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Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year One Thousand Eight Hundred and Fity-One, by 


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District of the State of New York. 

JOHN J. REED, Printer, 

16 Spruce-streat. 


In preparing this Dictionary, the author has aimed less at originahty than utiHty. The 
office of the compiler of a biographical work must be mainly to collect facts from various 
sources, and to present them to the public in a convenient form. He trusts that an 
enthusiastic love of the fine arts, the possession of an extensive library of the best 
works on art, which has been his favorite study for twenty years, together with the 
advantage of consulting the various public libraries of the city, will give him some 
claim to public attention. He can in truth say, that though every article has been 
expressly written for the work, the mental labor of research and condensation has been 
many times as great. 

This work will be found to contain everything of importance embraced in the four 
English dictionaries, viz. : Cunningham's edition of Pilkington's General Dictionary of 
Painters ; Gould's Dictionary of Painters, Sculptors, Engravers, and Architects; Strutt's 
Dictionary of Engravers ; and Stanley's edition of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and 
Engravers, pubhshed in 1849. It contains above fifteen hundred names of eminent 
artists not to be found in any of these works, besides a vast amount of information 
derived from French, English, and Italian authors. Much valuable information has 
been derived from the Dictionaire des Monogrammes, par J. P. Christ, Berlin ; Le 
Peintre Graveur, 21 torn., 'par Adam Bartsch, Vienna ; Dictionaire Biographique 
Universelle, Ancienne et Moderne, 84 to7n., Paris ; all of which are works of immense 
research. It also contains many plates of monograms and ciphers, besides a multitude ♦ 
embodied in the work, which were the private marks of eminent painters and engra- 
vers, and which are of the greatest value to every collector of rare works of art. 

Less attention has been paid to elegance of language than brevity, which has been 
studied as far as perspicuity would admit, so as not to swell the volume to an incon- 
venient and expensive size. Each article has been carefully written and revised, and all 
useless disquisitions avoided, simply mentioning disputes and citing the best authorities ; 
and although the author has often preferred to give the ideas of the best writers in their 
own language, whenever it did not exceed the prescribed limits of the work, he has not 
hesitated to crop all redundancies and strike out irrelevant matter, taking care to omit 
nothing of importance. 

The author has endeavored to introduce system and classification as much as possi- 
ble, giving first a sketch of the artist's life, then a list of his principal works, where to 
be found, and a criticism on the same. He has given only brief sketches to artists of 


t Getlv^.hiiro-. Pq f 

little note, but to those of great renown, as lengthened a notice as the plan of the work 
would allow, taking care in all cases to give a true estimate of each one's merit. It is 
a little remarkable that most modern French and English dictionaries of the fine arts 
only treat of painters from the revival of the art in Italy by Cimabue. This work 
treats very fully of ancient artists, especially the Greek, and it will be seen that they 
excelled no less in painting than in sculpture and architecture, and that these notices 
are not less instructive than interesting. Numberless mis-spellings of proper names, 
found in the foreign dictionaries, have been corrected in this, by the assistance of gen- 
tlemen well versed in foreign literature. 

The want of such a work has long been felt in the United States, which has now 
become absolutely necessary to the healthful development of the rapidly increasing 
taste for the fine arts. The author has spared no pains or expense to render this work 
worthy of the favor of an enlightened public. 


There is a natural love of painting implanted in 
the human breast. The North American Indians 
were delighted with Catlin's portraitures of them- 
selves, their manners and customs, and the wild 
scenery of their hunting-grounds transferred to can- 
vass. They treated him with the greatest respect, 
as a great Medicine Man. Their Chiefs also de- 
light to ornament their lodges, covered with buffalo 
robes, with rude sketches of their heroic exploits 
and daring deeds, which legends they themselves at 
least understand. We may therefore conclude that 
the origin of painting is coeval with man. It was 
very anciently employed, not only for ornament, 
but for the communication of intelligence and the 
preservation of historical facts. The landing of 
Cortez in the harbor of Vera Cruz was immediately 
announced to the Emperor Montezuma, at the 
royal city of Mexico, by means of pictorial sketches. 
The most ancient history of Egypt is recorded in 
this manner on her monuments. Plato asserts 
that painting had been practised ten thousand years 
in Egypt, and that there remained in his time paint- 
ings of that high antiquity which were neither infe- 
rior to, nor very different from, those executed by 
Egyptian artists of the time in which he wrote. 
The testimony of the monuments of Egypt at the 
present day, more conclusively prove to us than the 
writings of Plato or Pliny, that painting was very 
anciently employed by the Egyptians, that they 
never made any progress in the art, and that 
neither their painters or sculptors arrived to any 
perfection in design or execution. They designed 
their sculptured figures in a stiff and formal man- 
ner, with the legs invariably closed, and the arms 
stuck close to their sides, as if they had consulted 
no other model than their bandaged mummies. This 
is not the place to enter into a lengthened disquisi- 
tion on the antiquity of the fine arts, or a history 
of ancient art. Suffice it therefore to say, that 
neither painting, sculpture, nor architecture, arose 
to any degree of perfection, in design or execution, 
worthy of our admiration or imitation, till the palmy 

days of Greece, when they suddenly sprang into 
such beauty and perfection, at least in sculpture and 
architecture, as to be the models of all succeeding 
ages. It is true that the antiquity of architecture 
(and rude painting and sculpture also) of the Egyp- 
tians, and other eastern nations, is sunk in fable ; 
yet these monuments of ancient grandeur astonish 
us by their magnitude, but we do not esteem them 
worthy of our imitation. We look upon them as 
monuments erected in those days when kings were 
gods and the people their slaves, whose chief ambi- 
tion was the conquest of the world, and the build- 
ing of gigantic temples, or mausoleums, to immor- 
talize their names. If we may credit ancient histo- 
rians, the Assyrians and Babylonians echpsed even 
the Egyptians in the magnificence and grandeur of 
their works ; but not having the advantage of last- 
ing materials with which to build, their glory has 
passed away. It is certain that art, throughout the 
east, has retrograded for three thousand years ; 
even in China the arts have not progressed for 
many ages. 

It has been a matter of admiration that the 
Greeks, in the course of three or four centuries, 
should have attained such perfection in every sjje- 
cies of art that ennobles the human mind, as ora- 
tory, poetry, music, painting, sculpture, and archi- 
tecture. Two things explain the cause — freedom 
of action and certainty of reward. This is exem- 
plified in the whole history of the arts and sciences. 
The ancient eastern "nations, among whom the free- 
dom of thought and action was forbidden, and every 
man was obhged to follow the trade of his caste, 
never made any progress ; nor wiU the moderns 
progress in those countries till caste is done away, 
and every man allowed to follow the inclinations 
of his genius. 

The Greeks were favored with a climate the most 
congenial for the perfect development of mental and 
physical powers, and beauty of form. Every man 
was at liberty freely to follow his favorite pursuits. 
They rewarded aU who excelled in anything that 


was useful or beautiful, and that with a lavish hand. 
The prices they paid their great artists were truly- 
astonishing ; in comparison to wliich, the prices paid 
to the greatest artists of modern times are small. 
Nor was this so great an incentive as the renown, 
the admiration, and the caresses they received. — 
[See Aristldes and Apelles.] The man of genius 
was sure of immortality and wealth. Their aca- 
demic groves and their games were the admiration 
and resort of all the surrounding countries. They 
decreed statues to their great men who deserved 
well of their country. To other powerful incentives, 
the Greek artists had the advantage of the best 
models before them, in their gymnastic exercises 
and public games, where the youth contended for 
the prize quite naked. The Greeks esteemed natu- 
ral qualities so highly that they decreed the first 
rewards to those who distinguished themselves in 
feats of agility and strength. Statues were often 
raised to wrestlers. Not only the first youth of 
Greece, but the sons of kings and princes sought 
renown in the pubHc games and gymnastic exer- 
cises. Chrysippus and Cleanthus distinguished 
themselves in these games before they were known 
as philosophers. Plato appeared as a wrestler, 
both at the Isthmian and Pythian games ; and 
Pythagoras carried ofi" the prize of Elis. The pas- 
sion which inspired them was glory^the ambition 
of having a statue erected to their memory, in the 
most sacred place in Greece, to be admired by the 
whole people. 

The advantages which a country derives from a 
cultivation of the fine arts are thus admirably 
summed up by Sir M. A. Shee, late President of 
the Royal Academy, London : 

" It should be the policy of a great nation to be 
liberal and magnificent ; to be free of her rewards, 
splendid in her establishments, and gorgeous in her 
public works. These are not the expenses that sap 
and mine the foundations of public prosperity, that 
break in upon the capital, or lay waste the income 
of a state ; they may be said to arise in her most 
enlightened views of general advantage; to be 
amongst her best and most profitable speculations ; 
they produce large sums of respect and considera- 
tion from our neighbors and competitors, and of pat- 
riotic exultation among ourselves ; they make men 
proud of their country, and from priding it, prompt 
in its defense ; they play upon all the chords of 
generous feeling, elevate us above the animal and 
the machine, and make us triumph in the powers 
and attributes of men." 

The author deems the following observations not 
out of place in a work of this kind, and he gives 
them in a hope to awaken a more general attention 
to subjects which not only interest the connoiseur, 
but the community. During the last sixty years, 

a multitude of ancient paintings, and of rare old 
engravings, have been imported from Europe, most 
of which are now to be found in the collections of 
our citizens. Paintings have been sold in New 
York for a few dollars, which have been resold, 
after reparation, for more than a thousand ; and 
prints for a few shillings, worth as many dollars or 
guineas. The authenticity of an ancient painting, 
or of a rare old print, being once established, it will 
command a fixed price in London or Paris as read- 
ily as a bank note. Sir Thomas Lawrence expended 
£40,000 in making the rarest private collection of 
original drawings and rare engravings in Europe. 
In his will, he directed them to be offered to the 
British Museum for £18,000. This liberal offer 
being refused, his executors sold them to the Messrs. 
Smith, print dealers in London, for £20,000. This 
house, after classification, proceeded to exhibit, and 
then sell the collection, by which operation they 
cleared about £30,000. 

A friend of the author recently sold in London, 
a small but rare collection of prints for many times 
as much as they had cost him here. These facts 
show the value of a knowledge of rare works of art, 
beyond the personal gratification and pleasure 
which it affords. There are many persons who scout 
at the idea that there are fine original paintings 
by any of the Old Masters in this country, while 
others think that all they have purchased are gen- 
uine. This arises from a want of correct informa- 
tion on the subject. There can be no doubt in the 
mind of a person conversant with the facts, that we 
have many fine originals by very eminent masters, 
and that the United States present to the connois- 
seur a better field to make a rare collection of paint- 
ings and engravings than any other country in the 
world. The author means that for a certain sum, 
an American can obtain a more valuable collection 
at home than he can abroad, and for the following 
reasons: — It is only a few years, comparatively, 
since the taste for these works of ancient art has 
become general among the wealthy in Europe, es- 
pecially in England, which latter country is exceed- 
ingly rich in the authenticated works of the Old 
Masters; but they have poured out their gold like 
water in procuring them. Now, till within the last 
ten or fifteen years, the United States was the only 
safe market for the promiscuous shipment of old 
paintings. The duties in England were a positive 
prohibition (one shilling sterling per square foot 
being the duty there, without regard to value), 
whereas they were admitted duty free with us till 
the Tariff of 1842. New York then was the great 
mart for old paintings. All continental Europe, 
especially Italy, Flanders, and Germany, was ran- 
sacked by persons engaged in the trade, usually 
Jews, for these treasures, which they picked up 



in ale-houses, garrets, and wherever they could 
be obtained, for a mere trifle, and they consigned 
them without selection to Mr. Aaron Levy (and 
to his father before him), to be sold at auction. 
There were men of taste and wealth, besides the 
many dealers in New York, suflBcient to ensure 
ready and profitable sales. A few facts will illus- 
trate. Mr. Levy, now an octagenarian, has sold 
during his business life nearly a million imported 
paintings. He sold above forty-three thousand for 
a single Dutch importing house, still doing busi- 
ness in New York. So constant was the supply, 
that for a long series of years, he regularly sold a 
catalogue of one to two hvmdred paintings every 
"Wednesday and Saturday evenings, besides fre- 
quent day sales. The late Michael Paff dealt 
largely in these works. He had over one thousand 
paintings at the time of his death, many of which 
were of great value. His executors selected about 
one hundred, which jMr. Paff" had considered the 
most precious, and sent them to England. [For one 
of these, Susannah and the Elders, esteemed orig- 
inal by Guido, they were offered $3,000 before it 
was sent abroad, which sum they refused, it having 
been valued at $10,000.] The balance of the col- 
lection brought at public sale above $53,000. About 
eighteen years ago, a well known dealer bought of 
one of our consuls, then residing at Florence, twenty 
thousand old paintings, all of which he shipped 
direct to New York. A great many superb pic- 
tures were found in this collection. _ After repara- 
tion, the owner sold some of these at enormous 
prices. The author could multiply facts ad infini- 
tum, in proof of his position, well known at least 
to the trade, and well authenticated. He has 
heard it asserted on the best authority, that paint- 
ings which only cost here a few dollars many years 
ago, have been sold in London for sums altogether 
incredible to persons not familiar with the present 
value abroad of genuine paintings. It is also cer- 
tain, though not less incredible, that more paint- 
ings have been shipped to London from New York 
than from Italy. There are a number of Eng- 
lish agents here who make it their business to at- 
tend the auctions, on the look-out for valuable 
paintings. The reason of this is plain. In Italy 
and Spain, the laws forbid mj original works to 
be taken out of the country. In former times, no 
attention was paid to enforce the laws, when paint- 
ings were promiscuously shipped in quantities; 
but so many fine pictures have been taken out of 
those countries that the laws are now rigidly en- 
forced. One fact will illustrate. The easel pic- 
tures of Luca Giordano were probably more numer- 
ous than those of any other master, but they are 
now comparatively scarce in Italy. He was the 
son of a poor artist, who placed him under the tui- 

tion of Giuseppe Ribera. When he was thirteen 
years of age, he traveled with his father through- 
out Italy, studying the works of the best masters, 
and painting for their support. His works were 
so much sought after as to be a source of emolu- 
ment to his father, who constantly urged him on 
by repeating Luca, fa presto (hurry, Luca), by 
which appellation he was afterwards designated by 
his brother artists. He painted a large altar-piece 
for the Jesuits in the Church of S. Francesco Xa- 
vier at Naples, representing a figure of that Saint 
surroimded by a glory of Angels, in one day and a 
half. [See Luca Giordano.^ This picture is stUl 
the admiration of connoisseurs for the correctness 
of the drawing, and the wonderfully bold and rapid 
penciling. Salvator Rosa spent his early days in 
poverty and obscurity. He labored assiduously to 
support his aged father's family. He painted in 
an extraordinary free, bold and rapid manner, and 
sold his pictures to dealers and others for what- 
ever he could get for them, often the most paltry 
price. The same might be said of many other emi- 
nent masters. So many fine works, known to have 
been originals, have been taken out, or smuggled out 
of those countries, that the laws are now so rigidly 
enforced that it is almost impossible to get an orig- 
inal picture out of them. 

There are many private collections of ancient 
paintings in New York, and other Atlantic cities, 
truly magnificent. The author could mention sev- 
eral, were he at liberty 'SO to do, that would vie 
with some of the richest private collections in the 
old country. Besides, almost every gentleman of 
taste, in Wew York especially, has his walls adorned 
with apcient paintings. Now these paintings have 
not b^en purchased in Europe by the present own- 
ers themselves, as some of them profess, but they 
have bought them at Levy's. The author has seen 
the most noted collectors, with sponge in hand (for 
these consignments were generally made in the 
pure state, as artists term it, i. e., covered with the 
dust and smoke of many years ; often taken off" the 
stretchers and shipped in rolls,), carefully exam- 
ining every painting in the collection, and then 
they would personally attend the sale, or give the 
auctioneer an order to purchase for them. 

The author is not so ignorant as to believe that 
many paintings by Raffaelle, Rubens, and those 
great masters whose time was wholly employed 
by church or state, have been brought to the Uni- 
ted States ; but that many by other very eminent 
masters have, he will show conclusively in a future 
work on the history of the fine arts. This subject 
has been his hobby for twenty years ; he has had 
extended opportunities for observation, with an in- 
timate acquaintance with many artists, and many 
persons engaged in the trade, whose opinions cof- 


roborate his own. He is positive that there are in 
this country, many of those early and beautiful 
sketches by Salvator Rosa, and Luca Giordano, and 
works by many very eminent Italian, Spanish, and 
Flemish masters ; and he is personally acquainted 
with many connoisseurs and men of taste who 
now possess them. He knows a gentleman who 
has two paintings esteemed genuine by Joseph 
Vernet, and what is extraordinary, these pictures 
bear the numbers of the two paintings supposed to 
be lost, as published in the catalogue of his pictures 
in the Louvre. 

Few old paintings are now imported, and for 
these reasons : First, fine pictures have become 
scarce, and the price greatly augmented in the old 
coimtry ; second, the difficulty of getting originals 
out of Italy and Spain ; third, the imposition of a 
high tariff on all works of art for public sale here ; 
and fourth, the greatly increased demand abroad, 
especially in England and France, arising from an 
increased love or estimation of them, and from its 
having become fashionable for every man of wealth, 
who makes any pretensions to taste, to have his 
picture-gallery or his walls adorned with paint- 
ings, and his portfolio of rare prints. 

It is also true that every great artist has imita- 
tors. It is a well-known fact that there are more 
paintings in the public and private galleries of Eu- 
rope, esteemed genuine by many great masters, as 
Rubens, Carlo Dolci, Gerard Douw, Teniers, and 
others, than it were possible for theiu to have exe- 

There is great liability to imposition "n the pur- 
chase of ancient paintings, especially in the old 
country, where genuine paintings command enor- 
mous prices, to those who are uninitiated U the 
tricks of the trade. The styles of the best masters 
are so skillfully imitated that it is exceedingly dif- 
ficult to distinguish them from the originals ; or 
these paintings so imitated in style, may be original 
compositions. The Duke of AVellington and Sir 
Robert Peel were tricked in this manner. Even 
George III. would have been cheated had he not 
consulted Bartolozzi, when he was offered a copy 
for an original Zuccarelli. Americans have been 
frequently and grossly imposed upon. The author 
could mention a gentleman who bought in Naples, 
as an original Corrcggio, a small picture painted 
on copper, which he valued at $5,000, and which 
he smuggled out of the country : on cleaning, it 
proved nothing but a transfer. These imitations 
are most frequently painted on old copper plates, 
or old panels, often worm eaten, which were much 
employed by the Old Masters for cabinet-pictures. 
Then the modern Teniers, Gerard Douws, Cor- 
reggios, etc., are converted into originals by smok- 
ing and plentiful coats of varnish. The author has 

seen many such paintings sold here as originals, 
and the lucky possessor thinks he has got a perfect 
gem. A little spirits, gently apphed on a corner, 
will tell the truth in a few moments — it will make 
it " g-o," as the trade term it ; whereas a genuine 
painting, being hardened by age, will stand the test. 
If canvass is employed, an old and worthless pic- 
ture is covered up for the purpose, of the same age 
and quality of canvass as that employed by the old 
master imitated ; or the modern copy is lined and 
stretched. Another and more common way is to 
employ old paintings having some resemblance to 
the style of any one of the old masters ; these are 
cleaned, repaired, and signed with the monogram or 
signature of the master. Thus hundreds in the 
style of David Teniers have been sold as originals. 
This has been especially the case with paintings ex- 
ecuted by the best scholars of that master ; and so 
of many other masters, which we have not room to 
specify. The paintings of Abshoven have become 
exceedingly scarce, having been converted into orig- 
inals by David Teniers, whose pupil he was, and 
whose style he closely imitated. [See Abshoven.'] 
Immense fortunes have been made in Paris, Rome, 
and Naples, by these imitations. 

These facts do not militate at all against the au- 
thor's position : there were no pastiches or counter- 
feits (see Imitation and Pastiche, in Explanation 
of Terms), imported in former times. They are 
a modern invention to supply an increased demand, 
and they command high prices. It is only a fcAT 
years, comparatively, that this increased demand 
abroad has arisen, from circumstances before men- 
tioned. Another thing, paintings offered for sale 
at auction in Italy, England, France, and Germany, 
as genuine originals, must be so specified, and the 
vouchers produced. Even the auctioneer is respon- 
sible, and in the catalogue he must state them to 
be original, or supposed to be original, or in the 
\ style of such a master. But here, the most wretched 
copies are advertised as original by the greatest 
maswrs, as Michael Angelo, Raffaelle, and Rubens, 
with impunity ; and some people buy and hang 
them up to show, and even invite the connoisseur 
to inspect thera, as great treasures, to excite his 
pity or contempt. 

The author's object in making these statements 
is not to excite the credulity of people, for he 
rather expects their ridicule; but to show men of 
taste that they need not go abroad to obtain valu- 
able paintings ; that if they possess the requisite 
knowledge, they can obtain them here at a tithe of 
present European dealers' prices ; that they will 
not be so hable to be imposed upon; that we 
should endeavor to retain all we possess ; and 
above all, that we should strive to encourage our 
own artists, and establish a school of our own, 



instead of patronizing all that is foreign. The 
author is sorry' to say, that the most ample expe- 
rience and observation has proved to him, that the 
general taste is all foreign, from an enamelled tea- 
tray to an enamelled picture. There are almost 
daily sales in Wall-street of French pictures, man- 
ufactured, not painted, in the execution of which 
one makes the drawing, another puts in the sky, a 
third paints the trees, a fourth the figures. Then 
these pictures are highly varnished and put in 
laquered, or imitation gilt frames. And yet these 
pictures find a ready and profitable sale, while a 
better one by a native artist will be passed by in 
the same collection ; or if sold, the price will afford 
him less remuneration than the wages of a me- 
chanic. This is not the way to encourage art 
amongst us; our painters cannot compete with 
French girls. It is true we do patronize artists 
who have reached an enviable height in climbing 
the ladder of fame (and there are many such 
amongst us), but we do not encourage the youth- 
ful aspirant, nor the majority of artists. No class 
of the community are so poor and so ill-paid as the 
great mass of our artists, and were it not for their 
infatuation, or deep love of art, they would sooner 
abandon the profession for more lucrative employ- 
ment, than toil on, half starving in a garret. 

Our Academies and Art-Unions have done much 
to promote the advancement of the fine arts 
amongst us, and should be encouraged by every 
liberal man ; but they are capable of being made 
to do a great deal more. The English understand 
the value to a nation of offering every encourat^e- 
ment to the progress of the arts, sciences, manu- 
factures, and commerce, better than any other peo- 
ple; therefore their institutions are worthy of study 
and imitation. Within little more than half a cen- 
tury, the fine arts in England have been brought 
from a low degree, to one of high perfection, and 
mainly through the influence of the Royal Acad- 
my. the British Institute, and the National Gal- 
lery ; and for this reason, the author deems a sketch 
of these institutions not out of place in this work. 
The students of the Royal Academy are provi- 
ded with an ample collection of casts from the best 
antique statues, from which they may study, day 
and evening, under the instruction and guidance of 
the Keeper, an artist of talent, apiwinted cliiefly for 
this purpose, who receives a salary from the Acad- 
emy. There is also a school for the study of nature 
from living models, the expenses of which are con- 
siderable, and, like the antique Academy, admit of 
no intermission. 

There are professors appointed in the several 
branches, of drawing, painting, sculpture, architec- 
ture, anatomy, and perspective, who are bound to 
dehver periodical lectures to the students on the 

subjects connected with their respective appoint- 
ments ; and each of these has a salary from the 
Academy. Added to these, there are the salaries 
of the secretary and librarian, and the expenses 
connected with a well furnished library, to which 
the students have constant access. There are an- 
nual and biannual prizes distributed regularly to 
the successful candidates in painting, sculpture, 
drawing, and architecture, for which any student 
may offer himself, and which consist of gold and 
silver medals, and books on the subject of art, 
which are handsomely bound for the occasion. 

In addition to this hberal encouragement, there 
are constantly two of the students in Italy, where 
they are entitled to remain for three years at the 
sole expense of the Academy, from whom they re- 
ceive an allowance of £100 a year, besides a sum 
which is amply sufficient to defray all their trav- 
eling expenses, as well in returning as going abroad. 
The students sent to Italy are selected from those 
who have previously obtained the gold medal, 
either in painting, sculpture, or architecture. To 
all these advantages, students are admitted with- 
out any expense whatever to themselves, and the 
number received by the Academy is subject to no 

Pensions are given to the widows of such mem- 
bers of the Academy as may not have been able to 
provide for them ; and allowances to such of the 
members themselves, to whom age, infirmity, or 
misfortune, may have rendered such assistance 

All these expenses the Academy has defrayed 
from the profits of the annual exhibitions, without 
any assistance whatever from the Government, be- 
sides charitable donations to a large amount to 
needy artists not belonging to the Academy, or to 
their families. When we consider that a body of 
artists support by their own exertions, without 
any assistance from the Government of the coim- 
try, or from any other quarter whatever, the only 
efBcient School of Art in the kingdom for the gra- 
tuitous instruction of students, and unite in the en- 
deavor to encourage rising merit, and to call forth 
the talent of those who may eventually become 
formidable rivals to themselves, we are bound to 
applaud the hberality of sentiment, and the disin- 
terestedness of public spirit of the Royal Academy; 
which has in truth effected more for the arts in 
England, than the splendid establishments which 
other nations have founded under the immediate 
protection of their respective governments. [See 
Beechey's Life of Reynolds.'] 

The Royal Academy first opened their exhibition 
at the great room in Spring Gardens, May 9th, 
1761 ; price of admission one shOling. In 1780 it 
was removed to Summerset House by the per- 


mission of the King. In 1828, William Wilkins, 
R.A., proposed a plan to Lord Goodrich, the Lord 
Chancellor, for the erection of a grand structure on 
the north side of Trafalgar Square for the Royal 
Academy and National Gallery, and Parliament 
voted £74.000 for the purpose. The Royal Acad- 
emy took possession of their room in this new 
structure in 1837. 

The British Government has been very liberal 
in appropriations to promote the encouragement 
of the fine arts in England. The National Gallery 
was commenced in 1824 by the -purchase of the 
Angerstien collection by the Government for 
£00,000. It has been gi-eatly augmented since by 
purchase, bequest, and presentation. The British 
Museum has been exceedingly enriched by Gov- 
ernment, especially in sculpture (antique marbles); 
first by the purchase of the collection of Sir Hans 
Sloane, in 1762, for £20,000 ; of Sir W. HamUton, 
1772, for eight thousand guineas ; the first part of 
the Townley collection, in 1805, for £20,000 ; see- 
cond part do., in 1811, for £8,200 ; the antique 
frieze from the Temple of Apollo, in 1815, for 
£19,000 ; the Elgin marbles, for £35,000. [These 
marbles cost Lord Elgin above £70,000.] Besides, 
large sums have been expended for other antiques 
and rare works of art. 

The Royal British Institution (it now occupies 
the buildings erected by Boydell for the Shaks- 
peare GaUery, Pail-Mall), under the patronage of 
the King, nobility and gentry, next to the Royal 
Academy, is the most serviceable establishment 
for the promotion of British art, and the encour- 
agement of native talent. This institution is not 
designed to rival the Academy, but to assist it in 
promoting the -advancement of the fine arts in 
England. For this purpose it holds biannual exhi- 
bitions, the first of which opens the first week in 
February, and closes the first of April, when that 
of the Royal Academy begins. This exhibition 
differs from that of the Academy in the total ex- 
clusion of all portraiture ; original historical and 
poetical compositions and landscapes, the works of 

British artists, only being admitted. These works 
are allowed to be sold at private sale, which is 
transacted between the parties by the Keeper with- 
out charge, and a large number are thus sold every 
year to the great encouragement of artists. 

The second exhibition commences in June, after 
that of the Academy has closed, and is varied 
every year, so as to make it very interesting, attrac- 
tive, and instructive. Sometimes it is composed 
entirely of the works of the Old Masters, of the 
greatest value ; at others of the works of deceased 
British artists ; or of living artists of the highest 
reputation. The whole of these works are loaned for 
the occasion by the patrons, governors, and direc- 
tors (men always of the highest rank or talents), 
of the institution. At these exhibitions artists 
are allowed every facility for copying and improv- 
ing themselves in art. The funds arising from the 
exhibitions, which are very large, are strictly ap- 
propriated to the advancement and encouragement 
of art, by the purchase of the best specimens of na- 
tive talent, rare works by the Old Masters, and 
liberal premiums awarded to the highest merit. 
See Taylor's History of the Fine Arts in Great 

The price of admission to all these institutions 
is one shilling sterling, which has been sufficient to 
give them ample funds to carry out their legiti- 
mate objects ; and with the National Gallery, the 
British Institution, and the British Museum, to 
add largely to their collections annually by pur- 
chase. The receipts of the British Museum for 
1850 amounted to the enormous sum of £50,000. 
The author takes this occasion to express his dis- 
approbation of Free Galleries of works of art. It 
is unjust to tax the artist half his gains (or what 
he should get for his works,) for public gratifica- 
tion. If such exhibitions are not worth paying for, 
they are not worth seeing; and certainly every 
man would be willing to pay a reasonable price, at 
least enough to pay the expense of his gratifica- 
tion, especially with the superior attractions which 
this course would place before him. 


The author esteems the art of engraving of so 
much importance, especially in our extended coun- 
try, where we have few public Galleries of paint- 
ings, and where the great mass of the community 
must therefore form their taste for the fine arts 
mostly from this branch, that he deems a some- 
what extended notice proper and profitable in this 

Engraving is not only a valuable assistant to 
painting by perpetuating the works of the great 
masters, but it also satisfies, to a great extent, that 
love for the arts possessed by many who have not 
the means of otherwise obtaining this gratification. 
It requires the possession of a large fortune to form 
even a respectable cabinet of pictures ; and it is 
further necessary that the purchaser should pos- 
sess a cultivated taste and discriminating judg- 
ment, and an intimate acquaintance with works of 
art, which are not easily acquired, in order to avoid 
the danger of imposition. But a knowledge of 
prints is obtained with far greater facility, and a 
taste for them may be gratified in almost every 
condition of life. Moreover, by means of this art, 
the conceptions of the great masters are diflused 
through every part of the world, and thousands 
who can never see the original work, may experi- 
ence refinement and exaltation of intellect from the 
contemplation of the engraving. Thus a love for 
the beautiful, the true, and the sublime, is widely 
disseminated, and the general taste of the people 
elevated; art approaches nearer to its proper esti- 
mation, and artists, who, in this money-getting age 
have at least no extravagant encouragement to 
hope for, gradually rise to their true position. 

Prints are known to be exceedingly useful in 
the instruction of youth, whose vivid imagination 
will catch with delight the depicted story at a 
glance, and rivet it in the memory ; whereas a writ- 
ten description will produce little effect. The pa- 
thetic stories of the Bible are rendered far more 
impressive by the delineations of those scenes by 
the Old Masters. Description gives but little idea 
of an animal, or a landscape, but a picture gives at 
once a correct one. Prints make a lively impres- 
sion on the imagination, and afford a means of re- 
creation highly entertaining and instructive— qual- 
ities rarely combined. They also afford an inter- 
esting amusement for every stage in life ; and next 
to the study of a fine painting or piece of statuary, 
there is no greater pleasure to a person of refined 
taste, than the contemplation of the beauties of a 
masterly engraving ; nor does this pleasure pall 

with repetition. As with a masterly painting, so 
with the engraving, more beauties will constantly 
be discovered ; so that a portfolio of fine prints is 
a source of endless instruction, amusement, and 
gratification, not only to the possessor, but to his 
friends and acquaintance. 

The following observations on the utility of 
engraving, from the pen of William Rosco, a gen- . 
tleman well known to the literary world from his 
excellent taste, love of the arts, and scientific ac- 
quirements, are so admirable and just, that the 
author cannot forbear quoting them in this place. 

" Of all the imitative arts, painting itself not ex- 
cepted, engraving is the most applicable to general 
use, and the most resorted to from the necessities of 
mankind. From its earliest infancy, it has been 
called in as an assistant in every branch of know- 
ledge, and has, in a very high degree, facilitated the 
means of communicating our ideas, by representing 
to the sight whatever is capable of visible imitation, 
and thereby preventing that circumlocution which 
would ill explain, in the end, what is immediately 
conceived from the actual representation of the 

" Froni the facility of being multiplied, prints 
have derived an advantage over paintings, by no 
means inconsiderable. They are found to be more 
durable, which may, however, in some degree, be 
attributed to the chfferent methods in which they 
are preserved. Many of the best paintings of the 
early masters have generally had the misfortune to 
be either painted on walls, or deposited in large and 
unfrequented, and consequently damp and destruc- 
tive buildings ; whilst a print, passing at distant 
intervals from the porte-feuille of one collector to 
that of another, is preserved without any great 
exertion of its owner. Hence it happens, that whilst 
the pictures of Rafiaelle have mouldered from their 
walls, or deserted their canvass, the prints of his 
friend and contemporary, Marc' Antonio Raimondi, 
continue in full perfection to this day, and give us a 
lively idea of the beauties of those paintings, which, 
without their assistance, had been lost to us for- 
ever, or at least, could have only been known to us, 
like those of Zeuxis and Apelles, by the descrip- 
tion which former writers on these subjects have 
left us. 

" Perhaps there are no representations which in- 
terest so strongly the curiosity of mankind as por- 
traits. A high degree of pleasure, of which almost 
every person is susceptible, is experienced from 
contemplating the looks and countenances of those 



men, who, by their genius or their virtues, have en- 
titled themselves to the admiration and esteem ot 
future ages. It is only in consequence of the lacility 
with which prints are multiplied from the same en- 
eravin-, that this laudable appetite is so frequently 
Iratitied. Whilst the original portrait is limited 
to the wall of a private chamber, or adorns some 
distant part of the world, a correct transcript ot it, 
exhibiting the same features, and the same charac- 
ter gives to the public at large the full representa- 
tion of the object of their veneration or esteem. 

" As the genuine paintings of the ancient masters 
have become extremely scarce, we are much indebted 
to prints for the truth of our ideas respecting the 
merits of such masters ; and this is no bad criterion, 
especially when the painter, as is frequeiitly the 
case, has left engravings or etchings of his own. 
With respect to the principal excellencies of a pic- 
ture, a print is equally estimable with a pamtmg. 
We have there every perfection of design composi- 
tion, and drawing ; and the outline is frequently 
marked with a precision which excels the picture ; 
so that where the merit of the master consists more 
particularly in the knowledge of those primary 
tranches of the art, his prints may be better than 
his paintings, as was notoriously the case with 
Pietro Testa, who, possessed of every excellence ot a 
painter, except a knowledge of the art of coloring, 
acquired-that reputation by his etchings which his 
paintings never could have procured him. 

" A knowledge of the style and manner of the 
different masters is only to be obtained by a frequent 
inspection and comparison of their works. It we 
were to judge of llatfaelle himself from some of his 
pictures, wc'should be disposed to refuse our assent 
to that praise which he has now for some centuries 
enioyed Every master has at times pamted below 
his usual standard, and consequently is not to be 
iudo-ed of by a single picture. And where is the 
collection that affords sufficient specimens of any 
of the elder masters, to enable a person to become 
a complete judge of their merits ? Can we, from 
a few pictures, form an adequate idea of the inven- 
tion and imagination of a painter, of the inexhausti- 
ble variety of form and features, which is the true 
characteristic of superior excellence ? But let us 
look into a collection of prints after any eminent 
artist, engraved either by himself or others, and 
we shall then have an opportunity of judging ot 
his merits in the first and indispensable qualifica- 
tions of a painter. If we find grandeur of design 
united with elegant composition and accurate draw- 
in"- we have the strongest testimony of superior 
abilities, and from a general comparison and accu- 
rate observation of a number of such prints, we 
may venture to form to ourselves a decisive opin- 
ion respecting the merit of such masters. On cx- 
aminiu"- the prints after Raifaelle, we find that his 
fiirst manner was harsh and Gothic ; m short, a 
transcript from Perugino, but that he afterwards 
adopted that sublime and graceful manner, which 
he ever retained. n i +i „ 

" Wherever a painter has himself handled the 
graver, his prints are most generally impressed 
with the same character as his paintings, and are 
therefore hkely to give us a very accurate idea ot 
his style. The prints of Albert Durer, Rembrandt, 
and Salvator Rosa, are all such exact counterparts 
of their paintino-s. that at this time, when the col- 
orin"- of their pi'ctures is often so far changed as to 
answer little further purpose than that of light and 

shadow, they become in a manner their rivals; and, 
in the general acceptation of the world, the prints 
of some of these artists have been as highly valued 
as their paintings. 

'• Independent of the advantages prints atiord 
us when considered as accurate representations of 
paintings, and imitations of superior productions, 
they are no less valuable for their positive merit, as 
immediate representations of nature. For it must 
be recollected that the art of engraving has not 
always been confined to the copying other produc- 
tions, but has frequently itself aspired to original- 
ity, and has in this light produced more instances 
of excellence than in the other. Albert Durer, 
Goltzius, and Rembrandt, amongst the Dutch and 
Germans ; Parmigdano and Delia Bella, amongst 
the Italians ; and Callot amongst the French ; have 
published many prints, the subjects of which were 
never painted. These prints may therefore be 
considered as original pictures of those masters, de- 
ficient only in those particulars in M'hich a prmt 
must necessarily be inferior to a painting. 

" The invention of printing, in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, was undoubtedly the greatest acquisition 
which mankind ever made towards the advance- 
ment of general science. Before that event, the ac- 
cumulated wisdom of ages was confined to the 
leaves of a few mouldering manuscripts, too expen- 
sive to be generally obtained, and too highly valued 
to be often trusted out of the hands of the owner. 
History attbrds many instances of the difficulty 
with which even the loan of a book was procured, 
and of sureties being required to be answerable for 
its return ; but the discovery of printing broke 
down the barriers which had so long obstructed 
the diffusion of learning ; and the rapid progress m 
civilization, which immediately took place, is itself 
the happiest testimony of the great utility of the 
invention. What printing has been, with respect 
to general science, engraving has been to the arts ; 
and the works of the old Italian artists will be in- 
debted to engraving for that perpetuity which the 
invention of printing has secured to the Jerusalem 
of Tasso, and the tragedies of Shakspeare and Cor- 


The history of engraving is not only very inter- 
esting to the connoisseur, but is of the first import- 
ance to the collector of rare works of art, for which 
reason the author deems it necessary to give some 
account of its rise and progress. It is the art of 
producing designs upon blocks of wood, plates ot 
metal, or other sul:)stanccs, by incision or corrosion, 
from which impressions on paper or other soft sub- 
stances are obtained. Priority of invention has 
been claimed by the Dutch, Germans, and Italians. 
According to Du Halde {Description, (^c, de V 
Empire de la Chine), the Chinese knew the in- 
vention 1120 years before Christ ; but as they Avere 
not acquainted with the art of making paper till 
94 B. c, it was doubtless a much later discovery 
with them. It has been stated that this art was 
first introduced into Europe from China, through 
the intercourse of the Venetian merchants ; for it 
has been proved that wood engraving, which has 
priority over copper-plate engraving, was practised 
at Venice as early as the thirteenth century. The 
first wood engravings in Europe of which any- 
thing is known, were executed in 1285 by a brother 
and sister of a noble family, named Cunio. These 



prints represent the actions of Alexander the 
Great, and though Heineken doubts their authen- 
ticity, yet Mr. William Young Ottley, the author 
of a very elegant and learned history of engraving, 
thinks otherwise, and gives good reasons in sup- 
port of his opinion. In Germany, wood cuts were 
first emploj^ed hy the card manufacturers to give 
the outline of the figures, to save the trouble of 
making a separate drawing for each cai'd, which 
were afterwards colored by the hand. The Ger- 
man antiquarians have shown that these jsrintod 
cards were in use as early as 1300. These ctird 
printers not only made and sold every var^ty <^^ 
plaj'ing cards, but they stamped and illuminsied 
various images of saints; and it is the opinion of 
Breitkopf, in his Treatise of Engraxing on Wood, 
that the impressions of these images preceded that 
of the playing cards. Heineken saj-s that many 
of these illuminated wooden cuts of Saints are still 
preserved in several of the celebrated libraries of 
Germany, particularly in that of Wolfenbattel. In 
the convent of the Carthusians at Euxheim, in Su- 
abia. is a wooden cut representing St. Christopher 
carrying the infant Jesus across an arm of the sea. 
It is of folio size, inscribe^? with Gothic letters, illu- 
minated in the same manner as playing cards, dated 
1423. The Veneti-aus also claim to have practised 
all these things at a very early period ; and a Ve- 
netian architect; named Temanza, accidentally dis- 
covered a decree in the archives of Venice, dated 
October 11, 1441, which sets forth that the art and 
mystery ol making cards and printed figures had 
fallen into decay, owing to their extensive impor- 
tation, and in order that the native artists might 
find encouragement rather than foreigners, it was 
oi'dained that no work of the said art, printed or 
painted on cloth or paper, viz. : altar-pieces or im- 
ages, and playing cards, and whatever other work 
of said art is done with a brush and printed, should 
be allowed to be brought into that city on penalty 
of confiscation, besides a pecuniary fine. This de- 
cree plainly shows that, whatever may be the 
claims of the Venetians, the Germans had made 
such improvements, and obtained such facilities as 
to drive their competitors from the field. 

To these rude beginnings succeeded wood cuts of 
sacred history, accompanied with explanations in 
letters engraved on blocks. These carved blocks 
seem to have existed in Germany and the Low 
Countries as early as 1429 ; and it is clearly proved 
that they gave to John Guttenburg, the first idea 
of making moveable metallic printing types. Soon 
after the invention of printing, wooden cuts were 
used for illustrating books. The first wood engra- 
vers of whom we have any account were George 
Schapff, who practised the art as early as 1448, 
and Jacob Walch, the supposed instructor of Mi- 
chael Walgemait, who flourished about the same 
time. From this time the art was rapidly intro- 
duced into every part of Germany and the Low 
Countries ; and many of the books published were 
illustrated with wooden cuts. The earliest book 
published is Guttenburg's Latin Bible, called the 
Forty-tKo-lined Bible, because each page had forty- 
two lines, fini.shed about 1455. The author has' a 
copy of the celebrated Nuremberg Chronicle, or 
History of the World. It is a large, heavy folio in 
Latin, printed in black-letter, illuminated and em- 
bellished with about two thousand wood cuts, some 
of which are remarkably well executed. The book 
dates 1492 on the last page, to which time the his- 

tory is continued (the title-page is missing), and it 
must have been several years in execution. But 
many illustrsced books were published before this 
time. At -Kome, in 1467, a book was issued from 
the press of Hans Ulric, entitled Meditationes Jo- 
hannip de Tuiyccr-emata, embelhshed with wood 
ensnivings, in which great improvements in design 
apd execution by Italian artists is evident. The 
i'llustrations of the works of Vitruvius, by Matteo 
Pssti of Verona published in 1472, evince consid- 
erable spirit and accuracy. Before the end of the 
fifteenth century, the art had been carried to great 
perfection, as is proved by the delicacy and purity 
of the designs engraved to illustrate the celebrated 
Hypnerotomach ia of Colonna. Before this period, 
however, the discovery of copper-plate engraving 
had been made, and the priority of invention has 
been equally claimed by the Germans and the Ital- 
ians. The former rest their pretensions on the ex- 
istence of plates by their artists dated before those 
of the Italians. Sandrart mentions one dated 1455. 
Zani and Ottley have, however, fully established the 
claim of JMaso Finiguerra, a Florentine, to priority of 
invention ; and Bartsch admits its validity. Ottley 
describes a print by this artist, in his possession, 
dated 1445 ; and Zani notices a Coronation of the 
Virgin, dated 1452. From this period, wood and 
copper-plate engraving rapidly spread over every 
part of Europe. 

The Italian School. — Finiguerra was followed 
by Baccio Baldini, a goldsmith of Florence, who, 
according to Vasari, employed Sandro Botticelh to 
design for him. His works were numerous, and 
are much sought after by collectors. Botticelh, a 
native of Florence, was an eminent painter of his 
time, and from the success of Baccio, turned his 
attention to engraving. He engraved from his 
own designs a number of prints of prophets and 
sybils, and subjects illustrative of Dante. He died 
in 1515. Contemporary with him flourished An- 
tonio del Palla Juolo ; and a little later, Gherado 
and Robetta, all of whom advanced the art, though 
it was still dry in execution, and more to be ad- 
mired for correctness of design and drawing than 
for any attempt at relief or effect. There can be 
no doubt that the art was practised at this period 
at Rome, though the Venetian States and the north 
of Italy furnished a more abundant supply of ar- 
tists ; among whom Francesco Squarcione, Andrea 
IMautegna, Girolamo Mocetto, Marcello Fogolino, 
Bramante the architect, Altobello, Giovanni Bat- 
tista della Porta, Giovanni Maria, and Giovanni 
and Antonio di Brescia, were the most eminent. 

The appearance of Marc' Antonio forms the most 
important epoch in Italian engraving. He was 
born at Bologna in 1488, and became the pupil of 
Raibolini. We first hear of him at Venice, whither 
Albert Durer went to institute proceedings against 
him for pirating his prints, which he had copied 
with such wonderful atcuracy that they were sold 
for the originals. Marc' Antonio soon went to 
Rome, where his merit obtained the friendship of 
Raffaelle, then in the plenitude of his fame, by 
whom he was employed to engrave after his de- 
signs. His engravings after Raffaelle are very nu- 
merous, and though wanting the blandishments 
of style, chiaro-scuro, and local color, which the art 
has received since his time ; yet such was his know- 
ledge of drawing, and such the beautiful character 
that pervaded his works, that he is esteemed one 
of the greatest engravers that ever lived. The 


fame of his school attracted artists from all parts 
of Italy, and some from Germany and France re- 
sorted to Rome for the benefit of his instructions. 
His last print, the Battle of the Lapithje, is dated 
1539. From his time, engraving may l>> said to 
have been practised in Italy in the highest perfec- 
tion, and a host of bright names foUow on down to 
the present time. [See Marc' Antonio liaimmdi] 
The Dutch and German Schools.— In Gernmny 
and the Low Countries, the art of engraving hiirl 
made extraordinary progress during the fifteenth 
century. IMartin Schoen, or Schoengauer, is con- 
sidered the father of the German school of engra- 
ving. He was a native of Culmbach, in Franco- 
nia, and born about 1420. He began to practise 
the art in its infancy, and succeeded in carrying it 
to a sireat degree of perfection. He died at Col- 
mar m use. Yasari states that Michael Angelo, 
when young, was so much pleased with a print by 
Schoengauer, representing St. Anthony tormented 
by the Devils, that he copied it in colors. Albert 
Durer,- the most celebrated of the early engravers 
of Germany, was born at Nuremberg in 1-471. 
Skilled in many arts, and a painter of no ordinary 
DQwers, it is astonishing that in a life not exceeding 
iifty-2ight years, he should have succeeded in car- 
rying che art of engraving to such perfection as has 
harcUy been surpassed. He engraved both on wood 
and copper. Of his numerous works, his wooden 
cuts are the most free and masterly. The inven- 
tion of etching is also attributed to him. Follow- 
ing Durer were Aldegrever, his pupil, Hans and 
Bartholomew Beham, Altdorfer, Binck, Goerting, 
Penz, Solis, and Hans Holbem, who, besides his 
celebrity as a painter, acquired great reputation 
])y his numerous engravings ; the best of which 
are the series of fifty-two prints, called the Dance 
of Death, published in 1531). 

Of the Dutch and Flemish School— Lncas van 
Leyden must be considered at the head of this 
school. lie was 1x)rn in 1494 at Leyden, whence 
he takes his name. He was a contemporary and 
friend of Albert Durer, to whom, though inferior 
in design, he was superior in composition. He en- 
graved'ljoth on wood and copper. The Low Coun- 
tries furnished a host of engravers, among whom 
it is unnecessary to mention more than the Sad- 
elers ; Abraham Bloemaert, who laid the founda- 
tion of the principles upon which lines become 
capable of expressing quahty, color, and chiaro- 
scuro, and which was sulasequcntly improved by 
the Flemish engravers, Goltzius, ^luller, and Lu- 
cas Kilian. The three last, though they handled 
the graver with great dexterity, fell into many ex- 
travagances and absurdities, w'hich, however, were 
tempered and corrected by Mathieu andSaenredam. 
In the l^eginning of the seventeenth century, the two 
Bolswerrs appeared^- whose style was much im- 
proved by the instructiois of Ilubens. Voster- 
mans, Pontius, and Peter de Jode the jounger, 
were all of this school, which is distinguished for 
the success and correctness w-ith which it transfer- 
red the picture to the copper. Rembrandt, not- 
withstanding all his faults and absurdities, claims 
a iiigh place as an engraver. The Descent from 
the Cross, and the '• Humked Guilder Print," are 
extraordinary efforts of the art. His portraits and 
landscapes are full of nature, expression, and char- 
acter, and it is difficult to say Avhethcr he is more 
successful in his sunshine efforts, or in the sober, 
solemn twilight, with which his varied subjects 

are enveloped. Vandyck has left a few specimens 
of etchings worthy of his name. Jegher, Lutma, 
and above all, the Visschers, exhibited great excel- 
lence in the art, which continued to advance under 
the hands of Waterloo, Jacob Ruysdael, and Paul 
Potter ; the last of whom, in his etchings of ani- 
mals, displays a scientific acquaintance with anat- 
omj^ before his time unknown. 

The French School commenced about the mid- 
dle of the sixteenth century, with Noel Gamier, 
wbo was followed by many excellent artists ; but 
till Uie time of Louis XIV., it cannot be said to 
hcwe Ixsen highly distinguished. At this period 
appeared Gerard Edelinck, and Gerard Audran. 
The former of these worked entirely with the gra- 
ver, and carried what is called color in engraving, 
on which effect greatly depends, to a much greater 
degree of perfection than had ever before been prac- 
tised. His facility w-as amazing, and portraits and 
history were equally the subjects of his burin. 
The name of Au-lran is illustrious in the history 
of engraving, not less from the circumstance that 
the family has produced six famous engravers, than 
from the works of Gerard Audran, whose name 
will descend to posterity ^s-ith great lustre for his 
cngravmgs of the Battles of Alexander, after Le 
Brun. as well as many exquisite specimens of the 
art after the Italian masters, particularly Nicolo 
Poussin. Gerard Audran was born at Lyons in 
1640, and died at Paris in 1703. John Audran 
the last of the family who exercised the art, was a 
nephew of Gerard, and died at Paris in 1756, 
Nanteuil, the three Drevets, of whom Peter was 
the most eminent, Le Clerc, Chereau, Cochin, 
Beauvais, Simoneau, Dupuis, and many other em- 
ment masters aj^peared about this period. Bale- 
chon and Wille, about the middle of this century, 
surpassed all their predecessors. Wille was a 
German, but his residence having been at Paris, 
he is always ranked with the French engravers. 
His extraordinary power of imitating particular 
objects, especially satins, the smoothness of the 
etiect he produced, and his remarkable cleanness in 
the use of the graver, entitle him to a place in the 
first rank of the French School, which since the 
time of Louis XII., has been more distinguished 
for its great mechanical skill than for perfection in 
the higher departments of the art. 

The English School.— Till the middle of the 
eighteenth century, England was principall}^ in- 
debted to foreign artists for the embellishments 
bestowed upon her typographical works, as well as 
for such engravings as the taste of the nation re- 
quired. IMost of the former were executed abroad, 
and brought to England to Ije printed ; the latter 
were imported in such quantities as to satisfy the 
demand. Some foreign artists came over to Eng- 
land, and found sufficient encouragement to induce 
them to take up their abode there. Payne, who 
died about 1G49, and Faithorne, who executed many 
historical pieces and portraits in a reputable man- 
ner, are the first deserving of notice. William 
Faithorne, son of the latter, was the first who prac- 
tised mezzotint engraving in England, a species of 
engraving which the English attribute to Prince 
Rupert, but which Heineken claims for Lieutenant 
Colonel Siegen, a Hessian officer, from whom, he 
says. Prince Rupert learned the secret, which he 
carried to England on the return of Charles II. 
After the two Whites, father and son, appeared 
Yertue. who was born in 1084. He executed a 



great number of portraits and landscapes, in a poor 
style, and died in 1757, leaving behind him his 
" History of Painters and Painting in England," 
which was afterwai'ds published by Horace Wa!- 
pole. in four quarto volumes. The works of Pond 
and Knapton can only be mentioned as continuing 
the history, and none are worthy of particular no- 
tice till the time of WooUett, when the liberal en- 
couragement afforded by Alderman Boydell, who 
has justly been termed "the father of engraving in 
England, suddenly brought to notice a number of 
artists who did honor to the art. Among the 
bright names which grace this period of the Eng- 
lish School, are "^^'oollett, Sir William Sharpe, Sir 
Robert Strange, John Brown. Raphael Smith. Earl- 
om. Bartolozzi. Thew, Middiman, Basire, Rooker, 
Heath. Byrne, Bromley, Lowry, &c. ; till at length, 
the liberal encouragement which the English ex- 
tended to their artists, has brought the art of engra- 
^^ng. in ever}^ department, to the highest degree of 
perfection in that country. 

In this enumeration of masters, the name of 
Hogarth has been omitted, because his engravings 
partake more of the nature of pictures transferred 
at once to copper, often without proceeding through 
the intermediate stages, and that, as specimens of 
the art, separate from the invention of the master, 
they have little merit. It is the invention of Ho- 
garth, in which he is unrivalled, that gives the 
charm and value to his works. 

In Spain no particular school of engraving has 
been established for want of encouragenient. They 
import all the fine works which the taste of the 
countrv requu'es. 

American School— In the United States, bank- 
note engraving has been carried to the highest per- 
fection ! Little more can be said. ^Ve have not 
produced a work worthy as a model for an engra- 
ver, yet our engravers have evinced a talent equal 
to the task of executing works in the highest style 
of the art; but as long as the taste is for the 
cheapest works, we shalf heave machine-made prints 
in abundance ; and when we publish prints by lib- 
eral suljscriptions, or feel willing to pay liberal 
prices, we shall have a school of our own worthy 
of the country. Till then, we must import all fine 
works and par as high prices for them as would 
sustain a school of our own. 


Etching. — The plates used in engraving are pre- 
partxl by the manufacturer fit for use. In etch- 
ing, the ground is first laid^ i. e., covered with a 
coating of wax or a kind of varnish capable of re- 
sisting the action of nitric acid. Next, the u,sual 
method is to lay the design, previously drawn on 
paper with a black-lead pencil upon the plate, (the 
paper being previously dampened and the design 
facing the ground); it is then passed through a 
rolling press, which transfers the design from tho 
paper to the ground. The lines of the design are 
then scratched down to the metal with a sharp in- 
strument called an etching needle. A border of 
wax is run round the edge of the plate, diluted ni- 
j;ric acid poured on and allowed to remain a suffi- 
cient time to bite in. or corrode the lines made with 
the etching needle. When the lighter parts are 
sufficiently bitten, the acid is poured off. such parts 
stopped out with varnish, and the acid again ap- 
plied. This process is repeated till all the parts 
have a sufficient depth of color. The work is af- 

terwards completed with the graver and the bur- 

Some of the old masters designed and etched on 
the ground at the same time, without any previous 
transfer of the design ; but this can only be done 
by a perfect master of design and drawing. Etch- 
ing with a soft ground is used to imitate chalk and 
black-lead drawings. For this purpose, a soft 
ground is prepared with wax and tallow, or lard, 
according to the temperature. The design is se- 
cured to the edge or corners of the plate. A point 
then traces the lines, and the soft ground under- 
neath, adhering to the paper, is removed with it. 

The characteristic of a masterly etching is the 
unrestrained liberty of execution in which the 
point runs playfully over the plate as in orna- 
mental writing. Etching is admirably adapted for 
the imitation of drawings, and especially for the 
delineations of scenes from nature, as landscapes, 
in which the foliage, sky, ruins, distances, &c., re- 
quire the utmost lightness and freedom of hand. 
The slight inequalities of the lines, caused by the 
corrosion of the acid, add to the beauty of the 

Etching is a very simple operation, and any one 
wiio can draw well, can etch. It is suprising that 
so few modern painters etch, as very many of the 
old masters did, and whose etchings are now so 
highly esteemed. It is true the necessities and 
incentives are somewhat done away by the facili- 
ties of modern engraving, and the great number of 
engravers ; but a poor engraving is not to be com- 
pared with a masterly etching, and a masterly en- 
graving costs so much that it will only pay to en- 
grave the best works of the best masters. Had 
the late Thomas Cole etched some of his exquLsite 
landscapes, doubtless the sale would have been im- 
mense and the profits large, for thousands would 
have sought to possess such works by so great a 
master, who could not afford to purchase his paint- 
ings. It is also a pleasant pastime to those who 
have the taste. Some noble amateurs have thus 
amused themselves in practising the art. It is 
worthy of notice that the Queen of England and her 
royal Consort sometimes amuse themselves with 
etching, and thus set an illustrious example that 
cannot fail to have a beneficial influence on the 
fine arts in England. 

Line Engraving. — In this method of engraving, 
the design is transferred as before described in 
etching, and the outlines only etched in. Then, the 
ground is removed, and the lines laid in, and cut in 
with the graver. This is the most difficult and te- 
dious, and the most expensive kind of engraving, re- 
quiring the greatest judgment, skill, and care. En- 
gravers have frequently wrought five or more years 
on a single plate, and some instances are recorded 
where thej^ have spent ten or more years. Thus 
it will be perceived, that engraving is one of the 
most tedious and difficult of the arts, for if any ac- 
cident happens to the work, the part injured must 
be scraped out, the plate leveled by beating up on 
the back, and the parts re-engraved. 

Stipple Engraving. — The plate is first treated 
as before described in line engraving. It differs 
from line engraving in this respect, that the work 
is produced by minute punctures or dots. These 
punctures, when made with the dry point, are cir- 
cular, and with the graver, triangular. The varia- 
tions and progi'essive magnitude of these dots give 
the whole effect of light and shade in stipple en- 


graving. This method, next to line engraving, is 
the most tedious. .Both methods have their ad- 
vantages, and arc frequently combined, in modern 
prints. Large plates generally require a force and 
power of execution, to which the line is best adapt- 
ed. On the contrai-y, for carnations, and those 
delicate transitions of light and shadow, for satins, 
laces and silks, the stipple is preferable. 

In modern times, ingenious machines, especially 
the ruling inachuie, have been invented to facili- 
tate the process of engraving. ^Vith the ruling 
machine, the skies, back-grounds, and even some 
parts of the figures are ruled in, saving thereby 
immense labor and expense. But such prints are 
not esteemed by connoisseurs as worthy a place in 
their portfolios. The old engravers used none of 
these things, and most modern engravers who work 
for reputation, seldom employ them. Delicate ru- 
hn"- has recently been introtluced into the figures 
m mezzotint plates, which is an improvement. 

Mezzotint Eng-raving. — This styk of engraving 
is executed by raising a barb on the surface of the 
plate with an instrument called a rocka , so as to 
"•ive a black ground. In Europe, this is now done 
with machinery, and the plates, thus prepared^ are 
sold to the engraver by the square inch. The 
engraver traces his outline upon the plates, and 
the light parts are scraped out, then the middle 
tints, so as to leave a portion of the ground. This 
branch of the art has 'been brought to the highest 
perfection in England, France and Germany. It 
is also practised in a very creditable manner by 
our own artists. The advantages of mezzotint en- 
graving are, the facility of execution, and the deli- 
cate softness of the prints. It is admirably adapt- 
ed to represent the softness of the carnations, the 
light tioating of the hair, the folds of the draperies, 
the lustrous brilliancy of armor, and the imitation 
of the delicate coloring of a picture. This style of 
engraving will yield 500 or 600 good impressions 
fro°m copper plates, and 1500 to 2500 from steel 
plates, but the latter, by the frequent use of the 
rocker and burnisher, may be made to give a vast 
number of poor impressions. 

Aquatint.— In this mode of engraving the out- 
line is first etched, as before described. A solu- 
tion of Burgundy pitch or mastic, made in alcohol 
or spirits ot' wine, is then applied to the plate, 
which, by its rapid evaporation, forms a ground 
of a granular texture. The acid is then poured on 
as in etching, and when the hghts are sufficiently 
bitten they are stopped out, the acid again applied, 
and so on till all the parts have a sufficient depth 
of color. The method of laying the ground varies 
somewhat, as practised by diii'erent engravers, but 
the above is considered the best. This method 
was invented by St. Non, a Frenchman, about 
1CG2. Paul Sandljy introduced it into England 
about 1780, where the art has been brought to the 
highest perfection. By tliis mode of engraving 
drawings in India ink, blister, and other washes, 
are very successfully imitateil. It is chiefly used 
for sporting pieces, horse-races, plans of cities and 
the like, \7hen colored they have a pleasing elTect. 
Aquatints are sometimes printed in colors, i. e., 
two or three ditierent colored inks are employed 
at the same time on the plate, as a blue for the 
skies, a neutral tint, as brown, for the rocks, hills 
and distances, and a green for the foreground when 
there is much foliage. The colors are carefully put 
on those parts of .the plate, where they ai-e re- 

quired with ink-balls or dabbcrs, and the impres- 
sion taken in the ordinary way. The prints are 
then colored with the brush, by hand ; which pro- 
cess, the printing in colors greatly facilitates. 

Engraving in dots, called opus mallei. This is 
an antiquated mode of engraving, supposed to have 
been ffi-st practised by Janus Lutma. The design 
is first etclaed, then the plate is harmonized by the 
dry point, struck with a small liammer, whence 
its name. It possesses no advantages to recom- 
mend its use. 

Etching on Glass,— This is done by covering the 
glass with a thin ground of wax, tracing the de- 
sign with the point, and scraping away the wax so 
as to expose the glass to the action of hydro-tiuo- 
ric acid. This is done by covering the part with 
pulverized Derbj^shire spar mixed with sulphuric 
acid, which sets free the hydro-fluoric acid exist- 
ing in the spar, which acid will corrode glass. 

Zincography. — This is a method of eugi-aving 
on zinc plates recently invented in Germany. It 
lias not yet been introduced into this country. It 
is done by etching and the use of acids, and the 
prints vary very little in appearance from litho- 

Pentography. — This method is done by means 
of a ruling machine, so constructed that the lines 
are made to diverge and converge at the pleasure 
of the operator. The lights are produced bj- the 
widening or diverging of the lines, and the darks 
by approximating or converging them. This style 
is very well adapted to statuary or busts, when 
cheapness is an object. 

Engracing on Steel. — The same methods are 
now pursued iu engraving on steel plates as on cop- 
per. The advaiitage of engra-sdng on steel plates 
consists in, their hardness, by which the}' are made 
to yield an almost indefinite number of impres- 
sions, whereas copper plates will wear out. espe- 
cially in fine work, in taking 1500 or 2000. ' Steel 
plates were first employed by our ingenious coun- 
tryman, .Joseph Perkins of Boston, who took his in- 
vention to London, where he established himself and 
introduced it with such eminent success, that it 
has superseded copper in all casts where a large 
number of impressions are required. Formerly, 
the plates were partially decarbonized, so as to 
render them soft, before engraving, and when the 
work was finished, the carbon was restorefl. but this 
method is so liable to accident, from Uit scaling 
and blistering of the steel, that it has bcv^u aban- 
doned, except in engraving dies for the vignettes of 
bank notes. These dies are so hardened thaf, all 
the eml;)ellishments of bank notes are transferictl 
from them to copper or steel plates by pressure. 
An engraving on a steel plate, hardened, may be 
transferred in relief to a softened steel cylinder by 
pressure: this cylinder after Ix'ing hai-dened may be 
made to again transfer the design to steel plates ; 
thus the work may be multiplied at pleasure. 

Printing Engravings. — This is an interesting 
process, and one of great importance, as much of 
the beauty of the prints depends upon the printer; 
for if the ink be too thin, or the plate too full, it 
will overrun, and devil or blur the print in taking 
the impression. In printing heavy work, the great- 
est care is required, or half the impression will be 
spoiled. A careless printer \vill also grind the 
plates, or wear them out much faster than an ex- 
perienced and careful workman. 
A plate printing press cannot well be described 



without a diagram. SufSce it to say that the bed- 
piece oil wliich the plate is laid, is a heavy cast-iron 
plate two inches thick, the surface planed perfectly 
flat, which, by means of gearing, is made to run 
mider a heavy cast-iron cylinder, six or eight in- 
ches in diameter, also turned perfectly smooth. 
This cylinder is placed above the bed-piece, is 
graduated by screws, and is turned by hand by 
means of levers. The cylinder, graduated accord- 
ing to the thickness of the plate to be printed, is 
covered next to the plate, with several thicknesses 
of heavy drab broadcloth, which move with the 
cylinder, and are kept in their place hy means of 
pullies. The bed-plate being run out, the press is 
now ready for use. The plate, having been pre- 
viously warmed over a stove or steam-bed so as to 
soften the ink, is carefully filled with the ink roller; 
the ink is next removed from the surface of the 
plate by rubbing with a kind of soft crash manu- 
factured for the purpose, called rags; and the palm 
of the hand, rubl)ed on French whiting, is passed 
over the whole surface, so as to remove the whole of 
the ink except that contained in the engraved work ; 
(a thousand experiments have been tried without 
success to obviate this labor,) the plate is laid 
upon the bed-plate of the press, the pai')er, pre- 
viously softened bj^ being wet down over night, is 
laid over the plate and passed under the cylinder, 
which subjects it to a pressure of many tons ; and 
this pressure does not come upon the whole plate 
at once, but progressively, in one straight line 
across the plate, as it passes under the cylinder ; and 
the elasticity of the cloth cushion forces the soft 
paper down into the engraved work, which takes 
up the ink. Forty or fifty impressions from a 
heavy plate is a good day's work, and the price for 
printing is about $15 per hundred. After the day's 
work is finished, the prints are laid upon racks to 
dry, where they remain several days, when they 
are pressed. Plate printing is a very laborious 
kind of work. 

Engraving on Precions Stones. — This is ac- 
complished with the diamond or emery. The dia- 
mond possesses the peculiar property of resisting 
every hodj in nature, and though the hardest of 
all substances, it may be cut by a part of itself, and 
polished by its own particles. In order to render 
the diamond fit to perform the operation of a tool, 
two rough diamonds are cemented to the ends of 
handles, and rubbed together till that form is ol> 
tained for which they are intended ; the powder 
thus produced is preserved, mixed with olive oil, 
and used for polishing them in a kind of lathe with 
an iron wheel. Other stones, as rubies, topazes, 
and sapphires, are cut into various angles with 
diamond dust on a copper wheel, and then pol- 
ished with tripoli. A leaden wheel covered with 
emery wet with water, is preferred for cutting em- 
eralds, amethysts, hyacinths, agates, garnets. &c., 
and they are polished on a pewter wheel with tri- 
poli. Opal, lapis-lazuli. &c., are polishetl on a 
wooden wheel covered with buck-skin, with tripoli 
and rouge. 

Contrary to the method employed in turning 
metal s. in which the substances wrought are fast- 
ened in the lathe, and the tools applied, the en- 
graver of gems fixes his tools in the lathe and 
holds the precious stone to them; thus forming 
them to any shape he pleases by the interposition 
of diamond dust mixed with oil. or any other pow- 
dered material that is harder than the stone beine; 

cut. After the stones are thus turned or cut into 
the proper shape, the engraving of the devices, as 
figures and armorial bearings, itc, is performed by 
means of small iron or copper wheels having a per- 
pendicular axis, which revolve in a lathe turned 
by the foot, with diamond dust or other hard 
substances. Tools of iron or copper are also em- 
ploj-ed; these are of different and convenient 
shapes, as small chisels, gouges, points, round- 
heads, etc.. worked with diamond dust, &c., for the 
figures and delicate work. After the work is fin- 
ished the polishing is performed with wheel brush- 
es, fixed in a lathe, with polishing powders, mixed 
with olive oil. In this way cameos and intaglios 
are cut, which see in Explanation of Terms in this 

Engraving on Stone, or Lithography. — This is 
a modern invention, the merits of which belong 
to Alois Senefclder, a musical performer of the 
theatre of jNlunich, about 1800. The following- 
are the principles on which the art of Lithographj^ 
depends: First, the facility with which calcare- 
ous stones imljibe water ; second, the great dispo- 
sition oily and resinous substances have to adhere 
to them ; third, the affinity between oily and res- 
inous substances and the power they possess of 
repelling water, or bodies moistened with water. 
Hence wdiere drawings are made on the polished 
surface of a calcareous stone with resinous or oily 
substances, they ai'e so adhesive that nothing short 
of mechanical means will remove them from it ; 
and Avhilst the other parts of the stone take up 
water poured upon it, the resinous parts repel it. 
Lastly, when an oily ink is rolled over a stone thus 
prepared, it will adhere to the drawings made as 
, above, and not to the other parts of the stone. 
The stone employed is a kind of white lias which 
is found abundantly in France, Germany, and Eng- 
land. The ink and chalk of which the crayons are 
made are of an oily or suponaceous quality. After 
the ch'awing has l:K2en made upon the stone, and it is 
perfectly dry, a weak solution of sulphuric or other 
acid is put upon it, which slightly depresses the 
surface of those parts where there is no drawing, 
and prepares it for absorbing the water more 
freely. Weak gum water is then applied to the 
stone to close the pores and keep it moist. In 
taking the impression, the stone is first gently 
washed with a sponge and pure water, the ink 
rolled over, the paper applied, and run through the 
press ; this process is repeated for every print. 

Besides the method alx)ve described, the designs 
are sometimes drawn with the brush or pen. They 
are also occasionally engraved on the stone. En- 
gravings may also be transferred directly to the 
stone by dampening them and sulijeeting them to 
pressure, by which the ink is made to leave the 
print and adhere to the stone. This last method 
is principally used for maps, blank drafts and bills 
of exchange. The advantages of Lithograjshy are 
the ikcility with which the drawings are made and 
the impression taken, and the extraordinary num- 
ber of prints that may be taken. This last de- 
pends altogether on the tlelicatencss or strength of 
the drawing and the manner in which it is done. 
The works of some lithographers will wear much 
better than others. Fine ink drawings will yield 
l,0tJ<3 to 2,000 ; strong ones generally 3,000 to 5.000. 
(14,000 is the highest number taken in the United 
States, which is considered an extraordinary num- 
ber.) Upwards of SO.OOO are said to have been 


taken at jMunich from one writing of a form for 
a regimental order. An engraved stone will wear 
longer than any other. Transfers will yield 500 
to 1000 impressions. Lithography has been car- 
ried to vcrv high perfection in France, Germany, 
and England. Lithography may be made to 
produce prints having the appearance of highly 
colored engravings. For this purpose a series 
of stones is employed, as many as the number 
of tints re(iuired, and ' each print is subjected to 
a separate impression from each stone with its 
appropriate tint or colored ink. As many as 
eight stones have been employed. This method 
is'practised to a considerable extent in Europe, but 
the linishing is generally done with the brush 
and hand. It has recently been greatly improved 
bv Mr. Duval of Philadelphia, who, by employing 
eight stones, has produced an exquisite specunen 
of the work, which may be seen in the Patent 
Office Pveports for 1850. He has given the name 
of Ohromolithography to his method. 

LUhocrojuics, is the art of printing in oil colors 
upon stone, and taking impressions on canvass. 
This process, designed to multiply the master- 
pieces of painting, was invented about 1815, by 
M. iNlalapeau of Paris, who obtained a patent 
from the French government for his invention. 
The art has not been brought to such perfection as 
to realize the expectations of the patentee, or to 
produce any thing valuable. A similar, but much 
superior method,"was invented by Senefelder, the 
original inventor of Lithography, which he calls 
Mosaic impression. [See Senefelder.'] 

Wood Engraving, or Xylographij.— This, the 
easiest mode of engraving, is performed on blocks 
of wood, cut across the tibres, of the same thick- 
ness as 'the length of types for printing, usually 
of the box-wood, but sometimes the pear, apple, 
and mahogany are employed for cheapness. The 
subject is drawn on the block with a black-lead 
pencil, or with a pen and Indian ink. The whole 
of the wood is then cut away, except where the 
lines arc drawn, which are left as raised parts. 
These raised lines give the darks, and the removed 
parts the lights, which are nothing more than the 
natural color of the paper. The impressions are 
taken on a common printing press. This art is of 
"•reat importance for embellishing books and illus- 
trating scientific works, from its cheapness. 

Some of the wooden cuts of the old engravers, 
as Albert Durev. Remlirandt, x\ldegrever, &c., 
which are now so highly esteemed, were printed 
in chiaro-scuro, in imitation of chalk di'awings — 
(see Chalk in Explanation of Terms) — the most 
esteemed, being original designs, partake of the 
nature of paintings. For this purpose, two, three, 
or more blocks arc employed with inks of different 
shades or intensity; the lirst has the outline only 
cut upon it, the second is reserved for the dark 
shadows, the third for the shadows which termi- 
nate on the lights, &c. The blocks are substituted 
in turn, so that cnc\\ print receives a separate ini- 
prcssion from each block. Sometimes the outline is 
engraved in a bold style on copper ; then the 
blocks are used to produce the darker and lighter 
shades. A few years ago, Mr. Brewster of London 
invented and patented a process to produce line col- 
ored prints from wood cuts. For this purpose he 
employed as many as eight 1)locks. each -with a dif- 
ferent colored tint or ink. in imitating scenes from 
. nature, or water colored drawings, with very great 

success; but as yet, the process is too expensive 
for illustrating books. In most foreign illustrated 
works re-published in this country, the engravings 
are transfers, i. e., the engraver, to save the trouble 
and expense of making a drawing after the original, 
transfers the engraving at once to his block by 
means of a solution of potash, which softens the 
ink so that it will give an exact impression of the 
print. The lights are then cut as before. Trans- 
fers are always the reverse of tiie originals. Wood 
cuts are printed with a common printing-press. 


Photography is the art and science of taking 
pictures of objects, by the action of solar light, on 
paper, metals, or other substances, prepared with 
metallic salts — usually one of the salts of silver, as 
the Nitrate,ChIoride, Phosphate, Iodide, Bromide, 
&c., all of which are readily decomposed, or acted 
upon by light. The materials thus prepared, are 
first submitted to the action of light through the 
caniera-obscura, and when they are sufficiently 
acted upon in this instrument to produce the im- 
pression, or picture, it is, or rendered perma- 
nent, by the application of alkaline salts, or other 
substances, which cannot be detailed in this work 
further than to give a general idea of the principles 
of the science. 

Photography is a very interesting and impor- 
tant science, yet in its infancy. Great improve- 
ments have been made since its first promulgation, 
are still being made ; and many scientific men be- 
lieve that the great desideratum of making colored 
photographs, i. e., pictures having all the colors of 
natural objects, will be discovered. Indeed, such 
results have recently been announced as having 
been obtained by one of our own artists, though 
not yet made public. Photography is a science so 
interesting and instructive that the author deems 
a short notice of its discovery, and application to 
art. not out of place in this work. 

The action of light in producing pictorial effects 
on paper and metals, prepared with saline or other 
substances, had long been known and experimented 
upon by the scientific world, with the belief that val- 
uable results might be obtained. For this purpose, 
experiments were instituted by philosophers in 
their researches on light; especially by Count 
Rumford, M. Seebeck, Dr. Herschel, Dr. Wollaston, 
Sir Humphrey Davy, and other eminent men. In 
1802, Mr. Wedgewood, the celebrated porcelain 
manufacturer, published " An Account of a Me- 
thod of copying Paintings upon Glass, and of 
making Profiles by the agency of light upon Nitrate 
of Silver ; with observations by H. Davy." They 
did not succeed in fixing the colors so that they 
retained any permanence. The pictures vanished 
as soon as they were exposed to the light, and the 
paper turned to a uniform dark color ; yet they 
employed the various salts of silver and the canie- 
ra-obscura — the main things now employed. 

In 1814, M. Niepce, of Chalons on the Soane, 
commenced a scries of experiments, with a view to 
render these pictorial elfects permanent ; and in 
1824. M. Daguerre, of Paris, engaged in the same. 
In 1829, M. Niepce communicated to M. Daguerre 
the particulars of the process employed by him, 
and they entered into an agreement to pursue, for 
their mutual benefit, the researches which they had 
respectively commenced. In 1833, IM. Niepce died, 
and a new arrangement was entered into between 


his son, M. Isidore Niepce, and M. Daguerre. It 
is very doubtful if either of these gentlemen would 
have accomplished the desired result alone. At all 
events, M. Niei^cc has the priority of experimen- 
tal investigation, and had succeeded in accomplish- 
ing all except the facility and certainty of fixing 
the colors, which was chiefly effected through the 
skill and perseverance of M. Daguerre, to whom 
the invention is mainly attributed. 

In January, 1839, the discovery of M. Daguerre 
was reported, and specimens exhibited to the sci- 
entific world of Paris. The extreme fidelity, the 
beautiful gradations of light and shadow, the mi- 
nuteness, and the extraordinar}- character of these 
jiictured tablets, took all by surprise, and the whole 
world was astonished that light could be made to 
delineate, on solid bodies, delicately beautiful pic- 
tures, geometrically true, of those objects which it 
illuminated. The French Government bought the 
secrets of the invention by conferring on M. Da- 
guerre a pension for life of GOOOf., and on M. Isidore 
Niepce one of 4000f, with one-half in reversion to< 
their widows, and the process was published to the 
world ; France declaring that she purchased the 
secret of the process of the Daguerreotype, for the 
glory of endowing the world of science and of art, 
with one of the most surprising discoveries that 
honor her country. 

The great philosopher, M. Arago, who was at 
the head of the commission appointed by the Gov- 
ernment to report on the propriety of granting a 
pension to the inventors, thus speaks of the im- 
portance of the discover}' : 

" To copy the millions upon millions of hiero- 
glyphics which cover even the exterior of the great 
monuments of Thebes and Memphis, of Carnac, 
&c., would require scores of years, and legions of 
designers. By the assistance of the Daguerreo- 
type, a single man could finish that immense work. 
Supply the Institute of Egypt with two or three of 
the apparatus of M. Daguerre, and upon most of 
the great plates in that celebrated work (the fruit 
of our immortal expedition) of the vast extent of 
real hieroglyphics, these instruments would re- 
place these fictitious or invented representations ; 
and the designs would surpass, above all concep- 
tion, in fidelity, and peculiarity of tint, the works 
of our most able painters. The photographic ima- 
ges, being subject in their formation to the rules 
of geometry, would, through the aid of a small 
number of data, admit of coming at the exact di- 
mensions of the most elevated and inaccessible parts 
of those edifices. 

'• These reminiscences, in which the savans and 
artists, so zealous and celebrated, who were at- 
tached to the army of the east, could not, without 
strange mistake, find the shadow of blame, will 
without doubt recall the thoughts to the works 
which are at present executed in our own coun- 
try, imder the control of the commission of His- 
torical Monuments. At one glance any one will 
perceive the immense and important influence 
Avliich the photographic processes are destined 
one day to exercise upon that great national en- 
terprise ; each will comprehend how much these 
novel modes of proceeding are distinguished by 
economy, a species of merit which rarely advances 
with the arts, in the perfecting of their products." 
In the meantime, the learned English philoso- 
pher, Henry Fox Talbot, F.R.S., without any know- 
ledge of the discoveries of Niepce and Daguerre, 

had been investigating the subject since 1834, and 
had made a series of experiments with a view of 
rendering the images of the camera-ohscura per- 
manent, which resulted in complete success ; and 
in the most disinterested manner, he communica- 
ted the result of his researches to the Royal Soci- 
ety on the 31st of January, six months prior to the 
publication of M. Daguerre's process. It is but 
just to observe, that similar investigations had 
been made by some philosophers in the United 
States, particularly by Professors Hare and Ure, 
and immediately after the publication of these dis- 
coveries abroad, the Americans availed themselves 
of them ; and it is acknowledged that they have 
brought the art to a higher degree of perfection 
than any other people. "VYe will close this article 
with a brief explanation of the diiferent names 
given to the art. 

It was first called Photography, from two Greek 
words signifying writing by light ; also, photo- 
genic drawing, or drawing occasioned or produced 
by light. M. Daguerre gave it the name of Heli- 
ography, or writing by the sun ; and the French 
Government named it after its discoverer. Daguer- 
reotype. Talbot called his process Calotype ; and 
as his experiments were made on prepared paper, 
pictures taken on paper by his process are called 
Calotypes, or after him, Talbotypes. Pictures 
taken on metallic plates are now usually called 
Daguerreotypes, and on paper Photographs. 


Monograms and Ciphers. — Monograms and ci- 
phers are the private marks used by painters and 
engravers to distinguish their works. A mono- 
gram is formed by combining two or more letters, 
usually the initials to a master's name. A cipher 
is any other mark, as a cross, a house, a tree, a 
bird, an implement, etc. Some of the old engra^ 
vers combined both in the same plate. The prac- 
tice of using monograms was more common in 
former times than at the present, and it equally 
obtained both among painters and engravers. 

Many of the old painters signed their names in 
full, as is the general practice at the present day ; 
others employed only their initials. Many great 
masters seldom or never signed their works, as 
Michael Angelo and Raffaelle. The latter was 
never known to attach his name but to three of his 

A monogram is no certain sign of authenticity in 
a painting, as every great master has his imitators ; 
but it is generally a very certain one in an engra- 
ving. The monograms and ciphers used by the 
most distinguished Old Masters, both painters and 
engravers, will be found in the plates and scattered 
throughout this work. 

In engraving, the common custom is to write the 
painter's name in the left hand comer of the plate, 
and the engraver's in the right hand ; sometimes 
the name of the draughtsman appears in the centre, 
and occasionally that of the publisher. Thus, 
Carlo Cig7iani, Pinx. ; J. B. Michel, Scidp. ; G. 
Farrington, DeU ; J. Boydell, Excu. ; signifies 
that Cignani was the painter, JMichel the engraver. 
Farrington the draughtsman, and Boydell the pub- 

The following marks are copied from old engra- 
vings, and for this reason are given, though some 



of them are incorrect. P., Pin., Pinx., Pinxt-^ 
Pin.vit.. Painted; all of which mean the same 
thing— that the artist to whose name they are at- 
tached, painted the picture. 

Dl, JM'^ Delt., Delia., Delint., Dclineavit^ 
Drew ; signifies the draughtsman who made the 
model or drawing for the engraver, after the orig- 
inal painting. . 

Sc, Sc^-' Scul, Sculp., Scnlpt-< Sculpsit, En- 
graved ; signifies the engraver. 

E.V.. E.TC, Ed-cu., Excud., Exciidit, signifies 
the pul)lisher. 

Sometimes Dcpinxit and its contractions are 
used for Piiixit ; also Exculpsit and Incidit, for 

/., In., Inv., Inv^-> Inven., Livenit, Invented; sig- 
nifies designed, and is frequently used to signify 
the painter. 

/'.. Fe.. F'" Ft.. Fe' - Fee. Fecit, lilade ; should 
signify tlie print was designed, drawn, and engra- 
\ed by the same artist ; but it is frequently used 
to signify the painter ; and sometimes the engraver 
incorrectly attaches it to his name for Sculpsit. 

A sculptor is signified by Inv. et Sculp., i. e., Li- 
ventor et Sculptor. 

Inv. et Delin. signify designed and drawn. 

lav. et Sculp., designed, drawn and engraved. 

Ad va:, or ad vivum., signifies drawn or painted 
from the living model. 

Some of the old masters etched or engraved their 
own pictures, in which case they usually added to 
their names or initials ]j/H.r. et scidp., or fee, or itw. 

Some of the old painters and engravers varied 
their signatures or monograms at dillcrent times 
or periods of their lives. Thus .4. C. P., or A. C, or 
Agos. C, or A. G. Bononice, all signify Agostiuo 
Caracci of Bologna. Salvator Rosa signed his name 
in full to his earlier works ; afterwards he used 
a monogram of his initials, an R entwined with 
an S. 

There is no verb in the Latin language signifying 
to etch, which is rendered, aqua forti notas me- 
tallo factas aorrodendas dare. Therefore some 
of the aforementioned terms are employed for the 

Sometimes engravings arc marked with the ini- 
tials, or a monogram composed of the initials of 
both the painter and engraver ; sometimes with the 
initials or two first letters of the master's name, 
with P., I., or F. frequently added, to signify 
pinxit, invenit, or fecit. Thus, F. P. M. A. sig- 
nify that Francesco Primaticcio was the painter, 
and Marc' Antonio the engraver ; L. C, F. B., 
or Lod. C. I., Fr. Bri., signify that Lodovico 
Caracci was the painter, and Francesco Baccio 
the engraver. .4. L. P., /., signifies that Antonio 
Licinio Pordenone designed the subject, B. F. 
v., F, Battista Francesco Veneti, fecit. 

Sometimes the place of nativity or residence is 
designated, as MI AG., FLO., Michael Angelo, 
of Florence; 10. AN., BX., Giovanni Antonio, 
of Brescia; F. B.V., /.'or F, Federigo Baroccio 
of Urbino, invenit or fecit. 

Monograms are sometimes so composed as not 
only to designate the master's name, but his nick- 
name, or acquired name ; or his place of birth or 
nativity ; or of his instructor or publisher ; and 
occasionally marks are found which the artist him- 

self only understood ; and such prints, if the mas- 
ter is not positively known, are adjudged by con- 
noisseurs to such a master, by the exact resem- 
blance of the style. 

Some of the old masters employed singular or 
fimciful marks, as birds, animals, houses, etc., usu- 
ally having some reference or allusion to the name 
of the artist. Thus, Jerome Cock marked his 
plates with two cocks fighting ; H. le Bles, with an 
owl on a branch, or in a cage; Hans Adam, with a 
naked figure under a tree, with his initials ; I\Iartin 
de Vos, with a monkey and a fox, separated by a 
stream; Hans Schauifiin with a small shovel, 
sometimes two, crossed, with his initials — his name 
signifying in German smcdl shovel; Martin, with a 
little bird of that name ; Leech, with a bottle con- 
taining a leech. Zuccarelli's mark is always a 
pumpkin or squash of large size, growing on a vine 
upon a shepherd's cot or fence, or stuck with a 
stick on a rustic's shoulder ; his name signifying in 
.Itahan, little pumpkin. 

A monogram is not always a certain mark of 
authenticity, though it is with the few rare excep- 
tions where the works of renowned engravers have 
been counterfeited. Thus, Marc' Antonio copied 
the thirty-six prints representing the Life and 
Passion of our Saviour, by Albert Durer, so accu- 
rately that he sold them for the original prints, 
which induced Durer to go to Venice to prosecute 
him for the piracy. 

The value of a print depends upon its beauty 
and rarity. Many prints (fine impressions) by the 
Old blasters command enormous prices. Some by 
Albert Durer, jNLarc' Antonio, and others, are worth 
five to fifteen guineas in London. Sometimes prints 
are published b}^ subscription, with the under- 
standing that the plate is to be destroyed after a 
certain number of impressions have been taken. 
Such prints are very high. Thus, the Transfigura- 
tion, by Rafiaelle Morghen. after Raffiielle. is worth 
even in the United States. $250. Many prints were 
formerly published in England and other coun- 
tries in this manner. The first impressions from a 
plate alwaj-s command the highest price. Thus, 
some of the old engravers designated the number 
of the impression by figures, letters, or other 
marks ; .thus, 1 might designate the first hundred, 
2 the second, and 3 the tliird ; and these mai'ks arc 
carefully noted by the connoisseur. 

Engravings are usuallj- divided into prints. {Proofs, 
and proofs before the letter ; or first comes the 
proof before the letter, next the proof with the 
skeleton letter, and last the print. The price of 
the proof before the letter is usually three times 
that of the print, and the skeleton or second 
proof twice as much. ^Modern English prints arc 
very high. The finest prints after the best mas- 
ters, as Wilkie. Landseer, and Martin, range from 
$20 to $00. The reason for this is that the first 
engravers are employed to execute such works, 
and the copj^-right is verj' high. Sir David Wilkie 
would never sell his copy-rights, which were a 
source of great revenue to him. Sir Edwin Land- 
seer is said to have received £5.000 for the privi- 
lege of engraving one of his finest pictures. The 
English are willing to pay liberal prices for works 
of merit, and this is the way to make the Fine 
Arts flourish in any country. 



An author who presumes to write on any sub- 
ject without possessing the requisite qualifications, 
justly laj'S himself open to severe criticism; be- 
cause, instead of rendering a benefit, he inflicts 
positive injury on the community ; but the ci'itic, 
in justice to the public, as well as the author, 
should speak with candor and knowledge. It is a 
matter of the first importance to the advancement 
of the Fine Arts in our countr}^, where the press is 
a mighty engine that tJiiiiks for tlie great mass of 
the people, that critics on works of art should not 
onl}' write with candor, but with that knowledge 
and judgment which constitutes the true connois- 
seur ; otherwise they will often lacerate the heart of 
a young and promising artist, if the}- do not for- 
ever crush his hopes. The following observa- 
tions, on this subject, by the learned and judicious 
Pilkington. in the prefoce to his Dictionary of 
Painters, are worthy of attentive perusal and con- 
sideration : 

'• The notion, advanced by some foreign critics, 
and which for a considerable time obtained too 
much credence, that either the atmosphere of Brit- 
ain, or the genius of its inhabitants, was unfavor- 
able to the formation of a School of Painting, has 
received a decisive refutation in the Royal Academy 
established by one monarch, and in the foundation 
of the National Gallery by his august and accom- 
plished successor. This triumph is not epheme- 
ral, but the result of energies properly directed, 
and of a patronage liberally conducted upon pat- 
riotic principles, for the puljlic benefit, and not for 
the indulgence of a particular humor, or the acqi- 
sition of individual glory. Yet. gratifying as this 
spectacle is, we may reasonably hope that it is but 
the prelude to one still more brilliant, and that the 
time is not far distant, when the School of 
Art will be as much the object of admiration as 
that of Piome was under Leo X. To accomplish 
this object, however, emulation must be continual- 
ly excited, and rising genius liberallj^ encouraged; 
just principles must prevail, and these cannot be 
attained without much study, and an habitual ac- 
quaintance with the sublimest models. It were 
therefore to be wished, that our artists, as well as 
our nobility and gentry, who either travel abroad 
for the improvement of their taste ; or inspect the 
capital collections of paintings in England, could 
prevail upon themselves to be more accurate in the 
observations they make, while they entertain them- 
selves by contemplating the works of the celebra- 
ted masters ; so as not only to be struck with ad- 
miration while they behold them, but also to pen- 
etrate the cause of .so powerful an effect on the 
passions of their minds. 

" To see and to admire a painting is not suffi- 
cient ; for even those of the meanest capacity, the 
illiterate and the unskillful, can readily arrive at 
such a degree of taste. But a refined taste can on- 
ly be formed by studiously examining the whole 
and every p.irt of a composition ; by exploring the 
grandeur of the ideas ; the sublimit}^ in the expres- 
sion ; the truth and elegance of the design ; the 
grace diffused through the objects ; the resem- 
blance of nature in the coloring; and the magic 
touch of the pencil. 

"The* true knowledge of the' art of painting is 
not so easy an acquisition as too frequently it is 

accounted ; nor are all those who can plausibly des- 
cant on the perfections and defects of a piece of 
painting to be considered as solid or profound 
judges of the intrinsic merits of a performance. 
• " As painting is the representation of nature, 
every spectator, whether judicious or otherwise, 
will derive a certain degree of pleasure from seeing 
natm'e happilj^ and beautifully imitated ; but, 
where taste and judgment are combined in a spec- 
tator, who examines a design conceived by the 
genius of a Rafi'aelle, and touched into life by his 
hand ; such a person feels a superior, an enthu- 
siastic, a sublime pleasure while he minutel}^ traces 
the merits of the vrork ; and the eye of such a con- 
noisseur wanders from beauty to beautj-, till he 
feels himself rising gradually from admiration to 

" To acquire a well-founded taste for painting, 
there are many essential requisites, without which 
it is scarcely possible to discern the real perfections 
of a performance. 

" One requisite is. to be familiarly conversant with 
histor}', particularly the sacred, from which many 
of the subjects that animated the pencil of Raf- 
faelle and the best artists were compo.sed. * * * 

" Another requisite is the study of profane his- 
tory', particularly that of Greece and Rome; and 
of Italy also, from the declension of the Roman 
empire. By such a course of study, an admirer of 
painting may qualify himself to fix on the parti- 
cular action represented by any artist, even at the 
first view (supposing that action to be described 
in a suitable and masterly manner.) and be en- 
abled to judge whether the passion and expression 
be just ; whether the costume be properly ob- 
served ; whether the characters are marked agree- 
ably to historical truth, and the incidents judi- 
ciously introduced. 

" Another requisite is, to have a competent skill 
in drawing, and a knowledge of anatomy, that the 
connoisseur maj^ form a steady judgment of the 
swell or depression of the muscles in different ac- 
tions and attitudes ; of the true proportions of the 
limbs and extremities of the figures ; of the ele- 
gance of the contours ; and whether the figures ap- 
pear justly balanced, in whatever attitude they are 
placed ; so that he will readily discern where the 
artist has happily succeeded in liis imitation of 
nature, and in what respect his execution is de 

" Another requisite is, to have stuched nature, so 
as to have impressed on the memory beautiful and 
exact images of every object that can enter into a 
composition ; and to have accustomed the eye to 
distinguish what is gracefully natural, not only in 
the human form, but in trees, rocks, rivers, ani- 
mals, as well as those momentary incidents of 
hght, which agreeably diversify the face of nature. 

" Another requisite (and that not the least dif- 
ficult) is, the study of the works of the most fa- 
mous masters ; to observe them with so piercing 
an attention as to discover their manner of pen- 
cilling, the force and delicacy of their touch, as 
well as their style of invention or composition; for 
every eminent artist has his peculiarities in com- 
position, expression, and design, as well as color- 
ing; which, when critically noticed, will distin- 
guish him from others, whether they be his equals 
of his superiors in merit. 

"It is only by a frequent and studious inspec- 
tion into the excellencies of the artists of the first 


rank, that a true taste can 'foe established ; for, by 
being attentively conversant with the elevated ideas 
of others, our own ideas imperceptibly become re- 
fined. "VVe gradually feel «, disgust at what is 
mean and vulgar ; and learn to admire what onl}* 
is justly entitled to our commendation. It is 
scarcely possible that a judicious reader, who has 
improvingl}^ studied the beauties of Milton, Shaks- 
peare, and the best writers, can descend to be de- 
lighted with compositions that are comparatively 
indilferent, although such compositions may have, 
in particular parts, a certain degree of merit. A 
polished pebble may be esteemed as a diamond by 
one who has never sufficiently attended to the na- 
tive lustre of that gem; but a critical eye will 
readily determine between the glitter of the one, 
and the lovely vivid beam of the other. Till, 
therefore, a lover of the art of painting arrives at 
such a degree of judgment and taste, as renders 
him incapable of being pleased with what is indif- 
ferent, he may conclude that his taste and judg- 
ment are still but imperfect. 

"Besides, by being familiarly conversant with 
the works of the best masters, not only the taste 
of an admirer of the art will be effectually estab- 
lished, but his judgment will proportionably be 
enlarged and confirmed. lie will learn steadily 
to distinguish the ideas peculiar to each master, 
whether in respect of the invention or the disposi- 
tion ; he will be instructed to know one master by 
the airs of the head, or the attitudes ; another, by 
the dignity or grace of his figure ; another, by a re- 
markable muscular strength ; and others, by their 
elegance, simplicity, or astonishing management 
of the chiaro-scuro. 

"By examining the coloring and pencilling of 
different artists who were excellent, he ^^^ll dis- 
cover what constitutes the manner peculiar to each, 
and qualify himself to judge with precision. He 
will perceive that almost every artist is remarkable 
for some one predominant tint of coloring ; he will 
observe that in some the yellow predominates, in 
others the brown, the violet, and the green. In 
some the black, as in Caravaggio, Spagnoletto, 
!Manfredi, and Valentino ; in some a paleness, as in 
Vouet, and Nicolo Poussin ; the purple in the Bas- 
saus ; and in Teniers the grey. And by a nice ob- 

servation of these particulars, confirmed by a com- 
petent skill in the style of each master's composi- 
tion, a judicious person will, without much diffi- 
culty, qualify himself to judge with accuracy of 
the hands, as well as of the merits, of the difl'erent 


In repairing ancient paintings which have sus- 
tained injury from time or ill-usage, they should 
be carefully lined and stretched by a man whose 
trade it is, and who perfectly understands his 
business. The artist then cleans the painting 
by removing the old coats of varnish, and care- 
fully restores the injured parts. This is a nice 
operation, and reqiiires great skill and a thor- 
ough knowledge of the palette, so as exactly to 
imitate the touch ahd colors of the original paint- 
ing. The great merit in restoring a painting, con- 
sists in its being so skillfully done as not to bo 
apparent. Many artists proceed to paint the pic- 
ture all over, which deprives it of originality, and 
effectually destroj^s it in the estimation of the con- 
noisseur. Hence a good judge will give more for 
a fine picture in its pure state, than after it has 
been restored in this manner. Many years ago, 
old paintings were imported in ihciT jiure state, but 
now, hardly a picture comes from the old country, 
especially from Holland.which has not been skinned, 
as the trade term it ; M'hich means that the fine 
finish of the original painting has been removed 
with the varnishin the apphcation of spirits, by 
unskillful persons. 

The author knows no man more competent to 
judge of the authenticity of painting,s, by what 
masters they were executed, and to restore them 
when injured than his friend, Signor Nicolino 
Calyo, of New York. Signor Calyo is an ac- 
complished scholar, a skillful artist, bred up in the 
Academy of Naples ; a man who has travelled 
much, an acute observer and a true connoisseur ; 
and last, but not least in such matters, " an honest 
man." The author, from an intimacy of many 
years, takes pleasure in testifying to the virtues of 
"his friend, and acknowledging his indebtedness to 
him for much valuable information in this work. 



Accidents [Accideiiti di luce, Italian] are those 
happy hits, or efiects, which artists sometimes get 
by chance, or inspiration of the moment. The 
term is also apphed to those effects which result 
from chance (intentional or otherwise on the part 
of the artist), as the sun's rays passing through 
an opening or a window, and causing a strong re- 
flected light ; or, in a landscape, a partial shade or 
shadow, caused by a passing cloud. 

Accessories are the objects which an artist in- 
troduces into his works, independent of the princi- 
pal figures, and which,without being absolutely nec- 
essary to the subject, essentially contribute to the 
perfection, beauty, and energy of the picture. They 
supply the place of poetic detail. Thus, in a por- 
trait, when a painter introduces the furniture of a 
room, library, books, rases of flowers, domestic 
animals, etc., these, in the language of art, are 
called accessories. 

AcHROic, Achromatic. "Wanting in color; 
whether naturally or by deprivation. 

A Bird's-Eye View is a scenographic projection 
or view, taken from an elevated point in the air, 
from which the eye is supposed to look down up- 
on the objects. 

Aerial Perspective. See Perspective. 

ANTiauE. The term antique is applied to those 
precious works and relics of ancient times (especi- 
ally those executed in Greece, when the arts flour- 
ished in their greatest perfection), .which have 
come down to us, such as statues, basso-relievos, 
and intaglios, or engraved gems. It has been 
doubted whether the finest works of antiquity have 
come down to us, but the principal of those which 
have been the admiration of modern connoisseurs 
and the guide of the most distinguished artists, are 
the Apollo Belvedere, the Laocoon. the Antinous, 
the Torso, the Gladiator, and the Yenus de MecU- 
cis. The Elgin marbles, in the British Museum, 
form a treasury of knowledge of the Antique 
School. A profound study of the antique was the 
source from which the greatest artists of modem 
times, as Michael Angelo and Raffaelle, drew the 
perfection which has immortalized their names. 

Attitude is the disposition of a figure or fig- 
ures, so as to portray the passions or sentiments 
supposed to be passing in the mind of the person or 
persons represented. It comprehends not only the 
position of the body, but the movements of the 
limbs. When Achilles is menaced with the loss 
of Briseis, it is not enough that rage darts from his 
eyes ; the action of the whole body, and of every 
limb, should participate in the feelings of the mo- 
ment. Attitude is a very difficult but essential 
part of the painter's art ; for it requires a perfect 
knowledge of ponderation, and whatever refers to 
the centre of gravity, a knowledge of the human 
heart, and the manner in which its feelings and 
passions are exhibited in the motions of the hodj ; 
at the same time, he must be careful not to violate 
propriety, and to choose those positions which dis- 
play, as far as circumstances vnll permit, the mosx 
beautiful delineations of the figure. It is allowed 
that the choice of fine attitudes constitutes the 
greatest part of the beauties of gi'ouping. 

Allegory, as a term applied to the arts, is a 
mode of communicating certain abstract ideas by the 
aid of symbohcal figures. It is chiefly emplo3'ed in 
fabulous and mythological representations. It is 
also successfully used in subjects taken from the 
poets, who have themselves made use of similai' 
illusions. Allegory requires to be treated with 
great address, for if the meaning is not perfectly 
apparent, the artist has failed in his object. 

Air, as applied to the human figure, has nearly 
the same meaning as look or carriage, as an air of 
dignity. In a literal sense, it is synonymous with 
the atmosphere which should surround the figures 
in a painting, so that the canvass is forgotten, and 
the figures appear as in actual space, and not as 
pasted on a flat ground. 

Airiness is that thin and delicate vapor which 
judicious artists throw over their works, and which 
so agreeably deceives the eye. 

Atmosphere is the column of air supposed to 
exist between the spectator and the objects depicted. 
This will be explained under the head of Perspec- 
tive. The works of the late Thomas Cole may be 



cited as instances in which atmosphere, or aerial 
perspective is carried to high perfection. 

Alto-relif.vo. See Relievo. 

Anachronism, in painting, is tlie draping of an- 
cient personages in modern costume, as practised 
by some of the old Dutcli masters, or rice versa; 
or the grouping of Popes, Saints, and Cardinals, 
with the Savior and his Apostles, as occasionally 
practised l)y some of the first Italian masters to 
flatter vanity; also the introduction of modern 
buildings, ships, or inventions into ancient subjects, 
or vice versa. 

AauAREL [Aqua7'clle, Fr. ; AcquarcUa, Ital.], a 
term applied to painting in water colors. This 
mode of painting on paper is performed with colors 
so thin and delicate that they are generally little 
more than tinctures. Aquarel. or water painting, 
is carried to much greater perfection in England, 
where it is highly prized, than in any other country. 
It is admirably adapted for sketching landscapes, 
and woodland scenery, and many eminent artists 
make this branch of the art their exclusive busi- 

Back-ground is a term applied to the field or 
space which surrounds the figures in a picture. 
The importance of an appropriate back-ground is 
not alwaj^s considered, even by artists themselves, 
for much of the effect of a picture depends upon it. 
It is of the greatest consequence that back-grounds 
should be in unison with the figures, and that the 
objects introduced should be conformable to the 
time, history, and characteristics of the persons 
represented. Sometimes rich and embellished 
back-grounds are required, as in the display of ori- 
ental pomp, or of ancient temples and festivals ; at 
others, the solemnity of the subject demands an 
austere and imobtrusive simplicity, as in the gen- 
erality of subjects of devotion, or those descriptive 
of any pathetic or affecting scene, in which nothing 
should api^ear that can diminish the interest in- 
spired by the event. 

Boldness, in art, is directly opposed to timidity, 
or labored execution. Very high finishing is apt 
to injure l)oldness, as well in drawing as in paint- 
ing, and this is the reason why the sketches of 
some masters please us better than their more la- 
bored pieces. But, both boldness of execution and 
finishing should be regulated by the nature of the 
composition, and its proposed situation. 

Breadth. This important term is applied both 
to design and coloring. Breadth Ls usually indica- 
tive of a master, as the want of it almost alwa3^s ac- 
companies the performance of an indifferent artist. 
When the lights in a picture are so ai-ranged that 
they seem to be in masses, and the darks are viassed 
to support them, so that the attention of the specta- 
tor is powerfully arrested, we have what is called 
breadth of effect, or breadth of light and shade. 
Breadth conveys the idea of greatness,which is in di- 
rect opposition to the frivolous and mean. Breadth, 
therefore, partakes of the simple and the grand, and 
is admirably illustrated in the great works of Cor- 
reggio. Grandeur is his characteristic, and breadth 
his means. In the works of this great master, we 
discover breadth, because he has condensed his sub- 
jects as a whole, without interrupting the general 
simphcity by a minute attention to the details or 
subordinate parts. His masses of light and shadow 
are therefore broad and grand, producing one great 

and general effect : whereas, if they were broken 
and scattered, the effect would be spotty and dis- 

Biscuit [Bisquit French], a term applied to a 
recently invented species of Ectj^pes or images, 
made of feldspar and porcelain clay, and then 
baked like porcelain. The most beautiful are of 
a cream color, but they may be made of any color. 
These ornaments are as beautiful as alabaster, 
much less fragile, and can be afforded at a tithe 
of the expense. 

Bust, or Busto, is a term formerly applied in 
sculpture to a head with the shoulders and breast 
Some modern artists apply the term bust-portrait 
to a portrait of the same. 

Cameo, or rather Cammeo. in its original sig- 
nification, is a gem or device cut out of a hard, la- 
minated stone, of a different color above from that 
beneath, so that in cutting a figure upon it, enough 
is removed to leave the ground of one color, while 
the figures, in a diflerent one, stand out in relief. 
The term is now apjilied improperly to the same 
kind of work in shells. 

Carnations are the flesh tints in a picture. 

Cartoon [from the Italian. Cartone, a stout 
piece of paper.] Hence, the word came to be ap- 
plied by the Italians to the drawings or colored 
designs on paper, intended to be transferred to the 
waits in fresco painting, or wrought in tapestry. 
The word is scarcely used in English except when 
speaking of the Cartoons of Raffaelle, which were 
designs for tapestry, executed for Pope Leo X., 
and which are now in Hampton Court. The Ital- 
ians generally make a cartoon of the same size of 
the painting to be executed, whether in oil or 

Charge, or Charged, is a term used in art to 
signify exaggeration, or something that exceeds na- 
ture. Some artists charge or exaggerate their out- 
lines in order to show a superior degree of sldll, or 
to heighten the effect. De Piles advises artists to 
avoid charging, and says that the antique statues 
never have this pedantry or affectation ; that there 
is nothing of the kind in the works of those great 
masters who always imitated them, as Raffaelle, 
Caracci, Domenichino, Nicol6 Poussin, and others. 
Yet, he observes again, '-there are charged outlines 
that please, because they are above the lowliness 
of oi-dinary nature, and carry Avith them an air 
of freedom, with an idea of great taste, which de- 
ceives most painters who call such excesses the 
grand manner. And, although to such persons 
who have a true idea of correctness, simplicity, and 
elegance of nature, these excesses may seem STiper- 
fluous, as they only adulterate the truth, yet one 
cannot forbear to commend some things that are 
overcharged in works, when the distance from 
whence they are to be viewed softens them to the 
eye ; or when they are used with such discretion 
as makes the character of truth more apparent." 
Again : " If you would have the work produce a 
good effect when it is elevated, both the colors and 
the lights must be a little loaded, but learnedly 
and with discretion." 

Chiaro-scuro, [Italian], hght and shade. This 
term refers to the general distribution of lights and 
shadows in a picture, and their just degradation as 
they recede from the focus of light. '• It compre- 
hends," says Professor Phillips in his lectures, "irot 



only light and shade, without which the form of no 
object can be perfectly represented, but also all ar- 
rangements of light and dark colors in every de- 
gree ; in short, in accordance with the compound 
word composing its name, which we have adopted 
from the Italian, the light and dark of a picture." 

Chiaro-scuro particularly refers to the great 
masses of lights and shadows in a painting, when 
the objects are so disposed by artful management, 
that their lights are together on one side, and their 
darks on the other. The best examples among 
the Italians are to be found in the works of Cor- 
reggio, Leonardo da Yinci. and Giorgione ; among 
the Dutch, in those of Rembrandt, Adrian Ostade, 
and De Ilooge. 

A composition, however perfect in other respects, 
becomes a picture only by means of the chiaro- 
scuro, which gives faithfulness to the representa- 
tions, and therefore is of the highest importance 
to the painter ; at the same time, it is one of the 
most difficult branches of the artist's study, because 
no precise rules can be given for its execution. 
Ever}' art has a point where rules foil ; and this 
point, in the art of painting, is the chiaro-scuro. 
The di-awing of a picture maj- be correct, the col- 
oring may be briUiant and true, and yet the whole 
picture remain dry and hard ; as we find is the 
case in the works of j)ainters who preceded RafFa- 
elle ; and it was one of the great merits of this 
sublime genius, that he left his masters far behind 
him in chiaro-scuro, though since his time many 
great artists have surpassed him in this respect. 
Chiaro-scuro requires great judgment and skill in 
execution ; and excellence in this branch of the art 
is only to be attained by a stud}- of nature, and the 
works of the best masters. 

Clair-obscure [French,] has the same signifi- 
cation as chiaro-scuro. 

Chalky, in painting, is that cold or unpleasant 
effect which arises from an injudicious combination 
of colors that do not agree well together; thus, 
white mixed with vermillion, without being tem- 
pered with the ochres or burnt siena, will appear 
crude and chalk}-. 

The word chalk and its derivatives are frequent- 
ly used by writers on the fine arts. Chalk draw- 
ings are any kind of drawings made with white or 
colored crayons. Chalk engTaving is the old name 
for stipple, in imitation of the delicate shadings of 
craj-on drawings. 

CoLORisT is a painter whose peculiar excellence 
is his coloring — but not therefore his only excel- 
lence. An eye for color is a faculty, or a gift of na- 
ture, which is not acquirable .by a painter who has 
not this natural gift, though study and practice may 
improve it. It is quite common for designers, who 
are deficient in this rarest excellence of the art, to 
speak of the deficiencies of the colorist with depre- 
ciation or contempt. When Jlichael Angelo was 
shown one of Titian's finest works, and his opin- 
ion asked of its merits, he only said, "what a pity 
this painter is so deficient in design " — a mere col- 
orist. Yet nature, were she appealed to, doubtless 
would reply that Titian was more true to her than 
Michael Angelo. Titian had all the design that he 
considered essential to his purposes, and had he 
chosen the same range of subjects that Raffaelle 
did, and had he been able to express them with the 
same felicity, adding thereto his own peculiar ex- 

cellence, he would have been the Apelles of mod- 
ern art. 

CoMPoaiTiON, is the general arrangement of in- 
dividual objects, which the imagination has con- 
ceived, so as to form an appropriate whole. This 
is considered one of the greatest difiiculties the 
artist has to encounter. In the composition of a 
picture, it is essential that nothing should be in- 
troduced which is not appropriate and analogous 
to the subject. Profusion has even been esteemed 
a vice, even in the most extensive subjects, for in- 
stead of adding to the beauty and expression of the 
work, it diminishes the effect of both. A compo- 
sition is said to be confused when it is loaded with 
objects which interfere with each other by their 
disposition or multiplicit3\ A composition is said 
to be great, not from the number of figures intro- 
duced into it, but from the skill with which the ar- 
tist has disposed enough to illustrate his story and 
leave no vacancy in the space which the eye re- 
quires to be occupied. A grand composition dif- 
fers from that which is usually designated rich, 
inasmuch as the former is characterised by simpli- 
city, and the latter by abundance. The compo- 
sitions of Eafiaelle are said to be grand, those of 
Yeronese rich, those of Poussin, classical, and those 
of Teuiers natural. 

CoNNOis.sEUR is a term applied to one who not 
only loves, but has a profound knowledge of art ; 
whilst amateur is applied to one who loves the 
same without being sure of bestowing his admira- 
tion wisely, and who generally practises it for his 
amusement only. They both love art, but the for- 
mer is the knower, the latter the lover, as the 
names imply. The Germans, who attach no vul- 
garitj- to their indigenous phrases, use indeed the 
very terms for distinction, kennei^, (knower) for 
connoisseur, and Uehhaher (lover) for amateur. 

Contour, or Outline, is the line which termin- 
ates and defines the figure or object. It requires 
great science and skill in an artist to get his con- 
tours correct ; for in a classic composition, he must 
not represent them as he finds them in nature, but 
in nature's ideal, or perfect form. A Dutch Ye- 
nus is the laughing-stock of the world, except to 
them.selves, and perhaps the Turks. A fat man 
may make a very good model for a Fal staff might 
do for a Bacchus, but not for an Apollo. The 
Judgment of Paris by Rubens is a horrid viola- 
tion of this precept. 

Contrast. By contrast is meant the variety in 
the position and motion of the different figures or 
objects in a composition. There are several kinds 
of contrasts, distinct from each other. Thus, there 
is a contrast of figures ; a contrast of the move- 
ments or action of the different figures, and even 
in the different parts of the same figure ; others, 
in the age, sex, or positions, of the different per- 
sonages, so that each figure is frequcntlv in con- 
trast with others in the same group, and the sev- 
eral groups are also contrasted with each other ; 
there is also a contrast in the different qualities, 
and colors of the draperies; and another of light, 
and shadow, which constitutes chiaro-scuro. The 
judicious arrangement of this contrast or oppo- 
sition, forms one of the great requisites of a f:ne 
picture; because it is found in nature, and any 
other arrangement would appear stif . and forced, 
and excite our pity or disgust. 


Correctness. Correctness of design, as it re- 
lates to the beautiful in art, consists in the exact 
observance of the just proportions of the figure as 
established by the antique models, or statues, or by 
the most beautiful models selected from nature. 
It is further exemplified, by giving more or less 
beauty, dignity, or grandeur to the figure, accord- 
ing to the age, sex, or condition of the personage 
represented. Correctness does not always require 
that the design should be beautiful, which will de- 
pend on the nature of the subject. It is sometimes 
sufficient that nature is perfectly delineated, even 
in her less perfect form, as in historical composi- 
tions, where portraits arc introduced. 

Costume. In historical compositions, the laws 
of costume require that the subject should be treat- 
ed in accordance with history, with a strict regard 
to the scene and time of action, the customs, cha- 
racter, and haljits of the people, or the country, 
where the event occurred. The same correct at- 
tention is also requisite to the Iniildings, animals, 
plants, etc. The works of Nicol6 Poussin form an 
admirable illustration of the propriety of costume. 
Many of the Dutch masters have made their sacred 
and "historical sul^jects ridiculous by laying the 
scene in their own country, and draping the fig- 
ures in their own costume. 

Copy. "The central group of Lystra, (one of 
the Cartoons) is taken and adopted from an an- 
tique bas-relief in the Admiranda, and suggests the 
question whether it is justifiable to plunder in this 
way. Surely if you find any thing in the ancients 
suitable to your invention, it is justifiable. But 
there the praise must stop ; the utmost praise that 
can be given is that you have shown your skill in 
the adoption ; and what struck me with discour- 
agement, in the Louvre (in the imperial collection) 
was the little original invention in the world. 
Even Rul^ens pilfered wholesale from the old 
Germans. * * * Reynolds was what Fuseli 
terms a modern painter — a l>old adopter." 

'• Remember adoption, and copying, are differ- 
ent things. To adopt and modify a figure requires 
skill and taste; but the merest dolt can copy." 
— Haydnn. 

The human figure has been drawn and painted 
in almost eveiypossible position, and Reynolds 
thought it not robbery to adopt from " the accu- 
mulated wisdom of ages," whatever was excellent, 
into his own compositions. Doubtless Raffaelle 
and Shakspeare were of the same opinion. The 
Italian artists have this proverb, ''II saper rubbare 
non § ])eccato ;" (knowing how to steal well, is not 
wicked;) i. e., an artist is justified in judicious 

Coup [Peindre au premier coup, Fr.; Alia pri- 
ma, Ital..] is to paint and finish a picture at once, 
vrithout returning to retouch it, a facility which 
many areat masters have possessed, as Rubens, 
Salvator Rosa, Vandyck, and Luca Giordano, and 
v.-hich they practised on some occasions. 

Crude, ^rudeness, is a rawness, or a want of 
knowledge, judgment and skill, which may ap- 
pear manifest in the coloring, design, or effect of 
a picture. 

Crust. A name given in ridicule by artists to 
a sorry picture. Crust is also used by some 
writers for an excessive, or clumsy impasting of 

Design. This term is used in various senses, 
but its proper signification is a plan of a picture, 
or a representation of any thing, in outline. The 
term is often applied to a finished study, for a pic- 
ture ; but it is more commonly applied to a fin- 
ished drawing, made to be engraved, and the artist 
is called a designer, to distinguish him from a 
painter. It is also applied to a sketeh of one or 
more figures, and to sketches of inanimate objects, 
as plants, flowers, drajwries, &c., intended to be 
introduced into a picture, in which sense it is 
termed a study. 

Dead Coloring. A familiar term used by ar- 
tists to signify the ground coloring, or laying in, 
of the first coat of color on the canvass. See First 

Decision. Decision of form or outline, means 
that bold freedom of outline, which is only ob- 
tained by a skillful and practised hand. 
Degradation. [See Gradation.'] 
Demitints, are tints that are neither lights nor 
shadows, but hold the middle place between them. 
Hence, they are sometimes called middle tints — 
which is the best term. 

Details, are the minutiae of a picture; when 
carried to excess, they degenerate into mannerism ; 
and when they are not carried so far, they injure 
the effect, by diverting attention from the princi- 
pal objects or figures. 

Distemper, is a mode of painting with colors 
mixed with size, white of eggs, or any other glu- 
tinous substance. All ancient paintings were ex- 
ecuted in this manner, and modern paintings too, 
before the year 1460, when oil painting was first 
discovered. The celebrated Cartoons of Raffaelle, 
were painted in distemper. 

Drapery. The art of casting, or disposing of 
the foldings of the drapery in the most effective 
and judicious manner, requires no inconsiderable 
part of the painter's skill and attention, as great 
judgment and taste are necessary to arrange it in 
such a manner as to display the form to the great- 
est advantage, and that the folds may correspond 
to the movements of the figure. In great histor- 
ical and sacred paintings, the folds should be large 
and few, because the grandeur of the forms pro- 
duce broad and simple masses of light and shadow, 
which adds greatly to the eff'ect. Draperies should 
be suited to the age, character, and rank, of the 
figure. Stuffs of a light texture, and of gay colors, 
may be proper for females and youth ; those of a 
more sober hue and heavier substance for persons 
advanced in years. A person of a grave character 
should be habited different from a gay voluptuary, 
and a Roman matron should not be attired like a 
courtezan. Drapery should always be drawn from 
nature, and the artist who neglects it will be sure 
to fall into mannerism. 

Drawings. There are several kinds of draw- 
ings, which it is necessary to understand, or many 
passages in authors on the fine arts will appear ob- 
scure°or unintelligible. In a general sense, draw- 
ing is applied to any kind of study or design made 
wfth black lead pencils. The drawings by the Old 
Masters, so highly prized, were often executed with 
black and white or colored crayons, as well as with 
black lead pencils. Chalk dra%vings are executed 
with crayons. Printing in chiaro-scuro, as prac- 
tised by the old wood engravers, was done in im- 


itation of these chalk drawings. For this purpose 
three or more blocks were employed ; the first for 
the outline, the second for the dark shadows, and 
the third for the shadows that border on the lights. 
• The process varied according to the number of 
blocks employed, and an effect was obtained that 
could not be produced by a single engraved block. 
The ink, also, used, was of ditfereut shades or in- 

When a picture is to be engraved, the engraver, 
or draughtsman, reduces the picture, or makes an 
exact drawing of the same size as the plate to be 
engraved. This is called the design. [See En- 
graving.'] For water colored drawings, see A- 

Dryness. This term is used by artists to ex- 
press the common defect of the early painters in 
oil, who had but little knowledge of the flowing 
contours, which so elegantly show the delicate 
forms of the limbs and the insertions of the mus- 
cles ; their coloring was also hard and formal, with- 
out mellowness or softness ; and their draperies 
concealed the limbs of the figures, without truth 
or elegance of choice. This defect is not always 
the result of a want of talent, for the early works 
of RafFaelle partake of the dry Gothic hardness of 
the masters who preceded him, though he after- 
wards acquired the grand and graceful style, by 
which his later and best performances are distin- 
guished. Thus we find that the defect of dryness 
may be corrected by study and practise. 

TDry ToncHiNG, is the going over a picture when 
it is dry, with light delicate finishing touches, to 
improve the character, or to give relief to those 
objects requiring it. 

Ectypes, impressions derived from moulds 
made on the originals, or types, (De Montabert,) 
from the Greek word ectypos — a form or impres- 
sion moulded from the asche-type. Pliny Latin- 
izes the word, and uses ectypum, for the copy or 
image moulded after the pattern, or cast, in the 
mould of what he calls the pro-typiim, i. e., the 
first type, mould or pattern — the prototype. This 
is an elegant and classical word that may be used 
instead of cast. 

Effect. '• By effect, in painting, is understood 
the energy and beauty of the optical results of the 
combinations, either accidental, or arising from cal- 
culations well understood, whether of the lines, of 
the tones, bright or dark, or again of the colors or 
the tints. But it is especially applied to the com- 
binations of the clair-obscure, that the effect owes 
its energy, its suavity, and its charm ; and what 
proves it, is the appearance of engravings, which 
otfer color without much effect. Coloring indeed, 
does produce its particular effect, but it is op- 
tically subordinate to that which is obtained by 
the bright and dark, semi-bright and semi-dark 
masses, and we thus distinguish the effect of Rubens, 
and the coloring of Titian. The pictures of Pous- 
sm, Duval, and Raffaelle, have but httle effect; 
those of Vandyck. Velasquez. Gerard Douw, Rey- 
nolds, and Prudhon, have a great deal of effect."— 
J?e 3Iontabert. 

Enamel. Painting in enamel is dojie by mix- 
ing mineral colors with a flux or vitreous base, and 
subjecting the work to the action of heat. 

Encaustic, from the Greek Enkaiistikoji. a kind 
of paintmg executed by the application of fire. 

This term has been applied exclusively to a method 
of painting practised by the ancient Greek artists, 
in which iva.v, in various ways, was combined with 
the colors, and the whole fused together by the appli- 
cation of heat. Pliny mentions three methods, but 
in such vague terms, that there is great uncertain- 
ty as to the precise practice of the ancients. The 
object aimed at was durability, as in mosaic paint- 
ing. Various processes have been published by 
the moderns, for the revival of the ancient art. one 
of which may be found in Hayter's Introduction to 
Perspective, invented by Mrs. Hooker, an English 
lady, for which she was presented with a gold pal- 
lette by the Society for the Encouragement of the 
Arts. Her account is jDrinted in the tenth volume 
of the Society's Transactions, for 1792. The sub- 
juct has been deeply investigated by the Chevalier 
Lorgna, in a valuable work entitled Un Discorso 
Sulla Cera Punica. 

Elegance, in design, is a manner which em- 
bellishes objects, either as to their form or color, 
or both, without destroying or perverting truth. 
It appears most eminently in the antiques, and 
next, in those masters who have imitated them 
best, as in the works of Raffaelle. De Piles ob- 
serves, that elegance is not always founded on cor- 
rectness, as may be evident from the works of 
Rafiaelle and Correggio, the latter of whom, not- 
withstanding his frequent incorrectness of design, 
must needs be admired, for the elegance of his taste, 
and the turn which he gives to his actions. 

Expression, principally consists in representing 
the human figure in all its parts, in action, suitable 
to the occasion; and exhibiting in the face, the 
several feelings or passions proper to be expressed. 
Frequently the term Expression is confounded with 
that of Passion ; but the proper distinction be- 
tween them is, that the former implies a represen- 
tation of an ol^ject agreeably to its nature and char- 
acter, and the use or ofBce it is intended to have 
in the work; while the latter denotes a motion of 
the body accompanied with certain airs of the face, 
which make an agitated soul. So that every pas- 
sion is an expression, but not every expression a 

Execution, is a term applied to the mechanical 
part of the arts, or mode of performance. It is 
also used to designate the management of the pen- 
cil, whether it be bold, free, rapid, delicate, soft, or 

Finish. " Very great care to finish some parts 
of a picture is apt to injui'e the effect of others. It 
is apt, also, to weary the mind of the artist, and 
thereby injure the liberty of his hand. But, when 
finishing is united to freedom, when it is delicate 
and light, its effects, especially for cabinet pieces, can- 
not be too much appreciated." — Art. Repository. 

The Dutch and Flemish pictures are familiar il- 
lustrations of minute, and often exquisite finish. 
Gerard Douw spent five days in finishing a single 

First Painting, is the ground coloring, or first 
coat of color, which some of the old Italian mas- 
ters were in the habit of laying on very thick, and 
putting the canvass aside till well seasoned, before 
the application of the fine coats of coloring, to ob- 
tain a better effect and greater permanence. 

Foxy, a term of ridicule applied by artists to 
a vicious and excessive warmth, or gaudiaess of 


color in a painting. The tints and tones of an ar- 
tist, who, without jndo-ment or skill, attempts to 
imitate the glow of Titian, are very apt to be foxy. 
Fresco, is a kind of painting performed on fresh 
plastered walls and ceilings. The mason covers 
no more space than the painter can execute ni a 
day. The artist first traces the design, prepared 
on his cartoon, and then proceeds to lay on his col- 
ors, mixed with water, which strike into the plas- 
ter 'and become incorporated with it, so as to be as 
durable as the wall itself, and can only be eflaced 
by its destruction. Those mineral colors only are 
employed which arc not chemically acted upon by 
the lime. 

Fresco painting is, before all others, best adapted 
to those great works which form the embellish- 
ment of pulilic edifices, from the promptitude with 
which it is performed, as well as from its extraor- 
dinarv durability. The sublime productions which 
have "immortalized the names of Michael Angelo, 
RalTaelle, Correggio, and Giulio Romano, were 
painted in fresco. In this country, the term fres- 
co is improperly applied to distempered walls. 

Foreshortening, is the art of representing fig- 
ures and objects, as they appear to the eye, viewed 
in positions varying from the perpendicular. This 
art is one of the most difficult in painting, and 
though absurdly claimed as a modern invention, 
was well known to the ancients. Pliny speaks 
particularly of its having l^een practised by Par- 
rhasius and Pausias ; besides, it is impossible to ex- 
ecute any work of excellence without its employ- 
ment. In painting domes and ceilings, foreshorten- 
ing is particularly important. The meaning of the 
term is exemplified in the celebrated Ascension, in 
the PietH de Tarchini, at Naples, by Luca Giorda- 
no, in which the body of Christ is so much fore- 
shortened, that the toes seem to touch the knees, 
and the knees the chin. 

Glazing, is the passing of extremely thin coats 
of transparent colors, largely diluted with ma- 
siuilp, or other mediums, over certain portions of 
the picture, so as to allow the work beneath to ap- 
pear distinctly through them, but tinged with their 
color. The uses of glazing are to strengthen such 
shadows as require it, or to give warmth or cold- 
ness to the hues ; and to subdue those lights that 
are too glaring, or to give additional force and 
richness to those that are too tame. 

■When opaque colors are employed in the same 
manner, the process is called scum bling. The uses 
of scumbling are to weaken the force of colors that 
are too strong, or to give force to those that arc 
too weak ; to give air and distance to objects that 
are too near, and to soften down and unite such 
tints on the surface of objects as may be too vio- 
lent for harmony, and breadth of elFcct. 

Glory, is the luminous ring, whether broad 
or narrow, radiated or open, or a circular disk, 
which crowns the head of a saint or a divine per- 
sonase. This glory, in very old paintings, is done 
in gilding. It also means the bright radiance that 
surrounds celestial beings when introduced into a 
picture. Nimbus, is the classical name for a glory. 
Gradation, is the progression of tints by de- 
grees, whether up or down the scale of light and 
shade. Degradation, is the proper term for the 
scale downwards, or the gradual enfecblement of the 
clair-obscure, in aerial-perspective. Degradation, 

is always gradation, but gradation is not ueces-.. ■ 
sarily degradation, for the former may be a step 
upwards, while the latter is always a step down- 
ward. This is a true distinction, but one rarely 
observed by writers. 

Grace, principally consists in the turn an artist 
gives to his objects, to render them agreeable, even 
to those that are inanimate. It is more seldom 
found in the face, than in the manner; for our 
manner is produced everj' moment, and can create 
surpi'ise. A woman can only be beautiful in one 
way, while she may be graceful in many. Grace 
can neither be described, nor measured, nor estab- 
lished by any conventional rules. Each motion 
may have its rules of beauty, but grace is the same 
in every country. It is not found in a constrained. 
or unaifected manner, but in a certain freedom and 
ease between the two extremes. 

Those compositions in which angels, females, 
children, and cupids, are introduced, may be termed 
graceful. The term cannot well be applied to bat- 
tle pieces, or grand historical works. The Char- 
ity of Correggio, may be cited as a model ot grace 
in" composition and execution. Also, some of the 
works of Albano. 

Grandeur. Grand is applied in art to those 
great compositions, which are invested with a dig- 
nity above the generality of mankind — in Avhich 
there appears an'elevation of mein, air, and deport- 
ment, that indicates a corresponding elevation of 
thoucht, feeling, and sentiment. It is especially 
applied to the antique, and to the grand sacked 
subjects executed in fresco, by the most renowned 
Italian masters ; instance, the Last Judgment by 
Michael Angelo. 

GROTEsauE. This term was given by the Ital- 
ians to those whimsical or fanciful ornaments, with 
which the ancient Romans sometimes decorated the 
ceilings and friezes of their small apartments. It 
is said to have derived its origin from the discovery 
of those ornaments in some grottos, {grotte, hence 
grotesco, in Ital.,) by Raffaelle, (while the work- 
men were making some excavations under his di- 
rection,) who adopted them in decorating the Log- 
fie. These ornaments dilfer little from arabesque, 
except that the imagination, in all the wildncss of 
inventive fency, is exerted without any strict ad- 
herence to nature, truth or probability. They were 
oria-inally composed of stalks and leaves, with coni- 
ica'r, uiily, or distorted human faces, or masks in- 
terspersed or connected with the foliage, as if tbey 
grew out of it, just as we see them now-a-clays, 
though infinitely improved in every point ot grace 
by the elegant invention of Raffaelle. ^ 

Ground Coloring. [See First Painting.'] , 
Group. Grouping is the arrangement of fig- 
ures or objects in natural and pleasing positions. 
It is observable in nature, that in a concourse of 
people, they form themselves into diliercnt compa- 
nies according to their ages, conditions or mclma- 
tions ; and these divisions are called groups, itic 
best rules of art require, that when sulwrdinate 
groups are introduced into a picture, they shou d 
never interfere with the principal one, which should 
predominate, and all of them tend to unity. 

Harmony, is that congenial, accordant, and plcv 
sing effect in a picture, resulting from an intelli- 
gent distribution of light and shade, a judicious 
arrangement of color, and a consistency and pro- 


priety in composition, Mengs defines harmony to 
be " the art of preserving a just medium between 
two extremes, as well in design as in the chiaro- 
scuro and the coloring." Thus writers speak of 
different harmonies, as a harmony of composition, 
of design, of expression, of execution, of chiaro- 
scuro, of coloring, &c. ; but all these must be com- 
bined in a perfect picture. 

Handling, is the manner in which an artist uses 
his pencil, as seen in the execution of his works. 
[See Maimer-I 

Hard, is a term applied either to design or col- 
oring. Thus, when an outline cuts too sharp on 
the ground of the object, it is said to be hard ; 
when applied to the whole of a painting, it denotes 
a want of tenderness and truth in coloring. [See 
Dnj and Decided.'] Hardness is often the result 
of a laborious effort to display high finishing. 

Hatching, is laying on the strokes of the crayon 
or graver in parallel lines. When these lines are 
crossed in the shadow parts, at angles more or less 
acute, it is called counter-hatching or cross-hatch- 

High Art has been defined "the epic of paint- 
ing," a very indefinite and partial explanation, as 
it might as well be termed the epic of scidpture. 
It simply means the most perfect works of art ; 
i. e., the grandest and the most beautiful, or perfect. 

History. Nothing can be more indefinite, even 
in the indefinite phraseology of painting, than this 
term. All the degrees of high art fall properly 
under this comprehensive term. It embraces the 
vride range of subjects, not only historical, but my- 
thological and poetical, as well as sacred or scrip- 
tural subjects. It is called the highest branch 
of the art because it requires in the artist a per- 
fect knowledge of every branch of the art, as well 
as a mind well stored with general information. 
[See Introduction — page xxi.] 

Horizontal Line, in perspective, is a line that 
marks the horizon, or the place of the supposed 
horizon, and which is always on a level with the 

Ideal Beauty, is generally understood to ex- 
press that perfection which is never found in one 
person in nature, and can only be attained by a 
union of the various beauties selected from difierent 
forms. It is that perfection of beauty and form 
which we may suppose to have existed at the crea- 
tion of man, and to which the iintique most nearly 
approaches, as in the Torso, the Apollo Belvidere, 
and the Venus de Medicis. Ideal beauty in painting 
may be illustrated by the Juno of Protogenes, in 
which he combined the perfections of seven of the 
most beautiful damsels of R-hodes. 

Impressed with such ideas, the Greek artists 
strove to represent their gods and heroes by the 
most faultless semblance of the human form, in- 
spired with those noble sentiments which they re- 
garded as di\nne. " It is this intellectual dignity," 
says Reynolds, " that ennobles the painter's art— 
that lays the fines between him and the mere me- 
chanic, and produces those great effects in an in- 
stant, which eloquence and poetry are scarcely able 
to attain." 

Imitati ON. Ad imitator is an artist who makes 
his own designs, but adopts the style of his master, 
or of another, in his execution ; or he may adopt 

both the style of design and execution, when he is a 
mere copyist. 

But when artists or writers speak of imitating 
the antique, or the great modern masters, they do 
not mean that we should copy line for line what 
they painted, designed or sculptured, but that we 
are to form for ourselves a like idea of greatness 
and perfection, and work upon the same principles, 
and in the same taste. 

Some artists have the faculty of imitating other 
eminent masters so exactly, that their imitations 
will reacfily pass for originals by the masters imi- 
tated. The French call such pictures pastiches. 
De Piles advises " all persons who do not wish to 
be deceived by pastiches, to compare the taste of 
design, the coloring, and the character of the f)en- 
cil, with the originals, for there is always a per- 
ceptible difierence on close comparison." ["See Pas- 

Impasto [Italian]. This word literally means a 
mixing, or impasting of colors. The Italians use 
it to designate the transitions of shades or colors, 
which should blend together like the colors of the 
rain-bow, so that the tints are distinct, though not 
harsh, producing a harmonious and pleasing effect. 
Writers say a good or bad, rich or poor impasto. 

Intaglios, are engraved gems or precious stones, 
often representing mythological subjects. The 
word is now generally applied in English to an- 
tique gems cut hollow, intended to give impres- 
sions in wax. Thus, intaglio is the reverse of 
cammeo. The Italians apply this name to works 
cut in wood, stone, or metals. 

Labored, is a term applied disparagingly to a 
work in which the pains taken in the execution is 
too perceptible. 

Lame, is a term applied to a figure or work in 
which the harmony of proportion has been neg- 

Large. See Breadth. 

Linear Perspective. See Perspective. 

Loading, is a term applied to laying colors in 
thick masses on the lights, so as to make them pro- 
ject from the surface, with a view to make them 
strongly illuminated by the light that falls on the 
picture, and thus mechanically to aid in producing 
roundness and relief, or to give a sparkling effect to 
polished or glittering objects. 

Local Colors, are those which faithfully imitate 
a particular object, or such as are natural and proper 
for each particular object in a picture. Color is 
also distinguished by the term local, because the 
place it fills requires that particidar color, in order 
to give a greater effect, or character of truth to the 
several colors around it. 

A Contrast of Colors, is used in draperies, es- 
pecially in sacred subjects; and the different person- 
ages are draped in different and appropriately col- 
ored garments ; or the dress of the same person 
is composed of different colors for harmony, and to 
heighten the effect. 

Manner, is that habitude which painters ac- 
quire, not only in the management of the pen- 
cil, but also in the principal parts of painting, as in- 
vention, desigTi, coloring, &c. It is by the manner 
in painting, that connoisseurs decide to what 
school it belongs, and by what particular master 
of that school it was executed. Some masters 



have had different manners at different periods of 
their lives. Thus, Raffaelle acquired a much more 
elevated manner after he had left the school of 
Perugino and taken up his residence at Rome. 
Others have adopted and adhered to one manner all 
their lives, which is so marked, that a person who 
has seen a few of their works will at once decide the 
master without any risk or mistake. The variety- 
observable in the works of ditlercnt artists arises 
from the Qianners of the schools in which they 
have received instruction, or of the artists under 
whom they have studied ; yet many men of genius 
have divested themselves of partiality, struck out 
into a manner of their own, and arrived at excel- 

Mannerism, is an affected style, contracted by 
an imitation of the peculiarities of some particular 
master, instead of a general contemplation of na- 
ture. The term mannerist is applied to an artist 
who. not having sufficient genius and skill to ac- 
quire distinction by the excellence of his perform- 
ances vainly thinks to obtain it by an odd, labored, 
or affected manner. The Italians apply the term 
mannerist to any artist who deviates from the 
established or classic mamier, yet whose merits 
may be great. 

Masses. Massing is the condensation of the 
principal lights and shadows in a picture, and so 
arranging them as to produce the greatest effect. 
To mass a part is to reject those minutiae which 
cut it up into little pieces. [See Breadth.] For 
a skillful application of this great principle of gran- 
deur, practice and enlightened observation must be 
added to chligent study. 

Metope. The Doric frieze is divided at equal 
intervals by ornaments called triglyplis, consist- 
ing of two vertical channels, or glypks, with two 
half channels at the sides, separated from each 
other and the half channels, by three plane surfaces. 
The square spaces between each two of these tri- 
glyphs is called a metme, and is variously orna- 
mented with figures. The metopes of the Parthe- 
non represent the contests of the Centaurs with 
the Lapithaj, or companions of Theseus, and are 
supposed by connoissem-s to have been touched, in 
many instances, by the hand of Phidias himself, 
under whose superintendence all the reliefs of the 
temple are known to have been chiseled. These 
form part of the famous Elgin marbles, now in the 
British Museum, and hence their frequent mention 
by writers on the fine arts. 

Model, is a study. It is important not to em- 
ploy indifferently the word model. When we say 
t]ie great models, we are readily understood to 
mean the antique ; but when we say the model, it 
remains to be shown whether we mean the living 
model, a marble statue, or a ])laster cast. In 
sculpture, the term is applied to a small study, as 
well as to a finished work in clay ready to be cut in 
marble; sometimes also, in painting, to any study. 
Monochromatic, a term applied in ancient tunes 
to paintings executed with only one color ; in mod- 
ern times.'to a species of crayon drawings. Engra- 
vings and drav/ings may be termed monochromatic 
pictures. In contradistinction, painting with a plu- 
rality of colors has been termed pohjchromatic. 
If there were any advantage to be derived from the 
adoption of such phraseology, we might always de- 
signate the exact number of colors employed in 

painting by one of the Greek numerals, as Mono- 
chrome, Dichrome, Trichrome, Tetrachrome, &c. 
Thus, Pliny says that Apelles was the first artist 
who painted Tetrachromes, or pictures with four 
simple colors. [See Apelles.'] 

Mosaics, are ornamented works, made in an- 
cient times, of cubes of variously colored stones, 
and in modern, more frequently of glass of differ- 
ent colors. The art originated in the East, and 
seems first to have been introduced among the 
Romans in the time of Sylla. It was an ornament 
in great request by the luxurious Romans, especi- 
ally in the time of the Emperors, for the decora- 
tion of every species of edifice, and to this day, they 
continue to discover, in the ruins of the Imperial 
Baths, and elsewhere, many magnificent specimens 
in the finest preservation. In Pompeii, mosaic 
floors and pavements may be said to have been 
universal among the wealthy. 

In modern times, great attention has been be- 
stowed to revive and improve the art, with a view 
to perpetuate the works of the great masters. In 
this way, Guercino's Martyrdom of St. Petronilla, 
and Domenichino's Communion of the dying St. 
Jerome, in St. Peter's Church, which were falling 
into decay, have been rendered eternal. Also, the 
Transfiguration of Raffaelle, and other great works. 
Pope Clement VIII. had the whole interior dome 
of St. Peter's ornamented with this work. A 
grand Mosaic, covering the whole side of a wall, 
representing, as some suppose, the Battle of Platea ; 
as others, with more probability, one of the Victo- 
ries of Alexander, was discovered in Pompeii. This 
work, now in the Academy of Naples, is the admi- 
ration of connoisseurs and the learned, not only 
from its antiquity, but from the beauty of its exe- 
cution. The most probable supposition is, that it is 
a copy of the celebrated victory of Arbela, by Phi- 
loxenes. [See PhUoxenes.'] 

INIoRBiDEZzA. The Itahans call whatever is del- 
icate and soft morhido, and in painting they use 
the term morhidezza to express that richness and 
softness of color which appears in the best imita- 
tions of beautiful nature, as in the carnations of 
women and children. The French use the bor- 
rowed word, morbid esse ; and Bouvier thus ex- 
plains its meaning : " The carnations of a young 
woman of very fine and fresh complexion, and 
those of a fine child, have a great deal of morbi- 
desse. They seem to the eye as though they would 
be soft and velvety if touched." Rosy, or velvety, 
expresses the same fncaning best in English. The 
French also say veloute, velvet-hke. Corrcggio 
possessed in an eminent degree this admirable 

Olympiad, a period of four years connected with 
the celebration of the Olympic Games, by which 
the Greeks computed time. Most of the moderns 
reckon 304 Olympiads ; and place the first cele- 
bration of the Olympic Games b. c. 770, and the 
last A. D. 440, a space of 1216 years. By recol- 
lecting the date of the first Olympiad, the reader 
will readily fix the time when ancient artists flour- 
ished if mentioned by Olympiads in this work, 
wliich the author has endeavored to avoid. 

Ordonnance, is the arrangement of the figures 
in respect to the whole composition ; or the partic- 
ular disposition of the figures as to the different 
groups, masses, contrast, decorum, situation, &c. 



Outline. See Contour. 

Passion, in painting, is the representation of 
those actions of the body, and expressions of the 
face, which agitations of the mind naturally exhibit 
in them. 

Pastel Painting [Pastello, Ital ; Pastelle, Fr.] 
is a style of painting with colored crayons, which 
the French have brought to high perfection. Greuze 
and Boucher were particularly eminent in this 
branch of the art. 

Pasticcio [Ital. ; Pastiche, Fr.'], a word of con- 
tempt, meaning pasty, or pye, which the Itahans 
apply to those patched-up compositions, where the 
artist steals or adopts one object or figure from 
one master, another from another, and so on 
through his whole composition. The French ap- 
ply this term to paintings which are imitations or 
counterfeits (not copies — see Imitation,) of emi- 
nent masters. Any quantity of pastiches, beauti- 
fully executed on old worm-eaten panels, can be 
had in Paris, painted to order of the speculator, and 
well calculated to deceive the unwary. You can 
thus get any quantity of paintings by the best 
masters, even originals by Rubens, Douw, and Te- 
niers. Some late English writers have adopted the 
French term with the French meaning. 

Perspective, is a science, the perfect under- 
standing of which requires a knowledge of mathe- 
matics, geometry, and optics. It is the art of copy- 
ing the appearance of objects as seen from a certain 
point of view. It is divided into mathematical, or 
Linear Perspective, and the perspective of color, 
or Aerial Perspective. Both are of the greatest 
importance to painters, engravers, sculptors, and 
architects. Without a correct observance of the 
rules of perspective, no picture can have truth or 
life, for it is required in delineating even the sim- 
plest positions of objects. 

Linear perspective is that which describes or 
represents the position, form, and magnitude of ob- 
jects, and then- gradual diminution in proportion 
to their distance from the eye, according to fixed 
laws or rules. 

Aerial perspective is the degradation of the tones 
of colors, which throws ofi" the distances of grounds 
and objects, and which judicious artists practise by 
diffusuig a kind of thin vapor over them, that de- 
ceives the eye agreeably. It shows the diminution 
of the colors of objects in proportion as they recede 
from the eye by the interposition of the atmos- 
phere between the eye and the objects. The pro- 
portion of this degradation is regulated by the 
purity of the atmosphere. Hence, in a fog, it will 
be greater at the distance of a few feet, than in a 
clear sky, at as many miles. Distant objects in a 
clear southern air, appear to an eye accustomed to 
a thick northern atmosphere, much nearer than 
they really are. Thus, as the air changes, the 
aerial perspective must change. Morning, noon, 
evemng, moonshine, winter, summer, the sea, &c., 
all have their diiferent aerial perspective. In ae- 
rial perspective, the weakening of the tints corres- 
ponds to the foreshortening of the receding lines in 
linear perspective. In the illuminated parts of 
objects, the tints are represented more broken and 
fluctuating, and the shaded parts are often aided 
by reflection. 

By aerial perspective, two results are obtained: 
1. Each object in a pictm-e receives that degree of 

color and light which belongs to its distance from 
the eye. 2. The various local tones are made to 
imite in one chief tone, which last is nothiug else 
than the common color of the atmosphere, and the 
light which penetrates it. The charm and har- 
mony of a picture, particularly of a landscape, de- 
pend greatly on a proper apphcation of the laws of 

Pentimento, Repentance. The Italians apply 
this term to those alterations which artists some- 
times make in their works when they do not please 
them. Such alterations are frequently found in pic- 
tures which have been rapidly executed, and are cer- 
tain marks of originality in the work. Other signs 
of originality, are the composition, freedom, decision, 
and manner of the penciling, wliich in copies are 
more timid and labored. In this country, an en- 
graving of the same subject, if it is an old paint- 
ing, will always show it to be a copy. 

Reflected Lights, are the borrowed lights, or 
lights reflected from one object to another; and 
those reflected lights always partake of the tint of 
the object from which the light is reflected. Not 
only the atmosphere, but every object in nature 
reflects hght. It is well illustrated by a confla- 
gration in a cloudy night, when not only the heav- 
ens, but the earth is illuminated. 

Relievo, or Relief, is a sculptm-ed work raised 
above the surface with which it is connected. It 
has several gradations, which are thus distinguished 
in Italian, French, and English ; 


Di Tutto-Relievo, 
Di Pleno-Relievo, 


Bas-Relief, Low-Relief, 

Demi-Relief, Half-Relief, 

Haut-Relief, High-Relief, 

En Tout-ReUef, In Full-Relief, 

En Plein-Relief. Comi^lete-Relief. 

These terms sufiiciently explain their meaning, 
except the last, which refers to a later style of relief, 
introduced by Algardi, in which the figures were 
so raised as to stand almost entirely out from the 
groimd, which was covered with figures in low- 
relief. Relief is also applied, in painting, as when 
a figure appears to stand out from the canvass, as 
it were in relief, by the judicious application of the 
principles of chiaro-scuro. 

Sketch, is sometimes used ior first color, which 
see ; again, to denote the small preparatory pru'nt- 
ing wliich is to serve as a model in the execution 
of a proposed work, in which sense it is a siudy. 
It is more commonly and properly applied to draw- 
ings in pencil, oil, or water colors, from nature or 
life, which are intended for studies. 

Stddio, a painter's or sculptor's workshop, which 
the French call atelier. The Italians apply this 
term to any study from nature. 

Study, is a model which an artist has prepared 
to enable him to judge of the merits or eflect of the 
work he proposes to execute. The term is applied 
to a single object, or to a whole composition. 

Style, m. the language of writers on the fine arts, 
signifies the manner peculiar to a school or a mas- 
ter, in design, composition, coloring, expression, and 
execution. In art, it refers to the treatment or 
manner of the subject, whether grand and dignified, 
florid and ornate, simple and natural. It also re- 
fers to the peculiarities of any master. 

Still-Life. The representations of inanimate 



objects, as dead game, fish, vegetables, fruits and 
flowers, domestic animals of every description, mu- 
sical and sporting instruments, &c., when forming 
compositions by themselves, are called still-lite. 
When living persons are principals, the introduc- 
tion of such things are called accessories. 

Tone is the harmony of coloring in a painting, 
or the harmonious effect produced by the proper 
degradation of light and shade, so as to cause all 
harshness and crudeness to disappear. 

Torso [an Italian word signifying the trunk,] is 
a statue mutilated of its members, and with or 
without a head. There are several torsos of great 
artistic value, but by the torso so often mentioned 
as the study of Michael Angelo is meant the torso 
of Hercules in the Vatican, called Belvidere. 

Vanishing-points, a term of perspective. There 
are several important terms of perspective,_which 
may thus be briefly explained. The horizontal 
line is the line that marks the horizon, or the 
place of the supposed horizon, and is always on a 
level with the eye. The point in the horizontal 
line directly opposite the eye, is the point of sight ; 
and the ray issuing from this point, which forms 
a right angle with the horizontal hne, is called the 
principal visual ray. The point of distance, is 
the actual distance of the eye from the plane of the 
picture, as measured on the horizontal line, from 
the point of sight. Vanishing-points are the points 
in which' parallel lines converge perspectively, 
which points, in level planes, are in the horizontal 
line, viz. : either m the point of sight itself, or more 
or less distant from it, according to the position 
of the observer. When, owing to the obliquity of 
the surface, these converging points do not meet in 
the horizontal line^ but strike above or below it, 

they are called accidental points. [See Perspec- 

Vehicle, is any liquid used to thiute colors, to 
render them of a proper consistence to spread on 
the canvass. 

There are many other terms recently introduced 
by German and French writers on the fine arts, 
some of which have been adopted by English 
writers, as well as others invented by themselves, 
which, no doubt, are very learned and recondite ; 
but as this Dictionary is intended for popular use, 
and as the explanations given are sufficiently full, 
such terms have been carefully avoided in this 
work, and their explanation must be left to those 
who employ them. 


The Germans and Dutch use Derick or Dirk 
for Theodore, and Hans for John; the French 
Franc for Frangois, Geraud for Gerard, Jeannot 
for' Jean, Jacot or Jaquet for Jacques ; the Ital- 
ians, Jacopo for Giacomo, Peppe Peppo or Peppino 
for Giuseppe ; and the Spanish, Beppo for Jacob. 
The Italians also often use the diminutive, as Nico- 
lino for Nicola or Niccol6, Carlino for Carlo. Emi- 
nent artists are frequently known by other than 
their real names, given them from the place of their 
nativity, perfection or defects of person, remarka- 
ble peculiarity of composition or coloring, or singu- 
larity of character. Thus, the name of Perugino 
is given to Pietro Vannucci, Correggio to Antonio 
Allegri, Caravaggio to Michael Angelo Amerigi, 
and Veronese to Paolo Caliari, from the places of 
their nativity ; Bamboccio or Bombast to Peter do 
Laer, Giorgione, the giant, to Barbarelli, Tinto- 
retto, son of a dyer, to Jacopo Robusti, &c. 


The following table will explain many apparent 
contradictions to be found in works on the line 
arts, from the custom of writing indiscriminately 
the christian name of artists in the native or foreign 
tongue, thus : John, Jean, Johann, Johannes, Gio- 
vanni, Juan, all which names signify John in Eng- 
lish. The author designed to have rendered every 
foreign name into English ; but, on reflecting that 
this course might rather add to the confusion, from 
the custom before mentioned, and that foreign en- 
gravings generally bear the names of artists in 

their native tongue, he has preferred to give a table 
of the most common names, having the greatest va- 
riation, in the languages of the six great schools of 
painting, viz: EngUsh, French, German, Dutch, 
Italian, and Spanish. It is to be observed also, 
that names are often Latinized, as Anthony, Anto- 
nius ; George, Georg-ius ; Goltz, Goltzius ; John, 
Johannes; JeTome, Hieronymus ; WTl\iiim,Guliel- 
mus, &c. In deciphering monograms, also, regard 
must be had as to whether the initials represent 
the name in the native or Latin tongue. 




















Elijah, Elias, 


































* See note 


Ansel me, 


on page xx^ii. By this 











































































































Table names may be rendered from one 





language into either 



of the others. 




















































Abati, Nicold dell Painter. 

Abildgaard, Nikolai Painter. 

Achen, John van Painter. 

.3*]lzheimer, Adam Painter. 

.^tion Painter. 

Agamedes, Architect 

Agaptos Architect 

Agatharcus. (Inv. of Perspective) Painter. 

.B. c, 
. B. c 

.B. c 
.B. C 

Agasias, (So. of Fighting Gladiator in Louvre) . . . Sculptor b. c. 

Agelidas, Sculptor b. c. 

Agesander, (Sc. of Laocoon,) Sculptor b. c. 

Aglaophon, Painter 

Albano, Francesco (Pa. of ' The Graces') Painter. 

Alberti, Aristotle Architect 

Alberti, Leone Battista Pa., Sculp., and Arch 

Albertinelli, Mariotto Painter 

Alcamenes, (pupil of Phidias) Sculptor b. c, 

Aldegrever, Henry Painter 

Alessi, Galeazzo Architect 

Algardi, Alessandro Scxilptor and Architect 

Allegri, Antonio (Correggio) Painter 

Allston, Washington Painter 

Alvarez, Don Jose Sculptor 

Ammanati, Bartolomeo Sculptor and Architect. . . . 

Andrea, da Pisa Scidptor and Architect. . . . 

Andreani, Andrea Painter and Engraver. . . . 

Angel 0, (Michael Buonarotti) Pa., Scidp., and Arch 

Angel 0, Michael Amerigi da Caravaggio Painter 

Angosciola, Sofonisba Paintress 

Antistates Architect b. c. 

Apelles, (the most celebrated of stncient painters) . Painter b. c. 

Apollodorus, (the Athenian) Painter b. c. 

Apollodorus, (Arch, to Trajan) Architect 

Apollonius, (Sc. of the Torso Belvldere) Sculptor b. c. 

Appiani, Andrea ». Painter 

Arcesilaus, Sculptor b. c. 

Aristides, of Thebes Painter b. c. 

Audran, Gerard (six of this name) Engraver 

Audubon, John -J. (Pa. of birds, animals, &c.) . . . .Painter 

Aviler, Augustin Charles Architect 

Baptist, .John M. (flowers, &c.) Painter 

Baccio, Delia Porta (di San Marco) Painter 

Bacon, John Scidptor 

Balen, Henry van Painter 

Bandinelli. JBaccio Scidptor 




' 480 









































flour 'd. 

















Banks, Thomas Sculptor 1745 

Baroccio Federio-o Painter 15^0 

Barozzi, ' Giacomo (da Vignola) Architect 1507 

Barry, -James Painter 1741 

Bartoli, Pietro Santo Engraver 

Bartolomeo, Fra. (di San Marco) Painter. . 

Bartolozzi, Francesco (resided in England,) Engraver 

Bassano. Giacomo (six of this name) Painter 


Batoni,Pompeo Painter 1/08 

Beccafumi, Domenico Painter and Engraver. . . . 14«4 

Beechey. Sir William Painter 1/53 

Bella, Stefano della Engraver loiO 

Bcham, Hans or John Engraver 1500 

Bellini. Gentile Pamter 14^i 

Berghem, Nicholas Painter and Engraver 1W4 

Bernini, Giovanni Lorenzo Sculptor and Architect lobO 

Berrettini, (Pietro da Cortona) Painter 1596 

Blake, WiUiam Painter and Engraver 1/57 

Bloemaert, Abraham Painter 15t^4 

Bloemaert, Cornelius Engraver 1603 

Boffrand, Germain Architect 1667 

Blootelino-, Abraham Engraver 16o4 

BolswertVScheltius A Engraver 1586 

Bordone, Paris Painter 1500 

Borgognone, II (see Cortese) Painter 1621 

Both, John Painter 1610 

Both, Andries Painter 1612 

Bourdon, Sebastien Painter and Engraver 1616 

Borromini, Francesco Architect 1599 

Boydell, John Engraver 1719 

Bramante. di Urbino (1st of St. Peter's) Architect 1444 

Breemberg. Bartholomaus Painter 1620 

Breughel. Velvet (several of this name) Painter 1560 

Brill Paul ■ Painter 1554 

Brower, Adrian Painter 1608 

Bruges, John of (John van Eyck) Painter 1370 

Brun, Charles Le Painter 1619 

Brunelleschi, Filippo Architect 13/7 

Buontalenti, Bernardo Architect 1536 

Buonarotti, Michael Angelo Pa., Sc, and Arch 1474 

Burnet James Painter. 1788 

Cagliar'i, Paolo (Paul Veronese) Painter 1532 

Cairo, Cavaliere Francesco Painter 



Calcott Sir A. W Painter 

Callicrates, (built Parthenon) Architect .b. c. 

Callimachus Sculptor and Architect b. c. 

Callot, James Engraver 

Canal, Antonio (Canaletti) Painter 

Canova, Antonio Sculptor 

Caracci, Lodovico Pamter and Engraver 

Caracci, Agostino Painter and Engraver 

Caracci, Annibale Painter and Engraver 

Caravaggio, I\Iichael Angelo Amerigi da Painter 1569 

Caravaegio, Polidoro Caldara da Painter 1495 

Carpi, tjgo da (Inv. of printing in chiaro-scuro) . .Painter and Engraver 1486 

Casas, Louis Fran9ois Painter and Architect 1756 

Castiglioue, Giovanni Battista Painter 1616 

Castello, Y Saavedra Antonio del Painter 1603 

Cavedone. Jacopo Painter. . .■ 1577 

Cellini, Bcnvenuto • .Painter and Engraver 1500 

Cespedes, Pablo de Painter 15o8 

Champagne. Philip de Painter 

Chantrey. Sir Francis Sculptor 

Chares, (Sc. of Colossus of Rhodes) Sctdptor 

Cignani, Carlo Painter 

Cimabue, Giovanni (restorer of painting in Italy) . Pamper 1240 

Claude Gelee (Claude Lorraine) Painter 1600 

Cleomenes, (Sc. of Venus de Medicis) ; . . . Scidptor b. c. 180 

Cochin. Charles Engraver 1688 

Cole, Thomas Painter 1802 

Copley, J. Singleton Painter 1737 



















Eng. Constable, John Painter 1 

French. Cotte, Robert de Architect 

Italian. Correggio, Antonio Allegri da Painter 

Italian. Cortona, Pietro da Painter 

Roman. Cossutius Architect b. c. 

Eng. Cosway, Richard Painter 

Greek. Ctesitas, (Sc. of Dying Gladiator) Sculptor b. c. 

Greek. Ctesiphon,( Temple of Diana) Sculptor and Architect 

Dutch. Cuyp, Albert Painter 

Greek. Dasdalus, (built Cretan Labyrinth) Sculptor and Architect a. c. 

Greek. Daphnis, (Temple of Apollo) Architect r, c. 

French. David. Jacques Louis Painter 

French. Denou, Baron Dominic Vincent Designer and Engraver. . . 

Flem. Diepenbeck, Abraham Painter 

Ger. Dietrich, Christian William Painter 

Greek. Detrianus, (Arch, to Adrian) w Architect 

Greek. Dinocrates, (builder of Alexandria) Architect a c. 

Itahan. Dolci, Carlo Painter 

Italian. Domenichino, or Domenico Zampieri Painter 

Italian. Donotello, or Donato Sculptor 

French. Dorigny, Sir Nicholas Engraver 

Dutch. Douw Gerard Painter 

Greek. Dionysius, of Argos Sculptor b. c. 

Eng. Earlom, Richard Engraver 

Flem. Edelinck, Gerhard Engraver 

Greek. Epeus, (Trojan Horse) Sculptor b. c, 

Greek. Eupompus (founder of the school of Sicyon) Painter b. c. 

Dutch. Everdingen, Albert van Painter 

Flem. Eyck John van (John of Bruges) Painter 

Eng. Fiaxman, John Sciilptor 

Flem. Flemael, Bertholet Painter 

Italian. Finiguerra, Maso (inventor of copper-plate eng.) . . Engi^aver 

Dutch. Flink, Govaert Painter 

Ger. Fischers, Johann Bernard Architect 

Italian. Fontana, Domenico Architect 

Italian. Fontana, Carlo Architect 

Itahan. Franceschini, Baldassare Painter ". 

Italian. Franceschini, Marc' Antonio Painter 

Swiss. Fuseli. Henry (resided in England) Painter 

Flem, Fyt, John Painter 

Italian. Fuga, Ferdinando Architect 

Eng. Gainsborough, Thomas Painter 

Flem. Genoels, Abraham Painter 

Italian. Ghisi, Giovanni Battista Painter and Engraver 

Italian. Ghisi, Giorgio Engraver 

Italian, Giordano, Luca Painter 

Italian. Giorgione, or Giorgio Barbarelli Painter 

Italian. Giotto, di Bondone Painter 

Span. Giovanbattista, di Toledo Architect 

Italian. Ghiberti, Lorenzo Sc7tIptor 

French. Giraldon, Fran9ois Scidptor 

Dutch. Goltz, or Gotlzins, Henry Painter and Engi^aver 

French. Goujon, Jean (the French Phidias) Scidptor 

Dutch. Goycn, -Jan van Painter 

French. Greuze,.JeanBaptiste Painter 

Italian. Grimaldi, Giovanni Francesco Painter 

Italian. Guercino, (Gio. Franc. Barbieri) Painter 

Itahan. Guido Reni, , Painter 

Flem. Hals, Francis Painter 

Eng. Haydon, Benjamin Robert Painter 

Eng. Heath, Charles Engraver 

Dutch. Ileem, John David de Painter 

Dutch. Hemling, John Painter and Engraver 

Dutch. Hobbcma, Mvnderhout Painter 

Eng. Hogarth, William Painter and Engraver 

Swiss. Hoihein. Hans Painterand Engi^aver 

Ger. Hollar, Winceslaus Engraver 

Greek. Heraclides, (painter of marines) Painter b. c. 

Span. Herrcra. Giovanni d' Architect 

Dutch. Hondecoeter. Melchior (painter of fowls) Painter 

Dutch. Honthorst, (Gherard delle Notti) Painter 
















































































































































































































Hughtenberg, Johannes van 

Inman, Henry 

Ivara, Fehpe 

Ictinus, (architect of Parthenon) 

Janssens, Abraham 

Jardin, Carl du 

Jordaens, Jacob 

Jouvenet, .Jean 

Kauffman, JMaria Angelica 

Kneller, Sir Godfrey 

Kilian, Lucas 

Kobell, Jan 

Koning, Philip de Painter. 

Laer, Peter de (Bamboccio) Painter 

Painter 1646 

Painter 1801 

Architect 1684 

Architect b. c. 450 

Painter 1569 

Painter 1640 

Painter 1594 

Painter 1644 

Painter 1742 

Painter 1648 

Painter 1579 

Painter 1782 



Lairesse, Gerhard Painter 1640 

Lanfranco, Cav. Gio Painter 1581 

Lawrence, Sir Thomas Painter 1769 

Lely, Sir Peter Painter 1617 

Lethiere, Guillaume Guillon Painter 1760 

Ley den, Lucas van Painter and Engraver 1494 

Licinio, Gio. Anto. il Pordenone Painter 1484 

Lievens Jan Painter and Engraver 1607 

Lingelback, John Painter 1625 

Lombard, Lambert Painter 1500 

Lono-hi, Giuseppe Painter 1766 

Loutherbourg, Philip James de Painter 1734 

Lysippus Painter b. c. 334 

Maes, Nicholas Painter 1632 

Mabuse, John de • Painter 1492 

Mantegna. Andrea Painter and Engraver 1431 

Maderuo, Carlo. . .'.'.' Architect 1556 

Mansard, Fran9ois Architect 1598 

Mansard, Jules Hardouin Architect 1645 

Maratti, Carlo Painter 1625 

Masaccio, Maso Painter 1401 

]\rasson Antoine Engraver 1636 

Metsys, Quintin Painter 1450 

Painter 1504 

Painter 1728 

Painter 1615 

Painter 1634 

Painter 1653 

Mazzuoli Franceso (II Parmiggiano) 

Mengs, Anthony Raflaelle 

Metzu, Gabriel 

Meulen, Anthony Francis vander 

INIeyer Felix 

Middiman, Samuel Engraver 1746 

Miel, Jan Painter 1599 

Mieris, Francis the elder Painter 1635 

Micri,s. William Painter 1662 

Mignard. Nicholas Painter 1608 

Mignard, Pierre Painter 1610 

Modena, Pellegrino da Painter 1485 

Moine, Frangois le Painter 1688 

Mola, Pietro Francesco Painter 


INIoIyn, Peter (Tempesta). 
Monnoyer, Jean Baptiste (Baptiste) . 

More, Sir Anthony 

Morghen, Raphael (preeminent). 

Painter 1637 

Painter 1635 

Painter 1519 

Engraver 1758 

Morland, George Painter 


Moucheron, Frederick Painter 1633 

Muller, .John Engraver 1570 

Murillo, Bartholomew E Painter 1618 

^lycon, (Temple of Theseus) Pa., Sc, and Arch b. c. 500 

Myron, (Sc. of the Discobolus) Sculptor b. c. 500 

Nanteuil, Robert Engraver IboO 

Neef Peter Painter and Architect 15/0 

Neer, Ardold vander'. '. Painter 1619 

Nicias Painter b. c. 450 

Netscher, Kaspar Painter 163b 

Nichomachus Painter b. c. 330 

Nollekens, Joseph Sculptor 1737 

Northcote, -James Painter 1746 

Ommeganck, Bal. Paul Painter 1(55 















Eng. Opie, John 1 Painter , 

Dutch. Ostade, Adrian van Painter 

Dutch. Ostade, Isaac van Painter. .'. 

French. Pajou, Augustine Sculptor , 

Itahan. Pallaclio, Andrea Architect 

Italian. Palma, Jacopo (il Vecchio) Painter 

Italian. Pahna. Jacopo (il Giovine) Painter 

Greek. Paniphilus, (founder of school of Sicyon) Painter b. c. 

Greek. Panta3nus, (Battle of Marathon) Painter b. c. 

Greek. Parrhasius Painter b. c. 

Greek. Pausias Painter. b. c. 

Amer. Peale, Charles W Painter 

Span. Pereda, Antonio Painter 

French. Perrault, Claudius (Sc. front of Louvre) Architect 

Italian. Perugino, Pietro (Master of Rafiaelle) Painter 

Italian. Peruzzi, Baldassare Painter 

Flem. Peters, Bonaventura Painter 

Swiss. Petitot, John (inv. of painting in enamel) Painter 

Eng. Phillips, Thomas Painter 

Greek. Phidias, (preeminent) SctiJptor b. o, 

Italian. Picart, Bernard Engraver 

French. Pigalle, Jean Baptiste Sculptor 

Italian. Piombo, Fra. Sebast. del Painter 

Greek. Philesius, (Sc. Nine Muses) Sculptor 

Italian. Piranesi, Giov. Battista Engraver 

Dutch. Poelemburg, Cornelius Painter 

Greek. Polycletus Sculptor b. c. 

French. Poilly, Francois Engraver 

Italian. Ponte, Giacomo da (il Bassano) Painter 

Flem. Pontius, Paul Engraver 

Dutch. Potter, Paul Painter 

Italian. Porta, Baccio della (Fra Bartolo. di S. Marco) Painter 

French. Poussin, Nicholas Painter 

Italian. Poussin, Gaspar Painter 

Greek. Praxiteles Sculptor b. c. 

Italian. Primaticcio, Francesco Painter 

Italian, Procaccini, Ercole Painter 

Greek. Protogenes Painter b. c. 

French. Puget, Peter Paul Pa., Sc, and Arch 

Greek. Pythagoras, of Ehegium Sculptor 

Greek. Polygnotus Painter 

Greek. Polycletus, (rival of Phidias) Sculptor b. c. 

Greek. Polydorus, of Rhodes (one of Sc. of Laocoon) .... Scidptor 

Scotch. llael>urn. Sir Henry Painter 

Italian. Ralfaelle Sanzio di Urbino Painter 

Eng. Raimback, Abraham Engraver 

Italian. Raimondi, INIarc' Antonio Engraver 

Italian. Ravenna, Marco da Engraver 

Dutch. Rembrandt van Ryn Painter and Engrave>\ . . . 

Italian. Rcni, Guido Painter 

Eng. Reynolds, Sir Joshua Painter 

French. Rigaud, Ilj'acinth Painter 

French. Roland, Pliilip L Sculptor 

Eng. Romney, George Painter ^.. 

Italian. Rosa, Salvator Painter 

Italian. Romano, Giulio Painter 

Dutch. Roos, John Henry Painter 

Italian. Rosso, il Painter 

Italian. Rota, Martino Engraver 

Italian. Robusti, Giacomo (Tin.toretto) Painter 

Italian. Roncalli. Cristoforo (Pomerancio) Painter 

Ger. Roos, Philip (Rosa da Tivoli) Painter 

Swiss. Roubilliac, Francis Sculptor 

Flem. Rubens, Peter Paul Painter 

Dutch, Ruysdacl, Jacob Painter 

Italian. Sabbatini, Andrea (da Salerno) Painter 

Italian. Sacchi, Andrea Painter 

Dutch. Sadder, .John Engraver 

Dutch. Sadeler, Raphael Engraver 

Dutch. Sadeler, Egedius (Giles) Engraver 


17G1 1807 

IGIO 1G85 

1G17 1G54 

1730 1809 

1518 1580 

IGth cent. 

1541 1G28 

350 flour'd. 

450 flour'd. 


352 flour'd. 

1741 1827 













432 flour'd. 













































































Saenredam. John Engraver 1565 

Sammachini, Orazio Painter 15o2 

San Michelli, Michele Architect 1484 

Sarto, Anch-ea Vannuchi del Painter 1488 

Scamozzi. Vincenzio Architect 1552 

Schedone', Bartolomeo Architect 15G0 

Severus, (architect to Nero) Architect 50 

Senefelder, Alois (inventor of Uthography) Painter and Engraver 1771 

Schalcken, Godfry Painter 1643 

Scopas •• Sculptor b. c. 460 

Sharpe,' William. ." Engraver 1749 

Smirke, Robert Painter 1752 

Snyders, Francis • Painter 15/9 

Solimena, Francesco Painter. 

Sostratus, (built Pharos) Architect 

Spada, Lionello Painter 



Painter 1746 

Painter 1589 

Painter 1546 

Painter 1585 

Painter 1636 

Painter 1596 

Painter 1612 

Stork! Abraham, (views, sea-pieces) Painter 1650 

Stothard, Thomas (historical and portrait) 

Strano;e, Sir Robert 

Spaendonck, Gerard van (fruit and flowers) 
Spagnoletto, il (Josef Ribera) 

Spranger, Bartholomew 

Stanzioni, Cav. Massimo 

Steen Jan (very noted) 

Stella, James 

StoopJ Dirk or Theodore 

Painter 1755 

Painter 1721 

Stuart, James Architect. 


. Painter 1754 

. Painter 1617 

.Painter 1620 

. Painter 1479 

Stuart, Gilbert (portrait) 

Sueur, Eustachius le 

Swanevelt, Herman Ladd 

Tatti, Jacopo (called Sansovino) 

Tempesta, Antonio Painter and Engraver 1555 

Teniers, David, the elder Painter 1582 

Teniers, David, the younger Painter 1610 

Terburg, Gerard Painter 1608 

Testa, Pietro Painter and Engraver 1611 

Thorwaldsen, Albert Sculptor 1772 

Temanthes Painter b. c. 420 

Timanthes, (painter of Jupiter in Council) Painter b. c. 400 

Tibaldi. Pellegrino Painter 1527 

Timomarches Painter 

Tintoretto, Giacomo Robusti Painter 1512 

Titian, (preeminent) Painter 1477 

Trumbull, John Painter 1756 

Vandyck,'Sir Anthony Painter 1599 

Vandervelde, William, the elder Painter. 1610 

Vandervelde. William,' the younger Painter 1633 

VanderveldeJ Adrian Painter 1639 

Vanloo, Carl : Painter 1705 

Vanderwerf. Adrian Painter 1659 

Velasquez de Silva, Don Diego Painter 1594 

Venius, or Van Veen, Otho 

Vernet, Joseph (marine) . 

Vernet, Horace 

Vannucci, Pietro Perugino . . . 
Vanuncchi, Andrea Del Sarto 

Vanvitelli, Luigi 

Vinci, Leonardo da 

Veronese. Paolo (Cagliari) Painter. . 

Visscher Cornelius Engraver 

Painter 1556 

Painter 1714 

Painter 1758 

Painter 1446 

Painter 1488 

Architect. 1700 

Painter 1445 


, 1610 

Vorstermans. Lucas the elder Engraver 1580 

Vignola, James Architect 1507 

Viitruvius Architect b. c. ^^0 

Volpato, Giovanni Engraver 1733 

West. Benjamin Painter 1738 

Wilkie, Sir David Painter 1785 

Wille, John George Engraver 1717 

Wilson, Richard Painter 1714 

Woollctt, William Engraver 1735 

Wouwerman, Phil Painter 1620 







♦ 1524 




















Wren, Sir Christopher (St. Paul's) Architect 1632 

Waterloo, Anthony Painter and Engraver 1618 

Watteau, Antoine Painter 1684 

Wecnix, John Baptist Painter 1621 

Weenix, John '. Painter 1644 

Weef, Adriam Vander .Painter 1659 

Wynants, John Painter 1600 

Zablia, Nicholas. 


Zuccaro, or Zuccheri, Taddeo. . 
Zuccaro, or Zuccheri, Federigo. 

Zuccarelli, Francesco 

Zurbaran, Francisco 

.Architect 1674 

. Painter b. c. 490 

.Painter 1529 

. Painter 1539 

.Painter 1702 

.Painter 1598 








This List is important, because, in the history of art, eminent artists are frequently known only by 
their acquired names, given to them by their co temporaries, from the place of their nativity, perfec« 
tion or defects of person, remarkable pocuharity of composition or coloring, or singularity ol 


Abeyk John van Eyck. 

Agubbio, d', Oderigi da Gubbio. 

Aiguilles. Marquis d', ..J. B. Boyer. 

Ains, Giuseppe Ens. 

Albara, Gio.di, Bernardo Carboni. 

Albe, Baron d', L. A. G. Bacler. 

Alemagna, Giustodi, . .Justus of Ghent. 

Alesio, Perez d', Matteo da Lecce. 

Aliense, Antonio Vassilacchi. 

Ambrogiotto, Giotto. 

Amico, Maestro Aspertini. 

Ancinelli, dagli, Flaminio Torre. 

. ., ,, ^ Andrea Lilio. 

Anconitano, 1 , j Girolamo Bonini. 

Angelico, Giovanni da Fiesole. 

Angelo, d', Gio. Bat. del Moro. 

Annunzio, Nonzio. 

Ans, Ausse. 

Antoni, degli, Antonello da Messina. 

Antoniano,Ferrarese,. . Antonio Alberto. 

Antonio, Marc' M. A. Raimondi. 

Aretusi, Pellegrino Miinari. 

Ariminensis, Bartolomeo Coda. 

Aristotile, . .Bastiano da Sangallo. 

Arpino, d', Giuseppe Cesari. 

Arrigoni, Giovanni Laurentini. 

Arsenio, Donato Mascagni. 

Asti, d', Gio. Carlo Aliberti. 

Athanasio, Pedro, Pedro Bocanegra. 

Attavante, Vante. 

Ausse, John van Eyck. 

Aviano, Girolamo da Trevigi. 

Baccio, Era Bart, del la Porta. 

Bachiacca, Francesco Ubertino. 

Baciccio, Gio. Bat. Gaulli. 

Baeza, da, Gaspar di Becerra. 

Bagnacavallo, II, Bartolomeo Ramenghi. 

Ballerino, Gio. Bittonte. 

Balvay, J. G., Charles C. Bervic. 

Bamboccio, Peter de Laer. 


Baptist, J., J. B. Gaspars. 

Baptiste John Baptist Monnoyer. 

Barbalunga, Antonio Ricci.. 

Barbiere, del, Alessandro Fei. 

Bartolet, Bart. Flemael. 

Bartolomeo, B. Breemberg. 

Bartolomeo, Era, F. Bart, della Porta. 

Basilicata, della, Matteo Paccelli. 

S Antonio Scaiario. 
Jacopo da Ponte. 
David Teniers. 

Bastaro, del, Giuseppe Puglia. 

Bastaruolo, II, Filippo Mazzuoli. 

Bastianino, II, Bastiano Filippi. 

Batistiello, Gio. Bat. Caracciolo. 

Battaglie, dalle. M. A. Cerqaozzi, 

Battaglie, Brescianino 

dalle, Francesco Monti. 

Bazzacco, Gio. Bat. Ponchino. 

Beard.Hans with the, . .John C. Vermeyen. 

Belladonna, , ..Lucilio Gentiloni. 

Belvidere, Andrea Abate. 

Benedetto, Gio., Gio. B. Castiglione. 

Benvenuto, Gio. Bat. Ortolano. 

Bergamasco, II, Gio. Bat. Castelli, and Cas- 

Bernard of Brussels,. .Bernard van Orley. 

Bertholet, B. Flemael. 

Betti, Bernardino Pinturicchio. 

Bevilacqua, II, Ventura Salimbeni. 

Biagio, Maestro, Biagio Pupini. 

Bibiena, Galli. 

Bicker, Cav. John Miel. 

Bigio, Prancia, Marc' Antonio Erancia. 

" II, Gio. Bat. Brazze. 

Bigolaro, II, Francesco Bernardi. 

Bles, Henry de, Enrico Civetta. 

Bogaert, Martin vander,Desjardins. 




f Gio. Fran. Grimaldi. 

I Jacopo Avanzi. 

I Cristoforo Ferrari. 

I Lattanzio Mainardi. 
Bologna, or Bolognese, ^ grcolino Rufrgieri. 
^^1 I Lorenzo Sabbatini. 

I Pellegrino Tibaldi. 

I B. Caterina da Vigri. 

t Lorenzino di Fermo. 

Bologna. II, Bart. Ramenghi. 

Bonaccorsi, Pierino del Vaga. 

Bondone, di, Giotto. 

Borghese Pietro del la Francesca. 

"^ ' 5 Jacopo Oortese. 

Borgognone, II, ^ Guglielmo Cortese. 

Bosschaert, Thomas Willeborts._ 

Bozzato Gio. Battista Ponchmo. 

Braman'te Donato di Lazzari. 

Brandi, Felichetto, Felice Ottini. 

5ravo Francesco Montelatici. 

Brazzaco,. . . Gio. Bat. Ponchino. 

Brescia, Lucadi, Seb. Aragonese. 

f Francesco Monti. 

Brescianino, II \ Giovita. 

I Vincenzio Foppa. 

Bresciano, Pietro Avogadro. 

Bresciano, Morone, . ..Pietro Moroni. 

Brixiensis, Brescia. 

Briziano Gio. Bat. Montovano. 

Brizio, Menichino del,-Domenico Ambrogi. 

Bronzino Alessandro Allori. 

Brusigia, Gianesda, John van Eyck. 

Bruno, Buoni. 

Bruno II Silvestro MorviUo. 

Brusasorci, II, Riccio. 

Biidrio, da, Giacomo Lippi. 

Buonaccorsi, Pierino del Vaga. 

Buonamici, Agostino Tassi. 

< Benedetto Orespi. 
Bustini, ^ Pietro Bianchi. 

Caccianemici, Francesco Cappelli. 

f Maltia.Preti. 

Calabrese, II, \ Marco Cardisco. 

( Nicoluccio. 

Caliavari, Luca Carlevariis. 

Caligarino, II Gabriele Cappellini. 

Oamaldolese, . ' Don Lorenzo. 

Campidoglio, II,. Michael Angelo. 

Canaletto, II, . . .' Antonio Canal. 

Candido, II, Peter de Wit. 

Oanozio Lorenzo Lendinara. 

Capanigo, da, Martino Simazoto. 

Oapella, II, Francesco Dagiu. 

5 Gabriele Caligarino. 

Capellini, ^ Qio ^^t Zuppelli. 

Capodoro, Guglielmo Paganini. 

„ i Bernardo Strozzi. 

Cappuccmo, 11, ^ Ippolito Galantim. 

Caraccino, II, Gio. Ant. Mulinari. 

S Michael Ang. Amerighi. 
Gio. Bat. Secchi. 
Polidoro Caldara, 

Carbone -y -Camillo Scacciani. 

Oarnia, della, -^ . - Nicola Grassi. 

Carpense, Bernardino Loschi. 

Carpi, Pellegrino da,. .Pellegrino Ascani. 

Oarriera^ Rosalba. 

Casa, delfa, Pietro Ant. Bernabei. 

Casalini, Lucia Torelli. 

Oasanobrio, Luca Carlevariis. 



Castoldi Gio. Pietro Crespi. 

Cavagnuolo, II, Francesco Cavagna. 

Cavaiori, MirabeJlo da Salincorno- 

Cavarozzi, Bartolomeo del Crescenzi- 

Cavazzoni, Gio. Pietro Zanotti. 

Cecchino, Francesco de Salviati. 

Cecco Bravo, Francesco Montelatici. 

Cedaspe Paolo Ccspedcs. 

Celano. Guelfo dal, Leonardo da Pistoia. 

Centino, II, Francesco Nagli. 

Ocrano, II, Gio. Bat. Crespi. 

Ceri, de', Pierino del Vaga. 

Certosino,Il, P. Stefano Cassiani. 

Cesare, Padre, Oesare Pronti. 

Cesio, da Pellegrino da Cesena. 

Chafrion,' Lorenzo, F. Matias de Valencia. 

Chenda. II, Alfonso Rivarola. 

Chiaveghino, II Andrea Mainardi. 

Chighi," Gio. Bat. Ghisi. 

Chiozzotto, II, Antonio Marinetti. 

Chisolfi, Giovanni Ghisolfi. 

Ciccio, L' Abate, Francesco Solimena. 

Cio-oli Lodovico Cardi. 

Cimatore di Urbino,. . .Andrea Visacci 

Clenientone, II, Clemente Bocciardo. 

Colonna, Girolamo Mengozzi. 

Conchillos, Juan Falco. 

ConeglianOjIl, . Gio. Bat. Cinia. 

Consolano, Cristoforo Casolani. 

Conte, del, Guido Fassi. 

Conway, Anne Darner. 

Cook, the, Lucas Cornelisz. 

Coppa, Cav., Ant. Giarola. 

Coriario, Arto Leone. 

Cornelisz, Cornelius van Haerlem. 

Cornorano II, > Giulio Calvi. 

Coronato. 11, ^ 

Corradini F. Bartolomeo Carnevale 

_ . , K Antonio Allegri. 

Correggio, da, j Antonio Bernieri. 

Corticellis, II, Gio. Ant. Licinio. 

Cortona, da Pietro Berrettini. 

Cosci, Gio. Balducci. 

Cosimo, Padre, Paolo Piazza. 

Cosme da Ferrara Cosimo Tura. 

Cousinet, Catherine E. Lempereur 

Crabbetjie, John Asseljm. 

_ Ti S Francesco Bassi. 

Cremonese, II, J Giuseppe Caletti. 

Crescenzi, Bart. Cavarazzi. 

Crisolfi, Gio. Ghisolfi. 

Crivellone, II, Ant. Maria Crivelli. 

Crocifissaio, Girolamo Macchietti. 

Crocifissi, da, Simone da Bologna. 

Croma, II .Giqlio Cromer. 

Cronaca, II, Simone del Pollajuolo. 

Cugini Cungi. 

Cuticello, II Gio. Ant. Licinio. 

Cutigliano, Biagio da Carigliano. 

Dalmazia, di, Federigo Bencovich. 

Danet, or Daris, Leon Daven. 

Danet, John John Duvet. 

Daniello, II Cav.. Daniel Snyder. 

Davanzo, Jacopo Avanzi. 

Dente, Marco Ravignano. 

Dentone, II, Girolamo Curti. 

Diatelevi, Tiberio di Assisi. 

Dielai, or Diolai. Gio. Francesco Surchi. 

Diethmar. Thiemon. 

Guccio, del Sero, Aghinetti. 




Divino, El, Luis Morales. 

Doceno, II, Cristofano Gherardi. 

Domenichino, Dornenico Zainpieri. 

Donate. Donatello. 

Donelli, Carlo Vimercati. 

Donnabella, Lucilio Gentiloni. 

Droll, The Peter Breughel. 

Duchino, II, Paolo Catiiijlo Landriani. 

Dulichio, da. Buschetto. 

Empoli, da. Jacopo da Chimenti, 

Engs, Giuseppe Ens. 

Ercole da Ferrara Ercole Grandi. 

Ercolino di Guido Ercole de Maria. 

Eremita di Monte Se- G. B. Stefanesohi, 


Escalante. Romero Y.,..Juan de Sevilla. 

Espagnoletto, .Giuseppe Ribera. 

Essen, Hans von, .Johann Ladenspelder. 

Facciate, delle, Bernardino Poccetti. 

C Ferrau Fanzone. 
Faenza, da, ) Giacomo Bertucci. 

( Marco Marchetti. 
Faenza. Figurine da, . .M. A. Rocchetti. 

Faes, vander, Peter Lely. 

Fattore, II, Gio. Francesco Penni. 

Federighetto, Federigo Bencovich. 

Ferrara, Cosme da,. . . Cosimo Tura. 
Ferraresino, II. Camillo Berlinghieri. 

Fiamminghino,Il, \ ^°g«'? Everardi. 

^ ' ' } Gio. Mauro Rovere. 

f Lodovico Pozzoserrato. 

Fiammingo, II I H^T^'^J'' ^°"?^.- 

' I Paolo tranceschi. 

C Dionisio or Denis Calvart. 

Figurino, Marc' Antonio Rocchetti. 

Filattrano, Lucilio Gentiloni. 

Filippi, or Filipepi, Sandro Botticelli. 

Fiore, Fed. d' Urbino, .. Federigo Baroccio. 

f Giuliano Bugiardfni. 

Fiorentino, II J Michele Alberti. 

I Orazio Vaiani. 


C Mario Nuzzi. 
Fieri, da, ) Gaspero Lopez. 

( Carlo Voglar. 

Folignate, Niccolo Deliberatore. 

Fontaines, James Swebach. 

( Francesco Melozze. 
Forli, da, ) Marco Palmegiani. 

( Livio Agresti. 

Fornaceriis, Tsaye Fournier. 

Fornaretto, II, Francesco Comi. 

Forner, El, Vincenzio Civerchio. 

Fossombrone,da, Gio. or Giuseppe Diaman- 


Franceschiello, Francesco de Mura. 

Franccschino, Francesco Caracci. 

Francia, Francis, Francesco Raibolini. 

Francisque Francis Mile. 

Franco Bolognese, Franco da Bologna. 

Frank, Hans, .John Lutzelburger. 

Frankfort, von, Jerome Greff. 

Frankfort, Adamo di,. .Adam Alzheimer. 

Frari, Francesco II, Ferrari Bianchi. 

Frate II ^ ^- Bartolomeo Dornenico 

' ' } della Porta. 

Frate, Paolotto II, Fra Vittore Ghislandi. 

Fratina Giovanni di Mie. 

Fredeman, John, John de Vries, 


Freschi, de', .Paolo Franceschi. 

Friano, Maso di San,. .Maso Manzueli. 
Frieslander, The Noble, Wybrand van Gheest. 

Frisius John Vredeman de Vries. 

Friso. dal, Luigi Benfatto. 

Friuli, Porcia da, Francesco Apollodoro. 

Fumaccini, Orazio Samacchini. 

Gaeta. da, Scipione da Pulzone. 

Galanino, Baldassare AUoisi. 

Gallicus, Jo., John van Eyck. 

Gallo. Giovanni, or "i 

Johannes, > Jean Salomon. 

Gallo, L' Infante, ) 

Garofolo, da, Benvenuto Tisio, 

Geneva. Luchetto da,. .Luca Cambiasi. 

Genovese, 11 Prete,. . . \ Bernardo Strozzi. 
( Ippolito Galantmo. 

Genevesino, II, S Luigi Miradoro. 

' ' ( Guiseppe Calcia. 

Gentile, Luigi Primo. 

Gentileschi, Orazio Lomi. 

Gerard of St. .John,. . .Gerard of Haerlem. 

Gerupino, Luigi Scaramuccia. 

Gessi, G. B. del, Gio. Battista Ruggieri. 

Gessi, Ercolino del,. . . .Ercole Ruggieri. 
Gherarde, di Ser, Giacomo di Guglielmo. 

Ghirlandaio, del, \ Micheledi Ridolfe. 

' ' ( Dornenico Corradi. 

Giacoraone, Giacomo Bertucci. 

Giancarli, Poliphilos Zancarli. 

Gianella, Giorgio and Giovanni da 

Giles of Antwerp, . . . .Giles Coignet. 

Gino, di, Stoldo Lorenzi. 

Giorgio, II Maestro,. . .Ingles. 

Giorgione, Giorgio Barbarelli. 

Giottino Tommaso di Stefano. 

Giovanni, di San, Giovanni Mannozzi. 

Girandole, dalle, Bernardo Buontalenti. 

Gismondi, Paolo Perugino. 

Giuda, Dottor, J. J. Cossiau. 

Giugni. Francesco Zugni. 

Giunta, Fisano. 

Gebbino, II, Gio. Bat. Rossi. 

Gobbo, II. de' Caracci ? r> i r. 

andda'Frutti, J P^o^o B^nz,. 

Gobbo, II or del ^ Antonio Caracci. 

' ' ( Antonio Solan. 

Gonzales, Coques. 

Getfried, Christian, . . Johann Schuman. 

Grano, del, Giorgio Gandini. 

Gratella, Sebastiano Filippi. 

Gratiadei, da, Mariano da Pescia. 

Grazia, da, Lionardo da Pisteia. 

Graziani, da, Gio. Bat. Ball an ti. 

Greche, delle, or El 

Greco, Dornenico Theotocopuli. 

Grechette, II, Gio. Benedetto Castiglione. 

Grieeo El \ Pedro Serafin. 

^ ' ' ) Dom. Theotocopuli. 

Grillandaio, del, Domenico Corradi. 

Grimani, Hubert Jacobsz. 

Greningen, Gio. di,. . . .Johann Schwartz. 
Grotesche, delle,. .... .Bernardino Poccetti. 

Gruembroech, II Solfarole. 

Guardelino, Carle Natali. 

Guargena, Dornenico,. .P. Feliciano da Messina. 

Gubbie, da, 5 ?''^''' ^°^,';'^": . 

' ' ( t rancesco Allegrini. 




Guercino,. . . Gio. Francesco Barbieri. 

Guillaume, Fra, Guslielmo da Marcilla. 

Haeften, N. van, Nicholas Walraven. 

Hanskin, Kleyn, Hans Vereycke. 

Harlingen, van, Peter Feddes. 

Har toainp, Ludolf Smits. 

Hawken, van, Fran9ois da Verdier, 

Heins, or Ileinsias, . . .Giuseppe Ens. 
Hidalgo, Don Jose, . ..Jose Garcia. 

Holland, Nathaniel Dance. 

Hontanon, de, Juan Gil. 

Ibi Sinibaldo da Perupa. 

i Gio. Domenico Ferretti. 

Itnola, da, ^ Innocenzio Francucci. 

Imperiali, d', Francesco Fernandi. 

Impiccati, dag!', Andrea del Castagno. 

In^egno, 1', Andrea d' Assisi. 

Jacobs, Lucas, Lucas van Leyden. 

Jacopo. Nicola di, Gera. 

Jan, Langen, John van Bockhorst. 

Joachim, Fra, Juncosa. 

Johnson, 0., Cornelius Janssen. 

Jordano, Luca Giordano. 

Jorge. El Maestro, Ingles. 

Klaaszoon, Aart, Arnold Claessoon. 

Kleynhansken, Jan van Elbrucht. 

Koerten Joanna Block. 

Kraus, Jane Sibyl Kusell. 

Lame, or Lamme, dalle,Biagio Pupini. 

Lapiccola, Niccola Piccola. 

Lapo, di, Arnolfo. 

Laurati, Pietro Lorenzetti. 

Leal Don Juan de Valdes. 

Leo-nano, Gio. Francesco Barbieri. 

Lefsmann John A. Eismann. 

Leyden. Aartgen van,. .Arnold Claessoon. 

Licenciado Juan, El, . . Juan de las Roelas. 

Liefrinck, Hans Lencker. 

Liege, di, Egidius Ale. 

Lieto, Antonio Allegri. 

Lilio, A., Andrea Ancona. 

Lissandrino, Alessandro Magnasco. 

Llanos, Valdes. 

Lodi, di, Giuliano Capitani. 

Lodi, Callisto Piazza. 

Lodole, dalle, Giuseppe Franco. 

Lombardelli, Gio. Bat. della Marca. 

Lombardo, Lamberto. 

Lonardino, Leonardo Ferrari. 

Longo, Pietro, Peter Aertsen. 

Lorenese, Claudio, Claude Gellee. 

Lorenzetto, Lorenzo Carapanaio. 

Lorenzino di Guido,. . .Lorenzo Loli. 

Lorenzo, Fra, Bernardo Parentino. 

Louvain, Dirk of, Dirk van Haerlem. 

Loves, Giovanni, Giovanni Lys. 

Loviui Bernardino Luiui. 

Luca Fa Presto, Luca Giordano. 

Lucca, da Michael Angelo Anselmi. 

Lucchese,' 11, Pietro Ricchi. 

Lucchesino. II, Pietro Testa. 

Luchetto, II, Luca Cambiasi. 

Luciano, F. Seb. del Piombo. 

Lugano, Zoppo di, Gio. Bat. Discepoli. 

Luini, '. Pietro Gnocchi. 

Lunghi, de', Pietro Longo. 

Luzzo, Pietro da Feltro,Morto da Feltro. 
Maat, J. T. Blankhof. 



Mabilde, J. C. Cogels. 

Maccerius, Cesare Maggieri. 

Macedone Giulio G. Clovio. 

Macrino d' Alba, Gio. Giacomo Fava. 

f Lippo Dalmasio. 

Madonne. dalle, < Carlo Maratti. 

( Vitale Bologna. 

Magatta, Domenico Simonetti. 

Maire, le, Poussin. 

Majo, Hans, John C. Vermeyen. 

Malatesta Lionardo da Pistoia. 

Malinis, Henricus Arrigo Fiammingo. 

Malosso, II, .' Gio. Battista Trotti. 

Manchino, II, Antonio dal Sole. 

Manco, El, Garcia de Miranda. 

Mankenhein, H. Andriessen. 

f Giorgio Ghisi. 

Mantovano, \ Andrea Andreani. 

( Marcello Venusti. 

Marc' Antonio, Raimondi. 

Marchesi, Francesco da Cotignola. 

Marchigiano, Matteo Piccione. 

Marci, Gio. di Berto. 

Marescalco, II, Gio. Buonconsigli. 

Marinas, Henrique de ) 

las, [ Henry de Vroom. 

Marine, Enrico delle, j 
Martini. Simone da,. . .Simone Memmi. 

Masolino Da Panicale. 

Mastelletta Gio. Andrea Donducci. 

Mayo, Hans, John C. Vermeyen. 

Mazzi, Ventura, Ventura Marzi. 

Mazzolino, II, Francesco Mazzuoli. 

Mazzoni, ^ p Francesco Morazzone. 

Mazzucheln, ^ 

Mazzuoli, Mecherino,. .Domenico Beccafumi. 

Medola, or Medula Andrea Schiavone. 

Meer, vander. of Delft, . Jan Vermeer. 

Meglio, di,. Jacopo Coppi. 

Melozzo Francesco da Forli. 

Menabuoi, Giusto Padovano. 

Meneses, Francisco Osorio. 

Mengazzino, II, Domenico Santo. 

Menichinodel Brizio,. .Domenico Ambrogi. 
Messina, da, or Messi- ^ Onofrio Gabriello. 

nese, II, ( Giulio Avellino. 

Meten.sis, Cornelius Matsys. 

Micarino, Dom. Beccafumi. 

Micheli, Andrea Vicenti no. 

r Gaudenzio Ferrari. 
I Carlo Valli. 

Milanese, ^ Cesare da Sesto. 

I Pier Fr. Cittadini. 
(^ Guglielmo della Porta. 

Milano, Andrea, Andrea Solari. 

Milano, Agostino, Agostino di Bramantino. 

Mille, or Millet, Francis Mile. 

Miller John S. Muller. 

Mirandolese Giuse|ipe Peraccini. 

Modanino,Il Guido Mazzoni. 

f Antonio Begarelli. 
J Cristoforo Ferrara. 

Modena, da, i Pellegrino Munari. 

t Giovanni Guerra. 

Molduch. da, John Soens or Sons. 

Molinaretto, II, Gio. Maria dalle Plane. 

Moncalvo, Guglielmo Caccia. 

Monchino, II, Antonio dal Sole. 






Mondino, II, Sigismondo Scarsella. 

Mone da Pisa, Gio. del Sordo. 

Monrealese, II, Pietro Novelli. 

Montagne, M., Matthew Piattenberg. 

Montalto, Gio. Stefano Danedi. 

Montanoof Montenovo.Gio. Battista della Marca. 
Montepulciano, II, . . . .Francesco Morosini. 

Montfortde, Anthony Blocklandt. 

Monti, de', Giuseppe Franco. 

Moresini, Simone Fornari. 

Moretto, II. Girolaino Mireti. 

Moretto da Brescia, II,. Alessandro Bonvicino. 

Morigi. M. A. Amerighi. 

Moro. II, Francesco Torbido. 

Morvillo Silvestro il Bruno, 

Morzoni, P. Francesco Morazzone. 

Moses, Little, M. Uytenbroeck. 

Mudo, El, Juan Fernandez Navarette. 

Mulato de Murillo, Seb. Gomez. 

Mulier, Pietro, Peter Molyn. 

Murano, da, Antonio Vivarini. 

Murenos, Sebastian© Munoz. 

Mustacchi, II, Gio. Battista Revello. 

Muto di Verona, II,. . .Francesco Comi. 
Mutodi Ficarole, II, . .Ercole Sarti. 

Muttoni, Pietro Vecchia. 

Nanni, Giovanni da Udine. 

Napolitano, II, Filippo di Angeli. 

Nauwincx, Henry Naiwinck. 

Nesiotes, Critias. 

Nicoletto, Niccolo Pisano. 

Nino, Don Juan, Don Juan Guevara. 

Nipote, II, Lorenzo Garbieri. 

Norsini, Lionardo Parasole. 

Nosadella, II, Gio. Francesco Bezzi. 

Notte, dalle, Gherardo Honthorst. 

Novara, da, Gio. Bat. Ricci. 

Novellara, II, Lelio Orsi. 

Nunez, Matteo, .... . . .Matteo Sepulveda. 

Nutini, II, Buoninsegna Duccio. 

f, ,. ,. J 11 S Gaspare Vanvitelli, 

Occhmh, dalle, J ^.^^^^^^i^,^ Ferrantini. 

Oderigi, Oderigi da Gubbio. 

Oggione, da, Marco Uggione. 

Olandese Montagna of Holland. 

Omino, 1' Gio. Dom. Lombard!. 

Orbetto, 1', Alessandro Turchi. 

Organi. degli, GuglieJrao Forli. 

Orizzonte, Gio. Francesco van Bloe- 

Orta, Lo Spisanello di,. Vincenzio Spisano. 

Ortolano, Gio. Bat. Benvenuto. 

Pacecco, or P acicco, . . . Francesco Rosa. 
Padova, dal, Girolamo dal Santo. 

f Giovanni Cavino. 
Padovano, or Padova- ) Gaspar ab Avibus. 
nino. ', Alessandro Varotari. 

(.Ottavio Leoni. 

! Francesco Bassi. 
Girolamo Vernigo. 
Girolamo Muziano. 
Paesi, II Monchino da,. Antonio dal Sole. 

Pagani, Lattanzio, Lattanzio Marca. 

Paganini Guido Mazzoni. 

Paggio, II, Francesco Merano. 

Palamedes, Anthony Staevaerts. 

Palmasanus,or Palmez- 

zano, Marco Palmegiani. 

Palomino, Don Antonio Velasco. 

Pan of Oldenburgh,. . .Giovanni Lys. 


Panfilo, Nuvolone. 

Panico, Conte Ugo da,.Ugo da Carpi. 
Papiensis, Laurentius, .Lorenzo di Pavia. 

Paradiso, dal, Orazio da Castelfranco. 

Paradosso, II, Giulio Trogli. 

Paria, Francisco Perrier. 

Paris, di, Domenico Alfani. 

T, J. S Fabrizio Parmiggiano. 

Parma, di, J Cristoforo Caselli. 

Parma, Rosa di, Sisto Badalocchio. 

Parmensis, Battista Pensieri. 

( Francesco Mazzuoli. 
Parmiggianino, II, \ Girolamo Scaglia. 

( Michele Rocca. 

Pasqualino, Pasquale Rossi. 

Pasqualotto, Pasquale Ottini. 

Passignano, Domenico Cresti. 

Patavinus, Gaspar ab Avibus. 

Pavese, Pier Francesco Sacchi. 

Pellegrino da Modena,.Pellegrino Munari. 
Pellegrino de' Pellegri- 
ni, Pellegrino Tibaldi. 

Perino, or Pierino, Pierino del Vaga. 

Perugia, Perino da, . . .Pietro Cesarei. 

Perugino, Pietro Sante Bartoli. 

Perugino, Petruccio, . .Pietro Montanini. 

Perugino, II. Cav., Gio. Domenico Cerrini, 

Pesaro, da, Simone da Cantarini. 

Pescia, da, Valerio Baldassari. 

Pianoro, II, Bartolomeo Morelli. 

Piazza, Callisto da Lodi. 

Picchetti Francesco Picchiani. 

Pierino del Guido, Pietro Gallinari. 

Pietro, Lorenzo di, Pietro di Vecchietta. 

Pilgrim, John Ulric. 

Pineda, de, Francisco Perez. 

Pino, da, Pino da Messina. 

Pio, Giovannino del, . .Giovanni Bonati. 

Piquot, Robert Picou. 

T,. ,,. S Vincenzio Spisano. 

P'^a°«"'' ) Giovanni Storali. 

Pisani, Vittore Pisanelli. 

Pittor Bello, II, Felice Pellegrini. 

Pittor da' Libri, II, Giuseppe Caletti. 

Pittor Santo, II, Gio. Bernardino Roderigo. 

Pittor Villano, II, Tommaso Misciroli. 

Pizzica, II, , . Giovanni Zanna. 

Poccetti, Bern. Barbatelli. 

Poco e Buono, II, Girolamo Nanni. 

Polidore, John Glauber. 

PolidorinOj II, Francesco Ruviale. 

( Niccolo and Antonio Cir- 
Pomerance, dalle, < cignani. 

( Cristofano Roncalli. 

Pommelaer, David Coninck. 

Ponte, da, Antonio Scaiario. 

Pontormo, da, Jacopo Carrucci. 

Pool, Rachel Ruysch. 

Poppi, da, Francesco Morandini. 

Por, de, Daniello da Parma. 

Porcia, da, Francesco Apollodoro. 

Pordenone, 11, Gio. Ant. Licinio. 

Porta, della, Guglielmo Milanese. 

Portelli, Carlo da Loro. 

_ . ,, ^ 5 Gaspar Dughet. 

Poussm, l\ Cav., J gt^f^^^ ^^ j^ Val6e. 

Prete, II Genovese, Bernardo Strozzi. 

Prospettive, II Miran- 

dolese dalle, Pietro Paltronieri. 

Raeven, Peter van Serwouter. 




( Gio. Maria Bottala. 
Raffaellino, ^ R. dal Colle. 

( R. del Garbo. 
Rambrock, Lord of,. . .J. van Campen. 
Raphael des Fleurs,. . .P. J. Redout, 

Ravenna, da, P. Cesare da Pronti. 

Reggio, da, Luca de Ferrari. 

Reggio, Raffaellino da.. Raffaello Motta. 

Regillo, 11, Gio. Ant. Licinio. 

Ricamatore, Gio. da Udine. 

Ricci, Antonio Barbalunga. 

„...,, 5 Andrea Briosco. 

^'<^<''°' "^ } Bartolomeo Neroni. 

„. . J ( Lattanzio Marca. 

Kimino, da, j Bartolomeo da Coda. 

Rios, de los, Pedro Alonso. 

Riposo, Felice Ficherelli. 

Ritratti, da', Sante Vandi. 

Rivello, Cristoforo Moretti. 

Rd, Giovanni, John Rottenhamer. 

Roccadiraine, x^ngiolillo. 

Rodriguez di Messina,. ^ v^iS,fzio Anhnola. 
n Ti S Antonio Catalani. 

^om^^o,!], i Pierre Mignard. 

Romano, Giulio, GiulioPippi. 

Romolo, Cincinnato. 

Rondolino, II, Terenzio Terenzi. 

Roos, Philip, Rosa da Tivoli. 

Rose, The, Nicholas Liemaeker. 

Rossetti, Gio. Mauro Rovere. 

Rossi, Francesco, Francesco de' Salviati. 

Rossi, II, Domenico Bianchini. 

Rotamer, Gio., John Rottenhamer. 

Rottermondt and Ro- 

termans, Rodermont. 

Roux, Maitre, II Rosso. 

Roverio, Bartolomeo Genovesini. 

Rubeis, de, Girol. and Ant. Rossi. 

Ruggieri da Bruggia,. .Roger of Bruges. 

Rumano, Girolamo Romanino. 

Rustichino, II, Francesco Rustici. 

Sabbionetta, II. Galeazzo Pesenti. 

Sabinese, II, .Andrea Generoli. 

Sacchiense. Gio. Ant. Licinio, the 


Saint Andre, Simone Renard. 

Salerno, da Andrea Sabbatini. 

Salviati, del, Giuseppe Porta. 

Salvolini, Giustino Episcopio. 

San Bernardo, Francesco Minzocchi. 

San Daniello, Daniello di Pellegrini. 

San Giovanni, Ercole da iMaria. 

San Marchi, Marco Sammartino. 

Sansone, II, Gioseffo Marchesi. 

Sansovino, Jacopo Tatti. 

Sansovino, Da Monte,. Andrea Contuccio. 

Santo, da, Girolamo da Padova. 

Sarto,del, Andrea Vannucchi. 

Sarzana, II, Domenico Fiasella. 

Sassoferrato, II, Gio. Bat. Salvi. 

Savigliano, da, Gio. Ant. Malinari. 

Savona, Tl Prete di, . . .Bart. Guidobono. 

Scamozzi, Ottavio Bertotti. 

„ 11- ^ Lippo Dalmasio. 

Scannabecchi, J ^//^^^ Muratori. 

Scarsellino, Ippolito Scaramuccia. 

Schioppi, Giuseppe Alabardi. 

Schivenoglia, Lo, Francesco Rainieri. 


Sciameroni, Lo, Filippo Furini. 

Sciarpelloni, Lorenzo di Credi. 

Semolei, or Sermolei, II, Battista Franco. 

Semplice, Era, Semplice Verona. 

Senario, Eremita di,. ..G. B. Stefaneschi. 

Senis. Simone de. Simone di Martini, 

Sermoneta, da, Girolamo Siciolante, 

Servatius, Peter van Serwouter. 

Sepolcro, da Borgo S.,.P. della Francesca. 

Sestri, II Sordo di, Antonio Travi. 

Sevouter, Peter van Serv^outer. 

Siciliano, II, Tommaso Lauretti. 

f Baldassare Peruzzi, 
c,. , I Marco da Pino. 

S^^°*' ^*' *!. M. A. Anselmi. 

( Simone Memmi. 

Simonetti, Domenico Magatta. 

Sraargiasso, Lo, Pietro Oiafferi. 

Smith, Magdalen, Gas par Smits. 

Sobleo, Michele Desubleo. 

Sodoma. II, Gio. Ant. Razzi. 

Soiaro. II, Bernardo and Gervasio 


Soius, Philip Sericcus. 

Somachino, Orazio Samacchini. 

Sordillo de Pereda Alonso dell' Area, 

Sordo d' Urbino Antonio Viviani. 

Sorg, Henry M. Rokes. 

Sozzo, Giuseppe Albini. 

Spadarino, Gio. Ant. Galli. 

Spadaro, Iklicco, Dom. Gargiuoli. 

Spagna, di Henry Vroom. 

Spagnoletto, Lo, Giuseppe Ribera. 

Spagnuolo, Lo, Cav. Giuseppe Crespi. 

Stendardo, or Standard, Peter van Bloemen. 
Stomme van Campen. .Henry van Avercam. 

Studio, M., Henry van Lint. 

Stuerbout, Theodore,. .Dirk van Haerlem, 

Suardi, Bart. Braraantino. 

Suavius, Lambert Suterman. 

Surchi, Gio. Fian. Dielai, 

Talpino, II, Andrea Salmeggia. 

Tedesco, Gio. Paolo,. . . G. P. Scor. 

Temperello. II, Cristoforo Caselli, 

Tempesta, II, Pietio Molyn. 

Tempestino, Antonio Tempesta, 

Teodoro, Mon Theodore Helmbrecker, 

Teoscopoli. Dom, Theotocopuli. 

Tersan, Comte de, Charles Campion, 

Teste, II Borgognone 

dalle, J- G, Gonzalez. 

,„. , , , Tl S Jacopo Robnsti, 

Tmtoretto, II, J Domenico Robusti. 

Tio. Francesco, Fran, da Fabriano, 

Tisio Benvenuto da Garofolo, 

Tiziano and Tizianello.. Titian and Vecellio. 

Tiziano, di, Girolamo Dante. 

Todi, di, M. A. Ricciolini. 

Toledo, di, Giovanni Battista, 

Tolosano, Jean Baron. 

Tommaso di Stefano.. .Giottino. 

Torricelli, Antonio Buonfanti. 

Torrigli, Pietro Ant. Torri. 

Tournesol, Peter vandor Hulst, 

Traino, Fr,, Francesco Traini. 

Trevigi, da, Lodovico Pozzoserrato, 

Trevigiano, Giacomo Lauro. 

Tromba, II, Santi Rinaldi. 

Trompetta, Niccola da Pesaro, 




Turk, The, John S. Liotard. 

Uberii, degli, Paolo Farinato. 

Uccello. Paolo Mazzocchi. 

Udine, Martino d', Daniello Pellegrini. 

Ugubio. Giorgio da,. . .Giorgio da Gubbio. 
Uil, or Uyl, I. Den.. . . J. den VyI. 

Urbinas, Baccio Pintelli. 

Urbino, II Prete. Timoteo della Vite. 

Urbino, Sanzio d', ... .RafFaello. 
Urbino, Bramante d'.. .Donato Lazzari. 
Urbino, Timoteo d', . . .T. Delia Vite. 

Vaccellini, Vascellini. 

Vannucchi, Andrea del Sarto. 

Vannncci, Pietro Perugino. 

Varignana, .... Domenico Aimo. 

Vasanzio,. . . . Giovanni Fiammingo. 

Veen, Martin van,. . . .Hemskerk. 
Veen, Otho and Gilbert 

van, Venius. 

Veit, Hans, Johann Schnorr. 

C Agostino de Musis. 
Veneziano, < Sebastiano del Piombo. 

( Carlo Saracino. 

Venice, de, Roland le Fevre. 

Verchio, Vincenzio Civerchio. 

Vercruys, Kruger. 

Verona", da, Battista Zelotti. 

.r, S Paolo Caliari or Cagliari. 

^ eronese, j Claudio Ridolfl. 

Vetraro, II, Gio. Francesco Bembo. 

Vicaro Francesco Vaccaro. 

Vicenza, Antonio da, . . Ant. Tognone. 
Vicenza, Magagno di, . Gio. Bat. Maganza. 

Vicenza, Zoppo da, Ant. de' Pieri. 

Vignola, da, Giaconjo Barocci. 

Villano, II Pittor, Tommaso Misciroli. 

Vinci, delj Niccolo Appiano. 


Visacci, II, Antonio Cimatore. 

Vite, Giovanni del, Cav, John Miel. 

Viviano, II, Viviano Codagora. 

,, ,, ^ ,, < Daniele Ricciarelli. 

Volterra, or Volterrano, ^ g^ijassare Franceschini. 

Volterrano,Diana Civis,Diana Montovano. 

Vosmeer, James Wouters. 

Vuormace, Anthony von Worms. 

Wallint. Francesco, . . . Henry van Lint. 
Wandevert, Enrico, . . . Vandevert. 
Westfalia, Gio. di, ... .John Veldener. 

Wilborn, Nicholas Welbronner. 

Wilhelm, Meister, . . ) -^jihelm von Coeln. 
William of Cologne, s 

Ximenes, J. F., Juan Fernandez Navarette. 

Zaganelli, Francesco da Cotignola. 

Zanobrio Luca Carlevariis. 

Zappi, Livia Fontana. 

Zarato, or Zaratto, Pietro Luzzo daFeltro. 

Zasinger, or Zatzinger, Matthias Zagel. 

Zeeman, Remy Nooms. 

Zenale, Bernardo da Trevilio. 

Zenobrio, Luca Carlevariis. 

r^ . J 5 Alticherio. 

'^'^^'<^' °*' } Stefano da Verona. 

Zimenes, J. F., Juan Fernandez Navarette 

Zinck, xMatthias Zagel. 

Zingaro, II Giovane lo, Pietro Negrone. 

Zingaro, Lo, Antonio Solario. 

Zoagli, di, Teramo Piaggia. 

Zoane, or Zohan. Giovanni di Alemagna. 

Zoppo, Lo, Niccolo Micone. 

Zorg, Henry M. Rokes. 

Zotto, Lo, Antonio de' Pieri. 

Zuane, Giovanni Alemagna. 

Zuanluisi da Murano,. .Luigi Vivarini. 
Zuannino, Gio. da Capugnano. 





ABBREVIATIONS:— c, signifies conjectured; 
p, probable or probably; s, scholar; 1, copyist or 
copied ; 2, imitator or imitated ; 3, that the artist 
copied or imitated the master so closely as to de- 
ceive common observers ; 3* do. connoisseurs ; 4, 
that more or less of his works are now attribu- 
ted to the master ; 5, that though the works of the 
imitator are far inferior to those of the master, yet 
they are often passed upon the unlearned in art 
for the genuine productions of the latter ; 6, that 
though the artist's style was founded on that of 
the master, and more or less resembles it, yet he 
was not a servile copyist, and often, or generally, 
painted in an original style. The name of the mas- 
ter is first given in capitals ; then follow his imita- 
tors in text type; thus, ALZHEIMER, Adam; 
Jacob Ernest Thomann, s, 1, 2, 3*, 4, signifies, that 
Thomann was the scholar of ^Elzheimer, that he 
copied and imitated his works so closely as to de- 
ceive connoisseurs, and that more or less of his 
works are now attributed to that master. Note, 
that p4, and p5, are conjectured on the part of the 
author ; he does not mean that more or less of 
the works of the imitator are to be found in the 
public galleries of Europe, attributed to the mas- 
ter, but in private collections ; these marks serve 
to convey a more accurate idea, how near the imi- 
tator approached the master.* 

* This table has been prepared with great labor and 
care. In the body of the work, copyists and imitators 
have generally been treated as briefly as possible, to save 
space, the reader being referred to the master. Its value 
will at once be perceived. It shows in a brief, but com- 
prehensive manner, how liable are the unlearned in art, 
and even connoisseurs, to be deceived. An immense 
amount of valuable information on this subject may be 
found in Smith's Catalogue raisonne, 9 vols., London, 
1829—1842. . . , 

Every eminent and popular master had numerous scholars, 
some of whom servilely copied and imitated him, while 
others struck out into a new style, founded on that of the 
master, but variously modified by their own genius. They 
also often had imitators, the names of many of whom are 
now nearly or quite sunk in oblivion. See Abshoven, 
Koene, the Da Ponte, and Romain de la Rue. '-It of- 
ten happens that those masters who are mannerists, form 
scholars who confine their powers to the sole imitation of 



Jacob Ernest Thomann, s. 1, 2, 3* *4. 

Nicholas Moyaert, 1, 2, 3* p4, 6. 

Paul Juvenel, 2, 3, p4. 
ALBANO. Francesco. 

Giovanni Battista Albano, s, 1, 2, 3*, 4. 

Cav. Giacinto Bellini, s, 2, 3, p4. 

Francesco Boccaccino, 2, 3, 6. 

Paolo Emilio Besenzi, 2. 3, 6. 

Girolamo Bonini, 1, 2, 3*. 4. 

Antonio Catalani, called II Romano. 2, 3, p4. 

Virgilio Ducci, 1. 2. 3, p4. 

Giovanni Maria Galli, called Bibiena. s, 1, 2, 3, p4. 

their masters, and thus produce pictures ihat deceive the 
most experienced." See Lanzi, Storia Pittorica, vol. ii., 
p. 49. Some painters have imitated others so perfectly 
as not only to deceive connoisseurs, but even masters ; thus 
Ercole Maria deceived Guido, and Andrea del Sarto, Giulio 

Scholars generally copy the works of their masters, more 
or less, during their pupilage ; hence the numerous copies of 
the works of the Old Masters. Some masters retouched the 
best of these, adding, perhaps, some variations, and sold 
them for their own productions. This was the case with 
Titian, Guido, Andrea del Sarto, and even Raffaelle him- 
self There are no less than eight portraits of Julius II., 
attributed to Raffaelle. See note, p. 758. 

The authenticated works of the great masters command 
enormous prices, as ma}' be seen by referring to Raffaelle, 
Rubens, Titian, Guido, Rembrandt, Murillo, and others. 
Successful imitations are also very valuable. In many 
cases, it is utterly impossible to distinguish the works of 
the master, from those of some of his imitators. See Carlo 
Doici, David Teniers, and even Rubens. There are about 
1800 works, many of them grand historical compositions, 
considered genuine by the latter, in the dififerent collections 
of Europe ! The number of works also attributed to Carlo 
Dolci, David Teniers, and others, is incredible. Besides 
these successful copies and imitations, there are hosts of 
others, of inferior merit, about the spuriousness of which, 
there can be no doubt, except perhaps, in the minds of the 
possessors, who, for the roost part, are unlearned in art, and 
therefore liable to imposition. See Introduction, page 
viii. See also Pasticcio, p. xxxi. For marks of authen- 
ticity in old paintings, see Introduction, p. viii.. Mono- 
grams and Ciphers, p xix., and Copy, Imitation, Manner, 
Pasticcio, Pentimento, Style, <fcc., in Explanation of Terms 



Filippo Menzani, s, 1. 2, 3, p4. 
Giovanni Battista Mola, s. 2, 3* 4. 
Bartolomeo Morel! i, s, 2, 3*, p4. 
Giacomo Parolini, 2, 3, G. 
Antonio dal Sole, s, 2, 3, 6. 

Lorenzo Cerrini, s, 1, 3, p4. 
F. Bruno Certosino, s, 1, 3*. 4. 
Zanobi Rosi, s. 1, 2, 3* 4. 
Valerio Tanteri, s, 1, 2, 3*. 4. 
Giovanni Battista Vanni, s, 1, 2, 3. 6. 

ANGELO, Michael, Buonarotti, never painted 
in oil, in the opinion of Mengs, Lanzi, and the 
best authorities, though there are many oil 
paintings attributed to him in the collections at 
Florence, Rome, Bologna, in the Imperial Gal- 
lery at Vienna, and elsewhere. These, they sup- 
pose to have been executed by his scholars and 
immediate followers, several of whom are known 
to have painted from his designs, under his super- 
vision, as Sebastiano del Piombo, Daniele da Vol- 
terra, Jacopo Pontormo, Francesco Salviati, Giu- 
liano Bugiardini. Lorenzo Sabbatini, and Mar- 
cello Venusti. He also had several copyists, 
and a host of followers and imitators, from the 
time of Pellegrino Tibaldi to that of Henry Fu- 
seli. See Lanzi, vol. i., p. 142. 

Peter Coopse, 2. 3*, 4, 
Jan Dubbels. s, 2, 3* 4. 
Michael Maddersteg. s. 2, 3* 4. 
John Klaasz Rietschoof, s, 2, 3*, 4. 
Henry Rietschoof, 1, 3*, 4. 
Arnold Smit, 2. 3, p4. 
Wigerius Vitringa, cs, 2, 3. 

BAGLTONE, Cesare. 

Lorenzo Pisanelli, s. 1, 2, 3. 
Giovanni Storali, s, 2. 3. 

BALESTRA. Antonio. 

Giovanni Battista Mariotti, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Giuseppe Nogari, s, 2, 3, 6. 
Carlo Sal is, s, 1, 2, 3, 4. 

BARBALUNGA. Antonio Ricci, called II. 
Antonio Bova. s. 2, 3, p4. 
Onofrio Gabriello, s, 2, 3, 6. 
Agostino Scilla. s, 2, 3, 6. 
Domenico Marolli, s, 2, 3, 6. 

BAROCOIO, Federigo, established a school, 
taught many pupils, and had many imitators. 
Benedetto Bandiera, cs, 2, 3. 
Filippo Bellini, 2. 3, p4. 
Cav. Giuseppe Maria Orespi, 1, 3* 4, 6. 
Domenico Malpiedi, s, 2, 3, 6. 
Cristoforo Lanconello. 2, 3*, p4. 
Ventura Marzi, s, 2, 3. 
Giorgio Picchi, cs, 2, 3. 
Ercole Ramazzani, 2, 3. 
Marc' Antonio Rocchetti, 2, 3, 6. 

Cav. Ventura Salimbeni. 2, 3, 6. 

Cav. Francesco Vanni, 2, 3, G. 

Antonio Visacci, .s. 1, 2. 3, p4. 

Alessandro Vitali. s, 1, 2, o*, 4. 

Antonio Viviani. s, 2, 3. 

Lodovico Viviani, 2, 6, 

Felice Pellegrini, s, 2, 3, p4. 

Vincenzio Pellegrini, s, 2. 

BARTOLOMEO, Fra, di San Marco. 
Mariotto Albertinelli, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Giovanni Francesco Bembo, 2, 3. 
Benedetto Cianfanini, s, 2, 3*, 4. 
Plautclla Nelli, 1, 2. 
Fra Paolo da Pistoja, inherited and painted from 

the designs of Fi-a B. 1, 2, 3* 4. 
Gabriele Rustic!, 1, 2. 3. 

BASSANO, .Tacopo, was the head of a celebrated 
school. lie tatight many pupils, and had a host 
of imitators. The works attributed to him are 
ten times more numerous than he could ever 
have executed. See Lanzi, vol. ii., p- 197. * 

Jacopo Apollonio, 2, 3*. 4. 
Maderno da Conio, 2, 3. p4. 
Peter Cornelitis Deryck. 2, 3* 4. 
Jacopo r^iadagnini, 1, 3, 5. 
Giovanni Antonio Lazzari, 1, 2, 3* 4. 
LucaMartinelli, s, 2, 3. p4. 
Giulio Martinelli, s. 2, 3. p4. 
Francesco da Ponte, the Younger, s, 2, 3, p4, 6. 
Cav. Leandro da Ponte, s. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6. 
Giovanni Battista da Ponte. s, 1, 2, 3*, 4. 
Girolamo da Ponte, s, 1. 2, 3* 4. 
Antonio Scaiario, s, 1, 2, 3*, 4. 
David Teniers. the Elder, 2, 3*, 6. ^ 
Giovanni Battista Zampezzo, 1, 2, 3*, 4. 

BEALMONT, Cav. Claudio, established a school 
at Turin, and educated many pupils, several of 
whom followed his style very closely. 
Vittorio Blanseri, s, 2, 3, C. 
Mattia Franceschini, s, 2, 3. 
Antonio Milocco, s, 2, 3. 
Giovanni Molinari, s, 2, 3, 6. 
Pietro Lorenzo Spoletti, s, 2, 3. 

BELLINI, Giovanni, was the first Venetian paint- 
er in oil, and had many disciples and imitators. 
Marco Bello, s, 2. 3, p4. 
Bellin Bellini, 2, 3*, 4. 
Giovanni Battista Cima, 2, 3, p4. 
Carlo Cima, 2, 3, p4. 
Marco Marziale, cs, 2. 3. 
Girolamo Mocetto, s, 1, 2, 3, p4. 
Benedetto Montagna, 2, 3. 
Pellegrino di San Danielle, s, 2, 3, 6. 
Niccolo Rondinelli, s, 2, 3, p6. 
Antonio Rossi, de Rubeis, 2, 3. 

BERGHEM, Nicholas. 
Abraham Begyn, 2, 3*, 4. 
John vander Bent, 2, 3, p4. 
Jan Bernard, 1, 3*. 

M. Blinkvleit, 2. 3* most of his works attribu- 
ted to B. 
Charles Codde, 1, 2, p5. 
Adam Coloni, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Theodore Maes, s, 2, 3, 6. 
John vander JNIeer, the Younger, s, 2, 3* 4. 
J. F. Solemacker, 1, 2, 3, 6. 
John Sybrecht, 2, 3, p4. 
Augustine Tyssens, 2, 3, p4. 
Theodore Visscher, s, 2, 3, p4. 
John Wils, 2, many of his works attributed to B. 

BILIVERT, Giovanni, taught several pupils, and 
Lanzi saj^s his works were greatly imitated and 

Francesco Bonavita Bianchi, 1, 2, 3, p4. 
Orazio Fidani, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Bartolomeo Salvestriani, s, 1, 2, 3, p4. 


BLOEMEN, John Francis van, called Orizzonte. 
V. Giacciuoli, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Henry van Lint, ps, 2, 3. p4. 
Andrea Lucatelli. ps, 2, 3, p4. 
Gabriele Ricciardelli, s, 2, 3. 

BORGOGNONE. Jacopo Cortese, called II. 
Girolamo Bruni, s, 1, 2, 3*, 4. 
Antonio Calza. s, 2. 3* 4. 
Angelo Everardi, 2, 3. 
Graziano. s, 1. 2, 3, p4. 
Giannizzero. s. 1. 2, 3, p4. 
John Philip Lerabke, 2, 3. 
Francesco IMonti, called II Bresciano delle Bat- 

taglie, s, 2, 3*. 4. 
Gugiielrno Capodoro Paganini, 2,3, p4. 
Joseph Parrocel. 2, 3, 6. 
Tgnace Pan-ocel. 2, 3. 
Augustus Querfurt, 2. 
Pandolfo Reschi, s, 2, 3, p4. 
George Philip Rugendas, 2, 6. 
Francesco Simonini, 2, 3. 
Ilario Spolverini, 2, 3. 
Peter Tillemans, 1, 3, p4. 

BOTH, John. 

Charles Codde, 1, 2, p5. 

William van Drillenburg, s, 2, 3*, 4. 

John Francis Ermels, 2. 3, 6. 

William de Heusch, s, 2, 3* 4. 

John Lap. 2. 

Nicholas Piemont, 2, 3, p4. 

Peter Portengen, 2, 3, 5. 

Remain de la Rue, 1, 2, 3* 4. 

BREUGHEL, John, called Velvet Breughel. 
Bartholomew vander Ast, 2, 3. 
Peter van Bredael, 2, 3. 
Peter Gvsen. s, 2, 3. p4. 
John van Kessel the Elder. 2, 3*, 6. 
John van Oosten, 2, 3*, 4. 
Adrian van Stalbent, 2, 3, p4. 
John Jacob Schalch, 2. 
David Vinckenbooms, 2, 5. 
Lucas de Wael, s, 2. 3, p4, 5. 

BRILL, Paul. 

M. Giron. 2, 3, p4. 
N. Knipbergen. 2. 3*, 4. 
Baldassare Lauri, s, 2, 3, p4.. 
William van Nieulant, s, 2, 3, 6. 
Gesare Pieraontese, 2, 3. 
Agostino Tassi, s, 2, 6. 

BROWER, Adrian. ... 
Josse Craesbecke, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Abraham Diepraam. s, 2, 3, p4. 
Joseph Dora. 2, 3*. ' 
Bertram de Fouchier,2, 3. p4, 6. 
Egbert vander Poel, cs. 2. 3, 6. 
Cornelius Saftleven, 2, 3, 6. 

CAMPT, Bernardino. 

Sofonisba Angosciola, s. 2, 3, 6. 
Giulio de' Capitani, s, 1, 2, 3, p4. 
Cristoforo Magnani, s, 2, 3, 6. 
Andrea Mainardi, s^ 2, 3, 6. 
Marc' Antonio Mainardi. s, 1, 2, 3, p4 
Coriolano Malagavazzo, s, 1. 2, 3 p4. 

CANALETTl, Antonio. 
Bernardo Bellotti, s, 2, 3* 4. 
Francesco Guard i, s, 2, 3*. 4. 
Giacomo Marieschi, 2, 3, p4. 

Gaspare Vanvitelli, 2, 3*. 
Antonio Vicentini, 2, 3*, 4. 
GANG, Alonso. 

Felipe Gomez, 2, 3, p4. 
Pablo Legdte, 2, 3* 4. 
Jose Risueno, s, 2, 3. 

CARDI, LoDovico, called Cigoli. 
Giovanni Bilivert, s, 2, 3, 6. 
Andrea Comodi, s. 1, 2, 3* 4. 
Aurelio Lomi, s, 2, 3, 6. 
Gregorio Pagani, s, 2, 3*, 4. 
Pellegrino Piola, 2, 3*. 6. 

CARACCT, LoDovico. 

Francesco Brizzio, s, 2, 3* p4. 

Lorenzo Garbieri. s, 2, 3* p4, 6. 

Giacomo Lippi, s, 2, 3, 6. 

Florio Macchi. s, 2, 3* p4. 
CARACCI, Annibale. 

Giovanni Battista Caracciuolo, 2, 3. 

Giacomo Cavedone, s, 2, 3*. 6. 

Michel Corneille, the Younger, 2, 6. 

Giovanni Francesco Grimaldi, s. 2. 3, 6. 

Giovanni Andrea Donducci, s, 2, 3* 6. 

Lucio Massari, s. 1, 2, 3. 

Antonio Maria Panico, s, 2, 3, 6. 

Carlo Sellitto, s, 2. 

Innocenzio Tacconi, s, 1, 2; painted from the 
designs of Annibale. 

Giovanni Battista Viola, s, 2, 3*, in landscapa 

CARACCI, School of the. 
Cesare Baglioni, 2, 3, 6. 
Pietro Maria Crevalcore, 2, 3. 
Ferrail Fanzone, cs, 2, 3, 6. 
Lorenzo Franchi, 1, 2, 3* 4. 
Giuseppino da Macerata, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Pier Maria Porettano, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Aureliano Milani, 1, 2. 3*, p4. 
Francesco Naselli, 1, 3, p4, 6. 
MatteoRosselli,2, 3, 6. 
Orazio Talami. 2, 3, p4. 
Gio. Battista Secchi, s, 2, 3, p4. 

CaRAVAGGIO, Michael Angelo da. 

Giovanni Campino, 2, 3, 6. 

Angiolo Caroselli, s. 1. 2, 3, p4. 

Luciano Foti, 1, 2, 3*.' 

Giovanni Francesco Guerrieri, 2, 3. 

Gerard Honthorst, 2, 3, 6. 

Adrian van Linschooten. 2. 3. 

Tommaso Luini. 1, 2. 3. 

Rutilio Manetti, 2, 3, 6. 

Bartolomeo Manfredi. s, 2, 3* 4. 

Juan de Montero, 1, 2, 3. 

Cav. Jose Ribera, s, 2, 3*, 6. 

Francesco Ruschi, s. 2, 3, 4. 

Carlo Saracino, 2, 3, 6. 

Gerard Seghers, 2, 6. 

Giovanni Serodine, s, 2, 3, p5. 

Lionello Spada, s, 2, 3, 6. 

Andrea Vaccaro, 2, 3* 6. 

Moses Valentin, 1, 2, 3. p5. 

Claude Vignon, 2, 3. 

Simon Vouet, 2, 6. 

Francisco Zurbaran, 2, 6. 
CARAVAGGIO, Polidoro Caldara da. 

Aurelio Buso, s, 1, 2, p4. 

Marco Cardisco, cs, 2, 6. 

Deodato Guinaccia, s, 2, 3, p4. 

Giovanni Bernardo Lama, s, 2, 3* p4. 



Francesco Pagani, 1, 2, 3*, p4. 
Antonio Paticchi, 1, 2, 3*, 4. 
Tommaso Pelegret. s. 2, 3. 
Mariano Riccio, s, 2, 3*, 4. 
Antonello Riccio, s, 1, 2, 3, p4. 
Francesco Ruviale, s, 2, 3* p4. 

OARPACCTO, ViTTORE, had several scholars and 


Giovanni Mansueti, 2, 3. 

Francesco Rizzo, s, 2, 3, p4. 

Lazzaro Sebastiani, s, 2, 3. 

Marco Veglia, 2, 3. 

Pietro Veglia, 2, 3. 

Lanzi says that Mansueti and Veglia were fol- 
lowers of Carpaccio, and not the Bellini. 
OASTIGLIONE, Giovanni Benedetto. 

Francesco Castiglione, s, 2, 3, p4. 

Salvatore Castiglione, s, 2, 3, p4. 

Abate Gio. Agostino Cassana, 2, 3. 

Giovanni Battista Cassana, 2, 3. 

Domenico Piola, 2, 3, 6. 

CESARl, Cav. Giuseppe, called Cav. D'Arpino. 
Francesco Allegrini, s, 2, 3, 6. 
Bernardino Cesari, s, 1, 2, 3*. 
Horace Leblanc, 2, 6. 
Lviigi Roderigo, 2, 3, 6. 
Giovanni Bernardino Roderigo, 2, 3, p4. 
Bernardino Parasole, s, 2, 3. 

CIGNANI, Cav. Carlo. 
Filippo Bondi, s. 2, 3, p5. 
Andrea Bondi, s, 2, 3, p5. 
Federigo Bencovich, 2, 3, 6. 
Giovanni Girolamo Bonesi. 2, 3, 6. 
Matteo Bonechi, 2, 3. 
Giacomo Boni, cs, 2, 3. 
Pietro Donzelli, s, 2, 3. 
Antonio Fratacci, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Bonavei\tura Laraberti, s, 2, 3, 6. 
Alessandro Marchesini, s, 2, 3, p5. 
Giovanni Camillo Sagrestani, s, 2, 3. 
Sebastiano Savorelli, s, 2, 3. 
Maurelio Scannavini, s, 2, 3*, p4. 
Guido Signorini, s, 2, 3.. 
Emilio Taruffi, 2, 3*, p4. 
Matteo Zamboni, s, 2, 3. 

CLAUDE, Gelee, or Lorraine. 
Angel uccio, s, 2, 3, p4. 
John Asselyn, 2, 3, in landscape ; figures in the 

style of Berghem. 
Francesco Maria Borzone, 2, 5. 
John Both, 2, 3, 6. 
Jean Domenique, s. 2. 3, p4. 
Henry van Lint, 2, 3, 6. See Wallint. 
Pierre Patel, 2, 3, p4. 
Bernard Patel, 2, 3. 
Hermann Swanevelt, cs, 2, 3, p4; approached 

him nearer than any other master. 
Francesco Wallint the Elder, 2, 3, p4. 
Francesco Wallint the Younger, 2, 3. 

CONCA, Cav. Sebastiano. 
Giovanni Conca, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Corrado Giaquinto, s, 2, 3. 
Gregorio Guglielmi, s, 2, 6. 
Gaetano Lapis, s, 2, 6. 
Salvatore Monosilio, s, 2, 3*, p4. 
Don Francisco Preciado. s, 2, 3, p4. 

CORREGGIO, Antonio Allegri da. 
Pomponeo Allegri, s, 2, 3*, 4. 
Pietro Antonio Bernabei, 2, 3, p4. 
Antonio Bernieri da Correggio, s, 2, 3*, 4. 
Domenico Bologna, 2, 3. 
Antonio Bruno, 2, 3, p4. 
Andrea Comodi, 1, 3*, 4, 6. 
Carlo Cornara, 1, 2, 3, p4. 
Cav. Giuseppe Maria Crespi, 1, 3*, 4, 6. 
Gregorio di Ferrari, 1, 2, 3, p4. 
Abate Lorenzo Ferrari, 2, 3. 
Giorgio Gandini, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Bernardo Gatti, s, 2, 3, p4. Lanzi says a great 
number of his works were taken to foreign coun- 
tries, where doubtless they are now mostly attri- 
buted to his master. 
Gervasio Gatti, 1, 2, 3, p4. 
Girolamo Mazzuoli, 2, 3, p4. 
Ferdinando Porta, 1, 2, 3, p5. 
Ercole Procaccini the Elder, 2, 3, 6. 
Giulio Cesare Procaccini, 2, 3*, p4. 
Sebastiano Ricci, 2, 3*, 6. 

Francesco Maria Rondani, s, 2, 3*, 4 ; he was 
Corrcggio's ablest scholar, and imitated him so 
closely that Lanzi says his works are extremely 
rare, being attributed to his instructor. 
Orazio Samacchini, 2, 3, 6. 
Bartolomeo Schidone, 2, 3*, 6. 
Maestro Torelli, s, 1, 2, 3, p4. 

CORTONA, Pietro Berretini da. Lanzi says, 
" the number of his scholars and imitators ex- 
ceeds belief" The works attributed to Cortona 
are " Legion." 

Giovanni Raffaelle Badaracco, 2, 3, p4. 
Lazzaro Baldi, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Pietro Paolo Baldini, s, 2, 3. 
Giovanni Ventura Borghesi, s, 1, 2, 3, p4. 
Giovanni Maria Bottala, s, 2, 3. 
Francesco Bruno, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Giovanni Andrea Oasella, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Padre Stefano Cassiani. 2. 3. 
Salvi Castellucci, s, 2, 3*, 4. 
Pietro Castellucci, 2, 3. 
Vincenzio Dandini, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Pietro Dandini, 1, 2, 3, p4. 
Nicolas Duval, s, 2, 3. 
Giro Ferri, s, 1, 2. 3*, 4. 
Camillo Gabrielli, 2, 3. 
Giuseppe Ghezzi, 2, 3. 
Tommaso Land si, 2, p5. 

Gio. Battista Lenardi, s, 2. p5. 
Giovanni Marracci, s, 2, 3*, p4. 

Giovanni Battista Mercati, cs, 2 3, 6. 

Gioseffo Maria Milani, 1, 2, 3, p4. . 

Giovanni Battista Natali. s, 2, 3, p4. 

Adriano Palladino, s, 2, 3, p4. 

Bartolomeo Palombo, s, 2, 3, p4. 

Pio Fabio Paolini, s, 2, 3, p4. 

Nicolas Pinson, 2, 3. 

Domenico Piola, 2, 6. 

Giovanni Francesco Roraanelli, s, 2, 3*. 6. 

Bartolomeo Santi, 2, 3. 

Pietro Sigismondi, s, 2, 3. 

Cav. Raffaelle Vanni, 2, 3, p4. 

CTJYP, Albert. 

Gautier van Dam, 2, 3. 
Bernard van Kalraat, s, 2, 3. 
Jacob van Stry, 2, 3*, 4. 


DOLCI, Carlo. The works of few artists have 
been so much copied and imitated, as those of 
Carlo Dolci, and with a precision, too, in very 
many instances, that bids defiance to discrimina- 

Agnes Dolci, s, 1, 3* 4. 
Alessandro Lomi, s. 1, 2, 3*, 4. 
Bartolomeo Mancini, s, 1, 2, 3*, 4, 
Onorio Marinari, s, 1. 2, 3* 4. 

DOMENICHINO,or Domenico Zampieri. 
Abel, 2, 3*, 4. 
Barbalunga. s, 2, 3*, 4. 
Francesco Cozza, s, 2, 3*. 
Andrea Camassei, s, 2, 3. 
Agnolo Canini, s, 2, 3. 
Francesco di JNfaria, s, 2, 3, 4. 
Vincenzio Manenti, s, 2, 3. 
Pietro del Po, s, 2. 3. 
Giovanni Battista Passeri, cs, 2, 3, p4. 

DOUW, Gerard. 
Louis Bernard Coders, 2, 3. 
G. van Heckel, cs, 2, 3. 
B. Maton, 1, 2, 3, 4. 
Francis Mieris the Elder, s, 2, 3*, 6. 
Louis de Moni, 2, 3, p5. 
Adrian de Passe, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Henry Potuil, 2, 3* p4. 
Peter van Slingelandt, s, 2, 3*. 
John Adrian van Staveren, cs, 2, 3, p4, 
Paul and E. van Staveren, s, 2. 
Doniinick van Tol, s, 1, 2, 3*, 4. 
Robert Tournier, 2, 3. 
Elizabeth Gertrude Wassemberg, 2, 3. 

DURER, Albert. 
Hans Baldung, 2, 3. 
Fernando Gallegos, 2, 3*, 
Gherardo, 2. 
Paul Juvenel, 1, 3, p4. 
Albert Altdorfer, cs, 2, 3. 

FALCONE, Aniello. 
Carlo Coppola, s, 2, 3*, 4. 
Domenico Gargiuoli, s. 2, 3*, 6. 
Andrea di Lione. s, 2, 3. 

FERRARI, Gaudenzio. 
Gio. Battista Cerva, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Bernardo Ferrari, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Bernardo Lanini, s, 2, 3*, p4, 6. 
Antonio Lanetti, s, 2, 3. 
Giulio Cesare Luini, s, 2, 3. 

FR ANCIA, Francesco. The works attributed to 
Francia are exceedingly numerous. Malvasia 
says the names of 220 pupils are to be found in 
his journals. 

Francesco Caprioli, s, 2, 3*, 4. 
Simone Fornari, s, 2, 3*, 4. 
Giacomo Francia, s, 2, 3*, 4. 
Girolamo Marchesi, s, 2, 3. 
Lodovico da Parma, s, 2, 3, p4. 

iJABBTANI, Antonio Domenico. 
Giuseppe Baldini, s, 2, 3. 
Gaetano Gabbiani, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Ranieri Paci, s, 2, 3, p5. 
Tommaso Redi, s, 2, 6. 
Francesco Salvetti,s, 2, 3, p4. 

GAINSBOROUGH, Thomas. The works of this 
artist have been largely imitated, and many of 

these pastiches have been brought to the Uni- 
ted States, and sold for originals. 
Gainsborough Dupont, s, 2, 3, p4. 
George Frost, s, 1, 2, 3, p4. 

Ferrante Amendola, s, 2, 3. 
Don Juan Antonio Boujas, s, 2, 3. 
Pedro de Calabria, s, 2, 3. 
Paolo de Matteis, s, 2, 3, 6. 
Andrea Miglionico, s, 2, 3. 
Matteo Paccelli, s, 2, 3*, p4. 
Aniello Rossi, s, 2, 3*, p4. 
Niccolo Maria Rossi, s, 1, 2, 3*, p4, 6. 
Giuseppe Simonelli, s, 1, 2, 3, p4. 
Francisco Tramulles, 2, 3. 

GIORGIONE, or Giorgio Barbarelli. 
Giovanni Cariani, 2, 3, p4. 
Vincenzio Catena, 2, 3. 
Lorenzo Lotto, 2, 3, 6. 
Marco Marconi, 2, 3. 
Rocco Marconi, 2, 3*, p4. 
Pra Sebastiano del Piombo, s, 2, 3* 6. 
Pordenone, cs, 2, 3*, 6. 
Titian, 2, 3*, in his second style. 
Pietro Vecchia, 2, 3*, p4. 

GREUZE, Jean Baptiste. The works of this 
artist have been copied and imitated, ad infini- 
tum^ but they lack the spirit of the originals. 

GUERCINO. or Gio. Francesco Barbieri. 
Francesco Bassi, I, 2, 3*, p4. 
Stefano Ficatelli, 1,2, 3*, p4. 
Ercole Gennari, s, 2, 3*, p4, 
Bartolomeo Gennari, s, 2, 3*, p4. 
Benedetto Gennari, s, 1, 2, 3*, p4. 
Cesare Gennari, s, 1, 2, 3, p4. 
Lorenzo Gennari, s, 1, 2, 3. 
Simone Gionima, 1, 2, 3. 
Lodovico Lana, 2, 3. p4, 6. 
Gio. Domenico Lombardi, 1, 2, 3, 6. 
Uberto la Longe, 2, 6. 
Giovanni Mutii or Mucci, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Francesco Nagli, s, 1, 2, 3, p4. 
Francesco Naselli, 1, 3* p4. 
Paolo Antonio Paderna, s, 2, 3*. p4. 
Francesco Paglia, s, 2, 3. 
Gio. Battista Piazzetta. 2, 3, 6. 
Padre Cesare Pronti, s, 2, 3. 
Cristoforo Serra, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Francesco Stringa, cs, 2, 3, 6. 
Cristoforo Savolini, 2, 3. 

GUIDO, Reni, established one of the most popu- 
lar schools in Italy. Crespi says his " school at 
Bologna was frequented by more than 200 pu- 
pils." Probably the works of no artist have 
been more copied and imitated than those of 

Domenico de Benedettis, s, 2, 3* p4. 
Paolo Biancucci, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Giovanni Battista Bolognini, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Antonio Buonfanti^ cs, 2, 3. 
Guido Cagnacci, s, 2, 3. 
Tommaso Campana, s, 2, 3. 
Simone Cantarini, s, 1, 2. 3* p4. 
Francesco Carboni, 2, 3. 
Cav. Giovanni Domenico Cerrini, s, 2, 3* p4. 

Lanzi says that Guido retouched some of hi? 

pictures, and sold them for his own. 
Lorenzo Cerrini, 1, 3. 



Michele Desubleo. s. 2, o*, p4. 

Luca de Ferrari, 1,2. 3. 

Lavinia Fontana. 2. 3. 

Pietro Gallinari, called Pietro del Signor Gui- 

do s, 1, 2, 3. p4. Guido retouched some of 

his pictures, and sold them for his own. 
Francesco Gessi, s, 2, 3*, p4, in his best works. 
Antonio Giarola, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Giorgio Giuliani, cs, 1, 3 
Lorenzo Loli, s, 2, 3, p4. 

Uberto la Longe, 2, 6. . , „ . , 

Oav. Ercole Maria, s, 1, 2, 3*, 4; deceived Guido 

Padre Feliciana da Messina, s, 2, 3. 
Giovanni Battista Michelini, s, 2, 3. 
Carlo Francesco Nuvolone, called the Guido of 

Lombardy, 2, 3*, p4. 
Giovanni Battista Pesari, cs, 2, 3, p4. 
Marc' Antonio Riverditi, 2, 3, 6. 
Rollo, 2, 3*. 

Francesco di Rosa, 1.2, 3. 
Giovanni Battista Ruggieri, 2, 3*, p4. 
Luigi Scaramuccia, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Giovanni Giacomo Sementi, s, 2, 3*, p4, 
Guido Signorini, s. 1, 2, p4. 
Giovanni Andrea Sirani, s, 2, 3. 
Elizabetta Sirani, 2, 3. 
Giovanni Maria Tamburini, s, 2, 3. 
Sebastiano Taricco, 2, 6. 
Flaminio Torre, s, L 2, 3. p4. 
Andrea Vaccaro, 1. 2, 3, 6. 

HBEM, John David de. 

Cornelius de Heem, s, 2, 3, p5. 

John de Heem, 2, 3, p5. 

Guillaume Klaasz Heda, 2, 3. 

Cornelius Kick, 2, 3, 6. 

John Moor tel, 1, 3*, 6. 

Maria van Oosterwyck, s, 2, 3. 6. 

Peter de Ring, 2, 3. 

Jacob Roodtseus, s, 2, 3. 

Stomme, cs, 2, 3. 

Jacob Walscapelle, cs, 2, 3, 6. 

HEYDEN, John vander. 
Jan Ten Compe, 2, 3. 
Isaac Ou water, 2, 3. 
John Peter Schoenmacker, 2, 3. 

John van Alen or Olen, 1, 2, 3. 
Francis Peter Verheyden, 2, 3. 
C. Vonck, 2, 3. 

HUYSUM, John van. 
P. Faes,2, 3. 

Jacob van Huysum, s, 1, 3*, 4. 
Margaret Haverman, s, 1, 2, 3, p4. 
Jan Evert Morel, 2, 3*, p4. 
John van Os, 2, 3, p4. 
Robart, cs, 2, 3. 

JARDIN, Karel du. 
John van Nikkelen, 2. 
William van Romeyn. 2, 3. 
John Sybrecht, 2, 3. 
Walter John Troostwyck, 1, 2, 3- 

LAER, Peter de, called Bamboccio. 
Michael Angelo Cerquozzi, 2, 3, 6. 
Andrew Both, 2, 3, G. 
Jacob vander Does the Elder, 2, 3, G. 
Bernard Graat, 2, 3, 6. 
Theodore Helmbrecker, 2, 3, 0. 

Roland van Laer, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Cav. John Miel, 2, 3, G. 
Domenico Olivieri, 2, 3, p4. 
John or Josse Ossenbeck, 2, 3, p4. 
Peter Stoop, 2, 3, p4. 

LANFRANCO, Cav. Giovanni. 
Cav. Gio. Battista Benaschi, 2, 3. 
Giacinto Brandj, s. 2, 3, p4. 
Giacomo Giorgetti, s, 2, 3. 
Andrea Lanzani, 2, 3. 
Giovanni Francesco Mengucci, s, 2, 3. 

LIBERT, Cav. Pietro. Lanzi says his works 
have been largely copied and imitated by his 
son and scholars. 
LICINIO, Gig. Antonio, called Tl Pordenone. 
Pomponeo Amalteo, s, 2, 3* p4. 
Francesco Beccaruzzi, s, 2, 3. . . 
Gio. Maria Calderari, s, 2, 3*, 4. 
Bernardino Licinio da Pordenone, s, 2, 3*, 4. 
Giulio Licinio da Pordenone, s, 2, 3*, 4. 
Gio. Antonio Licinio da Pordenone, called Sac- 
chiense, s, 2, 3* 4. All his works are attri- 
buted to the Elder Pordenone. 
MANTEGNA, Andrea. Scholars and imitators 
very numerous ; Lanzi says a multitude of pic- 
tures, in the style of the Quattrocentisti (artists 
of the 14th century), are falsely attributed to 
Giovanni Carotto, 2, 3. 

Gio. Francesco Carotto. s, 1, 2, 3*. 4. 
Francesco Mantegna, s, 2, 3*, 4. 

Carlo del Mantegna, s, 2, 3*, 4. 

Francesco Monsignori, s, 2, 3. 

Maestro Angelo Padova, 2, 3. 

Lauro Padovano, s, 2, 3*, 4. 

Bernardo Parentino, s, 2, 3, p4. 

Niccolo Pizzolo, 2, 3. 

Gio. Speranza, s, 2, 3, p4 

MARATTI, Cav. Carlo, established one of the 

most popular schools of his time. 

Giacinto Calandrucci. s, 2, 3. 

Domenico Calandrucci, s, 2, 3. 

Paolo Albertoni, s, 2, 3. . . 

Antonio Balestra, s, 2, 3, 6. 

Giuseppe Chiari, s, 2, 3* p4, 6. 

Tommaso Chiari, s, 1, 2. 

Francesco Conti, 2, 3, p4. 

Placido Celi, s, 2, 3. 

Miguel Danus, s. 2, 3. 

Agostino Masucci, s, 2, 3, 6. 

Gio. Paolo Melchiori, s. 2, 3, p4. 

Girolamo Odam, s, 2, 3. 

Giuseppe Oddi, s, 2, 3. 

D. Tommaso Nardini, s, 2, 3. 

Giuseppe Passeri, s, 2, 3, p4. 

Pietro de' Petri, s, 2, 3, 6. 

Stefano Pozzi, s, 2, 3, C. 

Theodore van Loon. 2, G. 

Natale Ricci, s, 1, 2, 3. 

UbaldoRicci, s, 1,2, 3. 

D. Angelo Rossi, 2. 3. 

Michele Semini, 1, 2, 3. 

Lodovico Trasi, s, 2, 3, 6. 

Cav. Girolamo Troppa, s, 2, 3* 

Mair, 2, 3* 4. 
Peter Verhulst, 2, 3. 
Matthew Withoos. 2, 3*. 



METZU, Gabriel ; style founded on that of Ter- 

Jacob Achterveldt, s, 2, 3, p4. 
John van Geel, s, 2, 3*, 4. 
W. Odekerken, 1, 3*. 
Renier de la Haye, 2, 3. 
Engel Sam, 2, 3. 

MIERIS, William. 

Abraham vander Eyk, 2, 3. 

B. Maton. 1, 3* 4. 

Francis Mieris the Younger, s, 2, 3, p5 

William JVIuys, 2. 

Jerome vander My, s, 2, 3, p4. 

Philip Vandyck, 2, 6. 

MIGNON, Abraham. 
John Moortel, 1. 3*. 
Ernest Stuven, s, 2, 3, p4. 
N. Verendael, 2, 3, p4. 

MIREVELT, Michael Jansen. 
Paul Moreelze, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Peter Thierry Kluyt, s, 2, 3^ p4. 
John van Nes, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Peter Mirevelt, s, 2, 3* 4, 

MOLYN, Peter, the Younger, called II Tempes- 
TA, Oav. Tempesta, and Pietro Mulier. 
Scipione Cignaroli, s, 2, 3, p4. 
II Montagna, cs, 2, 3*, 4. 
II Tempestino, s, 1, 2, 3* 4. 

MONNOYER, Jean Baptiste, called Baptiste. 
Jean Baptiste Blain, s. 2, 3, p4. 
Anthony Monnoyer, s, 2, 3, p4. 

MORLAND, George. His works have been im- 
mensely copied and imitated ; Stanley says 
"his brother Henry (Morland) kept a regular 
manufactory of them." 

MURILLO, Bartolome Esteban, 

Miguel del Aguila, 1, 2, 3, p4. 

Francisco Antolinez, s, 2, 3, p4. 

Sebastiano Gomez, called El Mulato de Murillo, 
s, 2, 3. 

Juan Garzon, s, 2, 3. 

Felipe de Leon, 1, 2, 3, p4. 

Don Bernardo German Llorente, 1, 2, 3, p4. 

Juan Simone Guttierez, s, 2, 3. 

Jose Lopez, s, 2, 3, p4. 

Esteban Marquez, 1, 2, 3, p4. 

Joya Fernando Marquez, 2, 3. 

Tommaso IMartinez, 2, 3, p4. 

Don Pedro Villavicencio Nunez, s, 2, 3* p4. 

Francisco Ochoa, s, 1, 2, 3* 4. 

Francisco Meneses Osorio, s, 1, 2, 3*, 4. 

Francisco de Pineda Perez, s, 2, 3, p4. 

Lorenzo Quiros, 1, 2, 3*, 4; was a famous copy- 
ist, and sold his pictures for originals. 

Jose Rubira, 1, 2, 3* p4. 

Don Alonso de Tobar, 1, 2, 3*, 4 ; was a famous 
copyist and imitator, and sold his pictures for 

NEEFS, Peter, the Elder. 
Theodore Babeur. s. 2. 3. 
Pierre la Fontaine, 2, 3*, p4. 
Peter Neefs, the Younger, s, 2, 3, p5. 

NETSCHER, Gaspar. 
L Blyhooft, 2, 3, p4. 
N. Brant, s, 2, 3, p4. 

Daniel Haring, 2. 3, p4. 
Matthew Wytman, 2, 3, p4. 

OMMEGANCK, Balthasar Paul. His works 
have been largely copied and imitated. 
Jean Carol Carpentero, 2, 3, 4. 
J. F. Lenzen, 1, 3*, p4. 
Jacob Kouwenhoven, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Henry Arnold Myin, s, 2, 3. 

OSTADE, Adrian van. 
Cornelius Bega, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Jean Jacques Boissieu, 2, 3. 
John Molinaer, 2, 3. 
Nicholas Miense Molinaer, 2, 3. 
Bertram de Fouchier, 2, 3. 
Anthony Goebouw, 2, 3, p4. 
Giles van Schagen, 1, 2, 3, p4. 

PALMA, Jacopo, the Younger. 

Giacom o Al bar el 1 i , s, 1 , 2, 3, p4 ; was his pupil and 
coadjutor for 34 years. 

Marco Boschini, s, 2, 3. 

Girolamo Gamberati, s, 2, 3*. 

Pietro Malombra, 2, 3, 6. 

Gio. Battista Novelli. s, 2, 3, p4. 

Santo Peranda, s,'2, 3, 6. 

Girolamo Pilotto, s, 2, 3, p4. 

Camillo Rama, s, 2, 3. 

Ascanio Spineda, s, 1, 2. 3*. p4. 

Gio. Battista Tortiroli.2, 6.' 

Andrea Vicentino. 2, 3, 6. 

Boschini, who was Palma's pupil, enumerates 
six artists, viz. : Corona. Vicentino, Peranda, 
Aliense, Malombra, and Pilotto, '■ whose man- 
ner so extremely resembles that of Palma, as 
to impose upon those who have not tact 
enough to detect the peculiar characteristics 
of each." 

PARMIGGIANO, or Francesco Mazzuoli. 
Pomponeo Amidano, cs, 2, 3* 4. 
Giacomo Bertoja, 1, 2, 3, p4. 
Francesco Borgani, 2, 3. 
Girolamo Mazzuoli, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Alessandro Mazzuoli, 2, p5. 

PERUGINO, Pietro, instructed many pupils, and 
Lanzi says a multitude of pictures are falsely 
attributed to him, which were executed by his 

Domenico Alfani, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Gio. Antonio d'Amato, 2, 3. 
Pietro Cesarei, 2, 3, 4. 
Carlo Criveili, 2, 3* p4. 
Eusebio di San Giorgio, s, 2, 3. 
Jacopo Pacchiarotti, 2, 3, 6, 
Gio. Niccolo da Perugia, s, 2, 3. 
Lorenzo Pittori, s, 2, 3. 
Antonio Semini, 2, 3, p4. 
Niccolo Soggi, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Giovanni Spagnuolo, s, 2, 3, p4. 

POELEMBURG, Cornelius. 
Hattigh Jan Baak, cs, 2, 3. 
Abraham van Cuylenburg, 2, 3, 5. 
John van Haansbergen, s, 2, 3. 
Jan vander Lys, s, 2, 3*, 4. 
Wernard Rysen. s, 2, 3. 
G. Stenree, s, 2,3, p4. 
Gysbrecht Thys, 2, 3, p4. 
Daniel Vertangen, s, 2, 3, 5. 
Francis Verwilt, s, 2, 3, 5. 



POTTER, Paul. 

Jan Bernard, 1, 2, 3, p4. 

Adam van Borsura, 1, 2, 3. 

Camphii_ysen, 2. 3*, p4. 

John le Due, s, 2,3, 6. 

John van Gool, 2, p5. 

Jacob Janson, 1, 2, 3, p4. 

Jan Kobell, 1, 2. 3, p4, 

W. J. L. Spoor, 1, 2, 3, p4. 

Seghers or Zehers, 2, 3, 6. 

Walter John Troostwyck, 1, 2, 3, p4. 

POUSSIN, Nicholas. 
Giuseppe Bottani, 2, 6. 
Bernardo Cavallino, 2, 3. 
Gerard Lairesse, 2, 3, 6. 
Carlo Lodi, 2, 3. 
Nicolas Loir, 2, 3. 
Francis Mile, 2, 3, p4. 
Le Maire Poussin, s, 2, 3. 
Jacques Rousseau, 2. 3, 6. 
Peter Rysbraeck, 2. 6. 

POUSSIN, Gaspar. 

Francis Joachim Beisch, 2, 6. 
John Francis van Bloemen, 2. 3, 6. 
Gio. Domenico Ferracuti, 2, 6. 
John Anthony vander Leepe, 2, 6. 
Crescenzio di Onofrio, s, 2, 3* p4. 

RAFFAELLE. the great head and model of the 
Roman school, had many pupils, some of whom 
imitated him very closely. Some of his works 
were copied by his scholars, retouched by him- 
self, and now pass for originals or duplicates. 
See note, p. 758. 
Orazio Alfani ; some of his best works have 

been mistaken for the early productions of 

Pedro Campana, 2, 3. 
Polidoro da Caravaggio, s, 2, 3. 
Andrea Comodi, 1, 2, 3. 
Gaudenzio Ferrari, s, 2, 3. 
Vincenzio da San Gimignano, s, 2, 3. 
Salvo da Messina, 2, 3. 
Maturino, s, 2. 3. 
Pellegrino da Modena, s, 2, 3* 
Gio. Francesco Penni, s, 2, 3. 
Baldassare Peruzzi, s, 2, 3. 
Ratfaellino del CoUe, s, 2, 3. 
Bartolomeo Ramenghi, called II Bagnacavallo, 

s, 2, 3. 
Giulio Romano, 1, 2, 3*, 4. 
Andrea Sabbatini, s, 1, 2, 3. 
Lorenzo Sabbatini, 1, 2, 3. 
Enea Salmeggia, 2. 3. 
Andrea Semini, 2, 3. 
Ottavio Semini, 2, 3,* 4. 
Girolamo Siciolante, 2, 3. 
Pietro Martire Stresi, 1, 3. 
Benvenuto Tisio. s. 2. 3. 
Giovanni da Udine, s, 2, 3. 
Pierino del Vaga, s, 2, 3. 

REMBRANDT, van Rhyn. 

Nicholas van Bergen, 2, 3. 

Ferdinand Bol, s, 2, 3. 

Philip Jerome Brinckman. 2, 6. 

Solomon Coninck, 2, 3, 6. 

Benjamin Cuyp, 2, 3 

Jan Domer, 2, 3*, 6. 

N. Drost, s, 2, 3, 6. 

Heyman Dullaert, 1, 2, 3*, 4. 

Ger brant vander Eeckhotit, 3, 2, 3. 

Govaert Flink, s, 2, 3. 

Arnold de Gelder, s, 1, 2, 3*, 4. 

Peter de Gelder, cs, 2, 3. 

Samuel Hoogstraeten, s, 2, 3, 6. 

Philip de Koningh, s, 2, 6. 

Nicholas Maes, s, 2, 3, 4. 

Jan Baptist van Mol, 1, 2, 3, p4. 

Horatius Paulyn, 2, 6. 

Adrian Verdoel, s, 2, 3. 

Jan Victor or Fictoor, cs, 2, 3*, 4. 

Gerardde Wet, s, 2, 3. 

Francis Wulf hagen, s, 2, 3. 

ROSA, Salvatore, had many scholars and imita- 
tors. Lanzi says, " the applause which Salvator 
Rosa received during his seven years' residence 
at Florence, induced many young men to copy 
and imitate him." 
Giulio Avellino, cs, 2, 3. 
Taddeo Baldini, s, 2, 3* p4. 
Jacob de Heusch, 2, 3. 
Alessio de Marchis, 2, 3. 
Lorenzo Martelli, 2, 3* p4, 
Evangelista Martinotti, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Francesco Martinotti, s, 2, 3. 
Gaetano Martoriello, 2, 3. 
Niccolo Massaro, s, 2, 3. 
Marzo Masturzo, s, 2, 3. 
Pietro Montanini, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Pandolfo Reschi, 2, 3, 6. 
N. Spierings, 2, 3*, p4. 
Bartolomeo Torregiani, s, 2. 

ROMANO, Giulio. 

Teodoro Ghigi, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Gio. Battista Ghisi, s, 2, 3. 
Bernardino India, 2, 3. 
Rinaldo Mantovano, s, 2, 3. 
Benedetto Pagni, s, 2, 3. 
Giulio Tonduzzi, s, 2, 3. 

RUBENS, Peter Paul. " The works attributed 
to him are almost innumerable." Smith, in his 
Catalogue raisonne, describes about 1800, cour 
sidered genuine ; 1200 engraved ! 
Giles Backereel, 2, 3, 6. 
Giuseppe Bazzani, 2, 3. 
Matthias vander Berg, s, 1, 3. 
Theodore Boyermans, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Deodato Delraont, s, 2, 3, 6. 
Abraham van Diepenbeck, s, 2, 3, p4, 6. 
Justus van Egmont, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Gerard van Harp, s, 1, 2, 3*, p4. 
John van Hoeck, s, 2, 3*, p4. 
Jacob Jordaens, s, 2, 3*, p4. 
Godfrey Maes, 2, 3, p4. 
Miguel Manrique, s, 2, 3. 
A. Marienhof, 1, 2, 3. 
Peter van Mol, s, 2, 3, 5. 
Daniel Mytens the Elder, cs, 2, 3. 
Gaspar Jarnes van Opstal, 1, 2, 3, 6. 
Erasmus Quellinus, s, 2, 3, 6. 
Cornelius Schut, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Gerard Seghers, 2, 3, 6. 
Peter Soutman, s, 2, 3. 
John Thomas, s, 2, 3. 
Theodore van Thulden, s, 2, 3* p4. 
Lucas Vanuden, 2, 3* 6, in landscape. 
Simon de Vos, s, 2. 3* p4, 6. 
John Wildens, 2, 3*, 6, in landscape. 



Jacob de Wit, 2, 3, 6. 
Francis Wouters, s, 2, 3, p4, 

Francis Decker, cs, 2, 3, 6. 
Cornelius Dubois, cs, 2, 3, p4. 
Jan van Kessel, 2, 3. 
Isaac Koene, s, 2, 3, 5. 
J. Rontbout, 2, 3, p5 
Henry vander Straeten, 2, 3. 
John Renier de Vries, s, 2, 3, 5 

SARTO, Andrea del ; works largely copied and 

Giuseppe Badaracco, 2, 3. 
Simone Balli, 2, 3, p4. 

Lodovico Buti, 2, 3. i 

Jacopo Carrucci, s, 2, 3, 6. 
Domenico Conti, s, 1, 2. 
Felice Ficherelli, 1, 2, 3*, p4. 
Jacone, s, 2, 3. 
N. Nannoccio, s, 1. 2, 3, p4. 
Pellegrino Piola, 2, 3* 6. 
Domenico Puligo, 1, 2, 3, p4. 
Andrea Sguazzella, s, 1, 2, 3*, 4. 

SCHALCKEN, Godfrey. 
Justus van Ben turn, s, 2, 3*, 4; all his works are 

attributed to S. 
Arnold Boonen, s, 2, 3, p4, 6. 
R. Moris, s, 2, 3. 
Gerard Jan Palthe, 2, 3, p4. 
Robert Tournier, 2, 3, p4, 6. 
Anselra Weeling, 2, 3*, p4. 

SEGERS, Daniel. 
John Philip van Thielen, and his three daugh- 
ters, imitated Segers very closely. 

SLINGELANDT, Peter van ; imitator of Douw. 
John Filicus, s, 2, 3. 
Jacob vander Sluys, s, 1, 2, 3, p4. 
Ary de Voys, s, 2, 3*, p4. 

SNYDERS, Francis. 
Nicaise Bernaerts, s, 2, 3*, 4. 
Van Boekel, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Juriaen Jacobsz, s, 2, 3*, p4, 
Francis van Cuyck de Mierhop, 2, 3*, p4. 
Bernard Nicasius, s, 2, 3* 4; most of his 

works are attributed to S. 
Adrian van Utrecht, 2, 3. 6. 
Francis Peter Verheyden, 1, 2, 3, p4. 
C. Vonck, 2, 3, p4, 6. 
Paul de Vos, cs, 2, 3*. 

SOLE, Giovanni Giuseppe dal, instructed many 

Lucia Casalini, s, 1, 2, 3. 
Francesco Comi, s, 1, 2, 3. 
Gio. Domenico Ferretti, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Gio. Battista Grati, s, 2, 3. 
Girolamo Gregori, s, 2, 3. 
Antonio Lunghi, s, 2. 3. 
Cesare Mazzoni, s, 2, 3. 
Francesco Monti Bolognese, s, 2, 3, 6. 
Teresa Maria Scannabecchi, s, 1, 2, 3. 
Mauro Soderini, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Felice Torelli.. s, 2, 6. 

SOLIMENA, Cav. Francesco, had many scholars 
and imitators. 

Giuseppe Bonito, s, 2, 3*, p4. 
Scipione Cappella, s, 2, 3. 

Carlo Corrado, s, 2, 3, 6. 
Francesco de Mura, s, 2, 3*, p4, 6. 
Cav. Giuseppe Petrini, 2, 3, 6. 
Giovanni Porcello, s, 2, 3. 
Ferdinando Sanfelice, s, 2. 

SPAGNOLETTO, Jose (or Giuseppe) Ribera ; 
style founded on that of M. A. Caravaggio ; 
works exceedingly numerous. Lanzi says his 
works have been largely imitated. •' We may 
rest assured that a great part of those in the 
collections (in Italy) attributed to him, are net 
justly entitled to his name, and ought to be as- 
cribed to his scholars." 
Giovanni Do, s, 2. 3*, p4. 
Francesco Fracanzani, s, 2, 3, 6. 
Cav. Pietro Novelli, 2, 6. 
Bartolomeo Passante, s, 2, 3*, p4. 

STANZIONI, Cav. Massimo. 
Agostino Beltrano, s, 2. 3. 
Paolo Domenico Finoglia, s, 2, 3. 
Andrea Malinconico, s, 2, 3, 6. 
Giuseppe Marullo. s, 2, 3*, p4. 
Aniella di Rosa, s, 1. 2, 3. 

TENIERS, David, the Younger ; his works have 
been immensely copied and imitated. 
Theodore van Abshoven, s, 2, 3*, 4 ; most of his 

works are attributed to Teniers. 
Francis du Chatel, s, 2, 3. 
Anthony Goeboiiw, 2, 3. 
Matthew van Helmont, s, 2, 3, 6. 
H. van Hont, s, 2. 3. 
Nicholas van Kessel, 2, 3*, p4. 
Arnold Maes, s, 2, 3. 
Theodore Michau, 2, 3, p5. 
John Andreas Nothnagel, 2, 3. 
Martin Henry Rokes, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Jacob de Roore, 2, 3*, p4 ; imitated the works 

of T. with immense success. 
Cornelius Saftleven, 2, 3, p4, 6. 
Matthew Scheitz, 2, 3. 
M. Schoevaerdts, 2, 3. 
Abraham Teniers, s, 2, 3, 5. 
John Thielens, 2, 3, p4. 
Giles Tilburg the Younger, s, 2, 3, 6. 
Peter Tillemans, 1, p4, 6. 

TERBURG, Gerard. 
Renier de la Haye, 2. 3. 
Gabriel Metzu. 2, 6. ' 
Eglon Hendrick vander Neer, 2, 3, p4, 6, 
John Ochterveldt,cs, 2, 3* p4. 
John Tilius, 2, 3. 

TINTORETTO, Jacopo Robusti, called. 
Marc' Antonio Bassetti, 2, 3. 6. 
Melchiore Colonna, cs, 2. 3. 
Juan Antonio Escalante, 2, 3. 
Flaminio Floriano, 1, 2, 3* 4. 
Cesare dalle Ninfe, 2, 3* 4 ; works mostly at- 
tributed to T. 
Domenico Tintoretto, s, 1, 2, 3*, 4. 
Marietta Tintoretto, s, 2, 3. 
Antonio Vassilacchi, 2, 3, 6. 

TITIAN, the great head of the Venetian school, 
like Raffaelle, had a host of imitators and copy- 
ists. His works are very numerous ; above 600 
have been engraved. 
Gio. Battista Averara, 2, 3. 

h'lii . 


Alessandro Bonvicino, called II Moretto, s, 1, 2, 
3* p4. 

John van Calcar, s, 1,2, 3*, p4. 

Giuseppe Caletti, called II Crcmonese, 1, 2, 3*, 4. 

Domenico Campagnola, s, 2, 3, p4. 

Cav. Giovanni Contarini, 2, 3, p4. 

Lionardo Corona, 1, 2, 3*, p4. 

M. Cusin, 2, 3, in landscape 

Girolamo Danti, s, 1, 2, 3*, p4. 

Alexis Domenique, s, 2, 3*, p4. 

Lodovico Fumicelli, ps, 2, 3. 

Gio. Battista Grassi, ps, 2, 3. 

Francesco tmparato, s. 2, 3. 

Gio. Battista Maganza the Elder, s, 2, 3, p4. 

Damiano Mazza, s, 1, 2, 3. 

El Mudo, Juan Fernandez Navarette, called the 
Spanish Titian, s, 2, 3*. p4. 

Natalino da Murano, s, I, 2, 3, p4. 

Gaspare Nervesa, s, 2, 3. 

Simone Peterzano, s, 2, 3 

Callisto Piazza, ps, 2, 3*, p4. 

Gregorio Porideo, cs, 2, 3. 

Domenico Riccio, called Brusasorci, imitated Ti- 
tian very closely in Venuses, Nymphs, &c. 

Pietro Rosa, s, 2, 3, p4. 

Girolamo Salvado. 2, 3. 

Giovanni Silvio, cs. 2, 3. 

Niccolo di Stefano, ps, 2, 3. 

Louis de Vadder, 2, 3, in landscape. 

Alessandro Varotari, 2, 3*, p4. 

Francesco Vecelli. s, 2, 3*, 4. 

Orazio Vecelli, s, 2, 3*. 4. 

Maj'co Vecelli, called Marco di Tiziano, s, 2, 3* 4. 

Polidoro Veneziano, s, 1, 2, 3, p5. 

Santo Zago, s. 2, 3. 

TROTTI, Cav. Giovanni Battista, called II Ma- 


Giulio Calvi, s, 2, 3. 

Stefano Lambri, s, 2, 3. 

Ermenigildo Lodi, s, 1, 2, 3* p4. 

Manfredo Lodi, s, 2, 3. 

Pier Martire NegriJ s, 2, 3, 6. 

Panfilo Nuvolone, s, 2, 3, p4, 6. 

Euclide Trotti, s, 2, 3, p4. 

VANDYCK, Sir Anthony. 

John de Baan, 2, 3, p4, in portraits. 

David Beek, s, 2, 3, p4. 

John van Bockhorst. called Langen Jan, 2, 3. 

Joseph Bokshoorn, 1, 3. 
Thomas V^illeborts Bosschaert. 2, 3. 
Bernardo Carbone, 2, 3, in portraits. 
Adrian Hanneman, 2, 3. 
John Hayls, 1, 2, 3. 

John van Kessel the Younger. 2, 3, in portraits. 
Jansens van Kenlen, 2, 3*, 4. 
Johannes Remigius Lange, s. 2, 3* 4; most of 

his works attributed to V. 
Peter Meert, 2, 3, in portraits. 
John de Reyn, s, 2. 3*, 4. 
Hyacinth Rigaud, called the French Vandyck, 

2, 3, G. 
Taco Scheltema, 1, 2 3, p4. 
Gysbrecht Thys, 2, 3* p4, in portraits. 
Peter Tyssens, 2, 3* p4. 
Cornelius de Vos, s, 2. 3. 
Robert Walker, 2, 3, in portraits. 
Weesop. 2. 3*. 4. 

Gerard Peter van Zyl, called the second Van- 
dyck, s, 2, 3, p4. 

VELDE, William van de, the Younger. 
Bellevois, I, 2, 3. 
Jan vander Cappelle. 2, 3, p4. 

VELDE, Adrian van de. 
Dirk van Bergen, s, 2, 3*, 4. 
James Koning, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Peter vander Leeuw, 2, 3*, p4. 
Adrian Oudendyck, 1, 2, 3, p4. 
W. J. Troostwyck, I, 2, 3, p4. 

VELDE, Isaac van de. 
Peter Deneyn, s, 2, 3. 
Pftlamedes Staevaerts, 2, 3, p4. 
J. V. D. Stofife, 2, 3, p4. 

VELASQUEZ, Don Diego Rodriguez de Silva 
Y., the great head of the Spanish school. 
Don Juan Y Gamon de Alfaro, s, 2, 3. 
Salvador Jordan, ps, 2, 3* 4, in portraits. 
Don Diego de Lucena, s, 2, 3. p4. 
Don Juan Baptista Mazo, s, 1, 2, 3*, p4. 
Juan de Pareja, s, 2, 3*. in portraits. 
Antonio Puga, s, 2. 3*, p4. 

VERONESE, Paolo Caliari, or Cagliari, called ; 
instructed many pupils, and his works have been 
immensely copied and imitated. 
Michael Angelo Aliprandi, s, 2, 3. 
Ottavio Amiconi, or Amigoni, 2, 3. 
Gio. Battista Amigazzi, 1, 3. 
Gio. Andrea Ansaldi, 2, 3, p4. 
Luigi Benfatto, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Sebastiano Bombelli, 1, 2. 3*, p4. 
Agostino Bonisoli, 2, 3. 
Carlo Bononi, 2, 3, 6. 
Gio. Antonio Burrini, 2, 3, 6. 
Anselmo Canneri, s, 2, 3. 
Giulio Carpioni, 2, 3, 6. 
Gio. Paolo Cavagna, 2, 3, 6. 
Bartolomeo Cittadella, 2. 3. 
Giro da Conegliano, s, 2, 3*, p4. 
Antonio Foler, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Antonio Gandini, s, 2, 3, 6. 
Francesco MafFei, 2, 3, 6. 
Alessandro Maganza, 2, 3, 6. 
Parrasio Michele, s, 1, 2, 3* p4. 
Francesco Montemezzario. s, 2, 3, p4. 
Angelo Nardi, s, 2, 3, p4. 
John Erasmus Quellinus, 2,3, 6. 
Romani da Reggio, 2, 3. 
Sebastiano Ricci, 2, 3*, 6. 
Gio. Battista Riccio, s, 2, 3. 
Carlo Sacchi. 2, 3, p4. 
Sigismondo Scarsella, s, 2,3. 
Ippolito Scarsella, 2, 3, G. 
Gio. Battista Tiepolo, 2, 3, 6. 
Antonio Vassilacchi, s, 2, 3, 6. 
Battista Zelotti, 2, 3*. 
Francesco Zucco, 2, 3*. 

VINCI, Lionardo da. 
Cesare Arbasia, 2, 3. 
Gio. Antonio Beltraffo, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Giuliano Bugiardini, 2, 3* 4. 
Lorenzo di Credi, 2, 3*, p4. 
John van Hemmessen. 1, 2, 3* 4. 
Bernardino Luini, cs. 2, 3*, p4. 



Conte Francesco Melzi, s, 1, 2, S*, 4 ; painted \ 

from his designs. 
Andrea Salai, s, 1, 2, 3, 4 ; painted from Vinci's 

Cesare da Sesto, s, 1, 2, 3, p5. 
Gio. Antonio Sogliani, 2, 3, 6. 
Marco Uggione, s, 2, 3*, p4. 

lYATTEAU, Anthony ; works immensely copied 
and imitated. 
N. Anchilus, 1,2, 3, p5. 
Nicolas Lancret, s, 2, 3*, p4. 
George vander Myn, 2, 3, p4. 
Jean Baptiste Pater, s, 2, 3, p4. 

VEENIX, John. 
B. Admiraal, 2, 3, p5. 
Wybrand Hendriks, 2, 3, 6. 
Lelienberg, 2, 3. 

John Joseph Ignatius van Straaten, 2, 3. 
Theodore Yalckenburg, s, 2, 3, p4. 

(VERF, Adrian vander. 
N. van Heems, 1, 3, p4. 
Nicholas Juweel, 2, 3. 
Henry van Limborgh, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Gerard Melder, 1, 2. 3. 
William Mays, 2. 
Engel Sam, 2, 3. 

John Christian Sperling, s, 2, 3, p4. 
John Abel Wassemberg, s, 2, 3*, p4. 
Elizabeth Gertrude Wassemberg, 2, 3. 
Peter vander Werf, s, 2, 3*, p4. 

WIT, or WITTE, Emanuel de. 
Daniel de Bliek, 2. 3. 
G. Hoekgeest, 2. 3, p4. 
Henry van Streek, s, 2, 3, p4. 
Henry van Vliet, s, 2, 3*, 4, 6. 
Jacob Xavery. s, 2, 3, p4. 

f^OUWERMAN, Philip. 
John van Breda. 1, 2, 3, p5. 
John van Door nick, 2. 3, p4. 
Charles van Falens, 2, 3. 
Barent Gaal. s, 2, 3, p4. 
William Kobel, 2, 3. 
Matthew Scheitz, s, 2, 3. ' 
Govaert Sinjeur. 2, 3, p4. 
Dirk Stoop, 2, 3, p4. 
Peter Wouwerman. s, 2, 3*, p5. 
John Wouwerman, s, 2, 3, p5. 
John Wyck, 2, 3, 6. ' 






AMIGAZZI, Giovanni Battista, 1, 3, p4, of 
Veronese, and others. 

ARETUSI, Cesaee, 1, 3*, p4, of Correggio and 

BESSCHEY, J. F. 1, 3, i7i small, of Rubens, 
Vandvck. Rembrandt. Teniers, Gerard Douw, Ter- 
burg, Wynants, Pynacker, Moucheron, and others. 

BIST. Fra BONAVENTURA, 1, 3, 171 Small of 

Correggio, Titian, Guido. Parmiggiano, and others. 

BOSELLT, Felice, 1, 3*, 4, of the old Italian 

BOULLONGNE. Loois, the Elder, 1, o*. 6, of 
the old Italian masters. 

BOULLONGNE, Bon, 2, 3*, G, of the old Ital- 
ian masters. 

CADES, Giuseppe, 2, 3* 6. of the designs of 
the great Italian masters. 

CAPPELLE, Jan vander, 2, 3, p4, of W. Van de 
Velde, deVlieger, Ostade, vander Neer, and others. 

CAROSELLT, Angiolo, 1, 2, 3, p4, of M. A. Ca- 
ravaggio. and other great Italian masters. 

CARRE, Abraham, 1, 3, 5, of the Dutch mas- 

CERRINI, Lorenzo, 2, of Cristoforo Allori, 
Guido, and others. 

CHIMENTI, Jacopo, 1. 3*. p4, of the Italian 

COOLERS, Louis Bernard. 2, 3, p4, of Gerard 
Douw, and other eminent Dutch masters. 

COMODI, Andrea, 1, 2, 3* 4, of Correggio, 
Raffaelle, and others. 

CORRADI, Ottavio, 1, 3* 4, of Cavedone, 
the Caracci, Titian. Veronese, and others. 

CORTE, Davide, 1, 3* p4, of the Italian masters. 

CREDI, Lorenzo di, 1, 3, p4, 6, of Lionardo 
da Vinci, and others. 

CRESPL Cav. Giuseppe Maria, 1, 3* 4, 6, of 
Correggio, Baroccio, the Caracci and others. 

DANDINI, PiETRO, 1, 2, 3*, p4, of Titian, Tin- 
toretto, Veronese, and others. 

DORA, Joseph. 1, 3*, 4, of Gerard Douw, Ter- 
burg, Francis Mieris, vander Werf. Teniers, and 
other Dutch and Flemish masters. 

FOTI, Luciano, 1, 3, p4, of M. A. Caravag- 
gio, Guercino, and others. 

FOUCHIER, Bertram de, 2, 3, p4, of Ostade, 
Brower, and others. 

GAREMYN, John, 2. 3, of Rembrandt, Teniers, 
and others. 

GIORDANO, Luca, 1, 2, 3* 6, of Rubens, Ten- 
iers, Bassano, and others; could imitate exactly 
every master. 

GOEBOUW, Anthony, 2, 3, p4, of Teniers. 
Ostade, and Lingelbach. 

INDIA, TuLLio, 1, 3, p4, of the Italian masters. 

JUVENEL, Paul, 2, 3, p4, of Adam Alzhei- 
mer, Albert Durer, and others. 

LAZZARI, Giovanni Antonio, 2, 3*, 4, of 
Bassano, and others. 

MAZO, Don Juan Baptista, 2, 3* of Titian, 
Tintoretto, Veronese, Velasquez, and others. 

MELDER, Gerard, 1, 2, 3, p4, of vander Werf, 
Mieris, Rottenhamer, Rosalba, and others. 

MOYAERT, Nicholas, 1, 2, 3* p4, 6, of Adam 
Alzheimer, Rembrandt, Lievens, and others. 

ORIENT, Joseph, 2, 3, 6, of Breughel, Savery, 
Saftleven, and Griffier. 

PATICCHI, Antonio, 2, 3* 4, 6, of Polidoro 
da Caravaggio, and others. 

PIOLA, Domenico, 2, 3, 6, of Castiglione, Pie- 
tro da Cortona, and Guercino. 

PIOLA, Pellegrino, 2, 3* p4, 6, of Lodovico 
Caracci, and Andrea del Sarto. 

RICCI, Sebastiano, 2, 3* 6, of Correggio, Ve- 
ronese, Guercino, and others ; could imitate suc- 
cessfully every master. 



RIVALZ, Antoine, 2, 3, 6, of the great Italian 

RUE, RoMAiN DE LA, 2, 3*, 4, of John Both, 
Hermann Swaneveldt, and John Asselyn; all his 
works are now attributed to those masters. 

ROSELLr, NiccoLo, 2, 3, of the Dossi, Garo- 
folo, Bagnacavallo, and others. 

RYCKAERT. David, 2, 3, p4, 6, of Teniers, 
Brower, Ostade, Peter Breughel, and Schalcken. 

SABBATINI, Lorenzo, 2, 3, 6, of Michael An- 
gelo, Raffaelle. and Parmiggiano. 

SARTO, Andrea del, 2, 3*, 6, of Raffaelle, 
Correggio, Vinci, and others. 

SCHAGEN, Giles van, 1, 3, p4, 6, of Rubens, 
Rembrandt, Ostade, and others. 

SCRETA, Charles, 2, 3* p4, of the Italian. 
Spanish, and Flemish masters, particularly of 
Raffaelle, Titian. Veronese, the Oaracci, Guido, 
Domenichino, Lanfranco, Murillo, and Rubens. 

SPOOR. W. J. L., 1, 3, p4, of Paul Potter, 
Cuyp, and other Dutch masters. 

STEFANESCHI, Giovanni Battista, 1, 3, in 
small, of Raffaelle. Correggio, Titian, Parmiggiano, 
Andrea del Sarto, Pietro da Cortona, and others. 

TARUFFI, Emilio, 1, 3, p4, of the great Ital- 
ian masters, particularly of Carlo Cignani, and Al- 

TENIERS, David, the Elder, 1,2, 3* 6, of 
jSllzheimer, and Bassano. 

TENIERS, David, the Younger, 1, 2, 3*, 6. 
of all the great masters of the Italian, Dutch, and 
Flemish Schools. 

TERENZI, Tehenzio, 1, 2, 3* of Raffaelle, 
Baroccio, and others. 

TONI, Michael Angelo, 1, 2, 3, in small, of 
the great Italian masters. 

TORRE, Flaminio, 1, 3, p4, of the great Ital- 
ian masters. 

TREVISANI, Cav. Francesco, 1, 2, 3* 6, 
of the great Italian masters, particularly of Cor- 
reggio, Parmiggiano, Veronese, Guido, and Cignani. 

TROOSTWYCK, Walter John, 1, 2, 3, p4, 
of Paul Potter, Adrian Van de Velde, Karel du 
Jardin, and others. 

VANNI, Giovanni Battista, 1, 3, p4, of Cor- 
reggio, Titian, Veronese, and other great masters. 

VERHELST, Peter. 1, 2, 3, p4, of Gerard Douw, 
Mieris, Slingelandt, and others. 

VEOCHIA, Pietro, 1, 2, 3* 4, of Giorgione, 
Titian, Pordenone, and others. 



• — P. Ireneo Affb. 

1 Parmigiano Servitore di 

/'ita di Francesco Mazzuoli. 
>attato della nobilita della Pittura. — Alberti. 
laggio sopra Pittura. — Co. Francesco Algarotti. 
)pusculi Eruditi. — Giuseppe Allegranza. 
lemorie della vita di Pomponeo Amalteo. — Co. 

Federigo Altan. 
lemorie storiche su la vita di Lionardo da Vinci. — 

Carlo Amoretti. 
Iinecdotes des Beaux Arts. 
Juida di Pescia. — Innocenzio Atisaldi. 
'he Greek Anthology. 
Lbrege de la Vies des plus fameux Peintres. — An- 

toine DezaUier D'' Argenville. 
Juida di Brescia. — Gio. Ant. Averoldi. 
A pompe Senesi. — P. Isidore Azzolini. 
ritede'Pittori, Scultori, e Architetti. — Cav. Gio- 
vanni Baglione. 
lotizie de' Professori del Disegno, &c. — Filippo 

Jiographie des Peintres Flamands et HoUandais. — 

'raite de Peinture, &c. — Dandre Bardon. 
'itture e Sculture di Ferrara. — Cesare Barotti. 
''iaggio Pittoresco. — Giacomo Barri.. 
Juida di Rovigo. — Francesco Bartoli. 
iC Peintre Graveur, 21 tomes. — Adam Bartsch. 
jC Vite de' piu insigni Pittori e Scultori di Fer- 
rara. — Girol. Baruffaldi. 
)ictionnaire des Graveurs. — Francois Basan. 
Juida di Pesaro. — Antonio Becci. 
fite de' moderni Pittori, Scul 

tori, e Architetti. 
nta di Cav. Carlo Maratti. 
jruida di Ravenna.— ^6. Francesco Beltrami. 
'itture e Sculture di Ferrara.— Cesare Benotti. 
)iccionario Historico de los mas illustres Profes- 

sores de las bellas Artes en Espana.— Cean 

Intichita di Aquileia.— Can. Gian Domenico Ber- 

lisorgimento d' Italia negli studii, nelle arti, &c. — 

Ab. Saverio Bettinelli. 

' — Giampietro 
[ Bellori. 

Memorie della Vita di Gio. Bettino Cignaroli.— 
Ippolito Bevilacqua. 

Guidadi Milano. — Carlo Bianconi. 

Direzioni per giovani Studenti in Architettura 
Civile. — Ferdinando Galli da Bibiena, 

Het Gulden Cabinet. — Comelnis de Bie. 

Biographic Universelle, 82 tomes. 

Della nobilissima Pittura. — Biondi. 

Bellezze della citt&di Firenze. — Francesco Bocchi. 

II Riposo. — Raffaello Borghini. 

Carta del Navegar Pittoresco. ^ 

Le Ricche Miniere della Pit- > -.-Marco Boschini. 
tura. ^ 

Notizie alia Vite di Vasari. — Gio. Boitari. 

Dictionnaire des Monogrammes. — Bridliot. 

Galerie des Peintres Flamands, HoUandais et AI- 
lemands. — Le Bnm. 

Guida di Mantova. — Giovanni Cadioli. 

Le Cronache di Cremona. — Antonio Campi. 

Le pubbliche pitture di Piacenza. — Carlo Carasi. 

Dialogos de la Pintura. — Vincenzio Carducho. 

Nuovo Dizionario istorico, Bassano, 1796. — Ab. 
Francesco Carrara. 

Vita di Benvenuto Cellini. — Benvenuto Cellini. 

Trattato della Pittura. — Andrea Cennini. 

The Works of Cicero. 

Storia della Scul tura. — Count Leopold Cicognara. 

Dictionnaire des Monogrammes. — Prof. J. F. 

Serie de' Pittori di Verona, inserted in vol. iii. of 
the Cronaca dello Zagata. — Giambettino Cig- 

Catalogo istorico de' Pittori e Scultori di Ferrara. — 
Cesare Cittadella. 

Voyage d' Italic, &c. — Charles Nicolas Cochin. 

Antichit^ Picene. — Ab. Giuseppe Colucci. 

Dictionnaire portatif des Beaux Arts. — Jacques la 

Vita di Raffaello di Urbino. — Ab. Comolli. 

Cabinet des Singularites. — Florent le Comte. 

Descrizione Odeporica della Spagna, &c. — D. An- 
tonio Conca. 

Vita di Michangiolo Buonarotti. — Ascanio Con- 



Ristretto della Storia Brescia'na. — Lionardo Coz- 

Vite de' Pittori Bolognesi, &c. — Luigi Crespi. 
Anecdotes of eminent painters in Spain.— i?ic7i.. 

Lives of the most eminent British Painters, Sculp- 
tors, and Architects. — Allan Cunningham. 
Guida di Cento. — Orazio C. R. Dandini. 
Vite de' Pittori Antichi. — Carlo Dati. 
Guida di Torino. — Onoralo Derossi. 
Vies des Peintres Flamands, Aliemands, et Hol- 

landois. — /. B. Descanips. 
Manuel d'Iconographie Chretien ne.—-Z?trfro«. 
Dialogo della Pittura. — Lodovico Dolce. 
Vitede' Pittori Napolitani. — Bernardo Dominici. 
Essai sur les Nielles. — Duchesne. 
Le Peintre Gi'aveur Fran9ais. — Robert Dumesnil. 
Histor}' of the Arts of Design in the United 

States. — William Dunln.p. 
Anecdotes of Painters. — E. Edwards. 
Sculptura, or the History of Engraving on Cop- 
per. — J. Evelyn. 
Ravenna ricercata.— G'iro/amo Fabri. 
Museum Lapid. Vicentinum. —PacZre FaccioU. 
De Viris Illustribus.— i?ar/Ao^. Facius. 
Monumenti Ravennati.— Co. Marco Fantuzzi. 
Memorie Trevigiane. — D. M. Federici. 
Entretiens sur les Vies des Peintres.— /. F. Fe- 

Le Classiche Stampe. — Giulio Ferrario. 
Handbook for Travelers in Spain.— /^orcZ. . 
La Teorica della Pittura.— /lu/o/u"o Franchi. 
L'Art de Peinture. — Dit Fresnoij. 
Guida di Ferrara. — Dott. Antonio Frizzi. 
Histoire des meilleurs Artistes de la Suisse. — /. C. 

Lectures at the Royal Academy.— //ertr;/ Fuseli. 
Dictionnaire des Artistes de V Ecole Fran9aise.- 

Inscriptiones Romana3. — A. Galletti. 
Life and Studies of Sir Benjamin West. — Tohn 

Guida di Vol terra. — Ab. Antonfilippo Giachi. 
Vita Lambcrti Lombavdi. — Ubertan Goltzius. 
Lives of the Dutch Painters. — .Tohann van Gool. 
Thesaurus Veterum Dypticorura, &c. — Ant. Fran- 
cesco Gori. 
Memorie de' Pittori Messinesi. — Filippo Hackert. 

Tables historiques et chronologiques. A. F. 

Handbook of the History of the Spanish and 
French schools of Painting. — Sir Edmund 
Idee generale d'une collection d'estampes. — Baron 

De Groote Schouburgh den KonstSchilders. — Ar- 
nold Houbraken. 
Manuel des Amateurs de I'Art. — Huber and Rost. 
De Levens en Werken der Hoi 1 andsche en Vlaamsche 

Kunstschilders. — fmmerzeel. 
Treatise on Wood Engraving. — Tohn Jackson. 
Manuel de I'Amateur d'Estampes. — .Toubert. 
De Pictura Veterum. — Franci.'^cus .Junius. 
Handbook of the History of Painting, Parts 1 and 

2. — Dr. Kugler. 
Histoire de la Gravure en raaniere noire. — La- 
bor de. 
Vies et Oiuvres des Peintres ) 

les plus celebres, 21 vols. > —Chas. P. Landon. 
Annales du Musee, 33 vols. ) 

Storia Pittorica della Italia ; last edition, with cor- 
rections and additions by the author, pub- 
lished in 1809.— yl6. Luigi Lanzi. 

L'Etruria Pittrice. — Ab. Laslri. 

Descrizione di Milano. — Serviliano Latuada, 

Dizionario istorico di illustri professori delle belle 
Arti in la citta di Urbino.— ^rci"p. D. Andrea 

Sketches of the History of Christian Art. — Lord 

Vite de' piu celebri pittori, &c. — Ottavio Lione. 

Trattato dell' arte della") 

Pittura. ). —Gio. Paolo Lomazzo. 

Idea del Tempio della j 

Pittura. J 

The Works of Lucian. 
Verona Illustrata. — Scipione Maffei. 
Felsina Pittrice. — Cesare Malva'sia. 
Het Schilder Boek.— /fare/ van Mander. 
Guida di Rimino. — C. F. Marcheselli. 
Guida di Lucca.— Vincenzio Marchio. 
Deliciae Batavic^e variag elegantisque Pictura?. — 

Jac. Marcus. 
Lettere Pittoriche Vevn^mQ.—Annibale MariotlL 
Bologna perlustrata.— .4. Paolo Masini. 
Le Reali Grandezze dell' Escuriale di Spagna.— />. 

Ilario Mazzolari. 
Origines Typographicaj. — Gerard Meerman. 
Vite de' Pittori Veneziani,MS.— M/ia/e Melchion. 
Memorie per le belle Arti, 4 vols., published at 

Rome from 1785 to 1788. 
Opere Diverse. — Cav. Antonio Raffaelle Mengs. 
Etudes sur PAllemagne. ) 

Histoire de la Peinture Fla- > — Alfred Michiels. 

niande et Hollandaise. ) 
Vite dei piu celebri Architetti antichi et moderni. 

— Francesco Milizia. 
Vite de' Pittori Pesaresi. — Gioseffo Montani. 
Pitture e Sculture di Perugia. — G. F. Morelli. 
Notizie istoriche, &c. — ^16. Domenico Moreni. 
Pisa illustrata nelle Arti del Disegno. — Alessan- 

dro da Morrona. 
Guida di Vicenza. — Francesco V. Mosca. 
Museum P'lorentinum. 

Neues AUgemeines Kunstler-Lexicon. — Nagler. 
Thaumaturgus Opticus perfectissimag Prospec- 

tivse. — /. F. Nicerorius. 
Voyage pittoresque de Naples et de Sicile. — Abhe 

de St. Non. 
Life of Sir .Joshua Reynolds. — James Norllicote. 

Oretti Carteggio. ) 53 MS. vols.-/WarceZ/o Oretti. 
Oretti Memorie. ^ 

Abecedario Pittorico. — P. Antonio Orlandi. 
Histoire de la Peinture en Italic. — Comte Orloff. 
Descrizione delle pitture d' Aiscoli. — Bald. Orsini. 
Inquiry into the Origin and") 

early History of En- j 

graving. )--W. Y. Ottley. 

Notices of Engravers and ! 

their Works. j 

Trattato della Pittura e Scultura, &c. — P. Gian- 

domenico OttoneUi and P. da Cortona. 
Arte de la Pintura. — Francisco Pacheco. 
Las Vidas de los Pintores e Statuarios eininentes 

Espanoles.— Z). Antonio Palomino Velasco. 
Guida di Cremona. — Anton. Maria Panni. 
i Annales Typographic! ab Artis inventse Origine ad 
I annum M. D. — G. W. Panzer. 

I Traite historique de la gravure en bois. — J. B. 




Vite <W Pittori, Scultori, e Ar- 'I 

cbitctti moderni. i—Lpo}ie Pascoli 

V\iQ de' Pittori, Scultori, e Ar- \ ^^^'^^ ^ ^'^'^"• 

chiietti di Perugia. J 

V"ite de' Pittori, Scultori, e Architetti, &c. — Gio. 

Battista Passeri. 
jruida di Bergarao. — Dott. Andrea Pasta. 
Description or Itinerary of Greece. — Pausa- 

jruida di Siena. — Qio. Antonio Peed. 
Ilabinet des Beaux Arts. — Charles Perrault. 
^ours de Peinture. i 

\.brege de la Vies des Pein- > — R. de Piles. 

tres. ) 

Dialogo della Pittura Veneziana. — Paolo Pino. 
jettere Pittoriche. 

Che Natural History of Pliny, Book xxxv. 
Llie Parallel Lives of Plutarch. 
/itede' Pittori, Scultori, e Architetti di Verona. — 

Bartolomeo dal Pozzo. 
lemorie istoriche di Antonio Allegri. — Pungile- 

^he Institutes of Quintilian. 
listoire de I'Art modern i 

en Allemagne. \ —Comte A. Raczynski. 

jes Arts en Portugal. ) 

)issertation on Oil Painting. — RodolphE.Raspe. 
Mte de' Pittori Genovesi. ) ^ n i n- 
^ita di Cav. Raffixello(-^«^-^f.'^^«^^"^We 

,T \ Haiti, 

Mengs. J 

)elia Pittura Friuliana. — Girolamo Renaldis 

ndice del Parnasso de' Pittori. — Seh. Resta. 

]he Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

je Maraviglie dell' arte, &c. — Carlo Ridolji. 

Tuida da Trevigi. — D. Ambrogio Rigamonti. 

Itoria della Pittura Italiana. — Rosini. 

ruida di Padua. — Gio. Battista Rossetti. 

Juida di Parma. — Clemente Rata 

Lcademia Artis Pictoriae. — Joachim Sandrart. 

^enezia descritta. — Francesco Sunsoinno. 

i' Imniortalita e gloria del pennello. — Agostino 

luida da Napoli. — Ab. Pompeo Sarnelli. 
1 Microcosrao della Pittura. — Francesco Scan- 

A Finezze de' pennelli Italiani. — Luigi Scara- 

lerie dei piu celebri Pittori, Scultori, e Architetti. 

Florence, 12 vols, 
legole Generali di Architettura. — Seb. Serlio. 
loUekens and his Times. — Joh7i T. Smith. 
itnith's Catalogue raisonne of the Works of the 

Dutch, Flemish, and French painters. 

Vite de' Pittori Genove^i. — Raffaello Soprani. 
Annals of the xVrtists of Spain. — W. Stirling. 
The Geography of Strabo. 
Biographical Dictionary of Engravers. — Joseph 

Apparato degli uomini illustri di Ferrara. — Agosti- 
no Superbi. 
Descrizione del Vaticano. — Agostino Taia. 
Vite de' Pittori Bergamaschi. — Co. F. M. Tassi. 
De omni scientia artis pingendi. — Theophilus,Teo- 

Jilo, or Ruggiei^o. 
Dizionario degli Architetti, Scultori, Pittori. — Ste- 

fano Ticozzi. 
Notizie degli artefici Modenesi. — Cav. Tiraboschi. 
Guida di Roma. — Ab. Filippo Titi. 
Lettere Senese. — -Guglielmo della Valle. 
Vite de' piu eccelenti Pittori, Scultori, e Architetti. 

— Giorgio Vasari. 
Vite de' Pittori, Scultori, e Architetti Modonesi. — 

Lodovico Vedriani. 
Verona Illustrata. 
Notices sur les principaux Peintres de I'Espagne. 

— Viardot. 
Trattato della Pittura. — Lionardo da Vinci. 
De Architectura. — Vitruvius. 
Anecdotes of Painting in England. — Walpole. 
Dictionnaire des Arts de Peinture. Sculpture, et 

Gravure. — Claude Henry Watelet. 
Supplement au Pemtre Graveur de Adam Bartsch. 

— Rudolph Weigel. 
De Levens-Beschrivingen de Konst Schilders. — J. 

Campo Weyerman. 
Storia delle Arti, &c. — Giovanni Winckelmann. 
Enciclopedia Metodica delle Belle Arti. — Zani. 
Notizie istoriche de' Pittori Cremonesi. — Gio. Bat. 

Memorie della citt^ di Brescia. — Bald. Zamboni. 
Della Pittura Veneziana. — Ant. Maria Zanetti. 
Storia dell' Acadetnia Clementina di Bologna. — 

Giampietro Zanotti. 
Idea de' Pittori, Scultori, e Architetti. — Fed. Zuc- 


Also, Rees' Cyclopedia, the Encyclopedias Brit- 
annica and Metropolitana, the Penny Cyclopedia, 
and the American Encyclopedia ; Chalmers' and 
Rose's Biographical Dictionaries ; the London Art 
Journal, and other periodical works relating to the 
Fine Arts, published more recently ; besides much 
important information concerning American Art 
and Artists, which has transpired within the 
knowledge of the author, during the past twenty 


Plate L 

p. Aartsen. 

[K-F 1677.0.^ 

H. Abbe. 


L. Abents. 


Adam .Alzheimer. 

D0^ w 

John van Aken. 

C C 


Cherubino Albert! 


F. van Aken. 

H. Aldegrever. 

Alessandro Algardi. 

Huych Allard. 



Albert Altdorfer. 

;5^-fil."iK"W.«'c^.-J. A. 

Justus Amman. 


Andrea Andreani. 


Silv. Antonianus. 

Peter John van Asch. 

Hans or John Asper. 

John Asselyn. 

John Walter van Assen. 

W. V. Assen. 

Audenaerd, or Oudenaerd. 

or Sinn or 

Henry van Avercam 

ovGASPAR,P. F., ovGASPARJ., or G ASPf., or GAS. f. 
Gaspar Avibus, or Patavius. 


Peter van Avont. 

lAf PB 

Francis de r^fv Babylone, 
or Jacob da Barbary. 


Alessandro Badiali. 

Antonio Badile. 

William Baillie. 

Hans Baldun. 

Antonio Balestra, 

^o.D. F. 

Domenico del Barbiere. 

JF- A. F. 

A, F, Bargas, 

F. B. \^. F. 

Federigo Baroccio di Urbino, 

or Barriere Gallus, in. et del. 
Dominique Barriere, 

H. B. T H.B. fee. 

Heinrich Bary, 

John William Baur, 



Plate 11. 

I, Jji r • °^ i S, J), r . ^"^ Petr. Ss. Bart., Sc, Romce. 
Pietro Sante Bartoli, called II Perugino. 

Niccolo BeatricijOf Lorraine 

[P'^^K B. L. F. or K B. L or N. B. F. or iV.i?. Romc^,ovB.Romcz. 

Niccolo Beatrici, of Lorraine, 

• I ("^ or Micarino, fee. 

Domenico Beccafumi, called 

Bartholomew Beham. 


Mathew Beitler. 



Hans Sebald Beham. 

• or J)Me^i^ 
Stefano Delia Bella. 

M.B, pinodt. 
Marco Bello. 

J. Vander Bent. 

Class, or Nicholas Berghem, 

/''^I. G. B. 1730. 

J. G. BergmuUer. 


Solomon Bernard. 


J. B. Bertani, Britano, or Ghisi. V ^ 


James Beutler. — James Binek and 
Hans Burgkmair used these initials 

Bibiena, or Galli. 

I. B.1529 or 15 I. B.27 

James BLnck. 


Bartolomeo Biscaino. 

(J, B, **«^' et sc. 

Charles Bertram. 

.^^ ijii 

Joachim Beuckelaer. 

Adrian de Bie. 


John de Bischop. 

r^ /^i. B. 

James Bihck. 


Fra. Bona Bisi. 

M ^7^7. orP. V.B.I.f. 1751 

Peter van Bleck. 

C. p. pin:v. I. G. B. 1638. 
J. G. Blecker. 

Henry de Bles. 

cy^ ^^-M. F.B. »^ F.B. f«- - F.B.^«-/- 

or AB. BL., in., or A. BL., in., or A. BLOEM., in. „, ^ BLOEM., inr., F. B.fiimfeat 

et exc. 

Abraham Bloemaert. 

Frederick Bloemaert. 

C7. j3l. or O* Blo. or Oorn. Bio. Sc. RomcB. 

Cornelius Bloemaert. 



I 702 

Peter van Bloemen, 


Plate III. 



Michael Blond. 

.Ed or ^\/v_^ 

Lansloot Blondel. 

F. V. B. 

F. van Bocholt. 

Abraham Blotelina;. 

Geo. Bookman. 

2Jc)l'770.«^D. B. 1777. 

Jean Jacques de Boissieu. 

^^ JRenatzis, fecit. 
Rene Bovin. 

F. B,f, or F, Bol.f. 1644. or Boljec, 1643. 
Ferdinand Bol. 


Niccolo Boldrini. 

ol, or Jtl* JL>« inv. 

John or Hans Bol. 

f^^S\D^^^(}aLdam jSolsvert, or JiK},olsicerd. 
or B. a. Bolsioert, Sc. 
Boetius Adam Bolswert, or Bolsuerd. 

or aS. a. Bolswert, sc. 
Sclieltius A. Bolswert, or Bolsuerd. 

iA8-^.-"B-I. B. 0. B. F.»^ I. F. B. 

Giulio Bonasoni. 

Julio B.F. or /. V.Bonaso, or Julio Bonaso. or Julio Bolognese, fee, 1546. 

Giulio Bonasoni. 

Xi)ori>. Bona., fee. 

Domenico Bonavera. 

Peter vander Borcht. 

Henry vander Borcht. 

Orazio Borgiani. 

P. Bordone. 

Jerome Bosche, or Bos. 

B. B- or- B. B. F. - Jac. hb. or Jae. Bos.,f or Jaeobus B 

Jacob Bossius. or Bos. 

ossius, Belgia, incid. 

Andrew Both. 

J» B, J, or J, Both, fee. 

John Both. 

A . JD. Jj. inv. et incidit, 1631. 

P. de Brauwere. 

Jacob de Bray. 

1634 '''' ^ 

Pierre Brebiettie. 

'- B" B. B. F. or B. 

Bartholomew Breemberg. 

r>. V. Bremden. 


Plate IV. 


Hans Bresang, 

Fr. Jo. Ma. Brix. "^^ -JT r. Jo. Mai'ice Brixensis. 

Fra, Giovanni Maria da Brescia. 

or Jo. An. Br., or Jo. An. BX., or Jo. An. BX., or /. A. Brix., or Jo. Anton. Bnxian. 

Giovanni Antonio da Brescia. 

Abraham Breughel. 

Ph. JBrinck. del etfec. 

Philip Jerome Brinckman. 

Crispin vanden Broeck. 

Crispin, inv., B., fecit., 

or Barbara filia Crispini, -sc, or B.jilia, sc, or B.Jil., sc. 
Barbara vanden Broeck. 

J jJcA^'^ /<^3 / cceA. ^ff ^r. 

John van Bronkhorst. 

Hl'^FB"' H. B. 1540. or isH, B.45. 

Hans Brosamer. 


John vaader Bruggen. 

^^•G^PR .^'3-)^'' I-V. B. F. " V\.^BR.-FE. ^^J.V. Brug, f. 

John vander Bniggen. 


or /W\\\*'r 

or Ah. Brim., or Bruynus. 
Abraham de Bruyn. 



Nicholas de Bruyn. 


Nicholas de Bruyn. 


John Theodore de Bry, or Brio. 

,0^ J. Theodore, fee, or J. T. de Bry, inv. etfec, 

John. Theodore de Bry, or Brie. 

T. d, B.f. 

or de Bry, fee. 
Theodore de Bry, or Brie. 

Michael Burghers. 

KB-M^-t 'iE'"-H.B.-I.B. 

Hans or John Burgkmair 

CfB.,-c\)ord!l.or6B"G:B. - ^ - C. B. 

Cornelius vander Bus, Bos, or Bosch. 



Plate V. 


John Busse. 

John Busso. 

William de Buytenweg. 


Miohaol Angelo Buonarotti. 

V . C. 153^. 

Vineenzio Caccianemici, 

no. CAMP. 1517. 
Domenico Campagnola. 

nventjec., or Jac. Callot, inv. etfec. \G. (j. or QG. fecit, or C. P. C.deT. fee. 

Jacques Callot, /^i. 

Charles Campion, Comte de Tersan. 

Alonso Cano, 

Remigio CantagalUna, 

^. C. da Pesare, fee., or 

G. Benus, inv. etfec. 
Simone Cantavino, or Simone da Pesaro, 

Dom. Ma. Can. fee., J^Jy^^'^L. C. «^ L. C. G. «^ LO. C. '^^X. C, f, 

or Ca7iutus, Sc. ^ J 

Domenico Maria Canuti, 


or Lod. Car.., inv. or fee. 
Lodovico Caracoi, 

A. C/^G. A.^^AUG. F. orA^os. a i587. 

Agostino Caracci, 

•o^F. C.zn.l621. 
Francesco Caracci. 

A.C. or A. aim. etfec. 1606. 

Annibale Caracci. 

\5or^K,l553. ore/ J^ CaragUa Veronese, 1553, 

or Jacobus Veronensis, or R.J. Jacohtis, Ver.fec. 
Giovanni Giacomo Caraglio, or Caralius, 

Lodovico Cardi, or Cigoli. 


Bernardo Castelli. 

or Gio. Bene. Cast. Gen., fee, 1658, 

or Castiglione^fec. 
Giovanni Benedetto Castiglionc, called Benedetto. 

Frangois Chavcau. 

Giovanni Battista Cavalleriis, 

or Luc. Clam. UiU., I. V. Doctr.del. et sculp. 1609. 

or Lucas Ciamherlanus. 
Luca Ciamberlano. 

or Henncus Clivensis, fecit, or Henri a Cleve. 
Henry van Cleef. 




or an Ape. 
Martin van Cleef. 




Plate VI. 

I.e. or X 

y Ci5u. 

or Johann Ciein. 

Herman Coblent. 

f-orF.C. orRK. 

or F. Cleyn, fecit, 1645. 

Francis de Cleyn, or Kleyn. 


Nicholas Cochin. 

Thomas Coekson. 


or Hieronymus Coccius, invent, or H. Cock, fecit, or inv. etfec. 
Jerome or Hieronymus Cock. 


or S. Colbenius, fecit. 
Stephen Colbenschlag. 

Hadria. Coll. sculp. 
Adrian Collaert. 


Ham Collaert, fecit, or Johannes Collaert, sc. Romce. 
Hans or John Collaert. 

Hieronymus Colleo. 1555. 

Girolamo Colleoni. 

1^ c 

Jan de Cologne. 


Cosimo Colombini. 

C, Koning^fec, et exc. 

or C. Koninck, scul. et exc. 
Cornelius Conmck or Koninck. 


Cammillo Congio. 

S, Koninck^ iQOi 

or Sal. Koning, invent. 
Solomon Coninck or Koninck. 

B, C, Sc, Romm, o^ 

G. B.j B. C. Sc. Romce. 1647. 
Bartolomeo Coriolano. 

A, Coiiradusjfec, 

or sculp. 
Abraham Conrad. 

/. B. C. Sc, or // Coriolano, fee, 

or J. B. Coriolanus, sc. 
Giovanni Battista Coriolano. 



or In. Venetia, Com. Cort. fee. 1571. 
Cornelius Cort. 

Jean Couvay 

/. Cfec, 

or Giac. Cortese,fec. 
Jacopo Cortese, or II Borgognone. 

Peter Cottart. 




Michael Coxcie. 

Josse Craesbecke. 


Lucas Cranach, or Kranach. 

or T. Cruger, sc. 1618. 
Dirk or Theodore Cruger or Kruger. 

Johann Creutzfelder. 

or Mat Cruger, sc. 
Matthias Cruger or Kruger. 


Hubert do Croock. 


Plate VII. 

^ •"' ^riiyl, del. et scul. 1665. 

Levinus Cruyl. 


Dirk or Theodore van Cuenhert. 

I W C-H.V.O. 

Hans or John Culmback or Kulmback. 

,0^'i?. 1645. 

Benardino Curti. 

^[c^"^!). 1954 

or D. Custodis, inv. etfec. 
Dominick Gustos. 

C. D. sc. or C. van Dalen^ sc. 

Cornelius van Dalen. 

Pierre Darct. 

L. D. sc. or scul. or fcC. 
Leon Daven. 


or C. D. sc. or C. David, sc. 
Charles David. 

BF«Hy-i^"H.D.F. or LD.F. 

or H. David, Si. 
Jerome (Hieronymus) David. 

Louis David. 

Jerome Davilloo. 

Cornelius Decker. 

Charles Decker. 


or G. J. Delphius, sc. or fee. 
William (Guillaume) James Delft. 

Nicholas Manuel Deutsch. 

Rodolphus Manuel Deutsch. 

or s-\ sor i 1©= 

or B. Dolendo, inv. etfec. 
Bartholomew Dolendo. 



Za. Do. scul. ^"^ZaDo.foul. 1581. 

Zachary Dolendo. 

Dosso Dossi. 



Albert Durer 




Jean Duvet or Danet. 

Sir Ant. Vandyck. 

G- Y-D. 1646. 

Gerb. vanden Eeckhout. 

R. E. 1620. 

Renold Elstracke. 

Peter vander Elst. 


C. Engelbrechstein. 

J' E./ec. 

John Evelyn. 


Plate VIII. 

A.y.E. or K/ 

Albert van Everdingen. 


Domenico Falcini. 


Caesar van Everdingen. 


F. V. F. Sc. 1013. 
Frederick van Falckenbourg 

P. F, or P. V. F. 

or Paul Farinat,/. 
Paolo Farinato, of Verona. 

Odoardo Fialetti. 

P. F. in,, Ho. F. V.fec. 

or Ho. F. F. f. Paul Fa. V. I. 
Orazio Farinato. 


Maso Finiffuerra. 

. » -IL a 
William Faithorne. 

j, or 

Antonio Fantuzzi. 

Capiicci fatti 'pcr F.F. 

Paul Francis Ferg. 

Jacommetto de Flor. 1409. 

or Jacobello de Flore. 1432. 
Jacobello del Fiore. 

Albert Flamen. 

Francis Floris. 

Vincentius Brixiensis., fecit. 1455. 

Vincenzio Foppa of Brescia. 


David Antonio 

Francis Frederick Franck. 

S. F. fecit, 

or 5^. Frisius^fec. 
Simon Frisius. 


Barent Gaal. 

In the Museo Fiorentino, 

plates 7narksd V. F., are by 

Vincenzio Franceschini. 

H. F. F. 


Jerome Franck 


Battista Franco. 

^^' S. Fulcarus, 

or .Si. Furck.f. 
Sebastian Furck or Fulcarus. 

J. Franco Ronim, sc. 

Giacomo Franco. 


F E^ T Cnut e;i £' 
Peter Furnius. 

Gio. Bat. Galestruzzi. 

Tlieodorus Oalleus, M. D. C. 

Theodore Galle. 


Bernardo Gallo. 

Philip Galle, 




Antoine Gamier. 

To. Jacobi Gavitii opus, 

or Jacobus Gavatius de Bersamo P. 
Giovanni Giacomo Gavasio. 


Plate IX. 

Augustinus de Gavazzis, 

Civ. Berg., pinxit anno 1527. 
Agostino Gavasio. 


or (ly or 

Leonar. Gaiter. Jecit, 1581, or L. 
Leonard Gaultier. 


Arnold de Gelder. 

Sigismund Gelenius. 

or A. Genoels, fee. 1684. 
Abraham Genoels. 


Andrew (Jentsch. 


or J. de Ghein, inv. etfec. 
James de Gheyn, or Ghein. 

Jacob de Gheyn. 

William de Gheyn. 


Gio. Bat. Ghisi. 


Giorgio Ghisi. 

Adamo Ghisi. 

R. V. I. 

Diana Mantuana. 

Diana Ghisi. 


Giacinto Gimignani. 

Joan. Georgius Patavii. 

Giovanni Giorgio. 

^6.°' AG 

Albert Glockenton. 

Van Goar. 


Goltz, fee. 

or Henricus Goltziiis,fec. or sc. 
Henry Goltz. 

CI. Goyrandj Gall'', se. Romoe. 

Claude Goyrand 

or ih-^£' 

James Grandhomme. 


or Jerome von Franckfort. 
Jerome Greff. 


M. Greischer. 

Matthew Greuter. 


Hans Gninewald. 

Joan. Ft. Cent.., 

or Joan. F. Barbieri.f. 
Giovanni Francesco Guercino. 

Hans Guldenmundt. 

CGHf^ox <g^ (f?>.c^r.or ^or (^JJ. 



Cornelius van Haerlem. 

(H 1614,- ^H"' ^- GmsL^ J\ 

Cornelius van Haerlem. 

Count Hagedom. 


Plate X. 

John van Hagen. 

John V. Halbeck. 


Francis Hals. 


A. B. du Hainel. 

John Haver. 

Niccolo Francesco Haym. 


John Hemmelinck. 

or 'Sv lOr 


Martin Tan Hemskerk. 


George Hoefnagel. 


Augustine Hirschfogel. 

Nicholas Hirschfogel. 


G. Hoekgeest. 

To. Hogen, fecit. 

John Hogen. 

jflogenbergiiis, sculpsit. 

Remigius Hogenberg. 

Franciscus Hogenhergius, sculpsit. 

Francis Hogenberg. 


Hans Holbein. 


Sigismund Holbein. 


Elias HoU. 

M/ '"■Wm5.°''^^ff.°' 

Wenceslaus Hollar. 

Melchior Hondecooter. 

or Jodocus Hondiiis. 
Jost de Hondt or Hondius. 

or I— K or 

or H. ffondius, or H. H. fee, 1598. 
Henry de Hondt the Elder. 


or W. Hondius. fecit. 
William de Hcndt. 


Peter de Hooge. 

Samuel van Hoogstraeten. 


David Hopfer 


or tf»i_iror 

<5H°' IH. 

Jerome Hopfer. 


Lambert Hopfer. 

John Hoskins the Elder. 

I. H. 

John Hoskins the Younger. 


William Howard. 

John van Hugtenburg, 


Plate XL 


Simon Huter. 


Peter Isselburg. 

A. D. I. F. 

Antoine de Jacquart 



Christopher Jamitzer. 

H. Janssens. 

K. D. I. or a: i>. V.I. fee. 

Karel du Jardin. 


Christopher Jegher. 

Pet. de Jode^ scul'p. ox fee. 1606. 

Peter de Jode, the Elder. 

P. de Jodejec. 1659. 

Peter de .Jode, the Younger. 

1. 1. D. I, 

J. M. de Jonge. 


A. vander Kabel, or Cabel. 

or M. Kager^ fecit. 
Matthew Eager. 

or MaHus Kartarius Romce. 1567. 
Marius Kartarus, or Kartarius. 

Ang. K.fec. 1764. 

Maria Angelica Kauifman. 

George Keller. 


James Kerver. 

or T. F. K. 

Theodore van Kessel. 


or Adrianus Thomce Keii, fecit. 1575. 
Adrian Thomas Key. 

Theodore de Keyser. 


James Kierings or Cierincx. 

James Kierings or Cierincx. 

Wolfgang Kilian. 

K. F. RomcE., 

or J. Ch. Klenghel, f. 1771. 
John Christian Klenghel. 


Uans Klim. 

I, K. orLK.1520. 


James Kobel. 


Andrew Kohl. 


John Ulrich Kraus. 


Lucas Krug or Krugen. 

or 7\ Cruger, sc. 
Theodore or Dirk, Kruger or Cruger. 

Jlatthias Kruger. 

J. S. K. 

Jane Sibyl Kusell. 

.J. L. V. E. S. 

Johann von Ladenspelder 


Plate XII. 

P. V. Laer^ f. 

or P. D. Laer.f. Romce ; or P. de Laer, RomcB. 1636. 
Peter de Laer, called Bamboccio. 



Gerard de Lairesse. 

orfla or 





■^s^ 31.,^^ XJ^cU ^,^^iifeq|L'^^Gr. J^CLU 



Gerard de Lairesse. 


Gerard de Lairesse. 


Ahasuerus Landfield. 

(j. L. 

Cav. Gio. Lanfranco. 

Toinette Larcher. 

Antoinette Larcher. 


Nicholas de Larmessin. 

Marcellus Laroon. 

Michel Lasno. 


Peter Lastmann. 

JVicola Petri, sc. 164^ 

or Nicol. Lastmann. 
Nicholas Lastmann. 

or S. fecit, or Stephanus fecit. 
Stephen Laulne. 






Henry Lautensack. 


Hans Sebald Lautensack. 


Hans Lederer. 

James Lederlin. 

G. Leone, fee. 

or G. V. Leeuwfec. 
Gabriel vander Leeuw. 

D. Leeuw., fee. 

or J. de Leeuw, sc. 
John de Leeuw. 

William de Leeuw. 


Godfrey Leigel. 

or Hans Lencker Nurein- 


Hans Lencker. 


Lucas van Leydcn. 

Joh.Antonius Gorticellis, P. 1520. 

or Joh. Antonius Regilhis, P. 1535, 

or Lycinius P. 

Giovanni Antonio Licino, called II Pordenone. 


or Joannes Lyvyns, fecit. 
Johann Lievens. 


Hans van Lin. 

J_jl ' 

llitus LiiiC'k. 

^E.,-3r-¥.-PvL 5L 

Peter van Lint. 

Rene Lochon. 


William Lodge. 


Plate XIII. 

or Lo. F. or Laur. Lol. 
Lorenzo Loli. 


Pierre Lombard. 

Ahasuerus van Londersell. 

or J. Lond. or J. Louder, fee. 
John Londersell. 


Anto. Fran. Lucini. 


Peter Maes. 

Jos. 3Ia. faciehat. 1630. 

Giuseppino da Macerata. 




Andrea Mantegna. 

Melchior Lorich. 

Michele, or 
Michele Lucensis of Lucca. 


Gerrit Lundens. 

7an vandor Lys. 


or Johannes Melhogms, or Jodes Malhogius, or Johannes Malbodius, 

or Joaes Malbogi. pingebat, or Joan Mabusius. 
John de Mabuse, or Malbeugius. 

J. Mains, in. etfec. 

or Joh. Mains, fee. 1600. 
Giovanni Maggi. 



Alexander Mair. 

Jo7\ or Jorma, sculp. 

Thomas Major. 



Daniel Manasar. 

O. Masseus, pinxit. 

Otho Marcellis, 


Peter Marchand, 

1 I exeu^,^^ lA: 

Jacob Matham. 

Th. M. fecit or sculpsit, or Th. Matham, fee. 

Theodore Matham. 

or Corn. Met. or Cornelius Metensis, 
Cornelius Matsys, Metsys or Metensis. 

I. V. M. 

or I.<!rahel V. M. or Israhel M. 
Israel von Mecheln or Meckenen. 

Christopher Maurer, 

J. V. cler Meer cle Jonghe, fecit. 1683. 

John vander Meer the Younger. 

A4i-M--M-M--M '^W/ "M. A. E. 

or Meldolle, or Andrea Meldolla. 
Andrea Meldolla. 


Plate XIV. 


or C. Mel. or CI. Mell. 
Claude Mellan. 

Opas Melotii Forol'wieims, 

Melozzo da Forli. 

Simon de Senis. 

Simone Memnii. 

or YY or 


Matthew Merian the Elder. 

M:°' if- 

Matthew Merian the Elder. 

Antonellus Messaneus, fecit. 1494. 

or Anionms Messinensis. 
Antonello da Messina. 

Andrew Meyer. 






Dietrich Meyer. 

Rodolph Meyer. 

Francis Mieris. 


Daniel Mignot. 


Francisque inv. or F. M. in. 

Francis Mile or Millet. 

^- 9^-54- G^M^ 

Giuseppe Maria Mitelli. 

l^ROM,- ffiROM '' ffiko M °' feEpM 

Girolamo or Hieronymus Mocetto. 

Grirolamo or Hieronymus Mocetto. 



Nicoletto da Modena. 

or Nicoletti de Mutma. 
Nicoletto da Modena. 

M. M. inv. ox fee. 

Martin von Molitor. 

or P. de Molynfec, or P. Molyn fecit. 
Peter Molyn the Elder. 


Hendrick Mommers. 


J. M.fec. 

J. Moni. 


or Benedetto Montagna. 
Benedetto Montagna. 

Jacopus Montagnana. 1495. 

Giacomo or Jacopo Montagnana. 



Paul Moreelze. 




Plate XV. 


Gio. Bat. d'Angeli Moro. 

C. L. Moyart. 



Hermann Muller. 

Agostino do Mmis, called Veneziano. 


or Pet. Merecinus, sc. 
Peter Myriginiis. 

Vgjp-N. 11"^ 



or P. N.fec. or P. Na. fee. 
Peter Nagel. 

or Mich. Natalis.fec. 
Michael Natalis. 

T.JV,; Paris, 1657. 

Thos. Neale. 


Arnold vander Neer. 

Mcolo JVelli Veneziano, f. 1568. 

Niccolo Nelli. 


or A. E. Neyts. 

Giles Neyts. 


. Nicole. 

D. Nicole. 

G. or Guil. Nieulant, fecit. 

or Guilielmus van Nieidant, fecit. 
William van Nieulant. 

or B. M. N. fecit. 

Balthasar Meneius Nimecius, 


Peter Nolpe. 


Mauro Oddi. 

Matthew Oestereich. 

Hieronynius Olgiatus,f 1572. 

Girolamo Olgiati. 

P. G. V. O. f. or P. G. van Os, fee. et exc. 

Peter Gerard van Os. 


Adrian van Ostade. 

Pas(f. Otti\ Ver^. inv. 

Pasquale Ottini 

Ozanne, fee. 1724. 

Nicholas Ozanne, 

J. F. Ozanne. 

Jane Frances Ozanne. 

M. J. Ozanne. 

Mary Jane Ozanne. 

H. L. Padtbrugge. 


Leo. Pallavicini. 

Jacopo Palma, or il Giovino. 

Palma Ludovicus Lusitaniis,f. 

Lodovico Palma. 




Plate XVI. 

Palmezzano, or Palmasanus, or Palmisanus, 

or Palmezanus Pinsebat. 
Marco Palmegiani da Forli. 

J. P. 

John and Julius Parcelles. 

Auguatinus Parisinus. 

Jacobus Parmensis, 

Jacopo da Panna. 

J. B. Cenlensis. 

Gio. Battista Pasqualini. 


or C. van Pass, inv. 1589. 
Crispin de Passe, the Elder. 

Crisp. Passeus^ Jun., or C de Passe JUius fee, 

or Crispiniis Passeus, or C. de Pas, inv. etfec, or sculp. 

Crispin de Passe, the Younger. 


or W. Pass./., or Will. Passe, fecit. 
William de Passe. 

or Simon de Pas. 
Simon de Passe. 


Magdalene de Pa^se. 


Bernardino Passeri. 


or B. Pasarot, or B. Passaroto. 
Bartolomeo Passerotti. 

C. p. Pinx. 1665. 

Christopher Paudits. 

LP. or I. le P. 1684. 
Jean le Pautre. 

(j. I . or Georses Peham Monachi. 

George Peham. 


jfec.f or Palais, fee. 

Michel Pelais. 


N^ieh. Frangois Pellier. Hispel Pen or Penn. 

P^orJJ^or3[\ ttccc)e b Ltjor \\$^ 

Luca Penni. 

Baptista Parmensis, fee., del, or formis, or Battista da Parma, or 

Battista Pensieri Parmensis, fecit, or Baptistcc pensier parmensis, formis, 

or Baptista panzera, formis. 

Battista Pensieri da Parma, or Parmensis. 

<p« <F 

or Gregori Peins, 

or Georgins Pentz. 
Gregory Pentz. 

¥-"'0. p. D. 0. 

or Opus Peregrini de Ces. 
Peregrini da Cesena. 


Stephen Ferae. 


J. Perjocouber. 


or J. Perrissim, or J. Persinus fecit. 
Jacques Perisin. 


Plate XVJI. 

. or Paria, fecit, 

or Franciscus Perrier, Burgundus, 
pinx. et sculp. 
Frangois Perrier. 

R. a Persyn^ sculp, or fee. 1642. 

or Regnerus a Persyn. 
Regnier de Persyn. 

B. B. 

or Bal. Sen. 
Baldassare Peruzzi. 

D. P. or D. P. F. or D. P. P. F. 

or Dom. P. F., or D. P.f., or D. P. f. Anconce, or 
DotnM^- Pa^nus. Anconce. 
Domenico Peruzzini. 

Opus, Eq. Jo. P. 

Cav. Gio. Peruzzini. 

R. P. fee., 

or R. Picou,fe. Romce. 
Robert Picou or Piquot. 

Calixtus Laudensis. 1524. 

Callisto Piazza. 

P. Picault, Blesensis, sculp. 

Pierre Picault. 

Thomas Picquot. 


John Ulrio Pilgrim. 


Nicolas Pinson. 


Alexis Pimraum. 

Leonardus Gratia Pistoriensis. 

Leonardo da Pistoja. 


or Johannes Baptista Pitonus Vicentinum fecit. 

Giovanni Battista Pittoni. 

M. Montague, in. et f 

or M. Montaigne or Montagnefecit. 
Matthew van Plattenberg. 

Nicholas de Platte Montagne. 

Nicholas van Plattenberg. 


Martin Pleginck. 

AND. P. 

or And. P. in etfec. 
Andrea Podesta. 

Martin Poeham. 

E. V. P. 

Egbert vander Poel. 

Opus Antonii Pollajoli Florentini. 

Antonio Pollajuolo. 


Sylvius Pomarede. 

Franciscus Bassanus, Pinxit. 

Francesco da Ponte, the Elder. 


Peter Porbus. 


Francis Porbus. 

Giusejjpe Salviati, 

or Joseph Porta Garfagninus, or Joseph Garfagninus, 

Anno 1542. 

Giuseppe Porta, called Salviati. 

T T) 
"•-^» and a Bird, 

or Gio. Bat. del Porto. 
Giovanni Battista del Porto. 

Elias Porzel. 


or Paulus Potter f. or in etfec. 
Paul Potter. 


Plate XVfll. 

Andreas. Ber. Pin. 

or Andreas Bergomensis, pinxit. 
Andrea Previtale. 



Peter Quast. 


Artus Quellinus. 


Hubert Quellinus. 

I. Quatre Pomme. 

Gr. D. L. Q. 1680. 

Guillaume de la Quewellerie. 

lo. Isabel Bellonacus. 

Jean Rabel. 

Bernardino Radi Cortonese. 

Bernardino Radi. 


or P. Raefus. 
P. Raefe. 


Servatius Raben. 

R. S. 7. P. 

Raffaelle Sanzio. 


Marc' Antonio Raimondi. 

Mr SI- 1. R. 

Marco da Ravenna. 


Franz Rechberger. 

"4 o 

Valerian Regnard. 


Wendell Reich. 

C. R. 

Charles Remshard. 

B. R. or B. R. F. 

iT B. Bart. Barthome, or Bartholome Rciter, 

Reitter^ Renter, or Reyter. 

Bartholomew Reiter. 



Guido Reni. 

C. Reverdinus. 

F. de la Marejec. 1650. or F. J. D. L. Mare, inv. sculp. 1655. 

F. J. de la Mare Richart. 

RB-T-A- or R- BTA. or RBTA. or 



Gothard Ringgli. 

William Rogers. 

P. ROL. F. 

Peter Rollos. 

Hieronimi Rumani, or Hler, Roftnan. 

or Hieronimus Rumanus. 
Girolamo Romano. 


Plate XIX. 

Christian Romstedt. 

Salvator Rosa. 

V (UidOr 

or Martinus Rota, 15G9. 
Martino Rota. 

J. M. R. F. 

Giovanni Mauro Rovere. 



Guido Rugger!. 

or Gasparo, f. 

Gasparo Ruina. 

Prince Rupert. 


or Rupprecht,fec. 
Freiderich Carl Rupprecht. 

Jacob Ruysdael. 

John Sadeler 

John Saenredam. 

Cornelius Saftleven. 

Hermann Saftleven. 

or iJiJt' or ' » 

Anthony Salaert 


Andrea Salmincio. 

'♦^'ly' or 

p. Saltzburger. 


Husrues Sambin. 

John Jacob von Sandrart. 

Jul. Sanutus or Sannutus, Venet. fee. 
or Julius Sannutus F. 

Oiulio Sanuto. 

Lawrence Sauberlieh. 

D. S. sc. 

Daniel Savoye. 

Scalabrinus Pistoriensis. 

Lo Scalabrino. 

S . 

or Raphael Schiamonossi. Schiaminossi, or Schaminossizis. 

Raffaelle Scaminossi. 

H. L. Schaerer. 

Hans Schaeuflein the Elder. 


Hans Schaeuflein the Torager. 

Matiheus Schaffnahurgensis. 

Matthew Grunewald. 

TiTiANo V. Andrea Schiaonf. 

Andrea Schiavone. 

Gabriel Schnellboltz. 

A\4S;'A*^"'M tSrtA tSrI^2 

Martin Schoen. 

Bartholomew Schoen. 


Plate XX. 

Erhard Schoen. 


Peter Schubart. 


J. H. Schoenfeld. 



H, van Schuppen. 



J. F. Schorer. 


C. N. Schurtz. 

Ph. Soye, or de Soye, fee. 

or P., Ph., or Philippus Sericcus, Sericeus, Serious, Syticus, 
or Sytius fecit. 
Philip Sericcus, or Soye. 

¥ p\r 

Peter Serwouter. 

CcBsar Magnus, f. 1533. 

Cesare Sesto. 

Hercules Septimus, 

or H. S. 1570. 

Ercole Setti. 


Valentine Sezenios. 


^^/ux^j:> t/ eMud 

or Ch. V. Sichem fecit, or C. van Sichem, sc. 
Christopher van Sichem. 

\1U3 or |\jf or K^^ 

ichem. ichem. 

Charles van Sichem. 

Lucas Coritius, or 

Lucas Aegidii Signorelli Cortonensis. 1502 
Luca Signorelli. 


Anthony Silvius. 

G. A.S./ec.orI.A. S./. 

Gio. Andrea Sirani. 

E. b* r . or Elbta. Sirani, /., 

or Elisabetta, or Elisabetha Sirani, F.,f. or fee. 

Elizabeth Sirani. 


P. van Slingelandt. 

Antonius da Solario Venetus, f. 

Antonio Solario. 


J. F. Solemacker. 


Virgil Solis. 

M. V- S- 

Mathias van Somer. 




John van Somer. 


Lionello Spada, 



Giuseppe Ribera, called II Spagnoletto. 

If. (^Hieronymus) Sperling. 

Jerome Sperling. 


Hans Springmklee. 


Palamedes Staevaerts. 


Plate XXI. 


or Adrianus van Stalbant. 
Adrian van Stalbent. 




Dirk van Staren. 

jf or jf or J7 

Jan Steen. 

ft 7 J 


Henry Stcenwyck. 

P. S. F. 

Pietro Stefanoni. 

Tobias Stimmer. 


Peter Stent. 

J. C. Stimmer. 


Lawrence Stoer. 

Francis Stoss. 

V. S. F., or V. S. I. F., or VES. ST. I. FE., or 
Vesp. Stra. I. F., or Vespasiano St. 1. F. 

Vespasiano Strada. 


Lorenz Strauch. 


Jurian van Streek. 

P. L. S. 

Peter le Sueur the Younger. 

L. S. 1544. 

Lambert Suterman. 

Peter le Sueur the Elder. 

Hermann Swanevelt. 


Antonio Tempesta. 

T)'© ffi»<B/® 

David Teniers. 

Gerard Terburg. 

Pietro Testa. 


Moses Thim. 


John James Thourneyser. 

!• T« r« 1568. 

John Thufel. 

1-y V I 

Giles Tilburg. 

F. T. F. or G. K T. 

Flaminio Torre. 



Martin Treu. 

HiERONiMus Trevisius P. or 
Bier. Tarvis. Pkt. Faciebat. 1533. 

Girolamo da Trevigi. 


Hans Troschel. 


Peter Troschel. 

I. T. F. 

James Troschel. 


Plate XXIL 


Andrew Trost. 


Bernard Vaillant. 

Walierant Vaillant. 

Sebastiano /)' VZ,.^ 

orD'Val Ut. 
Sebastiano D' Val, or Valentini. 

Qio, Luigi Valesio. 


Martin ran Valkenberg. 

B. V. Byck, I. or in. et fee. 

Daniel vanden Dyck, 


Sir Anthony Vandyck. 

Esais van de Velde. 

i V. V. or A. V. V. F. or A. V. Y.f. or A. v. V. 
or^. V. Velde J. 

Adrian van de Velde. 

Alex. Verat., pinx. 
Barius Jilius, sculp. 

Dario Varotari. 

Joan. Vena/ntius Pisaurensis, F. 1687. 

Giovanni Veuanzi. 


Giulio Cesare Venenti. 


v\ * / 

Adrian vander Venne. 

V. Boo?n, f. 

or A. Verboom, Pinx. 
Abraham Verboom. 


John Cornelius Vermeyen. 

^l^or/r V.f. 

Henry Versohuring. 

BaptistaP. V. F. 

Baptista Vicentino, or Pittoni. 

Joseph JVicolaus Vicentini, 

or Nic. S. Vicentino, I. 
GiosefiFo Niccolo Vicentino. 

E. V.orljEV 

or Aenea Vico. Parmense. 
Enea Vico or Vighi. 


0^ A^^^-'^'F. V. F. 

Francesco Villamena, 

David Vinckenboouis. 


Nicholas John Visscher. 

., V. F.orJtf Vissellet,F. 

M, Vissellet. 


John George van Vliet. 

Bominicus V. F. 

or Dom. Vitus, fee. 

Domenico Vitus. 

Henry Voghter. 

Giovanni Renard. 

Giovanni Volpato. 

Lucas Vostermans the Elder. 

Monkey and Fox. 

Martin de Vos. 


Sebastian Vouillemont. 



Plate XXIII. 

Aryde Voys. 


fi. Vranx, or Franks. 

Remi. Vuibert, 

or Remigins Vuibert Gallus Sculpsit Ki. An. 1663 
Bemi Vuibert, or Wibert. 

/ den Uil, 

or /. den Uyl. 
J. den Vyl, 

Mo. V. VytJ. or Mo. V. VyJ. or M. V. B. 1620, 

or M. V. Brouck, or M. V. Brouck, Mo. V., M. v., or M. V. Uytenbroeck, 

Vtenbrouck, Wtenbrouck, d^c. 

Moses Uytenbroeck, called Little Moses. 



John Ulric. 

or Lucas de Urbino, F. 

Luca di Urbino. 

Hans Erhard Wagner. 

J. Wa.,fec. 

James Wagner. 

Jacob Walch. 

Jh. Warnir, or Jh. M^1636 

John Wamir. 



Anthony Waterloo. 


Henry Watman. 

H.W. 1 

Hans Weigel. 

Hans Weinher. 


Samuel Weishun. 

Wenceslausof Olmutz. 

T. W.orT. M. W. 

Telman van Wesel. 


Gabriel Weyer. 

Nicholas Weyer. 


John Wierix, or Wierinx. 

fi W 'I'EW- Hi.W.orHi.W.P. 

or J. HiERONIMUS, W. Fe. 
Jerome Wierix or Wierinx. 

J. W. fecit, 

or Joan. Wild., or J. Wild, invent, 
John Wildens. 



Jesse van Winghen. 

Michael Wolgemut. 

Vander Wilt. 

J- w. w. 

J. W. Windter. 

Johannis Wirzii jRoma, ^c. 

John Wirz. 


Peter Withooa. 

Peter Woeiriot. 

or Anthonium de Vormacia. 
Anthony von Worms. 

or W.fec. 1643. 
Philip Wouwerman. 


Bernard Zaech. 


Bernard Zan. 

Z. A. 

Andrea Zoan. 



John Wynants. 



Matthias Zagel. 


Antonio Maria Zanetti. 

Jacob Zuberlein. 

Plate XXIV. 


Qio. Francesco Zabello. 

Theodore Zaarel. 


Paul de Zetter. 

J. Anckerde Zwoll. 

^- B. — For an explanation of these Plates, see Key to Marks found on Engravings 
and Paintings, in Introdtiction, page xix. 



piifflRs, EMivBRs, mimn, m ircbiteots. 

\.A, H. Vander, a Dutch engraver of little note. 
Je was related to Peter Vander Aa, the celebra- 
ed publisher of Leyden, for whom he executed, in 
ine, some frontispieces, portraits, and other book 
)lates, in a coarse, heavy style. In the collection 
>f portraits entitled Principum et illustrium 
^ironim Imagines, there are two or more by this 
Ttist, signed H. V. der Aa. del. et scidpsit. He 
ngraved the title-page of the Inde.v Batavicus, by 
Ldrian Pars, published at Leyden, 1701. 

AA, Thierry Vander, a Dutch painter, born at 
he Hague, in 1731. He was a pupil of I. H. 
leller ; after quitting this master, he painted in 
oncert with G. Metzu. His works consist chiefly 
f genii, flowers, fruit, birds, and other ornamental 
itrorations, in which he exliibits much skill. 

AALST. See Aelst. 

i33 or ]^ AARTSEN, P. [often mis-spelled 
■M^» "^L V / Aartgens, or Aertgens], a Dutch 
i^^oi'ical painter of eminence, born at Leyden, in 
14J8 Ke was bred by his father to his own 
trade, that of wool-carder ; but disliking this busi- 
less, ht turned his attention to painting, and 
Jlaced himself vinder the instruction of Cornelius 
tingelbrechts. He acquired so great a reputation 
;hat the most distinguished artists honored him 
vith their friendship ; and Francis Floris, who had 
:arefully studied the works of Michael Angelo, 
ittracted by his fame, wem on purpose to Leyden 
see him, and finding him living in poverty, 
>ttered lum a handsome maint<inance if he would 
lettle at Amsterdam, which he refused, not liking 
leave his pot companions. He was accidentally 
Irowned, m 15G4, as he was returning home late 
>ne night, in a state of intoxication. 
^ ABACCO, Antonio, a scholar of Antonio da 
>an Gallo, an eminent architect of Rome, where 
le followed the same profession with reputation. 
n 1558, he published a valuable work on archi- 
ecture, entitled Libro d' Antonio d'Abacco. appar- 
mente aWarcliitettura, nel quale si kgurano 
icune nobili antichitd di Roma, with fine prints 
ngraved by himself. He also executed the prmts 
f the plans of St. Peter's from the designs of his 

ABAROA, Maria de, a Spanish paintress, who 
flourished at Madrid in the middle of the seven- 
teenth century, and executed portraits in a style of 
such peculiar excellence as won the approbation 
of those great masters, Rubens and Velasquez, 
who honored her with their friendship. 
_ ABATE, Andrea [called Belvedere], a Neapo- 
litan artist, who excelled in painting fruit, flow- 
ers, vases, and other inanimate objects. His pen- 
ciling was free, and his coloring bold, which, with 
his admirable chiaro-scuro, gave a noble relief to 
the vases and other ornaments with which he 
enriched his designs. He was one of the artists 
employed by Charles II., of Spain, at the recom- 
mendation of Luca Giordano, to assist him in 
painting the Escurial. He died in 1732. Fuseli 
says there was another artist of this name, and 
that there is a fine picture of a Carita, executed by 
him, in the Palazzo Zainbecari, at Bologna ; but 
doubtless it was painted by one of the Abati. 

_ ABATI, NiccoLo [or Niccolo dell'], an eminent 
historical painter, born at JModena, in 1512. He 
was a scholar of Antonio Begarelli, an old de- 
signer and sculptor, from whom he learned the 
first principles of the art. It is supposed, also, 
that he had the advantage of instruction from 
Correggio, which is supported by his superior 
knowledge of foreshortening, and the boldness of 
his relief. At the age of thirty-five he painted his 
celebrated work, the Martyrdom of St. Peter, for 
the Church of the Benedictines, now in the Dres- 
den Gallery, which brought him into immediate 
notice. He afterwards painted, in the Candiano 
palace, twelve pictures illustrating scenes from the 
twelve books of the ^neid, of which Lanzi says, 
that " in the correctness of the figures, the beauty 
of the landscapes, the architecture, and the am'mals, 
they merit every praise that can be bestowed on 
a distinguished follower of the style of Raffaelle." 
These pictures are now in the Florentine Gallery. 
In the prime of life he went to Bologna, where he 
executed, in the Palazzo Leoni, in fresco, a Nativity, 
an admirable performance ; and at the Institute, 
four subjects in a frieze, representing musical 
assemblies and conversations, designed and com- 

ABAT. i 

posed with such taste and elegance, that they 
became the admiration and the models of the 
Caracci— in proof of which, it is only necessary to 
mention that Agostino C. wrote a sonnet in his 
praise, in which, in the flowery language of a poet, 
he attributes to him the symmetry of Raffaelle, 
the sublimity of IMichael Angelo, the truth of 
Titian, the greatness of Correggio, and the grace of 
Parmiggiano. Such was the excellence of his prac- 
tice in fresco painting, that it is said he never had 
occasion to retouch his work when dry, which 
gave an uncommon purity and splendor to his col- 
oring. When Primaticcio was invited to the court 
of France, by Francis I., to decorate the royal gal- 
leries and apartments at Fontainbleau with fresco 
paintings, he selected Abati, as the most efficient 
coadjutor he could find, to assist him in the execu- 
tion of the great works he was commissioned to 
perform. lie was, in fact, the great operator, 
while Primaticcio designed. He died at Pans, m 
1571. Of his numerous fresco paintings, but four 
have escaped the ravages of time, and liis oil pain- 
tings are extremely rare. His great works at 
Modena and Bologna have been engraved by Do- 
meuico Ounego. [See Primaticcio.] 

ABATI, PiETRO Paolo, born at Modena, was a 
brother of Niccolo A. He excelled in painting 
battle pieces, which he executed with a spirit and 
energy unequalled in his time. Some of his works 
are placed with distinction in the Gallery at Flor- 
ence. Yidriani says he flourished about 1550, and 
Zani places his death in 1555. ^ 

ABATI, Ercole, grandson of Niccolo A., was 
born at Modena, in 1563. He possessed an extra- 
ordinary genius, wliich he disgraced by the deprav- 
ity and'intemperance of his conduct. Like most 
artists of this character, he dashed off his works 
with negligence and haste, but with such ingenuity 
of composition, and spirit of execution, as to make 
us lament his idleness and cUssipation. There is 
a fine picture by this artist, the IMarriage at Cana, 
in the Gallery at Florence. In connection with 
Schidone, he painted some pictures in the Council- 
Hall at Florence. He died in 1613. He had a son 
named Pietro Paolo, who painted several pictures 
at IModena, which have been liighly commended. 
This artist died in 1630, aged 38. 

ABATINI, GoiDO Ubaldo, a distinguished pain- 
ter of history in fresco. He was born, according 
to Passeri, at Citta di Castello, and flourished 
about 1650, in wliich year he was admitted into the 
A cademy at Rome. He was a disciple of Oavaliere 
Giuseppe Cesari. One of his principal works is 
on the ceiling of the chapel of St. Theresa, in S. 
Maria della Vittoria, at Rome. He died in 1656, 
aged 56. 

n ABBE, H., an engraver, who, accord- 
JJ.A. A.L* ing to M. Christ, was born at Antwerp, 
where some prints by him were published m 1670. 
Heineken also states that he executed some designs 
for the Metamorphoses of Ovid, published by Bar- 
rier, marked as above. 

ABBIATI, FiLiPPO, a historical painter, born at 
Milan in 1640. He was a scholar of Gioseffo 
Nuvoloncand rose to great eminence m his pro- 
fession. His invention was ready and fertile, nis 
drawing correct, and his execution remarkable lor 
an uncommon boldness and freedom of touch, tie 


painted with great rapidity, and with equal beauty 
in fresco and in oil. In competition with Fedo-i 
rio-o Bianchi, he painted the great vault of S. Ales- 
sandro Martre at Milan. One of his works, St., 
John preaching in the Wilderness, was painted m; 
fresco at Sarono. He died at Milan, in 1715. . 
ABBIATI, GuisEPPE, a Milanese designer and: 
en"-raver of little note, who lived about the begin- 
ning- of the eighteenth century. He etched some 
small prints of battles, and allegorical subjects 
after his own designs. 

ABBIATI, P. INI. The name of this engraver is 
afiixed to a fine portrait of Girolamo Cornaro, 
procurator of St. Mark, without date or name ol 
the painter. 

ABBOTT, Lemuel, a distinguished English por- 
trait painter, born in Leicestershire. He was a 
pupil of Francis Hayman. His merit consists m 
faithful likenesses. His portraits of the poej 
Cowper, and Lord Nelson, are esteemed the best 
ever executed of those great men. He died in IW6, 
aged 40. | 

ABEL, Hans, a German painter, born at Frank- 
fort He is supposed to have painted some of the 
beautiful windows which adorn the Cathedral anc 
other churches in that city. He flourished abou 


ABEL, Joseph, a German painter of great merit 
who ched at Vienna, in 1818. He was instructe( 
in the school of Fiiger, at Vienna, and distingiushei 
himself at an early age. He went to Rome, n 
1802 where he resided for six years, and painte( 
several pictures from ancient history andthe Greel 
Doets wWch gained liim much applause. On hii 
return to Vienna, in 1808, he painted porti-aits an< 
history with great success till the time of Ins death 
ABEL Ernst August, a German painter in oij 
and crayons, born at Zerbst ; flourished abou; 
1780 ; studied under Rudolph la Fontaine m^ 
practiced some years in London, Pans, and Ham-| 
buro- where he finally settled. He painted por| 
traits and miniatures, chiefly the latter, beingri^^or' 
successful in that branch. 

ABEL . In Malvasia this name occurs as 

a #rench'artist, who in 1650, so success^;^ly ^P^e^ 
the Communion of St. Jerome, by Pomeu-cmno, 
that he sold it for the original. 

ABENTS, Leonard, an engraver a natm 
of Passau in Bavaria, who ^-"^^^J^f ^ 

^y. ^tmSed hfs'S- with a monogram of 
his initials, A. and L _ . , i 

ABEREGNO, G.acomo a Venetian pamter d 
little note, who lived about 1400. 

ATiTn^TT John Louis, a German pamter an( 

? horn at Winterthur, in 1723. He was '. 

'"^ToT'Sy Meyer, and painted portraits an< 

tators sprang up. He died m 1785. 

ABESCH Anna Barbara, a Swiss pamtress a! 


ABILDGAARD, Nikolai, a Danish historical 
painter of great merit, born at Copenhagen, in 1744. 
He is esteemed the best painter Denmark'has pro- 
duced. His principal subjects were taken from the 
ancient poets and historians. Some of his best 
works were destroyed in the fire that consumed 
the palace of Christianburg, in 1794. Fuseli states 
that this calamity had such an effect on his mind 
that he scarcely painted afterwards. He was an 
excellent scholar. Five years study in Italy com- 
pleted the education which he had received in the 
Academy at Copenhagen. The creations of his 
productive imagination were sometimes of a gloomy 
yet always of a grand and solemn character. A 
considerable number of his works still exist in 
Denmark. Nearly all his works are those of an 
artist favored by the study of the ancients and the 
remains of antiquity. Nothing escaped his obser- 
vation. He was likewise a distinguished lecturer 
on art, of which he was director and professor in 
the Royal Academy in liis native city, and has left 
several disciples, painters as well as sculptors, who 
do honor to their master, as well as to their coun- 
try. He wrote some excellent essays, the object 
of wliich was to correct a false taste in regard to 
the arts. He died at Copenhagen, in 1809. 

^ ACEV, 

range the marbles of the celebrated chapel del 
Sagrario, in the cathedral of that city. He was 
employed, also, with others, in the monastery of 
(jraudaloupe, in 1618. See Bermudez. 

A_BIIUZZI, , a Roman landscape painter ; 

lived towards the end of the last centuryf Some 
of his earlier works, according to Winckelmaun, 
were much admired. 

_ ABONDIO, Antonio, an Italian sculptor, who 
lived about the beginning of the sixteenth century. 
He was called L'Ascona, from the place of his birth 
on the Lago jMaggiore. Torri says he executed a 
group of Venus and Apollo for Francis I., of France- 
also the eight colossal statutes that adorn the 
fagade of the house at Milan that formerly be- 
longed to the celebrated sculptor Leone Leoni the 
favorite of the Emperor Charles V. Fuseli men- 
tions a basso-relievo, in wax, of Cupid kissin"- 
Venus, who is reclining on a couch, which is 
attributed to this artist. He was probably the 
father of the elder Alessandro Abondio. 

ABONDIO, Alessandro, a Florentine painter: 
lived about 1650 ; was the son of a painter of the 
same name, who was a pupil of Michael Angelo 
and excelled in representations in wax. They 
were both contemporary with Sandrart, who 
speaks of them with praise. The younger lived 
m Munich, where Sandrart made his acquaintance 
He had been with his father in the service of the 
Emperor Rudolph II., at Prague, but after the 
death of his father in that city, had entered into 
the employment of the Elector Maximilian, of Ba- 
varia, at ^Munich. Sandrart acknowledges himself 
indebted to "the celebrated Alessandro Abondio" 
for valuable aid in compilmg his great work on 
the arts and artists of Germany. 

ABRAMSON, Abraham, a German medal en- 
graver, born at Potsdam in 1754. Nagler says he 
axiquired very great reputation as one of the ablest 
medalists of modern times, both from the superior 
style of his execution, and the poetical imagina- 
tion and classic taste displayed in his designs His 
vvorks are very numerous: Mensel gives a cata- 
ogue of the principal, of which the series of por- 
trait medals of the eminent literati of Germany 
have probably mostly contributed to his fame He 
J^as appointed Royal Prussian Medalist, and was 
elwted member of various academies. He died in 

ABRIL, Bartolome, a Spanish sculptor of 
V^alencia who lived at Toledo about 1600 He 
w^ employed by Juan Battista Monegro to ar- j 

1- ^^ -v^' ^,^^^ Alfonso, a Spanish painter, who 
lived at Valladolid about the middle of the seven- 
teenth century. Little is known of him He 
painted for the convent of the Dominicans, in that 
city, the Conversion of Saul, said to have been an 
admirable performance. 

ABSHOVEN, Theodore Van, a Flemish pain- 
ter, born at Antwerp, was the favorite disciple of 
David Teniers, the younger, and the most success- 
ful fol ower of his style— so much so, that his 
works have often been mistaken, by good judo-es 
for those of liis master ; and unprincipled deafers 
have been m the habit of obliterating his name for 
this purpose. Balkema calls his name Theodore 
Van Abshoven, and states that he was born at 
Antwerp, in 1648, and died in 1690 : by other 
authors he is named P. Van A. His pictures, like 
tnose of Ins master, represent scenes in low life- 
village festivals ; interiors of taverns and ale-hou- 
ses, with peasants dancing, regaling, and amusino- 
themselves; corps-de-gardes; chemists' laborato° 
ries, &c. The works of this painter are frequently 
met with in Flanders, where they are esteemed 
worthy of being placed in the best collections. 
His touch IS uncommonly light and spirited, and 
Ills coloring clear and silvery. 

ACCAMA,Bernard, adistinguished Dutch por- 
trait painter, born at Leuwarde, in 1697, where 
he died m 1 / o6. His works were greatly esteemed 
by fiis own countrymen. 

ACCAMA, Matthew, was also a native of Leu- 
warde born in 1702, and died in 1783. He went 
to Italy to study the old masters, where he resided 
several years, and made some fine copies. On his 
return to his native place, he painted historical, 
allegorical, and emblematical subjects with reputa- 

ACCERI, Cesare Antonio, an Italian land- 
scape painter, who lived about 1609, and was es- 
teemed an artist of talent. His works are not 
known out of Italy. 

ACCIIJS, CiESAR A., a Flemish engraver of little 
note. Hemeken is the only author who notices 
Uim, and describes a print of a landscape and fig- 
ures by him inscribed, CcesarAnt. Accius, fecit et 
in. A. D. 1609. '"^ 

ACEVEDO, Cristobal de, a Spanish painter, 
born at Murcia, about 1560. He studied under 
Bartolomeo Carducci, then in the employment of 
the king of Spain. He rose to eminence, and pain- 
ted many pictures for the convents in Madrid. 
His subjects were chiefly scriptural or religious, of 
large size, and executed with a nobleness and cor- 
rectness of design that placed him among the best 
professors of his time. The time of his death is 
not recorded. 

ACEVEDO, D. Manuel, born in Madrid, in 
1744. He began by diligently copying the works 
of the best masters, and rose to considerable emi- 
nence. He painted historical and religious sub- 
jects in the grand style, and was much employed 


in decorating the churches and convents of his 
native city. 

ACHEN, or ACH, John Van, an eminent his- 
torical and portrait painter born at Cologne^ m 
1552, and died at Prague, m 1015 aged Go. W ri- 
ters variously state the times of his birth and 
death, but the above are copied from the monument 
erected to his memory at Prague. His father, 
being in easy circumstances, was desirous of edu- 
cating him for one of the learned professions, but 
the b° nt of his genius exhibited itself so strong m 
early life, that he was induced to comply with the 
wishes of his son, and he placed him under the tui- 
tion of Jerrigh, a reputable portrait painter of 
Cologne, with whom he studied six years He 
next applied himself to study the works of Bar- 
tholomew Spranger. When he was twenty-two 
years of age he went to Italy, and first stopped at 
Venice, where he passed a sufficient time to get a 
thorough knowledge of the great works of art m 
that famous school. He next went to Rome, where 
his first performance was an altar-piece ot the 
Nativity, for one of the chapels of the Jesuits. 
Here he also painted a picture, into which he in- 
troduced the portraits of the celebrated musician, 
Madonna Venusta, playing on a lute and ot him- 
self holding a goblet of wine, which has been con- 
sidered one "of his best performances. From Rome 
he went to Florence, where he painted the portrait 
of the famous poetess. Madonna Laura. _ The Mec- 
tor of Bavaria now invited him to Munich, where 
he executed his most capital work, the Besurrec- 
tion, which has been admirably engraved by Ratia- 
elle Sadeler ; also the Finding of the True Cross, 
bv the Empress Helena. He painted the por- 
traits of the Electoral family with so much satis- 
faction to his employer, that he liberally rewarded 
him and presented him with a gold chain and 
medal, in token of his esteem. By the invitation 
of the Emperor Rodolphus, he went to Prague, 
where he executed several compositions, particu- 
larly a picture of Venus and Adonis, designed and 
executed with a taste then unknown m Germany, 
so much to the satisfaction of that monarch that he 
retamed him in his service as long as he lived. 
John Van Ach captivated Germany by the intro- 
duction of a new style, compounded of the princi- 
ples of the Venetian and Florentine schools, it is 
much to his credit that he was one of the first Crer- 
jnan artists who attempted to reform the stiff and 
gothic taste of his country, and although he did 
not entirely divest himself of it, yet he went as far 
as he judged prudent. 

ACHEN, Arnold Van, a German engraver, 
who lived about 1700, and is only noticed as the 
etcher of some small plates and frontispieces tor 
nublishers. He had a brother, a painter, called 
Tailor Van Achen, from his expeditious manner 
of draping the figures of various portrait painters 
of the day, who employed him for this purpose. 

ACHTSCHELLING. Lucas, a landscape pain- 
ter born at Brussels, about 1571, and died 1631. 
He studied with Lewis de Vadder under whose 
instruction he became one of the ablest artists ol 
his time. His manner is broad and bold, the toli- 
age of his trees lightly touched and apparently in 
motion, his scenery delightfully grand and diversi- 
fied, his distances recede with a pleasing grada- 
tion, and his coloring is remarkably transparent. 
In the Collegiate Chui'ch of St. Gudulc, at Brus- 


sels, are three large landscapes by this author, 
admiralty executed. 

ACHTERVELDT, Jacob, a Dutch painter; 
flourished in the last half of the seventeenth cen- 
tury ; studied under Metzu, and acquired consid- 
erable reputation, according to Nagler, by some 
of his pieces in the style of that master. He died 
in 1704. 

ACIER, Michel Victor, a French sculptor, born 
at Versailles in 1736; studied in the Academy at 
Paris, and early distinguished himself. He resi- 
ded chiefly at Burgundy, where he built a chapel 
and adorned it with some great statues. Fuseli 
says he was subsequently appointed master of the 
China manufactory at Meissen, in Saxony, for 
which he made many beautiful groups. His mas- 
ter-piece was the Death of General Schwerin, m 
alto-relievo. He died in 1799. 

ACK, JoHANN, a Flemish painter on glass; 
lived at Brussels about 1546, at which time he exe- 
cuted the celebrated paintings of the windows of 
the chapel of the Sacrament, in the CoUegiate 
Church of St. Gudula at Brussels, which have been 
attributed to Rogicr Van Briissel. He painted also 
some windows in the church. The designs consist 
of portraits of Charles V. and his family and rela- 
tives who presented the windows to the church. 
Reiifenberg says the efiect of the compositions is 
very rich ; the folds of the draperies are cast in a 
bold and grand manner ; the coloring is brilliant, 
and the architectural ornaments designed and dis- 
posed with great taste. 

ACKER, Peter, an ingenious painter on glass ; 
was employed at Nordlingen about 1450. Some 
of his works are still preserved in the St. George 3 . 
Church of that city. 

ACKERMANN, Rudolph, now the most fa- 
mous publisher of prints in the world, was born at 
Schneeberg, Saxony, in 1764. His father was a 
saddler, and brought his son up to the same trade, 
but by his assiduity he contrived to obtain a good 
education at the Latin School in his native city. 
When he attahied his majority, he travelled about 
Germany as a journeyman saddler, carefully lay- 
ino- by his earnings, and looking out for some higher 
and more profitable employment. In the mean- 
time he devoted his leisure in cultivating and im- 
pro\nng his natural taste for the fine arts, and be- 
came a very good painter and lithographer. After 
residing several years in Paris and Brussels, he 
went to London, where he became acquainted with 
one Faiua, a German, who had undertaken to con- 
duct a periodical of fashions {Journal des Modes), 
which met with considerable success. Ackermann 
soon after began to publish, in the same manner, 
drawint^s of coaches, curricles, and other velncles, 
invented, drawn and painted by himself. The nov- 
elty and excellence of his works excited universal 
attention, and he received orders for drawings 
from all quarters. This was the beginning of a 
trade in works of art, which graduaUy increased 
by his talents, attention and precision m business, 
to its present form and prosperity. He soon after 
married an English woman, became a citizen ot 
London, and founded the establishment now known 
as the Repository of Arts, at 90 Strand, in the cen- 
tre of London, which is one of the curiosities of the 
British capital. Some idea of the amazing busi- 
1 ness now carried on by the house of Ackermann & 
Co., may be drawn from the fact that they con- 



stantly employ more than GOO men in London 
alone. They publish illustrated works and engra- 
vings, the former frequently in the different mod- 
t^rn languages, as English, French, German, and 
Spanish, which they send to every part of the 
world, and thus not onlj^ enrich themselves, but 
bestow honor and wealth on the country. They 
also exert a powerful influence in promoting and 
encouraging the fine arts, by the ample employ- 
ment they give to many artists, and by introducing 
them to the public through their works, and by 
diffusing a love of art. 

AOQIJA, Cristofano dell', an Italian engra- 
ver, who lived at Yicenza, near the close of the 
last century. Heincken says he executed a por- 
trait of Frederick the Great ; also a larger print 
from the picture of '• Merit Crowned by Apollo," 
by Atidi-ea Sacchi ; a portrait by the same artist 
of Antonio Resqualini ; and some plates for the 
edition of the works of IMetastasio, puljlished at 
Venice in 1781. He worked chiefly with the graver, 
in a feeble manner. 

ACQUISTI, LuiGi, an Italian sculptor, born at 
Forli in 1744:. He early visited Bologna, where he 
was much employed on bassi-riiievi ; some of 
which he executed for the steps of the Brachi Pal- 
ace, which gained him considerable credit. He 
also executed the sybils of the cupola of the church 
Bella Vita. From Bologna he went to Rome, 
where he executed many works, among which 
were several Venuses. In the early part of this 
century he was employed at Milan, where, in 1806, 
he prepared some of the statues and hassi-rilievi 
for the cathedral arch of the Simplon. His mas- 
ter-piece is considered his group of Venus pacify- 
ing Mars, in the Villa Sommariva, on the lake of 
Como. 1805. In 1816 he returned to Bologna, 
where he died in 1824. 

ACQUARELLI, G., a Neapolitan painter of 
merit, who excelled in architectural pieces. His 
compositions are said to be grand and iiiiposing, but 
they are not known out of his own country. He 
flourished about the middle of the seventeenth 

_ ACQUISTABENE, Maestro, a painter and de- 
signer of architecture, born at Brescia. He flour- 
ished about the middle of the seventeenth century. 

ADAM, Jacob, an engraver born at Vienna, in 
1748. He was brought up in the Imperial Acad- 
emy in that city. He executed the plates for the 
Vienna Pictorial Bible, called the Bilder Bible, 
which gained him much credit. In conjunction 
with John Ernest Mansfield, he engraved a series 
of portraits of the eminent personages of Austria, 
which are executed with great neatness and finish 
— that of the Empress Maria Louisa is accounted 
the best. 

rj\ , ADAM, Hans, or Jan Van, a German 
JTIx engraver, who lived about 1730. Heine- 
ken describes six landscapes engraved by this 
'artist, marked with a monogram of bis initials, and 
a naked figure under a tree. He also supposes 
that some paintings, having the same monogram, 
were executed by him. 

ADAM, Robert, a British architect of consid- 
erable eminence, born at Kirkaldy, in Fifeshire, 
Scotland, in 1728. His father, also an architect, 
gave him a thorough education at the University 
of Edinburgh, and then sent him to Italy to study, 

where he remained several years. On his return, 
he was appointed architect to the King, which office 
he resigiied on being elected a Member of Parlia- 
ment for the county of Kinross, in 1778. He did 
much to reform and improve the architecture of his 
country. He was a man of science and great taste, 
but his style was too diffuse and ornamented for 
exterior grandeur. In 1704, he published a valua- 
ble work, entitled " Ruins of the Palace of Diocle- 
tian, at Salpatro, in Dalmatia," with seventy-one 
well engraved plates from his own drawings. The 
new University buildings in Edinburgh, and other 
public works, were erected after his designs. He 
died in 1792, and was interred among the worthies 
in Westminster Abbey. 

ADAM, James, brother to Robert, was also an 
architect of eminence, and elected architect to the 
King on the resignation of that office by his brother. 
The Adelphi buildings and Portland Place, in Lon- 
don, are favorable specimens of his taste and abili- 

ADAM, Lambert Sigisbert, a celebrated French 
sculptor, born at Nancy in 1700, the eldest son of 
Jacob Sigisbert Adam, also a sculptor, from whom 
he acquired the elements of the art. He went 
young to Paris and entered the Academy, where, in 
1723, he obtained the first prize, and was accord- 
ingly sent as royal pensioner to Ronje, where he 
remained ten years^ applied himself constantly to 
the study of the antique, and gained great reputa- 
tion. His design for the fountain of Trevi was 
accepted by Clement XH., in preference to those of 
sixteen other sculptors. Cardinal Polignac pur- 
chased, and employed Adam to restore, the muti- 
lated statues which were dug up from the supposed 
Villa of Marius, about five miles from Rome. 
Adam also restored many other ancient stiitues, 
and executed several original works while at Rome. 
In 1732 he was elected a member of the Academy 
of St. Luke. In 1733 he set out for Paris by the 
King's desire, and, visiting Bologna on the way, 
was elected a member of the Academy of St Clem- 
ent. His first great work at Paris was the colos- 
sal group, in stone, over the cascade of St. Cloud. 
He made at Versailles, in concert with his brother 
Nicolas, the Tii'umph of Neptune and Amphitrite; 
also several ather works for the Royal Gardens, 
which were remarkable for their extreme finish, 
and gainec? for Adam a popular reputation surpass- 
ing all tte sculptors of his time. The figure of St. 
Jerome, in the Invalides, is considered also one of 
his )?cst works. Adam excelled in working in 
mari&le, but devoted more attention to the execu- 
tion than to the conception of his works. In 1744 
be was appointed Professor in the Royal Academy 
at Paris; and in 1754 he published at Paris a folio 
work entitled, " Recueil de Sculptures Antiques, 
Grccqucs et Romaines,^^ engraved after his own 
designs. He died in 1759. 

ADAM, Nicolas Sebastien, an eminent French 
sculptor, born at Nancy in 1705 ; was the younger 
brother of Lambert Adam, whom he greatly sur- 
passed in all the higher qualities of art. He vis- 
ited Paris when very young, and soon evinced 
great talents. In his nineteenth year he was em- 
ployed to adorn the four fagades of a mansion at 
Blontpelher, at the conclusion of which undertak- 
ing he set out for Rome, where he joined his bro- 
ther Lambert in 1726. In 1728 he obtained the 
first prize of the Academy of St. Luke, and at- 
tracted the notice of Benedict XIII. He also 



restored some mutilated statues. After a nine 
years stay at Rome, he returned to Paris with the 
reputation of one of the best sculptors of -the age. 
One of the first and best works he executed at 
Paris, was a basso-relievo in bronze, for the Royal 
Chapel of Versailles, representing the Martyrdom 
of St. Victoria. He assisted his brother Lambert 
in tlie Triumph of Neptune and Amphitrite, and 
executed other works for the Royal Gardens ; also 
various pieces for religious orders and for public 
edifices. His Prometiieus chained, executed in 
1763, is accounted his best statue ; but his greatest 
work is the monument of the Queen of Poland, 
executed by the orders of King Stanislaus Lec- 
zinsld, her husband, and placed in the church of 
Bonsecours, near Nancy. Nicolas Adam was also 
appointed professor of sculpture in the Academy at 
Paris. He occasionally occupied himself with paint- 
ing. Frederick the Great sent an emissary to 
invite this great artist to his court, but his brother 
Lambert, to whom the King's agent applied, intro- 
duced (as is said, out of jealousy,) his brother Gas- 
pard (a sculptor of some merit, according to D'Ar- 
genville,) as the younger Adam, who thus unknown 
to Nicolas, received the appointment and salary 
intended for his brother. Nicolas, however, is said 
to have treated the imposition with perfect indiffer- 
ence. Hediedinl778, aged 73. See D^Argenville. 

fc\ ADAMO, , an Italian engraver, wdio 

_/'^\_ flourished at Mantua, about the middle of 
the sixteenth century. He engraved a series of 
seventy-six plates after the works of Michael An- 
gelo ; also some plates after other masters not 
mentioned. He usually marked his plates with 
this monogram, which means, Adamo sculpsit. 

ADAMS, Peter, an English engraver, who lived 
about 1700. He engraved some plates for books, 
and etched some landscapes, which have little artis- 
tic merit, and are only worthy of being noticed as 
early specimens of the art in England. He mai'ked 
his plates with a monogram of his initials, P. A. 

ADAJNIS, Robert, an eminent English architect 
of the time of Queen Elizabeth, who appointed him 
Surveyor of the Board of Works, and Architect to 
the Queen. His works are not menUoned, but there 
are two plans of his extant which he published : the 
one is a large print of ]\Iiddleburgh ; the other is 
entitled, " Taraesis Descripto," showhio; by lines 
across the river, how far, and from whence,, cannon 
balls may olistruct navigation, in case of tu inva- 
sion, from Tilbury to London, with proper distan- 
ces marked for placing the guns. He died in 1595, 
and was buried in the church at Greenwich, with 
this inscription: ^'■Egregio viro Roberto Admm^ 
opentm regiorum supervisori, architecturce, peri- 
tissimo, ob. 1595. 

ADAMS, Robert, an English engraver, who 
drew and engraved representations of the several 
actions that took place while the Spanish Armada 
was on the British coast. These prints were pub- 
lished by Augustine Ryther, in 1589. The archi- 
tect and the engraver of this name are doubtless the 
same person. 

ADDA, Conte Francesco d', a Milanese noble- 
man, and amateur painter, who studied under Leo- 
nardo da Vinci. He painted small cabinet pictures 
in the style of his master. There is an altar-piece 
in the Church of the Dominicans at Milan, attribu- 
ted to him. He died in 1550. 


ADDER, Philip, a painter, and some say, engra- 
ver, born at Nuremberg, in 1484. His fame is not 
worth much disquisition. Two prints, St. Chris- 
topher carrying the infant Jesus, and an altar- 
piece representing the Virgin Mary crowned, with 
a female saint holding the infant Christ, attributed 
to him by Florent Le Comtc and JSIr. Strutt, are 
now ascertained to have been engraved by David 
Hopfer (whose mark the perfect impressions bear), 
after this artist, 

ADMIRAAL, B., a Dutch painter of merit, who 
flourished about 1002, and whose style is some- 
what analagous to Weenix, but with a less free and 
delicate pencil. 

ADOLFFS, . All that is known of this 

artist is, that he engraved a beautiful portrait of 
the Duke de Biron, Marshal of France, on horse- 
back, which is now very scarce. 

ADOLFI, four Italian painters, father and three 
sons, born at Bergamo, where they lived and died. 
Little is known of Benedetto Adolfi, the father, save 
that he instructed his sons in his own profession. 
According to Tassi, Giacomo A. was born in 1682, 
and died in 1741. He painted history with repu- 
tation. He also painted saci'ed subjects for the 
churches, convents and monasteries of Bergamo. 
The Crowning of the Vu-gin, in the Church of the 
Monastery del Paradiso, and the Adoration of the 
Magi, in the Chuj-ch of S. Alessandro della Croce, 
are considered his best protluctions. Giro A. was 
born in 1083. He possessed a more fertile genius, 
and greater facility and freedom of execution than 
his brothers, and distinguished himself by some 
excellent fresco paintings in the public edifices at 
Bergamo and in the state. His principal works 
are, the Four Evangelists, in the Church of S. Ales- 
sandro della Croce ; the Deposition from the Cross, 
in S. Maria delle Grazie ; and the Decollation of 
St. John, in the parocliial Church of Colognola. 
He died in 1758. Nicola A. was born in 1688. 
He excelled in painting battle pieces — time of his 
death not recorded. 

ADRIANO, , a Spanish monk of the order of 

the Barefooted Carmelites, who lived at Cordova, and 
died in 1650. He possessed an extraordinary tal- 
ent for painting, which he practised only for amuse- 
ment. He took lessons from Pablo de Cespedes. 
He was so diffident of his performances that he 
used to destroy or deface them as soon as they 
were finished, in consequence of which practice, his 
paintings are extremely scarce and valuable. Some 
of his best works were preserved by the interces- 
sion of his friends, through the holy fraud of res- 
cuing souls from purgatory. His chief work is a 
Crucifixion, now in the Convent of the Carmelites, 
at Cordova. Pacheco, who knew him well, speaks 
of him as a great artist ; and Palomino says that a 
]\Iagdalen of his in the Convent, was considered by 
many as a genuine work of Titian. 

ADRIANSEN, Alexander, a Flemish painter, 
born at Antwerp, about 1625. He painted fruit, 
flowers, vases, &c., in an admirable manner. He 
was particularly excellent in painting fish, to which 
he gave such a surprising appearance of truth and 
nature, as to produce perfect illusion. His works 
in this way are esteemed worthy of a place in the 
choicest collections. His works are designed with 
great taste, highly finished, and extremely well 



colored, with a judicious management of chiaro- 
scuro, which gives them a remarkable transparency. 

AELST, or AALST, Evert Van, a Dutch pain- 
ter of still-life, born at Delft, in 1602. He excelled 
in painting dead game, birds, armor, vases of silver 
and gold, and other inanimate objects, which he 
represented with such delicacy and truth as gained 
him great reputation. His works are carefully fin- 
ished, his pencil is clear and flowing, and all his 
objects are disposed in a very pleasing and pictu- 
resque manner. He was very particular in copying 
from nature. He sometimes painted on a clear 
■white ground in a manner that produced a singu- 
larly natural effect. He died in 1658. 

AELST, Paul Van, was a natural son of Peter 
Koeck, who adopted the name of Aelst. He was 
a good painter of fruit and flowers. He practised 
at Middleberg and Antwerp. 

AELST, or AALST, William Van [called in 
Italy Gulielmo], was the son of a notary, born 
at Delft, in 1620. He was instructed in painting 
by his uncle, Evert Van Aelst, whose style and 
subjects he adopted, though he greatly excelled 
him. His penciling is light, his touch deli- 
cate in a wonderful degree, and he wrought up his 
pictures to an extraordinary finish. He spent 
four years in France, and seven i^ Italy, where 
the exquisite polish and finish of his works gained 
him great reputation. The Grand Duke of Tus- 
cany "invited him to Florence, gave him commis- 
sions, rewarded him liberally, and presented him 
with a gold medal and chain as a mark of his es- 
teem. He returned to Delft in 1656, but soon 
settled in Amsterdam, where his works were so 
much admired that he could with difficulty exe- 
cute all the orders he received, at any price he 
pleased to charge for them. He died at Amster- 
dam, in 1679. 

AELTS, Nicholas Van, an engraver, born at 
Brussels. At an early age he established him- 
self at Rome, in 1550, where he carried on a con- 
siderable commerce in prints for fifty years. He 
frequently omitted the names of the painter and 
engraver in the prints he published, inserting his 
own with the word formis, to denote that he was 
the publisher. Some of them, however, have 
fecit, or sculpsit, instead of formis. Heineken 
notices a set of twelve plates of birds by this 

A A? ALZHEIMER, Adam [Elsheimer, Elz- 
-I VA--' heimer]. This eminent painter, called 
by the Italians, il Tedesco, was born at Frank- 
fort, in 1574. His father, a tailor, finding an un- 
conquerable predilection for painting in his son, 
placed him under the tuition of Philip Offenbach, 
a reputable painter of that city. His extraordi- 
nary talents soon enabled him to surpass his 
master, and thirsting for knowledge in his pro- 
fession, he set out for Italy, where he took up his 
abode, studying the best masters with great assi- 
duity. At length he struck out into a style of 
painting peculiar to' himself, which won him 
lasting reputation. His pictures are usually of 
cabinet size, some of them very small ; the sub- 
jects landscapes, decorated with figures from 
mythology or ancient history ; sun-setting or 
sun-rising ; night-pieces bj^ candle-light, torch- 
light, or moonlight. He was a close oljserver of 
nature, and drew all his designs from that never- 

failing fountain of truth. Iloubraken says that 
he exceeded all the artists of his time in the cor- 
rectness and neatness of his designs, the draw- 
ing of his figures, the admirable management of 
his lights and shadows, the airiness, spirit, and 
delicacy of his touch, and the excellence of his 
coloring. His works are so carefully finished 
that the remotest parts will bear the most criti- 
cal inspection, and the whole taken together, 
appear exquisitely beautiful. And yet this artist 
passed his daj's in poverty and neglect. He re- 
ceived but a comparatively trifling compensation 
for works that have since been sold for their 
weight in gold. He could scai'cely support his 
family, became embarrassed and was thrown into 
prison, which, together with a want of apprecia- 
tion of his works, had such an effect on his sensi- 
tive mind, that he died soon after his release in 
the prime of life, in 1620. 

iElzheimer designed entirely from nature, and 
possessed such a retentive memory that he could 
copy from it, with perfect accuracy, any view he 
had seen. It was thus that he painted the Villa 
Madonna from memory alone, in which nothing 
was omitted. The trees and buildings were accu- 
rately drawn, and even the shadows of the differ- 
ent objects were represented according to the pre- 
cise hour he meant to describe. He bestowed so 
much labor on his works that they are not nu- 
merous, and command enormous prices. His 
most capital works are, the Flight into Egypt ; 
a Night Scene, in which he has introduced the 
moon and stars with wonderful effect, now in 
the Louvre ; the Angel with Tobit. drawing the 
fish out of the w?.ter ; the Beheading of St. John 
in Prison ; the Angel with Tobit, crossing a brook ; 
Baucis and Philemon entertaining Jupiter and 
Mercury ; Ceres Drinking out of a Pitcher ; Latona 
and her Sons, and the Death of Procris. There 
are several of his pictures in the Gallery at Flor- 
ence. The Earl of Egremont has a collection of 
ten paintings of small size by this artist, the sub- 
jects of which are, St. Peter; St. Paul ; St. John 
the Baptist ; Tobit and the Angel ; an Old Woman 
and a Girl ; an Old Man and a Boy ; a Capuchin 
Friar, with a model of a convent in his hand; 
Visit of Nicodemus to Christ; and the Interior of 
a Brothel by fire and candle-light. The best de- 
scription of his pictures will be found in the works 
of Houbraken, and Sandrart. iElzheimer is sup- 
posed to have etched some plates of similar sub- 
jects, but this is not authenticated. His mono- 
gram is composed of A. and JE. dipthong, or of A. 
A. F. i. e. Adam jElzheimer fecit. Some of his 
best works have been engraved by Ills friend and 
patron, Count Goudt, which see. 

AENEAS, P., an obscure German engraver of 
portraits in mezzotint, some of whose works are 
described by Heineken. 

AERTS, Richard, a Dutch painter, born at 
Wyck, North Holland, in 1482. When a boy he 
lost one of his legs, and during a long and tedious 
confinement, he amused himself in sketching what- 
ever objects presented themselves to his view, in 
which he exhibited such an extraordinary talent, 
that his father was persuaded to send him to 
Ilaerlem, and place him under the tuition of -John 
Moestaert, the elder, a painter of note. Here he 
made surprising progress, soon surpassed his 
master, and became one of the ablest artists of his 


time. He afterwards settled at Amsterdam, was 
received into the Academy in 1520, and continued 
to practise his profession with distinguished suc- 
cess to an advanced age. He died in that city, in 
1577, at the great age of 95. 

AERTSEN, Peter, mis-spelled AERTGEN, or 
AERTGENS, [called by the Italians, Pietro 
LoNGO, from his tall figure], an eminent his- 
torical painter, was born at Amsterdam, about 
1519. His father was a stocking weaver, and first 
placed his son under Alaert Claessen, a reputable 
portrait painter of that place ; but he did not re- 
main longer with him than was necessary to obtain 
the rudiments of the art ; for, at the age of eighteen, 
he had greatly improved himself by copying some 
capital pictures in the cabinet of Bossu, in Hain- 
ault, and about this time he painted some pictures 
of interiors of kitchens with culinary utensils, and 
the like subjects, executed with great taste and 
spirit and extremely well colored. Notwithstand- 
ing these successful efforts, w^iich gained him 
much credit, he aspired to a higher branch of the 
art— historical painting— in which he gained much 
celebrity. It is no slight proof of his ability, that 
when Michael Coxcie, of Mechlin, was applied to 
for an altar-piece for the new church at Amster- 
dam, he declined the commission ; observing that 
they had no occasion for his services, when they 
possessed such a painter as Aertsen. His greatest 
work, the Crucifixion, at Alkmaer, was destroyed 
by a mob in 1566. 

At Delft are two pictures by this artist, a Na- 
tivity, and the Offering of the "Wise IMen ; and at 
Amsterdam, in the Church of Our Lady, are three, 
viz: the Death of the Virgin Mary, a Nativity, 
and the Adoration of the IMagi, all of which are 
esteemed excellent performances. Aersten com- 
posed his subjects ingeniously, his drawing was 
correct, and his coloring warm and harmonious. 
He was skilled in perspective and architecture, 
and he enriched his grounds with animals and ele- 
gant ornaments ; his figures were well disposed, 
his attitudes had grace and variety, and his dra- 
peries judiciously chosen and properly cast. He 
died at Amsterdam, in 1573. He had three sons, 
Peter, Arnold, and Theodore, whom he instructed 
in his own profession. 

AESTHERIUS, an architect of Constantinople, 
during the reign of Anastasius. He erected a 
great saloon, called Calci, in the Imperial Palace. 
It is supposed that he bviilt the wall erected for 
the defence of Constantinople, extending from Se- 
liniibria to the sea. 

iETION, a Grecian painter, who, according to 
Pliny, having exhibited his picture, representing 
the nuptirJs of Alexander and Roxana, at the 
Olj^mpic games, gained so much applause that 
Proxenidas, the President, rewarded him by giv- 
ing him his daughter in marriage. This picture 
was taken to Rome after the conquest of Greece, 
where it was seen by Lucian, who gave an accurate 
description of it ; from which, it is said, Raffaelle 
sketched one of his finest compositions. 

AFESA, Pietro, an Italian painter, called 
Delia Basilicata, from his being a native of a prov- 
ince of that name in the kingdom of Naples. His 
works are wholly religious subjects. Dominici, 
in his Lives of Neapolitan Painters, speaks of this 
artist in very favorable terms. Ills works are 


preserved in many of the churches and convents 
at Naples. In the chapel of the monastery at Mar- 
sico Nuovo, is an altar-piece — the Assumption of 
the Virgin Mar}% which is highly esteemed. Ho 
flourished about 1650. 

AGAR, jAcauEs d', a French painter, born at 
Paris, in 1640. He was a pupil of Simon Vouet, 
but on leaving this master, he applied himself 
solely to portrait painting, in which he became 
eminent. He went to England in the reign of 
Queen Anne, and was much patronized by the 
nobility. From thence he went to Copenhagen, 
where he met with still greater success, being 
greatly patronized by the King and Court. He 
died at Copenhagen, in 1716. 

AGAMEDES, a Grecian architect, who lived 
B. c. 1400, and brother to Trophonius, who assisted 
him in erecting a temple to Apollo, on a mountain 
near Lebadea; also the temple to Neptune, near 
I\Iantinea, and the renowned one of Apollo,- at 

AGAPTOS, a Grecian architect, who, according 
to Pausanias, invented the porticos around the 
square attached to the Greek stadii. for which he 
gained so much honor, that in every stadium they 
were called the porticos of Agaptos. 

AGASIAS, a sculptor of Ephesus, the son of 
Dositheus, probably flourished about 450 b. c. 
He was the author of the well-known marble statue 
called the Fighting Gladiator, now in the Louvre, 
which was found among the ruins of a palace of 
the Roman Emperors, at Capo d'Anzo, the ancient 
Antium, where also the Apollo Belvedere was 

AGELADAS, an ancient sculptor in bronze, of 
Argos ; lived about 500 b. c. ; was especially cele- 
brated as the master of INIyron, Polycletus, and 
Phidias. He was the author of a statue of Jupi- 
ter, in the citadel of Ithome ; also the statue of 
Hercules, which was placed in the great Temple at 
Melite, in Attica, after the great plague. Pausanias 
mentions a number of other works by him, which 
appear to have been highly esteemed. 

AGELLIO, Giuseppe, an Italian painter, born 
at Sorento. He was a pupil of Cav. Cristoforo 
Roncalli, called Pomerancio. He excelled in land- 
scape and architecture, and was much employed 
by painters of his time, to paint the landscapes 
and backgrounds of their pictures. 

AGESANDER, of Rhodes, a sculptor who, accor- 
ding to Pliny, executed in concert with Polydo- 
rus and Athenodorus, a much admired group 
of Laocoon and his Sons, which was in the Palace 
of Titus, at Rome. There is scarcely a doubt 
that this group is the identical one now in the 
museum of the Vatican, discovered near the ruins 
of the baths of Titus, in 1506. 

AGGAS, Ralph, an English engraver of maps 
and plans of London, Oxford, Cambridge, Diilwich, 
&c., published about 1578. . 

AGGAS, Robert, an English landscape painter, 
who, says Walpole, was much employed by 
Charles II., and died at London, in 1670. 

AGHINETTI, called Guccio del Sero, a Flor- 
entine painter who lived about 1331, and is ranked 
by Italian writers among the best artists of his 



time. He haxi a nephew, called Maestro Guccio, 
who was also eminent, and died in 1409. 

AGLAOPHON. There were two Greek pain- 
ters of this name ; one of little note, who lived 
about 500 B. c, and was the father of Polygnotus 
and Aristophon ; the other of such merit as occa- 
sioned Cicero to say that Aglaophon, Zeuxis, and 
Apelles, though totally different, were yet all pei'- 
fect in their several styles. The latter lived about 
420 B. c. and executed two allegorical pictures of 
Alcibiades, which he dedicated at Athens on return- 
ing as a victor from Olympia. 

AGLIO, Andrea Salvatore dell', an Italian 
painter, born at Lugano, in 173G. He is said to 
have been the first artist who discovered the me- 
thod of fixing colors on marble. He died in 1786. 

AGLIO, Claudio, an Italian engraver, who 
practised at Rome in the middle of the seventeenth 

AGXOLO. Aniello Fiore, a Neapolitan sculp- 
tor of the fifteenth century ; executed two works 
in San Domenico Maggiore, at Naples, which, accor- 
ding to Cicognara, possess considerable merit in 
design ; one a basso-relievo, dated 1470 ; the other, 
a Yirgin and Infant, with two Angels, on the 
monument of Mariano Alaneo. 

AGNOLO, Baccio d', a Florentine carver and 
architect of some merit, born in 1460. According 
to Yasari, he erected a part of the great Hall of 
Florence, also a palace for Giovanni Bartolini, in 
the Piazza of the Santa Trinita; and the lantern 
of the cupola of Santa Maria del Fiore. He also 
designed a garden at Gualfondo, the Villa Borghe- 
sini on the Poggio, the Campanile of Santo Spirito, 
and that of San Majano. He died in 1543. 

AGNOLO, Gabriello d', a Neapolitan archi- 
tect, who lived about 1470, and built the church 
of S. Giuseppe, and that of Santa Maria Egiziaca, 
which gained him so much fame that D. Ferdinando 
Orsini, Duke of Gravina, chose him, in preference 
to San Severino, to construct his palace ; which, 
though built in bad taste, is, nevertheless, one of 
the best edifices in Naples. 

AGNOLO, Francesco, a Florentine painter of 
history, who flourished about 1550. No particu- 
lar account is given of his works. 

AGOSTINO, Di Milano, called Delle Pros- 
PETTivE, a native of ]\Iilan, and flourished about 
1525. He was a scholar of the celebrated Bra- 
mante. He was a very skilful painter, and excelled 
in atrial and linear perspective, and imitated doors, 
steps, and windows, so perfectly as to deceive men 
and animals. He painted a piece in the Carmine, 
at Bologna, which for the foreshortening. Lomazzo 
instances, with the cupola of Correggio at Parma, as 
models of excellence. 

AGOSTINO, DI San Agostino, an Italian en- 
graver, who is merely known b}^ a few prints. 
There is a fine print by him after the Zingara of 
Corregg-io, representing the Virgin Jlary in the dress 
of a Bohemian, sitting with the infant -Jesus, in a 
landscape, and St. -Jcseph writing. 

AGOSTINO, and AGNOLO, of Siena, two bro- 
thers, distinguished as sculptors and architects, 
were born about the middle of the thirteenth cen- 
tur3^ They both studied under Giov. da Pisa, a 
sculptor of Siena, and executed several statues of 

prophets at Orvieto, which occasioned Giotto to de- 
clare them the most accomplished sculptors of their 
time. Vasari describes a number of their works, 
and among others, the tomb they executed for 
Guido, lord and bishop of Arezzo, in the Church 
of S. Sacramento, in that city. As architects, they 
erected a number of public edifices, mentioned by 
Vasari, the most important of which was the 
Palazzo di No\i, at Siena, wliich gained them the 
appointment of State Arcliitects. 

xVGORACRITL'S, a celebrated Greek sculptor, a 
native of Pares ; flourished in the fifth century 
B. c. ; studied under Phidias, and was the favorite 
pupil of that great artist. His most celebrated 
work was the statue of Nemesis, at Rhamnus, 
which was considered one of the first productions 
of the art, and obtained him great celebrity. 

AGRATE, Marco Ferrerio, an Italian sculp- 
tor ; lived near the close of the fifteenth century. 
He executed several works in the cathedral at 
Milan, among which is the celebrated statue of St. 
Bartholomew flayed. It is worked in marble with 
extreme care and anatomical precision, but is devoid 
of taste. 

AGRESTI, Livio, an Italian painter, born at 
Forli, a town in the Roman territory. He studied 
under Pierino del Vaga at Rome, where there are 
many of his works in fresco and in oil. He rose to 
great eminence, and was employed by Pope Greg- 
ory XIII., in the great works that were executed by 
his order in the Vatican. In the great staircase is a 
grand fresco painting by him, representing Philip of 
Arragon submitting his kingdom to the dominion 
of Pope Eugenius III. There are also several of 
his works in the churches and public places at 
Rome. In S. Catarina di Funari, he painted St. 
Peter, St. Paul, and the Annunciation ; and in the 
chapel of S. Spirito in Sassia, a fine picture of the 
Assumption of the Virgin Mary. His best works 
are in his native city. Forli, where he painted in the 
chapel of the cathedral, the Last Supper, and some 
admirable figures of the prophets. He died at 
Rome about 1580. 

AGRICOLA, Christopher Ludwig, a German 
painter and engxaver, born at Ratisbon in 1667. 
He excelled in portraits and landscapes, but is 
chiefly known by his prints, particularly one of 
Diana and Acteon, signed Agricola fecit. 

AGROTE, Antonio, a painter of the 
last century. He painted one of the chapels of the 
Carmine at Milan ; also the decorations of the 
church of Santa Maria, at Brescia, while Carloni 
painted the figures. He was living in 1750. 

AGUCCHTA; Giovanni, an old engraver, born 
at iMilan. He engraved several plates representing 
the dome of the cathedral of that city, to which he 
affixed his name in full ; also some other plates of 
public buildings, signed with his name, or initials, 
G. A., fecit. 

AGUERO, Benoit Manuel, a battle 
and land.scape painter, born at Madrid. He was a 
scholar of Mazo Martinez, whose style he followed. 
He also endeavorad to imitate Titian in some his- 
torical compo-sitions, but without gaining much rep- 
utation, lie died at Madrid in 1670. 

AGNELLI, Federigo, an Italian engraver of 
portraits, medals, and emblematical subjects. He 
also engraved a set of plates representing the dome 




of the Cathedral at INIilan, to which he afBxed his 
own name, and that of the ai'chitect, Oarolus 

AGUIAR, ToMMASO de, a Spanish painter, and 
disci]5le of Velasquez, who flourished about the 
middle of the seventeenth century. lie chiefly 
painted portraits, which were remarkable for free- 
dom of stjde and striking resemblance. He painted 
the portraits of many distinguished persons at 
Madrid, among which was one of De Solis, the 
poet, who tuned his lyre in praise of the artist. 
He also painted small figure pieces in a style of 

AGUILA, Francisco del, a Spanish fresco 
painter, who lived at Murcia in the latter part of 
the sixteenth century. He painted the beautiful 
mausoleum of Alfonso the Wise, in that city, in 

AGUILA, Miguel del, a Spanish historical 
painter, whose pictures are valued for their near 
approach to the stjde of Murillo. He died at 
Seville in 1736. 

AGUILERA, Iago, or Diego de, a Spanish pain- 
ter of sacred subjects, who practised at Toledo about 
1580 with reputation. He was a man of concilia- 
ting manners, and a good judge of works of art. He 
was frequently consulted by the nobility and others, 
as to the prices demanded by artists, and did jus- 
tice to both. JMost of his paintings were destroyed 
by fire. Time of his death not recorded. 

AGUIRRE, Francisco de, a Spanish painter, 
and pupil of Caxes. He resided at Toledo, and de- 
voted himself to portraiture and the restoration of 
paintings. He was employed to restore the paint- 
ings in the cathedral, and gave abundant proofs of 
his ignorance and presumption, hj altering them 
according to his own notions ; a practise that has 
been pursued by others since his time, to the ruin 
of many fine pictures by the best Spanish masters. 

AGUIREE, Juanes, a Spanish sculptor, born at 
Legovia ; was the scholar and son-in-law of jNIatteo 
Inverts ; executed the Tabernacle of the Church of 
Villacastin, with the statues of the Evangelists and 
six other Samts, in 1594, which, according to Ber- 
mudcz, possess considerable merit. 

AICARDO, Giovanni, an architect ofCuneo, in 
Piedmont, who lived about IGOO. Soprani says he 
built the public granaries of Genoa; carried the 
aqueduct of Calzolo a length of eighteen miles, 
over hills and vallies ; and built the choir of San 
Dominico and the Serra Palace. 

AIGEN, Karl, a German historical painter, 
born at Olmutz in 1094. He excelled in figures of 
a small size, executed with great care, among which 
Euscli mentions a picture of St. Leopold, considered 
one of his best works. He died at Vienna in 1762. 

AIRMAN, William, a Scotch painter of consid- 
erable eminence, born in Aberdeenshire in 1G82. 
His iiither educated him for the law, but his predi- 
lection for painting was so strong, that on his leav- 
ing the University of Edinburgh he sent him to 
Italy, where he resided some years. On his return 
to his native country, he was greatly patronised as 
a portrait painter. At length the Duke of Argyle 
induced him to remove with his family to London; 
where, under his protection and influence, he ob- 
tained the patronage of some of the first families in 
the kingdom. In London he formed an intimacy 

with Sir Godfrey Kneller, whose tastes and studies 
were congenial with his own. and whose style he 
largely copied. He possessed considerable literary 
acquirements, and was intimate with Allan Ramsay, 
Thomson, and Mallet. He died at London in 1731. 
iMallet wrote his epitaph, and Thompson his elegy. 

AIMO, DoMENico. called Varignana, anitahan 
.sculptor, lived in the early part of the sixteenth 
century ; executed several of the statues over the 
principal gate of San Petronio at Bologna. 

AIROLA, Donna Angela Veronica, an Itid- 
ian paintress, born at Genoa. According to So- 
prani, she was instructed in the art l)y Domenico 
Fiasella, called Sarezana. She acquired a consid- 
erable reputation, and painted some pictures for the 
churches at Genoa. She became a religious, and 
died in a convent in that city in 1670. 

\^'''A AKEN, F. Van, a Dutch painter of fruit, 
\i/lL»flowers. and still-life. There is no pub- 
lished account of him. but his pictures have a mono- 
gram of his initials, F. V.A.. or his signature, F. v. 

AKEN, John Van, a Dutch painter and engra- 
ver, who lived in the first part of the seventeenth 
century. He is principally known by his prints, 
which are executed in a very masterl}^ manner — 
particularly^ his land.scapes. He was a contempo- 
rary and friend of Peter de Laer. He marked his 
plates with /. V. A., or a monogram of his initials, 

thus ; 

It may be proper 

to caution the reader not to confound this artist 
with John Van Achen, born in 1556. 

AKEN, Joseph Van, a Dutch painter, who 
passed the greater part of his life in England. He 
was emploj-ed by some eminent landscape painters 
to introduce the figures into their pictures, at which 
he was very skilful. He also painted on satin and 
velvet so well as to attract considerable attention. 
He ched at London in 1749. 

AKERBOOM, , a Dutch painter, who lived 

about the middle of the seventeenth century. He 
painted interiors of cities and villages, comical 
scenes, such as the exhibitions of mountebanks, 
fairs, &c., which he executed in a spirited manner, 
with a high 

The author has seen several paintings by this 
artist bearing his signature. There are a midtitudc 
of paintings and engravings by the old Flemish, 
Dutch, and German artists in the United States. 
They frequently bear tlie signature or monogram of 
the painter. One Dutch, still doing business 
in New York, has imported in past years over forty- 
three thousand paintings from the old country. 
The number of paintings which have been brought 
to the United States is incredible to persons not 
familiar A^'ith the subject. About eighteen years 
ago, a dealer brought wth him, from Florence, 
twenty thousand, which he has been selling ever 
since, at auction as well as at private sale, and he 
has stacks of them yet unsold. 

AKERiMAN, Andreas, a Swedish engraver, 
born 1718; executed principally maps and por- 
traits ; also some plates for the works of Linnajus. 
He died in 1778. 

AKERSLOOT, William, a Dutch engraver, 
born at Haerlem. about 1600. He engraved some 




portraits r.nd other subjects, among which the fol- 
lowing are the principal : Frederick Henry, Prince 
of Orange ; and Amelia, Princess of Orange, with 
her two Daughters, after A.VauderVenne ; Christ 
taken in the Garden, after //. Hondius ; Christ 
bound; and Peter denying Christ, after P. Molyn. 
AKREL, Frederick, a Swedish engraver, born 
in the province of Sundermania, in 1748. He was 
instructed in the art of engraving by Ackerman at 
Upsal. In 1771 he settled at Stockholm. There 
is a set of ten well engraved portraits of Swedish 
personages by him, numbered from one to ten. 

ALABARDI, Giuseppe, a Venetian painter, 
who lived about IGOO. He is highly complimented 
in an epigram, by F. Ruggerius, for a picture repre- 
senting the amours of Mars and Venus. 

ALAMANNI, Gaetano, a Bolognese painter, 
who distinguished himself in architectural and 
ornamental painting. He died in 1782. 

ALAjMANNI, Pietro, an Italian painter, born 
at Ascoli. He was a pupil of Carlo Crivelli, and 
painted history and portraits with reputation. He 
lived about 1489. 

ALB ACINI, Carlo, a Roman sculptor, who 
lived near the close of the last century. He was 
much employed in the restoration of ancient sculp- 
ture, and W'inckelmann praises him as one of the 
most successful in the restoration of the human 
fig-ure. Albacini made a valuable collection of 
casts from the antique ; and, in 1780, executed two 
monuments for the Empress Catherine II., of Rus- 
sia. He was living in 1807. 

ALBANO, Francesco, an Italian painter, born 
at Bologna, in 1578, the son of Agostino Albano, a 
respectable silk merchant in that city. When 
very young, he showed a strong inclination for 
painting, and though his parents were extremely 
de.3irous that he should follow his Other's profes- 
sion, yet through the influence of an uncle, who 
had a strong predilection for the art, they were 
induced to allow Francesco to follow his natural 
inclination ; and at the death of his father, which 
happened when he was twelve years old, he was 
placed under the tuition of Denis Calvart, whose 
school then held a high reputation. Guido Reni, 
who was then study mg under Calvart, and the 
most proficient and ablest of his scholars, became a 
firm friend of the youthful Albano, and, in fact, 
his preceptor; for Calvart drew only one profile 
for him, leaving him entirely to the management 
of Guido, under whose instruction he made rapid 
advances. Guido, having learned all that he could 
acquire from Calvart, entxjred the school of Lodp- 
vico Caracci, at that time the most famous in 
Lombardy; whither his friend Albano soon fol- 
lowed him. They studied there with great assidu- 
ity, accompanied by a spirit of emulation condu- 
cive to the advantage of both. Guido, on leaving 
the Caracci, went to Rome, whither Albano soon 
followed him. His genius soon gained him repu- 
tation at Rome, and Annibale Caracci, who fell 
sick while painting the chapel of St. Diego, in the 
national church of the Spaniards, designated Albano 
his successor in the work ; and the greater part of 
it was completed by him in a manner that gained 
him much reputation. The Marquis Giustiniani 
employed him to adorn the gallery of his villa at 
Bassano, where he represented the story of Nep- 
tune and Galatea, and the fall of Phfeton. He sub- 

sequently executed several important works in the 
Verospi Palace at Rome, where he represented 
subjects from Ovid in a manner characterized by 
great science and ingenuity. These works estab- 
lished the fame of Albano throughout Laly. The 
Duke of JMantua invited him to his court, where 
he executed some pictures representing the story 
of Diana and Actcon, and Venus and Cupid. 

Retm-ning to Rome, he executed the large works 
to be seen "in the Tribune of the Madonna della 
Pace. In the Church of San Sebastiano is an 
altar-piece representing the martyrdom of that 
saint, entirely m the style of the Carcicci ; and a pic- 
tiu-e of the Assumption, painted in conjunction with 
Guido Re;ii. Slany others of his works are in the 
most eligible locaUties of Rome. Among his best 
works at Bologna are the Baptism of Clu'ist, in S. 
Giorgio ; the Annunciation, in S. Bartoiomeo ; and 
the Resurrection in S. Slaria de Galeria. His com- 
positions are ingenious and abundant, his figures 
are both elegant and graceful ; but he must be re- 
garded rather as an agreeable than a great painter, 
for his style is more beautiful than grand, and the 
soft and delicate forms of women and children were 
more suited to his powers than the delineation of 
the muscular movements of men. He generally 
chose the pleasing subjects of the fable, that admit 
of the graceful and amiable, rather than the hero- 
ism of histoiy, that call for nobler exertions of the 
sublime and terrific. The landscapes in the back- 
ground of his pictures are exceedingly pleasing, 
touched with exquisite taste, and Ills fresh and 
delicate coloring charms the beholder. Lanzi calls 
him the Anacreon of painting : the fame the poet 
acquued from the charming fancy of his odes, the 
painter reached by the fascination of his cabinet 
pictures — as the one sung of Venus and the Loves, 
so the other chose the most tender and seductive 
subjects. He married at Rome, and intended set- 
tling there for life ; but losing liis wife, he returned 
to Bologna and married again. His second wife 
was of good descent and very handsome. Albano 
cherished for her the fondest affection, and made 
her the model of his graces, nymphs, and other 
female forms. She brought him several very beau- 
tiful boys, whom he made the models of his cupids ; 
and it was from them that the sculptors Flamand 
and Argandi modeled some of their cherubic statues. 
At Burghley House, the seat of the Marquis of 
Exeter, are some fine tapestries from his designs. 
Among his best works are the pictures of the four 
elements, painted for the Cardinal Maurice, and 
now in the gallery at Turin. They have been often 
copied, some so successfully as to pass for the orig- 
inals. Albano died at Bologna in 16G6, at the 
great age of 88. 

ALBANO, Giovanni Battista, the brother and 
scholar of Francesco Albano. He followed the 
manner of that master, and imitated him succes,s- 
fully in historical subjects as well as landscapes, 
thereby gainmg some reputation. He died in 1668. 

ALBANSI, Angelo, an Italian engraver, who is 
only known by some beautiful and spirited etch- 
ings of architectural ruins in and aljout Rome, 
which bear his name ; and from which it appears 
he flourished about the commencement of the sev- 
enteenth century. 

ALBERELLI, Giacomo, an Italian painter, born 
at Venice, and lived about 1600. He studied under 
Jacopo Palma, the younger, and remained with that 




master as a coadjutor for thirty-four years. lie 
was a reputable i^ainter of history, and there are 
some of his works in the public edifices at Venice, 
the best of which is a picture of the Baptism of 
Christ, in the Church of the Ognissanti, or All 
Saints. He died about 1650. 

ALBERICI, Enrico, an Italian painter, was born 
at Vihninore, in the territorj^ of Berjramo, in 1714, 
and stutlied three years under Ferdinando Cairo of 
Brescia. Tassi, in his account of the Bergamesc 
painters, gives a particular description of some 
of his works, and saj^s he was an artist of dis- 
tinction. Among many others, he painted for the 
Church delle jMiracoli at Brescia, the Woman of 
Samaria, the Parable of the Pharisee and the Pub- 
lican, the Raising of Lazarus, the Prodigal Son, and 
the Good Shepherd. He died in 1775. 

ALBERT. Simon, a noted Dutch historical pain- 
ter, born at Haerlem in 152.3, studied under Jean 
Mostaert. He lived to a great age, but the year of 
his death is unknown. 

ALBERTI, Antonio, an Italian painter, of 
Ferrara, who lived about 1450 ; was a painter of 
portraits and biblical subjects, and gained much 
reputation. He had a son of the same name, who 
was also an eminent artist, living about 1550. 
There are many painters mentioned of this name, 
but their genuine works it would be difiBcult to 

ALBERTI, Arlstotile, an eminent Bolognese 
architect of the fifteenth centur}^. He removed the 
bell-tower of S. Maria del Tempio. at Bologna, with 
all the bells, to a place thirty-five feet distant. At 
Cento, in the Church of Biagio, he set the bell- 
tower upright, which inclined five and a half 
feet ; and in Hungary he rebuilt the bridge over 
the Danube, and performed other great works, so 
that the King knighted him, and allowed him to 
coin money and stamp it with his own name. 
John Basil ide, the great Duke of Moscovy, sent for 
Alberti, and commissioned him to build several 

ALBERTI, Cherobino, a distinguished Ital- 
ian painter and engraver, born at Borgo S. Sepol- 
cro, in 1552. The family of Alberti is very 
eminent in art. His father, Michele Alberti, 
instructed him in the art, and he became tlistin- 
guished as a painter of history. At Rome he exe- 
cuted some important works, both in oil and in 
fresco ; the principal of which are in the church of 
S. Maria in Via. As an engraver, however, he 
was far more distinguished, and his works in this art 
are very extraordinary productions of uncommon 
genius, at a time when the art was fiir from its sub- 
sequent perfection. It is not kno-wn from whom 
he learned it ; but from his manner, especially in his 
earlier works, it is probable he was a scholar of 
Cornelius Cort, and subsequently to have acquired 
a more correct and freer style by studying the 
works of Francesco Villamena, and AgostinoCar- 
acci. His plates are executed entirely with 
the graver. His outlines, especially in tlic nude, 
are generally correct, and his heads have a pleasing 
expression ; but his draperies are clumsy and stiff. 
He has preserved in his prints some of the beauti- 
ful friezes by Polidorc da Caravaggio, painted on 
the facades of the public edifices, which have been 
destroyed by time. 

Alberti executed a large number of prints, 

amounting to about ISO, of which 75 are from his 
own designs ; the others are from M. Angelo, 
Raftaelle, Polidore da Caravaggio, Andrea del 
Sarto, and other great masters. He died at Rome 
in 1G15. He generally marked his prints with one 
of these ciphers : 

C C C 


The follo^ang are his principal works : 


Portrait of Pope Gregory XIII., oval with ornaments 
do. of Popo Urban VI., the same; do. of Henry IV., oi 
France, oval, dated 159.5 ; do. of Pietro Angelo Bargeo ; 
Judith with the Head of Ilolofernes ; the Nativity, inscribed 
Dciis omnipotens, &c. ; the Flight into Egypt, dated 1574; 
the Holy Family, with St. Elizabeth, dated 1571 ; another 
Holy Family, St. Joseph seated with a book ; the Body of 
Christ supported in the clouds by Angels, inscribed Mag- 
num pietatis opus, tf-c. ; the Virgin Mary and Infant in 
the clouds, inscribed Rcgina coeli ; Mary Magdalen pen- 
itent, dated 15S2; St. Catharine receiving the Stig- 
mata, dated 1574 ; St. Christian drawn out of the Sea; St. 
Francis receiving the Stigm.ata, dated 1599 ; St. Charles of 
Borromeo, kneeling before the Virgin and Infant, dated 
1612 ; Six plates of Children or Cupitls, for ceilings, dedica- 
ted to Cardinal Visconti, dated 1607. 


After Michael Angelo. — The Crucifixion ; St. Andrew 
bearing the Cross, diited 1580 ; two other Figures, from the 
Last Judgment, dated 1591 ; St. Susanna, with a Sword, 
loaning against a pedestal ; Prometheus devoured by the 
Vulture, dated 1580 ; Charon, with two other Figures, dated 
1775 ; .and the famous Statue of Picta. 

After Polidore da Caravaggio. — The Cre.ition ; Adam 
and Eve subjected to Labor; "the Death of Niobe and her 
Children, in five sheets, for a frieze ; the Rape of the Sa- 
bines, do. ; the Triumph of Camillus, in the style of the 
antique ; Pluto holding a Torch, do. ; Fortune standing on 
a Shell, do. 

After Raffaelle. — The Resurrection, a grand composi- 
tion ; the Presentation ; the Holy Family, dated 1582 ; the 
Graces and Venus leaving Juno and Ceres, dated 1582; 
Jupiter and Ganymede, dated 1580. 

After II Rosso. — The Transfiguration; the Adoration 
of the Magi, dated 1574 ; Christ praying on the Mount, 
dated 1514 ; the Stoning of St. Stephen ; a piece of Archi- 
tecture in two sheets, d.ited Roma, 1575. 

After Andrea del Sarto. — The Bivptism of our Saviour, 
dated 1579 ; the Miracle of St. Philip Bcnizzio, very finely 

xifterTaddeo Zucchero. — The Adoration of the Shep- 
herds, in two sheets, dated 1775; the Holy Family ; the 
Scourging of Christ ; the Conversion of St. Paul ; the As- 
sumption of the Virgin. 

After Federigo Zucchero. — The Assumption of the 
Virgin ; the Coronation of the Virgin. 

After Pierino del Vaga. — Christ Praying La the Gar- 

After Pietro Tlbaldi. — Tobit and tho Angel, dated 

ALBERTI. Durante, an Italian p.ainter, born 
at Borgo S. Sepolcro, in 1538. Baglioni says he 
visited Rome when young, during the pontificate 
of Gregory XIII. He soon gained eminence by 
several works he executed for the churches and 
other public edifices. In the Church of S. Girola- 
mo della Carita, one of the chapels is entirely pain- 
ted by him in fresco; and the altar-piece, in oil, 
representing the Virgin and Infant, with St. Bar- 
tolomco and St. Alcssandro. In S. Maria de Monti, 
he painted the Annunciation ; and there are some 
of his works in several other Roman churches. 
His portrait is in the Academy of St. Luke. He 
died in lG13j and was buried with great honors, in 


the Chiesa del Popolo, attended by aU the princi- 
pal artists of Rome. 

ALBERTI, Giovanni, brother of Oherubino A. 
an Italian painter, born at Borgo S. Sepolcro in 
1558, and was instructed in the art by his fother 
Michele Alberti. Baglioni says he visited Rome 
durmg the pontificate of Gregory XIII., and was 
employed by that pontiff in the Vatican. He was 
most distinguished in landscapes and perspective 
Oherubino usually painting the figures. He was 
employed by Clement YIII. to paint the Sacristy 
of St. John of Lateran. His portrait is in the 
Academy of St. Luke. He died in IGOI. 

ALBERTI, Leon Battista, an eminent Flor- 
entine architect, was born in 1308. Accordino- to 
\' asari. he was of noble descent and highly educa- 
ted. He repaired the conduit of the Acqua Yir- 
gme. and made the fountain of Trevi, at the request 
of Xicolas V. He also designed a cover for the 
bridge of Saut' Angelo ; probably erected the prin- 
cipal f^xeade of Santa Maria Xovella at Florence ; 
built the Tribune della Xunziata at Florence, the 
church of St. Andrea, and many other buildin'o-s at 
iMantua. He also commenced a beautiful addftiou 
to the old Temple of Rimini, and to rebuild the 
Basilica Vaticana, but did not complete either. 
Alberti deserves to be considered as one of the prin- 
cipal restorers of ancient architecture, though his 
taste gives evidence of the obscure times from 
whence he emerged. He died in 1472. 

ALBERTI, Michele, an Italian painter, proba- 
bly the brother of Durante, born at Borgo S. 
Sepolcro, about 1527. He studied under Daniello 
Ricciarelli, called da Vollena. The name of Alberti 
is illustrious in art. He was the flxther of Oheru- 
bino and Giovanni A., and painted history with 
reputation. His chief work is a picture in the 
Church of the Trinita dell' Monti, representiuo- the 
Murder of the Innocents. ° 

ALBERTI, PiETRo Francesco, an Italian pain- 
ter and engraver, born in 1584, and the son of 
Durante Alberti, in whose style he painted histor- 
ical subjects. He engraved a plate called Academia 
Jelle Pittori, a large print lengthways ; it has many 
agures, is etched with great spirit, and evidently 
lone by a painter. It is marked, Pctrus Francis- 
■;us Albertus, inv. etfec. He died in 1638. 

ALBERTINELLI, Mariotto. an Italian pain- 
;er, born at Florence in 1475. He was the disci- 
)le and friend of Era. Bartolomeo di S. Marco 
vhose style he followed, and whose merit he nearly 
approached. Accorchng .to Vasari, he was of so 
jealous and unhappy a disposition, that on hearing 
:ome unfavorable criticisms on his works he 
)ecame so disgusted as to abandon the art for some 
ime, and it was only upon the earnest persuasions 
f his friends that he returned to it. His works 
,re almost wholly upon sacred subjects, and are 
onsiderably esteemed. Several of tliein are in the 
hurclies and convents at Rome, Florence and 
Aterbo. In the Church of S. Silvestro a Monte 
vavallo, is a picture by him of the Virgin and 
nfant on a throne, with S. Domenico, and S. Cat- 
nna da Siena ; and at Florence, one of his first 
iroductions, representing the Visitation, painted 
3r the Congregazione de Preti. but subseciuentlv 
emoved to the Tribune in the Florentine Gallery 
le died in 1520. •'' 

ALBERTOLLI. Giocondo, a fh.stingui.shed Ital- 
in architect, born at Bedano in 1742"; studied at 



Parma, and had the advantage of attendino- the lec- 
tures delivered at the Academy of Fine Ar^s in that 
?S' cr}"^ ^^° ^^^ employed by the Grand 
L»uke of luscany, to design the embellishments of 
one of his villas near Florence. He also visited 
Rome and Xaples for improvement. At Milan he 
gained great reputation by the interior decorations 
of the Palazzo Reale. He also executed many other 
works, and wrote several valuable treatises which 
contributed not a little to chfTuse the author's rep- 
utation through Germany and France. By his 
own countrymen he was considered as hidi author- 
ity in all matters of ornamental architecture. He 
was employed to design and execute the embellish- 
ments of the Imperial Villa at JMonza,, and was 
appointed Professor of Decorative Architecture in 
the Academy of Fine Arts at MUan. He died in 
1840, at the advanced age of 98. 

ALBERTOLLL Raffaello, son of the preced- 
ing, distinguished himself as an engraver both in 
mezzotint and etcliing, and executed many por- 
traits of individuals of note. He died in 1812. 
. ^^.^ERTOXI, Paolo, an Italian painter, an 
mntator of Carlo Maratti, who lived about 1680. 
1 here are some pictures by him in the Church of 
fean Carlo, in Santa Maria, and other churches of 

ALBERTUS, H. C, a German painter and en- 
graver; born m Saxony; lived about 1660. He 
painted a portrait of John Seckendorff, rector and 
professor at Zwickau, considered a fine work of 

i^.L^'^^^^ ^^ afterwards engraved. He died in 


• ^S^^^' ^LESSANDRO, an Italian painter, born 
m 1586 according to Zani, though others place his 
birth m 1575. Malvasia says he was a native of 
-Bologna, and a talented scholar of the Caracci He 
executed some designs for the funeral ceremony of 
Agostino Caracci, which gained him great distinc- 
V^S\r I'^'f.'^ "" painting by Albini in the Church 
<- ol TT-^^""^^"^ ^'^■-''''' at. Bologna, of the Sepulture 
of St. T alerian and St. Tiburtius ; and in S. Pietro 
Martyri, St. Peter, St. Catherine, and St. Cecilia. 
Zani says he died in 1646. 

ALBIXI, Giuseppe, called Sozzo, a painter 
S^""''! an 1 architect, of Palermo; lived about 
15 JO; studied under Giuseppe Spatafora; executed 
two statues placed on each .side of one of the gates 
of Palermo, which gained him considerable reputa- 
tion. He also executed other works in his differ- 
ent capacities, for the Viceroy Colonna, and several 
other men of rank in Palermo. He cUed in 1611 

ALBOxXL Paolo [called Paolo Antonio by 
UrettiJ, a Lolognese land,scape painter of the last 
century. After practising some time in Italy he 
went to \ienna in 1710, where he remained about 
thirteen years ; but losing the use of his rioht side 
by paralysis, he returned to Bologna and com- 
menced painting with his left hand. Alboni fol- 
lowed the stjde of Ruysdael and other Dutch ma.s- 
ters. His later pictures are inferior to his earlier 
productions. He died in 1734. His daughter 
Luigia Maria Rosa was also a distinguished land- 
scape paintress. 

ALBORESI, GiAcoMO, a Bolognese painter 
born in 1632, and a scholar of Agostino Mctelli.' 
Ele painted history, but was more distinguished for 
views of architecture. He worked chiefly in fresco 
and in conjunction with Fulgenzio Mondini. painted 


for the Church of S. Pctronio at Padua, the Death 
and Canonization of St. Anthony. He painted 
some perspective pieces in the Church of b. uia- 
como :\Iage;iore. in which the figures were execu- 
ted hj Bartolomco Passarotti. He died in 1GG7. 

AKBRION, DoMENiGO de, a Spanish sculptor ; 
lived near the close of the sLxteeuth century ; exe- 
cuted, in concert with Nicolas Larraut, the statues 
of Aaron and I\Ielchisedeck in the Cathedral ot 
Tarraioua, which are extolled by Phny for their 
correctness of design, and the tasteful snnplicity of 
their draperies. 

ALBRIZZI, or ALBERICL Enrico, an Italian 
historical painter, born near Bergamo, m 1/14; 
stuchcd under Ferdinando Cairo, at Brescia where 
many of his best works are preserved ; the Church 
delle jNIiracoli contains several. He died m Inb. 

ALCAMENES, one of the most eminent of the 
ancient Greek sculptors, was born at Athens, and 
a scholar of Phidias. He lived in the fifth century 
B. c. This eminent sculptor is distinguished for 
his works in marble, in bronze, and in the mixed 
materials so much in use at that time. His most 
celebrated production was the Yenus of the Gar- 
dens ; a work of such extraordinary excellence that 
even Phidias himself assisted in finishing it. Alca- 
menes and Agoracritus executed two statues of 
Venus which were submitted to the judgment of 
the Athenians. That by xilcamenes obtained the 
prize; not, we arc told, from the superiority of the 
work but because he was an Athenian, Agoracritus 
beino' a native of Paros. It has been a question 
whether this was the celebrated Venus of the 
Gardens, but a strong argument against this sup- 
position is, that that work is always mentioned 
witli unqualified commendation, while the other is 
a<hnitted to have gained the preference merely for 
the reason above stated. One of his statues of 
Minerva is said to have been executed in competi- 
tion with his master Phidias, and on a near view, 
that of Alcamenes was pronounced greatly supe- 
rior ; but when the statues were raised to the height 
for which they were intended, the work of Phidias 
far surpassed in beauty and grandeur that of 
Alcamenes. Cicero and Valerius jNIaximus speak 
in very hi2-h terms of a statue by this artist of Vul- 
can, at Athens. The sculptor indicated the lame- 
ness of the o-od. but in so masterly a manner, that 
no positive 'deformity was discernible by which 
the crencral excellence of the work was impaired. 
Pausanias says that Alcaiuenes enjoyed a reputa- 
tion second only to Phidias. He mentions a num- 
ber of his works, among which are a statue of 
Dionysius, in ivory and gold, at Athens ; a statue 
of ^lars, in the Temple of that god ; two of Mi- 
nerva ; a colossal statue of Hercules ; a statue of 
^sculapius. at Mantinea ; and the sculptures in the 
posterior pediment of the Temple of the Olympian 
Jupiter, illustrating the fable of the Lapithne and 

ALCIMACHUS. a Greek painter who probably 
flourished about the time of Alexander the Great. 
He was celebrated for. a picture of the victory of 
the famous xVthenian pancratiast. Dioxippus, who, 
at the Olympic Crames, contended naked with a 
Macedonian completely armed, and vanquished him. 
ALCON, a sculptor who probably lived about 
800 B. c. Pliny says he executed an iron statue 
of Hercules, at Thebes. 

14 ALDE. 

ALDE, II. Van. a Dutch painter and engraver, 
who lived about 1650. He painted a portrait of 
Gaspar de Charpentier, an ecclesiastic of Amster- 
dam, which he subsequently engraved. 

Mn-T! ALDEGREVER. Henry, incor- 
or /g\ rectly called Albert Aldegraef, 
-^ -^a German painter and engraver, 
born at Zoust, in Westphalia, in 1502. Sandrart 
has called him Albert, misinterpreting his mono- 
gram. Charmed with the works of Albert Durer, 
he visited Nuremberg to study under that master. 
He followed Durer's style in both arts, and became 
very distinguished. Returning to Westphalia, he 
at first devoted himself to painting, and, according 
to Mr. Fuseli, executed some pictures for the 
churches and convents, which approach the mc'rit 
of Durer. M. de Piles speaks very highly of a 
picture of the Nativity by Aldegrever. Some pic- 
tures by him are to be seen in the Galleries ot 
I^Iunich and Schleissheim, and at Berlin a remark- 
able one of the Last Judgment. After a few years 
he applied himself entirely to engraving, and be- 
came very distinguished among that class called 
the little masters, from the small size of then- 
plates. He worked entirely with the graver, m a 
style evidently founded on that of Albert Durer ; 
his execution is uncommonly neat, and his plates 
are finished with great correctness and dehcacy. 
His design, though not incorrect, is evidently 
Gothic, though not more so than the artists of his 
country at that time. He usually marked his 
plates with a monogram. He executed a large 
number of plates, the principal of which are the 
followin'>-. Full descriptions may be found m 
Heineken, and Bartsch's '' Peintre Graveur/' 


Portrait of himself, witliout a beard, marked Aldegre- 
ver .matis 27, 1530; another of himself with a thick 
beard, marked Aldegrever. Anno 1538, ^^tatis suce 3d ; 
Bust of Martin Luther, dated 1540; do. of Philip Melanc- 
thon, same date ; Portrait of Albert vander Belle, lo38 ; 
do of John van Leyden, leader of the Anabaptists ; do ol 
Bernard Knipperdolling, the fanatic ; do. of William, Dulce 
of Juliers. 


ScriptuTal.-^\x plates illustrating the Fall and Expul- 
sion of Adam and Eve from Paradise, dated 1540 ; four 
plates do. of the History of Lot, 1555 ; four do. of the His- 
tory of Joseph and his Brethren, 1528-32 ; seven do. of he 
History of Thamar and Absalom, 1540 ; four do. of the 
History of Susanna, 1555; four do. of the Parable of the 
Good Samaritan, 1554 ; five do. of the Rich Man and Laz- 
arus 15.54; David and Bathsheba; the Judgment of Sol- 
omon, 1555; Judith with the Head of Holofemes, 1528; 
the Four Evangelists, 1539 ; the Adoration of the Shep- 
herds 1553 ; the Virgin and Infant reposing under a tree, 
1527 ; the Virgin carrying the Infant Jesus, with a stan- 
dard, 1552. „ ,- T. J. J. 

Historical and Mythological— M&rcm Curtius about to 

leap into the Gulf, dated 1532 ; Titus Manlius ordcrmg his 

Son to be decapitated ; IMutius Screvola before Porsenna, 

1 1530- Tavquin and Lucretia, 1539; Sophonlsba taking the 

Poison 1553; the Comit d'Archambaud destroying his Son 

before his Death, inscribedPai'er ne post suam mortem,<^'C., 

I 1553- the Battle between Hannibal and Scipio ; the Com- 

1 bat of Hector, a small frieze, inscribed Hector Trojanus, 

I 1552; Komiilus and Remus exposed on the banks of the 

I Tiber- Medea .and Jason; seven plates of the Divinities 

that preside over the Planets ; thirteen plates of the Labors 

1 of Hercules, very fine and scarce; Orpheus and Euridico, 

I an etching, and the only one known by this master, which 

1 is very scarce. 

Allegorical and OfherSuhjects.—Yourteen plates of alle- 

fforieafsubiects, dated 1549 and 1550 ; seven do. of The A ir- 

tues 1552; seven do. of The Vices, 1552; eight do. of the 

I Empire of Death over Humanity ; six do. of Death di-ag- 




ging away Persons of all ages and both Soxes, 1562 ; twelve 
do. of the Procession of a Westphalian Weddinsc, 1533 ; eight 
do. of a similar subject, 1551 ; a Woman holding an Hour- 
glass, with a Skull and a Globe, inscribed iJes/jtce _^?!e?7)., 
1529 ; a Woman with wings, hovering over a Globe, hold- 
ing the symbols of Temperance and Prudence, 1555 ; an 
Officer carrying a Flag, 1540 ; a Man with a Sword, surpri- 
sing a Monk and a Nun, 1530 — very rare ; the Society of 
Anabaptists, with a number of Figures in the Water. 

The year of Aldegrever's death is not known, 
but there are prints by hifti dated as late as 15621 

ALDEGUELA, Josef Martin d', a Spanish 
architect, according to Bermudez, of considerable 
eminence ; born at Manzaneda in 1730 ; died at 
Malaga in 1802 ; studied under Josef Corbinos, of 
Valencia. Soon after quitting that master he was 
appointed to superintend the erection of the church 
and college of the Jesuits a-t Teruel. which was so 
creditably done, that he was soon after engaged by 
the bishop of Cuenca to finish the Church of San 
Felipe Neri in that city. From this time liis repu- 
tation was established. He subsequently erected 
a number of public edifices at Cuenca and else- 
where ; constructed the new aqueduct at Malaga, 
and completed the noted bridge at Ronda. 

ALDRICH, Rev. Henry, an Enghsh author 
and architect, born at Westminster in 1647. He 
designed Peekwater Square, at Oxford ; the chapel 
of Trinity College, and the Church of AH Saints of 
the same University. He died at Oxford in 1710. 

ALDROVANDINE Mauro, an Italian painter, 
the uncle of Tommaso, vrhom he instructed in the 
art ; born in 1649 ; died in 1680 ; acquired a great 
reputation as an architectural and scene painter, 
and although he died in his thirtj'-second year, he 
executed many excellent works in various Italian 
cities. He decorated the town-hall of Forli in con- 
cert with Carlo Cignani. 

ALDROVAXDIXI, Pompeo Agostino, a cele- 
brated Italian painter, born in 1677. He executed 
many works for the palaces, theatres, and churches 
of Vienna, Prague, and Dresden ; besides many 
admirable works in oil, fresco, and distemper. He 
died in 1739. 

ALDROVANDTNI, Tommaso. an Itahan pain- 
ter, born at Bologna in 1653. His uncle, Mauro 
Aldrovandini. an eminent architect, taught him the 
elements of the art. He excelled in representing 
views of perspective and architecture, in which the 
fijiiires were painted by Marc' Antonio Frances- 
chini, and Carlo Cignani. The principal work of 
this artist was the Council Chamber at Genoa, 
which he painted in conjunction with Franceschini. 
He died in 173G. 

ALE, Egidids, a Flemish painter, born at Liege; 
flourished in the latter part of the seventeenth 
century. He went to Rome, adopted the grand 
style, and painted in conjunction with ^Morandi. 
Romanelli, and Bonatti. He executed an altar- 
piece in oil. and the ceilings of the chapels in fresco, 
for the church of S. Maria dell' Anima at Rome. 
He followed the principles of the Roman school, 
and was noted for his purity of style. He died 
in 1689. 

ALEMAGXA. Giovanni, called Zohan. Zoane, 
Zuane. a German painter, who practised at Venice 
from 1441 to 1451. in conjunction with Antonio 
Vivarini, called da Murano ; from which some have 
supposed that Zuane stood for Giiovanni, a l)rother 
of Antonio ; but this cannot be true, as other pic- 

tures are inscribed Johannes de Alemania et Anio- 
nius de Muriano pin.rit. and Antonio de Muran e 
Zohan Alemanus pin.vit. He was a painter of 

ALEMAGXO, Giusto di. a German painter, 
who practised at Genoa in the fifteenth century. 
In 1451 he executed an Annunciation in fresco, in 
a cloister of S. Maria di Castello ; which Zani 
says is a valuable picture. It is finished in the 
manner of the miniaturists, seemingly the precur- 
sor of the style of Albert Durer. 

ALEMAX, RoDRiGO, a sculptor, says Bermudez, 
of much celebrity in his time, about the beginning 
of the sixteenth century ; he was probably a Ger° 
man. He executed the figures and arabesque orna- 
ments of the stallsof the choir of the cathedral of 
Placenzia — an extraordinary work, rich in every 
kind of grotesque device ; also the stalls of the 
Church of Ciudad Rodrigo. 

ALEMAXS, X., a Flemish painter who generally 
lived at Brussels. He painted animals and minia- 
ture portraits. 

ALEX or OLEX, John Van, a Dutch painter, 
born at Amsterdam in 1651. He generally repre- 
.sented fowls, landscapes, and still-life. Though 
inferior to Hondekoeter, he treated those subjects 
with great ability. Copies of Hondekoeter and 
other masters of the period. ea.sily pass for original 
productions. He died in 1698. 

ALEXI, Tommaso, an Italian historical painter, 
born at Cremona in 1500, and, according to Or- 
landi. a scholar of Galeazzo Campi, whose style he 
followed. He executed some works in competi- 
tion with Galeazzo, in the Church of S. Domenico, 
at Cremona, which are difficult to distinguish from 
those of that master. He died in 1560. 

ALEOTTI. Giameattista, an architect and au- 
thor of Ferrara, who lived about 1615. and erected 
the citadel placed by Clement VIII. at Ferrara. also 
various public edifices at IMantua, Modena, Parma, 
and Venice. He was employed also in levelling 
land, and ch-aining marshes. 

ALESIO, Matted Perez di, a Roman painter, 
who lived about 1585. The patronage Philip II. 
bestowed on the arts, induced him to remove to 
Spain, where he executed many fresco paintings 
for the churches of Seville, the principal of which 
is a colossal picture forty feet high, in the cathedral, 
representing St. Christopher carrying the infant 
Saviour on liis shoulder. It is highly praised by 
Palomino Velasco. His design is characterized by 
the style of ^lichael Angelo. After a few years 
he departed for Italy, declaring that a country pos- 
sessing so great a master as Luis de Vargas,"stood 
in no need of his assistance. He died at Rome in 

ALESSAXDRO and JULIO, two Italian paint- 
ers of whom little is known, but they are alwavs 
mentioned together. They are said to'have studied 
under Ralfaelle or Giovanni da Udine. They vis- 
ited Spain at the invitation of Charles V., and 
decorated the Alhambra with paintings in the style 
of the Loggia of Raffaelle in the Vatican. Pacheco 
says they executed the paintings in the house of 
Cabos, the emperor's secretary ; and Velasco men- 
tions several other works of their execution. 

ALESSAXDRO, Innocenzio, an Italian engra- 
ver, born at "N^enice about 1740, and studied under 


r. Bartolozzi, before that master left Venice for 
Eng-land. He engraved several plates in aqnatinta, 
and in the crayon manner, of which the following 
are the principal : 

The Annunciation ; The Flight into Egypt ; after F. Le 

The Virgin Mary, with a Glory of Angels ; after Piaz- 

The Virgin Mary, with Guardian Angels, releasing the 
Souls in Purgatory ; after Sebastian Ricci. 

Two Landscapes, and a set of twelve Landscapes ; after 
Marco Ricci. 

Four prints, representing Painting, Music, Astronomy, 
and Geometry ; after Domenico Majotto. 

ALESSI, Galeazzo, a very celebrated Italian 
architect, was born at Perugia in 1500, and studied 
under Giambattista Oaporali, of Perugia, but after- 
wards went to Piome. where he became the friend 
of Michael Angelo. He completed the fortress of 
Perugia, and erected several of the finest palaces 
in that city. He resided some years in Genoa, 
where he erected the splendid church of the ^la- 
donna ; extended the mole more than six hundred 
paces into the sea ; built the gate of the old mole, 
and a number of palaces for the nobility. He left 
many designs and models which have been execu- 
ted by the nobles, and have gained for Genoa the 
title of La Superha. He executed many magnifi- 
cent works at Ferrara, Bologna and Milan, and 
various designs for buildings, lakes, fountains and 
baths in Naples. Sicily, France, Germany, and 
Flanders. Alcssi became so famous that the King 
of Portugal declared him a cavaher, and the King 
of Spain sent for him to execute some buildings, 
and loaded him with riches and honor. On return- 
ing to Perugia he was honored with a membership 
inthe Commercial College, and sent to Paul V. on 
an important commission. He sent a design for 
the monastery and Church of the Escurial, in Spain, 
which was preferred to those of all the architects 
of Europe, and he was requested by the King of 
Spain to execute it, but his age and indisposition 
pervented. Alessi was learned and agreeable, aiid 
of great ability. His familj- has produced several 
illustrious men. He died in 1572. 

ALEWYN, "W"., a Dutch amateur painter of the 
present century, who made many designs after the 
works of the old masters. He lived at Amster- 
dam and at Utrecht, where he died in 1839. 

ALEXANDER, John, a Scotch engraver, who 
practised at Rome, according to Heincken, about 
171S. His plates are chiefly after Ratfaelle, slightly 
etched, incorrectly drawn, and indifferently execu- 
ted. He engraved a set of six middle-sized plates, 
lengthways, dedicated to Cosmo III., grand duke of 
Tuscany, as follows : 

The Benediction of Abraham, dated 1717. 
The Sacrifice of Abraham. 1718. 
The Angel appearing to Abraham. 
The Departure of Lot from Sodom. 
Jacob's Ladiier. 1718. 
Moses and the Burning Bush. 1717. 

ALEXANDER, William, an English designer, 
born at IMaidstone in 1768. He accompanied Lord 
IMacartncy to China as draughtsman, and his (b-aw- 
ings of the .scenery -and customs of the Celestial 
Empire, served to illustrate Sir George Staunton's 
Narrative of the Embassy. He published a work 
of the Costumes of China ; was teacher of drawing 
at the Royal IMihtary College at Great Marlow, 
tind afterwards Keeper of the Antiques in the 

16 ALEX. 

British ]Museum, where he executed the drawings 
of the marbles and tei-ra-cottas for Taylor Combe's 
work in 3 vols. He died in 1816. 

ALEXANDER, an Athenian painter who prob- 
ably executed the paintings on the four marble 
tablets which were found in 1740 at Herculaneum, 
and are now in the Museum at Naples. They 
evince considerable merit, and from their style are 
apparently of a late date. 

ALFANI. Domenico' Di Paris, an Italian paint- 
er, born at Perugia, according to Pascoli, in 1483. 
He was a scholar of Perugino, whose style he sur- 
passed ; and his works are so much in the manner 
of Ratfaelle, that were it not for the delicacy and 
sweetness of his coloring, they might be assigned 
to the school of that master. His reputation has 
suffered from that of his son Orazio, and even in 
Perugia some fine works were long ascriVied to the 
latter, which are now restored to Domenico. They 
painted together some fine altar-pieces, which 
increases the difficult)'- of distinguishing their 
works ; especiallj^ one in the Church of the Con- 
ventionals at Perugia, mentioned hy Mariotti. The 
same writer says he was living in 1536 ; but Zani 
says he painted as late as 1553. 

ALFANI, Orazio di Paris, an Italian painter, 
the son of Domenico, a native of Perugia, and born, 
according to Zani, about 1510. He studied under 
Pietro Perugino, and followed the graceful style of 
Ratfaelle so successfully that some of his best pic- 
tures have been mistaken for the early works of 
that master. He died about 1583. 

ALFARO, Don Juan y Gamon de, a Spanish 
painter, born at Cordova, in 1640. He first studied 
under Antonio de Castillo, but afterwards under 
Velasquez, whose stjde he imitated, especially in 
his portraits. In the Church of the Carmelites 
is a tine picture of the Incarnation by ^Ufaro ; and 
in the Church of the Imperial College at jMaclrid, is 
his famous picture of the Guarchan Angel. He 
also painted the portrait of Calderon de la Barca, 
which was placed on the tomb of the poet in the 
Church of San Salvador at Madrid. He knew 
little of design, but became a good coloi-ist from 
copjnng the works of Titian, Rubens, and Vandyck, 
while in the school of Velasquez. He died in 1680. 

ALFEN, EusEBius Johann, a Danish painter 
of the last century, who acquired a great reputa- 
tion in his own countrj', and in Germany, for his 
works in miniature, in enamel, and in crayons. 
His portraits, according to Nagler. are very spirited 
and brilliant in coloring. He resided some time at 
Vienna, where he died in 1770. 

ALFIERI, CoNTE Benedetto, a Roman archi- 
tect, born in 1700 ; died in 17G7 ; studied draw- 
ing at the Jesuit College of Rome ; designed the 
fa9ade of a palace in the square at Alessandria, for 
the jNfarquis Ghilieri, which gained him so mtich 
reputation that Charles Emanuel III., of Sardinia, 
commissioned him to rebuild the Royal Opera- 
House at Turin, after the former structure had 
been burnt down ; and for this purpose sent Alfieri 
to examine the principal European theatres. The 
new edifice was grcatlj- admired, and has generally 
been considered one of the noblest and most con- 
venient structures of the kind in Italy. He also 
erected a theatre and several palaces in Turin, and 
at his death left many noble architectural designs 
which, says Vittorio, he would have been enabled 


to execute, had his royal patron been possessed 
of a deeper purse. 

ALFOX, Juan, a Spanish painter, born at To- 
ledo, executed some reliquaires for the cathedral in 
1418, which are still preserved. 

ALFORAE, NiccoLo Guglielmi, a French en- 
graver, little known, was born in Lorraine, but 
lived at Rome. He engraved a set of twelve small 
upright prints of flowers, which are executed in a 
very spirited and masterly manner. 



or Sis .ALGARDI Alessandro, an 
' 1 ^L-^ eminent Italian sculptor and 
architect, born at Bologna, in 1598. He first 
studied under Giulio Ccsare Consent!, but after- 
wards in the Academy of Lodovico Caracci. In 
1625 he went to Venice, and from thence to Rome, 
where the Duke of Mantua recommended him to 
Cardinal Ludovici, nephew of Pope Gregory XV., 
who was intent on renewing the magnificence of the 
Gardens of Sallust. Here he was employed in 
restoring mutilated antiquities, and in preparing 
original works of sculpture. Here he also became 
acquainted with several eminent artists, his coun- 
tryman Domenichino in particular. His first great 
work was the statue of St. Magdelen, for the Church 
of S. Silvestro, on the Quiriual, which gained him 
such celebrity that cardinals and princes now availed 
themselves of his talents. The French Court solic- 
ited him to come to Paris, but the Prince Pamfili 
succeeded in retaining him at Rome. Here he 
erected the famous villa Pamfili, and other great 
works, for which he was presented with a golden 
collar, and the title of Cav. di Crito. by Innocent 
X. His Flight of Attila, a basso-relievo, with fig- 
lu-es of the size of hfe, in marble, over the altar of 
St. Leo in St. Peter's church, is his most renowned 
work. His God of Sleep of Nevo-antico, a rare 
kind of marble, in the villa Borghese, has often 
been taken for an antique. But with all his excel- 
lencies, he has been censured for an inclination to 
give to sculpture the effect of painting, attributed 
to the influence of the school of the Caracci over 
him. He died at Rome, in 1654, aged 52. 

There are a few prints extant, executed with the 
graver, in the bold, free style of Agostino Caracci, 
marked with one of the above monograms, which 
have been attributed to Algardi, as follows : 
The Crucifixion— a large upright plate. 
The Souls delivered from Purgatory — oval ; and 
The Blind Beggar and his Dog ; after Caracci. 
Also, a set of eighty plates, of the Cries of Bologna, after 
Laracci, engraved in conjunction with Simon Guilian. 

ALGAROTTI, Conte Francesco, an Italian 
author and connoiseur of great note, and an ama- 
teur engraver, born at Venice in 1712. Heineken 
says he designed and engraved for his own amuse- 
ment several plates of heads, in groups ; among 
which IS one m the antique style, containing thir- 
teen heads, dated 1744. He died at Pisa, in 1764. 

ALIAMET, PRAN9013 Germain, a French 
portrait and historical engraver, younger brother 
3f Jacques, born at Abbeville in 1734. He studied 
in Pans, but afterwards went to London, and was 
.or some time under Sir Robert Strange. His line 
IS neat and firm, but his works do not equal 
;hose of his brother. The following are the prin- 
Jipal : ^ 

After Caracci.— The Adoration of the Shepherds 
After Guido.—Tha Circumcision ; oval. 

After Le ilfom^.— The Annunciation; St. I<niatlu« 
Kneelmg. ° 

After Le Sueur.— The Stoning of St. Stephen. 

After A. Sacchi.— The Sacrifice of Pan. 

After Watteau.—TvfO plates : The Bathers. 
,. AftfrPine.— Canute reproving his Flatterers; the Keduc- 
tion of Calais; xMrs. Pritchard in the character of Hermione ; 
Portrait of Dr. Sharp. 

ALIAMET, JAcauES, a talented French euTa- 
ver born at Abbeville, in 1728. He studied with 
J. P. le Bas, and at first was emploj^ed on vignettes 
for the booksellers ; but he soon made liigher 
attempts, and acquired eminence from several 
plates he engraved after pictures of Vernet. He 
excelled especially in landscapes and sea-views. 
His style was extremely neat ; he I'lsed the graver 
and dry point; expressed the various shades of 
color with correctness, and carefullf avoided any 
exaggeration of shadow. He died at Paris in 1788. 
The following is a list of his best prints : 

c,'^-^^^^ Z^'''^^^-~-^ ^"'^ ^^ * Sea-port by night; The 
btorm ; The Fog ; two Sea-pieces— the Fisherman going to 
Sea, and the Return to Port ; four plates of the Four Times 
ot Day— Morning, Evening, Noon and Night. 

After Berghem.—A Landscape with Figures and Cattle; 
a Landscape with a Stag-hunt; the Port of Genoa; the 
J^emale Villagers; the Pleasures of the Villagers 

After Wouwerman.— The Spanish Halt; a Guard of 

_ After A. Vander Neer.—A Night-scene, with the Moon 
just nsmg ; a View of Boom, by Moonlight. 

After A. Vander Velde.—A Winter-piece, styled The 
Amusements of Winter. > J"«>^ -^ae 

After Jeurat.— The Birth of Venus. 

After Teniers.— Two plates of the Sabbath. 

ALIBERTI, Giovanni Carlo, an Italian paint- 
er, born at Asti, in Piedmont, in 1680. It is not 
known who instructed him. Lanzi says he exe- 
cuted some important works in fresco in the 
churches of Asti ; as in the Church of S. Agos- 
tino, representing that saint taken up to heaven 
surrounded by angels; and also another of St! 
Agostino baptising a number of children, and other 
figures. It is ingeniously composed, with a fine 
expression in the heads, and embellished with 
architecture. His style generally is distinguished 
by heads and feet like those of Guido or Domeni- 
chino, <lrapery of Veronese, colors of Guercino, and 
forms of the Caracci. He died in 1740. 

ALIBRANDI, Girolamo. a Sicilian painter, born 
at Messina in 1470. He studied under Gio. Bel- 
lini, at Venice, and was the friend of Giorgione. 
He subsequently visited Milan, where he became 
a scholar of Leonardo da Vinci. Most of his works 
are at Messina, the principal of which is a large 
painting in the Chiesa della Candelora, represent- 
ing the Purification. He died of the plague in 

ALIENSE. See Vassilacchi. 

ALIPRANDI, Michael Angelo. a Veronese 
painter of some merit, who lived in the sixteenth 
century, studied under Paolo Veronese, and painted 
in the style of that master. He executed several 
works of merit in Verona, among which are the 
fagades of several edifices painted in fresco, with 
subjects from sacred and profane history. 

ALIX, John, a French painter and engraver of 
the seventeenth century, and a scholar of Philip de 
Champagne. There are none of his paintings re- 
corded, but he practised the art for amusement. 
There is an etching by this artist of a Holy Fam- 
ily, after Rafiaelle, executed in a very light, plea- 



since style. It is marked R. V. P, for RaffaeUe 
Urhino pinxit. 

A TJX P M., a French euGTaver, born at Hon- 
fleur in 1752, ami a scholar of Le Bas. He execu- 
ted wi.h the roulette a set of portraits o cmmen 
men, which were printed m colors. InJbOi he 
published in the same style a large poit^^t of 
Napoleon, in hi.s coronation robes. He died m 

^^ALLAN, David, a Scotch painter, born at Alloa 
in 1744. lie was instructed in the principles of 
the art in the Academy at Glasgow, founded by 
Robe" and Andrew Foulis the P-t-- He v^- 
ited Italy to pursue his studies, ^f fi^^^^i^^ 
prize medal given by the ^^^^^^^^^ «[ S*" ^^ ^^^^^^^^ 
the best historical composition. It is said that tie 
resided there for some years, and pamted land- 
scapes in the manner of Gaspar Poussm ; but his 
etclS, and the engravings made by Paul Sandby 
of Allan's Sports of the Carnival, are poor atf an s. 
His illustrations of Allan Ramsay's "Gentle Shep- 
herd" are much better. He ched m 179b. 

ALLARD, Abraham, an engraver and print- 
selkr of Leyden. Heineken mentions twelve 
plates of views of towns, ^^^g^avcd by this ar ist^ 
and among the miscellaneous prints of the iintisti 
Suseum,is a large print, lengthways, representing 
the Garden of Love. 

ALLARD, Charles, an engraver and prmt- 
seller. Heineken says he executed some mezzo- 
tintos In the loose prints of the British Mu- 
seum ther are four engravings by this artist, rep- 
resenting the seasons, in half-length figures, execu- 
ted in a^coarse, heavy style, with bad taste. 
=,4^ LA ALLARD, HuYCH, a Dutch 

r^ ;^'' Tt\^ .portrait engraver. The prin- 
cipal of his works is the portrait of Davnd Glaxin, 
I. V.D. ; and that of Adrianus Paw, Legate to Hol- 
land ; both signed with his name. 

ALLEGRAIN, Etienne, a French painter, born 
at Paris in 1G55, painted landscapes of considera- 
ble merit. He died in 173G. 

ALLEGRAIN, Gabriel, a French painter, son 
and scholar of Etienne, painted landscapes m his 
father's style. He died in 1748. 

ALLEGRI, Antonio da Oorreggio, or, as he 
sometimes signed it, Antonio Lieto* da Oorreg- 
gio, an illustrious Italian painter, born at Correg- 
eio a small town in the duchy of Modena, m 1494. 
The Padre Orlandi and Sandrart, assert that his 
family, named AUegri, was wealthy and noble; 
that he received a liberal education, and lived and 
died in opulence. On the contrary Vasari says he 
was the son of a laborer, and hved and died m pov- 
erty Bryan asserts it as an "cstabhshed fact 
that ''/i6 died of a fever, brought on by Jus anxiety 
to bring home to his family, in hot weatfier, on 
foot, a small sum paid to him at Parma, m c op- 

" * Allegri and Lieto are synonymous, both signifying 
the same as L^tus in Latin. He used both signatures 
but the latter evidently when writing to an mtimate fnend 

n a eheerful and joeund mood. His signature to eontrac s, 
receipts and other important documents, was simply Anto- 
n'o, or Antonins mana propria, or Antomo ^nanupro- 
prUi, his other name, da Corrcggw, hemS i°«f t'"! "^ ^J^ 
rn4rument. It is true that ho occasionally put Lieto on 

SSres, perhaps to indicate that they were pamted 

ZZlae influence of pleasant f<^«^li?g?. "^^^.^^ ^J fas 
friend ; but it is not known that any of his family u.ed it as 

a name. 


7)er:" adducing this in proof of his humble origin. 
This story is totally unworthy the attention ot 
any reasonable man. The numerous public aud 
private works he executed, and the liberal remu- 
neration he received for them, are strong arguments 
a"-ainst this supposition ; and his virtuous course 
of life forbids the thought that he became poor 
through extravagance. JMoreover, the researches 
and discoveries of the learned Tiraboschi, the in- 
domitable Dr. ISIichele Antonioli, and the zealous 
and impartial Padre Luigi Pungileoni, fully disprove 
the probability that his death happened in this 
manner. His father, Pelligriui Allegri, was a gen- 
eral merchant in Correggio, and held a respectable 
station among his fellow citizens. His mothers 
maiden name was Bernardina Piazzoli degli Aro- 
mani His father's circumstances were easy, and 
he intended his son for a learned profession; but 
whether from natural vivacity of disposition, or 
that while very young he felt an impulse for the 
arts, he did not so far apply himself as to make 
much advancement in the study of Latm. it is, 
not certain with whom he stuched. Some Italian 
writers state that he was instructed by Francescoi 
Bianchi and Giovanni Muraui, called 11 braru 
Others say that he was pupil to Leonardo da A mci, 
and others still, to Anchea ISIantegna ; of which 
there is no tangible proof. He may possibly have 
received some instruction from Bianchi m his tit- 
tcenth or sixteenth year ; but it is most probaViU 
• that he learned the rudiments from his uncie 
Lorenzo Allegri, a painter who was yery fond ot 
h'm and at his death left him half Ins property 
Antonio Bartolotti, called Tognino, probably taugh 
him the more erudite parts of design. In othei 
matters of learning, it appears that he studied th. 
elements under Giovanni Berni; eloquence am 
poetry under B. [Marastoni ; and anatomy and phi 
losophy under Giambattista Lombardi, public pro 
fossor at Bologua, and subsequently at Fcn-ara 
But, however that may be, Corrcgg-io was litt 
indebted to his teachers for the fame he afterwaixl 
acquired, and it does not appear that he ever vis 
ited Rome. His wonderful genius created such a: 
admirable system of harmony, grace and grandeui 
as his successors have never equalled, lo his tal 
ents the art owes one of its most effective illusion 
—the facultyof foreshortening— and he has carrie 
the chiaro-scuro to its highest perfection. IL 
forms are exquisitely soft and beautiful, and hi 
heads are expressed with a gracefuUenderness tht 
is truly inimitable. His coloring is fully as pui 
and dehcate as that of Titian with more of tl 
impasto; and in grandeur of effect, he undoubtedl 

surpasses him. .•+!,„„, 

The principal work of Correggio is the grc! 
fresco painting in the cupola of the cathedral i 
Parma, completed in 1530; and it has ever bee 
considered a most wonderful production. Ihe ci 
pola is octangular, and the subject, the Assum; 
tion of the Virgin. In the lower part he has re 
resented the Apostles admiring the event, in tl 
upper part is the Virgin, surrounded by immen 
numbers of Saints and Angels, some thrown 
incense, others chanting, rejoicing, and triump 
antly applauchng; in their heads, the most ange 
expression conceivable, whilst a magnihcent etii 
gcncc of light is spread over the whole forming 
spectacle truly celestial. Notwithstanding the u 
fivorable light, and the dusky hue this work b 
assumed from the smoke of candles continual 


burning in the church, yet tlie grandeur of the 
forms, the inimitable design, and the magnificent 
effect of hght and shadow in tliis amazino- work 
contmue to excite the wonder and admiration of 
every judicious beholder. The dome of the Church 
of b. Giovanni, of the Benedictines, at Parma is 
another of his wonderful works. It represents the 
Ascension of our Saviour, with the twelve Apostles 
and doctors of the church ; which, from its copious 
and masterly execution, and its correctness and 
grandeur of design, may indeed be considered a 
model of perfection. Among his oil paintings, one 
of the most celebrated is the St. Jerome of Correo-- 
gio representing the Virgin seated, with the Infant 
on her knee; Mary Magdalene kneeling, embraces 
the feet of the Saviour, while St. Jerome presents 
a scroll to an Angel. For the Church of S. Gio- 
vanni he painted two altar-pieces— one represent- 
ing the Descent from the Cross, and the other the 
Martyrdom of St. Placido. These three gi-eat paint- 
ings were torn from their venerable situations 
during the French revolution, and placed in the 
Museum of the Louvre. The French artists 
then residing at Eome, presented a memorial 
to the National Convention, characterized by ele- 
gance of composition as well as liberal senti- 
ment, m which they stated the injury the cultiva- 
tion of the art would receive from the removal of 
these grand works. Their memorial was disre- 
garded, but the works were restored while the 
allies had possession of Paris. Correggio's famous 
work called La Notte, representing the Nativity 
may be seen in the Gallery at Dresden; and a 
beautiful little picture of the Magdalen reachng. 

Writers difler widely as to whether Corregdo 
engraved any plates. Pungilione mentions an 
extraorchnary wood-print of St. Thomas, one of 
the hgures m the cupola at Parma, which measured 
tour feet seven inches in height, and three feet four 
inches m breadth, French measm^e. This print he 
says, was m the possession of Sig. Alfonso Fr'an- 
ceschi, a painter, and it is said to have all the char- 
acteristics of originality; but he adds, it is unknown 
who engraved it, though it was certainly done m 
the sixteenth century. Signor Franceschi obtained 
It, with sketches by Correggio for the two cupolas, 
and cartoons by Rondani, which were lying unob- 
served and decaying in the corner of a chamber of 
the cathedral of Parma. Zani and Brulliot men- 
tion two prints, each representing the Virgin and 
Infant, one of which has the figure of a heart with 
the word Regio over it as a rebus for Corre-o-io ; 
the other a heart with a ducal coronet, and the 
word Invent over it. These marks are evidently 
fancies of the engravers, for he never signed his 
works m this manner. The same writers also 
mention some other prints ascribed to Correggio 
but which they think are from his pictures or de- 
signs by engravers of a subsequent period. 

ihis great artist passed some time in Mantua, 
on two occasions, with the Marchese .Alanfi-edo, and 
the celebrated patroness of arts and letters, Vero- 
nica Gambara relict of Gilberto. lord of Corre-gio. 
Here he had the advantage of examining the works 
iruT} f'^^''^^' th« frescos of Cosso, Lion- 
Brmo. and Dosso; also the grand collection of 

df f'S ""S ' '".?"''!• '°^^ ^"tiqnities of Isabella 
^Lli authentic documents revealed by 

the three savans before mentioned, show that he 
^as most highly esteemed by his cotemporaries 
ihat he was cheerful and lively, may be inferred 



from the expression of a writer concerning him : 
"■La vivacita e dal brio del nostro Antonio f yet 
affectionate and gentle, as is evident from his beino- 
sponsor on three occasions to inf^xnts of his friends 
(in 1511, 1516, and 1518), before he had reached his 
22d year. In 1520 he was admitted by diplo- 
ma, as a brother of the Congregation Cassineusi 
m the monastery of St. John the Evangelist, at 
Parma— the fraternity to which the illustrious 
lasso belonged. In the same year he married 
Girolama lAIerlini, a lady of good family, amiable 
disposition, and great beautj^, who was his model 
for the Zingara, probably after the birth of his first 
child. By this lady he had one son and three 
daughters. In 1529, to his great affliction, she 
died, and was buried, by her own request, in the 
Church of St. John at Parma. Correggio did not 
marry again. He ched suddenly on the 5th day of 
March, 1534, aged 40 years, and was buried with 
solemnities worthy of his great endowments, in the 
Church of San Francesco, at the foot of the altar 
m the chapel of the Arrivabene. 

ALI^EGRI, Lorenzo, an ItaUan painter, who 
hved about 1500; uncle to the famous Correegio 
and his first instructor in the rules of art.^ A 
Madonna, painted in 1511, is supposed to have 
been done by Lorenzo, though ascribed to Antonio ; 
and although the style is but mecUocre, it is softer 
in tone than many of its cotemporaries, and nearer 
to the modern manner. He died in 1527, leavin- 
lus efiects to his brother Pellegrino, and his nephew 
Antonio, by whom he was greatly beloved. 

ALLEGRI, PoMPONEo, an Italian painter, the 
son of Correggio, was born in 1522. and learned the 
rudiments of the art from his illustrious father 
but was deprived of this advantage by the death of 
the latter when Pomponeo was only twelve years 
of age. It is said that he subsequently continued 
his studies under Francesco ]\Iaria Rondani, the 
most talented of Correggio's scholars. Pomponeo 
executed a fresco painting in the cathedral at Par- 
ma representing Moses showing the Israelites the 
iables of the Law, which is finely colored, with 
beautiful parts, and heads expressed entirely in 
the style of Correggio. 

ALLEGRINI, Francesco, an Italian designer 
and engraver, born at Florence about 1729 In 
1 / 62 he published, in conjunction with his brother, 
one himdred portraits of the family of the MecUci 
with a frontispiece engraved by himself. He "xe- A 
cuted a print of the image of St. Francis d'Assisi, ^ 
which IS highly prized in Florence; also fom-teen 
portraits of eminent Florentine poets, painters, and 

ALLEGRINI, Francbsoo, called da Gubbio, 
a Roman historical painter, was born in 1587, and 
a scholar of Arpino. He executed some works for 
the churches and palaces at Rome, both in oil and 
fresco. He had a large number of scholars at 
Rome, among whom were his two sons, Flaminio 
and Angelo. who also painted history. He died 
in 1663. 

ALLEGRINI, Giuseppe, a Florentine engraver 
who lived about 1746. The following are liis prin- 
cipal works : 

The Virgin Mary with the Infant, half figures, inscribed 
Kgrcditur virgo de radice, <^c.; the Circumcision in- 
scribed Gius. Allegrini sculp. <f-c; the Stoning of St. Ste- 
phen ; a small print of Rinaldo and Armida ; a large Archi- 
tectural piece, lengthways ; after Chamont. 



ALLEGRETTI. Carlo, an Italian painter of 
Monte Prandonc, of the early part of the seven- 
teenth century. Lanzi praises a picture ot the 
Epiphany, in the cathedral of Ascoli, by this artist. 
ALLEMAND, Jean Baptiste, a French paint- 
er, and a pupil of Vernet, was living at Roine about 
1750. in which year he painted four splendid land- 
scapes in fresco, in the Corsini Palace. He de- 
signed the background to Greuzc's Costumes of 

ALLEMAND. See L'Allemand. 
ALLEMANNI. Giuseppe, an Italian painter, 
of Correggio, and a scholar of Cignani, executed at 
Rimini, ill the Church of the Minorites, a copy of 
the Conception by Maratti. A. Pietro AHemanm 
is said to be the earliest painter of Ascolu Theie 
is a picture by him in Santa Maria della Carita, at 
Ascoli, dated 1489. Marolles mentions an old 
wood-engraver named Allemanni or Allemanna, as 
the author of some very excellent prints. 

ALLEN, Floppart Van, a German designer 
and engraver, who lived about 1686. He executed 
in that year a drawing of Vienna, which MuHer 
enoraved ; and he has himself engraved a large 
print of the city of Prague, with several figures, 
marked with his name, Van Allen. 

ALLET, Jean Charles, a French designer and 
enoraver of portraits and sacred history, born at 
Pains about 1668. He sometimes marked his 
plates Charles, and sometimes Jean Charlesjvom 
which the collectors have thought there were two 
artists named Allet ; but the style is so similar, 
that it is now believed those plates are by the same 
hand He seems to have imitated, though unsuc- 
cessfully, the style of F. Spierre and Corn. B oeni- 
aert He lived many years m Italy, and probably 
died at Rome, in 1732. The following are Ins prin- 
cipal works : 

Pope Alexander VIII. ; after H. Calendrucci. J- C 

^¥i"st.1grtiuf andSt.Aloyse Gonzaga; after P. 

^ cIkS riSio Amodei ; after J. M. Morandi. 1698 
Ferdinand Charles de Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua; after 

Antonio Lesma. j„t„/i 1719 

Andrea Pozzo, painter and arckitect, dated iii^,. 


The Crucifixion ; after Andrea Pozzo. OyoX. 

ihe Adoration ^.f the Shepherds ; the Vir^;m Mary and 
St Joseph adoring the Infant Jesus; after S. de Pesaro. 

The Saviour brought before Pilate, after P. de Petris. 

Ananias restoring sight to St. Paul; and the Vision of 
St Paul • after Pietro de Cortona. [The two last are con- 
sidered his best works on historical subjects.] 

St AuguBtine, with a Child, getting water from the Sea ; 
nffer J. B. Leonardi. , , . , „ 

-^St Rosa, crowned by Angels ; a small plate signed Car- 
olus Allet, del et sculp. ; St. Andromcus, and St. Athana- 
eiiii!- nfter F. B. Zucchelli. „ t. ,• • j 

St. Gaetan, accompanied with a figure of Religion and 
Ohvist holdinff a Cross ; after Laz. BalUi. 

The death of St. Stanislaus Kostka; after P. le Gros, 

*'The°death of a Saint in the presence of the Virgin; St. 
Jolphand St. Francis Xavier; twelve pates illustrating 
the Life of Christ, executed in conjunction with A. V. 

ALLIO Matteo and Tommaso, two brothers, 
Milanese 'sculptors of the seventeenth century 
They executed some good ba^-rebefs m the Church 
of San Antonio, at Padua, in 1653, and some very 


ele"'ant pilasters which are highly praised bv 
Cic'oo'nara. In the chapel of the Dominican Church 
at Padua, there is a statue of St. Lorenzo Giusti- 
niano by Matteo. which being inferior to one of 
St. Antonio, by BruncUi, placed by the side of it 
in 1667. is said to have caused the artist's death 
through the serious way in which he took the mat- 
ter to heart. By Tommaso Allio there are also, in 
the same chapel, two statues— one of Faith and 
the other of Hope ; in San Antonio also, one of 
Hope and one of Charity; and some statues in a 
chapel of the Church of San Benedetto. 
ALLOISI. See Galanino. 
ALLORI, Alessandro, called Bronzing, an 
Italian painter, born at Florence in 1535. He was 
the son of a painter, but losing his father when he 
was five years old, he was reared and instructed by 
his uncle, Agnolo Bronzino, who treated him with 
parental affection. Under Si;onzino's able instruc- 
tion he advanced so rapidly, that when seventeen ! 
years old he designed and painted an altar-piece 
representing the Crucifixion, a composition of sev- 
eral figures, ingeniously arranged and finely col- 
ored '^When he was nineteen he visited Rome, 
where he remained two years. The principal 
objects of his study in that city were the works 
of Michael Angelo, whose style is discernible m 
his pictures. He executed there some admirable 
pictures of horses. On returning to Florence, he 
had many commissions for the churches and pub- 
lic edifices, but occasionally painted the portraits 
of some of the most eminent men of his time, which 
are executed in a masterly style. His Sacrifice of 
Isaac, in the British IMuseum, is colored much m 
the Flemish style. In 1590 he published a book 
on the Art of Drawing the Human Figure, illus- 
trated with anatomical prints from his own de- 
signs He had a fault, not uncommon to the age, 
that of introducing modern costumes in ancient 
histories. Lanzi says his talent appears to have 
been equal to every branch of the art ; but it was 
unequally exercised, and therefore unequally ex- 
panded. He died in 1607. 

ALLORI, Cristofano, called Bronzing, an 
Italian painter, the son of Alessandro, born at Flor- 
ence in 1577. He studied some time with Ins 
father, but subsequently under Santo ch iiti. He 
became a good colorist by imitating the works of 
Lodovico Carch, called Cigoli. He executed sev- 
eral reputable works for the churches and convents 
of Florence, and for the Palace of the Medici ; also 
many admirable portraits of the mo,st eminent men 
of his time. The St. Julian of the Pitti Palace is 
the o-randest of his productions, though his picture 
of Judith with the Head of Holofernes is better 
known. Judith, so splendidly attired, is a portrait 
of his mistress, the attendant is that of her mother, 
and 'the head of Holofernes is that of the artist. 
Many copies of this, and his other most famous 
works, are to be found throughout Italy the pro- 
ductions of his scholars, Tanteri, Bruno, Certosmi 
and others. Owing to vicious mdulgenccs that 
often seduced him from his labors, his works are 
extremely rare, and he himself comparatively little 
known. He died in 1621. _ 

ALLSTON, Washington. This eminent painter 
was born in North Carolina, in 1779 In his early 
boyhood he was sent to Newport, Rhode Island, 
that the healthful breezes of that place might invig- 
orate his naturally feeble constitution. Here he 




resided till 1796, when he was entered at Harvard 
TJniyersity, and graduated in 1800. He then re- 
turned to Charleston and the scones of his infancy, 
sold out his little patrimony, (Dnnlap says, "sac- 
rificed to his love of the arts,") and in the follow- 
ing 3xar embarked for London. In his infancy he 
exhibited a natural passion for the fine arts which 
showed itself in his sketching everything that 
struck his fancy ; and in after years he sought 
every opportunity, both at Newport and Cam- 
bridge, then extremely meagre, to obtain know- 
ledge of the art which he had resolved to make his 
future profession. On his arrival in London, he 
says he was received with the greatest kindness 
by ]Mr. West, then in the zenith of his fame, who 
took him cordially by the hand, and gave him free 
admission to his Gallery. He presented his draw- 
ings, was admitted a student at the Royal Acad- 
emy, and the following year exhibited three paint- 
ings in its Galleries, for one of which he received 
two applications, sold it, and obtained an order to 
paint a match piece. After remaining three years 
in England, he set out, with his friend Yanderlyn, 
for Paris. Here he was- enchanted with the glori- 
ous works of the old masters, which Napoleon had 
collected in the Louvre. He stopped but a few 
months in Paris, and then went to Rome, where 
he entered a private academy with Yanderlyn and 
Thorwaldsen. He remained in Italy, chiefly at 
Rome, about five years, studying the works of the 
best masters with assiduity. Here he also became 
acquainted with Coleridge, formed with him a 
strict friendship, and was his constant companion 
in his daily walks among the ruins that environ 
Rome. He returned to the United States in 1809, 
married a sister of the lamented Channing, but 
finding little encouragement for art or artists in 
his own land, he again went to London, with his 
wife, in 1811, accompanied by his pupil, S. F. B. 
Morse, who has since made his name illustrious 
by his invention of the magnetic telegraph. 

His first great work was the Dead Man Revived 
by the Bones of Elisha. This painting drew the 
prize of the British Institution of two hundred 
guineas, and was afterwards purchased by the Penn- 
sylvania Academy for $3,500. During the pro- 
gress of tliis woi-k he was attacked by a danger- 
ous illness, and after some months of great suffer- 
ing, he went to Clifton, near Bristol, at the recom- 
mendation of his physician, in hopes that a change 
of air would hasten his convalescence. Here he 
painted the portraits of his friend Coleridge, and of 
Dr. King, his medical adviser; also some fancy 
pictures. Soon after his return to London from 
Clifton, he was visited with another calamity — 
the death of his wife — which again prostrated his 
weak and sensitive frame like a thunderbolt. He 
had just taken a house and collected about him 
some congenial spirits, as Coleridge, Southey, Les- 
lie, and other eminent persons. 
. Allston remained in England till 1818, when, 
getting home-sick, to use his own expressive lan- 
guage, he returned to the United States, married a 
second wife— a sister of Dana the poet— settled 
himself first at Boston, and subsequently at Cam- 

The principal pictures which he executed in 
England are, the Dead Jlan, before mentioned ; the 
Ancrel Liberating St. Peter from Prison, painted 
for Sir George Beaumont ; Jacol)'s Dream, in the 
possession of the Earl of Egremont ; [there are a 

multitude of figures in this picture, which he con- 
sidered his happiest effort ;] Elijah in the Desert ; 
[this he brought with him to the United States, 
but it was afterwards bought by jNIr. Labouchere, 
M. P., and taken back ;] the Angel LTriel in the 
Sun, in the possession of the Marquis of Stafford. 
[This is a colossal foreshortened figure, that if 
standing upright would be fourteen feet high, but 
by the foreshortening it is only nine. The Direct- 
ors of the British Institution presented the artist 
one hundred and fifty guineas as a token of their 
approbation of Uriel.] All these paintings are of 
colossal size. He also executed many smaller pic- 
tures, as the Mother and Child ; Rosalie ; Rebecca 
at the Well ; Miriam ; Lucretia ; Catherine and 
Petruchio ; Anna Page ; Beatrice ; Amy Robsart, 
&c. Before he left Loudon he had made great pro- 
gress with Belshazzar's Feast, and intimated in a 
letter to a friend that he could finish it in a few 
months, which was never done. He executed but 
tew large pictures after his return home; the prin- 
cipal of them are, the Prophecy of Barach the 
Scribe; the Witch of Endor raising the Spirit. of 
Samuel before Saul ; and Spalatro's Vision of the 
Bloody Hand. But he painted many beautiful 
portraits and fancy pieces, looth at home and abroad, 
so that it is evident that the accusation of indolence 
made against him is not well founded, and cer- 
tainly it is not in accordance with his active tem- 
perament. In the Catalogue of the Boston Athe- 
na3m for 1850, is a list of forty-eight of his works 
then on exhibition. Nor is the charge of lack of 
appreciation and patronage true. The author has 
before him a letter of his to the late Wm. Hayward, 
dated Cambridge Port, 10th June, 1835, dechning a 
commission in the following language : " It would 
give me great pleasure to accept a commission from 
you at some future time ; but at present (and I sin- 
cerely regret it), I do not feel myself at liberty to 
enter into anj^ new engagements, having commis- 
sions on hand that will occupy me full two years, 
if not more. I have, indeed, of late been obliged to 
decline several applications for this reason." 

The citizens of Boston were ever proud of Alls- 
ton, and when a fitting occasion calls for their lib- 
erality and generosity, they enter into it with 
spirit. They got up an exhibition of his works 
while living, for his benefit (in 1835), and after his 
death, for his family. They also formed a joint- 
stock company and bought his Belshazzar's Feast, 
which he was to complete, for $10,000, which sum 
was paid him in advance. He was engaged on this 
picture, when death summoned him away. There 
has been needless disquisition and speculation on 
this subject. The truth is, the artist could never 
satisfy himself with his composition ; for in a let- 
ter to a friend, speaking of the work, he says : " I 
could long ago have finished this and other pic- 
tures as large, had my mind been free ; for, indeed, 
I have already bestowed upon it as much mental 
and manual labor as. under another state of mind, 
would have completed several such pictures." 
Allston had been embarrassed in his circumstan- 
ces, and when this was known, the Bostonians 
came generously forward, and put the means into 
his hands to enable him to complete the work. 

Allston was a perfect gentleman, of finished edu- 
cation, and a poet as well as a painter. He has been 
called the poet-painter, not only from his having 
contributed some of the best pieces to American 
poetic literature, but from the highly imag-native 


qualities of his paintings. lie was an enthusiastic 
admirer of nature, as all true poets are. As he 
was crossing the Alps by the pass of St. Gothard, 
he says : " I passed a night and saw the sun rise 
on Lake Maggiore. Such a sunrise ! The giant 
Alps seemed literally to rise from their purple 
beds, and putting on their crowns of gold, to send 
up hallelujahs almost audible." As a prose writer 
he is chiefly known as the author of " Monaldi," a 
book written in the true vein of poetic feeling. An 
edition of his lectures on art, with his poems, was 
pul)lished in Boston, in 1843. He was exceedingly 
affable in his deportment, and kind and generous 
to a fault. Like most intellectual men of nervous 
temperament, his spirits freshened at night ; when, 
all cares being banished, his conversation was sin- 
gularl)^ attractive, and in the society of cherished 
friends, they " took no note of time." His personal 
appearance was remarkable. His figure was tall 
and slender, his countenance pale and serrated, his 
forehead loft}^, his features regular and pleasing, 
his eyes large and of a hazel color, and his hair 
long and silvery, falling gracefully down to his 
shoulders. He died very suddenly, without a 
struggle, as he was sitting conversing in his chair, 
in 18-43, in the C8th year of his age. 

]\Iany of his compositions are highly poetic and 
imaginative. He was considered one of the best 
colorists of his age. The Italians called him the 
American Titian, and his coloring is said to more 
closely approach that master than has been done 
by any other modern artist. But he was not a 
great designer. He never would have won immor- 
tality in grand historical painting, when put in 
competition with the great masters. His great 
forte, like Reynolds, lay in what the latter terms 
fancy pictures, and many of these are exquisite. 
Had he confined himself more closely to this class 
of paintings, his fame and success would have been 

[For more extended information of American 
artists than space will allow in this work, readers 
are referred to Dunlap's " History of xirt and De- 
sign in the United States ;" " The Artists of Amer- 
ica," by C. Edwards Lester ; " A General View of 
the Fine Arts," by D. Huntingdon ; and the "Arts 
and Artists of America," by A. C. Tuckerman.] 

AL]MELOVEN, John, a Dutch painter and 
engraver, born about 1G14. He is more known by 
several etchings of landscapes, executed with great 
lightness and intelligence, than by any thing he has 
left us a paiuter. He engraved quite a number of 
landscapes and other subjects, after his own designs 
and others, the principal of which are the fol- 
lowing : 

A set of twelve landscapes, signed J. Almeloven, inv. et 
fee; six Mountainous Landscapes, with figures, Joan ab 
Almeloven inv. etfec; ten Landscapes of the Four Sea- 
sons, after H. Saftleeven; a portrait of Gisbert Voctius, 
signed J. Almeloven inv. etfec. 

ALMONACID, Sebastian de, an early Spanish 
sculptor, who executed in 1500, together with a 
Dutch artist named Copin, the statues of the great 
altar of the cathedral of Toledo. In 1509 and 
1510, according to Bermudez, he made several 
statues for the cathedral at Seville. 

ALMOR, Don Juan, a Spanish historical painter 
of the last century, who executed many pictures 
for the Carthusian Convent of the Conception, near 

22 ALON. 

ALOISIUS, an Itahan architect who lived about 

495, and, according to Cassiodorus, was commis- 
sioned by Theodoric to restore several edifices at 
Ronie and elsewhere, particularly the sumptuous 
Basilica of Ravenna. 

ALONSO, Giovanni, a Spanish architect, who 
erected the superb sanctuary of Guadaloupc. 

ALONSO, Pedro de Los Rios, a Spanish sculp- 
tor, born at Valladolid in 1G50 ; died in 1700 ; stud- 
ied with his father, Francesco Alonso, at Valladolid. 
He afterwards established himself at jMadrid, where 
he acquired considerable reputation, and executed 
a number of works ; several of which, according to 
Bermudez, are in various churches of that city. 

ALS, Peter, a Danish painter of history and 
portraits, born at Copenhagen in 1725. He gained 
the first great prize awarded by the Copenha- 
gen Academy in 1755. Directly after, he went to 
Rome, and entered the school of Mengs, where he 
occupied himself chiefly in copying the productions 
of Raffaelle and Andrea del Sarto, which he did 
with great success. On returning to Denmark he 
painted some good portraits, but his coloring was 
too tame to give a pleasing effect in his pictures of 
females ; and he also labored his works so much as 
frequently to deprive them of all animation. His 
want of success is an instance of the evil conse- 
quences that result from copying instead of study- 
ing the works of great artists. He died in 1775. 

ALSLOOT, Daniel Van, a Flemish landscape 
and portrait painter of merit ; born at Brussels in 
1550 ; and died in 1608. Little is known of him. 
Another artist of this name is mentioned, called 
Denis Van A., probably one and the same person, 
or else brothers. Several pictures bearing the sig- 
nature of Van Alsloot were brought to this coun- 
try many years ago. The touch was light and 
spirited and the coloring good. 

a Neapolitan historical and architectural painter of 
considerable merit; was born in 1C57, and died in 

ALTDORFER, Albert, a German painter and 
engraver; born at Altdorff, in Bavaria, in 1488, as 
proved by Heineken, though others assert that he 
was a native of Switzerland. From the resem- 
blance of his style to that of Albert Durer, both 
in their pictures and engravings, and especially in 
their wooden cuts, it is thought he studied under 
that eminent master, though he did not equal him 
in anything. There are several of his paintings at 
Ratisbon, which are much esteemed ; and in the 
town-house is a complete collection of his engra- 
vings. He was quite distinguished among that 
class of engravers called the little masters; and 
his wooden cuts approach the merit of Holbein. 
He executed over one hundred and seventy prints, 
of which the following are the principal. He gen- 
erally marked liis prints with one of these mono- 



Scriptural and Religious Subjects.— The Virgin and 
Infant, with two Children, one holding a pot, dated 1507 ; 
the Virgin and Child in tlie niche of an Altar ; the Virgin 
with the Child standing on her knee with a Glory round 
the head ; the Virgin and Child dressed in the costume of 
Ratisbon ; the Repose in Egypt, the Virgin sitting with the 
Child on her knee, and St. Joseph standing by, with a staff 



in his hand — both have hats on ; our Saviour on the Cross, 
with several figures standing by ; St. Jerome in a Grotto, 
with an Altar, and a Book, and on a tablet over it the 
artist's monogram ; St. Jerome with the Lion — one of his 
beet prints ; St. George and the Dragon. 

Historical and Mythological Subjects. — The Death of 
Dido ; the Death of Lucretia, an etching ; Mutius Scasvola ; 
Venus going into the Bath with Cupid, and Venus coming 
out of the Bath, both after Marc Antonio ; Hercules and 
a Muse, sometimes called Apollo and Venus ; Cupid riding 
on a Sea-horse, attended by three Nymphs ; Amphion esca- 
ping from shipwreck on a Dolphin ; Pyramus and Thisbe ; 
a Woman holding a Sceptre, sitting on an Altar, surrounded 
by several Persons holding lanterns ; a naked Woman with 
Wings seated on a Star, with a Torch in one hand and an 
Escutcheon in the other, inscribed Lascivia ; a Man In 
Armour leaping into the Sea, with a Camp in the distance, 
and several Persons ol.iserving him ; a Man and Woman 
dancing ; six Children dancing, whilst three others are pip- 
ing to them ; two Landscapes ; the Synagogue, inscribed 
Sinagogae Judaicce ; two ornamental plates. 


Scriptural Subjects. — Forty prints of the Fall and Re- 
demption of Man, very fine and scarce ; the Sacrifice of 
Abraham; the Annunciation, 1513; the Purification; the 
Murder of the Innocents, 1511 ; the Decollation of St. 
John, 1512; the Resurrection, 1512; the beautiful Virgin 
of Ratisbon, after the picture in the cathedral — this is one 
of his best works, printed in chiaro-scuro ; Interior of a 
Church with the Virgin, a Pilgrim, and Angels ; St. Jerome 
kneeling before a Crucifis, in a Grotto ; St. Christopher in 
the Water, stooping to take up the Infant, 1513 ; St. George 
and the Dragon, in a landscape, 1511. 

Mythological and Other Subjects. — Paris dying on 
Moimt Ida, with Venus, Juno, and Minerva, 1511; a 
Knight sitting with a young Woman ; an Officer with a 
Flag, in a Landscape ; a Mountainous Landscape, with 
Buildings ; the Fagade of a Portico. 

ALTHA]\I, , a German painter, who lived 

about 1060. He painted landscapes and sea views 
with considerable ability. 

old Veronese painter of the fourteenth century. 
He was living in 1382. He seems to have been the 
first Veronese painter of any note. Vasari says he 
executed, with great judgment and skill, a single 
pictm-e of the history of the -Jewish wars, accord- 
ing to the account of Flavius Josephus, on the 
four walls of the great hall of the Palazzo de' 
Scaligeri. Above this picture, he painted a series 
of medallions, among which he introduced the por- 
traits of many eminent men of the time. He 
painted also, at Padua, in the old church of San 
Giorgio, the history of St. Jacopo, which is still 
extant, painted in the style of Giotto. 

ALTISSIMO, CkisTOFANO dell', a Florentine 
portrait painter of great merit, who lived about 
1568, and studied under Bronzino. His fam- 
ily name was Papi. He copied a series of portraits 
of eminent men, in the possession of the Conte 
Giovio, for Go.smo I., of Florence. He paid more 
attention to the features than to the rest of the pic- 
ture, and they are very faitlifully represented. 
His works generally are highly finished without a 
laborious appearance. 

ALTOBELLO, Francesco Antonio, a Neapo- 
litan painter of the seventeenth century. He 
studied under Stanzioni, and is probably the same 
as Antonio de Bellis, a talented artist who was a 
scliolar of the same master, and died yomig in 
1G.')G. Altobello is mentioned as using ultrama- 
rine excessively in his pictures ; de Bellis as fol- 
lowing the manner of Guercino, in whose works 
the same color abounds. Neither of them followed 

the style of their master. Both are mentioned as 
talented, correct in drawing, of ready invention, 
and skilful composition. 

ALTOBELLO, of Cremona, an Italian painter 
of the early part of the sixteenth century. Resta 
says he studied under Bramante, and Vasari extols 
him as superior to most of the Lombard painters 
of his time. He painted frescos in the cathedral 
of Cremona, and in a chapel of the Church of S. 
Agostino in that city. He pamted also at Milan. 

ALTOMONTE, Andrea, an Italian engra- 
ver, lived at Vienna about 1728. In concert with 
A. J. de Premier, he engraved the plates from the 
paintings in the Imperial Gallery, published in that 

ALTZENBACK, "William, a German engra- 
ver, who, according to Heineken, lived at Stras- 
burg about 1650. In concert with his son, he 
executed twenty plates of sacred history. 

ALUNNO; NiccoLO, an Italian painter, born at 
Foligno about 1450. He painted in distemper after 
the mamier of artists before Perugino, and his col- 
oring still retains its original lustre. In the 
Church of S. Niccolo, at Foligno, is an altar-piece 
by this artist, of the Virgin and Infant, with 
Saints ; and also his picture of the Pieta, so highly 
praised by Vasari. He executed many works, and 
gained much reputation. He died about 1510. 

ALVAREZ, Don Jose, one of the most eminent 
sculptors of recent times, was born in 1768 at 
Priego, in Cordova ; died in 1826. His father was 
a poor stone-mason, and bred his son to the same 
business ; but Jose early evinced a great abihty for 
design, and assiduously devoted his leisure mo- 
ments to the study of drawing. In his twentieth 
year he entered the Academy at Granada, where 
he soon became distinguished for his skill in mod- 
ling. He executed a Lion destroying a Serpent, 
for the public garden of his native place, which 
attracted the notice of Don Antonio de Gongora, 
bishop of Cordova, who from that time became the 
patron of Alvarez, and caused him to be made a 
member of the Cordovan Academy, which he him- 
self had founded. Alvarez remained at Cordova 
till his twenty -sixth year, when he visited Madrid 
and entered the Academy of San Fernando, where, 
as "the Andalusian." as he was called, he soon 
became distinguished above all his fellow students. 
He gained the first prize of the Academy for a 
bas-relief, representing Ferdinand I. and his sons, 
carrying upon their shoulders the miraculously 
discovered body of St. Isidore, into the Church of 
San Juan de Leon. In 1799 Alvarez was granted 
a pension of 12,000 reals, by Charles IV., to ena- 
ble him to prosecute his studies in Paris and 
Rome. In Paris he applied himself to the practi- 
cal study of anatomy, and made careful studies 
from the sculptures of the Parthenon, which Choi- 
seul Gouffier had brought from Constantinople. 
Soon after his arrival he obtained the second great 
prize in sculpture awarded by the Institute ; and 
in 1804 he made a statue of Ganymede for the 
Marquess of Almenara, which gained him the rep- 
utation of one of the first living sculptors. David, 
the celebrated painter, is said to have pronounced 
this statue equal to the antique. It is now in the 
Academy of San Fernando at Madrid. Napoleon 
visited tlie studio of Alvarez twice, and presented 
him with a gold medal valued at 500f. Alvarez 




modeled also, at Paris, a colossal statue of Achilles 
rcceivinii,' the fatal arrow in his heel, which was 
greatly admired by competent judges, but was so 
large that it soon fell to pieces, and for some rea- 
son was never restored. He soon received an addi- 
tion of 16,000 reals to his pension, and left Paris 
for Rome. 

In Rome Alvarez added to his already high 
reputation by four bas-reliefs, which he modeled 
for a hall in the Quirinal Palace ; but owing to 
political events, they were never executed in mar- 
ble. He made many other fine works at Rome, 
the best of which is the group of Antilochus and 
Memnon, modeled in 1818. and executed afterwards 
in marble for Ferdinand Vll. ; it is now at jMad- 
rid. In 1818, xilvarez was appointed court 
sculptor; and in 1825, principal sculptor to the 
King of Spain, when he was presented with the 
Cross of the Order of Civil Merit. In 1826 he 
visited Spain, and received the honorable commis- 
sion to select from all the royal collections in 
Spain, what he considered the finest works of art, 
for the purpose of having them placed in the splen- 
did Museum of the Prado at ]\Iadrid. For a full 
list of his works see Bermudez. 

ALVAREZ, Don Manuel, a reputable Spanish 
sculptor of the eighteenth century, born at Sala- 
manca in 1727; died in 1797 ; studied in his na- 
tive city under Tome Gavilan, and subsequently 
under Alessandro Carnicero. He then visited 
Madrid, and entered the school of the King's 
Sculptor, Don Felipe de Castro, whom he assisted 
in executing in marble his statues of the Kings 
of Spain for the new Palace ; those of Witerico 
and Walia were executed by Alvarez. He made 
also, in stucco, three of the four Cherubim in the 
Royal Chapel, on account of the illness of Castro ; 
and, through the successful manner in which he 
executed these figures, he was appointed one of the 
sculptors to complete the works of the chapel. In 
1753 he obtained the second prize of the Academy 
of San Fernando, and in 1754 he obtained the first 
prize, and was entitled to a pension to enable him 
to prosecute his studies at Rome, but was pre- 
vented by ill-health. In 1757 he was elected an 
Academician, and in 1762 Vice-Director of the 
Academy. He executed a model for an equestrian 
statue of Philip V., which was preferred before 
that of his competitors, but in consequence of the 
wars of Spain it was never executed. In 1786, 
Alvarez was elected Director of the Academy, and 
in 1794 was appointed sculptor to the King. His 
works are numerous in the palaces and public edi- 
fices of Spain. Many of them ai-e at Toledo, INIad- 
rid, Salamanca, etc., for a full list of which, see 

ALVAREZ, Lorenzo, a Spanish painter, who 
studied at Valladolid and iNIadrid under B. Car- 
ducci. He settled at Murcia in 1638, and executed 
some reputable works for the convents of that 

ALYPIUS, a learned architect wKo held many 
important offices under the Emperor Julian, called 
the Apostate. He was conmianded by that mon- 
arch to rebuild the Temple at -Jerusalem, with the 
avowed object of fiilsifying the prophecies of our 
Saviour witli regard to that structure. It is said 
that while the workmen were excavating for the 
foundations, balls of fire issued from the earth and 
destroyed them. He lived about 363. 

AIMADEI, Stefano, an Italian painter, bom at 
Perugia in 1589; died in 1644; studied under 
Ginlio Cesare Angeli. After paintmg several his- 
torical pieces, which are in the churches and pala- 
ces in and near Perugia, he commenced portrait 
painting in crayons, and acquired so much reputa- 
tion as to be invited to practise at Rome. He vis- 
ited that city and opened a school of design, which 
was well attended. He was well versed in math- 
ematics and perspective, and gave lectures on those 

AMADEO, or AMADEI, Giovanni Antonio, 
an excellent old Italian sculptor ; born at Pavia 
about 1400. His chief works are the monuments 
of the Venetian General, Bartoloraeo Colleoni. in 
a church at Bergamo ; and of his daughter, INIedea 
Colleoni, at Basella, near Bergamo ; which are 
highly praised by Cicognara. The same author 
mentions a number of the works of Amadeo, 
among which is a bas-relief of the I )eposition from 
the Cross, which, he says, might be taken for a 
composition of Perugino or Francia. 

AMALTEO, GiROLAMO, the brother and scholar 
of Pomponio, was highly gifted by nature, as ap- 
pears from his designs in small pictures, and in 
several mythological subjects, executed in fresco-; 
and in altar-pieces which he painted for the Church 
of S. Vito. Ridolfi praises him greatl}^ for his spir- 
ited manner ; and another old writer is of the opin- 
ion, that had he not died young, he would have 
equalled the great Pordcnone. He is styled by 
Graziano, in his poem of Orlando, ^^GirolamoAmal- 
teo de' vita santo.^'' 

AMALTEO, PoMPONEO, an Italian historical 
painter, born at S. Vito, a town in the Friuli, about 
1505, and, according to Ridolfi, was a relative and 
scholar of Pordenone. He executed some works 
in the chiu'ches and public places in the vicinity of 
Friuli ; also several pieces of Roman historj^ in one 
of the public halls at Belluno. The latter are 
probably the Three Judgments, in a loggia at Cen- 
eda, supposed by Ridolfi to have been painted by 
Pordenone, but in reality the work of Amalteo, 
completed in 1536. There is a picture signed with 
his name and dated 1577; Zani says he died in 

AMAMA. , an ingenious German painter in 

water-colors, who lived near the close of the seven- 
teenth century. He painted landscapes, birds, and 
especially flowers, which he executed in miniature 
with remarkable delicacy. He lived at Altona or 
Hamburg, and was the first master of the cele- 
brated Balthasar Denner. 

AMANN, JoHANN, a Dutch engraver, who exe- 
cuted, according to Fuseli, a history of the Passion 
of Christ, in sixty-four plates, published at Amster- 
dam, in 1623. 

AMANN, JoHANN, called the Younger, a Ger- 
man engraver of Schafhausen, who lived in the 
early part of the last century. Fuseli says he ex- 
ecuted principally portraits ; among others, many 
of the clergy and other people of station of the 
cities of Berne and Zurich ; also a series of all the 
known ministers of the churches of Berne, Basle and 
Schafhausen, from the Reformation to the year 

AMASTINI, Angelo Antonio, an ingenious 
Italian gem-engraver of the last century ; born at 
Fosombroue. He resided chiefly at Rome, where 




he was much occupied iu copying and imitating 
ancient gems, which he did with so much skill 
that his works were often sold at prices as high as 
ancient gems ; a fact which may aid in accounting 
for the great abundance of ancient gems at the pres- 
ent lime. 

AMATO, Francesco, an Italian painter and 
engraver. Little is known of him as a painter ; 
hut there are a few slight etchings extant, which 
are executed with spirit, in the style of Biscaino, 
among which are: St. Joseph seated, reading a 
book, with the Infant Jesus near him; St. Je- 
rome ; and the Prodigal Son. These are upright 
prints, inscribed Francesciis Amatus inv. 

AMATO, Giovanni Antonio d', called II Vec- 
chio, a Neapolitan oil and fresco painter of consid- 
erable eminence, born about 1475. He studied 
under Silvestro Bruno, or Buono, an old Neapoli- 
tan painter then in repute; but his master dying 
while he was J'oung, he afterwards studied the 
■works of Perugino, and imitated his style. In S. 
Dominico Maggiore, in the chapel of the family of 
Carrafa, is a picture by Amato of the Holy Family. 
There are several of his works in the churches of 
Naples ; and he had a large number of scholars. 
His favorite study was theology, and he was noted 
for his exposition of many obscure parts of the 
Bible. He died in 1555. 

AMATO, Giovanni Antonio d', the younger, 
a Neapolitan painter, born in 1535, and nephew of 
the preceding. His coloring was magnificent, 
some of his works being equal in this respect to 
those of Titian. His tinest performance is the 
large altar-piece of the Infant Christ in the Church 
of the Banco de' Poveri, at Naples. He died in 
that city in 1598. 

ASIATPiICE, Cola dell', an Italian painter, 
who flourished in 1533. He lived in Ascoli di 
Piciuo, and had a high reputation throughout all 
that province. His manner was hard in liis first 
productions, but liis subsequent works showed a 
fullness of design, and an accomplished modern 
st3"le. He is praised in the Guida di Ascoli for his 
picture in the oratory of the Corpus Domini, which 
represents the Saviour in the act of dispensing 
the Eucharist to his Apostles. 

A^MAYA, , an historical painter ; scholar 

of Vincenzio Carducci ; executed at Segovia, in 
1682, several paintings, correctly designed and 
well colored. 

AMBERGER, Christopher, a German painter, 
born at Nuremberg, according to Michel, in 1490 ; 
stuthed under Hans Holbein the elder. Fiorillo 
says he imitated and copied the portraits of the 
younger Holbein so well, that many of them are 
considered origmals. He executed a set of twelve 
pictures, representing the history of Joseph and 
his brethren, which gained him great celebrity; 
though he succeeded better in portraits than in 
history. In 1530, he painted the Emperor Charles 
v.. who honored him with a gold medal and chain ; 
and. accorcUng to Sandrart, considered this portrait 
as equal to any painted of him by Titian. Zani 
savs he died at Augsburg in 1563 ; others say in 

AMBERES, Francisco de, a painter and sculp- 
tor of Toledo, the cathedral of which he adorned 
with his pictures in 1502. From 1508 to 1510. he 

painted in concert with Jean de Bourgogne and 
Villoldo, the arabesque chapel ; which still retains 
its attractions. 

AMBERES, Miguel de, a Spanish painter, orig- 
inally of Antwerp, who lived about 1640. His 
portraits are said to be in the style of Vandyck. 
Some of his pictures are to be found in the churches 
and convents of Spain. 

AMBROGI, DoMENico, called Menichino del 
Brizio, a Bologncse i^ainter, who lived about 1650. 
Malvasia says he acquired that name from his 
being the scholar of Francesco Brizio. He painted 
in oil and in fresco, and excelled in historical pieces, 
landscapes, perspective, and architectural views. 
He executed many works for the churches and pal- 
aces at Bologna. In S. Giacomo Maggiore, is a 
picture by him of the Guardian Angel ; and in the 
Nunziata, another of St. Francesco, with a glory of 
Angels. In 1653, he published some wooden cuts 
from his own designs, printed in chiaro-scuro, one 
of which represented a woman in a triumphal car, 
holding two flambeaux and a serpent, conducted 
by Neptune. 

AiMBROZY, "Wenzel Bernard, a German his- 
torical painter, born at Gottenburg, in Bohemia, 
in 1723 ; died in 1806 ; studied under his elder 
brother, Joseph Amb^ozJ^ a miniature painter at 
Prague ; and afterwards acquired a knowledge of 
fresco painting from P. Sierdus. He executed at 
an early period some ordinary works in Prague 
and its vicinity, but changed his style on becom- 
ing acquainted with Reiner, whose gay and ele- 
gant coloring, resembling that of the Venetian 
masters, he at once adopted, and executed many 
good frescos, and several good altar-pieces in his 
style. His compositions are spirited and weU 
arranged, and his heads have a good expression ; 
but his design is in very ordinary taste. Am- 
brozy was also skilled in restoring pictures. Maria 
Theresa appointed him one of her court painters, 
and he was honored with the notice of the Empe- 
ror Joseph II. 

AMELSFOORT, Quirinus van, a Dutch painter 
of allegories, liistory, and remarkably truthful por- 
traits, was born at Bois-le-duc in 1760, and died 
there m 1820. 

AMENDOLA, Ferrante, a Neapolitan histor- 
ical painter, born in 1664; died in 1724; studied 
under the celebrated Soliinena, in whose style he 
painted for some time, but afterwards imitated 
that of Luca Giordano. He painted many works 
at Naples, the best of which are two altar-pieces 
in the Church of the Madonna di Monte Virgine. 
Nagler mentions an ingenious picture, by this 
artist, of a Quack Doctor's Shop, in the Royal 
Gallery at Munich. Dominici says that Amen- 
dola's chief merit consisted in a practical facility 
of coloring, and that he completely failed in his 
attempt to imitate the masterly style of Giordano, 
especially in the draperies. 

AIMICI, Francesco, a modern Italian engra- 
ver. Heineken says he executed some small 
plates of sacred history, among which the best are, 
Christ praying in the Garden; Christ before 
Pilate ; and the Entombment of Christ. 

AMICONI, or AMIGONI. Ottavio. a distin- 
gTiished Italian fresco painter, who followed the 
style of P. Veronese, was born at Brescia in 1605, 
and a scholar of Antonio Gandini. He executed in 




the Carmelite Church of Brescia, an important 
work in fresco, in concert with Bernardino Gan- 
chni, the son of his master, which is highly praised 
by Averoldi. The subjects were from the life of 
St. Alberto. He died in 1661. 

AjMTCONT, or AMIGONI, Jacopo, a Venetian 
portrait and historical painter, born in 1675. His 
first works at Venice were two altar-pieces in the 
church of the fathers of the Oratorio, and a picture 
of St. Catherine and St. Anch-ew, for the Church 
of S. Eustachio. He subsequently went to Borne, 
and thence to Munich, where he remained some 
time; but his principal works are in England, 
where he went in 1729, and resided many years. 
His works were for some time in great celebrity, 
and several of the nobility employed him to adorn 
their houses. After leaving England he visited 
Spain, and died at Madrid in 1758. He etched 
several prints in a spirited style, of which the 
following are the principal : Salvator Mundi, half 
length ; Jupiter and Calisto ; Zephyrus and Flora ; 
the Four Elements, in the style of Watteau. 

AMIDANO, PoMPONEO, an Italian painter, born 
at Parma, and flourished, according to Lanzi, about 
1595. He is supposed to have studied under Par- 
miggiano. His heads have a noble and graceful 
mien; and he has imitated so successfully the style 
of that master, that good judges have mistaken the 
picture he executed in the Church della Madonna 
del Quartiere, for the work of Parmiggiano. Or- 
landi relates that many of the pictures of Amidano 
were purchased by foreigners ; and as his name is 
not mentioned in any catalogue of foreign collec- 
tions, it is probable that many pictures ascribed to 
Parmiggiano are b}^ this artist. 

AMIGAZZI, Gio. Battista, a Venetian painter, 
and a scholar of C. Ridolfi. He excelled in copy- 
ing the works of other masters. In San Carlo 
there is one from a Supper by P. Veronese, finely 
drawn, and with colors fresh and vivid even at the 
present day. 

AMLING, Carl Gustavus, a German designer 
and engraver, born at Nuremberg in 1651. The 
Elector of Bavaria took him under his patronage, 
and sent him to Paris, where he studied under F. 
de Poilly. He followed the style of that master, 
and gained much celebrity, though he never attained 
his merit. He executed a large number of plates 
of historical subjects and portraits, the latter of 
which were most successful, many of them having 
great merit. In all of his prints, except the por- 
traits, there is a want of effect, and his drawing is 
incorrect, especially in the nude. The following is 
a list of all his prints, except some private plates, 
after tapestry, in the possession of the Elector of 
Bavaria, and the prints he executed for the Acad- 
emy of Sandrart. He died in 1701. 


Maximilian Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, J. C- Cham- 
pagne — a large upright plate, said to be one of his best. 
Maximilian Emanuel, Electoral Prince ; after Thomas 
Mascidinus, dated 1670 — an oval, very scarce. Eques- 
trian Statue of Maximilian Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria ; 
Amling, fee. Monachil — large plate. Ferdinand Maria, 
Elector of Bavaria, 1676 — largo plate, oval. Henrietta 
Maria Adelaide, Duchess of Bavaria; after Delamonce, 
1675 — oval, large plate. John Count do Berlo de Brass, 
General, 1680 — largo oral. Alexander Sigismund, Count 
P.alatine, &c. ; Hamilton, 'pin. Romain Liberiet, Abbot 
of St. Ulrich ; C. C. ab Amling, ad vivinn del. et scul. 
Monachii — a fine portrait, large plate. Petrus Marmus 

Sormanus — in a medallion, large plate. Don Livio Odes- 
chalchi — in a medallion. Marcus ab Aviano — oval, 1680. A 
young Prince conducted to the Throne by Hercules and 
Nestor; on the Throne is inscribed, Ungaria— Amling, 
scul. Two plates of Statues, engraved for Sandrart's Acad- 


The Virgin and Child, with two Portraits, after J. A' 
Wolf, engraved by C. G. ab Amling — a very large jilate. 
The Image of the Virgin of Consolation ; C. G. Amling, 
sc, 1682 — large plate, oval. Vero Eitratto di S. Francesco 
d' Assisi, da Carlo Gustavo ab Amling — small folio. Image 
of St. Nicholas Tolctin, 1691, large plate ; Vrai Portrait de 
St. John de S. Facundo — large oval ; J. A. Wolf, pin. St. 
Godard kneeling before the Virgin; J. Dreutwet, del. — 
folio. Ten plates in folio, of a Triumphal Arch in honor of 
the Elector Maximilian Emanuel; C. G. Amling, Mu- 
nich. Grand Thesis, dedicated to the Emperor Leopold, 
and his son Joseph ; R. P. Antonius Lumlinsky, del. ; 
C. G. Amling, fee. Another large plate, representing the 
Virgin Mary treading on the Serpent, accompanied by the 
Four Doctors of the Church ; Ainling,fec. 

AMMAN, Justus, a Swiss painter and engra- 
ver, born at Zurich in 1539. Of his paintings we 
have no further account, except that his works in 
stained glass were richly and brilliantly colored. 
His pen-sketches are neat and spirited, and are 
highly prized. He has executed an immense num- 
ber of prints, upwards of five hundred and fifty ; 
many of which being of small size, he is classed 
with the little masters. He engraved botli on 
copper and wood, the latter of which are by far the 
best. Ilis manner is neat and decided.; his draw- 
ing is tolerably correct ; and his execution, espe- 
cially in his animals, is spirited. His copper 
plates generally bear his name, but his wood cuts 
are marked with one of the following monograms, 
usually composed of his initials. He died at Nu- 
remberg, 1591. 



Twelve small plates arched, of illustrious Women, begin- 
ning with Eve; \\i\Q, Eva die Gebererinn. Jo.'it. Amman, 
fee.; Stef. Herman, exc. Eight figures of Warriors, small 
ujjright plates, marked Jost. Amman, Inventor ; Stefan. 
Herman, 1590. Eight plates, of Persons fighting with 
swords and sticks ; small plates, lengthways, marked with 
his cipher. Sis very small plates of friezes, lengthways, 
Huntings. Eight small plates, lengthways, the Four Sea- 
sons, and the Four elements, 1569. Twelve small upright 
plates arched, of the Months of the Year, represented in 
full-length figures ; Jo. Amman, fee. A set of plates for a 
Bible published at Frankfort, 1571. The Bombardment of 
a Town ; Jo. Amman, fee, 1570 — large plate, lengthways. 
Effigies Casparis de Colignon ; fecit Norimbergce, Jost. 
Amman, Tigurinis, 1573. 


The Creation, large print, marked J. A. An oval print, 
the Diet of the Empire — large, lengthways. The Marriage 
of Cana — middle-sized print, lengthways, J. A. A sot of 
one hundred and fifteen prints of Arts and Trades, first 
printed under the title, HavoirXia, omnium libendium 
mechanicaruni, df-c., printed at Franldort in 1564. This 
edition is very scarce ; tho book was reprinted in 1574, and 
again in 1588. A set of one hundred and three prints of 
subjects from tho Roman History, published at Frankfort ia 
1572-73, with a portrait of S. Feyerabendt, the celebrated 
bookseller. A book of Huntings, entitled Neue Piguren 
alter hand lagd, (^'c. Frankfort, 1582. A set of prints for 
a book, entitled Caii Plinii Secimdi, i^c. Frankfort, 1584. 
A set of one hundred and three prints of a work, entitled 
Cleri totius Romance Ecclesiw suhjecti, <^c. Franldort : 
Sig. Feyerabendii, 1564. A set of one hundred and twenty 
prints for a book, entitled Gynceceum, sive Theatrum 
Mulierum, (|'c. Frankfort, 1586. 




AMMAN, John, a German en<rraTer, who lived 
at Hanau about 1G40. He engraved a set of small 
wooden cuts, representing the Passion of our Sa- 
viour, published at Amsterdam in 1623, with Latin 
verses. They are executed in a neat and spirited 
stjde, and possess considerable merit. 

AMMANATI, Bartolomeo, an illustrious 
Florentine sculptor and architect ; born in 1511 ; 
was the son of Antonio da Settignano, who died 
when Bartolomeo was twelve years old. As his 
father left but a small estate, he chose sculpture 
for his profession, and studied first under the 
celebrated Baccio Bandinelli, and afterwards at 
Venice under the distinguished -Jacopo Tatti,bet- 
ter known as Sansovino. Ammanati executed 
a colossal statue of Hercules at Padua, by order 
of Marco di Mantova, a rich physician, and a 
great patron of the arts, who was residing in that 
city. He was also the author of the gigantic stat- 
ue of Mount Appcnine, placed at the edge of a 
small lake at Pratolino, near Florence. At Ur- 
bino he was employed to make the monument of 
Duke Francesco ilaria, in the Church of Santa 
Chiara. At Naples he executed three statues for 
the monument of the poet Sannazaro, but owing 
to some disappointment he quitted Naples and 
returned to Venice, where he occupied himself on 
a colossal statue of Neptune for the Piazza di S. 
Marco. For Cardinal di Monte, afterwards Julius 
III., he made a handsome monument, which still 
exists in the Church of S. Pietro, at Montorio. 
He subsequently left Rome and visited his native 
city ; but afterwards was extensively employed at 
Rome by Gregory XIII., and Sixtus V. Many 
other of his works as a sculptor are mentioned by 

As an architect, he designed and erected the new 
bridge of the Trinity over the Arno, at Florence, 
which is still remaining, and is admitted by com- 
petent judges to be one of the most elegantly de- 
signed and ingeniously constructed specimens of 
which the art can boast. Ammanati was also 
employed to complete the Pitti Palace at Florence; 
and at Rome he designed the Palazzo Rucellai, and 
the fa9ade of the Collegio Romano. He also com- 
posed a large work entitled '••La Cittd,'" containing 
designs for all the edifices belonging to a well 
ordered city. When Michael Angelo died, two 
painters, Agnolo Bronzino and Giorgio Vasari, and 
tv/o sculptors, Benevenuto Cellini and Bartolo- 
meo Ammanati, were chosen for the honorable 
office of superintending the magnificent obsequies 
of that great man. In recording this fact, Vasari 
observes that they were " all bright names, and 
illustrious in their respective arts." 

The high reputation of Ammanati contributed to 
gain hi ra for his wife, the celebrated Laura Battiferri 
of Urbino. She was a poetess and a highly accom- 
plished lady, and her merit procured her election 
into the Society of the Intronati at Siena. A col- 
lection of fier works was published in 1560, under 
the title of " Opere Toscatis.^^ 

Ammanati died in 1589, aged 78 years, and was 
buried near his wife, in a'chapel he had entirely 
ornamented and dedicated to the patron saint S. 
Bartolomeo, in the Je.suits' church of S. Giovan- 
nino, to which society he bequeathed all his prop- 

A:MM0N, Clement, a very inferior German 
engraver, son-in-law of Theodore de Bry, the emi- 

nent engraver. His principal work was the con- 
tinuation of the collection of portraits entitled, 
Bibliotheca Calcog-raphica, in six quarto vol- 
umes, published by Theodore de Bry, to which he 
added two volumes, the first dated Frankfort, A.D. 
1650, with his name, Sculptore Clemen. Ainmon, 
junior, Calcograp., and the second published in 
1652, Sculptore Clemente Amvio7tio calcograp. 

AMMON, JoHANN, a German artist, born at 
Schaff hausen, and lived about 1700. He executed 
several portraits, among which is one of the cele- 
brated John Locke. 

AMOROSI, Antonio, an Italian painter, born 
in the Communanza near Ascoli, and flourished 
about 1736. He executed several works for the 
churches at Rome, one of which is in S. Rocco ; 
but he is principally known as a painter of drolls, 
and fancy subjects, in which he became quite emi- 
nent ; so that Lanzi says, if his coloring had been 
a little more brilliant, his pictures would have 
equalled the similar productions of the Flemish 

AMOUREUX, Abraham Cesar l', a reputable 
French sculptor; born at Lyons in 1644; studied 
under N. Coustou the elder ; executed several ex- 
cellent bas-reliefs and other works in various 
churches at Lyons, distinguished for their fine com- 
position and expression. He was invited to Co- 
penhagen in 1682, where he executed the gilded 
leaden statue of Christian V., King of Denmark, 
which was placed before the Royal Palace in 1688. 

AMPHISTRATUS, a Greek sculptor, who is 
mentioned by Pliny as the author of an admired 
statue of Callisthenes, which was in the ServUian 
Gardens at Rome. Tatian says he made a bronze 
statue of Clitus. This artist probably lived about 
the time of Alexander. 

AMSTEL, Cornelius Plods Van, an eminent 
Dutch engraver, born at Amsterdam in 1732. He 
executed a very interesting set of plates in imita- 
tion of the drawings of the most noted Dutch mas- 
ters. The following is a Mst of his principal 
works : 

Frontispiece, a Monument bearing a Latin inscription, on 
which stands a Genius holding an Escutcheon, in the middle 
a Fleurdeluce; Inventor Cornelius Ploos van Amstel, 
D. I Febr., 1765. Two small Landscapes; H. Zoft- 
leeven, del.; v. Amstel, fecit, 1766. A Landscaps, with a 
Shepherd and Shepherdess with Cattle on the Banks of a 
Canal ; Ad. van de Velde, del.; P. van Amstel, fecit. A 
Woman looking out of a Door ; Rembrandt, del.: P. van 
Amstel, fecit, 1764. A young Man with a Hat on, looking 
out of a Door ; same inscription. These two are fine imita- 
tions of Rembrandt. An Interior of a Dutch Cottage, with 
Peasants, one reading the Gazette ; Ad. v. Ostade, del, 
1673; P. van Amstel, fecit, n&Q. A Piece, with six 
Spanish Figures, one a woman with a Mask ; Hendrick 
Avercamp, del., 1621 ; P. van Amstel, fecit. Portrait of 
Jan Josephzoon van Goyen; Ant. van Dyck, del, 1633; 
P. van Amstel, fecit, 1769. A Landscape, with a Market 
at the Entrance of a Town ; Jan Josephzoon Goyen, del., 
1653; P. van Amstel, fecit, Mdl. A similar subject with 
a Beast Market ; same inscription. A Lady seated at a 
Harpsichord; Ger. Douw, del, 1660; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 
1767. A Sea-piece, with Shipping ; Ludolf Bakhuysen, 
del., 1694 ; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1769. Landscape, with a 
Woman riding on an Ass, with Cattle, by the side of a Ca- 
nal ; N. Berghem, fecit, 1764 ; P. van Amstel, fecit, 1769. 
A circular of the Virgin Mary, with the Infant Jesus ; Abr. 
Bloemaert, del.; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1769. An assem- 
blage of Peasants before an Alehouse, with a Man playing 
on the Violin, and another dancing ; Ad. v. Ostade, del., 
1612; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1769 — an imitation of the pic- 




ture. Portrait of a Young Lady, with a Book on a Table ; 
H. Goltzius, del., 1612; >. v. Amstel, fecit, 1770. Por- 
trait of a Young Man, sitting on a Chair ; C- Visscker, del., 
1651 ; P. V. Amstel, fecit, 1771. Landscape, with a Man 
leading a Horse, and in the foreground some Women wash- 
ing; Ph. Wouwerman, del., 1660; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 
1772. The In.'jide of a Church, with a Man drawing; E. 
Saenredam, del, 1630; E. v. Amstel, fecit, 1774 — very 
neatly finished. A Spanish Concert ; Karel van Mander, 
del, 1603 ; P. V. Amstel, fecit, 1772. A Man seated, 
holding a Flute, with a Bonnet in the manner of Rem- 
brandt; G. Flinck, 1643; PI. van Amstel, fecit, 1773. 
A Sea-piece with Sliipping ; P. Coops, del.; P. v. Amstel, 
fecit, 1773. An assembly of Peasants, one sleeping; Ad. 
Brewer, del., 1635; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1775. A Man 
sitting at a Table, with Cards in his hand ; E. Mieris, 
del, 1663 ; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1777. Two Dogs, small 
prints ; similar mscription. Three Peasants, one with a 
Bottle; C. Dusart, del.; PI. van Amstel, fecit. A Young 
Lady taking a Beverage presented by a Boy, and a Physi- 
cian standing near her; Ger. Terberg, del.; PI. v. Am- 
stel, fecit, 1779. A Young Lady, with a Musical Instru- 
ment; G.Netscher,del.,\&M; P. van Amstel, fecit, YlQl, 
oval. Two Sea-pieces ; Ludolf Bakhuysen, del.; PL v. 
Amstel, fecit, 1781. The Judgment of Solomon; Lucas 
van Leyden, del., 1515 ; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1782. A 
Landscape, with Ruins, and a Man with an Ass ; Th. Wyk, 
del.; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1782. A View in Norway, with 
Figures; Ald.van Everdingen, del.; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 
1782. Five Dutch Magistrates, sitting round a Table ; J. 
de Bray, del., 1663; PI. v. Amstel, fecit. The Attorney 
and his Clerk; J. Stccn, del., 1672; P. v. Amstel, fecit. 
A Landscape, with Ruins, and a Shepherd with Sheep and 
Goats ; J. vandcr Does, del., 1699 ; P. van Amstel, fecit. 
A ]\Tountainous Landscape, with Cattle ; J. v. der Meer, 
de Jonge, del., 1704 ; PL v. Amstel, fecit. The Carpenter 
and his Wife ; J. Saenredam, del., 1610; P. v. Amstel, 
fecit. The Liside of a Cottage, with Peasants ; Corn. 
Bega, del., 1684 ; P. v. AmsteL fecit. The Botanist, with 
Figures bringing him Plants ; G. v. den Eeckhout del. ; P. 
V. Amstel, fecit. A Landscape, with four Sheep ; K. du 
Jardin, del. ; P. v. Amstel, fecit. The Chymist ; J. Lang- 
■Jiuns, del., 1711 ; P. v. Amstel, fecit. A Sea-piece with 
Shipping; J. Esselens, del., 1708; P. van Amstel, fecit. 

AMSTEL, Jan Van, a painter who is said to 
have excelled in landscapes, which he enriched 
with numerous figures in the manner of Van 
Eyck ; but when or where he lived is not recorded. 
Guarienti, in his edition of Orlandi, mentions a 
picture by Amstel at Genoa, though it is conjec- 
tured that some more distinguished painter is dis- 
guised under this name. The painting represents 
the Crucifixion, and contains over two hundred 
figures admirably painted. 

Ai^IULIUS, a Roman painter who flourished in 
the reign of Nero, and was principally employed 
by that emperor in decorating his golden palace. 
His best works, with the palace, Avere destroyed by 

ANASTAST, Giovanni, an Italian historical 
painter, born at Sinigaglia in 1654 ; died in 1704. 
Lanzi says there arc many of his works in that 
place ; the two from sacred history, in the church 
della Croce. are reckoned among his best. In Santa 
Lucia of IMonte Alboddo, there are three of his 
works ; and jNIarcheselli mentions a portrait by 
him of one of the Malatesta family, in the church 
of San Francesco at Rimini. His manner was 
easy and spirited, though not refined. 

ANAXAGORAS, a Greek sculptor of iEgina, 
who flourished about b. c. 475. Herodotus men- 
tions a bronze statue of Jupiter by this artist, 
which was fifteen Grecian feet in height. It vras 
dedicated at Olympia by the States of Greece that 
fought at Plattca against the Persians. 

ANCHETA. Miguel, a Spanish sculptor of the 

sixteenth century; born at Pampcluna; studied 
in Florence, and soon after returning to his native 
place, he acquired, according to Berniudez, the 
reputation of one of the best sculptors of his 
time. Ancheta made the beautiful stalls of the 
choir of the cathedral at Pampeluna, which are 
considered the finest in Spain. There are one hun- 
dred of them ; they are made of English oak. He 
also executed an Assumption for the principal altar 
of the parish church of Santa Maria at Tafalla ; the 
equestrian statue in alabaster, of St. George killing 
the Dragon, ^i Saragossa; and in 1578, an Assump- 
tion for the great al tar of the cathedral at Burgos, 
in which he surpassed Rodrigo del Haya, who, 
with his brother Martin, executed the other sculp- 
tures of the altar. 

ANCHILUS, N., a Flemish painter, born at 
Antwerp in 1688 ; executed conversations and 
other subjects of some merit, in the stjdc of Te- 
niers and Watteau. He went to London, and 
copied pictures by Snyders for Sir R. Walpole. 
He died at Lyons in 1733. 

ANCHINI, LuiGi, a renowned seal engraver, in 
the time of ]\Iichael Angelo, born at Ferrara. He 
was largely patronized by cardinals and princes. 
His Interview of Alexander the Great ivith the 
High Priest of Jerusalem.^ was pronounced by 
Michael Angelo to be the perfection of his art. 

ANCKER, Johann, an old copper-plate engra- 
ver of the fifteenth century ; supposed to have re- 
sided at Zwoll, in Holland. Bartsch mentions 
eighteen of his plates, the two largest of which are 
Christ on the Mount of Olives, and a Gothic Altar. 
The rest are al 1 from the New Testament, or from 
subjects connected with the Romish Church. 

ANCONA, Andrea Lilio, an Italian painter of 
some eminence, born at Nella Marca ; flourished 
about 1595. He painted allegorical subjects, some 
of which have been engraved. Baglioni says he 
was employed by Sixtus V. on the ornaments of the 
Library of the Vatican ; also in St. John of Late- 
ran, where he painted in fresco in the Seal a Santa, 
Moses striking the Rock — a grand composition ; 
and Moses with the brazen Serpent. In a chapel 
of the Chiesa Nuova, he represented Michael driving 
the evil Spirits from Heaven ; also a fine fresco 
painting in S. Maria IMaggiore, representing our 
Saviour washing the Feet of his Disciples. After 
the death of his patron, he was employed in the 
Roman churches and convents by Clement VIII. 

ANDERLONL. Fa^jstino, an Italian engraver 
of some merit, was born at Brescia, and executed 
in 1786 and 1794, portraits of the distinguished 
Herder, Carlo Porta, and Schiller ; also illustrations 
to several works of science. Afterwards he execu- 
ted a small but beautiful plate from the Dying 
Magdalene, by Correggio ; the Repose in Egypt, by 
N. Poussin ; and JMater AmabiHs, by Sasso Ferrato. 

ANDERLONI, Pietro, a distinguished Italian 
engraver, brother of the preceding, was born in 
1784, and manifested an early inclination for art. 
He first studied under F. Palazzi, but afterwards 
under his brother Faustino, who, perceiving be 
vacillated between painting and engraving, induced 
him to adopt the latter. After learning much from 
his brother, he entered the school of Longhi at the 
age of twenty, and remained there nine years. He 
assisted that master in the production of many 
admirable works, among which Avas Ezekiel's Vis- 

ANDE. 29 

ion, after Raffaelle. Longhi allowed his pupil to 
place his name to some of these, in acknowledg- 
ment of the share he had in their execution. In 
182-1 he visited Rome for the second time, to make 
drawings of the Heliodorus and Attila of Raifa- 
elle; and in 1831 succeeded Longhi in the superin- 
tendence of the Academy of Engravers at ]\Iilan. 
Auderloni usually succeeds in embodying the style 
of the master whose picture he engraves ; but he 
sometnnes works his plates too far, and produces 
glossiness. He was a member of several acade- 
mies, and perhaps is now. for it is uncertain whether 
he IS still living. His principal works are. Moses 
defending the Daughters of Midian, after K Pou- 
sin; the Adoration of the Shepherds, after Titian- 
a Holy Family.Heliodorus. Flight of Attila, and lu- 
cendio di Borgio, after RafaeUe; St. John, after 
Liiim; a :\Iagdalene, after 'Con-eggio; Portraits of 
Canova, Longhi, Appiani, and other eminent Ital- 

ANDERTON, Henry, an English painter of 
history and portraits, who lived about 1650. He 
studied under Streater, but afterwards visited 
Italy. He executed a portrait of iMrs. Stuart, 
afterwards Duchess of Richmond, which gained 
him the patronage of Charles 11. He died about 

AXDRATTA. Joaquin, an old Spanish painter. 
Ivunstblatt mentions two pictures by him on wood 
m the Escurial— the Miracle of the Loaves and 
Fishes, and St. .Jerome with the Lion in the Wil- 
derness. The drawing, the draperies and the land- 
scape in these pictures are much in the style of the 
old German masters ; but the coloring is cold, and 
much less brilliant than the old Germans. 

ANDRE, or ANDREA, Dietrich Ernst, an 
able German historical and portrait painter; born 
at .Alietau, in Kurland, and lived about 1700. He 
studied for twelve years under Gustav. Von Ben- 
tum, at Kunigsberg, and. according to Heineken 
was much superior to that master while still his 
pupiL That author speaks in high terms of sev- 
eral of his works at Brunswick. The Duke of 
Brunswick, perceiving his great ability, advanced 
hira the funds necessary to enable him to visit 
Rome. The artist obtained permission to visit 
Holland first, and while there, was induced to go 
to England, where he forgot his engagement with 
the Duke. He married, gave himself'up to a life 
of pleasure, and forsook the careful and elegant 
style of his early works for a gaudy and super- 
ficial manner. His habits involved him in difficul- 
ties that compelled him to quit England, and in 
i/24 he went to Paris, where he ched. 

ANDRE, Jean, a French painter of history and 
portraits born at Paris in 1GC2. He studied the 
work-s of JI. Angelo and Raffaelle at Rome, under 
Larlo Maratti, and was a good designer and color- 
ist. He died at Paris in 1753. 

ANDREA, Alessandro, an Italian engraver. 
Hemeken says he executed in 1578 the portrait of 
Giles de Noaiiles, Abbe de St. Amand, French 
Ambassador to the Sublime Porte. 

ANDREA Pisano, a distinguished Italian 
sculptor and architect, was born at Pisa in 1270 
and studied under Nicola and Giovanni Pisano' 
Ihese artists who may be justly termed the 
fathers of modern sculpture, had already effected a 
great revolution in taste ; but, though sensible of 


the superior beauty of Grecian sculpture, they 
stopped far short of the real advantages they 
might have derived from it ; and it was left for 
Andrea to make that most important use of them 
which his masters (and it may be said even more 
modern artists) too often lost sight of. Tliis was, 
to combine their excellencies with his own original 
ideas ; not servilely to represent Greek subjects in 
Greek forms, nor to recur to ancient fable and my- 
thology because he found them set forth in the 
superior beauty of ancient sculpture ; but to adapt 
the finer forms of that more finished and perfect 
school of art, to illustrate and give effect to his own 
conceptions. His works are doubtless far from 
perfection, but his merit, to be fairly judged, should 
be considered in relation to what had been done by 
his immediate predecessors. He was the first 
artist who truly appreciated the value of the fine 
models of antiquity to modern art, and who made 
them subservient to the illustration of subjects of 
present interest. In this respect he is justly enti- 
tled to rank as one of the great improvers of de- 

Andrea was employed at the Duomo of Pisa, as 
one of the assistants, or workmen, under Giovanni. 
Soon after, he was associated with his master in 
the execution of the bronzes at Perugia ; both their 
names appear together as the artists. After this, 
he was employed alone to execute some small fig- 
o ures in marble for S. Maria al Ponte, at Pisa. His 
success in these works led to his being invited to 
Florence to assist in completing the facade of the 
cathedral of S. JMaria del Fiore. Andrea here 
formed the acquaintance of Arnolfo da Lapo, and 
Giotto di Bondone ; the latter is said to have fur- 
nished some of his designs. He executed a marble 
statue of Boniface VIII., and two other statues of 
St. Peter and St. Paul, which were placed in the 
fa9ade, and gained so much admiration that he was 
commissioned to execute all the works required for 
the decoration of that edifice. Vasari says he vis- 
ited Venice, where he remained about one year, and 
executed several small statues for the front of 
St. Mark's. He afterwards returned to Florence, 
where he executed the bronze relievi for the 
gates of the baptistery at Florence, which Cicog- 
nara correctly states to have been commenced in 
1331, and finished in 1339 ; though Vasari asserts 
they took 22 years for their completion. The sub- 
ject is the life of St. John, and the incidents are 
represented in twenty-two compartments. In 
other panels are smaller figures of the Virtues. 
The work deserves a high degree of praise for its 
simplicity, dignity, and sentiment, and it gained for 
the sculptor an immense reputation. The chief 
authorities, with the foreign ambassadors, went to 
visit it ; and the republic elected him a citizen of 
Florence. Andrea also executed many other works, 
of which the relievi in marble, for the Campanile 
of S. jMaria del Fiore, at Florence, have consider- 
able merit. 

As an architect, he designed the castle of Scar- 
feria, the arsenal at Venice, and the Church of Sau 
Giovanni, begun at Pistoja in 1337. At Florence, 
by order of Guattieri, Duke of Athens, he fortified 
and enlarged the ducal palace, surrounded the city 
with towers and magnificent gates, and designed a 
small citadel. He died in 1345. 

ANDREA, ZoAN, [Giovanni,] an Italian engra- 
ver of the beginning of the sixteenth century, co- 
temporary with Mantegna ; first noticed by Zauij 

ANDR. 30 

who explains the initials Z. A. by this name. He 
copied and imitated the prints of Mantcgna, and of 
Dnrer: also apparently engraved from his own 
designs. His works are scarce. Some of them 
have great merit, and are sold at high prices. 
Partsch enumerates thirty-three, hut Brulliot says 
there are more. The largest and most remarka- 
ble of them is an allegory of Mercury and Igno- 
] ance, after Mantegna. 

ter and very eminent engraver, born, accordmg 
to Brulliot, in 15G0 ; though others say m 1540. 
He is little known as a painter, and seems to have 
devoted his talents to engraving early m life, when_ 
he settled at Rome, some time after Hugo da Carpi 
first commenced wood engraving. His works are 
confined to this branch. His drawing is very cor- 
rect ; his execution neat and spirited, and done m a 
masterly style. His cuts are printed in the chiaro- 
scuro, and he carried this department of the art to 
a much higher degree than he found it. His works 
have often been confounded with those of Altdor- 
fer, from his using a similar monogram. The fol- 
lowing are his principal works : 

The Portrait of Albert Durer, dated Siena, 1588. Eiglit 
prints of the Pavement of Siena, from a drawmg by 
Franco Vanni, after the Design of Domenico Beccafumi, 
—very scarce, dated 1587. The Deluge, large print in four 
sheets, after Titian, with his cipher. Pharaoh's Host de- 
stroyed "in the Red Sea, a large print in four sheets, after the 
same, 1585, with his cipher. The Adora,tion of the Magi, 
after Parmii^giano, L5S5, with his cipher. The Purification, 
after Sakiati, with his cipher, 1608. The Virgin and Child, 
with a Bishop kneeling ; after A. Casolani, with his cipher, 
and the words, Andrea Mantuano, Pittore Sanese, 1591. 
The Virgin and Child, with St. John presenting a Bird, and 
a Female Saint holding a Lily ; after Giac. Ligozzi, with 
his name. Christ curing the Leper, after Parimggtano, 
with cipher. Christ curing the Paralytic, after Franco de 
Naiito da Sabaudia. The Miraculous Draught of Fishes, 
after RaffaeUe, 1609, with his cipher. Christ departing 
from Pilate, who is washing his hands ; after a hasso-re- 
lievo of Giov. Bologna, with the name of the engraver, in 
two sheets.— [This is one of his most finished prints.] Christ 
bearin"' his Cross, after A. Casolani, with his cipher, and 
inscribed Andreani in Siena, 159L The Entombing of 
Christ, afterGtus. Scolari, pittore eccellente, with his cipher. 
Another Entombing, half figures, after Rafaello da Reggio 
and the name of the engraver. St. Peter preaching, marked 
with the name Polidoro, and his cipher, 1608. St. Sebas- 
tian, marked Fridericus Barotius Urbinas, with his 
cipher, 1608. The lower part of the picture of St. Nicholas, 
hy Titian, with the cipher of il/idreoni, Intagliat. Mantu- 
ano. The Triumph of the Church ; Christi Triumphus, 
large frieze, in eight sheets, after Titian, dedicated to the 
Duke of Mantua in 1599, and "published by Calisto Ferranti 
at Rome in 1608. An emblematical print, of a Christian after 
Life received into Heaven, and crowned by Jesus Christ ; 
marked B. F. for Baptista Franco, and the cipher of the 
engraver. An. MDCX. Mantoua. The Picture of Human 
Life, represented by a Woman at the Foot of a Rock, as- 
sailed by the Passions, marked Jac. Ligotius, inv. et Andre- 
ani, 1&85. Firenze. Three prints, after a marble group 
by Gio. da Bologna, seen on three sides, represeuting the 
Rape of the Sabines, inscribed Rapta Sabinum a Jo. Bolog. 
marm. <|'c. MDLXXXIIII. Another Rape of the Sa- 
bines, after Gio. da Bologna, in three sheets, inscribed An- 
drea's 'Andreanus Mantuanus aeri incidit, cf«c., MD 
LXXXV. Florentice. Celia on Horseback, with one of her 
Attendants, g-oing to cross the Tiber, marked with the name 
of Maturino and his cipher, 1608. Mutius Screvoli, holding 
his hand over a Brazier, marked with the name of Bald. 
Peruzzi, and his cipher, 1603. The Triumph of Julius 
Ctesar with the title, in ten sheets, ajtcr And. Mantegna, 
MDxbviII.— [It is dif&cult to meet with all these pieces 
of the same color, or equally good impressions.] Venus 
and Cupid, with Nymphs bathing, after Parmiggiano, with 


the cipher of Andreani, 1605. Circe giving Drink to the 
Coinijanions of Ulysses, oval print, after Parmiggiano, with 
his name, 1602. A Woman warming herself before a Fire, 
mvivlinA Bernard Malpitius, i7M).,with his cipher. The Scene 
of a Comedy represented before the Grand Duke Cosmo I., 
after a design of JSar^.iVeroni; large piece, 1579. A Sep- 
ulchr-al Monument, representing a kind of Rock, on which 
are the three Fates, after Fortuna Fortunius, with the 
cipher of the engraver, 1588. 

ANDREASI, Ippolito, an Italian painter of 
some merit, who studied under Giulio Romano ; 
assisted him in his cartoons, and executed pic- 
tures in S. Barbai-a and elsewhere. 

ANDREOLA, Filippo, a Neapolitan painter and 
scholar of Solimena ; painted arabesques and archi- 
tecture, in distemper and in fresco, in various 
churches of Naples. He died, according to Domin- 
ici, in 1724. 

ANDREOLI, Giorgio, called Giorgio Dx\. Gub- 
Bicor Mae.stro Giorgio, an Italian sculptor, and 
maiolica or delft painter, who settled, says Fiorillo, 
at Gubbio, in 1498. Passeri says he established a 
maiolica manufactory at Gubbio, about 1519, which 
he continued till 1538. During this time he painted 
many beautiful designs upon table service, and exe- 
cuted in this material two beautiful has reliefs for 
altar-pieces ; one for the Church of San Domenico, 
and the other for the house-chapel of the Bentj- 
vogU family. He was living in 1552. His son, 
Vincenzo, according to Lanzi, practised the same 
arts as his father. 

ANDRIESSEN, Antony, a Dutch painter of 
landscapes and figures, which he executed in con- 
cert w^ith his brother Jurriaan ; born at Amster- 
dam in 174G ; died in 1813. 

surnamed Mankenhein, a Flemish painter, born at 
Antwerp in 1600. He painted subjects from still- 
life with great skill of composition and finishing. 
He died at Zealand in 1G55. 

ANDRIESSEN, Jurriaan, a Dutch painter, 
born at Amsterdam in 1742, and studied under -J. 
M. Quinkhart and A. Elliger. He executed in con- 
cert with Numan, the decorations of the new thea- 
tre at Amsterdam, in which branch of the art he 
excelled. He instructed several eminent living 
Dutch painters. He died in 1819. 

FRAN901S, a Parisian engraver, was born about 
1G55, and practised both in France and Italy, espe- 
cially at Rome. He imitated the style of Poilly, 
but is not to be classed with that master, though 
his works are much in demand in consequence of 
their subjects, and the masters after whom he en- 
graved. The most important are, a Magdalene, 
a Madonna and a Bambino, fl//e7'G^Mtc/o; the Holy 
Family with a Rose, after Rajfaelle; two Annunci- 
ations, after Albano; the Good Samaritan, after 
Poussin; the Crowning with Thorns, afterDomen- 
ichino; and the same after A. Caracci. 

ANDRIOLT, GiROLAMO, a Veronese painter, 
whose name and the date IG06 are inscribed on an 
altar-piece of San Domenico, and other saints, in 
the Church of Santa Caterina di Siena, at Verona. 
ANDROCYDES, a painter of Gyzicus, is men- 
tioned by Pliny as a rival of Zeuxis ; he therefore 
hved about b. c. 400. Plutarch mentions a pic- 
ture he executed for the Thebans, representing the 
victory of Pelopidas and Epamhiondas ; and another 

ANDK. 31 

of Scylla surrounded by fishes, in which the fish 
were so admirably painted as to be the principal 
objects in the pictui'e, to the great detriment of the 
figure of Scylla. 

ANDRONICUS, an ancient Grecian architect, 
who, accordmg to Vitruvius, erected the celebrated 
Tower of the Winds, which still remains entire 
among the ruins of Athens. 

ANDROSTHEx\ES, an Athenian sculptor, and 
a pupil of Encadmus. He was employed to com- 
plete the statues of Latona, Diana, Apollo, the 
Muses, the Setting of the Sun, and a group of 
Bacchantes, in front of the temple of Apollo at 
Delphi, which had been begun by Praxias, but were 
left nicomplete at the death of that artist. Pau- 
sanias supposes he lived about b. c. 420. 

ANDROUET Du Cerceau, Jacques, a French 
architect, who erected at Paris the palaces of Sully, 
Maj^enne, and the Fermes Generales. He built the 
Pont-Neuf by order of Henry HI. ; and designed 
the great Gallery of the Louvre, built by Henry 
lY. He also wrote several architectural works. 

_ ANEDA, Juan de, a painter of Burgos, who 
lived about 15G5, and painted in concert with Juan 
de Oea, some fine pictures which still remain in the 

ANESI, Paolo, a Florentine painter, who flour- 
ished about 1720. His landscapes gained him con- 
siderable reputation, and he painted ancient ruins 
m the style of P. Panini. Some of his works are 
to be found in the palaces and private collections 
at Florence and Rome. Francesco Zuccherelli stud- 
ied for some time under this master. 

ANFOSSO, Jacopo, a celebrated gem engraver 
of Pavia, who lived in the sixteenth century. 
Though little known, he seems to have been an 
artist of great ability, and was in favor with Pius 
y. and Gregory XIII., as appears from an epitaph 
m the Lettere Pittoriche. 

ANGARANO, Otta viand, a Venetian histori- 
cal painter of noble birth, who lived about 1650. 
Zaiietti says he acquired much reputation by a pic- 
ture he executed for the Church of S. Danielo, at 
Vemce, representing the Nativity. 

ANGE, Franco l', di Annecy, an Italian painter 
of small pieces of sacred history, which are com- 
mended by Lanzi ; born in 1675 ; studied under 
Crespi ; became a PhUIippine monk at Bologna, and 
died m 1756. ' 

ANGELI, FiLippo d', called II Napolitano, a 
Roman pamter, born in 1600, was the son of Ln 
artist who was employed by Sixtus V. He often 
painted architectural views, with a number of fig- 
m-es arranged and composed with great ingenuity. 
Me excelled in representing battles and landscapes, 
and, according to Baglioni, was much employed in 
ornamenting the palaces and villas at Rome. He 
died at Rome m 1640. 

ANGELI, Giovanni Battista d'. See Moro. 

«-i^7^^^l' ^.'V^'a ^^^^^^' ^" It^l'^n painter,' 
was born about 15*0, and studied under the Car- 
*%• ^"^ executed an immense work in the Church 

1 ;>. "T °? ""-^ ^'™l^f • ^^*" ^^lori^g ^^^ bet- 
ter than his design, and he excelled rather in the 
Iraped than m the naked figure. He died in 1G30. 
ANGELI, Giuseppe, a Venetian painter of cab- 
net pictures and altar-pieces, was born about 1715, 


and studied under Piazetta, whose style he imita- 
ted. His extremities are well drawn, and his 
heads have considerable expression. He was livin*' 
in 1793. ° 

_ ANGELI, NiccoLO, an Italian engraver, who 
lived about 1635, and studied under Remigio Can- 
tagallma. In concert with his master, he engraved 
a set of plates from the designs of Giulio Parigi, 
representing the festivals at Florence on the occa- 
sion of the marriage of the Prince of Tuscany. 
ANGELICO, Era. Giovanni da Fiesoli. See 


ANGELINI, ScipioNE, an admirable Italian 
flower painter, was born in 1661 at Perugia accor- 
ding to Pascoli, though others say at Ascoli. He 
practised at Rome, and executed a large number 
of paintings which he sold to dealers, who exported 
them to England, Holland and France. He died in 

ANGELIS, DoMENico d', a fresco painter, of 
considerable ability and reputation, living at Rome 
at the commencement of this century. He was one 
of the best scholars of M. Benefiale ; was a mem- 
ber of the Academy of St. Luke, and executed sev- 
eral public works at Rome. He is praised in the 
work by Goethe. 

ANGELIS, Peter, a Dutch painter, was born 
at Dunkirk m 1685, and studied the elements of 
the art in his native place ; after which he visited 
Flanders and Germany, remaining some time at 
Dusseldorf, where he gained some advantage from 
the Electoral Gallery. His subjects were generally 
conversations, and landscapes with small figures 
into which he often introduced fruit and fish lie 
visited England about 1712, where he was so 
much employed that he remained sixteen years. 
In 1728 he visited Italy, and passed three years at 
Rome, where his pictures were admired. On leav- 
ing Italy he intended returning to England but 
staying a while at Rennes, in Bretagne, he'met 
with so much encouragement that he settled in 
that city for life. His pencil is free, bright and 
flowing, though his coloring is sometimes weak. 
His style is a mingling of Teniers and Watteau, 
with more grace than the former, and more nature 
than the latter. He was unostentatious and re- 
served, and exhibited his works with reluctance : 
his inclination being rather to the pursuit of his 
art than the advancement of his fortune. He died 
at Rennes in 1734, aged 49. 

ANGELO, and AGOSTINO, of Siena, Italian 
architects, were brothers, and the most illustri- 
ous disciples of the school of Giovanni of Pisa. 
Sansoni says that the latter, in 1308, designed a 
palace for the magistrates of Siena, and thereby 
acquired so much reputation that he and his brother 
were chosen to superintend the public edifices of 
the city. They erected the northern facade of the 
cathedi-al; made two new gates to the city; began 
the Church and convent of San Francesco, and the 
Church of Santa Maria ; and finished the tower of 
the Pubhc Palace. They also erected the great 
fountain in the square before the Hotel de Ville; 
the Hall of the Grand Council ; and various other 
works in Assisi, Orvietto, Arezzo, and Bologiia. 

ANGELO, Lorentino d', a painter of Arezzo • 
lived about 1550 ; was the scholar of Piero della 
Francesca, and followed his style. He executed 
many original works in fresco at Arezzo and its 

ANGE. ' 32 

vicinity, and completed several works in that city 
which his master had left unfinished at his death. 
ANGELO, Michael. See Buonarotti. 
ANGELO. ^Michael Amerigi, da Caravaggio, 
an Italian painter ; horn at Caravaggio, a village in 
the Jlilanese, in 15G9 ; was the son of a mason, and 
while a lad, was employed to prepare plaster for 
the fresco painters of Milan. From seeing them 
often at work, he became inspired with the ambi- 
tion to become an artist ; and without instruction 
from any particular master, he became an excel- 
lent imitator of nature, and adopted a singular 
style, characterized by daring lights and shadows, 
which became highly popular. For some years he 
painted fruit, llowers, and portraits, which were 
remarkaljly faithful ; and so exact an imitator was 
this artist", that he copied nature even when de- 
formed, and followed the same slavish practise in 
historical painting. While young he lived at Yen- 
ice, where he greatly improved his coloring by 
studying the works o"f Giorgione. His early pic- 
tures are far better colored than his later works. 
He subsequently went to Rome, and executed his 
first productions in that city in concert with Cav. 
Giuseppe Cesari. The novelty of his style soon 
became so popular that even Guido and Domcni- 
chino were unwillingly induced to imitate it, to 
gratify the public passion for the vulgar but at- 
tractive manner of Caravaggio. This did not, 
however, continue long; the popular taste soon 
returned to its true channel. His chief works at 
Rome are the Crucifixion of St. Peter, in the Church 
of S. Maria del Popolo. and the Entombing of our 
Saviour, in the Chiesa Nuova. At Naples there is 
a fine picture by him of the Scourging of Christ ; 
and in S. Martino is another, representing Peter 
denying Christ — one of his most famous works. 
The merit of this artist consists in a fine coloring, 
and an astonishing eSect produced by a strong 
contrast of light and shadow, which only belongs to 
nature in abstracted situations. To give it verac- 
ity, we must suppose the light to fall from a par- 
tial and prescribed aperture, which alone can sus- 
tain the illusion. He seldom ventured on grand 
compositions, to which his want of academic study 
rendered him totally inadequate. His works are 
characterized by wonderful vigor, and admirable 
chstribution of light and shadow. He died at Rome 
in 10U9. 

ANGELO, Michael CERauozzi, called Delle 
Battaglie, a Roman painter, born in IGUO. When 
quite young he evinced an inclination for the 
art, and was placed under Pietro Paolo Bonzi. 
Like his preceptor, he first painted fruit and flow- 
ers ; but he soon left these for battle-pieces, the 
excellence of which gave him his surname. The 
productions of Peter de Laer, called Bamboccio, 
being at this time much in vogue at Rome, Angelo 
represented similar subjects, as fairs, and scenes of 
country festivity, in wliich lie succeeded admira- 
bly, so that these are esteemed his best works. 
Bainboccio surpassed him in landscapes and chiaro- 
scuro, but he surpa.ssed the Fleming in the charac- 
ter and taste of his design. He worked with 
amazing facility, never making any design for his 
pictures ; and he often painted a picture repre- 
senting some circumstance he had heard. His best 
works%vere the Four Seasons, painted for the Sal- 
viati Palace at Rome. He died in 1600. 


ANGELO, Michael Colonna, an Italian paint- 
er, was born at Ravenna in 1 GOO, and first studied 
under Gabriello Ferrantino, but subsequently un- 
der Girolamo Curti, called U Dentone. In concert 
with the latter, he executed some important works 
in fresco, in the churches and palaces at Bologna, 
in which Colonna painted the figures, and Dentone 
the architecture and perspective. Their most cel- 
ebrated works were a saloon in the Palazzo Gri 
maldi, and the grand perspective painted in S 
Michael Bosco. Colonna was invited to Madrid by 
Philip IV., where he executed some works in fresco, 
and was well rewarded by the king. He died in 

ANGELO, called ANGELUCCIO, a talented 
Italian painter, and a scholar of Claude Lorraine, 
whose style he followed, but died young. 

ANGELO, Michael, called II Campidoglio, 
from an office he held in the Campidoglio or Cap- 
itol of Rome, a Roman painter of fruit and flowers, 
was born in 1610. and a scholar of Fioravanti. 
There are many of his works in England, especially 
a fine one in the collection of the Duke of Marl- 
borough at Blenheim. His coloring was full of 
harmony and richness, and liis touch was light and 
spirited. He died in 1670. 

ANGERMANN, David, an able miniature 
painter established at Berlin, where, according to 
Nagler, he was living in 1810. He was born at 
Eger in 1763, and was the pupil of A. Graff. 

ANGIOLILLO, called Roccadirame, a Neapo- 
litan painter, who lived about 1450. He studied 
under Antonio Solario ; and Dominici says he 
painted some works for the churches at Naples, 
one of the best of which was a picture in the 
Church of S. Lorenzo, representing the Virgin and 
Infant, with Saints. He died about 1458. 

NiSBA, a celebrated Italian portrait and historical 
paintress, of an ancient family, born at Cremona 
about 1530. She studied first under Bernardino 
Campo, but subsequently under Bernardo Gatti, 
called Sojaro. Her first work was a portrait of her 
father and two of his children, which gained her 
great reputation, and she was soon considered one 
of the most eminent portrait painters of her time. 
She also executed several admirable historical 
pieces. That great patron of art, Philip II., invi- 
ted her to Madrid, where she arrived in 1561, with 
her three sisters. She executed a portrait of Queen 
Isabella, which was presented by the King to Pope 
Pius IV., a near relative of Sofonisba, accompanied 
with a letter from the artist, to which the pontiff 
replied, highly praising her talents, and assuring 
her that he had placed her work among his most 
valuable paintings. She executed a picture of the 
INIarriage^of St. Catherine, which is now in the 
Pembroke collection at Wilton ; also her own por- 
trait, playing on a harpsichord, which is at Althorp, 
in Northamptonshire. A portrait of one of her 
sisters, painted on a panel, was sold in 1801 at the 
sale of Sir William Ilamilton'a pictures ; and Mr. 
Gough had a miniature of Sofonisba, inscribed: 
^^Sophonisba Angussola, virgo, ipsius mamt, ex 
speculo depicta, Cremoncz:'' There was also a 
picture of her sisters playing chess, in the collec- 
tion of Lucien Bonaparte, which is now in England. 
Her sisters Lucia, Europa, and Anna IMai-ia, also 


painted, but they were far inferior to Sofonisba. 
She was married twice ; first to Don Fabrizzio di 
Moncada, a Sicilian nobleman, after whose death 
she returned to Italy via Genoa, where she mar- 
ried Orazio Lomellino, the captain of the ressel in 
which she made the voyage. She subsequently 
became blind from strenuous application to the art, 
and in this state was frequently visited by the 
great Vandyck, who used to say that he had 
learned more of the practical principles of the art 
from a blind woman, than by studying all the 
works of the best Italian masters. Her country- 
men assert that she died in 1626, aged 93 ; though 
Lanzi and Zani say, in 1620. 

ANGOULEME, Jacques d', a French sculptor 
•who lived at Rome about 1550. His works, ac- 
cording to Fuseli, were highly valued at Rome. 
There are, or were, three figures in black wax by 
him in the Papal Library ; and in the grotto at 
Meudon, near Paris, there was a fine statue of 
Autumn, in marble, by this artist. 

ANGUIER, FRAN9013, and Michel, two cele- 
brated French sculptors ; born at the town of Eu. 
in Normandj", Frangois in 1604, and Michel in 
1612. Their father was a carpenter, and taught 
them to carve in wood when very young. Some 
of their productions having attracted the notice of 
a respectable citizen of Eu, he sent them to Paris, 
and placed them under Simon Guillain, a good 
sculptor of that metropolis. They soon gave 
proofs of their ability, and were in a few years 
enabled, by the fruit of their own exertions, to 
visit Rome. Fran5ois practised some time in 
England, and then went to Rome, where he re- 
mained two years. He acquired the reputation of 
one of the first sculptors of his age in France; his 
figures are remarkable for their truth and beauty 
of expression. His best works are, a marble cru- 
cifix in the church of the Sorbonne ; the mauso- 
leum of Cardinal de BeruUe, in the church de 
rOratoire, Rue St. Honore ; that of M. de Thou, 
in the church St. Andre-des-Arcs ; and that of the 
last Duke of Montmorency, at Moulins, his great- 
est work; also four figures at the tomb of the 
Duke de Longueville ; and the tomb of the Duke 
of Rohan, in the church of the Celestines at Paris. 
He made also some copies after the antique. Louis 
XIII. gave him apartments in the Louvre, and 
appointed him keeper of his cabinet of antiquities. 
He died at Paris in 1669, aged 65 years. 

Michael Anguier visited Rome in 1641, where 
he became the pupil of Algardi, some of whose 
models he worked in marble; he also executed 
vrorks for this sculptor, for St. Peter's, and for the 
palaces of several cardinals. This employment 
snabled him to follow his pursuits at leisure, and 
Ixe spent ten years in Rome, living on terms of 
friendship with Poussin, Algardi, and Du Qucsnoy. 
[n 1651 he returned to Paris, and assisted his 
brother in his works for the mausoleum of the 
Duke de IMontmorency. He made in the same 
rear a statue of Louis XIIL. which was cast in 
sronze at Narbonne. In 1653 he adorned the 
ipartment of Queen Anne of Austria, in the Lou- 
vre, with several admirable works. He made also, 
or the same queen, the principal sculptures in the 
;hurch of Yal de Grace, of which the Nativity, in 
narble, placed over the altar, is considered his 
nastcr-picce; also the sculptures of the great 
iltar of St. Denis de la CJiartre. His last works 

33 ANGU. 

were the statues and bas-reliefs of the Porte St. 
Denis ; the statues of Holland and of the Rhine 
were after the designs of Le Brun. This artist 
was professor of the Academy of Arts at Paris, 
and wrote fourteen discourses on sculpture. He 
died at Paris in 1686, aged 76. 

ANGUILLA, Francesco Andrea, an Italian 
painter of Lucca, of the fifteenth century ; stud- 
ied under Giotto. Nagler says that his coloring 
was lively, his drawing correct, and the folds of 
his draperies cast in good taste. 

ANGUS, William, an English designer and en- 
graver of landscapes and edifices, who lived at the 
commencement of the present century. He exe- 
cuted from his own designs, and those of Sandby, 
Dayes, Samuels and others, many country views, 
which were issued in the publications of the day^ 
He also engraved and pubhshed many views of 
country-seats, in a veiy delicate and pleasing style. 

ANICHINI, LuiGi, a celebrated cameo and gem 
engraver of the sixteenth century ; born at Fer- 
rara, but resided in Venice. According to Yasari, 
he surpassed all his cotemporaries, except Ales- 
sandro Cesari, called II Greco. The praise that 
Vasari bestows on Cesari for his medal of Paul HI., 
which Michael Angelo pronounced perfect, Fuseli 
has given to Anichini, and he appears to have led 
Dr. Nagler into the same error. 

ANICHINI, PiETRO, an Italian engraver of the 
seventeenth century, of whose works the following 
are the principal : A Holy Family, dated 1655 ; the 
Good Samaritan, two small jjlates, lengthways ; 
the Portrait of Cosmos Etrurice, P. Anichinus, fee. 

ANIMOLA, ViNCENZo, called Vincenzo Ro- 
mano, an Italian painter, born at Palermo. He 
studied under Raffaelle, and went to Messina after 
the sacking of Rome, where he executed some 
paintings for the churches and convents. 

ANJOU, Rene of, King of the Sicihes, Duke 
of Lorraine, and Count of Provence, was a painter 
of some merit. He executed miniatures in missals 
and on glass ; painted a portrait of himself, which 
still remains in the Carmelite Chapel at Aix ; and 
is supposed to have painted that of Charles VII., 
of France. 

ANNA, Baldassare d'. born in Flanders, but 
of the Venetian school, who flourished about 1610. 
He studied under Corona da Murano, some of 
whose pictures he finished after the death of that 
master. He also executed several originals for the 
Servi and other churches, which surpass those of 
Corona in the softness of the chiaro-scuro. and 
occasionally in its force, though inferior to his works 
in the selection of forms. 

ANRAAT, Peter Van, a Dutch historical paint- 
er, born at Amsterdam in 1635. Balkema says 
he was a painter of portraits, animals, and conver- 
sation-pieces. Houbraken says he was an artist 
of great merit, and highly praises one of his works, 
representing the Last Judgment, which was well 
designed, contained a multitude of figures, correct 
in the outline, and executed with a free and bold 
pencil. Notwithstanding his talents, little is known 
of his works or of the events of his life. 

ANSALDI, Giovanni Andrea, a very distin- 
giiished Italian oil and fresco painter, born, accord- 
ing to Soprani, at Voltri. a small town near Genoa, 


in 1584. He was a scholar of Orazio Camliasi, but 
sUidied with great attention the splendid works of 
P. Veronese, and became an admirable colorist, 
especially in fresco. His principal work was the 
cupola in the Church of the Santissima Anunziata, 
at Genoa. There are many of his works in the 
churches and palaces of that city. His invention 
was fertile, and his compositions ingeniously adorned 
with architecture and landscape. He died in 1638. 
ANSALONI, ViNCENZio, a Bolognese historical 
painter of considerable reputation, who, according 
to Lanzi, lived about 1G15, and studied under Lo- 
dovico Caracci. Malvasia extols an altar-piece by 
him, in the chapel of the family of Fioravanti, in the 
Church of S. Stcfano at Bologna, representing the 
JNIartyrdom of St. Sebastian ; and in the church of 
the Celestine monks is an admirable work repre- 
senting the Virgin and Infant in the Clouds, and 
St. Roch and St. Sebastian beneath. Zani says 
he died young. 

ANSELIN, Jean Louis, a Parisian engraver ; 
born in 1754 ; studied under Augustin de St. Au- 
bin, and executed several good plates. The best 
are Adam and Eve, after Lebarbiez, the elder, 
1808; the Siege of Calais, after Barthelemi; 
Madame de Pompadour, after Boucher; several 
Scenes of Bachanals, after Careme; Moliere read- 
ing his "Tartuffe" before Ninon I'Enclos and 
others, after Monsian, 1814; Portrait of Lally- 
Tolendal, after Verhulot; Sabinus discovered in 
his Retreat, after TaiUasson, 1819 ; Anacreon, after 
Restout. He died in 1823. 

ANSELMI, Giorgio, a Veronese painter, born 
in 1722 ; studied under Balestra ; painted the 
cupola of San Anckea, at Mantua, and other repu- 
table works in fresco. He died in 1797. 

ANSELMI, Michael Angelo, an ItaHan paint- 
er, was born at Siena in 1491, and studied under 
Gio. Antonio VerceUi, called Sodoina. He lived 
principally at Parma, where one of his first works 
was a large painting, after a design by Giulio Ro- 
mano, representing the Crowning of the Virgin 
Mary. He also executed some pictures from his 
own designs for the churches of Parma, some of 
which resemble the style of Correggio. Lanzi says 
he died at Parma in 1554 ; but Zani, in 1560. 

ANSIAUX, Jean Joseph Eleonora Antoine, 
an eminent French historical and portrait painter 
of the present century, was born at Liege in 1764, 
and studied under Vincent. He executed portraits 
of several eminent statesmen and generals of Na- 
poleon, besides many works in sacred and pro- 
fane history, and poetical subjects. There are 
three pictures by him in the Church of St. Paul, 
at Liege. He ranks among the first artists of the 
modern French school. He died in 1840. 

ANTELAMI, Benedetto degli, an old Italian 
sculptor, who practised at Parma from 1178 to 
1196. There is in the cathedral of that city a 
bas-relief by him, representing the Deposition 
from the Cross, which, though rather a rough per- 
formance, is, according to Lanzi and Nagler, per- 
haps unequalled by any of the Italian sculptors 
previous to Giovanni Pisano. It contains many 
figures, but is simple in composition. It is marked 
with his name and date, 1178. Antelami was like- 
wise an architect, and is said to have built the 
baptisterjr at Parma. 

34 ANTE. 

ANTENOR, an Athenian sculptor, who lived 
about B. c. 500, and executed the bronze statues 
that were erected in honor of Ilarmodius and Aris- 
togiton, Avho delivered Athens from the rule of the 
Pisistratidse. These statues were carried away 
by Xerxes, b. c. 480 ; and were afterwards found 
at Susa by Alexander, who sent them back to 
Athens. They were erected in the Ceramicus, 
near those that had been made hy Critias to replace 
them, and were seen by Arrian and Pausanias. 

ANTHE]\IIUS, an architect, was born at Tralles, 
a city of Lydia, in Asia Minor. Procope says he 
erected, in conjunction with Isidorus of ililetus, the 
famous Temple of St. Sophia, at Constantinople, 
by order of the Emperor Justinian. The Emperor 
was desirous of making it the most superb edifice 
in the world, and on its completion exclaimed with 
joy : " I have surpassed thee, Solomon !" 

ANTHERMUS and BUPALUS, two ancient 
Greek sculptors, who lived about b. c. 570, were I 
the sons of jNIicciades, who was also a sculptor. ! 
There were many of the works of these artists | 
in Delos and other Grecian isles, most of which 
were taken to Rome by Augustus, who placed 
them in various temples. Pliny mentions a stat- ' 
ue of Diana, whi«h he saw in the Island of Chios, 
of such ingenious execution, that to those entering 
the temple, the goddess appeared of a serious coun- 
tenance, while she seemed to smile on those going 
out. They introduced great improvements in 
marble sculpture. Greece and Asia strove to pos- 
sess their works. On some of their statues were 
inscribed the following verse: " The sons of Mic- 
ciades will render thee, O Chios, more renowned 
than thy vines have done.^^ 

ANTICHIO, PiETRO, a Venetian painter of the 
eighteenth century. His pictures are remarkable 
for their high coloring. In the church of San Sal- 
vatore there are two of his works— the Pool of 
Bethesda, and Clu-ist driving the sellers and money- 
changers from the Temple. Antichio visited Ger- 
many, and met with considerable success in differ- 
ent parts of that country. 

ANTIDOTUS, a Greek painter, probably of 
Athens; was the scholar of Euphranor, and is 
principally noted for having been the master of 
Nicias. He was more severe in coloring than Eu- 
phranor, and more distinguished for the care with 
which he finished his works, than for their num- 
ber. Pliny mentions three of his paintings— a 
Warrior with a Shield, fighting ; a Wrestler ; and 
a Flute-player. 

ANTIPHILUS, a celebrated Egyptian painter, 
who is commonly supposed to have lived in the 
time of Alexander, and to have been the cotem- 
porary of the great Apelles. But the story of 
Lucian, in his treatise against Calumny, places him 
a century later, about b. c. 230 ; for the Apelles 
and Antiphilus there mentioned, were cotempo- 
rary with Ptolemy Philopator, the fourth of the 
Ptolemies, who lived about a centurj^ after Alex- 
ander. The time of Antiphilus cannot be inferred 
from his paintings of Philip and Alexander, which 
do not appear to have been portraits, and might 
have been painted at any period. Besides, he is 
noticed by Pliny after the scholars of Apelles. 
See Apelles of Ephcsus. 

According to Quintilian, Antiphilus excelled ir 
facility of execution, and he distinguished himself 



apparently in various styles. Pliny mentions sev- 
eral of his works which were preserved at Rome : 
Hesione; Alexander; Philip; Minerva; Bacchus; 
Alexander as a boy ; Cadmus and Europa ; and Hip- 
polytus and his horses startled at the sight of the 
Sea-monster sent against them by Neptune. He 
also mentions Ptolemy hunting ; a Boy blowing 
a Fire, with the reflected light on his face; a 
Work-room in which women were employed in 
knitting and weaving ; and a very celebrated pic- 
ture of a Satyr with a panther's sbn hanging on his 
shoulder, holding his hands over his eyes, and look- 
ing into the distance. He excelled in paintings of a 
grotesque character, as is evident from the fact that 
such sutjjects were called Grylli, after a painting 
of his representing the clown Grjdlus, with cap and 
bells. He also executed fire-light pieces admirably, 
and one such is especially commended ; that of the 
Boy blowing the Fire with his mouth, which was 
greatly admired for the fine effect of the reflected 

ANTIMACHIDES. See Antistates. 

ANTIQUUS, John, a Dutch painter, born at 
Cxronrngen m 1702. He acquired the art of glass- 
stammg from Gerard Vander Veen, which he fol- 
lowed for several years, but subsequently studied 
for some tmie under John Abel Wassenberg, a his- 
torical and portrait painter of some merit He 
afterwards visited Paris, where he obtained a 
plenty of employment ; but being desirous of vis- 
itmg Italy, he went to Florence, where he was em- 
ployed six years by the Grand Duke of Tuscany 
and executed a large composition, called the Fall 
3f the Giants, which was so much esteemed that 
1 sketch of it was placed in the Florentine Acad- 
emy. He afterwards returned to Holland where 
le was received with much honor, and was engao-ed 
3y the Prince of Orange to execute several paint- 
ngs lor the Palace of Loo, among which is a laro-e 
wcture of Mars disarmed by the Graces He 
)ain ted with great facility, and was a good designer 
ind colorist. In all his pictures may be seen the 
me taste he acquired from the study of the old 
nasters m Italy. He ched in 1750. 

.HROS, and PORINUS, four Grecian architects, 
rho lived b. c. 555, and, according to Vitruvius 
rere employed by Pisistratus to erect a temple 
Jupiter Olympius, in the place of the one 
rectcd m the time of Deucalion, which the storms 
t a thousand years had entirely destroyed Thev 
roceeded so far with it that Pisistratus was ena- 
led to dedicate it, but after his death the work 
3ased ; and the completion of this temple so 
lagmficent and grand in its design that it im- 
resscd the beholder with wonder and awe, became 
le worK of after ages. Perseus, King of Mace- 
onia, and Antiochus Epiphanes, nearly four hun- 
red years after Pisistratus, finished the grand 
avc. an-1 placed the columns of the portico ; Cos- ' 
itius a Koman being the architect. It was con- 
dei-ed and ^yith good reason, one of the foui«ceI- 
>rated mai-ljle temples of Greece; the other three 
ere that of Diana at Ephesus; Apollo, at Mile- 
s , and Ceres, at Eleusis. The Corinthian order 

id to'Alh.n ^r-f ?^ '''' ^^^Se that Sylla 
Id to A hens this temple was greatly injured 
It the allied kings afterwards restored it at S 
mmon expense, intending to dedicate it to the 
urns of Augustus. Livy says that among so 



many temples this was the only one worthy of 
a god. Pausanius says the Emperor Adrian en- 
closed It wi h a wall, as was usual with the Grecian 
temples of half a mile in circumference, which the 
cities of Greece adorned with statues erected in 
honor of that monarch. The Athenians distin- 
guished themselves by the elevation of a colos- 
sal one behind the temple. This enclosure was 
also ornamented with a peristyle one hundred 
ro* m length, supported by superb marble Cor- 
inthian columns, and to this fegade were three 
grand vestibules which led to the temple. Adrian 
dedicated it a second time. In this temple was 
placed a splendid statue of Jupiter Olympius of 
gold and ivory ; and the courtiers added four stat- 
ues of the Emperor. This wonderful structure 
which IS said to have cost five millions oUcudi is 
now m rmns. Sixteen Corinthian columns kre 
standmg, six feet four inches, and some six feet six 
mches, m diameter. The length of the temple, 
according to Stuart, upon the upper step, was 
tliree hundred and fifty-four feet, and its breadth 
one hundred and seventy-one feet; the entire 
length of the walls of the peribolous is six hun- 
dred and eighty-eight feet, and the width four hun- 
dred and sixty-three feet. 

ANTISTIUS, Labeo, who had been a praetor 
and even pro-consul of the province of Narbonne 
IS said to have amused himself in painting small 
pictures. He died at an advanced age, in the reign 
of Vespasian. His works do not appear to have 
gained him any reputation, but rather the ridicule 
01 his cotemporaries. 

_ ANTOINE, JAcauES Denis, a reputable Paris- 
ian architect, born in 1733. One of his earliest 
works was the completion of the alterations of the 
Pa aas de Justice in Paris, on which Desmaisons 
had been employed. He also executed the portal 
I m the court of the Hospice de la Charite. In 1771 
[ he commenced the mint, and finished it in 1776 
The principal fa9ade towards the Quai Conti and 
-Pont Neut, presents a fine unbroken mass 400 feet 
m extent. The edifice is characterized by a unity 
and simplicity that contrast very strongly with the 
false taste which then prevailed in the French me- 
tropolis. Antoine also designed the mint at Berne 
and a mansion for the Duke de Bervicq at Madrid' 
He died m 1801. 

ANTOINE, Sebastien, a French engraver of 
little note, born at Nancy, in Lorraine. He execu- 
ted a representation of the jewelled crown used in 
the coronation of Louis XV., dated 1722 • the En- 
terprise of Prometheus, from the ceiling at Ver- 
sailles, painted by Mignard; also a portrait of R 
l*. Augustin Calmet, a large oval plate 17'>9 His 
style was slight and feeble, and he worked"usually 
with the graver. 

ANTOLINEZ, Don Josef, a Spanish histori- 
Tkn^ 1'^''*^''''* painter, was born at Seville in 
i0o9. He studied, while young, at Madrid, under 
Don irancisco Rizi, one of the painters of Philip 
IV. Palomino commends two pictures by this 
master in the Church of La Magdalena, at Madrid 
representing the Miraculous Conception, and the 
Good Shepherd. Xhe landscapes he introduced 
into his pictures were much admired. He died 
at Madrid in 1676. 

ANTOLINEZ, DE S ARABIA, Francisco, a tal- 
ented Spanish historical and landscape painter of the 




seventeenth century, was a nephew of Joseph An- 
toUnez. and was educated at Seville for the law, 
but afterwards studied painting under ^Murillo, 
whoso style he imitated. He went to his uncle at 
]\Iadrid in 1072 ; but althoug-h he had acquired 
some reputation as a painter, he threw up the peii- 
cil and returned to his original profession for the 
purpose of obtaining a lucrative station at the bar; 
a change which was greatly deprecated bv the 
friends of art. Not succeeding, he was complUed 
again to return to painting as a means of support 
and subsequently executed a number of small 
pictures from the Bible, and the life of the \ irgm, 
which are highly esteemed for their invention la- 
cility of execution, and admirable color. He died 
in 1700. 

ANTONELLA, da Messina. See Messina. 
ANTONIANO. Ferrarese, or Antonio Al- 
berto, of Ferrara ; studied under Angiolo Gaddi, 
and was the most eminent painter of Ferrara m his 
time. Al)Out 1438, he executed several great works 
in the palace of Alberto d'Este ; he painted also, 
according to Vasari, many beautifvd works at San 
Francesco d'Urbino, and at Citta di Castello. He 
died about 1450. 

/P ANTONIANUS, Silvanus, a Flemish wood 
lJ\ /en"-raver. who, according to Papillon, lived 
about 15G7, and' executed a set of cuts for a Book 
of Fables, published at Antwerp in that year. 

ANTONIASSO, a Roman painter of the begin- 
ning of the sixteenth century. Vasari, in his life 
o? Filippiiio Lippi, states that Antoniasso, and 
Maestro Lanzilago of Padua, two of the best Ro- 
man painters of that time, were required to esti- 
mate the value of the frescos of Filippino, painted 
for the Cardinal Caraffa, in his chapel in the church 
of the J*Iinerva. Nothing further appears to be 
recorded of these artists. 

ANTONINUS, an ancient Roman architect, who, 
accordina; to Pausanius, erected several temples in 
Epidaurus. an ancient city of Peloponnesus. He' 
also built the bath of ^Esculapius, and restored a 
portico called Coryos, constructed originally of 
unburnt bricks. 

ANTONIO, Di Federigo, a reinitable Italian 
sculptor, who lived, according to Vasari, about 
1450. He executed three statues in the cathedral 
of Siena, which Delia Valle has assigned to Jacopo 
della Querela. He made also some of the works 
for the external embellishment of the cathedral. 
About 1457, he executed a statue of St. Peter. 

ANTONIO, Fiorentino, an Italian architect, 
who lived about 1560. He was born at Cava, near 
Naples; studied at Rome; established himself at 
Naples, and built there the Church of Santa Cata- 
rina a Formello. 

ANTONIO, Marc. See Raimondi. 
ANTONIO, Pedro, a Spanish painter, was 
born at Cordova in 1014, studied under Antonio 
del Castillo, and painted some pictures for the 
convent of St. Paul, at Cordova, which are finely 
executed, with excellent coloring. He died in 1675. 
ANTONIO, DA Trento. gee Trento. 
ANTONIO, Veneziano, one of the most emi- 
nent fresco painters of his time, was born, accord- 
ino' to Vasari, in 1310, at ^^y.iice ; thouirh Baldi- 
nucci concludes he was a Florentine. He studied 

at Florence with Angelo Gaddi. and followed his 
style. He painted several frescoes at Venice for 
the Signory, but was so ill-rewarded that he left 
that city in disgust. His chief works, now nearly 
all destroyed, were painted in Florence and Pisa, 
where he executed many works of extraordinary- 
merit for the period, according to Vasari. who prai- 
ses the force of his coloring, and the truth andhar- , 
mony of his chiaro-scuro, in which he was scarcely 
equalled by any painter of his time. His design 
also was correct and graceful, and he was distin- 
guished for the choice o"f his attitudes, the elegance 
of his draperies, and the variety of his expression. 
One of his most celebrated works was the ]\Iiracle 
of the Loaves and Fishes, in the convent of S. 
Spirito, at Florence. In the Campo Santo, he com- 
pleted the series commenced by Simone IMemmi, of 
the Life of San Ranieri, in which his own portrait j 
is inserted. These works are still extant. He ; 
died in 1384. 

ANTONISSEN, Henry, a Flemish painter of i 
landscapes and cattle, was born at Antwerp m 
1737. His manner was feeble, and his works are 
not in demand except in his own country. Om- 
meganck, and several popular artists of the present 
century, received instructions from this master. 
He died in 1794. 

ANTONISZE, Cornelius, a reputable Dutch 
painter and engraver of perspective and architectu- 
ral views, was born at Amsterdam about 1500. 
There is a picture by him in the Treasury Cham- 
ber at Amsterdam, representing that city as it 
appeared in 1536. He subsequently painted twelve 
views of Amsterdam, with its principal public ecU- 
fices, which he engraved on twelve blocks of wood. 
The prints from these are very scarce. 

AN VERS A, Lievino d', a Flemish painter. In 
an Italian work, published in 1800, by J. Morelli, 
this artist is said to have painted, in concert with 
Hans Hemling and Gerard of Ghent, one hundred 
and twenty-five miniatures in a beautiful jNIS., now 
in the Library of St. Mark, at Venice. 

ANWANDER, Johann, a Bavarian^ oil and 
fresco painter, born at Landsberg about 1700. He 
lived several years at Bamberg, and executed many 
works there, both in oil and fresco ; the latter are 
superior to the former. 

APARICO, , a Spanish sculptor, who lived 

about A. D. 1000. He constructed, for Don San- 
cho the elder. King of Navarre, Castile and Arra- 
"•on a costly and elaljorately ornamented tomb, to 
contain the remains of St. Millan. This tomb was 
i seen by Bermudez, who describes it, in the monas- 
tery de Yuso, where it was placed in the year 
I 1053. 

APELLES, the most renowned painter of an- 
tiquity, was a native of Cos, according to Ovid and 
Plinj-* but Suidas states that he was a native of 
I Colophon, and was made a citizen of Ei)hcsiis, 
i which may account for his being called an Ephcsian 
by itrabo. He lived in the latter half of the fourth 
century before Christ. He had, apparently, seve- 
ral masters, and he studied under Ephorus of 
Ephesus before he entered the school of Pamphilus 
at Sicyon, where Mclanthius, or jNIelanthus was his 
fellow-student, in which famous school the routine 
of study is said to have occupied ten years ; but 
Plutarch says he entered this school, and paid the 
fee of a talent (about $1000), not so much for tU^ 


APEL. 37 

improvement he might derive therefrom, as for the 
mere reputation of having studied in the school of 

Apelles appears, according to the syeneral testimo- 
ny of the ancients, to have not only had the most 
brilhant success during his life time, but also after 
death to have eclipsed all other painters in reputa- 
tion Painting is termed bv some of the Romans, 
the Apellean art ; and Pliny affirms that he alone 
contributed more towards jperfecting the art than 
all other painters. He seems to have claimed the 
palm in elegance and grace, or beauty, the charts 
ot the Grreeks, and the venustas of the Romans ; a 
quality for which, among the moderns, perhaps 
Correggio is the most distinguished ; but in the 
works of Apelles, it was unquestionably connected 
with a proportionably perfect design; a combina- 
tion not found among the moderns. "Pliny remarks 
that Apelles allowed that he was equalled by Pro- 
togcnes in all respects save one, namely, in know- 
ing when to take his hand from the picture. From 
this we may infer that the deficiency in grace 
which he remarked in the works of Protogenes, was 
owing to the excessive finish for which that painter 
was celebrated. Lucian speaks of Apelles as one 
of the best colorists among the ancient painters. 

Apelles was famed for his industry; he is said 
never to have allowed a day to pass without exer- 
cising his pencil. " Nulla dies sine linea.^' is a 
saymg that arose from one of his maxims'. His 
principal works appear to have been generally sin- 
gle figures, and rarely of more than a single group. 
The only large compositions his execution that 
are mentioned by the ancient writers are, Diana 
surrounded by her Nymphs, in which he was al- 
lowed to have surpassed the lines of Homer fi'om 
which he took the subject ; and the Procession of 
the High Priest of Diana at Ephesus. 

In portraits Apelles was unrivalled. He is 
said to have enjoyed the exclusive privilege of 
painting Philip and Alexander the Great, both 
of whom he painted many times. In one of his 
portraits of Alexander, which was preserved in 
the temple of Diana at Ephesus, he represented 
him wielding the thunderbolts of Jupiter : Pliny 
says the hand and lightning appeared to start 
rom the picture ; and, judging from an observa- 
tion in Plutarch, the figure of the king was lighted 
solely by the radiance of the lightning. Apelles 
received for this picture, termed the Alexander 

^J.UO,{)00). The criticism of Lysii^pus. upon this 
Picture, which has been approved by ancients and 
noderns, that a lance, as he had himself given the 
img would have been a more appropriate weapon 
n the hands of Alexander, than the lightnings 
»1 Jupiter; is the criticism of a sculptor who over- 
ookcd the pictorial value of the color, and of light 
"1 rt?,''''-.^^^'^ lightning would certainly have 
lad little effect in a work of sculpture, but had a 
ance been substituted in its place in the picture of 
Ipclles, a totally different production would have 
.een the result. This picture gave rise to a sav- 
Qg, that there were two Alexanders, the one of 
hihp, the invincible, the other of Apelles. the 

Competent judges, says Pliny, decided the por- 
rait of Antigonus (king of Asia Minor) on horse- 
ack the master-piece of Apelles. He excelled 
reatly m pamtmg horses, which he frequently 
itroauced mto his pictures. The most celebrated 


I of all his works was the Yenus Anadyomeue. which 
was painted for the people of Cos, and was placed in 
the temple of ^sculapius on that island, where it 
remained until it was removed by Augustus, who 
took it in lieu of 100 talents tribute, and dedicated 
it in the temple of Julius Cassar. It was unfortu- 
nately damaged on the voyage, and was in such 
a decayed state in the time of Nero, that the Em- 
peror replaced it with a copy by a painter named 
Dorotheus. This happened about 350 years after 
it was executed, and what then became of it is not 
known. This celebrated painting, upon which 
every writer who has noticed it, has bestowed un- 
qualified praise, represented Venus naked, rising 
out of the ocean, squeezing the water from her 
hair with her fingers, while her only veil was the 
silver shower that fell from her shining locks. 
This picture is said to have been painted from 
Campaspe, a beautiful slave of Apelles, formerly 
the favorite of Alexander. The King had ordered 
Apelles to paint her naked portrait, and perceiving 
that the painter was smitten with the charms of 
his beautiful model, he gave her to him, content- 
ing himself with the painting. He commenced a 
second Venus for the people of Cos, which, ac- 
cording to Phny, would have surpassed the first, 
had not its completion been interrupted by the 
death of the painter : the only parts finished were 
the head and bust. Two portraits of Alexandei 
painted by Apelles, were dedicated by Augustus ia 
the most conspicuous part of the forum bearing 
his name ; in one was Alexander with Castor and 
Pollux, and a figure of Victory; in the other was 
Alexander in a triumphal car, accompanied by a 
figure of War, with her hands pinioned behind 
her. The Emperor Claudius took out the heads 
of Alexander, and substituted those of Augustus . 
The following portraits are also mentioned among 
the most famous works of this great artist: Cli- 
tus preparing for Battle; Antigonus in armor, 
walking by the side of his Horse ; and Archelaus 
the General, with his wife and daughter. Pausa- 
nias mentions a draped figure of one of the Graces 
by him, wliich he saw in the Odeon at Smyrna. A 
famous back view of a Hercules, in the temple of 
Antonius at Rome, was said to have been by Apel- 
les. He painted many other famous v/orks : Pliny 
notices a naked figure by him, which he says, chal- 
lenged Nature herself. The same author' says he 
covered Ms pictures with a dark transparent hquid 
or varnish, which had the effect of harmonising 
the colors, and also of preserving the work from 

The celebrated contest of lines between Apelles 
and Protogenes, is a subject wliich has generally 
perplexed painters and critics; and in -fact, Car- 
ducci asserts that Jiichael Angelo and other great 
artists treated the Mea with contempt. Accord- 
ing to Pliny, Apelles visited Rhodes expressly to 
see the tvorks of Protogenes, whose studio ho 
sougtt immediately on his arrival. The Rhodian 
pa;ijter was not at home, but there was an old 
woman taking charge of a large panel, which was 
standing on the easel, prepared for painting ; who 
asked the stranger what name she should give to 
her master upon his return. " This," said Apel- 
les, at the same moment drawing upon the panel 
a line (Jinea) of great delicacy. When Proto- 
genes returned, he immediately exclaimed, "Apel- 
les has been here, for that was done by no other 
hand." and immediately drew upon the same line 



or panel (in ilia ipsa) (linea or tabula?) a still 
finer line in another color, and going away, left 
orders that if Apelles should return, to show liim 
"77ia^," and tell him 'twas the one whom he 
sought. Apelles returned, and blushing to see 
himself surpassed, drew a line between or upon 
these two, (semit lineas) in a third color, and at- 
tained the summit of subtility, leaving no possibili- 
ty of being surpassed. When Protogenes returned 
a second time, he acknowledged himself van- 
quished, and immediately sought out Apelles. 
This panel, continues Pliny, was handed down, a 
wonder for posterity, but especially for artists, 
and notwithstanding it contained only those three 
scarcely visible lines {tres liiieas) still it was the 
most noble work in the Gallery, though surround- 
ed by many finished paintings of renowned mas- 
ters. It was preserved in the Gallery of the Im- 
perial Palace on the Palatine, and was destroyed 
by the first fire that consumed that palace, in the 
time of Augustus ; it was therefore not seen by 
Pliny, and the account must be related by him 
from some other work. In regard to the vague- 
ness of Phny's account, one of the principal causes 
is undoubtedly the mutilation of the text ; but the 
whole thing is told with obscurity, and this great 
panel could not have contained only three simple 
lines, as it appears to have done, else how could it 
have been termed the most noble work in the 
Gallery, and the wonder of posterity ? 

The character of Apelles shows itself in a noble 
light in his conduct towards Protogenes ; for per- 
ceiving that the Rhodians did not appreciate the 
works of that great artist, he volunteered to pur- 
chase all the fiiiishcd works he had by him, at any 
valuation the latter might 'fix ; and Protogenes 
having estimated them far below their real value, 
Apelles generously offered him 50 talents (about 
j^500,000) for the whole, and spread the report 
that he interred seUing them as his own. He 
thus opened the eyes of the Rhodians to the merit 
of their painter, and they accordingly secured his 
works at a still higher price. Apelles left writ- 
ings on the arts, which he dedicated to his pupil 
Perseus, who, however, does not appear to have 
realized the expectations of his master. 

Pliny says Apelles was the first artist who 
painted tetrachromes, or paintings executed with 
four colors, vis : lamp black, white chalk, ruddle, 
and yellow cchre, yet, in describing his Venus 
Anadyomene. he says she was rising from the 
green or azure ocean under a bright blue sky. 
Zeuxis painted grapes so natui-ally as to deceive the 
birds. WharcgoMi^" bis green and purple? There 
has been a grtaN: deal of useless disquisition about the 
merits of" &nciont painters and the materials they 
employed. When we take into consideration their 
thorough system of education ; that the sister arts 
had been brought to such perfection as to render 
them the models of all succeeding times ; that these 
painters enjoyed the highest honors and admira- 
tion of their polished countrymen, who, it must be 
admitted, were competent to judge of the merits of 
their works ; that the Romans prized and praised 
them as much as the Greeks themselves; that 
there w^ere in Rome in the time of Pliny many an- 
cient paintings 600 years old, still retaining all 
their original freshness and beauty, it can scarcely 
be doubted that the paintings of the great Greek 
artists equalled the best of the moderns ; that they 
possessed all the requisite colors and materials ; 


and, if they did not possess all those now known, 
they had others unknown to us. It is certain that 
they employed canvass for paintings of a tempo- 
rary character, as decorations; and that they treat- 
ed every subject, both such as required those 
colors suitable to represent the solemnity and 
dignity of the gods, as well as others of the most 
delicate tints, with which to depict flowers ; for 
the Venus of Apelles and the Flower Girl of Pau- 
sias must have glowed with Titian tints to have 
attracted such admiration. Colonel Leake, in his 
Topography of Athens, speaking of the Temple 
of Theseus, says that the stucco still bears the 
marks or stains of the ancient paintings, in which 
he distinctly recognized the blue sky, vestiges of 
bronze and gold colored armor, and blue, green, 
and red draperies. What then becomes of the 
tetrachromes of Apelles and the monochromes of 
previous artists, for ]Mycon painted the Theseum | 
near 200 years before the time of Apelles. 

APELLES, an Ephcsian painter, wdio flourished 
about B. c. 230. This artist stood high in the 
favor of Ptolemy Philopator, whose reign began 
B. c, 222, and according to Lucian, was false- 
ly accused by Antiphilus, a celebrated Egyptian 
painter, of having participated in the conspiracy 
of Theodotus of Tyre. But upon his innocence 
being established, Ptolemy, who had Hstened to 
the accusation, presented Apelles w4th 100 talents, 
and condemned Antiphilus to be his slave. Apel- 
les, however, was not satisfied with this reparation, 
and on returning to Ephesus, painted in retalia- 
tion his famous picture of Calumny, in which 
Ptolemy acted a principal part. Lucian saw tliis 
picture and thus describes it : 

" On the right, is seated a person of magiste- 
rial authority, to whom the painter has given ears 
like Midas, wdio holds forth his hand to Calumny, 
as if inviting her to approach. He is attended by 
Ignorance and Suspicion, who stand by liis side. 
Calumny advances in the form of a beautiful fe- 
male, her countenance and demeanor exhibiting an 
air of fury and hatred ; in one hand she holds the 
torch of discord, and with the other, she drags 
by the hair a youth personifying Innocence, w^ho, 
with eyes raised to heaven, seems to implore suc- 
cor of the gods. She is preceded by Envy, a 
figure with a pallid visage and emaciated form, 
who appears to be the leader of the band. Ca- 
lumny is also attended by two other figures who 
seem to excite and animate her, whose deceitful 
looks discover them to be Intrigue and Treachery. 
At last follovv-s Repentance clothed in black, and 
covered with confusion at the discovery of Truth 
in the distance, environed with celestial light." 

This sketch has been regarded as one of the most 
ingenious examples of allegorical painting which 
the history of the art affords. Raftaelle made a 
drawing from Lucian's description, which was for- 
merly in the collection of the Duke of Modcna, 
and was afterwards transferred to the French jMu- 
seimi. . 

Professor Tolken, of Berlin, has shown that this 
Apelles was not the great cotemporary of Alexan- 
der, for the persons mentioned in connection with 
the story, lived more than 100 years after the death 
of Alexander— or about the 14-lth Olympiad. 
See Pliny, Plutarch, Lucian, Cicero, axid Horace. 

APEZTEGVIA, Don Juan Felipe, a Spanish 
sculptor; born at Navarre about 1724; studied 



APEN. 39 

under Salvador Carmona, and aftervrards under 
Francisco Gutierrez. He made rapid progress, and 
executed several works of ability, by which, ac- 
3ording to Bermudez, he acquired considerable rep- 
utation. There are some of his works in the church 
3f San Gaetano. He was elected a member of 
the Academy of St. Ferdinand in 1777. 

APENS, C. a Dutch engraver of some merit, 
fvho lived at Groningen. He executed a number 
3f plates, among which is the portrait of Samuel 
Vlaresius, theologian, dated 1673. 

APHPvODISIUS, a sculptor, born at Tralles in 
[iydia ; proljably lived in the first century after 
Christ. Pliny mentions him as one of the artists 
vho decorated the palace of the Caesars on the 
Palatine Hill at Rome, with some of its finest 

APOLLODOPtO, Francesco, called II Porcia, 
L reputable Italian portrait painter, who was born in 
he Friuli, and resided at Padua about 1600. Ac- 
lording to Ridolfi and Lanzi, he painted the por- 
raits of nearly all tlie literati of Padua in his time. 

APOLLODORUS, one of the most celebrated 
•f the ancient Greek painters, was born at Athens 
,bout B. c. 440. Pliny commences his sketch of 
he history of Greek painting with Apollodorus, 
erming him the first luminary of art; but he 
aentions only two of his works— a Priest in the 
ct of Devotion, and Ajax Oileus Wrecked — both 
emarkable works, not only in chiaro-scuro, but as 
invention and composition. These paintings 
vere preserved at Pergamos in the time of Pliny, 
00 years after they were executed This artist was 
he founder of a new school of painting ; or rather 
le made painting complete as an imitative art. 
Carlier artists had distinguished themselves for a 
ertain degree of effect in chiaro-scuro, as Dionysius 
f Colophon ; but Apollodorus was the first who 
ttained the perfect imitation of the efiects of light 
nd shadow invariably seen in nature. If we may 
epend upon the criticisms of ancient writers, the 
forks of this master were not inferior in this 
espect to those of the most distinguished moderns. 
lis pictures riveted the eye, not merely from theii- 
eneral coloring, but also for a powerful and pecu- 
ar effect of light and shade ; on wliich accoimt he 
cquired the surname of "the Shadower." He 
itroduced great and rapid advances in the art of 
ainting; was the first to give varieties of character 
Qd expression to his figures, the advantages of 
reaking the colors and showing the value of 
ght and shade, and the harmony of contrast, 
'liny says of him, "I may well and truly say that 
one before him brought the pencil into a glori- 
as name and especial credit." 

APOLLODORUS, an eminent ancient arcliitect 
'ho lived, according to Pliny, about a. d. 100, and 
'as born at Damascus. By his great genius he 
jquired the favor of the Emiieror Trajan. He 
uilt the great Square of Trajan, to effect which he 
veiled a hill one hundred and forty-four feet 
igh ; in the centre was raised the fiimous column, 
' the same height as the hill that had been re- 
moved, which commemorated the victories of Tra- 
in, and served as a monument to that \'ictorious 
mperor. Around the square there was the most 
jautiful assemblage of buildings then known in 
le world, among which was the triumphal arch 
ected in memory of Trajan's victories. The mar- 


ble pavements of the square are fifteen feet below the 
streets of modern Rome. Apollodorus also erected 
a College, a Theatre appropriated to JMusic, the ba- 
silica Nepia, a celebrated Library, the baths of Tra- 
jan, Temples, Aqueducts, and other important edi- 
fices in Rome. His most famous work was the 
stone bridge over the Danube, in Lower Hungaria, 
near Zeverino, where the river is narrowest and 
most rapid. On account of its great depth, it was 
necessary to make a foundation, by throwing into 
the bed of the river an immense quantity of ma- 
terials ; on which were constructed twenty piers 
(some parts of which still rem.ain) and twenty-two 
arches ; each pier was sixty feet wide, one hundred 
and fifty feet high, distant from each other one 
hundred and sixty feet; the bridge was three 
hundred feet high, and a mile and a half long ; its 
extremities were defended by two fortresses. Tra- 
jan had it constructed to facilitate the passage of 
his troops, but his successor Adrian dismantled it, 
fearing the barbarians would use it against the 

Pliny says that Apollodorus was imprudent 
enough to deride the young Adrian, presumptive 
heir to the throne, for wishing to show his know- 
ledge of architecture. After the latter had attained 
the crown, he erected a temple, from his own de- 
signs, and sent the drawings to the great architect, 
to shew liim that he could erect a building without 
his assistance. Apollodorus answered that, "If 
the goddesses had a mind to rise and go out, they 
could not." Adrian was so enraged at the sar- 
casm, and the error he had conniiitted, that he 
caused the architect to be murdered. 

APOLLONIO, Jacopo, an Italian painter, born 
at Bassano in 1584; was the grandson, and one of 
the most talented pupils of Jacopo da Ponte; 
and imitated his master with such exactness that 
the only difference in their works is, that those of 
the latter have a more lively touch and vigorous 
execution. His best work is the martyrdom of St. 
Sebastian, in the church dedicated to that saint. 
There is also a JMagdalene in the dome of the Ca- 
thedral at Bassano, and a picture of St. Francesco, 
at the Riformati. He died in 1654. ' 

APOLLONIUS, and his brother TAURISCUS. 
the sons of Artemidorus, were the sculptors of 
a marble group of the size of life, rejiresenting 
Zethus and Amphion tying D.irce to the horns 
of a wild bull. This work was brought from 
Rhodes to Rome by Asinius Pollio ; and, accord- 
ing to Pliny, was formed of a single block of mar- 
ble. The group of this subject, now in the court 
of the Museo BorboTiico fft Naples, known as the 
Toro Farnese, from its having at one period be- 
longed to the Farnese family, is believed to be the 
work alluded to by Pliny. Tauriscus was a native 
of Tralles, in Lydia ; Apollonius of Rhodes. They 
probably lived in the second century before Christ. 
APOLLONIUS, an Athenian sculptor, the son 
of Nestor, who probably lived in the first century 
before Christ. He executed the marble statue of 
Hercules, of which a fragment, well known as the 
Torso of the Belvedere (or the Torso of Michael 
Angelo, from the high estimation in which it was 
held by that master), is preserved in the collec- 
tion of the Vatican at Rome. This monument, 
one of the finest specimens of Grecian art existing' 
is much mutilated ; the body and thighs alone are 
preserved. The figure was seated on a lion's skin. 

APPE. 40 

This Torso was engraved in the Museo Pio Clem- 
ent ino. 

APPEL, Jacob, a Dutch painter, was born at 
Amsterdam, in 1680, and studied some time under 
Timothy de Graaf, but was afterwards instructed 
in Landscape painting by David Vander Plas. Des- 
camps says that he at first followed the style of 
Tempesta, but afterwards that of Albert :Mcyering. 
His landscapes are of some merit, but he succeeded 
far better in portraits. He died in 1751. 

APPELDOORN, Jean, a landscape painter, 
born at Amersfort in 17G5, and studied under 
Jordanus Iloorn. He executed a few pictures m 
oil, but his works were principally in water colors, 
and possess considerable merit. He died m IS6K 
APPELINS, Jean, a French painter of por- 
traits, history and landscapes, was^ born at Mid- 
dlebourg, and liourished about 1778. His compo- 
sitions are generally large, and possess considerable 

AP.PELMAN, Bernard, or Barent, a Dutch 
painter, was born at the Hague, in 1640. It is not 
known under whom he studied, but he probably 
visited Italy, as his landscapes are taken from 
views in the vicinity of Rome. He adorned the 
hall of the palace of Soesdyk with several admira- 
ble portraits, and some landscapes which are finely 
pencilled and well colored. He often executed the 
landscapes and back grounds of the portraits of 
Jan de Baan and others. He died in 1686. 

APPIANI, Andrea, an Italian oil and fresco 
painter, born in the Upper Milanese, in 1754. He 
studied under Cav. Guidei with such ardor that he 
formed a graceful and original style that approaches 
Correggio. His best frescos are at Milan: his best 
oil paintings are Rinaldo in the garden of Armida, 
Venus and Love, and Olympus, which are works 
of great beauty and merit. Napoleon sat to him 
for his portrait, and appointed him his painter; 
this portrait is now in England. Rosaspina has 
engraved the frescoes he executed in the Royal Pa- 
lace at ]\Iilan. He was made a knight of the Iron 
Crown, and a member of the Legion of Honor. 
He suffered an attack of apoplexy in 1813, which 
rendered it impossible for him to paint ; and he lost 
his pension at the restoration of the Bourbons ; so 
that he was compelled to sell liis drawings and other 
valuables to obtain support. In 1818 a second at- 
tack of apoplexy terminated his life. 

APPIANI, Francesco, an Itahan painter, born 
at Ancona in 1702. He studied under Domenico 
Simonetti, and subsequently jt Rome m the time of 
S. Conca and Mancini, with whom he lived in in- 
timate friendship. His style was soft and harmo- 
nious, as is well shown in his Death of St. Dome- 
nico, painted for Benechct XIII ; for which he was 
honored with a gold medal and chain. He resided 
chiefly at Perugia, where he painted the vault of 
the cathedral and many other works, and con- 
tinued the practise of the art with great vigor till 
1792, when he died, aged 90. 

APPIANO, or APLANO, Niccolo, a Milanese 
painter who lived about 1510. He is said to have 
studied under Leonardo da Vinci. Cesariani com- 
pares him with the greatest masters of the age ; 
but no other writer on the fine arts has mention- 
ed him, except Zani. His works may have been 
ascribed to some of his great cotemporaries. 


APSCH, Jerome Andrev/, a German wood en- 
graver, born at Nuremberg about 1490, and assist- 
ed Hans Burghmair in engraving two hundred and 
thirty-seven wooden cuts for a book issued at Vi- 
enna, entitled the Wise King, containing the chief 
events of the life and reign of Maximihan I. Ho 
died in 1556. 

AQUILA, Francesco Far aone, an eminent Ital • 
ian designer and engraver, elder brother of the dis- 
tin2;uished Pietro Aquila,' was born at Palermo in 
1676, and settled at Rome about 1700. He exe- 
cuted numerous engravings, some of which are 
highly esteemed. In drawing and expression he 
isinferior to his brother. Some of his plates are 
done with the graver only, but they are by no 
means equal to those where he used the point. 
Several of his prints are from his own designs. 
The following is a list of his works : 

A set of twenty-two large plates after EafFacUe, entitled, 
PidurcE Raphaelis Urbinatis ex aula et condavihus Pa- ■ 
lata Vaticani, t^c. Franc. Aquilo, del. et incid. 1722. ; 
The Repose in Egypt, with St. Joseph at work in the back- 
ground. The La^t Supper ; afler Albano, inscrihed unus 
ex vobis, (fc, 1711. The Dead Christ in the Lap of the 
Virgin Mary, with Mary Magdalene and St. Francis ; after 
Caracci. Our Saviour with a Glory, the Virgin Mary, St. 
Ambrose, and St. Charles Borromeo ; after Carlo Maratti. 
The Bark of St. Peter ; after Lanfranco. St. Rosalie ; 
from his own design. A Bishop announcing to the Virgin 
the arrival of the Body of St. Helena. The First Vault in 
the Vatican ; after Ciro Ferri, 1696. Three la,rge prints, 
of the Vault of "St. Francis Xavier at Naples ; after Paolo 
de Mattel Three Cupolas— one in the Chapel of the Holy 
Sacrament, one in the Church of St. Sebastian, and one in 
the Chiesa Nuova— all of them circular ; after P. da Cor- 
tona. The Battle of Constantino with Maxentius ; and the 
Triumph of Constantine ; after AndreaCajnmasei. Venus 
showing the Arms to J^neas ; after Poussin. Mars with 
his Arms hung on a Tree ; after his oxen design. Hercu- 
les, to whom Mars offers a Sword, and Minerva a Crown of 
Laurel ; after Ant. Benfiglio. Two Portraits— the Cardi- 
nal Casini, and Cardinal Joseph Alaria de Thomasis ; after 
P. Nelli. Some of these plates are of very large size. 

AQUILA, Giorgio, a Florentine painter of some 
merit, who flourished from 1314 to 1325. Little 
is known of the events of his life. He is said to 
have been the first Italian artist who used the nut- 
oil in painting. 

AQUILA, PiETRO, a reputable Italian painter and 
excellent engi-aver, the younger brother of Frances- 
co, according to Baldinucci, was born at Palermo, and 
settled with his brother at Rome in 1700. While 
young he prepared himself for the priesthood, and 
on arriving at Rome, he became a monk, but still 
followed his natural inclination for the art. His 
plates are etched in a free, bold style, and his draw- 
ing is extremely correct. Ilis best prints arc those 
he* engraved after the Caracci, which are very high- 
ly valued. The following are his principal plates, 
some of which are from his own designs. Heine- 
ken's Dictionaire des Artistes has a full catalogue. 
Subjeds after Caracci.— Tho Holy Family ; the Adora- 
tion of the Magi; the Flight into Egypt; Lions fightmg— 
an emblematical subject, inscribed spe suscitat iras. 

After p. da Cortona.—lihe Sacrifice of Polyxena; tho 
Triumph of Bacchus ; the Rape of the Sabines ; Diana re- 
turning from the Chase ; the Battle of Alexander -ind 

Darius. « x it. 

After Ciro i^erri.— Moses and the Daughters of Jethro; 
Moses striking the Rock ; tho Virgin Mary appearing to 
St. Alesio ; Tho Vestals keeping up the Sacred Fire. 

After Carlo Maratti.— Th^ Virgin Mary with five 
Saints ; tho Triumph of Religion— an allegorical piece ; St, 
Luke showing tho Virgin the Portrait he had pamted of her 

After Gio. 3Iarandi.—T]io Death of the Virgm. 




The Bible of RaffaellOj a set of fifty-five plates ; entitled 
Imagines Veterlsac Novi Testmnenti, a Raphaele Sanct. 
Urbin. in Vatlcano pictcc, (fc— [The first thirty-six of 
these plates were engraved by Cesare Fantetti ; the rest by 
Aquila in a very superior manner.] The Pamese Gallery 
in twenty-five plates, with the Statues and Ornaments. The 
Chamber of the Palaoo Parnose, in thirteen plates; inscribed 
Imagines Farnesiani Cubiculi. The Assembly of the 
Gods^ in nine plates, after the painting by Lanfranco, in 
the Villa Pinciani at Rome, inscribed Deo'rum Concilium, 
ab Eqidtf. Joanno Lanfranco, cf-c. Fourteen Portraits 
of Roiuan Emperors, froii medals ; and a Portrait of Livio 
Odeschalchi, with ornaments. 

AQUILA. PoMPEO dell', an Italian painter, 
was born at Aquila, and lived about 1570. Padre 
Orlandi, in the Abbecedario Pittorico, says he was 
a very reputable historical painter, both "in oil and 
fresco. He executed a fine painting in the Church 
of San Spirito at Rome, representing the Descent 
from the Cross, of which there is a print by Hora- 
tius de Sanctis, 1572. At Aquila, there are some 
considerable frescos by this master. 

AQUILES, Juan de, a Spanish sculptor of Val- 
ladolid, who lived in the earlj'- part of tlie sixteenth 
century, and executed a number of works in the 
churches of that city and other towns of Castile, 
which, accoi-ding to Bermudez, evince much ability. 

ARAGON. Juan de. a Spanish painter of his- 
tory, who resided at Granada in 1580, and was one 
of the eminent artists who adorned the monas- 
tery of St. Jerome, founded by the great Captain. 

ARBASIA, Cesare, an eminent Italian painter, 
was born at Saluzzo ; flourished in the latter part 
of the 16th century; studied under Federigo Znc- 
cheri. and imitated the style of Leonardo da Vinci. 
In 1579 he visited Spain, and executed a picture 
of the Incarnation, and some other works, in the 
cathedral at JIalaga, for which he received 3000 
ducats. In 1583, he executed a splendid work in 
fresco in the Cathedral of Cordova, representing the 
martyrs who suifered in that city. He also painted 
the ceiling of the Church of the Benedictine monks at 
Saragliano. It is probable that he visited Rome in 
1588, with his former master, Federigo Zuccheri, 
who was the first president of the academy of St. 
Luke, of which Arbasia was one of the founders. 
He afterwards returned to Spain, where he died in 

ARBULO. Marguevete Pedro, a Spanish 
sculptor of the sixteenth century. Bermudez says 
that from 15G9 to 1574, he was occupied upon the 
altar and stalls of the choir of the Chui-ch of S. 
Ascensio, in the Rioja at Castile, which are execu- 
ted with great ability. He received for them 7,387 
ducats. He died at'Briones in 1608. 

ARCE, Don Caledoro d', a Spanish sculptor, 
born at Burgos in 1739 ; stuched under Fra. Greg- 
orio Barambio ; was elected a member of the Acad- 
emy of San Fernando at Madrid ; and in 1788 
was appointed escultnr de camera to Charles IV., 
King of Spain ; of whom he executed an equestrian 
statue in marble, which has been engraved by Sal- 
vador Carraona. In 1786, Arce published at Pam- 
peluua a work on sculpture. 

ARCE, Josef d'. a reputable Spanish sculptor ; 
studied under Juan Jlartinez Montaiies, and execu- 
ted several works at Seville, among which are eight 
colossal stone statues over the balustrade of the 
Church of the Sanctuary, in the Cathedral. He 
flourished about 1657. 

ARCESILAUS, or ARCESTEAS, a sculptor, 
who distinguished himself at Rome in the last 
years of the republic. He was the friend of Lu- 
cius Lucullus ; and his models or sketches, accord- 
ing to Varro, brought a higher price than the fin- 
ished works of other artists. An unfinished statue 
by him, of Venus Genetrix, was placed in the forum 
of Julius Caesar ; and at his death he left incom- 
plete a statue of Felicity, that he was making for 
Lucullus, and for which he was to receive 6,000,000 
sesterces (about $260,000). Varro had in his pos- 
session a group by Arcesilaus, of some winged Cu- 
pids playing with a Lioness, sculptured out of a 
single piece of marble; and Octavius, a Roman 
citizen, paid him a talent for a model in plaster of 
a bowl or drinking cup. 

ARCHELAL^S, a Greek sculptor of uncertain 
age, the son of Apollonius of Priene. This name 
is inscribed on the upper part of a bas-relief of the 
Apotheosis of Homer, formerly in the Colonna 
Palace at Rome, now in the British Museum. It 
was found in the ^^ia Appia, near Albano, at a place 
called AUe Frattocchie, the ancient Bovilhe, where 
the Emperor Claudius had a villa. It was pur- 
chased for the British Museum at the enormous 
price of $5000. 

ARCHITA, , an Italian painter of some 

merit, born at Perugia in 1560 ; died in 1635. He 
resided chiefly at Rome, where he executed a num- 
ber of works for the churches, among which are 
three frescos in S. Sebastiano, representing Saints 
Girolamo, Carlo, and Bernardo. 

ARCIS, Marc, a French sculptor of Toulouse; 
studied under J. P. Rivalz, and in 1684 was elected 
a Royal Academician. There are several reputable 
■\^-orks by him in the Church of the Sorbonne, and 
in the Gardens of Versailles. 

ARCIMBOLDI, Gioseffo, a Milanese painter, 
born in 1533, was favored for the greater part of 
his life with the patronage of the emperors Maxi- 
milian and Rodolphus. He excelled in painting 
interiors of kitchens with fruit, vegetables, culinary 
uten.sils, etc. ; and sometimes with grotesque fig- 
ures formed of flowers and fruit, which at a dis- 
tance appeared like human figures. He died at 
Prague in 1593. 

ARCO, Alonso dell', called el Sordillo de 
Pereda, a Spanish historical and portrait painter, 
born at Madrid in 1625 ; studied under Antonio de 
Pereda, and though deaf and dumb from his birth, 
acquired considerable eminence. Palomino men- 
tions several of his works, particularly the Mirac- 
ulous Conception, and the Assumption, in the clois- 
ter of the Trinitarios Descalvos at Madrid ; also a 
fine picture of St. Teresa in the Church of San Sal- 
vador. Bermudez mentions a large number of his 
works in the churches at Madrid, and other pub- 
lic edifices throughout Spain. He died at JIadrid 
in 1700. 

ARDELL, James Mc, a reputable mezzotinto 
engraver, was born about 1710, and of Irish ex- 
traction. He executed a considerable number of 
l^lates, some of which are froiu. historical subjects; 
but the greater part are portraits of eminent per- 
sons after the principal painters of the time. He 
died in 1765. The following are his principal plates. 

After Reynolds. — George, Lord Anson ; Dr. Ashton 5 
the Countess of Berkley; Vice-Admiral Boscawen; the 




Countess of Essex ; Lady Fontcsque ; James, Earl of Wal- 
dcgrave — fine and scarce. 

After Hudson. — Maiy, Duchess of Ancaster ; William 
Bonn, Lord Mayor — scarce. 

After Vandyck. — George, Duke of Buckingham, and his 
Brother, from the picture at Kensington Palace— very tine; 
Mary, the Countess of Coventry — scarce ; Francis du Ques- 
noy, called Flamingo, sculptor ; Rachael, Countess of South- 
ampton — very fine ; Lord John and Lord Bernard Stuart — 
very fine ; Ruben's Wife — fine and scarce. 

After Wilson.— T>x. Franklin— fine and scarce. 

After Zoff'any.—'Mr. Garrick and Mrs. Cibbor, in Jaffier 
andBelvidera in Venice Preserved. 

After Hogarth.— Two of John Pine, painter— one with, 
and the other without hands ; Daniel Locke. 

Also, Archibald Bowen ; after Knapton. Elizabeth, 
Duchess of Hamilton ; after Coles. General Washington ; 
after Pine. 


After Vandyck. — The Virgin and Child ; Moses found 
in the Nile ; Time clipping the Wings of Love. 

After Rembrandt. — An Interior, with a Woman reading, 
and' a Child in a Cradle ; the Tribute Money ; the Angel 
and Tobit ; Rembrandt's Mother reading ; the Student in 

After Murillo.— The Virgin, with a Glory of Angels; 
St. Jerome kneeling before a Crucifix; St. Francis da 

After Rubens. — Rubens and his Family. 

AH the above are fine prints, and good impressions are 
very scarce. 

ARDEMANS, Don Teodoro, a Spanish painter 
and architect ; born at jNIadrid in 1664 His 
father was a soldier in the noble bodj-guard, in 
which Ardemans served also for some time ; but 
his love for the arts led him to place himself under 
Claudio Coello to learn painting. He commenced 
at the same time to study mathematics and archi- 
tecture, in 1089, when 'in his twenty-fifth year, 
he contended at Granada with Boccauegra, then 
painter to the King, for the appointment of chief 
master to the Cathedral of that city. The artists 
were ordered to paint each other's portraits, and 
Ardemans, who was the first to begin, in less than 
one hour painted a very masterly likeness of Boc- 
cauegra, which so discouraged the latter that he 
deferred his trial to another day, but not appearing 
on the day fixed, Ardemans obtained the appoint- 
ment. This defeat is said to have caused the death 
of Boccauegra. Ardemans remained several years 
at Granada, practising both painting and civil and 
hydraulic architecture. In 1694 he was appointed 
chief master of the cathedral of Toledo ; in 1700 
he received a similar appointment at JNIadrid ; and 
again in 1702, from Philip V., who placed him 
over the Alcazar and other palaces of IMadrid, with 
a salary of 400 ducats per annum. In 1704, after 
the death of Ruiz, the King appointed Ardemans 
his cabinet painter. According to Bermudez, his 
pictures are, scarce, because he applied himself 
chiefly to architecture ; but that author praises a 
fresco by Ardemans, in the sacristy of the chapel 
of the third order of Franciscans at IMadrid. 

As an architect, Ardemans designed the decora- 
tions at the celebration of the funerals of the Dau- 
phin of France in 1711, and of the Queen Maria 
Louisa of Savoy in 1715, at the convent of the In- 
carnation at Madrid. In 1719 he designed the 
principal part of the Palace and Gardens, the Colle- 
giate Church, and the great altar of San Ildefonso ; 
and in 1722 the Church of San Millan at IMadrid. 
He is known also as an architectural and scientific 
writer. It is probable that he was living in 1730, 
as he wrote the eulogy on his friend Palomino, 

prefixed to the second volume of the works of that 
author, who died in 172G. 

ARDENTE, Alessandro, a Picdmontesc paint- 
er, who, from the dates on his pictures, probably 
flourished from 15G5, to 1592. At Turin, in the 
Monte della Pieta, is a picture b}' this master, of 
the Conversion of St. Paul, painted with such 
grandeur as might lead us to suppose he Avas of 
the Roman school. In the Church of S. Paolini, 
at Lucca, is a picture of S. Antonio Abate, dated 
1565 ; and at jMoncaliere. near Turin, an altar-piece 
of the Adoration of the Magi, dated 1592. Ardente 
was painter to the Court of France, and died at 
Paris in 1575. 

ARDITI, Andrea, a Florentine sculptor, of the 
early part of the fourteenth centurj^^ who executed 
among other works, the silver head of San Zanobi, 
which, according to Yasari, gained him great cele- 
brity in his time. 

AREGIO, Pablo de, a reputable Spanish painter 
who lived about 1506, and executed in that year, in 
concert with Francisco Neapoli, the doors of the 
great altar of the cathedral of Valencia. Each door 
contains six pictures. The subjects are from the 
life of the Virgin, executed in the style of Leo- 
nardo da Vinci. Bermudez says they are admira- 
ble in respect to the design, style, and expression 
of the figin-es. Aregio received 3000 ducats for 
these works. 

ARELLANO, Juan de, a Spanish painter, born 
at Santorcas in 1614, studied under Juan de Solis. 
but not succeeding as a historical painter, he copied 
the subjects of INIario de Fiore, and by his assiduity 
became an excellent painter of fruit and flowers. 
His pictures are in most of the collections of Spain, 
where they are highly esteemed. He died in 167C. 

ARELLIUS, a Roman artist of some celebrity, 
who flourished at the beginning of the reign of Au- 
gustus. From the manner in which he is mentioned 
by Pliny, he must have been an artist of ability, 
for the only fault he finds against him is that he 
selected as the models of his goddesses the most 
beautiful courtezans of his time; a reproach which 
that author never thought of making against the 
greatest artists of Greece, who constantly availed 
themselves of this practice. 

ARENDS, or ARLENDS, Jan, a Dutch land- 
scape and marine painter, born at Dort in 1738, 
studied under J. Ponse. His pictures are praised 
for their admirable perspective. There are a few 
prints by this artist which possess considerable 
merit. He (hed at Dort in 1805. 

ARETINO. See Spinello. 

ARETUSI. Cesare, an eminent Italian painter, 
born at Modena, and lived about 1590. It is not 
known under whom he studied, but he formed his 
style from the works of Bagnacavallo. Lanzi says 
he was an excellent colorist in the Venetian style, 
but of a weak and dull invention ; while Gio. Bat- 
tista Fiorini, was full of fine conceptions, but worth- 
less in his coloring. These two painters were m- 
timate friends, and by uniting their talents produced 
works of considerable merit, among which is the 
cupola of the cathedral of S. Pietro, at Bologna. 
However this may be, Cesare's merit as a por- 
trait painter equals that of many of his cotom- 
poraries, and his portraits possess a breadth and 
beauty of coloring, that approaches the excellence 





of Correggio. He painted several of the most illus- 
trious men of the day. He surpassed all artists 
then living as a copyist of the works of great mas- 
ters, for he conld assume the style of almost any 
painter, and even pass off his copies as genuine. 
In imitating Correggio, he was very successful, and 
received a commission to execute a copy of the 
celebrated Notte, by that master, for the Church 
of S. Giov. di Parma, where it still remains. Mengs 
declared that were the original at Dresden lost, it 
might be well supplied with so fine a duplicate. 
He gained so much reputation for this work that 
he was appointed to restore the painting executed 
by Correggio for the tribune of the same church, 
which had been removed to extend the choir. 
Ruta, in his Guida. says that so accurate was 
the imitation of the taste displaj-ed in the original, 
of its conception and harmony, as to lead those 
unacquainted with the change, to suppose it the 
work of Correggio. Pungilcone is of the same 
opinion. In the Church of San Giovanni del 
Monte at Bologna, is a fine altar-piece by this 
master, representing the Virgin and Infant with 
two female figures embracing each other. His 
principal patron was the Duke of Ferrara, whose 
favor he lost by an act of indiscretion. The prince 
commissioned Cesare to paint the portrait of a lady 
for himself; but on no account to divulge the secret 
to the fair one or any of her family. The artist 
accomplished his purpose, but from a feehng of 
vanity, shewed it to some of his accjuaintances, and 
the secret soon transpired. The relatives of the 
lady were much enraged, and the duke at first 
threatened ■ Cesare with death for his treachery, 
but he afterwards merely banished him. 

ARFIAN. Antonio de, a Spanish oil and fres- 
co painter of the school of Seville, studied under 
Murillo and L. de Vargas. He was emplo3^ed on 
several important works, particularly the grand 
altar-piece of the cathedral, which he painted in 
1551, in concert with Antonio Ruiz. He was liv- 
ing in 1587. 

ARIAS, Fernandez, a distinguished Spanish 
historical painter, was born at Madrid ; studied un- 
der Pedro de las Cuevas. At the early age of four- 
teen, he gained great reputation by the grand altar- 
piece he executed for the Carmelites at Toledo. He 
subsequently pursued his studies with great assi- 
duity, so that at the age of twenty-five, he was one 
of the best painters in Madrid, and was chosen by 
the Duke d'Olivarez to paint the series of portraits 
of the kings of Spain, which were in the saloon of 
the ancient palace. He is said to have died in a 
hospital, in 1G80, though some say in 1684, 

ARISTIAS. The name of this artist, associa- 
ted with that of Papias, is found on two marble 
statues of Centaurs, which were formerly in the 
Furictti Palace, but are now in the Vatican. They 
were natives of Cyprus, and probablj^ lived in the 
second century. 

ARISTIDES, of Thebes, one of the most celebra- 
ted painters of antiquity, a cotemporary of Apelles ; 
flourished from about b. c. 3(jO to 330; was the son 
of Aristodemus, and the brother and pupil of the 
celebrated Nicomachus. A painter named Euxe- 
nidas, was also his master. Pliny relates that 
when Alexander stormed Thebes, he was so struck 
with one of Aristides' works he saw there, that he 

ordered it to be sent to Pella, his native city. It 
represented a Dying ]Motlier, wounded at the sack- 
ing of a city, with a child at her bosom ; remark- 
able for the expression of agony in the mother, 
lest the child should suck blood from her breast 
instead of milk. Aristides painted an easel picture 
of a Persian Battle, for Mnason, tyrant of Elatea, 
containing 100 figures, for which that prince paid 
him 1000 mlnie (about $18,000) — an immense price, 
since being an easel picture, the figures were proba- 
bly small, and of many of them, only parts were 
seen. His works appear to have risen in value 
after his death. After the capture of Corinth bj- 
L. Mummius, b. c. 146, Attalus III., of Pergamos, 
bought a picture of Bacchus and Ariadne by Aris- 
tides, for 600,000 sesterces, (about $26,000) so great 
a price that it excited the suspicion of Mummius, 
who witldicld the picture, notwithstanding the 
complaints of Attalus, and sent it to Rome ; where 
it was dedicated in the temple of Ceres, which was 
afterwards destroyed by fire. The same king of 
Pergamos purchased another of the works of Aris- 
tides at the enormous price of one hundred Attic 
talents (about $100,000.) Pliny mentions many 
other works by this artist; — Running Quadrigas; 
Huntsmen with Game ; a Suppliant whose voice 
you could almost hear ; portraits and other pieces 
in various styles. He notices also an unfinished 
picture of Iris, which was greatly admired. Polo- 
mon, in his work on the pictures of Sicyon, quoted 
by Athenfeus, says he painted light subjects; and 
he is also denominated a Pornographer, or painter 
of lascivious pieces. There was a picture in the 
temple of Apollo at Rome, of a tragic poet and a 
boj^, by Aristides, which was destroyed by a pic- 
ture-restorer, to whom the praetor M. Junius had 
given it to be cleaned, before the celebration of the 
Apollinaria. Pliny says Aristides had the power 
of impressing his forms with soul — of representing 
those impassioned actions of the body which result 
from violent emotions of the mind. So effective 
was the earnestness of supplication portrayed by 
him, that the voice seemed to escape from the pic- 
ture. Temanthes first drew the line that separates 
terror from an excess or horror ; Aristides marked 
the boundaries which cUvide it from disgust. His 
picture of the Wounded and Dying IMother, shud- 
dering lest her starving infant should suck her 
blood instead of milk, was one of the most cele- 
brated pictures of antiquity. The expression of 
the principal figure, still alive, though mortally 
wounded, helpless, beautiful, and forgetting herself 
in her anguish for her child, excited the beholder 
to tears and produced an effect never since equal- 
led, although the same subject has frequentl}^ been 
handled by succeeding artists. He painted battle- 
pieces, hunting scenes and chariot races, for foreign 
princes and public halls, which commanded any 
price he pleased to ask for them. 

ARISTIDES, a Grecian sculptor, and pupil of 
Polycletus of Sicyon, who lived in the latter part 
of the fifth century before Christ. Pliny says he 
was celebrated for his skill in making chariots, 
Quadriga3, and Bigse. These chariots were prob- 
ably constructed for some important purpose ; 
either to be presented as votive offerings to some 
temple, or to be used on particular occasions ; and 
being the work of an eminent artist, were decorated 
with designs of figures in relief, or enriched with 
foliage orother elaborate ornament. 




ARTSTOCLES, a Greek sculptor of uncertain 
age. who executed a group, dedicated at Olympia 
by Evag'oras of Zanclc, representing Hercules fight- 
ing an Amazon on horseback for her girdle. 

Another Aristocles executed a group represent- 
ing Jupiter and Ganymede, dedicated at Olympia 
by one Guothis a Thessalian. 

ARTSTOCLTDES, a Greek painter of uncertain 
age. classed by Pliny among artists of the second 
rank. He painted the temple of Apollo at Delphi. 

ARISTOGITON, a Greek sculptor, who was 
employed with Hypatodorus to execute some of 
the otferings dedicated at Delphi by the people of 

ARISTOLAUS, a celebrated Grecian painter, a 
native of Pausias. He was celebrated among the 
artists of his time for the grandeur and simplicity 
of his style. He seldom introduced more than one 
or two ligures into his compositions, and he made 
choice of those eminent personages whose virtues 
and great exploits had endeared their memory to 
their country. Among these were Theseus, Epam- 
inondas, and Pericles. 

ARISTOiMEDES, a Theban sculptor, who lived 
about B. c. 500. Pausanias says he executed, in 
concert with his countryman Socrates, a statue of 
the goddess Cybele, which was dedicated by Pin- 
dar, and placed in her temple near Thebes. The 
statue and throne were made of Pentelic marble. 

ARISTOMEDON, a sculptor of Argos, who 
lived about n. c. 480. and executed for the Phoci- 
ans the statues of x\pollo, of Tellias the Seer, of 
the Commanders in their army, and also of the 
Heroes of their country ; all of which were dedica- 
ted at Delphi, in commemoration of the success 
obtained over the Thessalians. 

ARISTON, a sculptor of Laconia, who, with his 
brother Telestas, executed a marble statue of Ju- 
piter, about eighteen feet high, which was dedicated 
by the Cleitorians at Olympia, in commemoration 
of their victories. 

ARTSTONIDAS, a sculptor, who is said by 
Pliny to have been so skillful in mixing the differ- 
ent metals he employed in his art, that he was 
able to express the various tints of the complexion. 
This was effected in the statue of Athamas, at 
Thebes, who was represented as overcome with 
grief for the death of his son Learchus, whom he 
destroyed in a fit of insanity. 

ARISTOTILE. See Bastiano San Gallo. 

ARLADI, Alessandro, an Italian historical 
painter, born at Parma about 1470, studied at Ve- 
nice under Giovanni Bellini, and painted in the style 
that Lanzi tei-ms antico moderno. In the Church 
of the Carmelites at Parma, is a picture by this 
master, representing the Annunciation, which is 
highly praised by the critics. He died in 1528. 

AIILAUD, James Anthony, a Swiss painter, 
born at Geneva in 1GG8. His first practise was 
painting ornaments in miniature for the jewellers, 
but he subsequently attempted portraits, in which 
he was so successful, that when twenty years old 
he settled at Paris, and obtained the patronage of 
the Duke of Orleans, who condescended to become 
his pupil, and gave the artist apartments in the 
palace at St. Cloud. This patronage stinmlated 
the efforts of Arlaud, so that he became one of 

the most ingenious portrait painters of his time. 
While at St. Cloud, he copied a Leda from the bas- 
relief of Michael Angelo, or, as others think, from 
the famous picture of Correggio ; which was univer- 
sally admired. The Duke de la Force purchased 
it for 12.000 livres, but happening to be a loser in 
the Mississippi scheme, he returned it to the artist 
with 4,000 livres for the use of it. He was favored 
with the patronage of the Princess Palatine, who 
presented him with her portrait, set with diamonds, 
and in 1721, when he visited England, she gave 
him a letter of reconnncndation to the then Prin- 
cess of Wales, afterwards Queen Caroline, whoso 
portrait he painted. While in England, he sold a 
copy of his Leda for £600, but refused to part with 
the original. He painted several of the nobility, 
and was liberally rewarded. He returned to Paris, 
where he remained a few years, and, having ac- 
quired wealth, he settled in Geneva, his native city, 
where he died in 1743. 

ARLAUD, Bernardo, or Benjamin, a Genevan 
painter of miniature portraits of the last century, 
who lived at two different periods in London, where 
he met with considerable success, and was a fre- 
quent exhibitor at the Royal Academy. In 1801, 
he returned to his native city, where he suffered 
much from the depredations of the French. 

ARLER, Peter Von, a German architect, 
born in 1333. At the early age of twenty-three 
he was employed to carry on the cathedral of St. 
Vitus at Prague, which had been commenced bj"- 
Mathias Von Arrias in 1343. This edifice, which 
ranks as one of the finest specimens of the Gothic 
style in that period, occupied him fcr thirty years, 
from 1356 to 1386, when, though not fully comple- 
ted, it was left by him nearly in its present state. 
He also erected the AUerhelige Kirche ; began the 
celebrated Moldau bridge in the same city ; and 
built the church at Kollin on the Elbe. 

ARMAND, Charles, a reputable French paint- 
er of history and portraits, was born at Bar-le-duc 
in Lorraine, and died there in 1720. 

ARMAND, JAcauES Fran90is, a reputal)le Pa- 
risian historical painter, was born in 1739, and 
died 1769. 

ARMANI, PiERMARTiNO, an Italian historical 
painter, born at Reggio, in the ]\Iodenese, in 1013 j 
died in 1669 ; studied under Lionello Spada, with 
whom, according to Lanzi, he painted some works 
in the Church of S. Maria at Reggio. 

ARMANNO, ViNCENZiO; or Vincent Armann, 
a landscape painter, was born in Flanders, in 1598, 
and practised at Rome. His landscapes are truth- 
ful to nature, and have a certain stillness of color, 
pleasingly varied with light and shade. His fig- 
ures are excellent, and his invention abundant. 
According to Passeri, he was imprisoned by the In- 
quisition for eating flesh on fast-days, and that on 
his liberation he left Rome in disgust, and settled 
at Venice, where he died in 1649. 

ARMENINI, Gio. Battista, an Italian painter, 
born at Faenza. studied under Perin del Vaga, and 
published in 1587, a work entitled " True Precepts 
of Painting." 

ARMESSIN. See L'Armessin. 

ARNALDI, Conte Enea, of Vicenza, an Italian 
architect of noble birth, who was born in 1710, 
and superintended the restoration of the Palace of 

ARNA. 45 

Reason, which gained him much reputation. He 
also wrote two works on architecture. 

ARNAU, Juan, a Spanish historical painter, 
born at Barcelona in 1595 ; studied under Eugenio 
Caxes, and was chiefly employed in works for the 
churches and convents of Barcelona. In the Church 
of Santa de la jMar is a ijicture of St. Peter, to 
whom Angels are presenting the Keys ; and in the 
Augustine monastery there are several pictures 
representing scenes from the life of St. Augustine. 
He died in 1693. 

ARNOLD, or ARXOUL, Jonas, a designer and 
engraver, who drew the portraits and figures en- 
graved by Philip Kilian, and engraved among 
other plates, one of Louis le Grand'scated on his 
Throne, and Louis Dauphin, after Antoine Dieu. 

ARNOLD, John, an engraver of little note, who 
executed, among other works, a small plate of 
Daniel in the Lions' Den, after Fm. Xav. Palco. 

ARNOLDL or DI ARNOLDO, Alberto, an 
eminent Florentine sculptor of the fourteenth cen- 
tury, lie executed the colossal group in marble, 
of the :\Iadonna and Child with two Angels, in the 
Chui-ch of S. :Maria del Bigallo at Florence, which, 
until lately, has been ascribed to Andrea Pisano, 
through the error of Yasari. Arnoldi was engaged 
on it from 1359 to 1364. 

ARNOLFO, a Florentine architect, was born in 
1232, studied under his father, Lapo, and acquired 
much reputation. He built the new walls of Flor- 
ence, and ornamented them with towers. In the 
same city he formed the square now called St. 
Michel ; the square of the Priors; the Abbey and 
Church of Santa Croce, four hundred eighty-two 
and a half feet long, and one hundred and thirty- 
three feet wide ; and designed the magnificent 
Cathech-al. For these and other M'orks, the Flor- 
entines elected him a member of the city council. 

ARNONE. Alberto, a Neapolitan painter of 
the end of the seventeenth century ; studied under 
Luca Giordano at Naples, and afterwards under 
Carlo Maratti at Rome. Dominici says he united 
the styles of masters. He excelled in por- 
traits, and painted most of the Neapolitan gentry 
of his time. He was presented by Luca Giordano 
to Philip V. as an excellent portrait painter; the 
King sat to him, and rewarded him highly for the 
portrait that Arnone executed, with which he was 
well satisfied. He died at Naples in 1721. 

ARNOL'LLET, Balthasar, a French wood-en- 
graver, who lived at Lyons. Papillon says he exe- 
cuted a large print of the town of Poitiers. 

ARNOULT, N., a Parisian engra-uer, who gained 
some reputation by his portraits d la mode of the 
personages at Court. There is a set of sLx figures 
in folio, published in 1673 and 1674 ; also a por- 
trait of the Marquise d'Angeau at her toilet ; with [ 
several others, in a coarse, poor style. 

ARPINO, II Cavaliere d'. See Cesari. 

ARRAS, Mathieu d', a French architect, born 
at Arras about 1300, and died in 1352. In 1344 
he was summoned by John IV., Kinj;- of Bohemia 
to erect the new cathedral of St. Yeit.skirche, in that 
city. The corner-stone was laid with great solem- 
nity by John himself, but the structure was not 
completed until 1385. This fine edifice still ex- 
ists. Arras also superintended the construction 


of the royal castle called Karlstein, four leagues 
from Prague, commenced by the Emperor Charles 
IV. in 1348 ; but this also he did not live to com- 
plete. There is a bust of Arras in the cathedral at 

ARREDONDO, Don Isidoro, an eminent Span- 
ish historical painter ; born at Colmenar de Oreja 
in 1653; studied first under Garcia, Tbut subse- 
quently under Rizi, at whose death he was ap- 
pointed painter to the King by Charles IL, who 
gave him letters of nobility. Palomino, in descri- 
bing a number of his works, speaks in admiration 
of one representing the Incarnation. He died in 

ARREGIO, or AREZZO, Paolo di, probably 
an Italian painter, though mentioned as Spanish. 
In 1506 he painted the doors of the great altar of 
the cathedral of Valencia, in concert with F. Nea- 
poli. The subjects are taken from the life of the 
Virgin, and possess the correct design, grandeur, 
and noble character that distinguished the school 
of Leonardo da Vinci, in whichboth these artists 
are supposed to have been instructed. 

ARRIGHI, Giuseppe, an Italian historical 
painter of the latter part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, born at Volterra. He was, according to Lanzi, 
the favorite pupil of Baldassare Franceschini, whom 
he greatly assisted in his works. 

ARTEAGA Y Alfaro, Matias, an eminent 
Spanish painter and engraver, born at Seville. He 
studied under Juan de Yaldes, and painted numer- 
ous perspective pieces, in which he represented sub- 
jects from the life of the Virgin. He was secretary 
to the Academy of Seville, and died in 1704. 

ARTEVELT, Andrew Van, a Flemish marine 
painter, was born at Antwerp about 1570. His 
pictures of storms and rocky shores are executed 
with sublimity and grandeur. Yandyck admired 
his works, and painted his portrait among the cel- 
ebrated artists of his country. Artevelt resided 
several years at Genoa, but the time of his death 
is not recorded. 

ARTE3IISIA, the Queen of Caria, was the wife 
of ]\Iausolus, and built the magnificent tomb for 
her husband, which was accounted one of the seven 
wonders of the world, and which has given a name 
to all structures of that description. 

ARTE]MON, a Greek painter of uncertain age 
and birth-place. Pliny mentions the following 
works by him : Danae with the Infant Perseus 
discovered by the Corsairs or Fishermen of the 
Island of Seriphus ; Hercules and Dejanira; Queen 
Stratonice ; and two pictures in edifices adjoining 
the portico of Octavia at Rome, which were his 
m aster- pieces ; the Apotheosis of Hercules from 
the summit of Mount (Eta; and some part of the 
story of Hercules, Neptune, and Laomedon, King 
•of Troy : probably the delivery of Hesione from the 
Sea-monster by Hercules. 

ARTEMON, a sculptor who lived about the time 
of Pliny, and according to that author, executed 
many works in the Palace of the Citjsars on the 
Palatine Hill. 

ARTIGA, Francisco de, a celebrated Spanish 
landscape and historical painter. He was born at 
Huesca, and painted several Sibyls, Conceptions, 
and perspective pieces for the Spanish collections, 
which were remarkable for their fei'tile invention. 

ARTO. 46 

fine colorinp:, and correct design. lie was also an 
architect and a mathematician of considerable abil- 
ity, and an author of reputation. lie died in 1711. 

AKTOIS, Jacques, a celebrated Flemish land- 
scape painter, was born at Brussels in IGl^. From 
his style he is supposed to have studied under John 
Wildens. His works are faithful delineations of the 
scenery around Brussels, and are often decorated 
with excellent iiguros by David Teniers, which ren- 
ders them much more valuable. His pencil is light 
and free, his skies and perspective are admirably 
managed, and his trees arc of grand forms, with 
foliage that appears in motion. Writers generally 
place his death in 1G05, but Zani says he was liv- 
ing in 16GG. 

ARZEUE, Stefano dell', an Italian painter, 
born at Padua. Ridolfi says he executed several 
paintings for the churches and convents of that 
city, in the Church of the Monastery of the Pa- 
dri de Servi, he painted the principal altar-piece ; 
and in the Chiesa degli Eremitani, subjects from 
the Old Testament, and two pictures of St. Peter 
and St. Paul, which possess considerable merit. 

ASAM, CosMus Daman, a Bavarian historical and 
portrait painter and engraver, who studied several 
years at Rome, and afterwards settled at Munich, 
where he was quite successful. He engraved some 
prints from his own designs, markedCosmus Asam, 
among which are: a Franciscan monk kneeling, 
with the Virgin in the Clouds surrounded by An- 
gels ; and St. Joseph presenting a book to a Bishop. 

ASCANI, Pellegrino, da Carpi, a reputable 
Italian flower painter of the last oentnry, who was 
educated in the IModenese school. He executed a 
number of fine pictures for the private collections 
at Modena, which are much esteemed. Little is 
known of the events of his fife. 

ASOARUS, a Theban sculptor, who executed a 
statue of Jupiter crowned with Flowers, and hold- 
ing a Thunderbolt ; which was dedicated at Olym- 
pia by the Thessalians out of spoils taken from the 

ASCH, Peter John van, a 

, _ » Dutch painter, born at Delft, in 

1G()3. He excelled in painting small landscapes, 
which, according to Ilonbraken, were universally 
admired. It is said, that by his unremitted atten- 
tion to an aged father and mother, who were sick 
many years, he neglected his profession; which 
accounts for the scarcity of his works. He signed 
his pictures with a monogram of his initials, P. J. 
V. A. Time of his death is not recorded. 

ASCIANO, Giovanni d', a Sienese painter of 
the latter part of the fourteenth century ; studied 
under Bernardo da Siena, whom, according to Lanzi, 
he surpassed in coloring. In the parish church of 
Arezzo, he completed a series of frescos which his 
master had left unfinished. 

ASCIONE, Angelo, a talented Neapolitan fruit- 
painter of the latter part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. Dominici says he studied under Gio. Bat- 
tista Ruoppoli. 

ASCLEPIODORUS, a celebrated Athenian paint- 
er, cotemporary with Apelles ; ranked by Plutarch 
with Euphranor and Nicias, and noticed by him as 
one of those artists who had done great honor to 
their country. He was of great reputation, for 
Muason, a tyrant of Elatea, paid him for pictures 


of the twelve gods at the rate of 300 minaj each, 
about !$5000. Phny says that Apelles yielded to 
Asclepiodorus in symmetry. There was a Greek 
sculptor of this name, who excelled in his statues 
of philosophers. 

ASCONDO, Francisco, a Spanish architect of 
considerable eminence ; born in the Province of 
Biscay in 1705 ; died in 1781. In 1731 he entered 
the convent of San Benito at Valladolid, in quality 
of lay brother, and also in his professional capac- 
ity. In 1742 he erected the churches at Ilornija 
and Yillardefrades ; also the Church of the Priory 
of S. INIaria de Duero, near Tudela ; considerable 
portions of the monastery of Fromesta, and of the 
nunnery of S. Pedro de las Duenas, near Sahagun; 
also a mansion for Viscount Valoria at Valladolid. 

ASENSIO — a Spanish portrait painter of some 
distinction, who' practised the art at Saragossa, 
about the end of the seventeenth century. He 
executed a number of portraits of eminent person- 
ages in his time, which have received considerable 

ASHFIELD, Edmund, an English painter in 
crayons, who studied under Michael Wright. He 
has the credit of being the instructor of Lutterel. 

ASNE L'. See Michael Lasne. 

ASPER, Hans, a Swiss paint- 
f 1/i.l. / er, born at Zurich in 1499, died 
in 1571. His drawings of flowers, birds and game 
were greatly admired. He was cotemporary with 
Holbein, and painted portraits in the style of that 
master, which gained him great reputation in his 
day, but he has been deprived of much of it by his 
portraits being ascribed to Holbein, and sold as the 
works of that master. He was so much esteemed 
that a medal was struck to record his merit, yet, 
according to Fuseli, he lived and died in indigence. 

ASPERTINO, GuiDO. a Bolognese painter, born 
about 14G0. studied under Ercole di Ferrara, and 
became a distinguished historical painter. His 
chief work, which he completed in 1491, was the 
Crucifixion in the cathedral at Bologna. He died 
in the prime of life, much regretted, as he was an 
artist of great promise. 

ASPERTINO, Amico, a Bolognese historical 
painter of little note, the j^ounger brother of Gui- 
do Aspcrtino, born in 1474, studied under Francis 
Francia, and according to Vasari, was called Amico 
da due Pennelli, from his being able to use both 
hands in painting with equal facilitj'. He was of a 
capricious and whimsical disposition, sometimes ap- 
proaching mental derangement. He died in 1552. 

ASPETTI, Tiziano, an Italian nobleman and 
sculptor; born at Padua in 15G5 ; died in 1607; 
was the nephew of Titian. He studied under 
Jacopo Sansovino at Venice, and executed many 
excellent works in marble and in bronze at Venice, 
Pisa, Padua, and Florence. There are several of 
his works in the Church of S. Antonio at Padua. 

ASPRUCK, Frantz, a 'German designer and 
engraver, who probably studied under R. Spranger, 
from the resemblance of style. There ai'e a few 
prints by him marked F. A., or, Franz Aspruck 
fecit — viz.: Four small plates, half-length fig- 
ures — of the Archangels Michael, Gabriel, Raph- 
ael, and Uriel ; Cupid and Anteros, half-length 
figures, small plates. 




ASSCHE, Henri van, a Flemish landsccipe 
painter, born at Brussels in 1775. In his infancy 
he showed an inclination for the art, and learned 
the elements of design and perspective from his 
father, who was an excellent artist. He subse- 
quently studied under De Roi, at Brussels, and 
made two journeys into Switzerland for improve- 
ment. There are several fine landscapes by him 
at Ghent, Lisle, Brussels, and Hajrlem, some of 
which are enriched with figures and animals by 
Ommeganck. He died in 1841. 

ASSELYN, John, called 
I Crabbetjie, a distin- 
guished Flemish landscape painter, born at Ant- 
werp, in 1610. He studied under Esaias Vander- 
velde, and went to Italy while young, where he 
remained several years. He was called Crabbetjie 
by the Flemish artists at Rome, on account of a 
contraction in his fingers. His pictures represent 
views in the vicinity of Rome, enriched with ruins 
of edifices, and decorated with figures and cattle in 
the style of N. Berghem. In landscape he imita- 
ted Claude Lorraine; his touch is free and firm, 
his coloring bright and clear, his skies warm, and 
his figures well drawn and judiciously disposed. 
He also painted battle-pieces of considerable merit. 
His works are very highly esteemed, and justly 
merit the approbation they receive. He died 
in 1660. 

ASSEN, Jan van, a Dutch historical and land- 
scape painter of some eminence, born at Amster- 
dam in 1631. He was educated in Italy and adopt- 
ed the Italian style, especially that of Antony 
Tempesta. He died in 1695. 

Fx'm'X' I ASSEN, John "Walther van, a Dutch 
v. .,s.^v,v.TOmJ wood engraver, born in Holland about 
1490. He w'as very distinguished among the ear- 
ly wood engravers ; his prints are admirably exe- 
cuted, and are highly prized. His monogram is 
composed of the letters I. W. A. Little is known of 
this artist. There has been much discussion among 
connoisseurs to whom many prints and wood cuts 
bearing certain marks should be attributed. Brul- 
liot, in his Dictionary of Monograms, though he con- 
fesses these marks have always been attributed 
to Werner van Ossanen or Walter van Assen ; 
yet he saj'S that Carl van Mandor more properly 
calls this artist Jacques Cornelisz van Oostsanen, 
and thinks the real name should be Jacques Cor- 
nelisz, or Corneliszoon (which last signifies the 
son of Cornelisz.) But Bartsch on the other hand 
says, " these monograms, improperly explained as 
meaning Werner van Oossanen, are generally at- 
tributed to J. Walter van Assen, an artist of 
whom little is known except that he lived in Am- 
sterdam in 1517." By carefully examining the 
character of the prints and the monograms, (for 
there are several forms of the latter, see plate 1,) 
we shall perceive them to be the work of one and 
the same artist, and without doubt Prof. Bartsch 
is right in attributing them to J. W. van Assen, 
with whose initials the monograms accord, but have 
not the least reference to Cornelisz, or any other 
known artists. The following are his principal 
prints : 

A set of six prints, of a circular form, about nine inches 
diameter, representing the Passion of our Saviour, marked 
with his cipher, ami dated in 1513 and 1514, viz : 

Our Saviour Praying in the Garden, three of the Disci- 
ples sleeping below, and in the distance, Jews, conducted by 

Judas, entering the Garden— very fine. Jesus betrayed by 
Judas, is seized, and St. Peter cutting off the Ear of Mal- 
chus. The Scourging of Christ. Christ bearing his Cross. 
The Crucifixion, with St. John and the Marys at the Foot 
of the Cross. The Entombing of Christ. A set of six large 
prints, each containing six different subjects in architectu- 
ral compartments, and in the middle of the prints, the words, 
I. Superbia. 2. Luxuria. .3. Inridia. 4. Ira. 5. Gula. 
6. Avaritia ; and their opposite virtues. There is a small 
print by this artist, representing an armed Figure on Horse- 
back, inscribed St. Hadrianus Amstelodamus in ^Edibus 
Donardi Petri, <^'c. 

ASSERRETO, Giovacchino, an Italian paint- 
er, born at Genoa in 1600, studied under Borzone 
and Ansaldo, and with such assiduity, that at the 
age of sixteen he executed a picture of the Tempta- 
tion of St. Anthony for the monks of that order. 
There are several of his works in the churches and 
convents at Genoa, which possess considerable 
merit. He died in 1649, leaving a. son named 
Giuseppe, who painted history in the style of his 
father, but died young. 

ASSISI, Andrea Luigi di, an Italian painter, 
born at Assisi. Bryan makes him out a wonder- 
ful genius, and mentions several extraordinary 
works of his execution, but Von Rumohr has sat- 
isfactorily proved that . the only known work by 
him is an inferior painting of a coat of arms in the 
town-house at Assisi, executed in 1484. 

ASTA, Andea dell', a Neapolitan painter, born 
in 1673 ; studied in the school of Solimena, but af- 
terwards visited Rome, where he studied some 
time, and introduced something of an imitation of 
Rafiaelle into the Neapoltian style. He returned 
to Naples, where his works were greatly admired 
particularly the Nativity, and the Adoration of the 
Magi, in the church of San. Agostino. He died at 
Naples in 1721. 

ASTLEY, John, an English portrait painter, who 
lived about 1750, born at Wemm, in Shropshire ; 
studied under Hudson, and afterwards visited Ita- 
ly. Bryan says his talents were of a high order, 
and on returning to England he was very success- 
ful. The widow of Sir William Daniel, a lady of 
large fortune, sat to him for her portrait, and was 
so much pleased with the artist that she ofl'ered 
him her hand ; on his marriage he relinquished the 
profession. He was a lucky dog, and died in 1787. 

AST. Bartholomew Vander, a Dutch painter, 
born at Utrecht. He painted small fruit and flow- 
er pieces in the style of Breughel, in which he in- 
troduced shells, in.sects. drops of water, and other 
objects, which, though excellent by themselves, 
made a combination defective in ordonnance and 
harmony. In 1629 he presented a picture of fruit 
to the hospital of St. Job, at Utrecht. 

ATHANASIO, Don Pedro. Bocanegra. 

ATHENION, a celebrated Greek encaustic paint- 
er, of Maronea, in Thrace, cotemporary with Ni- 
cias of Athens, to whom, says Pliny, he was some- 
what preferred. He was the pupil of Glaucion 
of Corinth. That author mentions the following 
works by him : Phylarchus and the Athenian 
Assembly, called Syngeiiicon; Ulysses detecting 
Achilles in a female dress among the daughters 
of Lycomedes ; and a Groom breaking in a Horse, 
his most celebrated work. The first two were 
painted in the temple of Eleusis. This name is 
inscribed on a cameo in the Jluseo Borlionico at Na- 
ples, which is one of the best in that collection. It 
represents Jupiter in a chariot destroying two giants 




with liis thunderbolts. This artist was more 
austere in his coloring than Nicias, but in his aus- 
teritj'- was more pleasing. His pictures seem to 
have been less a display of pictorial etlect than of a 
thorough knowledge and understanding of his sub- 
ject ; the distinction between the Roman and Ve- 
netian schools. 

ATHENODORUS, a Greek sculptor of Clitor, in 
Arcadia, was a scholar of Polycletus. According 
to Pliny, he excelled in his Statues of noble Wo- 
men. Pausanias sa3^s he executed two statues of 
Jupiter and Apollo, which were dedicated at Delphi 
by the Lacediw monians. 

ATTALUS, an Athenian sculptor of uncertain 
age, who, according to Pausanias, executed the 
statue of the Lj^cian Apollo, which was in the 
Temple of Apollo at Argos. 

ATTIRET, Jean Denis, called Frere Atti- 
RET, a French painter, whose career is cpiite re- 
markable. He was born in 1702, in the Franche- 
Compte at Dole, where his fother practised the art, 
and was his first instructor. The Marquis de 
Broissia sent him to Rome, where he completed his 
studies. After his return, Attiret attracted some 
notice by several pictures he painted at Lyons ;-he 
subsequently went to Avignon, where he joined 
the Jesuits. During his novitiate, he painted four 
pictures for the cathedral at Avignon ; also some 
other works. About this time the French Jesuit 
missionary at Pekin wished a painter to be sent to 
them from France ; and, accordingly, Attiret set 
out in 1737 to join his countrymen in China. Soon 
after his arrival he presented the Chinese Emperor 
Keen-Loong, with a picture of the Adoration of 
the Kings, which so pleased his Celestial Majesty 
that he ordered it to be hung up in his palace; and 
moreover, indicated his intention of entirely en- 
grossing the time of Attiret upon works according 
to his taste, and in water-colors, for he disliked the 
gloss of oil. He ordered Attiret to restore in dis- 
temper, a painting on a wall of one of the rooms 
of his palace, which, though an extraordinary honor 
to Attiret as a foreigner, was, through the ceremo- 
nies of the palace, an exceedingly tedious and an- 
noying task. Notwithstanding his ditSculties, he 
completed the picture entirely to the satisfaction 
of the Emperor, assisted by the advice of Castigli- 
one of the Portuguese mission. The Chinese court 
painters became very jealous of Attiret, and know- 
ing his dislike of water-colors, they took care that 
he should be allowed to use no others. 

He soon had so many commissions from the 
Emperor as v/ell as from the nobles, that he was 
obliged to employ Chinese painters. He made all 
the designs and executed the figures and other 
chief oljects, and especially the carnations. He 
found that the Chinese painters executed the cos- 
tumes, the landscapes, and even the animals, with 
much greater facility, and even better than him- 
self. By conforming to the Chinese taste he be- 
came a great favorite, even \vith the painters, and 
was enabled to establish a drawing-school. Be- 
tween 1753 and 17G0, the Emperor obtained seve- 
ral victories over some Tartar hordes in distant 
provinces of the north-west of the empire ; and in 
1754, Attiret was ordered to follow, in order to 
immortalize the victories on the scene of their oc- 
currence. He made many accurate drawings of 
triumphs, processions, festivals, etc.. in which he 
was assisted by Chinese artists ; and from these he 

painted several pictures, which, with portraits of 
the Emperor, so much pleased the monarch that he 
created Attiret a IMandarin, with all the appoint- 
ments ; a dignity which the painter declined. 
Some of these pictures were preserved in the pal- 
ace, and shown only by permission of the Empe- 
ror. No pains were spared to render them com- 
plete ; many officers who distinguished themselves, 
travelled, according to Amiot, even eight hundred 
leagues to sit for their portraits. Sixteen of 
these, or similar diawings, were sent to Paris to be 
engraved at the Emperor's expense. The prints 
were on a mammoth scale, and are extremely 
scarce, for they were sent with the plates to China 
as soon as printed, a few impressions only being 
reserved, for the royal family of France, and for 
the Library of Paris. 

Attiret died at Pekin in 1768, aged sixty-six. 
The Emperor ordered two hundred ounces of silver 
to be given towards the expense of his burial. 

ATTIRET, Claude FRAN901S, a French sculp- 
tor, the nephew of the preceding ; born at Dole in 
1728 ; studied under Pigal, and executed four stat- 
ues of the Seasons ; two of St. Andre and St. 
Jean ; and one of Louis XVI., the first ever erect- 
ed to that monarch, made for the city of Dole. 
He executed also the ornaments of the public foun- 
tain of his native city. 

ATIBERT, AuGUSTiN, a French portrait, histo- 
rical and landscape painter, born at i\Iarscilles, in 
1781. His landscapes represent views in the vici- 
nity of his native city. His principal subjects are 
from sacred history, many of which are of large 
size. His works are held in considerable estima- 
tion in France. 

AUBERT, Jean, a French engraver. The fol- 
lowing are his principal works, which are little 
more than slight etchings, without much effect : 
Portrait of Gillot, an upright plate ; A set of 
Academy figures, from E. Bonchardon; and a 
Book of studies for Drawing, after Raffaelle, and 
other masters, from drawings by Bonchardon. 

AUBERT, Michel, a Parisian painter, and his- 
torical engraver, born in 1700. His style is .slight 
and free ; in some of his historical subjects he 
seems to have imitated the manner of Gerard Au- 
dran, though not with much success. He died at 
Paris in 1757. His plates are : 


Elizabeth, Queen of England, 4to. Charles Emanuel, 
Duke of Savoy, afterVandyck. Victor Amadeus, Kiiip; of 
Sardinia, after Ferrand. James I., King of Engl;inJ. 
Philip of France, Duke of Orleans, after Nocret. The 
Marchioness de Montespan. Louis, the Dauphin of France, 
on Horseb.aok ; Louis XV. on Horseback, after Le Sueur. 
Two portraits, of the Dauphin and Dauphincss ; Charles 
Stuart, oval, after La Tour. A great many portraits for 
La Vie desplusfameux Peintres, bij D'Argenville. 


The Circumcision, after Giro Ferri. St. Francis, after 
Guido ; arched. Pan instructed by Cupid, half-length fig- 
ures, after Caracci. St. George kneeling before the Virgin 
Mary and Infant, after Parmiggiano. Mars and Venus 
bound by Love ; Mars disarmed by Venus, after P. Vero- 
nese, for the Crozat Collection. Vanity, an allegorical 
suhiact, after Houchardon. Venus reposing with Cupid; 
the Death of Adonis, after Boucher. Laban seeking for 
his Gods ; the Reconciliation of Jacob and Esau, after Jean- 
rat. The Promenade on the Kamparts ; the Rendezvous do 
Chasse, after Watteau. 

AUBIN, AuGusTiN DE St., a very ingenious 
Parisian engraver, born in 1720, studied under 




Laurence Cars, and imitated his style. He exe- 
cuted an immense number of plates, embracing his- 
torical subjects, portraits, frontispieces and other 
ornaments for books ; besides the collection of gems 
of the Duke of Orleans, and the collection of med- 
als belonging to M. Pellerin, which numbered about 
three thousand. He was a member of the Acad- 
emy of Painting. The following is a list of his 
principal works : 


Charles Nicholas Cochin, 1771; Anthony Beaiime, 1772; 
Joseph Anthony dc Blanchard ; Gruillaume le Blond ; Marie 
Joseph Lavalettc de Buchelav ; Jean Jacques Caffiori, 
sculptor ; Guillaume Couston, sculptor ; Antoine Depar- 
cieux ; Jacques Dumont le Romain, painter ; Madame de 
Norman d'Estiolles (Pompadom-), 1764; Benjamin Frank- 
lin, with Spectacles ; Benjamin Franklin, reading a Paper ; 
L'Abbe Charles Ganzargues ; Guerin, famous surgeon; 
Pierre Jeliot, etched by Cochin, and finished by St. Aubin; 
Jean Antoine Rigoly de Juvigny ; Joseph Marie Frangois 
de Lassone, the Queen's Physician ; Pierre Jean Marietta, 
celebrated amateur ; J. F. Marmontel, of the French Acad- 
emy ; Jean' Joseph Cassana de Mondonville ; Monet, Di- 
rector of the Comic Opera ; Sauveni Frangois Morard, sur- 
geon ; Jean Baptist Pigale, sculptor ; Guillaume de la 
Motte Piquet ; Alexis Piron, poet ; M. Philidor, the cele- 
brated chess player and musician ; L'Abbe Pommier, etched 
by Cochin, and finished by St. Aubin ; Jean Philip Ramoau, 
musical composer ; L'Abbe Raynal, the historian ; Roetiers 
le Pere ; Leonard le Rous, architect ; Charles des Brosses, 
Comte de Tournay ; Thomas Walpole ; George Washing- 


Le Prince Charles de Saxe, Due de Courland, 1769 ; 
Charles Henri de Heineken, amateur ; Linguet, fameux 
Avocat, 1774 ; P. L. de Belloy, author of the Siege of Ca- 
lais — an allegorical piortrait ; Pierre le Grand, for M. de 
Voltaire's work ; Portrait do M. Pellerin, famous anti- 
quarj' ; Le Due de Chevreuse ; Buste de Languet de Guercy, 
1767 ; from his own designs. Claude Joseph Dorat ; Sal- 
omon (Jesner, poet and painter ; Frangois Arrouet de Vol- 
taire ; M. Worlock, English physician ; after Denon. Denis 
Diderot; after J. B. de Greuze. Buste de Voltaire; 
Buste de Crebillon ; after J. B. Le Moine, sculptor. Jean 
Jacques Rousseau ; after La Tour. Claude Adrien Hel- 
vetius ; after L. M. Vanloo. Charles XII., King of Swe- 
den ; after Gardelle, for Voltaire's work. Portrait du Roi 
de Sardaigne ; after J. P. Boucherat. 


Set of six prints, entitled Diferens jeux des petits po- 
lisons de Paris ; two prints for Pretot's Roman History ; 
from his oion designs. Vertumnus and Pomona ; Am- 
phion saved by the Dolphin ; after Boucher. Four prints, 
of the Fountain of Grenelle ; after E. Bouchardon. Ve- 
nus on the Waves ; etched by M. L. du Ronserai, and fin- 
ished by St. Aubin. The Five Senses ; after P. Dumes- 
nil; engr.aved by S'^. Auhin, Le Vasseur, and Tillard. 
Concert of the Graces and Nymphs ; after Cochin. Venus 
and Adonis; after D. Le Pevre. Custom of the Russians 
before and after Marriage ; after J. B. le Prince. Venus 
a U Coquille ; after Titian. Jupiter and Leda ; after P. 
Veronese. A Battle m a mountainous Coimtry in China ; a 
Chinese Camp. — [These two prints were engraved from two 
drawings sent to Paris by the Emperor of China. 

AUBIN, Charles Germain de St., a Parisian 
designer and engraver, brother of Augustin A., 
born in 1721. He executed several plates, from 
his own designs, of flowers and fancy subjects, 
which possess considerable merit. 

AUBIN, Gabriel Jaques de St., a Parisian 
historical painter and engraver, brother of Augus- 
tin, born in 1724. He engraved some plates, from 
his own designs, the principal of which are : Six 
Statues — of the Christian Virtues ; View of the 
Louvre Exhibition of Paintings in 1753. 

AUBIN, Augustin de St., a skilful Parisian 
engraver, born in 1736. Besides compositions of 

his own, he engraved the works of several Italian 
and French masters, of which a list may be found 
in Heineken. His works are executed with the 
graver in a neat, clear, iine manner. 

AUBRIET, Claude, a French painter and de- 
signer, born at Chalons-Sur-Marne in 1G51, and 
died in 1743. Having studied under Joubert, and 
acquired some reputation as a miniature painter, he 
was appointed to make drawings of objects of natu- 
ral history in the Jardin des Plantes at Paris. Here 
he formed the acquaintance of Tournefort, who 
thought so highly of his talents, that he proposed 
that Aubriet should accompany him on his journey 
to the Levant, which the latter accepted. On his 
return he was appointed painter to the King at the 
Jardin des Plantes, as successor to Joubert ; where 
he was occupied many years in adding to that fine 
collection of Illustrations of Natural History, which 
was commenced at Blois by Nicolas Robert, by or- 
der of Gaston, Duke of Orleans. This collection, to 
which Joubert also contributed, amounts to sixty- 
six folio volumes, and is now in the library of the 
Jardin des Plantes. Aubriet's drawings in this 
collection are superior to those of Joubert, though 
not always equal to those of Robert. The plates 
which illustrate Tournefort's great work, Ele- 
ments de Botankfie, or the Latin edition Insti- 
tutiones Rei HerbaricB, were from the designs of 
Aubriet. The plates accompanying Tournefort's 
account of his voyage to the Levant, were after 
designs by Aubriet, drawn on the spot. On his 
return from the Levant, he commenced the draw- 
ings for Sebastian Yaillant's great work, published 
in folio, in 1727. In the Royal Library at Paris are 
five folio volumes of his designs. Aubriet was also 
an able botanist. 

AUBRY, Abraham, a German engraver, born 
at Oppenheim, and floirrished about 1G50. He en- 
graved eleven of the twelve plates representing the 
twelve months of the year; after Sandrart; the 
other, the month of May, was executed by F. le 
Brun. He resided chiefly at Strasburg, where he 
dealt considerably in prints. 

AUBRY, Peter, a German engraver, born, •ac- 
cording to Huber, at Oppenlieim in 1596. He was 
probably a relative of Abraham Aubry, and was 
also established at Strasburg as a print-seller. 
Heineken mentions a list of his portraits of em- 
inent persons of different countries, which are ex- 
ecuted with the graver in an indifferent style. 
Among others are the following: Oliver Crom- 
well ; Bernard, Duke of Saxe- Weimar ; Ferdinand 
Ernest, Count of "Wallenstein ; John Schmidt, 
Doctor of Theology; Michael Yirdunga, Profes- 
sor at Altdorf. 

AUBRY, John Philip, an engraver and print- 
seller, who lived at Frankfort about 1670, and was 
probably a relative of the two preceding artists. 
He executed a large number of plates for the book- 
sellers, as well as for his own collection ; consist- 
ing chiefly of portraits. They are executed in a 
very indifferent style. ^ 

AUBUISSON, MARauis d', a reputable French 
painter. He exhibited in the Royal Academy from 
1812 to 1822, a number of poetical and historical 
pictures; namely, Paris taking leave of Helen; 
Hector forcing Paris to quit Helen ; Alexander 
and Bucephalus ; and the Punishment of Hebe. 

AUDEBERT, Jean Baptiste. a French artist. 




who united in a high degree the talents of an en- 
graver to the knowledge of natural history. He 
was born at Rochefort in 1759, and at the age of 
18 went to Paris, where he studied drawing and 
painting, and became an excellent miniature paint- 
er. In 1789 he made the acquaintance of Gigot 
d'Orc}', a great lover and promoter of the science 
of natural history. D' Orcy possessed a very large 
collection, and employed Avidebert to paint copies 
of the rarest specimens. He afterwards enabled 
the latter to visit England and Holland for im- 
provement, where he made a great number of de- 
signs from nature, some of which have been used 
in Olivier's History of Insects. This occupation 
awakened in him a taste for natural history, and 
he immediately undertook some works which laid 
the foundation of his reputation. The first was 
VHistoire NatureUe des Singes, des Makis et des 
Galeopitheqnes, (Paris, 1800, folio), in which he 
shows himself an able draughtsman, engraver, and 
writer. With regard to coloring, so essential in 
natural history, he brought it to a high degree of 
perfection. Not satisfied wnth laying diiFerent col- 
ors on the same plate, he went even farther, and sub- 
stituted oil instead of water colors, as more dura- 
ble. He carried his art to still greater perfection 
by using gold in his impressions, the color of which 
he changed in difterent ways, in order to imitate 
the splendor of his models. Natural history was 
greatly benefitted by his work, the splendor of 
■which is astonishing. He also rendered much as- 
sistance in the publication of Le Vaillant's African 
Birds. His Histoire des Colibris des Oiseaux- 
Mouches, des Jacamars et des Promerops, (Paris, 
1802, folio.) is esteemed the most complete work 
of the kind extant. Scarcely was it began, when 
Audebert formed new plans, the execution of which 
would have occupied the longest life. He died in 
1800, when he had scarcely commenced VHistoire 
des Grimpereaux et des Oiseaux de Paradis. 
Both works were admirably finished by Desray, 
who was in possession of the materials, and the 
process for carrying on the work. 

VAN, a Flemish painter and engraver, born at 
Ghent in 16G3. He studiedfirst under Francis 
van Micrhop, and subsequently with John van 
Cleef. At the age of twenty-two he visited Rome, 
and studied with Carlo Maratti, under whose in- 
struction he became a reputable historical painter. 
He etched a few plates for amusement, which were 
shown to ]\Iaratti, who advised him to devote his 
energies entirely to that branch of art. He how- 
ever painted several pictures for the churches of 
Ghent, executed entirely in the style of Carlo Ma- 
ratti. among which is the great altar-piece in the 
Church of the Carthusians, representing St. Peter 
appearing to the moiiks of that order ; considered 
his best work. In the Church of St. James is a 
picture of St. Catherine refusing to worship the 
False Gods. As an engraver, his drawing shows 
a perfect knowledge of the human figure, and is 
extremely correct. Some of his plates are execu- 
ted entirely with the graver, but are considered in- 
ferior to those where he used the point. Most of 
his prints are after the pictures of Carlo IMaratti. 
The following is a list of his principal works. He 
usually marked his plates with one of these mono- 
grams : 


The Cardinal Sacripanti, 1695 ; the Cardinal Tunisi ; the 
Cardinal Ottoboni ; after J. B. GauH. The Cardinal F. 
Barberini ; after C. Maratti. The Cardinal Henry de la 
Grange d'Arquien; after S. Desportes, 1695. The Car- 
dinal Joseph d'Archinto, 1699; the Cardinal Andrea di 
Santa Crooe ; after G. Passeri. The Father Francesco 
Caraccioli, adoring the Sacrament; after A. Procaccini. 


After Carlo Maratti. — Agar in the Desert ; the Sacri- 
fice of Abraham ; Rebecca and the Servant of Abraham ; 
David, with the Head of Goliah ; the Triumph of David ; 
Bathsheba in the Bath ; the Annunciation ; the Adoration 
of the Magi, etching ; the Flight into Egypt, same, A. v. 
Westerhout, exc. ; the Repose in Egypt, octagon ; our Sa- 
■^dour on the Mount of Olives ; the Crucifixion ; the Dead 
Saviour in the Lap of the Virgin, with the Marys and St. 
John ; the Death of the Virgin, 1728 ; the Assumption of 
the Virgin ; the Death of ^t. John, etching ; the Virgin 
Mary with the Infant Jesus, distributing Chaplets to Nuns ; 
Mary Magdalene, penitent ; the Martyrdom of St. Blaise ; 
St. Anthony of Padua, kissing the Infant Jesus ; St. Philip 
of jSTeri ; Janus, first King of Italy, received amongst the 
Gods ; Romulus and Remus ; Apollo and Daphne, in two 

After P. da Cortona. — The Nativity ; six etchings, of 
the Life and Death of St. Bibiena. 

After Bernini. — Hippomenes and Atalanta, a group. 

After Gio. da Bologna. — The Rape of a Sabine Woman. 

After Giac. Brandi. — St. Facunda. 

After Ann. Caracci. — The Birth of the Virgin. 

After Domenichino. — The Scourging of St. Andrew ; St. 
Andrew conducted to his Crucifixion ; St. Andrew trans- 
ported to Heaven. 

After Marc. Antonio Franceschini. — St. Luke painting 
the Portrait of the Virgin. 

After J. B. Gauli. — The Wrath of Achilles, in three 

The Pope Innocent XII. on his Throne, at his feet Heresy 
subdued, and the Four Quarters of the World prostrate. 

AUDOUIN, Pierre, an eminent Parisian en- 
graver, born in 1768, studied under Beauvarlet, 
He engraved for the collection of the Museum, 
published at Laurent, several of the finest works 
of the Italian and Dutch masters. The following 
are his best works : 

Jupiter and Antiopo ; after Correggio. La belle Jar- 
diniere ; after Raffaelle. The two Portraits called Raffaelle 
and his Fencing-master; ascribed to Raffaelle. The En- 
tombment of Christ ; after Caravaggio. Charity ; after 
Andrea del Sarto. Melpomene, Erato, and Polyhymnia ; 
after Le Sueur. Two subjects, after Terburg ; one do., 
after Mieris ; axiii. on^ do., after Netscher. The Portrait 
of Louis XVIII. ; after Le Gros. 

AUDRAN, Charles, a Parisian engraver, born 
in 1594. He was the first of the family of Audran 
that became eminent in this art, in which it holds 
so chstinguished a rank. When very young he 
manifested a strong inclination for art. After re- 
ceiving some instruction in drawing, he went to 
Rome for improvement, where he executed some 
plates that attracted admiration, and encouraged 
him to fresh efforts. On returning to France, he 
settled at Paris, where he had great success, and 
died in 1674, aged 80. He used the graver exclu- 
sively ; his style resembles that of C. Bloemaert, 
but is more highly finished. He marked his prints 
during the earlier part of his life, with a C, until 
his brother Claude began to mark his own plates 
with the same letter, when he changed it for K., as 
the initial of Karl. The following are his principal 
works : 


Henry of Bourbon, with the Four Cardinal Virtues ; K. 
Audran, sc; oval. Andrew Laurent, Physician to Henry 
IV.; oval. Peter Legier; oval, with ornaments. An alia- 

AUDR. 51 

gorical subject, of two Portraits, with a Genius painting a 
third Portrait, inscribed on the palette, unua ex duohus ; 
signed C. Audran, fecit. 


_ After P. da Cortona. — A set of twenty prints with the 
title, for the Gallery of the Great Women, representing 
Anne of Austria, and nineteen other eminent women, with 
a subject from their life in the background. 

After Lodovico Caracci. — The Annunciation, inscribed 
Spiritus Sanctus, (^c; incorrectly attributed on the plate 
to Annibale; very fine. It is from the picture in the Ca- 
thedral at Bologna. 

After Ann. Caracci.— The Baptism of Christ, small oval, 
no name. 

After Melinl— St. Francis de Paola; marked Car^ Au- 
dran, sc. 

After theYounger Palma.—The Stoning of Stephen. 

After Stella.— The Conception of the Virgin Mary, in- 
scril>ed amat hanc, (fc; The Nativity, with David writing 
on a Tablet ; The Holy Family, with St. Catherine and 
Angels, fine. 

After Titian. — The Virgin and infant Jesus, St. John 
presenting an Apple, and St. Catherine kneeling ; very fine. 

After G. L. Valesie. — The Virgin Mary and infant Je- 
sus treading on the Serpent. 

After C. Vignon. — A Thesis, representing Religion as 
the true knowledge, inscribed Non judicamus, d^c. 

After Vouet. — St. Francis in ecstacy before the Sacra- 
ment, inscribed Tergeminus interris ; Frontispiece for a 
Book, a Genius holding the Portrait of Cardinal Mazarin, 
inscribed Johannes Francisci, <^c. 

After Domenichino. — The Assumption of the Virgin; 
Tery fine. 

AUDRAN", Claude, a French engraver, born at 
Lyons in 1639. He was the second son of Claude, 
the brother of Charles Audran, and studied draw- 
ing under his uncle Charles at Paris, but after- 
wards went to Rome. On his return to Paris he 
was engaged bj Le Brun, whose style he imitated. 
He painted in fresco under the direction of that 
master, the chapel of Colbert's Chateau de Sceaux ; 
the gallery of the Tuilleries ; the grand staircase 
at Versailles, and many other works. He also as- 
sisted Le Brun in his Battle of Alexander at the 
Passage of the Granicus, and the Battle of Arbela. 
His drawing was correct, and he had great facility 
of execution. He was appointed Professor of the 
Academy of Painting, and retained this situation 
with much credit till his death, which occurred at 
Paris in 1684. 

AUDRAN, Germain, a French engraver, born 
at Lyons in 1631. He was the brother of Charles 
Audran, and studied under that master. His 
merit was considerable, though inferior to that 
of iiome others of his family. He engraved sev- 
eral plates, consisting of portraits, and a variety 
of ornaments, ceilings, vases, &c., among which are 
the following: 

The portraits of Charles Emanuel II., and of Francis of 
Orleans, in an oval ; after Caravaglia. The portrait of 
Oardmal de Kichelieu, in an oval. The portrait of The- 
ophilus Reynaud ; Ger. Audran, sc. 1663. Six sheets of 
Ceihugs; after George Charmeton. Six ornaments of 
Vases ; after N. Robert. A Ijpok of Friezes ; after La 
J<age A book of Views in Italy ; after Fancus. Six 
Lanuseapes ; after Gaspar Poussin. Thirty-one designs 
of Fouutam.?, I riezes, Ac. ; after Le Brun. 

AUDRAN, Gerard, a very celebrated French 
engraver, the son of Claude, and the nephew of 
Charles Audran, was born at Lyons m 1640. He 
studied the elements of the art under his father 
but afterwards went to Paris and remained sev- 
eral years under the tuition of his uncle. He af- 
terM-ards vi.sited Rome for improvement and is 
said to have studied under Carlo Maratti. ' He re- 
sided in that city three years, and executed a por- 


trait of Clement IX., and some other works, which 
gained him so much reputation that the great Col- 
bert, himself a liberal patron of the arts, invited Aud- 
ran to return to Paris. Soon after his arrival he 
was appointed engraver to the king, with apart- 
ments in the Gobelins and a considerable pension. 
He now applied himself with great assiduity, and 
formed an intimate connection with the celebrated 
pamter Charles Le Brun. whose principal works 
are the subjects of some of liis finest plates, and 
it may be said that the pictures of that great mas- 
ter have been embeUished by the admirable graver 
of Gerard Audran. He may be said to have car- 
ried the art to its highest perfection, especially in 
his large historical plates. The Battles of Alex- 
ander will ever be regarded as a lasting monument 
of the fame of both artists. He died in 1703, aged 
6o. He executed a large number of plates, of 
which the following are the principal : 

portraits and subjects from his own designs. 

Pope Clement IX., of the familv of Rospigliosi ; Andrea 
Argolus, S Marci Eques ; Samuel de Sorbiere, engraved at 
Ivome m 1667. Henry Amaud, Bishop of Angers ; Le Be- 
noit Langeois, capuchin; Fras. du Quesnoy, called Fia- 
nimgo, sculptor; St. Paul preaching at Athens, vignette, 
inscribed Aon emin, 4-c.; Wisdom and Abundance, above 
two Genu with a Banner, inscribed /.owis le Grand. Front- 
ispiece, 1680. 

subjects from various ITALIAN MASTERS. 

4/i;er /?q/ae//e.— Thirteen Hieroglyphical Figures, in 
the V atican. Fifteen plates, called emblems, or Cupid and 
Psyche, m a loggia in the Famese Garden, derUcated to 
Charles Le Brun. Moses and the Bumino- Bush St 
Paul and Barnabas at Lystra. St. Paul beaten by De- 
mons; after a draicing hy Ruhem, and not after Rafa- 
elle,as expressed on the plate ; it is St. Ignatius and not 
fct. Paul. Jesus Christ giving the Keys to St. Peter in pres- 
ence of the Apostles; a fine etching; R. V., inv G An 
sc.; very scarce. The Death of Ananias. The Descent of 
*'^'^J*y?<^ens in the Port of Ostia ;/rom a drawing by 
Kafaelle; etching without his name. The Clemency of 
fecipio; after a drawing ; an etching, without his name. 

After Domenichino.— Mne&s saving his Father Anchi- 
ses. The Mystery of the Rosary. The Martyrdom of St. 
Agnes. The Temptation of St. Jerome. Four sheets, of 
the four Angels in the Church of St. Carlo de Catenari, 
representing Justice, Temperance, Prudence and Fortitude, 
Rome, 1675. 

_ After P. da Cortona.— Tvio Friezes, St. Paul preach- 
ing, and the Descent of the Holy Ghost, on one jilate. Six- 
teen prints, of the History of ^neas, in the PamphiU Gal- 
lery. Three plates, of the Triumph of David, in the Sac- 
chetti Palace. 

After Ann. Caracci.— The Death of St. Francis. The 
Martyrdom of St. Sebastian. The Temptation of St. An- 
thony. The Discovery of Achilles disguised. 

After Guercino.— St. Hyacmth ; an etching. 

After Guido.— The Magdalene, half-length. 

After Lanfranco.—St. Peter walking on°the Sea. 

After a Drawing of Palma.— The Nativity, a small 

After Giulio Romano. Silenns Drinkino- : an etc-ii:3='. 
The Rape of Dejanira. 

After Titian. — Ganymede; an octagon. 


After N. Poussin.— Moses taken out of the River Nile; 
engraved by Benoit and John Audran, and retouched by 
Gerard. St. John baptizing the Pharisees in the Jordan ; 
two sheets, very fine. The Woman taken in Adultery; 
fine. St. Francis, a Roman Saint, kneeling before the Vir- 
gin Mary ; copied from a print by P. del Po. The Flight 
of Pyrrhus ; in two sheets, fine. Coriolanus appeased by 
his Family; similar to the preceding. Furius Camillus 
delivering up the Schoolmaster to his Pupils ; large plate. 
Rinaldo and Armida ; engraved by Gerard, assisted by 
John and Benoit Audran. Daphne changed into a Laurel. 
Narcissus. The Empire of Flora. The Plague at Rome. 
Time discovering Truth ; a ceiling. 

After Le Brun. — Mosej and the Burning Bush. The 
Descent of the Holy Ghost. The Stoning of Stephen. Four 




sheets, of the Triumphal Entry of Constantine into Rome. 
Six sheets, of the Ceiling of the Chapel de Saulx ; very fine. 
Four sheets, of the Pavilion of Saulx, called the Pavilion 
of Aurora ; dedicated to Louis XIV. Thirteen large sheets, 
making together the four printf? of the Battles, &c., of Alex- 
ander : 1. The Passage of the Granicus. 2. The Defeat 
of Darius at Arhela. ^i. Porus brought to Alexander after 
Lis Defeat. 4. The Triumphal Entry of Alexander into 
Babjdon. To these are added, Alexander entering the tent 
pf Darius; engraved by Gerard Eddinck, and which will 
be noticed under his name. The best impressions of these 
superb prints, are those marked with the name of Goyton, 
the printer. . x, c ^ • 

Aflcr P. flJignard.—Tlw Plague ; m the first impres- 
sioas of this plate, the figure in the clouds is Juno with a 
Peacock ; in the latter, the figure is changed to the Exter- 
minating Ano-el. Christ bearing his Cross. Three plates, 
of the ceiling of the lesser Gallery at Versailles ; Apollo and 
the JNIuses, Prudence aud Vigilance. Six plates of the ceil- 
ing of the Val de Grace, representing the Felicity of the 

Blessed. „^ ^ m. 

After Le Sueur.— The Martyrdom of St. Laurence. The 
Martyrdom of St. Gervaise and St. Protais. The Aurora ; 
inscribed Lucerna pedibus. 

After L. Testellin.— Time and Truth dispersing the 
Clouds of Ignorance. 

After F. Ferciier.— Pharoah's Host destroyed m the Red 
Sea. Flight into Egypt. 

After ^oro-oe-no/ie.— Battle of the Saracens. Takmg 
of the Town of Damieta. 

After Ant. Coijpel.— The Judgment of Solomon. 

After La Fage.—The Deluge. The Passage of the 
Red Sea. 

After the Marble by Girardon.— The Rape of Proser- 

AUDRAN, Benoit. a French engraver, born at 
Lyons in 1661. He was the second son of Ger- 
main A., from whom he at first received instruc- 
tion. He subsequently studied under his uncle, 
the celebrated Gerard A., and though he never 
equalled that master, yet his admirable portraits 
and historical subjects have justly acquired for 
him great reputation. His drawing is very cor- 
rect, his heads have a fine expression, and his style, 
like that of Gerard, is clear and bold. He was a 
member of the Academy of Painting, and was ap- 
pointed engraver to the king, with a pension. He 
died in 1721, aged 60. The following are his prin- 
cipal works : 


Benoit Audran; Joseph Clement, Elector of Cologne; 
Maximilian Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria ; after J. Vivieji. 
The Reverend Louis de Thomas de la Valette ; B. Au- 
dran, fecit, ad vivuvi. The Reverend Father Renaud ; 
after Bonnet. Charles le Goux, Archbishop of Narbonne ; 
after B. de Boulogne. J. B. Colbert ; after C le Fevre ; 
oval. Henry de Beringhen ; Nauteuil, pin.; 1663; B. 
Audran, sc. ; 1710. Samuel Frisching, General of the 
Swiss; J. Huber, pin. ; Ben. Audran, sc. 1713. J. F. de 
Willading; 1718; J. Huber, pin.; B. Audran, sc. Eques- 
trian stat'ue of Lous XIV. ; after Desjardins; by B. and 
J. Audran. 


The Baptism of Jesus Christ ; after Albano. The Rape 
of Dejanira ; after Guido. David with the Head of Go- 
liah ; after a picture in the collection of the King of Franco, 
improperly attributed to Michael Angela Buonarotti, but 
more probably the work of Daniello da VoUerra ; two 
plates, engraved by B. and J. Audran, in 1716, 1717. A 
Bohemian, or Gipsey, telling Fortunes ; after M. Angela 
da Caravaggio. Lot Wd his Daughters, for Crozat Col- 
lection ; a subject called Disgust; after P. Veronese. Mo- 
ses defending the D.aughters of Jethro, engraved by John, 
and retouched by Benoit Audran ; the Espousals of Moses 
and Sephora ; Moses and the Brazen Serpent ; the Purifi- 
cation; the Elevation of the Cross, 1706; the Descent from 
the Cross; an allegorical subject, of Holland accepting 
Peace ; after Le Brun. Zephyrus and Flora ; after Ant. 
Coxjpel. The Baptism of Christ ; the Pleasures ol the Gar- 

den, two friezes; after Mignard; engraved by BenoU 
and John Audran. The Saviour, with Martha and Mary f 
St. Paul preaching at Ephesus ; Alexander drinking the 
Cup which his Physician presents him ; after Le Sueur. 
Two fine prints for the Luxemlnirg Gallery, representing^ 
the Accouchment of Mary of Medieis ; after Rubens. Six 
plates, of the Twelve Months in the Year ; after Claude 

AUDRAN, Jean, a French engraver, born at 
Lyons in 1667. He was the brother of Benoit, 
and the third son of Germain Audran. He learned 
the elements of the art from his father, but was 
subsequently placed under the care of his uncle, 
the famous Gerard Audran. Before he was twenty 
years old he displayed unusual ability, and be- 
came a very distinguished engraver. In 1707 he 
was appointed engraver to the king, with apart- 
ments in the Gobelins. Great talent is evident 
in all his M^orks ; and though he did not attain 
the perfection of Gerard Audran, his claim to ex- 
cellence is very great. This laborious artist prac- 
tised the art until upwards of eighty years of age, 
and died in 1756. The f^4bwing are his chief 
works : if 


Louis XV., full length ; after Gobert. Portrait of a 
Prince, with his Page, full length ; Clement Augustus, 
Prince of Bavaria ; De la Motte Fenelon, Archbishop of 
Cambray ; after Vivian. J. B. Colbert, Marquis of Tor- 
cey ; the Duke d' Antin, bust, oval ; the Abbe Victor Maria 
d'Estrees, oval; after Lurgilliere. The Cardinal Peter 
Ottobani ; after Trevisani. Peter Gillet; after Tortebat. 
Francis Robert Secousse, sitting ; after Rigaud. Peter 
Paul Rubens; after Vandyck; for the Luxemberg Gal- 
lery. Noel Coypel, Painter to the King ; his piece of re- 
ception at the Academy, 1708. Anthony Coyzevox, Sculp- 
tor to the King, 1708 ; the same ; after Rigaud. 


Our Saviour in the Bark, preaching; after Raffaelle. 
The infant Saviour regarding the Cross presented by An- 
gels ; after Albano. The Nativity ; after P. da Cortona; 
oval. The Good Samaritan ; after Aim. Caracci ; arched. 
St. John administering <ihe Sacrament to the Virgin ; after 
Lodmico Carac i.' Our Saviour on the Mount of Olives ; 
after Domenich nd'.'""St. Andrew led to Crucifixion; after 
Guido. The Blartyirdom of St. Peter; after Guido; on 
the plate improperly called after Domenichino. St. Paul 
preachmg at Athens ; after Giro Ferri ; a small frieze. 
Galatea; after Carlo Maratti ; fine; for Crozat Collec- 
tion. The Miracle of the Loaves ; after Claude Audran. 
Six plates, copies of the largo Battles of Alexander ; by G. 
Audran. St. Augustine ; after P. de Champagne. Sim- 
eon holding the. infant Jesus ; after M. Corntille. Moses 
saved from the Nile ; Jacob and Laban ; Athalia seeing 
Joas on the Throne ; the Resurrection ; Cupid and Pysehe ; 
after Ant. Coypel. Our Saviour curing the Sick ; Christ 
bearing his Cross ; after Ant. Dieu. The Elevation of the 
Cross ; the Crucifixion ; after Vandyck. The French Par- 
nasus; after the bronze ^by Gamier. The Miraculous 
Draught of Fishes; the Resurrection of Lazarus ; the Queen . 
Blanche inspired with the Holy Spirit; after 
Acis and Galatea; after F. Marot. Venus punishing 
Pysehe ; Pysehe consoled by Cupid ; after J. M. Nattier. 
The dead Christ, with the Marys, St. John, and Nicode- 
mus ; the Rape of the S^bines ; after Poussin, his most 
esteemed print. St. Scholastica at the point of Death ; a.fter 
J. Rcstout. Andromace entreating for her Son ; after L. 
Silvestre. Henry IV. deliberating on his marriage ; Henry 
IV. preparing for the German War; the Coronation of the 
Queen, very fine. 

AUDRAN, Louis, a French engraver, the young- 
est aen of Germain Audran, born at Lyons in 
1670. studied under his uncle, Gerard A. He 
executed some copies of the large plates engraved 
by his relatives ; and a set of seven middle-sized 
plates of the Seven Acts of Mercy; after Borirdon. 
He did not engrave many prints, but assisted his 




brothers in forwarding theirs. He died at Paris | 
in 1712, aged 42, j 

AUDUBON, John J. The author does not 
propose to write a biography of this extraordinary 
man, for all the space the plan of this work allows j 
will be required to give even a brief sketch of his 
merits and works. He has himself written his 
autobiography, which will soon be published, un- 
der the supervision of his accomplished sons, which 
will not only contain the incidents of his remark- 
able life, but a fund of the most interesting and in- 
structive information. He has been called abroad 
the '-great American Ornithologist," but in this 
work he should be spoken of as a great artist, as 
well as a great naturalist. Most ornithologists 
and naturalists derive their information from cab- 
inets, as well as from a study of nature, and they 
generally employ artists to depict the subjects 
of their researches. Therefore many of their works 
have the appearance of nature dead ; whereas Au- 
dubon studied and depict»d nature living. With 
his shot gun. faithfal dog, and tin box, filled with 
painting materials, he has spent the greater share 
of his long life in exploring almost every part of 
North America in search of his favorite objects, 
and when he procured a new specimen, he imme- 
diately painted it to tlie life, with the scenery of 
its native haunts, and in the pursuit of its natural 
instincts. It is this that gives such an originality, 
truth, and value to his works. The drawings of 
his animals have not less merit than those of his 
more favorite birds. It is astonishing to contem- 
plate what his genius, enthusiasm, and indomitable 
energy of character has accomplished. His pub- 
lished works form but a small part of his finished 
drawings, for he has left behind him stacks of ex- 
quisite pictures of insects, reptiles, plants, and 
ilowers — every thing, in short, peculiar to the 
Continent of America in animated and beautiful 

Highly gifted by nature, and blessed with an iron 
constitution, Audubon possessed an for 
his fevorite pursuits that knew no bounds, that 
stopped at no diificulties or dangers, and that 
quailed before no misfortunes. He first saw the 
Bird of Washington on the borders of the great 
Lakes, but failing to secure it, its image haunted 
his imagination, and it was the object of his pur- 
suit for ten long years, and when he got it on the 
coast of Labrador, his triumph of joy knew no 
bounds. When two Norway rats had gnawed a 
hole into a chest containing his finished draw- 
ings — the labor of many years, which they totally 
destroyed ; undismayed, like Newton under a like 
misfortune, he went boldly forth and supplied their 
loss at an expense of thi-ec years time and labor. 
When he had resolved upon the gigantic enterprise 
of publishing his Birds of America, he made inef- 
fectual attempts to do this, both in New York and 
Philadelphia without meeting with any sympathy 
or encouragement. Your money makers look upon 
such men as wild enthusiasts. Then it was that 
he boldly set sail for Europe, where his great 
merits immediately won him the admiration, sympa- 
thy, and encouragement of the learned and the good ; 
and during a period of fourteen years, he toiled in 
erecting that glorious monument of his genius, 
which \n\\ prove more lasting than emku-ing mar- 
ble^the Birds of America. It is astonishing to con- 
template what he has accomplished. His Birds of 
America, in four volumes, thii-ty by forty inches, 

contain four hundred and thirty-five copper plates, 
comprising more than a thousand figures of birds, 
all drawn of the size of life, in their natural atti- 
tudes and circumstances, and colored to life, with 
five royal octavo volumes of accompanying Orni- 
thological Biography. The Birds of America in 
seven royal octavo volumes. The Quadrupeds 
of America, in three volumes, twenty-eight by 
thirty-two inches, contain one hundred and fifty 
plates — a work equal in point of execution and 
value to his great work on the Birds, and a mon- 
ument scarcely less glorious. The Quadrupeds of 
America in seven royal octavo volumes, now in 
process of publication. 

" The hearts of all," says Prof. John Wilson, 
f warmed towards Audubon, who was capable of 
conceiving the difficulties, dangers, and sacrifices 
that must have been encountered, endured, and 
overcome, Ijcfore genius could have embodied these, 
the glory of its innumerable triumphs." Speak- 
ing of the exhibition of his drawings in Edin- 
burgh, he says, " The spectator instantly imag- 
ined himself in the forest. The birds were all 
there, of the size of life, from the wren and the 
humming-bird to the wild turkey, and the Bird of 
Washington. But what signifies the mere size 1 
The colors were all of life too, bright as when borne 
in beauty, through the woods. There too, were 
the attitudes and postures, infinite as they are as- 
sumed by the restless creatures, in motion or rest, 
in their glee and in their gambols, their loves and 
their wars, singing or caressing, or brooding or 
preying, or tearing one another to pieces. The 
trees on which they sat or sported, all true to 
nature, in bole, branch, sprig and leaf, the flower, 
shrub and the ground flowers, the weeds and the 
very grass, all American — as were the atmosphere 
and the skies. It was a wild and poetic vision of 
the heart of the New World, inhabited as yet al- 
most wholly by the lovely or noble creatures that 
' own not man's dominion.' It was indeed a rich 
and magnificent sight, such as we would not for a 
diadem have lost." 

Thus encouraged, Audubon went boldly forward 
with his vast undertaking, which would take him 
fourteen years to complete, and when the first 
drawings were put into the hands of the engraver, 
he had not a single subscriber. After three years 
spent in Europe in forwarding his work, he re- 
turned to his own country, leaving it in process of 
execution at Edinburgh. In 1830 the first volume 
of one hundred plates was issued. It was hailed 
with universal applause. Royal names headed his 
subscription list, which, at $1000 each, reached the 
number of one hundred and seventy-six, of which 
eighty were Americans. His name was enrolled 
among the members of the learned societies of 
Great Britain and the Continent, as well as in 
America — the world claimed him as one of her 
great men. 

In the autumn of 1831, Audubon visited Wash- 
ington, where he received from Government, let- 
lers of protection and assistance, to be used at all 
the national ports, revenue and naval stations. 
The year following, he tracked the forests of 
Maine, and explored the shores of the British 
Provinces, returning with rich spoils in the un- 
tumn to spend the winter at Charleston, in the 
preparation of his drawings and descriptions. In 
1834, he published the second volume. In 1835, 
he again went to Europe and spent that j-ear and 




the following till September, in London and Edin- 
burgh, in writing the biographies of the second and 
third volumes, and in forwarding his work, the 
third volume of which made its appearance in 1837. 
In September 1830, he returned to the United States, 
and spent near three years in exploring expeditions 
through the South, to Florida, and Texas, in ves- 
sels placed at his disposal by the Government. In 
1838 he published the forth volume of the plates 
and the fifth of descriptions, which completed the 

In 1839, Audubon commenced in this country, 
the republication of his smaller work of the Birds 
of America, in seven royal octavo volumes, which 
were issued during the succeeding five years. Be- 
fore the expiration of this period, however, he had 
commenced the preparation of his Quadrupeds of 
America, which, with the assistance of his talent- 
ed sons, has recently been completed, in three large 
volumes. In the mean time, though upwards of 
sixty years of age, he projected an expedition to 
the Rocky Mountains, with all the enthusiasm of 
his youth. 

The concluding years of the life of this extraor- 
dinary man were passed on his beautiful estate of 
Minniesland, on the banks of the Hudson, some 
eight miles from New York, where he expired on 
the 25th of January, 1851, at the age of 7(5 years. 
"We conclude this article with the following terse, 
but eloquent sketch from the pen of C. Edward 
Lester, Esq. : 

"When a copy of 'The Birds of America' was 
received by the Royal Academy of Sciences at Pa- 
ris, Baron Cuvier, to whom it was referred, said 
in his report: 'It can only be described by call- 
ing it the most magnificent monument that Art 
has raised to Ornithology.' 

"Audubon was born of French parents, near New 
Orleans, in Louisiana. His father, an enthusiast 
for liberty, was with Washington at Valley Forge ; 
and the Audubon family still possess the portraits 
of both, painted in the camp ; that of Washington 
being the first ever taken of him. At a very early 
age Audubon was sent to France, and educated in 
Art and Science, under the best masters, among 
whom was David. The love for birds, which has 
been the passion of his life, manifested itself in in- 
fancy ; and when he returned from France, he be- 
took himself to his native woods, and began a col- 
lection of drawings, which made the germ of ' The 
Birds of America.' Ilis father gave him a planta- 
tion on the rich banks of the Schuylkill ; and lux- 
ury and fortune offered their blandishments, to 
wean him from his love of adventure. But his 
heart was in the forests ; and in 1810, with a young 
wife, an infiint son, and his unfailing rifle, he em- 
barked in an open skiff, on the Ohio, to find a new 
home. The mellow lights and shadows of our In- 
dian Summer had fallen along the shores of that 
queen of rivers. At long intervals, the axe o^ the 
early settler was beginnhig to disturb the solemn 
reign of nature. lie settled in Kentucky ; and in 
the central region of that vast valley through which 
the Mississippi rolls on to the sea, he pursued his 
studies and roamings. We can hardly give an 
idea in these few words of the forest and prairie- 
life that he led. He has himself found place to do 
it but imperfectly, in his five ponderous volumes 
of Ornithological Biography. He has spent more 
years in the forests than most men live. Among 
the great Lakes of the North, he sees beyond the 

reach of his rifle, a strange gigantic bird sweeping 
over the waters. He hunts for that bird ten years, 
and finds it again three thousand miles from the 
spot where he saw it first. Meanwhile he has 
been chilled with extreme frosts, and burned with 
perpetual heats. He has slept many nights across 
branches of trees, waked by panther screams ; and 
many nights he has passed in canebrakes where 
he did not dare to sleep. He has seen the knife of 
the savage vnisheathcd for him ; stepped on vcn- 
omed serpents ; started the cougar from his secret 
lair ; swam swollen streams, with his gun, anmni- 
tion, drawings and journals lashed on his head: 
on equatorial rivers, alligators stared at him as he 
landed ; in polar regions, the water tmnied to ice 
as it fell from his benumbed limbs when he struck 
the bank : his tongue has parched with thirst on 
deserts, and he has laid himself down famishing, 
to wait, like Elijah, till he was fed by the birds of 
heaven. This was his history during the life of a 
generation. And yet, through this long pilgrimage 
of peril and suffering, which Ciesar would not have 
borne, to have heard the tramp of his legions in 
three quarters of the globe, his courage never failed, 
his love for nature never cooled ; Ins reverence for 
God, whose illimitable universe he was exploring, 
deepened the longer he gazed. Nor did he lose a 
throb of human feeling for civilized men, from 
whose habitations he had exiled himself. 

"And yet this man had nobler pleasures, as well 
as nobler hardships, than other men. He had gone 
with one of his sons — both of whom from bojdiood 
have been his forest companions and scholars — and 
with other young men of Boston, since distinguish- 
ed, on a voyage to Labrador for new birds. The 
expense would have buit a beautiful villa. A 
pleasant morning, they scared from her nest the 
Black Poll Warbler. 'The enormous expense of 
my voyage,' he says, 'was refunded in the sight.' 
A prouder triumph was reserved for the day when 
he at last captured the Washington Sea Eagle. 
'Not even Herschel,' he writes, 'when he dis- 
covered the planet Avhich bears his name, could 
have experienced more rapturous feelings. As the 
New World gave me birth and liberty, the Great 
Man who ensured its independence is next my 
heart'; and therefore he called the noblest of^ 
eagles after the noblest of men. Other ornitholo- 
gists had painted their birds after they were stuf- 
fed; Audubon made accurate drawings of his, iai 
the forest, before the plumage had lost its bril- 
liancy, or the muscles their natural expression, i 
He has exhibited in perfection the highest attri- 
butes of zoological painting never before attempted. 
He has depicted the passions and feelings of birds 
as tenderly and truthfully, as Claude Lorraine 
painted trees, flowers and skies. And so, after 
many years, his portfolio was enriched with a 
thousand finished drawings. His collection was 
entirely destroyed ! ' The burning heat,' says he, 
' which rushed through my brain when I saw my 
loss, was so great, that I slept not for several nights, 
and my days were oblivion. But I took up my 
gun, note-book and pencils, and went forth to the 
woods as gaily as if nothing had happened. I could 
make better drawings than before, and in three 
years my portfolio was filled.' 

" Hitherto he had wandered, studied and painted, 
only to gratify his love of nature. In 1824, Lu- 
cien Bonaparte proposed to buy his drawings, but 
he resolved to publish them himself. It could not 





be done in America, and he went to England, where 
Rosco received him with open arms. Men of rank 
and taste extended hospitality to the wondrous 
woodsman. His drawings were exhibited in Ed- 
inburgh. He passed the severest scrutiny of art 
and learning, and stood by the side of Herschel, 
Cuvier, and Humboldt, as a father of Science, and 
in Art, a master without a rival. With Scott, 
Brewster, Wilson, and Jeffrey, for companions, he 
began the publication of his magnificent work. It 
was completed in London, in fourteen years ; and 
his fame was established. One hundred and sev- 
enty-five subscribers at $1000 each, most of them 
obtained bj^ himself in person, and eightj^ of whom 
were his own countrymen, remunerated his vast 
undertaking. The learned societies of Europe 
proffered him their honors ; but he received with 
more pride than all, the crown of the Royal Soci- 
ety of London. He published a synopsis of his 
great work at Edinburgh: and finally, in 1839, 
weary with years and covered with honors, he re- 
turned home bringing with him all his original 
drawings. He republished the work in New York, 
in royal 8 vo., and with Dr. Bachman, the eminent 
zoologist, began ' The Quadrupeds of North Am- 
erica,' which was completed in 1849, with applause 
and success. In speaking of these works, particu- 
larly the last, mention should be made of his 
two sons, whose accomplishments in Art and 
Science have been so useful to their father. 

" The ornithologist is now reposing on a world- 
wide reputation, and few men are surer of lasting 
fame. It is not in the keeping of History alone. 
From every deep grove, the Birds of America will 
sing his name. The wren will pipe it on our win- 
dows ; the oriole carol it from the meadow grass ; 
the turtle dove roll it through the secret forests ; 
the man3r-voiced mocking-bird pour it along the 
evening air ; and the Bird of Washington, from his 
craggy home far up the Rocky Mountains, will 
scream it to the tempests and the stars." 

AUERBACH, Johann Gottfried, a German 
portrait painter, born at Miilhausen, in Saxony, in 
1697. He settled at Vienna, where he attained the 
rank of court painter. There are two pictures by 
him in the Gallery of the Belvidere, at Vienna — a 
full-length portrait of the Emperor Charles VI., as 
Knight of the Golden Fleece, and a large equestrian 
portrait of Prince Eugene of Savoy, in the room 
containing the pictures of his battles by Parrocel. 
Auerbach painted also the heads of Charles VI. 
and Count Althan, in Solimena's picture of that 
Emperor receiving from the Count the inventory 
of the Gallery. Several of his portraits have been 
engraved. He died at Vienna in 1753, aged 56; 
leaving a son, Johann Karl Auerbach, who was 
also a portrait painter. 

^ AUGUSTIN. Jean Baptiste jAcauES, a dis- 
ting-uished French miniature painter in oil and 
enamel, was born at St. Diez (Vosges) in 1759. 
In 1781 he established himself at Paris, where, 
from 1798 until his death in 1832, he exhibited a 
long succession of portraits, which, according to 
Gabet, are highly finished, correctly drawn, and 
fincl y colored. Among them are portraits of many 
of the most distinguished individuals of that event- 
ful period. In 1800 and 1824, he obtained medals 
of the first class for the pictures he exhibited ; in 
1819 he was appointed principal miniature painter 
to Louis XVIII. ; and in 1821 he was made a Chev- 

alier of the Legion of Honor. Augustin established 
and taught for a long time a school of drawing and 
painting, at which many of the best miniature 
painters of the present day were educated. 

AUGUSTINE, Jan, a Dutch painter, born at 
Groningen in 1725. He painted flower-pieces of 
considerable merit, and his portraits were consid- 
ered astonishing likenesses. He died at Haerlem 
in 1773. 

AULIZECK, or AULICZECK, Dominik, a Ger- 
man sculptor ; born at Policzka, in Bohemia, in 
1734, where he learned the elements of the art, 
but afterwards went to Vienna and studied for 
some time with an obscure sculptor of that city. 
He subsequently visited Paris and London, and 
finally Rome, where he studied some time with the 
architect Gaetano Chiaveri, and, according to Na- 
gler, became a reputable sculptor. He gained the 
prize in the Academy of St. Luke for the best 
model, and was made a Cavalier of the Golden 
Spur by Clement XIII. Auhzeck made several 
good statues while at Rome. Returning to Ger- 
many he was made superintendent of the porcelain 
manufactury at Nuremberg, and sculptor to the 
Court. He was connected with this establshment 
many years, until 1796, during which time it stead- 
ily increased in prosperity, and much of its present 
success is due to his able management. There are 
in the Royal Gardens of Nuremberg four good stat- 
ues, larger than life, by Aulizeck, of Jupiter, Juno, 
Pluto, and Proserpine. He died at Munich, accord- 
ing to Nagler, in 1807. 

AURIA, Giovanni Domenico d', a distinguished 
Neapolitan sculptor of the sixteenth century; 
studied under Giovanni da Nola ; executed many 
works for the churches and city of Naples, which 
are still extant ; also some works for Palermo and 
other Italian cities. His master-piece is the Fon- 
tana Medina, in the Place of the Oastelnuovo at 
Naples ; for which excellent work he received, ac- 
cording to Domini ci, a pension from the King. 
D'Aiu-ia died in 1585. 

AUROUX, Nicholas, a French engraver, who 
flourished about 1650. Heineken mentions four 
portraits by him, and a print of the Virgin holding 
the Infant, with St. John Idssing his Foot, inscribed 
Sancta Mater, published at Lyons. 

AUSTIN, William, a London engraver of little 
note, born about 1740, studied under Geo. Bick- 
ham, and executed several landscapes, after Fancier 
Neer, Zucclmrelli, and Ruysdael ; also a set of 
ten plates of Views of Ancient Rome, and the 
Ruins of Palmyra. 

AUSTRIA, Don Juan d', the son of Philip IV., 
and brother of Charles II., of Spain, was an ama- 
teur painter, but practised the art with the ardor 
of a professor. He studied under Eugenio de las 
Cuevas. The celebrated Carreiio, seeing a paint- 
ing by Don Juan, said v/ithout flattery, "if he had 
not been born a prince, he might, with his talents, 
have lived like one." 

AUVRAY, Felix, a Parisian historical painter; 
born in 1800; died in 1833 ; studied under Baron 
le Gros, and, according to Gabet, was one of his 
most eminent scholars. That author mentions the 
following works by him : St. Louis, prisoner ; 
Gauticr de Chattillon defending St. Louis against 
the Saracens ; the Spartan Deserter ; and St. Paul 




at Athens. The Art-Union of Douai decreed Aii- 
vray a gold JMedal of honor, but it arrived at his 
residence during the ceremony of his funerah 

AUWERA, J. G. W. Von, a sculptor of the 
last century, mentioned by Jack as an Italian of 
noble birth. He was educated at Rome, but set- 
tled at Wiirzburg, in Bavaria, where he was ap- 
pointed court sculptor, and executed several mon- 
umental works for the cathedrals of Mainz, Bam- 
berg, and Wiirzburg, 

AUZON, Madame, a distinguished Parisian 
paintress of portraits and familiar subjects, born 
in 1775, and studied under Regnault. Some of 
her most interesting pictures were purchased by 
the French Government, the Duchess de Berri, 
and the Society of Friends to the Arts. Several 
of them have been engraved. 

AVANZI, Giuseppe, an Italian painter, was 
born at Ferrara in 1655, and studied under Cos- 
tanzo Cattanio. Guarini mentions four of his 
pictures, representing subjects from the life of S. 
Gaetano, in the Church of the Madonna della Pieta, 
at Ferrara ; also the Marriage of St. Catherine, in 
the Church of S. Domenico, which is considered 
his lx?st work. He executed many pictures, few 
of which possess merit. He died in 1718. 

AVANZI, Jacopo, da Bologna, a Bolognese 
painter, who flourished about 1370, and studied 
under Franco da Bologna. Malvasia mentions 
several of his works in the Chiesa di Mezzaratta in 
that city, and says they were such admirable pro- 
ductions as to have received the praises of Michael 
Angelo and the Caracci. There is, however, much 
obscurity and conjecture in the various accounts 
of this painter. 

AVANZINO. , an Italian painter, born in 

1552 at Citta di Castello ; studied under Cig- 
nani, and assisted him in many of his works. He 
painted likewise numerous original frescos in vari- 
ous Roman churches, the principal of which are 
enumerated by Baglioni. 

AVEEN, Adrian, a Dutch engraver. He was 
born at Amsterdam, and practised the art about 
1700. He engraved a number of plates, among 
which are several views of the country-seats in 
Holland, executed in a neat but formal style. 

AVED, JAcauES Andre Joseph, a distin- 
guished French portrait painter ; born at Douai in 
1702 ; studied first under Bernard Picart, the cel- 
ebrated engraver, then living at Amsterdam. Aved 
however, resolved to be a painter, and having vis- 
ited the principal cities of Holland and Flanders, he 
arrived at Paris in 1721, and entered the school of 
the eminent La Belle ; where he became intimate 
with Vanloo, Boucher, and several other young 
painters, who afterwards distinguished themselves. 
In 1734, Aved was elected a Royal Academician ; 
and about the same time was chosen by the Turk- 
ish Ambassador, Mehemet-Efiendi, to paint his 
portrait, which he intended to present to Louis 
XIV. From the success of this work, he was 
shortly after appointed painter to the King. The 
pictm-e was greatly admired, and was placed in the 
Chateau de Choisy. Aved is said to have suc- 
ceeded perfectly in representing tlic character of his 
sitters, and his portraits, with their draperies and 
accessories, were finis|pd carefully and beautifully, 
lie died at Paris in 1/66. 

AVELINE, Antoine, a Parisian designer and 
engraver, born in 1662. He engraved a number 
of landscapes, and views of the palaces and chateaux 
of France and other parts of Europe, executed in a 
neat and agreeable style, of which the following 
are worthy of notice : 

Six landscapes, numbered, marked Aveline in : it fee. 
Twelve landscapes not numbered, same mark. Sixteen 
Views of Versailles. Twelve Views of the Royal Palaces 
and Chateaux near Paris. Twenty Views of Cities and Porta 
in different parts of Europe. Twelve Views of the public 
Edifices in Paris. 

AVELINE, Pierre, a Parisian designer and 
engraver, born in 1710 and studied under John 
Baptist Poilly. Ilis drawing, though tolerably 
correct, is stilt' and formal, lie gained, however, 
considerable reputation, and it is to be regretted 
that he employed a great portion of his time in 
trifling and insignificant works. The following 
are his principal prints : 


Four plates of the Seasons, represented by Children ; fivo 
plates of the Senses, gallant subjects ; Venus at her Toilet ; 
Bacchus and Ariadne. 


The Cardinal de Fleury, accompanied by the Virtues ; 
after Chevalier. The Wrath of Neptune; after Albano ; 
inscribed Quos ego. Diana and Acteon ; uffe)- Bassan; 
for Crozat Collection. The infant Moses brought to the 
Daughter of Pharaoh ; after Giorgione. Jupiter and lo ; 
after SchiaTone ; for Crozat Collection. The Departure of 
Jacob; Noah entering the Ark; after Castiglione. The 
Death of Seneca ; after Luca Giordano. Christ healing 
the Sick; after Jouvenet. A Landscape ; after Nicholas 
Berghem ;' &ne. The fortunate Accident; after Van Fa- 
lens. Folly; after a drawing by Corn. Viscsher. The 
Birth of Bacchus ; the Rape of Europa ; three subjects of 
Cupid; La Belle Cuisiniere ; Venus and Cupid ; the Pru- 
dent Shepherdess ; after F. Boucher. The Rajje of Helen ; 
^neas succored by Apollo ; after Deshayes. Hans Car- 
vel's Ring; after J. L. Lorrain.. La Place Maubert ; 
after Jeaurai. The Flemish Trio ; after Ostade. A Dog 
with Game; after Oudry. A pair— one a Boy with a 
Mouse, the other a Girl with a Cat ; after C. Parrocel. The 
Bath of Diana ; the Rape of Europa ; the Charms of Life ; 
Italian Recreation ; after Watteau. 

AVELINE, FRAN90IS Anthony, a Parisian en- 
graver, the cousin and scholar of Peter Aveline, 
born in 1718. His talent was inferior to that of 
his master. He worked chiefly for the bookseller 
in Paris, and afterwards went to London. Bassan 
says he died in indigence. He executed the fol- 
lowing plates: 

The Four Seasons ; copied from Peter Aveline. Six 
Chinese Figures ; the Chinese Bark; cifter Boucher. The 
Spanish Musician; after J. E. Evelsen. The Flemish 
Musician; a//ter Teniers. View of a Port in the Levant ; 
after Vernei. Sis, of Chinese Figures and subjects ; after 
Pillement. London, 1759. 

AVELLINO, GiuLio, called II Messinese, a 
Sicilian painter bom at Messina about 1G45. He 
probably studied under Salvatcr Rosa, as he painted 
landscapes in the style of that master. He settled 
at Ferrara, where land.-^cape painting since the time 
of Dossi had been almost abandoned, and was 
much employed by the nobility of Ferrara and 
Cremona. He enriched his landscapes with ancient 
ruins, architecture, and figures, admirably designed 
and touched with a masterly hand. There ar.* 
choice specimens in the collections of the Signori 
Cremona and Donati ; and the collections at Fer- 
rara and Romagna arc not considered complete 
without some of his works. He died 1700. 


AVELLIXO, Onofrio, a Xeapolitan painter, 
born in 1674; studied under Solimejia, but after- 
^yards went to Komo, where he remained several 
years, and painted the vault of tlie Church of S. 
Francesco di Paola, which is considered his best 
worJv. In the Church of S. Maria de Montesanto 
is an altar-piece, representing a subject from the 
life of St. Alberto, lie died in 1741. 

AVER, John Paul, a reputable German paint- 
er, was born at Nuremberg in 1036. He painted 
a number of historical subjects, portraits, and land- 
scapes, which possess considerable merit. He died 
in 1087. 

AVEMANN, Wolff, a German painter, born at 
Nuremberg, studied under Henry Steenwyck, and 
painted interiors of churches and other edifices in 
the style of that master which have considerable 
merit. He died in 1620. 

AYENDANO, Diego de, a reputable Spanish 
historical painter. He flourished at Valladolid 
about 1000. where he executed a number of works 
of considerable merit for the churches and private 

AYERARA, Giovanni Battista, an Italian 
painter, born at Bergamo about 1508. It is not 
mentioned under whom he studied, but he foi'med 
his style of coloring from the works of Titian. 
Ridolfl praises some fresco paintings by him ; espe- 
cially two pictures in the Church of S. Francesco 
at Bergamo. He painted landscape and architec- 
ture, and became very eminent for his skillful rep- 
resentation of nature, not only in the scenery, but 
in the figures and animals which he introduced 
into his compositions. The nature in his land- 
scapes, the design of his infant figures, and the 
beauty of his coloring, all show that he aspired to 
the Titian style. IMuzio, in his Teatro di Ber- 
gamo, pronounces him an universal genius. He 
died in 1548. 

AYERBACH, John Gotfried, a reputable Ger- 
man painter, born, according to Heineken, at Mul- 
hausen in 1687. He was painter to the Emperor 
Charles YL, and executed a number of works for 
the Royal Palace which possess considerable merit. 
He designed and engraved a plate representing his 
Dwn portrait painting that of his wife. He died 
it Yienua in 1743. 

rai orW or mFaYERCAM, Henri VAN, 
-4- AJ|- I It Jt I JL Jl surnaraed de Stoaime 
ITAN Campen, was born at Kampen about 1590, 
md lived and died in that city. His singular taci- 
;urnity obtained for him the surname of the Mute. 
He executed many pictures, chiefly marine views, 
md landscapes ornamented with cattle ; but they 
lave lost much of their value on account of a 
change of color. His drawings with the pen and 
n black chalk, are still highly valued. He marked 
lis works with one of the above monograms. 

AYIAXI, , an Italian painter, born at Yin- 

;enza, and flourished about 1630. He excelled in 
jerspective and architectural views, in which the 
igures were usually executed by Giulio Carpioni. 
3is pictures generally represent the most remark- 
ible views in Yenice. though he sometimes painted 
andscapes and sea-ports, which are held in consid- 
^able estimation. 

(51 • o^^S^ AYIBUS, Gaspar ab. or Pa- 
Vji^-5^ S£^1-^tavinus. an Italian engraver. 

7 . AVIC. 

born at Padua about 1530. From his style it is 
veiy probable he studied under Giorgio Ghisi, as 
his plates are executed entirely in the manner of 
that master; and he has also copied some of his 
works. He sometimes signed his prints G.A.S.F., 
or G.A.P.F., and often marked them with his very 
curious monogram, formed of the letters vrhic'h 
compose the word Gaspar. His principal work 
was a large volume in five parts, containing the 
full-length portraits of the Princes and Emperors 
of the House of Austria, engraved in the style of 
the Sadders ; signed Gaspar Patavinus, incisor. 
1509. The following are his best single prints. 
They are dated from 1560 to 1580. 

Tho Espousals of the Virgin Mary ; after P. Veronese; 
Gaspar ab Avibus, Citaclelensis, fe., 1577. The Woman 
taken in Adultery ; Gasparo Os'ello Padmano, f. The 
Scourging of Christ ; Gaspar ab Avibus, Citadehnsis. fee. 
Christ crowned with Thorns; Gaspar Pataviniis, f. 1566. 
The Last Supper; after Lain. Lombard; copied' after a 
print by Maniuavo, marked Gaspar P. F. 1564. Apollo 
and the Muses on Mount Parnassus ; after Pennl, Gaspar, 
f. ; copied from Mantuano. Venus and Adonis, and its 
companion, a i'outh carrying his Mistress on his Shoulder ; 
%'^^^.^- ^'^^^^' ^'^V^^'^irom Mantuano; marked Gas., 

■I'll./ "^"enus Bathing ; fl//"er tte sa??ie ; ditto. ; Gasp., 
f., 1564. '^ 

AYICE, Chevalier, a French amateur encra- 
ver, who etched some plates in a slight thou'>'h 
spirited style, after N. Poussin, and other mas- 
ters ; of which the best is a middle-sized plate of 
the Adoration of the Magi, after Poussin. 

AYILA, Hernando d'. a native of Toledo, was 
painter and .'^culptor to Philip II., of Spain ; and 
after the death of his former master, Francisco 
Comontes, in 1505, he was appointed painter to 
the cathedral of Toledo in his place. In 1508 he 
finished two altar-pieces for a chapel of that cathe- 
dral, representing St. John the Baptist, and the 
Adoration of the Kings. In 1576 he designed the 
principal altar of the nunnery of San Domin'^o el 
Antiguo at Toledo. ° 

_ AYILA, Francisco d', a portrait painter of Se- 
ville, who was distinguished for the accuracy of 
his likenesses, and the sweetness of his coloring. 
There were several Spanish painters of this name 
m the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, but 
their works are not sufficiently recorded to speak 
of them with certainty. 

AYILER. Adgustin Charles d,' a distin- 
guished Parisian architect, was born in 1053. and 
evinced an inclination for architecture from infancy 
He applied himself to its study with so much as- 
siduit}', that he passed his examination at the age 
of twenty, and was so fortunate as to be selected 
to go to Rome to study in the Academy. He em- 
barked at Marseilles, but the vessel was captured 
and tliey were all carried prisoners to Tunis, where 
D'Aviler immediately commenced drawinir, and de- 
signed a grand mosque, which is thought" the best 
edifice m that city. After sixteen months slavery 
he arrived at Rome, where he remained five years. 
Returning to France, he placed him.self under Har- 
douin Jlansard, who employed him in executing 
many of his numerous undertakings ; but as he 
found that Slansard never allowed him to produce 
any of his own inventions, he went to Montpellier 
and executed the gate called La Porte Per oil 
which D'Orbay had designed in the form of a tri- 
umphal arch. He also wrote a book entitled 
" Cours d'' Architecture^'' and other works, which 

ATOG. 58 

have done him great honor. He erected the cele- 
brated Archi-cpiscopal Palace at Toulouse, and va- 
rious edifices at Carcassone, Heziers and Nismes, 
which trained him so much reputation that he was 
appointed architect of Lan-uedoc ; hut scarcely 
had he taken possession of this important post 
when he died in 1700, aged 47. 

AVOGADRO, PiETRO, called Bresciano, an 
Italian painter, was born at Brescia, and flourished 
about 17P.0; studied under Pompco Ghiti, to 
whose style he adhered ; though in some respects 
h3 followed the Venetian school, especially m his 
carnations. His figures are remarkably graceful, 
and harmony prevails through all his pictures. 
His chief work is the :\Iartyrdom of Sts. Crispino 
and Crispiano, in the Church of St. Joseph, at 
Brescia. Lanzi says, that in the opinion of many, 
Avocradro holds the ' first place after Bonvicino, 
Gambara, and Savoldo, the three great painters of 

y h \T (\ AYONT, Peter van der, a 
"L. A .V . >- Flemish landscape painter and 
engraver, born at Antwerp about 1619. He enli- 
vened his pictures with figures well drawn, and 
painted with great animation. He frequently dec- 
orated the landscapes of Vinckenboom. As an en- 
graver, he was also distinguished. Brulliot says 
he sometimes marked his plates with a monogram 
of his initials reversed ; but without doubt he cop- 
ied it as above from a transfer, instead of the print. 
The following are his principal works : 

The Vii-n-'m JIary, with the infant Jesus, St. John and 
St. Anue ; "the Virgin suckling the Infant, with St. John 
ami an An;;el ; the Virgin and Infant in the Clouds, in- 
scribed Regini ccrli ; the Magdalene ascending to Heaven, 
Pet. ran Avont, inv. et e.rc, tf-c. ; twenty-four small plates 
of Children, on each plate a Child and an Angel— they were 
published in the set entitled Pccdopegnion, by W. Hollar ; 
the Four Elements, represented by Four Children; two 
Bacchanalian subjects of Children— one, Bacchus dra-ivn m 
his Car, the other, Bacchus carried by Four Children, Pet. 
van Avont, int., fee, et exc. 

AVRIL, Jean jAcauES. a modern Parisian en- 
graver, born in 1744 according to Gabet. He .stud- 
ied under J. G. Wille, and executed several plates 
of considerable merit. He died in 1832, aged 88. 
This laborious artist executed about five hundred 
and forty plates, some of large size ; among which 
are the following: 

Mars going to Battle ; Mars returning from Battle ; A 
Shepherd and Shepherdess, called the Croc-en-jambe ; 
after Rubens. Apollo with the Seasons, dancing ; after 
Poussin. Diana and Acteon ; the Bathers surprised ; after 
Albano. Venus revenging herself on Pysche ; a,fter da 
Troy. Pigmalian and his Galatea ; after Marlllier. St. 
Genevieve; afterC.Vanloo. Fishermen Returning ; Trav- 
elers in a Storm ; the Shipwreck, dated 1775 ; after Vernet. 
The double Recompense of ilerit, 17S1 ; French Patriot- 
ism. 1783; after P. A Wllle. The Taking of Courtray; 
after Vandermeuhn, 17S2. The Passage of the Rhine ; 
after Berghem. Catherine II., on her Travels ; after F. 
be Meys, 1790. Ulysses and Penelope ; Combat of the 
Horatii and the Curiacci, 1737 ; after Barbier. 

AVRIL. Jeax Jacques, a Parisian engraver, 
son of the preceding, born in 1771. He was one 
of the principal artists employed in the work of 
Robillard and Laurent ; and also engraved many 
excellent plates of pictures by the old masters, 
and statues in the Louvre. According to Nagler, 
he died in 1831. 

AXARETO. See Asserreto. 
AXELT, John, a German portrait engraver of 
111 tie note, mentioned by Heineken. He engraved 


the following plates : The Emperor Joseph, af(er 
A. Hanneman ; George Frcflerick, Prince of Wal- 
deck ; a set of Portraits of the Kings of Spain. 
Hungary, and Bohemia, &c., and many of the plates 
in Prelieri Tkeatrum Virorum Ernditione Claro- 

AXTMANX, Leopold, a German painter, born 
at Fulneck, in iMoravia, in 1700 ; studied under 
John George Hamilton of Vienna, and rivalled him 
in reputation. He excelled in painting horses and 
dogs, and there are several pictures of merit by 
him in Bohemia. He settled at Prague, where he 
died in 1748. 

AYALA, Barnabi, an historical painter of Se- 
ville, who studied under Zurbaran, and followed 
his st3-le in his tints and draperies. Many of his 
pictures are probably passed off at this day as the 
work of his instructor. He was one of the foun- 
ders of the Acadcmv of Seville in ICGO, and at- 
tended there till 1G71. It is supposed he died in 
1673; as his name does not appear with the subscri- 
bers to the statues in that year. 

AYBAR XIMEXES, Pedro, a Spanish histori- 
cal painter, who studied under F. Ximenes. and im- 
itated his style. The pictures he produced at 
Calatyud, in 1082, are prai-sed for their composi- 
tion, color, and design. There is no account of him 
after that 3-ear. 

nardino, a Xeapolitan painter, who flourished 
about 1510. He resided chiefly at Genoa, where 
there are several of his works in the churches and 
convents. In the Church of S. Giuseppe in that 
city, are two pictures by him. representing the An- 
nunciation, and the Martyrdom of St. Apollonia, 
which are highly praised by Soprani. He excelled 
in wax work" and modeled heads with an absolute 
expression of life. 


BAADER, Amalie, a German engraver, was. 
born at Erding, in Bavaria, in 17G3. She studied 
engraving under J. Dorner, the director of the Gal- 
leiy at Munich, and practised it merely for amuse- 
ment. Her mark, an A and C, interlaced, is found 
on copies after Rembrandt and Schmidt, of Berlin, 
and some Italian masters. 

BAAK, ILvTTiGH Jan, a painter of Utrecht, 
who lived in the middle of the seventeenth century, 
as we find bv a picture in the hospital of St. Job, 
in that city.'l642. It is a landscape and figures, 
so much in'the style of Poelcraburg. that we may 
conclude the artist was one of his scholars. 

BAAN, John de, an eminent Dutch portrait 
painter, born at Haerlem, in 1633. xVfter receiv- 
ing some instructions from an uncle named Pie- 
mans, who followed the style of Velvet Breughel, 
he was sent to Amsterdam to study under Jacob 
de Backer, a reputable painter, with whom he re- 
mained till he was eighteen, assiduously using 
every means of improvement. x\fter leading that 
master, he soon became distinguished. His suc- 
cess in portrait painting was such, that he paid lit- 
tle attention to other branches of the art. He 
painted the portraits of the principal personages 
of his country. King Charles II., who had be- 
come acquainted with his talents while residing on 
the continent, invited him to England, where he 

BAAN. 59 

painted the king, queen, and several of the nobili- 
ty. After remaining some time in England, he 
went to the Hague, and there painted a noble por- 
trait of the Duke of Zell, for which he received 
1000 Hungarian ducats,— about £500. He next 
painted some pictures for the Duke of Tuscany, 
who placed De Baan's porti'ait in the Gallery of 
Florence, and sent him a handsome present in re- 
turn for it. His best \vork is the portrait of 
Prince JMaurice, of Nassau-Ziegen. He painted 
many portraits of eminent persons of his time, 
some of which are not inferior to those of Van- 
dyck. Louis the XIV., after conquering part of 
Holland, sent to Utrecht for De Buan, to paint his 
portrait ; but the painter excused himself by ob- 
serving, that, while his country was in mourning, 
he could not think it proper to trace the features 
of her conqueror. This, however, did not lessen 
him in the opinion of Louis, who frequently con- 
sulted him on the purchase of pictures. He was 
of an obliging disposition, and fond of the pleas- 
ures of the table. He was a great admirer of Tan- 
dy ck, and imitated his style. His portraits were 
much admired for the elegance of their attitudes, 
and for their clear, natural and lively tone of col- 
oring. He died at the Hague in 1702. 

BAAX, Jacob de, a Dutch painter, the son and 
scholar of John De Baan, was born at the Hague 
in 1G73. At the age of twenty he went to Eng- 
land in the suit of William IIL His father's fame, 
and the favor of the court, procured him immediate 
employment, and he painted the young Duke of 
Gloucester, and several of the uobi lity. His strong 
desire to see Italy, induced him to abandon these 
bright prospects ; and he visited Florence, on his 
way to Rome, and was favored with the protec- 
tion of the Grand Duke, who showed him the por- 
trait of his father, John De Baan, which he greatly 
valued. On arriving at Home, he applied himself 
with great diligence in studying the works of great 
masters, and painted some portraits and conver- 
sation pieces which were highly esteemed. Both 
in Rome and Florence he gained a great deal of 
money, but soon became dissipated. His pictures 
are finely handled, and he gave promise of surpas- 
sing his father; but his irregular habits brought 
on a disorder of which he died" in 1700, at the early 
age of 27. ^ 

BABEUR, or BABUREX, Dirk or Theodore, 
a Dutch painter, was born in 1570. He generally 
painted figures of the size of life, and most of them 
at half length. He had a free and firm pencil, and 
his drawmg is preferable to his coloring, which, 
though vigorous, is not pleasing, on account of a 
yellowish brown tint predominating through the 
whole. His expression is but indifferent in any 
characters, excepting those which are mirthful ; 
and his pictures generally represent musical as- 
semblies, card players, &c. He was a scholar of 
Peter Xeefs, and he painted interiors of churches 
in the manner of that master. He died in 1624. 

f^ BABYLOXE, Francis de, an old engraver, 
; who flourished about 1550. He has some- 
> times been called the Master of the Cadu- 
.; ceus. His style was original, the plates be- 
mg all executed with the graver, with fine strokes 
and not much crossed. His drawing of the figures' 
is not very correct. His prints are esteeme^cl for 
the neatness of their finish, and highly valued on 
account of their variety. The follownig is a list 


of his prints: Apollo and Diana; small upright 
plate. Three Men Bound ; the same. Virgin Ma- 
ry and Infant resting on the Stump of a Tree ; and 
St. Joseph resting his head on his hand; a square 
plate ; half length figures. Virgin Mary sitting at 
the foot of a tree, the Infant Jesus standing by 
her side, Elizabeth seated near him, and an Angel 
playing on a Musical Instrument; St. Joseph on 
the right hand of the print. The Wise i\Ien's Of- 
fering ; a small upright plate. St. Jerome writing, 
with a crucifix before him. Two small upright 
plates— one represents A Man carrying a Boat, and 
the other, A Woman with a Child in her Arms. 
Jerome Hopfer has engraved both these on one 
plate, larger ; and has surrounded the Head of the 
Woman with Stars and a Glory. A Sacrifice to 
Pnapus ; a free subject ; copied after Marc An- 
tonio. Recent discoveries have shown that the 
real name of this artist is Jacob Da Barbary. 
Brulliot, in his Dictionary of IMonograms, men- 
tions two pictures by this master, one having the 
letters J, A, D, B, with a caduceus, and the other 
the name Jac. Da Barbarj^, with the caduceus, and 
the date 1504. Bartsch is inclined, from the stjde 
of his design, to consider him an Italian ; Zani on 
the contrary, of Dutch or French origin. Bartsch 
eiiumerates twenty-four prints with his mark; and 
Brulhot mentions four others, not described by the 
former, nor by himself. OtJey, also, speaks of a 
Holy Family not mentioned by Bartsch. 

BACCARIXI, Jacopo, an Italian painter, was 
bornat Reggio, about 1630. He studied under 
Orazio Talami, and painted history in his style. 
Two of his best works are The Repose in Eo'ypt" 
and the Death of St. Alessio, in the Church of S.' 
Filqjpo in Reggio. He died in 1682, aged about 52. 

BACCI, Antonio, an eminent Italian flower 
painter, was born at Mantua, or Padua, (for au- 
thorities differ.) He flourished about 16G3, and 
painted many works of considerable merit, which 
are found in the private collections of Italy.' 

BACCIARELLI, , a modern Italian en- 
graver of some merit, who flourished about 1760. 
He engraved a few portraits, among which is that 
of Augustus Stanislaus Poniatowski Kin"- of Po- 
land. ° 


BACCIO. See Fra. Bartolomeo Porta. 

BACCIOCHI, Era. Ferrante, an Italian paint- 
er, a monk of Ferrara, of the order of the Filip- 
pini. Some of his works are noticed in Barrotti's 
account of the Paintings and Sculpture at Ferrara. 
One of his best pictures was the stoning of St. Ste- 
phen, in the Church of S. Steffano, in Ferrara; and 
in St. Maria del Suflragio, there was a Holy Fam- 
ily by this master. 

BACHELIER, J. J., a French painter, born at 
Paris in 1724. He was an artist of only rep- 
utable talents, but he lived a long and useful 
life. He had amassed a fortune of 60.000 francs, 
and in 1763 consecrated all of it to the establish- 
ment of a free school of drawing for artists, which 
was afterwards consolidated, through his exertions, 
by government and private subscriptions. He was 
made director of the porcelain manufactory at Se- 
vres, and contributed greatly in improving its taste. 
He invented a kind of encaustic varnish, to pie- 
serve marble statues from the action of the weath- 
er, and he assisted the Count de Caylus, a great 




friend to the aiis. in his researches to discover the 
ancient method of encaustic painting. He also 
wrote two excellent works, entitled Le de 
Famille, Octavo, 1774, and a Memoire Sur VEd- 
ucation des Filles, Octavo, 1789. which last he 
prcsonteJ to the National Assembly, lie died in 
1805, aged 81. 

BACilELIER, NicHoi.AS, a French sculptor 
and architect, born at Toulouse in 149G. In early 
life he went to Rome, and entered, according to 
Morei, the school of Michael Angelo, whose style 
he adopted. lie posse ■;sed great taste, and on his 
return to his own coimtry, he endeavored to im- 
prove the style of Sculpture and Architecture, which 
at that time, especially in the south of France, was 
mean and old fnshioiied, but he did not succeed, as 
is proved by the fiict that many of his statues were 
gilded, after" his death, an operation which destroyed 
to the eye. the grace of his outlines and the deli- 
cacy of his work. He died at Toulouse in 1554. 

BACHELEY, jAcauES, a French designer and 
engraver of some merit, born at Pont I'Eveque, in 
Normandy, in 1712. lie was a member of the 
Academy of Rouen, where he died in 17S1, aged 
sixty-nine. The following is a list of his plates : 
A View in Italy; a View on the Tiber; View of 
the Bridge of Voges ; after Bart. Breemherg. A 
view of Amsterdam ; after Van Goyen. The Cas- 
tle of Ryswick ; and a View near Utrecht ; after 
Rmjsdael. A Storm on the Coast of Greenland ; 
after J. Peeters. The Redoubt of Schenck ; and 
Entrance of the ]\Iaes River; after B. Peeters. 
View of Havre de Grace ; after his own design. 

BACHIOCCI, Carlo, an Italian painter, a na- 
tive of Milan, according to Averoldi, Avho men- 
tions several pictures by him in the churches and 
convents of that city, particularly in the mon- 
asteries of S. Giacomo. and S. Filippo. 

BACHMANX, George, a reputable German 
portrait painter, who flourished about 1660, and 
died in 1681. Little is known of the events of his 
life. His works are probably ascribed to some 
more eminent master. 

BACKER, or BAKKER, JAcauES de, a Dutch 
historical painter, born at Antwerp in 1530. He 
was the son and scholar of an artist of no great 
celebrity. Having early lost his father, he was 
cmploj^ed by one Palermo, a dealer in pictures, on 
account of which he was sometimes called Jacopo 
Palermo. He kept Backer incessantly occui^ied, 
and sent his paintings to Paris, where they were 
greatly admired, and sold quickly, at high prices; 
while the artist remained in obscurity and poverty. 
While in Palermo's employment, he gained great 
facilit}^ of handling, and became an excellent col- 
orist, from copying the old masters. He, however, 
painted several original historical pictures, three of 
which representing Adam and Eve. a Charity and a 
Crucifixion, are highly praised by Karel van Mander, 
who represents him as one of the most promising 
young painters of his time. He died in 1560. 

BACKER, or BAKKER, Jacob de, a Dutch 
painter, born at Harlingen in 1608. He resided 
ciiiedy at Amsterdam, where he distinguished him- 
self as a painter of history and portraits. His f:x- 
ciiity of hand and freedom of pencil were such, that 
Hiubrakcn asserts he iinished the half-length por- 
trait of a lady of Ilserlem in one day, though 
adorned with rich drapery and loaded with jew- 

els, lie gained much reputation as a painter of 
history, and executed among other good works, a 
frao picture of Cimon and Iphigenia. His pictures 
are extolled in poetry by Vondel, his countr3'man. 
In designing academy figures, his expression was 
so just, and his outline so correct, that he obtained 
the prize from all his competitors, and his works 
still bring high prices. In the collection of the 
Elector Palatine there is an excellent head of 
Brouwer, by this artist, and in the cathedral at 
Antwerp, he painted the altar-piece of the chapel 
of the family of Plantin, representing the Last 
Judgment ; it is a grand composition, correctly 
drawn and finely colored. 

BACKER, Adrian de, a Dutch painter, born at 
Amsterdam in 1643. He was sent to Italy while 
young, and acquired there a taste and correctness 
of design not very com^mon among the artists of 
his country, which is discernible in all his pic- 
tures. His best work is in the Town House of 
Amsterdam, representing the Judgment of Solo- 
mon ; an ingenious composition, and painted in 
good style. He died at Amsterdam in 168G. 

BACKER, Nicholas de, a Dutch painter, born 
at Antwerp in 1648. After learning portrait paint- 
ing at home, he went to England, where he was 
employed as an assistant by Kneller. He also 
painted perspective views of English churches. He 
is said to have died in England in 1689. 

BACKEREEL, William and Giles, were em- 
inent Dutch painters. The former painted land- 
scapes, and resided principally in Italy. The lat- 
ter was coteraporary with Rubens, and his man- 
ner resemljled that master. He competed with 
Vandyck in an altar-piece in a church of Ant- 
werp, but, though both works were highly i)raised, 
the preference was never given in favor of either. 
In the Low Countries he adorned the churches 
with pictures which justly entitle him to the high- 
est rank among the artists of his countr3^ at a 
period when the}^ were in the zenith of their fame. 
Some of his works may be compared with those 
of Rubens or Vandyck. In the cathedral at 
Burges. is an altar-piece by Giles, representing St. 
Charles Borromeo administering the Sacrament 
to a numerous group of persons attacked hy the 
Plague. The composition of this fine f)icture is 
grand and striking ; the drawing more correct 
than Rubens, yet bold and decided ; in coloring 
equal to the chaste and delicate tinting of Van- 
dyck. In the Church of the Augustines, at Ant- 
werp, is an admirable picture by him of the 
Crucifixion. At Brussels, in the Church of the 
Franciscans, is a splendid work of this master, re- 
presenting the Virgin 3Iary and Infant Saviour, 
with St. Beatrice and other saints. He had a good 
taste for poetr3^ but by exercising that talent too 
freely in satires against the Jesuits, he drew upon 
himself the revenge of that fraternity, who com- 
pelled him to fly from Antwerp. 

BACKIITJYSEN, Ludolph, a German painter, 
born at Embden in 1631. He was of respectable 
family, and was intended by his parents for a mer- 
cantile profession, for which purpose he was sent 
to Amsterdam. But his time was more occupied 
in the society of painters than in the counting- 
house, and he at length became a pupil of Albert 
van Evcrdingen. under whom he remained some 
time. He acquired most of his knowledge by fre- 
quenting the rooms of different artists, and from 

BACK. 61 

one of these, Henry Dubbels, he learned more than 
from any other. His fondness for shippmg led him 
frequently to the port of the city, where he made 
admirable drawings of the vessels with a pen, which 
were much sought after by the collectors, and were 
purchased at liberal prices. Several of his draw- 
ings were sold at 100 florins each. This success 
induced him to paint marine subjects. His first 
essays were successful, and his pictures universally 
admired. While painting, he would not admit his 
most intimate friends to his studio, lest his fancy 
might be disturbed. He hired fishermen to take 
him out to sea in the most tremendous gales, and 
on landing, he would run impatiently to his pal- 
ette to secure the grand impressions of the views 
he had just witnessed. He has represented that 
fearful element in its most terrible agitation, with 
a fidelity that intimidates the beholder. His pic- 
tures on these subjects have raised his reputation 
even higher than that of W. Vandervelde ; al- 
though the works of the latter, which represent the 
sea at rest, or in light breezes, are much superior, 
and indeed inimitable. His pictures are distin- 
guished for their admirable perspective, correct 
:h-awing, neatness and freedom of touch, and re- 
markable facility of execution. For the burgo- 
masters of Amsterdam, he painted a large picture 
ivith a multitude of vessels, and a view of the city 
n the distance ; for which they gave him 1,300 
guilders, and a handsome present. This picture 
vas presented to the King of France, who placed 
t in the Louvre. The King of Prussia visited 
Backhuysen, and the Czar Peter took delight in 
seeing him paint, and often endeavored to make 
irawings after vessels which the artist had de- 
signed. At the age of seventy-one he engraved a 
series of views on the Y, an arm of the sea near 
imsterdam. He died in 1709. 

BACKHUYSEN, Ludolf, a Dutch painter, 
grandson of the preceding, was born at Amsterdam 
n 1717, and died at Rotterdam in 1782. He 
)ainted horses and battle-pieces with considerable 

BACLER, Louis Albert Guillain, Baron 
3'Albe, a French painter, was born in 1761, at 
st. Pol [Pas de Calais.] He was general of brig- 
idc, and held other military and civic ofiices under 
'fapoleon. He painted several views in Italy du- 
ing the incursions of the French, particularly the 
Jattle of Lodi and the passage of the Po. The 
atter were painted under the inspection of Napo- 
eon. He afterwards commemorated several other 
'ictories of the French armies. He also painted 
lassieal subjects, such as the Death of Paris; 
Edipus wandering in Greece, and several inter- 
isting landscapes. 

BACON, Sir Nathaniel, an English amateur 
lainter, born in 1644, was the brother of the great 
!ir Francis Bacon. He studied in Italy, but painted 
a the style of the Flemish school. It is said that at 
Jorhambury, the family seat, there are some good 
ictures by him, consisting of a whole-length por- 
rait of himself; a half-length of his mother, and a 
!ook-Maid with Fowls. Several others are men- 
ioned at Culford, in Suffolk. His monument in 
be chancel of Culford Church has, in addition to 
is bust, a palette and pencils. 

BACON, John, an eminent English sculptor 
orn at Southwark, near London, in 1760. The 
istory of this able artist is a beautiful illustration 


of the triumph of genius over adverse circumstan- 
ces. In 1755, he was bound an apprentice to a 
china manufacturer at Lambeth, where he was 
first employed in painting on the ware, but dis- 
covering a taste for modelling, he was soon em- 
ployed for this purpose, and in less than two years, 
he modelled all the figures for the manufactory. 
Some sculptors were in the habit of sending their 
models to this pottery to be burnt, and from the 
sight of them, his ardent mind resolved on its fu- 
ture occupation. He made rapid progress, and 
received nine premiums from the Society for the 
Encouragement of Arts, &c. ; the first, in 1758, for 
a figure of Peace. Several of his earlier produc- 
tions — a Mars, a Venus, and a Narcissus, &c., are 
still to be found in the rooms of that Society. Du- 
ring his apprenticeship, he formed the idea of mak- 
ing statues in artificial stone, which he afterwards 
I^erfected, and which is still carried on at Lambeth. 
About 1768, he began to work in marble, and in- 
vented an instrument, now in general use among 
English sculptors, for transferring the form of the 
model (with a correctness before unknown) to the 
marble ; thereby rendering the executive part more 
of a mechanical operation, to be performed by as- 
sistants, and thus giving the sculptor more time 
for designing and modelling. In 1776, he received 
the first gold medal from the Royal Academy, and 
in 1770, he was elected an Associate of that Insti- 
tution. Bacon now rose rapidly in public estima- 
tion and favor. He was commissioned to execute 
a bust of the King for the Hall of Christ's College, 
Oxford, which he performed with such excellence, 
as to increase his reputation and secure the royal 
patronage. Soon afterwards he received a similar 
commission for the University of Gottingen. lu 
1777, he executed the monument to the memory 
of Gay, the founder of Gay's Hospital, which was 
considered so admirable that the city of London 
engaged him to erect a monument to the Earl of 
Chatham — a work esteemed his most capital per- 
formance. In 1778, he was elected a Royal Acad- 
emician, and completed the beautiful monument to 
the memory of Mrs. Draper, in the Cathedral 
Church at Bristol. Among his other principal 
works, are two groups, which embeUish the top 
of the front of Somerset Place ; a Statue of .Judge 
Blackstone, for All Soul's College, Oxford ; a Statue 
of Henry VI., for Eaton College ; the Monument 
of Earl Chatham, in Westminster Abbey; the 
Statues of Dr. Johnson, Mr. Howard, and Sir Wil- 
liam Jones in St. Paul's Cathedral. He died in 
London in 1799. 

BACQUOY. See BAauov. 

BADALOCCHIO, Sisto, an Italian painter, was 
born at Parma in 1581, and studied under Anni- 
bale Caracci. He attended that master to Rome, 
and assisted him in some of his great undertakings 
in that city. His principal works are the two 
pictures he painted in the Verospi Palace at Rome, 
which have been engraved by -John J. Frezza. 
They represent Polyphemus seated on a Rock, 
with Ga,latea and her Nymphs on the sea ; and 
Polyphemus hurling a Rock on Acis and Galatea. 
Badalocchio etched several plates in a free and 
masterly style, which are in genera! more finished 
than those by Guido Reni, though not quite so ele- 
gantly or so carefully drawn. He was an accom- 
plished designer, possessed an inventive genius, and 
«vould probably have proved one of the most rep- 

BADA. 62 

utable painters of the Carraci's distinguished school, 
had he not died in the prime of life ; Zani says in 
1647. His ordinary mark was >S. B., f. We 
have the following plates by him : The Statue of 
Laocoon ; after the antique marble. Six plates 
of the Apostles from the cupola at Parma ; after 
Cor7-e^g-io. Fifty-one plates ; after Subjects from 
the Bible; painted by Kattacllc'in the Vatican, en- 
graved in conjunction with Lanfranco, and dedica- 
ted to Annibale Caracci. The Holy Family, with St. 
John ; after Schidoni, Sisto Badalocchio, fecit. 
BADARACCO, Giuseppe, a Genoese painter, 
called 11 Sordo, from his being deaf. He studied 
under Andrea Ansaldi for some years, but upon 
leaving his school he visited Florence, where he so 
much admired the works of Andrea del Sarto, that 
he applied himself with assiduity to the study of 
the pictures of that admired artist. He painted 
history with reputation, and executed several 
works for the churches and public edifices of Flo- 
rence, where he died in 1657. 

BADARACCO, Giovanni Raffaelle, an Ital- 
ian painter, born at Genoa in 1648. He was the 
son and scholar of the preceding, but after study- 
ing some time with his father, went to Rome, and 
entered the school of C. Maratti. Aiming at a 
freer and bolder style, he adopted the manner of 
P. da Cortona. There is great sweetness and a fine 
impasto in his coloring, which a profusion of ultra- 
marine has preserved in all its brilliancy. He was 
much employed in easel historical subjects ; of his 
large works, the most important are some pictures 
in the Certosa at Polcevera. He died in 1726. 

BADENS, Francis, a Dutch painter, born at 
Antwerp in 1571. His father, an obscure artist, 
taught him the first principles of design. He af- 
terwards went to Italy, where he resided several 
years, and by close application became an accom- 
plished artist. Van Mander mentions him in very 
favorable terms as a painter of history and por- 
traits, and says that he excelled in conversation 
pieces and sulyects of gallantry. His style of de- 
sign partook more of the Itahan than of his native 
school, and his coloring was excellent. On his re- 
turn to Antwerp, his merit obtained for him con- 
stant employment, and gave him the soubriquet of 
the Italian painter. He died in 1603. 

BADENS, John, a Flemish painter, born at Ant- 
werp in 1576, was the younger brother of Francis 
B.. and was instructed by his father. He went to 
Italy while young, where he resided several years. 
He afterwards visited Germany, where his works 
were highly esteemed, both in history and por- 
traits. Several princes of the empire favored him, 
and he acquired there both fame and fortune. Re- 
turning home, where he intended passing the rest 
of his life in tranquillity, he was robbed by banditti 
of all he possessed. This event threw him into a 
state of despondency and languor, occasioning his 
death in 1613, aged 37. Balkema, Nagler, and 
Zani. state erroneously that he died in 1603, at the 
age of 27. 

'BADIALT, Alessandro, an Italian paint- 

^ I er and engraver, born at Bologna in 1626. 

He studied under Flaminio Torri, and painted sev- 
eral pictures for the churches and public edifices at 
Boloo-na. He etched several plates in a slight, free 
stide!" We have the following prints by him, 
marked with his monogram: The Virgin Marjs 


seated with the Infant Jesus on her lap ; a Bishop 
and Monk kneeling ; from his own design. The 
Holy Family, and Christ taken down from the 
Cross ; after Flaminio Torri. The A^irgin Ma- 
ry and Infant Christ; half-length. The Repose 
in Egypt. Another Repose in Egypt, where the 
Virgin is holding a linen to cover the Infant on her 
knee ; The two last prints are generally attrib- 
uted to Alessandro B. There is much discrepan- 
cy among various writers about the time of Badi- 
aldi's birth, but it is generally agreed that he died 
about the age of 45. 

7/75^ BADILE, Antonio, an Italian historical 
Jl3-^\. and portrait painter, born at Verona in 
1480. Lanzi says he was the first Veronese paint- 
er who divested himself entirely of the Gothic 
manner that prevailed before him, and was supe- 
rior to his cotemporaries in the expression of his 
heads and the delicacy of his coloring. His pic- 
tures of the Raising of Lazarus, in the church of 
S. Bernardino ; and the Virgin and Infant in the 
clouds, with several Saints, in S. Nazaro, so high- 
ly praised by Ridolfi, are worthy of the instruc- 
tor of Paolo Veronese and Zelotti. He died 
in 1560. 

BAECK, John George, a German engraver, 
born at Augsburg, about 1700. He engraved 
a number of portraits, most of which are mention- 
ed by Heineken ; and he also engraved some plates 
after other masters. His mark is B. fe. 

BAENER, John Alexander, a German en- 
graver of little note, who flourished about 1670. 
Among others, he engraved an emblematical sub- 
ject, executed with the graver in a coarse, heavy 
style, and representing a man kneeling at the feet 
of another man, with a book before him; and a 
hand, holding a sword, is striking from the clouds 
at the latter. 

a Dutch painter, who flourished about 1660. He 
sometimes painted marine views, but excelled in 
winter pieces, in which he has represented the 
principal chateaux near Amsterdam with a num- 
ber of figvires skating, well di-awn and neatly 
touched. These subjects he has treated with in- 
finite art, and they produce a wonderfully natural 
eftect. He died in 1687. 

BAESTEN, ]Maria, a Flemish paintress, whose 
maiden name was Ommeganck. She usually paint- 
ed landscapes and cattle with reputation. She was 
a member of the Academy at A iitwerp in 1784. 

BAGETTI, Cav., Giuseppe Pietro. This 
eminent artist was born at Turin, in 17G4. He 
was educated for the church, but disliking the ec- 
clesiastical profession, he turned his attention to 
architecture, and afterwards placed himself under 
the instruction of Palmieri to learn the art of 
painting in distemper, or water-colors, in which he 
became preeminent. The King of Sardinia ap- 
pointed him his draughtsman, and sent him with 
his army. He soon afterwards appointed him Pro- 
fessor of Topography in the Military School at 
Turin. When the French took possession of Pied- 
mont in 1778, he was persuaded by his friends 
and General Dupont to enter the service of the 
French, and for this purpose he repaired to Paiis, 
where he was well received, and attached to the 
War Department, as Topographical Engineer, with 
the grade of Captain, and was especially charged 

BAGL. 63 

to execute pictures representing the victories of 
the French army. In the space of eight years he 
painted eighty pictures, which are now in the gal- 
lery at Fontainbleau, and the War Department 
at Paris. Many of these were engraved by the 
order of Napoleon. Bagetti displayed all the re- 
sources of his art in executing pictures which 
should embrace an immense extent of country. 
For this purpose, obliged to dispense with the or- 
dinary rules of optics, he took his point of sight 
at a sufficient elevation to command a view of the 
remotest objects. In this manner he executed an 
immense picture, now in the Royal Museum at 
Paris, which gave a general view of the whole of 
Italy as far as Naples, divided by the Alps. For 
this great work, Napoleon conferred upon him the 
Order of the Legion of Honor, and sent him to 
Naples to paint a general view of Italy as far as 
the Alps, of the same size, as a match to hang be- 
side it. But the war with Russia breaking out, he 
was recalled, and accompanied Napoleon in that 
fatal expedition, and this great work was never 
completed. After the restoration of 'the Bourbons 
in 1815, he was dismissed by the French govern- 
ment, when he returned to Turin, where the King 
conferred on him the rank of Major of Infantry^ 
appointed him professor in the Military School, 
and made him change the Star of the Legion of 
Honor, for the Cross of Savoy. He executed for 
the King a great work which showed the Alps and 
all Piedmont, as far as Lombardy. He also paint- 
ed several grand pictures of Battles in honor of the 
heroes of Savoy, for which he was decorated with 
the Cross of St. ]\Iaurice, and rewarded with 
3, pension. He died at Turin in 1831, and a mon- 
ament was erected to his memory. Bagetti is 
ranked the first of painters in his line. He was 
I distinguished theorist, and wrote some admira- 
ble essays on Painting and the Fine Arts, pub- 
lished at Turin in 1827. The King of Sardinia, 
Charles Albert, in consideration of his distin- 
guished services and eminent abilities, on his death 
generously conferred a pension on his widow. 

BAGLIONI, Cesare, a Bolognese painter, was 
;he son of an obscure artist who taught him the 
ilements of design. He adopted the style of the 
Ilaracci, particularly in landscapes, in which he 
sxcelled; though he did not enter that school. 
:Ie was a universal artist, painting history, ani- 
nals, fruit, &c., all of which, according to Malva- 
lia, possessed considerable merit. The principal 
vorks of this master were at Bologna and Parma, 
vhere they are highly esteemed. In the Church 
)f the Madonna del Soccorso, is a picture of the 
Ascension ; and in S. Giorgio, an altar-piece, repre- 
lenting St. Anthony and St. Martha. He was 
iving in 1010. as is clearly shown by documents 
)reserved l)y the Canon Trecasali, and recorded by 
kni, to the effect that he was employed in that 
^ear 1)y the Duke Ranuzio Farnese, to paint the 
hurch or oratory of Stirone, the foundation of 
vhich was laid in 1599. 

BAGLIONL Cavaliere Giovanni, an eminent 
talian painter, born at Rome in 1594. He studied 
mder Francesco Morelli, and was employed in 
nanv considerable works at Rome during the 
lontificates of Clement YIII. and Paul V. In the 
Jhurch of S. Maria dell' Orto, he painted a chapel 
ti fresco, representing the life of the Virgin ; and 
Q S. Nicco!6, in Carcere, there is a fine picture of 


the Last Supper. His best work is the picture 
in St. Peter's, of that saint raising Tabitha from 
the dead. This production was greatly admired 
and gained for Baglioni the Knighthood of the Or- 
der of Christ from Paul V. lie wrote the Lives 
of the Painters, Architects, and Sculptors, who 
flourished at Rome, from Gregory XIII., to Urban 
VIIL— from 1572 to 1642. 

BAGNACAVALLO. See Ramenghi. 
BAILLE, Alexandre, an obscure French en- 
graver, who practised the art about 1764. He 
engraved, among other plates, one representing a 
half-length figure of St. Cecilia; after Francesco 
Fernandi. It is signed with his name, and the 
above date. 

BAILLEUL, F., a French engraver, who resi- 
ded at Paris about 1722, and engraved part of the 
plates pubhshed in that year, representing the 
ceremonies of the coronation of Louis XV, 

BAILLIE, William, an Irish engraver, 
was born about 1736. During his early 
life he was connected with the army, which he left 
with the rank of captain of cavalry. Henceforth 
he was devoted to the arts, and long had the name 
of a very excellent connoisseur. His best works 
are those he executed in the style of Rembrandt 
and his copies after the prints of the latter. He 
executed about a hundred plates, of which the fol- 
lowing are the principal, some of them marked 
with his name, and some with his monogram : 

Bust of an Old Man, with a gold chain, in the manner of 
Rembrandt ; two plates with, and without the chain. A 
Landscape, with a Stone Bridge, engraved 1764, scarce. A 
Landscape, with the Ruins of a Temple ; in the manner of 
Claude. The Portrait of Sofonisba Angusciola, paintress ; 
ipsa pinxit. A Landscape by moonlight; after A. Cuyp\ 
The Pencutter; the Lacemaker, and the Mother of G 
Douw ; after G. Douw. Susanna justified by Daniel ; after 
Ger. van Eeckhout. Four Officers, two playing at Trictrac ; 
after Gerrards ; scarce. The Portrait of Francis Hals 
Painter ; F\ Hals, pinxit. The Portrait of Francis Mieris ; 
after himself. Peasants saying Grace ; and a Musical as- 
sembly ; after Molenaer. James, Duke of Monmouth, on 
Horseback ; after Netscher. Interior of a Dutch Chamber, 
with Peasants regaling, 1767; and another Interior, with 
Peasants smoking and drinking, 1765; after A. Ostade. 
Christ healing the Sick, called the Hundred Guilder Print, 
Rembrandt's original plate, purchased by Baillie in Hol- 
land, and exquisitely retouched by him. Beggars at the 
Door of a House ; the Gold-weigher ; The Three Trees, 
Landscape ; a Landscape, with a Horse lying ; after Rem- 
brandt's prints. An Old Man, half-length, with a Beard 
and Cap ; W. Baillie, 1765 ; ajter Rembrandt. The En- 
tombing of Christ ; two plates varied ; an Old Man, half- 
length, with a large Beard, and his Hands in the Sleeve of 
his Robe, 1771. A Landscape, with a Horse lying. The 
Holy Family; after Schedoni. Interior of an Ale-house, 
with Figures regaling, fine ; afterTeniers. A Student sit- 
ting before a Table with a Globe and Books ; and William, 
Prince of Orange, on Horseback ; after Terburg. Sol- 
diers quarreling, half-length ; after Valentin. Three Sea- 
Pieces; after drawings by W. Vandevelde. 

BAILLIO, David, a Dutch painter, born at Ley- 
den in 1584. His principal subjects were portraits 
and interior views of temples and churches. Tlie 
correct likeness and fine coloring of his portraits 
gained them much admiration. His architectural 
views are much admired, though inferior to those 
of Steenwyck and P. Neefs. lie died in 1638. 

BAILLU, or BAILLIU, P. de, a Flemish en- 
graver, was born at Antwerp about 1614. After 
acquiring the elements of design, he visited Italy 
for improvement, where he studied with assiduity 
the works of the great masters and engravers, sev- 




eral good plates. Returning to Antwerp about 
1635, he engraved several works of celebrated Fle- 
mish masters, particularly Rubens and Vandyck. 
Although by no means equal to the works of Vorst- 
ermans, Bolswert, or Pontius, his prints are held 
in considerable estimation. The following are 
the principal : 

Pope Urban VIII. ; P. de Bailliu, exe. John Backer, 
Dutch pahitor; se ipse, del. John B.ylor, painter, of 
Utrecht; se ipse, pin. Albert, Prince and Count of Ar- 
enber^lie ; Lucy, Countess of Carlisle ; Honore Urphee, 
Comte do Morel ; the Crucifixion ; the Virgin Mary in the 
Clouds; Ilinaldo and Armida ; a\\ after Vandijck. Helio- 
dorus driven from the Temple by two Angels ; after a 
drawing hy P. de Lint; after Rqfaelle, P. de Baillu. 
A dead Christ on the knees of the Virgin Mary ; after 
Caracci; scarce. St. Michael vanquishing the Demon; 
after Guido. The Keconciliation of Jacob and Esau; 
Christ praying in the Garden ; Magdalene dying, sup- 
ported by Angels ; Combat of the Lapithre ; all after 
Rubens. The Holy Family ; after Theodore Romhout. 
Susanna and the Elders; after Martin Repyn. The 
Scourging of Christ ; and Christ Crowned with Thorns ; 
after luepenbeck. Discovery of the True Cross by St. Hel- 
ena ; and Theodosius carrying the True Cross before St. 
Ambrose ; after P. van Lint. Christ Bound to the Pillar, 
with Angels holding the Instruments of the Passion ; after 
J. Thomas. St. Anastasius reading ; after Rembrandt. 

BAILLU, or BALLIU, and also BALEAU, 
Bernard, a Dutch engraver, born about 1625. 
His plates are executed entirely with the graver. 
They consist chiefly of portraits, with some his- 
torical subjects. He engraved several plates for 
the collection of portraits of Cardinals, published 
at Rome ; besides which we have the following : 

The Cardinal Ursini, afterwards Pope Benedict III., 1672 ; 
Canute, King of Denmark ; Christ between St. d'Alcanta 
and St. Mary Magdalene of Pazzis ; B. Baillu, sc. St. 
Mary Magdalene of Pazzis, with the Virgin raising her 
Veil; Virgin Mary appearing to St. Peter of Alcantaro; 
all marked Lazzaro Baldi pinx., B. Baillu, sc. St. 
Louis Bertrandus; Giro Ferri pin., B. van Baleu. 
Five Saints canonized by Clement X. ; Cyrus Ferrus, 
inv. Franciscus Brunels, del.; Bernard de Baleu, 

BAILLY, J. The name of this artist is at- 
tached to some spirited etchings after Callot, in 
which the neat style of that master is imitated 
with considerable success. 

BAILLY, jAcauES, a French painter, born at 
Gragay in 1629. He settled at Paris, where he 
became a member of the Academy of Painting, and 
distinguished himself in miniature portraits. He 
died in 1G82. 

BAJARDO, Giovanni Battista, an Italian 
painter, born at Genoa, about 1620. It is uncer- 
tain who instructed him, but he painted history 
with reputation, and executed several fine pieces for 
the churches and public edifices at Genoa, partic- 
ularly in the cloister of S. Agostino, and the por- 
tico of S. Pietro. His works are distinguished for 
their graceful design, judicious composition, and 
great facility of execution. Soprani says he died 
of the Plague, in 1657, aged 37. 

BAKER, John, an English painter of flowers 
and fruit, born about 1736. He was one of the 
original members of the Royal Academy. In the 
Council Chamber of Somerset House, is a credi- 
table specimen of his talents. 

BARKER, Baptist de, a Dutch engraver and 
painter, who flourished about 1770. He executed 
several plates of portraits and landscapes, in a neat 
and finished style. 

BARKER, N., a Dutch painter, born in 1648, 
He was instructed by Sir Godfrey Kneller, at Lon- 
don, where he died in 1689. He painted portraits 
and history, and had some reputation as a design- 
er and colorist. 

BALASSI, Mario, an Italian painter, born at 
Florence in 1604. He first studied under Jacopo 
Ligozzi, and after the death of that master, he be- 
came a scholar of Pioselli. and afterwards of Pas- 
signani. He assisted the latter in the works he 
executed at Rome for Pope Urban VIII. He cop- 
ied Raifaelle's Transfiguration for Don Taddeo 
Barberini, who placed it in the Church of the 
Conception, at Rome. In the Church of S. An- 
drea, is a picture of St. Bernard, and in the Stig- 
mata, one of St. Francis ; both his compositions. 
He died in 1667. 

BALDI, Antonio, an Italian designer and en- 
graver, born at La Cava, in the kingdom of Na- 
ples, about 1692. After studying some time with 
Solimena, he entered the school of Magliar. He 
resided chiefly at Naples, where he executed a 
number of plates, chiefly from his own designs. 
Zani says he was living in 1760. The following 
are his principal plates: 

The Emperor Charles VI., oval ; Don Carlos, King of 
the Two Sicilies, oval ; Nicholas Cyrillus ; S. Cyrillus, p. 
Maria Aurelia Caracioli, a Nun, oval ; St. Ignatius Loy- 
ola, oval; Ant. Baldl ex. Prototypo. The Monk Raf- 
faelle Ma.nca, with .an Angel, oval ; the Communion of St. 
Mary of Egypt ; A. Baldi] in. et sc. St. Philip of Neri in 
Heaven ; inscribed Qui nomen dedit, &c. St, Emigdeo 
interceding for the Neapolitans ; Diva Einigdo in terra, 
&c. St. Gregory with the subjects of Miracles, 1738 ; Ard. 
Baldi fee. 

BALDI, Lazaro, an Italian painter, born at 
Pistoja, in Tuscany, in 1623. He went to Rome 
while very young, where he entered the school of 
P. da Cortona, under whose able instructions he 
became an eminent artist. He painted several 
pictures for the churches and public edifices at 
Rome, which are particularly described by the 
Abate Titi. There is a fine work by him in the 
Pontifical Palace at Monte Cavallo, representing 
David and Goliah ; and in the Church of St. Luke, 
an altar-piece of the Martyrdom of St. Lazaro. 
He died in 1703. 

BALDINI, Baccio. a Florentine goldsmith, 
born about 1436, who. according to Vasari. was in- 
structed by Maso Finiguerra in the art of cngrav- 
ino-. There is little known with certainty of liim, 
except that he executed nineteen plates for Dante's 
Inferno., after the designs of Sandro BoticeJH, 
printed at Florence, by Niccolo Lorenzo deUa 
Magna, in 1481. He died at Florence in 1515. 

BALDINI, Era. Tieurzio, a Bolognese painter, 
who flourished about 1611. Averoldi sa3^s he ex- 
ecuted some paintings for the churches and con- 
vents at Brescia, the best of which were the Mm'- 
riago of the Virgin with St. .loseph, and th.e Mur- 
der' of the Innocents, in the Chiesa delle Grazic. 

BALDINI, PiETRO Paolo, an Italian painter. 
According to Abate Titi, he was born at Rome, and 
was a disciple of P. da Cortona. He was a re])u- 
table painter of history, and that author mentions 
several admirable worlcs by him in the public edi- 
fices at Rome. He highly commends an altar- 
piece representing the Crucifixion, in S. Bustac- 
chio. finely couipascd, and very carefully and cor- 
rectly designed. 




BALDINI, ViTTORio, an Italian wood engraver. 
Papillon says he flourished about 1599. Among 
other works, he executed the wooden cuts for the 
frontispieces of' the acts of Tasso's play of Aminta. 
published in 1599. 

BALDINUCOI, FiLipPo, an Italian painter, 
sculptor, and author ; born at Florence in 1624. 
He chiefly distinguished himself by a Biographical 
History of Painting, of which he only lived to pub- 
lish three volumes. He also wrote a treatise on 
engraving, with biographical sketches of artists, 
1G86, 4to. He was a member of the Academy of 
Delia Crusca. He died in 1G96. 

BALDOVINETTI, Alessio, a Florentine por- 
trait and historical painter, born, according to Vas- 
ari, in 1425. He painted in oil and in fresco, in 
the dry Gothic manner prevalent at that early 
day. lie died about 1500. 

BALDREY, J., an English engraver, who lived 
about 1790. He executed some portraits, and 
other subjects, in the chalk style, among which 
the best are : The Finding of Moses ; after Sal. 
Rosa. Diana and her Nymphs ; after C. Maratti. 
The Benevolent Physician ; after Penny. 

BALDRIGHI, Giuseppe, an Italian painter, 
born at Pavia in 1722. After studying for several 
years in Florence, under Vincenzio Meucci, he was 
invited to the Court of Parma, where the Grand 
Duke made him his principal painter. He estab- 
lished a successful school of painting in that city. 
One of his fine'st works is a picture of Prometheus, 
in the Saloon of the Academy at Parma. He ex- 
ecuted a large painting, representing the portraits 
of the family of Filippo, Duke of Parma, by which 
he acquired much distinction. He died at Parma 
in 1802, aged 80. 

BALDUCCI, Giovanni, called Cosci, an Ital- 
ian painter. According to Baldinucci, he was born 
at Florence, and studied'under Battista Naldini. He 
afterwards went to Rome, where Cardinal de Me- 
dici, afterwards Leo XI., extended him protection, 
and employed him for some time. At Rome and 
Florence, there are some of his works. Late in 
life, he visited Naples, where he painted some pic- 
tures for the churches, and died there in 1600. 

Hans, sometimes called Bal- 
DUNG Grun, a German painter and engraver, born 
about H95, at Gemund, in Suabia. There are sev- 
eral o/" his paintings in the cathedral at Friburg ; 
in a style similar to his cotemporary, Albert Durer. 
He engraved chiefly on wood, and his blocks are ex- 
ecuted in a free bold style, possessing great merit. 
The heads have a good expression, though the draw- 
ing is not very correct. His monogram is usually 
attached to his prints. Bart.sch, Brulliot, and Zani, 
all agree that he engraved on copper. Bartsch 
mentions two of his copper plates, and Brulliot al- 
ludes to several. Zani maintains that Balduug and 
Bresang are one and the same artist. — (See Bres- 
mg.) — We have the following prints by him: 

Adam and Evo in Paradise, Eve plucking the apple ; 
;he Fall of Adam ; inscribed on a Tablet. Lapsus humanis 
generis, 1511. Christ and the Twelve Apostles, 1514. 
13 plates. The Crucifixion, with St. John supporting the 
Virgin, and Mary Magdalene beliind the Cross; fine, in 
•hiaro-scuro ; Bacchus drunk, near a Tun, a Cupid making 
ivater on him ; an Incantation, in chiaroscuro, 1510. 
rwo Landscapes, very scarce ; a Man with a Horse, large 
jpright, nj date; four small upright prints, very fine; 

SoLomon's Idolatry ; Samson Delila; David and Bathsbe- 
ba ; Aristotle and Phryne ; the Holy Family, with St. 
Elizabeth and St. Catherine, half-length, 1512; 'two prints 
of Horses in a Forest ; marked Baldung, 1534. 

BALECHOU, Jean Jacque.s, a distinguished 
French engraver, born at Aries in 1715. His ex- 
ecution was superior to that of any previous French 
engraver, as to the clearness of strokes, and hril- 
hancy of color; but notwithstanding its charming 
eflect, his flesh appears like marble, and his draw- 
ing is imperfect. His prints of historj^ chiefly, and 
also some of his portraits, have this defect. The 
following are his principal works : 

Anne Charlotte Grauohier ; Mad. Aved ; Charles Henry 
Friso, Prince of Orange ; Prosper Jolyot de Crebillon, 1751, 
fine; iiW after Aved. Jacques Gabriel Grillot; after Au- 
treau. Jean de Julienne, celebrated amateur ; after de 
Troy. Charles Rollin, Ac. ; Charles Coypel, painter; af- 
ter Charles Coypel. Henry, Comte de Bruhl ; after L. 
Sylvester ; fine ; but it was ill retouched, and therefore 
probably not done by Balechou. Auguste III., Eoi de 
Pologne ; after liigaud. The first imi^ressions are very 
fine, but the plate was subsequently much altered. Infan- 
cy and Youth; after D. Bardon. Five fancy subjects; 
after E- Jeaurat. La Force; the Portrait of Elizabeth 
of France ; after Nattier. St. Genevieve ; after C. Van- 
loo. The Storm ; the Calm ; the Bathers ; after Vernst. 

BALEN, Henry van, a distinguished Flemish 
painter, born at Antwerp in 15(30. He studied 
under Adam van Oort, the master of Rubens. He 
afterwards went to Italy for improvement, where 
he remained several years, and executed several 
admirable pictures. On returning to Antwerp, he * 
was so successful, that he could scarcely supply 
the demand for his works. He was among the 
first of the Flemish painters, who attained that 
pure coloring, which was perfected by Rubens and 
Vandyck. In his cabinet pictures, he often repre- 
sented Ovid's Metamorphoses, with small figures, 
well drawn and finely colored. The landscapes in 
these subjects were painted by John Breughel 
though in some of his pictures, they were by Kier- 
ings. His works of this kind were highl}^ prized. 
He also executed many fine works for the churches. 
There is an admirable altar-piece by van Balen in 
the Cathedral at Antwerp ; the centre-piece repre- 
senting the Virgin with the Infant and St. John ; 
and on the two folding doors a choir of Angels. 
For another altar-piece in the same church, he 
painted St. John preaching in the Wilderness, with 
a number of figures, well composed and finely col- 
ored. Van Balen was the first instructor of Van- 
dyck, and one of the best artists of his country. 
He died in 1632. 

BALEN, John van, a Flemish painter, the .son 
of the preceding, born in 1611. After studying 
some time with his father, he went to Italy, and 
remained several years at Rome. He seems to 
have followed the pleasing style of Francesco Al- 
bano. His works are distinguished for great free- 
dom of touch and admirable coloring; but there 
is a want of taste, and a manifest incorrectness of 
design. He was most successful in cabinet pic- 

BALESTRA, Antonio, an Italian painter, 
born at Verona in 1666. It is not known 
who first instructed him, but at the age of twenty- 
one he visited Venice, and studied for three years 
under Antonio Belucci. He afterwards went to 
Bologna, and to Rome, where he attended the Ac- 
ademy of Carlo Maratti, then in high reputation. 







He acquired considerable distinction, 2;aincd the 
prize of the Academy of St. Luke in 1694, and 
was emploj'ed to paint several pictures for the 
churches and palaces of Kome. His manner is 
sweet and agreeable, not unlike that of Carlo iNIa- 
ratti ; and there is a certain mingling of the beau- 
ties of rvaliaelle, Correggio, and C'aracci. His 
work^: arc considerably esteemed, though he is not 
thought a great painter. Balestra established a 
school in Venice, and though his style is by no 
means Venetian, yet his lectures and example pro- 
moted the fame of that school. His scholars, Ma- 
riotti and Nogari, were excellent imitators of his 
style. In the Church of 8anta Maria Mater Dom- 
ini, at Venice, is one of his best works, represent- 
ing the Nativity ; and in the Church of S. Ignazio, 
atBologna, is a picture by him of the Virgin and 
Infont. \vith St. Ignatius and St. Stanislaus. He 
etched some plates from his own designs in a free 
and masterly style, some marked with his name, 
and others with his monogram. We have by him 
the following: Two Soldiers, one standing, the 
other sitting ; the Virgin jNIary in the Clouds, with 
St. John, inscribed Mater pnlchrcB dileciio7iis. 
Antonius Balestrce, inv. et fee, 1702. The Three 
Angels with Abraham ; a \'ignette with Two Fig- 
ures holding a Flag ; Verona Fidelis ; Portrait 
of an Architect, Michele St. INIichele. 

BALLI, SiMONE, a Roman painter, who lived 
about ICOO, and adopted a style resembling that 
of Andrea del Sarto. He went to Genoa, where he 
practised the art under Pazzi. There are many 
sniall pictures on copper painted by this artist. 

BALIJNI, Camillo, a Venetian painter and 
engraver, who lived, according to Zani, about 15110. 
His father was a noted jeweller at Venice. Lanzi 
says he practised the art in that city during the 
age of the INIannerists ; but Zani says he was a 
talented artist, and Lodovico Dolce commends him 
for his assiduity. 

BALTEN, Peter, a Flemish painter, born at 
Antwerp in 1540. His subjects were generally 
fairs, village festivals, and landscapes, in which he 
followed the style of P. Breughel. His small fig- 
ures are neatly touched, and well drawn ; and his 
views in Flanders, like those of P. Breughel, are 
executed with great precision. He was chosen 
member of the Academy at Antwerp in 1579, and 
died in 1611. 

BALTZ, J. Georges, a painter of miniature 
portraits and landscapes on porcelain, born at 
Strasluu'g in 1760. There arc many works of this 
kind to be found in cabinets, in England, Prus- 
sia, and France ; and it may be interesting to the 
possessors to know by whom they were painted. 
BALZER, John, a German engraver, born at 
Kukus, in Bohemia, in 1738. He chiefly resided 
at Prague, where he dealt considerably in prints. 
He engraved and i)ublished several works in concert 
with his brother Matthew ; among which are the 
following : Fifty plates of Landscapes, Battles and 
Conversations ; after Norhert Grtmd, an old Ger- 
man painter. Two sets of Portraits of Artists 
and Authors of Moravia and Bohemia, published 
at Prague in 1773, and 1775; the Portrait of 
Francis 'Edmund Weirotter, 1791 ; fine. 

BALZAC, ^I.. a French architect and eminent 
designer, born at Paris about 1750. He was elect- 
ed a member of the Institute of France, and ap- 

pointed one of the members of the memorable 
Scientific Expedition which accompanied the 
French army to Egypt, and while there, his love 
for the arts and antic[uity, induced liim to visit 
ancient Thebes and to explore her monuments. 
On his return to France, he was appointed one of 
the commissioners charged with the collection and 
disposing of the materials for the great work on 
Egypt, which the government had resolved to pub- 
lish. Balzac enriched it with many precious de- 
signs of Egyptian architecture. In his leisure 
hours he cultivated poetry and literature, and 
some of his essays were published with success. 
He died at Paris in 1820, of apoplexjr, deeply la- 
mented. He left in his portfolio an immense 
quantity of drawings, plans, and architectural de- 

BAMBINI, GiACOMO, an Italian painter, born 
at Ferrara about 1560, and a scholar of Domenico 
Mona. He painted historical subjects, chiefl}^ for 
the churches and convents of Ferrara, the principal 
of which are three altar-pieces in the cathedral, re- 
presenting the Annunciation, the Flight into Egypt, 
and the Conversion of St. Paul. He died in 1622. 
BAMBINI, NiccoLO, an Italian painter, born 
at Venice in 1651, Avhere he was instructed by 
Giulio Mazzoni ; but afterwards he went to Rome, 
and studied under Carlo Maratti. Lanzi says he 
designed with correctness and elegance, and that 
his coloring was simple and chaste. Sometimes 
he imitated the style of Cav. Liberi, especially in 
the beauty of his female heads ; at others he fol- 
lowed the Roman manner, as in his picture of St. 
Stefano, painted soon after his return fiom Rome. 
His two sons, Giovanni and Stefano, painted in the 
style of their father. 

BAMBOCCIO. See Peter de Laer. 
BAMBESBIER, Jan, was a German portrait 
painter, and a scholar of Lambert Lombard. He 
went to Amsterdam, where for some time he gained 
much reputation as a portrait painter ; but in his 
latter days he fell into disrepute. He died in 1598. 
BANCK, Jan VANDER,a Dutch portrait painter, 
who nourished about 1745. He lived some years 
in London, where he painted numerous pictures ; 
some of distinguished per.sons, showing great fa- 
cility of execution. In many cases, however, they 
seem to have been hurried, and carelessly finished. 

BANCK, Peter vander. This engraYcr was 
born at Paris in 1649, but of Flemish parents. 
Under the instruction of Francis de Poilly, he ac- 
quired eminence. About 1674 he visited England 
with the painter Henry Gascar, where he engraved 
many portraits of distinguished persons intimately 
connected with English history, which on that ac- 
count will always possess great interest. His 
great neatness and finished execution, constituted 
his chief merit. He died in 1697. The follow- 
ing are his principal prints : 

Charles II., 1675 ; and the same, 1677; after Gascar. 
The Princess Anne; the Princess Mary; Prince George, 
of Denmark; Thomas, Earl of.Ossory; Alex.ander, Eai-I 
of Moray, 1686 ; George, Viscount Tarbatt, 1692 ; Thos. 
Lamplugh, Bishop of York, fine ; James, Duke of Mon- 
mouth ; Richard, Lord Maitland, 1683; Sir Geo. Mac- 
kenzie ; Archibald, Earl of Argyle ; Frederick, Duke of 
Schomberg ; Robert, Earl of Yarmouth ; Sir Thos. Brown, 
M. I).; John, Earl of Strathnaver, or Earl of Sutherland; 
William, Duke of Queensberry ; George, Lord Dartmouth; 
Sir Edmundbury Godfrey ; Sir Thos. Allen, large plate ; 




James, Earl of Pei'th, 16S3 ; Geo. Walker, who defended 
J ondonderry ; Thos. Dalziel, a Scotch General, scarce ; 
."olin Locke; Edmund Haller, .^t. 23; the same ^t. 70. 
James II. ; large plate ; Mary, his Queen ; King William ; 
and William, Lord Russell; all after Knellcr. King 
William; Mary his Queen ; both after Wissing. Arch- 
bishop Tillotson ; after Mrs. Becile. ; the face has been 
defaced, and re-engraved by R. AVhitc. Archbishop Ten- 
ison; after the same. Sir Wm. Temple ; after Leli/, 1679. 
Lady Litchfield; after Verelst. John Smith, writing 
master; after F'aithorne ; fine. The Virgin and Infant, 
with Elizabeth and St. John, and Christ praying on the 
Mountain ; after S. Bourdon. The Naval Triumph of 
Charles II. ; from the Ceiling at Windsor, in two sheets ; 
and Mercury in the Air, bearing the Portrait of Charles 
II. ; from the Ceiling at Windsor ; both painted by 
Verrio. A set of Heads, for Kcnnet's History of England, 
designed by Lutterel. 

BANDIERA, Benedetto, an Italian painterj 
born at Perugia in 1557. lie is thought to have 
been a scholar of Federigo Baroccio, from the re- 
semblance of their works. He jiainted history 
with reputatioUj both in oil and fresco. He died 
in 1G34. 

BANDINELLT, Cav. Bagcio, a Florentine 
painter and eminent sculptor, was the son of a 
goldsmith, and born, according to Lanzi, in 1487. 
He early manifested a strong inclination for art. 
His father taught him the elements of design, and 
he also studied under Rustici, one of the best 
sculptors of the day. x\t this time Michael An- 
gelo was near the summit of his fame, and Bandi- 
nelli being constantly tormented with a desire to 
surpass that celebrated artist, turned his attention 
to painting, in which art he did not accomplish 
much, except that he proved a great designer. His 
principal works as a painter was the Murder of 
the Innocents, and the ]\Iartyrdoni of St. Law- 
rence. He soon devoted himself again to sculp- 
ture, and executed a fine statue of St. Peter, in the 
Cathedral at Florence ; and that of Orpheus, in the 
Palazzo Pitti. The latter was a good imitation of 
the Apollo Belvidere. He executed a fine copy of 
Mercury, for Francis I. ; also a large number 
of other important works in sculpture, among 
which the most esteemed is the colossal group of 
Hercules overthrowing Cacus, which is now at 
Florence, on the site of the old palace. Bandinelli 
was greatly noted for his admirable bas-reliefs, one 
of which he executed in bronze, and sent it to the 
Emperor Charles V., who named the artist a Chev- 
alier of St. Jacques. There are also a number of 
beautiful bas-reliefs in the cathedral at Florence 
by him, which have been engraved by the distin- 
guished jNIorghen. His last work was an admira- 
ble group of a Dead Christ supported by Nicode- 
mus. He died in 1559, according to Zani and 
Lanzi, aged 72. 

BANKS, Thomas, an eminent English sculp- 
tor, born at Lambeth in 1738. He was appren- 
ticed to a wood carver, with whom he served 
his term of seven years. But he aspired to a 
higher emploj-ment, and on the Society for the 
Encouragement of the Arts, &c., offering prem- 
iums for models in sculpture, he set himself to 
study and modeling with that resolution which 
ensures success, and having honorably obtained 
several premiums of that Society, he entered him- 
self a student of the Royal Academy, obtained their 
gold medal, which entitled him to go to Rome as 
then- student for three years, with a salary of 
£100 per annum, and his traveling expenses paid. 
At Rome, he applied himself to study the antique, 

with the greatest a.ssiduity, and executed several 
works which added greatly to his reputation, par- 
ticularly Cupid catching a Butterfly, (emblematic 
of Love seizing the human Soul,) which was after- 
wards purchased by the Empress of Russia. (Cath- 
erine II,) and Caractacus brought prisoner to Rome, 
purchased by the Duke of Buckingham. Soon af- 
ter his return to England, he was elected a mem- 
ber of the Royal Academy. He now attempted 
to introduce a lofty and heroic style of sculpture 
into his native country, then so much in advance 
of the public taste that he met with no encourage- 
ment, and necessity compelled him to have re- 
course to the less pleasing but more lucrative em- 
ployment of monumental sculpture. The Empress 
of Russia now invited him to her Court, whither 
he went; but not realizing his expectations, he re- 
turned after an absence of two years. But he never 
met with that encouragement which his talents de- 
served. He was a man of genius, and had he obtain- 
ed that liberal patronage which alone stimulates an 
artist to energy, by relieving his mind from anx- 
iety and embarassment, and enables him to pursue 
the natural bent of his genius, he would doubtless 
have become one of the brightest ornaments of his 

Banks rose to distinction by his genius, and 
untiring industry alone. His person was tall, 
his features noble, and his soul full of generos- 
ity and magnanimity. He despised to play the 
courtier, though his manners were engaging and 
persuasive. He was remarkably taciturn, except- 
ing in the society of kindred spirits. His admira- 
tion of the antique school was unbounded, and he 
delighted to mould his clay into the port of the 
gods and heroes of his favorite Homer. But he 
found no MecEenas to extend to him a sympa- 
thising and a helping hand. His most beautiful 
works were never executed in marble. Cunning- 
ham, describing his model of the battle between 
Jupiter and the Titans, says : " Heaven is above — 
the earth is beneath; in the former, all the gods 
and goddesses have come forth, while Jupiter, 
seated in the centre, personates not inaptly these 
noble lines, — 

' And from the middle darkness flashing out, 
By fits he deals his fiery bolts about ;' 

he holds a thunderbolt in his right hand, and with 
his eye fixed on the victim, seems ready to launch 
it. The god appears not to have taken up the 
matter a moment too soon. Beneath him, a sea 
of gigantic forms lie crushed and weltering — yet, ^ 
some who have survived their brethren, are pre- 
paring with enormous rocks, to pile up a way 
from the mountain tops to heaven. Against these, 
the right hand of Jupiter is lifted up, and all the 
conclave of heaven sit composedly watching the 
result. The interest of the scene is not, however 
above — it lies wholly below. There we see no un- 
worthy image of that scene of desolation, described 
so sublimely by Milton, where Satan and his com- 
panions are cast down to hell, confounded, though 
immortal — the linked thunder and the wrath of 
God pursuing still. We also see the germ of the 
' Fallen Titan' itself (a work previously described.) 
Looking at both, we cannot refrain from lament- 
ing, that a man capable of such things should have 
mourned three-fourths of his life over disappoint- 
ed hopes." 

Banks' most celebrated works in marble are 



the Cupid and IMoth. and the Caractacus, before 
mentioned ; the Alto-relievo in front of the Shaks- 
pearc Gallery, and which still adorns the same 
bull dine;, now occupied by the Royal British Insti- 
tution ;"the monument to the only daughter of 
Sir Brooke Boothby, in Ashbourne church, (which 
drew tears from the spectators on its exhibition 
at the Koval Academy;) the monument of Sir 
Eyre Coot'in Westminster Abbey ; the nwnumcnts 
of captains Westcott and Falconer, in St. Paul's 
Cathedral; the Death of a Giant, in the Council 
Room of the Boval Academy, and some works he 
executed in Russia. His most capital perform- 
ance, a colossal statue, representin.o; Achilles 
mournini? the loss of Briseis, now in the Hall of 
the British Institution, was never executed in mar- 
ble, but remains a noble monument of his genius, 
and a reproach to his country. 

" The merits of Banks," says the author before 
quoted, '• as an artist, are very high. He was the 
first of our native sculptors \yhose aims were imi- 
formly loftv and heroic ; and who desired to bring 
poetry to the aid of his compositions. The proofs 
of his genius must not be sought in those magni- 
ficent tasks called public monuments, where the 
subject matter is prescribed, and where perhaps 
the most that talents can hope for, is to escape 
public censure. Those who would have access to 
his happier inspirations must study his sketches — 
rough, it is true, but full of heroic feeling, and 
maidced with a vigor of sentiment akin to the 
wondrous m.arbles'^of Greece. In these, the man 
comes fullv out; we see that he has surrendered 
his whole .soul to those happier days of sculpture, 
in which the human figure was free and unshac- 
kled, and the dresses as well as the deeds of men 
were heroic; that the bearing of gods was famihar 
to his dreams. But the cold welcome which his 
poetic groups received from his country, prevent- 
ed him from expanding them into the size of life, 
and working them into enduring materials." 

BANNERMAN, Alexander, an English en- 
graver, born at Cambridge about 1730. He ex- 
ecuted some portraits for Lord Orford's Anecdotes 
of Painting, and several plates for Boydell's collec- 
tion ; among which are : Joseph interpreting Pha- 
raoh's Dream; after Spagnolet ; The Death of 
St. Joseph; of ter Velasquez ; Children dancing ; 
after Le Nain. 

BAPTIST, J., a Dutch engraver, who lived at 
Amsterdam about 1720. He executed, in a very 
• indifferent style, some of the plates for a collec- 
tion of prints published in that year at Amster- 
dam, entitled Figures de la Bible, from designs 
of Picart and others. 

BAPTIST, J. See Gaspars. 

BAQUOY, Maurice, a French engraver, who 
flourished about 1720. He engraved a set of vig- 
nettes for Pere Daniel's History of France, from 
the design of Boucher. We have also by him a 
set of landscapes and views, and a naval combat, 
after P. D. Martin, vrhich was one of the four 
battles engraved at Paris for the Czar Peter. 

BAQUOY, Jean, a French engraver, the_son 
of INIaurice B., was born at Paris about 1730. 
Among otb'"- book-plates, he cngi'aved a set of 
vignettes for the edition of Ovid's Metamorphoses 


published by Basan, which are executed in a neat 
and finished style. 

BAQUOY, Pierre Charles, a French engraver, 
born at Paris in 1760, was son and pupil of the 
preceding artist. He engraved a midtitude of 
plates for the book publishers, executed in a very 
beautiful manner. He engraved all the plates for 
the elegant edition of the works of Racine, after 
designs by ]Moreau and Monsian. Also for the 
supel-b edition of Roman History in quarto, after 
designs by Jlyris, published by the government 
for tlie instruction of the children of the Royal 
Family. His other principal works are : 

Two portrait?, Charles Gravir, and the Count of Vcrgen- 
ncs ; St. Vincent de Paul Kecelving a Child ; Fenelon suc- 
coring the Wounded Soldiers ; two plates, Diana and her 
Nymphs, and the Death of Adonis; after Poussin. Tour 
Landscapes; after J B. Bernard. La Ruine ; after ^^ 
Watfeau. His greatest work is the martyrdom of St. 
Gervaise and St. Protals ; after Le Sueur. He died at 
Paris in 1829. 

BAR, Nicolas, a celebrated French historical 
painter, who was born in Barrois, but passed most 
of his life at Rome, where he was known by the 
name of Signor Nicoletto. He was a descendant 
of the Maid of Orleans, and flourished in the latter 
part of the 17th century. He is said to have 
painted a great many easel pictm-es of Virgins, 
Madonnas, &c., in a style of excellence. He also 
painted some pictures for the Primatial church at 
Nancy. He died at Rome, but the time is not 

BAR, called Nicolas de Lys, was a son of the 
preceding artist, born at Rome and studied under 
his father. This artist took the name of de Lys, 
accorded to his ancestors by Charles YIL, in mem- 
ory of Joan of Arc. In 1710 he went to Lorraine, 
where he resided till his death, in 1732. This 
artist painted many pictures in the Italian style 
for the convents and churches of Nancy. There 
are also many of his works in the private gal- 
leries of France, where they are highly esteemed. 
BARA. or BARRA. John, a Dutch engraver, 
born in 1572. He pi;blished some plates in Eng- 
land, dated 1624 and 1627. He seems to have 
imitated the works of the Sadelers, but he was 
far inferior to them. He worked entirely with 
the graver, in a stiff and labored manner. The 
following are his principal prints : 

Christian II., Elector of Saxony ; J. Bara, fee. et exc 
1605. Prince Maurice of Nas.sau-Orange ; Joachim 
Count of Ortenhourg ; Lodowick, Duke of Richmond anc 
Lenox, 1624 ; Bust of a Man, with Two Figures represent- 
ing Literature and Painting, 1622. A Landscape, witl 
Phreton demanding of .'VpoUo the conduct of his Car, J 
Bara, inv. et sc. The Hist, of Tobit, in three Landscapes 
Christ and his Disciples going to Emmaus ; a Land.scnpc 
with Susanna and the Elders; Joh. Bara fecit, LoncJini 
1627. A Landscape, with Two Men carrying the Trunl 
of a Tree ; Susanna and the Elders ; //. Goltius, inv. 
Barra, sc., 1598; .scarce. Bathsheba Bathing; after c 
painter whose initials are G. TV. The Parable of thi 
Sower; Ab., inv.; Jo. Bara, sc. Herodias 
with the Head of St. .John ; after John van Alcen, in.scribei 
Quid mater mali, if-c. Soiaie grotesque ornaments, /ro;? 
Nicasius Rousseel, marked Jolin Barra, sculp., Londini 

BARAB^, , a French engraver of some 

merit, who flourished about 1760. He executec 
some prints of architectural subjects. /}'oni desigm 
of G. M. Dumont. 

BARABBINO, Simone, an Italian painter, bori 
near Genoa, about 1585. He studied under Ber 




nardo Castello, and manifested such great abilities 
that the latter became jealous and expelled him 
from his school. Directly after, he painted a picture 
of St. Diego for the Nunziata del Guatasto, which, 
according to Soprani, is equal to the works of Cas- 
tello. Not being sufficiently encouraged at Genoa, 
he went to Milan, where he gained abundant en- 
couragement. One of his best works is the Dead 
Christ with the Virgin, St. ^Michele, and St. An- 
drea, in the Church of S. Girolarao. Zani says he 
was living in 1664. 

BARATTI, Antonio, an Italian designer and 
engraver, born at Florence about 1727. He ex- 
ecuted some plates for a volume of prints, from 
the collection of pictures belonging to the INIarquis 
Gerini, published at Florence in 1759. He also 
engraved a portrait of John Bettini Cignarolli; 
q/"i'.?r Rosa. 

BARAUDIE, Le, an Italian engraver, a native 
of Florence, who lived about 1638. He executed 
among other works, several plates of designs and 
ornnments for gardens, published at Paris in 1638, 
hy ^lichacl van Lochon. 

BARBALUNGA, Antonio Ricci, a Sicilian 
parater. born at Messina in 1600. He studied 
at Rome under Doraenichiuo, whose admirable 
style he imitated with success. He executed two 
pictures at Rome for the church of the Theatines, 
representing St. Gaetano and St. Andrea Avellino, 
which are worthy of the school of Zampieri. He 
returned to [Messina, where he executed many ex- 
cellent paintings. He established a school in that 
city which produced several distinguished scholars, 
among whom were D. Marolli, 0. Gabriello. and 
Agostino Scilla. This artist ranked as one of the 
best Sicilian painters. 

BARBARELLI, Giorgio, called Gioegione, 
a distinguished Italian painter, born at Castel- 
franco, near Trevigi. in 1477. He early manifested 
a strong inclination for art, and was placed in the 
school of Giovanni Bellini, at Venice, where Titian 
soon after became his fellow student. He soon 
manifested, great ability, and was the first of the 
Venetian painters that broke through the timid 
and constrained style that prevailed at the time 
of the Bellini, and introduced a freedom of out- 
line, a boldness of handling, and a vigorous effect 
of chiaro-scuro, which were unknown before liim. 
His characters were dignified, his masses of light 
and shadow were broad and .simple, his coloring 
rich and harmonious, and he was the first to intro- 
duce that admirable blending of tints, which con- 
stitutes the chief magic of Venetian coloring. Pie 
gained his principal improvement from the study 
of the works of Leonardo da Vinci ; and from 
them he acquired the extraordinary breadth of ef- 
fect, and the wonderfii.1 relief, for which his works 
are distinguished. His coloring was soft as well 
as vigorous, and in his carnations he sometimes ap- 
proached the tenderness and truth of Correggio. 
His pictures were gTcatly admired by Titian, who 
for some time followed his style. Giorgione was 
greatly distinguished for his admirable portraits. 
His works in this branch of the art are character- 
ized by grace, dignit}--. expression, and truth of 
character ; and he may be ranked among the great- portrait painters. Most of his frescos have 
perished, and those which remain are greatly in- 
jured, so that little of their original excellence is 

cUscernible. Of his oil paintings the principal are : 
The picture of St. Omobono, in the School of 
Sarti. at Venice; Christ bearing his Cross, in the 
Church of S. Roch ; and in the school of S. IMarco, 
a picture of that Saint appeasing the Tempest ; at 
Trevigi, in the -Monte di Pieta is a» admirable pic- 
ture of a Dead Christ. One of his most esteemed 
works is the Finding of Moses, in the archiepisco- 
pal palace at Milan. Giorgione died of the plague 
in 1511, aged 34 years. 

BARBATELLI, Bernardino, called Poccetti, 
an Italian painter, born at Florence, according to 
Moreni. in 1548. He studied under Michcle Ri- 
dolfo del Ghirlandajo, but after leaving that school 
he went to Rome, and studied the works of Raffa- 
elle and other eminent painters. On returning to 
Florence he became quite eminent. His works 
were distinguished for richness of composition, ele- 
gance and grace ; and the draperies, fruit and flow- 
ers, landscapes, and other accessories which he in- 
troduced into his historical pieces, have been highly 
praised. But few of his works remain in Florence, 
except frescos ; and in this branch of the art he 
equalled many Italian painters. P. da Cortona said 
it was surprising that he was not sufficiently es- 
teemed in his day ; and whenever Mengs went to 
Florence, he carefully studied his works. He is 
said to have been of a whimsical disposition, choos- 
ing his companions from the lowest society,' assim- 
ilating himself to them, and treating the higher 
classes with insolence or contempt. He died in 

BARBAULT, Jean, a French painter and en- 
graver, born, according to Nagler, at Paris. He 
lived at Rome about 1760. Little is known of him 
as a painter, but Basan says he engraved a set of 
prints of the antiquities of Rome, and a few etch- 
ings, among which is the Martyrdom of St. Peter, 
after Peter Suhleyras. 

BARBE, , a Flemish engraver, born at Ant- 
werp about 1585. He is supposed to have studied 
under the Wierixes, from the great similarity of 
their styles. He visited Italy and became proficient 
in drawing, which may account for his surpassing 
most Flemish engravers in this respect. After his 
return home, he executed some small and middle- 
sized plates, in a very neat and agreeable style. 
Vandyck painted his portrait, which was engraved 
by Bolswert. The following is a list of his prints : 


The^^ Annunciation ; inscribed Spiritus sanctus. The 
Nativity ; inscribed Peperitfilium. The Virsjin Mary and 
St. Joseph arriving at Bethlehem ; inscribed Et redinavit 
turn, i^-c. The Virgin suckling the Infant Jesus, in a gar- 
land of flowers ; inscribed Beatus venter, t^c. Christ on 
the IMount of Olives ; In diebus, if c Gin-ist and the Dis- 
ciples at Emmaus ; Et ajyerti sunt, cf-c. The Crucifixion ; 
Proke fill, cj"-c. St. Ignatius kneeling before an Altar. 
Four Emblematical Subjects of the Christian Virtues. 


Tho Repose in Egypt, St. Joseph presenting an Apple to 
the Infant ; after J. B. Paa:gi. The Holy Family, with 
the Infant Jesus embracing St. Joseph ; after Rubens ; fine 
and scarce before the name of Rubens. Twenty-six plates 
of the Life and Miracles of Father Gabriel Maria, founder 
of the Annunciades; entitled Ttieatrum vitaw, virtutes, 
tf-c, with his Portrait ; after Ah. van Diepenbeck. The 
Virgin seated on a Throne, holding the Infant, with a Bird; 
after Franciscus Franck. 

BARBELLO, Gio. Giacomo, an Italian painter, 
born at Cremona in 1590. Pasta praises him 

BARB. 70 

greatly for his paintings in the churches at Ber- 
gamo, especially for an altar-piece in S. Lazaro, 
representing the titular Saint, commendable for its 
dignity of character, and decision of hand. 

BARBTANI. Andrea, an Italian painter, born 
at Ravenna aljout 1G80. ' Lanzi thinks he studied 
under P. Cesare Pronti, in whose style he painted 
sulijects of history. There are some of his works 
in the churches and public edifices at Ravenna and 
Rimini, which stamp him a good artist ; the best 
of them are the Four Evangelists, in the vault of 
the cathedral at Ravenna. "He died in 1754. aged 
about 74. 

BARBIANI, Gio. Battista. an Italian painter, 
born at Ravenna, and flourished about 1635. From 
his style it is thought he studied under Bartolo- 
meo Cesi. His finest oil paintings are at Bologna, 
being two of St. Andrea and St. Giuseppe at the 
Franciscans ; and St. Agata in the church of that 
name. His best fresco painting is the Assump- 
tion of the Virgin, in the dome of the chapel of Our 
Lady del Sudore, at Ravenna, which Lanzi says 
will compare favorably with the cupola in that city, 
painted by Guido. 

French historical and portrait painter, born at 
Nismes in 17G9. He studied under David. He 
executed a number of historical works, besides 
several portraits of the famous French generals. 

BARBIERE, Domenico del, an Italian painter 
and engraver, born at Florence about 1500. He 
was instructed by il Rosso, who took him on a 
visit to France, where he was invited by Francis I. 
to adorn the palaces Fontainblcaii and Mcudon^ 
in which his pupil greatly assisted him. Barbiere 
was employed, after the death of Primaticcio, to 
execute some fresco paintings after the designs of 
that master. His plates, though valued for their 
rarity, have little merit, for they are sometimes 
execute<l entirely with the graver, in a clumsy, 
awkward manner ; and his etchings are no bet- 
ter. He is occasionally confounded with Domen- 
ique Barriere, from the similarity of name ; but 
their styles are so totally different that the error 
will easily be corrected. He sometimes marked 
his plates with Domenico del Barbiere, Fioren- 
ti7io, sometimes D. F., and sometimes with one 
of the following monograms : 

del., i>iv., or 

F., or 

The following are his principal prints : 
An Angel standing on a Globe, holding two Trumpets ; 
inscribed Domenico del Barbiere fiorentir.o. The Re- 
pose in Egypt, with some Angels, marked D. F. The 
Stoning of Stephen ; Domenico Fiaren.tino. Christ taken 
down from the Cross ; after Salviati, without the name of 
the painter, marked with his cipher. Amphiara raising a 
Storm against iEneas ; after Primaticcio, without the 
name of the painter ; inscribed Amphirao. Venus, Mars, 
and Cupid ; after il Rosso, marked D. F. A Banquet ; 
after Frimaiiccio, signed Dom. Fiorentino. 

BARBIERI, Francesco, called Da Legnano, 
an Italian painter, born in a fortress called Leg- 
nano, near Brescia, in 1G23. He was intended for 
the military profession, but showing great taste for 
painting, he was placed under Bernardino Gandini, 
whom he soon left, and entered the school of Pietro 
Ricchi, a pupil of Guido Reni, under whose instruc- 
tion he acquired eminence. He painted landscapes 
and history both in oil and in fresco. All his 


works showed a ready invention, and wonderful 
facility of execution. Orlandi says he died at Ve- 
rona in 1G98. 

BARBIERI, Paolo Antonio, an Italian painter, 
born at Cento, a village near Bologna, in 151*0. He 
was the brother of Gio. Francesco B., called Gucr- 
cino. He usually painted flowers, fruit, and game, 
and he represented fish in the most truthful man- 
ner. He died in 1040. 

BARBIERI, Giovanni Francesco, called 
GuERCiNO, an Italian painter of great eminence, 
was born at the village of Cento, in the country of 
Ferrara, in 1590. Malvasia says he was called 
Guercino from having lost his right eye during in- 
fancy, by an accident occasioned by the negligence 
of a nurse. Before he was ten years old, he painted 
a figure of the Virgin on the fa9ade of his father's 
hovise, which would have been thought a very re- 
markable prodtiction even at a more advanced age. 
It is asserted that he studied under the Caracci j 
but this can hardly be true, both from the time in 
which he lived, and the wide difference in their 
styles. Lanzi says he was not a scholar of the 
Caracci, but that he was instructed by two ob.scure 
painters, Gio. Battista Cremonini, and Benedetto 
Gennari the elder. Barbieri was a self-taught 
artist. He often spoke very highly of the great 
work of Lodovico Caracci at the Capuchins at 
Cento, and probably derived much advantage from 
its study. At different periods of his life he fol- 
lowed three different styles. In early life he seems 
to have imitated Michael Angelo Caravaggio in his 
violent contrasts of light and shadow, the works, 
of that master being then highly esteemed ; and 
though always superior to him in design, and in 
dignity of character, yet his first works were char- 
acterized by the false jjrinciples, and something of 
the vulgarity of the latter. After visiting Bologna, 
Venice, and Rome, he chose a style distinguished 
by a grander and more elevated taste of design, 
more amenity and sweetness in the coloring, the 
heads finely expressed, with a wonderful relief, free 
from harsh or violent contrast. Such are his cele- 
brated pictures of St. Petronilla, formerly in St. 
Peter's ; the Aurora, in the Casino at the villa Lu- 
dovisi ; St. PhiHp of Neri, in the Chiesa Nuova, at 
Rome ; the Resurrection, at Cento ; and S. Elena^ 
at the Mendicanti, in Venice. It was at this pe- 
riod, in the middle of his life, that he commenced 
his stupendous work of the dome of Piacenza, 
which from the beauty and strength of its color- 
ing, the boldness of the foreshortning and the 
magic of its relief, may be called the perfection 
of fresco painting. The cupola has eight compart- 
ments, in the upper part of which are the Prophets, 
accompanied by Angels, and in the lower, the Sibyls, 
and siibjects from the New Testament. These 
wonderful performances stamp him one of the 
greatest artists of his time. But in his finest 
works we find no graces of ideal beauty, and by no 
means the purest choice of nature. There is gen- 
erally something lacking in the expression of his 
heads, and his. figures have neither dignity of form, 
or nobleness of mein; but his powerful coloring 
counteracts this in a great measure, and his brilliant 
lights, tender demi-tints, and strong .shadows, pro- 
duce an extraordinary effect. His drawing is bold 
and frequently correct, and his facility of execution 
is most wonderful, as is evident from the great 
uumber of his works. Malvasia gives a list of one 




hundred and six altar-pieces for the churches, one 
hundred and forty-four large historical pictures, 
besides his great fresco works, and numerous I\Ia- 
donnas, portraits and landscapes in private collec- 
tions. Later in life, after the death of Guide, the 
great fiime of that painter induced him again to 
change his style ; but in attempting the elegance 
and grace of Guide's forms, and the delicacy of his 
coloring, he fell into feebleness and languor, losing 
that powerful energy which characterizes his best 
works. In this weak style he painted most of his 
works for the churches at Bologna, also the Marriage 
of the Virgin, in S. Paterniano, at Faro ; the An- 
nunciation, at Forli ; and the Prodigal Son, in the 
Royal Palace of Turin. lie left an immense num- 
ber of excellent drawings, which are highly valued. 
King George lY. possessed a large collection of 
these drawings, some of which have been finely 
engraved by JBartolozzi. He died in IGGG. There 
are some etchings by this artist, executed with 
great freedom and spirit, among which are the fol- 
lowing : Bust of a Man, with a cap and beard ; Bust 
of a Woman ; Bust of a IMan, in oriental costume ; 
St. Peter, Joan F. BarbieriJ. ; St. Jerome, with 
a Crucifix, same mark; St. John, Joan Fr., Cent.; 
St. Anthony, same mark. 

BARBIERI, LucA, a Bolognese painter of land- 
scapes and architecture, and a scholar of Alessan- 
dro Tiarini. He executed several important works 
for the palaces and public buildings at Bologna, in 
concert with Francesco Carboni, who painted the 

BARCA, or BARCHI, Cav. Giambatista, an 
Italian painter, who lived about 1G50. He was 
born at IMantua, but became a citizen of Verona. 
His works were replete with grace and beauty, 
and both Lanzi and Zani give him credit for great 
ability. Some have supposed him to have studied 
under D. Feti, but this is not known with cer- 
tainty, as his style varied at different periods. 

BARCA, Don Vincente Calderon de la, a 
Spanish painter, born at Guadalaxara in 1762. He 
studied under Don Francesco Goya, and gained 
distinction fo?' his portraits and historical subjects, 
in the former of which he especially excelled. The 
Birth of St. Norbert in a college at Avila, is his 
best historical work. He died in 1794, aged 32. 

BARCO, Alonso del, a Spanish land.scape 
painter, born at Madrid in 1G45. He studied un- 
der Antolinez ; Palomino Velasco says he was 
a distinguished painter of landscapes, many of 
which are in the palaces and private collections 
at Madrid. He died there in 1G85. 

BARDIN, Jean, a French historical painter, 
born at Montbar in 1732. He was first instructed 
by the elder Lagrenee, but finished his studies at 
Rome. He was sent by his parents to Paris to 
learn a trade, but his genius guided him to the pro- 
fession for which nature had intended him. On 
returning to Paris, he acquired considerable emi- 
nence ; and his picture of Christ disputing with 
the Doctors, gained him admission into the Acad- 
emy of France in 1795. His subjects partake of 
poetry, history, and religion. He taught David 
and Regnault the prmciples of the art. He died 
in 1809. 

BARDON, Michel Francois D' Andre, a 
French historical painter and engraver, born at 
Ais, in ProA'^eiice, in 1700, and died at Marseilles 

in 1783. He studied in the school of Vanloo. 
Heineken speaks of some prints engraved by thi:; 

BARDUCCI, v., an Italian engraver, who flour- 
ished about 17G8, and executed, among othei 
works, a portrait of Pascal Paoli, the Corsican 

BARDWELL, Thomas, an English portrait 
painter. He executed several portraits of the em- 
inent men of his day, and wrote a book called 
The Practice of Painting and Perspective made 
Easy. He died about 1773. 

BARENTSEN, Dirk, a Dutch painter, born at 
Amsterdam in 1534, was the son of an obscure 
artist, who taught him the elements of design. At 
the age of twentj'-one, he visited Venice, where the 
famous Titian received him into his school, and fa- 
vored him with his kindness and friendship. He 
executed a fine portrait of that great master, which 
gained him much reputation. Having remained 
under his tuition for seven years, he returned to 
Holland, where he met with great success as a por- 
trait painter ; and executed several works for the 
churches. The style he had acquired from Titian, 
was a great advantage to him in portrait painting; 
and in this branch of the art, he was thought the 
best Dutch painter of his time. Among his finest 
works of history was an altar-piece, which he exe- 
cuted for the great church of Amsterdam, repre- 
senting the fall of Lucifer. During the religious 
troubles of Holland this painting was destroyed. 
Van Mander sa3''s he died in 1592. 

BARGAS, A. F., a Flemish designer and engra- 
ver, who lived about 1700. He etched a set of six 
landscapes from his own designs, A. F. Bargas. 
inv. etfec; and a set of four landscapes after Peter 
Bout, which are sometimes marked with the name 
of Bargas, and sometimes without it. 

Bx^RGONE, Giacomo, an Italian painter, born 
at Genoa, and studied under Andrea and Ottavio 
Semini. The outline of his figures was full of 
beauty and grace, his pencil rapid and free, and his 
dravring very correct. His genius excited the envy 
of Lazaro Calvi, a rival artist, who, according to 
Soprani, invited him to an entertainment, and gave 
him poisoned wine, causing his death in the prime 
of life. 

BARKER, Samuel, an English painter. Lord 
Orford says he was a relative of John Vanderbank. 
who instructed him in the art; but having a fine 
genius far painting fruit and flowers, he imitated 
Baptist, and would probably have become eminent 
in that branch of the art, had he not died young. 
in 1727. 

BARKER, Robert, an English painter of the 
last centurj-. He invented and painted manj^ pan- 
oramic views, the first of which was a view of Ed- 
inburg, exhibited in that city in 1788, and in Lon- 
don in 1789, where it e.xcited little attention. He 
next produced a view of London, which was highly 
praised by Sir Joshua Reynolds and others. 

BARKER, Benjamin, an English landscape 
painter, born in 17GG. His pictures are principally 
views taken from the vicinity of Bath. His skies 
are warm, and his chiaro-scuro is managed with 
considerable intelligence. He practised the art 
with success, and in the latter part of his life he 
published a volume of forty-eight views, executed 
in aquatinta by Thos. Fielding. He died in 1838. 



BARKER, Thomas, an English painter, 
born in 17(19. in [Mouinoiithshire. He was taken 
under the protection of Mr. Snanckman, an opu- 
lent coach builder at Bath, wlio gave him every 
opportunit}^ to follow the bent of his inclination. 
At the age of seventeen, ho painted a picture of the 
Woodman, which was greatly admired, and was 
afterwards sold to Mr. Macklin for 500 guineas. 
At the age of twenty-one, Spanckman sent him to 
Rome, where he remained several years; and after 
his return, he practised the art at Bath for many 
vears with consideraljle success. He was an occa- 
sional exhibitor at the Royal Academy for about 
liftv years, during which period he sent nearly one 
hundred pictures. His iwst work is thought to be 
the fresco painting on the wall of his own house m 
Bath re'u-esenting the Inroad of the Turks upon 
Scio, in April, 1822. Barker died in 1847. 

BARLOW. Francis, an English painter and 
ea^-raver. born m Lincolnshire, ' about 1G26, and 
the pupil of Sheppard, a portrait painter of little 
note. He painted fish, animals, and birds with 
great accuracy of design ; and had his touch and 
coloring been as good, his reputation in this branch 
would have been very great. The landscapes m 
his pictures are very well executed. Hollar en- 
craved a set of thirteen plates representing hunt- 
ings, &c., from designs of Barlow, which were very 
correctly drawn. Barlow executed some of the 
plates for Edward Benlow's divine poems, called 
Theophila. published in 1G52. There is a print 
by him representing an eagle in the air, with a cat 
in her talons, from a scene he witnessed in Scot- 
land. He published a translation of Esop's Fables, 
with 110 iilates. from his own designs. He often 
marked his plates F. B., sometimes enclosed in a 

BARNUEYO, Don Sebastian de IIerrera, a 
Spanish painter, sculptor and architect, born at 
Madrid, according to Palomino, in IGll. His fath- 
er, Antonio Herrera, was a sculptor, and taught 
hiln that art ; but as he manifested a taste for paint- 
in'--', he was placed under Alonso Cano, and became 
quite distinsuishcd in painting, sculpture, and ar- 
chitecture. "Many of his productions are to be 
found in the churches and convents at Madrid, the 
best of which among the paintings are the Beatifi- 
cation of St. Augustine, in the great chapel of the 
AusTustine Recolets ; and the Nativity, in_ the 
Church of St. Geronimo. He died at ]\Iadrid in 

BAROCCIO, or BAROCCI, Federigo, an Ital- 
ian painter of eminence, born at Urbino in 1528, 
died in 1G12. His father was Arabrogio Baroccio, 
a somewhat noted sculptor. His uncle, Bartolo- 
meo Genga, taught him the rules of perspective, 
and he studied under Battista Veneziano until twen- 
ty years old, when he visited Rome, where Car- 
dinal dcUa Rovcre favored him with his pro- 
tection, and received him into his palace, where 
Baroccio executed some fresco paintings, and the 
portrait of his patron. Having spent four years 
in Rome he returned to Urbino, where he execu- 
ted a picture of St. Margaret for the confraternity 
of the Holy Sacrament. This performance gained 
for him so much celebrity, that he was invited by 
Pius TV. to paint some ornaments m the Belve- 
dere palace where he renrcsented the Yirgm and 
Infant with several Saints ; and the Annunciation, 
on a ceiling in fresco. After finishing these and other 


works, he returned to Urbino, where he executed 
an admiral)le painting of the Descent from tlie 
Cross, ior the Cathedral of S. Lorenzo at Peru- 
gia. During the pontificate of Gregory XIII., he 
returned to Rome and painted two fine pictures 
for the Chiesa Nuova, representing the Visitation 
of the Virgin to Elizaljcth, and the Presentation 
in the Temple, which are thought his greatest ef- 
forts ; also a picture of the Last Supper, for the 
Chiesa dclla ]\Iinerva. Baroccio's works are ex- 
ecuted with elegant taste, and there is great amen- 
ity and harmony in his coloring. He secins to 
have imitated Correggio ; and though his figures 
are graceful, yet his style is somewhat afiected, 
and cannot for a moment be compared with the 
simple, touching beauty of that great master. The 
following is a list of his plates, which are correct- 
ly designed and beautifully expressed, though not 
executed in a finished manner : 

The Virgin liolding the Infant Saviour ; a fsmrJl phite, 
of -ivhich the lower part is left unfinished ; the Virgin in 
tlie Clouds, with the Infant .Jesus; marked F. B. V. F 
The Annunciation ; on the left of the print a Cat sleeping ; 
fine. St. Francis receiving the Stigmata ; the Virgin and 
our Saviour appearing to St. Francis ; a largo plate, arched. 
This is his principal plate. 

BARON", Bernard, an eminent French en- 
graver, born at Paris about 1700. He studied 
under Nicholas Henry Tardieu and followed his 
style. He executed several plates for the Crozut 
collection, and afterwards visited England, where 
he remained till his death, in 17G2. His plates, 
though coarsely engraved, have considerable merit. 
The following are his principal works: 


King Charles I. on Horseback, with the Duke d'Epcr- 
non, 1741; Charles I. and Queen, with two children; the 
Nassau Family, after Earl Cowper's picture; the Pem- 
broke Family, after the picture at Wilton ; Robert, Earl 
of Caernarvon, in the same collection; Anna Sophia, 
Countess of Caernarvon; after Vandyck. Henry YIIl. 
o-ranting the Charter to the Surgeons' Company ; after 
'Holbein. The Family of Vandyck; after the Earl of 
Pembroke's picture. George, Prince of W.ales, on Horse- 
back ; after Adolph. Cornelius Tromp, Vice- Admiral of 
Holland; after J. Vanderbank. Doctor Meinl ;^the Lord 
Chancellor Hardwick ; after A. Ramscnj. The Chief Jus- 
tice Reve ; after J. Amiconi. The Cornaro Family ; af- 
ter Titian; the picture is in Northumberland House. 
Dr. Benjamin Hoadly, Bishop of AVinchestcr ; after Ho- 
garth. 1743. 


Nine plates of the Life of Achilles, with the titles ; after 
Rubens; dedicated to Dr. Mead. Bclisarins; incorrectly 
called after Vandyck. Charles I. escaping from Hampton 
Court- "after J. d'Angelis. Jupiter and Antiope ; after 
Titian -for the Crozat collection. This is considered his 
best performance. Pan and Syrinx; after Nic. Bertin. 
The Card-players; the Temptation of St. Anthony; after 
D Tenters. The Italian Comedians ; the Companion ; 
the Two Cousins; Soldiers plundering a Village; tlio 
Peasants revenged; after Waiteau. St. Cecilia; after 
Carlo Dolci. Moses exposed on the Nile ; after le Sueur. 

BARON. Jean, or BARONIUS, a French 
eno-raver. born at Toulouse in 1G31, and some- 
times called Tolosano, from his birth-place. He 
resided chiefly at Rome, where he engraved several 
plates of history and portraits, executed entirely 
with the graver^ in a neat but dry manner, and in- 
correctly drawn. The following are the principal : 


John de Planter et de la Pause, Bishop of Loudun ; the 
Cardinal Aquaviva; Leonardo Albe-rti, architect; Vito da 




Braraante, ai'cliitcot ; Criovrinni. Francesoo Rustic!, sculptor ; 
Marc' Antonio Kaimoncli, engraver; RaEfaelle d'Urbino; 
Leonardo da Vinci. 


The stoning of Stephen ; the Martyrdom of St. Andrew ; 
after Nicolo dell Abate. St. Peter and St. Paul in the 
Clouds ; after Ann. Caracci. The Virgin in Adoration ; 
after Guido Reni. The Virgin ; a small plate ; after 
Bernini. St. Romualdo, and Jlonks ; after Andrea Sac- 
chi. The Plague; after N. Poussin. 

BAROXI, Cav. Gaspare Antonio, a reputable 
Italian painter, born at Roveredo in 1082. He was 
a pupil of Balestra, whose st3'le he adopted. He 
executed five admired works in fresco, for the choir 
of the Church of the Carmelites in that city. The 
Count Venetti has written his life, and given an 
account of his works, published at Yerona in 1781, 
Svo., in which he extols him as an extraordinary 
genius ; but other authors class him only as an 
artist of the third order. He had the faults of 
Balestra without possessing his talents. His best 
works are the prophets Elijah and Elisha, and the 
Last Supper, which last is in the Church of Notre 
Dame di Loretto. He died in 1759. 

BAROXI, Giuseppe, a Venetian engraver, who 
flourished about 1720. lie engraved some large 
plates in a coarse heavy style, after the Venetian 

BAROZZI DA VIGXOLA, Giacomo, an Ital- 
ian architect of great eminence, was born in 1507, 
at Vignola, in the territory of Modena. His fother, 
Clemente Barrozzi, a resident of Milan, had left that 
city in consequence of its civil discords, and retired, 
with his wife, to Vignola. Giacomo, while young, 
studied painting at Bologna, but not succeeding, 
he turned his attention to perspective, and at 
length collected all the rules on that subject into 
cue treatise, which is well known. At the same 
time, he studied architecture ; and visited Rome, 
where he measured nearl}^ all the ancient edifices 
that still remained in that citj^. In his latter days, 
he produced a valuable treatise on the five orders 
of arclii lecture, which has become the alphabet 
of architects. While pursuing these studies, he 
resumed his pencil for support, but received so 
little profit from it, that he became disgusted with 
painting, and undertook to make drawings for the 
use of the new Academy of Architecture at Rome. 

II Primaticcio having arrived from Fi-ance to col- 
lect antiquities. Vignola gave him a number of 
drawings of ancient monuments, and returned with 
him to France, where he resided several years, and 
made many designs for edifices, which, in conse- 
quence of the civil wars, were never executed. On 
returning to Bologna, he made a design for the 
fa9ade of San Petronio, which was preferred to 
man}^ others, and received the conunendations of 
Giulio Romano, Cristofaro Lombardo, architect of 
the cathedral at ]\Iilan. He erected a magnificent 
pakce at Jlinerbio, near Bologna, for the Count 
Isolani ; the house of Achille Bochi ; the beautiful 
facade of the bank, and the canal of Xavilio at Bo- 
logna. Not being adequately rewarded for the lat- 
ter works, he withdrew to Piacenza, where he de- 
signed the ducal palace ; and, after laying the foun- 
dations, left it to the execution of his son Giacinto. 
Vignola erected the churches of Mazzano di Sant' 
Oreste. and della Madonna degli Angeli, in Assisi ; 
and the elegant chapel in the Church of San Fran- 
cesco, at Perugia. 

On his returning a second time to Rome, 

Giorgio Vasari presented him to Julius III., who 
had known Vignola at Bologna when legate to that 
citjr. He appointed hiin his architect, gave him the 
direction of the waters of Trevi, and ordered him 
to decorate his villa. Vignola erected a small 
temple on the Via Flaminia, in the antique stjde, 
called Sant' Andrea di Ponte Molle. He improved 
for the Signori de' Monti, the palace which after- 
wards became the property of the Grand Duke of 
Tuscany, and commenced another palace for the 
same nobleman. The cardinal Alessandro Farnese 
was much attached to Vignola, and employed him 
in the Farnese Palace; also to erect the beautiful 
Corinthian door at San Lorenzo and Damaso. He 
designed the magnificent church of the Jesuits, and 
carried the edifice up as far as the cornice. The 
Caparola Palace was erected by Vignola, and is tlie 
most stately and magnificent work of this great 
man. It is about thirty miles from Rome on the 
Viterbo side, in a mountainous and desolate region. 
After the death of IMichael Angelo, he was ap- 
pointed architect of St. Peter's, and erected the 
two beautiful lateral cupolas. 

The Baron Martirani had collected twenty-two 
designs by tlie most eminent architects of the age, 
for the Palace of the Escurial. While at Rome, 
he shewed them all to Vignola, who, by combining 
their various excellences, and uniting his own 
ideas, produced so beautiful a whole, that Philip 
II. immediately decided upon it, and invited him 
to Spain to execute it, but his advanced age pre- 

Pope Gregory XIII. employed Vignola to settle 
the difference between him and the grand duke 
concerning the boundaries of their estates near 
Citta di Castello, which he executed with judgment 
and integrity. He had scarcely returned to Rome 
when he died, aged G6. His body was carried, 
with great honors, by the members of the Acad- 
emy of Drawing, to the Pantheon. "It is but," says Aviler, " that the greatest admirer of 
ancient architecture should have his sepulchre in 
the most magnificent edifice of antiquity." 

Vignola formed a system, and prescribed rules 
of architecture that have been of immense advan- 
tage to the science. He was fertile in invention, 
elegant in his ornaments, and majestic in his ar- 
rangements. As to his per.sonal disposition, he 
was prompt to assist others, patient, cheerful, and 

BARRA, or BARA, John, a Dutch painter and 
engraver. His initials, preceded by the Cross of 
Lorraine, are found on prints engraved after X^ic- 
olas Roussel, which represent arabesques. Heine- 
ken describes several of his works, dated from 1598 
to 1G32; and some of his prints have the word 
Londini. where he died, according to Walpole, 
in 1634.' • 

BARRABAUD. Pierre Paul, was born at Au- 
busson in 1707. He was one of the most distin- 
guished painters of birds and natural history that 
France has produced. He was the son of a poor 
man, a workingman in a carpet manufactory. At 
an early age he exhibited a remarkable disposition 
for drawing, and at sixteen j-ears of age went to 
Paris, where he entered the studio of ]\]alaine, de- 
signer and painter for the Gobelins ; but he soon 
surpassed his master, and taking nature for his 
guide, he rose to the highest excellence. The cel- 
ebrated traveler and naturalist, Le Vaillant, em- 




ployed him to draw and paint his birds, and he 
l)ainted all the pairots and birds of paradise for 
that savan's History of the Birds of Africa. He 
now found himself overwhelmed with commissions ; 
but laborious, and working with extraordinary fa- 
cility, he was enabled to furnish all the designs, 
colored to life, for Buffbn's Natural History, pub- 
lished by Sonnini ; also for Latreille's Natural 
History of Insects. He also rendered important 
services in getting out the great work on Egypt, 
published by the Government. He executed nu- 
merous designs for the porcelain manufactory at 
Sevres, which greatly contributed to its reputa- 
tion. He painted a portable cabinet for Joseph 
Buonaparte which was greatly admired, and he 
was ordered by Napoleon to decorate the dining 
room at St. Cloud. In 1808, he obtained a gold 
medal for two birds, which he placed in the exhi- 
bition, and which were bought by the Empress 
Josephine for Malmaison. In 1809, a decree of 
government appointed him professor of the School 
of xVrts, at Lyons, where he fell sick and died soon 
after his arrival, October 1, 1809, aged 42, deeply 

BARRAS, Sebastien, a French engraver, born 
at Aix, in Provence, in 1G80. Ileineken says that 
the tirst edition of the collection ofBoyer cV Aiguil- 
les contained twentj'^-two plates in mczzotinto, en- 
graved by this master, and that they were replaced 
in the second edition by engravings of Ooelmans. 
These are very scarce. 

BARRET, George, an eminent landscape paint- 
er, born at Dublin in 1728, died in 1784. His 
protector, Mr. Burke, introduced him to the pa- 
tronage of the Earl of Powerscourt, and during 
much of his 3'^outh, he studied and designed 
the scenery around Powerscourt Park. He soon 
after gained the prize offered by the Dublin Ac- 
ademy, for the best landscape ; and in 1762 went 
to London, where, two years after, he gained the 
£50 premium offered by the Society for the En- 
couragement of Arts, &c. He was one of the 
prime movers, and earliest members of the Royal 
Academy. His works are faithful delineations of 
nature, and executed with admirable taste; his 
coloring is excellent, and he has perfectly repre- 
sented the richness and dewy freshness of Eng- 
lish scenery. This sometimes tempted him to use 
colors rich and beautiful when first applied, but 
which no art can render jjcrmanent, His land- 
scapes are to be found in several collections of the 
nobility ; but his chief works are in the possession 
of the Dukes of Portland and Buccleugh ; and the 
great room of Mr. Lock, at Norbury Park in Sur- 
rey, which is a continuous scene painted entirely 
round. He executed a few spirited etchings of his 
works as follow: A View of the Dargles near 
Dublin ; a set of six Views of Cottages near Lon- 
don ; a large landscape, with Cottages; a View of 
Hawarden Castle ; dated 1778. 

BARRETT, Ranelagh, an English painter, 
mentioned by Lord Orford as an excellent copy- 
ist. He was favored with the patronage of Sir 
Rol)ert Walpole. and succeeded well in copying 
Rubens. He copied several works for Walpole's 
collection; also for those of the Duke of Devon- 
shire, and Dr. Meade. He died in 1768. 

BARRI, GiACOMO, a Venetian painter and en- 
graver, who lived about 1650. He etched a slight 
free plate of the Nativity, after P. Veronese; also 

some plates from his own designs; and in 1651, 
he published a work of some merit, entitled Viag- 
gio Piltoresco d? Italia. 

BBARRIERE, Dominique, an ingenious 
French engraver born at Marseilles, about 
1622. He resided chiefly at Rome, where he ex- 
ecuted a considerable number of prints, in a very 
agreeable style, after Claude and other landscape 
painters. They ai-e neatly executed, in the style 
of Stephen della Bella. He sometimes signed his 
plates with his name Dominicus Barriere Massi- 
liensis, and sometimes with his monogram, which 
is the same as that used hy Domcnico del Bar- 
biere ; which has often occasioned mistakes, though 
their stjdes are totally different. The following 
are his principal works : 

Portrait of John do la Valette ; marked D. B. ; scarce. 
A sot of six Landscapes ; Rossi exc. A set of twelve Land- 
scapes ; dedicated to Lelio Orsini. 1651. Seven Views 
of tlie Villa Aldobrandini, 1649 ; Dominicus Barriere 
Massiliensis. A Landscape, with the Zodiac ; inscribed 
Vivi prqfert uhi, &c. A View of Frascati ; Pontana 
magiore net Giardino di 'rivoli, with his cipher. Eigh- 
ty-four Views and Statues of the Villa Pamphili ; Rossi, 
exc. Four; entitled Catafalco e aparato nella chiesa, 
&c. Sepulchral Monument of N. L. Plumbini; Doviini- 
cus Barriere Galhis, in. ex. del. et scul. Hercules, after 
a basso relievo in the Medicean Garden. A large plate ; 
entitled Circum Urbis Agonalibus, &c., with many Fig- 
ures, 1650 ; Dominicus Barriere, Mass. del et scul. Sev- 
eral plates of the History of Aj^oUo ; after the pictures by 
Domenickino and Viola. 

BARROSO, Miguel, a Spanish painter and archi- 
tect, was born at Oonsuegra in 15o8. As an archi- 
tect he is little entitled to consideration. He stud- 
ied painting in the school of Becerra, according to 
Palomino, and executed for Philip II., in the prin- 
cipal cloister of the Escurial, the Resurrection, 
Christ appearing to the Apostles, the Descent of 
the Holy Ghost, and St, Paul Preaching. His 
compositions are coiiious, and his design correct, 
with great intelligence of chiai'O-scuro. Bermudez 
says he was occasionally deficient in vigor and 
knowledge of chiaro-scuro ; but that his forms are 
those of Correggio, and his color that of Baroccio. 
He died at Madrid in 1590. 

BARRY, James, an eminent historical painter 
of the British school, born at Cork, in Ireland, in 
1741. He was the son of a shipmaster, and edu- 
cated in the school of Mr. West, at Dublin, where, 
at the age of twenty-two, he gained the prize for 
a historical picture, representing the arrival of St. 
Patrick on the coast of Cashel. His merit gained 
him the friendship of Mr. Edmund Burke, who 
induced him to go to London, and afterwards fur- 
nished him the means to go to France and Italy, 
where he studied with great assiduit}', and painted 
some excellent works which gained him consider- 
able reputation, A\"hile at Bologna, he was made 
a member of the Clementine Academj-, on which 
occasion he painted his picture of Philoctetes in the 
isle of Lcmnos. He returned to England in 1770, 
and exhibited in the Roj-al Academy, his Adam 
I and Eve ; and the year following, his Venus Ana- 
dyomene, both of which were greatly admired. 

Barry was a singular genius, Avith an enthu- 
siasm for art that knew no bounds, and with an 
independence that brooked no dictation and sub- 
mitted to no slight or indignity; therefore it may 
be foreseen that his path through life would not be 
a flowery one. The patronage he met with af- 
forded him but a scanty maintenance; but his 




■wants were few, and nothing daunted his energy. 
When the members of the Roj'al Academy refused 
to accept the proposition made by the Societ3- for 
the Encouragement of Art. &c., to decorate their 
new Room in the Adelphi, on condition that a pub- 
lic exhibition shouhl remunerate the artists for 
their pictures, Barr}', without a shilling in his 
pocket, stept boldly forward and oifered his ser- 
vices to do the work. He gratuitously spent three 
years in the execution of those great paintings in 
fresco, living in a garret, and subsisting on the 
coarsest fjxre, b}^ the sale of an occasional drawing. 
At the completion of this noble work, the Society 
called an extraordinary meeting to view the pic- 
tures, which were highly approved ; and they 
passed a resolution. '■ that the series of paintings 
illustrating in their design, the Progress of Human 
Knowledge and the Advancement of useful and 
elegant Arts, from a very early period to the pre- 
sent, is a work of great execution and classical 
information, and must be deemed a national orna- 
ment, as well as a monument of the talents and 
ingenuity of the," and they voted him their 
thanks, and gave a public exhibition for his remu- 
neration, which brought the painter £503 2.5 ! Dr. 
Johnson, speaking of these pictures said, "they 
show a grasp of mind that you will find no where 
else." During the time of the exhibition, he pub- 
lished a description of them entitled. An account 
of a series of Paintinsrs in the Great Room of 
the Society of Arts. Manufactures, and Commerce, 
at th'^ Adeipi. by James Barry, R. A., Professor 
of Painting to the Royal Academy, 1783. 

Carry was elected a Royal Academician in 1777, 
and Professor of painting in that Institution, on 
the resignation of Mr. Penny, in 1782. But his 
natural independence, which led him to intem- 
perate language when excited, made a rupture be- 
tween him and the President, Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
which caused his removal from office, and finally 
his expulsion from the Academy. Barry strug- 
gled with his evil genius, poverty, and neglect, and 
died in the greatest indigence at London, Feb. 22d, 
180G. A short time before his death, the Earl 
of Buchan and other persons, who appreciated 
Barry's genius, raised a sum, by subscription, 
with which they purchased of Sir Robert Peel, a 
small annuity for Barry, of which intelligence was 
brought to the unfortunate artist in his dying mo- 
ments ! His body was now laid out in state, in 
the Great Room of the Adelphi ; his funeral was 
attended by manv eminent men, and his remains 
interred in St. Paul's Cathedral, with a tablet 
bearing this inscription : 

Great Historical Painter, 

•James Barry, 

Died 22d February. 1806, 

Aged 65. 

The principal works of this great artist are the 
series of great pictures in the Adelphi, which are 
best described by himself in his pamphlet, and 
which he terms a Series of Pictures on the Human 
Culture. The first represents the story of Or- 
pheus ; the second, a Harvest Home, or thanksgiv- 
ing to Ceres and Bacchus ; the third, the Victors 
at Olympia; the fourth, Navia:ation, or the Tri- 
umph of the Thames ; the fifth, the distribution 
of Premiums in the Society of Arts, &c. ; the sixth, 
the Elysium, or the state of final retribution, mak- 

ing three of tiie subjects poetical, the others hi.s- 
torical. The Elj-.sium and the Victors at Olym- 
pia are forty-two feat in length ; the other fou.r, 
fifteen feet six inches long ; the height of all of 
them is eleven feet six inches. His other best 
works are -Jupiter and -Juno ; Venus Anadyomene ; 
Job reproved by his Friends; the Conversion of 
Palemon ; King Lear, in the Shakspeare Gallery; 
the Archangel's triumph over Satan ; Satan rising 
from the fiery gulph and hurling defiance at the 
vault of Heaven; Battle of Satan and Death, Sin 
intei'fering ; Adam and Eve ; Temptation of Adam ; 
Adam and Eve after the Fall ; Birth of Venus ; 
Milton dictating to Alwood, the Quaker, &c. Bar- 
ry etched on copper most of his works. 

BARSAITI. Marco del Friuli, was a descend- 
ant of a Greek family of Friuli, and an eminent 
painter of his time. In the church of S. Giobbe 
is a picture of Christ praying in the Garden, paint- 
ed in 1510, highly extolled by Ridolfi and others. 
There are several of his works in the churches of 
Friuli, and one in particular, of the Vocation of St. 
Peter, in the church of the Certosa, which Lanzi says 
is one of the most beautiful pictures of the age. 
There is a duplicate of this picture in the Imperial 
gallery at Vienna. 

BARTELS, Gerard, a Dutch hi.storical and 
portrait painter of some merit, born in 1570. His 
works are probably ascribed to some more emi- 
nent master. 

BARTOLET. See Bart. Flemael. 

BARTOLI, Pietro Sante. called Perugino. an 
Italian painter and engraver, born at Perugia about 
1G35. In the early part of his life he practised 
painting, but afterwards devoted himself entirely 
to engravina:. His plates are etched in a very free 
and masterly style. He sometimes marked his 
prints with the initials of his name, with an F. for 
fecit, as P. B., F.; and more frequently with an 
abbreviation of his name, as Ptr. Ss. Bart., sc. 
RomcB. His prints number over a thousand, a co- 
pious list of which may be found in Nailer's Kiin- 
stler Lexicon. The following are his principal 
works : 

various antiquities, 

Adrniranda Roraanorum Antiquitatum ac veteris 
SculpturcB Vestigia ; eighty-three pLite.s. Romance 
magnitudiiiis Monumenta ; one hundred and thirty-eight 
plates. Veteres arcus Augiisfornm triv^mphis insignes ; 
fifty-two plates. Colonna di Marco Aurelio, tf-c. ; tha 
Antonine Column ; seventy-eight plates. Colonna Tra- 
jana, di Alfonso Ciacconi ; one hundred and twenty-eight 
plates. Sepolcri antichi Romani ed Elruschi trovati in 
Roma; one hundred and twenty-three plates. The Aque- 
duct that brinajs the Water from Civita A^ecehia ; four 
large plates. The Sepulchral Urn, in the Court of tho 
Capitol, The Antique Painting, called the Noce Aldrobnn- 
dini ; two sheets. Le Pitture antiche delle grotte di Ro- 
ma, (f-e. ; assisted by F. Bartoli ; ninety-four plates, IfiRiJ 
and 1706. Le antiche Lucerne sepolchrali in Roma, 1691 
and 1704 ; one hundred and nineteen plates. Antiquissimi 
Virgiliani Codicis fragmenta et picturce. 


After Raffaelle. — A set of friezes, subjects from the Bi- 
ble, "twelve plates ; another set of friezes from the same, fif- 
teen plates ; another set of friezes, inscribed Leonis X., cf-c, 
fifteen plates ; a set of ornaments and figures, inscribed 
Parerga atque ornameria in VaHcani, tf-c, forty-three 

After Giulio Romano. — Four, of .Jupiter, Mars, Mer- 
cury, and Diana ; a set of friezes ; Jupiter fulminating the 




After Lanfranco. — A set of several plates of the Life of 
St. iPeter. 


After liqfaelle.—Tho Adoration of the Magi, in three 

After G'mllo Romano. — Jupiter nui'sed by Amalthea ; 
Hyias carried off by Nymphs ; SophonLsba before Massi- 
nissa ; the Continence of Scipio. 

After P. F. Mola.—St. Juhn preceding Christ in the 

After Atbano.— The Birth of the Virgin. 

After ykolo BerretonL— The Marriage of the Virgin. 

After P. da Cortona. — Daniel in the Lions' Den. 

A^fter L. Caracci.— The Virgin and infant Christ in the 
Clouds, with Saints. 

After Ann. Caracci. — The Family of Coriolanus at his 
Feet; St. Charles Borromoo led by an Angel. 


St. Stephen with the Crown of Martyrdom ; St. Bernard 
enchaining the Devil ; Theatre erected in St. Peter's for the 
Canonization of two Saints ; the- sepulchral Monument of 
Pope Urban VIII., Petr. Sanct. Bartol., del. et scul. ; an 
ancient Mausoleum. 

BARTOLTNI, Gioseffo Maria, an Italian 
painter, born at Iniola in 1657. He first studied 
under Passinelli, whose style he somewhat im- 
itated. Ho possessed great facility of execution, 
and Lanzi says there are many of his works in the 
churches of his native city and throughout Ro- 
magna, Avhere they are highly esteemed. He died 
about 1730. 

BARTOLO, DoMENico, an Italian painter who 
flourished in 1430, was the nephew and disciple of 
Taddeo Bartolo, and greatly improved on the style 
of that master. His works display much freedom 
from the drjaiess of former artists ; his design and 
per.spective are better ; his compositions are execu- 
ted in a masterly stjde, with the great richness 
and variety common to the artists of his school. 
Raftaelle and Pinturicchio, while painting at Siena, 
adopted many ideas of national costume, and per- 
haps some other particulars, from the pictures of 
Bartolo in the Pilgrim's Hospital. 

BARTOLO, Taddeo. an historical painter of 
the Sienese school, born at Florence, ilourished in 
the early part of the fifteenth century. The chief 
merit of his works lies in their dignity and origi- 
nality. Some of his pictures still exist in a good 
state of preservation at Pisa, Volterra, and Padua. 
Some of his small pictures are of more merit than 
his larger works, and show an imitation of Am- 
brogi. his great protorype, and also the subdued 
and agreoa,bIe style of the Sienese school. He died 
in 1436. 

BARTOLOMEO. See Breemberg. 

BARTOLOMEO, Era. See Porta. 

BARTOLOMEO. Maestro, an Italian painter, 
who flourished at Florence about 1236. In the 
church of the Servi in that city, according to 
Lami and Lanzi, is an Annunciation painted in 
1236. still in good preservation, which is held in 
the highest veneration. It possesses much orig- 
inality, and is inscribed Ecce Virgo Concipiet, 
&c. The same religious fraternity have other an- 
cient paintings executed in the thirteenth century, 
some of which are supposed to be by this artist. 
They are painted on panels prepared with a coat 
of gypsum, and the vehicle of color was the white 
of eggs. 

BARTOLOZZL Francesco, a celebrated Flor- 
entine designer and engraver, born in 1730; was 

instructed in drawing by Ilughfort Ferretti, at 
Florence, and studied engraving under Joseph 
Wagner, at Venice. His first productions were 
some plates after iMarco Ricci, F. Zuccherelli, and 
others, engraved while in the employment of "Wag- 
ner. His principal works, however, were executed 
in England, where he arrived in 1704. His etch- 
ings, after drawings of the most eminent painters, 
represent admirably the fire and spirit of the orig- 
i-nals ; and he was not less successful in the ex- 
quisitely finished plates he produced in the various 
styles he practised. He died at Lisl)On in 1813. 
This laborious artist has left an immense number 
of plates, the principal of which are the following : 


Abraham and the Angels, an etching ; the Miracle of the 
Manna, the same ; Job abandoned by his Friends ; Chrtr- 
ity, an oval, inscribed Ipse fecit ; the Origin of Painting, 
1787 ; the Virgin aiid Infant, circular. 


St. Francis of Sales triumphing over Heresy ; after Am- 
iconi. Rebecca hiding the Idols of her Father ; Laocoon 
attacked by the Serpents ; after P. da Cortona. St. Luke 
painting the Portrait of the Virgin ; a.fter Cavtarini. The 
Bust of Michael Angelo. The Portrait of Annibale Car- 
acci ; after a drawing by himself. Eoland and Olimpia ; 
Clytie, circular ; after An. Caracci. The Adulteress before 
Christ ; after Agosf^ Caracci. Prometheus devoured by 
the Vulture ; after M. Angelo. The Parting of Achilles 
andChriseis; Hector taking leave of Andromache; Chri- 
seis restored to her Father ; the Death of Dido ; Jupiter 
and Juno on Mount Ida ; Venus presenting the Cestus to 
Juno ; Venus attired by the Graces ; Tancred and Ilermi- 
nia ; Tancred and Clorinda ; Shakspearc crowned by Im- 
mortalitj' ; after Cipriani. The Virgin and Infant ; after 
Carlo Dolci. Socrates in Prison ; Penelope lamenting 
Ulysses ; Telemachus and Mentor in the Isle of Calj-pso ; 
Paulus Emilius educating his Children ; Coriolanus ap- 
peased by his Family ; the Interview of Edgar and Elfrida 
after her Marriage with Athelwold; after Angelica 
Kauffman. — The last plate was begun by the unfortunate 
Mr. Ryland, and was finished by M. Bartolozzi for the ben- 
efit of his widow. King John ratifying Magna Charta ; 
after Mortimer ; the companion engraved under the same 
circumstances. The Portrait of Carlo Cignani ; the Por- 
trait of Pietro da Cortona ; after C. Maratti. Cornelia, 
Mother of the Gracchi ; after B. West. Mary, Queen 
of Scots, and her Son ; after Zucchero. A collection of 
Gems, designed by various artists, engraved by Bartolozzi. 
A set of eight subjects; after Ben. Castiglione. A set 
of thirteen plates from the paintings by Domenichino ; in 
the cloister of Grotta Ferrata. Twenty-three plates, 
making a part of eighty-one, from drawings by Guercino ; 
in the King's collection. A set of Portraits of illustrious 
Persons of the time of Henry VIII. ; after drawings by 
Holbein. Two Portraits of Henry and Charles Brandon, 
sons of the Duke of Sutlblk ; after two miniatures by Hol- 
bein, e.xecuted in colors, very fine. A set of six plates; 
after original drawings by the Caracci; in the King's col- 
lection, in imitation of the drawings. A large plate of the 
Death of Lord Chatham ; cfler Mr. Copley. Several 
plates for the Shakspeare Gallery. 

BARTSOH, Adam, a modern Viennese engra- 
ver, born in 1757. He was principal keeper of the 
Imperial Gallery at Vienna. He published that 
excellent work Le Peintre Graveur, torn.. 22, 
which is the most reliable accovuit of prints extant. 
He executed for this work a series of fac-si miles of 
extremely rare etchings by Dutch and Flemish 
artists in which the touch and spirit of the orig- 
inals is admirably represented. He also ])ublishcd 
a catalogue of the etchings liy Rembrandt and his 
scholars, which exhibits great accuracy and perse- 
verance. His son. Frederick de Bartsch. published 
in 1818, a Catalogue Raisonne of all the prints by 



his father, amounting to 505 pieces ; among them 
are the following : 


Adam Bartsch. John Christian Brand, painter. A 
young Lady in a Nightcap, 1785. Michael Wolgemut, 
p!iinter. Antonio Allegri, Corrcsr^to; after Carlo Maratti. 
Madame Tscida. A Girl reading by Candlelight, said to 
be after Guido. The Marriage of Alexander and Roxana ; 
after Parmigglano. A set of thirty-nine plates, in imita- 
tion of the drawings of several masters, in the Imperial col- 
lection. Twelve studies of animals; after J- H. Roos ; 
four on each plate. A Traveler passing a Forest, with a 
Boy holding a Lantern ; engraved in the manner of Rem- 
brandt. The Obsequies of Publius Decius Mus, large plate ; 
after Rubens. 

engraver, who executed a small collection of j^rints 
from the pictures in the gallery at Berlin. He 
also ens:raved the following : The Hoi}!- Familj^ ; 
after Vandyck. Meleager presenting the Head of 
the Boar to Atalanta ; after Rubens. 

BARY, Henry, a distinguished Dutch engrav- 
er, born about 1626. His style resembles that of 
Cornelius Yisscher. There are several plates by 
him of portraits and various subjects, executed 
very neatly with the graver, which have great 
merit, though by no means equal to the works of 
Visscher. He usually marked his plates with his 
name, and sometimes H. B. The following is a 
list of his principal works : 


Dirk and Walther Crabeth, glass-painters. Adrian 
Ilcerebord ; 1659. Hieronymus van Bivernink. Desid- 
erius Erasmus. William Joseph Baron of Ghent, admiral 
of Holland. Rombout Hagerbeets. Anitius Manlius Sev- 
erinus Boetius. Jacobius Taurinus. Count John de Wald- 
stein. The Dutchess de la Valiere : marked H. B. fee. 
Hugo Grotius ; after M. Mirevelt. Cornelius Ketel, paint- 
er ; seip.9e.pinx. 1659. Jacob Backei', painter ; G.Ter- 
burg, pin.r. ; oval. John Schellhammer, pastor ; Esco- 
pius, del. John Zas, pastor ; Chr. Pierson pinx. Jacob 
Batiliere. Predicant ; Westerbaem, pinx. Arnold Gest- 
eramus. Predicant ; Westerbaem, pinx. Michael Ruyter. 
admiral ; after F. Bol. Admiral Vlugh ; after B. Van- 
der Heist. Leo Aitzema, historian ; after John de Baan. 
George de Mey, theologian ; after C. van Diemen. 


Neptune, emblematical ; H. Bary, fee. Allegorical title 
for the work of Leo ran Aitzema; H. Bary, fee. A 
Mother suckling her Child, without the name of the painter. 
Two Drolleries ; after Brower ; H. Bary, fee, without 
the name of the painter. A Peasant Family ; after Peter 
Aertsen ; Hendrich Bary, sc. Summer and Autumn, in 
one plate, represented by two Children, one holding a 
handful of Com ; after Vandyck A young Woman lean- 
ing on a Table sleeping, and a young Man laughing ; af- 
ter the same. A young Lady sitting at a Table, with a 
Hat and Feather ; after Terburg. 

BAS, James Philip le, a celebrated Parisian 
engraver, born in 1708 ; studied under A. Tardieu, 
and v.-as one of the most ingenious painters of his 
time. He excelled in landscapes and small fig- 
ures, which he touched with infinite spirit and 
neatness. He availed himself much of the freedom 
and facility of etchino:, which he harmonized in an 
admirable style with the graver and dry point. 
His reputation gained him a number of scholars, 
who were employed in advancing the plates which 
he afterwards finished and published with his 
name. He died in 1782. Le Bas executed over 
a hundred plates after Teniers, which are copied 
with uncommon success. His plates are very 
numerous; among which are the following: 

The Portrait of Robert de Lorrain, sculptor ; eTigraved 
for his reception into the Academy in 1741. The Portrait 
of P. J. Cazes, painter; the same. 1741. Four — of the 
Times of the Day; the Embarkation; after Berghem. 
The Environs of Groningen ; the Environ.s of Guelder ; 
after Ruysdael. David Teniers and his Family, fine ; 
the Works of Mercy ; the Prodigal Son, fine ; a large Flem- 
ish Festival, with Teniers and his Family ; after 'Teniers, 
fine. The Italian Chase ; the Milk-pot ; the Boar-hunt ; af- 
tei H'ouirerman. FourlargoIIuniing.-:; after ran Palens ; 
fine. The Port of Me.^sina ; an Italian Lnndscnpe : af- 
ter Claude Lorraine ; fine. An Italian Sea-port ; Fish- 
ermen going oiit ; thirteen of the Ports of France ; after 
Vernet; the etchings are by Cochin. 

BAS, or BASSE, Martin, a Dutch engraver. 
who flourished about IGGO, and engraved some 
portraits in the style of the Wierixes. 

BASATTI, Marco, a Venetian painter, born in 
the Fiiuli. but of Greek parents ; flourished about 
1510. He was a rival of Gio. Bellini, and if he 
did not equal that master in every respect, there 
are some things in which he surpassed him. His 
compositions were happier, and his grounds har- 
monized better with his figures. According to 
Ridolfi, his best work is at the Certosa, repre- 
senting the call of Peter and Andrew. There is a 
fine picture of Christ praying in the Garden, and 
Lanzi mentions favorablj^ a Descent from the 
Cross, by this master, at Sesto. 

BASAN, FRAN9ois, a Parisian engraver, born 
in 1723 ; studied under Stephen Fessard and Jean 
Daulle. He was chiefly occupied in printselling, 
and published a Dictionaire des Graveurs in 
1767. The following is a list of his plates : 

Louis XV., with Diogenes ; after Le Maine. Cardinal 
Prince de Rohan. Christophe Lemenu de St. Philibert ; 
after Le Fevre. Carle Vanloo. An Ecce Homo ; after 
Caravaggio. St. Maurice ; Bacchus and Ariadne ; af- 
ter L. Giordano. Christ breaking the Bread ; after Car- 
lo Dolci. The Card-players ; an Incantation ; after Ten- 
iers. The Gothic Songster ; after A. Both. The Female 
Gardener ; after Fras. Miers. 

BASCHENIS, EvARisTO, a Bergamese paint- 
er, born in 1617 and died in 1G77. He arranged 
upon tables, covered with the most beautiful 
cloths, all kinds of mu.sical instruments, mu- 
sical books, leaves, boxes, fruit, vases, flowers, 
inkstands, &c., from which he painted pictures so 
exquisiteljr executed as to deceive the beholder. 
Lanzi says his works are found in the best collec- 
tions, where they are highly prized, and that there 
were eight of them in the lil^rary of San Giorgio, 
the ingenuity of which was highly commended by 

BASILI, Pier ANGi0L0,an Italian painter, born 
at Gubbio, and died in 1624. He studied under 
Damiani and afterwards Roncalli, whose delicate 
manner he adopted. There are some pieces by 
him in the choir of S. Ubaldo, highly esteemed 
for the variety and grace of composition. In the 
church of S. Ma-zziale, is a picture of Christ pray- 
ing, with a beautiful portico in perspective, and 
a multitude of auditors, which Lanzi says is full 
of energy, variety and grace, and appears to have 
been painted in competition ; the figures arc small 
as seen in the compositions of Albert Durer. 

BASIRE. James, a London engraver, born in 
1740; little is known of his life. He executed the 
following plates : 

Captain Cook; after Hodge es ; J. Basire, sc. 1777. 
Lndy Stanhope, as the Fair Penitent ; after B. Wilson. 
1772 Lord' Camden; after Reynolds. 'Orastesand Vy- 



lades before Iphigcnia ; after West. The Field of the 
Golden Cloth, or the Interview between Henry VIII. and 
Francis I., after the picture at Windsor, engraved in 1774, 
the largest print that has been engraved on one plate, 
about twenty-seven inches by forty-seven inches. 

BASSAN, or BASSANO. See Ponte. 

BASSANO, Alf.ssandro, a learned gentleman 
and architect of Padua, who, according to De La 
Lande, built the loggia and hall of the Senate 
House, in the Square of the Signory, at Padua. 

BASSANO, Cesare, a Milanese painter and 
engraver, born about 1584. As a painter, we have 
no account of his works, but he engraved the fol- 
lowing plates : The Portrait of Gaspar Asselius; 
Bassanus, fee. A Funeral Frontispiece of Fran- 
cesco Piccoiomini ; same mark. The Nativity; 
no mark. 

BASSANO, Leandro, an Italian historical and 
portrait painter of some merit, denominated Cav. 
Leandro, from his having been made a Knight of 
the Order of St. i\Iark, by the Doge of Venice. 
He was born in 1558 and died in 1G32. 

BASSEN, B. VAN, a Flemish painter, who flour- 
ished about 1650. He painted interiors of churches 
and other public edifices, which are executed with 
admirable perspective and lively coloring. The 
figures in his jaictures are frequently by eminent 
painters of his time, to whom he returned the 
compliment by painting architecture in their com- 
positions. His works have been little regarded 
when called hy his name ; but prized, when as- 
cribed to eminent artists. Neither the date of his 
birth or death is recorded. 

BASSEPORTE, Frances Magdalene, a French 
paintress, born in 1701, died in 1780 ; studied un- 
der the famous Robert, and executed some ad- 
mirable subjects of natural history, in water-col- 
ors. In 1732 she succeeded Obriette as painter 
of natural history in the royal gardens, with a 
salary of one hundred pistoles a year. She also 
engraved some i^lates for the Crozat and other 
collections. We have by her ; The ]\Iartyrdom 
St. Fidelio de Sigmaringa ; after P. A.Robert. 
Diana and Endymion ; after a design of Sehas- 
tiano Conca. There are also three books of flow- 
ers, drawn from nature, by this lady, engraved by 

BASSETTI, Marc' Antonio, an eminent Ver- 
onese historical painter, born in 1588, died in 1630, 
studied under Felice Riccio, but afterwards visited 
Venice, where he became attached to the style of 
Tintoretto. On leaving Venice, he went to Rome, 
where he remained a considerable time. On re- 
turning to Verona, he painted several pictures for 
the cliurches and public edifices of that city, which 
are mentioned by Ridolfi. Among them is a pic- 
ture of St. Peter and other saints, in the church 
of S. Tommaso ; and the Coronation of the Virgin, 
in S. Anastasia. His works are highly esteemed, 
but he left very few, it being a maxim with this 
artist, that painting ought not to be practised as a 
mechanical art, but with the leisure which is be- 
stowed on literature for the sake of the pleasure it 

BASSI, Antonio, a reputable Italian painter, 
who executed in the church of S. Giovanbattista 
of Ferrara, a Repose in Egypt, and our Saviour at 
the well of Samaria; also in the church of S. 
Clemcntino, the Virgin, St. Ann, and St. Jaochim. 

BASSI, Francesco, the Elder, apaintcr of Crem- 
ona, born in 1642, died about 1700. He acquired 
the name of il Cremouese da Paesi, from his excel- 
lent landscapes, which were touched with great 
spirit, and at the same time sufficiently finished. 
He decorated them with figures and animals, tol- 
erably drawn, and neatly [jainted. Many of his 
works are in the private collections at \'enice. 

BASSI, Francesco, the Younger, a Bolognese 
painter, born in 1664, died in 1693, and studied 
under Pasinelli : although he died at the early age 
of twenty-nine, he left some works of great merit 
in the public edifices at Bologna, the bc-st of which 
is a picture of St. Antonio taken up to Heaven by 
Angels. Bassi was a distinguished copyist and 
imitator of Guercino. 

BAST, Dominic de, a Flemish painter, born at 
Ghent in 1782. He was an amateur painter of 
landscapes and cattle, and also of marine subjects, 
in which he excelled, having had the advantage of 
many voyages by sea as a merchant. His pictures 
ai'e chiefly at Ghent, in private collections. 

BASTARNOLO, il, or Filippo Mazzuoli, a 
Ferrarese painter, who lived about 1575, is de- 
scribed by Lanzi as a learned, correct and graceful 
artist. He was not so well skilled in perspective 
as in other branches, and he injured his reputa- 
tion at first, by designing figures in too large pro- 
portion. His second manner, however, was of a 
grander design, and more studied coloring. The 
foundation of his taste is drawn from the Dossi ; 
in force of chiaro-scuro, and in his heads, he seems 
to have followed Palma ; in the natural flesh-tints, 
he approaches Titian ; and from Veronese he seems 
to have derived the magnificence of his draperies. 
He executed two very beautiful altar-pieces, re- 
presenting the Annunciation, and the Crucifixion, 
in the Church of Gesu. The Ascension, at the 
Cappuccini, is a magnificent work ; and an altar- 
piece of the titular Saint, with half figures that 
seem to breathe, at the Zittele of S. Barbara, is 
extremely beautiful. This artist was drowned 
while bathing; he deserves to be known more 
generally, beyond the hmits of his own country. 

BASTARO, Giuseppe del. a Roman painter, 
who, according to Baglioni. flourished about 1690. 
He painted several pictures for the churches of 
Rome, the most admired of which is the Assump- 
tion in S. Maria Maggiore. In S. Girolamo is 
a Descent from the Cross, and the Death of St. 

BASTIANINO. See Sebastiano Filippi. 

BATRAROHUS, an ancient Lacademonian 
architect, who, according to Pliny, erected in con- 
junction with his countryman, Saurus, at their 
own expense, certain temples at Rome, Avliich were 
afterwards enclosed by Octavius. Not being al- 
lowed to inscribe their names, they carved on the 
pedestals of the columns a lizard and a frog, which 
indicated them. 

BATTEM, Gerhard van, a Dutch landscape 
painter, who practised from 1650 to 1700. His 
subjects are mountainous landscapes, with travel- 
ers or banditti, and hunting pieces. Several of his 
pictures are somewhat in the style of Rembi'andt. 

BATTONI, Pompeo, an Italian painter, born 
at Lucca in 1708, according to Lanzi and Nagler. 
He was the son of a goldsmith, and was intended 
by Iris father for that business ; but after work- 


ing at it some time he relinquished it, and under 
the patronage of some eminent friends at Lucca, 
he was sent to Rome, where he studied under Se- 
bastian Conca and Agostino Masucci. His pleas- 
ing style of coloring, and the agreeable expression 
of his heads, gained him much popularity, and his 
works were held inconsiderable estimation through- 
out Europe. It was fortunate for the reputation 
and success of Battoni that he lived at a period 
when the arts were in a very low state in Italy. 
Mengs, his only rival, and his superior, was chiefly 
employed in Spain, and Battoni wa,s the only paint- 
er in Rome of the least i^retensions, and conse- 
quently met with great encouragement. He was 
more employed in portraits than historical works, 
although there are several of his pictures in the 
public edifices at Rome. In S. Maria Maggiore is an 
altar-piece of the Annunciation ; in the pavilion at 
Monte Cavallo are five pictures, one of which is con- 
sidered his best performance, representing Christ 
giving the keys to St. Peter ; and in the Church 
of S. Girolamo, there is a Madonna, with saints 
and angels. He died at Rome in 1787. 

BAUDET, Stephen, an eminent French en- 
graver, born at Blois about 1620. He first stud- 
ied at Paris, but afterwards went to Rome, and 
seems to have adopted the style of C. Bloemart in 
his earliest plates, which are executed entirely with 
the graver. On returning to Paris, he altered his 
manner, and calling in the assistance of the point, 
executed his best works, which nearly approach 
the style of John Baptist Poilly. His subjects 
are well chosen, and are from the works of some of 
the most eminent Italian and French painters. He 
was a member of the Royal Academy of Paris, 
where he died in 1691. The following are his 
principal works : 


Pope Clement IX. Charles Perrault ; Carol. Le Brun, 
piiix., 1665 ; Stef. Baiidet, sc. Acad. Reg. Pict., tf-c. 
Louisa, Duchess of Portsmouth, as Venus caressing a Dove ; 
H. Gascar, pinx. ; St. Baudot, sculp. Bust of the Em- 
peror Adrian, from the Antique ; S. Baudet, sc, 1678. 
Bust of a Roman Lady ; St. Baudet, 1680. 


The Virgin teaching the Infant Jesus to read ; the "Wom- 
an of Samaria ; four plates of the Loves of Venus and Ad- 
onis ; engraved at Rome in 1672 ; four circular plates of the 
four Elements ; after Albano. 1695. The dead Christ on the 
Knees of the Virgin JIary ; The Stoning of Stephen ; after 
Ann. Caracci. 1677. Adam and Eve ; after Donieni- 
chino; very fine. The Nativity; after J. Blanchard. 
The Holy Family ; six Landscapes ; after S. Bourdon ; 
round. Six — Of the great Staircase at Versailles ; after 
Le Brun ; that of the ceiling is engraved by C. Slmmon- 
eau. ThaTrihuteoiMoney; after Valentin. The Com- 
munion of the Primitive Christians ; after C. de la Fosse. 
Moses treading on the Crown of Pharaoh ; Moses striking 
the Rock; the Worshipping the Golden Calf; the Holy 
Family; Venus reposing ; dated 1666; four grand Land- 
scapes; dedicated to the Prince of Conde ; dated 1684. 
Four other grand Landscapes ; dedicated to the King of 
France ; after N. Poussin. 

BxiUDOUIN, S. R., a French amateur engrav- 
er, and an officer in the Guards. He engraved 
some plates of battles, after the pictures of Charles 
Parrocel ; a set of small landscapes after Mkhau 
and others ; and a set of etchings from his own 
designs, representing the military exercise of the 
French infantry. 

BAUDUINS, Anthony Francis, a Flemish 
painter and engraver, born at Dixmude in 1640 ; 
studied painting under F. A. Vandermeulen, but 



subsequently devoted himself entirely to engrav 
ing. His prints are chiefly after designs by Van- 
dermeulen, and are etched in a free bold style, with 
good effect. He died at Paris in 1700, aged GO. 
His works are as follow : 

Six Landscapes, with Figures ; middle-sized plates. Six 
large Landscapes ; dedicated to P/i. c/e Champagne. Eight 
Landscapes, with Buildings. Two Stag-hunts ; one dedi- 
cated to the Marquis de Louvois. A large Landscape, 
with the march of the King to Vincennos ; dedicated to 
Ch. Le Brun. A large Landscape, with the Queen going to 
Versailles ; dedicated to the Duke de Noailles. Six Views 
of Towns in France. Two Views of Versailles ; as it was, 
and as it is. View of the Castle of Vincennes. View of 
the Palace of Fontainbleau ; two sheets. Two Views of 
Gardens in Italy ; after A. Genoels. 

\jf^-^BAUR, John Wm., a German painter 
V «LJ and engraver of considerable note, born at 
Strasburg in IGOO. He studied under Brentel, and 
before long surpassed his instructor. On leaving 
that master, he went to Rome, where he remained 
several years, and painted views of that city and en- 
virons, with small figures, neatly touched, which 
were much admired. His pencil is very neat and 
spirited, and his coloring warm and glowing, though 
his_ design is not very correct. The Prince Gius- 
tiniani gave him his protection ; as did also the Duke 
di Bracciano, who gave him apartments in his pal- 
ace. As an engraver, he was quite distinguished, 
and executed a great number of prints from his 
own designs, the best of which are from the Met- 
amorphoses of Ovid. They are slightly etched, 
and finished with the graver in a very spirited 
style, resembling that of Callot. In 1637 he left 
Rome and went to Venice, where his works were 
greatly admired. He afterwards visited Vienna, 
and was employed by Ferdinand III., in whose 
service he died in 1640, aged 40. The following 
are his principal prints : 

Portrait of Don Paolo Giordano II., Orsino Duca ;li 
Bracciano; oval; dated 1636; scarce. A set of Habili- 
ments of different Nations, with his Portrait; eighteen 
prints. A set of Battles; entitled Caprici di varie hnt- 
aillie; iifteen prints. Another set of Battles; fourteen 
prints, with the title. A set of Landscapes, among which 
are the Four Elements ; twelve prints. Twenty of Bat- 
tles, for the History of the Belgic War ; by F. Strada. The 
Metamorphoses of Ovid ; one hundred and fifty prints, pub- 
lished at Vienna after his death, in 1641. 

BAUR, Nicolas, a Dutch painter, born at 
Harlingen in 1767, died in 1822, the son of An- 
thony Baur, a portrait painter. He painted land- 
scapes and views of cities, also moonlight and 
winter scenes, and was very successful in marine 
views. Two of the latter were purchased by the 
King of Holland in 1807, and placed in the Mu- 
seum. There are many of his works throughout 
Holland, and he is considered one of the best of the 
modern Dutch marine painters. 

BAURBINFEIND, George William, a Ger- 
man painter and engraver, born at Nuremberg. 
He went to Copenhagen and learned the art of en- 
graving under John jNIartin Prieslcr. In 1759, he 
obtained the grand prize from the Royal Academy 
of Copenhagen, for an engraving, the subject of 
which was Moses and the burning Bush. In 1760, 
Frederick V. of Denmark appointed him to accom- 
pany the Scientific Expedition to Arabia, in which 
service he died in 1763. He made the designs for 
the Icones reru7ii naturalium of Forskal. In the 
"Voyages of Niebuher in Arabia/' are many plates 
engraved after his designs. 




BAUSA, Gregohio, a Spanish historical paint- 
er of some eminence, born at ^lallorca, near Val- 
encia, in 1596. lie studied under Francisco Bibal- 
ta, and executed the principal altar-piece in the 
church of St. Filippe at Valencia, representing 
the martyrdom of that saint; also several pic- 
tures in the monastery of Los Trinitarios in that 
city. He died in 1G5G. 

BAUSE, John Fredkrick, a modcrn_^ German 
enaraver born at Halle, in Saxony, in 1738. He 
is said to have learned the art without the instruc- 
tion of a master, and to have imitated the admira- 
ble style of J. G.' Wille. His plates arc chiclly ex- 
ecuted with the graver, which he handled with great 
purity and freshness. He died at AVeimar in 1814. 
He executed a considerable number of plates, ac- 
cording to Nagler, the following of which are the 
principal : 

The Good Housewife ; after G. Dow ; dedicated to J. 
G.Willo. 'n\QO\AConMmto; after Kupeisk7j. Artemisa; 
after Giddo. Venus and Cupid ; after Carlo Cignani. 
jlichael Ehrlich; after B. Denner ; a mezzotinto. Three 
Apostles; after Caravaggio; etching. Damon and Mu- 
sidoro, subject from Thomson ; a moonlight ; after Bach. 
The Repentance of St. Peter ; after Dietricy. The Sac- 
rifice of Abraham; after Oescr. The Head of Christ; 
after Guido. The Magdalene ; from a drawing by Bach, 
after Battoiii. Bust of a Girl ; after Greuze. Bust of 
a Girl, with a Basket of Bosos ; after Netscher. La pet- 
ite Pvusoe ; after Reynolds. Cupid feeling the Point of an 
Arrow ; after Mengs. 

BAYEU, Y SuBiAS, Don Francisco, a niod- 
ern Spanish painter, born at Saragossa in 1734, 
died in 17U5. He was instructed by an obscure 
painter of his native city, and having gained the 
premium at the Academy, ho was allowed a pen- 
sion to enable him to visit ^Madrid, where he en- 
tered the school of Antonio Gonzales Velasquez. 
His own merit, and the discernment and liberality 
of Raifaelle Mengs, the principal painter to the 
Kmz, recommended him to the patronage of Charles 
Ill.rwho employed him in the Prado, and in the 
palaces of IMadrid and Aranjuez. He also painted 
several pictures for the churches, among which, 
those of the life of St. Bruno, at the Carthusians, are 
considered his best works. Bayeu profited much 
by the advice and instruction of Mengs. Tn 1765 
he was received into the Academy at INIadrid, and 
in 1788, according to Bermudez, was made painter 
to the King. He had a brother named Don Ray- 
mond Bayeu, born at Saragossa in 1746 ; studied 
under his' brother, and assisted him in his fresco 
works. He died in 1793. 

BAZIN, Nicholas, a French engraver, born at 
Troyes, in Champagne, in 1636; studied under 
Claude ]MeUan, and established himself •.t Paris as 
an enaraver and print-seller. He worked chiefly 
with the graver, in rather a stiif, dry manner, and 
published several plates executed partly by him- 
self, but chiefly by the younger artists whom 
he employed. The following are his principal 
works : 


Madame Hclyot, an abbess; Bazin, del. et. scul. 1686. 
Madame Guyon, a celebrated visionary. John du Hous- 
say de Chaillot, a hermit. Father Emanuel Irlagnan.. 
Father Anthony Verjus, a Jesuit; J. P. Cany, pinx. 
John Crasset, a Jesuit. St. Francis Xavior. St. Ignatius 
de Loyola, founder of the Jesuit,s. Louis XIV., on horse- 
back ; N. Bazin, sc. 1682. Louis, Dauphin of France ; 
after Martin, N. Bazin. 1686. 


The Portrait of the Virgin. The Annunciation. Christ 

cro-vTiied with Thorns. The Crucifixion. St. Jerome and 
St. Peter, two plates ; after Lichery. St. Francis receiv- 
ing the Stigmata ; after Baroccio. St. Isaliella, foundress 
of the Abbey of Longchamps; after Pk. de Champagne. 
St. Ann teaching St. Elizabeth to read ; St. Mary, of Egypt, 
and St. Zozima; after Le Brun. The Virgin Mary suck- 
ling the Infant ; after Correggio. Two Ladies, one going 
into a Bath; after J. Dieu. 

BAZZANI, Giuseppe, an Itahan painter, born 
at Ecggio in 1690, according to Lanzi ; studied un- 
der Gio. Canti. His talents were superior to those 
of his master, and were well cultivated. Lanzi 
says he studied the works of Ilubcns at ^lantua, 
and followed his style. Many of his fresco paint- 
ings are at Mantua, and in the convents in its 
vicinity, composed in an admirable style, and 
painted with great freedom and spirit. He was 
director of the Academy at IMan-tua, where he died 
in 1769. 

coLE, an engraver of Florence, or Pisa (for he 
is described as of both.) flourished about 1640. 
Bartsch describes seven of his prints, and BruUiot 
several others. 

BEALE. Mary, a reputable English portrait 
paintress. born in Suffolk in 1632, and the daugh- 
ter of a clergyman. jNIanifesting a great inclina- 
tion for the aVt, she was placed under Sir Peter 
Lely, and soon gained distinction. She copied sev- 
eral portraits by Vandyck, by which she acquired 
a purity and sweetness of coloring which distin- 
guish her portraits. Being of an estimable char- 
acter and very agreeable manners, she was pat- 
ronized by many of the most distinguished persons 
of her time, ancUived in great respectability. Her 
husband was also a painter, but of little note. She 
died in 1697. 


_ inent French engraver, born at 
Thiomillc, in Lorraine, about 1500. He went to 
Rome while quite young, and, from the dates of 
his plates, must have lived there from 1532 to 15G2. 
His style resembles that of Agostino Veneziano. 
His works are inferior to those of that master, and 
are principally valued for their subjects. He 
marked his plates with one of his monograms, or 
the letters N. B. F., or, N. B. L. F. Heinekcn 
has inserted in his Dictionaire des Artistes, after 
the prints known to be by this master, a list of 

those marked with a B on a die, thus, f^W ? hut 

these are much superior to the others, and are 
probably by Bartel Beham, under whose article 
they will be found. The following is a list of 
most of his works : 


Bust of Pius TIL, inscribed Nicolaits Beatricius Lata- 
rin'Tus &c. Pope Paul III., anovol, inscribed Paul. III. 
Pont. ' Pope Paul IV. ; dated 15.58. Pope Pius V. Ilen- 
rv II. King of France ; marlced with the monogram X, B. ; 
Lot.'f. 1558. Another Portr.ait of Henry II. ; dated 1536. 
Ilippoiita Gonzago, John Valverdus, Spaniard. Don Ju- 
an of Austria, an oval, on a monument ; inscribed Gener- 
ate delta Lesrha. The Genealogy of the twelve first Em- 
perors and Empresses, with their Portraits, from medals ; 
two sheets. The Kings of Poland, in medallions ; inscribed 
Reges PolnnicB. 

subjects of sacbed history. 

Cain killing Abel; mscrihe^ F''ratricidium Ahelis, A.S. 
ex. 1540. A^- B. F. Joseph explaining the Dream ; af- 
ter Rafaelte : marked with the monogram, N. B. P., and 
his naiiic ; one of h is best phi tcs. The Nativity of the Vir- 
gin ; after Bac'cio Bandinelli; inscribed -VjcoZai^s Bea- 


tricius restiluit ef formis suis exc. The Annunciation ; 
with the names of M. Ans^elo and Beatrici. The Ador- 
ation of the Magi ; after Panniirsiano, N. B. L. P. The 
Holy Family, with St John ; Jcrom. Mutian, pinx. Ni- 
culaus Beatricius Lotharingus, incidit, if-c. The Good 
Samaritan; Michele Angela, inv. Christ on the Mount of 
Olives; after Titian, marked N. B. F. The Criiciiix- 
ion, with the Virgin, Magdalene, and St. John ; with the 
Sun and Moon on each side; Mucianus Bri.rianus, inv. 
Nii-olaus Beatricius, tf-c. exc. The Mater Dolorosa; af- 
ter Mic'iele Angela, N. B. Rainm. 1547. The taking down 
from the Cross; after Circignani ; marked B. Ramce. 
Christ delivering the Souls from Purgatory; with the 
names of Raffaelle and Beatrici. The Ascension; after 
Raffaelle, with his cipher. 1.541. The o'onversiou of St, 
Paul; M. Angela, pui.r., tf-c, m.arked N. B. St. Michael 
overcoming the Evil Spirit ; after Raffaelle ; marked N. 
B. L. The Virgin seated on a Throne, distributing Ros- 
aries; inscribed Nicolaus Beatricius, ^c. exc, oval. The 
Cross worshipped all over the world ; arched plate, marked 
with the' monogram, N. B. F., and inscribed Crux illustris, 
4*c. MDLvii. The prophet Jeremiah ; after M. Angela ; 
with names of paiuter and engraver. St. Jerome kneeling 
before a Cruciilx; after Titian; marked N. C. L. F. St. 
Elizabeth, Queen of Hungary, relieving the distressed; af- 
ter ^Mutiano. The Last Judgment; o/XeriVf. J. M^eZo. Da- 
ted 1562. In nine sheets. 


The Sacrifice of Iphigenia ; on the altar is inscribed Iph- 
igenia; it is marked N. B. L. F. Ganymede, inscribed 
Ganimedes juvenis, 4'c. ; the Fall of Phaeton, retouched 
by Beatrici; Titius devoured by a Vulture, Ant. Salmn- 
ancha, ex. Silenus carried by children, N. Beatrice, fee. ; 
the Dream of Human Life, emblematical subject ; Shoot- 
ing at a Target ; after Michael Angela. Vertumnus and 
Pomona; after Pontormo. Reason combatting Love; 
after B. BaadincUi; with his cipher. A Combat between 
five Men and five Wild Beasts ; after Giulio Romano. 1532. 
The Battle of the Amazons; after a basso relievo; in- 
scribed Amazomnn pugna, tf-c: ' 1559. The Battle of the 
Da^'ii ; after the basso relievo of the Arch of Constantine ; 
marked N. B. and inscribed Tabula Marmora, i^^c. The 
Emperor Trajan Triumphant ; after a basso relievo. 1560. 
The Pantheon of M. Agrippa; marked N. B. F. The 
Temple of Fortune ; after a drawing by Raffaelle ; marked 
with the monogram, N. B. F. The great Circus ; marked 
A''. Beatrizet Lafaringiee. ; two sheets. The Front of the 
Farnose Palace ; after the design of M. Angela. 1548. 
Statue of Moses; after M. Angela ; in.scribed Moysis in- 
gens, tf-c. Statue of Jesus Christ ; after M. Angela; with 
his name. _ Equestrian Statue of M. Aurelius. 1558. Stat- 
ue of a Philosopher reading; inscribed Anaximenes, d^c; 
the plate was afterwards retouched, and the Philosopher 
changed into St. Paul. The Castle of St. Angclo. The Siege 
and taking of Thionville ; Nic. Beatrizet Lotaringas, in- 
cidit. 1558. 

BEAU, Pierre Adrien le, a French engraver, 
was born at Pari.s in 1744, and executed several por- 
traits, and other subjects, among which are: 

Louis XVI. King of France. Marie Antomette, Queen 
of France. Louis Philippe, Duke of Orleans. Hyder All ; 
after J. Year. Madlle. de Rancour, actress. Abbe Ter- 
ray, comptroller of finance under Louis XV. A. R. J. 
Turgot, comptroller under Louis XVI. Necker, director 
of finances under Louis XVI. 

BEAUBRUN, Henry, a French portrait paint- 
er of merit, was born at Amboise in 1603, and 
lied at Paris in 1677. His brother, Charles Beau- 
brun, who was born in 1605, distingui.shed him- 
5elf in the same branch of art, and died in 1692. 

BEAUDOUIN, Pierre Antoine, a French 
miniature portrait painter of some merit, was born 
it Paris in 1719, and died in 1769. 

BEAULIEU, Sebastien Pontaulet de, a cel- 
ibrated French military architect, engineer, and 
ield-marshal under Louis XIV. He published 
)lans, views, and details of all the sieges, battles, 
i-c, of that monarch, to which he annexed lectures 
»n the art. He died about 1674. 



! BEAUiAIOXT, Cav. Claudio, a painter of Tu- 
I rm, born in 1694. After studying some time in 
his uative city, he visited Rome, where he applied 
himself to copying the works of Raffaelle, Guido 
and the Caracci. He seems to have thought little 
of the Roman painters of his time, except Trevi- 
sani, whose manner he followed in the vigor of his 
I coloring. On returning to Turin, he was employed 
I in decorating the Royal palace, where he painted in 
I fresco, in the library, various symbolical subjects 
relative to the Royal Family of Sardinia ; and in 
the other apartments he represented the Rape of 
Helen, and the Judgment of Paris. In the Chiesa 
della Croce, is a fine picture of the Descent from 
the Cross. The King of Sardinia conferred on 
hira the honor of knighthood, in whose service he 
died in 1760. 

BEAUMONT, Claude Etienne, an eminent 
French architect, born at Besan9on in 1757. He 
went to Paris at an early age, and placed himself 
under the instruction of Dumont, professor in the 
Academy. After finishing his course, he entered 
the office of Conture, who was commissioned to 
continue the construction of the Madeleine Church, 
B., perceiving that his new master, in modifying 
the original plan, had dispensed with the rules of 
art, deemed it his duty to inform him, for which he 
was discharged. He immediately published a let- 
ter as coming from Dulin, an eminent architect 
lately deceased, containing a just criticism on the 
new plan of the Madeleine, which was suppressed 
by the order of the council, at the instigation of 
Baron de Breteuil, protector of Conture. On the 
erection of the new department at Paris, B. was 
attached as architect to the Bureau of Domains 
and merited, by his zeal and talents, the esteem 
of the Administration. He constructed the Palais 
de Justice, the House of the Sisters of Charity, the 
Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, and the Hall 
of the Tribunal, which last was pronounced by a 
connoisseur, the most perfect edifice which had 
been erected by the authorities since the revolu- 
tion. The government, having decided to convert 
the Madeleine into the Temple of Glory, ordered a 
competition of plans. The plan of B. was preferred 
by the architectural class of the Institute, but his 
enemies reversed the decision by showing that he 
had appropriated his principal ideas from the letter 
of Dulin, without knowing that he was the au- 
thor, and they adjudged the prize to another archi- 
tect. B., having disproved the charge of plagiar- 
ism brought against him^ obtained an indemnity 
of lOjOOOf., but the chagrin he felt at being so un- 
justly deprived of the honor of attaching his name 
to so grand a monument, consigned liim to the 
grave scon afterwards. Among other works, the 
Theatre of the Varieties was built after his de- 
signs, lie died at Paris in 1811. 

BEAUMONT, Pierre FRAN901S, a Parisian en- 
graver, born about 1720 ; executed several plates 
after T. Breughel and Ph. Wouwerman : 

Three Views in Flanders ; after Breughel. The An- 
gel appearing to the Shepherds; the Thirsty Traveler; 
Running at the Ring; the Swimmers; Cavalry defiling; 
Halt of Cavalry ; the Blacksmith ; after Wouwerman, 
Four Huntmg Pieces ; after N. N. Coypcl. 

BEAUMONT, Sir George Howland, was born 
in 1753, and died in 1827. Descended from an 
ancient and illustrious house, he has rendered his 
name still more illustrious by liis liberal patron- 




age of art and public mimificence. He was a great 
lover of the fine arts, and acquired considerable 
skill in painting scenes from nature. Pilkington 
says, '• In his landscapes there is less of the tine, 
fresh glow of nature than might be expected from 
the hand of one trained in that academy, yet he 
had the soul and eye of a painter; his scenes are 
finely imagined, and there are glimpses of gran- 
deur, but little that was wrought out in the spirit 
of the conception. He was deficient in the practi- 
cal skill, which his fine fortune hindered him from 
acquiring from that rough old teacher, necessity." 
He delighted in the society of artists, and the walls 
of his house in Grosvenor Square were covered 
with some of the choicest works of Claude, Wil- 
son, and Reynolds. He was one of the principal 
founders of the British National Gallery. When 
Parliament were debating the propriety of buying 
the Angerstein Collection for £60,000, he advoca- 
ted the measure with enthusiasm, and exclaimed, 
" Buy this collection of pictures for the nation, and 
I will give you mine." And this he nobly did, not 
in the form of a bequest, but he transferred them 
at once as soon as the galleries were prepared for 
their reception, with the exception of one little 
gem, with him a household god, which he retained 
till his death. This picture was a landscape by 
Claude, with figures representing Hagar and her 
child, and he was so much attached to it that he 
took it with him as his constant traveling compan- 
ion. When he died, it was sent to its place in the 
Gallery. Such instances of noble generosity for 
public benefaction, deserve to be held in grateful 
remembrance, and to be written in " letters of gold 
on enduring marble," for the imitation of mankind. 
Sir George, in a letter to Lord Dover on the sub- 
ject of the purchase of the Angerstein collection, 
speaking of the benefit which a country derives 
from the possession of the best works of art, says : 
" My belief is that the Apollo, the Venus, the Lao- 
coon, &c., are worth thousands a year to the coun- 
try that possesses them." 

BEAUVAIS, Nicholas Dauphin he, a Parisian 
engraver, born about 1687 ; studied under John 
Audran, and gained considerable reputation. He 
probably resided some time in England, as he en- 
graved part of the Dome of St. Paul's, after Sir 
James ThornhUl. He had a son named Charles 
Nicholas Dauphin de, who was born in 1764, stud- 
ied under his father, and executed several plates. 

The Virgin YiVJa the Infant Jesus, upon a Pedestal, with 
several Saints below ; aflcrCorreggio. St. Jerome ; after 
Vandijck. Mary Magdalene in the Desert ; after B. 
Lutti; for the Crozat collection. Bacchus and Ariadne; 
after N. Poussin. Cupid stealing Jupiter's Thunder ; 
after Le Sueur. The Burning of ^neas's Ships, and their 
Mctainorphoses into Nymphs ; the Companion, a Subject 
from the Life of vEneas ; after Coypel. The Resurrection ; 
the Four Seasons ; four plates, engraved conjointly with 
Desplaces ; after P. J. Gazes. The Descent of the Holy 
Ghost ; All Saints ; after J. Andre. Monument in honor 
of William, Earl Cowper. 

BEAUVALLET, C. Nicholas, a French sculp- 
tor of considerable eminence, born at Havre in 
1740, and studied under Pijou. In 1784 he was 
appointed keeper of all the works of sculpture in 
the Chateau of Compiegna ; and some remarkable 
works which he executed for the hall of the Guards 
commenced his reputation, and procured him ad- 
mission to the Royal Academy of Painting and 
Sculpture at Paris in 1789, at a time when, like 
most artists, he espoused the cause of the revolu- 

tion. During these times, he executed many busts 
and statues of the principal leaders and patriots, 
some of which were multiplied prodigiously in 
pLaster, and procured his admission into the various 
popular societies, and gave liim a high place in the 
administration of public woi'ks, and finally brought 
him so near the guillotine, that he thought it pru- 
dent to retire, and de\ ote himself exclusively to the 
cultivation of his profession. Among his most 
esteemed works are a statue of Narcissus, one of 
Pomona, one of Susanna in the Bath, and one of 
General INIorcau. His works are said to be very 
graceful, but defective in character and expression. 
He succeeded best in the grand style, wrought with 
great facility, and the French regret that so much 
of his time was lost in politics. He died in 1828. 
BEAUVARLET, .James Firmin, an eminent 
modern French engraver, born at Abbeville in 1733. | 
He visited Paris while young, and was instructed j 
in the art by Charles Dupuis and Laurence Cars. 
His first productions were in a free, bold style, and 
these are preferred to those more highly wrought 
plates which he afterwards engraved, although they 
are executed with great neatness and delicacy. — 
The following are his principal plates : 


The Abbe Nollet ; after La Tour. Edme Bonchardon, 
sculptor; after Drouais, 1776. Jean Baptist I'oquclinde 
Moliere ; after S. Bourdon. The Marquis de Pomlial; 
after Koslin and Vernet. Catherine Princess de Galizin; 
medallion. Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick ; &c. 


Lot and his Daughters ; Susanna and the Elders ; Per- 
seus combating Phineus, shows the Head of Medusa ; Acis 
and Galatea ; the Judgment of Paris ; the Rape of Europa ; 
the Rape of the Sabincs; after Luc. Giordano. Susanna 
and the Elders ; after Guido Cagnaci. The Sewers ; after 
Guido ; very highly fini.shed, The Incredulity of Thomas; 
after Calabrese. Venus lamenting the Death of Adonis ; 
after A. Turchi, called Veronese. La Rusee ; after C 
Vega. The Double Surprise ; after Ger. Douw. The 
Fisherman ; after H. Carre. The Tric-trac Players ; the 
Bagpiper; after Tenicrs. The Burgomaster; after Os- 
tade. Diana and Acteon ; after RottenhamTner. The 
Bathers; the Trap; the Dreamer; Cupid chained by the 
Graces ; ajter Boucher. The Cliildren of the Count de 
Bethune ; after Drouais. Le Colin Maillard ; after 
Fragonard. The Chastity of Joseph ; after Nattier. 
Susanna and the Elders ; The Offering to Venus ; The 
Offering to Ceres ; after Vien. A Subject from an An- 
tique Painting of the Herculaneum. Cupid holding his 
Bow; La Confidence; La Sultana; Lecture Espagnole ; 
Conversation Espagnole ; after C. Vanloo. Telemachus 
in the Island of Calypso ; after Raoux. The Toilet, and 
the Return from the Ball ; two companions ; after De 
Troy. Seven prints of the History of Esther ; after J. 
F. de Troy. 

^Tl^BECCAFUMI, DoMENico, called Mica- 
I I ^RiNO, an eminent Italian painter, sculptor, 
and engraver, born at Siena in 1484. When a boy', 
he was employed in watching sheep, but manifest- 
ing an inclination for art, he was removed from 
that humble station, and placed under an indiffer- 
ent painter, called Capanna, but afterwards under 
Giovanni Antonio Vercelli. He subsequently vis- 
ited Rome, where he studied the works of Angelo 
and Raffaelle; and on returning to Siena, pro- 
duced several admirable works, both in sculpture 
and in painting, particularly a number of bronze 
statues and bas-reliefs ; and the celebrated mosaic 
of the pavement of the cathedral of Siena, which 
has been engraved by Andrea Andreani. He also 
painted several pictures for tlie churches, both in 
oil and in distemper, Zani denies that he evei 

BECO. 83 

engraved on wood ; but he executed f*>me plates, 
both etched and with the graver onlv, which show 
considerable abilitj^. He was living, according to 
Lanzi, in 1551. He sometimes ni*rked his prints 
with his name, iMicarino,fe., au^ sometimes with 
his monogram. The followins are his principal 
works : 

Paulus III. Pontifex Maxii^us ; without a name. 1515, 
a plate. An Old Man StaK'^mgi and a Young Man lying 
down; Mica nV((i,yec. ;» plate. Three Academy Figures; 
without a name ; a pU^e. The Nativity ; after Titian ; 
a wooden cut, fine -Cbe Virgin embracing the infant Je- 
sus ; a wooden put, three tints. St. Peter holding a Book 
and the Keys; a wooden cut, in chiaroscuro. 8t. Philip 
holding a Book and a Cross ; do. St. Andrew, with his 
Cross ; do. A Philosopher, with a Cloak, sitting ; do. St. 
Jerome kneoliug before a Crucifi.x: ; a wooden cut. Ten 
subjects o/ Alchymy, on the first is inscribed Mecarinus 
dc Sients inventor. 

BECC ARUZZI, Francesco, an Italian painter, 
born in the Friuli, studied under Pordenone, and 
followed his style, llidolfi mentions many repu- 
table works, both in oil and in fresco, by this 
master, in the churches and convents at Trevigi ; 
one of the best was the picture he painted for the 
Franciscans at Conigiiano, representing St. Francis 
receiving the Stigmata, with several Saints. 

BECERR.l, Gaspar, an eminent Spanish 
painter, sculptor, and architect, born at Baiza, in 
Andalusia, in 1520; died in 1570. The patronage 
bestowed on the arts by Philip II., induced him to 
visit Rome at a time when Michael Angelo was in 
the zenith of his fame, and Palomino says he 
studied under that master. On his return, he was 
taken under the protection of the Emperor, and 
executed several works in fresco in the palace at 
Madi-id, which were greatly admired. He became 
one of the first reformers of the Spanish school, 
by introducing a superior style, founded on that 
of Buonarotti. His designs are very rare, and are 
highly esteemed for the great care he bestowed on 
them. His chief work as a sculptor is a statue of 
the Virgin, made by order of his patroness, Isa- 
bella de Valois. He exercised the three arts in the 
screen of the cathedral of Astorga; and in the 
Church of the Scalze Reali at Madrid, he erected 
the great altar with two orders of columns, and a 
variety of sculptures much admired. As an archi- 
tect he only practised the ornamental parts. Many 
of his works, according to Bermudez, are in the 
public edifices at Madrid, Astorga and Zamora. 

BECHON, J., a French engraver, flourished 
about 1670 ; executed several plates of landscapes 
in a clear, neat manner. 

BECKER, Philip Christopher, a celebrated 
engraver of dies and precious stones, was born at 
Coblentz about 1675. He was successively ap- 
pointed engraver of medals to the Emperors Jo- 
seph I., and Charles VI., of Austria, the latter of 
whom conferred upon him titles of nobility, Peter 
the Great also invited him to St. Petersburg to 
engrave the Imperial seals and new dies for his coin. 
Having called upon the Emperor one day while he 
was at dinner, the Czar ordered a cover to be 
brought, and made him dine with him. The merit 
of this artist consists in the exquisite design and 
finish of his works. He engraved coats of arms 
with wonderful precision, some of them of the 
smallest size and very complicated. He died at 
Vienna in 1750. 

BECKER, Philip Jacob, a Gerftan painter, 


born at Ptouzheim in 1759. He was an excellent 
scholar; went to Italy in 1776, where he resided 
some years ; acquired a thorough knowledge of 
art, and returned to his native country, where he 
was taken mto the service of his sovereign, Charles 
J^rederick, Grand Duke of Baden, whose portrait 
he painted, and those of the ducal family, who ap- 
pointed him his court painter, director of his Gal- 
ery and instructor to his children. B. painted 
landscapes, portraits, and animals with equal fa- 
cility. He painted the portraits of many eminent 
personages of his time. One room in the Gallery 
of Carlsruhe is devoted to his works, among 
which are a great many exquisite drawings and 
studies. He was very eminent as an instructor, 
and some of the most distinguished modern Ger- 
man artists studied under him. He was a man of 
estimable character, and died universally beloved 
in 1829. 

BECKET, Isaac, one of the earliest English 
mezzotinto engravers, born at Kent in 1653; was 
apprenticed to a calico-printer, but becoming ac- 
quainted with Lutterel, who had made some pro- 
gre,ss in the art, he learned from him the process 
and executed a number of plates, of which the fol- 
lowing are the principal : 


Sir Godfrey Kneller; from a picture by himself. Charles 
P -i -^t"^"^' ^"^"^ °f York ; after Kneller. Henry, Duke 

Charles Melford ; a/;er Wissing. Sir Peter Lely : Se ipse 
pmx. George, Prince of Denmark; Henry, Lord Bishop 
°f ,I^«»don ; John Maitland, Duke of Lauderdale ; after 
Riley. Christopher, Earl of Albemarle; after Murray 
George, Duke of Buckingham ; after Verhelst. Henry, 
Duke of Norfolk; Becket, fecit et exc. Thomas Cart- 
wright, Lord Bishop of Chester; very scarce. Lady Wil- 
liams ; full length. Adrian Beverland; drawn from a 

SUBJECTS after various masters. 
The Virgin Mary and St. Joseph, with the infant Jesus 
asleep, with two Ajagels ; without the name of the painter. 
Time cutting the Wings of Love ; the same, J. Becket exc 
A Landscape, with a Shepherd and Shepherdess ; J Beck- 
et exc. The Dutch Schoolmaster; after Hemskerk. The 
Village Barber Surgeon ; after J. Lingleback. 

BECKMAN, Sir Martin, an English amateur 
painter who lived about 1685. He studied under 
John Wyck, while that artist resided in England 
and was distinguished for his sea-pieces and ship- 
ping. He was engineer to Charles II., and de- 
signed the fortifications of Tilbury Fort, and the 
works at Sheerness. 

/-.S??,"^'^' ^f^^'^ek sculptor, who flourished about 
(122 0Iymp.,) b.c.288. Pliny says he was the 
pupil of Lysippus, and the brother of Laippus. 
Among his works is the statue of a man in pro- 
found adoration, of which the Adoring Boy at Ber- 
lin, according to Visconti and Botticher, is a faith- 
ful copy. 

BEDEL, Pierre, a reputable French architect, 
who flourished about 1558. He went to Spain 
and executed there a number of good works, men- 
tioned by Bermudez. They are the Aqueduct of 
Teruel; the celebrated Mina or Breakwater, at 
Daroca ; and the church at Fuentes de Ebro' in 
the Gothic style. He also restored the cathedral 
and the Dominican church at Albarracia, where he 
died in 1567. 

BEDUSCHI, Antonio, an Italian painter, born 
at Cremona in 1576 ; studied under Campi and 
imitated his style. P. Carasi praises two pictures 

BEEC. 84 

painted by him in his twent3'-sixth year, for their 
promise of future excellence ; one is the Stonn-;t; 
of Stephen, and the other a Pieta for St. Sepolcro, 
in Piacenza. He was living in 1G07. 

BEECHEY, Sir A\^illiam, an English portrait 
painter of considerable eminence, was born at Bur- 
ford, in Oxfordshire, in 1753. He was originally 
intended for the le2;al profession, but an acquaint- 
ance which he formed with some of the students 
in the Royal Academy served to develope his tast?e 
for art and in 1772 he was admitted as a student 
of that institution. His first ol)jects of study were 
the works of Pveynolds ; after which he practised, 
and then studied from nature. Some of his ear- 
liest works are the portraits of Dr. Strachey, 
Archdeacon of Norwich, and his family ; the Chev- 
alier Ruspini and his family; and the Duke and 
Duchess of Cumberland ; that of the Ruspini fam- 
ily is supposed to be the first the artist exhibited 
at the Royal Academy. From London, Beechey 
went to Norwich, where ho began painting small 
conversation pieces, in the manner first practised 
by Hogarth, and afterwards by ZofFany. Five 
years after, he returned to the metropolis, where 
he soon became generally known and extensively 
employed. In 1793 he was elected an Associate 
of the Royal Academy, and the same year painted 
a full length portrait of Queen Charlotte, who ap- 
pointed him her portrait painter. In 1797 he was 
elected a Royal Academician. In 1798 he paint- 
ed his largecomposition representing a Review 
of the Horse Guards by King George III., the 
Prince of Wales, and the Duke of York, which is 
now in Hampton Court, and is esteemed one of 
Beechey's best works, and gained him the honor 
of knighthood. Soon after this, Beechey painted a 
set of portraits of the royal princesses, for the 
Prince of Wales, and then a series of whole-length 
portraits of the royal family, for the Gothic Pal- 
ace, then erecting atKew. There is also an apart- 
ment at Frogmore Lodge, entirely decorated ^rith 
portraits by his hand. Besides the liberal pat- 
ronage of the royal family, Beechey enjoyed a 
very large share of public patronage and support. 
His portraits are almost numberless, many of 
which are of a very high class of excellence. Those 
of the King, Prince of Wales, and Duke of York, 
in the picture before mentioned, evince a power of 
handling, and breadth of effect, as well as an ac- 
curacy of resemblance, which deserve great praise. 
In his portraits of men, he seems to have been 
deeply imbued with a command of character and 
expression ; and in those of ladies, grace and beau- 
ty are ever pervading. Of the former, may be in- 
stanced of Nelson and Lord St. Vincent ; 
and of the latter, those of Miss de Visine, Miss 
Rudd, and Miss Lushington as a Bacchante, are 
good specimens. Beechey executed but few works 
besides portraits. Among his other productions 
was a picture of Iris bearing to Sommus the com- 
mand of Juno to warn Alcyone, by a dream, of 
the fate of her husband Ceyx, painted on his first 
arrival at London. He died in 1839, aged 86 years. 
BEECK, Jan, a Flemish painter, born at Looz; 
was a monk of the convent of St. Lawrence, near 
Liege, of which he became the abbot in 1509. He 
painted the greatest number of the pictures in the 
church of his convent, and is considered, after the 
brothers Van Eyck, to be the most eminent 
among the ancient painters of Liege. He died in 151G. 


BEEKE^K, Hermann Walter, a Dutch paint- 
er, was born, according to Nagler, at Leeuwarden, 
in 175(). He studied" under J. van Dregt, and 
painted several -good pictures for the Town Hall 
of his native plact, 

BEERESTRATE^^, A. van, a Dutch painter 
of much merit, who is supposed by van Eynden to 
have studied in Italy. Kig marine views are full 
of striking effects, the waUr painted in a most ad- 
mirable manner, and appeai\-no- to move on the 
canvass. They represent DntfK and Italian sea- 
ports, but are very scarce. The Gallery at Dres- 
den, and the Museum at Amsterdavn, possess some 
of the best ; and M. le Brim paid IGOO llvres at 
Paris for one of the works of this artist. 

BEEK, David, an eminent Dutch portrait paint- 
er, born, according to C. de Bie, at Delft i-a 1021, 
though others assert, that he was a native ot Arn- 
heim" in Gueklerl and. He studied under the great 
Vandyck, and was the most successful, if not one 
of his ablest schol ars . Charles I. favored him with 
his patronage, and he was appointed to instruct 
the Prince of Wales and Duke of York in drawing. 
His pencil was remarkably rapid, v,diich occa- 
sioned the King to say pleasantly, while sitting for 
his portrait, that he believed he could paint while 
riding post. After passing several years in Eng- 
land, he visited Sweden, where he was received 
with distinction by Queen Christina, who appointed 
him her principal painter and chamberlain. Not- 
withstanding the flattering protection he received 
from the Queen, his desire of revisiting his native 
land prompted him to solicit permission to return 
to Holland, which he with difficulty obtained, un 
der a promise to return. His attachment to his 
native country prevented his fulfilling his engage- 
ment, and he died at the Hague in 1656. 

BEELDEMAKER, John, a Dutch painter, born 
at the Hague in 1636. It is not recorded under 
whom he studied ; but he gained distinction by hia 
Huntings of the Boar and Stag, which are treated 
with great ability, and painted with a .suitable fire 
and spirit. They are fi'equently seen in England, 
usually of small dimensions. 

BEELDEMAKER, Francis, a Dutch historical 
and portrait painter, the son of John B., born at 
the Hague in I6G9 ; studied first under his father, 
but preferring another branch of the art, he was 
placed under William Doudyns, an historical 
painter of considerable note. He improved so rap- 
idly under his instruction, that before long he de- 
termined to visit Italy, and while at Rome was 
very assiduous in the 'study of the works of the 
great masters. After several years, he returned to 
Holland, where he met with great employment, and 
gained considerable reputation. He was admitted 
a member of the Academy at Hague, and died in 

BEER, JosKPH DE, a Dutch painter, born at 
Utrecht in 1550, studied under Francis Floris, and 
painted history with some success. He was pat- 
ronized by the Bishop of Tournay, for whom he 
painted several admirable pictures. He died in 

BEERINGS, Gregory, a Flemish painter, born 
at Malines in 1500 ; studied in Italy, where he ac- 
quired a fine taste ; produced some good pictures 
of landscapes and architectural ruins, and might 
have gaineigreat distinction, but he fell into indo- 
lence "and dissipation, and died in 1544. 


BEESTEN, A. H. van, n, Dutch painter of por- 
traits and bassi-relieoi, in which he is said to have 
excelled ; but being a man of great modesty, he 
suffered others to profit hj his talents. 

BECtA, Cornelius, a Dutch painter, born at 
Haerlem in 1G20, studied under Adrian Ostade, and 
became the ablest painter of his school. His pic- 
tures, like those of Ostade, represent Dutch peas- 
ants reg-aling and amusing themselves, and the in- 
teriors of Dutch cottages. These subjects are 
treated with a most humorous delineation of char- 
acter ; and his works, though not equal to the ad- 
mirable productions of Ostade, have sufficient merit 
to rank him among the most interesting artists of 
his country, and are deservedly placed in the 
choicest collections. After some years, he fell into 
a _dis.sipated course, and became so depraved that 
his father, a .sculptor, named Peter Begeyn, dis- 
owned him. whence he changed his name to Bega ; 
his earlier pictures being marked with one, and his 
latter works with the other. AVhatever may have 
been his conduct in the earlier part of his life, his 
death was occasioned by a circumstance which 
proves that his profligacy had not extinguished the 
affections of his heart. A young person to whom 
he was fondly attached, and whom he was about 
to marry, was attacked by the plague, which vis- 
ited Holland in 16G4. Though every one aban- 
doned her, yet Bega remained by her .side, and con- 
tinued the most assiduous attention even to the 
last moment. He caught the infection and died, 
aged 44. As an engraver, he has executed about 
thirty-five etchings touched with great spirit and 
ingenuity. Among them are the following: 

An interior of an Alehouse, with three Peasants, one with 
a Goblet in his Hand ; a sketch of two Peasants and a Boy; 
the interior of a Dutch Cottage, a Man with a Pitcher in his 
Hand, with another Peasant with a Woman and a Child, 
fine ; a Man leaning on a Table, and his Wife suckling a 
Child ; a Company of five Men and Women regaling ; an- 
other Company regaling, a Woman pouring out a Glass of 
Liquor ; an Assemblage of eight Peasants, of which two are 
playing at Cards, very scarce. 

BEOARELLI, Antonio, called Antonio da 
MoDENA, an eminent Italian designer and modeler, 
from whom the most eminent painters and sculp- 
tors of his day, gained instruction and advantage. 
He was born at Modena in 1499, and studied un- 
der Gio. Abati. He practised chiefiy at Parma, 
Jlantua, and other cities. He was associated with 
Correggio in the decorations of the cathedral at 
Parma. They were ever on the most friendly 
terms, and naturally assisted each other. Bega- 
relli made the models from which Correggio painted 
many of his floating figures, and instructed his 
friend in the art of modeling. They were nearly 
of the same age, and their conceptions of the grancl 
and beautiful were very similar. Begarelli sur- 
vived Correggio many years, and produced many 
figures, larger than life, of which the monastery 
and church of the Benedictines preserved a noble 
collection. Vasari extols him for the fine air of 
his heads, exquisite proportions, beautifiil drapery, 
and color like marble. But the great Michael An- 
gelo declared, '• If this clay were only to become 
marhbi. wo betide the ancient statues^ Begarelli 
acted as a master in design and modeling, hence 
he greatly influenced the art of painting ; and to 
him are we to attribute in a great measure that 
relief correctnes.s, foreshortening, and grace, ap- 
proaching so near to Raffaelle, of which the Lom- 
bard painters so large a share. Hedied in 15G5. 



BEGNI, GiuLio Ce.sare, an Italian painter, 
born at Pesaro. He studied under Antonio Cima- 
tori. He was a follower of the Venetian school, 
and painted in a bold, rapid, and unfini.shed style, 
but with a fine effect. There are many of his 
works in Pesaro and Udine. He died about 1680. 

BEGYN, Abraham, a Dutch painter, born in 
1G50, painted landscapes and cattle in the style of 
Berghem ; his pictures on those subjects are very 
justly admired. His pencil was fight and free, and 
his coloring very agreeable. He resided chiefly at 
Berlin, where his works were greatly esteemed. 
Houbraken says he was principal painter to the 
Elector of Brandenburgh. In several collections in 
Holland, his works are placed among those of the 
most admired painters ; and they are held in con- 
siderable estimation in England, but his best pro- 
ductions are there ascribed to Berghem, and are 
altered so as to more clearly resemble the works 
of that master. He died about 1710. 

_ BEIIAM, Bartel, a German painter, and very 
distinguished engraver, born at Nuremberg about 
1496. He was the elder brother of the eminent 
Hans Sebald Beham, and, according to Orlandi, re- 
sided chiefly in Italy, and studied under Marc' An- 
tonio Raimondi, at Rome and Bologna. Sandrart 
mentions several of his paintings, which in his time 
were in the Gallery of the Elector of Bavaria, at 
Munich^ and in the collection of the Prince of Neu- 
bourg. As an engraver he was more eminent, and 
was one of the most successful imitators of the fine 
style of Marc' Antonio. His heads have a fine ex- 
pression, and his drawing is masterly and correct. 
Many of his plates have no mark, which has some- 
times occasioned difficulty. Those which bear his 
signature are marked B. B., and are dated from 
1520 to 1533. 

William, Duke of Bavaria. Bust of Erastus Balderman. 
1535. Bust of Leon.ird van Eok. The Emperor Charles 
V. ; marked BB Ferdinand I. ; same mark. 

various subjects. 
Adam and Eve, and Death before the Tree. Judith sit- 
ting on the body of Ilolofernes. 1525. The Virgin suck- 
ling the infant Jesus ; very fine. A Sibyl reading, and a 
Boy holding a Torch. BB. Susanna brought before the 
Elders; after Giidio Romano. Lucretia. Cleopatra. 
1520. The Judgment of Paris. A Battle-piece ; a friese ; 
inscribed Titus Gracchus. Another Battle-piece ; a friese. 
A soldier caressing a Woman. A Child playing with a 
Dog. 1525. A Child sleeping, with a skull. A Woman 
sleeping under a Tree, with a Child and a Lamb near her, 
and in the background a Wolf with a Sword in his Mouth, 
pursuing a Goose ; inscribed Der Welt Lauf. 

There are some prints marked with a B on a dye, 
y~M and sometimes with the dye only, which 
IB W have been by some attributed to Nicholas 
Beatrici. but are now with more probability sup- 
posed to be by Bartel Beham, as they are every 
way much superior to the usual style of Beatrici, 
and are much in the manner of B. Beham. They 
are as follow : 


Apollo causing Marcyas to be flayed ; Christ giving his 
Charge to St. Peter ; dfter Raffaelle. A Naval Combat. 
A Landscape, with Animals lying .ibout a Tree, and at the 
Top of the Tree a Phcenix sotting fire to her Nest. Four 
frieses, with Boys playing, and Festoons of Flowers ; 
RAPH. VRB. IN. Ant. Laferii Formis. 


Apollo and the Python. Apollo and Daphne. 

BEIIA. 86 


BEIIAM, Hans, 
,^_„_^ ; '" jl~ JLJ> JLi-JJS- or John Sebald, 
an eminent German engraver, born at Nuremberg 
in 1500 ; the younger brother of Bartel B., o'ho, 
according to Sandrart. instructed him in the art. 
This, however, was probably only the case previous 
to Barters going to Italy, as the style of John re- 
Bembles that of H. Aldegrevcr. He engraved on 
wood and copper, and a few etchings have been at- 
tributed to him. His copper plates are executed 
entirely with the graver, in an unusually neat and 
delicate manner ; liis wooden cuts are uncommonly 
free and spirited; his drawing of the figure is gen- 
erally correct ; and the expression of his heads and 
figures is of great merit. He possessed consider- 
able genius and a ready invention. In the early 
part of his life he resided at Nuremberg, during 
which time ho marked his plates with a cipher 
composed of the three letters, H. S. P., dated from 
1519 to 1530. He afterwards lived at Frankfort, 
when he changed his mark to a cipher composed 
of H. S. B., dated from 1531 to 1549. His copper 
plates, according to Bartsch, are very numerous. 
The following are the principal : 


Engraved at Nuremberg, and dated from 1510 to 1530. 
The Portraits of Sebald Beham and his Wife, and in the 
middle the Cipher, with a Wreath of Laurel ; this is also 
engraved by Hollar. Adam and Eve in Paradise ; two 
small plates. 1519. St. Jerome, with a Cardinal's Hat 
and the Lion. 1519. The Virgin suckling the infant Je- 
sus. 1520. The Virgin, with a Glory, standing, holdmg 
the infant Jesus. 1520. The Death of Dido; Regina 
Didonis imago. 1520. St. Anthony, Hermit, writing. 
1521. St. Sebald seated between two Trunks of Trees, and 
holding in his right hand the Model of a Church. 1521. 
Two Peasants playing on the Flute and Bagpipe ; very 
small. Two Peasants, Man and Woman, dancing. 1522 ; 
very small. A Triton carrying a Nereid on his shoulders. 
1523 ; very small. A Woman sitting on a Lion. 1524. A 
Young Man and Woman embracing. 1526. The Death 
of Cleopatra. 1529. A Vase, a Model for a Goldsmith, 
with a German inscription. 1530. Combat of the Greeks 
and Trojans ; very small frieze. Combat of Achilles and 
Hector; same. 


Engraved at Frankfort, and dated from 1531 to 1549. 
A Vase, embellished with sculpture, with two Syrens. 
1531. Adam and Eve, behind them a Stag. 1536. Adam 
and Eve in Paradise, with the Serpent presenting the Ap- 
ple. 1543; very fine. The Emperor, with his 
Army, listening to the complaint of a Woman against_ his 
Son. 1537. Melancholy; inscribed Melancolia. 1539; 
after Albert Uurer. Patience; inscribed Patentia ; on 
a tablet is written, Sebaldus Beham Noricus faciebat. 
1540. Eortuna ; a Woman holding a Wheel. 1541. In- 
fortunium ; a Woman stopped by an Evil Genius with a 
Lobster. 1541. A Young Woman, with a Buffoon, pre- 
senting Fruit ; an etching. 1540. Four very small plates 
of the Four Evangelists, with Wings. 1541. Twelve 
small plates of the Labours of Hercules ; inscribed 
AerumncB Herculis ; dated from 1542 to 1543. An En- 
sign and a Drummer. 1544. The Roman Charity, with a 
German inscription. 1544; fine. The Arms of B.ham. 
1544. Bust of Domitia Calvilla, with the Emperor Tra- 
jan ; after Antique Medals. 1546. The Twelve Months 
of the' Year, each represented by a Man and Woman danc- 
ing; two months on one plate; si.x small plates. 1545. 
The Judgment of Paris ; Judicium Paridis. 1546 ; fine. 
Death seizing a Young Woman ; inscribed Omnem in ho- 
mine, (^-c. 1547 ; fine. A Man trying to pull up a Tree ; 
inscribed Impossibile. 1549. The Virgin holding the in- 
fant Jesus in her Arms, with a Parrot and an Apple ; 5?. 
Maria. 1549; after Bartel Beham. 


Which are sometimes marked unth the one and some- 
times with the other of his tiro ciphers. 
Portrait of Beham ; with a Cap. 1546. Eight prints 

of the Passion of onr Sa%-iour. The Holy Family- >^t. 
Joseph plucking the Branch of a Tree. The Virgin with 
the infant Jesus on her Knee. St. Jerome with a Book and 
Crucifi.x. A Young Man and Woman. A Female with 
Wings, with a Crown and Stars, with a Skeleton at her 
Feet — a Child with Wings holds a part of her draperJ^ 
1548. The Baptism of the Anabaptists ; circular ; scarce. 
Another of the same subject ; large print of four sheets ; 
very scarce. A Village Fair, with a Steeple and a Clock ; 
large frieze ; very scarce. A March of Soldiers ; large 
frieze, in four sheets ; very scarce. Biblical Historiae — 
Comprising three hundred and forty-eight prints, of which 
the greater part have figures on both sides. 

BEINASCHI. See Benaschi. 

BEISCH, Joachim Francis, a German painter 
and engraver, born at Munich in 1665. was the son 
of William Beisch, a painter of little note, who 
was a native of Ravensburg, in Suaba, but resident 
at Munich, from whom he received instruction 
in the art. He excelled in landscapes and battle- 
pieces. His best w^orks are in the i)alaces of the 
Elector of Bavaria, in whose employment he re- 
mained for several years ; among which are sev- 
eral large pictures of the battles fought in Hun- 
gary by the Elector Maximilian Emanuel. With 
the consent of his patron he visited Italy, and made 
many designs from the beautiful scenery of that 
country. His landscapes are very pleasing, and he 
seems to have followed the style of Gaspar Pous- 
sin in the arrangement of his pictures. As an en- 
graver, he executed four sets of landscapes, with 
figures and buildings, amounting to twenty-six 
plates, etched wnth great facility and spirit. 

BEISSON, Etienne, a French engraver, born 
at Aix ; studied under Wille ; executed several 
subjects after the Italian masters for the Galerie 
du Musee. and Susanna at the Bath, after San- 
terre. He died in 1820. 

CX/T BEITLER, M., a German engraver, lived at 
1 iAugsburg about 1616 ; engraved in a very 
neat style, according to Prof. Christ, several small 
plates of landscapes. His monogram was an 'M 
and a B reversed. 

BEL, John Baptist le, a Flemish painter, 
who flourished, according to Nagler, about 1750. 
He painted mostly heads of old men and women, 
as well as portraits of his own composition. His 
portrait, according to Fiorillo, is in the Florentine 
Gallery, where several of his pictures are to be 

BELANGER, Francois Joseph, a French ar- 
chitect, born at Paris' in 1744. He studied at 
the University, and distinguished himself by 
obtaining a gold medal, in competition, for a de- 
sign for" a triumphal column. Before the revo- 
lution, he was a fashionable artist, and had charge 
of all the public fetes, spectacles, and funeral shows 
given by the court. He was also distinguished for 
the eleo-'ance of his designs for country villas, &c., 
and in ""the employ of the Duke d'Artois, he ac- 
quired a brilliant reputation and an ample fortune. 
Being strongly attached to the crown, he lost all 
these advantages by the revolution, was imprisoned 
and his property confiscated, and he afterwards 
presented to the government claims to the amount 
of 350,000f. He is particularly Avorthy of notice as 
the first projector of the Abattoirs of Paris, which 
were constructed after his designs. He died at 
Paris in 1818. 

BELANGER, Thierry, a celebrated French 
painter, born at Nancy about 1596. He was 




a friend of Callot, Leclcrc, Chasseul, and all those 
artists who threw so much eclat on the peaceful 
reign of Charles IIL, Duke of Lorraine. He first 
studied under Henriot, a distin,!2;uished Champenois 
painter, but not liking his style, he went to Paris 
and placed himself under the tuition of Youet, 
where Le Brun, Le Sueui-, and l\Iignard were his 
fellow students. He now entered the service of the 
.Duke of Lorraine, and executed for him a great 
man)'- works. He painted in fresco the grand hall 
of the convent which was destroyed in 1718 ; the 
twelve 0;i3sars, in colossal grandeur, for the chat- 
teau de IMorainville ; a Conception of the Virgin in 
the Church of Notre Dame. But his greatest 
"works are in the Church of the ^linimes, at Nancy; 
among these are a Figure of Christ ; the Virgin 
on her death-bed, surrounded by the Apostles and 
Cherubims ; the Assumption of the Virgin — a 
grand composition, extending from the bottom of 
the choir almost to the cupola of the sanctuary, in 
which are introduced as spectators, the portraits 
of Charles and the ducal family. " This majestic 
assemblage forms an oval, surrounded with a rich 
border in which the passion of the Saviour ; and the 
life of the Virgin are represented, a work which alona 
is sufficient to rank his name among the most cele- 
brated masters of his time." This however is 
French praise ; the picture, as described by the 
author from which this is taken [See Dictionaire 
Biog^raphit Universelle] is a gross piece of flat- 
tery, lie possessed a fertile imagination, and 
wrought with great facility. He died at Nancy 
about 1G60. 

BELAU, Nicholas Bruno, a German painter, 
was born at Magdeburg in 1684. He studied at 
Berlin under Augustine Zerwesten. and afterwards 
went to Italy for improvement, where he passed 
several years. On his return, he practised the 
art at Berlin, Anspach, Vienna, and other parts 
of Germany. Heineken mentions by him, the 
portrait of Gottlieb van Haesseler, privy coun- 
sellor to the King of Prussia, engraved by Berni- 
geroth ; also an equestrian portrait of Charles VI., 
to whom a gentleman on his knees is presenting 
a book. It has been engraved in folio by G. A. 
Muller. Belau died in 1747. 

BELBRULE, T., a French wood engraver, flour- 
ished about 1580. Papillon mentions some orna- 
mental cuts of flowers by him very delicately ex- 

BELEJAMBE, Pierre, a modern French engra- 
ver, born at Rouen in 1752. He executed some 
fancy subjects after the cotemporary painters of 
his country, and a few prints for the collection of 
the Palais Royal. Among others are the follow- 

Portrait of Pilatre de Rosier. Cupid reposins: on the 
breast of P.sycho ; after J. B. Renaud. La petite Jean- 
ette ; after J. B. Greuze. The Circumcision ; after Gio. 
Bellini ; for the Orleans Collection. The Adoration of the 
M.agi; after Carlo Cagliari; do. The Holy Family; 
after M Angela ; do. 

BELIDOR, Bernard Forest de, a celebrated 
Spanish architect, mathematician, and engineer, 
born in Catalonia in lG9o. He was an engineer in 
the service of France, member of the Academies 
of Sciences at Paris and Berlin, and of the Royal 
Society of London. Besides his several designs 
and erections, he is well known by his able works 
on mathematics, architecture and engineering. 

BELKNAP, Jan van, a Dutch painter, who 
practised chiefly in England, where he was much 
employed in copying the pictures in the Royal col- 
lection. At Drayton there were formerly por- 
traits of Henry VII. and VIII. copied from large 
pictures b}^ Holbein, which were burnt at White- 
hall, and some of his works are still in the Royal 
Collection. He died in England in 1653. 

BELL, John, one of the most distinguished of 
the Scotch anatomists and surgeons, was born at 
Edinburgh, in 1702. Professor of Anatomy and 
Surgery in the University, and overwhelmed with 
an extensive practice, yet he found time to culti- 
vate a taste for the fine arts. He learned engra- 
ving to enable him to illustrate his works with a 
truth and fidelity which he could not obtain to his 
satisfaction. He is particularly worthy of men- 
tion in this work as the designer and engraver of two 
quarto volumes of plates, illustrative of his works 
on anatomy, which are etched with wonderful 
freedom and truthfulness to nature. He died at 
Rome in 1820, whither he had gone in hopes to 
repair his energies, worn out by a life of constant 
professional labor. While in Italy he wrote some 
admirable criticisms on works of art, which were 
published in Echnburgh in 1825, after his death. 

BELL, Lady, the si.ster of J. Hamilton, R. A., 
received instructions from her brother and Rey- 
nolds. She succeeded very well in copying the 
works of the latter, and also copied some pictures 
by Rubens, in Carlton Palace, among which was a 
fine Holy Family. She died in 1825. 

BELL, William, an English painter, born at 
Newcastle upon Tyne. He went to London about 
1768, and was among the first to enter as student 
oftheRoj-al Academy. In 1771 he obtained the 
gold medal for a picture representing Venus solic- 
iting Vulcan to forge arms for ^neas. He was 
much patronized by Lord Delaval, for whom he 
painted two Views of Seaton Delaval, and the por- 
traits of the family. He died at Newcastle about 

X^k /7^ X^ BELLA, Stefano della, a 
^pe-lca ^^fjp distinguished Florentine engra- 
ver, born in IGIO, was the son of a goldsmith, and 
intended for that profession, but manifesting a 
genius for drawing, he was placed under Cesare 
Dandini to learn painting ; but a decided inclina- 
tion for engraving induced his father to place him 
under Cantagallina, who was also the master of 
Callot. He at first followed the manner of the lat- 
ter, but soon abandoned it and adopted a style of 
his own. He designed his pieces with wonderful 
taste, his execution is admirable, and his prints pro- 
duce a clear and brilliant efiect. Some of his prints 
are slightly, though spiritedly etched ; but this is not 
surprising, as the number of the whole is upwards 
of fourteen hundred. He visited Paris in 1642, 
where he executed some plates for Henriet, the 
uncle of Israel Sylvestre. Cardinal Richelieu em- 
ployed him to make drawings of the siege and 
taking of Arras by the royal army, which he sub- 
sequently engraved. On returning to Florence, he 
was appointed by the Grand Duke to instruct 
his son Cosmo in "drawing, with a suitable pension. 
He died at Florence in 1664. aged 54. The fol- 
lowing are his principal works: 


Portrait of S. Delia Bella, in a Persian costume, after 
his design. Sigismond Boldoni, a noble Milanese. — 



Mount Joie, St. Dents, King at Arms, very scarce. Ilora- 
tius Gonzales, oval, very scarce. Ferdinand, King of the 
Romans. Bernardo Ricei on Horseback, Buffoon to Ferdi- 
nand II., 1637. St.' Antonino kneeling in the Clouds, said to 
be his first plate. St. Anthony mounted on a Monster with 
two Heads, inscriltcd Super aspldeni, t.\-c. .Jacob and Ra- 
chel leaving Laban. Jacob's Journey to Egypt, to find Jo- 
seph. Battle of the Amalekitcs. St. John Baptist, with a 
Lamb. St. John Baptist getting Water with his Cup. The 
Virgin, with the infant Jesus on her Knee. The Virgin, with 
the infant Jesus standing on her Knee. The Virgin suck- 
ling the infant Jesus. The Virgin suckling the infant Jesus, 
with St. Elizabeth and St. John. The Virgin sitting, with 
the Infant standing on her Knee, oval. The Virgin suckling 
the Infant, Caracci iiw. A small plate of the Flight into 
E"-ypt, St. Joseph leading the Ass. A round plate of the 
rfight into Egypt, with the Heads of Angels. The Repose in 
Egypt, a rouiid plate. The Repose in Egypt, with St. Jo- 
seph reading, leaning against a Tree. The Holy Family, 
with St. John and St. Elizabeth, with a Flower-pot. The in- 
fant Jesus explaining the Writings to the Virgin and St. 
Joseph, very rare. Bffigie del glorioso Martyre Sto. Bene- 
detto, very scarce. The Finding of the miraculous Image 
of our Lady, near Florence, 1633. The Triumph of the 
Church. St. Prospero descending from Heaven, very scarce. 
The tyrant Phalaris ordering Perillus to be put into the Bra- 
zen Bull, 1634. A Ba.sso-relievo, antique, after Poli- 
doro. Lucretia, after Parmegiano. Three Children car- 
rying a Plateau, after Guido. A basso-relievo, antique, a 
Woman stopping a Bull. Clovis on Horseback, carrying oif 
Clotilda, scarce. A Seaman, of whom a Beggar is asking 
Charity. A Seaman, with his Hand on the Head of his Dog, 
and other Figures. A Child teaching a Dog to sit up. Four 
Turks, half-length figures. Three Turks, with a Boy and a 
Negro. A Polonesc, with his Battle-axe. A Soldier, with his 
Mu'sket, and holding a Fowl, and a Woman on Horseback, 
with a Child. A Florentine, with his Gun, and a 
Girl spinning. A Lady holding a Dog, marked tvv^ice S. D. 
Bella. MountParnassus, very fine. An Eagle devouring a 
Fowl, with its Wings extended, and below two Horses and a 
number of spectators. TheRockof the Philosophers, fine and 
scarce. The Fair, representing a Festival on the Arno, oval, 
— this plate was a long time attributed to Callot. Perspec- 
tive View of the Catafalco of the Emperor Ferdinand II., 
with the Arms of the Medici. A Thesis, on the Canonization 
of Francis Solanus, 1639. Plan of the Siege of La Rocholle, 
S. Del. Bella, del. etfec. Plan of the Siege of Arras, for 
the Cardinal Richelieu, marked Stefano Delia Bella, inv. 
etfec. The Reposoir, or Fete Dieu, lengthways— it is sel- 
dom a good impression of this plate can be met with. The 
View of the Pont-neuf— the first impressions of this plate 
are without the weathercock on the steeple of St. Germain 
I'Auxerrois. View of the Castle of St. Angelo. 


Two Landscapes ; in one, a Peasant carrying a Basket 
at the end of a Stick ; and in the other, a Peasant carry- 
ing a Pack.age on his Head. Two Landscapes, one with a 
Man leading Dogs ; and the other, a Man leading a Horse 
loaded with Sheep. Six Views of the Port of Leghorn. 
1655. The Four Seasons; four figures in ovals. The 
Four Elements, Landscapes and Marines. Eight Marines 
in the style of Callot ; dedicated to Lorenzo de Medici. 
Six — Of Vases. Six Landscapes ; circular. 1656. Four 
charming Landscapes, with Figures. Four Views of Ro- 
man Ruins. Three Battle-pieces ; large plates. 1622, 
1627, 1641. Eleven — Of Moors, Hungarians, Asiatics, 
and Africans. Sixteen small .square plates — Of Soldiers, 
Hunters, Fishermen, Peasants, Children, &c., which some 
attribute to Callot. Eighteen ; entitled Rarrolta di vari 
capriccL 1646. Twenty-four Views of Edifices ; publish- 
ed by Israel Sijlvefitre. Twenty-two Sketches, Ac, by 
Stef. Delia Bella. The Five Deaths ; ovals ; the last of 
his" works. The sixth Death, plate begun by Delia Bella, 
and finished by J. B. Galestrucci his scholar, after his death. 
BELLANGB.JAcauES, aFrencli painter and en- 
p;raver, born at Chalons about 1010; studied un- 
per Claude Ilenriot, a painter of Nancy, and aft'T- 
wards visited Paris, where ho became a pupil of 
Simon Vouct. As a painter, little is known of 
him. His plates, though executed in a rather 
sin<;;ular manner, possess considerable merit ; his 
point is free and masterly, and the chiaro-scuro is 

managed with more than usual intelligence. His 
drawing is incorrect, and tliero is an appearance of 
atl'ectation in the turn of his figures. The follow- 
ing are his principal plates : 

The Annunciation ; The Holy Family, with St. Cathe- 
rine and St. John ; The Adoration of the Miigi ; The Re- 
surrection of Lazarus ; Christ bearing his Cross ; The dead 
Saviour lying on the Knees of the Virgin l\Iary ; The Three 
Marys going to the Sepulchre ; The Magdalene, half- 
length ; St. John the Baptist in the Wilderness ; The Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Lucia ; The Death of Virginia ; Adonis 
carrying Diana on his Shoulders. 

BELLA NGER, J. A., a French amateur engra- 
ver, mentioned by Bassan as having etched some 
plates from his own designs with considerable 
taste, intelligence, and correctness ; also a few 
plates after Ralfaclle, among which are the Miracle 
of the Loaves and Fishes, and the School of Athens. 

BELLE, Clement Louis Marie Anne, a 
French historical painter of eminence, born at 
Paris in 1722. Hi.s father, Alexis Simon Belle, a 
reputable painter, and member of the Royal Acad- 
emy, instructed him in the art, and after his death, 
hismother placed him with Le Moine, and after- 
wards sent him to Ital}'' to perfect his education. 
Soon after his return to Paris he was admitted a 
member of the Academy, and afterwards appointed 
Assistant, then Professor, and finally, in 1785, 
Rector to the Academy. In 1775 he was appointed 
inspector of the manufactory of the Gobelins. 
Though his time was much employed in the dis- 
charge of these various duties, he executed some 
excellent works for the public edifices. He died at 
Paris in 1806. He was a man of talents, a thor- 
oughly educated artist, of large scientific acquire- 
ments, which, together with his high moral quali- 
ties, and amiable disposition, pecidiarly fitted him 
for the instruction of pupils, who regarded him 
with affection. He left a son, who succeeded him 
as in.spector of the mamxfactory of the Gobelins. 

BELLE, AuGUSTiN Louis, a French painter, son 
of the preceding, born at Paris in 1757 ; was 
instructed by his father, whom he assisted in 
the Gobelins manufactory. He painted many pic- 
tures from subjects of sacred and profime history, 
and the ancient poets. He was living in 1831. 

BELLE, Nicholas Simon Alexis, an eminent 
French portrait painter, born in 1674; studied im- 
der F. de Troy ; was patronized by the King of 
France and several other sovereigns, and h.vl an 
excellent practice in his day. He died in 1734. 

BELLEVOTS, , a Flemish marine p.ainter. 

It is not mentioned by whom he was instructed, 
but he was a respectable artist in this branch, and 
his works are to be found in many of the Flemish 
collections. He followed the style of W. Vander- 
velde and Eackhuyscn. He resided at Hamburg, 
where he died in 1684. 

BELLI, James. According to Basan, this en- 
graver was born at Chartres, but resided chiefly in 
Italy. He executed some plates after An. Caracci, 
and also the following, supposed to be from his 
own designs: .Jupiter and Juno; Venus and 
Adonis ; Hercules and Omphale ; Diana and En- 
dymion, dated in 1041. 

BETJJCARD, Jerome Charles, a French ar- 
chitect, born at Paris in 1726. After obtaining 
the prize for a grand frieze, he Avcnt to Italy to 
study. Shortly after his return, he was appointed 
professor in the Academy of Architecture at Paris. 

BELL. 89 

He was a man of talents, and might have gained 
an honorable distinction, had not dissipation de- 
stroyed his fortunes, and ended his life in misery, in 
1786. lie published a work on the antiquities of 
Herculaneum, or ancient painting and sculpture, 
illustrated with thirty-three plates, etched by him- 

BELLING, Joseph Erasmus, a German en- 
graver of Augsburg. Among other works by this 
artist, Heinekcn mentions a portrait of Clement 
XIIL, folio ; and a number of devotional subjects. 

BELLINI, .Jacopo, an old Venetian painter, 
born about 1405 ; studied under Gentile Fabriano, 
and is said, by Ridolfi, to have been one of the 
most reputable painters of his day. He was an 
eminent portrait painter, and executed several pic- 
tures of the principal personages of the republic, 
and others, one of which is mentioned by Ridolfi, 
that of Jacopo Lusignano, King of Cyprus, who 
was beheaded at Venice. That author mentions 
several of Bellini's works in the public edifices at 
Venice, which were highly esteemed at the time, 
especially in the Church of the Confraternity of 
St. John the Evangelist, representing different sub- 
jects from the lives of our Saviour and the Virgin. 
He died in 1470. 

BELLINI, Cav. Gentile, a Venetian painter, 
born in 1421, was the eldest son of Jacopo B.,whom 
he assisted in some works for the government, in 
which he manifested .such ability that he was en- 
gaged to adoi-n the great council-chamber at Ven- 
ice, for which he painted several large pictures rep- 
resenting the most celebrated achievements of the 
Venetian Republic ; of which a particular descrip- 
tion is given by Ridolfi. These, and other works 
for the nobility, gained him great reputation. He 
afterwards executed some sacred subjects, for the 
Confraternity of S. Marco. Some of Bellini's pic- 
tures were carried to Constantinople by Turkish 
merchants, and shown to the Sultan, Mahomet II., 
who applied to the Senate of Venice to permit 
Bellini to visit his court, where he was received 
with great favor, and painted the portraits of the 
Sultan and Sultana, which were regarded as prod- 
igies by the Turks. He painted for the Sultan a 
number of pictures ; among others, one represent- 
ing the Decollation of St. -John, who is highly re- 
vered by the Turks. The picture pleased ]\Iahomet 
exceedingly, except the execution of the skin of the 
neck at the part where it is severed, and the mon- 
arch, in order to prove his position, ordered imme- 
diately the head of a slave struck off in the paint- 
er's presence, who was so shocked at the barbar- 
ous spectacle, that he could not be easy till he ob- 
tained his dismissal. This request was at length 
granted, and Mahomet presented him with a gold 
chain and medal, and wrote letters to the Senate in 
his favor, which procured him an honorable stipend 
for life, and the kni<rhthood of the Order of St 
Mark. He died in 1501. 

BELLINI, Belluv, an Italian painter, of the 
school of the Bellini, and one of their family, who 
flourished about 1500, and imitated their style with 
great exactness. He painted Madonnas for pri- 
vate collections, and Lanzi says they are usuallv 
attributed to either Gentile or Giovanni Bellini. " 

BELLINI, GiovANNr, a Venetian painter, the 
younger son of Jacopo B., and the brother of Gen- 
tile, born in 1422. He learned the elements of the 


art from his father, and for some time assisted his 
brother in the work he was executing for the 
Council-chamber at Venice. Ridolfi says he was 
the first Venetian who ever painted in oil, and that 
he learned it of Antonello da Messina. He was 
not long satisfied with the dry, Gothic style pre- 
vailing in the Venetian school, and was the first 
of his countrymen that tried to reform it, by sim- 
ply following nature, though his design was still 
characterized by the stiffness and formality of 
the time. Many of his works are in the Vene- 
tian churches, and some of his smaller pictures 
are in the foreign collections. Bellini was very 
industrious, and has the credit of having instruct- 
ed two of the greatest painters of the Venetian 
school, Giorgione and Titian. Bryan .says he died 
in 1512, aged ninety, but Lanzi says he was living 
in 1516. In that year he was visited by Albert 
Durer, who pronounced him the best painter of 
his time. Mechel mentions a picture in the Im- 
perial Gallery at Vienna, in which a young lady 
nearly naked, is seated arranging her hair before 
a mirror. At the lower part of the picture is 
Johannes Bellinus faciebat MDXV. It would 
seem that he continued to employ his talents to 
the last, as there remains in the gallery of Santa 
Giustina of Padua, a Madonna, dated 1516, and 
Brandolesi mentions another at Padua with the 
same date. 

BELLINI, FiLippo, an Italian painter, born at 
Urbino, and flourished about 1594. Lanzi says he 
possessed unusual ability, although he is little no- 
ticed in the annals of art. He was a successful 
imitator of Federigo Baroccio, as appears in his pic- 
ture of the circumcision in the Basilica of Loretto, 
and in the marriage of the Virgin, in the dome at 
Ancona. Among his principal works are the mar- 
tyrdom of St. Guadenzio in the Conventuali di M. 
Alboddo; and fourteen pictures of the works of 
Charity, in the Chiesa della Carita at I'abriano. 

BELLINI, Cav. Giacinto. a Bolognese paint- 
er, born about 1600; studied under Francesco Al- 
bano, and on leaving the school of that master 
was taken under the protection of Count Odoardo 
Pepoli, by whom he was sent to Rome for im- 
provement, with Francesco Caracci. While in that 
city, Bellini soon manifested so much ability that 
he gained the patronage of Cardinal Tonti, who 
employed him for some time, and according to 
Malvasia, was so much pleased with his works 
that he procured him the Knighthood of the Order 
of Loretto. He followed the manner of Albano 
and his pictures have much of the graceful style 
of that esteemed master. He was living in 1660. 

BELLINIANO, Vittore, a Venetian histori- 
cal painter ; flourished, according to Ridolfi about 
1526. Several of his works are in the confrater- 
nity of St. Mark's, at Venice, and in the neigh- 
boring towns. 

BELLIS, Antonio de, a Neapolitan painter of 
great genius, who died young at Naples, in 1656. 
He painted several subjects for the church of S. 
Carlo in that city, partaldng of the styles of Guido 
and Guercino. 

BELLU, Alexis Simon, a reputable French 
portrait painter, born at Paris, according to Hein- 
eken, in 1674. He studied under Francis de Troy 
and was elected a Roj^al Academician. He prac- 
tised the art at Paris for many years with good 
success, and died in 1734. 




BELLTVERT. See Bilivert. 

BELLO, Marco, au Italian artist, born at 
Argenta, and studied under Giovanni Bellini. At 
Rovigo, in the possession of the noble family of 
Carsalini, is a picture of the Circumcision by this 
artist, signed Opus Marci Belli, discipuli Jolian- 
nis Bellini, and Lanzi says he was a good disciple 
of this master. He mentions another picture at 
Argenta by him, signed with his initials, M. B. 

BELLOTTI, Bernardo, a modern Venetian 
painter and engraver, born in 172-4, died at War- 
saw in 1780 ; studied under his uncle, the cele- 
brated Antonio Canal, called Canaletti. In im- 
itation of the latter he painted perspective and 
architectural pieces which possess considerable 
merit. He resided chiefly in Germany, and has 
etched, from his own designs, several views in 
Dresden, Vienna, and Warsaw, and other subjects, 
as follow : A set of six Landscapes and Views, 
engraved at Vienna. A set of twelve architectu- 
ral Ruins ; the same. Fifteen Views in Dresden. 
Eight Views in the environs of Dresden. Three 
Views in Warsaw. 

BELLOTTI. PiETRO, a Venetian painter, born 
in 1625 ; studied under Girolamo Forabosco, un- 
der whom he became an excellent colorist. He 
painted some historical subjects, but was more em- 
ployed in portraits, in which he was very success- 
ful. He died at Venice in 1700. 

BELLUCCI. Antonio, a Venetian painter, born 
in 1024; studied under Doraenico Difnico, from 
Avhom he acquired an admirable style. Orlandi 
says he painted several altar-pieces for the churches 
at Venice and Vienna. There are several pictures 
by him in the Dusseldorf Gallery; some of the 
landscapes of Tempesta are enriched with figures 
by Bellucci ; and in the church of the Ascension 
at Venice, is a fine picture of the Nativitj-. The 
Emperor .Ju.seph I., invited him to his court, sat 
to him for his portrait, and appointed him his 
principal painter. After remaining some years at 
Vienna, he obtained permission to ]ctire, and en- 
tered into the service of the Elector Palatine, 
where he lived a long time, highly respected for 
his talents. He died at Trevisa in 172G. 

BELLUNELLO, Andrea, one of the old Vene- 
tian painters, born at San Vito, where he flour- 
ished in the latter half of the fifteenth centurv, 
and where he was considered the Apelles of the 
age ; for in the Cathedral at Pordenone, under one 
of his altar-pieces is this inscription : 

" Andreas Zeiixi.s nostr;i>qiie Ktatis Apelles, 
Hoc Bclluiiellus nobile pinxit opus." 

In one of his paintings, dated 1490, he signs himself 
Andrea Bellone. Lanzi says his master-piece is a 
Crucifixion in the Council-chamber at Udine, and 
that his works, though possessing merit for the 
age in which he lived, have neither beauty of form 
nor color. 

BELLUNESE, Giorgio, a painter of the Ven- 
etian school, who flourished at San Vito, in the 
Friuli, about 1550. Cesarini says he was an able 
artist, especially in painting portraits, freezes, and 
minute ornaments. 

BELTRAFFO, Gio. Antonio, an Italian paint- 
er, born at Milan in 14G7, and died in 1516. He 
studied under Leonardo da Vinci, and is said to 
have succeeded him in the direction of the Acad- 
emy. His works partake of the style of his mas- 

ter, and though rare, a few of them still exist in 
Milan, Bologna, and other places. Lanzi com- 
mends one in the Misericordia at Bologna, repre- 
senting the Virgin between St. John the Baptist 
and St. Bastiano, with the figure of Girolamo da 
Cesio. kneeling at the foot of the throne. The pic- 
ture bears the signature of the artist, dated 1500. 

BELTRAND, Hernando Domingo, sculptor 
and architect, born at Vittoria. in Biscay, about 
1500, studied in Italy, became so skillful that Palo- 
mino Velasco did not hesitate to place him above 
the most famous artists of his time. He was 
formed by studying Michael Angelc, and many 
statues of Christ, of natural grandeur, executed 
by Beltrajid, appear worthy of being attributed 
to the illustrious master he liad chosen. The 
Escurial, the Imperial College at Madrid, (which 
before had belonged to the Society of the .Jesuits, 
of which Beltrand was a member) the Chapel of 
the same city, and the great altar of the college of 
Alcala de Herarez, were decorated with these 
statues. Beltrand died in 1590. at a very advanced 

BELTRANO,Agostino, and his wife, Aniella, 
Neapolitan painters, and scholars of IMassimo, of 
whom Aniella was the niece : they are mentioned 
together, as they painted alike, and jointly pre- 
pared manj- pictures which Jlassimo afterwards 
finished. They both possessed more than ordin- 
ary merit, as is shown by many altar-pieces and 
cabinet pictures. Some, however, are the work 
of Aniella alone, and are highlj- prized ; Massimo 
is supposed to have had a considerable share in 
their execution. However this ma}" be, her origi- 
nal designs prove her talents, and her cotempora- 
ries, both artists and authors, highly praise her 
abilities. She was murdered by her husband in a 
fit of jealousy, in the year 1G49, at the age of 36. 
Ho died in 1G65. 

BELVEDERE, l' Abate Andrea, a reputable 
Neapolitan painter of flowers and fruit ; studied 
under Rnoppoli. He quitted painting for the pur- 
suit of literature, in v/hich he held a respectable 

BEMBO, BoNiFAZio, an Italian painter, born 
at Cremona. Lanzi says he was employed by the 
Court of Milan in 14G7. He painted several of 
the compartments in the Duoino of Cremona, 
which are characterized by spirited attitudes, mag- 
nificent drapery, and splendid coloring. 

BEMBO, Giovanni Francesco, a painter of 
the Cremonese school, the brother of Bonifazio, 
flourished about 1520. His works have slight 
traces of the antique, and resemble Fra Bartolo- 
meo in point of coloring, though inferior to that 
master in the drapery, and dignity of figures. 
Lanzi mentions an altar-piece by him at the Os- 
servanti. dated 1524, and sa_ys he has not observed 
anything of a similar taste in Cremona or its vicin- 
ity. Rosini mentions a print of a votive picture 
which is designed with much of the dignity and 
grace of Rafl'aelle. 

BEMMELL, Wm. van, a Ducth painter, born 
at Utrecht in 1630; studied under Herman Zacht- 
leeven. and, like his master, excelled in landscapes. 
On leaving him, lie visited Italy, where he passed 
several years in designing after the finest views in 
the vicinity of Rome. These studies furnished 
him with excellent material for his future works. 




and his pleasing manner of painting landscapes, 
with waterfalls, ruins and vestiges of Roman ar- 
chitecture, gained him much reputation. On leav- 
ing Italy, he settled at Nuremberg, where he met 
with great encouragement. His works are rarely 
to be seen but in the German collections. He 
etched six plates of landscapes, dated 1654, which 
are executed with great ability. He died in 1703, 
aged 73. John Geo. van Bemmell, his son, a paint- 
er of battle-pieces, was born at Nuremberg in 
1GG9, and died in 1723. 

BEMMELL, Peter van, a German painter and 
engraver, born at Nuremberg in 1689 ; painted 
landscapes. His pictures are little known, except 
in his native city. He etched six plates of land- 
scapes, length\vays, published at Ratisbon ; J. H. 
Osterbag, exc. He died in 1723. 

BERNANI, Francis, a very old Italian painter, 
by whom there is a whole length picture of St. 
Jerome holding a crucifix in his hand. It pos- 
sesses all the characteristics attributed by Lanzi 
to Italian painting in the 13th century. It is 
marked Franciscus Bernanus, Filius Petri Abla- 
da. The size of this work is twenty-six by thirty- 
two, and it is painted on panel covered with gyp- 

TI3TA, a Piedmontese painter, born, according to 
Lanzi, in 1636. He visited Rome while quite 
young, where he studied under Pietro del Po, but 
formed his style after Lanfranco. His chief per- 
formances are at Naples, where he painted several 
ceilings, and other works in fresco. He possessed 
a ready invention, and was an able designer. There 
is an etching by Benaschi, of the Holy Family, 
after Domenico Cerini, his intimate friend. He 
died in 1688, aged 72. 

BENASECH, Peter Paul, a London engrav- 
er, born about 1744 ; studied under Yivares, and 
according to Basan, practised some time at Paris, 
bat returned to England. The following are his 
principal works : 

Peasants playing at Bowls ; after A. Ostade. Fisher- 
men ; Return from fishing ; a Calm at Sea ; Morning ; 
after Vernet. Four large Landscapes; after Dietr icy ; 
engraved in 1770 and in 1771. These are his finest prints. 

BENAVIDES, Don Vincente de, a Spanish 
painter, born at Oran in 1637 ; studied under 
Francesco Rizi, at Madrid. He did not succeed in 
the figures, but excelled in fresco painting, and was 
much employed in theatrical decorations. He was 
appointed painter to Charles I., in 1691, and died 
in 1703. 

BENCOYICH, Federigo. This painter was 
born in Dalmatia. but educated at Bologna, and 
flourished about 1753. He executed a numlicr of 
excellent works at Bologna, Venice, and Milan. 
In the church of la ^Madonna del Piombo at Bo- 
logna, is an altar-piece, representing the crucifix- 
ion of St. Andrew. He was a good theorist, cor- 
rect in his design, and vigorous in his light and 
shadow ; he seems to have studied the style of 
Carlo Cignani, whose firmness of design he ap- 
proached more than the softness of his coloring. 
He was more employed on easel pictures than 
large works, many of which are in Germany, 
where he lived many j-ears. 

BENEDETTI, Mattia, an Italian painter, 
born at Reggio ; studied under Orazio Talami. 
Averoldi says he flourished about 1700, and was 

considerably esteemed as a fresco painter. One 
of his best works was the ceiling of the church 
of San Antonio, at Brescia, which is highly com- 

BENEDETTIS, Dgmenfco de, a Piedmontese 
painter, born in 1610; went to Naples while young, 
and studied for some time under Fabrizio Santa- 
fede; after which he visited Rome, and studied 
under Guido, whose graceful and elegant style he 
imitated with success. On returning to Naples, 
he was favored with the patronage of the King^ 
whose palace he adorned with several pictures. He 
executed several works for the churches, the best 
of which, according to Dominici, is the Dome of 
the Chiesa di D. Regina, where he has represented, 
in the different compartment.s. subjects from the 
life of the Virgin, entirely in the manner of Guido. 
He died in 1678. 

BENEDETTO, Giovanni Benedetto. See 

BENEDETTO, da Rovezzano, so called from 
the place of his nativity, near Florence. This em- 
inent sculptor was born in the latter part of the 
fifteenth century. About the year 1500, he ex- 
ecuted the fine monument to Pietro Soderini and 
Oddo Altoviti, in the church of the Carmine 
at Florence. He was employed conjointly with 
Sansovino and Baccio Bandinelli, on the works of 
sculpture in the cathedral of that city ; the beauti- 
ful marble statue of St. John was entirely executed 
by him. In 1515, he was employed by the monks 
of Vail' Orabrosa to erect a superb monument to 
the memory of St. Jean Gualbert, the founder of 
their Order. This work, which it took him ten 
years to complete, was composed of several 
statues in bas-relief. It was executed at the 
house occupied by the General of the Order, out- 
side of the city walls, and was totally destroyed 
during the war that happened about that time, 
when Florence was besieged. It is said that Ben- 
edetto went to England at the invitation of the 
King, who munificently rewarded him. But it is 
probable that he was emploj-cd by Cardinal Wol- 
sey to erect the splendid monument which Henry 
Vill. appropriated to himself after the downfall 
of that prelate, and that he afterwards continued 
some time in the service of that monarch. He 
became blind, and passed the rest of his days, in 
competency, in his own country, vrhere he died 
aVjout 1550. 

BENEDETTO, da Majano. an eminent Floren- 
tine architect, who flourished about 1450. He had 
a brother named .Julian, and they both excelled in 
sculpture as well as architecture. They executed 
a number of fine works, among which the colossal 
and majestic Strozzi palace stands preeminent. 
It WBS commenced by Benedetto in 1450, but was 
completed by Simone Pollajolo, called Cronaca, 
about 1500. It forms an almost imperi.shable 
monument of the genius of Beneiletto. and is the 
finest instance of the power of architecture speak- 
ing to the imagination. 

BENEDICTO, Roque, an historical painter of 
Valencia, and scholar of Gaspar de la Huerta. His 
best work was the i\liracle of St. Francis de Paul 
feeding the three thousanrl persons with a few 
loaves of bread. His coloring was better than his 
design. His works are often taken for those of 
his master. He died at Valencia in 1735. 

BENEFIALI, Cav. Marco, a reputable Roman 




painter, born in 1684. In the Academy of St. 
Luke, is a line picture of Christ at the Well of 
Samaria; in the church of the Stigmata, the Fleg- 
ellation ; in the Palazzo Spada, there is a saloon 
painted entirely by this artist, which is thought 
one of the finest works of his time, where are also 
preserved the cartoons for his great fresco work, 
of the dome of the Cathedral at Viterbo. He re- 
ceived the honor of knighthood from the Pope, and 
died in 1764. 

BENET, EL Padre Geronimo, a reputable 
Spanish painter. He was distinguished for pictures 
of the Virgin and Christ, to which he gave consid- 
erable expression. He died at Valladolid in 1700. 

BENFATTO, Luigi, a Veronese painter, born 
in 1551; was the nephew and scholar of Paolo 
Veronese, from whom he acquired a bold, vague, 
and vigorous style. Ridolfi says he supported the 
fame of the school, and the splendid system of col- 
oring established by Paolo, for some time after the 
death of that great master. The same author 
mentions many of his works in the public places 
at Venice ; among which is a grand composition in 
the church of St. Nicholas, representing the as- 
cension of that saint to Heaven, attended by a 
choir of angels and emblematical figures. In the 
Chiesa di S. jMarta, are several pictures by him 
of the life of that saint. He died in 1611. 

BENINI, SiGiSMONDO, an Italian landscape 
painter, born at Cremona about 1675 ; studied 
under Angelo Massarotti. His pictures are high- 
ly finished and very agreeably colored ; his light 
and perspective are well managed ; but his talent 
was confined to landscapes, for when he introduced 
figures of his own, the work always diminished in 

BENINCASA, Gio., a Neapolitan architect, who 
lived about 1520, and in conjunction with Ferrante 
Maglione, erected under the Viceroy of Toledo, 
the royal palace in that city, now called the Old 

BENNINGS, LiEvENE, a celebrated Flemish 
paintress, daughter of Simon Benichius, or Ben- 
nings, a miniature painter of Bruges, who in- 
structed her in the art. She became so distin- 
guished that Henry VIII. invited her to his court, 
and procured for her a rich and noble husband. 
Her works were equally admired in the reigns of 
Mary and Elizabeth ; with the latter she was in 
great favor in 1570. 

BENOIST, or BEXOIT, Wm. Philip, a French 
engraver, born at Coutances, in Normandy, in 1725. 
He executed some portraits and other subjects in 
a very neat style. During the latter part of his 
life he resided at London, where he died about 
1780. The following are his principal plates : 


Galilee Galilei; ajter F. Villamena. The President 
de Montesquieu. Alexander Pope. Rosen de Rosenstein, 
physician. Sir Isaac Newton. Blaise Pascal. Albert 


Jupiter and Juno ; after Gluliano di Parma. Beth- 
eheba bathing ; after Bonnieu. 

BEXOTST, Madame, a French paintress, born 
about 1770. She executed many interesting fa- 
miliar subjects, and the portraits of several distin- 
guished persons, among whom are Napoleon and 
his wife Maria Louisa. Her maiden name was 

Delaveile Leroux, and Desmoustier addressed to 
her "Z/fis lettres sur la Mythologie,'^ under the 
name of Emilie. 

BENOZZO, , a Florentine painter, born in 

1539 ; died in 1617. Little is known of the events 
of his life. He painted history and portraits with 
considerable reputation. 

BENSHEIMER, J., a German engraver. There 
are a number of plates by this artist, among which 
are a set of portraits of the Electors of Saxony, 
which possess some merit. lie usually marked 
his plates with his initials, J. B. 

BENSO, GiuLio, a Genoese painter, was born 
about 1600. He studied under Gio. Battista Pag- 
gi, and excelled in subjects of history, and arch- 
itectural representations. He was patronized by 
the noble family of Doria, and executed several or- 
namental works in their palaces. His most es- 
teemed performance is the coronation of the Virgin, 
painted in fresco, in the Nunziata, which has been 
greatly admired. He also painted a number of pic- 
tures in oil for the churches, of which that of S. 
Domenico is highly esteemed. Soprani says that 
Benso also gained distinction as an architect, but 
none of his works are mentioned. He died in 1668. 

^Oor'X'PfX ^^^'1'' -J^"^ Vander, a Dutch 
<j^JiJ vCJcJ i painter, born at Amsterdam in 
1650 ; studied first under Peter Wouwerman, but 
afterwards mider Adrian Vandervelde. His style, 
both in landscapes, figures, and cattle, resembles 
that of Nicholas Berghem, much more than that 
of either of his instructors, and his works may 
easily be mistaken for those of that master. His 
works may be often found in English collections, 
and they are deserving of estimation, though not 
equal to those of the artist above mentioned. 
He died in 1690. 

BENTUM, Justus van, a Dutch painter, born 
at Leyden in 1670. He studied under Godfrey 
Schalcken, and followed the style of that master. 
His works arc probably all attributed to Godfrey. 
He died in 1727. 

BENVENUTO, Gio. Battista, called L'Orto- 
LANO, an Italian painter, born at Ferrara about 
1490; studied a few years in his native city, and 
then visited Bologna, where he became a pupil of 
Bartolomeo Bagnacavallo. Barotti describes sev- 
eral of his works at Ferrara, where they are highly 
esteemed; among which is a picture of the Virgin 
and Infant, with Saints, in the Church of S. Nic- 
colo, 1520 ; in S. Maria de Servi he painted a Na- 
tivity ; and in S. Lorenzo, the Adoration of the 
Magi. He died at Ferrara in 1525. 

BENWELL, Mary, an English paintress of some 
merit, who lived about 1770. She executed por- 
traits in oil, crayons, and miniature, and was a 
regular exhibitor at the Royal Academy, from 
1762 to 1783. 

BERAIN, or BERRAIN, Jean, a Parisian en- 
graver, born about 1636. He etched several plates, 
mostly from his own designs, in a very neat style, 
though rather stiff and formal, of which the fol- 
lowing are the principal : 

Twelve plates — Of the ornaments of painting and sculp- 
ture, which are in the gallery of Apollo in the Louvre. 
Three plates — Of ornaments invented and engraved by J. 
Berain. The Mausoleum for the Funeral of Maria Anne 
Christine Victorie de Baviere. Devices for a Funeral Cer 
emony ; Berain, fee. 




BERARDI, Fabio, an Italian engraver, born 
at Siena in 1728 ; visited Venice while young, and 
studied under Wagner. He has executed several 
historical and other subjects, chiefly after the mod- 
ern Venetian painters, of which the following are 
the principal : 

St. Seraphinus worsbipping the Cross, half-length ; fron- 
tispiece. 1767. A Woman sleeping, surprised by a Sports- 
man ; after Piazetta. Isaac blessing Jacob, and the Sac- 
rifice of Gideon; after J. B. Pittoni; F. Berardi Vene, 
scul. Jacob and Rachel; after J. Varotti. Agar and 
Ishmael in the Desert ; after J. Varana. Six Views in 
Venice ; after Canaletti ; engraved by Berardi and Wag- 
ner. 1742. Four Pastoral subjects ; after Piazetta. 


BEROHET, Pierre, a French painter, born in 
1659 ; studied under Chas. de la Fosse, till he ac- 
quired sufficient ability to execute some works in 
the palaces of France. He visited England in 
1681, where he was much employed in adorning 
the houses of several of the nobility. His best 
work is the ceiling of the chapel of Trinity Col- 
lege, Oxford, where he has represented the Ascen- 
sion. He died in 1720. 

BERG, Magnus, born in Norway in 1666. In 
his youth he was a valet, but his talent for sculp- 
ture procured for him a recommendation to King 
Christian V., who placed him under the court 
painter, Anderson. He afterwards visited Italy 
at the King's expense, where he gained much im- 
provement from the study of the great masters. 
On returning to Norway, he was much employed, 
aLd executed a number of works, both in painting 
ana sculpture. He excelled in coloring on ivory. 
He d:.od in 1739. 

BflRG, Matthias vander, a Flemish painter, 
f tvf ^* ^vres in 1615. Descamps says that his 
lather had *;he management of Rubens' estates, 
near Ypres, who took Matthias under his protec- 
tion, and mstrutted him in his academy. He was 
an able and diliguit designer, but was unequal to 
the arrangement of un original composition ; either 
from a lack of talenv or from having too long ac- 
customed hnnself to the servility of a copyist. He 
dLstmguLshed himself ^y some admirable copies 
of Rubens'_ works. ZaU says he died in 1685; 
Balkema, in 1687 ; and fcrolUot, following Des- 
camps, in 1647. 

^ BERG, Nicholas vander, a Flemish engrav- 
er, probably born at Antwerp. He etched several 
plates of some merit, after Rubens, marked N. V. 
D. Berg; among others, the portrait of Justice 
Lipsius; and the portrait of a devout persoix with 
a crucifix, half-length. 

BERGAMASO, Guglielmo, a reputable Italian 
architect, who erected the Cappella Emiliana de 
Camaldolesi, at Murano ; the public palace of the 
Camerlinghi, at the foot of the Rialto ; the Tacca 
palace in Portagruaro, at Friuli ; the grand gate 
called the Portello, at Padua, and that of San 
Tommaso at Treviso. 

BERGE, Peter vander, a Dutch engraver of 
little note. He executed several portrait.s, one of 
which is a .Jew Rabbi, with a Hebrew inscription 
marked P. V. D. Berge ad vivum del. et fee • 
and the Triumph of Galatea, after A. Coypel. His 
principal work was a set of plates for a folio vol- 
lune of prints, published at Amsterdam, entitled 
Theatrum Hispanix, or, Views of the Towns 

Palaces, &c., of Spain. They are etched in a de- 
cided manner, but stiff" and formal. 

BERGEN, Dirk, or Theodore van, a Dutch 
painter of landscapes and cattle, born at Hacrlem 
about 1645 ; died in 1689 ; studied under the cel- 
ebrated Adrian Vandervelde, whose charming style 
he followed, and was his ablest scholar. Some of 
his finest works are little inferior to those of Van- 
dervelde, and are often ascribed to that master; 
although in some instances, there is a darkness 
of the .shadows, which renders the effect of his 
pictures abrupt and harsh. His cattle, without the 
correctness of Vandervelde, are spiritedly touched, 
and his pencil is free and firm. 

BERGEN, Nicolas van, a Dutch painter, born 
at Breda, in 1670 ; died in 1699 ; painted histor- 
ical subjects, interiors, and conversations, in the 
style of Rembrandt, which have considerable 

BERGER, Daniel, a Prussian engraver, born 
at Berlin in 1744; studied under his father, who 
was an artist of little note. In 1787 lie was ap- 
pointed Professor of Engraving in the Academy 
of Berlin. He has executed several portraits of 
the Royal Family of Prussia, and other eminent 
personages, principally after the painters of his 
country ; among which are the following : 

A Bust of a Man with a gold chain ; after G. van Eck- 
hout. The Virgin and Child; after Cor'res;gio. The Vir- 
ginMary ; after Rqfaelle. Servius Tullius ; after An- 
gelica Kaufman. The Death of Major de Kleist ; after 
D. Chodowiecke. The Death of Schwerin ; after J. C. 

BERGERET, Pierre NoLAsauE, an eminent 
French historical and landscape painter, a native 
of Bordeaux, and a pupil of David. His subjects 
are of the most interesting kind, and many of his 
works have been placed in the Luxembourg, and 
other royal palaces. He executed four of the por- 
traits for the Hall of the Chancellors ; made de- 
signs for the medals struck at the mint, and for 
the bas-reliefs on the column of the Place Vend6me. 
Many of his pictures have been engraved, and serve 
as illustrations to the splendid edftions of Boilean, 
La Fontaine, and other French classics. 

BERGHEM, or BERCHEM, Nicholas, a cele-- 
brated Dutch painter, born at Haerlem in 1624; 
died in 1683 ; was the son of Peter Class van 
Haerlem, (Class being the family name) a painter 
of little note. It is difficult to say how the name 
Berghem, or Berchem, originated. This artist 
first studied under his father, and subsequently 
under John Van Goyen, and also John Baptist 
Weeninx. His earlier works are somewhat in the 
style of the latter, though touched with more del- 
icacy. Like the pictures of that master, they 
represent sea-ports, and embarkations. He after- 
wards formed to himself an original manner, re- 
presenting landscapes of most delightful scenery, 
decorated with pleasing groups of figures and cat- 
tle, and enriched with architectural ruins. Berg- 
hem's style was very expeditious, yet his pictures 
are well finished. His compositions are admirably 
arranged, and he has given to every figure, as much 
of ease and elegance as it would admit. The light 
floating of his clouds, the transparency of the wa- 
ter, and his admirable perspective, are not surpass- 
ed by any of his countrymen. The management 
of light and shadow, and the distribution of his 
masses, are conducted with great skill. There 




seems to have been some degree of rivalry be- 
tween Berghem and his countryman, John Both, 
who was also a very eminent painter. M. Van- 
derhulk, the Burgomaster of Dort, a great en- 
courager of art, engaged both artists to paint each 
a picture, for which he agreed to pay them a lib- 
eral remuneration, and a certain sum as a prem- 
ium, to the artist whose work should be esteemed 
preferable. Berghem exerted his utmost powers, 
and produced an admirable work, representing a 
mao;nificent mountainous landscape, enriched with 
cattle and figures of every description. Both was 
not less successful— he produced a beautiful Italian 
scene, glowing under the clear atmosphere of that 
delightful countrv, and pencilled in the charming 
style peculiar to himself. The works were both 
so admirable, that their patron could not decide on 
preferring either, and assured them that, as they had 
both reached perfection in the art, they were both 
entitled to the premium. Berghem has executed 
a large number of exquisite drawings and etchings, 
the latter of which are in a much more fin- 
ished manner, than would be expected from a 
painter. The following are the principal: for a 
full list see the catalogue published by Henry de 
Wintner, at Amsterdam, in 1767. 


Six plates of Cows, with the title, called the Milkmaid ; 
C. Berghem, fee. et 1634 to 1644. Six of Sheep; 
in the title print, a woman sitting on a stone. Six Goats ; 
in the title print, a man sitting with a dog. Eight of Sheep ; 
in the title print, a woman standing near a rock. Eight 
of Sheep and Goats ; in the title print, a man. Five larger 
plates upright, one dated 1652 ; all marked Berghem, fee. 
Four smaller plates of different animals, lengthways ; 
marked N. B, Six of the Heads of Sheep, Goat, &o. ; 
small ; scarce. 


A Cow drinking ; Berchem, fee. 1680. A Cow water- 
ing ; C. P. Berghem, inv. it fee; fine and rare. A 
Landscape with two Cows lying, and one standing ; Ber- 
ghem fee. A Landsape, with Cows, and a man riding on 
an Ass; N. Berghem, fee. A Landscape, with a Woman 
bathing her Feet in a Brook, and a Man behind leaning 
on a Stick, with Animals and Figures, and a Kuin in the 
distance. A Boy riding on an Ass, speaking to another 
Boy, who is playing on the Bagpipes, called the Bagpiper ; 
fine. A Landscape, with a Man playing on the Flute, and 
a Woman sitting ; scarce ; without a mark. A Landscape, 
with a Man standing, and a Woman seated suckling a child ; 
without a mark ; very scarce. 

BERGMULLER, John George, a German 
/ painter and engraver, born at Dirkheim, 
in Bavaria, in 1688, died in 1762 ; studied under 
Andrew Wolff; painted portraits and history; 
some of his works may be seen in the churches 
at Augsburg, where he resided. He is chiefly 
known by his engravings, which are from his own 
designs ; the following are the principal : 

Four ; the Baptism of Christ, the Transfiguration, the 
Eesurrcction, and the Ascension. The Conception. The 
Virgin Mary caressing the infant Christ. The Death of St. 
Joseph; inscribed S. Joseph morleiis. Christ on the 
Mount of Olives. Sancta Catherina Victrix. St. Sebas- 
tian, Martyr. The Virgin and infant Jesus presenting the 
Rosary to St. Dominick. St. Francis ki.ssing the Foot of 
the infant Jesus, An emblematical subject on the Mis- 
fortimes of the Times ; inscribed Tumultam addu.vit tem- 
pus. Justice and Peace ; Justitia et Pax, &c. The Four 
Seasons. 1730. 

BERGONZONI, Lorenzo, a Bolognese painter, 
born in 1646 ; died about 1700 ; studied first un- 

der Gio. Battista Bolognini, and afterwards under 
Guercino. He at first attempted historical sub- 
jects ; but having painted the portraits of several 
distinguished persons of Bologna, he met with such 
encouragement that he devoted himself entirely to 
this branch of the art, and became a reputable por- 
trait painter. 

BERKHEYDEN, Gerard, a Dutch painter, 
born at Haerlem in 1645 ; was the younger broth-, 
er of Job Berkheyden, and was encouraged to the* 
study of painting by the success of that artist, whoi 
assisted Gerard by his instruction. His works are 
chiefly select views of the interior of the principal 
towns of Holland and Germany, painted with 
great neatness, and finely colored ; they are some-j 
times enriched with figures by Job, who sur-i 
passed his brother in this branch of the art. These' 
two artists seem to have been inspired with a laud- 
able emulation, and a desire of contributing to 
each others celebrity, so affectionate was their at- 
tachment. Gerard died at Amsterdam in 1693. 

BERKHEYDEN, Job, a Dutch painter, born 
at Haerlem in 1643. It does not appear that he 
had any instructor, but from a natural inclination 
for the art, he occupied his leisure hours, while 
young, in making sketches of the environs of Haer- 
lem. The praises which his first efibrts received, 
induced him to adopt it as a profession. He paint- 
ed chiefly landscapes, and views of the Rhine, ex- 
ecuted in a very pleasing manner. He enriched 
his landscapes with small figures tolerably drawn, 
and very neatly touched. His careful study of 
Nature enabled him to give an appearance of air 
and sunshine to his pictures, producing s very 
agreeable effect. He sometimes painted village 
feasts and merry-makings, which have consider- 
able merit. In company with his brot^ier Gerard, 
he made the tour of Germany, and v^as for some 
time in the employment of the Elector Palatme, 
who ordered him to execute several pictures, and 
presented him with a gold cha^n a^J medal. He 
subsequently returned with .'lis brother to Hol- 
land, where he met with great encouragement. In 
1698, he was accidentally drowned in a canal at 

BERKMANS, Henri, a Dutch painter, born at 
Klundert, near Willianistadt, m 1629 ; studied for 
some time under jBoschaert, and afterwards under 
J. Jordaens. On quitting that master, he painted 
some historical pieces with reputation, but the eti- 
courao-ement he met with in portraits, indiiced him 
to devote himself entirely to that branch of the 
art. He painted the Count of Nassau, the Admiral 
de Kuyter, and many of the most distinguished 
persons of his country. So great was the demand 
for his works, that he could scarcely fulfil his en- 
gagements. His most celebrated work is a large 
picture of the company of Archers, in the town- 
house at Middlebourg. He died in that city in 

BERLINGHIERI, Bonaventura, an old Ital- 
ian painter, born at Lucca. In the Castle of Gui- 
gha. near Modena, is a picture of St. Francis by 
this artist, dated 1235, still in good preservation, 
which the Abbe Bettinelli describes as a work of 
great merit for that age. 

BERLINGHIERI, Camillo, called II Ferra- 
resino, a painter of Ferrara, born about 1596; 
died in 1635 ; studied under Carlo Bononi, and be- 
came an excellent historical painter. His works 

BERN. 95 

are chiefly at Ferrara, and at Venice. In the church 
of S. Niccolo, at Ferrara, is a fine picture by him, 
of the Miraculous Descent of Manna ; also the An- 
nunciation, in S. Antonio. 

BERNABEI, Pietro Antonio, called Bella 
Casa, an Italian painter, born at Parma; flourished 
about 1550. It is not known under whom he 
studied, though he appears to have followed the 
style of Correggio. There are several considerable 
•works by this artist in Parma, among which his 
great work of the Cupola in la Madonna del Quar- 
tiere, proves him well deserving a rank among 
the ablest Lombard fresco painters of his time. It 
represents a Multitude of the Blessed, a grand 
composition, copious, without confusion ; the fig- 
ures in the style of Correggio, with great relief and 
a vigor of coloring, that still preserves its original 
freshness. There are other important works by 
this master, in the convent of the Carmelites and 
other public edifices at Parma. 

BERNAERTS, Nicaise, a Flemish painter, 
born, according to Nagler, in 1608 ; studied under 
Francis Snyders. The subjects of his pictures are 
the same as those of his master, and bear a great 
resemblance to them. His pictures have been sold 
as the genuine productions of Snyders, and some 
writers assert that they are very little inferior to 
the works of that master. Nagler says he died in 
1678. Zani says he was born in 1593, and died 
in 1663 ; thus both make him of the age of 70. 

BERNARD, Jan, a Dutch painter, who excelled 
in copying the works of Paul Potter, and Berghem ; 
born in 1765; died in 1833. He was a member 
of the Institute, and of the Academy of Fine Arts 
at Amsterdam. 

BERNARD, of Brussels. See van Orley. 

BERNARD, Samuel, a Parisian painter and en- 
graver, born in 1615 ; died in 1687; studied under 
Sirnon Vouet, and for some time painted lapge por- 
traits in oil and fresco, but meeting with little suc- 
cess, he devoted himself to miniature painting, in 
which he acquired considerable reputation. His 
merit procured him a professorship in the Royal 
Academy of Painting at Paris. There are a num- 
ber of plates engraved with the point and in mez- 
zotint©, which are proved by Heineken to have 
been all by this artist, though Basan and Strutt 
have divided them between two artists of this 


Charles Louis, Duke of Bavaria ; after Vandyck ; S. 
Bernard. 1657. Louis Gamier, sculptor and painter. 
Ptiilip, Count of Bethune. Anne Tristan do la Beaume de 
Luze, Archbishop of Paris ; after de Troy. The Appa- 
rition of St. Peter and St. Paul to Attila ; after Bajaelle. 
The Young Astyanax discovered by Ulysses in the Tomb 
of Rector ; after Bourdon. The Crucifixion ; the Virgin 
Mary, with the dead Christ; the Ascension; 
Champagne. An allegorical subject of Concord. The 
Flight into Egypt; after Guide. 


The Portrait of Louis XIV. ; oval. Sebastian, le Prestrc 
de Vauban; after F. de Troy. The Nativity; after 
Rembrandt A Herdsman driving Cattle. An Ox Mar- 
ket; after B.Ca.stiglwne. The Repose; called La Zin- 
gara; after Correggio. 

E BERNARD, Solomon, or Little Ber- 
#nard, a French engraver, born at Lyons in 
1511. He is said to have acquired this surname from 
the small size of his prints. He wrought chiefly for 
the booksellers, and his plates are well designed 


and executed in a very neat and spirited style. 
The best are those he executed for the Bible which 
M^as published at Lyons, at different times, from 
1550 to 1580. Brulliot says he was living in 1598. 
The following are his principal cuts : 

A set of prints for the Metamorphoses of Ovid ; published 
at Lyons, in 1557. A set of Medals for the Epitome of the 
Antiquities of Giacomo Strada, of Mantua ; published at 
Lyons, in 1553. Thirty-four of the History of Psyche ; 
with Italian verses. Eighteen of Baths ; printed at Lyons' 
in 1572. A set of prints for the Golden of Apuleus ; 
published at Lyons, in 1558. A set of vignettes for the 
French Translation of Virgil ; published at Lyons, in 1560. 
The seven Planets, represented by the Figures of Heathen 
Divinities. Twenty-two of Theatrical Decorations. A set 
of oval prints for a Book of Hymns ; printed at Lyons 
in 1560. ' 

BERNARDI, Francesco, called Bigolaro, a 
Veronese painter, born in 1622 ; studied under 
Domenico Feti. Averoldi says he painted history 
with reputation. His principal works were in the 
churches of Santa Croce and S. Giovanni at 
Brescia. ' 

BERNASCONI, Laura or Lucia, a Roman 
paintress, was a scholar and imitator of Mario da 
Fiori. Her works, like those of her preceptor 
have lost much of their original beauty, owing to 
the use of some treacherous material that gave 
brilliancy at first, but in the lapse of years has 
changed to opacity, giving them a black appear- 

BERNAZZANO, a Milanese painter, who flour- 
ished about 1536. He painted animals, fruit, and 
landscapes, in which he excelled, especially in the 
coloring. The figures in his landscapes are usu- 
ally by Cesare da Sesto, a pupil of Leonardo da 

BERNETZ, Christian, a German painter of 
fruit and flowers ; born at Hamburg, in 1658 and 
died in 1722. This artist resided a long tir^e at 
Rome, where, according to Pascoli. his works were 
so highly esteemed, that Carlo Maratti employed 
him in ornamenting his pictures, and in return 
enriched the works of Bernetz with Children and 
Cupids which rendered them invaluable. "His 
fruit and flowers appear newly plucked, and spark- 
ling with dew-drops." 

BERNIERI, Antonio, da CoRREGcrro, was born 
at Correggio in 1516, and died there in 1563. He 
was descended from a noble family, and studied 
under the great Correggio, who, dying when he was 
only 18 years of age, he inherited in a measure 
the appellation of Antonio da Correggio, which has 
given rise to several historical doubts and inaccu- 
racies. According to Lafldi and Pietro Aretino he 
painted cabinet pictures in the style of Correggio, 
and was one of the most distinguished miniature 
painters of his time. Lanzi thinks that some pic- 
tures attributed to Correggio were rather executed 
by this artist. 

BERNIGEROTH, Martin, a German engraver, 
born at Ramelsboug in 1670; died at Leipsic in 
1733. He resided in the latter city, where he en- 
graved a great number of portraits, executed with 
the graver in a tolerably neat manner, among 
which are : Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau, on 
horseback, with a Battle in the back-ground. Fred- 
erick Augustus II., King of Poland. 

BERNIGEROTH, .John Martin, a German 
engi-aver, the son and pupil of Martin, born at 
Leipsic in 1713; died in 1767, He executed a 




number of plates for the booksellers, but is prin- 
cipally known as an engraver of portraits, which 
are neatly executed in the stjd'e of his father, the 
principal of which are : 

Frederick Augustus III. King of Poland. Frederick 
Christian, Prince Reg. Poland. John Adolphus, Duke of 
Saxe Weissenfold. 1645. This is esteemed hia best plate. 
Sebastian Fcli.x, Baron von Schwannenborg. Christianus, 
Prince of Denmark. John Gottfried Richter, Antiquary. 

BERNINI, PiETRO, an Italian painter and sculp- 
tor, who is chiefly known as the father of the 
Cavalier Giovanni Lorenzo B. lie was born in 
Tuscany about 1670, and early went to Rome to 
improve himself; from thence to Naples, where 
he married and practised his profession with repu- 
tation. His son, before mentioned, having ex- 
hibited the most extraordinary precocity of talents, 
he took him to Rome in 1708, in order to give him 
every advantage, and by his own able instructions 
and shrewd management, greatly contributed to 
his son's future fame and glory. 

BERNINI, Giovanni Lorenzo, called il Cav- 
ALiERE Bernini, M'hose renown filled all Europe 
in the 17th century, was born at Naples in 1598. 
He was called the Michael Angelo of the age, be- 
cause like him he united, in an eminent degree, the 
three great branches of art — Painting, Sculpture, 
and Architecture ; though he was chiefly re- 
nowned in the two last. Richly endowed by na- 
ture, and fiivored by circumstances, he rose supe- 
rior to the rules of art, creating for himself an 
easy manner, the faults of which he knew how to 
disguise by its brilliancy ; yet this course, as must 
ever be the case, did not tend to a lasting reputa- 
tion, for his style did not long survive the artist ; 
and his works, though possessing great merit, are 
not looked upon by artists as worthy of imitation. 
His talents were exceedingly precocious, and al- 
most from his infancy he exhibited a passion for 
the fine arts, which was carefully cultivated by 
his father ; and at eight j^ears of age he is said to 
have executed a child's head in marble which was 
considered a wonder. This doubtless was fiction, 
or rather accomplished through the assistance of 
his father. Yet certain it is that he was wonder- 
fully precocious ; and this, in a great measure, laid 
the foundation of his splendid fortunes. His fa- 
ther took him to Rome, where he had some com- 
missions to execute, that he might have every pos- 
sible advantage, and his fame having already been 
bruited abroad, the Pope Paul V. wished to see the 
prodigy who at ten years of age was the astonish- 
ment of artists, and on his being brought into his 
presence desired him to ^raw a figure of St. Paul, 
which he did in half an hour, so much to the satis- 
faction of the pontiff that he recommended him to 
Cardinal Barberini. a great connoisseur and pa- 
tron of the arts. " Direct," said he. " the studies 
of this child, who will become the Jlichael Angelo 
of this century." One of his first works in mar- 
ble was the bust of the prelate Montajo, which 
was so striking a resemblance that some one said, 
" It is Montajo petrified." He next executed busts 
of the Pope "and several Cardinals. He was not 
yet 18, when he produced the Apollo and Daphne 
in marble — a master-piece in grace and execution, 
which he himself, towards the end of his life, on 
looking at this group, declared one of his best 
•works, and that " he had made very little progress 
since the time it was produced." His manner 
was indeed more chaste and less affected than at a 

later period of his life. Gregory XV. recognized 
his merit, and made him Knight of the Older of 
Christ ; but the Cardinal Maffio Barberini, the 
successor of Gregory XV. under the name of Ur- 
ban VIII. , gave the finishing touches to his for- 
tune, lie said to Bernini, on his calling to offer 
his congratulations to his benefactor, "If the Cav- 
aliere Bernini esteems himself happy in seeing me 
his sovereign. I am more glorified tliat he lives un- 
der my pontificate;" and he immediately charged 
him with the execution of those great works 
which have immortalized both their names, at a 
salary of 300 crowns a month. Among the great 
works which he executed under this pontificate, 
may be mentioned the Baldachin, or great altar of 
St. Peter's, in bronze and gilt, under the centre 
of the dome; the four colossal statues which fill 
the niches under the pedatives ; the pulpit and can- 
opy of St. Peter's ; the Campanile ; the circular 
place before the Church, and the Palace Barberini. 
For these services the pope gave the artist 10,000 
crowns, increased his salary, and extended his fa- 
vor to his brothers. In the year 1644, Cardinal 
Mazzarini, in the name of the King of France, of- 
fered him a salary of 12,000 crowns, to enter the 
service of that monarch, but he declined the invi- 
tation. His reputation extended more and more, 
and Charles the First, of England, engaged him to 
execute his statue for 6,000 crowns. For this pur- 
pose he sent to Rome three portraits, in which 
Vandyck had represented him in dificrent aspects, 
and by this means Bernini made a striking like- 
ness, which so much pleased the King that he sent 
him a diamond ring worth 6.000 crowns more. On 
the death of Pope Urban VIII. the envy and jealousy 
which B.'s merits and the favors bestowed upon 
him had engendered, broke forth, and for a time 
eclipsed his glory ; but he regained the favor of 
Pope Innocent X., by a model for a fountain. 
About' the same time, he erected the palace of 
Monte Citorio, and the magnificent monument to 
the memory of his benefactor, Pope La-ban VIII. 
Alexander VII., the successor of Innocent X., who 
was a liberal patron of the arts, emploj^ed him to 
embellish the piazza of St. Peter's ; and the admi- 
rable colonnade, so beautifully proportioned to the 
Basilica, was executed after his plans and under his 
direction. He also built the Palace Odescalchi, the 
Rotunda della Riccia ; and the House for Novices, 
for the Jesuits. Louis XIV. having made him 
the most flattering invitations, through the great 
Colbert, to come to Paris and direct the works of 
the Louvre. Bernini with great difficulty obtained 
permission of the Pope, and set out from Rome at 
the age of 68, accompanied by one of his sons and , 
a numerous retinue. Never did an artist travel 
with so much pomp, and under so many flattering 
circumstances. He was received everj^where on 
his way with the honors of a prince, and on his 
arrival at Paris he received the most honorable re- 
ception from the King. He was first employed in 
preparing plans for the Louvre, which were never 
executed. He executed a bust of the King, and 
suddenly returned to Rome, after an absence of 
eight months, in consequence of the effects of envy 
and jealousy, notwithstanding the high esteem 
which he enjoyed at Paris. He took leave of the 
King, who made him a present of 10,000 crowns, 
gave him a pension of 2,000, and one of 400 to his 
son. and a command to execute an equestrian statue 
of himself (Louis XIV). This work, of colossal 




proportions, in marhle, was finished in four years 
after his return to Rome, and sent to Versailles, 
wliere it was afterwards converted into jMarcns 
Curtius. and where it still remains. The King 
also defrayed the expenses of liis journey, and to 
immortalize his voyage had a medal struck with 
the portrait of the artist, and on the reverse the 
Muses of the Arts, with this inscription : '• Siiig-u- 
laris in singularis ; in omnibus, Unicus.'''' On 
his arrival at Rome, B. was received with great 
demonstrations of joy ; the Pope showed him the 
most marked favors and named his son Canon of 
S. Maria Maggiore, and provided him with seve- 
ral benefices. Cardinal Rospigliosi liaving been 
elected pope on the death of Alexander YIl., Ber- 
nini was still charged with great works, among 
which were the splendid tomla of Alexander VII. 
and the decorations of the Bridge of St. Angelo. 
He died at Rome in 1680, at the great age of 82, 
loaded with riches and honor, and was buried 
with great pomp and magnificence in the Church 
of S. Maria Maggiore. To his children he left a 
fortune of 400.000'Roman crowns (about $700,000). 
His most eminent disciples were his brother, 
Pietro Bernini — who was an eminent statuary, ar- 
chitect, and mathematician, and who assisted him 
in the execution of these great works — Matthia 
Rosse, Frangois Duquesnoy, surnamed the Flem- 
ing, and Borronini. 

Bernini was a man of ordinary stature, very 
dark complexion, lofty forehead, black piercing 
eyes, aquiline nose, with a countenance full of en- 
ergy and expression, which became terrible when 
animated with anger. Of a temperament all fire, 
he could not endure the rays of the sun without 
inconvenience. His health was feeble to fortj^-t^vo 
years of age, when it became robust, and he could 
endure the greatest fiitigue. His life was one of 
continued exertion, and he designed and wrought 
with great facility. He spoke of the works of 
others' with discretion and liberality, and of his own 
with modesty. His favorite maxim was " CM non 
esce talvolta delta regola. non passa viai.^^ Thus 
he was of opinion that in order to excel in the art§' 
a man must rise above all rules, and create a style 
peculiar to himself. This he accomplished with 
rare good fortune, but the influence of his style 
was transient. The confession of this artist, when 
near the close of life he reviewed his first works. 
is the voice of truth disabused of self-love. — 
He then recognized that he had departed from the 
true principles of nature and the antique, and fall- 
en into the alfected ; that he had mistaken the fa- 
cility of execution for the inspiration of genius ; 
and that he had injured grace and beauty by aOTec- 
tation and excessive ornament. That admirable 
Italian critic and connoisseur, Lanzi, says : " The 
Cavaliere Bernini, the great architect and skillful 
sculptor, was the arbiter and dispenser of all the 
works at Rome under Urban VIII. and Innocent X 
His style necessarily influenced those of all the art- 
ists, his cotemporaries. He was affected, parti- 
cularly in his drapery. He opened the way to ca- 
price, changed the true principles of art, and sub- 
stituted for them the false. At different times, 
the study of painting has taken the same vicious 
sourse ; above all, among the imitators of Pietro 
da Cortona, some of whom went so far as to con- 
demn a study of the works of Raifaelle, and even 
to deer}'- as useless the imitation of nature." 

He executed an astonishing number of works at 
Rome, among wliich the following are the most re- 

markable— some of them have previously been men- 
tioned : 

The groat Altar of St. Peter's, in bronze and gilt ; the 
four colossal statues of St. Chrysostom, St. Athanasius, St. 
Augustin, and St. Ambrose, cast in bronze ; the Belfry of 
St. Peter's ; the basso relievo in the portico of St. Peter's, 
representing Christ saying to St. Peter, " Peed my sheep ;'' 
the noble Fountain near the Piazza da Spagna ; some fine 
statues for the churches of St. Francesco°and B. V. M. 
di Loretto : a beautiful Canopy over the statue of the Vir- 
gin Mary, in the church of St. Agostino. He built the 
sumptuous chapel in the church of S. Maria della Vitto- 
ria, dedicated to St. Teresa, with a fine marble statue of 
that Saint ; the Church and grand Altar of St. Bibiano ; 
a great part of the Church of St. Anasta.sia ; the principal 
part of the Barbieri palace ; some addition to the pontifi- 
cal palace of Monte Cavallo ; the celebrated Chigi palace, 
built for the Cardinal Flavio Chigi, nephew of Pope Alex- 
ander VII ; the Collegio Urbano di propaganda Fide ; part 
of the Church of St. Andrea del Noviziato, and many oth- 
er architectural and sculptural works. 

BERNINI, Pietro, was a brother of the pre- 
ceding artist, under whom he studied, and with 
whom he remained through life, and was his most 
able assistant. He was an eminent sculptor and 
architect, capable of undertaking great works. 
He was also an eminent mathematician. But his 
brother's fame enabled him to monopolize all the 
great works executed at that time, so that Pietro 
had no chance to distinguish himself, otherwise 
than as his assistant. 

BERRETINI, Pietro, called da Cortona, an 
illustrious Florentine painter and architect, born 
at Cortona in 1596. At the early age of 14 he 
visited Rome, where he studied under Baccio Ci- 
arpi, but gained more advantage from the study 
of the works of RaffaeZie and Caravaggio. While 
yet at an early age, he painted two pictures for 
the Cardinal Sa^chetti, representing the Rape of 
the Sabines, and a Battle of Alexander, which 
gained him so much celebrity that Pope Urban 
VIII. commissioned the young artist to paint a 
chapel in the church of St. Bibiena, where Oiam- 
pelli, a reputable artist, was employed. The lat- 
ter jegarded with contempt the audacity of so 
yowng a man attempting so important a public 
■p-ork ; but Cortona had no sooner commenced it 
than Ciampelli was satisfied of his ability. His 
success in this performance gained him his cele- 
brated work of the ceiling of the Grand Saloon in 
the Palazzi Barberini, which is considered one of 
the greatest productions of the kind ever executed. 
Its harmonious coloring, splendid style, rich com- 
position, and skillful chiaro-scuro, render it one of 
the most perfect specimens of ornamental art. It 
has been said of it that the draperies have not the 
appearance of nature, and that the drawing is in- 
correct ; but its general charm is so attractive that 
it is impossible to view it without admiration. 

Cortona made the tour of Lombardy, went to 
Venice, and in returning visited Florence, where 
he was engaged by the Grand Duke Ferdinand II. 
to paint the saloon and four apartments in the Pa- 
lazzo Pitti, where he represented the Clemency of 
Alexander to the Family of Dariu.s, the Firmness 
of Ponsena, the Continence of Cyrus, the History 
of Massanisisa, and other subjects. Disgusted by 
the intrigues of some artists who were jealous of 
his reputation, he left Florence abruptly, before 
he had finished his works, and could never be per- 
suaded to return. They were completed by Ciro 
Ferri. On arriving at Rome, he continued to re- 
ceive many commissions, and was employed by 


Alexander VII., who honored him with the Order 
of the Golden Spur. Cortona's principal works 
at Rome are, the Saloon in the Barberini, and a 
gallery in the Pamphili ; the Cupola and Vault in 
the Tribune of the Ohiesa Nuova. and the Conver- 
sion of St. Paul at the Capuccini, one of his cele- 
brated works. There is an admirable picture of 
St. Paul healed by Ananias, in the Church of the 

The compositions of this great artist were some- 
times crowded with unnecessary figures, and he 
was rather intent upon producing a magnificent 
whole, than careful execution in detail ; but it is 
generally admitted that his compositions are copi- 
ous and ingenious, and if he does not address him- 
self always to the mind, he fascinates the_ eye by 
a grand and imposing spectacle. His genius was 
especially adapted to" great fresco works, which he 
executed" witli a force and brilliancy that might 
almost vie with oil painting. His coloring, though 
not always chaste, is constantly pleasing. The 
heads of his females are not strictly beautiful, 
hut they invariably have a grace and loveliness 
that overcome those deficiencies, and his works 
generally exhibit a most fertile invention, and 
great facility of execution. 

As an architect, Cortona erected a number of 
important edifices, among which is the Church of 
Santa Maria jNIartina, rebuilt by the Barberini 
princes. He restored the Church della Race, and 
adorned the facade with a graceful portico, so much 
to the satisfaction of Alexander VII. that he de- 
clared Cortona a cavalier, and gave him a munifi- 
cent reward. He erected the fa9ade at Santa Ma- 
ria in Via Lata, which is universally admired ; 
also the chapel of the Conception in San Lo- 
renzo and Damaso ; and made a design for the 
palace of the Louvre, in concert with Bernini and 
Rianaldi, which Louis XIV. highly approved, and 
sent Cortona his picture richly set in jewels. 
This eminent artist died at Rome, in 16G9. 

BERRETONI. Nicolo, a reputable Italian his- 
torical painter, born at Montefeltro, near INUcerata, 
in 1627 ; studied under Carlo IMaratti, and was 
one of his ablest scholars. His earlier wotks, 
after leaving that master, are much in the style (if 
Guido. One of his best pictures is an altar-piece 
in the Church of S. INIaria de Montesanto at Rome, 
representing a subject from the life of St. Francis. 
He was elected an Academician at Rome in 1675, 
and died in 1G82. 

BERRUGUETTE, Alonso, an eminent Span- 
ish painter, sculptor, and architect ; born, accord- 
ing to Palomino, at Parados de Nava, in Castile, 
in^l480. He had already made some progress in 
the art of painting when the fome of the great 
]\Iichael Angelo induced him to visit Italy, and he 
had the advantage of studying under that great 
master. He was the cotemporary and friend of 
Andrea del Sarto, and made such improvement 
during his stay in Italy, that he returned to Spain 
an eminent proficient in painting and sculpture. 
The emperor Charles V. immediately appointed 
him one of his painters, and employed him in many 
considerable works at Madrid, in the Palace of the 
Prado, and in the Alhambra of Granada, which es- 
tablished his reputation, and for which he was 
amply remunerated by his patron. As a sculptor 
he was very distinguished. He executed a bas- 
relief of the Transfiguration, in the Choir of the 
Cathedral of Toledo ; also a statue of San Seoca- 

98 BERR. 

din in that city, and a number of bas-reliefs in the 
Choir of the Church of Sillas. There are a great 
number of his works in Toledo, the best of which 
is the marble sepulchre of the Cardinal di Fa- 
bera. As an architect, he erected the gate of S. 
Martino, at Toledo ; the palace of Alcala, belong- 
ing to the bishop of Toledo ; and a great portion 
of the Cathedral of Cuenca. Berruguette was one 
of the most distinguished artists of his time, and 
was favored with the patronage of Charles V. and 
his son, Philip II. He was highly respected by 
all, and acquired great wealth by his genius. He 
died rich at Alcala. in 15G1, and was buried with 
the greatest magnificence at the expense of his 

BERRY, William, an eminent Swiss engraver 
on precious stones, born about 1730. He went to 
England, where he received considerable employ- 
ment among the nobility as a seal engraver. He 
bestowed so much labor on his works that the pri- 
ces he received afforded him but a poor remunera- 
tion. Pickler, a celebrated engraver in the same 
line, pronounced him the best gem engraver of his 
time. Some of his intaglios are said to equal the 
antiques, particularly a Hercules and a Julius Cic- 
sar. While in England, he cut the heads of Crom- 
well, Newton, Thompson, and others, said to be 
surprising likenesses. He cUed in 1783. 

BERSOTTI, Carlo Girolamo, an Italian paint- 
er, born at Pavia in 1645. According to Padre 
Orlandi, he studied under Carlo Sacchi. and painted 
landscapes and figures in a style of excellence. 
There are many of his works in the collections at 
BERTANO, or BRETANO. See Ghisi. 
BERTAUD, Marie Rosalie, a Parisian female 
engraver, born' about 1760; was instructed by St. 
Aubin and Choflard. and has executed several 
plates, the best of which are after Vernet, entitled 
Orage impetueux, an oval plate; La Peche a la 
Ligna; Le Rocher perce ; La Barque mise afiot; 
La Peche au clair de la lune ; Les Pecheurs Ital- 

BERTAUX, Duplessis, a French engraver. 
His etchings are somewhat in the style of Callot. 
They are quite numerous, and many of them illus- 
trate Choiseul's Travels in Greece and Italy, and 
his work on Egj-pt. He died in 1813. 

BERTELLI, Cristofano, an old Italian engra- 
ver, born at Rimini, in the duchy of IModena, about 
1525 ; executed a few plates with the graver, in 
rather a stiff manner, among which are : 

The Portruit of Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma ; the 
Conversion of St. Paul, marked Per me Cristofano Ber- 
telli ; theVirgin and Infant, with St. Sebastian, St. Francis, 
and St. Roch, after Correggio. The Virgin and Infant, 
with St. Augustine, St. Sebastian, and St. Helena, with 
St. Joseph sleeping, inscribed Per mi Cliristofano Ber- 
telli. The Virgin and Child, with St, tteorge and other 
Saints, inscribed the same. The different Ages of Man ; 
Christofano Bertelli, sc. 

BERTELLI, Ferrando, a Venetian engi-aver, 
born about 1525 ; executed some plates after the 
Venetian painters and others, of which are the fol- 
lowing : A print entitled omnium fere gentium^ 
Veil., 1569. Christ curing the sick ; Farinati, 
pinx. ; F. Bertelli, ex., 1566. The Crucifixion; 
after Giiih'o Romano. Venus and Cupid ; after 
Titian; etched by F. Bertelli; Nic. Bertelli., 
exc, 1566. Specchio della vita humana; in Vene- 
zia per /"". Bertellii 1566. 




BERTELLI, Lucas, a Venetian engraver, prob- 
ably a relative of the preceding. He is said to have 
been a print-seller. He has executed a number of 
plates after the great Italian masters, some of 
which are very scarce. Among them are : 

A Bust of Hippolita Gonzaga, Daughter of Ferdinand, 
Lucas BertelU, ex. The Israelites tormented by Serpents, 
after M. Angela. The Baptism of Christ, L. Bertdli, with 
an inscription, Non isti Christum latices, cf-c. Christ 
washing his Disciples' Feet, Lucus, sc. The Flagellation, 
inscribed Et fui Jlagellatus, <^'c., Lucce Bertelli. The 
Crucifixion, marked M. A. Luccb Bertelli formis. The 
Descent from, the Cross, Lucxe Bertelli formis, fine. The 
Four ETangelists, after Coxcie, LucIcb Bertelli formis. 
The Last Judgment^ after J. B. Fontana, Luccb Bertelli 
formis. A Woman and Children, warming themselves by 
a Fire, after Titian, Lucce Bertelli, ex. 

ish enoraver. i^'ho practised the art at Brussels, 
accordin-i- to Strutt, about the end of the sev- 
enteenth century. He engraved a few plates of 
devotional subjects, which are executed with the 
"•raver, in a stiff, tasteless style, and very incor- 
rectlv drawn. Among them is a print represent- 
ino- .^t. Roch. with other figures, signed J. Berter-, sculp., Briuv., 1G9G. without the name of the 

BERTHAULT, Louis Martin, a French archi- 
tect, born at Paris in 177L He first attracted at- 
tention at Paris for his skill in designing parks and 
gardens, and the Empress Josephine employed him 
to arrange the gardens at Malmaison, which he ex- 
ecuted in such exquisite taste, that Napoleon took 
hiin into his employment, and appointed him ar- 
chitect to the Chateau de Compeigne. He restored 
.this palace, and Girodet and others decorated it 
with painting. Many architects had tried in vain 
to arrange the gardens ; the plantations had per- 
ished on account of the quality of the soil ; but 
he renewed them, and by planting suitable trees, 
rendered them most delightful. He made an ar- 
bor there half a league in length. On the birth 
of the King of Rome, Napoleon conceived the idea 
of building, in the capitol of the Catholic world, a 
palace that should be worthy, by its magnificence, 
as a home for the future heritor of his throne ; so 
he made B. a member of the Legion of Honor, and 
sent him to Rome to build the palace. On his ar- 
rival, having millions of money and thousands of 
workmen at his command, he went to work, and 
astonished the Italians with the colossal grandeur 
of his plans; but the reverses of Napoleon de- 
stro3'ed the finest embryo palace and royal gardens 
m the world ! On his return to Paris, B. was 
employed to constr