years of which have been given to educational 
pursuits. His career has been niainl)' that of a student and teacher. His 
academic training was acquired at the Freeland Seminar)', then under the man- 
agement of Rev. Henrj' A. Hunsicker. After completing his course and teaching 
for a time in the public schools, Mr. Fetterolf connected himself with tlic institution 
as professor of mathematics, and subsequently purchased Mr. Hunsickcr's interest 
and became proprietor and Principal. He conducted the institute ver)' success- 
ful!)' for five )'ears, when the buildings and ginuiids were purchased for Ursinus 
College. Professor Fetterolf then associated himself with Re\-. Di'. Wells in the 
ownership and management of Andalusia Acadeni)- in Bucks countv. After the 
death of Dr. Wells, in 1 87 1, he assmncd the entire charge, and continued at the 
head of the acadeni)' for the next eight )'cars. In 1880 he was elected b)' the 
Board of City Trusts to fill the chair of Vice-President of Girard College. At 
the death of President Allen, two )'ears later. Professor Fetterolf was chosen to 
succeed him. He has held the positi<in and discharged the manifold duties ever 
since, with the confidence of the Board autl the approbation of the public. 

The college of which Dr. Fetterolf is now Pi'esideiit was founded by Stephen 
Girard, a native of France, who had amassed an immense t'ortime as a shipping 
merchant and banker in Philadelphia, where he had arri\'ed a poor bo)' and begun 
business in a very humble wa)', and who bequeathed $2,000,000 and the residue 
of his estate, after pa)'ing certain legacies, for the erection and support of a college 
for orphans. As many poor white male orphans who are residents of Pennsyl- 
vania are admitted, between the ages of si.x and ten )'ears, as the endowment can 
support. They are fed, clothed and educated, and between the ages of fourteeia 
and eighteen are bound out to mechanical, commercial and agricultural occupa- 
tions. They are given manual as well as mental training, and are in great 
demand in the shops and in the manufactories of Philadelphia as skilled work- 
men, after they have graduated. 

B)' a provision in the will of the founder no ecclesiastic, missionar)- or minister 
of an)' sect whatever is to hold an)' connection with the college, or be admitted 
to the premises even as a visitor; but the officers of the institution are lequired 
to instruct the pupils in the purest principles of moralit)', leaving them free to 
adopt their own religious opinions. The most minute directions were gi\'en for the 
construction, size and materials of the bLiilding, which was begun in Jul)', 1843, 
and opened January i, 1848. The main building is the finest specimen of Gre- 
cian architecture in America, and is even said to be the finest of modern times. 
The outer walls, staircases, floors and roof are all of marble, and the entire 

{^4^) 



344 ADAM II. FETTEROLF. 

Structure ro.-its on a base of eleven steps, extending around the entire building. 
It is in the form of a Corinthian temple, surrounded by a portico of thirty-four 
columns, each fift)--five feet high, and six feet in diameter. Its length is one 
hundred and sixty-nine feet, its width one hundred and eleven feet, and its height 
ninety-seven feet. The entrances are on the north and south fronts, each door 
being eleven feet wide and thirt)'-two feet high. The east and west sides are 
pierced each by twenty-four windows. A marble effigy of the founder stands in 
the vestibule, and behind this statue, in a great stone cenotapli, lie the remains 
of Stephen Girard and those of his wife. Within the enclosure, which contains 
over forty acres, there are numerous other buildings, some of them recently 
erected, and the institution constitutes within itself a village of marble and brick. 

The government of Girard College demands high and rather peculiar qualifi- 
cations. The position of the President is one of great responsibility, standing as 
he does in loco parentis to fourteen hundred orphan boys — the representative 
head of the greatest individual charity on the continent. 

President Fetterolf has the charm of a genial, quiet, well-balanced character, a 
pleasing address, an impressive presence, and tliat subtle faculty which wins the 
confidence of boys. He is the fourth President of the college. The first pre- 
sided over but two hundred bo)'s ; the second saw five hundred assembled at 
ciiapel ; the third witnessed the roll lengthen to eleven hundred; while Dr. Fet- 
terolf has fourteen hundred under his charge. It requires executive ability of the 
highest order to successfully direct the destinies and control the actions of so 
many undeveloped mental and physical organisms, and that President Fetterolf 
is able to accomplish this without harsh discipline, demonstrates in the strongest 
possible way his eminent fitness for the responsible position he occupies. 

His abilit)' has had numerous recognitions from the faculties of other col- 
leges, the most recent of which was the conferring upon him of the degrees of 
A. M. and Ph. D. by Lafayette College, and by Delaware College of the title of 
LL.D. 

In Maj-, 1887, the Legislature of Penns}-l\ania passed an act authorizing and 
requesting the Governor to appoint a commission of five citizens of the Common- 
wealth to " make inquiry and report, by bill or otherwise, respecting the subject 
of Industrial Education." Governor Beaver placed President Fetterolf on this 
commission, his already extensive knowledge of the subject making the selection 
especially valuable and appropriate. 

Dr. Fetterolf has been twice married, and has two sons. His first wife was 
Miss Annie Hergesheimer, daughter of George Mergesheimer, Esq., of German- 
town. In 1883 he married Miss Laura M. Mangam, daughter of William D. 
Mangam, Ivsq., of Brooklyn, N. Y. 




I 



\ 



Rev. a. R. Horne, d.d. 



ABRAHAM REASOR IIORNE. 

ABRAHAM R. HoRNE, A. M., D. D., one of the most prominent instructors of 
youth in the State, and the founder and editor of the National Educator, is 
the son of David L. and Mary Home, and was born in Bucks county, I\Iarch 24, 
1834. Tiie family is a very old one in that county, and the house in which ho 
was born is said to be the oldest in Springfield township. 

At an early age _\-oung Home manifested a taste for reading, and in one of his 
crisp editorials in the National Educator he recounts how, when only eight years 
old, he waited c\'cry Wednesday evening, sometimes in the darkness of the night, 
for the " pust-rider " who delivered the Doj'lestown weeklies to Springtown, and 
was willing to trade a DoylcstoiLm Democrat or Intelligencer for a basket of apples. 
He also early exhibited a talent for preaching, and frequently expounded the 
gospel to as many of his young playmates as he could induce to listen to his 
liarangues. In 1S50, at the age of sixteen, he commenced his woik as a teacher 
of a public school within a half mile of his birthplace. He taught there for three 
successive terms, and was then called to preside over the public schools of Beth- 
lehem, Pa., where he remained until the fall of 1854, when he entered the IVnn- 
S}-l\'ania College, Gcttysbiu-g, where he gradiiated in 1858. IV-fore his gradua- 
tion he had already entered upon his labors as Princi[3al of the Bucks County 
Norn'ial and Classical School at Quakertown. While he h.ul charge of this 
institution Professor H. L. Baugher, now the Rc\'. Dr. P>aii;_;her, Professor of 
Greek in Pennsj-lvania College, was associatetl with him as Assistant Principal. 
Dr. Home continued in his work of educating teachers and others, both j-oung 
women and men, at this institution until 1863. Many of the students of this 
school are now occupying prominent positions in life, among whom are i\Ionroe 
B. Snyder, Professor of Astronomy in the Philadelphia High School; Rev. 
George U. Wenner, of New York ; Superintendent J. B. Bnniner, of Omaha, Neb. ; 
City Superintendents Laudis, of AUentown, and Buehrle, of Lancaster; County 
Superintendents Knauss, of Lehigh, and Weiss, of Schuylkill, Pa.; and Dr. J. E. 
Stahr, of Franklin and Marshall College. 

In 1867 Dr. Home became Cit)- Superintendent of Schools at Williamsport, 
Pa., which position he held until he was called to the Principalship of the Key- 
stone State Normal School at Kiitztoun, Pa., in 1S72. While he was Principal 
of that institution the school attained a degree of pi'osperity that it had ne\'er 
enjo\'ed before, over fi\'e luuulred students ha\-ing been sometimes enrolled in a 
single term. Superintendent Thomas M. Balliet, Ph. D., of Springfield, iMass., 
who has distinguished himself as an educator, was one of the students; also 
Superintendents Werner, of Northampton, D. S. Keck, of Berk-s, and J. W. Paul, 
of Monroe county, and a large number of now prominent clergymen, lawyers, 
physicians, professors and teachers. 

44 (345) 



-4'5 ADRAIIAM R. IIOKNE. 

lie resigned tlie principalship of the Keystone State Normal School in 1877 
to take a chair in the Normal Department of Muhlenbiirg College at Allen- 
town, Pa. He occupied this position until 1882. Here again a very promising 
number of young men were sent forth under his auspices. In the .summer and 
autumn of 1881-S2-S3 he was engaged as State Institute Instructor in Texas 
and Louisiana, tra\elling over the greater part of these States, and co-laboring 
with the State Superintendents and prominent educators not only of these but 
of other States of the Southwest. Governor McEncry, of Louisiana, and State 
Superintendent Fay bear strong testimony to the value of his serxices in behalf 
of the instruction of teachers and in the cause of popular education. 

Dr. Home has a happy faculty of showing teachers how to do a great amount 
of work in the way of experiments, and do it well, at very slight expense. He 
is an admirable educator, combining excellent instruction with sufficient enter- 
tainment to hold the attention and impress the lesson on the mind of e\cry one 
present. 

Dr. Home is a c!erg\-mnn of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, and has served 
congregations in connection with his educational work ever since 1859, when he 
was ordained. No less than fifty men are now in the ministry of various denomi- 
nations who were directed and encouraged to enter the sacred office by him. 
He has alwa)-s firmly defended the doctrines of the Bible and of Evangelical 
Christianity. In 18S2 he engaged in a discussion at Doylestown, Pa., with the 
distinguished free-thinker, B. F. Underwood, which continued three nights, and 
in which he defended the doctrines of the Bible with great success. At teachers' 
institutes, in addition to his instruction in methods, Dr. Home also delivers lec- 
tures on Common Science, illustrated with experiments. He has written a book, 
" Experiments Without Apparatus," thousands of copies of which have been sold. 
Being a Pennsylvania German, he also wrote and published a book which was 
especially designed for and successfully accomplished the purpose of enabling 
those of the community who spoke that language to Icarn E..glish. He is also 
tlie publisher of a small book for students of botany. In his Xalioiml Ediaator, 
a semi-monthl)' which he has edited and published continuously since i860, he 
disseminates a large amount of information for old and jouiig — teachers, parents 
and pupils. His articles on "Common Sense in Teaching," "Health Notes," 
" Experiments Without Apparatus " and " Useful Information " are xery exten- 
sively copied and read. There is not another educational jiublication in the 
country that has been so long (twenty-eight }-cars) under the same management. 
Dr. Home devotes himself to his paper, to institute work, and to lecturing and 
preaching. He serves at present as pastor four congregations in the vicinity of 
Allentown. He is often called quite a distance to ofiFiciate upon special occasions, 
speaking both in English and German. His institute work extends over Penn- 
.sylvania and other States, and during the summer months of the past few j-ears he 
lias been one of the instructors at the Normal School at Niagara Falls. Dr. Home 
is a good type of a farmer's son, who, despite the lack of advantages enjoyed by 



ABRAHAM K. llciRXE. 347 

iiianj' otiicr \-outIis, lias won his \va}- in tlie world by industi}- and perseverance 
backed b\' inherent abiht\'. It is stateii regardinij hini tliat he has never been 
sick, has not Iiad a cold for twcnt)- )-ears, never loses a night's rest, lias a stento- 
rian voice, and is ahvas's in a g(~iod humor. 

In 1857 he married Jemima Enielia, daii!:;hter of David I. and Sarah Yerkcs, of 
Bethlehem, both of whom are yet in the enjo\-ment of good health, though past 
fourscore ^■ears of age. The offspring of the marriage are Sadie J., married to 
Rev. Joseph W. I\Ia\-ne, of Dublin, Bucks count)'; David R. Hornc, attornej-'at- 
law, W'lchita, Kan. ; M. Luther Home, attornej'-at-law, AUentown ; Thomas K. 
Home, business manager of the National Educator ; Augustus F. Home, student 
at Lafayette College; and Hattie B. Home, attending public school at AUen- 
town. 

Dr. Home's wife, who has shared the joys of his busy life for a quarter of a 
century, has taken a deep interest in his labors, and the}- are now granted the 
additional happiness of seeing their children grow up to honor them with the 
results of practical teaching of the wa)' thej' should go. 




James E. Garretson, m. d. 



JAMES EDMUND GARRETSON. 

To truly epitomize the life-work of a man who does not care to proclaim him- 
self to the world as one of the world's benefactors, even though there 
exists living testimony of his skill and beneficence, is an undertaking that is as 
delicate as it is difficult. 

Out of regard for decided views expressed in his works bj- the subject of tliis 
sketch that " it is not wise to praise any man until at least six feet of earth cover 
him," and furthermore " that individuals are nothing — the matter of life being 
with the work," it is deemed best to record siiiipl)- those matters which relate 
the subject with the public. 

J.A.ME3 E. G.-\RRETSOX, eminent as a surgeon and as a philosopher, was born 
in Wilmington, Delaware, in the year 1828. His boyhood did not differ materially 
from that of other boys. He climbed as many trees, tore the knees out of as ^ 
many pairs of pantaloons, and presumabi)' was as full of fun and mi-^chief as his 
companions, or bows the world over. Before reaching his majority, however, 
young Garretson iiad sobered down wonclerfull}-, and instead of becoming, as 
most lads of nineteen or twenty )-ears do, a reader of trashy literature, the )-oung 
man began diving into works of worth and solidity. Possessing not only a 
remarkably retentive memory for what he read, but a mind that, as j'ears came 
on, proved itself to be philosophically analytical in a marked degree, it was but 
natural that he should pull himself out of the ever\--da}' rut and seek for a place 
on higher, broader paths where trod men whose genius spurred on his ambition 
and made brighter his way. 

Young Mr. Garretson, after finishing his school days, came to Philadelphia. 
This was after he had spent several years, unmarked b}^ special incident, in his 
native State, and in New Jersey. In 1856 the )'oung man, who had a predilection 
for close study several years before, made up his mind that he would study the 
profession of medicine. He had thought over it often ; he had reasoned out 
that the profession was an honorable one, and that it was one that benefited 
humanity; for, young as he was, he had already become a philosopher. There 
was nothing mercenary in the conclusion at which he arrived. He had read and 
studied over the doctrines of Aristotle ; he had analyzed the pungent aphorisms 
of Plato, and had pretty thoroughly digested the inwardness and purpose of Stoic 
philosophy. Despite this triumvirate of mental giants opposing each other as 
they did in the young man's mind, he proved himself to possess sufficient indi- 
viduality to map out a plan of action that should be his own, and only his own. 
He began to study, and with him study did not mean a skinmiing over of text 
books. It did not mean a three hours' spasm of hard work, and a six hours' 
relaxation given over to questionable recreation in a great city. The )-oung man 
was determined to attain the object of fitting himself to be useful. He econo- 

(349} 



350 JAMES E. GARKETSON. 

mizcd the minutes. He systemized his time and worked steadily and courage- 
ously, without other hope of reward than that which could be attained should 
lie find himself able to serve the needy. 

In 1S59 he graduated at that time-honored institution, the University of Penn- 
syh'ania. His industry and close attention to his studies had attracted the 
attention of the professors during the cour.se and after his graduation, and he was 
so highly spoken of that in 1861 he was made Lecturer on Anatomy in the 
Philadelphia School of Anatonn-, Prof D. Hayes Agncw and himself conducting 
the departments. From that time on Dr. Garretson became a human sponge. 
He absorbed everj'thmg that related to his profession, and even the most minute 
details did not escape his notice. He had never been a man to neglect little 
things, and as he grew older he saw the necessity of regarding trifles; so in the 
profession of medicine nothing was trivial. To every idea advanced he gave 
careful consideration, and possessing those much-to-be-admired mental qualifica- 
tions — analysis and .synthesis — he was able to separate the wheat from the chaff, 
and turn the wheat to the very best ad\antage. 

Dr. Garretson did not cease to be a student after his graduation, but on the 
contrar\' he worked harder than ever. While others were taking needed recreation, 
or had settled down with the idea that they had little else to learn, he was poring 
over his books, gaining new ideas and making new ones of his own. Although 
never intending to be a specialist, he gradually became interested in a particular 
branch of study, and some time about the close of the war he had made up his 
mind to give greater attention to the science of oral surgery than had been given 
in the past by practitioners generally. It was this determination that made him 
what he is to-daj- — one of the most skilful diagnosticians of diseases of the 
mouth, jaws, face and associate parts in the United States. This line of study 
was faithfully followed up, and in the year 1869 he was made Oral Surgeon to 
the University of Pennsylvania, and Surgeon in charge of the Oral Hospital. 
It was between the }ears 1S65 and 1866 that Dr. Garretson, after carefully 
weighing the wortii of the opinions of the authorities on the subject, determined 
to write a book himself Attending closely to his practice, which had then 
become quite extensive, and neglecting none of the ordinary courtesies of life, he 
performed the task of writing a book of 1,000 octavo pages, entitled, " The Sys- 
tem of Oral Surgery," a work that is now in its fourth edition, and is the accepted 
authority on the subject among English and American physicians, having also, 
as I am informed by the publishers, a fine .sale in every civilized country on the 
globe. Dr. Garretson was asked one day how he managed to get through such 
an enormous amount of work, and j-et never appear to be in a hurry. " It is not 
at all difficult," he replied, "providing one follows out a very simple plan. Do 
not neglect the minutes, and use every opportunity that presents itself Ascer- 
tain what part of the day best suits your brain for a certain line of work, and 
then do that woik methodically, and not by fits and starts." 

It was this principle, to which he adhered closely, that enabled him to compile 



JAMES E. GARRETSON. 35 I 

a work whose tedious cliaractcr would Iia\'c tliscouraj^cd many otlicr autliors 
with far more leisure time thau he. " The S}'steiii of Oral Surtjer)-," wliile a 
most valuable addition to surgical literatuie by Dr. Garretsoii, represents but a 
part of the work of his pen in the matter of scientific writing. He is the author 
of a great number of clinical lectures on general surgical subjects, the publish- 
ing of which has been continued in the various medical and dental jour- 
nals issued in this country and in lunope ; but the labor which can be 
denominated his professional monument is certainly the treatise on oral sur- 
gery which belongs to Lippincott's Physicians' Reference Library. The subject 
stands to-day as the result of his work, and as a specialty is as fully developed 
as ophthalmology. 

To Dr. Garretson belongs the credit of having introduced into general surgical 
practice and made familiar the surgical engine, a plan of operating which has 
worked a revoliftion in the methods of operation upon the bony s)-stem. He 
has, after some opposition on the part of his professional brethren, successfully 
demonstrated the cure of epithelial cancer b)' means of what is professionally 
known as the " flap transfer," an operation that now obtains generally among 
skilful practitioners. An operation of large signification, which consists in 
removing the os irih-n'.v without disturbing the true perineum, is his invention, and 
has attracted wide attention, both here and abroad. He has devised se\'eral 
operations in ex-scctive ner\-e surgery, notably the remo\-al of exposing cords 
requiring to be cut at the base of the skull. Operations for ablations of the 
whole or parts of the maxillary bones without resulting scars ai'c de\ices for 
which much is owing him b}- the surgical world. One operation designed and 
practised b_\' him, and conceded to be one of the high refinements of surgery, is 
the removal of the inferior maxillary nerve, as it lies in its canal, without injuring 
the face. As a practitioner he confines his attention to surgical cases, but he is 
sought in consultation by eminent ph\'sicians in general medical practice. The 
place in which he stands pre-eminent, however, is as a consultant and operator in 
surger)'. 

There are few physicians of to-day who, while devoting their attention to their 
profession, have found time to become literary men. Dr. Garretson has found 
time simply because he has " never neglected the minutes." English hi.story is 
full of doctors whose very recreation consisted in serving their fellows, either by 
instructing or amusing them. Among the most prominent are such men as 
Johnson, Goldsmith, Sir Thomas Brown, Akenside, Keats, Erasmus, Darwin, 
Percival, and the author of " Noctes Ambrosianie." In the literary world Dr. 
Garretson leaves his professional name behind him and becomes "John Darby," 
a grower of potatoes and a dealer in philosoph)-. It is as a writer that the man's 
individuality shines forth, and he is brought, as it were, face to face with his 
reader. His fondness for philosophical thought and his powers of contrast are 
shown in one of his most interesting books, " Brushland," where he portrays, 
with great vividness, the two-fold life which a man can lead. The reader is con- 



35- JAMES E. GARRETSON. 

fronted witli broadcloth and patent-leather boots on one page, and with corduroy 
and horsehide brogans upon another. "Brushland" is in the author's happiest 
\ein. It can be taken as a keen satire, or digested and enjoyed as a philosophi- 
cal discussion between Broadcloth and Corduroy — two creations strikingly bold 
and distincti\-e in their indi\idualities. In one portion of the book there is a 
soliloquy, which has attracted the attention of nearly every critic who has read 
it. The passage is pregnant with the beauties of philosophic thought, and runs 

as follows : " Back into the town is back into the whirl. Oh, blessed 

solace of solitude I How full of company it is to be absolutely alone 1 Here 
upon Elmer bridge I am the world, the world is me. Let the villager barter. 
Let the brushman clear the drain. Here face to face with nature the God runs 
into me driving everything else out. Here in contact with creation I know 
nn-self all bigness, all littleness. Lifted up I am the bloom of a plant; buried I 
am its vital root. I rejoice in an undertaking of nn-self Tiint I know not 
cxactl}- the how and the whereas, the why and the wherefore of man, is nothing 
to me. I know that man nio\'es, and I know how he moves. The nij'stery of 
the sensorium is an arcanum. Let arcanum remain arcanum. 

" • Up or tlown, bloom or root, one is one ; zenith is nadir, n.idir is zenith.' " 

"Thinkers and Thinlcing," another of Dr. Garretson's works, has been pro- 
nounced by an eminent re\iewer of books as philosophy in a nutshell. " It is 
not," says he, " merely mere metaphysics, nor a wordy speculation ; not mere 
guesses at truth, but telling the reader about eminent thinlcers of the past and 
present time, and checking off their theories by the author's full and keen 
practical and physical as well as mental knowledge." 

"Odd Hours of a Physician," "Two Thousand Years After," "Hours with 
John Darby," are from the pen of the same author, and have received the kind- 
liest treatment from the hands of competent critics. The book, "Two Thousand 
Years After," is a continuation of Plato's " Phoedo," being an attempt to demon- 
strate the distinction between mind and soul, and to show the identity of the 
latter with God him.self; hence, its immortality. To accept the teachings of this 
book is to reconcile, not only all differences as to creeds and religions, but is to 
settle at once and forever the disputes of agnostics and theologians. 

"Hours with John Darby" is founded on a verse in Timon's "Images." 
referring to the philosopher Psrrho : 

" These things, my heart, O Pyrrho, longs to hear. 
How now enjoy such ease of life and quiet. 
The only ni,in as hapjiy as a god." 

The chapters of the book treat on different matters related with life antl living, 
commencing with the important subject of women and ending with reflections on 
death. 

"Odd Hours of a Physician" is now in its fourth edition. This book main- 



JAMES E. GAKRETSON. 35 ^ 

tains tlie pleasures of simplicity, and corresponds closely in its manner of loolcing 
at things with the writings of Franklin and Cobbett, with whose works it has 
been classed by the late George Riple_\', the eminent book critic of the Xew )'(v/' 
Tribiiiic. Perhaps no publication of its kind was e\-er more warmly lauded by 
all kinds of people. Its popularity continues unabated. 

"To get into your own life as many other lines as possible," says our author 
in his book, " Brushland," " is to get the most out of life ;" and truly in himself 
is a striking illustration of the capability to keep out of ruts. 

Dr. Garretson's latest work is " Nineteenth Centur)' Sense," a masterful gem 
of philosophic thought. In it the author comes nearer to the Universal than he 
has in any of his previous arguments on the why and wherefore of man. He 
takes a high ground, and discusses things as they arc and as they Sfcin. It is in 
reality a marvellous piece of work. The thread of logic that runs through it, 
from the first page to the last, has strung along it such an abundance of collateral 
issues that the reader must ponder thoughtfully over each of the pregnant 
phrases that finally group themselves together and malce one harmonious whole. 
" Nineteenth Century Sense " is not one of those books that can be read over 
lightly. It must be digested, and, in the simulation of the pabulum that it 
affords, the skeptic as well as the credulous man finds a restfidness that lifts him 
beyond the dross, and permits him to commune with the Ego of the author, and 
see the beauties of the God in man as he sees it. 

Dr. Garretson, as a physician, attends to an extensive private practice, both 
medical and surgical, and conducts a large and responsible clinical service, 
which is particularly noted for the character and gravity of the operations per- 
formed — in this respect unexcelled, certainly, by any hospital work done in this or 
any other countr