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" It is wise for us to recur to the history of our 
ancestors. Those who are regardless of their an- 
cestors, and of their posterity, who do not look upon 
themselves as a link conneeting the past with the 
future, in the transmission of life from tbeir ances- 
tors to their posterity, do not perform their duty to 
the world. To be faitliful to ourselves we must 
keep botli our ancestors and their posterity within 
reach and grasp of our thoughts and affections ; 
living in the memory and retrospect of the past, 
and hoping with affection and care for those who 
are to come after us. We are true to ourselves 
only when we act with becoming pride for the 
blood we inherit, and which we are to transmit to 
those who shall fill our places." — Daniel Webster. 


A work sucli as the one we are now pleased to present to our many patrons, in whieli 
we have collectoil and placed in permanent form the annals of an interesting section of our 
country, lias two sources of value. One of these is its historic utility as a memorial of the 
progress and development of tlie community, from the earliest period with which we could 
become acquainted through family records ami traditions to the present day. The preser- 
vation of these data affords the means of illustrating and contirming or correcting and 
amending extant histories, and supplies material for the compilation of future ones. The 
second source of value is the personal interest attaching to the biographical and genealog- 
ical records composing the work, either as studies of life and character, or as memoirs of 
individuals connected with the reader as relatives or fellow-citizens. 

On both these accounts, a collection of biograjihical and genealogical recoi'ds is a use- 
ful contribution to current literature and a legacy to succeeding generations. Colonies of 
various nationalities and creeds peopled the territory now comprising the State of Dela- 
ware ; their descendants have taken an active part in national affairs, in war and in peace; 
and it will be strange indeed if their annals have not brought to view many scenes and re- 
vealed many facts well worthy being noted and remembered. 

In the execution of this work no pains were spared to ensure the al)solute truth upon 
which its value depends. The material comprising "The Story of Delaware" is from 
the pen of John F. Meginness, an author of large experience in this kind of literary lore; 
and the biographical and genealogical sketches of representative citizens now living, and 
those departed wliose lives have conferred distinction upon their native [)laces, were gath. 

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Story of Delaware, 9 

The Struggle for Possessiou of "South River" aud what came of it. 

An Early Colony, 10 

The Colonists Massacred, U 

De Vries H 

A Question of Title, 12 

Action of Gustavus Adolphus, 13 

Dutch West India Conii)any, 13 

Peter Minuit Appears, H 

Sailing of the Swedish Colony, 1-i 

l^anding at the Rock, 15 

The Dutch Protest IC 

Rev. Dr. Cort's Memorial Address, 16 

Arrival of Governor .lohn Printz 17 

Friction Between Governors, 20 

Fort C!assimer Cajjturcd, 21 

Governor Stuyvesant, 23 

Fort Christina Taken, 24 

Courtesy to Prisoners, 27 

Cruel Treatment, 27 

Stuyvesant Sole Monarcli, 29 

What the Indians Did, 30 

Jaquet's Administration, 31 

Governor Alrich, 32 

Lord Baltimore's Claim, 33 

Stuyvesant Becomes Tyrannical, " " 34 

Lieutenant Alexander Ilinoyosn, 35 

Troublous Times, 30 

A Perilous Journey, 37 

Advent of the English, 3S 

Sir Robert Carr 39 

The Dutch Again, 40 

The English Recapture the Country 40 

Arrival of William Penn, 41 

Beginning of Delaware, -12 

Land Titles Again, 45 

Lord Baltimore Again, 46 

New Castle Disappointed 49 

Boundary Dispute Renewed, 49 

"Old Swedes' Church," 50 

Delaware To-day, 54 

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The Three Counties, 55 

New Castle County, gg 

Kent County, 58 

Sussex County, 59 

"Our Delaware," (J3 

Governors of Delaware, 04 

Swedish Governors, G4 

Dutcii Governors, 05 

Engiisli Governors, 00 

Presidents of tlie Stale, OG 

Caesar Rodney, 07 

John Dickinson, 07 

Governors Under Constitution of 1792, 08 

Under the Amended Constitution, . ' 70 

Judiciary of Delaware, 73 

Delaware Judiciary C^lassiHed, SI 

Cliancellors, 85 

Some of the Old Families, * 88 

William Shipley, 94 

Hon. Caesar Rodney, 99 

Warner Miftiin. 100 

Gen. John Dagworthy, 105 

The Ferris Family, 100 

The Ross Family, 110 

Thomas Fenwicic, 112 

Hon. George Read, 113 

The Bed fords, 114 

Commodore ]\Licdonougli, 117 

Governor John McKinly, 119 

The Richardson Family, 121 

Van Dyke, 130 

Jasper Yeates, )31 

Captain Edward Roche, 131 

Governor Nathaniel Mitchell 132 

Governor Bennett, 137 

The Adams Family, 139 

Henry Latimer, 140 

William McKennan,- 140 

Major John Patten, 141 

Governor Polk, 141 

Dr. James Tilton, 142 

The Anderson Family, I43 

The Crow Family, I43 

The Dull' Family, I44 

Rev. Jose[)h Barr, I45 

The Alrichs Family, 140 

Captain Learmontli, 148 

Descendants of Dr. 10. A. Smith 148 

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Samuel McClury, • 1-1!^ 

Duncan Beard, 150 

Adolpli Ulric Wertmuller, lo3 

Major Peter Jaquet, 154 

Major Kirkwood, 150 

Allen McLane and The McLane Family, ' . 15(3 

Lydia Darragh of Tlio Revolution, 158 

Barratt Genealogy, 159 

The Barker Family, 103 

The Comegys Family, 176 

Biographical and Genealogical Sketches, beginning, 88 

General Index in Second ^'^olunle. 



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Tlie storj of the discovery of the Delaware 
(South) Kivur, and of the struggle of the 
ISwc'dts, Dutch and Euglish for the possession 
of the settlements on its banks, ending in the 
final triumph of the English, is one of deep 
and thrilling interest, and runs Lack for more 
than two hundred and seventy-five years. To 
write an exhaustive history of the events, to 
describe the stirring incidents of this long 
jieriod, and to give in detail all that is worthy 
of being recorded, would fill a large volume. 
In tliis introductory chapter, therefore, no at- 
tein]it will l)e made to cuter into a full histury 
of the state — only the more striking points 
will be referred to. 

To Capt. Ilenry Hudson belongs the credit 
of having first discovered this great river, 
which has long since been recognized as one 
of tlie important higliways of commerce in the 
"Western Ileniisplicre, and the entrance to 
one of the greatest commercial cities. It was 
on the 28th of August, 1G09 — two hundred 
and ninety years ago — that Hudson entered 
that broad expanse of waters since known as 
the Delaware Bay, in his little vessel of only 
eighty tons, called the Half Moon or Creffcent. 
He sailed slowly up and passed into the river, 
which he followed for some distance. The 
shores, wooded to tlie water's edge, presented 
a strange scene to tlie bold navigator. The 
bay and river were then known to the Indians 
wlio dwelt, in the solitudes of the forest as 
]\Iar-is-kit-ten, Pon-tax-at, or Chick-a-hock-ee, 
these names being used by the tribes or clans 
who inhabited the country on the different 
shores. What meaning these names conveyed 
we have no certain knowledge at this day. 

Henry Hudsim, the discoverer, was an Eng- 
lishman by birth, liut at tliis time he was in 
the service of Ibilland. Returning from the 

river and bay, he passed out upon the ocean, 
and making liis way northward discovered the 
river to wliich he gave his name, the name by 
which it is still known. Not content witli 
these discoveries, in IGIO he boldly struck out 
into unknown seas in search of a northwest 
passage. As a navigator he was bold and in- 
trepid. Each new discovery stimulated him to 
further effort; the desire to add to his achieve- 
ments was with him a consuming ambition. 
After beating about for ten months in high 
noi'thern latittules he found himself out of 
provisions. The situation was desperate; 
lliidson could no longer control the men un- 
der his conunand. Starvation and death stared 
them in the face, and self-preservation, the 
tir^t law of nature,- asserted itself with uncon- 
trollable force. The mutinous crew thrust 
their commander, %Wth his son, John, into a 
frail boat, and set it adrift. They were never 
heard of again. Thus miserably perished the 
first navigator who entered what arc now 
known as the Delaware bay and river. But 
though his eiul was sad, his name is per- 
petuated in a noble river, and in a bay farther 
to the. north, so that it is not likely that his 
daring explorations will soon be forgotten. 

It was not long before another gave his 
name to the bay and river the discovery of 
which should have been credited to the fear- 
less Henry Hudson. In IGll, Thomas West, 
Lord De-la-war, then governor of the colony 
of Virginia, while on a voyage to the West 
Indies, came, or was driven by adverse winds, 
into the bay; as he believed it to be a new 
discovery, the name Delaware was given to 
the bay and the river, and they will probably 
retain the same for all time. 

.Mthtmgh it is generally accepted that 
Hudson, in 1009, was the first navigator to 

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enter and explore the Delaware Kivor, c-aret'ul 
investigators are of tlie ojiinion that small 
traders entered the river as early as 151(8. 
'I'hey bnilt rude cabins for shelter in the win- 
ter time, and it is possible that tlu-y vuu- 
strueted temporary fortifications as a prutec- 
tiou against the aborigines. 'Flic olijcct of 
these ad\entnrers was to trade with the In- 
dians. I3nt if this theory is correct, tradition 
has failed to point ont where their tenip<n'ary 
settlements were made. 

An Eaulv C'oi.o.w. 

Before 1620, however, there is scarcely a 
doid)t tlnit Dutch trading ships sailed up the 
river to tratHc with the nati\e>. .\ud in 1G21 
the Dutch West India Company, we are in- 
formed, had agents stationed on the river with 
men and small stocks of goods for the piu-pose 
of trading in peltries. It is said that in their 
little craft they sailed np the small streams, in 
which the volume of water was greatt'r than 
it i^ now, and that they carried on a coiiridci- 
able business for those early times. 

Cohir is given to this theory by the fact 
that as early as 1G23 ('apt. Cornelius iley 
planted a small colony on the i )claware, whicli 
was called Xassau, near what is miw known 
as Ciloucester Point. But as it was on the 
Xew >lersey side of the river, it is not taken 
into account when discussing the early Dela- 
ware settlements. Judge Houston, in his ciui- 
triimtion to the Delaware Historical Society 
on the boundaries of the State, expresses the 
belief that there were Dutidi traders settled on 
the "Iloorn ]vill," now Lewes Creek, as early 
as 1U22. When the bay was first discovered, 
there was a i)ermanent Indian village near 
where hcwes now stands, and even now trace- 
of where their fires were built are occasion- 
ally uncovered in the sand along the cnek, 
with great piles of muscle shells. 

'I"he ])resent'e of Indians at this point no 
doubt became known to the Dutch adventurers 
in pur.snit of traffic, and induced them to at- 
tempt the founding of a pennanent settU'ment. 
The .success of this little settlement on the 
'"Iloorn Kill" became known to a class of 
men in Holland who saw at om-e the fea-i- 
bility of establishing there a larger and more 
profitable business. Of this class were De 
Vries, and a nundier of others of like intelli- 
genci' aii<l moans in Ani.-lerdani .iiid other 

cities in Holland, as early as 1(J21». They 
formed a private company to pin-cha.>e all tlie 
salt marsh skirting the side of the bay from 
(-'ape Ileidi^ipen to Ijombay Hook, in order to 
eslablish a whale lisliery, and in c(jnnectiou 
with it, and as a part of the enterprise, t<j plant 
a Dutcii colony on the "Iloorn Kill." De 
\'ries, who had filled, with credit to himself, 
a post of some importance in the military ser- 
vice of the Xetherlands, and had for some 
time resided in the West Indies, was selected 
to take charge of the enterprise as the Direc-tor 
Cieneral of the ccdony. Karly in the spring 
of 102i), three ships were dispatched to Fort 
Amsterdam, now New York, to procure an or- 
der by which one of the vessels should convey 
from that place to the "I loom Kill" an agent 
of the company to complete the purchase of 
the salt marsh from the Indians of the village. 
The order was procured, and the ship arrived 
at its destination in the latter part of -May; 
on the iii'st day of June in that year the pur- 
chase was d)dy made, and the sale was after- 
wards acknowledged by a delegation of the 
Indians of the village before the director gen- 
eral and council of the Xew Xetlierlautls in 
Fort Amsterdam, July IJ, l(i;JO. The com- 
jiany also made a similar purchase on the Xew 
.lerscy side, that they might have entire con- 
trol of the river. The tract they purchased 
</n the Delaware side was an almo-t continu- 
ous body of salt mar.^h, extending from Cape 
Ilenlopen to the mouth of the river, between 
forty and tifiy miles in length, with a mean 
breadth back to the main laml of from two to 
three miles. 

There is .some uncertainty as to the exact 
time when the colony was first planted on the 
'•Iloorn Jvill;" there i> no doubt, however, 
that it was as early as the ^llriug of 1(!31. De 
\'rii's himself, the direettu' general, however, 
in the incidental allusion to the massacre of 
the colonists by the Indians, contained in his 
letter of indignant j.rotest and remonstrance 
addressed some ten or twelve years after that 
event to Director C.encral Kieft, of the Xew 
Xetherlands. again^l the de-ign he had 
formed of slauglil<'ring the Indians in re- 
venge for tlie brutal outrage perpetrated by 
them on th(> Dutch settli^rs in that vicinity, 
speaks of it as having oc,-urred in IG.^O. The 
passage in De Vrie-' prote.M reads as follows: 
'■Consider, sir, what goo.l will it do? We know 
that we lost oiH' settlement at the 'Iloorn Kill' 

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in 1G30 by mere jangling with the Iiuliuna, 
wlien thirty-two of our nit-ii wtre murdered!" 
De Vrics came with tlie colony as director 
general, and was in connnand of the expedi- 
tion from its departure iro\n the shores of 
Holland. His native place was the little city 
of iloorn ill that country, a seaport on tlie 
Z\iydcr Zee, and it is said that he conferred 
the name "lliHirn lull" on the creek in honor 
of that city. 

After passing the cape he entered the creek, 
wlii(di was deejier than it is now, and abound- 
ed with oysters and fish, and planted his col- 
ony. "Kill" is the Dutch word for creek, and 
wherever it follows a name it is clearly un- 
derstood as applying to a j)lace situated on a 
stream of water. From the terms '"iloorn 
Kill," "lloorkill," came by corruption the 
name "Whorekill," which has been largely 
used by modern writers.* 

Here l)e Vries erected a rude house and 
surrounded it with jialisades as a greater jiro- 
terlidii ill time of danger, and named it Fort 
()|ilaiidt. Siiiue writers say that he gave the 
i.aiiie of ■"Swanendale" to the settlement. 
After everrtliing was arranged to his satisfac- 
tion, he ]j].ii-ed (iillis llossctt, the commissary, 
ill ehaii;e, mid .-ailed away in pursuit of other 
bnsine>s. The culony consisted of a small 
('llri^tian eoiumunity of Furopean settlers, 
expressly formed and organized for colonizing 
that portion (jf the southern shores of tlie 
F)elaware Hay. Not only was this done with 
all the regularity and method usual in such 
eases, but the arrival of the colony on these 
shores was preceded by a larger purchase of 
land from the natives for the jmrpose of a 
])lantafion, than had jierhajis occurred before 
in the hi-tory of any of the luiglish or Dutch 
settlements. Iiududiug De \'i'ies, the colony 
must have numbered on its laiuling at least 
thirty-three men, to say nothing of women 
and children. 

A boily of land was selected and ideared, 
and the work of cidtivating it commenced. 
The name ""Swandale" is said to have been 
suggested by the large number of swans that 

were found disporting in the creek, or '"kill." 
Before his departure De \'ries had gained the 
esteem and rcsjjcet of the natives, and rela- 
tions of entire concord and amity sulisisted be- 
tween them and the colonists. 

* Several writers, more careless than uorrect, 
have said that tlio place took its name from the 
bad character of the Indian women found dwelling- 
there. This assertion is entirely erroneous. The 
name is derived us stated above, from the Dutch. 
It was not applied in its modern form until after llie 
4irrival of William Penn, and was used to designate 

The Colonists ]\r.vssACHi;i). 

Tradition says that soon after the departure 
of De Yries, the colonists set up on a post the 
coat-of-arms of Holland, made out of brass. 
The shining metal attracted the attention of 
an Hidian, who desired to it for the 
pur])ose of making ornaments. On being re- 
fused, his cupidity got the better of his judg- 
ment, and stealthily approaching the place at 
night, he carried away the eoat-oi-anns. When 
it was missed, there was much indignation in 
the settlement, and the theft being strongly 
suspected, a peremptory demand was made on 
the chief for the delivery of the culprit to the 
colonists for punishment. The trailition runs 
that he was given u{), tried and executed, for 
the oifense was regarded as a criminal one. 

This sniuinary pi-oecediug entirely changed 
the feelings of the Hidians towards the 
strangers on their shores, and their savage ire 
being aroused they resolved on vengeance. 
Seeking an opportunity when the men were at 
work in the held, they pounceil on the fort, 
which was left in charge of two or three in- 
hrni persons, and killed them. Then liaving 
sectired the arms and implements of defense 
they assailed those at work in the held, and 
:-lieedlly disiiatehed them. In this way the 
.settlement was entirely wiped out. The bodies 
of the slain were left where they fell, to be dc- 
\oured by wild beasts. "When De \'rics re- 
turned the next year he found their bonei 
scattered about the ticdd where they had been 
slain. Gloved with de('p pity by the sad spee- 
ta<le, De Vries and his followers set to work 
to gather ii]) the bones of the slain and give 
them Christian burial. A trench was dug in 
which the fragments of the unfortunates were 
\. laced and then carefully covered with earth, 
when the burial jiarty returned to their shijis 
ami .sailed away. 

^More than two and a half centuries rolled 
awav, and the eirciiiii-taiice of the cruel mas- 
sacre had pas.sed from the nieiuory of man. Tt 
was one of the forgotten incidents of the early 
efforts of a band of adventurous jiioncers to 
found a settlement in the Xew AVorld ; his- 

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torians had ceased to notice it, and the facta 
of the tragedy were no lunger recalled. Ijiit 
time, which reveals all things, came to the 
rescue. A few yeai^s ago, when excavations 
■ were being made for tlie construction of a rail- 
road, the workmen laid bare the place of sepul- 
ture of the bones of the early colonists. Many 
of them were in a good state of preservation, 
but the smaller bones crumbled on being e.\- 
jxised to the atmosphere. The skulls and 
thigh bones were intact. Dr. D. L. .Mustard, 
au old physician and resident of Lewes, e.x- 
amined these fragmentary remains, and had 
no hesitancy in pronouncing them of Anglo- 
Saxon origin. This was regarded as conclu- 
sive evidence that they belonged to the De 
Vries colonists. After this careful examina- 
tion, in which others participat(.'d with Dr. 
ilustard, the bones were carcfiUly collected 
and reinterred, where they will probably be 
undisturbed until they have cruudded into 

'J'lius perished the first men and women who 
attempted to found a settlement on the Dela- 
ware Bay, within what are now the contines 
of the State of Delaware. Their place of 
sepulture is within a few hundred yards of the 
present borough of Lewes, on the "lloorn 
Kill." With the extinction of the settlers the 
name of their place, Swandale, j)assed out of 
existence, and in the course of years a town 
called Lewes grew up almost on tiie site where 
the first settlement was nmde. Jt is supposed 
to have been named for Lewes, in Sussex 
county, England. 'J'he 'Tloorn Kill," now 
known as Lewes Creek, sluggishly meanders 
by the town and through the nutrshy mead- 
ows to the bay. The fact that the change of 
names took place after William Penn became 
the proprietary, leads to the belief that the 
present titles are of English origin. 

Idie project of whale tishing on what is now 
known as Lewes beach, was soon after aban- 
doned by De Vries and his partners, because 
they found it more expensive than profitable. 
The destruction of his colony also operated 
against the success of the enterprise. De Vries 
soon after took up his residence at New Am- 
sterdam (New York), and engaged in found- 
ing Dutch settlements on the North liiver. 
lie, however, retained his interest in the lands 
purchased at the 'Tloorn Ivill" and on the 
shores of the bav, until the sale "f the same 

by the c<jpartnership to the City of Amster- 
dam in 1035. 

-V (Question of Title. 

This land transaction of the De Vries com- 
pany, and the attem})ts to found a colony at 
'Tloorn Kill," form the basis of a historical 
event of great importance. Judge Houston 
says : 

'Tt was the sole fact on vvhich the question 
of title to the three lower counties on the Dela- 
ware, now constituting the State, between 
Lord Baltimore and the Dutch of the New 
Netherlands in the first iiistance, and subse- 
quently between his lordship and William 
Penn, originally and finally depended for its 
solution during a period of just one hundred 
years thereafter, or up to the 3'ear 1732, the 
date of the iirst agreement entered into be- 
tween their respective heirs-at law for the ami- 
cable settlement of it by mutual compact be- 
tween the conflicting (daiuuints. Tor, with 
the exception of that settlement, and with all 
the lights and information which the most 
patient and most thorough historical research 
and examination has in the meantime shed 
u])on the subject, I am constrained to say that 
there is no good reason for believing that there 
was a solitary Christian, or child of civiliza- 
tion, within the limits of what now consti- 
tutes the State of Delaware, or anywhere west 
of the Delaware Kiver, on the 20th day of 
June, 1(j32, nor imtil nearly six years after 
that date." 

It is not necessary in this connection to ex- 
])]ain in detail the facts i-elating to Lord Bal- 
timore's grant, but we will pass on to the his- 
tory of the settlements on the Delaware. In 
the first jdace, it is only necessary to note that 
the first civilized settlement within the limits 
of Delaware, and the first similar settlement 
within the limits of .Maryland prior to the date 
of Lord Ikltimore's patent, were almost simul- 
taneously made by different European races 
and under ditl'erent European sovereignties. 
And while the subsequent contests between 
rival European races for the possession of 
Delaware territory were of higher historical 
grade and dignity than those recorded in 
the history of JIaryland, yet so far as 
the epochs or eras — if they deserve such 
an a]ipcllation — of each are concerned, thev 

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■were almost as simultaneous, although 
during tlie greater part of that period the 
settlers on the Delaware and those on the 
Chesapeake, within the limits of ^laryland, 
liad no intereourse, or even aoquaintanee 
■with each other. I)e Vries, however, was 
fidly infuriiu'd of the English claim hy thi' 
(Jovernor of ^'irginia on his visit from the 
""lloorn Kill" to Jamestown in the summer of 
l(.i;52, and the Swedes learned of it in like 
manner when their first expedition touehed at 
Jamestown in 1C38. 

Action of Gustavus Adolpjil's. 

The Dutrh West India Company had heen 
incorporated by the States-General of the 
United Xetherlands as early as 1021, for the 
purpose of colonizing the Dutch possessions in 
this country and promoting trade and com- 
nieree in all the regions of the New Nether- 
lands, as those possessions were then for the 
first time formally denominated. But it had 
so long neglected to make any settlement, or to 
take actiuil ])ossession of any part of the eo\ni- 
try on the western side of the Delaware above 
the nioutli of the river, that finally one of 
the original promoters and most active 
members of the comi>any, who had become 
<lissatistied with the management of its afl'airs, 
made au effort to find some other j)ower 
in Europe to undertake the enterprise. 
It ■\vas such a motive that prompted one 
^Villiam Unclincx, of the city of Am- 
sterdam, to repair in 1C24 to the court of 
the young and able sovereign of Sweden, 
Gustavus Adolphus, and to submit to him a 
plan for the formation of a Swedish West 
India Company, for the express purpose of 
colonizing the neglected regions on the Dela- 
ware. It did not requin; much persuasion to 
induce Gustavus to embrace the proposition, 
and he soon fell in with the scheme of the M'ily 
Dutchman and shrewd ex-mendier of the 
Dutch AVest India Company. 

.V West India company, similar to that in the 
Netherlands, was accordingly organized and 
incor]iorated without delay in that kingdom; 
and with the enthusiastic spirit now abroail in 
behalf of the measure, and the influence nf the 
king's example, who subscribed with liberality 
to the stock of the company, princes and pre- 
lates, noblemen and commoners, and men of 
all classes, as well as ladies of the hii>he-t rank, 

\ ied with each other in responding with like 
promi)titude to the cordial recommendation of 
their sovereign In behalf of the enterprise. It 
was the first novelty of the kind, perhaps, 
which had ever caught and captivated the 
fancy of the Swedes to sudi a degree, com- 
l)ared with which, according to the accounts 
which have reached us, the enchanting lines 
and evanescent splendors of all later South Sea 
bubbles must have ])aled into insignihcance. 

Dut before all the necessary preparations 
had been completed by the company iov the 
despatch of the first expedition of colonists 
I'rom Sweden to the far-away shores of the De- 
laware, their young and gallant king, now ac- 
knowledged and hailed with universal acclaim 
by the Protestants of Germany as the royal 
ciiampion of their cause, was suddenly drawn 
into the vortex of that memorable religious 
conflict of European nations known as the 
Thirty Years' AVar. All further i>roeeeding3 
by the eomiiany and the government for the 
founding of the colony on the Delaware were 
interrupted and susjieuded for several years 
after the fall of the enthusiastic young mc;-- 
arch at the battle of Lut/.en in Xovenibcr, 
1(;;52. Ibit, as if forewarned by sonie ]ire 
sentiment of his ajjproaching doom in tlie 
great conflict in which he was about to en- 
gage, Gustavus had ])repared in advance 
a "last will and testament," containing par- 
ticular instructions in relation to the 
g\iardianship and education of his only 
child and the heir to his crown, a young 
and tender daughter named Christina. It was 
ai'i'Ompanied by another jiaper, addres.sed to 
his i>rinie minister. Chancellor Oxenstiern, a 
man of great ability and virtue, as well as de- 
votion to his king and country, enjoining upoji 
him in anv event or coutingencv which might 
befall him ]iersonally in the war, as a duty 
not to abandon this great enternrise in which 
he felt such a deep interest, but to see the 
design of it fully carried into execution pur- 
suant to the instructions laid down in the 
pa]ier, and in acconlance with the views 
which the king had often before comnnini- 
cated to Oxenstiern on the sid)ject. 

But was not until five years after the termi- 
nation of the war in which Gustavus fell, that 
the chancellor Avas prepared to entcsr upon the 
(liK'harge of the grave duty thus enjoined upon 
hiui. .After the death of Gustavus the govern- 
iiMiit .'f Sweden had been vested in a council 

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of regency during tlic niiiiority of tlu! young tlic iUKspices of tlie Swcilisli govfrminMit. 

queen, of wliicli the president was ( 'liaiicidlor Peter ,Minuit was in .several respects a re- 

Oxenstiern, who was also one of iier giiaidians. iiiarkable man, and if tlie reader is desirous 

of knowing more of liiiii, lie is respectfully 

Peter Mknuit An-KAKs. ^^'"'''^^ *" **!'-* ^'''"l'^^?' ^^^}-''^\^]S tlds iutro- 

iluctory sketch, wherein the l.iographies of 

In the meantime William Pntdinex, the the governors are given, 

dissatisfied man from Amsterdam, and ex- ( 'iiancellm- O.xensfiern was favorably im- 

member of the Dutch \yest India Company, pressed l)y the manners, address and general 

^^ho had been so successful in originating this intelligence of .Minuit, and particularly by his 

rival Swedish comi)any, had also ]»assed away knowledge of the geography of the region, the 

from the scene of his glory without knowing river Delaware, the soil, climate and resources 

whether the scheme was to be succ.ssful or not. of the country, the character an<l relations of 

And yet, strange to say, just about this time, the Indian tribes; he therefore esteemed him- 

yhile Chancellor Oxenstu'ru was preparing to self fortunate in finding a man .so adndrably 

in.-.titute active juvjceedings in the undertak- (lualified to till the responsible position of gov- 

ing, another gentleman from Holland, of still ernor, and carry out the wishes of the deceased 

greater eminence, an<l still better acquainted monarch. After taking .s(jme time to deliber- 

with the affairs of the Dutch West India Com- ate he finally ajipointed :\rinuit .lirector gen- 

1 any an<l their possessions in the New Xether- r ral of Xew Sweden, that name having already 

lands, turns up in the ])lace of I'ncliucx at been conferred on the country designed to be 

Stockholm and the court of Sweden. This settled under the charter and grant of the ccim- 

pcrsonage also submits a plan for colonizing pany, and to be held and considered as an ap- 

ihe western banks of the Delaware, under the ])endage to the crown and kin-di>ni of 

charter of the Swedish West India (.'onq)any, Sweden. 

and suggests his willingness to assume tlu; du- 

ties and responsibilities of conducting their ^ 

first colony on the Delaware, as its .lirector Saii.ino of tuk Swedish Coi.oxv. 

general, 'i'his distingtdshed Dutchman was no 1 he great question of founding the colony 

other than Peter ^linuif. late dire<-t(ii' general Inning been settled, the next thing in order 

of the Xew Netherlands umler the Dutch was to send out a boily of coloni-ts. When 

^\'est India Conqiany at .Xew .Vmstenlani oi'gaiuzcd, the ex|)edition consisted of fifty per- 

(New York), from 1G24 to K!.'!:?. He had, sons, properly provisioned and eipiipjied, who 

of course, during that time become very well sailed from Sweden under the immediate coui- 

acquainted with their possessions, on both the iiiand of Petei' .Minuit, in an arnmnil ship of 

N^orth (Hudson) and South (Delaware) rivers, the navy and a transport. The .^hip wa- called 

and their title and claims to the same. Peter the h'cij of Ctilnnir and its consoi't was named 

^linuit knew all abmit the settlement of 1 )e the liird Griffin. They sailed in .Vugust, 

A'ries' colony on the •'Ilooru Kill," was direc- 1(137, but did not reach the point of destina- 

for geiu'ral and iiresident of the council of the tion until April, 1038. The voyage, therefore, 

conq)any when the Indian delegation from the was long and tenq)estuous. A landing was 

^illage there apjieared before it in Fort \m- made on the bay in the neighborhootl of what 

sterdam in 1030, to acknowledge the sale of is now 1 ewes. Tiny called it the Piver of 

the salt marsh from Cape lleidopen to the Xew Sweden and the point of land. Paradise, 

mouth of the Delaware Ifivcr to the Dutch According to the History of Xew Sweden by 

jiurchasers before mentioned; and was still in .\erelins, a |iiircliase of land wa- immediately 

oflice and residing at Xew .Vmstenlani when made from the Indians, and it was determined 

the coloni.sts were massacred by the e\as]K>rat- that all the land on the western side of the 

cd Indians. He had, however, been removed river, from the jjoint called Ca|ie Inlopen, 

from ottice by the Dutch aiitliorities for some (now 1 lenlorcn), up to the falls at Ti-entou, 

cause in 1(132, ami naturally feeding some- and as miudi of tin- country inland as was 

what incenseil, sought an opportunity to be ctded, should belong- to the Swedish crown for- 

revenged for this nvatment by aiding in the ever. It shonhl be remend ered that King 

foundation of an o])position co|,,iiy under Charles I. of Kngland hail already. In the year 

v. • '.•' \<.^\u \1 \TAC.\J\ 

>Ut VI 



1G34, upon representation made to liiin by 
John Oxenstiei-n, at that time S\ aiu- 
hassador in London, renounced, in favor of the 
H\V('(K'S, all (daims and pretensions of the Kng- 
li-li to that (•(Mintry, growinj;- out of tlie rights 
of the first diseuverers. Jlence, wlien the 
edlony landed, everything seemed to be settled 
upon a tirm foundation, and all earnestness 
was employed in the prosecution of the i)lans 
for coloidziition. I'osts were (lri\en into the 
ground and landmarks established. .V deed 
was drawu up for the land thus pundiased. 
'i'liis \va~ writti-n in l>ut(di, because no S\v(^(U^ 
\'. as yet aiile to interjiret tiie language of the 
luatlien. J'he Indians subscriiicd their hands 
and marks. The writing was sent home to 
Sweden to lie jireserNTd in the royal archives. 
A surveyor laid out tlii' land and made a map 
td the wliole ri\er, witii its tributaries, islands, 
and points, which, it is sai<h is still to be found 
HI tlie royal ar<-hives in Sweden. 

.\ltliougli it a]ipears that the Swedes imag- 
ined tlicinxhcs the tirst e.s]ilorers of the 
country, it seems strange that they could have 
been deceived. DeVries' colony had preceded 
tlcm and made a settlement near where they 
(the Swedes) landed a few years afterwards. 
That fact Peter Minuit certainly knew. This 
apjiarent oblivion <'an only be exjilaiued upou 
the tlnory that .Minuit, in his desire to head 
oil' the Dntrh, iu retaliation for his ha\ing 
been (li-iiii~~cd from their service as gov- 
ernor of .\Cw .\m^t(^rdam, ke])t the Swedes 
under hi- charge in utter ignorance of t!ie true 
coiiililiiui of affairs, lie that as it nniy, tliis 
encroachiuent ou the i)rior rights of the Dutidi 
was the iicginniugof the dispute between them 
and the Swedes which ended iu the e.xjjidsion 
of the lattci' froui the Dcdaware 1)V armed 

T,AM)l.\(i .\T TUK RiX'KS. 

.\fter 1-eniaining for some tinu' on wdiat they 
termed "I'aradise," }\o\v known to be .Mis))il- 
liou I'oiiit, the colonists re-embarked and pm- 
< 1 ((led up the river to the mouth of the little 
ri\"er now known as Christina. They ascended 
this stream for some two nnles, and landed 
upon its northern bank, on a firm and rocky 
foundation, which they afterwards named 
•'The Rock-." They gave the little river its 
name, (liristina, in honor of the daughter of 
llieir decca-icd mouareh, (iustavus Adobihus. 

'1 he mime is chaste and sweet, beautifully ap- 
])roijriate, and never will be changed as long 
as this government shall endure. 

When this little band of Swedes landed on 
the rocky sliori' of the beautiful ri\(i-, which 
had thnved for ages in its pristine purity, the 
M-ene presented to their vision was one of wild, 
yet enchanting, grandeur. The hills on wdiich 
the fair city of Wilmington now stands were 
heavily wooded, and their dcnsi; green f(diage 
cast a darkening shadow over the water, while 
the ri\er as it wound through luxuriant mead- 
ows Hashed like a thread (d' silver and dazzled 
the (ivcs of the fair-haired wanderers as they 
gazed u])itn it in ecstacies of delight. Xaught 
but the ri])pling of the stream and tlie songs 
of the birds, as they flitted through the forests, 
(lihturbe(l the S(ditU(le of nature. The foot of 
a while man had never before troildcu these 
hills. The stolid ^linuit, who had never gazed 
u]iou sucdi an enchanting scene before, was 
moved to raptures of delight, and thanked 
()(id that this great privilege had been granted 
him. Near by came another crystal stream 
dashing o\cr granite rocks, and through dark 
dcHles, whi(di united its waters wth the river 
iiear where the little band of jiiouecrs had 
east their lot and settled down to found homes 
in the Xew \\'oild. ^'ears afterwards this 
stream became noted for the power it furiush- 
ed for manufacturing pni-poses, and the "■jrills 
(d' the IJrandywim-"' obtained (-(.dcbrity in the 
commercial world for the excellence of their 
]ir()duct. But, owing to changed conditions 
and the ad\am-euKiit of manufacturing skill 
in ne\v lines, their wheels liave ceased to r( - 
\"<d\'e, the buildings ha\c tumbled in ruins, 
and long rows of ( 'oncstoga teams bearing the 
golden gi'ain of the ('he-ter \'alley no longer 
stand b(d"or(! them waiting their turn to be 
uidoaded; but the sfi'eam still rolls on as 
]irondly as it did when the Swedes gazed on it 
iu raptures of delight two hundre(l and sixty 
years ago. 

1 his .settlement was the second nunle \vithin 
the Hunts of the State of l")(daware, ami Le- 
came in the s])ring of 1(1.']8 the feelile begin- 
ning of what is now the beantif\d and thriving 
city of AVilmington, with its 70. 000 iiduibi- 
fants. Care has been taken to gi\c a minute 
description of these -el llenients, <■> that the 
I'cader may (dearly coinpi'chend the tinu', and 
the circnnistances, under whi(di the beginning 
(■{ the State of Delaware was made, llxcept- 

>•»( <l.l 


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II I >\-r..\- II 

.it ■ >• n /'in I. H.IJ.V 

II -.• •:; .^ ,i;r ;,i.<T 
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1 1 



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.1 <llll il 



ing tlicse two points, tlie whole peninsula was 
a wild, the ouiy iuliahitants being roving bands 
of Indians, and it continued in tliat condition 
for some jenrs afterwards. The seltlenient at 
'■J loom Kill'' (Lewes) having been wiped out 
and not restored, the Christina settlement in 
April, 1C3S, became the tirst jiermanent one 
on the Delaware, and the niRdens, therefore, 
of a large and wealthy population. 

After ^Jinuit and his brave liand had suffi- 
ciently rested from the fatigues of their long 
Aoyage, and had resolved to settle where they 
had lauded, the next thing in order was to erect 
a fiirtification on 'The Kocks" for their ]>rotec- 
tion, for they knew not what foes might be 
lurking in the dense wilderness. The fort was 
hastily constructed of logs. True, it was rude, 
but it served the purpose for which it was in- 
tended. It was named Christina, after tlie fair- 
haired child of Sweden who was destined to 
become a queen; whose girlhood was full of 
sunshine and promise, but whose closing years 
were marked with sorrow and gloom. Inside 
this rude fortification Peter ^linuit, as director 
general, took up his abode and administered 
the afl'airs of the colony. Clustering around 
it were temporary cabins, erecte<l for the ac- 
conniKidation of the settlers, as they could not 
all find quarters within the defensive work; 
and with tliat energy and spirit of industry 
which have always characterized ]ieo])le of 
ihcir nationality, they set about clearing 
l>atches of ground and preparing to raise grain 
and vegetables for their sustenance. In fact 
there was no other alternative; no sup]i!ics 
could be obtained, save game and fish, in that 
wild region, and they must either work or bo 
reduced to the verge of starvation. 

The Dutch Protest. 

Peter ^linuit had not finished the construc- 
tion of his fort when he received a protest from 
the director general of New Amsterdam, who 
denounced him as an intruder in Dutch terri- 
tory, and warned him to desist from liis work. 
A spirited controversy ensued. The Dutch 
claimed the land on the west, as well as the 
east, side of the Delaware. As Minuit neither 
re])lied to nor heeded the warning of the Ditch 
governor, the lattei- proceeded to repair and re- 
garrison the Dutch fort called Nassau, on the 
O])po<ite side of the river, in what U now New 
Jersey, just below (Uoncester I'oint, and to 

maintain it in a proper state of defence. 
ilinuit was resolute and determined. He went 
on about his business, carefully looking after 
the infant colony which had been entrusted to 
his care, not at all intimidated by the biiislor- 
ings of the Dutch governor of New Amster- 

In the mean time tiie Christina settlement 
prospered, and slowly gained strength; but 
strange as it may appear, when the inviting 
nature of the country is considered, no settle- 
ments by the Swedes were made below the 
( 'iiristina creek or river. In time others were 
niaile above, as far up as the mouth of the 
Schuylkill, but i)rinci])ally in the vicinity of 
Chester. This seems the more strange, inas- 
much as the colonial authorities of New 
Sweden claimed to have become entitled, by 
I-urchase from the natives, to all the country 
west of the Delaware from Cape Ilenlopen to 
the falls of Trenton, and to have, therefore, 
rightful dominion over it. 

Uev. Dr. Cort, in his memorial address at 
Do\'er, on the occasion of commemorating the 
services of Peter ]\[inuit in founding this 
colony, takes the ground that he is entitled to 
tlie credit of being the founder of civil govern- 
ment on ]\Ianhattan Island. And Justin AVin- 
i-or states in his Critical History of America, 
that ]\Iinuit nuist be considered the first 
founder of the present State of New York. 
He was also the founder and first governor of 
New Sweden on the Delaware. The policy of 
fair dealing with the Indians, begun on the 
Hudson by .Mimiit in 1G2G, was continued on 
the Delaware in IGoS; and it is to his everlast- 
ing credit that the same policy of peace and 
Christian generosity was carried out in good 
faith to the end of his career. The treaty 
f(_)rmed with the five Iroquois chiefs on the 
ground where AVilmington stands was never 
broken by either of the contracting parties. 
"Forty-four years before William Penn 
formed his famous treaty with the Indians 
under the elm tree at Shackamaxon," says Dr. 
Cort, "Peter ]\[inuit made his treaty with 
]\fi-tat-sim-int and four other Iroquois chiefs at 
Minquas Kill, purchasing, in fee siini)le, the 
Ktiil of our Commonwealth | Delaware] and 
a large part of Pennsylvania, including the 
very site on which stands the m(>tro])olis of the 
ICeystone Commonwealth." This treaty bore 
the date of 'Ararch 2S, lOHS, and as Dr. Cort 
savs, "ought to be commemorated annually by 

MA > .' >• ■ \ ' 

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IJiiti'iutic 1 U'hnvaroaiis as the birthday of our 
Christian (.'ouimonwealth." 

The aJininistration of ilinuit on the Dela- 
ware lasted less thau three years, but it was 
marked by wisiloni, courage aud Christian de- 
c-oniin. J lis sad death, while c>n a voyage for 
eoiiimercial purposes to the AVest Indies, will 
be found described in the chapter on the gov- 
ernors. In eulogizing the character of Minuit, 
I\ev. Dr. Port closes liis address with the fol- 
lowing tribute to his nienior}': "It was also 
part of ^linuit's original plan to settle Florida 
with Protestant colonists, and luake a bold on- 
slaught u])on S]ianisli commerce in the South 
Fea. He secnK-cl an.xious to avenge and rectify 
the wrongs perpetrated by the Idoodtliirsty and 
perlidioiis Spaniard, Menendez, in 15Gj, when 
lie butcliorcd in cold blood, on the coast of 
Flori<la, in time of peace, John Uibault, the 
grand mariner of France, and his five hundred 
shipwrecked colleagues, because they refused 
to renounce their Iieformed faith and swear al- 
legiance to the Pope. It was his ambition and 
iiope to establish an asylum for Keformed 
Christians in that land of flowers, as the great 
Admiral ( "oligny had striven to do seventy 
odd years before, when he foresaw the future 
hoi-rm-s of religious persecution about to de-;i>- 
late the sunny fields of France. Spain and 
Austria, the worst foes of civil and religious 
liberty, were devastating the Protestant homes 
of I'urope, and Minuit felt that a bold attack 
upon Spanish commerce would be a service to 
humanity and well pleasing to God. It is use- 
h ss to conjecture what might have been the 
outcome of such a policy. But only a man 
of heroic mould could have cherished it with 
the resources at command which Peter ]\linuit 
{)ossessed. His policy was to cultivate friendly 
relations with the Dutch in New Netherlands 
and along the east bank of the Delaware, as 
well as with the English in Virginia and other 
Nortli American colonies. All the Protestant 
sections he felt ought to combine against the 
common enemy, the despotic and perfidious 
Spaniards, as the best people of Euro])e had 
done during the Thirty Years' "War under 
Ciustavus Adulphus and other leaders." 

lli< religious views were of a high, lofty 
order. Ae(>ording to a WTiter of some distinc- 
tifin it \\a> his intention to bring over from his 
native land, along the Khine, a better class of 
colonists than governmental conscription could 
jiroiMU'c in Sweclon. 'i'he sturdy religious re- 

fugees, the very cream of Europe, W(juld have 
been transj)lanted in numbers sufficient to pre- 
vent any such conquest of New Sweden as 
afterwai'ds took jdace by Governor Stuyvesant 
in KiTiS. Put the best formed jilans of men 
are often frustrated by the stern decree of God. 
After the death of Peter ilinuit, the gover- 
norr-hip of the cohmy devolved on Peter llol- 
lender, or Hollendare, as it is sometimes writ- 
ten. He was commissioned in 1040, and ar- 
lived with fresh immigrants just as the set- 
tlement was about breaking up. Harassed by 
ihe Dutch, and subjected to much suffering 
on account of maintaining themselves in a 
wild and iidiospitable country, the colonists 
were often sorely discouraged and sighed to 
be again in their native land. But the new 
governor endeavored to encourage the people 
he found on the Christina, and to some ex- 
tent succeeded. His administration, however, 
was of short duration. After a residence of 
about a year and a half, he returned to Sweden 
and never came back. ^lore discouragements 
followed, 'ilie settlers felt at times that they 
had been abandoned, but, putting their trust 
in (Jod, they submitted to the privations which 
surrounded them with a courage and a devo- 
tion whiidi ajipear sublime, when we contem- 
)ilate their sad and lonely condition, in a land 
far from home, and without any of the com- 
forts of life to which they had been acciis- 

Arrival of Printz. 

The new governor, John Printz, who as- 
sumed the direction of the colony in 1043, 
was a i-emarkable man in niany rcsjtects. Pos- 
sessed of a strong mind, and courageous to a 
high degree, he exhibited no fear of the ra- 
])aeious Dutch of New Amsterdam, who were 
continually on the alert to harass the Dela- 
ware Colony. Printz, according to the ac- 
counts that have coine down to us, was a man 
</f great ]iliysical size, but with his avoirdu- 
jiois he united a mind of considerable execu- 
tive ability, and a strong sense of the import- 
ance of his position. He was bluff in his man- 
ners, inclined to be ii'aseible when crossed in 
liis ))ur|io-es, but withal open hearted and 
i-ymiiatheiic. H is learned from Acrelius 
that he bad a grant of four hundred lix dol- 
lars for his traveling exjienses, and one thou- 
sand two Innidrdl dollai'- silv.'r as lii- annual 

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salary. Tlie Company was invested with the 
exclusive privilege of importing tubaeeu into 
Sweden, although that article was even then 
regarded as unnecessary and injurious; it 
wa-i, nevertheless, considered indispensable 
biuce the estahlishiiient of ilic lad lialiit of its 
u.~c. V\H)n the same occasion was also sent 
out ]\Iagister John C'ompanius Holm, who 
was called by their excellencies, the Itoyal 
Council and Admiral Claes Flemming, to lie- 
coiue the Government chaplain, and watch 
over the Swedish congregatiim on the Dela- 

The ship on which (iovcrnor I'rintz sailed 
was called the Faiaa. It was acc-onipaiiicd by 
two other ships of the line, the S'Waii and the 
Cliarihts, lackMi with people and supplies. 
During Printz's administration, ships came to 
the colony at three different times. The first 
that came was the Black Cat, with amnuini- 
tion and merchandise for the Indians, 'i'he 
next was the Sivan, on a second voyage, with 
emigrants, in 1C47. Afterwards came two 
other ships, the Key and the Lamp. During 
these times the cdergyman, Lawrence Charles 
l.ockenins, and Isracd Ilidgh, were sent out to 
a;-sist in caring for the spiritual welfare of the 

Governor Printz received elaborate instruc- 
tions from Queen Christina, in which his du- 
ties in the colony were pointe<l out with yreat 
exactness; he was especially reminded that the 
boundaries of the country of which ])osses- 
sion had been taken, extended from ( 'ape Ilen- 
lo]ien to where Fort Christina was built, and 
tlience np the river to a place which the In- 
dians called Sank-i-kans, now known as the 
Falls of Trenton. This point was the extreme 
northern limit of New Sweden, and was about 
ninety miles from Cape Ilenlopcn. lie was 
also informed that in IG-tl several English 
families, proliably ninnbering sixty persons, 
had settled and begun to cultivate the land on 
the eastern side of the river, in New Jersey, 
but as this land was claimed bv the crown of 
Sweden he (the governor) was instructed to 
cultivate friendly relations with them and 
draw them under his control. He was in- 
formed that the Holland AVest India Com- 
Ijnny would, no doubt, seek to control this 
tract of land, which extended from Cape ifay 
to what is now known as Raccoon Creek. 
They had built a fort called Xa>-aw, which 
was manned bv about twentv men. It stood 

near, or on, Gloucester Point. AVhence the 
Knglish colony came is not clearly estab- 
lished, but they are supposed to have been 
s(piatters from Connecticiit, and to have after- 
wards settled on the Schuylkill. 

(iovernor Printz was also instructed to 
treat the Indian tribes with whom he should 
ccnue in c'ontact with humanity and respect, 
and see that no violence or injustice was done 
them; and that pains should be taken to in- 
struct them in the truths and worship of the 
t 'hristian religion, and induce them gradually 
lo become civilized. It was especially i-njoined 
ujion him to gain their confidence and impress 
upon their minds that neither he nor his Jjco- 
ple aucl sub(rnliiiales were come into their 
midst Uj do them any wrong or injury, but 
much more for the of furnishing them 
with such things as they might need for the 
(irdinary wants of life, and s'o also for such 
things as were found among them, which they 
themselves could make for their own use, or 
buy or excliaiige. He was aho to see that ia 
trading with the Indians the Swedes should 
charge them a less jirice than they were in the 
habit of paying to the Hollanders at Fort Nas- 
sau for similar articles, so that the "wild peo- 
ple," as the (^ucen termed them, might be 
drawn away from them and trade with her 
peoiile. 'i'his was a shrewd suggestion made 
fiom a luu-iness point of view, and shows that 
the young (|Ueen was not unmindful of the 
iidvantagrs tci le gaineil by ii\u>uiiig such a 

It was left to the (lo\-ernor's optimi, either 
to pro\i(le and choose a jilace of ri-.-ideuce, or 
to occupy the dwelling in Christina which had 
been occupied by his predecessors. He was 
also instructed to provide a suitable place for a 
fort, either at "Hinlopen" or on an inland in 
the river; but if he found Fort Christina would 
suffice, then he was to put it in good order. At- 
tention was to be directed to agriculture, and 
the raising of tobacco was to be made a spe- 
cialty. He was to have careful search made 
e\(rywliere for precious metals, and if any 
were discovered was to give information at 
once to the home government, and to await i 
instructions. The peltry trade was to be dili- 
gently looked after, with precautions against 
fraud. This trade was to be carried on only 
by licensed traders, ai)i)ointed in the name of 
the whole companv, who were to be jiaid es- 
tiibli>lie(l couiniis-inus. 

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It was suggested that salt works iniglit be 
f■stallli^^llC(l oil the sea coast. But if salt could 
not I'l- proiicrly made by the process of evapor- 
ation ill the heat of the sun, salt water might 
he hroiight to such a grade that it could at'iiT- 
wards he perfectly coudcnjed by means of hrc 
without great labor or expense. This the 
governor was to consider, and make such cx- 
ptrlments as might bo required to determine 
the best jirocess, and then put it into practical 
operation. Out of the abundant forests, the 
Ciovernor was ordered to e.xamine and deter- 
mine what i)rotit might be derived from oak 
and walnut tree-, and whether a good (|ualily 
of this timher might be shipped to Sweden as 
ballast. lie Was also instructed to ascertain 
whether oil might not be advautageou>ly ex- 
]iresscd without walnuts. 

It was also to be ascertained how and where 
fi>lieiie- might be most ]irolitably establishe 1; 
t^]lecially at what season of the year the whole 
tii-hing hiisiness could be most advantageously 
]ini~ecntcd ill the lower hay. 'I'lu' go\crnor 
was to investigate earefiilly, and ie|iort 
to the home government, whether the busi- 
ness couM be made profitable. This bu-iness, 
it will lie remembered, had been tried hy l)e 
\'ries near Lewes, but proveil a failure and 
was abaudoiieil. The governor was also in- 
structed to make careful inquiry in regard to 
the fo(id and I'onvenience for keejiing a large 
iiiiml er of silk worms, and whether the man- 
ufacture of silk could be started in the new 
coimlry. broiu this it will appear lliat silk 
Worm ( iilfurc was not a new thing in those 
early day-, and the fact that an attemiit was 
iiiaile to engage in it (Ui a large scale in the 
same country nearly two hundred years after- 
wards, only goes to sho\v that "fails,'" like liis- 
torv, often repeat themselves. 

.Much was left to the discretion tif the gov- 
ernor. At tirst, and until matters cmild be 
brought into a better form, he was authorized 
to use his own seal, but in a somewhat larger 
form ill briefs, contracts, correspondence, and 
other written documents of a public character. 
lie was authorized to decide all matters of con- 
troversy which might arise, according to Swed- 
ish law, eiistom and usage, lie was also to 
have power, through the necessary and projier 
means of compulsion, to bring to obedience 
and a quiet life the turbulent and disorderly, 
and especially u])on gross ott'enders he couM 
inflict ]iunishnients according to the grade ol 

the crime, by imprisonment, or even by the 
Infliction of tiie death penalty, lint in the im- 
position of so grave a penalty, he was ordered 
not to depart from the usual manner, and to 
give the case proper hearing and cousiileration, 
with the assistance and concurrence of the 
most prudent associate judgi's that he could se- 

Governor Trintz, therefore, was the first 
man to hold court, try offenders, and adminis- 
ter justice in what is now the territory of the 
State of Delaware. lie was the president 
judiic, the suiiivme ruler and administrator 
of the colony. At this late day, considering 
the power with which he was clothed, how in- 
teresting it would 1 e if we could consult the 
records of his court. But that privilege is de- 
nied us, even if records were kept, for they 
have doubtless long since perished. His court 
was first held at Fort Christina; afterwards at 
his famous hall, which he established on Tini- 
cuiu Lsland, in the Delaware Kiver. Oousiiler- 
ing that he was invested with so much power, 
even to the taking of human life, it is not to 
he wondered at that in time there came to be 
imich frietion in the colony, and that the gov- 
ernor's enemies never let pass an opportunity 
to denounce him for his haughty and im- 
jierious manners. Indeed there is reason for 
believing that at times the c.doni-ts would 
have revolted if they could have seen any way 
of bettering their condition. Hut they were 
hel[)less a,nd had to submit to their aut'K-ratic 

'i'he letter of instruction (dosed by saying 
that "above all things" the Governor must 
"consider and see t.j it that a tru," and due 
worship, bec<iming boii<n-, laud and praise be 
]iaid to the IMost High God in all things, and to 
that end all proper care shall be taken thatdi- 
^ ine service be zealously performed according 
to the unaltered Augsburg Confe.-^sion,^ the 
Council of rpsala, and the cereniouics of the 
Swedish Church; and all persons, but espe- 
cially the young, shall he <luly instructed in 
the articles of their Christian faith; and all 
good idiurch disciidiue shall in like manner 
he duly exercised and received." But so far 
as relates to the ifolland colonists that might 
live and settle under the Swedish government, 
(iovernor Printz was instructed not to disturb 
them in the indulgence of their religious faith; 
tliey might confoi-m to the rites of the He- 
formed ( 'hiirch. 

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][aviiig received his instructions, and every- 
thing being in readiness, Printz and liis colon- 
ists sailed from Stockholm August 10, 1U42, 
and landed safe at Fort Christina February 15, 
lUiy. The voyage was long and tedious, 
compared with the voj'ages of to-day, but noth- 
ing imusual occurred and we infer that the 
health of the emigrants was fairly good. Part 
of them belonged to a trading company pro- 
vided with a charter, and were to receive 
monthly wages for their servicer. Some, how- 
ever, came of their own accord to try their for- 
tune in the new country. And they were free 
to settle and live in the country as long as tliey 
pleased, or to leavi' it at tlieir jjleasure. 'i"he 
latter were, by way of distim-tion, called free- 
men. At first malefactors and vicious subjcti 
were sent over, who were used as slaves in the 
work upon the fortifications. They were kept 
in ciiains and not allowed to have intercourse 
witii the other settlers ;ji separate place of 
abode was assigned to them. The result was 
that the respectable colonists became gi'catly 
dissatisfied that such characters should be fcjist- 
ed upon them, and remonstrated in strong 
terms. "When Governor I'ritz took charge of 
the affairs of the colony, his attention was 
called to this matter, and to his credit he took 
measures to break up the practice at once. 
'Iherefore, when any vessel ajipeared bearing 
such characters, they were not j)ermitted to 
Ect foot on shore, l)Ut the cajitain of the vessel 
was forced to carry them away again. Where- 
U]>on,says.\crelius, a great many of tliem dietl 
during the voyage or perished in some other 
way. Afterwards it was forbidden in Sweden, 
under a ])eiialty, to take for the American voy- 
age any persons of bad fame, nor was there 
ever any lack of good people for the Colony. 
]rad so good a law prevailed in after years 
when the Fnglish rule was established over 
the colony, it would have been better for the 

Having taken time during his stay at Fort 
Christina to survey the country, ascertain the 
condition of tlie settlement, organize his gov- 
ernment, and consider what was best tn be 
done, (lovernor Printz decided to establish hi-; 
ii('ad(]uarters on Tiuicum Island. Acrelius no- 
where states how long the Governor resided at 
the fort, but it must have been for several 
months, for it must have taken some time to 
-erect the necessary buildings on the i-huul and 
have them in readiness to transfer tlie seat of 

government of New Sweden thither. 
Why Printz should have selected au 
island in the Delaware Itiver for his 
official residence has never been sat- 
isfactorily explained. It has been said that 
tiie choice was made in order to be as near Fort 
Nassau as possible, and to be in a position more 
easily to intercept vessels that might attempt 
to ascend the river. Others have insinuated 
that the burly governor thought it would be a 
place of greater safety in time of danger from 
the Indians and other foes. Be that as it may, 
a fort was built on the island, and provided 
with a considerable armament. His place of 
residence, which was of j)retentious appear- 
ance, was surrounded with charming grounds; 
a pleasure house was erected, orchards were 
planted, and everything done that would make 
it attractive and beautiful. And as if to im- 
part a greater air of dignity to tlie place, the 
Governor named it Printz Ilall. Prominent 
freemen who accompanied him, were allowed 
to erect residences on the island also. Some of 
these residents doubtless were ofiicers of his 
court and a.ssisted in the administration of jus- 
tice. In close proximity to the settlement a 
handsome wooden church was built, which was 
<ledicated with appropriate ceremonies con- 
ducted by Companius. 

Friction Between Goveexors. 

In the meantime friction between the 
Swedes and tlie Dutch was gradually increas- 
ing. Stuyvesant was in conuaaud at iS'ew Am- 
sterdam and seized every opjiortunity to harass 
and annoy Printz. The Swedes were looked 
iipon as intruders, or squatters, on the lamls 
along the river, and the Dutch determined to 
\a\ g them under subjection or drive them 
away. The latter claimed to have purchased 
the country first from tlie Indians; the Swedes 
claimed that their purchase embraced the 
country as far west as the Susquehanna river. 
The contention therefore was based on the pri- 
(irity of right by purchase. 

Printz commanded the river with his little 
fort on Tinicum Island and prevented the 
Dutch from ascending. This so annoyed Stuy- 
\esant that he resolved on a new plan to cir- 
cumvent the wily Swede. He organized a 
<ompany, with in.structions to make a settle- 
ment at what is now known as New Castle. 
This was done, and a defensive work erected 


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wliicli was called Fort Cassiiuer. It is said to 
have stood on a point of laud jutting into the 
river, but the site, during the long time that 
has elajised sinee its erection, has been almost 
entirely \vashed away by the action of the 
water. This was in the year 1G51. It was 
garrisoned by a force suflicient to hold it 
against the attacks of the Swedes. A few 
Dutch settlers clustered around the fortitica- 
tion and it l)ecame from that date the third 
Christian or civilized settlement within what 
was destined to become the State of Delaware. 
It was a bold stroke on the part of the Dutch, 
and gave Governor Printz a great deal of un- 
easiness. And in order still further to itrength- 
eu the foutli<dd that had been gained on the 
Swedish side of the river, Governor Stuyves- 
ant abandoned Fort Nassau on the Xew Jersey 
shore, and removed the garrison, with its mun- 
itions of war, to Fort Cassimcr. Only meagre 
accounts of the siege and struggle of this fort 
have been preserved. It mounted a, few can- 
non, and served as a menace to Swedish ships 
attempting to ascend the river, which were 
commanded to stop and submit to be seai'chcd. 
'Jhis was very humiliating to the proud occu- 
pant of I'rintz Ilall, a few miles above; but as 
he had played the same game at his stronghold, 
he could only chafe when quailing the bitter 
cup which he had so imperiously placed at the 
lips of others. 

At this time all the vast plain surrounding 
Fort Cassimer was covered with a heavy 
growth of timber; in a word, it was a dense 
wilderness, through which roamed game in 
abtindanco. 'J"he Indians, with amazement 
depicted on their countenances, came forth 
occasionally from the solitudes of the forest 
to gaze upon the new comers as they toiled at 
their work. They could not clearly compre- 
hend what the mission of the pale-faces was, 
but they did not interfere with them. That 
they were peacefully incdincd was doubtless 
true, for no authenticated accounts of Indian 
outrages at that time have been handed down. 
"When we compare the condition of the 
country as it was then with that of the present 
day, we can scarcely comprehend the mighty 
changes that have been wrought. Ilighl}- cul- 
tivated farms dot the landscape; charming 
houses, the abode of a refined and cultured 
people, are noted on every hand; while the evi- 
dences of prosperity and thrift meet us at 
every turn. Time works wondrous change; ; 

and it must be remembered that two hundred 
and fifty years have rolled away since the 
sturdy Hollanders and the fair-haired Swedes 
struggled for the privilege of founding homes 
in this far-away land. 

The aggressive policy of the Dutch became 
alarming to Printz. lie felt that a greater 
jiowcr than he could resist was arrayed against 
him. On his early representations, the West 
India Company of Sweden had formally pro- 
tested against the proceedings of Stnyvesant, 
b\it nothing was done to relieve him. Tlie 
apathy of the home government may be ex- 
plained on the ground that the business of the 
colony had not proved as profitable as had 
been e.xpecfed. Ciovernor Printz had not for 
a lung time heard from home. j\Iessages had 
been dispatched to Sweden with instructions 
to lay a statement of atfairs before the queen, 
but no answer was received. The re-inforce- 
ments he had asked for were delayed until his 
hoiie turned into despair. The Indians were 
bcciiming restive and were no longer to be re- 
lied on. So long as the colonists had every- 
thing they wanted all went well; but now the 
tnisettlcd condition of affairs was causing dis- 
content, and miirmurings were frequently" 
heard. The governor was failing into dis- 
favor with his people. lie had been a rigor- 
ous and austere ruler. Finally, realizing that 
his days of usefulness were over, he resolved 
to resign, leave the colony, and report the true 
condition of affairs in person at the court of 
Sweden. He therefore appointed his son-in- 
law .John Papegoija, vice-governor, and in 
lGa2 sailed away, never to return. He had 
served as governor from 1GI3 to 1051, a 
period of over ten years, and had come to be 
recognized as the monarch of Tinicum. 

His son-in-law did not remain very long in 
authority', for in lC5i the ship Eaole arrived 
from Sweden, lieaiing a new governor in the 
person of John Claudius Pising, who was in- 
vested with the title of Director General of 
Xew Sweden, and for a brief time exercised 
authoritv in the Colony. 

Fort Cassimer CApruifED. 

For some time previous to the departure 
of I'rintz, both the Dutch and the Swedes had 
entertained serious apprehensions of the de- 
signs of the ]"^nglisli upon the whole territory. 
I'hey realized that while they were quarrel- 

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ing about tlie right of possession on tiie Dela- 
ware, there was dangers ot tliis stronger power 
pouneing upon tiieni and seizing tlie wliole ter- 
ritory. ]kising's oiticial instrnetio:is, therefore, 
partieuhirly :idnuiiiishe<i liiui to jiroeeeil in his 
aduunistration of affairs in -\ew Sweden wilh 
tlie utmost prudeuee and eircumspeetion, and 
to avoid hy all means any lireaeh of fi'iendship 
Avith either the Duteli or the Juiglish; a breaeh 
with the former might afford tlie latter an op- 
jiortunity to seize Fort C'assinier, atul it was 
better for the Swedes that it should continue 
in the possession of the Duteli than fall into 
the hands of their more powerful and danger- 
ous neighbors in that eountry. 

On the faec of his instructions he was to 
employ every peaceable method in his jiower, 
without resorting to any hostile act to induce 
the Dutch to abandon Fort C'assinier to the 
I'-nglisli. But his actions show that he bore 
secret instructions. 

J\ising sailed from Swevlen in an armed 
shij), with military oHicers and troops and set- 
tlers on board, amounting in all to some two 
hundred and tifty men, and arrived in the Del- 
aware in the latter part of May, U).j4. On ap- 
jiroaching Fort (ja?simer the ship was preji.irc I 
for action, and rounding to oj)poslte the fort, 
tired a salute and signaled it to send an otKcer 
on board, which was soon done by the coni- 
niandant of the fort. On his arrival on board 
Kising informed him who he was, and at once 
ilemanded the surrender of the fort, as it stood 
on Swedish gnuind, and with it the liver also 
as a part of their possessions. Without secret 
instructions to this effect, it is not likely that 
he wouhl have acted in such a summary man- 

When the Dutch officer heard the demand 
he was stujietied with amazement, but on re- 
i overing his self-possession, he ordered his 
boat's crew to row him ashort' for instructions. 
The ofKccr not returning as soon as it was sup- 
jtosed he should, IJisiiig feared treachery, and 
became imi)atieiit; Init upon retlection he de- 
cided to wait for an answer until morning. 
>ioiie Inning been received at that time he 
landed a military force, marched on the fort, 
stormed and seized it without resistance, at the 
point of the bayonet, lie did not propose to 
take any pri.soners of war, as none had been 
declared, or any intimation given of his hostile 
intentions previous to the demand for the sur- 
render of th(^ works; he therefore disarmed 

the garrison and chased them out at the jwint 
of the bayonet, then took possession of the 
fort and garrisoned it with a detail of his own 

1 he 1 )iitch, it is believed, were so frightened 
on hearing the demaml of the Swedish (iover- 
nor that they did not know what to do. And 
as ihcir {^n-vr was .-mall, and the foi't in poor 
condition to make any show of resi.-,tancc, they 
ke]it on dclilieratiiig until the fatal moment 
arrived, and they wrrv driven out like defence- 
less school boys. What the armament of the 
fort M-as we are not informed, but it eould not 
have been sulHcient, as (lovernor Ki.-ing soon 
after the cajiture proceede.l to enlarge and 
strengthen it. As if entirely to efface the iden- 
tify cd' the fort, he named it and the -.ettlenieiit 
wliich had grown u]> an^iiid it, Xew Amstel. 
"What became of the e.xjielled garri-on we are 
not informed, but they probably took refuge 
among the settleivs, and soon afterwards made 
their way to the other Dutch settlements. 

Rising, evidently, was greatly elated over 
his victory, anil as a titling coiielnsi(jii and by 
way of snrpri-e, no donbr, he imme liately 
liM'warded a letter to (lovernor Stuyve~aut, at 
>s'ew .\in^terdam, announcing his brilliant 
achievement on the Delaware, and informing 
him that he could have no further communica- 
tion with him on the .subject, and that any dis- 
cussion or negotiation in ri'gard to the matter 
nnist be referred to their respective sovereigns. 
As Ifising's letter was the first information 
Stuyvcsant had received of the fall of Fort 
< 'a->imer. one <-an imagine how surprised and 
indignant the doughty warrior of Xew Am- 
sterdam mn-t have beeij. .Voted for his e\- 
eitalile tenipi'i-ament, it requires no streteli of 
rile iniaginatinii to picture the Dutch governor 
stamjiing around on his wooden leg and tear- 
ing his hair, while the -eery air of the fort 
^eemed charged with the fumes of sul]>linr, as 
he hurled defiant e.xjiletivcs at the head of the 
new Swedish governor. 

Soon after the capture of Fort Cassimer and 
the placing of a garrison therein (ioveriior 
Hi.siiig sailed up the river to Fort Christina, 
where he landed and took up his permanent 
residence in the same once occupied by 
I'eter Minuit. The original settlement, there- 
fore, became for the second time the otlieial 
headquarters and seat of governinent of .Vi'w 
Sweden. The name of Cassimer was changed 

^\ ,,'-.' A. 


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to Fort Trinity and new conditions took tlie 
jijiu'c of the old. 

Wlicn the fall of Fort C'assimor was report- 
ed to tlie llolhmd authorities there was natur- 
jilly much txcitenicnt in tiiat country. 'I'lie 
1mp1(1 and aiiiire<sive action of Rising left no 
other altcinative to the Dutch authorities than 
a resort to arms, to settle the long existing cou- 
(rovcrsy lietwcen the two countries by the 
swoi-(l. 'IIh' capture of I'"'ort (^ussimer, the 
jiniund on which it was built having been pur- 
<lia>c(l iiy the Holland Comjiany July 19, 
li;.". 1, wa> Udt only an insult, l»it tantamount 
til a (U'claration of war, and popular sentiment 
<l<niaiidcil that it should be recovered. 

(io\(riinr Stuyvesant was ordered iu due 
time to jirepare to retake the fort and reduce 
the Swedish settlements on the Delawiire to 
obedience to the authority of New Xethcr- 
lands; he was authorized to use whatever force 
he might deem necessary, and directed to act 
as ipiickly as ])ossible. In the meantime cor- 
responding ])reparations were made for the 
cmt'igency by the company in Holland. So 
l;ii:h (lid the fever run that recruiting stations 
v'cre opened in the city of Amsterdam, drums 
were beaten, and every effort was nmde to in- 
duce men to enlist for the great war that had 
broken out between the Dutch and Swedes 
in America. Accounts state that Dutchmen 
were excited everywhere and the war feeding 
ran high. Delaware was at stake, and moth- 
ing short of the complete subjugation and c(in- 
tjuest of New Sweden woidd satisfy the uni- 
vei-sal expectation. AVhile all the ujiroar was 
going on, it ihx'S not appear that any effort 
wa- made by Sweden to strengthen h<'r colon- 
n-^ on the Delaware, or put her forts in order 
to reiiel the proposed invasion. (Jovernor 
liising appears to have been content to rest on 
lii.-. laurel-, and quietly enjoy the fruits of his 
victory. If reinforcements could have been 
tectired, it seems strange that no efforts were 
made to obtain them, for Kising must have 
known what was being done. If he did not 
at least sus)iect that an attem])t would be made 
to reco\-er what had been lost by the Dutcdi, 
lie have been more than ordinarily ob- 

(lovernor Stuyvesant, who prided himself 
on hi> militarv training, could not reconcile 
liiuiself to the insult that he bad received from 
tlie wily Swede, wbo bad stolen into the Dila- 
ware and captured Fort (""assimer without fir 

ing a gun. \\'orst of all was the affront put 
upon him by the curt letter informing him of 
what had been dc^ie; this was more than he 
could endure. That an old soldier who had 
lost a leg in battle should be subjected to such 
an indignity was unbearable, and he longed 
lor the ojiportunity to surprise Kising in re- 

Stuyvesant hastened his preparations, ob- 
serxing, h<nvever, the greatest secrecy. His 
]Kiints of attack were New Amstel, late Fort 
Cassimer, and Fort t'hristina, neither of 
whi(di contained a garrison of m<jre than thirty 
or foit\ men. The nnlitarv force at the Dutch 
goveriiorV command tpiite ecpialU'd in num- 
bers the entire ])opulation of the Swedish set- 
tlements on the Delaware, women and chil- 
dren included. Yet he conducted his prepara- 
tions for nearly one year with so much care, 
1 rudence and secrecy that IJising had no in- 
tinnition of them, except from the hints of 
friendly Indians, towards the last. These In- 
dians, it .seemed, knew more than he diil, but 
he did not heed their warnings. He never 
imagined for a moment that Stuyvesant, if ho 
really contem])lated a movement, hail any- 
thing more in view than the recapture of I'ort 
Cassimer and the country below. 

The Dutidi West India (!om]>any had prom- 
i.-ed Stuyvesant as>i--tance iu vcs-ejs, annnuni- 
tion and siddiers from Holland, and had di- 
rected him to impress into his service, at their 
e\]iense, any vesscds in the New Netherlands 
that the occasion niiuht recjuire; they had al- 
ready sent over to .\ew Amsterdam one man- 
oi'-war and two other ships, with men and am- 
niunition. In the meantime Stuyvesant had 
by ]iersnasi\e oti't-rs and impressment added 
four other vessels to his fleet, among them be- 
ing a French jjrivateer, which had been hov- 
ering on the coast for the purpose of preying 
on the commerce of any nation that was at 
war with France. With this squadron, for- 
midable for the tinie<, Stuyvesant found him- 
self in readiness to set forth on his expedition. 
It consisted of seven vessels, and carried be- 
tween >ix and seven hundred men. A start 
was maih^ Se|iteudier '>, lt5.'>.">. and as the 
Kpiadmn sailed down the bay and pa.sscd out 
into the ocean it prc-entetl a brave and war- 
like ajipearance. Filtering the capes of the 
Delaware in due season, rommodoro Stuyve- 
sant spent several days in marshaling an<l ar- 
ranging bis fleet jirciiaratory to landing his 

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men in sections, witli tlieir proper ufiicers, 
when they should arrive off the fort of the 

At last Governor Rising had Leconie aware 
of the force tliat was approaching, and hastily 
set to work to prepare Fort New Anistcl for 
the impending conflict. He ordered the otHcer 
in charge not to allow the licet to pass, if he 
could prevent it, and by all means to lire upon 
it. Both orders were disobeyed, whether 
through fear, or from want of a clear under- 
standing of them, is unknown. The Hcet, 
when it hove in sight, quietly passed the fort, 
which made no attempt to arrest it, and camo 
to anchor above it, out of the reach of its guns. 
So quiet a reception must have been a sur- 
prise to Stuyvesant, after all his warlike 
preparations, llis next move was to summon 
the fort to surrender, but the commandant 
not complying with his order, he landed 
all his troops out of reach of cannon shot, and 
then proceeded to invest Fort Now Amstcl by 
jiosting a detachment about five miles otf to 
watch Fort Christina, and another somewhat 
nearer to cut off any reinforcement or relief 
from that quarter. The brave Dutchman 
then commenced digging trenches and throw- 
ing up embankments in order to enable his 
forces to get near enough to the fort to fire 
upon its log walls with safety. This accom- 
plished, Stuyvesant repeated his demand for 
the surrender of the fort, and at last perem- 
torily accompanied with a fierce threat to open 
his guns upon it, if his demand was not in- 
stantly comjilied with. 'Jlie Swedish olHcer 
saw no alternative, and to prevent further 
waste of time concluded to surrender. Ac- 
cordingly he capitulated on favorable terms, 
without any one being hurt on cither side, 
and New Sweden was already half conquered. 
I'he surrender took place September IG, 1G55, 
which shows that over two weeks were con- 
sumed in military operations before the end 
came. The commander of the fort was named 
Sven Schute, and his surrender was severely 
condemned by Governor Rising, who thought 
that he should have made some show of re- 
sistance. But the excuse was that necessity 
knows no law. According to the articles of 
capitulation, as given by Acrelius, liberty was 
given to the commander of the fort to take 
back to Sweden the cannon which belonged 
to the crown, consisting of four irun guns of 
fourteen pounds, and five field jiicccs. lie 

was permitted to march out with liis twelve- 
men fully armed, as his life guard, and with 
the tlags of the crown; the others with their 
side arms only. The muskets were to stand to 
the connnandant's account, and were to re- 
main in the fort until he took them away, or- 
sent an order for them. The commandant 
was to be secure in his personal and individ- 
ual property, either to take it away or let it 
remain until further orders. The same was 
the case with the property of the other officers. 
Considering the bluster that had been in- 
dulged in by Stuyvesant, the terms of capitu- 
lation could not be regarded as severe. 

Fort Cjiiustina T.\ken. 

1'he next movement of Stuyvesant was di- 
rected against Fort Christina. He ordered 
his armed ship and tlie French privateer to 
anchor in Christina Creek, and to be in such 
a position that they could rake the fort witli 
their guns if any hostile movement should be 
detected. Twelve days were then spent in in- 
vesting the fort, and in erecting a number of 
batteries in commanding jiositions. These bat- 
teries mounted, all together, about twenty 
guns, independent of those on the armed 
ships, and were formidable enough to reduce 
a defensive work much stronger than the 
humble Swedish fort. All things being in 
nadiness, (lovernor Stuyvesant made a for- 
mal demand for the surrender of the fort, 
which was qiuckly responded to by Governor 
Rising's yielding to the demand, and as in tho 
case of Fort Amstel, the exchange of masters 
was accomplished without the firing of a gun 
or the injury of a single man. The tables were- 
now completely turned. Stuyvesant was mas- 
ter of the Swedish settlements on the Dela- 
ware, and the flag of Holland floated over their 

'J'ho terms of capitulation entered into be- 
tween tliese two distinguished officers were 
marked with that military courtesy which usu- 
ally prevails on sucdi occasions. The pream- 
ble to the articles set forth that the "capitula- 
tion was made between the brave and noble 
Director, John Rising, Governor of New Swe- 
den, on the one .side, and the brave and noble 
Dii'cctor, Peter Stuyvesant, Governor General 
of New Netherlands, on the other side." In 
the use of the high sounding titles applied to 
each of the contracting parties, one cannot but 

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imagine a tinge of sly irony in tlieir appliea- 
lii.n, Lilt tlifv were evidently inade iu good 
laiili ;;iiil in arcunlance with the custom of the 

i'lie terms of sairrcnder were siniiliar to 
tli(i>t' granted at I'ort Amstel; all the camion, 
jirovisioiis and sn]>i)lics, together with (itlicr 
tilings in l'"(irt Christina belonging to the 
frown of Swetk'ii, "shall belong to and be pre- 
t-erved as tiie property of the .Swedish Crown 
and the Sinithern Company, and shall be un- 
(k-r the power of said (ioveriior to take away 
ci to ih-liver to (iovernor Stiiyvesant, with the 
provision that they shall be jjiven up iipcjii 

(lovcrnor Kising and his otlicers ''shall 
march out of the fort with drums and truin- 
]icts playing, flags flying, matches burning, 
with hand and side arms, and balls in their 
mouths." They were hrst to be taken to Tiui- 
ciim Island, formerly the headquarters of 
(io\cnioi- I'riiitz, placed in tlu; fort as jirison- 
ers, and kcjit there until (iovernor Stiiyvesant 
should be ready to sail for Xew Amstenlani, 
when they were to be removed thither. Kis- 
ing and his principal officer wi-re allowed ti\'e 
servants to attend them, which was very liji- 
cral, to say the least. All private property was 
to be respected and no one was to be searched. 
None of the soldiers or otticers were to be ile- 
tained against their will, but might be permit- 
ted to gu with Rising if they so desired. Those 
wisliing to go, but not being ready, were al- 
lowed one year and six weeks in which to sell 
their land and goods, provided they did not 
take the oath of allegiance for the time they 
^hollld remain. If any Swedes or Finns were 
not disposed to go, they were allowed the 
liberty of adhering to their own religious 
A icws and of employing a minister for their 

C.overnor Hising, his commercial agent, 
and other ]ierL:ons, including officers, soldiers 
and freemen, with all their property, were to 
be provided with a good ship, which should 
leceive them at Sandy Kook and convey them 
to 'J'excl, a ])ort in ITolland, without charge. 
And if liising or any of his iiet)ple had coii- 
tra<;ted any dehts on account of the Crown, 
they were not to he detained therefor within 
the jurisdiction of Governor Stuyvesant. 
These articles were formally signed "on the 
parade hctween Fort Christina and the fio\ 
eriior Cieneral's cam]),"' S<'ptciulKT 2'>, Id.")."), 

and all Swedish control on the Delaware 
passed over to the Dutcii or Hollanders. 

Courtesy to a Prison ek. 
Ihit the foregoing did not include all the 
business that was transacted on that moment- 
ous occasion. In a ".secret article'' it was fur- 
ther stipulated that the captain who was to 
convey CJovernor Rising and his officers was 
"expre.--sly commanded and ordered'" to out the 
goNcriior and his party on shore either in 
]'"nglaiid or France, and that Stuyvesant 
shoiilil lend to the said Rising the sum of 
''three hundred pounds Flemish," which Ris- 
ing was to jiay to Stuyvesant within six 
months after the reeeijit. And as set-nrity for 
this loan, Rising put up the projierty of the 
Crown and Southern Company which he had 
surrendered. It i)laced him in a very unpleas- 
ant situation, hut he had no otlu-r way of rais- 
ing money to jiay his personal expenses home. 
His only consolation wa^ that it might be re- 
])aid. StiiNVesant's ordci-s upon ( 'ornelius 
dacob Steewyk to "supply Rii^ing with eight 
hunderd guilders for the articles pledged, were 
dated on the 2d of 2s^ovenibcr, Hi."),".,"" and if 
the debt was not paid within six months, the 
]iledgcd articles, consisting of cannon, mniii- 
lioiis of war and other j)roperty, to be sold to 
ii(piidate the obligation. After all, the terms 
were rather humiliating; and the contrast be- 
tween Rising's coming into the country and 
his departure therefrom, was very great. Ac- 
cording to the S\ve(lish historian of the time 
the dt'bt was never paid, and the cannon were 
liiken to Xew Amsterdam, where, •with other 
articles, tluy were sold, and for years after- 
wards were pointed to as trophies of the con- 
quest of Xew Sweden. Rising afterwards 
made a report of his misfortune, and impor- 
tuned his government to make an effort to re- 
cover what he had lost. But the expense 
which the government had incurred in the at- 
tempt to found its colony on the Delaware, 
the rapid march of events, and the develop- 
ment of new conditions, had so changed the 
])olilical outlook that nothing came of the 
ex-governor's j)etition, and lii^ -lureiider 
ju'ovcd the end of Sweilish anihority in the 
Xew ^Vol■]d. 


Notwithstanding the aiiparently liberal 
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iiftorwiuils subjected to terrible oppression by 
the coiiqnorors. So great was tliis oppres^ioll, 
says Aerelius, that it eainiot 1)C ilescribed. 'llie 
tiower of the Swedish male jjopulatioii were 
at oiieo ruthlessly torn awa}' from their fami- 
lies, their kindred and associations and sent 
to Xew Amsterdam to become enforced s\d)- 
jeets, thongli everything M'as done to make it 
appear that it was their desire to go. The men 
were taken by force on shipboard; women at 
liome in their houses were grossly insidted 
and abused; their property was carried otf be- 
fore their eyes, and cattle in the fields were 
caught and slaughtered. Such treatment was 
infamous in the highest degree, and marks the 
conquerors as little better tlian savages. There 
api^ears to have been an object in this ruth- 
less barbarity, for after its perpetration, the 
time was deemed opportune to issue a procla- 
mation connnanding the people to take the 
oath of allegiance. It was the jioliey, evident- 
ly, first to terrify them and then to require 
them to yield obedience. Those who had the 
courage to refuse tlie terms of tlic priH-lama- 
tion were regarded with suspicion, harassed 
and abused. 

Under various pretexts the Dutch sought to 
cox'cr nj) their bad treatment of the settlers. 
One of their excuses was that the Swedes had 
no rights there, that they were interlopers, 
scjuatters, adventurers; that the country had 
never been subject to the Crown of Sweden, 
but only to a private eomi>any, which MUiglit 
merely its own advantage. But that claim is 
far from the truth. It is true, that the tir^t 
fcettlement was made by a trading conqiany; 
but that trading conq)any was under the_;ui- 
s[iices and jirotectlon of the Swedi>h CroM'u. 
The Indians concluded the contract fur the 
juirchase of the land with the Queen of Swe- 
den. The government was conducted under 
the royal direction, the officials were sent out 
with royal commissions and orders, and the 
sla])s and people with royal equipments and at 
tlie royal expense. That (^ueen Christina 
cousidered the colonies as forming a )>art of 
her (hmiinions there is abundant evidence, 
and the claim of Holland was based on tech- 
nical groinids only. Hut how little right the 
Hollanders had to call the country theirs, and 
on that ground to take it liy force, is <liown by 
the fact that neither before tlie ai rival of the 
Swedes, nor dui'iug the Swedi-h adnunistra- 

tion, ilid they possess any land upon the Dela- 
ware which tlie Swedes claimed for tliemsehes, 
and much less did they establi.-.ii any colony 

It has been shown that the private purchase 
was made for the De N'ries colony -May 'o, 
lUoO, and was contirnied liy tlic Holland gov- 
ernor and his cuinieil on January D, 1031. 
This, it will be remembered, was the ill-fated 
settlement of what is now known as 1-ewe.-', 
which \vas conq)letely annihilated by the In- 
dians, and which no attempt was afterwards 
made to revive. Other purcha-es of small 
bodies of land were made by ditfcrent parties 
^>\\. botii sides of tlie ri\er, but no permanent 
settlements were founded. i he Holland 
Conq>any purchased a tract of lanti, on which 
Fort C'assimer was built, July. lii, 1G51. That 
land lay between the river and Christina 
Creek, and "IJondio llnck." How far it ex- 
tended back from the Delaware we are not in- 
formed, but it couhl not have been very far. 
These tract-, including one or two on the Xew 
Jersey sidt', endiraced all the purchases of 
land made by the Hollanders during that time. 
The question now arises: How cotild the West 
India Conqiany and the States General give a 
title for that which private individuals had 
bought, in direct opposition to all the laws and 
tisages of nations^ How could the}- authorize 
the purchase of land to which they had no 
1 iglit '. ] low could they give the investiture of 
laii<l which they themselves purchased thir- 
teen yeai-s afterwards? How could they buy 
land which the Swedes had bought before? 

The struggle for supremacy on the Uela- 
\\-are presents some ctn-ious phases; and a 
study of the question shows that some "sharp 
|ii-actiee" was rcsorti'd to by both sides. Pre- 
stuiiing <in their greater strength, the llol- 
landi'rs endeavored to force the Swedes out of 
vvhat rightfully belonged to them, without any 
regard to the priueiplc-i of justice; and by vir- 
tue of superior force they fimilly siu'cecded in 
crushing out a colony that might ha\e become 
a jiower for great good on the Delaware. 

I bit some of the leading men of the Swed- 
i<li i-<iloii\- were Hot without blame in foment- 
ing a s|iirit of ill-feeling which to a ct'rtain 
extent lielpe(l to bring about its downfall. As 
u^^al in -iieli ea>e-, enpidity was at the bot- 
tom of the trouble. The l<ive of gain has often 
nulli1i<>d good inteiilions and dotroyetl the 
briulite-t iirospects. .\ part of the blame was 

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laitl uii (iovi-nior Priiitz I'ur cuiidiictiiig hiiu- 
telf too severely towards his people, it is 
eluirged that he virtually inaJi^ slaves of some 
of the Swedes by keeping them at work on the 
fortilii-ations and upon his estate on Tiuieum 
J>laiul. 1 he Swedes, therefore, after eouiing 
into this iiew eountry and obtaining a taste 
of a good unknown in their native land, soon 
beeame disgusted with being furecd to labor 
lor the benefit of their ruler, aud so coneeived 
a hatred for him that militated against tiie 
])rosperity of the colony. Friction never fails 
to destroy the harmony of the machine, anil 
in this i-a^e ill feeling developed into a hostile 
animus tiiat naturally produceil bad results. 

\\\i\ instead of striving to allay this feeling 
(lovernor IJising ou his arrival only added 
fuel to the smouldering tire tliat was ready 
to burst into a flame. He was pompous, dic- 
tatorial and exacting. He inuigined hiuisilf 
a monan-li, and had little sympathy with his 
.-■ubjccts. llis course towarils the Dutch 
^liowt-d the manner of man he was. Had he 
been more considerate, di})lomatic and con- 
servative, he probably would not have stirred 
iheni up to so high a pitch of resentment, 
tlicreby incurring their disfa\'or from the very 
monu'ut of his arrival. His pom])ous conducrt 
in flie capture of an insignificant garrison at 
Fort Ca^simer, while it e.xcited a general 
-smilo, was none the less effectual in increas- 
ing the bad feeling which was brewing 
among the dissati.sfied parties on botli sides. 
Xeither is Stuy vesaut without blame. He was, 
if anything, more pompous than his Swedish 
competitor, and was certainly more tyrannical. 
So, between these di.scordant elements, we see 
a gradual increase of the forces which finally 
ifsultcd in overthrowing the power of two 
nations on this continent. Had things been 
different, both nationalities might have lived 
unmy years together, and l)y their common 
forces have ke])t out the English, who were 
4Mdy too willing to take advantage of the weak- 
ened condition of both and to absorb tlu'ir ter- 
ritorv into her own colonies. 

Stuvvksant Sole !N[onaroii. 

With the surrender of Fort Christina and 
the exp\il>inn of Governor Ivising from the 
country, the Swedish flag ceased to wave in 
token of authority on the Delaware. The 
cohmy, under Dutch control, passed into rapid 

decline anil ceased to be prosperous. Uiit the 
Swedes, who were an industrious, thrifty and 
piously-inclined iicople, left footprints behind 
which more than two centuries ha\e failed 
to elface. 

During these changes the English were on 
the alert, 'ihey hail not rcliu(piished their 
pretensions to the co\intry, but were inclined 
to enter into negotiations with Sweden for the 
improvement of their trade relations on the 
Delaware. I'lie armed interventioji of the 
Hollanders, however, changed all these cou- 
ditions. Sweden finally had to reliuipiish its 
West India trade entirely to the English; and 
it was not long that the Dutch were to enjoy 
possessions which did not <.if right belong to 

As soon as possible after acquiring domin- 
ion over the Swedish settlements ou the Dela- 
\\are, (iovernor Stnyvesaut instituted a new 
order of things. He was sole monarch of all 
the country from Xi'W Amsterdam to Cape 
Ilenlopen on both sides of the river. His au- 
thority extended over all matters, military, 
i-ommercial and judicial. 

All officers received their commissions from 
him and were accountable to him. During a 
hurried visit abroad, after the conquest, he 
appointed ('apt. Deryk Sniidt conunissary, or 
commandant ad interim, on the river. Im- 
mediately on his return to New Amsterdam, 
he ]n-eparcd a commission dated November 
L'O, fOoo, for John Paid Jacquet, as vice-gov- 
ernor, with directions to make arrangements 
for trade, and keep order among the fjeople. 
lie fixed his ofticial residence at Fort Cassi- 
mer. Andrew Hudde was made his counsel, 
antl Almcrhausen Klein, secretary. 

The country Avas now divided into two dis- 
tricts, or colonies, on the west side of the Dela- 
ware. From Christina Creek down to Bombo 
Hook, including Christina Fort and the piece 
of ground around it, was called tlie '"Com- 
pany's Colony." The other land, on the north 
side of Christina Creek, and along the river 
upward, belonged to the city of Amsterdam, 
was governed by the burgomaster and coun- 
cil through Peter Stu\ vesaut, their general 
governor, and his council, and was called "the 
( 'ity's Colony." The occasion for this was 
given when Fort Cassimer was built; but the 
execution of the project was delayed for some 
xcars by the predominance of the Swedes. 
Pefore this, all transactions were in the name 

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of the States Geiienil ami the West India 
Company; but now the two sections acted 
separately. Deeds for land were issued in 
^Vm^tcrdam by the burgomasters and eouncil 
ii]ion the land of the city, but by the direc- 
tors and commissaries for the company upon 
its land. A little town was laid out near I'Virt 
C'assimer on "Sand Hook," and was called 
"Xewcr Amstel," which finally l)ecame New 
Castle. The name of ('hristina was changed 
to Altona. 

According to the records that have been 
preserved, not more than nineteen Swedes 
took the oath of allegiance when Fort Chris- 
tina capitulated. 'i"he others who still re- 
mained had their abodes within the colony of 
the city to the north of Christina and along 
the river. Over them was jdaced a ruler or 
magistrate, who had two or three dei)uties to 
assist him in his work. 

The governor's instructions regarding the 
treatment of the Swedes were unnecessarily 
severe. It was required that they should not 
be permitted to remain in the forts over night, 
and that a watchful eye should always be kept 
over them. If any were f(j\ind disorderly, 
they should immediately be taken to Xew 
Amsterdam. Some of the Swedish freemen, 
who had settled at other })oints, desired to 
have the time prolonged, so that instead of 
one year and six weeks — as stijjulated in the 
articles of capitulation — they might have one 
\ear and six months to get ready for their de- 
parture from the country; this was granted, 
with the proviso that they should remove into 
the new to^\^l and live there, but not other- 
wise. Others were suspected of secret plot- 
tings with the Indians, who frequently came 
to their houses, and were, as usual, received in 
a friendly manner. On this account two 
prominent Swedes were denounced by name, 
and it was immediately determined that they 
shoidd be arrested and sent to New Amster- 
dam. Such dastardly treatment was constant- 
ly meted out to these peojjle by the Dutch aii- 
tlmrities. As Aci'elius remarks, "it seemeil 
as if tliej' were afraid of their own shadows." 

What the I^■uI.v^'s Did. 

Thefricndshipof the Indians for the Swedes 
continued to he as strong after the change of 
government as before. Proof ot this was 
shown on the 24th of ^farcli, Ifiriii, when the 

Swedish ?hi|) Mciciiiu/ came up the Dela- 
ware without knowing that the settlements 
were under a foreign government. A Swedish 
pastor named .Mathias, and Anders liengston, 
a native of Stockholm, a man of some jiromi- 
iience, were aboard the vessel. The Dutch 
authorities refused iiermission to the ship to 
ascend tlu' river, alleging that she had on 
boai'd a large nundjer of people. But the In- 
dians, on learning the facts, immediately as- 
sendded in force, went on board the ship, and 
in detiance of the Dutch, conducted the sliip 
jiast Fort Cassimer without its daring to tire 
a .^hot, and convoyed it up to Fort Christina. 
.\tter Some jiarlcying it was dcterndned that 
the ship should be set free and permitted to go 
to Xew Amsterdam to take in j)rovi:,ions and 
water before starting on the return voyage to 
Sweden, l-'astor .Mathias was so unfavorably 
impressed with the condition of affairs that he 
returned on her to Sweden, ilr. Bengstun, 
however, remained in the country and became 
the ancestor of an honorable and wealthy fam- 
ily, who now bear the name of liang^tou. 

It was now for the first time that tlie Dutch 
could be said to introduce colonists into this 
region, althoiigh but a weak sprinkling of their 
peojile. Here and there some few snuill fam- 
ilies from Holland settled, but they cultivated 
scarcely more than a vegetable garden. Up 
to that time no deeds for land had been given 
hy their boastful governor, excepting to those 
who would either agree to cultivate or to build 
on the same. Besides, they were in constant 
fear of being driven away either by the 
Swedes or the Indians. 'J'his fear may luwc 
beini caused, to some extent, by the consciijus- 
ness that they were there through dishonest 
means, that the country did not of right be- 
long to them, and that their nation was op- 
]iressing a poor and unfortunate class of pen- 

As soon as the spring of 1G5C opened, and 
navigation was resumed, various parties came 
over from New Amsterdam to settle in the 
country now surrounding Wilmington. AVith 
some caution the governor general distribut(;d 
a fi'W deeds to those seeking locations. In the 
first batch there were eleven, in the second 
fifty-six, and finally, by the end of August, 
eighteen more. These pieces of land were all 
quite small, most of them nothing more than 
building lots in Xew Amstel, now Xew ( 'asilc. 
'i'he earlv Dufcli, or Hollanders, had little 

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taste iVir agrk-iiltiire. A small patch of 
gruuiid was eiioii{:,ii for most of them, 'i'hey 
were not iueliiied to work themselves, and 
laborers could not be liad. ^loreover, an or- 
der was issued that twenty or thirty honse- 
holds should settle together, or in dusters, 
altliongh little attention was ]iaid to it except 
in Sand Ilixjk. 'J'he regulation had in \-iew 
the greater security of the settlers. The terms 
were ])eculiar. For every '"inorgon" an an- 
nual rent of about twelve stivers was paid. 
A "morgon" was about equivalent to an I'-ng- 
lish acre. Within the land occui)icd by the 
Swedes at that time there was no enfeoffment, 
but upon every Swedish or Finnish family a 
vearly rent of tivc or six guilders was asse^-cd, 
according to the decision of the "schout," or 
;isse.-sor. The ciuTcnt money of the Dutch in 
the New Xctherlands was in guilders or tlor- 
ins. One Holland guilder passed here for hve, 
and this custom continued till about the year 
ITOO; after that, abo\it one for six, which was 
a heavy depreciation. This was occasioned 
by the advent of the English. Tratfie with 
the Indians was carried on in wampnin. As 
descrii>tions of wampum are not easily acces- 
sible, and as it may be interesting to the read- 
er to know the kind of currency used by the 
aborigines of Delaware, the account given by 
]'. l.indstroiu, in C'ompanius' work, is here- 
with in>erted: 

Wampum is a kind of oblong pearls or 
beads made of oyster shells, or of muscles 
tailed clams, white, brown or bluish red. They 
arc used for ornament, tokens of friendshi]), 
and money, '{"lie latter are thus described: 
The brown or blue and red, were of double 
the value uf the white. Six white ones were 
worth one stiver (two cents), three brown, or 
blue and red, one stiver; twenty stivers were 
one gTiilder of the country (forty cents); five 
country guilders, one giulder of Holland. 
Wain])um was strung upon threads or strings, 
usually a fathom long, which was worth five 
guilders. The way of counting the wam|)um, 
for its value in stivers, was on the thund)s in 
this wise: From the end of tlie nails to the 
first joint, for the string within that distance 
contained either six white ones, and so one 
stiver, or six brown ones, and S(3 two stivers. 
The manner of jiroving the goodness of the 
Wampum was to draw the wami)um over the 
nose. If the string ran over it as smooth as 
glass, the wampum was good; otherwise not. 

For as the corners were woru off by use, so 
that they were no lunger close u]ion the 
threads, they were no longer good. 

Jaquet's AdMI.\ISTI{ATIOX. 
Assoon as (ioveruor Jacpict was installed iu 
otfice, the Indians waited on him and de- 
manded good order and fairness in trade; that 
the Dutch should buy of them as many pel- 
tries as they could bring; also that payment 
-should be so regidated that one beaver sli.nild 
sell for two deer skins. Uut the governor re- 
]/lied that he had not received orders to enter 
into any arrangements regarding commerce 
or to make treaties to that etfcct. This some- 
what puzzled the Indians, for they could not 
understand, if he was the big chief, why he 
was not invested with such authority. How- 
ever, presents were uuide to them by contri- 
butions of the colonists, in whicli some fe« 
Swedes joined, for the purpose of retaining 
the good opinion of the Indians as far as possi- 

C.overnor .Taquet had some pec\iliar ideas. 
He had had no experience or training in ad- 
ministering the affairs of a colony, and often 
found that the very measures he had adopted 
to promote the interests of the colonists, and 
thereby add to his own popularity, had the 
\ery opposite efl'ect and brought down upon 
his hcail the displeasure of his subjects. 

At his instance various laws were passed for 
the regulation of the settlement. On the 2Cth 
of February, lOrjCi, it was resolved in council 
that all the inhabitants should enclose their 
farms and lots by the middle of .March, under 
a penalty of six guilders; that all who had 
goats should keep herdsmen, or be answerable 
for damages; that no one should be admitted 
into the fort either by land or water without 
first announcing himself; that no places for 
building should be granted between Sand 
Hook and L'hi-i.stina, and that the forests 
should be preserved for the use of the fort and 
tiie town. And on the 22d of :May, that all 
owners of swine should put yokes on them 
within twenty-four hours, or have them shot 
down l)y the soldiers! 

The jiassage of this latter law raised a great 
commotion in the colony, and the governor 
and his councilors were soundly berated. The 
onler reipiiring the fencing of farms was not 
regarded with much disfavor; but in a country 

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where there \v<as so niiifh open land, the in- 
liabitants coukl not see the necessity for herd- 
iiiy goats and yoking swinj. Tliere was cer- 
tainly a wide range for the animals, so wide 
that they could do no one any harm; and if 
they were restrained it would certainly result 
in a great hardshi]) to their owners, who Mould 
be comjK'lled to feed them, wlien, if at liberty, 
they could almost sustain themselves in the 
forests and on the connnons. 

('(unplaints were nuide to tjcvenior General 
Stuyvesant that his vice-governor, Jaqnet 
was making himself very obnoxious to the peo- 
ple; that he was irascible, disagreeable, antl 
dictatorial; and, above all, that he was incom- 
petent to govern the colony; and in the inter- 
est of j)eace, prosperity and the general good 
of all, his recall or dismissal was demanded. 
At tirst Stuyvesant paid but little attention to 
these complaints, but they were repeated in 
so earnest a manner that he was practically 
forced to take cognizance of them. In other 
woi'ds, he saw very {dainly that he dared not 
deny his subjects the right of petition. 

The pressure became sO' strong that Stuy- 
vesant was compelled to act. Accordingly, on 
the 20th of April, 1G57, by and with the ad- 
vice of his council, he sent J»quet his recall, 
giving as a reason for his action that he was 
incompetent to suci-essfully manage the af- 
fairs of the colony. Jaquet's administration, 
therefore, was short, lasting scarcely over a 
year. He was succeeded by Jacob Alricli, 
who was appointed in Holland, and received 
liis commission in the capital city of Amster- 
dam, December 19, 165G; it was renewed at 
Fort Amsterdam in the New Netherlands, 
April 12, 1G57. 

Jsquet, on retiring from the vice-governor- 
ship of the Colony, did not leave the country, 
Init taking up a tract of land not far from 
Christina Creek, engaged in farming, and was 
successful. Ke left descendants, one of whom 
became a distinguished offic'cr in the Tievolu- 
tionarj' army, and shed a resplendent lustre 
on the American arms. His patriotism was of 
the highest order, and his courage, devotion 
and activity in the cause of liberty brought 
liim honor and fame, lie lived and <licd on 
the farm which his fatlier fomided near the 
present city of Wilmington; this land re- 
mained in the possession of the Jacpiet family 
for more than one hundred and lll'ty years. 
The charge of incompetency against .Ta- 

quet is not borne out by any evidence worth 
considering. Indeed, hia successor said that 
the charge was based on hatred rather than on 
truth. This hatred very likely had its origin 
in the law.s which he caused to be passed, for- 
bidding certain animals to run at large. 

A tradition still in existence says that i-'ort 
Cassimer stood on the site now occupied by 
the old Protestant Episcopal Church in New 
Castle, 'i'liis coidd hardly have been the ease, 
for in one of the laws that Jaquet was instru- 
mental in having passed in the winter of lilaG, 
it was distinctly required that no one should 
enter the fort, "either by land or water, with- 
out tirst announcing himself." Unless the 
fort stood on the edge of the water, how could 
it be entered from the water? It is believed, 
therefore, that it was built on a point which 
formerly extended into the river, but which 
has long since been washed away, the banks 
being very materially reduced and their out- 
line entirely changed. 

AVhen Governor Alrich arrived to take 
charge of the Colony, he established his head- 
quarters at New Amstel, which had come to 
be recognized as the capital. The Swedes 
were still ruled by a "sellout," or commissary; 
the office was at that time filled by Ciocrau 
\an I\vke. Upon his rcjn-esentation, Stuyve- 
sant directed the Swedes to go together and 
build a town at Upland, or any point they 
preferred, but they did not find it convenient 
to do so. On the 2Sth of October, 1(558, AVil- 
liam Beckmau, an alderman in Amsterdam, 
■was appointed vice-governor of the Com- 
pan3''s Colony, and established his resi- 
dence at Altona (Christina). He man- 
aged the comijany's trade, connnanded 
the garrison , received the duties of ships 
arriving at New Amstel, and had the 
Swedes under his supervision. Andrew 
Iludde, on account of his thirty-one years' ser- 
vice, and his poverty, caused by being robbed 
]*y the Indians, became IJeckman's secretary, 
and also sexton of the church at Altona, in 
June, ir;C)0. Although the governor of the 
two sections had each his separate jin-isdiction, 
yet for the most part they acted toacther; so 
Ik'ckman had business in the City's Colony, 
and Alrich gave deeds for lands sold by the 
Couqiany. A long time passed before the 
Dutch settled themselves among the Swedes, 
there being a lack of assimilation between 
them. 'J" wo farms near Altona were the only 

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ones for wliicli tlie Jlollanilers gave decdb 
among the Swudisli settlers; to tliese we may 
add a mill, built un "Sky]l})ot" (now known 
as Shtdli)ut) ( 'reck, wliieli was to grind free of 
toll fur tlie garrison. 'J'liis was probably one 
of the very first mills erceted iu tliis part of 
the country. Xo aceouut of its size and eajia- 
city is known to be iu existence, but it was 
doubtless of rude construction. 

Stuyvcsant seems to have kept a watchful 
eye over affairs on the Delaware. In due sea- 
son he ga\c iSeckman autliority to extend the 
CompauyV Ccjlony from "ISumbties Ilouk to 
Cape Ilenlopen." He was to consult with and 
take advice from Governor Alrich regarding 
the projxised extension, to inquire of others 
uhich of the Indian tribes were the rightful 
owners, and also to ascertain what would be 
an adequate price for the land. In like man- 
ner Alrich had orders to secure the land at 
"Ifoorn l\ill." .\lrich, in his re])ly to Stny- 
vesant, represented several ditHciilties as be- 
ing in the way of carrying out his order. lie 
taid till re were neither peoj)le nor means fur 
erecting a fortification, or taking care of the 
same, at "I loom Kill;" that if a fortification 
•were built it would be of no account, for the 
surrounding country was wild and desolate. 
The few farmers living in the vicinity of Xew 
Amstel hail sutfcred from the failure ffi their 
crops and could scarcely support themselves. 
Eecknuin saw that Alrich was indisposed to 
make the mu\eiiicnt, either through cajiricc 
oi' hick of energy, and he resolved to under- 
take the enterprise himself. lie therefore 
made a juurney to "lloorn i\ill," with Lieu- 
tenant Ilinoyosa in his company, made t'ne 
piu'chasc there of the Indians, ]\Iarch j:5, 
Id.")!), took a deed of purchase for the land, 
and threw up temporary fortifications, in which 
he stationed as many sohliers as he cotild col- 
lect. The nund)er was not great, neither were 
the Works very strong, but it was the begin- 
ning of the -ecund settlement at this point, 
nearly thiity years after the first had been 
destruycd by the savages. D\ities were now 
levied here on vessels arriving inside the ca|ie, 
and collected by an ofiicer stationed at the 
fort for that purpose. 

The true secret for the advance on "llooru 
Kill" was a rumor that two vessels, bcarint; 
fourteen English jiersons from Virginia, 
been seen then;, and that the English bad 
landed and attempted to settle, but weiu 

driven uif by the Imlians. Fears that a 
strunger furcc nught foUuw induced a ba>ty 
I'tfurt to secure the lan<l, in order to fun-tall 
further attempts to gain a foothold. 

LoiiD Baltimoke's Claim. 

At the same time a report came from ilary- 
land that the English were seriously think- 
ing of making an attack and taking the 
country from the Dutch. Lord Ijaltimore, 
who had founded a culuiiy at St. Cieorge's 
(now St. ^Mary's) as early as Id'M, -was iii- 
(piiring about the boundaries of his territory, 
wiiiidi were nut settled. This eau-eil ?oine 
coiiiniotion among the Dut<-h authorities, and 
rendered them very a])prehensive of danger. 
The authorities of the city of Ani-terdam 
bad conceived the idea of building iqi a set- 
tlement and a port on the Delaware that 
should rival New Amsterdam, and bad select- 
ed X'ew Amstel for that ])urpose; and they 
embarked so zealously in the enterprise, and 
■••u liberally ])romoted its growth, that by the 
year Kl.")!), the town contained more than one 
hundred bouse.-., and a population of five .r 
six huiiilred, and was surrounded by ?ome 
twenty or tbirt\ farms. It is probable that the 
rapid growth and prosperity of Xew Amstel 
had attracteil the attention of Lord IJaltimoro 
and his otHcial rciire.-eiitatives in the province 
of ilaryiaud. Xew Amstel had lieconic the 
seat of gevernnieiit uf all the ])o-^sessions of 
the city of Amsterdam, or the "f ity Colony," 
and had a director general and cuuiicil rc-i<ling 
iu it, who had jurisdiction over all its posses- 
si(^ns, the former being ai)])ointed by the 
authoiiiics of tli(> city. And, furthermore, 
it was not until the year Iti.'iH that it first 
became kniAvn to the .--ettlers on the Delaware 
that I-ord Baltimore had any claim or pre- 
teiniun whatever to any territory lying within 
what is now the State of Delaware. This in- 
forniation was first conimiinicated by a mem- 
ber of the provincial couucil living on the 
ea>tcrn .~liore to the dii'cctor geiiei'id <.f the City 
cohuiy at Xew Aiustid. a mcssciiiici' being sent 
by the former with a letter addre,~~cd to the 
governor of the iu-u\-ince. Lord Daltimore 
(daiuicd that his territory extcinled to a line 
within twu miles n{ Xcw .\ni>tcl, and cited 
\ariuus d(>eds for land tip cunlirui hi- claims. 
The governor of ]\Iaryland, ,Tu.-iali Eeiidal, 
dispatched Col. die with five men to 

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Alw Auistt'l to report the elaiiii of 
J-ord Baltimore, uud demand that tlie land 
should be given up. 'Jhey were admitted into 
tlic fort and were entertained for four ni-lits. 
I'uriny tills meeting caeh party advocated its 
elaims. JJeekmau was admitted to tlie eon- 
lerence as an oiHcial. The diseussion is re- 
])orted to liave become at times quite animated, 
and tlie conference was closed with hard words 
and much dissatisfaction on botii sides. 

A\'lieu a report of the meeting reached 
Ktuvvi-ant, lie did not approve of it, and up- 
braided Alrieh for having admitted tiiese 
emissaries, and entertained them in the fort. 
He was so exasperated over tiie alfair that he 
comi.lained of Alricli to tiic Companv for hav- 
ing received and iiarbore.l such dangerous 

'i'liis conference marked tlie beginning of 
the downfall of Alricli. His administration, 
]ik(| ids predecessor's, was rapidly falling into 
disfavor. His severity and selHshness had 
caused many Dutch families to remove to 
Ifaryland, and live or si.x soldiers deserted 
from the fort and lied thither also. Dissatis- 
faction grew so rapidly that, finally, only about 
ten soldiers remained in Fort t'asinier and half 
as many at "noorn Kill." The inhabited part 
et the Company's Colony at this time' did 
not extend more than t\ro Iloiiand miles 
around Fort Cassimer. 'Fhis conference was 
really the beginning of the boiindarv line 
trouble that lasted hmg after the Dutch and 
the Swedes has disappeared as factors in the 
settlements on tlu; Delaware. Stuyve.sant 
Mas kejit in a state of nervous agitation. His 
conscience disturbed him sorely. Tn a letter 
under date of September, Ki;-)!), to the West 
India Company, he expres.sed fear that Fng- 
land, with the aid of the Swedes, would 
take possession of the country and dispossess 
the Dutch. He urged them' t<^ increase the 
population by sending exiled Poles, Lithua- 
nians, Prussians and Flemish i)easaiits to set- 
tle in the country. Still further, in the vear 
1C(J0, he sent an emissary to recruit for the 
garrison among the Swedes and the Finns, 
and offered them a bounty of from eight to ten' 
guilders as an inducement to enlist. Those 
who had tied to Jfaryland and Virginia on ac- 
count of debt or oppression, were solicited t<i 
return under promise of good treatment, and 
security f.,r three or four vears' immunity 

from their creditors. .Matters were indeed 
becoming serious. 


Steadily the suspiciun grew in the mind of 
the burly ruler at A'ew Amsterdam tiiat the 
Swedes and the Finns were favora[)ly disp(j.-,ed 
loward the Fngiish, and only awaited a favor- 
able opportunity to throw off the Dutch yoke. 
Allhougli the Swedish population at that time 
consisted in all of only about one hundred and 
thirty families, yet they still formed the 
strongest part of the i)eoi)]e in the countrv, 
and thus kept Stiiyvesant and his government 
in constant fear and tremlding. This fear so 
increased that his former pacilie advice was 
changed into a command that all Swedes 
siioiild remove into small towns where less 
danger might be apprehended from them, be- 
cause their movements could be more closely 
watched. JJeckman, wdio was to put the ])laii 
into operation in Ids district, was very zealous 
in his efforts to convince them of its advan- 
tages, but ho was unable to do so, and as he 
luid an insuliicient force at hand he could not 
(•onipel thcin. He then reported to Stiiyves- 
ant that it would be an unmerciful procedure 
to drive the people from their homes which 
they had established, and put them to new 
labor and expense. Inability to enforce the 
order caused him to see its injustice and ine.K- 
pediency; had it been otherwise, the Swedes 
and Finns would have been driven into en- 
closures like sheep. 

Some of the Swe<les had removed from the 
Company's Colony into that of the City, 
where Ilinoyosa had given them greater privi- 
leges. Others had gone to Sassafras River, 
which rises in Delaware and emjities into 
Chesajieake Pay, forming the boundary lino 
between the counties of Cecil and Kent, on 
Jhe eastern shore of .Afaryland. This was the 
section of country into which the Swedes emi- 
grated, but being threatened by the Indians, 
they were forced to return. On this account 
P>eckman desired Stuyvesant to recall his or- 
der, but the nionareh of ^Manhattan remained 
obdurate. He was ke])t in such a state of ab- 
ject fright, that he was afraid of his owni 
shadow and almost feared to move out of his 

Oovernor Alrieh, who had succeeded 
through his contracted policy in making 


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liiuistlf \crv uuiioiuilar, died on the ^Otli 
uf DecciiilicT, lU.'i'J, mid was siU'eoeded liv 
Licnt. Ale-Niiudcr lliiioyosa as (iovernor pro 
iciiipure. Ih' a])poiuti.-i.l (icrrit van (ii/.i-t as 
]iis SL'i'R'tary, and proceeded to administer the 
aifairs of tlie colony. One of hi? tirst acts was 
to setjuestrate all the papers of his predere>-cir 
and make extracts from them. lie then called 
together his council and endeavored to show 
that Alrich had acted contrary to his instruc- 
tions in many points, and, had he lived to an- 
swer fur hi:^ mal-administration, mijilit have 
forfeited liotli \\(v and jtrojierty. Jiut a> it 
Avas evident that lliuoyosa cherished a fct-ling 
ni' ]ici-M_pi!al hn^tility towards the dec(a>ed 
( !o\ii-niir, lew wt're willing to endorse hi? ex- 
treme \ic\vs. 

'J'he Trading ('onipany had found hut little 
advantage in its trade. It scarcely met the 
expenses of service, war, and expenditures cm 
the Indians. The servants had shown them- 
seh'es alti'gethcr seltish ; and the superiors 
were niuic strict iu forl)idding all individual 
tratlic than the inferiors were iu olieying their 
orders. The English on Long Island pursued 
an uninterrupted of smuggling, which 
added til till' fear of Stuyvcsant and lessened 
l)rotits. On this aecotnit the Comixmy, on the 
7tli of Fehriiary, lGi;;5, gave up all its rights 
to the ('ity's Colony. In this transfer it was 
agreed that Fort Christina should also belong 
to the latter, with the proviso that the settlers 
around it should continue to enjoy their 
])ri\ileges; that the City should send another 
garrJMin to ridieve that of the Company, so 
that the colony might he defended against the 
Indians and the English; that a mile of land 
should he (deared and settled every year; that 
the agents uf the City should never he allowed 
to transfer that land to any one else, either in 
■whole or in part, on the jienalty of forfeiting 
all their rights. 

The '"Suuth River," as the Delaware was 
called hy the Dutch, was wholly and entirely 
given over to Oovernor lliuoyosa, by jiatent 
issued by (JcAernor-Ciencral 8tuyvesant un- 
der date of December 22, IGCh; but with 
the proviso that it should be' governed entirely 
by the jirescribed laws of the States Cieneral 
and their West India f^)mpany, and in their 
interest. T.ut before this arrangement went 
into opci'ation, ITinoyosa, associated with 
TJeckman, presided over the Crduny fur three 
years after Alrieh's death., too, seems to have been a dis- 
tiu'liing element. .Much excitement and feel- 
ing were raised on account of the charges 
brought against Alrich, and the sequestration 
of hi.- pajiers and |iropcrty. Cornelius van 
(li/.el ]ictitioned Stuyvcsant to order the re- 
Ica.-c of the property and treat it according to 
the will of decedent, b'xaniinatiuiis were 
made and nnich correspondence fullowed re- 
garding the matter, when, timilly, lliuoyosa 
received orders to cease his opjjositi^ins on pain 
of disgrace. Ihe case must have been a tla- 
grant one, amounting to a bold attempt at 
robbery, or Stuyvcsant would nut have 
.-tojiped further proceedings so suddenly. 

After this a silver lining appeared on the 
(duud which overhung affairs on the Dela- 
ware. .\t that time trade was ctniducted with 
the Indians in peltries, and with Virginia in 
tubacco. A lietter understanding ])ctween 
the Dutch and English was now promised, 
as Stuyvcsant sent the governor of Virginia 
]iresents of Ereneh wine and other tempting 
things. In those days nothing was lietter 
calculated to promoteeooilf^ling than pre.- 

ents of wine. ?5Q52J[.02 

lliuoyosa having failed in his persecutions 
of the heirs of Governor Alri(di, now deter- 
mined to ])urtue another course. lie appoint- 
ed Pwter Alrich connnander of the fort at 
"Ilooru Kill," with the e.xclusive privilege of 
all traffic with the Indians from ■"Boudities 
Hook" down to Cape Ilenlopen. This a))- 
pointment gave the Swedes great offense, av.d 
(•au.sed open complaints. It does not apjiear 
that Alrich was a relative of the deceased 
governor, but the inference is that he was 
either a son of a brother, when the oi)i)ositiou 
of the Swedes to the ai)i)ointment is consid- 
ered. It was very likely done to curry favor 
with the Alrich party. Tyrants, when shorn 
of their power are generally the first to lie 
conu' .sycojihants. Tyranny is a species of 
moi-al cowardice. 

During the year lOOU the Indians kept the 
]>eoiile in great fear. According to Acrelius 
the Seneca Indians came down from the in- 
terior and committed terrible murders. They 
were at war with the Delaware Indians. The 
latter were friendly to the whites, but they 
were not strong enotigh to cope with their 
red adversaries from the interior. Fort Chris- 
tina had been so neglected that it was of little 
use as a ]U'utection. Its walls were greatly de- 



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fayod, and it was entirely out of aiiimuiiitiuii, 
being jirovided with only tea or twt'lve mus- 
kets, and no flints. The same year the small- 
pox broke out among the friendly [ndiaus, 
and many of tlieni perished. 

Troublous Timks. 
As long as there were two colonies here, 
"William Beckman had a hand in one, but had 
little to say since the Company had surren- 
dered all its rights to the City Colony, and 
was little regarded. This, however, did not 
prevent him from keeping up a correspond- 
ence with Stnyvesant and from disputing 
with Ilinoyosa. He sought every op|)ortuMity 
to annoy the latter, even to complaining <if his 
liaiightiness, and went so far as to accuse him 
of having l)urned the palisades of the fort 
under his brewing kettles, of ha\'ing sold mus- 
kets to the Indians, and the City's millstones to 
]^^arylanders, in exchange for tobacco. All 
this, it is alleged, he proved by testimony. 
Corruption on the part of ofheials was no new 
thing at that earW day. Yiwt as Ilinoyosa 
was high authority, he soon made IJeek- 
man's situation so uncomfoi'table that the lat- 
ter was compelled to petition St\iyvesant not 
to allow him to be banished to ^raryland in 
the winter time, as was threatened. Htuyves- 
ant took pity on him and otHcially directed 
that he should remain at .tltona (Christina), 
cultivate land, and be allowed five or six men 
to assist him. But he soon discovered that the 
latter part of the order would avail him noth- 
ing, for no freeman had the right to assist him, 
or to trade with either the Indians or the Eng- 
lish. Ilinoyosa had estopped all this by as- 
serting his right to half the land and the 
traffic. Fifty laborers had laudetl during the 
last year, who were also farmers and soldiers, 
and were to be paid one hundred guilders jier 
year by the governor. There were also six 
or seven girls in the importation who were to 
keep house for these laborers. These women 
liad engaged themselves in Holland to serve 
for a term of years in the colony for the ex- 
penses of their passage. This is the first men- 
tion we hare of "redemptioners" — those who 
were to redeem their passage by labor — ar- 
riving in this country. This was in 160.']. I<^ 
was, in reality, a species of slavery, and in 
after years grew into a large busim ss on the 
part of the ship owners. 

This was a new ojiportuuity for Ilinoyosa 
to indulge his cupidity. We are informed 
that he asserted his rights to these women and 
hired them out for his own ]irofit foi- sixty, 
seventy and eighty guilders per annum. It 
was an infamous proceeding on his ]iart, and 
shows the characti'r of the man in no envia- 
ble light. 

Success in his schemes for self aggrandize- 
ment endjoldened this bad man, and he be- 
gan to lay jilaus for the accjuisition of in- 
creased means. He contemplated erecting a 
tine residence at "Apoquiming,'' antl estab- 
lished a metropolis there, with tlu^ \iew of se- 
curing control of all the English trade. His 
i<leas were exalted, and had he possessed any 
moral jirinciple, he might have become the in- 
strument for doing great good. But like all 
men who are actiuited by improper motives, 
he grew sus])icious of intrigue against him 
and led a miserable life. It was a great relief 
to him when his old and imulacable enemy 
Beckman was finally removed to Esopus on 
the Hudson Kiver, .luly 4, IGGt, and given a 
small office. 

But corruption an<l bad government were 
raiiidly undcrmininti the iiower of the Dutch 
on the Delaware, and instead of growth 
in population and jirosperity, the colonies 
began to show signs of decadence; it 
was already ai>parent to careful observers that 
the end of Dutch rule in the Xew ^\'orld was 
near at hand. 

ricturning to the visit of Colonel Ftie, as 
the agent of Lord Baltimore, to New .Vmstel, 
in 1G.j9, it becomes necc-ssary to state a fe\r 
facts in order to enable the reader to under- 
stand something about the beginning of the 
boundary trouble which lasted for so many 
years. Lord Baltimore, it appears, claimcl 
Altona (Christina) as lying within his prov- 
ince. This demanci, made through Colonel 
Utie, caused great uneasiness at New Amster- 
dam, and Stnyvesant decided to send an em- 
bassy to the governor of ilaryland, with full 
power to denumd re])aration for the damage 
caused by the demand of Colonel Utie for the 
surrender of the colonies on the Delaware. 
The damage consisted partly in the injury 
done to the prosperity of New Amstel by the 
consternation prodticed there by the demand 
and partly in the results of the insidious ef- 
forts made to frighten and seduce the iidiabi- 
tants from their fidelity to their true and law- 

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fill govonuuout. The ciiiba.ssy of Goverixir 
Stuyvc'saiit was also einpowcred amiuahly to 
settle tiic (lis])iite. Tliis latter feature was 
really tlie iiiaiu object of tlie mission. Two 
rcinarkalile and distinguislied residents of 
Xew Amsterdam were si-leeted for this tleli- 
eate mission, viz: Anpnstiis Herman, a na- 
tive of Bohemia, and liesolved AValdruii. 
The story of the life of Iferman, whieli will be 
found in another ])art of this work, is very 
strange, and reads like a romance. He after- 
wards became the proprietor of Hohemia 
!Manor, a tract of land comprising eigliteeii 
thousand acres, and lying |)artly in Delaware 
and ■Maryland. His acquisition of the Manor 
very likely grew out of this mission, and af- 
fords a glimpse into some of the wide-awake 
practices of tliese early speculators, who seem 
to have been actuated by as keen perceptions 
for the acq\iisitiou of land as are those of the 
present day. 

A Pkiulous Jouenky. 

The eommissioncrs set out on their journey 
from New Amstel, accompanied by Indian 
giiides and a small escort of soldiers, in the 
month of October. They had to thread their 
way across the western part of Delaware and 
into Jlaryland, for the most part through 
primeval forests, arrayed in all their rich au- 
tumnal tints. Occasionally a narrow Indian 
trail enabled them to make luore raj)id jiro- 
gress, but in the main they had to cut their 
own path. Finally they reached an atlluent 
of the ('hesa])eake, and thenee by canoe navi- 
gation passed the residence of the redoubta- 
ble Colonel l^tie, situated on an island at tlie 
mouth of the Sassafras River. They had 
heard such tcrri!)le things of Colonel Utie at 
Xew Amstel that they did not deem it prudent 
to call on him for fear he would arrest them. 
After several days of land and water travel 
they readied Kent Island in safety, and were 
very courteously received there by Ciovernor 
-fVndall, Secretary Calvert, and the Pivivin- 
cial CouiK'il. 

Dnriiig tiie visit of the commissioners tlie 
contiicting claims of the Dutch and <jf Lord 
lialtimore to the territory were ctmsidered. 
Among other matters iirged by the Dutch 
cdiumissioners against the pretension of lii^ 
lordshi]), the misrepresentations c(jntaiiicd iu 
the petition on wliich his grant had Ik.h 

made, and the fact that the Dutc-h had jdant- 
ed Coloniis within its limits, and had sealed 
their title to the territory with tiieir blood — 
alluding to the mas.-acrc on the •■lloorn Kill" 
— prior to tiie date (d' the grant, were distinct- 
ly presented and prcs>cc| through the discus- 

lint perhaps the most remarkable thing de- 
veloped in the course of the dismission was the 
final proposition submitted by the Dutch 
conlnlis^ioners. Finding there was no other 
prospect of reconciling their differences, they 
at length proposed to divide the territory by 
a eonventiunal line running north and south 
through the middle of the peninsula. They 
even designated on the map prominent points 
for the location of this line, bringing it so 
near to where the jiresent boundary line be- 
tween I)ela\\are and IMaryland runs, as to 
leave no doubt that that proposition in IC,')!* 
became the original of the idea of the conven- 
tional division afterwards proposed to the suc- 
ceeding Lord lialtimore by "William renii. 
To these Dutch commissioners, therefore, are 
we indebted for the suggestion which finally 
ended in giving Delaware so odd a position on 
the map. Very likely the idea was evolved in 
the fertile brain of Augustus Herman, but he 
had passed away before it was carried into ef- 

The jiroposition for division at that time 
was rejected, and when the deliberations 
closed, the object of the commission was not 
accomplished. The commissioners then start- 
ed on their return, and after many weary 
days of toil through forests and morasses 
landed safe at New Amstel. Xo further ne- 
gotiations were attempted, nor were any fur- 
ther demands made by either i)arty for the 
settlement of the dispute. 

Lefore tlie close of the year, the governor 
of .Maryland ordered a survey to be made of 
lands within si.x or eight miles of Xew Amstel, 
and granted them to inhabitants of the pro- 
vince. Xoiie of the jiarties to whom they 
were assigned, however, ever attemi)ted to 
take possession or settle on them. This would 
have been useless, because the Dutch were on 
the alert, and had instructions from Stuy- 
vesaiit to repel them by force of arms, if they 
made the attempt, as unlawful illvader^ of his 

Some time in the ^llbseqllellt year Lord Bal- 
timore made another effort to acquire by ])ur- 

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eliase the lauds claimed by liiia, as falling 
within his grant, through his agvnt in the city 
of Ainstei-dani, and by a direct ajiplication to 
the Dutch AVest India Company to surrender 
to him the settlements of .\ltona and Xew 
Amstel and their r(>si)ective neighboriioods, 
upon condition of his reimbursing the Com- 
pan}' for all expenses iuciu-red on account of 
them. The Company not only perempt<jrily 
refused this otfcr, but took occasion in their 
reply to his eouununication — which assertetl 
his claim on them luider his patent and as 
within the degrees of his grant — to atilrm 
their right and title to them by possession 
under the grant of the States General fur 
many years without claim or molestation from 
him or any other person, and to admonish him 
that they were resolved to retain and defend 
them to the utmost extremity, in case he per- 
sisted in his pretension antl should resort to 
forcible means to obtain possession. They 
also soon afterwards a])pealed to Stuyvesant 
to represent through their minister at Lon- 
don, to the ministry of Kngland, the situation 
of their affairs with Lord I5altiniore in rela- 
tion to the matter, and to request that the 
British sovereign would enjoin upon his lord- 
shij) to desist from any encroachments upon 
them until a boundary line could be estab- 
lished between his province of ]\rarvland and 
their possessions on the Delaware Kiver. This 
was in due time attended to by Stuyvesant 
and the Statcs'Ceneral, as requested. That 
it was brought to the atteirtion of the English 
sovereign is inferred from the fact, that at a 
session of the governor and Council of the 
Province of ]\raryland held in ^lay, ItiOl, a 
resolution to the following effect was adopted: 

That inasmuch as it was doubtful whether the 
settlement of New Amstel was below the fortieth 
degree of north latitude, and the Dutch West India 
Company was determined to maintain its posses- 
sions on the Delaware by force, and there was no 
hope of any aid from the other Eng-lish colonies in 
the attempt, no further efforts should bo made to 
reduce them to obedience to the authority and 
jurisdiction of the province, until the will of his 
lordship should be known in regard to the matter; 
and that some effort should be made in the mean- 
time to ascertain whether it was within the boun- 
daries of his grant. 

After the conference, and the passage of 
the resolution, the relations of the disputants 
became harmonious, and an era of good feel- 
ing ensued. Lord Baltimore, after his warn- 
ing from the English Court, was di-po-cil to 
be fricndlv. So far did this amicabli iidiu"' 

extend, that in August, 1G62, his lordship, 
with a numerous suite, made a friendly visit 
to the director general of the City Colony at 
Xew Amstel, and was very cordially received 
and entertained for two days. lie then ex- 
tended his visit to the authorities at Altona, 
where a like recejition awaited him. While 
here he received an invitation from Stuyves- 
ant to extend his visit to Xew Amsterdam and 
|)artake of the hosjiltalities of the capital of 
Xew Xetherlands. So anxious was the 
Dutch Ciovernor to have Lord Baltimore 
visit him, that he tendered him a suitable es- 
cort. But, unfortunately, the engagements 
of his lordship were such that he was obliged 
for the time being to forego the pleasures of 
a visit. 

-Vdvext of thk English. 

In the spring of IGG-i letters patent were 
issued by Charles the Second of England to 
liis brother, James, Duke of York and Al- 
banv, for all the main land beginning and ex- 
tending from the Biver St. Croix, now the 
northern botuidary of the United States, to the 
east side of the Delaware Hay. And among the 
rights and privileges conferred on him by it 
were those of Boyal Covernor, subject to the 
sovereignty of the King. Long jjrevious to 
that date, it had been the purjiose of CJiarlcs 
to termimite the quarrels of the Dutch and 
English settlers in America by estaldishiug 
the long-asserted claim of the crown of Eng- 
land to all the territory then in po.ssession of 
the Dutch in this country; and he despatched 
in the latter part of Islny, ICO-t, a fleet con- 
sisting of two frigates, a slooj) of war, and a 
transport, with tliree hundred troops, tui(ler 
the command of Col. liicliard Xichols, with 
whom were associated three royal commission- 
ers. 'J'hey were instructed to visit the Eng- 
lish colonics on the coast, and to hear coni- 
jilaints and settle the peace and security of the 
same. Their first duty would be the reduc- 
tion of the Dutch in or near Long Island, 
or anywhere within the English dominicms, 
to entire obedience to the sovereignty of 
the British Crown, as a remedy for the 
many grievances which the British colonists 
had so long suffered at their liand.s. But be- 
fore the expedition had reached its destina- 
tion, on the --'."ith of .Tunc, 1(!(14, the Duke of 
York sold an<l convcvcd to Lord Berkclev and 

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Sir George Carteret that portion of tlie lauds 
granted to lain lying between the lliulson 
liiver and the Delaware Bay, and now con- 
stituting the State of New Jersey. This ter- 
ritory was then named New Jersey in conipli- 
nient to Sir Cieorge Carteret, who had been 
governor of the island of Jersey, and had 
tirndy held it for Charles the First during- his 
conflict with the rebellious Parliamentary 
forces, and whose devotion to the royal cause 
was in no part the consideration for the sale. 
Early in September the thet appeared be- 
fore New Amsterdam and demanded its sur- 
render. (iovernor-(ieneral Stuyvesaiit was 
terror stricken, and after a little parleying 
yielded to the demand of the English and 
liaided down the Dutch flag, because he was 
unable to offer any resistance. It was a ter- 
rible humiliation for the blustering Dutch- 
man, but there was no alternative. 

The capture of New Amsterdam having 
been accomplished without the firing of a gun 
or the loss of a life, the next move was to se- 
cure the settlements on the Delaware. To do 
this a portion of the fleet was detached anil 
pent on that mission. Sir Tlobert Carr, chief 
of the commission accorapauying the fleet, 
had charge of the expedition. lie bore writ- 
ten instrui'tions, among which was the follow- 
ing, evidently dictated or inspired by the 

"If Sir Ixobert finds he cannot reduce the 
)<lace [Fort Amstel] by force nor upon the 
conditions before mentioned ^[absolute sur- 
render] he may add such' as he may deem 
necessary; but if both fail, he is, by a mes- 
senger to the Governor of ^Maryland, to ask 
aid, and from all other English who live near 
the Dtitrh plantations. He is to declare to 
Eord IJaltimore's son and all the English con- 
cerned in Maryland, that this great expense 
to His !Majo>ty in ships and soldiers has been 
incurred solely for the puiiiose of reducing 
foreignei's in these parts to His ^fajesty's 
obedience; but that being reduced at His 
^fajesty's expense, he is commanded to hold 
])oppession for His "Nfaiesty's own behoof and 
right, and that he is willing to unite with the 
Governor of Maryland in His l^^ajcsty's in- 
terest on all occasions; and if my Lord Balti- 
more doth pretend right thereto by his patent 
(whi<'h is a doubtful case"), yon are to say that 
yon only keep po.ssession till His ]\rajesty is 
infcnncd and otherwise satisticd." 

Fortunately, Sir Iiobert Carr had no occa- 
sion to call on the governor of ^Xlaryland for 
any assistance on his arrival before New Am- 
stel. But suppose he had, what must have 
been the feelings of the governor on reading 
the instructions? "While they would have been 
regarded as imperative, the reflection, the in- 
.-inuation, the insult contained therein, must 
have very greatly damped the ardor of his 
excellency. The doubts cast on his claim for 
territoi-y in that vicinity shows how it was re- 
garded by the king. 

Su- Iiobert Carr, with his fleet and troops, 
passed the capes in due season and entered 
the bay and river. In a short time he 
came in sight of Fort Amstel. There were 
no signs of resistance, not a gun was fired, 
which caused him to wonder why the com- 
mandant gave him such a cool reccjition, when 
it was known that he was on a warlike mission. 
He then sailed past tlie fort a short distance, 
dropped his anchors and came to a standstill 
to await developments. No one apjjearing to 
either welcome, or warn him off, he finally 
sent a boat ashore and made a formal demand 
in the name of the King of England for the 
surrender of the fort, the town and all the 
possessions of the City C(jlony on the bay and 
river. After one day of parley and delay, 
the authorities and a majority of the citizens 
of the town were generally disposed to sur- 
render the place without further hesitation 
but a minority, at the head of whom firmly 
stood Governor Hinovosa, strenuously re- 
fused to give up the place. Seeing theii- help- 
lessness and feeling that it was only a ques- 
tion of time when surrender must come, Sir 
Iiobert was dispo.sed calmly to await devel- 
o]mients. Three days wore thus consumed, 
when the town authorities an<l citizens deter- 
mined to ca])itulate without the consent and 
against the will of Hinoyosa. He then re- 
tired with his party within the fort, deter- 
minded to make as stubborn a resistance as pos- 
sible. The next morning Sir Bobert ordered 
the frigate and sloop of war to drop down be- 
low the fort, but within musket range, and 
each ATSsel to discharge two broadsides into 
it; troops wci'e then to be landed for the pur- 
pose of storming it at the point of the bayonet. 
The plan of attack was promptly executed by 
both the shi])s and th(> soldiers amid consid- 
erable din, ^\■llcn, in a few nnniitc^, the crumb- 

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ling walls of the fort were scaled and it was 
soou ill tlie possession of the English. Tlie 
loss to the Dutch was four killed and ten 
wounded out of a garrison of between thirty 
and furty men. 'J'he doughty IJinoyosa was 
now a prisoner of war. His resistance was 
little less than madness, for tlie old fort was 
utterly untenable and his force insuflicicnt to 
i-opc witli the English. By the terms of the 
capitidation the inhabitants took the oath of 
;illcgiance to the King of England, and re- 
nuiincd undisturbed in their houses and prop- 
erty. It was likewise determined that the 
Swedes should remain undisturbed in their re- 
ligion as Lutherans, and in the service of God 
as they desired. 

Thus ended Dutcli rule on the Delaware. 
The name of New. Amsterdam was changed 
to New York, and New Anistcl became New 
(.'astle, a name which it still bears. At that 
time, according to the best authorities, it con- 
tained a )io])nlation of between two and three 
liundred and was considere<l a ])lacc of some 
note on the river. 'Tlio territory now com- 
prised witliin the limits of the State of Dela- 
ware at that time did not contain more tluui 
two thousand inhabitants. 'I'he failure of the 
two ]ireccding races to make any greater pro- 
gress in the settlement and po])idation of this 
region so highly favored by nature during the 
long time they occupied it, is largely attrib- 
utable to the wars and disputes which arose 
between them in the struggle for possession. 
Eully fifty years lyid elapsed since the Dutch 
hecame masters, without any consideralde pro- 
gress cither in nuudtors or in prosjierity. 

The Dctcii Aqaix. 

Eut the settlements on the Delaware were 
not yet to enjoy peace. War again broke out 
between England and the Netherlands, and in 
August, 1073, a ])owerful Dutch fleet cap- 
tured New York and subjected the English 
t(i their control. Tu the articles of eajiitu- 
latidii it was stijiuhited that tlie civil and mili- 
tary rights of tlie Dutch should be extended 
tu the settlements on the Delaware, and so the 
inhabitants were now compelled to take the 
oath of allegiance to the States and the Prince 
of Orange. Thereu])on .\nthony Colve wa-^ 
appointed governor general of N('\v York 

and its adjacent territories, lie again ap- 
pointed i'eter Alrich as his commandant, ur 
\ice-governor over the "South' liiver" settle- 
ments. \'erily the pioneers of Delaware were 
subjected to many tribulations and surprises 
in the aduiinistration of their government, and 
it is not strange that they were discouraged 
by the almost perpetual state of demorali/.a- 
tion in which tliey were kept. 

Peter Alrich took the oath of allegiance to 
the new government and entered on the dis- 
charge of his duties without delay. 'The first 
article of ins instructions, says the reverend 
historian Aerelius, read as follows: 'Tie 
sliall uphold the true Christian doctrine, in 
accordance with the Decree of the Synod of 
Dordt, and admit of no other doctrine in con- 
flict therewith." 'i'hus the proposition was at 
this time made to expel the Augsburg Con- 
fession from the country. 

The English Recaptuke the Cou.ntrv. 

But the new administration of atfairs was 
doomed to a brief existence, for it was ter- 
minated by the Peace of Westmin.-<ter, Febru- 
ary 19, 1071, in the tenth article of which it 
was stated, ''that whatever countries, towns, 
fortresses, t^'c, liad been captured on either 
side since the beginning of the war, should 
be restored to their former lord and owner." 
In consequence of this, New York and its de- 
pendencies were restored to the English June 
2!), 1074. The Dutch reign, therefore, lasted 
only about fifteen months, and Govenmr Al- 
rich was again out of office. 

'The English having be<-omc masters of the 
territory so long in disjjute, the province of 
New York now end)raced all the country ly- 
ing between New England and the Delaware 
river, of wiiich James, the Duke of York, was 
made tlie ])roprietor, in honor of his heroism 
with the I'liiglish fleet, which he commanded 
against the Hollanders durina- the aforesaid 
war. His grant comprised what are known as 
the "Three Lower ('ounties" on the other side 
of the Delaware, namely, New Cattle, Kent 
and Sussex. 'The government was couductiMl 
by a governor in the name of the Duke of 
York, for that prince never came personally 
to the country. 'To the government of New 
York also belonged all the iidiabited country 
on the west side of the Delaware, which was 

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sometimes called "A'ew Virginia," but mostly 
"The riaces upon tlie JJelawaie," which 
meant the Swedish and Dutch settlements. 

L'nder the Swedish go\ernment, it will be 
reuienibcied, no deeds were given lor the lauds 
occupied by the settlers, only those excepted 
which were gi\en as iiefs by the t^ueen Chris- 
tina, 'ihe Hollanders, however, nuide out a 
nujuber of tleeds in IGoO, mostly lor building 
lots in >,'ew Castle, and its vicinity. .Mean- 
while no rents were imposed, but a small in- 
come was required which was barely sntlicient 
to pay local expenses, liut when the I'Jnglish 
came into power all occupants were required 
to take out new deeds for their laud. 'J'hese 
deeds Were i.'isued in the uame of the Duke of 
York. The rent was a bushel of wheat for 
every hundred acres, if so demanded. .V few 
took out deeds, while others did not trouble 
themselves to do so, ''but," as an old-time 
writer says, '"only agreed with the Indians for 
a piece ui land for which they gave a gun, a 
kettle, a fur coat, or the like; and they sohl 
them again to others for the same, for the land 
was superabundant, the inhabitants few, and 
the government not strict." Hence it came 
that in lawsiuts for land people appealed to 
"Indian rights," which were valid when they 
could be proved. The deeds wiiich were given 
to the Swedes contained the proviso, "so far as 
they remain faithful to the government. ' 
'J'hose who took deeds for large tracts of laud 
were soon in great distress aliout their rents, 
which, however, were very light, if they culti- 
vated their land and had fair cr(«}is, but lu'aNy 
enough if they worcnot industrious and tiie 
season was poor. In many eases of failure, the 
renters became discouraged and transferred 
their lands to others; but their descendants 
had cause to lament their actions. A few 
I'higlish settlers came into the neighborhood, 
and were the only ones paid anything for a 
])iece of land. But the Indians looked upon 
them as another race of people, and showed 
them less friendship, as they were less ac- 
quainted with them. Disorders were frequent 
("in acnunt of the demoralization which jU'c- 
\'ailed. \ historian of the time tells us their 
prevailing evil was idleness. There was no ag- 
rictdture, no traffic beyond what was required 
by absolute necessity. The forests were tilled 
with game and the streams with fish. Thr 
Duke of York derived little more fnun his do- 
m:iiu tlinn the uauie pi-oju'ictor. 

Aiu{i\AL 01' William Pknx. 

It is necessary in this connection to relate 
under what circumstances William Tenn, the 
t^uaker, came to ajiply to iving CTiarles, for a 
grant of land in .\nierira for the purpose of 
founding a c(jlony. 'This grant, which was 
made .March -i, His], endu-aced also that part 
ot the cdunti-}- in America, witii the islands 
adjacent thereto, wbicii was bounded on tiie 
east by the Delaware Ki\'cr. 'i'hc line was thus 
iletined in the charter: Ijeginniug "from 
twehe nules distance northwards of A'ew C'as- 
th' town unto the three and fortieth degree 
of northern latitude, if the said river doth ex- 
tend so far northward, but if tlie =aid river shall 
not extend so far northward, then by the said 
ri\er so far as it doth extend; and from the 
head of the said river the eastern bounds are 
to be deternnned by a meridian line to be 
drawn from the head of said ri\-er unto said 
forty-third degree. The said lands to extend 
westward live ilegrees in longitudi', to be com- 
puted from the said eastern bounds; and tue 
said lands to be bounded on the north by tho 
begiiniing of the three and fortieth degree of 
northern latitude; and on the south by a circle 
drawn twelve nules distance from New Castle 
northward and westward unto the beginidng 
of the forty-third degree of northern latitude; 
and then by a straight line westward to the 
liniits'of longitude above mentioned." 

The consideration for this magnificent do- 
main was "two beaver skins, to be delivered to 
the King at A\'indsor Castle on the 1st of Jan- 
uary in every year; and also tho fifth part of 
all gold and silver ore, which should from time 
to time happen to be fomnl within the Hunts 
aforesaid, clear of all charge. And we do 
hereby erect the aforesaid country and islands 
into a Province and signiorv and do call it 
Pennsylvania, and so from henceforth will 
have it called." 

Kules and regulations for the guidance of 
the Proprietar3' were laid down, how laws 
shall be nmde and executed, and then it was 
distinctly stated that Penn should be answera- 
ble for every offence committed by him 
against the laws of England relative to trade 
and navigation, aiul should pay all damages 
assessed against him in the cottrts of the 
realm within one year. Otherwise the King 
may resume the government of the Province 
tnitil idl such dauiages arc paid. TvTo individ- 

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ual was to be disturbed in his rights. I'eiin, 
among other things, was autliorized to appoint 
a Captain General, or Lieutenant Ciovernor, 
to carry the laws into eft'eet. Neither tlie Jving 
nor J'arlianient had jwwer to impose on the in- 
Jiabitants any taxes or subsidies, without tiie 
consent of Pcnn. 

After tliis cliarter was confirmed, I'enn 
made his plan known in England and invited 
settlers to accompany him to the new country. 
After much thought, and with great care, 
lie drew up a form of government whi( h was 
in many respects a model, and attracted widj 
attention. A Constitution, consisting of forty 
articles, was also framed, and assented to by 
those present and signed, ilay o, 1GS2. 

At the same time followed two t)ther deeds 
of gift, though called sales, which Prince 
James, Duke of York, made to "*,Villiam Penn, 
of that land on the same side of the Delaware, 
which had been granted to him by James' 
brother, King Charles II., and of which he 
was proprietor. The former, dated August 
24, 1GS2, gave to Penn the town of New 
Castle, with all that land which lies within 
a circle of twelve miles, drawn from and to 
the river. The purchase money was ten shill- 
ings, and a rent of five ditto, to be paid yearly 
on [Michaelmas day to the Duke, to his heirs, 
or to whomsoever he appointed to receive it. 
In the latter part of the same day an«l year, 
ho also transferred all that land upon the 
Delaware bay and river beginning twelve 
miles south of the town, of New Castle, and 
e.xtending to "Iloorn Kill," or Cape Ilen- 
lopen. The purchase money was ten shil- 
lings. The yearly rent demanded by the 
Duke was one rose to be presented on ilichael- 
nias day, if so demanded. Dut Penn bound 
himself to pay annually to the Duke and his 
heirs, or those whom they might appoint, one- 
half of all the rents, income and resources 
which might accrue from the land. In the 
event that either a part or the whole of the 
rents should be in arrears for twenty years, 
the land should revert to the Duke, &c., until 
the ^^■hole was paid. 

Peoixnino of Delaware. 

In these two transfers of land we have the 
nucleus, the beginning, of the State of Dela- 
ware, a State that has been ever fm'cniost in 
patriotism and unswerving dcv(iti..ii to the 

principles of independence. The history of 
the territory and tlie diti'ercnt peoples that in- 
habited it, and the ditierent governments 
under which they lived, is a strange and ro- 
mantic stur}'. 

Having made all the necessary jn-eparations 
to visit tlie jirovince which liacl been so gra- 
ciously granted to him in the New World, 
William Penn sailed from Juigland with a 
large company and arrived in safety in the 
Delaware otf New Castle, October I'l, 10^2. 
The iidiabitants were on the alert to receive 
their new ruler; the Swedes, who had passed 
through so many trials, triimlations and sor- 
rows, especially, welcomed him with great cor- 
diality when he came ashore on the iTth. The 
great philanthropist was pleased with his re- 
ception and mingled freely with the people 
in their houses, inquired into their condition, 
and v>-ith diligent care set about familiari/.ing 
himself with the country and the needs of its 
Iieople. It was a great day for New Castle, 
and marked the beginning of a new epoch in 
its history. Inasmuch as William Penn first 
set foot on the soil of his Pnjvince at New 
Castle, it has often been a source of wonder 
among many i)eoi)le that the Historical Society 
of Delaware, under the guiding direction of 
Henry C. Conrad, Esq., that devoted student 
of local history, has not ere this set up a tablet 
to mark the spot where he stepped ashore, and 
thus suitably commemorate an event fraught 
with the destiny of two sovereign states of 
this mighty confederation. 

After leaving New Castle Penn went to 
I"j)land, (now Chester), where he disembarke 1 
and proceeded to organize his government. 
To enter into detailj would be irrelevant to 
our present ])urp(jse. Suffice it to say that a 
great deal of work was involved, but that the 
proprietar}' governor addressed himself to the 
task with great vigor and industry. "When lie 
came, he found three counties partially oraan- 
ized, namely, New Castle, Jones and New 
Dale, while Pennsylvania, by tlie oiJiratioii 
of the twelve mile circle, had liut one. and the 
nucleus of that one .she had obtained by the 
generosity of the Dnke of York, and from the 
Miiall incipient state of Delaware. l''ur-iiant 
to call, eh^'fi.ins were held, anil the Ceneral 
Assembly, composed of members from the 
Province of Pennsylvania and the three lower 
counties— or "territories of the Province." as 
they Were so,, 11 after ,l,-iL;nate,l in coiilradis- 


tiiicticiii t(i tlio Province proper^oonvciu'd at 
(.'lio.-tiT (III fl.u 4tli of Uecoiubor following. 
On lliu jiLtitioii of thosu lower coiintios asking 
for an act of nnion by the governor, and for 
their int'orjioratlon with tiio Provinoo, in ordrr 
to secure the enjoyment of all the rights and 
]iri\ih'g('s, snch an act was passed, at (he tlr.-^t 
s(?.-'i(jn, which ciinlinncd for only a few tlays. 
I>y the terms of the act the three counties were 
annexed to the Province of Pennsylvania as 
of the ]ii'oper territory thereof; and it further 
jirovided that the people therein should be 
governed by the same laws, and enjoy the same 
privileges in all respects, as the inhabitants nf 

Jt has been sliown that the existence of Del- 
aware began in a closer union with the great 
State of Xew York, and after that was cmitin- 
ned in another nnion, songlit with the great 
State of Pennsvhania in the beginning of the 
Penn regime. Eeino- thus habituated to union 
from its incipiency, it was quite natural that 
this state should step promptly into the great 
union of tlie states as soon as its Constitution 
\\'as framed and adopted. 


Purtlier trouble about land titles ensuc(b 
On the 14th of June, l(;8;i, Penn, under his 
own signature and the seal of the Province, 
issued an order to all the old settlers who had 
not yet received deeds for their lands, but oidy 
the surveyor's certificate to make their sur- 
A'cys, according to orders from the governor 
of New York, to send these certificates and 
take out deeds for the sanJc. 'rimse also who 
had deeds from the Duke of York were to pre- 
sent themselves and hand in their old deeds. 
AVhile this course was a ])roi)er one l(j pur- 
sue for the perfecting of titles, it caused some 
confusion and suspicion. !Many of the simple- 
minded jicojile who did not comprehend tlie 
])urport of the order, generally hamled in their 
certificates and deeds, whereupon I'enn di- 
rected the Assembly to pass a law that all old 
homesteads should be I'csurveyed, which being 
done, a large margin of land was found '.n 
excess of what the old deeds called for, as the 
early surveys had been very carelessly made. 
On the river and ci'oeks there were largi- tracts 
of swamp lands which were subnicigcd at flood 
fide, but were dry at the ebb, which were u c- 
ful for pasturing cattle, 'i'lic-e huuls were ii'il 

formerly secured by deed, as tln-y were 
deemed almost worthless, but were used as 
commons. Several thousand acres of these 
lands were therefore taken away from thosL- 
who were using tlicni and s<ild lo others, 
'i'liose who had gi\cii in tlicir ccrlilicatcs and 
(leeils never received them back again, an 1 
when they took out new ones, wci-e recpiired 
to pay higher jjrices. 'i'liis caused a great deal 
tif friction and bad feeling. 

Charges were made, the justice of whi(di, at 
this late day, if would lie diflicnll, as well as 
useless, to prove. 'J'liat dissatisfaction existed 
from some cause or other, is made evident by 
the action of Penn at a later date. On com- 
ing the second time to this country, he ofl'ered 
the Swedes ten thousand acres of land now in- 
cluded in ^Montgomery county, Pa., with one 
bushel of wheat yearly rent for one hundred 
acres; few, however, availed themsehes of 
this offer. 

History shows that as long as the Swedes 
themscdves were in jiosscssion of their homes 
there was very little dissatisfaction. Put as 
some of tlu'm had sold their titles to English- 
men, who were still less friendly to the Quak- 
ers, a jtublic outcry was raised about the inat- 
fci-. They reprisenfed to the Swedes that they 
were the King's subjects, that the rents be- 
longed to the King, and that Penn was pro- 
prietor only of that land wdiich was unsettled 
when he cauu— a misinterpretation, by souiC; 
of the first article of his charter. They who 
bought tile Swedes' lands, ],nd'essed to be in- 
ferested in inaintainiiig tiu' rights of the 
Swedes, and used them as the instruments of 
a genei-al disturbance. 

I'inallv these com]dainfs culininafed in a 
petition -to the Assembly in the year 17(t'.», 
with the re»iuest that dames Logan might be 
rccpiind to restore to them their old deeds, 
touefher with the excess of reiif-^. The com- 
jdaints were sent to AVilliam Penn. then in 
Kngland, who handed thcMn to the Swedish 
minister in London. He comnnniicated the 
comiilainfs to the Swedish Council, from 
whicdi, in due seaM>ii, an '•Vaniest admoni- 
ti.m was dispatched to the members generally 
„f the Swedish con-regafion on the l)(da- 
ware, to coudncf themselves in obedience to 
the laws of the cotintry, and of the Knglish 
Cotirt, as well as to Penn, the i)roprietor, if 
lliev expected tbercaricr fnan Swclon any 

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assistance fur tlieir spiritual coiKlitioii." Tliii 
Avas regarded by the Swedes as a severe reliec- 
tion; and the more so, that they shoulil be re- 
presented in London as disorderly and as 
having little regard for tlie govennneut of 
tiieir native country, when they ilattered 
themselves that they were only resjicctfully 
aikiug for their rights. They accordingly 
' i)resented a petition to the Assembly in 1713, 
demanding tiiat proof should be submitted 
showing that they were a law abiding people 
during the whole time this country had been 
under English government, and that even to 
the present time they had cuuducted them- 
selves as quiet and loyal sulijects. They 
furthermore requested that tliis evidence 
might be presented to the Swe<lish and Kugiish 
courts through tlieir Provost Bjork. Wh'it 
action was taken on the petition does not aj)- 

Some years later, owing to certain measures 
on the part of the proprietor's commissioners, 
the matter was again stirred up, and another 
petition was presented to the Assembly in 
ITl'l', in which the chief complaint was that 
Tenn, by his agents — and especially within 
the jireceding rtvo years — had interfered 
witli the Swedes' lands, and also with the lands 
of those Avho had the same titles, or were tiie 
oldest English inhajiitants in the country, and 
not only had original titles to the lands ob- 
tained from the Englisli authorities before 
Penn's time, but the further contirmation, 
according to the fundamental laws of the 
country, of at least seven years' undisputed 
possession; this was held in itself to constitute 
a sound title. 

The petition was not ignored. The Assem- 
bly laid it before William Keith, the govern- 
or, for consideration, together with the expla- 
mition of the agents or commissioners. The 
Penn board of commissioners was composed 
of Ikiehard Hill, Isaac Norris, and James Lo- 
gan, and they made answer to the complaint 
as follows: "That the titles which people had 
of the Duke of York had never been called in 
((lU'stion; that the Swedes had no cause for 
tlieir com]ilaints, considering the high favor 
in which they stood with the Proprietor, who, 
though they were aliens in the Knglisii govern- 
ment, and were in possession of the best lands 
upon the Delaware at the time of Penn's ar- 
rival, were yet confirmed in tlieir im-sosions 

without any further investigation, and this, 
lie it observed, to the great injury of those 
who had ventured their life and jjroperty 
upon the sea, to people the country, Arc. But 
that these coniplaints had their origin in 
another cause, namely: tiiat evil minded 
people wlio dwelt among tiiem, and stood in 
clo.-er (Miniii'clioii witli the JMiglish Crown, had 
already in the former unhappy times, in order 
to distuib the public, used the Swedes as in- 
strunieiils and means, in which they have the 
greater chiims to be excused, as they are to- 
tally unacciuaintcd with such matters. That 
these iMiglishmen may be properly regarded 
as the same ilisturbers, to whom all ditfeivnces, 
which arise anywhere, are to be ascribed. 
That the Swedes in the country have never 
been disturbed by the jiroprietor, nor by any 
one under him, Imt that they are badly dealt 
with by those who, from time to time, abuse 
their hands and names, to push forward plans 
that require such a cloak. That the Swedes, 
as they are descended from a race renowned 
for its submission and obedience to civil au- 
thorities, are of themselves, when not misled 
by others, quiet and honest men. But as the 
Proprietor [Penn] is now deceased, the mat- 
ter could not be further investigated." AVith 
this report the matter ended; nor do we hear 
of any later conqdaints. 


Having disjiosed of the serious matter re- 
garding the titles, let us return to the early 
days of Penn and consider, briefly, his dis- 
luite with Lord Baltimore regarding tlie 
boundary lines of the Province. Penn claim- 
ccl that even if his lordship's patent had iu 
good faith included any [lart of Delaware Bay 
and river, his lordship had forfeited his right 
to it by the long interval of time which had 
elapsed without his taking possession of it, 
or reducing it to the sovereignty of England, 
under which he claimed it; that the King at 
last had been obliged to do that liimst-lf, and 
that tlieri'fore it was his to do as he ]ileased 
with it. Xot being aiile to change the mind 
of his lor<lship, Penn next proposed to him tliat 
though it was two degrees and a half from 
AVatkins' Point to the fortieth degree of north 
latitude, at sixty miles to the degree, instead 
of se\'entv, vet if he would consent that tin; 



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nu-asureinont should be computed at sixty 
niik's to the degree, ho \voukl agree to coui- 
luence at the fortietli degree, fall where it 
might. His lordship, however, dissented, and 
the eonfeience was eoneluded without any 
eonii)roiiiise or adjustment of the dispute. 
'i'his eoufereiiee t()(jk j)lac* at West River, 
Deeemher, ]1), Uis;5, where Pcnn visited liis 
lordship in the liope of being able to settle the 
boundary di.<pute. Lord Baltimore, evidently 
thinking to iiujiress Pcnn with his exalted sta- 
tion, was attended by a numerous and brilliant 
suite, and treated the plain Friend with mark- 
ed attention and courtesy. It was on this oe- 
easi(jn that I'enn presented Lord Baltimi>re 
with a letter from King Charles JT, to the 
effect that he (Lord Baltimore) had but two 
degrees aect)rding to his patent, and that, be- 
ginning at Watkins' Point, he should measure 
the degrees at sixty miles io the degree, that 
being well and univer.^ally iindei"stood to bo 
the extent of a degree of territorial latitude 
at that jKiint when his letters patent were 
issued. His lordshij) rejjlied that the King 
was greatly mistaken, and that he would not 
abandon his i)atent to follow the King's letter, 
nor could a letter annul Ins patent. 

Penn rejoiiu'd that he thought tho mistake 
was on Lord Laltimore's i)art, for though his 
patent began at WatkiiLs' Point and extended 
to the fortieth degree, yet that was assinncd 
to be under tlie thirty-eighth degree, ami if he 
liad to start below that degree, then Virginia 
would be wronged. At this ])oiut tin; uncle 
and chancellor of his lordship, who were pres- 
ent during the conference, renuu'ked that this 
grant given to the elder Lord Baltinioi-e was 
not by degrees, as contem])\ated by him when 
he applied for it, for he had more of \'irgiuia 
given iiim, but being planted, and the grant in- 
tending oidy land nut jilanted, or pKssc^^'^ed 
by any othc-r than savage nations, he left it 
out so that it might not forfeit the ri'st. It 
then occurred to Penn that by that answer ho 
(Lord Baltimore) could pretend nothing to 
Delaware which had been discovered, bought 
and jdanted by the Dutch before that time, 
and sd it co\dd not liave been intended to be 
inchuhd in the gnant. 

Some time in the month of May, 1084, fol- 
lowing this conference, Penn received a mes- 
sage from Tyord Baltimore inviting him to 
meet him at the head of C'hesa])eake Bay, but 
his euiiaa-emcnt-; iii-eventinc it, he mi t him a 

few daj's later in the forest ten miles wctst 
of Xew Ca.stle. 'J'lic nueting in the wilder- 
ness was a very pleasant one, anil each shower- 
ed compliments on the other. Penn gave 
his lordship a cordial invitation to accomj)any 
him to New Castle, which was aecej)tcd, and 
the cavalcade moved thither. Li order to 
slidw his hosi)itality and nuiko the stay of 
his distinguished visitor as j)leasant as possible, 
Penn entertained him as handsomely as the 
facilities of the town would afford. After 
having recovered from the fatiguc-s of the 
joui-ncy and partaken of refri'shuunts. Lord 
Baltimore signified to his host that he wished 
to speak with him privately on the matter in 
dis|iutc between them regarding the boundary 
lines. The astute (Quaker suavely re]»licd that 
whatever ]>assed between them on this nnitter 
shiiuld be in Avriting in the presence of their 
ropective councils, the better to avoid mis- 
apprehension or the failure of memory. lUit 
his lordship, equally cautious, evaded the])ro])- 
osition, and in a short time excu.sed himself 
by saying that he was not feeling well and 
would prepare to return to ^laryland, re- 
serving further consideration of tlie matter 
for another time. That time never came. 
AVhen his lordship found that Penu was 
shrewd enough to insist on having witnesses 
present when they disen.ssed the boundary lino 
([uestion, he did not care about talking the 
matter over. This did not speak well for him. 
He was evidently incline<l to resort to sub- 
terfuges, or else he felt that he eoidd not trust 
Penn. That the latter was candid and truth- 
fid, and did not seek an opportunity to take 
advantage of any one, no one will deny. It 
is therefore impossijile to avoid sus])icion a.s 
to the intention of his lordship. 

This conchision is borne out by subsequent 
developments. Penn was aware at tho time 
of their n.ieeting, that some time before his 
lordshij) had issue<l a protdamation inviting 
settlers, under his authority and ])rotectiou as 
the Projirietary of tho Province of Maryland, 
into the countries of Delaware at lower prices 
for land than he was offering them, and that 
the proclamation was attracting attention. 
It was because he feared that this fact would 
be dividgt^l that Lord Baltimore decline<l a 
conference with Penn in the presence of wit- 
nesses; and he thought Penn was not aware of 
liis du|)licity. Ihit it availed him nothing. 

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nwGnAPniOAL encyclopedia 

Soon after the meeting at New Castle, Penn 
received a communication from Lis lonlsliip 
by the hand of a special mef^cnger duly au- 
thoiizcd to present it, demanding the jwsses- 
sion of all the country south of the fortieth 
degree of north latitude, both in the I'rovincc 
of Pennsylvania and the three lower counties 
annexed to it. This bold demand was a sur- 
prise to Penn, but he promptly refused to give 
up possession. The next step on the part of 
T.oril Baltimore was to order a jiarty from 
^Maryland under command of Col. (Jcorge 
Talbot to make forcible entry on several ])hin- 
tatlons in Delaware teiTJtory and occupy the 
same. This Avas virtually a declaration of war 
on a small scale, on the part of his brliigc'rcnt 
lordship. And an invasion was actually made. 
Colonel 'J'albot came within five miles of 
New Castle and seized a piece of ground 
belonging to a gentlman named Ogle, 
who had come over with Sir Pulicrt 
C'arr and was present at the capture of Fort 
Cassimcr and the Engiisli conquest of the 
three lower counties. Ogle had erected a log 
fort upon liis land, built a palisade, and thrown 
u}) breastworks, having evidently learned of 
the intentions of Lord IJaltimnre. Having 
a small force of armed men, he held the fcirt 
for some time against the formal demands 
of the civil authorities at New Castle, wliom, 
it seems, Talbot had induced to aid him in 
the name and under the command of Lord 
Baltimore. Here was a peculiar condition 
of affaii"s. Nothing less than a high handed 
outrage, with which it seemed tiuit tiic au- 
thorities at Now Castle sympathized. 

Penn was greatly surprisc<l when he heard 
of the affair, and immediately instituted le- 
gal jiroceedings to reinstate the parties who 
had been dispossessed, and to punish those who 
had taken jiart in the outrage. He also for- 
warded a full account of the affair to the Duke 
of York, with a demand for reparation. 
AVhat came of it history fails to say, but it 
must have convinced Baltimore that he must 
do something to fortify his claim without de- 
lay. He therefore soon afterwanis sit out for 
England. Penn divined that his intention 
was to lay the matter before the King and his 
council. Four months after his an-ival, 
Charles II died and was succeeded by his 
brother the Duke of York, under the title of 
James II. In coin-se of time, healings were 

had at which Lord Baltimore and Penn were 
both present, and after full argument before 
the Lords of tho Committee, on the 13th of 
November, 1GS5, they directed the following 
order to be entered: '•That the lands intended 
to be granted by the Lord Baltimore's patent 
were only such lands as were cultivated or 
inhabited by savages, and that the part then 
in dispute was inhabited and ])lante<l by 
Christians at and before the date of tlie Ivord 
l>altimore's patent, as it had been ever since 
that time, and continued as a distinct cijlony 
fVum tliat of ^Maryland, and so tiiey were uf 
opinion that fc.r avoiding further differences, 
the tract of land lying between the Piiver and 
Bay of Delaware and the Eastern Sea on tho 
one .side, and Chesapeake Bay on the other, 
be divided into two equal parts by a lino from 
the latitude of Cape Ilenlopon to the fortieth 
degree of north latitude (the south lioundary 
of Pennsylvania by charter), and that the 
eastern half thereof be adjudged to Ilis 'Mn- 
jesty (viz., King James, who, when Duke 
of York, granted to ^Mr. AViliiam Penn), and 
the other half remain to the Lord Baltimore, 
as comprised in his charter." And this was 
not only afti^rwards recommende<l, but it was 
ordertnl by the King to be done in 170'.). Thus 
the peculiar boundary lines of Delaware, which 
are a puzzle to many when they look upon 
tiie map, came to be established; years how- 
ever passed away, and it was only at the end 
of a great lawsuit, in which the respective 
heirs of the litigants were concerned, that tho 
dispute was finally and forever settled. 

During the long absence of Penn from tho 
Province, when he Wius overtaken by mis- 
fortunes and calamities, his government w;is 
conducted by othei's, jealousy and dissension 
s]irang up between the I'rovinco of Pennsyl- 
vania and ''the territories," as the three lower 
counties were called. 'J'he representatives in 
the Assembly from the Province and tho tem- 
torit« being ecpial in number, this of course 
brought about a delicate and sensitive feeling 
on account of the difference in population. 
Tho feeling of jealousy originated with tho 
]irovince, which was growing rapidly in popu- 
lation and wealth, and this feeling showed it- 
self in the Assembly. The cause, it is be- 
lieved, lay in the suspici(m that the lower 
c(junties might become the recii)ients of 
greater favore from Penn. 


i / i, ■ :■ in '' "I 



Xkw Castle DiSAPror.NTKD. 

It was well known that Peiiu had greatly 
disappointcil tho ijfople of iVcw Castle, ami 
many of the inhabitants seattcreil throngh 
tho throe eonnties, when I'hiladelphia was 
seleeted for his i)rincipal eity. As ho tirst 
landed at !Ne\v Castle, a]id was widl pleased 
with its 'niagnifieent site on an luululaling 
])lain, they eould not understand why he 
should go up into the woods and the swamps 
to found his capital. Jle had expressed his 
admiration for Xew Castle, and led the peoplo 
to believe that he intended to make it the 
metropolis. It must be admitted that so far 
as eligibility and location are concerned tliere 
is no finer spot on the Delaware liivcr for a 
gri'at city than Xew Castle. Ivcalizing, no 
dciubt, that a mistake liad been made in found- 
ing his city, Tenn always had a warm feeling 
for Xew Castle, and manifested a strong de- 
sire to prtimote its welfare and pri>siierity. 
Actuated by this feeling, he occasionally con- 
vened tJie Cicneral Assenddy at Xew Castle 
before his dejiarture for England; and having 
learned on his return, after an absence of lif- 
teon years, that nuich dissatisfaction with cer- 
tain pi-oceedings of tlie council of the govern- 
ment hail arisen in the three lower counties, 
he i>-ucil in December, IG'Jit, a call for the 
rieneral Assend)ly to meet in New Castle in 
the fall of 1780. Tie did this for the imr- 
pose of trying to conciliate the people and allay 
the growing dissatisfaction. Penn made a brief 
a<ldress before the body, in which he recom- 
mended re-adjustment of the frame of govern- 
ment, a revision and completion of the body 
of laws, and particularly those concerning the 
settling of proiK-rty, and the supplying of 
uieans for the support of government, he closed 
with these memorable words: "I recommend 
to you amity and concord among yourselves." 
All were very happy to meet him, and the 
session was harmonious, and closed apparently 
to the satisfaction of all. 

r.iit "concord" had not been restored. The 
ne.xt Assenddy, which jnct at riiiladelphia in 
1701, had an increased representation from 
Pennsylvania, whi(di gave the prejionderanco 
of power to the Province. Tt was then |iro- 
posed to confirm certain acts ])assed at .Vew 
Ca>tle in 17nn, on the ground that, as the 
session was l](dd in the territories it was ma 
competent to pass laws which shouh! be bind 

ing on the J'rovince. This was regarded as 
an arrogant assumption, made for the ptirpose 
t)f subordinating and degrading the three 
counties. It was, however, insisted on and 
sustained by vote. 'J'his led to a tlnal .separa- 
tion. There was a great deal of caucusing, 
which it is imuecessary to detail in this cou- 
nerlion, but amicable relations ciuild not be 
restored, and from that time the mcndiers of 
the Assenddy for the thri^e counties met at 
Xew Castle, and those for the Pr.jvincc at 
Phihuhdpbia. And for all the purposes of 
governmeut they became st'parale and dis- 
tinct from each other, the only governme ital 
link connecting them being their deiicn.lenco 
upon one and the same Proprietary.^ This 
c.uidition continued until the Declaration of 


Once more the boundary line dispute was 
renewc-d. Both William Pc-nn and Lord Balti- 
more had been gathered to their fathers. 
Their heirs sought to have the .picstion set- 
tled The third Lord Baltimore and the lieuv: 
of Penn agreed to settle the dispute on the 
plan lai.l down by the Lords of the Comnuttee 
for Trade and Plantations and approved In; tUe 
Kin.., which have been given. The articles 
of agreement were accompanied by a niap or 

plan of the territory to be divub.l be ween 
],ein. And it was furthermore agreed that 
,he boun.larics were to be marked by stone 
„ill,,. .et up at interval.; eomuussioners were 
be appointed by the parties to do this on 
,, ,,efore Deeember 2:-, 17:^r,, and for want 
,.f a quorum of commi-Moners to nieet at any 
,;,„, \v,r that purpose, the party by de an 
of whose commissioners the artudes could ot 
le carried into execution, should forfeit to tho 

other t:5,000; and when done the parties were 
to make couUmce to each other for their 

several portions of the territory 

Put strange as it may appear the mattei ^^ as 
,u.alceted, and drifted tor eighteen 
years. Fiuallv the Penn heirs hied a b. 1 ni 
the High Court of f"hancery m England 
a<.-ainst Lord Baltimore for the execution ot 
ihe arthdes of agreement. The trial av^s long 
and tedious. INfuidi evidence was taken on 
both sides, and the "Breviat" now forms one 
.,f the v(dnines in the Second Series of Penn- 
svlvania Archives. After listening to long 

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and nblo argiiiiienta by counsel on hotli sides, 
Lord Clianeellor llardwiek, in 1750, decided 
the case by entering a decree in favor of the 
phiintifl's. Still there was delay. The running 
of the line by jMessrs. .Mason and Dixon and 
the setting up the pillars to indicate the line 
was not completed until the year 1708, nor was 
it contirnied by the King by orders in council 
until the month of January in the following- 
year. And it was not until April 8, 177.'), 
that the governor of the three lower counties 
and I'rovince of Pennsylvania published his 
proclamation, requiring all oliicers and other 
persons residing on the Delaware side to yield 
obedience to the laws of the said counties and 
govern themselves accordingly. This was fol- 
lowed by an act of Assembly defining the 
boundary lines, passed September 2, 1775, 
which was the last but two passed under the 
proprietary government of John Penn. On 
the 4th of July, 1776, the Declaration of 
Independence was adopted by Congress, an<l 
in glad response to it, and under the majesty 
of its sanction, by the 20th of Seiitombei' ful- 
lowing, the freemen of the three lower counties 
upon D(daware had, by tlieir delegates chosen 
and in I'onvention assendiled, framed and 
ad(jpted a constitution of government as a free, 
independent sovereignty, under the name and 
title of The Delaware State. 'J'hus, after a 
long and peqilexing career under many rulers, 
the conditions of the territory and ]icople wei'C 
changed, and they put on new political robes 
to enter upon a new destiny. 

"Old Swedes' Cuuucn." 

The Swedes were eminently a pious people. 
One of their first duties in making a settlement 
on the Delaware was to establish a cluu'ch; 
and to-day the most sacred landmark in the 
city of Wilmington is what is known as ''Old 
Swedes' Church." It is a veritable shrine, 
and attracts thousands of visitoi's annually. 
The corner-stone for this sacred edifice was 
laid by the Ttev. Eric Pjork, pastor of the 
original Swedish Lutheran colony on the 
Delaware River, ifay 28, 1G9S. there is a 
well preserved tradition that when the con- 
gregation set out to build it two hundred 
years ago, the pious women carried small 
stones to the masons in their ajirniis. This 
was their contribution to the edifice lliat has 

outli\'ed many generation^, and is still used 
as a temple of worship. 

Owing to the sacred character of this vener- 
able editiee, and the associations which cluster 
around it, the two hundi'Cth annivers^ary of its 
fouiKling was reverently <jbserved on the 2Sth 
of -May, 18'J8, under the tlirection of Kev. II. 
-\shton Henry, rector of Ti'inity Church, and 
liev. Alartin P. Dunlap, rector of Old Sweden' 

This church building is the most important 
relic of the Swedish-American colonial enter- 
prise insjiired by King (Justavus Adolphus, 
the third of the great Vasa sovereigns of 
Sweden. It connects local church history 
with the great religious reformation of Europe, 
of which -Martin Luther was the theological 
leader, and (Justavus Adolphus the royal mili- 
tary cliamiiion. The building, simple as it is 
in architectural conception, and rough as it 
is in workmanship, is a growth of two cen- 
turies duration. In its growth it has become 
beatitlful. I'ortunately, the exterior additions 
to the building have been in harmony with the 
original design. In its rough picturesque 
sinq)licity, no less than in its sacred character, 
it is a fitting monument I'onunemorating the 
zealous and industrious juety of the Swedish 
Colonists in America, the impetuous piety of 
Luther, and the glorious achievements of Gus- 
tavus Adolphus in b<'half of civil and religious 

In American history, and especially in the 
history of Delaware, this venerable church 
cSmmeniorates great events. It marks the 
site of one of the earliest European colonies 
upon the iSTorth American continent. Includ- 
ed in the conception and planning of the col- 
ony of which the church is the oldest remain-, 
were greater projects — higher ideals and 
grander anticipations — than were included in 
the jilanning of any other of the early Ameri- 
can colonies. The people who came here were 
not exiles fleeing from political or religious 
persecution. They came to America as wards 
of the most enlightened government, and citi- 
zens of the most powerful nation in Europe. 
Ilieir mi.ssion was not a merely sordid one. 

I hose early colonists were not gold seek- 
ing, race exterminating adventurers, but niis- 
.sionaries sent forth for the "sjiread of the Holy 
Cospcl," and for the foumling of a new nation 
upon the broad princi|iles of civil and relifiious 
libcrtv — a n:itiou the mai'kcd characteristics 

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S7'.17'A' OF nKL.WVAUE 


of whose charter was tolerance iii civic and re- 
ligious art'airs; a -Xew Sweilen in which there 
shonld be no slaves, and where every citizen 
should enjoy freedom of conscience. 

'J'he attempt to work out this great j)roject 
in America began at what is now the site of 
-Old Swedes'" Church, in the city of Wil- 
mington'. There were no such just concep- 
tions of government, nor yet of religious trce- 
doni, behind the efforts of the English colo- 
nists at ITyniouth or Jamestown, the Dutch 
at ilanhattan, or the S[)aniards in South and 
(Central America. 'J'he Swedish colonial pur- 
pose was unique; and there is no record in 
the history of its attempted realization of a 
serious departure from that purpose. These 
colonists had anticipated William I'enn's 
l)acitic i)olicy toward the Indians, and his idea 
of religious tolerance by half a century, lie 
found when he arrived here that they had 
lirgun the movement for those high ideals 
that were tu spread over the continent and be- 
roiiic the g'lory of American civilization. 
They had made the little Swedish town of 
Christianahamn, (the name they gave the 
place in their language, and what is known 
as Chi-istiaiia in English), the seat of the; iirst 
military occujiation of territory, in what is 
now the territory of Pennsylvania, New Jer- 
sey, Delaware and Maryland; made it tlie 
seat of the hrst permanent European colony; 
of the first ecidesiastical organization, and of 
the first ooin-t of justice. 

This is what "Old Swedes' " Ohurch com- 
menmrates in American history, and \vliat 
Hindi' its bi-centennial anniversary a matter 
of Very great historic importance, as well as 
of interest to religious denominations through- 
out this country. 

The old church, with its ivy-covered walls, 
which may be seen from the car windows of 
the rhila<leli)hia, AVilmington and Baltimore 
Railroad, as the train swcejxs by, is the third 
of the Swedish Lutheran churches erected by 
the colonists at Christianahamn. The first of 
those three buildings was erected inside thi> 
fort built immediately after their arrival. 
This fort was situated upon the to]) of a hill, 
which overhung what wa.s long after known 
as "The IJocks." 'i'his was a rocky |ioint ex- 
tending out to tide-water between the ISraiidy- 
wine and C'hristiana creeks. The ro.l - 
formed a natural wharf with deeji water m 
front, and around tfi the east side cd' the IiIl^Ii- 

land of which "The Kocks" were the base, 
was a deep and ccfUimodious harbor for the 
mooring of their ships, while the top of the 
hill was a level plateau, affording an excel- 
lent outlook and making a splendid site for 
their first fortification. 

Here the colonists built the fort, and in- 
side of it the first Swedish ],utheran church 
in America. It was around this fort that the 
first military engagement between European 
soldiers in America was fought. This was the 
place invested and captured b}' Stuyvesant 
in 1G55, as narrated in this introduction. 

AVhen the Swedes marched out, the Dutch 
were disgusted to find that the enemy they 
had spent so niucli time and trouble in dis- 
lodging, numbered but a score. The Dutch 
had conquered, and were the masters in Xew 
Sweden, and continued in power — much to 
the disgust of tlie Swedes — until finally dis- 
possessed by the English. 

Tradition says that one of the Swedish colo- 
nists, a young woman, died on shipboard at 
"The Rocks," or shortly before the arrival 
there, and one of the fir.-t things the colonists 
did was to bury this woman in what is now 
the cemetery around ''Old Swedes' " Church. 
This first necessary action fixed the site of the 
Swedish cemetery at Chri-tianaliamn. ami in- 
cidentally decided a (piestion much discussed 
by their successors sixty years afterward — 
that of locating the ])resent church edifice. 

The second chui-cb building was erected at 
Crane IIoc^l^, half a mih' south of "Old 
Swedes' " Chureli, and (dose ujM.n the shore 
of the Delaware IJiver. Crane Hook Church 
was built in 1007. It was abaiidoncd in IGtt'.l. 
The siti' of the chureh building is marked by 
a inonmnent recently erected by tlie Tlistori- 
eal Society of Delaware, as the result (if \ 
movement started by T'enno(d< Pusey, to 
mark the jdaees made memorable by the 
S\vedi.-h colonists on the T)elaware. 

The erection of a new chm-eh building was 
made desirable; fir-f liy the decay of the (.Id 
building at Crane Hook; secondly, by the 
growth of the settlement on the iioilli side of 
the ( 'liristiana. Tlii-; was the eondition of 
tilings, when Pe\-. T'lie P.jorlc. p:i-tor of the 
.Swedish T,uthei-an Congi'egatioii in AuieiMca, 
by :i|i]ioiiitmeiit of Charles XI, of Sweden, 
ari'iveil in ( 'hrisliannhainn in TOUT. He be- 
gan immediatf'ly to talk and \\'ork for the erec- 
tion (<f a new ehni'eli bnildiiiL:. lie became 

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tlic ;ia-liitect and builder of Jlolv Jiinity 
Liuuvli, now known as "Old Hwcdcs'." A 
whole year elajiscd Lefurc any xi.-iliJL' prugivss 
was made. 

.\t'ter deciding to build, the nu>»t ditiicult 
jiroMcni to solve seems to have licen the se- 
lection of the site for the new building. The 
.Swedish settlements had extended southward 
along the Delaware Iiiver to St. George's on 
the 1 'elaware side and to Salem on the New 
Jersey side. 'J'hese people objected to having 
the church erected at a greater distance from 
their homes. The crossing of the Christiana 
was a matter of interest to both the south side 
and north side residents. Neither party 
wanted to pay ferry tolls every Sunda}' morn- 
ing to go to church. It was finally agreed 
that the church should be on the north side, 
and the north side residents agreed to furnish 
a new boat for the free use of the south side 
folks when they came to church. 

In the si.xty years that had passed since the 
first grave was made in what was thi^u a lonely 
spot, and the Swedish girl, far fron\ homo 
and kindred, was laid at rest, many other 
graves had been made there, and this faci 
finally settled the matter of locating the build- 
ing. The site was a historic "(Sod's iVcre" to 
the Swedish colonists even then, l^or nearly 
a century and a half since then, the burial of 
the Swedes, their descendants and successors 
has been going on in this burial place, until 
it is crowded with the remains of the good 
and the great of their material and spiritual 

'J'he graves of their early priests, their 
Avives and children, and of prominent church- 
men of the caiiy days of its history have oc- 
cupied nearly every foot of the church floor, 
while outside lie the remains of bishops and 
priests, statesmen and soldiers, side by side; 
aye, and perhaps in the former graves of the 
forgotten men and ■\vonien who gathered the 
materials and buildcl this old cliureh edifice 
as a grateful offering to the (lod, who had 
led them to a new and strange land, for "the 
spread of the Holy Cos]iel." 

'J'he churdi building as onginally jilanncd 
by the TJev. Eric Bjork, was a sim]de emdos- 
iire, within rough stone walls, of a space of 
about 40x20 feet; the walls were to be 13 
feet high to the square. These dimensions 
were changed several times, and once after the 
contract for the building had been maiK'. No 

one .seemed to have a dctinite idea about how 
big tiie churcli sIkiuIiI Ik'. it was linaily 
lixed, however, that tlie dimensions shoidd hi 
GO feet long and o(i ft et wide inside the walls, 
and 20 feet high. The heigiit, however, tlie 
l)riestly architect stipulated in tiie contract, 
"shall remain uncertain till we see how it will 
compare witii the other dimensions." 

Active operations began in ^lay, 1U08. 
The j)reliminaries of a church erection, pos- 
sibly, have never before or since given a prie>t 
so much trouble in Delaware, as did these. 
lie seems to have been a man of marvelous 
patience, resource and zeal. lie had an oli- 
stinate set of jieople to deal with. The vcs- 
tr}iuen were not saints. The}' pronused and 
failed to fulfil. They gave and they took 
back. Still with marvelous patience and 
with always apparent meekness, gratitude to 
and faith in God, he continued to solicit help 
and to parcel out the labor and the contribu- 
tions for building. 

'J"he stone and lime and wood, and the labor 
of gathering it having been assured, with the 
understanding that every one should have due 
credit for whatever he did, the foundation of 
the building was begun; and on ]\Iay 2S, 
lt)98, the fii-st stone was laid. The corner 
stone was laid on that day by the ju-iest. A 
whole year was now consumed in the building. 
The work was completed the following ^lay 
or June, and on Trinity Sunday, 1099, which 
by an ajijiarent error in the priest's record is 
said to have Viecurred on July 4, 1090, the 
building was dedicated, and named ''Holy 
Trinity Chui'ch." 

'J'hat Trinity Sunday was a great day in the 
Swedish village of Christianahamn. It was 
a feast day and great ])re])aratii>ns were made 
for the entertainment of the Swedes who were 
expected from all parts of the colony. The 
whole number of these in the colony was, per- 
haps, less than five hundred. In 1043, when 
Governor Printz arrivetl at Christianahamn, 
the uund)er of Swedes was only one hiuidred 
and eighty-three. In 1054, a census of the 
Swedish and Dutch residents made their num- 
ber but three hundred and sixty-eight, an in- 
crease of one hundred per cent, in about 
eleven years. It is not ini])7'ol)able, however, 
that this rate of increase was nuiintained for 
any length of time. Pastor Bjork says, in his 
records of IToly Trinity Church, that the dedi- 
cation services were attended by hundreds of 


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pt'ojile; iiiul as with tlie materials fur tiie 
cliurtli iiiiildiiig, so the peoijle contributeJ the 
fuod fur feeding the visitors. A full aeeuiuit 
of these eontrihutioiis is preserved in thu 
reeurds. Among the artieles put iluw ii were 
five sheep, two ealves and one quarter (jf \eui- 
sou; seven Liishels of malt, six and a half 
bushels of wheat and four hundred pounds ut' 
Hour. 'J'here were also three gallons of wine. 
'J'he dedieatnry serviees were condueted hy the 
liev. Erie Ijjork, assisted by Kev. Andrew 
liudman, and the He v. Jonas Aurcen. A de- 
tailed aeetiuut of these serviees in the chureh 
reeord shuws them to have been very sulenin 
and ini)iris.-;ive. 

The uriginal ehureli edifiee was very dif- 
ferent fiiiiu the present picturesque "Old 
Swedes"."' It was only a rectangular barndike 
structure with a pitched roof, arehed duurs 
and windows. The auditorium was ))aved 
Mith brick and furnished with plain deal 
benches. 'I'he walls, on the outside, ^\l■re eni- 
belli>hed with inscriptions furniod in letters 
of furged iron. There were neither porches 
nor belfry on the outside, nor gallery inside. 

'J"he first belfry was on the south side of tlie 
building; tradition says the Lell -was hung in 
a tree. The bell was so low that the roof of 
the (dnirrh bruke the sound of it, so that the 
jjcojde uii the north side could not hear it 
when rung. .V new bell for the church was 
I'ec'cived fruui Kngland in JSTovembei', 1772, 
and it was ja-uposed then to build a new lielfry. 
Subserijitiuns were solicited for it, but the old 
one was retained. The jiresent bell tower at 
tli(^ \\e-t end of the clau-ch was erected in 

Aneut this matter of the belfry, there 
is a pirture extant, copyi-ightcd, in Towa, 
which rcjiresents the belfry as erected on the 
ruuf of the building at the we-st end. Tt is 
not a correct picture of "Old Swedes' " at any 
])eriod of its history. The bell tower and 
belfry have always been outside the end wall 
of the building. The gallery at the west end 
of the (diui'ch was erected in 1773, and con- 
tained twenty-five pews. The porches or side 
arches, two on the north and one on the south 
side, were built to strengthen the side walls, 
in 1740. 

Kev. Kric T^jork .served as pastor of '"'Old 
Swede.-' " Church for seventeen years. (>■; 
from l(i!)7 to 1714, when he was recalleil lo 
Sweden. lie sailed from Christianahamn on 

June 20, 1714, and on his arrival in Sweden 
wa.-. a])i)ointed pastor of a (diureh at Kahluii, 
in I )alecai'lia, where he died in 1740. The 
successor of Jiev. Eric iJjork was the liev. 
Andreas lianpiinius. He dietl during his 
prejiarations for his voyage to America. Itev. 
.\ndreas llessilius and Kev. Abraham Tideii- 
nius were ai>pointed by the Bishop of Skara 
to serve the congregations in America, and ar- 
rived at (Jhristianahamu in ^fay, 1713. Kev. 
Lawrence (iirelius Avas pa.-tor of ''Old 
Swedes' " Ohurcli during the war of the 
Kevulution, and was dispossessed of his clnirch 
projjcrty during August and September, 1777, 
the year of the disastrous battle of the Brandy- 
wine, by two companies of British soldiers, 
who took up quarters there. The priest was 
evidently an American patriot, as the records 
of the church show that it required an order 
from Colonel !^^eL)onal<l, commandant of the 
trooi)s, to get him to conduct a service for the 

Kev. Lawrence (Iirelius was the last of the 
Swedish ))astors of "Old Swedes'." lie was 
recalled to Sweden in 1780. On his recall 
the vestry of the church petitioned the King 
of Sweden to send them an English sjteaking 
pastor. The increase of the luiglish sj)eaking 
jiopnlation ha<l caused the drt)pping out of the 
Swedish service, and the congregation was 
largely composed of English Churchmen; 
thei'e being no church of the Church of Eng- 
land nearer than Xew Castle, the churchmen 
had turned to the Swei^ish Lutherans, because 
of the similarity of their Protestant creed 
and of the st^rvices. During the latter ])art 
of the Kev. ,Mr. (iir(dius' pastorate, Holy 
Trinity ]iarish was rapiilly beconnug a Church 
of England ])arish. 

Upon the close of the war of Independ- 
ence, and the fidl evolution of a state and na- 
tional government, the vestry of the idiundi 
sought to settle .some \exing questions relating 
to the chureh ju'opcrty by Ijecoming Incor- 
]iorated under the laws of the State of Dela- 
ware, and the (diui'ch ceased to be a Swedish 
parisli; and, although nominally so during 
the transition ))eriod, "'Old Swedes' " was 
never really a C'hurch of England ])arish. It 
was one of the earliest ]")arishes of the Ameri- 
can Pi-otestant E]')i.scopal Church. 

After the incor]ioration of the vestry under 
the laws of Delaware, the vestry called Kev. 
William Pi-ice, of ]\rilford, a Clmrch of Eng- 

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land clergyman, to llie pastorate of tlie cliiircli 
and ho became tlie first English rector of "Old 

Thus was the ancient Swedish Lutheran 
Church transformed into an Auieriran Pro- 
testant Episcopal Church. 

'Jhc congregation of Holy 'i'rinity Church 
had at one time almost deserted the old build- 
ing. They built a church at the corner of 
Fifth and King streets, Wilmington, in 18-10. 
In 1SS3 they sold the King street church, or 
chapel, and removed to the new chapel on 
Adams street near Delaware avenue, and later 
into tlie splendid edirice at Delaware avenue 
and Adams street, which is tlie sixth ehm-ch 
building erected by the congregation of Holy 
Trinity, or "Old Swedes'," ]>arish since its 
founding, two hundred and sixtv vcars ago — 
in 1(j38. 

There are very few other remains of the 
Swedish colonists' biiilding left in AVilming- 
ton. There are several houses at the \\\iliiut 
street end of Spring alley, which are said to 
be of Swedish origin. A very tall brick 
structure, for those days, formerly stood at 
the French street end of Spring alley, which 
Avas said to have been erected by Ivev. Law- 
rence Girclius as a residence. It was torn 
down a few years ago to make room for a new 

What is believed to have been the last of 
the Swedish frame houses in "Wilmington, was 
for many j'cars a quaint old landmark on 
French street above Front, wliere the police 
patrol stable is now situated. A part of tliis 
ancient liuilding is eml)raced in the structure 
now \ised for ]iolice purposes. No stranger, 
without being informed of the fact, would 
suspect for a moment that the history of the 
old structure dates back to Swedish davs. 

Delaware To-Dav. 

Although it was not intended in this intro- 
ductory chapter to give a detailed and exhaus- 
tive history of the State, it was deemed best 
to give a pretty full account of the struggles 
of the Swedes and the Dutch for possession 
on the "South "River," as the latter called the 
Delaware. This has been done, and it now 
remains to glance hurriedly at the State and 
her three counties as they e.xist to-day. 

Delaware was one of the original thirteen 
States when the compact was formed, and 

she is next to the smallest in area of all the 
States that exist to-day. Owing to the lack 
of a careful oHicial survey, there is a contlict 
of opinion as to the uundier of square miles 
the State contains. Some wi-iters jdace the 
munber at !2,0O2.G; others at i',l(;o. From 
north to- south the State is uinety-tivc miles in 
length. The width at the extreme southern 
lioundary is thirty-rive miles. At Cape Ilen- 
lopen, however, it is only tweuty-rive miles 
wide, and it diminishes by the water Wuc of 
the bay, until at Ked Lion Creek, in Xew 
Castle county, it is only ten mile.-, while its 
northern end is twelve miles, caused by the 
radius of the twelve miles' circle. The line 
whicli se])arates Delaware from [Maryland 
starts at the Atlantic Ocean, and after run- 
ning duo west for thirty-four miles, turns at 
right angles due north to the tangental point 
on the New Castle circle. This boundary 
line, as has been stated, was run l)y Charles 
^fasoTi and Jeremiah Dixon, in 1763. They 
were English mathematicians and surveyors, 
and were sent here from England for that 

Delaware is situated between 38° 28' and 
30° 47' of north latitude, and between 74° 
SO' and 7r)° 40' of longitude west from 
(ireenwich. It is bounded on the north by 
Peun.sylvania, the Delaware River and Ray; 
.south by the State of IlLiryland; east by the 
Delaware IJiver and Bay, from a point twent}'- 
fonr miles from its northern boundary by a 
line of low water mark on the Jersey shore; 
thence to the radius of twelve miles north of 
New Castle; on the west by Pennsylvania and 
^laryland to the ]icriphery of the circle 
drawn in a radius of twelve miles from the 
coiu't hotise at the center of the town of New 
Castle, eomniencing at low water mark on the 
shore of New Jersey , north of New Castle, 
thence extending over the Delaware river and 
following its circumference until it again 
touches the shore of that state south of its 
railius of twelve miles from New Castle. Sole 
jurisdiction is given Delaware over the Dela- 
ware ]\ivcr and Bay by this circular line of 
bomidarv, from low water mark on the Jersey 
Shore, about a mile north of the mouth of 
Naaman's C^reek on the Delaware state side, 
for twenty-four miles southward, nearly to 
where Silver C"!reek entei's the river. 

Within this circular boundarj' are one or 
two ishiTuls, on one of ivhich Fort Delaware 

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is situated. The jurisdiction of the state be- 
low the circde extcuds to a line running down 
the middle I'f the Dcdawaro Lay as far as Cape 
JleiditjHi]; thence ahjng the Atlantic Ocean 
to I'cnwick's island in about '2i>^ '20' iiurtli 
latitude. Looking at the little state on the 
map it presents the appearance of a notch cut 
iu the SuUe of ]Mary]and. These pecidiar 
lines, the reader will bear in mind, were the 
result of the long and acrimonious ipiarr.'l 
between Lord Laltimore and William Penn, 
and their heirs, for more than a. hundred 
years, regarding the right of possession of cer- 
tain territory in their grants. 

'J'he story of Delaware, therefore, is a pe- 
culiar one when viewed in all its aspects. Its 
earlj' discovery and settlement; the struggle 
of its first settlers with the barbarians who in- 
habited its territory; the contrast and blend- 
ing of two races who sought a foothold on its 
shores; the transfer of old institutions to build 
up a new civilization; the intermingling of 
discordant adventurers; the progress of com- 
merce, having its beginning in a rude whaling 
enterprise; the establishment of churches 
and schools, the former of which still e.xist as 
a relic of the first colonists; the develop- 
ment of the principles of self-government 
from within and the active encroachment and 
conquest from without; the relations of Dela- 
ware with the Swedes, under the auspices <>i 
the famous Gustavns Adolphus, tlie Dutch of 
Holland, Great Britain, and the Quakers un- 
der the pjroprietary direction of the immortal 
William Penn. All these phases of Delaware 
history present picturesqtie scenes from real 
life, and afford the most instructive studies in 
national and personal character. The trials 
and vicissitudes of the early settlers were 
great, but at every period in their history 
they M'cre first in patriotism, and among the 
earliest in every movement related to national 
defense and the establishment of a free and 
indej)cndent government. The "three lower 
comities" were re])resented in the Continen- 
tal Congress, which met at Philadelphia, Sep- 
tember 5, 1774, to consider the momentous 
questions which resulted in the adojition of 
the immortal Declaration of Tndejiendence 
less than two years afterwards. She was the 
first of the thirteen states to ratify the Con- 
stitution of the infant Pepublie. The position 
of Delaware has always commanded resjurt, 
and her integrity has never been questioned. 

Ifer statesmen and herues have been among 
the ablest known to our history, and their 
abilities anil deeds have been of such a bril- 
liant character as to c<jmmand the admiration 
of all wlio lo\-e liiierly and admire lienor and 

TuE Tiii{];e Counties. 

Delaware is divided into three political 
divisions or counties, New Castle, Kent and 
Sussex, running south in the order iu 
wlijch they are named. The total popula- 
tion of the three counties, according to the 
census of IcSbO, was 130,608; in 18U0 the 
same authority gave them a total of 108,49.'], 
an increase in ten years of 31,885. At the 
same rate of increase the pojjulation of tlie 
State must now exceed 195,000. 

Xew Castle county, wliich occupies the 
northern end of tlie State, first assumed its 
boundaries in 1GT3. In that year the court 
defined its territory as lying north of the 
"Stecn Ivill," or Stony Creek, now at Quarry- 
villc. The first courts under English au- 
thority were held at New Castle, which not 
only served for many years as the capital of 
the State, but was the county seat until 1880, 
when a magnificent court house was built and 
occupied in the city of Wilmington, costing, 
inchuling the ground, $112,005.3:!; to this 
building the records were removed, and in it 
the courts have since been held. The move- 
ment to change the seat of justice to Wilming- 
ton was a source of jioHtieal contention for 
many yeai-s. 'J'he old court house in Xew 
Castle still stands, gray and time stained, a 
sacred relic of colonial daj's. Adjoining it is 
a substantial stone prison. The court house 
and jail are about six miles ai)art, and they 
are connected l>y trolley cars. Criminals, 
therefore, are tried, convicted and sentenced 
in Wilmington, and serve tlicir sentences in 
Xew Castle. 

The reader can form some i<h'n of tlie early 
wildness of the country where Wilmington 
now stands when informed that in 1070 
wolves were so jdentiful that the rmirt made 
an order offering "40 gilders" for each wolf 
head brought iu. This order not bringing 
about the destruction of these jicsts as rapidly 
as was desired, tlic court, on the .">lh of .Tan- 
nary, 1077, onlcre<l that the inhabitants 
"erect fifty wolf ]iitts along llie .Ntn^aiiis by 

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ilay 1st, under a furfeiture of To yildci^."' 
If wild animals were so abundant then, what 
luii-t liavc been the condition when the 
Swede-, came in 1G38? 

'Ilic jihrase, "Eastern Shore,'' then re- 
feri'ed ti.i a part of Xew- Jersey, wliirli was 
suppesed to be a part of Delaware. In cuurse 
of time it was applied to that jiart of ^laryland 
lying on the eastern side of Chesajjeake Hay. 
.V division of the county into assessment dis- 
tricts was made in 1077, soon after the setting 
oti'iif tliccounty, and they were the embryos of 
what afterwards became liundreds. Concern- 
ing tile origin of this term Vincent (p. 14j says 
they are the old luiglish method of sidj-divi- 
sions of counties. "They were sup])osed to 
liavc originated with King Alfred who ruled 
England, A. I). 877. But they are now 
known to have existed before liis time. Tlie 
name is believed to be of Swedish origin. It 
was used in England to designate a si'ttlement 
of one hundred persons or families. Througli 
the Swedes in Delaware it was introd\ice<l 
here, and is used to this day to desigmite the 
siib-division of a county into what are known 
in other states as townships. Delaware is tin; 
only state in the United States in which the 
term is used in ])lace of townships. .\nd hav- 
ing been in use for more than a century and a 
half it is not likely that the term will soon be 
abandoned. Xew Castle county now has the 
following hundreds: Brandy wine, Christiana, 
:\lill Creek, White Clay Creek, ]S;cw Castle, 
I'eucader, Red Lion, St. George's, Appoquin- 
imink, Elackbird, ten in all, outside of Wil- 
nungton, which is a district by itself. Wil- 
mington is di\ided into five legislative dis- 
tricts. Outside of the eity, each hundred is a 
legislative district, so tliat New Castle county 
has tifteen members of the TToiisc of Tieiire- 
sentatives, and seven senators. According to 
the census of 1800 New Castle county had a 
po])nlation of 97,182, but it now exeeeeds 
100,000 by several thousands. The same au- 
thority gave "Wilmington 01,431, but it now 
exceeds 70,000. The city has an area of 10.18 
square miles and 93.30 miles of streets; 91.15 
miles of water pipes, and 54 miles of sewers. 
It has 25 miles of electric street railways, and 
the service, for comfort and convenience, can- 
not be excelled. There are Gl miles of gas 
pijio, 10 parks and o])en places for recreation 
with an area of 254 acres. 

'i'iie total bonded in<lel)teilness of tiie citv 

on the 1st of duly, 1S97, was $2,018,700 
Total assessment f.'.r lS9?was $39,190,237. 
City tax rate, $1.40 per $100; county, OO cents 
per $100. The estinuited income for the year 
was $157,2.")7. .">(>. '{"lie city is divided iuto 
twelve wards. 

AVilmiiigt(Hi enjoys an abundance of pur 
water, mostly supidied from the Brandywin • 
Creek. The pumping caiiacity per day Is 
20,000,000 gallons, and the daily consumption 
averages (1,000,000 gallons. The receipts from 
water rents last year amounted to $ltir>,- 
407. 05. It has a tire alarm and i)ulice tele- 
graph system, eighty-one police officers, nine 
lire and four military conq)anies. 

Careful attention is given to education in 
Wilmington. The eity has twenty-eight pub- 
lie schools, about 10,000 scholars and 230 
teachers; one commercial college and ^evel•al 
[irivate educational institutions. 

Wilmington is the largest and the second 
oldest town in the state. Since 1880 it has 
been the seat of justice of Xew Castle county, 
the county courts being held in February, 
-May, September and Xovendjcr. It is also the 
i-eat of the Federal Courts for the District of 
Dcdaware, and has a hanilsonie stone Federal 
building wdiich cost $250,000. The postoHiee 
occnjiies part of this buihling. 

Wilmington has one state and five nation- 
al banks, two savings banks and six loan asso- 
ciations. The clearings of the six banks aggre- 
aa1ed $34,557,570 for the year ended Seiiteni- 30, 1N97. The city is noted as a mauufac- 
turing centre, Its princijial industries being 
ship-bnilding, morocco dressing, the eon^true- 
tion of railroad eai-s, and iron working, 'i'he 
Dupont powder works, wlii(di rank among the 
largest in the world, are in the vicinity of this 
city. During the war with Spain they were 
guarded by several military conqianies as a 
protection against incendiaries. ln\-ostments 
in manufactures aggregate $14,000,00!; 
value of prodticts, including custom work and 
repairing, $25,000,000; value of material 
used, $14,000,000; employees, 14,000; wages, 

The city has four water transportation lines, 
and four steam railway lines, the latter being 
the Philadelphia, AVilmington and Baltimore 
Ivailroad, the Delaware Kailroad, the Haiti- 
more and Ohio Kailroad and the AVilmington 
and Xorthern Bailroad. 

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STATE OF J )J: LAW .[]!!■: 


'i'wo lii^-tiiric stiTuius of water pass tlirmi^!! 
the eiiy. Tlie CliiiBtiaiia C'ruek (or river), is 
iiavigaLiie for sliipiiiiig. It was uaiiied in honor 
of Ciiristiua, the young (^uccn of yweilen, by 
tho Swedes wlieu they settled on its banks in 
H)'<ib. Tiie river, the Brandy wine, unites its 
waters with the Christina in the eity. On its 
banks,a few miles north of the city, was fouglit 
the famous battle of Brandywiue in Sejitem- 
ber, 1777. Aeeurding to Ferris (p. I'JCj it ob 
tained its name in this way: Originally it was 
called Fishkill by the Swedes, but during the 
i)uich oi'ciii)atiun in 1655 a vessel laden with 
bi^nuly was sunk near its mouth, in the 
iJuteh language it was then called "l>rand- 
wijn," which was corrui)ted into lirandywine. 

The city maintains the Wilmington Insti- 
tute Free Library, which has become an ex- 
ceedingly jiopular and valuable educational 
factor, .y ready it numbers over 30,000 vcd- 
umcs. In its reference department it is well 
su])plied with valuable books, and the facility 
they afford pupils in the high school for accjuir- 
ing information, is attested by the large nuni- 
bers that consult them dail}'. So great has the 
public demand for access to the library be- 
come, that it has been found necessary to keep 
it open from 8.30 a. m., to 10 p. m. Jlr. Wil- 
lis F. Sewall is the efficient librarian 

The Delaware Historical Society is another 
institution that is doing a great deal of good in 
the way df preserving state and local history, 
and putting it in form for easy reference. Its 
collections embrace much that is curious and 
valuaiile, in books, papers and relics. The 
SiM-icty occupies the original Presbyterian 
( linnli building Mhich was erected in 1740. 
It presents a (piaint, unicpie appearance, and is 
singularly ai)pro])riate to the purpose for which 
it is now used. Henry (J. Conrad, Esq., the li- 
brarian, is a man peculiarly fitted by taste as 
Well as acquirements for the jiositiou, and 
under his direction the Societ}' is in a flour- 
isliing condition. 

Wilmington has sixty-nine churches, mis- 
sions and meeting houses, many of which are 
elegant and imjw.sing structures; and so far 
a., quaintness and histoi'ic a.ssociations ai'e con- 
cerned, "Old Swedes'" stands without a rival. 
The (it v is not lacking in charities, ft has an 
-Associated Charities, two hospitals, a bahv 
hospital and homes for aged women, fi-ichd 
less children, aged colored pcreons and colond 
(.rjjhans, ami an industrial school for giijs. 

There are two tine theatres, and several audi- 
toriums, and 14U beneUcial societies. 

'I here i> some doubt as to the true (jrigin 
of the name, Wilmington. History informs 
us that in 1731 Thomas Willing became inter- 
ested in the improvement of a tract of land 
which he owned, and which lay between what 
afterwards became We.-.t, Fiencli, Water an,i 
Fourth streets. Jle laid out a few lots here 
and sold them, and in a short time a settlement 
grew up which was nicknamed "Willing's 
Town." Another account sa^-s that in the lat- 
ter ]iart of the year 1726 Thonms Willing mar- 
ried Catharine, eldest daughter of Andrew 
.lustison, i)robably a Swede. In 1727, Justi- 
bon purchased a plantation lying on tln' ( 'hris- 
tiana. lie assigned the same in 1731 to Wil- 
ling, who laid out some lots after the plan of 
Philadelphia. Willing having soon after that 
failed in busincs.s, the governor, in granting 
a charter for the town in 173!), nauieil it Wil- 
mington, in honor of the Flarl of Wilmington, 
who was esteemed a jierscm of great worth, 
ability and integrity, and had held a nundier 
of iiilices of responsibility in l']iiglan<l. He 
died unmarried in July, 17-13. It is therefore 
quite probable that Wilmingt(m was nanu^d in 
his honor; and the heretofore accepted idea 
that the name was merely a corriqition of 
"Willing Town." is thus shown to be incor- 

The settlement grew slowly until William 
Shipley, M'ith a number of Friends, came to 
its aid, and advanced its interests until it 
grew into a ])rosperous borough. It Avas in- 
corporated by act of tfie Legislature in 1832, 
under the name of "The City of Wilmington." 

Xew Castle has borne more names than any 
other town in the Fnited States. A few 
Swedes .settled there in 1038, and by them it 
was called Xew Stockholm. The Dutch built 
Fort Cassimer in 1051, and called the town 
Sandhoec and Xew Amstel. Afterwards the 
Swe.hs (see Life of Ceorge Read, p. 53) called 
it drape Wine P..inf, ami in 1075 it was 
known as Delaware T(iwn. The English, 
however, named it Xew Castle, and that title 
became permanent, it is the second largest 
town in the state, and it eaily entertained 
great exqiectations. Laid out in 1 (155, and long 
the seat f/f go\( mors, it naturally expected to 
liecame a ]ilace of note. ]\rany men of emi- 
nence and liigh standing as lawyers, judges and 
clergymen, have liv<'d ami di(Ml (here, 'i'liero 

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tlic Assembly in tlie days of tlic elder reiin 
met to frame laws, there important transac- 
tions took i)lace between leading men relating' 
to the political destines of the J'roviiu^e, and 
for many yeiu's it was the .Micca, so U> speak, 
whither all eyes were directeil wlien (piestions 
of moment were under consideration. 
. 'J'he iirst lawyer of ])elaware was admitted 
to practice in the Conrt at New Castle Novem- 
lier 7, 107G. The records show the following 
curious entry: "Upon the petition of Thomas 
Spry, desiring that he be admitted to jilcad 
some people's cases in C^ourt The AVorshij)- 
ful Court have granted him Leave so Long 
as the Petitioner Behaves himself well and 
carrys himself answcralile thereto." Whether 
S\y. Spry conducted himself in accordance 
with the order of the Court history fails to in- 
forms us. The ancient court house, with the 
additions made to it from time to time, still 
stands as a curious relic of colonial times. 
Trolley cars now sweep around it, and strang- 
ers look upon it with deep interest when in- 
formed that it was the early temple of jiistice 
in Delaware. 

Before Philadelphia was founded, Xew Cas- 
tle was the most important port on the Dela- 
ware rivei', and there ships generally came to 
anchor to report for orders. During the 
Scotch-Irish immigration the majority of 
these innuigrants landed here, ami from this 
jioint thousands of them made their way by 
land up throtigli the Chester Valley to the 
Susquelianna and points beyond. .Many, too, 
remained in the state an<l bccanut valualilc 
settlers. When the struggle for liberty came 
they were among the first to manifest their 
patriotism, not only here, but elsewhere, and 
as a race they became a ])owerful factor in 
nniking independence possible. The first ])re^- 
ident of Delaware in 1776 was a sturdy 
Scotch-Trishman, and as long as the Tvei)\ib]ic 
lasts the name of Dr. John ^TcKinly will be 
honored by every true son of Delaware. Ui^ 
patriotism cost him much suffereing an<l loss, 
but he never wavered; he liveil to see the flag 
of liliertv w-ave triumiihantly throughout the 
land, and died one of tlie most respected and 
honored of men. 

A majority of those Rcotch-Trish ininii 
crants were Presbyterians, and they success- 
ftiUv ]ilanted the doctrines of that church in 
the land of their adojjtion. Tt was ihrougii 
them that the Presbytery of New Ca-ilc 

lonnded, and by that body many young men 
were ordained and sent forth to preach the 
doctrines of tlie Presbyterian Church. 

Tet, with all the Haltering i)rospeets and 
bnght anii.-ipations of its pcojilo. New 
< aMh. eiiy never attained the greatness 
aiid distinction that were expected. Piiil- 
adel]ihia became the metrouolis on the 
Delaware, \Viliiiins.t,,n outstripped it in 
the race,^ and it settled down to quiet 
re;t, as it were, satislied tliat its race was 
run and its destiny fultillcd. And now, over 
two hundred and forty years old, the entire 
population of New Castle hundred is only 
about 0,000, and out of this number a little 
over 4,000 belongs to the city. Its quiet 
streets, antiquated buildings, and air of repose 
indicate its great age. A few manufacturing 
industries have been founded within recent 
years, but they have not been sufficient to im- 
part of that degree of activity required to in- 
fuse new life into the communitv. 

Kent Coc.vtv. 
Ne.xt ill order as we move down the penin- 
sula comes the County of Kent. It is the mid- 
dle one of the tier. Originally it formed a 
part of the 'Tloorn Kill" district, and became 
ill! independent territory under the name of 
St. Jones' County in ItiSO, and until Dover 
was laid out there was not a village of any im- 
portance within its borders. It was little bet- 
ter than a wild. When it was changed to 
Kent county is not certainly known, but it was 
probably done when, in November, 1G82, Wil- 
liam Penn summoned the magistrates of St. 
Jones and "Iloorn Kill" to meet him at New 
Castle, in order to confer regarding the con 
<lition of the people ami tiie territorv. In 
l<i>s;'., the year after this meeting, Penn or- 
dered Trover to be laid out. T]\q Ceneral As- 
sembly, sitting at New Ca.stle, a bill 
nuikjng Do\-er the State Capital IMav ] l\ 
1(77, and it has so continueil to the jiresent 

Dover is beautifully situated on a rich al- 
luvial ].laiii, at the head of ti.le on St. Jones' 
Creek, six miles west of Delaware Bav, thirtv- 
si.x north from (Vorgetown, the conntv .seat 
of Sussex county, and fortv-five south oif Wil- 
niin-fon. It was foiinde,! .soon after the ar- 
fival of AVilliam Pom,, bv English .settlers 
who were attracted thither by the beauty and 
Icrtibtv of (]„. land, an.l the means of 

;i ■■■,111 



foiiinmiiii-iititin witli tlie bay \\a hJt. Junes' 
L'ruuk, wliii-li is nmigablc IVir ^^iiiall VL-osels. 
Kiiil rdiihty L-uiitaiiis' IJ1;5 square miles and is 
(Ji\iiied intu nine lumdreds, viz: Duek Creek, 
J-ittle Creek, ]\enton, "West Dover, Kast 
Dover, ^Surtii .Munlerkili, South ^\rnr(lerkill, 
'J'iie euunfy is apportioned into ten liepre- 
sentative and five Senatorial distriets. Ae- 
cording to tiic census of ISDO Dover had a 
jiopnhition of 3,0(51. Tlie number has some- 
what increased since that time. The country 
surrounding Dover is higlily cuhivated and 
yields hixuriant crops. 'J'he surface is rolling 
and presents a cinu-ming appearance, 'i'hcre 
are many handsome residences in the town, 
which betoken wealth and culture on the part 
of their owners. The public buildings are 
jilain modern brick structures, facing the 
scpiare. As the House of Representatives con- 
sists of only thirty-five members, a large liall 
is not required for their accommodation. Tlie 
Senate is composed of seventeen membei-s, 
(•(insequently a small chamber suffices. The 
executive and other departments are in the 
same building, and are conveniently arranged 
f(ir the transaction of public business. The 
State Library, which contains a very f)ill col- 
lection of the laws, is convenient of access. In 
addition to legal books and general litera- 
tui-e, its unique treasure is a copy of one of the 
earliest ]iriiU(d Bibles known to be in exist- 
ence. This precious volume is, by direction 
of the Legislature, securely jjreserved in a 
glass case. A free circulating library, \\\'\\ 
su])plied with books, is kept in a room over the 
]i()st oftice, and is open to the public t\v<i days 
in the week. 

Dover is easy of access by railroad. AVhen 
its age and beauty of situation are considered, 
the wonder is that it has not attained greater 
^ize. IIowc\er, there is an air of quiet dig- 
nity about the place which favorably im- 
|jresses visitors, and on every hand there are 
exidences of refinement and culture, such as 
ale not fiiund in every state capital. Beauti- 
fully sl'iaded streets are inviting for drives in 
sunniier time. Churches and s<-hools betoken 
the good character of the inhabitants. In the 
cemeteries repose the remains of many men 
who were eminent as statesmen and divines, 
and their >tatcly mounments show that their 
nieiiiorie> have been sacredly preserved by 
tlio-e will) came after them. 

^lispillion Creek, which is the dividing line 
between Kent and Susse.K counties, also runs 
through the borough of Milford, a small por- 
tion of which is thrown into Sussex county. 
The ^Iispiili(jn is a stream of some magnitude 
and is navigable for several miles lor small 

The borough of .Milford was settled at an 
early date and many men of enunenco have 
lived within its bordei's. The rennuns of sev- 
eral governors of the state lie in its ceme- 
teries. It is pleasantly situated and contains 
many comfortable private residences which 
gi\i' e\idence of the refined taste of their 
owners. 'Jliere is one national bank, which 
does a thriving business. ?iIilford, according 
to the census of ISOO, had 1,-J20 inhabitants; 
but this does not do full justice to the town, as 
a jjortion of the population is absorbed by Sus- 
sex c(ninty. There are several jiretty villages 
in the countv, wliich has a po])ulation of over 

Sussex County. 
Sussex, which is the largest in territory of 
the three counties, contains 'JC5 square miles, 
and a population of nearly 30, 000. It is 
bounded north by Kent county and Delaware 
Bay, south by Maryland, east by Delaware 
Bay and the Atlantic Ocean, and west by 
^laryland. It is hard to determine the exact 
date of the creation of Sussex county. \t& ter- 
ritory originally belonged to "Iloorn Kill," 
and more by i)0]ndar consent than by official 
enactment "Iloorn Kill" (now Lewes) was 
recognized as the seat of justice from the es- 
taldishnieut of a trading post there in 1658 
until Georgetown was settled. As the terri- 
tory was large, and there were few roads, the 
town coidd be reached only by water. This 
was inconvenient for many of the inhabitants, 
and they comjdained. At the meeting of 
Wiliam Penn with the magistrates of "Iloorn 
Kill" and St. .Tones' county, already referred 
to. in November, 1082, the name of the county 
was changed to Sussex. The county seat, how- 
ever, remained at "Iloorn Kill" until 1791, 
when Ocorgetowai was selected and thither 
tlie recorils were removed. It has continued 
to be the county seat until the present time. 
The town is small, containing only about 1,500 
inliabitants, but it is pleasantly situated and is 
i-cached bv a branch of the Delaware Kailroad. 

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SusafX, uf course, takes its iiaiiiu truui Sus- 
sex in England. William Tenu had a wann 
side for tlie land whence he eanie, and took 
jdeasure, like the English innuigrant-s gener- 
ally, in periietuatiug many of the names he 
loved, in this country. I'enn was a thorough 
Englishman and staunchly upheld the cus- 
toms of own country. 

Sussex county, like the other two counties, 
is subdivided into hundreds. They bear the 
following names: Cedar Creek, Nauticoke, 
IJroad Creek, Little Creek, Uagsboro, (Jum- 
boru, Baltimore, Indian Kiver, Ceorgetown, 
IJroadkiln, Lewes and Kohoboth, Sealord 
The county is divided into ten legislative and 
live senatorial districts. 

As a general rule the soil of Sussex is sandy, 
and to bring it up to a good agricultural con- 
dition much hard work and a liberal use ot 
fcrtiliiccrs are required. Peacli raising is an 
extensive business, and some kinds of vege- 
tables are successfully cultivated. That the 
ocean once swept over this as well as adjoin- 
ing counties, is the opinion of geologists, and 
when the waters receded they left deposits of 


Peculiar distinction is conferred on busscx 
county by the fact that the first European 
settlement in the state was made, as has been 
shown, at what is now known as Lewes. 

A visit to this quaint old town is not with- 
out interest to the curious, and those who have 
a taste for antiquarian research. An odd lit- 
tle brick building, nearly square, standing on 
one of the principal streets, is pointed out as 
the "gaol" where justice was administered 
to criminals wlien the Court sat here many, 
many yeai-s ago. It is now used f(jr commer- 
cial piirposes. During the war of IS 12, Brit- 
ish war vessels infested the buy and made 
themselves a terror to the inhaljitants of the 
town. On one occasion they bombarded it, 
and two or three buildings are pointed out that 
were damaged by cannon balls. A story is 
still told that during the boinliardment a citi- 
zen bearing a white flag crossed the meadows 
and informed the eommaiuling oftieer that if 
he wished to do more execution he should ele- 
vate his guns. Thinking that he was a lory, 
the othcer acted on his advice, and tlie result 
was that nearly all the balls went over tlu^ 
town and landed in a ])ond in the, where 
many of them were afterwards f..iiiid. The 
ruse was a good one, and old residents .-till re- 
late the story \\\\\\ much gleo. 

There are nuuiy atiraeti\e anil pleasant 
places of residence in l.ewes. J-ooking across 
the wiile meadow in frt^nt of the town, y(ni 
will ?ee the hlue walei-.i of tin- jjay, ;iud far- 
ther in tlie di.-lance llie white eap^ of the At- 
lantic. 'I he great Delaware Lreak waler, liuilt 
as a proteeliun for \es-els from severe storms, 
is an immense sea wall. ..\s early as lM.'2 
Congress appropriated !t^L'i!,70U for erecting 
two piers. Sur\(_'ys were made by engineers, 
and the Work commenced. Little, hoWe\t'r, 
was dune towards pushing the work, and it 
languished until ISi^S, when Congress appro- 
priated !i;2.")U,0UO to carry it into effect. Eroui 
that time, the work was carried on with vigor, 
until millions of tons of stone had heen placed 
there, an<l millions of dollars exiieiided in 
comi)leting this great protection to commerce. 
Lehind this sheltering wall, vessels may ride 
in safety when the storm king sweeps over the 
sea. The Cape Ilenlopen light house risis 
to a height of 140 feet above the water and 
serves as a guide to mariners seeking safety 
within the Lrcakwatcr. 

Looking across the meadows in the direc- 
tion of the light house, the curious spectacle 
of an immense sand dune meets the eye. Here 
the wind has reared a mountain of sand whi<di 
has buried a forest of scrubby pines, leaving 
only the tops of the trees projecting. Spots 
of evergreen in a round, hard packed iiioun- 
tain of glistening sand, present a strange sight ; 
yet in some future freak of the wind, it may 
remove this colossal dune and rebuild it some- 
where else. 

.Many jiilots, who comluct vessels into the 
bav, and up as far as Philadelphia and retiirn 
\\w\\\ to the sea, reside in Lewes in cosy cot- 
tages, and a portion of the place is called 
"Pilot Town." They arc ever on the ahrt 
for vessels, to meet which their tug goes far 
out to sea: at night its brilliant seanh light 
iiiav he -cell sw<'e|iing the horizon for a sad. 

i'he population of l.ewes slightly exceeds 
:',,00(l. It is likely that it will grow very 
rajii'llv, but it will ever remain an important 
HKirine station on the bav. It has a brau-di 
,,f the Drkiware Kailroad, and the Queen 
Auiu^has reeentlv been operated from a point 
in Marvland to the pla-e. The town therefore 
is in easy e..ninnuiieation with the outer world 
l,v two routes. 

■ Much more might be written about the 
State, its many prcttv little towns, its curious 
ulaees of intere-t, it- ad\ance!nent in the cause 


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of L-ducatiuii from the fuiiiuliiig of ''Dolawure 
CuUege," at Newark, in 1821; its newspapers, 
its liaiikinp- iii.~titiitioiis, and the great water- 
way ciiniicctiiiii till' Delaware and ('lie^apeake 
Lay-, V, liii li ir, destined ere many years tu be- 
cunie an important sliip canal; but, as it was 
stated ill tlie outset of this ehaptcr, it was not 
intended^ U> attempt a ditl'iisive liistorieal 
sketch, the fiiregoiiig must sutiiee. ^Much val- 
uable history will be found in the chapter giv- 
ing the names of all the governors from ilin- 
uit to Tunncll. Nothing of the kind has evi-r 
been attempted in any preceding publi<'atioii, 
and it cannot fail to prove valuable for refer- 
ence. 'J'lie chapter on the judiciary of the 
state, condensed from Judge (irnbb's valuable 
ctmtribntion to the Historical Hociety, will 
show the rea<ler the many eminent lawyers 
and jurists of the state has produced. And in 
reading the biograjihical and genealogical 
sketches of many old families gi\en 
throughont the two massive volumes, no 
native Delawarean can refrain from feeling 
proud of his State. 'Jdiough small in territ(try, 
she has been great in men. Comparatividy 
speaking, no state can excel her in the pro- 
duction of eminent soldiers, statesmen and 
jiatriots. The name of ]\racdonough, as a 
naval hero, is a flashing jewel in her crown. 
And behold the liodneys, the liedfords, the 
Dickinsons, and a whole line of ])atriots whose 
resplendent deeds shine with a lustre that 
time caniKjt efface. And for true statcsmaii- 
slii]), where can a more illustrious lino bo 
jiriiutod out than we find in that afforded by 
the Bayards, the f'laytons and the Salisburys'? 
They proudly stand as the intellectual giants 
of Delaware. 

We can close this tribute to the "little 
State," Avith nothing more appropriate in 
words and sentiment, than the poem entitled 
"Our Delaware," composed and dedicated to 
"The Sons of Delaware," by Joshua Pusey, 
and sung to the air of "!My Maryland": 
Our little State of Delawai-cj, 

Delaware, our Delaware ! 
Now, brothers all, let rn)ne forbear ! 

Sitif^, '"Delaware, our Delaware '" 
Proud ortspring of the azure bird. 
With swelling' tones our hearts bo stirred, 
And loud our praiseful song be heard : 
"Delaware, our Delaware !'' 

Our beloved State of Delaware, 

Delaware, our Delaware ! 

Can she be equalled any where V 

Delaware, our Delaware I 
Pill liitrh the cup with diaught divine, 
Not potion brought from forei;;n clime 
But dei'piy drink old liraruly wiiu- 

To Delaware, our Dciawai-e ! 

Our knit^htly State of Delaware, 
Delaware, our Delaware ! 
Of courtly men and ladies fair 

lieyond compare — our Delaware 
Where love on beauty ever waits, 
Where brother help ne'er hesitates — 
The diiunond in thi; crown of States I 
Delaware, our Djlaware I 

Our precious State of Delaware, 
Di'laware, our Delaware ! 
Her fields nor gold nor silver bear, 

Delaware, our Delawai-e 1 
But flower and peach and golden corn 
O'ertlowing I'lenty's bounteous horn. 
Are jewels "to the manor born" 

In Delaware, our Delaware 1 

Our glorious State of Delaware, 
Delaware, our Delaware ! 
Of Rodney, Clayton, Hayard rare, 

Delaware, our D.Unvare 1 
A land of true historic pride, 
-V land where heroes liv,_-d and died. 
Their Country loved, her foes defied — 
Delaware, our Delaware ! 

Our free born State of Delaware, 

Delaware, our Delaware ! 
She's ever loved sweet Freedom's air, 

Delaware, our Delaware ! 
Since Swedish tongue her land bespoke 
Since Holland's guns her echoes woke. 
Since came Britannia's hearts of oak- 
Delaware, our Delaware ! 

Our noble State of Delaware, 

Delaware, our Delaware I 
Our thoughts are ever turning there. 

To Delaware, dear Delaware ! 
Where men are of heroic mould, 
Where duty leads— not sinful gold, 
Where mem'ries cluster 'round the old. 
In Delaware, our Delaware I 

Our loyal Sla;e of Delaware, 

Delaware, our Delaware I 
Thy watch- word be : "To do and dare. 

Delaware, our Delaware I 
Or gentle peace be evei-more, 
Or Honor loose the dogs of war, 
Let manly virtues guui-d thy door, 
Delaware, our D.-laware I 

Our little State of Delaware, 

Delaware, our Delaware 1 
O God 1 forever be Thy care, 

Delaware, our Delaware ! 
From good old Sussex' farthest lea. 
From bi-ight Henlopcn's sparkling s 
To the arch of her north boundary, 
Delaware, our Delawai-e I 

V .t, I 


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i;i()(;i;.\pnic.\L kscycloj'edia 

Governors ok Dioi.awakk. 

Although small in extent and population, 
when eonipared with some of the great States 
of this Union, Delaware has had a long lint: 
of governors sinee the first settlement of white 
mill was made within her territory, and many 
of them have been noted for their ability and 
high attainments in eivil and military life. 
In lt;()7, J. Henry Kogers, Estp, of New 
Cattle, eompiled and printed a list of the gov- 
ernors of the State from 1027 to 18G7, cui- 
braeing a period of two hundred and forty 
years. In order to give the dates of serviee 
correctly he devoted much earc to the pre])ara- 
tion of this list, e<i[)ie.s of whieh are now hard 
to obtain. His dates during that long jjeriod 
will in this chapter be followed in their chron- 
ological order but in addition to the time of 
service of each governor a brief biographical 
sketch will be given, which, it is believed, will 
nnike the comiiilation more valuable to tin.' 
general reader, as well as greatly facilitate the 
work of any one who may be searching f(jr in- 
foi'mation relating to any particular official. 
Nothing of the kind has been given in any 
history of Delaware heretofore printed. 

J'eter IMinuit is generally regarded by his- 
torical writers as the first legitimate gover- 
nor of the settlements on the Delaware. His 
claim is based on the fact that on the 1st of 
^lay, 1(')27, (iustavus Adoljihus, in granting 
the cliarter for the Swedish West India Com- 
pany, said it should be considt-red as com- 
Jiii'ncing on that date; when in fact it was 
date.l at Stockholm June 14, liiL>(), but di<l 
not become operative till over one year later. 

In the meantime Peter Minnit appears on 
the stage of action. He was a native of Wcsel, 
l^henish Prussia, where he was born about 
15S0. "When a young man he removed to 
Holland, where he resided for several years. 
On the liith of December, 1()2."), he was ap- 
jiointed by the Dutch AVest India Company its 
«lirector in the Xew Xetherlands. The com- 
])any gave him enlarged jxiwers, so that he 
may very ])roi)er]y be called the tirst governor 
of -Vew Xetherlanils. He sailed from Amster- 
dam, landed on Manhattan Island ^^lay 4, 
ICiiT), and purchased it from the Indians for 
trinkets that were valued at about pH. Ow- 
ing to some difficulty which soon afterwards 
arose with the home govcruunnl he was re- 
called. Til the conr-c of ii few vrars he of- 

fered his services to the Swedes and Finns, 
was acce[)ted, and sailed for Delaware Bay in 
\{')'61. Having maile the voyage with safety, 
hi' began in .March, lO.'lS, to Iniild Fort Chris- 
tina, S.I iia.nicil in ii. nor of tlic voimg daugh- 
ter of (liistavus Adoli)hus, afterwards (^ih'cu 
Christina. This settlement, it is claiiiU'd, was 
the tirst perinanc'iil one made on thi; Delaware 
river by white men, aitiiough attempts iiad 
been made before at jioiuts lower down the 

(ireat strife ensued between the Dutch and 
Swedes, and a feml existed for several years, 
on account of prior possession by the Dutch. 
Different parts of the present territmy on the 
Delaware were held by each of those nations 
till the Swedes were subdued by the Dutch 
in 10,'),"). 

In the meantime William Kieft ( 1<)38), 
had been appointed Director (ieneral of the 
N^ew Xetherhinds to succeed Peter ]\Iinuit, 
and he iirotested against !Minuit's settlement, 
on the ground of prior possession. 


The Swedish governors may be enumer- 
ated as follows: In 1G27 Peter !Minuit began 
his government, was dispossessed, resumed in 
ItioS, and retired in 1G40. By some writers 
it is asserted that ifinuit died in, 1041 at Fort 
( hristina, which he built; others declare that 
he was lost in a storm at sea about this time. 
The latter statement is correct. After ar- 
ranging e\erything in the colony on the Dela- 
■>vare he set sail for the West Indies with a 
cargo of goods, to exchange for tobacco as a 
valuable return cargo to Old Sweden. He was 
successful, and was ready to sail for the Dela- 
ware when he and the caittain of hir> ship ac- 
eepted an invitation to visit a Duteh ship. 
While enjoying the hospitalities t)f the Dutch 
caj)tain, a violent hurricane arose and all the 
vessels, to the number of twenty, in the har- 
bor of St. Chri-'topher, were driven out to 
SI a. All were seriously damaged and some 
were never seen again, having gone to ilie bot- 
;om of the sea. .\mong the latter was the 
"Flying Deer," with C.overnor .Minuit and 
the cajitaiu of his ship aboard. 

'■Such," says Pev. Cyrus Cort. in his me- 
iiKU-ial address, ''was the .-ad end and un- 
linielv death of the gifted and eiiteriirising 
founder of ei\il c,,\ ciaiineut on the baid-;s of 

r M •- ' 1 , 

1.(1. I .< II i 


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11 • ' ij 


liic lliid-uii ami iilao on till' banks of the Dehi- got, daugliter of John I'rintz, iuul they con- 

ware; tliu pioneiT governor of C liristian eoia- liniiid to re>iile in tlie family home at Tiiii- 

monwealthb in the jS^ow Worlil."' (.nm. It s-u hajniened that Printz never re- 

Lieatenanl I'eter llollender, or llollen- iiirned to this i-oiintry. Jle was aj^jointed 

tiaie, jiieeeeded ^Minuit, being eomniissioned i^enera! in the JSwedi-^h army, and in 1G.")S, 

tiovemor of ^'e\v Sweden, and arrived wiili i^uvtrimr nf the dirtriet of Jonkoping. Jle 

troll imniij;niHts on the 11th of April, IGld, died in 1(JG3, without nude issue, and the 

ju^t as the.iohiny hud rcsidvcd to break \ip. family t'lided with him on the Swedish side. 

Jldlkuder infused new life into the settlement His daughter, Mvi. Arniagot Papegoija, in- 

and ,-erved as governor from 1(340 to Kill'. hciitcd the estate on Tinicum, and lived there 

Karly writers reiH'csent him as a native Swede tor some time; she, too, finally returned to 

;ind a knight, but no mention is nuide of his Sweden whither her Imsband preeeded her. 

iirlli and parentage, lie returned home to John Claudius Rising was appointed the 

Swi den, and was a major in the military ser- suceessor of J'rintz in 1054. lie administered 

vire at Siorkholm in the year 10,15. Time the alYairs (d' the enlony until 1055, when the 

iind plaec of death unknown. Dutch from .Manhattan, under Stnyvesant, 

John I'rintz, governor from 104:5 to 1054, ( ajiHired the forts on the Delaware, took Ris- 

was a rennn-kable man. He was blutf and iiig ]irisoner ami sent him home. His history 

irascible. His Dutch contemporary, De Vries, after his departure is obscure. 

describes him as "C'aiJtain Printz, who weighs 

four hundred jxiunds and drinks three horns 

at every meal " I le was born in Sweden about j)^,^^,„ Oovkhnors. 
10(111 and ,lied 111 1003. After well directed 

stiKlies in home and foreign universities, ho In 1029 "Walter Van Twiller was appointed 
iiiiind his attention to niilitar}' life and rose governor of New Amsterdam and of the set- 
therein, during the Prussian and (ierman tlements on the Delaware. In lOLiS he was 
^^ar, until, in the year 103S, he became lieu- succeeded by William J\ieft. He served un- 
tenant eolduel of cavalry. In 1040 he shame- 'il KilO, when the irascible Peter Stnyvesant 
fully and disgracefully surrendered the fort- "as appointed, who continued to act as gov- 
less of ( hemuitz, and thereupon left his com- criior until 1004, when the Dutch settlements 
mand without the authority of his superior in Xortli America were surremlereil to the 
(jlHcer, and returned to Stockholm. Here he Knglish. 

was put under arrest; but after si.\ weeks was Peter Stnyvesant, who figui'es so conspicu- 
di-inisst(l on parole. Ho was tinally court- ously in the history of these colonies, was born 
niartialed and sentenced to be deprived of his i" Priesland in lOOi', and dit'd in ,Vew York 
commis-ioii, whi(di sentence \vas ajiproved, (formerly .\ew Aiii-tenlam), in 10^2. Stiiy- 
Fcbruary 17, l(i41. But his wife and children, vesant was the son oi a idergyjiian, and early 
who, with their furniture, had been ])laced mi- in life evinced a taste for the military profes- 
dcr arre-t, had been upon his humble petition sioii. He served in the West Indies, and was 
released in 1040. It seems that Printz soon made governor of the colony of ( 'uracoa. 
gained fav(jr with the civil authorities, for on During the unsuccessful attack on the Portu- 
Ain^iist 10. 1042, he was ap])ointed governor iiuese island of St. ^lartin he lost a leg, after 
of Xew Sweden. During his administration whicdi he returned to Ibdlaud. Soon after- 
he maintained with little assistance from home wards Stnyvesant was appointed Director 
the sui)reiiiacy of the Swedish Crown on the (ieiierai of Xew Amsterdam, took the oath of 
Delaware ai;ainst the Dutch. He kept up office July 28, 1040, ami reached there ilay 
fort- at AVilmington, on Tiuicuni Island, 11, 1047. The name, Xew Amsterdam, was 
where he le-ided, and at the mouth of the officially announced February 2, 1053. In 
Schuylkill. l?eeomiiig tired of waiting for l<i05, Stnyvesant sailed in to the D(daware 
support ill the settlement of certain matters, l{i\(r with a fleet of seven vessels, manned bv 
lie went to Sweden in person in the year 1052, seven hundred men, and took po.sse.ssion of 
after having been here ten years. In his place the colony of Xew Sweden, which lie called 
he appointed his son-in-law, John Papegoija, Xew Anistel (now known as X^ew Castle), 
\ i((-a<iveriior. Paiiegoija liad married .\rma- on the Delaware. 

I-' ! I. ,( 

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The following were dcj)uti(_s of (iu\iTii(jr 
StuyvesaiU on the Delawaic: in lijjo, Joim 
I'iHil Jacquott; lUoT, Joliu Alrichs; ItioSi, 
Alexander D'liinoyossa; lliol), Cjerardus 

English Goveunoks. 

In ll)(J4, IiieliarJ JSicolls Lecanic governor, 
and held the otiiue until 1007, when Franeis 
Lovelace was appointed. In July, 1U73, the 
L)uteh seized on the colony and held it until 
1U?4, during which time Anthony L'olve was 
governor. October 1, lOd-l, the colony passed 
into British control under the Duke of York, 
who claimed the territory as part of his grant 
in ]\[aryland. New Amstel surrendered to 
Sir Kobert Carr, who was sent by Charles II. 
with a fleet to subject the country. Having 
accomplished his purpose. Sir liobert, on the 
3d of JS^oveniber, 1GG4, changed the name to 
K^ew Castle, which it has borne to the pre.-<ent 
day. It was so named in honor of the Duke 
of Xew Castle. 

When the English succeeded the Dutch the 
colonists, consisting of Swedes, Dutch and 
English, became subject to the laws and gov- 
ernment of the Duke of York. Thereupon 
the judicial system of England was steadily 
introduced by the royal government. 

In 1C74 Sir Edmund Aiidros was nnide 
governor, and continued until the grant by 
the Duke of York to William Penn, dated 
■August 24, 1G82. On the 24th of October 
following, William Penn arrived at New 
Castle, and after a brief visit re-embarked and 
sailed up the river to Avhat is now Chester, 
where he went ashore for a short time and 
proceeded to the work of organizing his gov- 
ernment. This work accomplished, he vested 
the executive power in his council, of which 
Thomas Lloyd was president, and sailed for 
England June ]2, 1G83. 

In the meantime the Duke of York having 
conveyed to Penn the three counties now 
constituting the State of Delaware, and then 
called "the territories," these were, by the act 
of union in 1082, annexed to the Province 
of Pennsylvania under a common govern- 
ment. Altho\igh, in 1704, the Delaware 
counties, with Penn's consent, permanently 
withdrew from all co-legislative union with 
said province and established their own separ- 
at(> asseinbly and subsequently had their own 

district judirial tribunals, yet they reuiuined 
subject to the proprietary and royal authority 
until the revolution of 17 TU. 

In lUbb James Blackwell was appointed 
Lieutenant (iovernor, but he returned U) luig- 
land in Decendier of the same year. 

On the 21^t of October, 1U'J2, owing to 
some dJIiiiulty or nnsunderstanding with 
Penn, the King of England seized on the 
government and entru.-^ted it to Governor 
Fletcher, of Xew York, who, in IG'jy, aj)- 
pointed AVilliam :Markham his deputy, be- 
cause the of the three lower counties 
had requested tiiat he be designated as their 

In 1G94 the government was re^Iored to 
William Penn, and he appointed William 
]\Iarkham lieutenant governor. Five vears 
afterwards, or in December, IGli'J, William 
Penn arrived the second time in America. In 
1701, on his going to England again, Andrew 
Hamilton was appointed lieutenant gover- 
nor. Jle died in 1702, when President Ship- 
jien exercised the office until February, 1703 
or 1704; John Evans then became governor, 
and continued until February, 1708 or 1709. 
Charles Gookin succeeded him and adminis- 
tered the government from the close of John 
Evans' term until ]\Iay 31, 1717, and for a 
second term, expiring June 22, 172G. Patrick 
Gordon, his successor, served from the latter- 
date to his death, August 5, 173G. James 
Logan, president of C(Uincil, then acted as 
governor until June 1, 1738, when (Jeorge- 
Thomas came into the office and served fronr 
Jun^e G, 1747, to October, 1748. 

From this time to the close of the Penn 
regime the line of governors was as follows: 
James ILunilton, October, 1748, to October, 
1754; Piobert Hunter ]\f orris, from October^ 
1754, to August, 1756; William Denny, froni 
August, 175G, to November IC, 1750; James 
Hanujton, from November, 1759, to October 
20, 17C3; John Penn, from November, 17G3, 
to 1771; Richard Penn, from October, 177l' 
to 1773, and from this date to the Declara- 
tion of Independence. 


After the Declaration of Independence, 
and under the Constitution of September 20, 
177G, the chief executive officer was termed 
President, and the title was continued until 

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llie adi'ptioii ui the Constitution uf l?i.ii'. 
Tliose who o(-T\fd as pl■(■^i^l(_■nts weio as fol- 

,)(iliii ^IcKinly, tlic first president (or gov- 
trnor), was inaugurated February 21, l^i7, 
and administered the att'airs of tlie State until 
his eapturt' hy the Jiritisii on the niyiit of yej)- 
irndier 1:.', -1777. Jle was born in Ireland, 
February 1*4, 1721, and died in Wilmington, 
August 31, 17'JU. lie studied niedieine in 
]rehind, and when he eanie to this country 
early in life, eommenecd practice in Wil- 
iningtc>n, where he attained eminence. Being 
a man of public spirit and versatile talents, he 
wa- cailcMl on to fill several local offices during 
till- exciting times that preceded the Iievolu- 
tion. 'i'he night after the battle of Brandy- 
wine, a di'tachment of British soldiers was sent 
to AVilmington to effect his capture and secure 
plunder, 'i'hey took the governor from his 
lied, and placed him on board of a shallop that 
was lying in the river laden with pluiuler, 
incduiling the public records, ))late and jewels. 
lie was held in captivity until August, 177S, 
^\ lien he was allowed to return home on pa- 
rule, anil remained there until the close of the 

After the capture of President Mclvinly 
the pn-idiucy of the State devolved on 
( u(.rgf la-ad, as speaker of the Legislative 
( 'uuuL-il, but as he soon after left the Dela- 
ware on important business, Thomas ilcKean, 
speaker of Assembly, administered the office 
luitil January, 1778. 

Caesar Bodney served from January, 1778, 
to January, 1782. lie was a distinguished 
citizen of Delaware, a member of congress, 
a signer of the Declaration of Independence, 
and a major general of militia; he was in com- 
mand of Trenton some time after its capture. 
His history will be found more fully de- 
tailed in another jiart of this work. 

.riihu 1 )ickinson was inducted into office 
Januaiy, 17^2, and served to Jan\iarv 13, 
17^.'!, when he resigned, lie was succeeded 
by John ( 'dok, presi<lent of the Legislative 
Counril, who served from January 13, 
17S.'', to February 8 following. Of John 
Dickin-on little need be said here, as his his- 
tory is so well known. lie was born in ifary- 
land, Xovember 13, 1732, and died in Wil- 
mington. February 14, 1808. Ilis father, 
Sanniel D. Dickinson, became chief justiro of 
Kent county, and died Julv fi, 1700, :i-rd 

te\enty one years. John Dickinson studied 
law in Bhiladelphia and London; wa-^ a mem- 
ber of the Bennsylvania Assembly in 1 ?(]!:, 
and of the Colonial Congress, whi<di met in 
Aew York to oppose the stamp act in 1?GJ. 
lli^ was a niendier of the First ( 'unnnental 
Congress in 17/4, antl tin: author of many 
able letters and papers. In June, 1/70, he 
(jpj)osed the adoption of the Declaration of 
Independence because he doubted the wisdom 
of the measure. However, ho was patriotic 
and entered the army as a private soldier; iu 
1777, he was commissioned a brigadier gen- 
eral. In April, 1771), he was elected to Con- 
gress fiom Delaware, and in 1780 was a mem- 
ber of the Delaware Assembly; in the fol- 
lowing year he was elected president of the 
State. In 17b3 he was intiuential in found- 
ing aiul in largely endowing Dickinson Col- 
lege at Carlisle, Pa. The renuiining seven 
years of his life were passed in AVilmington. 
lie died February 14, 1808. 

Concerning the history of John Cook, who 
became governor by virtue of his position as 
president of the Legislative Council, and who 
was the first acting governor of the State after 
the Declaration of i)eace in 17&3, ctnupara- 
tively little is known, lie was probably a 
native of Kent county, but the dates of his 
birth and death cannot be ascertained. It is 
probable that he was the father of Dr. Boliert 
( 'ook, who was born in Kent county. He mar- 
ried the widow of (Io\i-rnor Daniil Bogers, 
and lived anil died in South !Milfoi-d. 

Xiidiohis Yun Dyke, goveriuir from Febru- 
ary 8, 1783, to October 27, 17SG, was born 
in Xew Castle county, September 25, 1738, 
and died there February 19, 17S'J. He stutlicd 
law and attained eminence at the bar. On 
the breaking otit of the Bevolution he at once 
identified himself with the cause of indepen- 
dence and took an active part in political and 
military affairs. As his name indicates, he 
was of Dutch descent. In the military ser- 
\'u-o he was a major of militia. He was sent 
to Congress in place of Hon. John Dickinson 
and John Evans, who declined to serve, and 
was a signer of the Articles of Confederation. 
He was the father of Nicholas Van Dyke, Jr., 
an able and eloquent lawyer, a Ignited States 
Senator, and the maternal grandfather of the 
late Victor Dupont. 

Thomas Collins, governor from October 
27, 17sr,, to his ileath iu ]\rareh. 17S',i. was 

W '\ \ 

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Lorn ill 1732, ami d'wd iioar J)uck. ( 'nvk, 
Kiiit county, lie was for jJOUk- lime liigli 
slieriff of Kent county, and a ini'uilit'r of 
Council for four years. He scrAcd as l)riga- 
diur general of militia from 177(i till 17S}; 
was a member of the Assemhly and chief jus- 
tice of the Court of Common Pleas. As he died 
before the end of his term of office, the unex- 
pired ])ortion, which ended June li, following, 
was tilled by Jehu Davis, Speaker of Assem- 
bly. Joshua Clayton succeeded to the regu- 
hir term June 2, 1789, and served to January, 
1793. With the close of this term the title 
was changed, under the Constitution of i;OL', 
from President to (iovenior. 

GovERxoRS Under Co.nstitutiox of 1792. 
Joshua Clayton succeeded himself January, 
1793, and served until 1790, being the lirst 
governor elected under the new Constitution. 
Governor Clayton was a physician by profes- 
sion, and during the Hevolution introduced 
a substitute for I'eruvian bark. Just before 
his death, which occurred August 11, 179S, 
near ^liddletown, he was chosen United States 
Senator. He was the father of lion. Thomas 
Clayton, the last chief justice of the Court 
of Common Pleas under the Constitution of 
1792, and the first Chief Justice of Delaware 
uiuler the Constitution of l.s;!l. 

(iunning IJedford succeeded to the gover- 
norship, January, 1790, and adnunistered the 
ollii'e until his death, Septend)er 28, 1797. 
The office was then filled by Daniel IJogers, 
Speaker of the Senate, until January. 17!I9, 
Avhen he resigned and was succeeded by 
Eiehard Bassett, who ser\ed from January 
to ]\farcli, 1801, when he, too, resiguej. 
James Sykes, Speaker of the Senate, then be- 
came governor, and filled o\it the remainder 
of the term, ending January, 1S()2. (iovenior 
Bedford was born in Phihuieljihia about 1730, 
and died near New Castle, as stated above.' 
During the French and Indian war he served 
as a lieutenant. He entered the Pevolution- 
ary Army as major and deputy quartermaster 
general, Xew "I'ork Department, July 17, 
17 75; was lieutenant colonel of a Delaware 
regiment, under Colonel Haslet, January 19, 
1770, to January, 1777. He was- wounded 
at "White Plains October 28, 1770; was also • 
muster master general from June 18, 1770, 
to Ajjril 12, 1777. He was a d.l.izale to Con- 
gress from Delaware, 1783 to 17s:.. 

Daniel Kogers, who succeeded (iunning- 
Bedford, by virtue of his position as president 
(d the Legislative Council, was a .son of James 
Pogers, and was born rianuary 3, 1751, in Ae- 
eoiiiac county, \'irginia. (ioxcriior Poger* 
died February 2, lM)(i, at his rc-idence in 
South ;Milf'ord, Sussex county, D.'lawaie, 
aged fifty-two years and thirty days. 

liichard iJassett, who succeeded Daniel 
Pogers, and served from January to .March, 
1801, when he resigned on account of hav- 
ing received from President Adams the ap- 
pointment of United States circuit judge, was 
born at Bohemia ilanor,iId., in 174,'.,an(l(lied 
in September, 1815. He was a lawyer by pro- 
fession, and a member of (^"ongres.^ under ilie 
old Confederation in 1787; also a member of 
the convention that framed the Federal Con- 
stitution. From 1 789 to 1793, he was United 
State.^ senator and was tlie first man that cast 
a vote in favor of locating the United States 
cajiitol on the Potomac. He was a presiden- 
tial elector in 1797, and voted for John 
Adams. His only daughter, Anne, became 
the wife of James A. Payard, 2d, who siiiued 
the treaty of (ihcnt. lie was buried at Bo- 
hemia :\lanor, by the side of his distingui-hed 
son-in-law, who died in the same month, (iov- 
eriKU- P.assett probably descended from Wil- 
liam Bassett, of Plymouth, England. The 
name of Bassett has become extinct. 

James Sykes, who succeeded Pichard Bas- 
sett and acted as governor from 1801 to 1802, 
was born near Dover, ilarch 27, 1701, and 
died there October IS, 1822. Hi. father, 
James Syke.s, held sevi'ral oflices in the State 
during and after the Pevolution, and Avas a 
delegate to Congress in 1777-8. James Sykes, 
Jr., sttidied medicine and became renowned 
as a surgeon. Later in life he was a mend)er 
id' the State Senate, over which he ]n-e>ided 
for nearly fifteen years, and it was by virtue 
of his ])osition as president of the Senate that 
the office of governor devolved upon him 
when Bassett resigned. 

David Hall, who served as governor from 
Jannai-y, 1S02. to January, 1,S05, wa^ a dis- 
tinguished patriot and active as an olHcer dur- 
ing the Pevolution. He was born in Lewes 
Sussex county, January 4, 1752, son id" David 
an.l :\lary Pollock Hall, and died at the place 
of his birth September 18, 1818. After re- 
ceiving such an education as the times af- 
forded, he studied law, and had banlv i i- 

meiiced lu-actice when the war of the lu'Vo- 

(U I 

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lutiou bloke uut. Although quite young, lie m'i\c-(I twolvc ycar.s as judge of tlie court. In 

iiiiuiediatoly joined Colonel Haslet's i)ela- IS 1 7 he received tlie vote of the eleetoral eol- 

ware regiment, and became an officer in tiie lege of Delaware for vice-president of the 

line. He was severely wounded at the battle I'nited States. He was elected to Congress 

of (.iermantown, and did not afterwards re- in X^'l'l, and in 1827 .ser\'ed a short time as 

join his regiment. I'nited Slates Senator, when he withdrew and 

Nathaniel ^litchoU came ne.\t in the line retired to private life. Covernor IJodney's 

of governors, and served from 180o to 1808. long life was staiidess. He was an early oppo- 

He was born in 17d3 in Sussex county, Dela- nent of slavery and was one of the originators 

ware, and died near the place of his birth, of an Abolition Society in the first years of 

iebruary I'l, 1S14. Covernor ilitchell was the nineteenth century. 

a distinguished othcer in the Kevolutionary John Clark became governor in January, 

army antl saw much hard service. See sketch 1817, and served till within a few days before 

elsewhere in this work. the third Tuesday \m January, 18'_'0, when he 

(Jeorge Truitt was governor from January, resigned, and Henry ^lolleston, then gover- 

1808, to January, 1811. He was born in nor-elect, having died between October and 

1740, and died at Camden, l~)elaware, Octobe.- Janiuiry, Jacob Stout, speaker of the Senate, 

8, 1818. e.\treise<l the duties of tlu^ otlice until Janu- 

JoseiJi Haslet, governor from 1811 to arv, IS-Jl. (iovernor Clark died at Smyrna, 

1814, was a son of Col. John Haslet, who fell in August, 1821. Jacob Stout, who acted as 

at the head of his regiment on the morning gd\crnor for aiiout one year, was lieutenant 

of the battle of Princeton, January :!, 1777. go\-ei-nor w hen the vacancy occurred. 

His widow was so prostrated on rccci\ing the John Collins was inaugurated in January, 

news of the death of her husband that she 1821, and held the (jfHce of go\ernor until 

soon after died of grief, leaving several small April lo, 1822, when he ilied. Caleli liod- 

children. Joseph, the subject of this sketch, uey, speaker of tlie Semite, then became the 

was roared under the guardianship of AVilliam acting gttvei-nor, and finished the term in 

ICillen, chief justice, and afterwards (diancel- .January, 182:!. (Iovernor Collins died at 

lor of the State. On arriving at majority he Wilmiugtou. 

removed from Kent county and establisheil Joseph Haslet, who served a term as gov- 

himself as a fanner in Cedar Creek hundred, ernor from ISll to 1814, was again elected, 

Sussex county. He discharged with great was inaugurated in January, lS2o, and served 

credit the functions of the gubernatorial until June of tiie same year, when he died. 

otHcc, the burden and responsibility of which Charles Thomas, then speaker of the Senate, 

were greatly enhanced by the AVar <if isi-j. became the acting go\'ernor until the cxpira- 

In 1>22 he was again elected governor, tlie tiou of the term in January, 1824. 

only ca~e of a second election to that <iltice Samuel I'ayiiter serveil as governor from 

in the Jiistt.ry of the State. He died before 1824 to 1827. He was Ixirn in 1 f-''^ at the old 

completing his second term in June, ls2.'i. homestead at Payiiter's Drawbridge. His 

A resolution passed by the Assembly of Dela- father, who was alsi. named Samuel, was an 

ware, Februar_y 21, 1801, directed that a Kngli^limaii by birth. (Iovernor I'aynter was 

monument should be erected at Dover to com- elected (jh the k'edcral ticket in 182:). In 

meniorate the name and public services of 1844 he was elected a member of the House 

Go\criior Haslet; this resolution was carried of Representatives ou tlie Democratic ticket, 

out. The epitajJi inscribed on the monument He dii'<l October 2, 184."), and is buried at 

is a splendid tribute to this distinguished son Lewes, 

of Delaware. ( 'harles Polk became governor in January, 

Daniel Kodncy .succeeded Governor Haslet, 18:^7, and administered the oflice until Jaiiu- 

January, 1814, and served to Janii.iry, 1817. arv, I8:i0. He \\;is born in Kent county in 

He was born at Lewes, Delaware, Sei)tember 1788. In Kid his father was elected to the 

10, 1704, and died in 18.">0. During thi' War c(inveiitinn held for the puriiose of forming 

of 1812-14 he was active in destroying British "a constitution for ye State of Delaware," and 

cruisers on the Delaware, was twice captured, was chosen pre-ident. 7)urinir the sittings he 

and suffered the loss of his jn-operty. lie was taken ill, retireil, and did m.t afterwards 

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bL'i-ve ill the M'ork. lie died before bis sou bad 
iiltaiucd bis cigbtb year. Tbe family name, 
wliieh was Scotch, was originally Pollock. The 
ancestor of the governor originally settled in 
-Maryland, and when tlic boundary dispute 
l)et\veeu Penu and J.ord Baltiniore was set- 
tled be was thrown on tlie Delaware side, in 
l.ittlo (reek hundred. The elder I'lilk was 
named Charles, and bad three sons, Cluirles, 
John and Josepb. Charles, 2, became tbe 
father of tbe governor. Ho declined tbe office 
of United States Senator, and also the a})- 
pointnient of chancellor offered bim by Gov- 
ernor llazzard. He was elected to tbe House 
of Iiepresentatives from Sussex county in 
October, Iblo, and re-elected in IS 15. Als(.i 
to tbe Honse from Kent in 1817, to tbe Levy 
Court in ISIO, and in 1821 to tbe State Sen- 
ate, of wbicb be was cbosen speaker. In 
182G lie was tlie choice for governor, and 
served three years. In 1831 he was sent as 
a delegate to the convention to revise \\u- State 
Constitution and was cbosen president; be be- 
came a State Senator in 1834, and on the as- 
seniMing of tbe body was elected speaker; on 
tbe death of (Governor Beniu'tt be became 
acting gi)\-ei-uor. In 1838 ex-(io\'ern(ir Polk 
was again elected State Senator and cbosen 
speaker. On the expiration of his term he 
^\as a)>])ointed register of wills fur Kent 
county in 1813, and served four years. He 
was appointed collector of the })oit nf AVil- 
niingtciii in 18o0, resigned in IS."),!, and died 
October 2S, 1857. 

Da\iil Hazzard sncceoded to the governor- 
ship in January, 1830. He was born in 
Uroadkiln Xeck, Sussex i-ounty, !May IS, 
1781. Dui-i^' the war of 181l'-14 be \vas an 
ensign in Capt. Peter "Wright's company, and 
serx'cd during the camjiaign in T")elaware. He 
was a justice of the peace for some years, and 
was prominent in religious circles. In IS.'U 
he was elected a State Senator, and in 1844 
he received the appointment of associate judge 
of the State of Delaware, but resigned in 
1847. In 18,52 be was elected a member of 
tlie convention to alter the State Constitution. 
Hedi.Ml Julv 8. 1804. 

Under the Amended Co.nstitution. 

Caleb P. Bennett was the first gin-ernor 
elected under the Constitution of 1831, and 
served from Jainiarv, 1833, to ^.\^^■. 1830, 

when he died. He was born in Chester coun- 
ty, Penn.-iylvaiiia, near tiie .-^tate line, >>'ovem- 
ber 11, 1758, and dird at bis home in Wil- 
mington, -May 'J, 1^.30. In 1701, when but 
three years .id, he moved with bis parents to 
^Vilmillgtoll. He was a lad of only seventeen 
\ears wiien bis father placed bim in the ranks 
t.j fight for liliorty. He was promoted to ser- 
geant in 1770 .-lid ensign in 1777. It was bis 
lot to see mncl service and endure great hard- 
ships. He wa nt Prandywine, (jcrmantown, 
\'alley Forge und .Monmouth. In 1780 be was 
promoted to the rank of lieutenant, and was 
with DeKalb at Camden, S. C. He took part 
in tbe siege of Yorktowii, and was present at 
tbe surrender of ( 'oniwalli-. At the time of 
bis death he was tbe la?t surviving officer of 
the Delaware Pine of Pevolutionary soldiers. 
His term not having expired, tbe office de- 
V(dved on ex-Cioveriior Charles Polk, who was 
then speaker of tbe Senate, and he closed tbe 
term as acting governor, January, 1837. 

Cornelius P. Coniegys was governor from 
dainiary, 1837, to Jannary, 1840. He was 
burn ill Kent county January 15, 1780. Was 
aciive during tbe war of 1812-14, and rose 
t(i the rank of lieutenant columd in tbe niili- 
tarv service. He bad command at Lewes 
while the Pritisb Avar.-bi]) roirtiers lay in 
the roads and harassed the bay side. In 1811 
he was sent to the legislature, was elected 
speaker, ami served fo>ir years. Held the 
(litire of state treasurer by three Legislative 
apuoiiitmeuts in the years 1820, 1821 and 
Cs22; aiul again from 1830 to 1833. In 1832 
be was a candidate for governor, but failed to 
secure tbe numinatioii. He succeeded, how- 
ever, in 1830, and was inaugurated .January 
17, 1S37. Hon. Joseph P. Coniegys, who 
became eminent as a lawyer, and was chief 
justice of Delaware in 1870, was his third son. 
William B. Cooper was elected governor in 
1S40, and inaugurated in Jannary, 1841. He 
served bis full term, closing in 1845. He was 
a native of Delaware and died Ai)ril 27, 1849. 
Thomas Stockton was governor from Janu- 
ary, 1845, to ]\rarch 1, 1S10, when he died 
in ofiice. He was born in Xew Castle, April 
1, 1781. In 1812 he received a commission 
in the United States army, and while his 
father ((m'ii. John Stockton), served at Elk- 
tnii against the British, the son was engaged 
in the attack on Port George, under General 
Scott, and greatly distingui-bed himself. He 

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■\vas noiiiiiiatfd for governor on the "Wliig 
ticket, was inaugurated and died suddcidy, as 
itated above, of disease of tiie heart. Gover- 
nor Stockton was succeeded by Josepli Jiatdl, 
Sjieaker uf llie Senate, wiio si-rveil as actiuf; 
governor until ^liiy G, IS-IG, wiien he died. 
His successor as acting governor was A\'iliiam 
Tenii)le, Spiaker of the Ilonse of Iieprcsenta- 
1ives,\vho closed out the term. But little of the 
history of Acting Governor !Nranll is known. 
AVilliani 'i'emiile, his successor as acting gov- 
ernor, was born in Queen Anne county, llary- 
land, February 28, ISlo. When he 'attained 
manhood lie settled as a merchant at Suiyrna. 
In 1844 he was elected to the State Legisla- 
ture and was made Speaker of the House, by 
virtue of which position he became governor. 
Iictii'ing from this position, lie was elected 
a State Seiuitor and served ten years, declining 
re-election in 1854. He was elected to the 
1'wenty-eighth Congress, but died before tak- 
ing his seat in the siunmer of ISGi!. 

William Tharp was chosen governor in the 
fall of 1S4G; was inaugurated in January, 
1847, and served until 1851. He was a son 
of James Tharp and Eimice Fleming, his wife, 
and was born in ^[ispillion liundred, Kent 
countv, Xosc'udier 27, 1803; died January 
1, 1S(;5. 

"\\'illiam Henry Harrison Uoss was gover- 
nor from 1851 to 1855. He was born at Lau- 
rel, June 2, 1814, and was elected governor 
when Init thirty-six years of age. He was an 
exten.-ive fai'uun' and fruit grower. In the 
later years of his life he traveled over various 
eountries of Fnrope. 

l^eter Fo>ter C'ausey succeeded to the gu- 
bernatorial office in 1855, and served to 1859. 
He was born near Bridgeville, Sussex county, 
■Janmu-y 11, 1801. Fngaging in the mercantile 
l))isiness early, he had a ]n"osperous career. For 
several years after 1820 he was exten.sively 
<'ngaged in mining ore on his own lands in 
Nanticoke luuidred. He also operated saw- 
mills, a tannery, and flouring mills, and con- 
ducted a farm. Governor C'ausey was a pow- 
erf\il man ]ihysically. He stood six feet in 
height, and weighed over two hundred 
pounds. He died February 15, 1871. 

AA'illiam Burton was governor from 1850 
to Jamiary, 18G3. He was born October 10, 
1789. His father, John Burton, was a farmer 
in Sussex county. William Burton studied 
medicine and Graduated from the Fniver-itv 

of Pennsylvania. He settled in ililford and 
])raeticed there, with the exception of four 
years, when he was sheriff, until he was elect- 
ed go\eriuir in 1858. (jovernor Burton died 
Augu.-t 5, I.SGG, and is buried at .Milford in 
the l'rote>tant J'ipiscopal graNcyard. 

AVilliam Cannon was imiugurated gover- 
nor in January, 18G3, and served to .March 1, 
1S(!5, when he died. He was btu'u in Bridge- 
ville, Delaware, in ISU'J. As early as 1825 he 
joined the ^\. K. Church, and became a pronu- 
iient and zealous mendjcr, holding the otKce of 
class leader until his death, lie was chosen a 
mendier of the Legislature in 1845, and again 
in 1849. He also served one term as treas- 
urer of the State. In 18G1 he was a member 
of the '"Peacf! ( 'ongrebs," and was a strong 
ad\(HaIr of the Crittenden Compromise. 
When he becanu; govei-nor the Legislature 
was him, but he remained a true and 
ardent friend of the LTnion. During the war 
he experienced many trials, but never wavered 
in firmness and decision of character. When, 
on one occasion, the Legislature forbade com- 
jiliauee with a law of ('ongress, he promptly 
announced by proclamation that he would 
]iardon every United States officer convicted 
by a State court for the perft)rmance of his 
duty to the cause of the LTnion. In a message 
to the Legislature in 1SG4, he advised that 
body to take measuies for the emancipation 
of the slaves in Delaware. The illness that 
caused his death was the result of over-exer- 
tifin in assisting to extinguish a fire in Bridge- 

Clove Saulsbury, Speaker of the Senate, 
succeeded Governor ('annon as acr ing gover- 
nor, and served as such from !March 1, 1SG5, 
to January, 1807. Politically he was a Demo- 
crat, the opposite of the deceased governor, 
who was a Uepublican. Gove Saulsbury was 
elected governor in 1S6G, was inaugurated 
in January, 18G7, and served the constitu- 
tional term, ending with the beginning of 
1871. Governor Saulsbury was born in ilis- 
pillion Xeck, Kent countv, Mav 29, 1815, and 
died at Dover, July 31^ 1881. His father, 
William Saidsbury, was a man of command- 
ing influence and irreproachalde character. 
Gove, his son, studied medicine and graduated 
in 1842 from the University of Pennsylvania. 
He became a resident of Dover and a success- 
ful practitioner. 

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James Ponder siiceeciled l>r. Saiilsl]\iiy as 
gOAenior in January, 1871, and served tlie 
full term, ending iu 1875. He was born in 
[Milton, Delaware, October ;]1, 1819. In 
Iblo lie beeauie a partner with liis father in 
the mereantile business at .Milton, .\bout 
1800, lie erected a large steam uiill for saw- 
ing himbcr, ship timber, Are. He dealt ex- 
tensively in bark, and often had on hand at 
one time a stock valued at $10,000. He was 
also actively engaged in the shipping busi- 
ness and owned several vessels. In 185(5 ho 
was elected a member of the Legislature, and 
in lSG-1 was sent to the State Senate, of which 
he was elected Speaker in 1807. From this 
position he succeeded to the governorsliii), as 
stated above. In politics lie was a Democrat. 
He died in December, 18!I7. 

John ]'. Cochran became governor in Janu- 
ary, 1875, and served his full term, ending 
with the beginning of 1871). He was iioru 
in Appo([uinimiiik hundred, Xew Cattle 
county, February 7, 1809, of Scotcli-frish 
l)areiitage; was brought up on a farm and in 
the mercantile business. J'rom ISSS till 1840 
lie was a nu'iiiber of the Levy ('unit nf Xew 
Castle county. He was nominated for gover- 
nor in 1874, and elected by a large majority. 

John W. Hall was elected governor in 
1878, was inaugurated in January, 1879, and 
filled out the regular term, ending at the be- 
ginning of 188:5. Politically, (iovernor Hall 
was a Democrat. Ife was born January 1, 
1817, in Frederica. His father served in the 
war of 1812. The ancestors of the Hall fam- 
ily came from Fngland and settled in Dela- 
ware in thq early history of the State. John 
W. Hall entered the mercantile business, in 
connection with cabinet-making and manu- 
facture of candy, and was successful. He also 
became a large vessel owner. In 1800 he was 
elected state senator and served fo\ir years. 

Charles C. Stockley, Democrat, was elected 
governor in 1882, inaugurated in January, 
1880, and served a term of four years, ending 
with the beginning of 1887. He was born in 
Sussex county, November C, 1819. (iover- 
n<ir Stockley was a]ipointc(l county treasurer 
in 1852, and in 1850 he was elected sheriff 
of his county. In 1873 he was chosen state 
senator from Sussex county. He was also 
president of the Farmers' Lank of the State 
of Delaware. He is now living a retired life 
at Clcdriictowii. 

Hi'iijamiu T. Higgs, Democrat, sueceeile(l 
(iovernor Stockley in January, 1887, and 
ended his term in 1891. He was born in Xew 
Castle county, October 1, 1821, ami became 
a farmer and peach grower. In 1S52 he was 
a member of the coii\-eiiti(in to change the 
Constitution, He was rlcctcd to Congress in 
1808, and again in 18;t). 

Robert J. Reynolds became governor in 
January, 1891, and closed his term with the 
beginning of 1895. He" was born in Smyrna 
March 17, 18:58, and was a farmer and fruit 
raiser. He was (diosen a member of the Legis- 
lature in 1808, and again in 1809; in 1879 he 
was elected state treasurer. He is still liv- 

-losliua H. ilarvil. Republican, succeeded 
(iovernor Iteynolds January, 1895, and died 
in office April 8, 1895. He was succeeded by 
William T. Watson, Speaker of the Senate, 
who served as acting governor until January 
19, 1897. Mr. Watson was born in Alilfonl 
June 22, 1849, and is a son of Pethuel and 
Ruth Criiarp) "Watson. In 1885 he was 
elected to the House of Representatives, but 
refused to take his seat. He was elected to the 
State Senate in 1893, was chosen speaker, and 
served in that capacity until the death of Gov- 
ernor ]\farvel. (iovernor "Watson is now liv- 
ing a retired life at IMilford. 

Hon. File Walter Tnnnell, Democrat, was 
elected governor in November, 1890, and in- 
augurated in January, 1897. Governor Tun- 
nell was born near l]lackwater, P.altimore 
linndre<l, Sussex county, December 31, 1844. 
liis paternal ancestors were of Huguenot 
stock; those on his mother's side were Fug- 
lish. After receiving an ed\icatiou he engaged 
with his" father in general mercantile businc'^s 
at Blackwater. He was elected a member of 
the Legislature in 1870, and has filled a 
number of other important positions in civil 
life. In 1873 he took up his residence at 
Lewes and became associated with his brother- 
in-law. Dr. D. L. ]\rustard, in the drug busi- 
ness. Governor Tunnell attends the Presby- 
terian Church. He never married. 

On the 2Cth of May, 1898, an event of 
more than ordinary importance took place in 
the State House in Dover. It was the ])re- 
sentation of all the portraits of governors since 
177*) that could be procured. After caref\il 
search the Legislative Committee secured ])or- 

traits (if all the exeeiltive- but thirteen. 

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Ainoiig tlio missing ones :ire tiiose of Dr. Joliu 
^IcKiiily (the first in 1777), and Van Dyke, 
(lark, Thomas, Caesar J{oJney, Codk, 
Tiicmas Collins, Sykcs, Tniitt, Stout, .Mit- 
.h.H, Hamlet, John" Collins, ami Caleb lunl- 

The pictures presented were these: 

From New Castle County — CJovs. Head, 
MeKcan, Dickinson, Clayton, Bedford, Ben- 
nett, Stockton, Cochran, and Biggs. 

From Kent County — ]3assett, Comegys, 
Polk, Temple, Tharp, Burton, Sanlsbury, 
John AV. Hall, Beynolds and Watson. 

From Sussex County — Kogers, Davi<l 
Hall, Daniel Kodney, Paynter, Ilazzard, 
Cooper, Maull, Pioss, Causey, Cannon, i*<in- 
der, Stoekley, ifarvil and Tunnell. 

'J'he speech of presentation was made by 
Pepresciitative ]5enjamin A. llazell, and that 
of acceptance on behalf of the State by lion. 
Thomas F. Bayard. Henry C. Conrad, Fs(i., 
the historian, also made an address on j)rcsent- 
ing the Xew Castle county portraits. The 
ceremony, which was interesting and impres- 
siye, was witnessed by a large assemblage. 


Haying given a brief but connected account 
of all the governors of Delaware from the 
"tirst settlement to the present time, some ac- 
count of the judiciary is ne.xt in order. In 
an exhaustive paper on this subject, read be- 
fore the State Historical Society in Dcccnd>er, 
Ib'Jli, Hon. Ignatius C. (jrubb, associate 
judge, gave a full and interesting history under 
the title of '"The Colonial and State Judiciary 
of J)elaware," from which we make the fol- 
lowing c(nulensation, believing that no better 
source of information, or more tliorough treat- 
ment is obtainable. 

Judge Cirubb, in the outset of his paper, in- 
forms us that the administration of justice in 
Delaware embraces a period of two and one- 
half centuries \inder colonial and state gov- 
ernments. Delaware is indebted to the Dutch 
for the discovery of her bay, by Hudson, iii 
KiU!); for the early exploration of her river 
bv Hendrickson, in 1G15; and for the first at- 
tempt to colonize her territory, by De Vries, 
neai' T.ewes, in 1(531. But to Sweden, xmdcr 
^linuit, in Ki^cS, she owes the first permanent 
settlement within her bonli'rs, at Chii-iiana, 
now A\'ilmington; and to the Mngli-li, mider 

Carr, in KJtJl, the ultimate establishment of 
State government and Anglo-Saxon institu- 

Din-ing her earliest history justice was dis- 
jHiiscd, .successively, by Swedish, Dutch, and 
Kuglish executives, who were cdothed with ju- 
dicial powers, which they exercised according 
to the laws and usages, so far as ai)plicable, 
of their respective countries. 

Delaware's first " Fountain of Justice" was 
the bluff and irascible Swedish soldier and 
governor, John Printz, appointed in IGl:!. 
Little is known of him in his judicial capacity, 
but Judge Cirubb is of the opinion that he 
brought more weight than law to the bench. 

After the conquest of the Swedes bv (!ov- 
ernor Stnyvesant in ICT.t, the territory uiiou 
the Delaware became snbjei-t to the Dutch 
government at ^lanhattan, represented by a 
vice-director. During the Dutch ascend- 
ancy, justice was generally dispensed by a tri- 
buiial, couMsting of the vice-director and 
commissioners or magistrates, who s;it at suita- 
ble times, attended by a "sellout" or sheritf 
and other needful officers. In ItHU the Fiig- 
lish succeeded the Dutch, aii<l their Delaw:ire 
settlers became subject to the laws and gov- 
ernment of the Duke of York. Thereafter 
the judicial system of Kngland was prudently 
introduced by the royal governors. At first 
the judicial tribunals and modes of jiroccd- 
ure were of the simidest character, as the con- 
ditions and needs of the earliest coloiii-ts re- 
ipiired no complex or elaborate system. Fut 
with the advent of William Peiin began an 
era of steady improvement and developmenr, 
M'hich culminated in the establishment ..f a 
comprehensive and regularly organized judi- 
cial system. 

The 1 )uke of York having conveyed to I'enii 
the three connties now constituting the State 
of Delaware, ami then called "the territories," 
these were by the act of union in Pl>2, an- 
nexed to the Province of Pennsylvania under 
a common government, .\lthough, in ITOf, 
the Delaware counties, wiili IV'im's coiisi'ut, 
liermanently withdrew from all co-lfiiisla- 
tive union with said province and establi^heil 
their own separate As-embly, and subM-.[uent- 
ly their own judicial tribunals, yet they re- 
mained subject (o the ]iroprietary and royal 
authoritv nnlil the Kevolntion of iTTii. 

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W'lieii tlie c-ijlonists muuberfd Imt ii fow 
scoiu.--, vr at iiioit a luw liuiulred, tlio (Hunts 
and tlic'ir proceiliire were iiecLssarily of a 
crude and oftentinies rude cliaracter. ivxaai- 
inalion uf tlie early records discloses sonic very 
amusing- and occasionally ver}' sorrowful in- 
stances of the adjudications of tlie early jus- 
tices who were all untrained in the law, and 
n'one of them magistrates. Indeed, until the 
a])))ointnient of Chief Justice William Killen, 
under the fii'st State Constitviti(ju of 177G, 
none, proliahly, of the jtulges of the Delaware 
courts had Leen educated for the bar. 

The earliest recorded appearance of an at- 
torney in Delaware was at the Dutch court 
held at New Castle, liarcli 30, 1(J58. Vice- 
Director Alrichs, in a letter of that date to 
Ciovernor Stuyvesant, writes: "I have also 
to pay the attorney, Sclielhiyn, for salary 
earned by him in the suit against * * * 
the skip]ier of the ship Printz 3fauritz.'' 

l]ut the first attorney who appears on record 
as having been regularly admitted to the bar, 
was Thomas Spry, who was previously a medi- 
cal practitioner, holding land in what is now 
St. (ieorge's hundred, and who was admitted 
in 1G70 (two hundred and twenty-two years 
ago) to jn'actice in the Duke of York's court 
at Xcw Castle and Upland, now Chester. 
AVhether or not Lawyei- Spry was, as his name 
indicates, too over-active in sharing the 
Duke's lands, in common with others of his 
brethren, is only to be surmised. But it 's 
rather significant that, on ]\ray 19, 1G77, the 
Governor and Council passed order: ''Re- 
solved and ordered that pleading attorneys 
bee no longer allowed to practice in .ye govern- 
ment but for ye depensing causes." After- 
"vvards, Tinder Penn's government, neither law- 
yers nor doctors seem to have been individual- 
Iv esteemed, for Gabriel Thomas, an earlv pro- 
vincial historian, tints writes regarding them: 
"Of lawyers and )diysicians T shall sa}' noth- 
ing, because this country is very peaceable 
and healthy; long may it so continue, and 
never have occasion for the Tongue of the one 
or the Pill of the other, both equally destruc- 
tive to men's estates and lives." 

The places where justice was dispensed to 
those within the present limits of Delaware, by 
IMinuit and his successors, were first at Fort 
Christina, and next by Governor Print/., at 
Pi-intz Hall on Tinicum Island, near what is 
Eow Chester. After the founding, in lii.'iG, 

of New Anistel (now A'ew Castle), by the 
Dutch, the courts were held within the fort 
there; as they were for iiiauy years afterwards 
under the Knglish rule. I'nder the Duke of 
'I'ork's government provision was made tor 
holding the courts monthly at Xew Castle 
and quarterly at Ui)land (now Chester), and 
W'hoi-ekill (now Sussex). The Upland court 
had jurisdiction of the settlers on both sides 
of the (Christina Creek until December 3, 
1078, when Stony Creek, now (Quarry ville 
Creek, was made its limit, and afterwards, 
-March If, IGSl, Naamau's Creek, until the 
twelve-mile circle was defined in 1701. The 
Xcw Casde court's jtn-isdiction extended to 
Duck Creek, an<l prior to IGSO undoidjtedly 
in(duded the tcritory on the New Jersey side 
of the Delaware Piver as far as Salem, which 
was then known as the "Eastern Shore." 
The AVhorekill court, from the time of its 
reorganization in 1G73, held jurisdiction with- 
in the region now known as Sussex and Kent 
counties until IGsO, when St. Joue.s' Court was 
established for the newly formed county of 
that name. In 1CS2 the counties of "Whore- 
kill and St. Jones were changed by Penn to 
the present names of Sussex and Kent re- 

The coin-ts of 'Whorekill or Sussex, from 
the time of its earliest permanent settlement 
as a Dutch trading post in IG.").^, were first held 
in the fort, next in the residence of one of the 
justices, and later in a suitable tavern room, 
until a court house was bnilt at Lewes 
about 174r)-,^>0. In 1702 a new court house 
was built in Georgetown, to which iJace the 
county seat was then remoxcd, and wherein 
it has since remained. 

The court for St. Jones, afterwards Kent 
county, was first held in the house of Edward 
Pack, one of the justices, at Towne Point, on 
]iro]K'rty near the mouth of Jones Creek, sul)- 
se(|uent]y owned by John T)ickinson of Pevo- 
lutionary note and now held by his 
descendant, A. Sydney Logan, Esq. .\bout 
IGDO it was transferred to the tavern of James 
"Nfaxwell, on the site of the iiresent Dover 
water works, and later to the court house built 
about 1097, on the site of the present cotirt 
house froutina- on the public square in Dover. 

About l7i.'2 the eoin-t house was removed 
to the site of the present State Tlouse. There 
a new court lioii^e \vns built about 17S'>, its 
ground lloor bi'ing occiijiicMl by the Legisla- 


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tmx' until 187^5, wlieu it was puivliast-il and ru- 
niodcic.l hy the State, exclusively for a Slate 
Capitdl, and a new court house was erecteil on 
the site formerly oceujiied by that of 1U'J7. 

'{"he Xt'W Castle ei-urt sccuis to have lieen 
held continuously within its forts, or their 
])roteetiug walls, from its oecupation Ly the 
1 hitch to the arrival of AVilliam I'enu in lOf^ii. 
Jt is supiiosed that the portion, bein<^- 
the ea^t wing, was in existence in Pcnn's time. 
A recent careful investigator writes: "Tho 
provincial courts, which were then presided 
over by AVilliam Pcnn, were often held in the 
court house at New t'astle. It is iirobable that 
tho main part of the old ciairt house, some- 
times called the State House, was built about 
1704, as the courts and the Cicneral ,\s.-embly 
of the Province held their sessions at Xew Cas- 
tle, the latter with few exceptions from !May 
24, 1704, to 1779, when it was removed to 
Dover." Elsewhere the same writer remarks 
that the act making Dover the capital of the 
State was passed on May 12, 1777, but that, 
owing to the interruptions incident to the war 
of the Ivevolution, the legislative sest.ions were 
held at Dover, Lewes, or New Castle, as cir- 
cumstances required. Finally, a century after 
it ceased to be the colonial and state capital, 
the ancient town ceased also to be the county 
seat, for by act of the General Assendily, after 
many years of agitation, this well-wdrn honor 
was transferred to Wilmington, and the county 
records were removed to the handsome and 
commodious court house in that city on Jan- 
uary 20, 1881. 

Upon his first arrival, in 1682, Peun inau- 
gurated his government under a charter and 
code of laws, wdiich assured the convenient 
and impartial administration of justice, trial 
by jury, indictmeut by grand jury, and the 
rights of the peojde to particijiate, through 
their clio.sen representatives, in the enactment 
of the laws designed for their government. 
At his condng he foiuid in o])eration the tri- 
bunals of jtistice already established and the 
modes of jirocedure to which the ])eoi)lc had 
become accustomed. "With his usual wisdom 
and tact he made no sudden changes likely to 
arouse prejudice against his contem])lated im- 
]irovcmcnts. Under the proprietary govern- 
ment of AVilliam Penn and his successors, how- 
e\'('r, the adnunistration of justice in Delaware 
was gradually dc\-clopcd and systcmatixcd l'\- 

appropriate legislation, as time and circum- 
btanees demanded. 

Prior to 172U various judicial tribunals had 
already been organized. Prominent among 
these were the coiuity courts of the Common 
Pleas, the county courts of (iencral (Quarter 
Sessions of the Peace, and a Pro\iiicial Court. 
In adilition to their ordinary powers, eipiity 
jurisdiction was vested in the county courta 
of Common Pleas, with the authority to hold 
Orphans' Courts in the county Courts of Gea- 
eral (Quarter Sessions of the Peace. The Pro- 
vincial Court was created in llJ84, and con- 
sisted of five judges. This court originally 
sat in Pliiladelphia, and two of its judges were 
rc(piired to sit twice a year in the other 
loiinties. It was a Supreme Appellate Court, 
but also had original jurisdiction of all capital 
crimes, as well as of other matters not triable 
by the county courts. This was the earliest 
Sujjreme Court, strictly sjieaking, wdiich ex- 
ercised jurisdiction \\ilhin the present biirders 
of Delaware. 

IW a statute enacted during Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor Gordon's administration, (172G-3G), a 
more etficicnt judicial system was established 
within and exclusively for the three counties 
of Delaware. Under the system, as improved 
by the act of 17C0, the judicial power was 
mainly distributed among the respective jus- 
tices of the following courts: The County 
Court of General Quarter Sessions of the 
Peace and Jail Delivery, the County Court of 
Common Pleas, and the Supreme Court of the 
counties of New Castle, Kent and Sussex upon 
Dcdaware. The two first named, respectively, 
were to consist ofjU least three of the justices 
in each county. The said justices of the Court 
of General Sessions, &o., were empowered to 
try all criminal cases, not ca])ital, and also to 
hold the Orphans' Court in their res)iective 
counties. The justices of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas were to have jurisdiction of civit 
causes, and also to hold a Court of Equity with- 
in their respective counties. The proceedings 
ill equity wore to be by bill and answer, and 
in all other res]iccts, as near as might be, ac- 
c'ordiug to the rules and ]iractice of the High 
C(]iirt of Chancei'v in Great Britain. 

P)ut the chief feature of this newdy or- 
ganized system was the Supreme Court. It 
was composed of three, and subsequently, by 
the statute of 1 TfiO. of four judges commis- 

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fiijiK(l Ity tlie governor, one of whom was to bo 
st3'leil fliic'f justice; this court was to be hehl 
twiee every year in each county. ISaiil judges, 
ui- any two of them, were enii)owered to liold 
tiie court and to hear and determine all causes 
renui\ed or brought there by certiorari, writs 
</f error, appeal, or other remedial writs, from 
ilie respective tieneral (Quarter Sessions of the 
J'eace and County Courts of Common rieai, 
<>v from any other court of law or equity with- 
in the said three counties, and also to examine, 
currcM-t, and punish the contempts, defaults, 
corruptions, iVc, of the justices of the peace, 
sheriffs, and other ofKcers within said counties, 
and generally to exercise tlieir jurisdiction and 
powers according to law and eiiuity, as fully 
as the judges of the Jving's lieuch and Com- 
mon J'leas at Westminister or the Chancellor 
<if England might do; with the right of apj)eal, 
however, from any final sentence, judgment, 
or decree of said Sui)reme Court to the King 
in Council, or to such tribunal in EnghiTid -is 
might be appointed to hear such ai)pcals. 'J'he 
judges of this court, or any two of them, were 
iiho emjiowered to try all capital offences. 

From this Supreme Court there was no aj)- 
l)eal to any tither tribunal within the three 
I'ounties, or under the ])roprietarv govern- 
ment. The sole resort from it was to the King 
in ('ouncil, or other app<jinted tribunal in Kug- 
laml. From every Supreme Coiiit since es- 
tablished there has hcen a ftn-ther resort to a 
liigher court within the state; so that this par- 
ticuhir one, with its sjiecial characteristics and 
]Kiwers, ajipcars to liave been the mo--t dis- 
tinctive form of Supreme Coiut which Dela- 
Avare has ])ossessed. 

The judicial system of 172fi-;it), with but 
few modifications, continued in ojieration mi- 
til, 1)V the TJevolution, tlie Delaware counties 
ceased to lie a colony of Cireat Britain and 
became an inde])endent state >nider the (•(in- 
stitution of government ordained by their 
deinities in convention, Septendiei- 20, 1770. 
This convention marks the most momentous 
<']ioch in the history fif Delaware — the birtli 
of a free and sovereign state amid the throes 
of revolution. Tn resjifuise to the reconuueu- 
dation of the Continental Coneress, it assem- 
hled In Xew Castle, August 27, 1770, and in 
twenty-six days comjdrted its woi-k bv dis- 
solving all connection with the British Crown 
nnd ailo]iting an independent frame of go\ern- 

nient. Among its mendjcrs were the foremost 
men of their day — (ieorge Iveed, their jiresi- 
dent; -Nicholas N'au Dyke, Richard Has.sett, 
Dr. Charh's Kidgely, .la.-ob .Moore, and Tho- 
nias .McKean. 

Ceorgi' Krad, during his notalile career, 
was an accomplished lawyer, delegate from 
Didawari' in the Continental Congi-css, signer 
ot the i)e(daration of Independence and of the 
Federal Constitution, I'nited States Senatcn', 
and Chief Justice of the Su])rcme Court of 
Delaware under the Constitution of 171t2. 

-N'icholas Van Dyke was (.f Dutch descent, 
a residi'Ut of Xew Castle, a lawyer of emi- 
nence, mendier of the Continental Congress, 
signer of the .\rti(des of Confederation, and 
president of the Delaware State, lie was the 
father of Nicholas Van Dyke, Jr., an able 
and eloquent lawyer, a United States Senator, 
and the matermil grandfather of the esteemed 
and lamented A'ictor DnPont. 

Kichard Bassett was a very prominent law- 
yer and citizen of Delaware, member of the 
State Constitutional Conventions of 1770 and 
17!t2, signer of the Federal Constitution, 
Fnited States Senator, Chief Justice of the 
Court of Common Fleas, (1703-9L»), governor 
of Delaware, and Ignited States circuit judge. 
His daughter was the wife of James A. Bay- 
ard, Sr., grandfather of Thomas F. Bayard, 
late .\mbassador to fireat Britain. 

Dr. Charles Kidgely was a cultured and ex- 
perienced physician in Kent county, son of 
Xicholas Kidgely and !Mary Vining, widow 
of Benjamin Vining of Xew Jersey, and the 
father of Xicholas Kidgely, one of the most 
distinguished chancelloi-s (.f Delaware, and 
also of Henry .M. Kidgely, who represented the 
state with distinction as a member of Con- 
gres.s, and United States Senator. 

Jacob .Moore was a resident of Su.ssex coun- 
ty and attorney general under the ju-oprietary 
go\erinnent from 1774 to 1770. 

But ahove all these gifte<l and patri(itic 
framers of our first State Constitution towered 
Thomas IMcKean as a born leader of men and 
a hold, energetic and unwavei-ing cham]jion of 
the of independence. .Mthough not a 
native of TXdaware, he, nevertheless, by his 
intre])id patriotism, tireless activity and mas- 
terful iier.sonality, not only incited her sons to 
heroic action, but liy his own deeds, as her 
representati\e, made Delaware illustrious and 


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lii'i- fame; iiiiiicii^lialjlc. By seiuliug jwst liasto 
to l)u\LT tor ItutliR-y, wlicu the Delaware di'lu- 
yat(.- ill the ('ontiiieutal ('oiif^Tc-ss were di\'id- 
ed oil tlic Note for iiidepeiidc'iicc, lie hotli 
jiro\cd lii-i- jiatrioti-^in and made Uodiiey 

'llie Constitutiuii of 1770 wad framed amid 
tlie turmoil of revolution and in the hurry of 
lirejiaratioiufor impending war. .\s it wa.s tluj 
• dl'sp'ring <if au e.\igency, it jtroxcd valuahle 
oiil\- as a i)ro\isional arrangement of govern- 
mental ]io\\t'r.<. ( ']uently a eonvention 
for its re\i>ion was held in 17!>2, whieh estah- 
li.-hed a more elaborate judicial system than 
liad previously e.xisted. 

'J'iiis eonvention, like its predecessor, eoin- 
prised among its leaders some of tlie most dis- 
tingnislieil men of the time — John Di(d;insoa 
and Ivensey Johns, Sr., of New Castle eounty, 
and Kiehard iJassett and Nicholas Ividgely of 
Kent. John Dickinson was born in .Maryland, 
reared in Kent county, Delaware, read law in 
Philadelphia and at the Temple in London, 
practiced law in I'hiladelphia, and ilied in 

It is notable that of the live most distin- 
guished jniblic men of Delaware during the 
revolutionary era — ^IcKeau, Dickinson, 
Kead, Bassett, and Iiodney — the last named 
was the only native of this state, which each 
one served so patriotically and so honorably. 
!McKean was born in Pennsylvania, and Dii-k- 
inson, Kead, and Bassett in Maryland. 

Like ^fcKean, Dickinson was honored with 
high anil responsible jiositions by both Penn- 
sylvania and Delaware. lie was an eminent 
pidifical writer, and tinquestionably one of the 
niostconsjiiciujusleadersof his day. lie served 
Delaware as her d(dcgate in the congress in 
177<i-77 and 177!)-8(); as president of the State 
in 17m'; as a signer of tlie Articles of Con- 
federation and also of the Federal Constitu- 
tion, as well as a member of her constitutional 
I'oiiveiition of 1792. 

K'ciisi'y Johns, Sr., was also born in ^lary- 
hiiid, read and practiced lawinthe town of Xew 
('a~tlc, and became Chief Justice nf the 
Supreme ( 'oiirt, and subse(|uently cliaiiccllor 
under the ( 'onstitntion of 17!l2. 

.\'ichola> Kidgcdy M'as born at Dover, Dela- 
ware. K))on the resignation of Chancellor 
AVilliam Killon in ISOl, he was appointed in 
hi- stead and filled the office for thirtv veais. 

lie is justly regarded as the father of Chan- 
cery jiirisjjrudence in Delaware. ^Villiam Kil- 
leii, whom he succeeded as chancellor, was the 
first and only chief justice for the State uiuLr 
the Constitution of 177i), as well as the lirst 
chaneellor under that of 171)-'. It is quite sig- 
iiilieaiit, to di.-<'(j\ cr that a motion was made 
in the coini-iition of 171*2, by Keilsey Joliiii 
ami .seconded by .Mr. Hassett, that the chief 
justice of said Siijireim- ('ourt should be ".i 
person of some legal knowledge;" and that it 
was defeated by a vote of fifteen nays to live 
yeas — John Dickinson and Nicholas Kidgely 
being among the uays. Against his wishes, 
owing to the inade(piate compensation, ilr. 
Kead was selected for the office, esi)ecially be- 
cause of his recognized preeminent legal (juali- 
fications for the siici'e.ssful discharge of its 
duties. This reason really led, it is said, to the 
creation by the convention of 17l»2 of the sepa- 
rate court of (dianeery. For Mr. Killen, then 
chief justice under the Constittition of 1776, 
was seventy years of age. The duties of the 
chief justice, owing to the controversies aris- 
ing out of the Kevolutionary war and other 
causes, were then \ery arduous, and a more 
vigorous occuj)ant of the office was required. 
Accordingly, .said convention created the office 
of (diancellor and made him also president of 
the Ai)pellate Court, so that -Mr. Kead might 
lie a])poiiited Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court and Chief Justice Killen appointed 
(diancellor, with due deference to his age and 
long sei'vice on the bench. 

The Constitution of 1792 wrought very ra- 
dical (dianges in the ap|)ortii)nment of judicial 
])owers. Original jurisdiction of civil suits, 
concurrent with the Court of ( 'oininon Pleas, 
was given to the Su])reme Cmtrt — a power not 
formerly ]l<.sse^sed by it. It was also maile tlu 
tribunal of last resort from the Or|)lians' 
Court, and the Kegister's ('ourt. Said Sii- 
l^renie Court was to consist of not fewer than 
three nor more than four judges, one of them 
to be (diief justice; and a judge must reside in 
eaidi county. Any two might be a quorum. 
The ('ourt of Common T'leas was similarly 
constituted. The jurisdictiou of each of said 
courts was to exten<l over the State. 

This coustitution also, for the first time in 
the history of D(daware, divorced equity from 
the law courts and created a sepai-ate chancery 
jurisdiction, to be exercised solely by the chan- 

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cellor. But while it clepiivutl tliu Court of 
Coiiimon rieas of its equity powers, it at tlio 
same time increased the dignity and import- 
ance of its justices by making tiicm State in- 
stead of mere county judges. 

\ High Court of Jiirrors and Appeals was 
also created in lieu of the preceding ('ourt of 
-\})l)eals and- given exclusive jurisdiction of 
writs of error to the Court of Common Tleas 
as well as to the Sujjreme Court, and of ap- 
peals from the chancellor. 

-V judicial system which supplied two co- 
onlinate courts of civil jurisdiction, comprising 
nine State judges, inclusive of two chief jus- 
tices and a chancellor, was necessarily cumber- 
some and disproportionate to the limiteil area 
and population of such a state as Delaware. 
Doubtless the prevailing feeling in regard to it 
was somewhat akin to that once expressed by a 
disappointed suitor respecting the ('ourt of 
Errors and Appeals of New Jersey, which then 
consisted of sixteen members — that it "was too 
big for a jury and not big enough for a mass 

'Jlierefore a third convention, called chiefly 
for its reorganization, was held in 1831, which 
framed another constitution and established 
the courts on a new basis. Conspicuous among 
the members of that convention were the Hon. 
John M. Clayton, Judge Willard Hall, of the 
United States District Court for Delaware; 
James Rogers, Esq., an attorney general of the 
state; George Read, Esq., grandson of 
George Read, the signer; Judge Dingle, of 
Sussex county, grandfather of Edward D. 
Ilearn, Esq., a member of the next constitu- 
tional convention; Presley Spruance, of Kent 
county, formerly United States senator, the 
father of "William C. Spruance, Esq. 

The Constitution framed by the Convention 
of 1853 was not adopted, and the judiciary 
was operated luider the Constitution of 1831 
until the Constitution of 1897 was passed, a 
peri(jd of sixty-six years. 

By the Constitution, adopted June 4, 1897, 
the judicial power of the State is vested in a 
Sujireme Court, a Superior Court, a Court of 
Chancery and Orphans' Court, a Court of 
Oj'er and 'J'erminer, a Court of General 
Sessions, a Register's Court, and Justices of the 
Peace. There are, therefore, si.x state judges, 
as follows: One chief justice, one chancelloi', 
and four associates. All are appoinfiil by the 

governor, continued by the Senate, and serve 
twelve years, or during good behavior, and re- 
ceive a .salary of i};:J,(.l(l() per annum. \\\ tho 
present Constitution the nundier of State 
judges was reduced from nine to six. 

'Tiie status of the respecti\-e courts may be 
summarized as follows: 

The Superior Court has jurisdiction of all 
causes of a civil miture — real, personal and 
mixed, at common law, and in all others the 
jurisdiction and powers vested by the laws of 
the state in the Superior Court. 

The Court of General Sessions has all the 
jurisdiction aiid power vested by the laws of 
the state in the Court of (ieneral Sessions of 
the Peace and Jail Delivery. 

The Court of Chaueery has all the jurisdic- 
tion and power vested in such a court. 
'J'he Supreme Court has jurisdiction: 
1. To issue writs of error to the Su[)erior 
Court and to determine finally all matters in 
error in the judgments and jinjceediugs of said 
Superior Court. 

'1. To issue upon application of the accused 
after conviction and sentence, writs of eiTor to 
the Court of Oyer and 'I'ernuner and the Court 
of Cieneral Sessions in all cases in wdiich tho 
sentence shall be death, imprisonment exceed- 
ing one month, or line exceeding one hundred 
dollars, and in all other eases as shall be pro- 
vided by law; and to determine finally all mat- 
ters in error in the judgment and proceedings 
of said Court of Oj-er and Terminer and Court 
of General Quarter Sessions in such cases; 
provided, however, that there shall be no writ 
of error to the Court of General Sessions in 
cases of prosecution under Section S, .iVi-tiele 
5 of the Constitution. 

3. To receive apjjeals from the court of 
General Sessions in cases of prosecution under 
Section 8, of Article 5, and to determine final- 
ly all matters of appeal in such cases. 

4. To receive ajipeals from the Court of 
Chancery and to determine finally all matters 
of appeal in the interlocutory or final decrees 
and proceedings in Chancery. 

5. To issue wi'its of prohibition, certiorari 
and mandamus to the Superior Court, the 
Court of ()\-ei' and Terminer, the Court of 
General Sessions, tho Court of Chancery and 
the Or|ihans' Court, or any of the judges of 
tho said courts, and all orders, rules and ])ro- 
cesses ]iro]ier to give etTeet to the same. The 




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General Assembly shall have power to provide Cliief Justices of Dt-hiware under the C'ou- 

\)\ law of what judges the Supreuie Court shall stitution of 1831 : 

cdiiMst for the purpose of this paragraph, and 'rhuuias Clayton, Jan\iary IS, 1S;{2 

in what niauner, aud by what judges of tiiu ,I,)hu,M. Chiyton, January 1C,1637 

Superior Court the jurisdiction aud power Kit-liard 11. Hayard, Septendjer ID, 1831) 

hereby coutirnied may he exercised in vara- j.,,!,^.^ Booth, "jr., :\hirch U, 1841 

ti'J"; Samuel M. Harrington, Kju-il 3, 1855 

The courts of Delaware, both of law and I'Mwai-d \V (liliiin May G 1857 

equity, have iu mo^t respects, doubtless, iu j^.^^.j,], 1'. Comegys, :\lay IS, 187U 

their organization and proceedings, and cspe- Alfred P. Pvobinson, January 20, 1893 

cially in mattei-s of pleading, practice, and evi- d^.^i-ipg J3_ j^oi-p^ ;\|.,j.^:i, o^^ is93 

deuce, adhered more chisely to the old Kug- /-,, • i! t x- x- t. i i ^i n 

,. , ' , , , •;, J. , . " ( hiei Justice of IJchiware under the (_ ou- 

Jish in-ecetients tliau tliose ot any oi lier sister .^ . „ ^on~ 

' -^ stitution ot iSvi. 

' ,■" i-^,. 1 • j; • »• J- .1 » i Charles l>. Lore, re-aiipointed, June 1l', 1897 

^llK•e lilt) every chief lustico ot the state, , . , ' ,. , > , , , 

excepting the lion. James Booth, Sr.. and Associate Judges ot Delawar,. under the 

since 1 79l' every ehaneellor, has been selected Constitution of 1831 : 
from the bar. Prior to 1831 very few of the • Appointed. 

associate judges were lawyers. Since that date James P. Black, January 18, 1832 

all of them but the Hon. David llazzard have Samuel ,M. Harrington, January 18, 1832 

been such. Peter Pobinsou, January 18, 1832 

The fdllowing have been membei-s of the Caleb S. Laytoii, June 3, 183(1 

Delaware judiciary under the colonial and John J. ^lilligan, September 19, 1839 

.'-tatc government, classified as follows: Chief David Hazzard, December 10, 181:4 

justices of the three Delaware counties under Associate Judges of Delaware under the 

the colonial government: Constitution of LS97. 

y^innvs. Appointed. AVilliain C. Spriianco, June 11, 1897 

Jasper Yeate.s, December 5, 1707 ]gm,tius C. C.rubb, re-app'ted, June 12, 1897 

John Healey, April 11, 1710 J.^^^^^,^ IVnnewill, lune 14, 1897 

Puchard Birmingham, March 10, 1714 ^villiam H. Bovce, June 17, 1897 

Jasper ^ eates, August 1, 1717 i.;,i,,..„.,, Wootten September 6, 1847 

Col. John 1-rench, July 25, 1720 j^^],^^ ^^. Houston, ifay 4, 1845 

David Lvans April 20, 172 . j^.^,^^^^ y ^Vales, September 2, 1864 

w"-,r""'"p„ '''' ^l,, William (!. Whitelev, March 31, 1884 

W il ham 111, 1(43 , ^- /, r^ ii ' -\r.,,r o- iqqp. 

T, rr , ^1 r^. ,-.^ If^natius ( . ("rubb, May 2o, 1880 

liyves Holt, October 20, r<45 , , ^r t, , at,,, i. o-, 1007 

T 1 1.. . ri . \ ■!,! I'-ci '^"''" ''■ I'l.vnter, .March 2.), 1887 

John V ining, October 30, 1(04 ,„ , ,r V, ,, .,, ,,^, os iwon 

T- 1 1 AT w-ir r\ . I OA T^^o <^ harles M. ( uUen, Augusi 2b, 1890 

liicJiard AlcWilliams, ....October 30, lii3 ^ ., ,,, ,, , vi ,.,,„,.,. 1 1 Q(n 

rM..-.*T.,,,.;,.„.*Tvi„ I,...!., ;. .: David 1. Marvel, iebruarj 1, 1893 

Chancellors ot Delaware under the Consti- 
tution of 1792: 

Chief Justice of Delaware under the ( "onsti 
tutionof 177C: 

Appointee.. , . , 

William Killen, June (>, 1777 , Appointed^. 

Chief Justices of the Supreme Court under ^Villiam Killen, October 0, 1 (93 

the Con.,titutiou of 1792: Nicholas Pidgely, December (., 1801 

Appointed Kensey Johns, Sr., June 21, 1830 

George Pea<l, September 30, 1793 Chancellors of Delaware un.ler the Consli- 

Kensey Johns, Sr., January 3, 1 799 tution of 1 83 1 : 

Samuel ^f. Harrington October 10, 1830 Appointed. 

Chief Justices of the Court of Common Kensey Johns, Jr., laiinary 18, 1S32 

Pleas under the Constitution of 1792: Samuel ]\1. Harrington, .May 4, 1857 

Appointed. Daniel M...,re Bates, December 12, 1805 

Pichard Bassett, September 0, 1793 Willard Saulsbury, . . . .Xovendier 14, 1873 

James Booth, Sr., lauuary 2s, iTiii) James L. Wolcott, ?ilay 5, l.S!t2 

Thomas Clayton, Pebruarv S, ISj-s John P. Nicholson September 5, 1895 


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(.'lianccllor of Delaware iiiRkT tlic Coiisti- early period, lie rebiyued as t-liaiu-eil(n- in 

tutidii of IbltT:'jj and died at Dover, Delaware, UL-t<jij;;r 

John K. Xicliolsoii, re-app'ted, June 10, l^'JT 'i, INUJi, in the eiglity-seeoud year of his aye. Reporters: Hon. Oeorge Itead, the tirst ehief jiistiee of 

yaniiiel -M. JIarringtou, 1832-lSrjci the Siii)renie I'ourt of Delaware under the 

John W. Houston, lSr)a-18i);J Constitution of 17S)2, was the eldest sou of Col. 

J)avi(l T. ilarvel, IS'Jo John Head, who was descended from an old 

Chancer}' reporters: eouiity fauiilv of iio?ition in JOiiglaud, and euii- 

Appointed. grated from Duhlin, Ireland, to Mar\land. 

Daniel M. Bates, 1S14-18T;5 Jle was horn in Cecil county, .Maryland, in 

WillarJ Saulsbury, 1873-18'J:i J733; admittetl to the I'hiladelphia bar in 

James L. Wolcott, 1802-181)5 17u;J, and began the practice of law in HTjI 

John K. Nicholson, l81Jj at Xew Castle, Delaware, where he afterward. 

It may be interesting to the general readc.', resided throughout life. Although, unlike 

as well as convenient for reference, to give ,MeKean and Koduey, he voted against the De- 

brieHy something of the history of the ileceas- claration of Independence l)ecau^e he then 

ed chief justices and chancellors of D(da- dei'med its immediate ado))tiou prenmture and 

ware. In doing this we acknowledge our in- injudicious, yet he sid)se(piently signed and 

debtcdness to Judge Crubb, who, in his a<l- steadfastly supported it. While more conser- 

mirable historical paper, has jJaccd the facts vative than the vehement ^McKean and the ar- 

before us. dent Kodney, he proved no less loyal to his 

Hon. William Killen, fii-st chief justice of coiuitry's cause. Among his contemporaries, 

''The Delaware State," and iirst chancellor (jf his conspicuous career in Delaware of long, 

of the State of Delaware, was born in the north useftd and varied public service was probably 

of Ireland in 1722, probably of Scotch-Irish unrivalled. He was attorney general under 

jiarentage. In 1737, at the age of tifteen, he ihe Crown, 17U4-7-1; member of the Delaware 

emigrated to I'hiladelphia and became an Assendily, 1 7tJ,")-7."i ; member of the Conti- 

inniate in the household, inlventeouuty, Dela- nental Congress, 1774-77; signer of the Decla- 

ware, of Samuel Dickinson, father of (bjv. ration of Independence, president of the State, 

John Dickinson, of Jvevolutiouary fame. 1777; judge of admiralty 1782; member of 

There, by industry and diligence, he ac(piircd cou\'ention which framed the Federal Consti- 

his })reliminary education, became deputy sm- tution in 1787, and United States Senator, 

veyor of Kent cotinty, under the j)roprietary l78i)-(»3, which position he resigned to become 

government, and sulisequently a member of chief justice of the Sujireme Court of Dela- 

the bar in good standing and jiractice. ware. He held the latter ofHcc from Septem- 

In 1753, when he had reached the mature: bei- 30, 17'.t3, initil his death, Seiitcndier 21, 

age of thirty-one, he married Rebecca -Mice, ]7!*8. 

by whom he had two sons who died witliout .\s his remarkable career discloses, he was 

issue,andthreedaughters, one of whom becauK' an earnest jiatriot, an eminent statesman, ami 

the wife of Hon. AVillard Hall, United States m distinguished judge. He a'^suuied the otHce 

Judge for the district of Delaware, and another ,if chief justice amid the ditfimdlies and am- 

of Jacob Stout, who was appointed an as-^ociale fusion which followed the Revolution, having 

judge of Delaware. He was commissioned been selected and induced to acce|)t the office 

June (i, 1777, Chief Justice of the Sui)reme becatise of his ])re-eminent qualifications for 

Co\u-t under Delaware's first State ('oustitu- the discharge of its ])er]ilexing and laborious 

tiou <jf 1770, and held the office until 17'.i3. duties. He proved e(pnil to his trust, for ho 

When equity jurisdiction was se])arated from was esteemed and honored as an able and )ip- 

the law courts, under the vState Constitution i-i^ht judge, and his decisions were regarded 

of I7ri2, he was appointi'd the first chancellor liv the judges and lawyei-s of his time as of the 

of Delaware in October, 1703. Little is known hiahest authoritv. 

of his judicial career, either as chief justice or Rei;arding him his biogra|)her observes: 

chanccdlor, as there are uo private n<iies or otfi- ''.Vpiilause at the bar did not in him generate 

eial reports of adjiulicated cases during his vanitv, success in his |)olifical life audiition. 

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)iur tlie dignity of the beiieli dogiuatisiu. As 
a lawyer, a patriot, a statosiuaii, and a judge 
lie was alike unpretending, consistent, and im- 
partial. In person lie was above the middle 
si/.e, ereet and dignitied in his demeanor.'' 

Chief Justice liead's long life of puhlie use- 
fulness was tenuinated by a sudden and short 
illness'. He died at his home iu -Xew Castle 
and was buried near the eastern wall of Im- 
nianuel Church in that city. 

His successor was Ivensey Johns, Sr., who, 
after thirty-two years of service as Chief Jus- 
tice of the Supreme (^ourt, became ciiancellor 
of the State. 'J'hereujion he was succeeded by 
lion. Samuel !M. Harrington as Chief Justice, 
who also subsequently became chancellor, as 
hereinafter appears. 

Hon. Eichard Bassett, first Chief Justice of 
the Court of Common Pleas under the Consti- 
tution iif 171)2, was born on liohemia ^lanor, 
^larvland, in 174."), read law under Judge 
Coldsborough, of that state, and became 
a very ])roiniuent citizen of Delaware. 
His daughter married James Ashton Eayard, 
Sr., of Delaware, one of the most gifted law- 
yi'i-s and statesmen of his cFay. ^Ir. Bassett 
tilled many honorable public positions. He 
was a member of the (.'ouncil of Safety in 
1770: t-iptain of the Dover Light Horse, un- 
der Washington, in 1777; member of tiie 
Dtdaware Constitutional Conventions of 1770 
and 17112; member of the Convention which 
framed the Federal Constitution, and United 
States Senator from 17S1) to 179.'5. He was 
a]ipointed, September G, 17'J3, Chief Justice 
of the Court of Common Pleas, and resigned 
this office upon his election as Covernor of 
Delaware, in January, 17'.t'J. Hi 1801 he re- 
signed the latter position upon his appoint- 
ment by President Adams to the position of 
United States Circuit Judge for the Third 
Circuit. He died in 1815 at Bohemia Manor, 
where he was buried beside his distinguished 
son-in-law, James A. ^bJayard, who died the 
same month. 

Hon. James Booth, Sr., who succeeded 
Hon. Tvichard Bassett as chief justice of the 
Court of Common Pleas, was born at Xew 
Castle, Delaware, February 6, \7^)^. Al- 
though not a member of the bar, he had great 
aptitude for the law, which, in eonnection with 
a sound jtidgincnt, diligent study, and long 
experience of the courts and public affairs, cn- 
{ibh-d him to discharge his jtidicial duties dur- 

ing his long career upon the bench in a highly 
(rc-ditahle and acceptabla manner. He was 
largely intluential in his public and private re- 
lations, and a Fetleralist in i)iJitics. Prior to 
his appointment, January 28, 17'jy, as Chief 
Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, he was 
.secretary of the Delaware constitutional con- 
ventions of 1770 and 171)2; naval officer, 
1777; marshal, 1778; secretary of state, 
1778-!»7, under (.iovernors Caesar A. IJodney, 
John Dickinson, Joshua Clayton, and Cun- 
ning Bedford; and presidential elector in 
1&08. His stature, features, and figure were 
very prepossessing, and his dress and manner 
those of an old-s(diool gentleman. He con- 
tinued on the bench for nearly thirty years, 
until liis death at A^ew Castle, February 3, 
1828, when Thomas Clayton was appointed in 
his stead. 

Hon. Thomas Clayton, the last chief jus- 
tice of the Court of Common Pleas under the 
Constitution of I7t)2, and the first chief jus- 
tice of Delaware under that of 1831, was the 
son of Governor Joshua Clayton, M. D., of 
Delaware, and was born in Jiily, 1777. Hav- 
ing received a classical education he read law 
under Nicholas Piilgely, at Dover, and was 
admitted to the Delaware bar in 1799. His 
career, both at the bar and in public life, wa3 
notably successful. Hi 180S he was appoint- 
ed secretary of state; in 1811 attorney gen- 
eral of Delaware; in 18U, was elected to Con- 
gress; and in 1824 became Pnitcd States Sena- 
tor, vice Caesar A. Rodney, resigned. In 
1>^28 he was appointed chief justice of the 
old Court of Common Pleas, and served as 
such until January 18, 1832, when he was 
commissioned chief justice of the state un- 
der the new Constitution of 1831. He re- 
signed this office in 1837, upon his re-election 
to the United States Senate; he continued to 
rei)reseiit the state in that liody until 1848, 
when he retired from public life, and became 
a resident of Xew Castle, where he died, sud- 
denly, in 1854. 

Chief Justice Clayton's endowments were 
of the solid and not the showy sort. He was 
thoroughly versed in the principles of the law, 
and grasped the vital points of a case with sur- 
jirising quickness and vigor. His words were 
few, but masterly in f(jrce and point. He 
ranks pre-eminent among who have filled 
the office of Chief Justice, and has left to sur- 
^ive him a judicial reputation which has hard- 

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ly beeu equaled, auJ never surpassed, by auy 
iucumbeiit uf the Delaware beueli. 

liuu. J oLu Al. Clayton wab the suu of J auies 
Claytou, and nephew of Ur. Joshua Clayton, 
Chief Exeeutivc of Delaware under the Con- 
stitution of 177G and 1792. lie was born in 
Sussex county, Delaware, in 17'JG; graduated 
from Vale with the highest honors, was a law- 
student under his cousin^ Chief Justice 
Thomas Clayton, and at the Litchiield, Con- 
necticut, Law School; was admitted to the 
Delaware bar in IblU, and was secretary of 
state from 182G to 1828. In the Jackson- 
Adams contest of 1828 he led the Adams 
party in Delaw^are to victory, was rewarded 
by election to the United States Sena.te, and 
entered that body at the early age of thirty- 
two. Even among such renowned colleagues 
as Webster, Clay, Eenton, and Calhoun, j\Ir. 
Clayton immediately took a leading part, and 
soon rose to commanding prominence as a na- 
tional leader, lie was re-elected to the Senate 
in 1835, and further elected thereto in Ibla, 
and again in 1853. After General Taylor's 
election as President, in 1848, Mr. Clayton be- 
came United States Secretary of State, and 
during his term negotiated the celebrated 
Clayton-Bulwer treaty with Great Britain. 

During his national career he was pre-emi- 
nent among those who participated in all the 
great public measures of that period. In 
1837, desiring to retire from political life, he 
resigned from the Senate, and Chief Justice 
Thomas Clayton succeeded him. Thereupon 
he was induced to accept the vacant chief jus- 
ticeship of the State, which position lie held 
during only three years. No man in Dela- 
ware, excepting James A. Bayard, Sr., liad 
ever before possessed such a combination of 
great intellectual forces, and had such a re- 
markable career as John M. Clavton. His 
course upon the bench, though short, was suf- 
ficient to exhibit him as a thoroughly-equip- 
ped lawyer and jurist. From his judgments 
there was never a writ of error. lie retired 
from the bench, and sul)equently re-ciitcrcd 
the Senate, of which he died a member in Xo- 
vemLer, 1856. 

lion. Tkicliard II. Bayard came of a notable 
and historic family distinguished for heredi- 
tary ability. The family began its famous 
career in Delaware with the elder James A. 
Bayard, who negotiated the tniil;. •■f Ghent, 
and was worthily represented liy lii^ late dis- 

tinguished grandson, Thomas I". Bayard, Am- 
bassador to Great Britain. Bichard II. Bay- 
ard was the uncle of the latter and the eldest 
son of the former. His mother was the 
daughter of Biehard Basselt, chief juatice 
and governor, and his wife the granddaughter 
of Charles Carroll, of CarroUtoii, a Maryland 
signer of the Declaration of Independence. 

Richard 11. Jiayard was born in Wilming- 
ton, Delaware, September 23, 17'JG; graduated 
from Briuceton in lbl4; admitted to the bar 
in 181 b; tii-st mayor ol Wilmington in 1&32, 
and United States Senator 183G-3'J. He was 
chief justice of Delaware from September 
Vd, 183y, until March, 1841; he then re-enter- 
ed the Senate, where he remained until suc- 
ceeded by John M. Clayton, in 1845. From 
1850-53 he served as United States .Minister to 
Belgium. Bichard II. Bayard died in Bliila- 
delphia in lbU8. He was a man of courtly 
appearance and polished manners, with a large 
measure of the ability inherent in his race, but 
his brief term upon the bench afforded very 
little opportunity for the display of his judi- 
cial qualities. 

Hon. James Booth, Jr., was the son of 
James Booth, Sr., chief justice of the Court 
of Coninion Bleas from 1799 to 1826, and was 
Lorn at Xew Castle, Delaware, November 21, 
1789; graduated from Princeton, studied law 
at Litclitield, Connecticut, and was admitted 
to the Delaware bar in 1 8 12. He married the 
sister of Hon. James Bogei-s, attorney gen- 
eral of Delaware. After a long and success- 
ful law practice, upon the resignation of Chief 
Justice Bichard II. Bayard, he became his suc- 
cessor, March 12, 1S41, and, until his death, 
March 20, 1855, discharged his judicial duties 
with a degree of ability, integrity, diguitv mid 
urbanity which secured both public respect 
and personal regard of an enduring character. 

Hon. Edward Woodward Gilpin, the sixth 
chief justice under the Constitution of 1831, 
was born in Wilmington, Delaware, Julv 13, 
1803. Having first received a practical busi- 
ness training, he studied law thoroughly in his 
native city, under United States Senator John 
Wales; was admitted to the Itar in 1327, and 
through many years of extensive practice dis- 
tinguished himself as one of its foremost mem- 
bers. In 1S40 he became attoi-ncy general 
of the State, and for ten years discliaroed the 
duties f.f llie office with conspicuous vigor and 
success. In 1S57, as the aeneral choice of the- 

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Lar aiul people, Edward AV. Gilpin was ap- 
pointed eliief justice of the State. For near- 
ly twenty years he presided over the civil and 
criminal courts, and as a member of the Court 
of Errors and Appeals; and il is generally con- 
ceded tiiat, when all his various judicial quali- 
fications are considered, he has been, in most 
lesnects, without a superior on the Delaware 
bench. ' lie was a man of positive character, 
resolute, diliuent and masterly in every re- 
spect. Although highlj' intellectual, he was 
iit all times thoroughly practical. During his 
long service on the bench, his integrity of 
character, his judicial and practical (puilities, 
and his potential personality won for him the 
regard and homage of the bar, jurors and gen- 
eral }>idilic in a greater degree, perhaps, than 
had ever lieen enjoyed by any of his predeces- 
sors, save, perhaps, Chief Justice Thouuis 
Clayton. Judge (.iilpin was stricken on the 
bench, at Dover, with angina pectoris, and 
died April 29, 1876, as his brave spirit woidd 
have M'ished, in the actual discharge of the 
iluties of his f)fHce. 

lion. Joseph P. Comegys, the third son of 
fJov. ( 'ornelius P. Comegys, was born at Cher- 
bourg, the famil_y seat, in Kent county, Dela- 
ware, December 23, 1813. lie received a 
thorontih classical education, read law under 
lliiu. .lohn ^r. Clayton, then United States 
Sciiatdr, and was admitted to the bar in 1835. 
1'w(j years thereafter he was married to !Miss 
I)ougla.-s, the niece of j\Ir. Claytotl, and from 
that time resided in Dover, Delaware, where 
for more than forty years he practiced his pro- 
fession with great reputation and profit. As 
a leading Whig he was appointed by the Gov- 
ernor, in 1856, United States Senator, to fill 
the vacancy caused by the death of lion. John 
!M. Clayton. In 1855 lie was commissioned 
Associate Judge for the State, but declined 
the av>nointment. In 1876, upon the death 
of Chief Justice Gilpin, he was appointed his 
succe>Ma-, and filled the position until his 
death in IS'.i.", in his eightieth year. 

IldU. .Mfred P. Picibinson, the son of Alfred 
P. liuliiusi.n, Sr., attorncy-at-law, and the 
grand-on of Judge Peter Pobinsoii, was born 
in Sussex county, Delaware, February 17, 
1842, and admitted to the bar in l.St;3,' Pos- 
sessing a fine legal nund, which he had im- 
proved bv diligent studv of the law and by 
extensive general reading and experience, he 
ac(iuire<l a lucrative '.racfice and became the 

recognized leader of the bar of his county. 
He was deputy attorney general of the State 
from lb7-l to 1879, was a delegate from Dela- 
ware to the Democratic National -Convention 
in ISS-l, and was appointed by the guvenior 
in 1891 as one of tiie Stale commissioners on 
uniform legislation among the several States. 
He was appointed, January 26, 1893, chief 
justice of the State, to succeed Hon. Joseph 
P. Comegys, deceased. His rei)utation at the 
bar gave 'ironiise of an exceptionally useful 
career upon the bench; and this expectation 
was shown to be warranted by the very able 
dis(diar"e of his duties during the brief month 
of his judicial service. Unhapijily his onuor- 
tunities for a conspicuously creditable judicial 
carec'r were terminated by his sudden and un- 
timely death from heart failure, l\Iarch 1, 
1893J in his home at Georgetown, a few hours 
after he had adjourned the term at Wilming- 


Hon. Nicholas Kidgely, the successor of 
Hon. William Ivillen, the first chancellor of 
Delaware, already described among the chief 
justices, belonged to a family of public and 
social prominence which for many successive 
generations in Delaware has furnished judges 
and lawyers of marked ability. lie was the 
eldest son of Judge Charles Greensburg 
Kidgely, an accomplished physician of Kent 
county, Delaware, and the son of Judge Nich- 
olas Kidgely, who was born in ]\raryland in 
1694-, and settled in Delaware in 1732 — the 
grandson of Col. Henry Kidgely, who emi- 
grated from Devonshire, England, to Anne 
Arundel county, ^Maryland, 1659, and there 
became colonel of militia, meudier of Assem- 
bly and Council, colonial justice, (Src. Chan- 
cellor Kidgely was born at Dover, Delaware, 
Septemlier 30, 1762, read law under Judge 
Kobert fJoldsborough, at Cambridge, jMary- 
land, and was admitted to the Delaware bar at 
Xcw Castle in 1787. He early attained a 
conspicuous standing at the bar, even among 
such di.->tinguished niembers as the elder James 
A. Hax'ard, ( 'aesar .\. Koduey and Nicholas 
X:m Dyke, Jr. In 1791 he was appointed 
attorney general of the State, and held the 
office for ten years. He was a leading mem- 
ber of the State Constitutional Convention of 
1792 and thereafter was repeatedly elected a 

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meinber of the General Asseiul^ly, and drafted 
tlie principal legislation recjuired by the 
changes wrought by the Eevolution and the 
recently adopted Constitution. 

In 1S02, the Orphans' Cdurt jini<dicti(.n 
was transferred from tlie Court of ( 'onuuou 
Pleas to the chancellor by an aniendnient to 
the Constitution of 171I2, effected mainly by 
Chancellor Ifidgely's intluence. He thereby 
became sole judge of the Orpiums' Court. In 
December, ISOl, Chancellor Killen resigned 
liis otHce and ilr. Jiidgely was a|)[)ointed to 
succeed him. Prior to his appointment tliere 
Lad been very little business in the Court of 
Chancery, antl there were but few ijrecedents 
for his guidance. The entire course of e([uity 
procedure and practice was yet to be regulated 
and established under the newly-created 
Court of Chancery. To this task he devoted 
himself in his methodical way with untiring 
vigor and industry. The rules of court, forms 
of i)ractice, and general principles adopted by 
liini are still in nse, and lie is justly considered 
the founder of the chancery jurisprudence in 

During the thirty years that he was chan- 
cellor he carefully took notes and preserved 
his opinions in all the important cases adjudi- 
cated by him. In appearance Chancellor 
Pidgely was of medium height and robust 
form, with a resonant voice and a remarkably 
expressive countenance. Although he lived 
nntil 1S30, he still adhered to the manners and 
garb of the olden times. Altogether he was a 
striking figure and a commanding character, 
and he was regarded with tiie highest respect 
for bis sterling worth, both as judge and citi- 
zen. Towards the close of his life he suffered 
from ill health, although he sturdily dis- 
charged his judicial duties to the end. lie 
died April ], 1830, of heart disease, within a 
half hour after he had adjourned his court at 
Ccorgetown, and was buried in the Episcopal 
churchyard at Dover. 

ITon. Kensey Johns, Sr., the last Chancellor 
iinderthe Constitution of 1702, was born Juno 
14, 17o!), at West Piver, Anne Arundel 
county, ^larvland, and came of Welsh ances- 
tors long settled in that state. He read law 
nnder Pamnel Chase, of 'Nraryland, afterwards 
a judge of the Pnited States Supreme Court, 
and completed his studies nnder deorge Pead, 
snbspqucntlv chief justice, at Xew Castle, 
Delaware, and there, after his adnii.ssi<;n to the 

bar in lTtS3, became a lawyer of repute and 
prominence. He was a member of the con- 
vention which framed the State Constitution 
of 171)2; was a})p(jinted by (iovernor Clayton, 
in 1794, I'nited States Senator in lien of 
Ciecn'ge Pead, resigned; was commi.ssioned 
Associate Judge of the Delaware Supreme 
( 'ourt in 17tltJ, and ( 'hief Justice thereof ujiou 
the death of Judge Pead in 171)8. 

Judge Jidins came unon the bench, like 
Judge Pead, during a period wherein many 
(|Urstions r(-iiiaiued nn^(■ttled, owing to the 
Pe\-olution and the changes caused by the 
recent re\ision of theConstitution and statutes 
of the State. Pt'ing admirably qualified for 
this arduous task by his legal learning and ex- 
))eriencc, he discharged the duties of his re- 
sponsible i)ositi(jn with rare judgment and ini- 
jiartiality, and with general ajjpruval, for more 
than thirty years. After the death of Chan- 
cellor Pidgely in 1830, he was appointed in 
his stead, but, upon the adoption of the Consti- 
tution of 1831, he retired from the ofKce of 
Chancellor in 1832, and was succeeded by his 
son, Kensey Johns, Jr., who filled the positimi 
ably for over twenty-five years. He died in 
hi> nini'tietli year in full possession of his men- 
tal facidtics. 

Ilcni. Kensey Johns, Jr., the first chancel- 
lor )inder the Constitution of 1831, was born 
in 3.ew Castle, Delaware, in 171)1, and gradu- 
ated from Princeton College in 181i). lie 
read law with his maternal uncle, Xicdiolas 
Van Dyke, Esq., conqJeted his studies in the 
law school at Litchfield, Connecticut, and was 
admitted to the bar at Xew Castle in 1813. 
After pursuing a successful practice of the law 
for several years, he was, in 1828, elected to 
(^ongress to fill the vacancy in the house 
caused by the election of the Hon. Lo\iis ^Mc- 
Lane to the .Senate. 

After retiring from Congress he resumed 
his law practice, but, npon his father's retire- 
ment from the chanccllorshii), was appointed 
to that position January 18, 1832. During his 
long term of judicial service nniny questions 
of importance wej-e decided by him; yet his 
jiidgments were nsnallv correct, and where 
a])])ealed froTU were almost unifm-mly aftirm- 
ed, thus attesting his ability and learning as a 
well-equipped equitv judge. Like his prede- 
cessor, CJiancellor Pidgely, he died almost in 
the performance of his judicial dntv, on 
]\rarch 28, lS,->7, at Xew Castle, having that 

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day returned to his home after closing tho 
term of court in Sussex county. 

Hon. Samuel M. Harrington is notable in 
the judicial aunals of Delaware as having been 
Chief Ju:-lice (;f the Supreme Court under the 
Constitution of 171)-.^, and Chief Justice and 
also Chancellor of the state under that of 
1831. lie was born in IJover, ])elaware, in 
lbU3, ami was graduated from Washington 
College, -Maryland, in 1823, with the first 
honors of his class, lie was admitted to the 
bar at Dover iu lS2(i, and became secretary 
o{ state in ls2S, and again in 1830. 

In 1830, at the early age of twenty-seven, 
he was aijpointcd Chief Justice of the Su- 
preme Court of Delaware, and, upon its abo- 
lition by the Constitution of 1831, became one 
of the Associate Judges of the State. In 
18r)i) he became Chief Justice of the State, 
upon tiie death of Chief Justice Booth, and 
hlled that office until May 4, 1857, when he 
^vas a])pointed chancellor to succeed Kensey 
Johns, Jr., deceased, which position he held 
until his death, Xovember 28, 1865. 

Judge Harrington, in connection with Jo- 
seph P. Comcgys and Daniel M. Bates, Esqs., 
assisted to prepare and publish the Kevised 
Code of 1852. He was the first official re- 
porter of the judicial decisions in the State, 
and discharged this duty with rare perspicuity, 
conciseness, and precision. His five volumes 
of Iieports extend from 1832 to 1855. Ilis 
life was one of constant mental activity, tire- 
less industry, and exceptional public useful- 
ness. As has been fndy said of him by a 
distinguished jurist, "Without any extraor- 
dinary advantages of social or political influ- 
ences, a career so remarkable could have been 
accomjilishod only by the manifestatiijn of \ui- 
u&ual merit." 

Hon. Daniel iloore Bates, born at Laurel, 
Delaware, January 28, 1821, was the son of 
Kev. Jacob iloore, and upon the death of his 
father, was adopted by Hon. ^lartiu W. Bates, 
of Dover, Didaware, and given the surname of 
Bates, by act of Assembly. He was gradu- 
ated from Dickinson College, Pennsylvania, 
in 183'J; admitted to the Delaware bar in 
1843, and rose rapidly to promineuce as an 
acknowledged leader of his profession. He 
was by nature a student of the law. His miiul 
was liighly analytical, very subtile, and much 
inclined to extreme refinements in its legal 
processes. He had unusual powers of menial 

concentration, was a rapid worker, and a pa- 
tient, painstaking and exhaustive investigator 
of the most alitruse legal problems. 

In 1847-51 he was secretary of state; in 
18411, oue of the c<Mlifiei's of the state statutes, 
and iu 1852, United States District Attorney 
for Delawai'C. Iu 18(15, by the general desire 
of the bar, he was ap])ointed chancellor, vice 
Hon. Samuel il. Harrington, deceased, and by 
his able discharge of the duties of this office 
amply confirmed the expectations raised by his 
selection. Owing to failing health, he resign- 
ed his office in 1873, and, after a brief resump- 
tion of his professional practice, died in 1871). 
Hon. AVillard Saulsbury was born in Kent 
county, Delaware, June 2, 1820. He was the 
youngest brother of Dr. (iove Saulsliury, who 
was (iovernor of Delaware, and of Hon. Eli 
Saidsbury, who was for eighteen years United 
States Senator. He was educated at Dela- 
ware College and at Dickinson College, Penn- 
sylvania; read law at Dover, and was admitted 
to the Delaware bar in 1845. He began the 
l)ractice of law at (ieorgetown, Delaware, and 
liy his studious habits, native energy and vig- 
orous intellect soon liecame known throughout 
the State as an able lawyer, an elocpient speak- 
er and a political leader of brilliant promise. 

From 1^50-55 he was attorney general of 
the State. In 1859 he was elected as the 
Democratic candidate to the United States 
Semite, and was in 1805 re-elected. There he 
was a consj)icuous figure, and serve(l for twelve 
years with great distinction as an eloquent and 
jiowerful debater. In Xovember, 1873, he 
was appointed Chancellor of the State, which 
office he filled with great ability and popular- 
ity until his sudden death from apople.\y in 
.\pril, 18!)2. Ilis re])orted decisions are nu- 
merous, and are pidlished in the Delaware 
Ciiancery Keports. Xature' lavished upon 
Chancellor Saulsbury her choicest gifts of 
mind, feature and person; a captivating man- 
ner, a rarely handsome countenance, a robust 
physicpie and a superb figure, together with 
very brilliant and versatile intellectiuil powers. 
Very few Delawareans have cijualled him in 
natural endownu'uts. 

Ux-Chaucellor James.!,. Wolcott was a na- 
tive of ?i!ispillioii Inindi-eil, and was born 
about one mile and a half east (jf Harrington, 
Delaware, February 4, 1842, and died at his 
honu- in Dover, "March 31, 1808. His jiarents 
were Josiah and Ulizabeth Wolcott, and he re- 

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ceivcd Ills education in the country scliools iu 
whii'li lie afterwards taught, in ISJ^ ,Mr. 
AVoleott cntt-red upon the study of hiw with 
tiie lion. Eli Saulsbury, and was admitted to 
tlie bar Aiiril 23, ISGli. After his a<hui=sion 
he took an active interest in politics and soon 
arose to political as well as legal prominence. 
. The tjtate Senate, at the session of 1871, elect- 
ed him clerk. In February, 1871, he was 
chosen counsel for the Levy Court of Kent 
county, and continued in this position until 
January, 1879, when Governor John AV. Hall 
appointed him secretary of .'^tate fur tiie term 
ending January, 1883. 

Upon the death of Chancellor Willard 
Saulsbury, Mr. AVolcott was a[)pointcd by 
Governor Reynolds on Hay 3, 1893, to suc- 
ceed him, but in November, 1895, resigned in 
order to devote himself to private praetice, 
])articularly to the duties of counsel for the 
Delaware Kailroad. 

^[r. "Wolcott was a conspicuous figure in the 
Democratic politics of Delaware. lie was the 
head aiul front of what was called the "Wolcott 
factidU of the party, wdiich was radically hos- 
tile t«i the Saulsbury faction, the lines between 
the two being very distinctly marked in Kent 
count}'. In 1888 he entered the lists as an 
avowed candidate for United States Senator 
in opjjosition to the late Eli Saulsbury, whose 
term was about to expire. After an exciting 
and memorable primary canvass, ^Ir. AVolcott 
carried a majority of the delegates to the Kent 
county Democratic Convention, and by the 
a)i|)lication of the tinit rule, this convention 
nominated a complete AVolcott legislative 
ticket, denying to the Saulsbury faction, iu op- 
position to the custom which had jirevailcd up 
to that time, the right to name candidates for 
the hundreds carried Ijy that faction. This 
caused an open revolt in the jtarty, and the 
Iiei)ublicans elected their legislative ticket in 
Kent county. They were successfid also iu 
Sussex county, by i-eason of the factional di- 
vision of the Democrats, and the result was a 
Legislature with a Ki'jiublicau maioritv uu 
joint ballot, which sent Anthony Iliggins to 
A^'ashington as the first and only Ke- 
pnblicaii United States Senator from 
Delaware. !^^^. AVolcott's last public 
appearance was as counsel for the 
Democratic members of the Kent county 
Board of Canvass, in the legal yirnceedings 
growing out of the count of the \iitcs cast at 

the last general eleetiiui in that county, lie 
had been in ill health for over a year, but 
there were no indicalinns of his atfecticui be- 
coming critical, and his sudden death came as 
a great surprise throughout the State. 

As the Legislature was in session at the time 
of Chancellor Wolcott's death, resolutions ni 
regret and eoiulolence were pa.ssed by both 
houses, and eulogistic remarks were made by 
M'uators and mendiers, after which, as a fur- 
ther mark of respect to the deceased, the Leg- 
islature adjourned nntil Monday morning. 
The funeral, which was hehl Saturday, April 
L'd, was one of the largest ever seen in the 
Slate, and was attended by all the prominent 
men of Delaware. 

Ex-Chancellor AVolc(jtt married a daughter 
of the late Alexander Godwin, who survives 
him, together with three sons, James L., who 
has been inacticing law with his father: Alex- 
ander G., and Josiali O. AVolcott, a student at 


A large number of the residents of Dela- 
ware are descended from old and distinguished 
families, and of many of these old families 
every link can bo traced in the chain of their 
descent from the first offspring to the present. 
A'incent, the historian, who wrote in 1870. has 
thrown much light on the subject of ancestry. 
From him we learn that amongst these early 
and prominent settlers were Augustine Her- 
man and Gouvert Loockermans (now written 
Lockerman) whose descendants are numerous 
and widely scattered. 

]^raiiy of the most able and intelligent pub- 
lic men of Delaware have been of Dutch de- 
scent, either on the paternal or maternal siile. 
Even after the contpiest of the State by the 
English, for many years most of the principal 
magistrates and other public officers were 
Dutchmen. A'incent tells us that among the 
numerous families who are in wdiole or in part 
(lescendi'd from the Dutch patriandis, in many 
cases mixed with nugueuot French, are the 
Oldhams (on the mother's side), the A''an 
Dykes, the A''andegrifts, the Eayards (on the 
mother's side), the Alrich.s, the Stalls, the 
A'andevers, the Uermans, the Comegys, the 
A^angezels, the Jaquetts, the A'^an Zandts, the 
A'ances, the Uyatts, the Cochrans, the Fon- 
taines, tlii> LeCounts, the Tilackstoncs, tlio 

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Kings, the Andersons, and others. Tliere 
were also families of Van Dykes, Petersons, 
and Andersons, who were Swedes. 

Anionust those who derive their descent 
from I lie Ihifiuenot refiijics are tlie l>ayards, 
the liilvilles, the Bonehclls, the Dellaves, 
and others. The Delaware Bayards are ile- 
seended from Nicholas Ixiyard, who fled from 
France to Holland, and married Anncke, a 
sister of Peter Stnj^'csant. They had three 
sons, Balthazar, Peter and Nicholas. IVtcr 
left Xew York and came to Delaware with the 
l.aliadists. In 1675 he rec(>ived a araut ut' 
]-!omliay Hook Island. Fonr years afterwards 
he jHircliased the rights of the Indian owner of 
the island, for one gun and some other nnit- 
ters. From this Baj'ard it is helieved the Bay- 
ards (if Delaware are descended. They, like 
many of the other patriarchal Dutch-TIugue- 
not families, have well maintained their social 
and political btanding. Many members of the 
family have been distinguished for great tal- 
ents. Tlave succeeding generations of them 
have represented the State in the United 
States Senate, viz: The celebrated James A. 
P>ayard, who signed the treaty of Ghent; then 
his sons, Uichard and James A., who sat there 
at dirt'erent times, and Thomas F. Bayard, the 
son of the second James A. Bayard, who rep- 
resented the State in the Senate, having suc- 
ceeded his brother in the Senate in ISCO; he 
was re-elected fur a second term in lS7o, and 
again in ISSl, served continuously until he 
became Secretary of State, 'Mawh 4, 1885. 
On the day on which he was elected to the 
Senate for a full term his father was also re- 
elected a Senator from Delaware to serve for 
the unexpired part of his original term. This 
IS the only case of a father and son being voted 
for by the same legislature to fill the s'cnator- 
ial oiUce. lie was a member of the electoral 
commission of 1876-7, and a conspicuous up- 
holder in Congress of Democratic doctrines 
and States' rights, and was voted in national 
convention as a candidate' for the presidency 
in 1880 and again in 188-t. :\rr. rievcland 
apnointed him Secretary of State in 1885. 
And during the second term of Mr. Cleveland 
^Ir. Bayard was appointed Ambassador to 
England, retiring in 18117. Including his 
great-grandfather tiovernor Basset t, lie is 
the fifth member of his family who has oc- 
<'npied a seat in the Fuited States Senale. 

John Paul Jaquett, the second Dutch 
guiernor of ])elaware, was also a French 
Protestant, who had fied from France to Hol- 
land to avoid religious persecution. Before 
his arrival in Delaware, howe\er, he had re- 
filled in Brazil. The Jaipietts lived on their 
farm, inheriting it from Paul Ja<piett, the 
first ancestor, until the time of the celebrated 
Alaj. Peter Ja([uett, the last sur\iving olKcer 
of the Iievolution belonging to Delaware. lie 
was born on Long Hook farm, near New Cas- 
tle, Aiii'il 0, 1754, son of Peter and Elizabeth 
.laqiutt. ( ■onimissioned an I'usign in Capt. 
Henry Darby's company. Colonel Haslet's 
regiment of Delaware State; troops, in Con- 
tinental si'rvice, Janaiary 17, 1770; Second 
Lieutenant Colonel Hall's Delaware regiment. 
Continental Establishment, Novendier 27, 
177(5; Captain (in same regiment) April 5, 
177 7, and served to close of war; brevetted 
^Tajor, September 30, 1783; died on his farm 
at Long Hook, September 13, 1^34, and was 
buried in Old Swedes' churchyard, Wilniiui;- 
ton. He was vice-president of the Delaware 
State Society of the Cincinnati from 1795 to 
its dissolution. His certificate of membership 
in the society and his sword are now in the 
possession of his grand-nephew, Samuel Price 
Jaiiuett, Padnor, ]*a. 

I'he land comprising the Jacpiett farm was 
granted to Jaquett the immigrant soon after 
the cajiture of Delaware by the Dutch. It is 
n<iw called Long Hook. It is situated at the 
end of the causeway on the road from AVil- 
ming-ton to New Castle, about a mile from the 
bridge at the foot of ]\Iarket street, Wilming- 
ton. In lliOa the Labadists (Dankers and 
Sluytcr) crossed the Christiana near to this 
fai'in. They speak of it as follows: "We pro- 
ceeiled thene.'e a small distance overland to a 
]ilace where the fortress of Christina had stood, 
which had been constructed and possessed by 
till- Swedes, but taken by the Dutch Governor, 
Stuyvesant, and afterwards demolished by the 
Englisji. * * * We ^vero then taken over 
the ( 'hristiana Creek in a canoe, and landed 
at the spot where Stuyvesant threw up his bat- 
tery to attack the fort, and compelled the 
Swedes to surrender. At this spot there are 
]\redlar trees (a fruit now extinct), which bear 
good fruit, from which one Jaquett, who does 
not ]i\e far from there, makes good brandy or 
Fjiirits, which we tasted and found even better 
than French brandy." 

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From Joliiiimes de Hayes arc dcsccuJed tlic 
Janvier (New Castle) family on the female 
tide. A portrait of that auee^tor was in ex- 
istence fifty years ago, to which Kev. (ieorge 
Foot refers, and says: "He was evidently, 
as lijs costiinie shows, either a knight or a 
military oiiicer of high rank." Jn 1G7G he 
purchased of Joseph Chew a farm of four 
■liuiidred acres, described in the Xew Castle 
records as being near the old landing on the 
Appo(piinimink Creek, for two pounds (jf to- 
bacco, Dutch weight, lie was then a mer- 
chant. He was afterwards a magistrate at 
!Xew Castle, under both the Duke of York and 
AVilliani Penn. 

After the capture l)y the English of tlie ter- 
ritory now constituting the State of Delaware, 
D'llinoyossa and Xnn Sweringen, with a num- 
ber of other citizens of Delaware removed to 
!Maryhind. 'J'he evidence we have of this is 
the settling of so many Dutch and (Sermans 
in the neighborhood of the Sassafras and l!o- 
hemia Ifivers, an<l near the town of St. Clary's. 
They were, no doubt, broTight tiicre by the 
influence of Augustine irerman. Among 
those families who again settled in Delaware 
Vincent is of the opinion that there were the 
Comegys, the Coehrans, the Blaekstones, the 
Le Count.s, the Kings, and possil)ly the Bou- 
cliells. Several of them were naturalized by 
Maryland law from ICGO to 1084; among 
these were Peter Bayard, Arnoldus de la 
(■range, AVilliam lilackenstein (Blackstoue), 
Hans Hanson, Corneliiis Comegys, Ticrrett 
\an Sweringen, besides Jaeobsmi, F.rricksou, 
Peterson, and Le Count, whose Christian 
names are not given. 

In l(5b(j Augustine Herman petitioned the 
[Maryland Legislature for the naturalizati(Mi 
of himself and all his family, viz: Fphraim, 
(Jeorgius, (lasparous, his sons, and Anna ^lar- 
garetta, Judith, and Frani-ina, his daughters 

1840, was undoubtedly a descendant of his, 
as he bears the same Christian name. One of 
his descendants, Joseph P. Comegys, son of 
the e.\-govirnor, ri'prescnted the state in the 
I'luted States Senate. The Labadists, Dankei's 
and Slnyter, give the following account of 
their visit to him in IGT'J. He is undoubtedly 
the Cornelius Comegys we have before spoken 
of as having been naturalized in ilaryland. 
Jle ai»pears to have been a man of wealth, 
owning several plantations, and emiiloying 
several servants. Jle lived in ^Maryland near 
the Sassafras Kiver. 'I'heysay: "We arrived 
at Cornelius, the son of Comegys, and called 
out to him, and he brought a canoe, which re- 
lieved us, as it was on to evening. AVe 
thanked the person who had brought us into 
the canoe. Cornelius, who was an active 
young num, was ])leased to meet Hollanders, 
although he was born in this country. We 
found 'Mr. Comegys on the next plantation, 
who bade ns welcome; and after we had drank 
some cider, accompanied us with one of his 
company to Mv. Hosier's, who was a good, 
geuerons-hearted man, better than any Eng- 
lishnian we had met in this c(Uintry. He had 
formerly had much business with ,Mr. ^loU, 
luit their affairs in England running behind- 
hand a little, they both came and settled down 
here, and therefore ilr. Z\Ioll and he luul a 
great regard for each other. 

"My. Comegys was from Vienna and had a 
Dutch woman for a wife, who had taught her 
children to speak the Dutch languaue; they 
therefore had a kind disposition towards Hol- 
landers. After her deatli he married an Eng- 
lish woman, and he had himself learned many 
of the English nuixims, although it was against 
liis feelings; for we were sensible that he dared 
not work for tts with an open heart. He told 
Tis that he woidd rather live at the Cape of 
Ciood Hope than here. 'How is that,' said 

The Stalls, now so numerous, were here as I, 'when there is such good land here?' 'True,' 

early as 1048. The first of the family who is 
mentioned in the annals of the state was 
Abraham Stalls, surgeon and elder of the 
church at Pensselaerswick, New York. He 
was in 1051 driven from an island in the 
Schuylkill by the Swedes and had his home 
burnt by the Indians in Xew York. 

The first of the Comegys came from Vienna. 
He was undoubtedly the ancestor of the pres- 
ent Comegys family. Cornelius P. Comegys, 
who was Clovernor of the State from 1>.jG to 

e replied, 'but if you knew the people here as 
well as I do, you woid<l be able to understand 

.Vugustine Ilenmui hereafter ceases to take 
])art in Delaware history, save in a grant of 
land to the Labadists. Of all his children only 
the issue of his son Gasparus are now alive. 
From him are descended the Oldhams and the 
Bouchells. James K. Oldham, who resided at 
Christiana Bridge, was the only male descend- 
ant Tiow residim:- in the State He is seventh 

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in (kseeiit from Augustine Ilornian. This is 
one of the few families that eau be traced by 
their descent witlieut a break in tiie line. It 
runs thus: 

(!as])arus Herman left issue, a son name<l 
Ejiliraim Augustine Herman, wlio left a 
dauijhter Catharine, who married Peter IJou- 
ehell, a descendant on one side from IR'ndrick 
Shiyfer, one of the founders of the Laba<lists. 
\ man named Joseph luiser or Inser married 
^larv, their daughter. They had one son, 
who was killed while celebrating his twenty- 
first birthday. He had given an entertain- 
ment to some young men, and wliile they were 
racing their horses for amusemint he was 
thrown and killed. 

Col. Edward Oldham, one of the .Maryland 
line of the Kevolution, grandfather of J. Iv. 
Oldham, nnirried ^lary, daughter of Joseph 
and ]\fary (Boucliell) Enser. There are sev- 
eral, both in Delaware and ilaryland descend- 
ed in the female line from Colonel Oldham 
and ^fary Enser. In 1G79 the Labadists visi- 
ted Augustine Herman. They found him sick 
and his family broken up by a termagant wifi', 
who liad driven his children away, ihey say: 

"He showed ns every kindness he could in 
liis condition, as lie was very miserable, both 
in soul and body. His plantation was going 
much to decay, as well as his body, from want 
of attention. There was not a Christian man, 
as they term it, to serve liim- — nobody but ne- 
groes. All this was increased by a miserable, 
dmiblv miserable wife; but so miserable that 1 
will not relate here. ^Vll his children have 
been com]K'lled on her account to leave their 
father's house. He spoke to us of his land, and 
said he would never sell or liire it to English- 
men, but would sell it to us cheap if \w were 
inclined to buy." 

At a second visit they described his wife 
as the most artful and despicable creature that 
can he found. They also called Herman "a 
godless ])erson." "We must, liowever, receive 
with great allowance the account of the Laba- 
dists, who took ])ecidiar views of life. 

Augustine Herman died a short time after 
this, and was Iniried on the ]\ranor. His death 
must have occurred about the last of Decem- 
ber, IGOi), as on the 14th of December, after 
they left him, while visiting his son Ephraim, 
they were informed that he was very sick and 
at the point of death, and that his dauiihter 

^Margaret had gone there to attend upon him 
in that condition. 

The Bayards, who afterwards came into that 
portion of the JManor on which was situated 
the grave of Herman, took the tombstone for 
a door for their family vault. The iiiscrii)ti(ni 
on it is as follows: "Augustine Herman, lio- 
hemian, the first founder and seater of Bo- 
hemia ]Manor, Anno lllG!)." In this vaidt lie 
buried the remains of Bichard Bassett, a for- 
mer governor of Delaware, a nu'mber of the 
convention that framed the ( 'oustitutiou of the 
United States, and the father-in-law of the 
first James A. Bayard. 

A curious incident is related of Herman, 
but no documentary evidence of its truthful- 
ness is known to exist, although Lednum in his 
"Bise of ]^lethodism in America," refers to 
it. Bev. (ieorge Eoot, who died at Odessa in 
]S(JS, mentions it also in a little book which 
he published in 1842. 

Ledmtm thus si)eaks of the affair: "It is said 
that the Dutch had him a prisoner of war at 
one time, under scMitence of death, in Xew 
York. A short time before he was to be exe- 
cuted, he feigned himself to be deranged in 
mind, and reqtiested that his horse shoidd be 
brought to him in the prison. The horse Avas 
brought, finely cajjarisoned. Herman mount- 
ed him, and seemed to be performing military 
exercise, when on the first opj)ortiniity he 
b(jlted tlirongh one of the large windows that 
was some fifteen feet above ground, leajied 
down, swam the Xorth Bi\er, ran his horse 
through Xew'y, and alighted on the bank 
of the Delaware o|)])Osite Xew T'astle, and tlms 
made his escape from death and tlii> Dutidi ! 
This daring feat, traditi(m says, he had trans- 
ferred to eanva.s — himself represented as 
standing by the side of his charger, from whose 
nostrils the blood was flowing. It is said that 
a co])y of this jiainting still exists. He never 
suffered this horse to be used afterwards, and 
Avlien he died had him buried, and honored his 
grave with a tombstone." 

Vincent, in his "History of Delaware," pub- 
lished in 1S70 (]). 4(lil), says that he once saw 
the ]>ainting. It was then in the possession of 
James B. Oldham, and was as represented by 

The old mansion house of llernnm was oc- 
cu])iecl by (io\-ei-nor Bassett and soon after 
his death in SeptiMuber, 1S15, it was burned 

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down. Ledmuii further says: "-.M;my oKl val- 
uaMc paintings were: consmiietl with this 
huii^-c. One of its hirge halls \va3 lined witli 
lluiii. ;Many of them had belonged to Angus- 
tine lleniian, the foimder of Ijoheuiia 
IManor. His likeness and that of his lady i)er- 
ishcd; also the painting representing the flight 
from the Dutch in New York hy means of his 
famous war charger. * * * Herman was the 
great man of the region; he had his deer park; 
he rode in his coach, driven liy liveried ser- 

^Margaret, the daughter of Herman, is the 
tir.-t Delaware young lady of whom history 
records a description. The Labadists met her 
just before she left her brother Ephraim's to 
attend the death bed of her father. They 
said: "'She showed us much kindness. She 
was a little volatile, but of sweet and good 
disposition." Again speaking of her they 
said: ''She possesses a good disposition, al- 
though a little wild, according to the nature 
of the country. She complained that she was 
like a wild and desolate vine trained up in a 
wild and desolate country; that she had always 
felt an inclination to know more of God 
quietly, and to serve him. She treated us with 
great affection, and received thankfully aud 
acceptably what we said to her." 

The C'oehrans, now so numerous and influ- 
ential, it is alleged, are descendt'd from Derick 
Kolchman, now changed to Cocdiran, who was 
utu- iif thiise concerned in founding the I.aba- 
<list CI ill my. 

'J"he Alrichs, one of whom (Lucas Alrichs, 
of Xcw Castle Hundred) liolds the land on 
which he lives from his first ancestor, have 
frum the time of the first governor of that 
name (1057) been numerous and influential. 
Their blood flows in the veins of large niuu- 
b.ers of the most respectable citizens of T)ela- 
ware and other States; for like most old Dela- 
Avare families, their descendants are scattered 
over most of the states of the Union. 

Of the Delaware Knickerbocker families 
none, it is believed, have so complete a claim 
•of descent as the offspring of the celebrated 
Convert Loockermans,the sturdy leader of the 
citizens of Xew Amsterdam, and colleague of 
Augustine Hernian. From him the Lock- 
ormans of Dover are descended. One of his 
descendants still occtipies the family mansion 
at Dover, M-hich was built in 1742, by "jSTich- 
olas Loockermans. The line of descent, ^how- 

ing the number of generations, link by link, 
that has existed in the State since its fir.-,t set- 
tlement, is given briefly as follows: 

Cjouvert Toockermans, the progenitor of 
the Loockermans, came from llulland to Xew 
^Vmsterdam with Wouter N'an Twiller, the Di- 
rector-General or Governor of jS^ew Nether- 
lands, in the caravel St. Martin or Hope, com- 
manded by Juriaen IJlanck, in the month of 
April, ]();j:i, iu the service of the West India 
Company. At the time of his arrival he was 
aged about seventeen years. He married 
^laria Jan?en, daughter of Eoelf .Tansen and 
his wife Annetje or Annccke Jans, who after 
the death of her husband, married the IJev. 
Everhardus Ijo^ardus, and was by that mar- 
riage brother-in-law of Oloff Stevenson Van 
Courtlandt, wlios(! son founded the Van Court- 
landt ]\ranor in the State of New York; also 
of Jacob Van Couwenhoven, sometimes writ- 
ten Covenhoven. He filled some of the high- 
est civil and military offices in New Amster- 
dam. He was dispatched by Stuyvesant with 
Jan Davitz in ]\Liy, 1GG4, across the Green 
]\Iountains to arrange peace with the Mohawk 
Hidians. At Warrington he concluded a 
treaty with them. About the same period he 
commanded a small armed vessel. He drove 
the English from a fort they had erected up 
the Hudson IJiver; also at the head of an 
armed force he surprised and utterly extir- 
pated a tribe of hostile Indians on Staten Is- 
land, who had greatly annoyed and injured 
the settlers in New Amsterdam. It is said 
that the memory of this indiscriminate 
slaughter of this tribe of Indians, although 
a])proved by the popular sentiment of his day, 
occasioned him much disquietude of consci- 
ence, after his retirement from active life, iu 
his last hours. He was dispatched at one 
])eriod of his life, at the head of an armed 
force, to expel the Swedes and English, who 
had encroached on territory claimed by the 
Dutch on the Delaware Kiver near the pres- 
ent city of I'hiladelphia. 

Convert Loockermans was also a successful 
merchant and i>olitician. He headed the 
]K)pular party of New Amsterdam, known as 
the ''Country iiarty," and resisted the dicta- 
torial assumjition of Stuyvesant, the hard- 
htaded leader of the C(nu-t or administration 
jiartv, by wresting from him for the ])eople 
the right of reiiresentation in the council 
called the "Scdinepens,"' of which he was a 

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lULiuber in 1UJ7 and IGUl. This bridled the 
picruyativc claiint-d by ytnyvciant, and made 
the guvernment of tliu Alanimttans in u na-as- 
ui'f I'L-publii'an. Loockcrnuais was tiiruu tinica 
banisiiL'd by Stuyvcsant, antl was as ufteu ru- 
caiicd on account of his public scrvicus. Tlie 
feud between IStuyvesant and him was subse- 
ijiientty ternduated by tiio niarriage of his 
granddaughter with tiie jirandson of Stiiyvc- 
sant. After a career of honored usefulness, 
Ciouvert i.oockernians died in IGTU, reputed 
the richest individual iu JS^orth America, lie 
was worth 520, QUO Dutch guilders, an im- 
mense sum for the period in which he lived. 
His public influence and position devolved 
after his decease on his son-indaw, Jacob Leis- 
ler, who became by a civil revolutiun the first 
governor of the people of the colony of Xew 

Gomert Loockermans left five children, 
viz: I'd.^ie, Cornelis, Jacob, Johannes, and 
ilaritje. I'dsie married Cornells 1'. \'an-der- 
Veen. Their children were: Cornelius, Timo- 
thy and ]\largaret. She next married Jacob 
Leislcr, who subsequently acted so pronunent 
a part in the early colonial history of New 

Alaritje, second daughter of (Jouvert 
Lockermans, married Balthazar Bayard, step- 
son to (Jovcrnor Stuyvesant, and of this mar- 
riage was horn: (1) Anna Maria, who married 
Augustus Jay, grandfather of Governor Jay; 
('!) Arietta, wdio married Samuel \'erplanck; 
(3) Jacobus, who married Ilellegonda De 
Kay; (4) Judith, who married Gerardus Stuy- 
vesant, grandson of the last Dutch governor, 
Peter Stuyvesant. 

Joannes or Januetje Loockermans was the 
sccoml wife of Surgeon Hans Kicrsted, and 
her children were Areantje, Cornelis, Jaco- 
lius, and ifaritje. 

Cornelis, tlie eldest son, died, it is believed, 
childless, in early life. Jacob, the second son 
of (Jouvert Loockermans and Maria, his wife, 
was horn in 1(350, in New Amsterdam. Tie a regular graduated physician and prac- 
ticed his ]irofession; but he became a planter 
in ]f5S2. On the 2!)th of January, 1077, he 
married Helena Ketin. Being involved in the 
political troidJes, which culminated in the 
overthrow of his brotlirr-indaw, Jacob Leis- 
ler, who was deposed and bro\ight to the scaf- 
fnlil liv the royal governor of William Til of 
Entjland, about the year lOSl, he emi-rate.l 

to Laston, J\laryland, where he became a plan- 
ter. He was a man uf wealth, and left a great 
deal of real estate in the city of New York 
undisposed of. He died August 17, IToO, 
lea\ ing a son, Nicholas Loockermans, who was 
born November 10, 1(JU7. He married Sally 
Emerson, daughter of \'ineent luiierr-un, of 
the (Jrange near l)o\er, in 1721. lie tiled 
-March I), 17Liil, aged over seventy-one 3'ears. 
His tondistone remains at the Grange to this 

\ incent Loockermans, only child of the 
abo\e named Nicholas Loockermans, \vas born 
at the Grange before mentioned, in 1722. He 
married as his second wife Elizabeth Pryor, 
daughter of John Pryor, merchant, of Dover, 
in Eebruary, 17?-f. By his first wife Susan- 
nidi, he had one child, Vincent Loockermans, 
the younger. \iy his second wife, Elizabeth 
Pryor, he had twu children, viz:_ Elizabeth 
and Nicholas. Vincent Loockermans, the 
elder, sat iu the Legislature. He was a promi- 
nent A\'liig during the Pevolution. He died 
at his residence, in Dover, August 20, 17S5, 
in his sixty-third year, leaving a large landed 
estate in and around Dover. 

Nicholas, son of Vincent and Elizabeth 
(Pryor) ]-oockermans, was born Novendjer 
27, 1783. He sat in the Legislature, and died 
]\rarch 20, 1850. He was never married. 

Elizabeth I-oockernians, the only daughter 
of Vincent and Elizabeth (Pryor) Loocker- 
mans, was born December 23, 1779. She mar- 
ried Thomas Bradford, LL. T)., of the city of 
Philadelidiia, eouusellor-at-law, ]\ray 8, 1S05. 
She died in Philadelphia April 12, 1S42, her 
husband s\irvived her, and five children: T. 
Vincent Loockermans; II. Elizabeth Loocker- 
mans; III. Benjamin Push; TV. "William; 
V. Thomas Budd. 

^^incent Loock(>rmans Bradford, eldest sur- 
viving child <if Thomas and Elizabeth 
(Loockermans) Bradford, was born Septem- 
ber 21, 180S. He adopted the legal profes- 
sion and was admitted to practice in Philadel- 
jihia, in April, 1829. He removed to the 
State of ^richigan in 1835, and was elected in 
1S37 to the State Senate. He resumed the 
jiractice of his profession in Philadeljdiia in 
1843, and wa^ elected president of the Phila- 
delphia and Trenton Piu'lroad Comnany in 
1859, being snbsc([nent]v re-elected until 
1871. inclusive. He married, July 21, 1S31, 
Juliet S. Lav, (binL'hter of Emanuel Pay, 

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Ksq., planter of the Island of St. JIartin, West 

Elizabeth Loockornians 15radford, eldest 
daughter of Thomas and Kli/.alieth (i.ooeker- 
nians) i>railfi)i'd, niai-ried the Rev. William 
T. Dwight, ]). I)., of Portland, iTaine, son of 
Timothy Dwiulit, D. 1)., the distinguished 
. ]>resident of Yale College. She died in 1SG3. 
Her husband died in 1805. She left surviv- 
ing four children, the Rev. Henry E. Dwight, 
^1. 1).; Thomas Bradford Dwight, counsellor- 
atdaw, of Philadelphia; Elizabeth Bradford 
Dw ight, and ilary W. Dwight. 

Ik-njamin Bush Bradford, of Xew Brigh- 
ton, Beaver county, I'ennsylvania, son of 
Thomas and Elizabeth (Loockermans) Brad- 
ford, married in ISGO ilargaret Campbell, of 
Butler county, Pennsylvania. They have 
four children, viz: Juliet S., Thomas, Eleanor 
C., and William C. 

William Bradford, of Philadelphia, son of 
Idiomas and iLlizabeth (Loockermans) Brad- 
ford, was born in 1815. 

Thomas Budd Bi-adford, son of Thomas 
and Elizabeth (Loockermans") 15radford, was 
born in ISIG. He was a minister of the gos- 
])cl, and resided for a long time in the ances- 
tral mansion of the loockermans at Dover, 
which has sheltered those of his blood for more 
than a century. He farmed as proprietor 
much of the old Loockermans land contiguous 
to Dover. By his first wife he had no issue. 
He married as his second wife ^liss Lucy H. 
Porter, daughter of Dr. Robert B. Porter, an 
esteemed and influential citizen of Wilming- 
ton, granddaugliter of the Hon. Willard Hall, 
District Judge of the United States District 
Court of Delaware, and great-granddaughter 
of Chancellor Killen, of Delaware. His issue 
by this last nnirnage was four sons and one 
daughter. He died at Dover, :^^arch 2.">, 

A granddaughter of Vincent Loockermans, 
the elder, by his first marriage — being a 
daughter of Vincent Loockermans, the 
younger — Elizabeth Loockermans, married 
Thomas Davy, of Philadelphia. She and her 
husband both died years ago, leaving an only 
child, :\rary S. Davy. Another grandchild of 
"\'incent Loockermans, the elder, by his first 
marriage, and daughter of Vincent Loocker- 
mans, the younger, married the Hon. Nicho- 
las Ci. "Williamson, for many vears ]io<tiiiaster 
and mayor of Wilmington, by whom ■.!:,• had 

issue: (1) ]\Iary Ann, married W\. Corry 
Chambers; {i) Harriet, nuirried Hon. Wil- 
iiam 1). Baker; (3) Sallie E., married Hon. 
Horn B. Kneass; (4) Kvelina, married Coiirt- 
landt Howell, Es(|.; (5 and 0) Hehua and 
I'^lba, married Leonard Phlcgor, Esq. 

Although the fanuly for a century past 
have signed themselves and been called 
"Lockerman," the true spelling of the name 
originally, as derived from the early records 
of the family, is "Loockermans." 

It will be seen by this history of the de- 
scendants of Convert Loockermans how the 
blood of the Knickerbocker patriarchs is 
niingled and scattered over all the states, how 
the families nniintain their position, and that 
seven generations of the descendants of the 
_ loockermans and eight of the Hermans— for 
some of the last named descendants of both 
families have living children — have existed 
since the first settlement of Delaware. 

AViLLiAM Shipley. 

William Shipley was born in Leicestershire, 
England, in 1U1)3. His wife was .Mary Ann, 
daughter of Robert and Ann Tatnall, from' 
whom are descended all the families of the 
Tatnalls, the Leaks, the Canbys, the Ship- 
leys, and Prices, in the neighborhood of the 
Brandy wine :\Iills; and all the Richardsons 
and Latimei-s, near Mill Creek. 

William Shijiley and family embarked at 
Bristol, in England, in the spiing of 17i'5, on 
board a ship bound for Philadelphia. The 
vessel was crowded with passengers, having 
more than eighty persons on board, several of 
whom afterwards became conspicuous and 
valuable citizens of Wilmington. Among 
these may be mentioned Edward Tatnall, 
father of Joseph Tatnall; Elizabeth Canbv,' 
who was the mother of the late William arid 
Samuel Canby, and afterwards, by a second 
marriage, of AVilliam Poole; Thomas Ship- 
ley, who was the father of Joseph Shiplev, 
of Brandywine .Mills, and Sarah Xewlin, wife 
of Cyrus Xewlin; and Jane Elwall. after- 
wards Jane Pearson, who lived to a great age. 
In the same .ship cnme William Taylor. He 
settled at Darby, and made the first Smith's 
bellows ever manufactured in Pennsylvania. 
Also George AVarner, who lived to the great 
age of ninety-nine years, and retained his men- 
tal faculties to his death, which took jdace in 

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1810. AUv Thomas Tatnall, who settled be- 
tween Darby and Chester, and from whom are 
descended tlie ivnowles and yhulleruss fami- 

The ship arrived at Philadelphia in the 
month of Jnly, after a passage of two months. 
iJuring the voyage the smallpox appeared on 
board, and several of the passengers died. 
This eli'emnstance so alarmed the inhaliitants 
of I'hiladeljihia that they assembled in crowds 
iind ordered the ship to lea\'e the plaex;. She 
drojiped down the river and anchored oif the 
Swedes' Church, near which the passengers 
laniled and were kindly received by a jjcrson 
named ]3arnes, who conducted them through 
a dense forest to a house near South street, 
called "the lilue House Tavern." After the 
passengers had recovered from the smallpo.x, 
and their quarantine had expired, they were 
permitted to enter the town. 

Xuvy soon after his arrival, AVilliam Ship- 
ley purchased a tract of land in Ridley town- 
ship, about ten or twelve miles southwest of 
Philadelphia, and there settled with his fam- 
ily. In the early part of 1727 his wife died, 
after a short illness. In about two years he 
married Elizabeth Levis, daughter of Samuel 
Levis, of Chester county. She was a distin- 
guished minister in the Society of Friends, 
and in nniny resjiects a very extraordinary 

The settlement of ilr. Shipley at Wilming- 
ton was the result of a dream of his wife's. In 
this dream she saw a beautiful place, whicli 
made so dee]i an impression on her mind that, 
when traveling through the country, she ini- 
mi'diately recognized the spot and decided 
that they should settle there. ]\Ir. Shipk'V 
yielded to her wishes, and they soon after 
took np their residence in what is now Wil- 
mington. He purchased several lots, pro- 
ceeded to make improvements, and prospered. 

In 174.'3, Elizabeth Shipley, in company 
with Esther White, another distinguished 
minister of the Society of Friends, residing in 
AVilmiiigton, made a journey to IMorth Caro- 
lina on a religious mission, from whence they 
sailed fur luigland, and traveled over Creat 
Britain and Ireland. They returned in 1745. 
She was at that time considered on of the 
greatest ministers of her profession on the con- 
tinent uf .\merica. She lived to see Wibning- 
ton grow to be the largest town in the State 

of Delaware, and de])arted this life in thu 
fall of 1777, at the advanced age of eighty- 
seven years, having retained the full posses- 
sion of her mental faculties to the end of her 
days. \\'hen the battle of ijrandywine was 
fought and lost, and I'hiladelphia was in the 
hands of the enemy, she was on her death bed. 
Some of her friends called to see her and con- 
dole with her on the distressed condition of 
the country. Kequesting to be propped np 
in bed, she addressed the company in rela- 
tion to tlie existing state of public offairs, and 
closed with these im|)ressive words: "But I 
have seen, in the light of the Lord, that the 
invader of our land should be driven back; 
for the arm that is mighty to save and aids 
to deliver from the hands of the oppressor, is 
stretched forth for the deliverance of this na- 
ti<ni, which, I am firm in the faith, will secure 
its independence." 

Her sublime words made a deep inii)ression 
on those sitting by her bedside, and became a 
subject of interesting conversation among her 
friends in the neighborhood. The solemnity 
of the occasion, the character of the speaker, 
and the circumstances under which the address 
was made, greatly increased the interest it was 
otherwise well calculated to excite. It was a 
voice from the bf>rders of the gi-ave, uttered 
by one who had long been considered an ex- 
traordinary person, and who was now just en- 
tering the poi'tal of an eternal state. The ]n'e- 
diction, as we all know, was fulfilled to the 

In 17;'5 'Mv. Shijiley built a large three- 
story brick house at what is now the southwest 
corner of Fourth and Shipley streets, Wil- 
nnngtoji. In this house he lived until his 
death in 17CS, at the age of seventy-six. 

William Shipley had issue by his first wife, 
^Tary Ann Tatnall, Thomas, .\nn. and Eliza- 
lieth, as follows: 

I. Thomas, b. 171S, in l'',nglan<l, came to 
this country with his jiarents, settled with 
them in Wilmington, and afterwards pur- 
chased part of the water power of the Brandv- 
wine, which became a source of wealth to him- 
self and family. He married ^lary ]\rarriott, 
and they had nine children. Those who grew 
to adult age were: 

i. William, b. 1740; d. 1810. 

ii. ^larv, (]\Irs. Phineas Buckley), liorn 
I7r)0; died in Xew York in 1795. 

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iii. Josepli, b. 1752; d. 1S;}2; luamed 
ilary Levis, of Spriiigtield, Delaware cuuiity, 
I'a.; iuLeriteJ the large mill piupeity on ihe 
liraiulywiiie, was siu'cesst'ul in Luaiiieis and 
left au lioiioialde name. His wife survived 
liini eleven years, dying in 1S43. 'I'liey Lad 

1. Sanuicl, born in 1777, married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Oajit. James Jetferis. lie 
engiiged in the milling busiue-s with his father 
until his health failed and he died in ISl 1, 
leaving two ehildren, Thomas and Sarah, y. 
Mary, (Mrs. John Dixon), of AVilmington, 
died in lS-44. 3. Thomas, born in 1780, en- 
gaged in the shipping business in I'hiladcb 
phia, and was remarkably suecessful; was 
prostrated with sunstroke while visiting in the 
south of France, and died soon afterwards, at 
the early age of thirty-two. 4. John, born in 
1782, was for many years engaged in the mill- 
ing business, and died in 18G3. 5. Rebecca. 
Ci. Anna. 7. Elizabeth. 8. Sarah. 9. iMar- 
garet. 10. Joseph, born December 4, 17iJ5; 
entered the counting house of Samuel Canby, 
in Philadelphia, at the age of eighteen; went 
to England in 1819, and became a member 
of the great banking house of P>rown, Ship- 
ley & Co. Their business became extensive 
and the reputation of the house was wide- 
spread. His business venture yielded him a 
fortune. Thirty years after he went abroad 
he returned to £)claware, his native state, and 
purchased a fine property in lirandywine 
Hundred, where he erected a beautiful resi- 
dence, and called the place "Rock wood." 
Here he resided until his death, which oc- 
curred on the 9th of ilay, 18G7, in the seven- 
ty-second year of his age. His remains were 
interred in the Friends' burying ground in 
"Wilmington. Referring to his honorable 
career as a business man and citizen, a writer 
observes: "ITe passed from earth at a ripe 
age. his life being one of honor and usefulness, 
and we doubt whether the soil of Delaware 
covers the remains of a more trusty merchant, 
a more worthy citizen or a better iiuui than 
Josejjh Shipley." 11. Hannah was the 
youngest of the eleven children of Jose])h and 
"Miiry (Levis) Shipley. 

iv. Sarah, b. 17.">."); married T'vrus Xew- 
lin, of Wilmington, and dieil in l""'!!, leaving 
two children, ^Nfary and Thomas. 

V. Ann, b. in 1756; married Juhn Joned, 
and died in 18U8, leaving two children, (Jyrus 
and Lydia. 

vi. Anna, b. 17llU; married William 
Liyriies, ami died in 1>U6, leaving une sun, 

II. Anna, b. circa 1720. 

III. Elizabeth, \>. eirea 1723. In 1744 she 
mariied Oliver, son of Thomas Canby. He 
was engaged in the milling business, and died 
in 1754. William, the eldest of their five 
children, in 1774, nuiiried Martha, daughter 
of Thomas and Sarah Marriott, of Bristol, Fa. 
'Jhey settled in Wilmington the same year. 
She died in 1820, and he survived her until 
1S30, when he died at the age of eighty-two. 

Samuel Canby, second son of Oliver and 
Elizabeth (Shipley) Canby, was born in ^Vii- 
mington in 1751. His father died when he 
was three years old. He learne<l the 
business of a carpenter and cabinet 
maker with Ziba Ferris. When his 
term of service expired in 1771, he 
removed to Brandywine and engaged in the 
milling business. In 1775 he married Frances 
Lea, daughter of James and iLirgaret Lea, 
of W^ilmington, and removed to the house 
formerly owned by his father on the banks 
of the Brandywine. Later in life he built a 
large residence at the corner of Fourteenth 
and ^larket streets, in which his son, James, 
afterwards lived. In this mansion he lived 
forty -one years, until 1S32, when he died at 
the age of eighty-one years. 

James Canb}', sou of Samuel Canby, was 
born January 30, 1781, and for most of his 
adult life continued the flour mills owned by 
his father. He was one of the originators of 
the Philadelphia, AVilmington and Baltimore 
Railroad and became the first president of the 
company. He died May 24, 1858. 

]\rerrit Canby, son of "William Canby, was 
born in Wilmington, N'ovember 19, 1783. 
From 1815 to 1S3G, he was engaged in the 
sugar refining business in Philadelphia. In 
183G he removed to Wilmington and was con- 
nected with various financial institution-; an<l 
other coi-porations until his death, Docember 
10, ISGG. 

It may be said of AVilliam Shii)lev. the 
immigrant, that he was the founder of the 
floui'ishing coinnu'rcial city f>f W^iliuingtou, 

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with its seventy thousaml inhabitants. AVhcn 
lie eanie liere bofore ITof), it was a small town 
of ]t■:^s ilian tliii'ty-tliree houses. l>iit 
tlir()ii,i;ii the enterprise of !Mr. Shipley the 
town began to grow rapidly. The llret mar- 
ket house in AVilmington was built by him in 
the spring of IT.'JG, at his own expense, aii<l on 
his own, land. The first meeting of the 
1 "riends was held in his one-story brick house, 
and later meetings in his new house, until the 
tirst me(ting-linuse was oonijjleted in the fall 
of 17."5S. The name of .Mr. Shipley is perpet- 
uated by a street, and Tatnall street represents 
tiie maiden name of his first wife. 

ifoNj, Caesar Kodnkv. 

Caesar Eodney, the first of the Congres- 
sional delegation from Delaware, was a native 
of that State, and was born about the year 
17-")0. His place of birth was Hover. The 
family from which he descended was of an- 
cient date, and is honorably sijoken of in the 
history of early times. We read of Sir Wal- 
ter Do Iiodeny, of Sir George De Ifodeny, 
and Sir Henry De Itodeny, with several others 
<.if the same name, even earlier than the year 
lL';St. Sir Ivichard De Kodeuy accompanied 
the gallant liichard Coeur de Lion in his cru- 
sade to the Holy Land, where he fell while 
fighting at the siege of Acre. 

In subsequent years the wealth and power 
of the family continued to be great. Inter- 
marriages took place between some of the 
members of it and several illustrious and noble 
families of England. During the civil w^ars, 
about the time of the Commonwealth, those 
families became considerably reduced, and 
their members were obliged to seek their for- 
tunes in new employments, and in distant 
countries. Soon after the settlement of Penn- 
syh'aiiia by William Penn, William Rodney, 
one of the descendants of this illustrious fam- 
ily, removed to that province and after a short 
residence in Philadelphia, settled in Kent 
county, Delaware. This gentleman died in 
170S, leaving a cousiderabli! fortune and 
eight children, the eldest of whom,is the sub- 
ject of this sketch, llr. Rodney inherited 
from his father a large landeil estate, which 
was entailed upon him according to the usages 
of distinguished families at that day. Such 

was his pojuilarity that at the early age of 
twenty -eight years he was ajjpointed high 
shei'itf of Kent county, and on tlie expiration 
of his term of service was created a justice of 
the }H'ai-e and a judge of the lower luurls. In 
ITtii', and perhai)s at a still earlier date, he 
re])resented the county of Kent in tlie provin- 
cial legislature. In this station he entered 
with great zeal and activity into the ])romi- 
nent measures of the day. In tlie year 17G5 
the first general Congress was a^-embled at 
Xew York to consult upon the mea-ures to be 
adopted in conseipiencc of the Stamp Act and 
other op]iressivc procedures of the British 
(!o\ernment. ^h: Rodney, ]\fr. IMcKean, and 
Mv. Kollock were unaninionsly appointed by 
the Provincial Assembly of Delaware to rep- 
resent that jirovince in this Congre-s. For 
tlie faithful 'and judicious discharge of the 
trust reposed in them the Assembly unani- 
mously tendered its thanks and voted them a 
liberal comj^ensation. 

Souii after this Mr. Rodney, in consequence 
of ill health, was obliged to reliiniuish his pub- 
lic duties and seek medical advice. -V can- 
cerous affection had some time previously 
nnule its appearance on his nose and was fast 
spreading itself over one side of his face. 
Fortunately the skill of the physician afforded 
him relief and he returned home greatly en- 

^fr. Rodney was a member of the Congress 
of 1774, having for his colleagues Thomas 
^fcKcan and George Read. On the meeting 
of this Congress September 5, 1774, ilr. Rod- 
ney appeared and took his seat. lie was ap- 
pointed on several important committees, ex- 
hibited gTcat fidelity in the discharge of his 
duties, and as a reward ior his services, re- 
ceived the thanks of the Provincial Assembly, 
together with a re-appointment to the same 
high station the following year. He was also 
ap])ointed to the office of brigadier general 
in the province. At the time that the import- 
ant question of independence came before 
Congress, IMi*. Rodney was absent on a tour 
in the southern ])art of Delaware, lia\'ing for 
his object to quiet the discontent which ])re- 
vailed in that section of the country, and to 
prejiare the minds of the people for a change 
of government. On the question of independ- 
ence his colleagues, who were at this time in 
attendance n]i<]U Congress, were divided. 

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Aware of the importance of a luianiiuous vote 
of the states iu favor of a declaration of in- 
dependence, and acquainted witli the views of 
!Mr. liodney, ^Ir. .McKcan di.spatclicd a spe- 
cial niebsenger to summon him lu lie present 
in his seat when the trying (picstion should 
come hefore the body. With great eti'ort -Mr. 
Kodney reached i^iiiladelphia just iu time to 
give his vote and thus to secure entire unani- 
mity in passing what was termed by the loy- 
alists, "'that act of treason." 

In the autumn of 1770 a convention was 
called in Delaware for the purpose of framing 
a new Constitution, and of appointing ilele- 
gates to the succeeding (/ongre^s. Jn this 
convention there was a majority opposed to 
]\ir. Ivodney, who was recalled from Congress 
and sujierseded by another person. Such in- 
gratitude on the part of the people was not 
conmion during the Revolutionary struggle. 
In the j^i'e^ent instance the removal of this 
gentleman was principally attributable to the 
friends of the English Government, who were 
(piite numerous, especially in the lower coun- 
ties, and who contrived to enlist the prejudices 
of some true republicans in accompli-.hing 
their object. 

Although thus removed from Congress, 
!^^r. Rodney still continued a memlier of the 
Council of Safety and of the conunittee of iu- 
s])ection, in both of which otlices he emjiloyed 
himself with great diligence, especially in col- 
lecting sujijdies for the troo})s of the State, 
which were at that time with Washington. 
In 1777 he repaired in person to the cam)) near 
Princeton, where he remained for nearly two 
months in the most aetivc and laborious >vy- 

In the autumn of 1777, ^Ir. Rodney was 
again appointed as a delegate to Congre-s 
from Delaware, but before taking his seat he 
was elected President of the State. (See 
sketches of the governors.) This was an f»f- 
fice of great responsibility, demanding energy 
and promptness, especially as the legislat)\re 
of the state was tardy in its movements, and 
the loyalists not nnfref|uently excited 
troublesome insurrections. ^Ir. Rodney con- 
tinued in the otHce of President of the State 
for about three years. During this |)eriod he 
had frequent communications from Washing- 
ton in relation to the distressed condition of 
the armv. In everv emertiencv he was reailv 

to assist to the e.xtent of iiis pcjwcr; and by 
his energy and inlluence he .succeeded in af- 
fording the most prompt and eliicinit aiil. 
The honorable course which he jmrsued, his 
tirm and yet liberal conduct in cin-umstanci's 
the most ditiicult ami trying, greatly endeared 
him to the peoi)le of Delaware, wlio univer- 
sally expressed their regret when, iu the year 
1782, he felt obliged, on account of the ardu- 
ous nature of his duties, auil the delicate state 
of his health, to decline a re-election. 

Shortly after retiring from the [irt-siileney 
of the State of Delaware, he was elc'cted to 
Congress, but it does not appear that he e\'er 
after took his seat in that body. The cancer 
which had for years atliicted him, and which 
for a long time previou>ly had so spread over 
his face as to oblige him to wear a green silk 
screen to conceal its ill ajJiiearance, now in- 
creased its ravages, and on tjie :-'ttth of June, 
1784, he died, in the fifty-fifth year of his 
age. His death caused much sorrow among 
the people, lie was noted for high integrity, 
purity of character and patriotism. In 1889, 
more than a hundred years after his death, a 
handsome uHmnment was dedicated to his 
memory and his name is still held in grateful 
renu-ndiranee by the people of Delaware. 

AVarnkk !Mifft.ix. 

AVarner .MitHin, who settled in Delaware 
mauv years before the Revolutionary war, was 
in some resj)ects a unique character, lie Avas 
born in A<-comac county, Virginia, October 
L'l, 174.'), son of Daniel Mifflin, a planter and 
>liare owner, and ilied near Camden, Dela- 
ware, October IU, 17i»S, lacking but five days 
of being tifty'*three years of age. Early in 
life he became iud)ued with the lielief that 
slavery was an e\il, and devoted much thought 
to the question. Raised a Friend, he a.lhered 
to the customs and jiractices of the Society, 
and was a firm believer in its doctrines. The 
vear wlien he became a resident of Delaware 
is unknown. His father, it appears, canu- with 
him from \'irginia, and imrchased land. At 
that time he must have been quite a young 
man. He was the only Friend within sixty 
miles of his plantation and had a long distance 
to travel when attending the yearly meetings 
of the Societv. 

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He was appointed a jiistiee of tlie peace 
Lv tlie Diiki' tpf Yoi'k June 10, ITTU, wliicli 
shows that he must have arrived from \'ir- 
giiiia before tliat time. Tlie records bhdW 
that lie was assessed in ITSJ in North and 
Suutli ^liirderkill liundreds. Dauiol and 
AVaiki-r -MiiHin were assessed at tlu' sanic tinir. 
'Idie fcjrnicr was tlie father of Wanirr, and 
the hittt-r was ids In'otlier. 

Althongli Warner ^litHin took so great an 
intcre-t in tlie welfare of tlic slaves, and was 
one (if the \ery earliest of Al)ulitionists, he 
iicranie a sla\e owner. Some wore hrouglit 
to him liy his tirst wife, who was a ^larylander, 
and uthi i> wt-re given to him by las father, 
lint the belief that it was wrong to hold slaves 
grew stronger iu his mind from year to year, 
and, finally, in 1774, he gave them their lib- 
erty by executing a curious paper whicdi has 
been jireserved. His e.xample was followed 
by other Friends, and the records show the 
voliuitarv emancipation of G15 slaves by their 
o\vn(rs fioni 1774 to 1792, AVarner ilitHin 
opciang the list with twenty-one of his own. 
The document is entitled a "Record of ]\rann- 
missions by the ^Iend)ers of Duck Creek 
^Monthly [Meeting and some other Friends." 
A co])y of one of these records will serve as n 
illustration of the habit of tlionght of those 
Friends in carrying out their convictions of 
duty, and is well worthy of preservation 'u 
this connection as a remarkable historical 
document. It is as follows: 

I, \Yarner Mifflin, of Kent county, in Delaware, 
merchant, fully persuaded in my conscience that it 
is a sin of a deep dye to make slaves of my fellow 
creatures to continue them in slavery, and believ- 
\ng it to be impossible to obtain that peace my soul 
desires, wliile my hands are bound full of injustice, 
as by my unjustly detaining in bondage those that 
have as just and equitable riglit to their freedom 
and liberty of their persons as myself. Therefore, 
for remedying the same I do hereby declai'e all the 
negroes I have, hereafter particularly named, ab- 
foUitely free, them and their posterity forever, 
from me, ray heirs, executors, administrators and 
every one of them, to wit : Hannah, an antient 
n'g:o woman; Ezekiel, a man about twenty-five 
years of age : Beniah, a negro man about twenty- 
seven years of age ; Paul, a negro man about 
twenty years of age ; Nanny, a negro woman about 
thii'ty years of age, and her girl, Hannah, about 
fourteen years of age ; Daniel her negro boy. about 
ten years of age ; her girl, Jenny, about live years 
of age ; girl Nanny, about three yeai-s of ago ;" boy, 
Abram, about ten months old ; negro Grace, a 
woman about twenty-seven years of age, her girl, 
Betty, about thirteen years of age: Henny, her 
girl, about eleven years of age ; her bo^', Richard, 
about seven years and nine months old ; girl, Re- 
becca, about three years old ; hereby impowering 

them and each of tliem with full and fiee liberty to 
commence suit in law against me, my heirs, execu- 
tors, administrators ur any of us thai may attempt 
to intlu'al, iuibondage or deprive them of their lib- 
erty in any respect by coloror pretence of right de- 
rived from mo ; and I do hereby convey to them and 
each of tliem all the right, powci' and authority I 
have hei'otofoi'e had to coiiuuenee an action against 
any person that had heretofore got one of tlum out 
of my jjossession, and refused the delivery back 
again; each one to stand in the place for )iim or 
herself that I have bad to stand foi- them in behalf 
of my own interest in llje same case, when tliey 
shall be entitled to recover all such costs as they 
may be at in prosecuting the suit fi-om sueli of us 
as may attempt as aforesaid. And I do hereby.aiso 
lay it as a charge on the consciences of the court or 
jury before whom it may be brought that they par- 
ticularly adhere to this evidence in behalf of the 
aforesaid negroes. But believing it to be my duty 
to take upon myself the power and authoiity of the 
young ones to raise and educate them till they ar- 
rive ;to lawful age, I therefore resiM've that pre- 
rogative over the male till they arrive al twenty- 
one years of ago, and the female till they arrive to 
eighteen years of age, which 1 do hereby direct to 
be determined by the ages of each as particularly 
mentioned as aforesaid, calling them tiie very age 
this day that they are said to be about such an age. 
And whereas a negro man named Solomon just 
came to me (upward of foi'ty years of age) being left 
by my grandmother, Mai'y Mifflin, to serve which 
of her grandchildren he jdeased, and by letter just 
received from my father, Daniel Mifflin, one of the 
executors in bei will named, informing me he (the 
said Solomon) made choice of me. 1 do also there- 
fore hei-eby declare said negro *Sol(jmon absolutely 
free fr^im me and my heirs forever ; and do entitle 
him to all and every the privileges of the others 
on an attemjit to deprive him as aforesaid. And 
whereas I have heretof(jre manumitted and set free 
my negro man James, woman Mariah and her chil- 
di-en, Lydia and Nanny, and also negro girl .Melissa, 
which manumission or clearance I deposited in the 
keejjing of the Monthly Meeting of the people called 
Quakers of Duck Creek, in this county, which I ap- 
prehend will be admitted to recoi-d by direction of 
said meeting, together with this. Now my desire 
is that this being produced, or a copy hereof certi- 
fied by the clerk for the time being to sud meeting, 
or in case there should be no monthly meetin"- of 
and for Duck Creek, a certified copy from the clerk 
of the Quarterly Meeting of said people called 
Quakers, to which Duck Creek Monthly Meeting 
lust belonged, certifying that such i-ecord ajT- 
peared, shall be adjudged taken and as accepted as 
full as I can enforce it, as if^ was personally pres- 

*Marginal note in handwriting of Recorder War- 
ner Miftlin— The i-eason of my grandmother's not 
freeing this negro herself was that she was in- 
formed she could not do it because of the laws of 
Virginia, where she lived, it being a concern to her 
for several years, but I believe was somewhat re- 
lieved with the prospect she had that it would be 
accomplished by her descendants ; she, therefore, 
mentioned none of them in her will e.xcept two 
men. allowing them to make choice of such of her 
grandchildren they pleased, this one choosing me 
and the other my biother Daniel, W(>re both imme- 
diately set to their liberty, and likewise a woman 
and children before set at liberty in Maryland 
confirmed by will since all are freed bv mv father 
Daniel Mifflin. 

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ent and acknowledged the whole thereof. And 
such I desire thul may have anythinjj of the kind 
before them that they lucy i)aiticuliirly attend to 
and distribute justices impartially to the poor ne- 
groes and not wrest the meaning hereof (the con- 
sequeneu be to them that do ollierways) my inten- 
tion being to clear them from slavery to me, my 
heirs or assigns forever, believing fi-eedom to bo 
their natural and just right. To whieli I do here- 
unto set ray liaiid aud atlix my seal tliis Ninth Day 
of the First Month in '.he year of our IjOrd one 
thousand, seven hundred and seventy-live (1775). 

Sealed and acknowledged in (n-esenee of us, Jo- 
seph Jenkins and Edward Cole. 

Kecord examined, Warnei' MitUin. 

In the execution of this remarkable docn- 
inent some interesting iiieidents are reported 
to have occurred. For instance, it is stated 
that wlien one of his bes„ slaves appeared Le- 
ft re him he said: "Well, my friend daiue.^, 
liow old art thou?'' ''I am twenty-nine and a 
half years, master." "Thou shoiiklst have 
been free," said Warner, "as thy white breth- 
ren are, at twenty-one. IJeligion and human- 
ity enjoin me this day to give thee thy liberty; 
and justice requires me to pay thee for eight 
years and a half service, at the rate of ninety- 
one pounds, twelve shillings and six pence 
owing to thee; but thou art young and 
healthy; thou hadst better work for thy liv- 
ing; my intention is to give thee a bond for it, 
bearing interest at seven and a half per cent. 
Thou hast now no master but Ood and the 

Daniel !Mifflin, his father, who appears to 
have been living at this time, also followed 
the great humanitarian act of tis son by manu- 
niitting his slaves. Warner ^lifflin was much 
encouraged in his work by the language of tli^ 
preamble to the Declaration of Independence, 
although, like most of the Friends of that time, 
he was opposed to war and favored peace. 

Eut the humane project which he had in 
view, that of universal freedom, was deemed 
impracticable at that time, and only those of 
his immediate acquaintance followed his il- 
lustrious example. 

On the day of the battle of Oermantown 
he was attending the yearly meeting of the 
Friends at Philadelphia, and the room in 
which they were assembled was darkened by 
the smoke of the battle. At this meeting the 
Friends renewed their testimony against thf 
spirit of war, and chose "N(ifflin to visit Clen- 
erals Tlowe and Washington and remonstrate 
with them against the carrying on hostilities. 
To perform this hazardous duty Friend Mitllin 

had to walk in blood and among the dead 
bodies of those that had fallen. Hut hid cour- 
age was undaunted, and he set out on his 
perilous mission, believing it to be a sacred 
and religious duty to plead for an armistice, 
in the hope that it would lead to peace. 

An interesting account of his experience 
on his visit to Cjeneral Jlowe is furnished in a 
translation from the French of the account 
which Hector St. John Ue Creve-Coeur gave 
of this episode in his "Letters of an American 
Planter." Creve-Coeur was a I'lvnchman, 
who had married the daughter of an Americaii 
merchant, and had become a farmer, and his 
book in j)raise of this country had a consiilera- 
ble circulation in its time. Creve-Coeiu- tells 
how .Mitilin, when he arrived at the British 
outposts, was seized and taken before the otfi- 
cer in command. "Who are you, and where 
are you goiug^" cried the guard. ".\ry nama 
is AVarner ]\Iitiiin, and I am going to Philadel- 
j)hia," was the calm reply. The nami- of the 
Quaker Cieneral 'J'hoinas ^fitttin was not uit-. 
familiar to the officer, and he became 5us]n- 
eious. "Mitilin! IMitHin!" he exclaimed. "Tt 
appears to me that there i- a cer- 
tain Captain Thomas ilifflin, win) says 
he is a so-called general in the rebel 
army; is he not a relation of youis^"" 
"Yes, my friend, he is my first cousin," said 
Warner. "Is it possible that that is a crime?" 
Then the ofHcer opened the vials of his wrath, 
exidainiing: "How do j'ou dare to call me 
your friend, you arrant rebel? Soldiers, lead 
this hypocrite to the guard house, until we 
take him before the provost, when he will be- 
hanged in his turn. You \\'ill see there a great 
number of rebels, who, under the guise of the 
simplicity and humility of the Quakers, have 
tried to sneak into the British lines to act as 
spies. Soldiers, take this man to the guard 
house; he argues too much. Put the mana- 
cles on him; do you understand? They will,, 
without dotibt, be the iirst pair of 'sleeve 
cuffs' monsieur the Quaker has ever worn." 

The unfortunate peacemaker was kept in 
jail for several days. lie was theit taken be- 
fore General Howe. The British conunander, 
six feet high, sometimes compared, like Corn- 
wallis, to Washington in his jiersomil appear- 
ance, and with the manners of a gentleman, 
allliDUgh po])ularly regarded as a monster of 
profligacy in the eyes of patriots of severe 

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auorals, st-fiiis to have received liim gently, if 
iiut iilhibly. The general was not aeciistonied, 
howi-VLT, to eallers coming into his nresence 
with their hats on. lie observed with some 
surprise tiiat .Mitliiu had not dotted his iiat, 
but jirocecded merely, to ask if his name was 
Wanier ^littlin. "Yes, friend William Jlowc, 
that is uiy name." ^Vt tliis point of tlie inter- 
view an' aide-de-camp, who was doubtless as- 
tonished at the visitor's want of politeness to 
the general and his failure to api)rceiate the 
general'? greatness, approached »he (^)iiaker, 
pulled his hat from his head, and rebuked 
him for daring to remain covered. ^Mittlin 
o.xplained that he was only complying with 
the custom of his sect. Then Howe, in turn, 
rebuked the aide for his presumption, au<l 
assured the (Quaker that it was a matter of in- 
ditt'crenee to him whether the hat was worn 
or not, and that all he wanted was a clear and 
exact answer to his questions. According to 
thi' translation, Warner ?aid: 

"T am a ]ilanter in Tvent county; I am sent 
by the A"(iuMy of the Quaker Church of 
the three lower counties." 

"Ah! the jilanters and their Quaker Clmreh 
choose an unfortunate time, Lecausc I tind 
myself obliged to be their enemy. What does 
the assembly desire of me? "What do you your- 
self want with me?" 

Warner rejdies: "As you are an English- 
man, it is possible that you know that the So- 
<'iety iif Friends has nothing to do with war, 
<ir with eiintentions, either ]iublic or )irivate; 
<lis)iiites are to us forbidden by Holy Writ, 
which enjoins us to consider all men as our 
brothers: but while recommending to us fra- 
ternity and jieace, it commands us to do all in 
o\n- ]iower to prevent and hinder evil. Our 
hrethren in the three counties, meeting in our 
'Assenddy for the SuflFering,' have believed 
that ]ierhaps it would he possible to bring 
about an interview hctwcen thee and our 
friend, (!corge Washington, and hy this in- 
ter\iew a suspension of hostilities might b(> 
brought about, at least during the winter, and 
that such su<]iension might bring about a good 
understanding and restoration to peace. Per- 
sua(le(l that this is a sound and (lious idea 
through obedience to the ins))iration of tho 
S])irit, from whence come all our good 
thouiihts, as well as the good that we-«cconi- 
])li-;h, they have deputized me to communicate; 

with thee. AVhat does thee think of it, friend 

iiei'ore the interview was at an end Howe 
was so interested in the (Quaker that he wanted 
him to dine at the headquarters; declared that 
^MitHin's scheme did honor to idm and his sect, 
but pointed out that his position was somewhat 
ditterent from Washington's, as the Ameiicau 
general could at once obtain his instructions 
from Congress, while he would need to wait 
several months to secure the consent of the 
Jung. He expressed his willingiu'ss to agree 
to a short suspension of hostilities if he could 
meet \Vashington. The general and his viaitor 
then sat down at table, and iJitilin was asked 
whether it was true that he had set free all his 
?laves. Jle replied in the atlirmati\e, and 

"J only did what it was my duty to do." 

"They also tell me that you gave the wool 
of ti\'e hundred sheep to those who had lost 
theirs by the English troops." 

"Seeing that all men are brothers, why do 
not those ^vho are well otf divide tlieir 
wealth with those that the war has ruined? 
There is more true joy in doing well than 's 

"lly what chance did you save your sheep?" 

"l!y means of an island (Chlncoteague) that 
I own; I concealed them in the woods on this 
island, when your brother, Admiral Howe, 
went up the river with his fleet." 

"I esteem you highly, Mr. i^Iilflin, and these 
two generous actions would render me your 
friend for all my life if we were neighbors, 
and at peace. I wish to Ood that all the 
Americans were like you." 

He was permitted to depart from within 
the ]>ritish lines, when he made his way to the 
American camp, and finally succeeded in 
reaching General Washiugtou. Tie told him 
])lainly that he was opposed to "all changes of 
government which occasion war and blood- 
shed," anci he was received with respect and 
comi)linu^nted on the goodness of his inten- 
tions. "Washington, while more taciturn and 
less affable than Howe, seems to have treated 
his fellow Virginian with deference. But the 
])i'0]iosition of the Friends was regarded as im- 
])racticable, and he returned to his abode, Vie- 
ginidng soon afterward what became the great 
work of his life, the emancipation of the ne- 
"roes. He had that clear, strong intellect 

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wliioh we ufteii tiiiJ among (Quakers 
ill following principles and cnvictions to tlieir 
logical conclusion, as well as the most exact 
sense of justice. 

At this time AlilHin was oiily thirty-two 
years old, but his mind was of a matured cast, 
jicrfi'ctly s(df-possessed and feeling that ho 
was I'ngaged in a high and holy mission, he 
knew no fear. And although many of the 
Iriends had to go through a season of,resent- 
nient after the -nevolutioii, Warner ^lifflin, 
who had been more conspicuous than any other 
in an individual effort to bring the war to 
a (dose on the basis that all war is wrong, seems 
to have been regarded witli the highest respeec 
to the end of his career, as a man of exemplary 

After AVashington was inaugurated as 
President at New York, ]\Iittlin visited him, 
and ill the course of the interview, the Presi- 
dent, recollecting the assertion, when he visi- 
ted him during the war, "that I am op])osed 
to the Pevoliition and to all changes ui gov- 
ernment which occasion war and liloodshed," 
asked him to tell on wdiat principle he was op- 
posed to the Pevobition. "Yes, friend Wash- 
ington," he re])lied, "upon the principle that 
I should be opposed to a (duuige in the present 
government. All that was gained by revolu- 
tion is not an adequate coin|)ensation for the 
poor mangled soldiers, for the loss of life or 
limb." To which Washington replied: ''I 
kno\< your sentiments; there is more in that 
than mankind have generally considered." 

As illustrative of the philanthropic charac- 
ter of ifitHin, Brissot, in his examination of 
the "Travels of Chastellux in America" says: 
"I was sick and Warner MitHin came to me. 
It is he that first freed all his slaves; it is he 
who without a ])assport, traversed the British 
army and spoke to General Tlowe with so 
much firmness and dignity; it is he who, fear- 
ing not the effects of the general hatred against 
the Quakers, went, at the risk of being treated 
as a s])y, to present himself to Cieneral Wash- 
ington, to justify their conduct to him; it is ho 
who amid the fm-ies of w^ar, e()ually a friend 
to the Prench, the English, and the Amen- 
can~, t'arricd succur to those who were snlVei'- 
ing. "Well! this angel of peace came to me." 
Warner Alifflin devoted much time to trav- 
eling and lecturing. Tlis theme was the eman- 
cipation of the slaves. Tie laid piiition^ to 

this efiect before legi^laturea and Congress, 
j)iiblished pamphlets in advocacy of his 
scheme, and never grew weary in inculcating 
the great peace doctrines and humanitarian 
principles w Inch he had espoused in his youtii. 
llii was a first cousin of (ieneral Thomas 
Alilllin of the Revolution, and afterwards gov- 
ernor of Pennsyhania, and probably the only 
one of the connection that favored the jjcace 
doctrines of the Society of Priends, excepting 
his own immediate fanuly. The circumstances 
surrounding his death were peculiarly sad. In 
the autumn of iT'.is he was about to visit 
Philadelphia to attend the yearly meeting of 
of the Society of Priends. Yellow. fever was 
then raging in that city, but he believed it 
was his duty to attend the meeting, and if 
his services were required to aid in looking 
after the sick and dying, he was ready to per- 
form that dnty also. Before setting out on his 
journey he executed his will (see Will Book 
X, p. 224, Dover) in which he speaks of the 
])estilence then i>re\ailing, but believing that 
it was the will of (iod that he should go, he 
set his house in order by making jirovision 
for his family and disposing of his large es- 
tate, so that in case he should fall, his life woi-k 
would be properly ended. 

After attending the meeting and witnessing 
the horrors of the pestilence he returned tu 
his home in Delaware; but the seeds of the ter- 
rible disease were implanted in his system, and 
he sickened and tlied of yellow fever, as 
stated above, on the IGth of October, IT'.iS. 

Warner ]\fifiliii was twice married. His 
first wife was Elizabeth, daughter of the cele- 
brated lawyer Kcnsey Johns, of [Maryland, 
wdio afterwards settled at New Castle, became 
a L^nited States Senator, and chief justice of 
Delaware in L79S. lie was succeeded on the 
bench by his son, Iven.sey Johns, Jr., in 1S.'52, 
who served for twenty-five years. The will 
of AVarner ]Mifflin shows that the issue by his 
fii'st marriage was as follows: 

I. AVarner]\rifllin, Jr.;IL Elizabeth (Mrs. 

Cowgill); IIP Anne (.Mrs. Pa-in); 

lA^ Su.samiah; A^ Sarah. 

AVhen ^Mrs. Elizabeth ]Miffiin died is nn- 
known, but she evidently died young, for, on 
the nth of October, 17S8, he 'married Anne 
Muden, of Philadelphia. She was born (See 
Hist, of the 'MifHin Paniilv, p. 4R) in ITOr., 
and di.'d in IMiihidrlpliia,' Afarch 22, 1M.1. 

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STATE OF ])l']L.\]V.\in<J 


liy the riecoml marriage tliere appear tu have 
l^een two sons, »SaiiiiU'l aiiJ Leimieh J'he hit- 
ter was a postliuiaous ehild, for refereiiee to 
tliat effect id made to hiiu in the will. Jle 
•lied ^\iigiLst '.), lS-!4. Dc-ieciulaiits u{ Warner 
-Mitiliii still live in Delaware. 

(iKNFit.vr. Jons Dagwoktiiv. 

Aiiioug the distinguished Kevolutiouary 
heroes who ended their days in Delaware was 
• iin. .Iiilin J)agworthy. The date and plaee 
ot' his birtii are unknown. We tii-st hear of 
liiin in Xew Jersey, at 1" ronton, in 17o2. lie 
was a man of some note at that time for Ciov- 
ernor ^1 orris says he was high sheriff of the 
eonnty in wiiieli he lived. In King (iedrge's 
M'ar in 174."), lie commanded a company in a 
Xew Jersey regiment sent to operate against 
the Kreneh in Canada. In course of time he 
rec(i\i'd a royal commission as captain from 
England, and in IToo was in command of two 
Companies of rangers organized for the jiro- 
tcction of the border settlements of ^\\>steru 
^laryland in the French and Indian War. 

AVliile in this service a dispute occurred 
between ('ai)taiu Dagworthy and Lieutenant 
Colonel (ieorge Washington regarding rank. 
Captain Dagworthy cdaimed that inasnuich as 
he held a royal eouunission, he outranked 
Washington, who was a Colonial ofheer, com- 
missioned by the Governor of Virginia. The 
dis])utc, whicii lasted a long time, and was 
tlie cause of much friction between the two 
otHcers, was finally settled by Eraddock in fa- 
vor <if Dagworthy. After Rraddock's dt'ath 
the contest was revived and kejjt nj) for some 
time, or until Washington made a journey to 
Boston and laid the matter before CJeneral 
Shirley, who upon investigation, in ]\rarch, 
175(1, definitely settled the relative rank of 
the dirt'erent claimants by sustaining Wash- 
ington, and Dagworthy was redu<'(Ml to the 
raid< of a Provincial captain. 

Ca]itain Dagworthy jircn-ed himself a brave 
and \'alnable ofiieer and sa\v much liard ser- 
vice on the frontier. lie was jiresent at the 
fall of Fort Duquesne as an officer of the 
!^[al■vland troo])S, and was the first to bring the 
news of the reduction of that stronghold to 

The capture of this fort filled the colonies 

witii joy. (iovernor Sharp, by proclanuition, 
a))pointed a day for puidic thanksgiving and 
prai^e; and the Assemldy, to testify its grati- 
tude to the brave Alaryhuul soldiers who had 
taken part in the action, a[)propriated £1,.5(J0 
to be distributed as a gratuity among them, 
in the apportionment thirty pounds fell to i^t. 
Col. Dagworthy; to I'adi cajitain, sixteen 
|>ounds; ti> each lieutenant, twehc poimds; to 
each ensign, nine pounds; to each non-eoui- 
missioned officer, six pounds; the remaindi;r 
\o be expended in the purchase of clothing and 
suitable necessaries, to be divided among the 
privates. Afterwards, as a further testimonial 
to Dagworthy for his services, the Assembly 
of .Maryland gave him patents for a tract of 
land in what was tlu-n W(.ircc,-ter county, 
.Maryland, lying at the head of Pe])iier's 
Creek, whicli was later, by the surveys of the 
boun<lary line between ]\laryland and Dela- 
ware in 1707, found to be in Dt'laware. 

In 177-1, all of these tracts were rer,urveyed 
to him under Penn and called ''Dagworthy'a 
Conquest." They contained, in the aggregate 
twenty tliousand three hundred and ninety- 
three acres. This was a magnificent domain, 
and testifies to the esteem in which Col. Dag- 
worthy was held by the peo])le. 

I'"rom the exhaustive |iapcr on the history 
and i)ublic services (jf Colon<d Dagworthy^ 
contributed to the lli-torical Society of Dela- 
ware by Dr. (ieorge W. .Maishall, of :\Iilford, 
in 189;"), it appears that he must have settleil 
on his land soon after it \\'as assigned him, for 
on the L'lth of Oi-tolier, 177-1-, he was connnis- 
sioned by .John Penn as a justice for Sussex 
county. Afterwards, Jolm "McKinly, Presi- 
dent and Commander-in-Chief of the Dela- 
ware State, connnis>ioned him as a justice in 
the county of Sussex, dated Wilmington, 
:\rarch S, 1777. 

In consc(|uenc(> of'the territory acquired 
from Maryland by Delaware, a law was en- 
acted in 1774 that the justice should ascertain 
the boundaries of the several ancient liun- 
dreds, and commissioners Cof whom John Dag- 
worthy was one) were a])poiTited to si'lect free- 
men to eon<lnct elections for in^iiectors and 

Dagworthy was apjioinfed on<' of the Com- 
mittee of Safety in Sussex eonnty for the >n'i- 
)iression of the Torv insuri'cction. and in the 
"Alinutes of Council" for Afarch, 177"^, ho 

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nioanAPiiiCAL h'xcrcLOPj'JDiA 

is referred to as "lirigadier Dagworthy." Tlie 
following resolution was adopted hy CouiK-il, 
.March :iO, 1778: 

\\'uei;eas, The Couneil is fully eonviuceU 
that some of the disutleeted iuhabitanu u( the 
county of Sussex have takeu up arm?, uiueh to 
the terror of the good people of said counlv 
and to the eucourageuieut of the British 
forces to land and make incursions tiierc; 

llcsulicd, That it is the opinion of this 
Council, that, for restoring peace and liai'- 
moiiy in said county, the i'rcsident of the 
State issue his oi-ders immediately to (ieueral 
Dagworthy, to disarm and take the ammuni- 
tion from all the disaffected inhabitants of tho 
(-ounty of Sussex. 

That he was actively employed in the cause 
of the Colonies there is abundant evidence 
Ou October 9, 1770, Samuel Patterson wrote 
from Perth Amboy to General liead. "George 
Parvi^, our acting quartermaster, was adjutant 
in Suasex to General Dagworthy's battalion.'' 
lu ilay a lot of ammunition and other nui- 
nitions of war belonging to ^laryland arrived 
in Indian River, and were taken in charge by 
Colonel Dagworthy and sent to Cliarlestown, 
^Maryland, by land. In 1777, Thomas ^le- 
Ivcan wrote, "We made a promotion in tho 
militia by making Dagworthy brigadier." 

Dr. ^Marshall, his biographer, says that 
General Dagworthy built a capacious one- 
story luiuse upon his lands in Dag.sboi-ougli 
hundred, Sussex county, which hundred and 
town were named after him. Here, sur- 
rounded by his family and a retinue of slaves, 
he dispensed a liberal hospitality to his many 
friends and admirers. lie was honored aiul 
respected as a bold patriot and an earnest, 
lionest citizen, solicitioiis for the best interest 
of his State and the community in which he 
lived, and where he largely <levclo])cd tlie 
varied iiultistries of tlie county. 

General Dagworthy died in the early ])art 
of 17S4, as his will was probated ^fay j;4th 
of that year. He made ample provision for his 
wife ^lartha, and for his sisters, Elizabeth 
Clayton, Sarah De ITart, and ^rary; and for 
his nejihews, James Mitchell, 'William Clay- 
ton ^litchell, Xathaniel ]\[itcholl, and George 
[Mitchell; and for his niece, Abigail Bell. P)nt 
he left no lawful issue. To his ward, Eliza- 
beth Dan"\vortliv Avdclott, wlujui ho educated 

under the care of his sister Mary living at 
Trenton, he gave liberally. She was highly 
eilucat(Hl and was a line Latin and Greek 
scholar. She married William Hill AVells, 
\\ho was burn in J'ciinsylvania about J7UU 
and died at ^Millsboro, Delaware, ilarch 
11, 18i"J. He became the owner of the Dag- 
^^orthy estate. A lawyer by profession, he be- 
came pronunent, and was recognized as a 
representative man. lie was choacn to tho 
United States Senate to lill the unexpired term 
of Joshua Clayton, deceased, and seiwed from 
February 4, K'Jti, till .May 0, 1S04, when he 
re.->igned. On the rcsignatiuii of James A. 
iiayard, he was again elected, holding his seat 
from June 10, IMS, to ^March 3, 1S17. He 
left four sons and a daughter: I. Dagworthy; 
II. Henry; III. Edward; IV. Alfred and V. 
JJachel (Mrs. William D. Waples). Mrs. 
W'aples bought the estate and resided there. 
The sons of AVilliam Hill Wells all studied 
law and were adnutted to practice, but, with 
the exception of Alfred, the youngest, did 
not follow the jirofession for any length of 
time. Alfred Wells went to Ithaca, N. Y., 
and was engaged in legal practice until his 
death, serving as judge of the county and 
member of Congress. Henry Wells was sec- 
retary of the state imder Governor Haslet. 
Edward AVells was Hcglster of the Court of 
Chancery for several years, resided in George- 
to^\^^, and finally settled in Wa^liington, where 
he died. 

Thk Eeiuus Fa.mii.v. 


Benjamin Ferris, of Wilmington, came o 
an old and honoreil ancestry. In Cope' 
(Jenealogy of the Sharplcss family a very 
fidl record may be found. Samuel Ferris, 
grandfather of J3enjandn, came from lieati- 
ing, near London, and settled at Groton, ]\Ias- 
sachusetts. He married Sarah Beed, whoso 
father came from Awley in the southern part 
of England. They first settled in Fairfield, 
Connecticut, and afterward removed to ISTew 
!Milford, being one of the first twelve families 
settled there. The children of Samuel and 
Sarah (Beed) Ferris were: I. Joseph; IT. De- 
borah; TIT. David; TV. Sarah; V. Benjamin; 
VL Hannah; VTT. .Tohn; VIIL Zachariah. 
The parents were of the Presbyterian faith, 
but several of the children became Friends. 



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UaviJ Ferris, born at Stratford, Couuecti- 
cut, Maroli 10, 1707, removed to Philadelphia 
ill 1733, became a Friend, ami in 1735 mar- 
ried ^fary iMassey. In 1737 he settled in Wil- 
mingtuii, Delaware, where ho died December 
5, 17711, having been a minister about twenty- 
four years. J lis brother Zachariah came to 
A\'ilmington and was received into mcmber- 
sliip by Friends December 2, 173'J. lie was 
soon afterwards recommended as a minister, 
labored faithfully, and died January G, 1803, 
aged eighty-tive years, one montii and twenty- 
four days. 

John Ferris, of New IMilford, born in 1710, 
was married ]\Iarch 15, 1738, to Abigail 
Tryoii, of Xew Fairfield, and they had issue: 
I. Deborah, bom December 7, 1738; 11. Abi- 
gail, twin with Deborah; III. Nathan, born 
June 7, 1740; IV. Rosamond, born October 
7, 1741; V. Ziba, born June 13, 1743; VI. 
]\lattliew, ijorn January 14, 1745; VII. Eliza- 
beth, bom December 7, 1746. 

^Vith these children they removed to Wil- 
mington in 1748, bringing certificates from 
the ^Monthly ]\reeting "held at the Oblong in 
^■e county of Dutchess and Province of New 
York, ye'21sl of ye 2nd mo. 1748." Of John 
it was said he had a gift for the ministry. He 
died of small-])ox in 1750. Zebulon Ferris, 
jierhajis a iiei>liew, produced a certificate from 
Xine Partners, New York, dated ilarch 17, 

We are informed by Savage, in his Genea- 
logical Dictionary, that Zechariah (Samuel?) 
Ferris, of Oliarlestown, 1C75, had children: 
T. Zechariah, baptized February C, 107(5; II. 
Sarah, November 12, 1G78; ITT.' Hannah, July 
18, IGSfl. The name was written "Fcrriss" 
bv the second, third and fourth generations. 

Ziba IVrris, born at New ililford in 1743, 
married Edith Sharpless, who was born in 
]\riddletown, October 30, 1742, and died in 
"Wilmington, February 8, 1815. Tier mar- 
riage took place January 12, 17G9, at ]\lid(lle- 
town Aleetiiig. Tier husband died in Wilming- 
ton, Delaware, April 24, 1704. They had 
issue: T. Phcbe, b. 11 mo. 20, 17G9; d.'s mo. 
20, 1770; IT. ^fary, 1). 3 nio. IG, 1771; d. 9 
mo. 9, 1773; TIT. Deborah (]\[rs. Joseph 
P.ringhurst), b. 3 mo. 2, 1773; d. 8 mo. 20, 
1844; TV. John, b. 10 mo. 12, 1775; d. 11 mo. 
1, 1S02; 111. Sarah Harlan; V. Edith C^lrs. 
Caleb Tlarlan"),!,. 4 mo. IS, 1778; d. 4 mo. -d, 

1827; \i. Penjamin, b. 8 mo. 7, 1780; d. 11 
iin). 'J, 18G7; m. Fanny Canby and Hannah 
(iibboiis; Vll. Ziba, b.'l mo. 25, 178G; d. 10 
mo. 14, 1875; m. Eliza iMegear. 

Editii Ferris was the daughter of Pen- 
jamiii and Editli Sharpless, of .Middletown, 
Chester county, Pennsylvania. Slie is repre- 
sented as being a beautiful woman, but unaf- 
fectedly modest, social in her disposition, and 
jiossessing an unusual flow of spirits, but 
noted for her fortitude, and a clear, sound 
•understanding. She early became prominent 
in the .Meeting and for nearly eighteen 
years tilled the station of overseer to the satis- 
faction of her friends. In 1704 she was left a 
widow; and in 1802 .she lost her eldest son. 
P>y tlies(! removals she was deprived of the two 
main pillars of her earthly hopes, but she 
struggled to bear these heavy atilictions with 
true Christian patience and resignation. She 
died as already stated in February, 1815. ^ 

John, eldest son, and fourth child of Ziba 
and Edith (Sharpless) Ferris, was born Oc- 
tober 12, 1775, and died November 1, l.'S02. 
He married in 1800 at Stanton :\reeting, ] Dela- 
ware, Sarah Harlan, who was born August 
7, 1780, at ]\Iill Town, Delaware, and died 
April 17, 1869, in Wilmington. She was a 
daughter of Caleb and Ann (Jackson) Harlan, 
of "Mill Town. 

I'iie fruit of this marriage was one son, 
John, born September 21, 1801, and died 
September 2, 1882, unmarried. His father 
died at the early age of twenty-seven of yel- 
low fever. In 1802, when this scourge pre- 
vailed in Wilmington, John T'erris was ap- 
pointed one of the Poard of Health, which 
station he filled with diligence and strict at- 
tention to the necessities of the sufferers, 
without for a inouient thinking of his own 
danger. Ho was finally seized with the fever 
aiublied November 1, ?802. His death caused 
mueli sorrow, as he was a man who stood high 
in the community and commaniled great re- 
spe.'t. The Poard of Health paid a high 
tribute to his memory in a series of resolutions 
which wore nnaniuiously passed and spread 
upon the minutes. The record of his services 
by the T3oard says: "As soon as the di.sease 
appeared, * * * and consigned eighty-two 
victims to their graves, he commenced his 
anluous .=erviees; and during it-; continuance 
did not for a single day, intermit his attention 

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nioanAPiiicAL kscyclopedia 

to the sick, the dying, and tlie dead. 'I'lic 
iirst inentioued he was in the uoustaut i)raeticu 
of viisiting twice a day. lie took upon hini<elf 
tlie care of tlie funerals of tlic deceased. 
AVlien, after liaving performed a scriou.s tour' 
of duty, a duty enjoined hy Ids coninuscratiou 
for the distressed, and an.xiety for their relief, 
he fell a victim, a late sacrifice to his exertions 
for the hapi)iness of othei-s, and left on the 
hearts of his fellow citizens a grateful remeui- 
Lrancc of his labors and his \irtucs." 

Edith, fourth daughter and fifth child of 
Ziha and Edith (Sharplcss) Ferris, was lioru 
A\)v\\ IS, 1778, and died at .Mill Town, April 
2U, 1S27. On the 2;Jd of December, lM);i, 
she married, at AVihuington ^Meeting, Caleb 
Harlan. He was born near Doe Run, Chester 
county, Pennsylvania, December ;'.(», 1770, 
and died at Mill 'J'own, August S, 1840. Both 
are buried at Stanton Meeting. Caleb llarlau 
learned the milling business under his father, 
but it did not agree with his health, and he 
turned his attention to storekepiug at .Mill 
Town. He ako owned land but did not farm 
it himself. They had issue (surname Har- 
lan) I. John Ferris, b. Feb. 23, 1805; d. Xo- 
vember 5, 1823; l\. Ann J., b. Aug. 11, 1808: 

d. ; HI. Edith, b. July 19, 1812; d. De-. 

31, 1885; IV. Mary A., b.' Aug. 31, 1813; d. 

Ijenjamin, second son and sixth child of 
Ziba and Edith ('Shar])lcss) Ferris, was born 
August 7, 1780, in AVihuington, and died 
there Xovember 0, 18G7. He nuirried, first, 
on the 17th of ^fay, 1804, at Wilmington, 
Fannie Canby. She was born Xovend)er 11, 
1778, in Brandywine, Delaware, and died in 
"Wilmington August 3, 1833. He nuu-ricd, 
second, October 15, 1835, Hannah Cibbuns. 
She was born in Lampeter, Lancaster co\mfy, 
Pennsylvania, January 19, 1793, and died in 
"Wilmington ]\ray 3, 1800; daughter of Abra- 
ham and ^fary (Canby) (Jibbons. Children 
all by first wife: T.' William, b. Fob. 13, 
1805; d. in infancy; TT. I'.dward, b. Julv 24, 
1809; d. Aug. 31,' 1810; TIL Anna, b. Xov. 
27, 1811; d. Sept. 29, 1814; TV. Deborah, b. 

July 22, 1813; d. , unm; V. Anna ^\., b. 

June 11, 1815; d. , unm; VT. Benjamin, 

b. April 2, 1817; d. Oct. 29, 1831 ; VTL ^^ar- 

tha, b. June 20, 1819; d. , unm; VFTL 

David, b. July It!, 1821; m. Sarah Uuder- 

wood; TX. AVilli:i 

b. Dec. II, !• 

:\lary Wctherald; X. Edward, b. Dec. 20, 
lM'5; m. Catharine Lehnnin Ashuiead. 

Henjamin Ferris, father of the above fam- 
ily, was a nian of remarkably vigoi-ous intcl- 
K'l-t and lii> pi'H Was f're<[uenlly empl<j}ed 
to disseminate his ideas, or t<i prescrxe a record 
of iuteresling local facts. He was the author 
ef ".V History of the Original Scttlemenis 
(■n tlic' Delaware," imduding a history of \\'il- 
mington, published in 1840. It was the fii-ht 
publication of the kind, and a work of much 
merit and historic value. Copies are now very 
scarce and hard to secure. 

As early a^ l>21-22, under the noin Je 
liliiijir of '■.\micu^," he (•ugagt'ci in a religious 
c<inirov(4>y with Kev. Dr. Cilbert ("Paul"), 
in a >erie< of letters pidJished in the Cltris- 
liiin Ui'iiiisitdrij. These were afterwards pub- 
li.-.hcd in a volume of over five hundred pages, 
with the title, '"Letters of Paul an<l .Vmicus." 
^Ir. Ferris in early life went to I'liiladclphia 
and learned the trade of watchuuiking with 
tlu' celebrated Thonuis I'arker. Keturuing 
to AVilmingfon he adojifed the profession of a 
conveyancer, from which he retire(l with a 
competency to enjoy his literary labors. 

On the announcement of his death in 1807, 
at the mature age of seventy-six, the Fnnids' 
IiilcUiijoii-er paid a handsonu» tribute to his 
memory, .\mong other things it saiil: "His 
woniK-rfid conversational jiower^ adapti'd 
tlieni>el\c:^ with remarkable versatility 
to all ages and capacities; and all who 
knew him can recall llie many time- in which 
they have seen him in the centre of an admir- 
ing and listening group, while he p(jured 
forth the stories of his abounding trea>ury 
for their interest and instruction. He was a 
connecting link between the present genera- 
tion and the past, his retentive memory and 
jiower (if reiB'csentation enabling him, from 
an inexhaustible fund of anecdote and illus- 
tration, to give life-like pictures of the charac- 
ter and manners of those who have passed 

Ziba, third soil and seventh child of Ziba 
and l^dith (Sharpless) Ferris, was born Jan- 
uary 25, 1780, at the corner of Third and 
Slupley streets, Wihnington, and died at Cliff- 
ton, near Wilmington, October 14, 1875. He 
married X"ovember 14, 1810, at Wibnington 
"Nrcefing, F'liza !>regear. She was born in 
;Marvhnhl, December 12, 17'.i7, and died at 

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Clilituii, .May 4, 16S0, daughter of Aiicliael i. I'auny, b. Jlarfonl ooiiuty, .MarylaiKl, 

aii.l riiebc (^Pugli) -Mrguar, of Wiluiiiigtuii. [Maivli 20, lb-Hi; n\. in Wihuiiigtou June 11, 

Thev liaJ is.sue: ISOS, ( 'liarles llalluwcU. Tiiey reside in 

].' William .Megear, b. Kov. 21., IblT; d. Denver, Colorado, and liave issue. 

Jan. -So, IM'J; 11. KlizabetU Sipijle (Airs. 11. Jienjanau, b. llarlfurd eunuty July 24, 

J.indlev Sniithj, b. Feb. U, ISIU; 111. -Mary IhlT; ni. JJaeliel KielianlbdU. 

(.Mrs. William Sellers), b. Oet. HI, 18-'<l; d. 111. Joseph W ., b. Hartford eoiuity April 

Dec. 1, JMO; 1\'. Infant =on, b. Aug. l'S, o, 1«4IJ ; d. January It), lb5S. 

1S22; V. Kdward liringhurst, b. Rb. 2 J, iV. .Mary If., b. Wilmington Septendjcr 

Ib-Ji; m. Elizabeth Jenkins; VI. Thebe, 3, 1854; m. October 10, 1S77, Eldridge 

b. April 15, ItiL'Ti; d. in lier sixth year; VII. C'. I'riee, of Haltiniore. They have issue. 

Ziba, b. Sept. IS, 1828; m. Esther Lea; V. William, b. Wiluiington, July 2ij, 1859. 

VIII. Frances, b. April 20, 1831; d. April y [. Deborah, b. Wilmington, .March 27, 

20, 1838; IX. Thomas ^Megear, b. Ai)ril 17, 1803. 

1834; X. Francis, b. Xov. 5^ 1840; d .Vug. ^'ir. Anna M., b. Wilmington, Xoveudier 

2, 1843. 5^ l,s(i4. 

David, fourth son and eighth child of Ben- Edward, voungcst of the ten children of 

jamin I'erris (historian), and Fanny ( 'anby, jjenjamin and Fanny (Canby) Ferri~, was 

his wife, was born in Wilmington, July 10, lj,,i-n December 20, l.'^25. He married June 

1821. He married Sarah .Viiu Underwood at -, ]>S55, Catherine Lehman .\>huiead, i>f 

.Moorcslown, .New Jersey, .\pril 12, 1S41). I'liiladeljihia. They reside at Colorado 

Da\'id settled on a farm near Fallstou, .Mary- Sprin>'s, Cdlorado, and have descendants, 

land, in 1841, removing in 1854 near Uanco- Elizabeth H. Ferris, daughter i>f Ziba and 

eas, Xew Jersey, thence to Fairfax county, Eliza (Alegear) Ferri-, li. Wilmington, Febrn- 

Yirginia, near Alt. Vernon, in 1871, and to my G, 1819, married there Octnlier o, ls:59, 

Penn township, Chester county, Pennsyl- Lindley Smytlie. He was born in W ilming- 

vania, in 1877. Issue: ton, July 28, 1810, s<iii of David and .-Vnna 

I. Francis Canby, b. March 22, 1850; d. (( 'aiibv)" Smythc. Afier marriage, they took 
January 15, 1880, unm. ,ip their residtiu'c in Philadelphia. Issue, 

II. William Canby, b. Xovember 17, 1851 ; (>iirname Smythe): 

machinist. ' T. Ferris, li. Septendier 8, 1841; d. April 

III. .Matilda, b. August 19, 1853. 2,1843. 

IV. Henry, b. August 10, 1855; m. Eliza- ' II. Horace, b. Alareh 9, 1844; m. Alary 
beih Ellis .Marters, of Aluncy, Pa., he is ,i Elizabeth ILuimiu in 1805, and have descen- 
printer and pidilisher in Wilmington; they dants. 

have is>ue. " III. Alarriott Canby, b. X' 13, 

V. Alfred Justice, b. June 21, 1804; 1845 ; m. in 1870, CMara Lauderbach, <if Phila- 
priuter. delphia, place of residence, riiiladelphin; they 

VI. AValter, b. Alareh 21, 18G8; machinist, have children. 

AVilliam, fifth son and ninth cliild of Ikm- Edward B. Ferri^, son of Ziba and Elizabeth 
jamin Ferris (historian), and Fanny Canby, (Megear) Ferns, born February 22, ls24, 
liis wife, was born in AVilming-ton l)ecend)er AVilmington; marrieij Elizabeth Jenkins Ao- 
14, 1.S22. On the 2d of January, 1845, he vendx-r 7, 1801, of Philadelphia. Tliey re- 
married Alary Wetherald, of AVilmington. side in that city, and have one daughter, Anna 
She was born there Decend)er 14, 1825, J., born August 21, 1805. 
<laughter of Joseph and Alary (llaworth) Ziba Ferns, born September 18, 1828, son 
AVetherald, of AVilnnngton. lie has in his of Ziba and I'Jiza (Meticar) Ferris, of AVil- 
posse->ion an old clock which is said to have nnngt<in, married June 2-1, 1850, at her home 
been given by AVilliam Alexander to his an<l jilace of birth, Esther Lea, born October 
daughter Alary, who married Jame.s Proome, 12, 1837. She was a daughter of AVilliam 
and which has come down by direct Lea and James S. Lovett, of AVilmington. 
line of descent to the pre-ent owner. They They reside in their native city and have a son 
have i'sne: tmd dauirhter — Alice Lea, and William Lea. 

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The Kuss Family. 

In early times there were none more promi- 
nent in JJehiware than the family of Kcv. 
(icurge Eoss. lie beeame rector of the church 
at iXcw ('astle in 170;"). This church, accord- 
ing to the authority of J. llcnry Ixogcrs, Esq., 
\^■a^ built on the tfite of Fort Casimir, and still 
fatands to-day an antique and venerable edi- 
tice, surrounded by its old-time graveyard, in 
■which sleep many of the early settlers in New 

The Rev. George Koss, born in 167G, was 
the son of David Ross, the second Laird of 
lialblair, and head of one branch of tlic 
Highland Clan Ross. He could trace his de- 
scent to ilalcolm, Earl of Ross, who was con- 
temporary with ilaleolm, King of the Scots in 
the twelfth century. Ceorge Ross was edu- 
cated at Edinburg, where he received the de- 
gree of A. 'M., in 1700, At first he thought 
of becoming a Presbyterian minister, but 
changed his mind and received orders in the 
Church of England. About 1703 he emigrated 
from Scotland to Delaware, settled at Xew 
Castle, and in 1705 became rector of the Epis- 
copal Clmrch (Immanuel), at that place. 
Some time in 1707 he married Joanna Wil- 
liams, his first wife. She came from Rhode 
Island, and was noted for her piety and Chris- 
tian grace. They had issne: I. David, b. be- 
fore 1708; II. ']\rargaret, b. in 1712; III. 
Jolm, li. in 1714. Some time before the 
lievdlntion he was Attorney General imder 
the Crown for the Lower Counties on the 
Delaware, and in his day was one of the most 
distinguished and successful lawyers of Phila- 
delphia. His only rival at the bar was An- 
drew Hamilton. Samuel Adams in his diary 
refers to him as a lawyer of great eloquence 
and extensive practice. At first he favored 
the loyalists, but became a convert to the 
cause of liberty; IV. Aeneas, b. in 1716. He 
entered the ministry, succeeded his father as 
rector of the Parish of New Castle, j\Iay 3, 
1 7.")?!, and served until 17S2. He was an earn- 
est supporter of independence, preached ]iatri- 
•otic sermons and was a pillar of strength in the 
cause of liberty. His son, John Ross, became 
the husband of Elizabeth Griscom (Betsy 
Ross), who made our first national flag in 
Philadel|diia, and whose liouse is still pointed 
f.ut on Arch street; Y. Anne, b. in 1719, mar- 
ried John Yeatcs, of Delaware, a cousin of the 
<listiiiguished jurist, Joseph Yeates, a juilge 

of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, and a 
resident of the city of Lancaster, Pa.; VI. 
dacob, b. before 1720. Little of his history is 
known. Some writers say that he became a 
]ihysician. Holcomb, the historian of the 
cluircli over which the father presided so long, 
says that two of his sons became clergymen. 
It is probable that Jacob was one of them. 

The wife of Rev. George Ross, Joanna 
AVilliains, dN-ing soon after the liirth of Jacob, 
he married, secondly. Catharine Van Gezel, 
a granddaughter of Gerrit Van Gezel, who 
was secretary to Jacob Aliichs, one of the 
Dutch governors of the colony on the Dela- 
ware. Their children were: VII. George, b. 
:May 10, 1730, at New Castle. He studied 
law, and after his admission to the bar he set- 
tled in Lancaster in 1751, and there com- 
menced his professional and distinguished 
career. Au'Tust 17, 1751, he married Anne 
I.aidor. His success at the bar brought him 
in a few years the appointment of prosecutor 
fiir the Crown, an office which he filled with 
distinguished credit. 

In 1708 he was chosen a representative to 
the General Assembly, and continued a mem- 
ber of that body until 1777, excepting the 
years 1772 and 1770. When the Tories be- 
came thesulijects of persecution and sometimes 
imprisonment, and it was esteemed next to 
treason to defend them, he, with James Wil- 
son and a few other eminent persons, was ever 
ready to plead in their behalf. He was, how- 
ever, among the first of the colonists to be- 
come sensible of the arbitrary acts of the Eng- 
lish Goverunu'nt and to feel "the sting of 
British tyranny." The Virginia resolutions, 
proposing a Congress of all the colonies, were 
received in the General Assembly on the eve 
of its adjournment. INfany members were 
anxious for delay, to hear from their con- 
stituents, but so commanding was his influence 
among his colleagues that it was decided to act 
at once, and he was appointed a committee to 
draft a re))ly to the speaker of the Virginia 
House of Delegates. In that reply he ex- 
pressed with clearness and force how sensible 
the members of the Pennsylvania Assembly 
were of the importance of co-operating with 
the representatives of the other colonies in 
every wise and prudent measure for the 
jircservation and security of their general 
rights and liberties. 

'i'lie success of his services in the Assemblr 

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made him available for other and higher du- 
ties. Ou the 22d of July, 1774, he was one 
of seven delegates chosen to represent the 
Province in the Continental Congress. On the 
15th of October, on motion of Mr. Ross, it 
Vas ordered that John Dickinson, of Dela- 
ware, be chosen an additional delegate. 'I'liat 
Congrtss met on the 5th of September and 
adjourned on October 2Gth of the same year. 

As George Ross shared the distinction 
achieved in that short session of seven weeks, 
it may be worth while to pause long cucjiigh 
in our narrative to take a glimpse of that not- 
able Asscinljly, the first Continental Congi-esa. 
It met in Carpenter's ITall, that sacred edifice 
which still stands in Philadelphia, and is 
venerated as the shrine of liberty. }ilany 
noted men were there, not the least of whom 
was the distinguished son of Delaware, George 
Ross. Their work was the grandest of tho 
age. They surveyed and mapped the rights of 
man, declared that no law enacted without his 
consent was binding upon a l^ritish subject, 
that taxation without representation was tyr- 
anny, that the common law of England was 
every Englishman's birthright. 

But ifr. Ross was not a one-term congress- 
man, lie was re-elected on December 15, 
1774, to the Congress which convened ^lay 
10, 1775. To the succeeding term he was not 
elected, but on July 20, 177C, he was again 
elected, and immediately took his seat. In 
January, 1777, he obtained leave of absence 
on account of illness, and never afterward re- 
turned. He tlnis occupied a seat in the Con- 
tinental Congress from September 14th to 
October 26, 1774; from May 10th to Novem- 
ber, 1775, and from July 20, 1776, to Janu- 
ary, 1777. On July, 4, 1776, at the very hour 
the Declaration of Independence was being 
adopted by the Continental Congress, he was 
at Lancaster presiding at a meeting of the 
officers and members of the battalions of As- 
Bociators of the colony of Pennsylvania, to 
choose two brigadier generals. "When the 
signing of the immortal document took place 
on the 2d of August following, he was present 
and affixed his name to it. He was the only 
signer of the Declaration from the county of 
Lancaster. In appreciation of his services in 
the Assembly ami Congress, a public mcctlTig 
held at Lancaster passed a resolution granting 
him il50, but he graciously declined the uift. 
Tlic remnant of his life, after his retircjncut 

from Congress, was to be still further digni- 
hed and exalted by his elevation to the bench 
of the Admiralty of the State, to which he Avas 
appointed March 1, 177'J. Put he lived only 
n short time to enjoy his last honor. lie died 
Jidy 14, 177'J, of a sudden attack of gout, at 
his home in Lancaster, and was buried in 
Christ Church burial ground. He left one 
son, James, who became an active patriot on 
the breaking out of the Revolution. He raised 
the first company in Lancaster, was made cap- 
tain and marched to Caudiridge. He rose to 
the rank of lieutenant colonel of the Eighth 
Pennsylvania Regiment, with which he 
fought in the memorable battle of the Brandy- 
wiue. i\\ the battles of Long Island, Tren- 
ton, Gernuintown, Col. Ross bore a consjucu- 
ous jKirt. lie was appointed judge in the 
Territory of Lom'siana. lie died August 24, 
18US, in the fifty-fifth year of his age. 

After the lapse of one hundred and 
eighteen years the Lancaster County Histori- 
cal Society reared a pillar and tablet to the 
memory of the signer on the site of his coun- 
try residence in the environs of the city of 
Lancaster. The ceremonies took place June 
4, 1897, in the presence of a great concourse 
of people. Hon. Marriott Bnjsius, member 
of Congress from Lancaster county, delivered 
an eloquent oration in which he recounted the 
patriotic services of the distinguished son of 

VIII. Gertrude, b. about 1732. She mar- 
ried Hon. rjcorge Read, the fii-st, (of Dela- 
ware), signer of the Declaration of Indepen- 

IX. Catharine, b. about 1734; m. Capt. 
William Thompson, a native of Ireland, of 
good family, who had been an officer in the 
Pennsylvania regiment during the French 
and Indian "War, and who was afterwards, 
during the Revolution, a general (from lilarch 
1,_ 177G, to Sept. 3, 1781), of the Continental 
Line. Their children were: i. George, who 
m. Mary Callendor, a daughter of Capt. Rob- 
ert Callehder; ii. Robert, d. unm.; ili. Mary, 
m. Hon. (ieorge Read, .second, of Delaware; 
iv. Catharine, m. fir>t, Galbraith Patterson, 
son of Capt. William Patterson, who was b. 
at Patterson's Fort in 1767, studied law at 
Lancaster, was admitted in 1789, removed to 
what is now the borough of DuBoistown, op- 
posite the city of Williamsport, where he d. 
Februarv 26, 1801, in his thirty-fourth year. 

i:'7 111 ■ ^1 

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]lis widuw 111. scciiiul, Jiiincs Orliisoii, of 
C'li:iinlii'r>ljurg, Pa., where sliu d. February 
24, ISll. She had a daughter l.y Mr. Pat- 
terson, who married, first, l^UAid ilaehiy; 
Fccoud, lion. Alexander T. Hayes, wlm was 
for many years a judge of the ( 'utiit of (Vnu- 
iiKin Pleas, Laneaster; v. Juliana, ni. Joliii 
Holmes, of Baltimore; vi. Elizaheth, m. 
Count Josepli St. Leger d'llappart, of Franee; 
vii. "William Allen, m. Sarah Lewis Clay, wid 
ow, da\ightcr of i;i(diard ]\riAVilliams, Y.n\., 
of 1 )elaware. 

X. Elizaheth, h. aliout IT.'id; m. Col. Ed- 
ward P.iddle, of Iveading, a distinguished law- 
yer, sjieaker of the Pennsylvania As^cuiMy, 
and meinher of the Continental Congress. 

XI. Susanmi, b. about IT."'.'^; m. Kev. AVil- 
liani Thompson, of the I'^inscopal church. 

XII. ^lary, b. about 1740; in. in 17U;i Col. 
^lark Bird, of Birdsboro, a prominent iron 
master. He took an active pait in the Kevolu- 
tioii. On August 7, 177G, '"he reported to the 
Council of Safety that abont 300 men in his 
battalion would be ready to march in several 
days, he having sujjjdied them with provi^ioii^, 
tents and nniforms at his own expense." He 
became a wealthy man for ln< time, his landed 
possessions in Berks county alone reaching 
8,000 acres, on which were situated his exten- 
sive furnaces at Birdsboro and Hopewell. But 
in 17SC he was compelled to make an assign- 
ment of his estate for the benefit i>f his cr('(li- 
tors. Abont 1788 he removed to >forth 
Carolina, where he soon afterwards died. 

Bev. (xeorge Boss, the progenitor of this 
distinguished family, was rector of the Xew 
Castle Church (Immannel), from June, 170j, 
to July, 1708. lie then removed to Chester, 
where, in connection with his church duties, 
he condncted a school. In October, 1714, his 
old congregation at X^ew Castle induced him 
to return, and he continued to labor there 
until his death in 1754-. Altogether, he 
served in the Xew Castle Church for the long 
period of forty -three years. He was buried 
under the chancel of the chnndi, but strange 
as it may appear, no record of the date of his 
death has lieen preserved in the cliurcli ar- 

TnoMAS Fenwick. 
Thomas Fenwick, although comparatively 
little is known of his early history, was a man 
of some note in Delaware soon after the ad- 

\'eiit of William Peun. His name indicates 
Scotch origin. He ajipears to have settled 
first in Z^Iaiylaud, for the earliest well au- 
thenticated event in his history was his re- 
ceiving by pul■(■ha^e several grants of land 
ill Sonierset county of that State. These grants 
bore the date ItiSU and were called '•Feuwick's 
( 'lioice," "^\'illter Pa>tui-e," "( 'ow'sQuarters," 
"Dumfries,"" "Scottish Plot," iVc. The last two 
names lead to the inference that .Mr. i'"enwick 
was a Scotehnian. lie afterwards disposed of 
these lauds in smaller lots. AVhile living iii 
.Maryland he ap))i'ars to have been a planter. 
Prior to settling in Helaware, he i-eeei\ed a 
gi-aiit for "l'\'n\vick l.-land," at the southeast 
corner of Sussex eount\, near Cape Ilenlopen. 
This island was dotineil to become historical, 
for through it was run the boundary line of 
Delaware and ]\laryland, and reference is 
made to it in the cek'bratcd case of Penn vs. 
Lord Baltimore. Soon after settling in Sussex 
county, Thomas Fenwick became a member 
of Penii's Provincial Cmiucil, justice of the 
]ieaee, .-.lierilf of the county and register of 
wills. The-c app<iintments show that he 
must have been a man of some standing and 
enjoyed the confidence of William Penn. 
The time of his death is unknown, but as his 
will was dated in 170S, and was probated a 
few months later, he must have died some time 
in that yi'ar. It is on record at (ieorgetown. 
His wife's Christian name appears as ilary in 
the will, and the following cliildren are men- 

1. Anne (.Mrs. Kobert Clifton); 

■1. ^Margaret (Mrs. Kdward Stretcher); 

o. James; apparently his only son. What 
became of him is unknown. 

Beference is also made in the will to John 
and ^largaret Hepburn, of Somerset county,* 
regarding the transfi-r of his land. John . 
Hepburn is known to have emigrated from 
Scotland at an early date. He belonged to 
the historic family of that name in Scotland, 
'i'here also apjieai-s to have been a Cutlibert 
Fenwick, wdio had sons, Bobert, Bichard and 
John. His will is dated ^ilarcli C, 1(j:.4. What 
relationship existed between Cutlibert and 
Thomas Fenwick is unknown, but it is sup- 
posed the former was uncle to the latter. 
Thomas Fenwick died at Lewes, and is sup- 
posed to have been buried in the old cemetery 
at that jilace. 

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.S'7'.177:; OF DELAW Mi !■: 


Hon. C.KomiK Kkad. 

(!cori;e UoaJ was a native of tlie rroviiicc 
of .Maryhuiil, where lie was bom in 1734. His 
iii-andfallur was an Insluuaii, wlio resided 
in (lie city uf Dniilin, and was possessed uf a 
(•(in.-idrralile fortnne. His son, Jolm Read, 
tlie father of Hon. (leorge Head, luiviiiii emi- 
grated to Anuriea, took up his resideiiee in 
Cecil county, Maryland, where lie pursued 
the occupation (if a planter. Xot lonii' after 
the hirth of his eldest son, lie removed with 
his family into the Province of Delaware, 
and .setth'd in the eounty of New Cattle. Mr. 
KeatI, de-imnnt;- his son for one of the learned 
j)rofe>.-ion<. placed him in a seminary at Ches- 
ter. Ha\ inu' there acquired the rudiments of 
the learned lanj;iiages, the boy was transferred 
to the care of that learned and accoiupli>hed 
scholar, Rev. Dr. Alison, at his famous school 
at Xew London, Chester county, Pa. Young- 
Ivead continued his studies until his seven- 
teenth year, when he entered the ottice of 
John .iloland, a distinguished lawyer in 
Philadelphia, for tlie purpo.^e of acquiring a 
liiiowletlge of the legal profession. He made 
rapid progress, and before completing his }ire- 
paratory studies showed such aptitude for the 
profession tliat his preceptor entrnsteil to him 
a considerable sliare of his legal business. 

In 17."):i, at the early age of nineteen }ears, 
]Mr. Head was admitted to the bar. On this 
event he performed an act of singular gener- 
osity in favor of the other children of the 
family. As the eldest son, he was entitled, 
by tlie exi-ting- laws, to two shares of his 
father's estate, but he relingnished all his 
rights in favor of his brothers, assigning as a 
reason for this act, his belief that lie had re- 
ceived his proportion in the education which 
liad been given him. 

In the following year he commenced the 
practice of law in the town of New Castle, 
and althougli surrounded by gentlemen of 
liigli distinction in the profession, he soon ac- 
quired the confidence of the public, and ob- 
tained a respectable .share of business. In 
1703 he was appointed to succeed John Eoss 
as attorney general of the three counties of 
Delaware. This ottice Jlr. Head held until 
the year 177.">, when, on being elected to Con- 
gi'css, he re^igned it. 

During the same year !Mr. Read married 
(iertrude, daughter of the Hev. George K<i~-'', 

a clergyinan, who had long presided over the 
Episcopal Chundi in Xew Ca^lle. The char- 
acter of J^lrs. Read was in eveiy respect ex- 
eelleut. In her person rhe was beautiful, and 
Ui I'legalit manners was added a deep and cuu- 
>tant jiic'ty. She was al-o imbued with the 
.-^pil■it of a pure [lati'loti^m. During the Hevo- 
lutioiiary War .-^lie was often called to sutler 
many privations, and was frequently exposed 
with her infant family to imminent danger 
from the predatory incursions of the liritish. 
Yet, in the darkel^t hour and anii<Ut the most 
appalling danger, her fortitude was unshaken 
and her courage nudannteJ. 

In the year 170.') ]\Ir. Head was elected a 
representative from New Ca.-.tle county to the 
Ceneral Assembly of Delaware, a post which 
he (jccupied for twelve years. By an adher- 
ence to the royal cause he had reason to an- 
ticipate office, honor and wealth. But his 
liatriotism and integrity were of too pure a 
character to be intlueuced by worldly prefer- 
ment or pecuniary reward. 

On the first of August, 1774, Mr. Head was 
chosen a member of the Continental Congress 
in connecti<m with Caesar Hodney and 
Thomas ^IcKean. To this station he was au- 
ntuilly elected during the whole Hevolution- 
ary war, and wa- indeed present in the na- 
tional as.<embly, except for a few short in- 
tervals, during the wh(de of that period. 

When the time came for signing the 
Declaration of Independence, Mr. Head af- 
fixed his signature tu it with all tlie cordiality 
of those who had voted in favor of the declar- 
ation itself. 

In the following September -Mr. Head was 
elected president of the convention which 
formed the first Constitution of the State of 
Delaware. On the completion of this he was 
ort'ered the executive chair, but chose at that 
time to decline the honor.. In 1777, the 
governor, Mr. ^IcKinly, was captured by a 
detachment of British troops, and Mr. Read 
was called to take his place in the respon- 
sible ofhee (see sketches of the Governors), 
the duties of which he continued to discharge 
until the release of the Governor. 

In 1777 ill-health required him to retire 
for a season from public employment. In 
1782, however, he accepted the appointment 
of judge of the Court of Appeals in admiralty 
cases, an office in which he continued until 
the abolition of the court. In 17S7 he roprc- 

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sentcd the State of Delaware in the eouven- 
tion which framed the L'oiistitutioii of the 
United States, under whieh he was immediate- 
ly elected a memljer of the Senate. The du- 
ties of this exalted station he discharged till 
171)3, when he accepted a seat on the bench 
of the Supreme Court of the State of Dela- 
ware, as Chief Justice. In this exalted posi- 
tion he continued till the autumn of 1798, 
when, on the 21st of September, he was sud- 
denly summoned to another world, lie was 
buried near the eastern wall of Inuiianuel 
Church, New Castle. 

The Bkufoeds. 

Although occupying a conspicuous position 
in the history of Delaware, nothing is known 
of the ancestry of Lieutenant Colonel Gun- 
ning Bedford, of Colonel Haslet's regiment 
of Delaware State troops, and afterwards 
Deputy Quartermaster General of the Ameri- 
can Army. Captain Bellas, who has devoted 
much time to genealogical research, declares 
that very little connected history of the Bed- 
ford family can be obtained. Gunning Bed- 
ford was born in Philadelphia in 17130, and 
died in New Castle, Delaware, September 30, 
1797. He was a lieutenant during the French 
and Indian War, and entered the Revolution- 
ary army as a major, March 20, 1775. Hav- 
ing been promoted to the rank of lieutenant 
colonel of Colonel Ilaalet's regiment, he was 
wounded at White Plains. On June 18, 1776, 
he was appointed quartermaster general. The 
fact that he entered the service from Dela- 
ware, leads to the conclusion that he had set- 
tled in that state early, probably soon after 
returning from service in the French and In- 
dian campaign. He was a delegate from 
Delaware to the old Congress of 1783-85, and 
governor of the State from January, 179G, 
to his death, September 30, 1797. the frac- 
tional portion of his term, which ended in 
1799, was filled by Daniel Pogers, speaker of 
the Senate. Governor Bcdfor<l man-ied ^fary, 
daughter of Col. John and Mary (Howell) 
Pead. He left no issue at his death. In the 
minutes of Council of Delaware he was gen- 
erally denominated the "Elder," or "Senior." 

Gunning Bedford, Jr., it is stated, was his 
cousin. He was born in Philadelphia in 1747, 
and died in Wilmington, D<laware, ^larch 
30, 1812. Ho graduated at Nassau Hall, 

Princeton College, in 1771, among his class- 
mates being James .Madison and Hugh M. 
Breckinridge. He was one of the first bcholara 
uf his class and probably the best speaker, for 
he was selected to deliver the valedictury ora- 
tion at the conuueucement. I'revious to his 
graduation he had been married to Miss Jane 
Ballaroux Parker, daughter of James I'arker, 
of lioston, whose wife was a lady of French 
descent. His wife was so interested in his 
success at college that she traveled on horse- 
back to Princeton with her baby to witness 
her husband's triiunph. On leaving college 
young Bedford studied law with Joseph Peed, 
an eminent attorney of Philadelphia, and hav- 
ing been admitted to the bar renujved to 
Dover, Delaware, where he practiced success- 
fully until failing health compelled him to 
leave and take u]i his residence iu Wilmington. 
'Tie was a handsome man," says William T. 
Pead, in his life of George Pead, "and a very 
fluent and agreeable speaker, and the high 
J)! ace he gained in the esteem and confidence 
of his fellow citizens was shown by the offices 
of trust and importance which he filled." On 
the breaking out of the Pevolution he took 
sides with the patriots and threw his whole 
force and influence in behalf of liberty. Dur- 
ing the war he served for a short time as aid- 
de-camp to General Washington. He was at- 
torney general of the State, a member of the 
Assembly of Delaware, and of the Continental 
Congress, from 1783 to 1787; a member of 
the convention whieh formed the Constitution 
of the United States, and signer of that in- 
strument; and it was largely through his ef- 
forts that Delaware, in common with Phode 
Island and other snudl states, was put upon 
an equality with the large States in numeri- 
cal representation in the United States Senate. 
He was a presidential elector in 1789 and 
1793. Upon the organization of the Govern- 
ment, President Washington appointed him 
Judge of the United States District Court, 
and he filled that high office honorably for 
himself and satisfactorily to the public until 
he was disabled by disease which terminated 
his life in 1812, as stated above. j\Iiss i^Iont- 
gomery, in her "Peminiscences of Wilming- 
ton" (p. 245), says that General AVashington 
presented his pocket pistols to Jtidge Bedford 
as a token of a|)]irobation of his scTvices. 
After the General's death. Lady Washington 
]u'esented to hitii, as a memento of her regard. 

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the ^fiisiiiiic s;ish worn by her hiisbaud. It is 
jiuw i)ri'S(r\(.(l aiuiiug the vahiabh^ culleetiou 
of i-i'lifb of the great man in the buihling at 
Morristown, -Xew Jersey, known as "Wash- 
inj;tiiu's J lea(hiuarters.'' Jt is of crimson 
silk. Judge Jiedford had several children. 
His daiijihter Ann, wlio married Cominodore 
Jolin JJarniy, of the U. S. Navy, was born 
in ITi'it, an<l died in 1818. Another dantih- 
ter, w ho married ( \v\\. -lohn Strieker, of ilary- 
iand, was liorii February 15, 1701t (twin, 
jirobabiy, witii 31 rs. Barney), and died Jmie 
L';j, 1825. His last surviving daughter was 
Henrietta T. Bedford (born 178'J, died Au- 
gust, 1871), in AVilmington. This daughter 
caused a .«i)iendi(l and enduring monument of 
gi-anit(> to be placed over her distingui>hed 
fatlicr's grave in the First Presbyterian 
cliurchyard, Wilmington, in 1S5S. The 
beautiful and ai)|proi)riate eiiitapli carved on 
the sliaft was composed Ijy William T. Read, 
and it may be read from the Market street 
sidewalk, .so close does the monument stand to 
tlie iron fence. 

Commodore ^Iacdonouuu. 

'i'homas ilacdonough, distinguished as a 
naval otticcr, was a luitive of Delaware. In a 
contribution to the Historical Society, his 
grandson, Rodney Macdonough, of Boston, 
says that his family was of Sccjtcli-Irish origin. 
His great-grandfather, Tliomas ilacdonough, 
lived on the river FifFey, t'ounty Kildare, H'C- 
land. l']ither he or his father was a native of 
Scotland, but, on account of the disturbed con- 
dition of the county, had emigrated to Ireland 
and settled there. This Thomas had several 
children, two of whom, John and James, came 
to this country about 17)30. John !Macdon- 
otigh settled on Long Island, and James ilac- 
donough, the ancestor of the, Delaware line, 
settled in St. George's hundred, 7*few (Jastle 
county, Delaware, at the place then called the 
Tra]i, but to which the post office department 
in 1844 gave the name of iracdonough. Here 
he lived to a good old age, dying in 1702, 
c ighty years old. ITis wife was Lydia, daugh- 
ter of Peter T.aroux, also of St. (leorge's hun- 
dred. James and Lydia ^facdonough left sev- 
eral children, among whom was Thomas 3Iac- 
(hiiKuigh, 2, the conunodore's father, born in 
174 7." 

Thomas !Macdonough, 2, lived in stirring 

tinns on the Delaware. He had studied medi- 
cine and adopted that jirofes^ion, but when 
there came the call to arms in 1770 he threw 
away the huu-et and buckled on the sword. 
On iMarch 22, 177(i, he was commissioned by 
Congress as major in Col. John Haslet's regi- 
ment of Delaware troops in the Continental 
service. Five months later the regiment took 
the tield, and the first engagement in whiidi it 
took part was the battle of Long Island. In 
the absence of the colonel and lictiteuaut colo- 
nel, ]Major IMacdonough was in command, and 
accjuittcd himself ,so as to receive the thanks 
of (icni'ral AVashington. During this engage- 
ment he was wounded. Then followed the 
battles (if AVhite Plains, Trenton and Prince- 
ton, in all of which the regiment participated. 
Its loss in officers and men in the battle of 
Princeton was so great that the time of mo^t 
of the men liaving expired, the regiment was 
disbanded and never reorganized and the 
niaj<ir returned to his home. 

In 1782 he was colonel of the Seventh Kegi- 
ment, Delaware militia. In 1788 he was ap- 
jKiinted third justice of the Court of Common 
I'leas and Orphans' Court by (iovernor Col- 
lins. In 17!»1 (iovernor Clayton appointed 
him second justice of the Court of Connnon 
Pleas and Orphans' Court, and in 171)3 he Avas 
again a]>pointed by the same governor one of 
the justices of the Court of Common Pleas. 

The wife of ^lajor ]\[acdonough was ^lary, 
daughter of Samiud Vance. He died a com- 
paratively young man in 1795, and he and his 
wife are buried side by .side in the family lot. 
They left a nundjcr of children, ainonn whom 
was Thomas ^lacdonough, 3, destined to be- 
come distinguished as a naval commander. 

Thomas ]\Iacdonongh, 3, was born Decem- 
ber 31, 1783, at the Trap, on the farm on 
which his father and grandfather had lived be- 
fore liim. For sixteen years he resided at or 
near his homo, happy and contented; he al- 
ways retained a lively and affectionate remem- 
brance of the home of his youth. Just after 
eom|ileting his sixteenth year he entered the 
na\y. H(> had heard much of war. His un- 
cle, Patrick ^lacdonough, had been a soldicc 
under St. Clair in his ill-fated expedition. His 
father had served in the Revolnti(ni. His elder 
brother, James, was a midshipman in the navy 
and had taken ))art in the engagement between 
the Constellation and the Im^urrjente, and lost 
a leg. The stories he heard from these rcla- 

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th'cs fanned the spark of patriotisui ir. his 
hosoni iutQ ii bright and steady llaiiie. 

On tiie 15th of February, IbUU, Thomas 
^laedonough was ajipoiutcd a niidshipniaii by 
John Atlams, tlirougii the influence uf United 
(States Senator J.atinier, of iJehiware. lie 
biraightway went aboard slii]) at A'ew Castle, 
bound for a cruise in the AVest Indies, and 
saw some hard ser\ ice. 

lie was with Stephen Decatur when they 
burned the Eliiladdphia in the harbor of 'J'rip- 
oli. Lieutenant Lawrence and ten men, witii 
inidsliipmeii Laws and Macdonough, were di- 
rected by Decatur to lire the berth deck and 
forward store room of tiio captured ship. 
They did their duty courageously and we'd 
and the ship was destro^'cd. i'or his services 
on this occasion ^IcDonough was promoted 
to tlie rank of lieutenant iLiy 18, lbU4. 

Cruising in theMediterranean lieliad many 
adventures and narrow escapes. In the har- 
iior of Cibraltar, a British man-of-war's boat 
boarded an American merchantman and took 
out, or impressed, one of her men. ^lacdon- 
ough went alongside the British boat and 
demanded him, which demand was refused. 
He then took hold of the man, put him into 
his own boat, and brought him on board his 
slap, the Syren. The British otHcer blustered 
and stormed, but ilacdonough kejil the man, 
who was an American. 

His bravery was of tliat kind which knew 
no fear. While lying off Syracuse, lie obtain- 
ed permission to go ashore. Just as he was 
stepping into a boat to return to his ship ho 
was set upon by three cut-throats armed with 
daggers. The young lieutenant drew his 
sword, and though the odds were three to 
one, two of his assailants were soon disabled, 
and the third, taking to flight and being tV)l- 
lowed by the otticer, ran into a building ami 
upon the roof, from whence, there being no 
A\'ay of escape, he threw himself to the ground 
to avoid being taken. Young .Aracdonough 
was the gallant Decatur's favorite nudshii)- 
man, and ''wherever Decatur led he daiod to 
follow.'' To relate all of his adventures 
Would require the space of a small volume. 

On the breaking out of the second war with 
Oreat Ih-itain, he was ordered to take com- 
mand of the naval force on Lake Champlain 
September 12, 1812. On December 12, of 
the same year, he married Ln<'v Ann, dauuh- 

ter of 3>'athani(d Shaler, of .Middletown, Con- 
necticut. There he afterwards made his home 
when off duty and there his children were 
boni. One of them, "whom," as lie writes 
ia ISi'i' to his sister Lydia in Delaware, 'T 
call Koduey after my fi'iend in W'ilnangton,* 
is now li\'ing in ^>'c\v \'ork (, ity, aiul another, 
Cliarlotle Ko^ella, now a widow, i^ living ir 

On the 24th of didy, ISlo, .Macdonough 
was commi---ioneil nuister commandant, and 
soon after to(.ik comnuind of the iloet on Lake 
Champlain. The brilliant naval victory which 
he won over the Ifrili^h on the J 1th of Sep- 
tendier, 1M4, is well known to all reader.^ of 
history. The loss of the Americans was tifty- 
two killed and tifty-eight wounded: that of tlie • 
]jritish eighty-four killed and one hundred 
and ten wounded. 'J'he prisoners taken ex- 
ceeded the whole nundier of the Americans in 
the action. The victory was hailed by tlie 
whole country with great joy. 

The state of Xew York, in justice and 
gratitude, gave the gallant commodore one 
thousand acres of land, and the state of Ver- 
mont made him a grant of two hundred acres 
on Cmnberland Uead, which overlooked the 
scene of his brilliant naval victory on Cham- 
].lain. Tlc' was voted a gold medal by Con- 
iire-s, and was the recipient of numerous 
civic honors from cities and towns through- 
out the country. 

On the ■'!Oth of Xovendjer, 1814, he was 
commissioned captain, then the highe-t rank 
in tlie infant navy, to take rank from the date 
of his brilliant victory over the English fleet. 
After c(in>iderahle .service from tlie date of 
his promotion, he wa^ ordered to as>\ime com- 
mand of the American sipiadron in the Medi- 
terranean. Owing to ill iM'alth. however, he 
was relieveil of tiic c<inimand of the ('(jjisli- 
tut'iiin on October 14, 1825, with pernussion 
to return to the Thiited States, but he did not 
live to see his native land, dying at sea while 
homeward hound, ten days out from (iibral- 
tar. Xovember 10, 182.". His death was 
caused by consnmiition, the result of the ex- 
]iosure and hard service to which he had been 
subjected during his active career. His re- 
mains were brought home and btu'ied at ^lid- 
dletown, Connecticut, Deecndier 1, 182,"), with 
military, civil and ^lasonic honors. His wife 
had died a few months before, and they nov 

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lie ?i<.lu liy sidr ill tilt' (luaiiit old ceiuetery 
overlooking the C'oniieetieut iiiver. A lit- 
tiiiy inonmneiit marks his place of burial with 
an appropriate e[iitaph carved thereon, "lie 
was distiiipiii.-licd in the world as the Hero of 
Lake C'liamplain." 


iJr. John McKinly, who had the distin- 
guished honor of being the first President (or 
<-iovernorj of the State of Delaware, after the 
l>eclaration of Independence, was a native of 
the north of Ireland, where he was born 
February 'li, 17-1. A'^othing is known of his 
parentage or family, or the year when he came 
to this country. That he must have had some 
advantages in the way of securing an education 
is evident, for he studied medicine; and when 
he arrived here he at once engaged in the jno- 
fession which he had chosen. 

Like the majority of Irish immigrants at 
that time, he probably landed at New Castle, 
and at once made his way to AVilniington, 
Avhere he settled and commenced the practice 
of his profession. That he was here at an 
early date, and when quite a young man, is 
shown by the records. It appears that he was 
apiJointed ^heriif of New Castle county by 
A\'illiam Iii'imy, Colonial governor, October 
4, ITTjT, and re-appointed in 175S and 175'J, 
making three years of continuous service in 
that line. ■ Noting the date of his birth, he 
must have been but a little over tliirty years 
of age when the appointment of high sheriff 
■was conferred on him. * 

About the time his term as sheriff closed 
he was chosen chief burgess of the infant 
borough of Wilmington. This was in 1759, 
and so well did he perform the duties of the 
office that his fellow-citizens persisted in re- 
electing him froni year to year, so that he 
eontiinicd to serve until 177G, a period of rif- 
teen years. His long service as burgess, there- 
fore, attests his worth and po]iu]arity as a man 
and officer, auil the confidence rejwsed in him, 
by his fellow citizens, lie married Jane Llicli- 
ardson, about 17G1 or 17GG, as nearly as can be 
ascertained. She was the eighth daughter 
and twelfth child of John and Ann Kichard- 
son, and was horn near Wilmington, February 
1, 1727. Her parents were English Friends, 

and came to this country early in the 
eigliteenth century. 

Ur. .\lcKinly early took a stand against 
ih-itish oppression, and like all of his race, 
became an ardent and out.spoken 2)atriot. lie 
was of fearless and decided character, and 
pronounced in his opinions, which increased 
his popularity with those who ojtposed taxa- 
tion without representation. Alter the L>e- 
claration of Independence, and when a re- 
organization of the State government became 
necessary, he was honored by being chosen 
the first president (governor) of the State of 
Delaware, February 12, 1777, for three years, 
and administered tiie office until the folhnving 

On ^he uight of the 11th of September 1777, 
just after the battle of 1 handy wine, a detach- 
ment of British soldiers suddenly ajipeared iu 
Wilmington, and seeking the house of the 
governor, forcibly entered it and took him 
from his bed, and detained him as prisoner. 
His desk was broken open, and his books and 
papers taken therefrom. The invaders, not 
content with securing his I'ecords, plundered 
the house of everything of value, including 
plate and provisions, which they carried away. 
The capture of the governor of a State was 
regarded by the invaders as securing to them 
a valuable prize, and they were determined 
to nuike the most of it. Oov. ^IcKinly was 
hurried away by his captors to New Castle 
and confined on board the Solbaij, a small 
war vessel lying in the Delaware River off 
that place. Here he was carefully guarded 
until the British ca[itured Fhiladelphia and 
obtained possession of the forts on the Dela- 
ware, when, on the 22d of November, he waa 
removed to a prison ship lying off Chester, 
and taken thence to Philadelphia, where ho 
was imprisoned in tin; State House. Hero 
he was kept iu close confinement until the 
Fnglish evacuated the city, June IG, 1778, 
when he was taken by sea to New York and 
confined at Flatbush on Long Island. In the 
fcdlowing month lie was paroleil and returned 
to Philadelphia, where, after some delay on 
the j)art of Congress, he was exchanged in Sep- 
tember 1778, and returned to his home and 
wife in Wilmington after a captivity of about 
one year. 

Governor jrcKinlv resided on the north- 

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west corner of Third and French streets, Wil- 
mington. Cireat changes iiave taken jihice iu 
the locality during the last hundred years, but 
the spot where his house stood can easily be 
pointed out. On his return from captivity ho 
resumed tlie practice of his profession, and 
as piiysicians wei"e scarce in those days, lio 
was kejjt busy looking after tiie sick. This 
business he followed to the close of liis life, 
or until borne down by the weight of years 
he was unable to continue his regular, visita- 
tions. An interesting relic of the old time 
pli}sician, in the form of the lantern used by 
him, is preserved among the antiquities of tiie 
State Historical Society, Wiliuiugton. It is 
in a good state of preservation, yet venerable 
api)earance, and contrasts strangely with 
our modern lanterns. A card is attached to it, 
which, after setting forth the name of the 
owner and' his capture by the British while 
serving as the first goveijior of Delaware, 
concludes in these words. "This hmtern 
lighted the path of the devoted, able physician, 
during his nightly visits to the sick and af- 
flicted, borne by his devoted African servant, 
Forten, when street lamps were unknown. 
There are a few persons still living in Wil- 
mington who bear kindly recoUec-tions of 
master and man." 

Like nearly all the early Irish immigrants. 
Dr. ]\rclvinly was an adherent of the Presby- 
terian faith, and on December 23d, 1780, his 
name appears as one of the trustees of 
tlie First Presbyterian Church, AVilmington, 
when ajjplication for incor])oration was made, 
and he continued to act as a trustee nntil his 
death in 1706. lie was liberal iu his religious 
views, however, and at one time offered the 
vestry of the Old Swedes' Church a lot of 
ground at the corner of Seventh and !^^arket 
streets, AVilmington, if they would luiild a 
church there; but for some reason the offer was 

Among the pa])ers relating to Dr. AIcKiuly, 
preserved in the New York Public Library, is 
the following estimate of the damage he sus- 
tained to bis ])ro|)(-rty in the months of S(>])- 
tember and October, 1777, when the Hrifish 
were in possession of the liorf)ugh of Wil- 
mington : 
The dwelling house broken open and 

damaged, table linen and wearing 

ajjparel, and household furniture 
taken and destroyed, 

Shop furniture and medicines taken 
and destroyed, 

AVine and >pii-its taktai and u.^cil, . . 

A saddle and bridle, with plated 
mounting taken; riding chair, with a 
top, and gears, broken and damag- 

I lay taken and nuide use of, 

A large ipiantity of fencing, chiefly 
with red cedar posts, some railing 
and a parccd of boards, and loose ' 
2>osts and rails, burned and de- 

A chest containing books and accounts, 
deeds, li'c, together with cash and 
a variety of valuable effects (exclu- 
sive of public money and papers) 





Errors excepted by 

John ifclCinly. 

New Castle County: 

Doctor iTcKinly, on his solemn oath, doth 
depose that the above, amounting to £1,055, 
is accoi-diiig to the best of his knowledge, a 
fair and reasonable estimate of the damages 
he sustained by the enemy, as above stated, 
at the time above mentitmed. 

John iMcKinly. 
Sworn this 18th Decendier, 1782, 

Pefore Jno. Lea. 

AVhcther he was reimbursed by the govern- 
ment for the loss he sustained is unknown; 
but, considering the poor financial condition 
of the infant republic at that time and for 
many years afterwai-ds, the probabilities arc 
that he had to shoulder the loss. 

Doctor AfcKinly was an active and con- 
scientious jiractitioner, and took a deep inter- 
est in whatever was calculated to advance the 
science of medicine. lie gave his influence to- 
ward founding the first Afedical Society in the 
state, and his name apjjcars fii-st among the 
twenty-eight charter niend)ers. The Legisla- 
ture granted articles of incor|ioration Febru- 
ary 3, 1780, under the title of "The President 
and Fellows of the ^fedical Society of Dela- 
ware." This was the third society in the 
Ignited States, and an organization was effect- 



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-ed at Dover, May 12, ITsO, by electing Dr. 
James Tiltoii president. The society is still 
in existence and the name ol; Dr. ^IcKinly is 
reveretl among the pioneer practitioiurs of 
more than a hundred years ago. 

^\'hen Doctor ^McKinly died on tiie 3 1st of 
August, ITUO, he liad attained tiie age 
of seveuty-Hve years, six months auil sewn 
days. Jlis death was sincerely mourned l>y 
all the inhabitants of Wilmington, for they 
felt that a sincere and \aluable citi/.en had 
been called hence. 

L'layp(.iole's Auierican Daily Adceriiser, 
published in Philadelphia, contained untler 
date of September 7, 1790, the following 
obituary, Avhicli shows the esteem in which 
he was held, not only at home Init abr<iad: 

"This respectable citizen died full of years, 
carrying with him to the grave the sincere 
respect of his friends and the «'steem of all 
who knew him. Dr. ^K-lunl}' was a native 
of Ireland, but settled in Wilmington more 
than half a century ago. The early part of 
liis life was spent in the laborious and useful 
dischai'ge of the duties of liis profession, 
rpon the lirst dawaiing of the Kevolution he 
warudy and actively espoused the cau-e of 
freedom. The contidence of his fellow citi- 
zens rewarded his zeal for their interests and 
in\i'stcd him with the office of President 
[( io\ iiuiii] of the State as soon as a govern- 
ment was organized under the fir>t constitu- 

"The latter part of Governor McKiidy's 
life has been spent in the pleasant enjoj'nient 
of the fruits of honest industry and virtuous 
fame. And when arrived at the goal which 
was to terminate life's career, he resigned his 
spirit into the hands of Ilim who gave it, with 
a serenity and content which can be experi- 
enced only by a mind clear of I'eproach." 

His will bears date August 27, I7!t5, aiid 
was ]>robated Septend)er 14, 179G. He nuide 
provision for paying the interest on a bond 
for HldO held by James ^fcKennan during his 
life; and t'(i were to be paid to Pev. AVilliam 
!Mclvenuan dni-ing his life. Tiiirty dollars 
were directed to be ]iaid to the First I're-^by- 
tcrian Church, being the amount of his sidi- 
scription, in favor of "Francis Allen Fatta, 
as unni-^ter of the First' Presbyterian ('liun-li 
fur sc\cn ycai-s, ■|)roviding he continur< as 
minister." Tie also beqiuMthed i'K")!), nv -,n 
much as mav be ncl■e^sar^■, for biiildiut: a 

stone wall and gateway, for the First Pres- 
byterian Church. The rest of his estate, per- 
sonal and real, was devised to his wife, and 
h ' appointed her his sole e.Kccutrix. The wit- 
nesses to the will Were James X. Ha}ard and 
Henry Latimer. 

'J'he rcuniins of Dr. .McKinly were interred 
in the Presb^'tcriau church yard, corner of 
Market and Teulh streets, Wilmington, in the 
presence of a large coin'ourse of friends 
and mourners who took this opjjortuuity 
to jiay their last resi)ects t(j the honored 
deail. On his tombstone are inscribed 
these M-ords: "This monument is erected to 
the memory of .lohn .Melvinly, .M. D., who 
was born in the Kingdom of Ireland on the 
;'dth of FebriKiry, A. D., 1721, and died in 
this town on the 31st of August, A. D., 1790. 
He settled early in life in this countrj' and 
pursuing the practice of physic, soon became 
endnent in his profi'ssion. He served in sever- 
al important piddic employments and, parti- 
cularly, was the first person who filled the 
office of President [Governor] of the State 
after the Declaration of Independence. He 
died full of years, having jjassed a long life 
nsefullv t<i thi' j)ublic and honorably to him- 

The widow of Dr. John ^fcKiidy survived 
him over eight years, dying Jidy 18, 180.5, 
of ai>oi)le.Ny or pai-alysis, suddenly, while sit- 
ting in her chair, in apparent good health, 
at the age of se\'enty-eiglit years, five months 
and seventeen days. She was buried at Xew 
Castle. Thcv left no descendants. 


One of the oldest families in Delaware is 
the one bearing the name of Piichardson. 
Twenty years ago (1S7S) Picbard Pichardson 
published a genealogy of the fanuly, giving 
what facts were then obtainable regarding the 
early member.s, but as the edition was small 
an<l designed only for private circulation, 
(■cil)ics are now difficult to obtain. From that 
record the following genealogy has been ob- 

.Mr. Pichardson informs us that the earliest 
ancotiu' of the fanuly, of whom there is any 
account, came to this country about 1GS2. 
His naiJie was .Toliu Pichai'd-ion, and he enii- 
gratcil from T,iiicnln~liire. luiglaud. Priiu<l, 
ill his Histury id' Pennsylvania (p. iMS), in a 


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BIOGRArillCAL J'JX('V('L01>i:i>I A 

note says: "Of tlie (Juakors that settled In 
auil about Xew Castle in tlie year 1GS2, were 
John Ilussey, Jolm Kichartlson, Edward 
Blake, &:c." Another writer says: '"John 
TTiissey, John llirhardsoii, Edward lihikc, 
Eeiijamiii Seott, and other Ericnds, being set- 
tled in and near New Castle, held a nieetinc; 
for ■\vorshi]i se\eral years at private houses in 
said town; it was first set iip by the authority of 
the yearly meeting of Philadel[ihia, tjio 2d of 
the first month 1684, and continued until 
1705, when a lot of ground was i)urehascd, 
and a meeting house was built." 

As regards the time of his cmigi'ation to this 
country there is no positive Icuowledge. Tn 
the Tvcgister of Arrivals in Philadelphia, in 
the librai-y of the Historical Society, it is 
stated that a John Tiichardson arrived at Phila- 
delphia in the ship Eiuh-aror on the 20th of 
Julv, 1GS3. This may have been the ancestor 
of the family; but as there was more than one 
John Tiichardson that came from England, it 
is uncertain which was the right one. There 
has been a tradition in the family that he enii 
grated in the ship which brought over Pobert 
Ashton; if that be the case, the date mav be 
fixed as lieinjr l\rarch S, ITiSfi. Put this is 
several years later than the other dates. The 
two accounts mav be reconciled, if we con- 
clude that John Pichardson came in advance 
of his family, and that they came with Pobert 
Ashton, which is not improliable. 

His wife's name was Elizal>eth 

but this is all that is known respecting her. 
His children were, as appears from his will, 
two sons, John and Piehard, and a dauehtcr, 
whose name is not mentioned, married to 
James Anderson, of C.eorge's Creek, Dela- 

John Pichardson left nearly the whole of 
his estate — not previouslv jriven to them — to 
his two sons, after the death of his widow, 
without specifviiitr what it ^vns, or where situa- 
ted; it is therefore imnossible to C'ive anv in- 
fonnation about it. TTe also had real estate 
at New Castle. 

John Pichardson was a member of Assem- 
blv for New Castle counfv in ^Cl97. a* axueiv-! 
from the minute* n^^ tbp Po'iiumI held the 
"l?th nf Mav, 1007," at Philadelphia. TTe also 
lield the office of iiistiee of the ncace — a more 
important office at that time than now — un- 
der Penn's governuuMit, as appear^ from a no- 

tice published in the Journal of the Eranklia 
Institute, Vol. iv., p. 11, 'J'hird Series, 1842^ 
describing the mode of laying out the curve 
of the northern boundary of the State of 
Delaware in 17(tl. Penn in his urdi'r for 
making the sm\ey, instructed L-aac Taylor, 
of tlie county of LUiester, and Thomas Pier- 
son, of the county of New Castle in the terri- 
tories, "to aeeompany the magistrates of each 
county, or any three of them." And it ap- 
]jears from the surveyor's memoranda, under 
date of Octdber 20, 1701, that they began 
"at the end of the horse dyke in the town of 
New ( 'astle," and tliat among the justices 
jiroc^nt was John Pichardson. 

There ari' si'verai other Piehard^ons men- 
tlonetl in Proud's Hi-^t(irv of Pennsylvania, 
and in other records; another John Pichard- 
siiu, who must not be confounded with the 
ancestor of the Delaware family, who was a 
member of "William Penn's first council, and 
died in 1700; also Samuel Pichardson, a mem- 
ber of council, and nuiny times prothonotary 
of Philadelphia, from whom the T\ichardsons 
of Pucks County, l^ennsylvania, are de- 
scended; besides others of the same name in 
various parts of this country. 

John Pichardson died November 19, 1710,. 
and his remains were probably interred in 
the T'riends' burial ground at New Castle, 
where the family still has a private lot en- 
elused by a wall. As the date of his birth 
is not known, it is not possible to state his age. 
Neither is it known how long his wife sur- 
vived him. TTe had a brother Jose]di Pichard- 
son in England, to whose .son John left a 
small legacv. Tlis will is dated Novendier 10, 
1710, and he died on the 10th of the same 
month. In it he makes ample provision for his 
wife Elizabeth, remembers a number of his 
relatives with small bequests, and then orders 
that after his wife's death all of his estate, 
real and personal, shall go to his two sons, 
John and Piehard. The will in full is on 
record at Wilmington, Pook P, page 224. 


This relates to the children of John and 
Elizabeth Pichardson. Nothing is knowm of 
their son Tviehard, except through the refer- 
ence made to him in his father's will. It is 
uncertain whether he ever was in this country, 
tlnnidi his father's will would seem to indicate- 

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that lie was. It is pretty certain, however, that 
he left 110 deseeiidaiitb iu this country. 

John liiehardsoii the seeoiid, sou of John 
and Elizabeth, was born in England in IGT'J, 
and eniigiated to tiiis country with iiis parents 
when a child, iu the year 1US2 or tliereabouts. 
ile married Ann Asiiton, of St. (ieorge's, 
JS'ew ('a>lle county, Delaware, at a Friends' 
lueettnji-, held at her fatlier's house July 7, 
1701, as appears from tlie marriage; (•(.■rtiti- 
cate, he being twenty-five years of age, and 
she a year younger. Her parents were liobert 
and I'-iizabeth Ashton, of St. Cieorge's, Xi'W 
Castle county. 

They settled on the banks of tlie Cliristiaua 
Creek, about two miles above the present city 
of A\'iliningtoii, on the first point of upland 
on the north side of said creek al>ove Wil- 
mington, and John Kichardson, L', owned 
nearly all the land bordering on tiie creek as 
high as tiie "Folly woods," as they are now 
callecl, iiiid including tlieni. It was his inten- 
ticii t'j found a town there, the plan being 
arraiigetl and the streets laid out on paper; 
hut in this he was disappointed; the site of 
AVilmington being nearer the river Delaware, 
his enterprise was superseded. lie and ins 
sons carried on a considerable mcrcautih' 
trade ivoxn this ]iiace, having wharves and 
storehouses there, transporting sugar, mo- 
lasses and other West Indian products in ves- 
sels of tlieir own; his sons going out with the 
ve-seN as commanders and supercargoes. 
Their liu^iness was extensive for those times; 
and .loliu liichardson acfpiired a consideralile 
estate, liotii real and jicrsonal. His old man- 
sion house, with an addition huilt in 174;>, 
■was standing until the year 1S3I5, when it was 
tnheii down, the walls Vicing cracked and in an 
nii>tidile condition. Tlie ]irescnt house is on 
tiie .-aiiie >-ito; the old lirieks were Ur.e(l in the 
construction of the new dwelling. The for- 
nu'r one was quite a curiosity in its way, hav- 
ing leaden sashes in tlie windows. .\u old 
collier cupboard, a relic of the furniture of 
Jolin liichardson, is still presc'rved iu tlie 
hoii-e. It belongs, or did helong, to Henry 
T.aliiiier, a desceii<lant of Tlohert Uichardsoii. 
'i'lie liou~e and land were left to John Tiich- 
ardxiii, son ai Tvohort liichardson, Ly the will 
of his grandfatiier John Fiichardson, and tlii^ 
younger John Kichardson dying chihlhss 
and intestate, it descended to his sister, Ann 
Latimer, as heir-at-law. 

John Jiichardson was a iiiember of tiie .As- 
sembly for tlie three lower counties, iiow tiio 
State of Dcdaware, for the year J 7 10 and 
frecpiently afterwards; he also held the ottice 
ot Justice of the I'eace and Judge of tlie l*r<j- 
vincial Court; he was highly e?teeiiied, ami xi 
unblemished reputation. 

it is ineiitioned in Smith's History of I'eiin- 
.^yhania (Sc'c ilaz/ard's JJegisterj that "'a 
monthly meeting of Friends was held iu a 
pi'ivate lioiise the '1<\ of .'] mo. ICiSO, and was 
composeil of Frieiuls living in the said town, 
and near Christiana and While Clay Creeks 
an<l the east of the Brandywiiie, and con- 
tinued to be held at Xew Castle till the 1st 
month, Ki^T, when it was moved to Xewark, 
and held at Valentine irollingsworth, Corne- 
lius luup^on, and .Morgan Derwitt's for the 
ea^<' of the iiK'iiiiiers thereof, until the year 
1704, at which time it was mo\ed to the cen- 
tre, and held by turns at New ( 'astle, .Vewark 
and Centre, and sometimes at tlii' lioii-e of 
.John Kichardson; this continued until 1715." 

'i'lie marriage certificate of John Kichardson 
and .Villi Ashton is still preserved, and is an 
interesting and treasured relic. They were 
united by Friends' ceremony in the presence 
of the parents of each and a numVicr of rela- 
tives and friends, all of whom signeil the cer- 

John Kichardson died Septeiulier -1, 175'), 
aged seventy-six years, and was interred at 
Xew Castle in the family burial lot. lie had 
twelve children: I. Idizabeth; II. Josciih; 
III. Kobert; lY. Susanna; V. Sarah; VI. 
Ann; VII. :\Iarv; VIIT. KeI.ecca; IX. John; 
X. Kichard; XI.' Hannah; XII. Jane Kichard- 

His will is dated "the 20th day of the 12 
mo, ealied Decenilicr, 1752," with codicil, dat- 
ed ''the (llli day of August 1755," and it is 
a long and carefully ])re])ared d<icument. 
Careful jirovision is made for his children, 
married and single, but as no mention 
is made of liis wif(> she had e\-idently 
died before him. He i-liowed some dis- 
]ileasiire towards one of bi~ daughters in 
these words: "And as my daughter Ilanna, 
who has lately married Thomas (5 ray, con- 
trary to my desire or con^'iit, and for her dis- 
obedience she shall have but two hundi^'d 
jioiiiids, to be pai<l her two year> after my ile- 
cea^e, and not before, or to her cliihl if slio 

(1 CO )>I. 

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IIIOUHM'HICAL excyclophdia 

should have any at that time, (if she should 
be doiid), paid by my executor, and she is 
hereby utterly barred frtuii any more of my 
estate whatsoever." 

His personal estate, "agreeably to a decree 
settled in chancery, October -J'.i, 175!!," was 
valued at .t'."52,44() ti s. Id. A iioimd was valued 
at $2.G(>, Pc^nnsylviiuia cunciny, makinji' a 
total of $SO,300'. 

'J'he real estate it is not possible to esti- 
mate, but from his will it must have amount- 
ed to six or eight hundred acres of land, ex- 
clusive of his jiroperty in the town of Xew 
Castle. Ibit he states in his will that his iiro- 
perty was "chietly personal." Land then was 
\ery cheap. 'I'iiis was considered a large 
estate in that day. lie appointed his two 
sons, liobert an<l Richard, his executors, and 
by them the provisions of the will were car- 
ried (.Hit. Thero were h>\\Y witni'sses to the 
will; Thomas Gilpin, Abraham Dawes, Jona- 
than Itumford, and Edward Dawes. 

Ann, the wife of John Itichardson, 2, the 
above decedent, was the daughter of Robert 
and Klizabeth Ashton, and was born in Lin- 
colnshire, England, August 5, IGSO. Robert 
Ashton and his family emigrated in eomjiany 
with a nundier of Friends. They sailed from 
Ifnll ifarch S, IGSO, in a ship named the 
Sliorel, John ITowell, master, and landed at 
Xew Castle in the fifth month following. 
Soon after that event, Uolicrt Ashton ]iui-- 
chased a large tract of land of William Penn, 
on St. George's creek. I lis daughter Sarah 
imirried Rartholomew \Vvatt, of Salem 
county, Xew Jersey, in IGtXi. 'i'hey had two 
children, Rartholomew and Elizabeth. The 
first, born January 4, IGUT, married Elizabeth 
Tondinson, of lladdontield, Xew Jersey; and 
Elizabeth, born June IG, 170G, married 
Robert Smith. The Wyatts intermarried with 
the AVistar family of Philadeli)hia. Tradition 
says John Richardson, 2, emigrated in the 
same ship. This is douljtfnl, though he might 
not ha\e eonu> Avith his father, who is be- 
lieved to have emigrated in 4GS2, when the 
second John was but four years old. 

Ann Ashton was married to John Richard- 
son July 7, 1704. She is represented as being 
a most excellent woman, remarkable for her 
benevolence and kindness of heart, partic\dar- 
ly to the poor and sick, riding about the neigli- 
])orhood with lU'ce.ssaries to distribute among 
them. She died April IS, 174S, aged sixty- 

seven j-ears, eight months and thirteen daj's. 
Her husband survived her more than seven 
)ears. The Ashtons, or Asshetons, were na- 
tives of Jbisbd, England, or its vicinity, and 
cousins of AVilliani Ti-nn. Part of the faniily 
became convcrls to the Society of I'riends, 
while others reinainc-d members of the I 'hurch 
of baighind. Robert Ashton, the fatlier of 
Ann, was a Friend. Robert Ashti>n of I'iiila- 
delpliia, of the same family, was a member of 
the E]>isiM)])al Church, and held several im- 
jiortant othces in l'e.nn.sylvania under I'enn's 
nciverniiK nt. He has descendants in IMiiii- 
delphia at this day. 


Tliis comprises the twelve children of John 
•and Ann (Ashtonj Richardson, all of whom 
were born at the fanaly residence on Christi- 
ana creek, a short distance from Wilmington. 
Their names and dates are as follows: 

I. Elizai>eth, b. Septendter 4, 17Uo; died 
January 15, 17o4, unmarried. 

II. Joseph, b. October G, 170G; died iu 
Philadelphia, Pa., Xovember 17, 177U, aged 
sixty-four years, one month and eleven days, 
married in 1744 to Sarah, daughter of William 
:\Iorris, of Trenton, X. J., and sister of Will- 
iam ]\1 orris, Jr., who married Rebecca Richard- 
son. Sarah (.Morris) Richardson, died ag(.'d 
twenty years, in about a year after her mar- 
riage "to Joseph Richardson, soon after the 
liirth of their daughter, Sarah Richardson. 
He never married again. In his younger 
(lavs, Jcjscph Richardson, in connection with 
ills father's business, ac(piired a knowledge 
and taste for mercantile affairs, making fre- 
(pient voyages to the West Indies in charge 
of the cargo. During his alisence on one of 
the vovages, his father built a lunise for him, 
at the' place mentioned in his will as "Snug 
Hariior," about half a mile further up the 
Christiana creek than the paternal residence. 
On Joseph's retiu-n, he declined living in it, 
stating his determination to settle in Phila- 
delldiia. The hous--' had then progressed so 
far as to be roofed In, but was never finished, 
and was known In the neighborhood as 
'•Richardson's Folly," or the ••Follv House," 
and from this circumstance the ''Folly 
"Woods" nearby obtained its name. The cel- 
lar and foundations were to be seen until they 
were excavated bv the Philadelphia, AVil- 
mington and Paltimore Railroad Company, 
their road pa-"--ing over the site. J(iseph car- 
ried out his intention of settling in Philadel- 

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jiliiii, luTiinie a inercliant there, and by tlirift 
and industry acquired a large fortuuc. 

111. Ixuhirt, second sou of John and Ann 
(AshtonJ Kieliardsou, was burn ilay 31, 1708. 
He married Sarah Sliipley, of Wibuingtcu, 
Uetober 0, ITjO, aiul died June 18, 1701. 
Sarali, his wife, \s'as born May 23, 17'jy, and 
died June ^8, 1703. They had four children, 
i. ElizaTietli, ii. John, iii. ilary, and iv. Ann, 
surname liicliardson. In his early life Robert 
RichardxiU was connected in the shi})ping 
bu^iul■^3 with his father; he inherited the real 
estate of his parents on the Cliristiaua, excejit- 
ing that part left to his son John. After his 
marriage he resided in AVihnington, engaged 
in the mercantile business. He had his place 
of business at the foot of Orange street, and 
resided on the hill on West street between 
Third and Fourth streets. After the deatii of 
his fatiier in 1755, he rGnioved to the old 
family numsion on Christiana Creek, lie was 
about removing to Philadel|iliia when he dieil. 
Sarah, wife of Kobert Ivichardson, was tlic 
daughter of William Shipley, one of the 
fo\iu(lers of Wihniugton, and his second wife, 
Flizalietli, daughter of Samuel Levis, of 
( 'hesler (now Delaware") county, Pennsyl- 
vania. Elizabeth Levis Shipley was an emi- 
nent nuuister in the Society of Friends (see 
.■-ketcli <jf William Shipley in this work) at 
that day, and on her death bed in 1777, just 
after the battle of Brandywino and the cap- 
ture of Philadelphia, when all chances seemed 
against it, ]irophesied the success of the Ameri- 
cans and the achievement of their inde|)en- 
ileuee. Her projihecy attracted much atten- 
tion at the time, found its way into the ncw.s- 
luijiers and was commented on, but was general- 
ly ridiculed bythePritish ami Tories. William 
Shi])ley removed to AVilmington in 173(5. His 
second wife, Elizabeth Levis, at the time of her 
death, was eighty-seven years old, having been 
a niiiuster in the Society *of Eriends for sixty- 
three years. 

IN'. Susannah, second daughter of John 
and .\nn ( Aslitou) Pichardson, was born Octo- 
lur lit, 171U, married Peter Payard, of Tio- 
hcmia, Maryland (date unknown), died Xo- 
veiidur I'll, 1700. The tinu' of her husband's 
death i- unknown. Their children were Ann, 
Su.sannah, John P., and Elizabeth Payard. 

V. Sarah, third daughter of John and ,\un 
(Ashton) Pichardson, was burn July 9, l71-_', 
married Dr. John Einnev about 1712, and 

died August 15, 1772. The tune of Dr. Ein- 
iiey's birth is not known, lie died ^Luch 22, 
1774. They had four children, none of whom 
survived their parents. The following inscrip- 
tion is found on a head stone in the Pichard- 
son family lot in the Eriends' burying grountl, 
New Castle: "Here lies depositeil the body of 
.lohn, son of Dr. John Einney, and Sarah his 
wife, who departed this life the lUth of Jan- 
uary, 1753, aged four years and two months. 
Also the remains of his three brothers, who 
died in their infancy." Traditi'ju says Sarah 
Finney was the belle of that generation of the 

VI. Ann, fourth daughter, of .lohn and 
Ann (Ashton) Pichardson, was born May 1, 

1714, married Col. William Armstrong about 
175S, and died February 20, 17t>!». They had 
no children. They owned and resided on the 
property since b(>longing to William Armor, 
and more recently to the late Samuel Canby, 
in Christiana hundred, Xew Ca-tle comity, 
near Ih'andywiue Springs. After her hus- 
band's deatii, she resided in Wilmington, tD 
the time of her death, on the east side of 
Shijiley street, about half way between Third 
and Fourth streets. William Armstrong was 
a )ncmber of the legislature of the State of 
Delaware for the years 1742-3-4-5, and proba- 
bly oftener. The time of his birth and death 
is not known; he was aliye in 1775. 

YII. .Mary, fifth daughter of John and Ann 
(Ashton) Pichardson was horn December 22, 

1715, and married Peter Peeve in Philadeh 
l)hia,inthesi>ring of 1772. She died Xovcm- 
ber IS, 179S, aged almost eighty-three years. 
They had no children. They resided in Spruce 
street, Philadcliihia, in a home owned by De- 
borah Wharton. Peter Peeve had been a sea 
cajitain, and survived his wife a few years, 
being eighty years old at the time of his death. 
His will was proved Octoher 24, 1800. In it 
he leaves many legacies; among them he de- 
sires "my niece Sarah Wahi, (only child of 
Joseph Pichardson), to accept £10, to ]air- 
chase a piece of plate in rememhrance of her 
many kindnesses to me." IMary removed from 
Delaware to Philadelphia about 1707, and 
lived with her^ widowed brother Jope]»h, until 
his decease, after which she married Captain 
Pee^c, late in life. 

YTIL Pebecca, sixth daughter of John and 
Ann f.Xshton) Pichardson, was born June 22, 
1717. She was married twice; fir~t to Jo-ejih 

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Peters, sou of Thomas Peters, of Philadelphia, 
l-'ebruary 13, 1741. Her marriage certiti- 
cate is recorded in book of iiuirriages of New- 
ark(uow Keiniett)Monthly Meeting. Thomas 
Peters eaiiie to AVilmiugtoa hy eertitieate ni 
removal, from J'hiladelphia .Miuitliiy .Meeting, 
June 21), 1740, and was disowned liy ]S'ewark 
[Monthly ^Meeting, for arming a merchant ves- 
sel, (Jetuber 3, 1748. lie carried on the mer- 
cantile business in Wilmington, ilie date of 
his death is not known, but he was alive 
February 11, 174li, and ailyertised in the 
I'cnnsyhania iiazeile a long list of mer- 
ehandise imported from Pondon, wliieh lie 
olTered at wholesale or retail, ''very reasonable 
for ready money, or short (U'edit." Kebeei'a 
Piehardson's second husband, William .Morris, 
was a native of Trenton, X. J., son of ^^'illiam 
[Morris, and grandson of Anthony .^^orris, of 
JMiiladelphia. They were married in l''riends' 
[Meeting, at Wilmington, October 5, 17.")!'. 
His sister, Sarah Morris, had married her 
brother, Joseph Richardson, in 1744. Wil- 
liam [^^orris also was engaged in the mercan- 
tile business at Trenton, and afiei'wards at 
AVilmington. He and his wife resided at the 
southeast corner of [NFarket and Front streets, 
in that city. He advertised in the Pnni'iiiJ- 
ranla Gazette, in 1740, as follows: "To be 
sold by William ]\rorris, Jr., at his store in 
Trenton, good rnm by the hogshead, and salt 
by the hundred bushels, or less quantity, at 
Philadelphia price, and freight \\\i from 
thence." [Nfrs. Pebecca [Morris died in Wil- 
mington Xovendier 2.3, 1773, in the fifty- 
seventh year of her age. The date of her hus- 
band's death is unknown. She had no chil- 
dren hy either marriage. 

TX. John, third son of John and Ann 
(Ashton) Pichardson, was born October H, 
1718, and died April 18, 1737, unmarried. 
He was assisting William Finpson, a neigh- 
bor, to raise a barn, and was killed by the 
falling of a piece of tindjer. 

X. Pichard, fourth son of John and Ann 
(A.shton) Pichardson, was born June 9, 1720. 
He married Sarah, daughter of Fdwaril and 
Flizabeth Tatnall, of Wilmington, and grand- 
daughter of Joseph and [Nfary Pennock, of 
[Nrarll)orough, Chester county, Pennsylvania, 
April 24, 17GG, at Friends' [.Meeting in Wil- 
nungton. He died September 10, 1797, in the 
se\'enty-tlilrd year of his age. Sarah his wife, 
was born in Wilnungton, August iil, 171."), 

and died there at the corner of French and 
'J'hird streets, September 0, 1834, aged eighty- 
nine years and live chn's. On this corner, and 
probably in the same house, the celeljrated 
■l)r. .loiin -McKinly, a lirother-iii-law, had li\ed 
and died. Sarah (Tatnallj Picharilson lived 
with her daughter Ann, aftt'r her husband's 
death, and sur\i\ecl him thirty -seven years. 
Pichard Jiichanlson, resided previous to and 
at the time of his marriage, in a brick house 
standing near the Paltimore Poad, one mile 
and a half from Wilnungton, and near the 
bridge over [Mill Creek, his sister Jane living 
with him, and keeping house for him during 
his single life. He carried on the milling 
business, in a mill that stood between the afore- 
said brick house and the road. He inherited 
this mill, with the adjacent land, from his 
father. Pichard Pichanlsun also had a Inikery 
in which he manufactured ship bread. Ilis 
curious old null stood until 1835 or ls3i). It 
was a line storied biulding, \yith basement and 
hift, hip-roofed, and was run by an ovei-shot 
whecd cf twelve or fourteen feet. The firstmill 
ever ((instructed on [Mill Creek was of the kind 
called a tub, having the water wheel, which 
was hiirizontal, at one end of a perpendicular 
shaft, and the null stone at the other, situated 
larther up the creek, near where Stidham's 
Pun comes in, and was propelled by the fdrce 
of the running water without much if any 
dam. It originally lielonged to four persons, 
one-third to Jonas and Gisbert Walraven, one- 
third to John Sinexson, and the other third 
to John Pichardson, who ]nirehased the other 
t\V(i-thirds in 1723 for £13 each, or .$t;i).l(i for 
both shares, whi(di also included seven teen acres 
(if land. At this primitive mill, the pcr<(in in 
charge was in the habit of ])utting five or six 
b\ishcls of c(irn into the hojiper in the morning, 
setting the nnichine in motinn, and then g'ling 
to his ploughing or other W(irk, returning at 
noon to give the liop])er another sujiply. 'I he 
ujipcr stone had a pin projecting upwards from 
its surface, which, with I'very revolution, -hook 
a few grains from the shoe into the stones to 
be groiuid. 

The second mill, before referred to, Wduld 
now also be regarded as of very sim|ilc con- 
struction. The tide then flowing into Mill 
Creek ascended as high as the mill, which wa- 
at its head, the creek being navigable for small 
vessels, thus affording facilities for briiiuiug 
grist by water. The biiliing of meal was done 

>'a ' 1 . CV.', 


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by haiul, and the writer lias heard liis father 
=ay, that wheu a buy, lie Uaed to bo set to tiiru 
the bolting elotli, and that when he bueanie 
tired and vexed with the job, he used to wliiil 
it around su fast as to send the Hour out at thu 
end uf the cloth with the bran, so that llie work 
had to be dune ovyr. 

At the lime of the lievulutionary war, a 
regiment of American soldiers encamped on 
the oj)|]osite side of the creek, just lucvious 
to the battle of lirandywine, often visited tlie 
mill, and being mischievously disposetl, would 
throw chunks of fat pork, part of their rations, 
into the eye of the millstones, to be ground up 
with the grain, saying, as an apology, that "the 
mill wanted grease," thereby spoiling the meal. 
These suldieis also stole everytliing edible that 
they could lay their hands on, robbing the or- 
chards, hen-roosts, and gardens; taking the 
])ies and bread out of the oven on baking days. 
They were so troublesome about the house day 
and night tiiat -Mr. liichardson otfcred to the 
cuinnianding oHicer a bed in the house, which 
he accepted. "His lodging there had the ctl'ect 
of kce])ing them away at night. Fur many 
years afterwards there remained the mai'k uf a 
musket ball, shot through the kitchen door 
by one of these soldiers, bci^ause the family re- 
fused to let him in at night. As it was ex- 
pected that the battle of Brandywine wcndd be 
fought in this vicinity, after the landing of 
General Iluwe, at Elkton, being in the direct 
course to Philadelphia, !^[r. Tlichardson and 
fannly removed to !^^arlborougtl, in Chcstir 
County, for safety, thereby putting themseh'cs 
immediately in the route fif the Britisli army, 
which they had attempted to avoid. 

The present grain mill was built by the 
grandfather of the author in the year l7^^(, 
and the old one abandoned; he also built the 
present saw mill, as well as the fine old sub- 
stantial stone house on the same premises, 
which will compare favorably Avith any other 
in its neighborhood. It was built in 17G5, and 
though it has stood considerably more tlian one 
hundreil years, appears likely to endure for 
as many more years. This niansiun, with the 
niill-aii<l propertyin the A'icinity, is now owned 
by Samuel IJichardson grandson of Tficliard 
llirliaivbdii. TTis children were: i. .Tose]"ih, 
ii. •Toliii, iii. Elizabeth, iv. "Ricliard, v. Ashton, 
vi. .\iiii, and vii. John Tlichardson, 

XT. llauiiah, seventh daughter of John ami 
Anil (.\-htoii) TJichardsnii, wa- born Septem- 

ber 10, ITi'l, and was married twice; tir^t to 
Thomas Ciray, aliuut 1701 ur iloJ; and, 
second, to Francis Johnson. '1 he time uf this 
marriage caiiuut lie accurately tixcd. She was 
-Mrs. i'rancis <Iuliu.-oii, in ITtJiJ; how miicli 
sooner is not known. .\s regaivis her lirst 
marriage, her father says in hi.- will, made iu 
December, 175:i, that she was "lately married 
to d'homas Gray," from whence the date abovo 
is obtained. Gray probably died some time be- 
tween "October, 17r)()," and "^farch, 1759," 
as he signed a receipt at the first date for part 
of his wife's legacy, and she herself at the lat- 
ter date for the other part of it. Eut this i.s 
not jiositive proof of his being dead at that 
time. She died November 11, 17S7, in the 
sixty-seventh year of her age. She had no 
children by either marriage. 

Xll. Jane, eighth daughter of John and 
Anna (Ashton) liichardson, was born Febru- 
ary 1, 1727; married the celebrated Dr. John 
]\[cKinly between 17(U and 17GG, and died 
July IS, ISOo, suddenly, while sitting in her 
chair, in apiiarcnt good health, of apoplexy 
or jniralysis, at the age of seventy-eight years, 
live months ami .-seventeen days. They had 
no children. An exhaustive biograidiical 
sket( h of Dr. ]\rcKinly will be found in an- 
other part of this work. lie was the first presi- 
dent (govenior) of Delaware after the 1 >ecla- 
ration of Independence, was captured by the 
British after the battlj of Brandywine and 
kejit a prisoner niitil a year later, when ho 
was excliange<l and returned to his home iu 
AVilmington. Uc died August ol, 17'.><;, and 
was buried in the First Presbyterian diurch- 
yard, Wilmington, wdiere his tombstone, 
bearing an appropriate epitaph, may be seen. 
As his widow, who survived him about nine 
years, was buried at Xew Castle, it is prob- 
able that she was living with relatives there 
at the time of her death. 


Sarah Bichardson, only child of Joseph and 
Sarah (Morris) liichardson, was born in Phila- 
delphia, August -J-I, 17Ui; married Xicholas, 
son of Nicholas and Mary Wain, :\lay 22, 
1771, and dieil in Philadelphia, April 13, 
lSi\"», in the se\enty-ninth year of her age. 
Being her father's only child she inherited a 
large estate. 

Xicholas Wain was born at F'airhill, near 
Philadelphia, Seoteniber Pt, 1712. llo 

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studied law, and became eiuineiit at 
the bar, but following liis eouvic- 
tioiis of duty, abandoned the profession and 
became a prominent minister of the Society 
(.it Friends. Jle died at his home on >Soutli 
Second street, Philadelphia, which had been 
the residence of his wife's parents, September 
i\), ISlu, aged seventy-one years and ten 
davs. Xicholson and Sarah ( Itichardson) 
Wain had issue: I. Joseph; II. William; III. 
Nicholas; IV. .Mary; V. Jacob. 


I. Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Robert ami 
Sarah. (Shipley) Kiidiardson, was born in Wil- 
mington, Xovend)er 10, iTol; married 
Charles AVharton, of Philadeli)hia, son of J<j- 
seph and Ilaniuih AVliartou, October 22, 17TS, 
and died in that city jNTay 22, 1782, leaving 
no issue. 

II. John, only son of Kobert and Sarah 
(Shipley) Ixichardson, was born October 2:!, 
ITa.T, and died at his home on the Xewport 
Tioad, two and a half miles from AVilmington, 
■\vliicli lie inherited from his grandfather 
wlien he was a child about eighteen months 
old. Oil the night of Xovember 2;5, ISOO, he 
was found dead in his bed, luning died, it is 
sujiposed, of apo])lexv. lie was unmarried. 
'I'he homestead afterwards became the jirop- 
erty of his nephew, Henry Latimer. 

III. ^lary, second daughter of Robert and 
Sarah (Shipley) Richardson, was born in \\'il- 
mlnaton .March 10, 17r)S; died Se])tembcr 
7, 17'.>,"i, unmarried. 

W . Ann, youngest daughter of Robert and 
Sarah fShi|)lev) Richardson, was born in Wil- 
mington, August 3, 17^10; nian-ied Dr. Henry 
Latimer, uf Wilmington, February 20, 1781), 
and died in that city ISTovember 2C, 1838. Dr. 
Latimer was born April 24, 1752, and died 
December 10, 1810. Ilis tombstone may bo 
seen in the First Presbyterian ehurchyard 
Wilmington. They had issue: i. Sarah; ii. 
John R.; iii. ^lary R.; iv. Henry; v. James 


L Ann, the date of whose birth and deatii 

arc uiikiKiwii. She married - Scott 

(time unknown), and hail one daiii^hter, Alar- 

tiia Scott, who committed suicide when 
young on account of unrecpiited hjve. 

II. John It. Payard, burn 17o'J, died in 
17.">G, unmarried. 

III. Susannah Payard, date of birth and 
death unknown. .Married Jonatlian Smitli; 
date not known. Ohildren: John, Mary, 
Samuel, ami Susannah Smith. 

I \'. Flizabeth liayard, born Januar}' 20, 
17 — ; married John luxlgers, Alarcli li), 
1772. She is mentioned in the will of her 
grainlfather, John Richardson, who left her 
a legacy; her name was then Rodgers. They 
had two children, Dr. John R. P. Rodgers, 
and a daughter named Susannah, who mar- 
ried Rev. Dr. Tennant. John Itodgers, the 
husliand of Elizabeth Payard, was born in 
Poston, ^Vugust r>, 1727, ami died .May 7, 
lyil. Ilis parents came from Londonderry, 
Ireland, in 1721, and removed to Philadel- 
jihia in 1728. He was converted by the 
preaching of Whitctield, on the court house 
steps at night in Philadelphia. Passing near 
the |)lace,with a lantern in his hand, he stopped 
to listen, and became so absorbed in the dis- 
course that the lantern fell from hi^ liaiid 
and was dashed to jjieces. He became a noted 
minister of the Presbyterian church, and 
in the division of that denomination, which 
took place during his lifetime, in Peninyl- 
vania, took the ])art of Tennant. A biograph- 
ical sketch of Iicv. Dr. Rodgers may be seen 
in Websti'r's History of the Presbyterian 
( 'hiirch in America. 


I. Joseph, eldest son of Richard and Sarah 
(Tatnall) Richardson, was born at :\lill Creek, 
February lit, 1767. He married Ann, daugh- 
ter of (ieorge and Thomazin SiJackman, of 
Wilmington, at Friemls' Meeting in that city, 
J>ine 10, 1803, and died December 24, 1833. 
lie inherited the jiroperty at ^lill Creek, and 
resided there all his life. His wife was born 
December 28, 1777, and died in Wilmington 
June 23, 1842. They had issue: i. Jane; ii. 
Samuel; iii. Sarah; iv. Thomazin; v. Edward 
T. ; vi. Jose]ili; vii. Cieorge. 

IT. John, second son of Richard and Sarah 
(Tatnall) Richardson, was born ?\lay :W, 
1709; died Jaimarv 7, 1773; 

111. Kli/abeih, t'-ld.-t d:nightcr of Rh-h- 


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anl and Sarah (Tatiiall.) riicliartlsoii, was lioni 
at Mill Cirek July 20, 1771; iiian-ied Saimul 
Stroiul, son of James Stroud and Ann, his 
wife, of Wilmington, October 29, 17S1I, and 
died Xovendier 5, 1847. Her husband died 
in \\'ihnini;ton in 1S;52. They had issne: i. 
Ann; ii. Mary; iii. Edward, iv. Sannud; v. 
Sarah U.; vi. James Stroud. 

IV. Kiehard, third sou of Hichard and 
Sarah (Tatuall) Kichardson, was born in 
1774; died iu infancy; 

V. Ashton^, fourth son of Richard and 
Sarah (Tatnall) Richardson, was born at ^lill 
Creek, May .5, 177G. lie married ^lary AVood, 
daughter of Robert and Elizabeth A\'ood, and 
granddauchter of Joseph and !Mary Wood, of 
I'liiladelphia, in the Friends' ^Meeting House 
that then stood on the south side of Pine street 
below Second, in that city, June 5, 1807. lie 
died at his residence, Ashley farm, on the Pial- 
timore road, near the i)lace of his liirth, Au- 
gust 10, 1852. Ilis wife was born in Phila- 
delphia April 1, 1785, and died at her resi- 
dence in Delaware February 1, 185.3. Their 
children were: i. Richard; ii. Robert W. ; iii. 
Elizabeth; iv. ifary; v. Sarah; vi. Hannah 
\\'.; vii. Lucy, viii. Ashton Richardson, and 
three othei-s who died in infancy; 

VI. Ann, second daughter of Richanl and 
Sarah (Tatnall) Richardson, was born at ^lill 
Creek October 20, 1778, and died at the resi- 
dence of her brother Ashton, unmarried, July 
9, 1845. She resided iu AVilmingtou with her 
nujther after the death of her father, and con- 
tinued to live there, keeping house by herself 
after her mother's death, in 1832, being only 
temporarily at her brother's at the time of her 

VII. John, fifth son of liichard and Sarah 
(Tatnall) Richardson, was born at ]\lill Creek 
J)iue 18, 1783; married ilargaret, daughter 
of Josejdi and Sarah Paxson, ]\[ay 11, 1813, 
and died in AVilmington September 30, 1859. 
He resided most of his life at Rockwell farm, 
near the place of his birth, building the house 
he occupied there, soon after his marriage. 
They had iss\ie: i. Sarah T. ; ii. Anna; iii. Wil- 
liam P.; iv. Elizabeth; v. ]\rary, vi. John; vii. 
Joseph P. Richardson. 


Cuii.iiUKN OF Nicholas a.m) Sahah (Rru- 
auuso.n) Wai.x. 
1. Joseph R., born August N, 1773, di(;d 
December 13, 1782; 11. William, born .March 

10, 1775, died iu lS:i5; married .Mary Wil- 
cox, had live children; IU. Nicholas, born 
October 4, 1778, died July 4, 1849, uiuiiar- 
rlcd; 1\'. Jacob S., born August 19, 1785, 
died June 30, 1847. 

CiiiLDKK.x OF Dk. II<i;.xhv and Axn L.vtimkk. 
I. Sarah, born , died 1828, unmarried; 

11. John R., born December 10, 1793, died 
January 18, 1805, married Elizabeth Kei)ley, 
of Philadelphia, no issue; III. ]\lary R., born 
July 29, 1790, died August 8, 1871, unmar- 
ried; IV. Henry, born .May 21, 1799, died 
1822, married Sarah .\nn Bailey, and had six 
children; A^. James, born January 2(), 1802, 
dieil 1837, unmarried. 


I. Jane, born June 5, 1805, died Oetobei^ 

II, lb39, married Samuel S. Poole, of Wil- 
mington, June 15, 1837, no issue; II. Samuel, 
born November 11, 180G, died October 14, 
1841, married Susan Robinson, of Wilming- 
ton, who died July 18G5, left six chihlren; 

III. Sarah, born February 4, 1808, died De- 
cember 25, 1839, unmarried; IV. Thomazin, 
born Novend>er 20, 1810, date of death un- 
known; V. Edward T., born June 7, 1712, 
died February 19, 1877, married Hannah 
ilasdeii, May 20, 1841, no issue; VI. George, 
born January 29, 1810, married Sarah "Wools- 
ton, I^Iarch 13, 1845, had three children, his 
wife died December, 1877, date of his death 
not known. 

Children of Samuel and Elizaheth (Rich- 
ardson) Stuoud. 
I. Ann, born Decend)er 10, 1795, date of 
death unknown, married, December IG, 1820, 
Stephen Pancoast, of Delaware county. Pa., 
and had six cliildren. Her husband died De- 
cember 15, 1873, in Philadelphia; II. Mary, 
born October 21, 1797, died April 20, 1821, 
she married Stephen Bonsall, of Wilmingiou,. 

rihH l;(fii l)7fi 

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no issue; III. Edward, boni January Ji>, ISUU, 
died in 1821, of yellow fever at llavauu, un- 
married; IV. Sanuiel, born January 20, ISO-'i, 
died October 2, 1X00, married -Mary E. Jones, 
of Wilmington, had five children; Y. Sarali 
IJ., born June 21, ISOO, died June 21), ISTT), 
married, iS^ovcniber 4, 1S;50, Jesse ^Meuden- 
liall, of Wilmington, and had iive children. 
Her husband die<l November 15, 1852; YT. 
James, born August 23, ISll, date of death 
unknown, married, February 10, 1835, Han- 
nah Ford Hedges, of Wihningtou, and they 
hail eight children. His widow died Decem- 
ber 24, 1SG3, in the iifty-second year of her 

C'lni.DiiEX OF AsuTON AND ^Iarv (Wood) 


I. Eiehard, born April IS, 1808, married 
Hannah White, of Philadelphia, no issue, and 
dates of death unknown; 11. JJoljert AV., born 
Jidy 0, 1810, died January 7, 18(59, married 
June 17, 1847, Elizabeth ii. Hulnie, of Bris- 
tol Pa., no issue; III. Elizabeth, born .August 
28, 1812, died June 14, 1807, married, A! ay 
14, 1835, William Hodgson, of Philadelphia, 
liad two cliildren; IV. ^^fary, born February 
20, 1815, date of death unknown, married 
June 21, 1867, Thomas AVistar, of Philadel- 
])liia, no children; her husband died January 
10, 1870; \. Sarah, born April 5, 1S17, died 
jSTovember 11, 1876, married, June 10, 1841, 
Joseph Tatnall, of Wilmington, and had 
twelve children; VI. Hannah, born May 23, 
1811), date of death unknown; \\\. Eucy, 
born October 3, 1824, married, April 15, 
1852, John Ti. Tat\un, of AVilmington, and 
had six children; VIII. Ashton, born Febru- 
ray 21, 1S30. 

OniLDRKX OF John and ^Iaroarf.t (Paxson) 


I. Sarah T., born February 15, 1815, 
died June 18, 1801, married, January 24, 
1850, Edward T. Bellach, no issue; II. Anna, 
born August 11,1810, date of death unknown, 
married, October 0, 1842, Joseph Pringhursr, 
of Wilmington, had three children; III. Wil- 
liam P., born July 22, 1818, married, Febru- 
ary 10, 1805, ]\rary W. Forst, of Bristol, Pa., 
110 issue; IV. Elizabeth, born Ma.y 19, 1820, 
married Xovember 9, 1853, Joseph C Turn- 
penny, of Philadelphia, no issue; A', ^fary. 

born IJeceniber 31, 1821, married June 22, 
1S43, Charles Warner, of Wilmington, has 
two children; \'l. John, born February 2, 
1>24, married June 12, 1850, .^^artha An- 
drews, of Dariiy, Fa., has three children; VII. 
Joseph 1'., born December Hi, lSi;5, married 
-November 13, {^:a\, Sarah Andrews, of 
Darby, Pa., has seven children. 

The genealogy of this remarkable and his- 
torical family might be continued down 
through the si.\th and .seventh generations, 
which would bring it to the present time, but 
the foregoing must suffice. A decline in the 
number of niale luenibcrs will be noticed, 
which, if continued during the next half cen- 
tury, will end the line. This is remarkable, 
when it is remembered how prolific the faiii- 
il}' was one hundred vears ago. 

Van Dyke. 

Hon. Nicholas Van Dyke, for so many 
years representing the State of Delaware in 
the United States Senate, was born at Xew 
Castle December 8, 1770, the eldest son of 
Nicholas Van Dyke, one of the governors of 
the State. He entered upon his collegiate 
course at Nassau Hall, Princeton, then under 
the direction of the celebrated Dr. AVither- 
spooii. After the normal period he graduated 
with honor, and in a short time began the 
study of law under the direction of Hon. Iven- 
sey Johns, and was admitted to practi<-e in 
1791. \Vithiii a short period he married, and 
having but a slender patrimony, applied him- 
self with the utmost diligence to the duties 
of his profession. He rose rapidly and at- 
tained high distinction as a lawyer. He be- 
came a member of the House of Bepresenta- 
tives of Delaware in 1799, was transferreil to 
Congress in 1809, and in 1815 was elected to 
the Senate of the State, taking his seat at the 
January session in 1810. In 1817, 'Wv. Van 
Dyke was elected to the United States Senate, 
and from that period until his death he con- 
tinued to be a nieinber of that honorable body, 
with the intermission of but a few yeaiN. He 
was very attentive to his duties, and when 
called on to give his views on questions of iiu- 
portancc, was distinguished by clean and im- 
jiressive powers of argument, united to an easy 
and persuasive eloquence. His health finally 
broke down iiiuler the severe strain of his 

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olHcial diitii's, and las disease assuiuiiig an i 
acute form, lie sutfered greatly. J a tlie s]uiii^ 
of I^l'O he sliuwed signs of rm)id decline and 
was only able to reach home with ditiicults'. 
lie lingered until May 21, ISi^tJ, when he ex- 
pired in the lifty-seventli year of his age. 

hief justice of Pennsylvania, and died at Lan- 
caster ill .\farch, 1!S17. 

.Jasi'eu Ye-vtks. 
Jasper i'cates, grandfather of the distin- 
guished jurist of the same name, was born in 
York-hire, England, and died near Xew Castle, 
Delaware, in lT20. When quite ii young 
man he emigrated to the West Indies, but 
did not remain there long, lie came to I'eiin- 
sylvania soon after William J'enn. >Cot long 
after his arrival he married C'atlierine, daugh- 
ter of James Sunderland, the elder, lie was 
one of the early settlers at Upland, and l)ouglit 
in lOUT a tract of land lying on Xaamaii's 
Creek. There he built and lived in a jilaiii 
iiiansiiiu, which was still standing a few years 
ago, and was long regarded as one of the ven- 
erable landmarks of early times, lici'ause it 
was afterwards owned by Mi"s. JXdjorah 
Logan. lie also built a null on the creek, in 
Urandywine hundred, and at the same time 
erected a granary and store house, and car- 
ried on an extensive business for the time. 

As larly as lOOG, ifr. Ycates was admitted 
to a seat in the Provincial Council of Pennsyl- 
vania, and in 1700 he was elected a rei)resen- 
tative of Xew Castle county in the (ieneral 
Assembly of the province; after the separa- 
tion of the lower counties on the Delaware, he 
was clioscii a representative and speaker of the 
Assembly. In 1701 he was appointed by 
AVilliam Penn one of the four burgesses ■>(. 
Chester, and 1703 he was elected chief bur- lion. Jasper Yeates Avas evidently poj)- 
iilar as a iniblic official, for from 1707 to 1710, 
and from 171 7, until the time of his death, he 
served as chief justice of the three Delaware 
counties under the colonial and state govern- 
ments. It is a source of regret that .so little 
of the early history of this iiromincnt and re|)- 
resentative citizen of Delaware has bei'n pre- 
served. His death occurred before ]\Iay 2. 
1720, as his will was probated at Xew Castle 
on that date. Col. John Fren(di succeeded 
liim as chief justice July 25, 1720. He had 
."several children, and his grandson, Jasocr, 
born in Philadelphia, April 0, ni.", became'TAi.N JunvAKU liuciu:. 

Eilward Poclie, who became a prominent 
citizen of Delaware in early ilays, was born 
in County Cork, Ireland, April lU, 17o4. He 
was a son of Lawrence Poche and -Mary, 
(daughter of James Manning), his wife. Ac- 
coi'iling to family records, the father of Ed- 
ward lioclie was of Preiich descent, emigrated 
from Ireland to this country soon after the 
birth of his son, and settled in X'ew Castle 
county. Here his son grew to manhood and 
became one of the best known j)ersonages in 
the State of Delaware in the past century, as 
well as in the early jiart of the present one, by 
rca.sou of his public services. He served all 
through the Pevolutionarv war, being com- 
missioned second lieutenant in Colonel Hall's 
I 'elaware regiment of the Continental Line, 
April 5, 1777, and made paymaster of the 
regiment, September 10, 177f^. He was in 
both noi-thern and southern camjjaigns and 
was taken prisoner at the battle of Camden, S. 
C, August 10, 1760, and paroled to the close 
of the war. 

On his return home Captain Roche settled 
in Wilmington and there spent the remainder 
of his life. On A])ril 18, ISOU, he was ap- 
l)ointed a notary public and justice of the 
peace, and held the office for nearly twenty 
vears, being so commissioned in 1807, and re- 
commissioned in IS 11 and 1821. He was also 
second burgess of Wilmington in 1806. His 
))lacc of residence was at No. (lO ^larket street 
in 1814, though he doubtless lived at other 
])laces in the meantime. Captain Poche died 
A]iril T), 1821, and was buried in the historic 
graveyard of Old Swedes' Church, but the 
spot where his ashes repose is now unknown. 
In former times his grave was marked by a 
stone, which has long since fallen and been re- 

Cajitain Poche was also treasurer and secre- 
tary of the original Delaware State Society 
of the Cincinnati from its organization in 1783 
to its so-called dissolution in 1802. The last 
certificate issued by authority of the society 
ftlie transfer of Colonel Allan "McLane to the 
Pennsylvania Society), bears the signature of 
Edward Poche as secretarv. He was engaged 

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-ivitli other j^i't'iiiiiieiit citizens in inuiiidtiug 
works for the public good of Wihniugtou, iiu- 
tiibly in the iimcnring of a water supply from 
"Cool Spring." Jle was, in I^Ol', one of the 
officers of the "^'^eteran Corps of Delaware,"' 
composed of officers and soldiers of the Kevo- 
lution, and also of its re-organized suecessdr as 
a "N'eteran I Tome Ciuard" for the defense of 
Wilmington during the war of \^\-l. . 

Captain Ifoehe was an orator of no mean 
ability; his discourses before the Delaware 
Cincinnati at Dover, in 1791, and at AVil- 
niington on February 22, ISOO, in eomniemo- 
ratiou of the death of (Jeneral Washington, 
prore his eloquence as well as his i)atriotism. 

From the genealogical collections of Cap- 
tain Bellas it is learned that Ca|)tain Koche 
was married to Flizabeth Brinckle April 1, 
17S2, in Ked Lion hundred, by Ivev. Samuel 
Aiken. She M'as born in I7ii2 and died in 
181 S, having preceded her husband \>y three 
years. They had issue as follows: 

T. George Edward, died in infancy; II. 
Eliza Maria; III. Edward Jirinckle, born 
March 6, 1787. He married ^laria Gurney 
and they had issue: i. Francis Gumey, born 
1812 and died 1892; ii. James, died" 1879, 
leaving no issue; iii. and iv. two daughters, 
one of whom married ilr. Cromwell, but had 
no issue, and the other died unnnirried. Fran- 
cis Gurney Koche (Xo. 1 of this family) seiwed 
in the Confederate Army from 18G1 to 1805. 
He married Amanda Payne, of the ilethodist 
Church, in Tennessee, and had four sons and 
five daughters; IV. James jranning, born 
April 5, 1791, died January 11, 1855. lie 
married Ann Cornelison, and had issue, i. Ed- 
ward Manning, bora [March 30, 1815, died 
1889, married Hannah Hedges Conaway, of 
Wilmington, and they had two sons and five 
daughters; ii. James Lawrence; iii. George 
AVashington; iv. Ann Eliza, born November 
20, 1823. married ^fr. Larzelere and had two 
daughters, one of whom niamed Leon C. lioss, 
of Tahlequah, C'herokee iSTation, Indian Ter- 
ritory, and the other, Kate A., William A. 
Duncan, the present representative to Con- 
gress of the Cliirokees. ^frs. Larzelere still 
survives, with an intellect unim])aired. The 
commission of Captain Roche, as justice of the 
peace, is said to be in the hands of ifrs. Lar- 
zelere, his granddaughter. Ca])tain Tfochc 
also had four <1aughters: INrnrictta, Annette, 

Euuna, first and sec'und, all (jf whom died un- 

•Manning lirinckle, the uintli and youngest 
child of Captain Jlochc, was lioni Di-cember 

5, 1790, and married . He died in 1847, 

leaving two sons, John and Kdwani. The latter 
died without issue. The father of these boys 
became a ndnister of the Protestant Kpiscopal 
(Church, but later in lite adojitcil the medical 
lu'ofession, and practiced in A'ew iJedford, 
.Mass., whither he had removed from I'liihidel- 

It is said that the jMirtrait and swoid of ( 'ap- 
tain Poche — the latter forujerly belonged to 
a Hessian officer — are now the j)roiierty of his 
great-grandson, William Ford Poehe, of Mc- 
A^eytown, Pennsylvania. His certificate of 
membership in the Society of the Cincinnati 
is in the po.ssesion of his great-grandson, Sam- 
uel S. Poche, of Xa^hville, Tennessee. 

Governor Xatii.vxiel AriTOiii;i.i,. 
Xathaniel Mitchell, one of the early gov- 
ernors of Delaware, was an ardent patriot and 
distinguished soldier and officer of the Pevo- 
lution. He was born in 1753, at, or near, what 
is now Laurel, in Sussex county, Delaware, son 
of James and iLirgaret (Dagworthy) ]\Iitchell, 
and nephew of Gen. John Dagworthy, of Del- 
aware. Little is known of his early life or op- 
j)ortunities for securing an education. He was 
commissioned adjiUaut in Col. John Dag- 
worthy's Delaware battalion of militia in 
1775; captain in Cul. Sanuiel Patterson's- 
Delaware battali(m of the ''Flying Camp," 
from June to December, 177G; captain in Col. 
William (irayson's Additional Continental 
regiment, January 20, 1777; major in the- 
same regiment from December 23, 1777, when 
he was transferred to Col. iSTathaniel (iist's 
Additional Continental regiment, April 22, 
1779. He was brigade major and inspector- 
to (ien. Peter ^[ulileulierg, 1779-81. Petired 
from service Janiuirv 1, 1781, jirisoner of war 
1781, and paroled. 

]\Lijor Aritchell was a delegate from Delawire 
to the Continental Congress in 1780-88, and 
governor of the State from 1805 to LS()7. (See 
sketch of the governors). He was a delegate 
to the general meeting of the Society of the 
Cincinnati at Philadel]ihia in ^fay, 1787. He 
died at Laurel, Delaware, Februarj' 21, 1811,. 

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and was buried in the cemetery of the ulJ 
J!n/;i(l Crick lOpisfopal Cluireh, near that 
ti.wii. Maj'ir .Mitfiu'll left descendants, but 
little is known of tlieni or of his wife. 

Many interesting reminiscences of tlie life 
and cliaracter of this ardent patriot have been 
preserved, litit after such a long lapse of time 
have abun.^t bi en lost sight of. In a fragmen- 
tary cupy <if "The C(jnstitiitionalist, or tiie 
Defender of tlie People's llights," published 
September lH, 1804, is found a long tribute 
tu Ids memory, by "An Old Otficer," from 
\\hi<ii muidi that is interesting is gleaned. 
This writer says that he was not one of those 
iiKMlcrn jiatriots, noisy and boisterous after 
(hingcr has passed, who sheltered thcmsehes 
in hiding places and courted the clemency oi 
'tiieir foes; nor was he one of your wild entlm- 
siasts wiio thought that the Americans knew 
nothing about freedom, and that it waa* a 
iicjtinn imjiorted into the coimtry by foreign- 
ers, y^o; he was one of those men who fought 
and sull'ered for his country; who was a true 
friend in its most perilous moments; who be- 
lieved that his countrymen knew what liberty 
was, when they wasted their fortunes and shed 
their blood to procure it. 

'1 his same writer relates some events in his 
career as an ofticer in the army, which shows 
the material of which he was made. In 1770, 
when about twenty years of age, he foi-sook his 
family and the improvement which ho was 
making, to Hv to his country's standard to aiil 
in defending the right, -lie first joined the 
''Flying Camp" and the regiment was sta- 
tioned at Amboy and remained till the time 
for which the men enlisted had expired. Dur- 
ing this period freipient skirmishes between 
otir troops and the British and Hessians took 
jdace. On one of these occasions Captain 
Mitchell particularly distinguished himself. 
A body of the enemy was sent over to attack 
our outposts. Captain ^fitchell happily dis- 
covered the enemy approaching. He rallied 
his company, and although he had a smaller 
number of men, he succeeded in caj)turiiig 
nearly the entire detachment of British and 

^Vhen the force composing the "Flying 
Cam))" was discharged Captain ilitchell was 
commissioned captain of a company in the re- 
giment directed to be raised by Congress, and 
til be cummanded bv Cohjuel (Iravson, "f 

\'^irginia. A warm friemiship existed between 
him and the N'irginia colonel. Cajitaiu 
Mitchell addressed himself to the work of re- 
cruiting the company he was to command, 
and so great was his zeal and activity that his 
(piota of men was secured long before the re- 
giment could be formed. In 1777 they were 
marched to I'hiladelphia, where they remained 
till the}' were inoc'idated for the small pox, 
L jjon the recovery of the men they proceeded 
to camp, and, (Jrayson's regiment not ha\'ing 
jciined tlie army, they were attacheil t,, the 
Delaware troops. .\s soon as hi- own regi- 
ment arri\-eci, Captain ^Mitchell wa-- uniteil 
to it, and his company fought gallantly at the 
battle of lirandywine. Jlc wa> freiiuenlly 
seen encouraging his men, and lira\ely ex- 
posing himself, among the foremost, to the 
tire of the enemy. He greatly endeared him- 
self to his men by his anxiety to secure and re- 
move the wounded. 

Xot long after this affair Captain .Mitidiell 
was prostrateil by a <laiigerous illnes.-,, sup- 
])osed to be camp fever, which redu<-ed him 
to great extrendty, and from which he reco\er- 
ed slowly, owing to the hardships and jtriva- 
tioiis of eain|) life. He was in this condition 
when the battle of Ciermantown took place, 
and was therefore unable to take jiart in that 

Captain ]\litchell .shared the horrors of the 
rigorous winter at N'alley Forge when the 
American army lay there, watching the Bntisli 
in l'liiladeli>hia. During that terrible season. 
Captain ilitchell was entrusted with highly 
important duties. He was placed at the head 
of a company in General Scott's brigade, with 
ordei-s to gmu'd a dangerous outpost, and was 
constantly exposed to great danger, as the com- 
manding general depended on him for infor- 
mation relating to any movement on the part 
of the enemy, so that the camp might not be 
surprised. He was also frequently called on 
to make sudden and dangerous incursions into 
the country to surprise or watch foraging de- 
fatehments of the British, which made his 
duties at all times full of peril. 

At the battle of ^lonmouth, he was in the 
advanced guard undi'r the command of Gen- 
eral Lee, who attacked the rear of the Bntish 
army in their retreat across i^ew Jersey. 
Di)on this occasion, Colonel Grayson com- 
manding the brigade, the command nf the re- 

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BlOan. 1 1'lIlC. 1 L ENCYCLOPEDIA 

giiiiL'Ut was giveu to Captain J\lilL-hc'll. It was 
exj)osed to tlie hottest tire of the enemy, and 
by a desperate resistanee against a liea\y 
column oi tlieir army, atlorded time lor tiie 
Ameriean troops to form, wiiieli were ad- 
vaiieing hastily under an iminrssion that tiie 
enemy Wiis retreating. The regiment sus- 
tained a heavy loss in this engagement, but it 
nobly maintained the reputation of the 
Ameriean arms. 

At the end of the New Jersey campaign, 
the Virginia troojis, to which Captain .Mitchell 
belonged, were ordered to the southward. In 
the winter of 1779-SU he was appointed bri- 
gade major and inspector under Ceneral .Muh- 
lenberg; and in the succeeding summer he 
was stationed at Fredericksburg for the juu'- 
pose of j)romoting and superintending the re- 
cruiting service. Having raised and organized 
a regiment at Chesterheld Court House, he 
recei\ed from Congress the commission of 
majtu'. It was about this time that Ceneral 
Leslie invaded Virginia, committing great de- 
predations throughout the country. .Major 
^litehell was ordered to join General ^luhleu- 
berg, and received the appointment of adju- 
tant general. (Jeneral ^Muhlenberg marched 
into lSutf(dk, and during the campaign was 
employed in watching and repelling the in- 
cursions of the British from Norfolk. The 
country was greatly benefited by this service, 
tliough it afforded no occasion to the troops 
to distinguish themselves. 

AVhen Arnold invaded Virginia in 17S1, 
wasting everything with fire and sword, ^Fajor 
^Iit<-hell was appointed to the command of the 
ad\'ance guard, which op]"ised the advance I' 
the Thitish army, "^rhis haudfid of men fre- 
quently engaged with the enemy, and nearly 
one half was killed or wounded. Tie succeeded 
Iiowever, in cutting off several marauding- 
parties, making a nundicr of prisoners. 

An anecdote of ]\rajor iritehell ought not 
to be forgotten. Early one morning, being 
at the head of a scouting party, the ])rinci|)al 
object of which was to gain intcdligi-nce, be 
came \\\) to the farm house of a ])oor wi<l<]W, 
whose husband had lately fallen in battle, and 
found her l>atlied in tears, witli several snndl 
children crying aliout her. lie incpiired into 
the cause of her distress, generously offering 
any relief in his power. She tohl liiin a party 
of British had just left her home, and had 
plundered her of everything met ^sary for the 

subsistence of iier family, leaving her no fooil 
for her children, and she knew not how to pre- 
vent them from .narving. "'Be of good cheer," 
replied the .Major, "and i will try and niak.j 
the plunderers restore to ycjii tlieir liooly." 
ile instantly pursued, and lortunalely soon 
came up with the l»arly, consii^ting ot about 
twenty men, who being encumbered with the 
pillage of -e\-eral houses were able to move but 
slowly, ile fell too suddenly upon them to 
allow any to escape; and they were marched 
back to the widow's with their st^den goods. 
The poor woman was desii'ed to name the \)V^)- 
perty that belonged to her, which wa^ imme- 
diately restored; and for any article uussing 
the plunderers were compelled to pay the full 
value. 'J'he major left the liou^e with the 
lirisoners, loaded with the blessings of the 
• When the British had returned from Peters- 
burg, he was ordered to throw a bridge of boats 
over the Appomattox, to remove and secure 
a quantity of llour, which was in danger of 
falling into the enemy's hands. A party of 
militia was stationed to cover the operation. 
'I'he duty committed to the major was of the 
most laborious uatiu'e. From the small force 
allowed for its accomplishment, the ser\iee re- 
(pnred incessant attention, and no diligence 
was s]iared to i)erform it. In the night, how- 
ever, between the loth and 11th of ^May, 
17S1, the militia having neglected to guard 
their posts, the British were enabled to siu'- 
juise the major and his party, and captured 
liim together with IMajor ilurc and six other 
otticers, who reniained prisoiu^r^ luitil tlie 
treaty of ])eace was signed. 

^Tajor ^rit(diell ever enjoyed the rejuitation 
of an a<'tive, brave and euterpi-isiug officer, 
lie was always among the foremost ujiiui dan- 
gcrniis occasions, and his operations were con- 
ducted with e()ual address ami courage, lie 
was a strict disciplinarian, but while be was 
exact in requiring attention to duty on the 
jiart of his men he was careful to su]^]dy their 
wants, au<l to i^rotect them from every species 
(d' outrage and inju-tiee. Tlis conduct always 
uiaiufested his warm attachment to the inde- 
pendence of his country, and before the un- 
foi-tuiuite event which threw him into the 
■[wwer of the enemy, ami for which he was not 
answei-able, no evertidii was omitted which 
could jironuitc the Bevolutionary cause. Tf 
other men were in higher stations and enabled 

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tu reuduriuorecouspicuoudbervices than Aiajor 
Aiitclicll, it cauuut be said that tlicy were uioro 
zcaloUi and faitlil'ul iu tbe discharge uf tlieir 

ill reviewing the military history of this 
brave and etheieiit officer, it may be mentioned 
as a singuhir historical fact that not far from 
the spot where he was captured by the Jiritish 
in the month of May, ITSl, eighty-four years 
iifterwards all that section of country border- 
ing uii the Appomattox, was the theatre of 
tremendous military operations, which culmi- 
nated in the surender of the Confederate army 
under Cleneral Lee to Cieneral (Jrant, and the 
greatest civil war of modern times was 
brought to a close. 

iSome time after the close of the licvolution 
!Major Xathabiel Mitchell was married, but it 
is greatly regretted that the maiden name of 
his wife has not been preserved, nor is it known 
how many cliildrcn, if any, they had. .Vbout 
this time he was appointed prothonotary of 
tSussex county, Delaware, and entered ujion his 
duties with the same alacrity which marked 
his military career. His othce soon became 
remarkable for the orderly arrangement jf 
court records, his diligent attention to public 
business and the prompt execution of all his 

AVhcn Major Mitchell was named as a candi- 
date fur governor of Delaware, the people 
generally n'cognized liis fitness for the posi- 
tion, and his nomination was well received. 
The country was sparsely settled at that tliiio 
and i^olitics did not enter into contests for of- 
fice tlicii as sharply as they do now. He en- 
countered some opposition, of course, but was 
triumphantly elected and entered upon the 
duties of his office in January, 1805. His 
administration was quiet, but marked with the 
same diligence, method, and carewhich charac- 
terized him while performing the humbler 
duties of protlifuiotary; and he retired from 
its cares with the consciousness of having per- 
formed his duty to the best of his ability and 
leaving behind a clean record. 

The private life of Governor ilitchcll, as 
wo learn from contemporary writers, was un- 
exceptionable and exemplary. He had the 
easy gentlemanly manners of an old time offi- 
cer who had mi.xed much with the world. 1 lis 
hand was always stretched out to every honest 
mnu, Mithout regard to dress or a])pearanec. 

The integrity of his character was iiiiblem- 
i>hed, and calumny never ventured to attack 


Capt. Caleb i'rew JJennet, who served as 
the first governor of Delaware uiuler the con- 
stitution of 1831-3^', was born in the southern 
part of Chester county, Pa., near the state 
line, November 11, 1758, and died at his home 
in Wilmington June 11, lb3(j. His father, 
Capt. Joseph Bennett, was a shipping mer- 
chant and owned and sailed a merchant vesssl 
to India; and he was the jirst man who brought 
the first umbrella ever seen in Wilmington. 
He gave it to L^dia Ferris. On the next trip 
he brought one to ^liss Betsy .Montgoinei-}', 
and one for his daughter ^lary. 

Captain Bennett married Mary Boone, a sis- 
ter of JJanicl Boone, who is claimed by Ken- 
tucky as her great hunter. Boone was a Penn- 
sylvaiiiau by birth, and he and his sister ilary 
both had birthrights in the Birmingham 
Friends' Meeting, of Delaware county, Penn- 
sylvania. J\rary Boone married Johnson, who, 
at one time, owned all the property on West 
streets, Wilmington, below Third, adjoining 
what was known as the Warner property, 
where Joseph Bringhurst rebuilt. 

Cai^tain Joseph Bennett purchased and took 
possession of what was known as the old West 
jiroperty, Wilmington, November 11, 1758, 
the day on which his distinguished son was 
born. I'lie property came to his mother, !^[ary 
(lilpin. Captain Jiennett is represented by 
early writers as a very handsome old man. He 
stood six feet in height, and his general appear- 
ance was striking. He wore low shoes, silver 
knee and shoe buckles, long silk stockings, 
white kid brccclies, blue coat, brass buttons, 
ruffled shirt bosom, and powdered hair, which 
was done up in queue. 

^lary (Boone) Johnson was a member of the 
Society of Friends; her remains were inten-ed 
in the burying ground at I'lfth and West 
streets, Wilmington, by the side of her son. 
Governor Caleb P. Bennett. She is repre- 
sented as being one of the most talented women 
of her day, well read in law, one of the most 
independent women of the age. She frequent- 
ly attended courts and read or imbibed la^v, 
which her capacious mind drank in like rivers 

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of water. The tccluiical tenus were stiulicJ, 
and she was familiar witli all the quirks and 
quibbles of attorneys. With her it was a per- 
fect mania to be involved in lawsuits. As a 
landholder, she \va3 often qualihed and would 
enter the office of any noted lawyer and tell her 
story, but never to offer a fee. When the 
courts werr in session at -New Castle, she fre- 
qui'Utly attended them and with papers in 
hand wouhi enter the court house with the 
contidcnce of a chief justice, and plead her 
own cause. "And this she did in the day of our 
most i>roniinent lawyers of Pennsylvania and 
Uelaware. She was long remendjered in AViK 
niintiton for her ability and knowledue of the 

Caleb Prew Bennett was about three years 
of age when the fannly removed fr<im Chester 
comity, Pa., to AVilmington, which was in 
ITiil. His father, Capt. Joseph Bennett, was 
so impressed with the importance of the ques- 
tions which resulted in the war of the Bev<ihi- 
tion, and was so patriotically inclined, that he 
induced his son to enter the ranks when he 
was scarcely seventeen years of age, to fight for 
liberty. At the commencement of hostilities, 
he joined one of the comi)anies forming Colo- 
nel Haslet's regiment of Delaware State 
troops and served one year in the lanks as 
private and as first sergeant, and joined the 
nuuu army in Xew York in 1777. lie was 
comniissidned ensign in Capt. Thomas Hol- 
land's company (Haslet's regiment). Conti- 
nental Establishment, April 5, 1777. He was 
with his Company in the detachment under 
General Sullivan in the attack on Staten Is- 
land. On the 11th of September following 
he took part in the battle of Brandywine, 
which was fought within a few miles of his 
birth]dace; the sound of the cannon eoidd bo 
heard at the home of his father in AVilming- 
ton. He was present with his company at the 
battle of Oermantown in the capacity of ser- 
geant and was slightly woimded. This en- 
gagement occurred Octolier 4, 1777; the 
Delaware regiment suffered severely, losing 
in killed and wounded seven out of thirteen 
officers, and about one-third of the privates. 
Captain Holland, his captain, was among the 

Sergeant Bennett proved himself so brave 
and capable a soldier that on August IG, 1778, 
he was commissioned second liiMitiuant, and 
in April, 1780, was promoted to the rank of 

first lieutenant, and served in the companies 
of Captains John ifhodes and William Mc- 
Kennan to the close of the war. In ilav, 1778, 
Tieutenant Dennett joined Ceneral \Vashing- 
ton at \'alley Porge, and .spent the winter 
there. It was while stationed here that he was 
witness to a strange, yet impressive, ceremony 
in the life of the great commander. One 
Sunday the Kev. John (Jano, a Baptist minis- 
ter and chaplain to one of the regiments, 
jireai-hed a very powerful sermon. (Jeneral 
Wasiiington was among his hearers. On Mon- 
day, when he met the cluqilain, Washington 
demanded baptism by immersion at his hands. 
\ few days afterwards thi'v went to the Porge, 
when AVashington remarked: ''Here is water, 
what doth hinder me from being baptizecH" 
The ceremony was performed in' the presence 
of about forty pei-sons, Lieutenant Bennett 
being one of tho number. Knowing that 
AVashington was an I'^piscopalian, this inci- 
dent nuide a deep im])ression on the mintl of 
the young sohlier. 

Pieutenant Bennett was present at the bat- 
tle of ]\Ionmouth, as well as at other engage- 
ments in Xew Jersey. In April, 1780, his 
com]iany was assigned to the detachment com- 
manded by Baron DcKalb, and ordered south. 

ILning arrived in South Carolina, active 
operations were immediately commenced, and 
on the lltli of August was fought the memor- 
able battle of Camden, where we find Lieu- 
tenant Beniu'tt, with his comi)any, in the 
warmest jiart of the engagement, 'i'lie brave 
Baron DeKalb, after being mortally woumled, 
dictated a letter expressive of the gallant con- 
duct of the troojis innncdiately under his com- 
mand, and particulai'ly the Delaware reginu-nt, 
which was in the thickest of the fight, and en- 
tirely cut to ])ieces, losing nine officei-s and 
siiven companies out of the nine of which 
it was compo.sed. 

After this disastrous affair Lieutenant Ben- 
nett was sent home to Delaware to re- 
cruits, and in 1781, with one hundred and 
twenty men, he joined the Prench troo])s at 
Anna]iolis, and proceeded to Yorktown, whii-h 
was besieged. In the last crowning success of 
the Ameri<'an army at this point. Lieutenant 
Bennett bore a consiiicuous part, conunanding 
the left battery of the .\merican force on the 
day when Lord Cornwallis surrendered his 
army t<> Washington. 

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After this brilliant acliievciuent at' tlie 
Aiiierifau anus, Lieuteuaiit lieniiott juiiieJ 
(u'lural Greene in South Carolina, anil re- 
mained in tlie acti\'e service of his eoiintry till 
jieaee was ileelareJ and the army disbanded, 
'liiey left the southern field in October, 17b^ 
for home. AVhen the war ended and indepen- 
dence had l>een secured, Lieutnant lieiniclt 
was oidy' twenty-five years of age and had de- 
voted eight years to tlic service of his country, 
enduring the severest hardships, with a cuni- 
jiensation iiardly sutHcient to meet his ex- 
j lenses. ' 

AVhen Lieutenant Bennett returned to liis 
home in Wilmington he settled down to the 
♦piiet vocations of life and went to work witli 
a will to cultivate the arts of peace. He was 
active, industrious and enterprising, and took 
much interest in the politics of the times. In 
tiie meantime lie married, but the name of his 
wife has not been preserved. In ISUT he 
appniiittd treasurer of Xew Castle county, tln' 
ihitics iif which ottice he discharged witli 
pn>ni]itness and fidelity till the fall of IMoL', 
a peril ul of twenty-five years; he finally re- 
linciuished the ortice on being noniiiuited for 
Ciovernor of Delaware. On Xoveniljer i:!, 
1S32, he was triumphantly elected the first 
Jackson governor of the State. This import- 
ant ottice he continued to fill with honor to 
hiiust'lf and credit to the State till the day of 
liis deatii, June 11, 1S3G. Dying before tlie 
exi)iration of his term, the acting governor- 
ship (h'volved on ex-Oovernor Charles Polk, 
then ]iresident of the Senate. 

^Vhen the war or 1S12 broke out, the nnir- 
tial sjiirit of the old soldier was at once aroused, 
and we find him again in the military service 
of his country. Promoted to the rank of ]\ra- 
jor, he was appointed to the command of the 
forces stationed at New Castle, and remained 
in the service until peace was declared. Few 
of the veterans of the Revolution saw longer 
and iiarder service. lie particijjatod in all the 
imjiortant battles of the Tie\'olution and was 
thrice wounded. "Wlien he died he was the 
last surviving officer of theDclawareLine. ITe 
became a member of the Society of the Cincin- 
nati, and served as assistant treasurer of the 
Delaware State Society in 17i)!). TTis certifi- 
cate of meudiership in the Cincinnati is now 
in the possession of his grandson, Calvin Smith 
T'cnnctt, residing near Xatc'liez, .Afississipiji. 

As migiit have been expected, the deatli of 
the ex-governor and veteran soldier, although 
at the ripie age of seventy-eight years, caused 
a profound sensation; and especially in his own 
city were the expressions of sorrow most mark- 
e(L lie was a kind and atVectionate husband, 
a tender and indulgent parent, an active and 
useful citizen, and above all a jiatriot whose 
devotion to the welfare, prosjjerity and inde- 
pendence of his country knew no bounds and 
felt no sacrifice too great in its behalf. 

The Ad.viis Family. 
Daniel Jenifer Adams was born at Port To- 
bacco, .Ah!., in 1750, and died in 17ti(J. Ac- 
cording to Captain JjcUas, the genealogist, the 
father of Daniel was Josias Adams, l)0rn in 
170U, sou of Francis Adams, who was born in 
Charles county, ^[d., in IGSO. Francis Adams 
married -Mary, daughter of Cleorge Godfrey, 
and besides Josias, they had five sons, George, 
Abednego, Samuel, Francis, and Ignatius. 
Josias, the eldest of these six sons, married 
Ann Jenifer; their children were: i. Daniel 
,)enifer, as stated above, bom in 1750; ii. 
KH/.alieth ^lason; iii. Anna Adams. 

Daniel Jenifer Adams, at the commence- 
ment of the Revolution, was commissioned a 
first lieutenant in Captain Pezin lieall's In- 
dependent Company of ilaryland militia 
(Jan. II, 177(;); an<l afterwards appointed 
briiiade-nnijor to Geniral Beall of the :Mary- 
land "Flying Camii;" August -11 to DccenJjer 
1, 1770; commi~>ioned ^Major of Seventh 
ilaryhmd lugiment of the Continental Fs- 
tabli'shment, April 1, 1777, and resigned 
June 8, 1779. He ^^•rved after the war as 
brigadier general of Delaware militia and as 
shcritt' of Xew Castle county, Delaware, 
where he then resided till his death, X'ovcm- 
ber 2!), 17911. lie is buried in Old Swedes' 
churchyard in ■\Vilmington, where a large 
tombstone is placed over his remains. lie 
was an original member of the Delaware 
State CinciTinati Society. 

^Fajor Adams married Xancy Hanson, of 
Kent county, Delaware, sister of Lydia Han- 
son, wiio married Colonel Xchemiah Tillou, 
brother of Surgeon James Tllton, and had is- 
sue (surname Adams): 

I. Daniel Jenifer, Jr., born ; 

was married twice. By tl>e first marriage he 
had one daughter, lie married, secoml, Pru- 

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deuce Moore, of Pbiladelpliia, December 10, 
1802, and had one son. Both of his cliildreu 
died unmarried. 

II. Josias Hanson, born ; mar- 
ried Hannah JMoore, of Clarioinirg, AVcst Vir- 
ginia, and had issue: i. Daniel, ii. Jenifer, who 
left no issue, ii. Preston, who left three daugh- 
ters, iii. Alexander Hanson, who died unniar- 
' ried. 

III. Elizabeth, of whom no record has been 

I^^ Alexander Hanson, died unmarried. 

\. Susannah Hanson, of whom no nronl 
has been found. 

VI. ]\Iaria, no record. 

VII. Thomas Jenifer, Jr., born February 
11, ITOU, died m ISCS; was married twice. 
Fir.>.t, to Isal)ella, daughter of James and Ja- 
net Xilgore Bogie, of Scotland, who was born 
iu 1S02, and died in 1857; they had issue: 
i. Janet, died in infancy, 1822; ii. Isabella 
Hanson, married General .Tames Tilton, of 
Delaware, her second cousin, who was tlie 
grandson of Colonel Nehemiah Tilton, of 
I)elaware. They liad issue: 1. Francis, 2. 
Edward Gibson, 3. Bayard, and 4. Howard 
Tilton; iii. Alexander Hanson, married Hes- 
ter Tiebout, and died in 1880, they had iss\ie: 
1. ]\Iary Jenifer, who married Ed- 
wards, and died without issue, 2. Charles 
Breck, born 1859, and married (1885) Jennie 
Andrews and has issue: Hobert Andrews, 
Helen ^{., Charles Breck, Jr., and an infant 
daughter; iv. Charles Jenifer, married 
Sarah Jennings and had issue: Adele, who 
married Lieut. II. il. Witzel, V. S. X. ■ 
V. Janet Xilgore, married Thomas l! 
^loore and had issue: 1. Isabella, 2. Harriet, 
3. Bichanl; vi. Howard Jenifer, manned Eli- 
zabeth Flint and had children: 1. Elizabeth 
and 2. Charles Jenifer; vii. Harriet Buchanan 
married Bobert Andrews and had issue: 1. 
Jane, 2. Ella; viii. Thomas Jenifer, died in 
1842 and is buried in Old Swedes' church- 

Thomas Jenifer Adams married second, 
^rary A. Jennent. She was born in 1815, and 
died in 1887. She was the widow of TTcmT 
AVaples, son of AVilliam and grandson of Capt. 
Samuel Wa])les of Accomac county, Virginia, 
and of the Ninth Virginia Continental Line,' 
who died in 1834. There was no issue by the 
secn.l marriage. :Mrs. ^\. A. (Jeniient) 

Adams is buried in the Old Swedes' church- 
yard, "Wilmington. 


Henry Latimer, an early and prominent 
citizen of Delaware, was born at Newport, 
New Castle county, in 1752, son of 
Hon. James and Sarah (Geddes) Latimer. 
After receiving a primary education he com- 
menced the study of medicine in Philadelphia 
and completed the course by graduating at tlie 
Medical College of Ediuburg, Scotland. Be- 
turning home, he practiced his iirofession in 
AVilmington, until the breaking out of the 
Bevohition. After seeing some held service 
he was, in 1777, commissioned surgeon in the 
Continental army, and attached to what was 
called the Flying Hospital. Dr. Latimer's 
services were in constant demand; he was with 
the army in all the battles iu the northern 
department from Brandywine to Yorktown. 
"When the war ended in 1783, he returned 
to the practice of medicine in Wilmington. 
He was elected a member of the State Legisla- 
ture; also to Congress from 1793 to 17'J5; but 
before closing his last term as a member of the 
House of Be])resentatives, Ite was, iu 1704, 
elected United States Senator frour Delaware 
for one term. After a hmg and honorable life, 
he died December 19, 1819, and was buried in 
the graveyard of the First Presbyterian 
church, "Wilmington, where his tondjstone 
may be seen. He left descendants. His son, 
John B. Latimer, succeeded him as a member 
of the Society of the Cincinnati, in Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1821, and after filling a number of 
minor offices became vice-president of the 
society in 1854-55, and president in 1855, 
which position he held until his death in 18C5. 

WirxiAM ]\IcIvEXX.\N. 

William ]\lcKennan was born in Christiana 
hundred. New Castle county. His father 
was a clergyman, and preached at what is still 
known as ^IcKennan's ;^feeting House. Soon 
after the beginning of the Bevohition, 
William ]\IcKennan was commissioned second 
lieutenant in Capt. Thomas Kcan's coni])any. 
Col. Samuel Patterson's Delaware Batallion (if 
the Flying Camp, June or July, 177(); seeond 
lieutenant. Colonel Hall's Delaware reoiment. 

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Continental E.-tublislinient, Koveniber :.'!), 
1770; fii-st lieutenant, Captain Learmontii's 
and Patten'ri eonipanies, same regiment April 
b, 1777, and February, ITbO; captain in 1781 
and served U> the elose of the war. lie was 
present at the siege and surrender of York- 
town, anil was in eommand of the Delaware 
detachment un its return to his native state in 
January, i7>;i. '1 he march was a long and 
weary one. J.eaving its headquarters on tiie 
Ashley J liver, where it thou lay eucaniiied 
and taking ii]) its march via Camden, Saiis- 
bur}-, and i'etersburg, tiie detachment crossed 
tlie James llivcr at Carter's Ferry, pusiied 
on tliruiigh ilaryland, and in exactly tw(j 
months alter the date of its departure from 
tlie main iSouthern army, finally arrived — and 
with what feelings can be only imagined, nut 
described — at Christiana Creek, near .Xew 
Castle. Here the battalion was cncami)ed 
until October of the same year, when it was 
permanently disbanded; Captain ]\Ic]\euuau, 
then in command, being ai)pointed to settle 
and adju>t tiie accounts of the officers and 
nieu'of the battalion with the United Statis 
Auditor, as also "to issue both certificates f<jr 
past serviees as well as land wan'ants to the 
individuals claiming, or their attorneys for 
them, which duty he performed to the general 

Captain ]\rcKennan was the first secretary 
of the ]1claware State Society of the Cincin- 
nati, and .=orvcd from 1784 to 1795. This 
distinguished and faithful officer dicil in Xew 
Castle county, in February, 180:]. IFc left 
descendants, among whom is Dr. Tiiomas 
^IcKennan, of Washington, Pa., a grandson. 


Jolui T^atten, born near Dover, Ivent- 
cijuiity, Delaware, .Vpril 2ij, 174G, sou of 
^\'illiam and .\nn Patten, was of Scotch-Tnsh 
oiigin. lie was brought uji to the voi-ati<in 
of M fiiniicr, and was engagc^d in that pursuit 
uhen ihc licvululion began, hubucd willi 
ihc Hpli il of iiidr|iendcncc', he lit once look an 
aciivc |io,illon in the ai'iuy. On the I'orma- 
Ijiin of Capl. .buuilhnn Caldwell's company, 
Colonel Haslet's regiment of Delaware State 
troojis in Continental service, January 15, 
1770, he was commissioned first lieutenant; 
senior captain in Colonel TTall's Dclawaiv 

regiment, Xo\'eniber ."iO, 177(); and major, 
J)eeember 14, 177!). He was taken pri^oner 
at the battle of Camden, S. C., August Iti, 
178U, and was on paiolc to the (dose of the 
war. Major Patten returned to Delaware 
after being paroled, but as he had not iiei'U ex- 
idianged, he did iKjt rejoin his regiment. Ma- 
jc«r Fatten was (dected to Congress in 1785 
and servetl two years. Ui)on the adoption of 
the United States Constitutiim, he was elected 
a mendier of the 'i'liiril Congress from Dela- 
ware, and served in 171*.'i-!)4. Subsequently 
he was elected to the Fourth Congress, and 
served till 171)7. He was diligent and faith- 
ful in the discharge of his duties and was lion- 
oi-ed by hi.s constituents. Major Patten died 
Deeendier 2li, ISOO, in the fifty-fourth year 
of his age, ami his a>lies rest in the Presby- 
terian Churchyard at Dover. .Major Patten 
was the tirst viee-jiresident of the Delaware 
State Society of the Cincinnati, and so con- 
tinued until elected President in 1709. lie 
was also a didegate to the general meetings 
of the Society in 1788, 1790, 1791 and 1793, 
and took a deep interest in the ])roceedings. 
Litth' is known of his family; but he left 
descendants who bave kept briglit the lustre 
of his name. 


Charles Polk, son of Charles Polk, and the 
fourth of the mime in the line of descent, was 
born near liridgeville, Xanticoke hundred, 
in 1788, and died in 1857. The family was 
originally from Scotland, and the name in 
early times was written Pollock. The ances- 
tor of the family in America settkd first in 
ifaryland, but on the termination of the dis- 
pute between Penn and Loi-d Baltimore, he 
was thrown (Ul the Delaware side of the bound- 
ary line, in Little Creek hundred. Charles 
Folk had three sons, Charles, John and Jo- 
se])h. The oldest of these, Charles, became 
the father of Governor (Jharlcs Polk. lie was 
a man of mean.s, fiwuing more than one thou- 
sand acres of land. In 1791 he was sent as a 
delejjate to tile convcnti(Ui called for the ])ur- 
pose of forming a constitution foi' the Slate of 
Delaware', and was chese-i |ii-e-idehl. Uuriug 
the sittings of the convention he was taken ill 
and \vas ceimpelle(l to retire to his home, where 
he soiui after died. At the time of his death 

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liis son, Charles, was scarcely eight years of 
age. This son, destined to heconie one of 
the representative men of Delaware, was ten- 
derly reared by his mother, and early in life 
evinced talents of no mean order. When of 
sullicient age, he read law nudcr the direction 
oi tile celebrated Kensey Johns, Sr., and was 
adnutted to practice, but for some reason 
never folluwed tiie profession he had cliosen. 
lie went back to the home wiiere he was born, 
and where his fatiier had lived and died. 

In lylO he went to Milford hundred, Kent 
county, where he pnrchaseil a tract of eleven 
hundred acres of land, which is still in tiie 
possession of his descendants. Before this 
time Mr. Polk (as early as 1813) had served 
as a member of the Legislature from Sussex 
jounty, and in 1815 he was re-elected. In 
181C or 1817 he was sent to the Legislature 
from Kent county, and in ISIU he became a 
member of the Levy Court. After distrharg- 
ing the duties of this office to the satisfaction 
of the people, he was anxious to retire to jiri- 
vate life, but his friends would not consent, 
as they had further honors in store for him. 
Consetpiently, in 1824, he was hcnt to tiie 
State Senate, and chosen speaker. 

^Iv. Polk's political course was still onward 
and iipward. In 1S2G lie was the choice of 
the people for governor, and served three 
years. When the convention of 1831 to 
revise the State Constitution was called, he 
was chosen its president. Soon after the close 
of the Constitutional Convention he was, in 
1834, again elected to the State Senate, and 
on the assembling of the body was chosen 
speaker. On the death of Ciovernor Bennett, 
which occurred in Juue, 1830, lion. Charles 
Polk became, by virtue of his position as 
speaker of the Senate, acting governor, and 
filled out the term with credit to himself and 
the people. But his career of usefulness as a 
public servant did not close with his retire- 
ment from the chair of state, for in 1838 he 
was again elected a state senator and chosen 
sjieaker, on account of his ])cculiar fitness for 
the office. At the expiration of his last sena- 
torial term, he wa.s appointed register of wills 
for Kent county, by Governor William B. 
Cooper, in 1813, and served f<(ur yeai"s. In 
18r)fl he was appointed collector of the ])(irt 
of Wilmington, but resigned in 1853, and 
died October 27, 1857. 

It is seldom that we find a man who is called 
upon to serve iiis fellow citizens in more po- 
sitions of honor and trust than (iovernor 
Bulk, lie ilii'il at bis home in ililford hun- 
dred and was luiried in the cemetery of the 
Bri'.sbyterian ChurclL at Dover. 

(iovernor Polk married .Mary Elizabeth 
Pnrnell, of Berlin, .Md., and the union was 
blessed with sixteen children, of whom only 
nine survived liim, the rest dying young. Of 
the nine, four arc yet living. Oik; son, 
^\'illiam Alexander Polk, ex-register of wills 
for Sussex c(ninty, was a member of the Leg- 
islature in 1807, and speaker of the Ibjuse. 

Du. James Tilton. 
Dr. James Tilton was a native of Kent 
county, Delaware, where he was born June 
1, 1745. All that is known of his ])arentagc 
is that he was the son of Thomas Tilton; the 
name of the mother has not been handed down 
to us. After securing the best education af- 
forded in the times in which he lived, he en- 
tered upon the study of medicine and gradu- 
ated fr(jm tlie medical department of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, ^L V>., in 1708, and 
]\1. D., in 1771. lie early took sides with 
the jmtriots who were preparing to throw oil 
the ISritish yoke, and when Colonel Haslet's 
regiment of Delaware state troops was organ- 
ized, young Dr. Tilton was commissioned sur- 
geon; he served with the regiment from 
January 10, 1770, to December of the same 
year, lie was appointed hospital jihysician 
and surgeon, Octolier 0, 1780, and served 
with the army to the close of the war. On 
June 11, 1813, Dr. Tilton was ajipointed 
Surgeon General, Dnited States Army, and 
honorably discharged June 15, 1.^15, after 
the terniinatiou of the second war with Great 
liritain. Dr. Tilton was skilled and himorcd 
as a surgeon, had the c-outidence of the jieople 
and was regarded as (uie of the leailing and. 
re])resentative citizens. IFc' |)osscss(>(l a high 
order of ability and was tlie author of several 
treatises on medical, sanitary, and other sul>- 
jects. Although a studious man, he loved 
society, and drew around him the refined and 
cultivated; he was noted for his hospitality 
and good clic(>r, and his friends were always 
delighted when in his presence. Dr. Tilton 
resided on his estate near Wilmington, and 

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died tliere -May 14, 1S22, in tlie seveiity- 
seventli year of his age. lie was presiilcut of 
tlie Delaware State Society of the t'iiiciiiiiati 
from its orgauization to 17S)."), aiul ilelcgatu 
to the geiK'ral meetings of the Society of tiie 
Ciiiciiiiiati from 1784 to 17'J3, when the State 
Society ceased to be represented. His in- 
signia, presented by General J.afayette, are 
now tite ]iroperty of his graiidnciiiiew. Col. 
!McLane 'I'iltoii, United States .ATarine Corps. 

'J'liE Anderson Family. 

Joseph Anderson was born near Philadel- 
jihia, Xovember 5, 1757, but nothing is 
known of his parentage and ancestry, lie 
studied law and was just beginning to prac- 
tice when the lievolutionary war brdke out. 
He was commissioned an ensign in the Third 
iSew Jersey regiment. Continental Estab- 
lishment, -May, 177G; second lieutenant, 
July 111, 1770; hrst lieutenant, November 
21i, 17711; captain, October 20, 1777; trans- 
ferred to First Xew Jersey regiment, Conti- 
nental J-lstablishment, January 1, 17S1. 
Captain -Vnderson was retained in the Xew 
Jersey battalion until April, 17S:j. He also 
served a> ri'giuiental paymaster from October 
i'li, 1777, to the close of the war, and w:is 
brevetted major September 30, 178,'). ^lajor 
Anderson was a brave and gallant officer and 
saw mucli Intrd service. He was with General 
Sullivan in his famous exjiedition up the 
Xorth lirancli of the Susquehanna against the 
Iroijiioi-; Indians and participated in the bat- 
tle i>{ "Ibirse Heads," near the present city of 
Flmii'a, where tlie Indians were defeated and 
their c<infederacy lu'oken. lie was present 
at the siege of Yorktown, and witnessed the 
surri'nder of Cornwallis. After the war li^ 
beg;ui the ]iraetiee of law in Delaware; in 
17;M was a]ipointcd by President Washington 
tei'i'itorial judge of the region south of the 
Ohio TJiver, and took part as delegate from 
Jefferson county in framing the constitution 
fif Tennessee. He was United States Senator 
from that State from 1707 to 1815, and acted 
as president pro tempore. lie was a]ipointed 
the first comptroller of the United States 
Treasury in 1815, and served until his death, 
in Washington, April 17, 1837. 

Fnocli Anderson was born at Xew Castle, 
Delaware, Imt the date lias not been preser\ id. 

He was commissioned second lieutenant, Cap- 
tain Stidham's company, Colonel Haslet's 
regiment of Delaware state troops, January 
13, 1770. At the battle of Fong Island he 
was Wounded. On December 3, 1770, he was 
appointed captain; transferred to Colonel 
JIall's Delaware regiment, April 3, 1777, and 
retired from service in Septendier, 1778. He 
died -March 4, 1S2U. 

Thomas Anderson was born in Xew Castle 
county, but the date is unknown. He was 
comnussioned second lieutenant in Captain 
Learmonth's company. Colonel Hall's Dela- 
ware regiment, September lU, 1778, and con- 
tinued to the close of the war. He also served 
as quartermaster of the regiment in 1778- 
1780. Time and jdace of his death unkninvn. 

It is not known whether these officers Ijear- 
ing the surname of Anderson were related, 
but it is inferred that they were, because of 
their liecoming residents of X^'ew Castle coun- 
ty, but in what degree it is hard to determine. 
They were j)robalily brothers. 

The Crow Family. 

George and Thomas Crow. In his inter- 
esting monograph on the Old Delaware Cluck 
Mal-ers, Henry C. Conrad, Esq., informs us 
that among the earliest (dock makers in Wil- 
mington was George Crow. The first men- 
tion of him is in 174C, when he was elected 
high constalde of the borough of Wilmington. 
He served one year. In 17."),"^ he was elected 
one of the burgesses of ^Vilmington, and re- 
elected in 1750 and in 1758. AVhere lie was 
born and when he settled here' are unknown. 
Accoriling to the records of '"Old Swedes' " he 
married -Mary Laudonet, in .\ugust, 1740. 
-Mr. Conrad is satisfied that he was in the 
watch and (dock business ]irior to 1754, and 
continneil in Imsiness until his death, whi(di 
occurred in 1771 or 1772. He has seen sev- 
eral high clocks bearing his name, but none 
of them were marked with any date. There 
is a deed of record from Gabriel Springer, one 
111 the earliest hatters in Wilmington, to 
(Jeorge Crow, dated ^March 2ii, 1701, for a 
Ikuisc and lot on the west side of Walnut 
street just above Spring alley. It is reason- 
able to believe that Crow lived in tliis house 
and carried (ui his Imsiness there. He o\\nied 
also at the time of his death a jn-operty at 
1 bird and King streets, and a hirge lot at the 

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UIOdh'AI'JJICAL EX('y('/j)I>/<Jl)[.[ 

nurtliwest corner of Tenth and Market streets. 
All of las property, after his death, was di- 
vided among his widow and fuur children, 
who survived him, by a deed of partition, 
dated March 22, 1773, made by Dr. Juhn 
McKinly, William I'ooh- and IJanerofc 
"Woodcock, all of wJiom were leading and in- 
Ihiential citizens of Wilmington ai that time. 
_ iJr. .McKinly was the first president (gov- 
ernor) of Delaware after the Deidaratioii uf 
Indejiendeuce^, was captured by the Jiritish 
after the battle of Erandywine, antl lield as a 
pi-isoner of state for about one year. William 
Poole was one of the early and successful 
millers on the Brandywine, and tlie father of 
a numerous family, of \v\ioin J. Mortem 
Poole was one. Uancroft AVoodccx'k was a 
noted silvci-smith in AVilmiugton more than 
a century ago, and owned the old house on 
Eroome street, which for the past forty \ears 
has been the Kowland homestead. 

Geoi-ge Crow left two sons, Thomas and 
George, and two daughters, Sarali (Mrs. 
William Xash), and ifary (Mrs. Samuel 
Goodman). George Crow, Jr., died prior to 
1802. It is not known whether lie left any 
descendants. The ])resumption is that he was 
buried in the "Old Swedes' " graveyard. 

Thomas Crow, who seems to have been the 
eldest son of George Crow, 1, succeeded his 
father in the clock and watch business, and 
very likely learned the trade with his father. 
Like him, he seemed to have been in favor 
}^"itl^the public, for he was elected town clerk 
in 1771,oneof the assistant burgesses in 1778, 
1779 and 1780, ami borough assessor in 1784 
and 1785. Notwithstanding his willingness 
to serve the public in these various modest ca- 
pacities, he was a most industrious clock 
maker, as is evidenced by the manv clocks 
which bear his name. The number of his 
clocks now in existence indicates that he car- 
i-ied on a large business. 

Thomas Crow owned, in 1814, a property 
on the south side of Second street, just east of 
]\rarket. At the time of his death he owned 
a small piece on the Philadelphia turnpike in 
Prandywine hundred, near tlie present resi- 
dence of William C. Lodge, and this was sold 
after his death to i)ay his debts, which seem 
to have lieen largely in excess of his assets, the 
records showing that while he had no personal 
estate, he owed the Bank of Delaware about 
seven thousand three hundred dollars- an,l 

this snuill farm, which brought only eight 
hundred dollars when sold by his adiuiuislra- 
tor, seems to have been all the estate which lie 

Thomas (h'ow had a wife whose Christian 
name was Isabella, but who she was and when 
he married her, are unknown. 'J'hey had two 
daughters, Elizabeth Ogden, and Ann, wife 
of William Haslet, 'j'liomas Crow died about 
1824, having survived bis wife. He seems to 
have been a member of the Presl)yterian 
Church; and it is probable that the ashes jf 
the old clockmaker repose in the graveyard of 
that church on the corner of Tenth and ^^ar- 
ket streets, Wilmington. 

The Dui-f Family. 
Thomas Dutl', says Captain Hellas, the 
genealogist, was a large landed proprietor and 
a prominent man in public itrt'airs in Chri.-,tianu 
hundred, .\ew Castle county, Delaware. The 
tiuie and i)lace of his birth are unknown. In 
Uoli he was ensign in the Upper regiment 
of Xew Castle county militia, lie was slieritf 
of the same county in 1703, 171!."'), 17lJ'J and 
1770, the terms being for one year each. 

In the early part of the Pevolution he was 
a major in the Is'^ew Castle county militia and 
before the (dose of the war he held the rank 
of colonel. The three companies of militia 
left AVilmiugton on Decendjcr IG, 177(J, un- 
der his comnuind for Xew Jersey, through a 
mistake of orders, :^rajor Duti''s battalion did 
not participate in the battles at Trenton and 
Princeton. An account of a skirmish after- 
ward, near Christiana, in Delaware, reported 
'ij_l_hp I'ennsylvania (Jazette of September 10, 
1777, reports Coloiud Duft' as being wounded 
in that engagement. 

He was api)ointed justice of the ])eaee for 
Xew Castle county after the Pevolution; his 
commissions being dated June 30, 17s:i, and 
Xovemlier 0, 17!)0. His was a large 
bi-ick mansion on the outskirts of the village 
of Xewport, and on the bank of Christiana 
creek. It is still standing, but much degen- 
erated, having been converted into two cheap 
dwellings. He lived there in good style, is 
always spoken of as "Esquire," which" title, 
in colonial days, was assumed only by |ier.>on~ 
of distinction. A great deal of land belonged 
to him and there is a nundier of deeds reconleil 
in A\'ilmini:tou in the uaine nf "Tliomas Duff. 

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Esq., of Xewport, iu Cliribtiana lluudred, ami 
County of XfW Castle, and Jane, his wife," 

Colonel Duff was a member of the vestry of 
St. James" ehureli, near ISlanton, as well as in 
the ehapel of the same name near IS'ewport, 
the uiiieers of both having until reeently been 
the same. It is supposed tiiat Colonel Dutf 
and his -wife are buried in the ehurehyard at 
Stanton, though their graves, like nuiny 
others, eannot now be identitied. Jle proba- 
bly died shortly after 1S08, as his name 
eeases to appear in the records as chairmaii 
of tin- vestry, as it had done tip to tliat time. 
They had issue, (surname Dull): 

L Ann, born _May 24, ITol'; died ,Mareh 
10, ITM-'; unmarried. 

11. Julward, born ilareh 17, 17^5; died 
April 2, 17sij; was surgeon's mate in Colonel 
Samuel i'atterson's ISattalion of Delaware 
State troops of the "Flying Camp" in 177t>. 
lie is also stated to have been surgeon's mate 
ill the navy in the following year. By his will, 
in 17!5."), he is deseribed as of Northampton 
county, Va., where he died. 

IIL John, boru 1757; died 1759. 

IV. Henry, born June 15, 1750; died 
February S, 1785, or 1781) ; was commissioned 
ensign in Colonel Kail's Delaware regiment, 
Xovember 20, 1776; second lieutenant, Ajiril 
5, 1777; tirst lieutenant, jVugust 10, 177S, 
and served to the close of the war, when he 
ajjpcars to have had the rank of captain, ili; 
was one of the original members of the Dela- 
ware Cincinnati Society. 

V. Jane, born April 15, 17G3; died JMarch 
1, 17S.'S; unmarried. 

\\. Thomas, Jr., born Septeudier 27, 
170i); died 1830; was admitted to the New 
Castle county (Delaware) bar as an attorney- 
at-law in 1701, and to the Lancaster county 
(Pennsylvania) bar in the same year. lie was 
clerk of the United States District Court of 
Delaware from 1704 to 170C. lie died jirior 
to :March 20, 1830, when letters of adminis- 
tnitidu wore granted on his estate to Allan 

Henry Dull died September 14, 17tJ2. liy 
his marriage he left issue, one son and one 

i. Kichard, born July 10, 1757. lie was 
commissioned second lieutenant of tiie Tenth 
liegiment of the I'cnnsyhania i.ine, Decem- 
ber 4, 1770; ]ironioted to tirst lieutenant iu 
Colonel Patton's Additional Continental lieg- 
iment, April 18, 1777. He was reported as a 
])risoner of war and m-vcr rejoined, dying at 
Jioston, ^Ma^s., pnibably while a prisi^ner. 
licference U> him may be found in Pcnusyha- 
nia Archives, Second Scries, Vol. X. • 

11. Ann Duff, born Xovember 5, 175,s; 
died June 29, 1785. She married Captain 
William liobcson, of the Delaware militia, 
June 10, 17.^4. He died April 2:!, IM.'i. 
Tiiey left OHO daughter, .lane, born .May 2S, 
1785, who married Allan Thom])son, June 
27, 1810, and died February 0, 1^24. Allan 
and Janr (Duff) Thomson ha<l i--ue: i. 
^Villiam, died unmarried, ii. Ann, married 
Villiam Hemphill Jones, and had a son and 
a daughter, neither of whom left descendants. 
iii. Jane, married AVilliam II. Sangston, ami 
had two sons and two daughters, iv. and v. 
Henry and ^laria, both of wliom died unmar- 

Colonel Henry Duff was a brother of Col. 
Thomas Duff, and married Ann, daugh- 
ter of John and Ann Williams, of Pliiladel- 
phia, both of whom died in 1747. Col. 

IvEV. Joseph Earh. 

llev. Joseph P>arr, one of the old time 
Prcr^byteilan ministers, was born near Xew 
Castle, Delaware, December 4, 1791. He 
came of Scotch-Irish ancestry. Ilis father, 
Samuel Barr, died at his liome near Xew 
Ca.^lh', Deccndier 27, 1820, in the nine- 
ty-second year of his age. lie had been .i 
menJjcr of the Presbyterian Church for more 
than sixty years, and an elder tor over forty 
years. His posterity was numerous. He left 
children, grand, and great-grandchildren, to 
the number of eighty at the time of his death. 

Josc])h Barr, after receiving a jirejiaratory 
education, entered the University of Pennsyl- 
vania and graduated therefrom iu 1811. Ho 
studied theology with the Bevs. John F. 
Latta and Janu's P. Wilson, D. D., and was 
licensed to ])reacli liy llie Presbytery of Xew 
Ca=tle in October, lsl2. He itinerated for 
six months on the Delaware ))cninsula. In 
the fall of 1813 he wa-; ordained and iii-talled 
as [lastor of the Xorriton, fuow Xorri-town), 

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aiiJ Providence chiirfhcs, iu M(jiitgouiery 
cMunty, Pa. In October, Iblj, lie married 
Sarah, youngest daughter of Dr. Alcxaiuler 
Porrcster, of Wilmington, J)eh 

^Mr. liaiT was an active, jtrogressive young 
minister. lie was full of zeal and thoroughly 
in earnest in the furtherance of the great 
work in which he was engagetl. Through his 
energy he organized the church in Xorris- 
town and secured the building of a fine brick 
church there in ISIO. In 1S17, in addition 
to the church, he took charge of the Academy 
«t XinTistown and devoted much time to the 
educational part of the work. Although of 
vigorous constitution at iirst, the work was 
too heavy for him, and very soon began to 
impair his health. This necessitated a halt 
in his labors. 

Accordingly, in the si.ring of 1S23, he re- 
moved to Lancastei- county, Pa., and became 
pastor of the Leacock and iliddle Oetoraro 
churches. These were early and important 
church organizations and involved much hard 
work on the jxirt of the i)astor. Ilowcx'cr, 
he labored faithfully and with iintlaggiug 
zeal until 1844, a period of twenty-one years, 
giving a portion of his time to each congre- 
gation, until, iu 1845, he relin(piished the 
charge of ^liddle Oetoraro, and devoted his 
time exclusively to Leaco<:k. Put tlie ardu- 
ous labors of his jiast life had seriously im- 
])aired his rugged constitution and he was 
forced to seek a still less arduous tield of labor. 
In lb40 he accepted a call to White Clay 
Creek and Christiana, Del., but a few miles 
from the place of his birth, and was installed 
pastor of the former church June 2, ]84(), 
and of the latter :^[ay 8, 1848. Put bis health 
now gave sigiis of breaking, and at his own re- 
quest his relations Avith the ( 'hiistiana church 
were dissolved October 2, 1849; and on the 
23d of October, 1853. his relations \vith the 
AVhite C^lay Creek church also were dissolved, 
where he preached his farewell sermon the 
same day. This was his last sermon, and 
he was never able to attend pid)lic worship 
again. He died in Wilnnngton, ilay 24, 
1854, in the sixty-third year of his age, and 
a stone in front of the White Clay Creek 
oluirch marks the place of his interment. lie 
was ])lain, earnest, active, but unostentatious, 
and during his life was noted for his piety aud 
zeal in the cause of the ^faster. 

TuE AntlCHS Paxiily. 

Henry C. Conrad, Esq., in his brochure en- 
titled Cld Dchucare Clock Mulicrs, tells us 
that the .Vlrichs fandly is one of the oldest 
in New (^'astle county, Del. The original 
settler was i'cter Alrichs, to wliom land iu 
this county (Xew Castle) was patented as 
early as l(i(JS. The name indicates Dutch 
origin. Peter had four sons, the elde:it being 
Peter Sigfridus, who married Susanna Siid- 
liam, and had twelve children, among whom 
was Jonas Alrichs, who was born ^larch 22, 
175'J. Jonas learned the clock making busi- 
ness with Thomas Crow, and was the tirst of 
the name of .Vlrichs to furnish time keepers 
for the people of Wilmington. He succeeded 
his instructor in the business in the old Second 
street store, and carried it on successfully un- 
til April, 17'JT, nhen he retired. Jonas Al- 
richs died in 1S02, leaving five children, one 
of whom, Thomas C. Alrichs, was for many 
}cars a useful and influential citizen of Wil- 

Jacob Alri(dis, a neiJiew of Jonas, was the 
son of Sigfridus Alrichs and Pachel Coles- 
berry. He was born Scjitember 8, 1775, and, 
Hgnratively sjJeaking, was rocked in the cradle 
of the Pevolntion. His birthplace was the in- 
fant borough of AVilmington, and he was 
reared on the banks of the Christiana. When 
quite a young man he learned the trade of 
clock and watch making with his untdc, 
Jonas, with whom for a short time he was 
associated in business under the firm name 
of Jonas and Jacob Alrichs. When the for- 
mer retired iu 17!l7 his successor annouuci'd 
by advertisement that iu addition to stock on 
hand, he had reeeiveil "eight day clocks of 
the first quality; silver watches from London, 
Liver])ool and Dublin, such as could be war- 
ranted," together with ''watch main springs, 
glasses, dials, gilt and steel chains, keys, seals, 

It is probable that he continued the business 
at the old stand for many years, although he 
did not devote his entire time to it, for, in 
1810, in company with Samuel ^IcClary, he 
started the first machine shop in Delaware, at 
the northwest corner of Seventh and Shipley 
streets, Wihuington. Tiii'y evidi'Utlv beuan 
business in a humble way, for tradition says 
that an old horse served to furnish the ])ower 
to drive the i>rimiti\'e machinerv. I'rom 

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this small begiimiiig liave growu the vast 
uiaiiutactunig- and iiicciuuii<-al industries of 
the city uf Wilmington. 

'J'liu bu^incss of Alriehs \^ McClary seems 
to have been a siiceoss from the beginning, 
as Jaeob Alrielis bought the property oeeupie>l 
by the little maehine shop three }'eai-s later 
from Job IL'irvey, and eontinned to own it 
until Ib'M, when it was sold to The Delaware 
Academy of -Xatural Sciences, an institution 
that has long since ceased to exist. 

Alriehs afterwards had a machine shop on 
the site of the present pumping station on the 
Jjrandywine near the head of French street, 
and in testimony of his etiicaey as a skilful 
mechauir, it is only necessary to add that 
J'lijah Ilullingswortli learned his trade with 
.Vlrichs, and afterwards, as those of the pres- 
ent generation know, became a leading and in- 
riuential member of tlie great tirm of Harlan 
t^' IloUingsworth, and by applying the me- 
chanical ideas imparted by the humble watch- 
maker, Ja<'ob Alriehs, in his primitive shuji, 
fi.iunded and successfully conducted the large 
and important industry of AVilmington, wIkjsc 
fame has long since been established through- 
out the civilized world. 

AVhile Alriehs was laying the foundation 
for great meclianical industries in wood and 
ir<in, he did not lose sight of his clock and 
watchmaking business, for in course of time 
the sho]* was removed to ^farket street, be- 
tween Third and Fourth, and thence to Arcade 
liow <m the cast side of ilarket street behjw 
I'jghth. Tins row was erected on what was 
known as ''Wilson's sand-hole." Several 
changes in location were afterwards made as 
the town grew, and otlier branches of Inisiness 

Jacob Alriehs was evidently a man of 
strength of character, and of superior intelli- 
gence and capacity — in fact one of the most 
representative men of his time. He was iin- 
usimlly successful in the two lines of business 
wliicli he conducted, and accumiUated consid- 
erable real estate. lie also took an interest in 
pidJic affairs and was willing to jierform his 
part in jiromoting the advancement of borougli 
interests. As early as 1805, when only thirty- 
tive years of age, he was elected an assistant 
burgess of the borough of ^Vilmington, and in 
ISIO was elected a member of the fii'st City 
Council, and so well were the ]i(uplc 
jilcased with him as a publii,: officer that tlu-y 

re-elected him year after year until lb:i;J. His 
ser\ice, thei-efore, as one of the local law-mak- 
ers for thirteen years consecutively, attests his 
value as a citizen. T.ut the appreciation of 
his work did not sto]) here, for, in iSLtO, he was 
elected a member of the State Situate from 
Wilmington, and served his term in that body 
with credit to himself and his constituents. 

Among the valuable collections of the His- 
torical Society in Wihnington, of which 
ilenry C. Conrad, K^cp, is the etKcient and in- 
telligent librarian, is a very exact an.l care- 
fully prepared survey and level made in 180-t 
by Jacob Alriehs and Edward Koche, of a 
route from the spring of Caesar A. lu.dney, 
Esq., to the center stone at the corner of ( 'liest- 
nut (now Tenth) and .Market street.-, f<.r the 
use of the Wihnington Spring Water Com- 
liauy. Evidently, at that early date, it had 
occurred to Jacob Alriehs that the citizens of 
Wilmington might be supplied with water 
from "Cool Spring," an itlea that nearly sev- 
enty years afterwards dcvelopeil into a reality 
by the construction of the Cool Spring reser- 
voir, now so important a factor in the tine 
water suj)ply of Wilmington. 

Politically, Jacob Alriehs was prominent as 
a member of the Whig jiarty, and was a warm 
admirer and close friend of John M. Clayton, 
the Whig leader. Under the adnunistration 
of President Harrison ]\Ir. Alriehs was ap- 
]>ointed postnuister of Wilmington, and kept 
the postoffice in a small store room on Third 
street between .Market and Shipley streets. It 
was a small affair then, compared with the 
present nnignilicent Federal building, and the 
postal business is more than a thousand fold 
greater to-day than it was then. 

About 1813, Jacob Alriehs built the house- 
at No. 1017 .Market street, reganled at that 
time as a large and imi)osing edifice. In it h& 
lived during the remainder of his life. He 
died October 29, 1857, in his eighty-second 
year, and was buried in the Friends" burying 
ground at Fourth ami West streets. He left 
four children, two .-ons and tw<j daughters. 
One of his sons, Henry S. Alriehs, continued 
the watch and clock-making business after his 
father's death; the oidy surviving branch of 
the family is descended from this son. One of 
these descendants is AVilliam J. Alriehs, who, 
true to the fanuly calling for four geiun-ations, 
is a .^U(Tes.-,ful jeweler and watch-maker at 
at Elkton, :Md. 

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Ca I'TA 1 .\ Lka I! MCINTII. 

AlexaiiJer J.eaiiiionth was a yeotchmaii by 
birth, his parents being residents of lialeuniee, 
I'ifeshiri.'. When he came to this eoiuiti'y 
is unknown, but it must lia\e been long be- 
fore the IJevoliition. Jle settled in Sussex 
eountj, Delaware, and was living there wiieu 
tile Kevolution began. iXothing is knowa 
of his family further than that he had one sou 
named John. At the opening of the war for 
independence, he at once identitied himself 
with the patriots, and was commissioned sec- 
ond lieutenant in Capt. l)a\id Hall's company 
of Colonel Haslet's regiment of State troops, 
in Continental service, January Ki, 1770, and 
first lieutenant T^ovember litS of the same 
year. On April 5, 1777, he was advanced to 
the rank of captain in the same regiment, and 
served to the close of the war. 

Captain Learmouth resided at Lewes or 
Georgetown, after the war. There, it appears 
by the records of the Presbyterian churcli, he 
married Hannah Turner, .March I'J, 17'J2. 
As he had served through the llevolutionary 
war, he must have been past middle life at the 
date of his marriage, and this supposition is 
corroborated by the fact that he died about 
August 12, 1802. His will was probated in 
September of that year. He left issue, luit 
nothing is known of their descendants at this 
day. Cajjtain Bellas, the genealogist, is of the 
cipinion, however, that John Lcaruionth How- 
ard, a relative of Hichnrd Howard, of Sussex 
county, is a descendant of tlu' veteran captain 
of the Revolution. 

There is evidence to show that Captain John 
Learmonth was a warm friend of Colonel 
Hall's, and was interested with him in certain 
lands ])urchascd by them in "Wood count}', 
Virginia. The latter speaks of tliis investinent 
in a letter dated November 28, 1804. Caj)- 
tain Learmonth also owned property in Dela- 
ware, which he left to his children in his will; 
this shows that he was a nuui of some means. 
Dr. Johii "White, of Sussex, appears to have 
attended the cnjitaiu in his last illness; and he 
also administered, jirofessionally, to the wants 
of the captain's old ncgTo servant, Jacob; tra- 
■dition asserts that this servant was a celebrated 
fiddler, and that his services were in great 
demand at entertainments. 

!^^any interesting and curious anecdotes of 
Captain Learmonth have been preserved. One 
recently printe<l in the Dclnirare Pilot states 

that the cajjtain wiio conuuanded the Lewes 
company in Colonel Hall's regiment resided 
there as late as 17l)5, and was distiuguislied 
as the olHccr of the 1 )elaware Line, who, after 
one of the regiment's severe battles in the 
Carolinas, cut ojien a dead horse on the tield 
of battle, and concealed himself from the 
lli-itish soldiers, until he coukl escape. 

Another and more amusing story is related 
of this doughty hero by a local historian. An 
old man, evidently of unsound mind, was ac- 
customed to come into the town occasioiuilly 
and juarch around tiie walls of the churchyard, 
threatening, like the Levites of iJiblicai his- 
tory, to blow over the walls with a blast of the 
o.\-horn he carried with him. One day he also 
requested that some one shoidd shoot him; 
The captain told him that he would grant his 
request with i)lcasure, as he considered him a 
nuisance, and went for his gun. The old fel- 
low took the matter more seriously on second 
thought, and started for his home. On seeing 
(,'a])tain Learmonth ajjproaching with his gun, 
he broke into a run, and, as he junq)ed a fence, 
in endeavoring to escape, the captain tired at 
him, i)robably with the object of only fright- 
ening him. This ended the pranks of the "ox- 
liorn man," and the walls of the Lewes church 
Were never blown down by his blasts. Strange 
as it may seem, no stone marks the grave of 
Cai)tain Learmonth (sometimes erroneously 
spelled Learmouth) and no man knows where 
he was buried. 

Desckxdants of Dr. E. A. Smitu. 
Dr. Ebenezer Augustus Smith, of "Wilming- 
ton, Del., Avas a son of Rev. Robert Smith 
(1723-1793), but the date of his birth has not 
been ascertained. He studied medicine and be- 
came an army surgeon during the Revolution- 
ary war. When peace was restored he set- 
tled in "Wilmington, the place of his birth, 
where he was prominent in his profession. 
Dr. Smith married Elizal)Cth Blair, and they 
had issue: 

I. Rev. Samuel Staidiope Smith, D. D., 
born 17r)0, died 1819, married Anna, daugh- 
ter of Rev. John AVithersjioon, of Princeton, 
N". J., by whom he had with other issue, Judge 
John AVitherspoon Smith, of the United 
States court, New Orlean.s, La., who left num- 
erous descendants by his wife, Sarah Livings- 
ton Duor. His wife died in Xcw Orleans 
July 21, 1890, at the remarkable age of one 

I .1.1 ' «.r a', ' 


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liiiiuliLil yeai-s, eight months and twenty days; 
11. William, born about llo'I; became a min- 
ister; 111. Jiev. John lilair 8mitii, i). U., born 
July 1-, ITjG. lie l)eeame president of tlu^ 
Jiaminlcn and Sydney College, Virginia, and 
at'terwarils ni' Union College, Seheueetady, 
>.'. \., and died in Phihuielphia August 2:i, 
ITlKt. - lli> wife was twin sister to the wife 
of (iovcrniir Chiiborne, of Lcniisiana, and 
buth were tlaughters of a -Mrs. Fisher, of Vir- 
ginia, who after being a widow married Ad- 
miral \'ernon of the Jvoyal navy. 

'J'he liev. Dr. ,Iohu IJlair Smith married 
Elizabeth l'"i?lier Nash, of Templeton, ^^l , 
and had issue: i. liev. John Bhur; ii. Dr. Sam- 
uel J51air, U. S. Army; iii. Kev. Jiobert, i\'. 
])r. Isaae; v. ^larv Fisher; vi. Flizal)eth 

Of the above issue of Rev. John Blair and 
Elizabeth Fisher (Xash) Smith, Dr. Samuel 
]5iair was a surgeon in the IT. S^ Army, as al- 
ready stated, and married Alargaret Ferguson, 
daughter of Col. Ebenezer Ferguson, of the 
Jievolutionary army. The mother of Colonel 
Fei'guson, who nnirried .Margaret George, was 
Margaret ,MeEane, sister of Colonel Allan 
.M<'Lane, of \Vilmiugton, Del. 

Dr. Samuel Blair Smith was born July 10, 
17S4, married ^lay 22, ISOG, and died Xo- 
vember 2s, 18;54. Ilis wife was boin Sep- 
teud)er 111, 1787, and died ISdl. 'Iluy had 
issue as follows: 

I. Cieneral Charles, U. S. A., born April 24, 
1807, died April 25, 18G2; IT. Francis Xash 
Sharpe, born May 26, 1809, died April 27, 

IMO; TIT. Elizabeth Ferguson, born , 

married Capt. Henry Stanton ]5iu'tou, U. S. 
A., December 5, 1840, and had issue an only 
ilaughter, Elizabeth Ferguson, who married 
Capt. Henry Clay Cochran, U. S. M. C; TV. 
Ann Hill, born July 5, 181(5, died February 
17, 18112, married Richard Swann, of Alexan- 
<lria, Xa., October 7, 1834, and had two sons 
and two datightei-s; V. Francis Clarion, born 
May 7, 1818, and died unmarried; VL Henry 
!•'.,' born ;May 1, 1820; died Septend)er 2(i, 
ls2<); Vir. Caroline Laurens, born September 
i:i, 1821, and died unmarried; Vllf. Lucy 
l.e Cirand, born Ajiril 20, 1828; married Com- 
iriodore William Xicliolson JefFers, U. S. 
X'avy, and had children: i. vVnn Biu'ton; ii. 
A\'illiam Xi(d)olson Jeffers. 

()f the aliove nauu'd, Gen. C'harlcs Fergu- 
■son Snuth, eldest son of Dr. Samuel Flair 

Smith, married Fanny Mactier, of Baltimore, 
and luvj three sons and two daughters. 

Of his two sisters, -Mary Fisher Blair Smith 
died unnuu-riid, and J'dizabelh l''isher Jjlair 
Sunth married Dr. 'I'odd, of lllinuis, and be- 
came the aunt of .Mrs. Abraluim Lincoln, wife 
of the i'resident of the Liuteil Slates. 

S.\Mi!Ki. .McClauy. 

Samuel .MeClary has been mentioned as the 
l)artner' of Jacob Alrichs in establishing the 
lirst machine shop in Wilmington. .Vceord- 
ing to the researches of Henry C. Conrad, 
EmP, librarian of the Historical Society, he 
was a native of Wilmington, being tlie child 
of John and -Mary (Wallace) -McClary, and 
was born June I'J, 1788. He learned the 
watch and clock-making business with Thomas 
C'row at the'shop of the latter on Second street. 
When twenty-two years of age lie formed a 
co-partnersliii) with Jacob -Mrichs, and they 
established the first machine shop in Delaware, 
using the tirm name of Alrichs A: ]\Ic('lary. 
After a t<.'W years the connect ion was ilissolved, 
as ilr. !^^cClary's name appears in the di- 
rectory of 1814 as being alone in that business 
at the corner of Eighth and Orange streets. 
In 1827 he and Charles Bush went into busi- 
ness together, and it is said that the stearn 
engine btiilt in D(daware came from their shop 
at the corner of Eightli and Orange streets in 

Samuel !McClarv evidently })osscssed me- 
chanical ingenuity, and was industrious and 
enterprising. .Most of the clocks made by 
him were made between 180.'! and 181G, as 
after the latter year his time seems to have 
been fully occnjued in the machine business. 
^Ir. Conrad says that a large mantel clock 
bearing his name is still in the j^ossession of 
the descendants of his son, Samuel ilcClary, 
Jr., at the residence of the latter on 'West 
street, AVilmington. A high clock of his man- 
ufacture has for years been in the possession 
of the "McCuHough family, of Northeast. 

SauHud ;M<-Clary died August 24, 1859, and 
is bin-ied in the "Wilmington and Brandywine 
Cemetery. He was a good citizen, a useful and 
sticce.ssful man, and a pioneer among the men 
whose originality and mechanical ability tend- 
ed to make "Wilmington tlio active and import- 
ant industrial center it is to day. Great de- 
vt'lopments, es])ecially in the manufacturing 

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line, are generally the product of tiiu geiiiui 
of men in lunnble eircunistances and compara- 
tively unknown. In these plain, unassuming 
clo<'k-makcrs, .MeC'iary iV Ah-ii-hs, we find 
that genius which hrought alioul a degree of 
inelustrial activity wliicii we now see in tiie 
great iron and wood working estaiijisiunenls 
' of Wilmington. 

That Samuel McCIary was recognized as a 
business man of high standing, is evidenced 
liy the fact that for many years he was a di- 
rector in the bank of 'Wilmington and llrandy- 
wine. His two sons, Samuel, Jr., and Thomas, 
followed in his fo(jtstcps, and achieved un- 
usual success in the lines of trade and business 
which they adopted, 'i'hey were active and 
influential business men; both died within re- 
cent years, and their fair fame in business cir- 
cles is now upheld by a son of Samuel ilc- 
Clary, Jr., and grandson of Samuel ^IcClary, 
the clock-maker and iron founder; we refer to 
"William J. ]\rcClary, the prijprietor of one of 
the largest and most prosperous morocco plants 
in Wilmington. And the name of Sanuu'l 
!McC'lary is perpetuated by Samuel .McClary, 
3, the only son of "William J. MeClary, 
who has just attained his majority. 

Duncan Eeakd. 

Duncan Beard, who is described as a ''clock- 
maker"in the early records, purchased in 17(i7 
one acre of laud in Appoquinimink hundred 
from William Hanson, Jr. 'J'he land lay in 
New Castle county, and the price he paid for 
it was eighty pounds in English money. The 
small price indicates that he purchased only 
the bare ground, without buildings, so that he 
seeiningl}' began his active business life with 
that purchase. Librarian Conrad, of the His- 
torical Society, is of the opinion that on this 
ground he erected a small house and shop in 
which to live and carry on his business. 

The tradition is that ''Duncan Beard, 
Scotchman and skilled worker in metals," 
lived here a hundred yeai-s ago. His "acre" 
was on the King's Highway, between ("ant- 
well's bridge and Blackbird, "at both of 
which places," says Afr. Conrad, "the creaking 
sign of the country tavern sent forth a rather 
melancholy invitati<in to all passers-l>y to come 
within and find refreshment for man an<l 
beast." Here Duncan Beard built and made 
liis home. A little more than a mile south of 

Cantwell's Bridge, just across the marsh that, 
skirts the sluggish Appocjuinimink, and within 
a stone's throw of the colonial home of James 
-\K)ure, of the Delaware Line, who entered 
Col. John Haslet's regiment as a licuienanl 
and came out a major, bearing with him an 
almost mortal woiukI receiveil at (ierniantown. 
Here Duncan Beard toiled, elaborating the 
delicate and complex mechanism which went 
to make up the sturdy and truthful timepieces 
of that day; everything by hand, from the 
tempered steel spring and tlie nicely balanced 
peuchihim to the ponderous, weights. 
'J he records still preserved of I'nion Lodge, 
^o. o, A. 1'. and A. .M., ~lio\v that Duncan • 
Beard became a member June :.M, ITOo, the 
year that it was instituted. This was the tirst 
lodge of Masons instituted in the state of Dela- 
ware, and it met monthly at Cantwell's Bridge, 
]ieard being one of the most regidar attend- 
ants at its meetings for a term of thirty years. 
The minutes show that he was senior warden 
within a year after his initiation, that he served 
as worslii[)ful master from Decendx-r, J7<i7, 
to December 1701), and treasurer for one year, 
l772-'73. 'The last mention of his nana; in 
the minutes is on Xovend)er 27, 171*4:, three 
years before his death, lender date of Sep- 
tember 25, 1777, a minute is made that "The 
lodge did not meet last m<;nth on account of 
the enemy landing at Elk." This recalls the 
stirring events of the Bevolution. The Brit- 
ish landed at the head of the Elk early in Sep- 
tember, and the battle of Brandywine was 
fought on the 11th of the same month. Here 
was a small country village, fifteen miles away, 
so alarmed and excited over the advent of "the 
enemy" that a quorum of the lodge could not 
be brought together. 

It was the custom of the lodge to go once 
a year to Parson Bead's meeting-lmuse to hear 
a sermon from old Dr. Thomas Bead, the pa- 
triotic preacher at old Drawyers, who, during 
"the times that tried men's souls," minislered 
in holy things to the whole<le, and 
was beyond question the leading man of that 
community. Robert Kirkwood, the gallant 
major of the Delaware regiment, joined the 
same lodge in 17S3, after his settlement at 
Cantwell's Bridge, at the close of the war. 
I'nion Bodge, a good many years after its in- 
.stitution, was removed to ]\ridd]etown, wliere 
it is still in successful operation. In the j)re3- 
ent lodge room in ]\fiddlctown is a Duncan 


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Beard clock, presented to the lodge several 
\ciir.s aj^ij by IJichard T. Lockwood; tins cluck 
Lad I cell in il.c possession of the Lockwood 
faii.ily of tit. (ieorge's hundred for several 
generations. It is a plain old timepiece, in 
running order, and apparently Init little thi; 
worse for wear, notwithstanding its hundred 
years and more of life. In addition to the clock 
the lodgi' has a trio of candlesticks (wood gild- 
ed) and a chest, that were made by Duncan 
Jicard for the lodge on its express order. 

In religious belief Duncan Beard was a 
Presbyterian; so it is not strange that when 
Parson Bead succeeded in enlisting his ruem- 
licrship iu the building of a new meeting 
ing-hoUM' to take the place of old Uraw^'ers, 
which, after three-quarters of a century of use, 
■ was falling into decay, that Duncan Beard 
was named as one of the building committee; 
and the substantial, diguitied structure which 
was binlt under his direction, and dedicated 
in lT7-"i, still stands as a memorial to Duncan 
Bcanl, "the skilled worker." 

'J"he will of Duncan Beard was proved be- 
fore the register of wills, New Castle county, 
June l!'J, 17'J7. This will, the original of 
which is still preserved, was written by his own 
hand, and he begins with the words, "I, Dun- 
eau Beard, ( lo(d<-maker of Appo(piinimink 
hundred. Arc." It is neither dated nor signed, 
but the rc(piirement3 of the law regarding two 
witnesses having been complied with, it was 
]irovcd and allowed after his death. Two of 
his neighbors, Christopher A\^eaver and Bieh- 
ardson ArniNtrong, served l>oth as witnesses 
and e.\ecutoi-s. The will mentions his wife, 
liebecca, but no idnldrcn. There is a small 
bc(piest to Duncan Beard, son of John Beard, 
who, i)robably, was a nephew or otlier relative. 
Provision is nuide that aftm- the death of his 
wife, his real estate shall go to ''Drawycrs 
^Meeting House," and the will also contains 
this item : 'T give and bequeath unto the con- 
pregaticin of Drawj'crs ifeeting House my sil- 
ver pint for the use of the .sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper and that forever." But it is 
unkm)wn what became of the "silver ])itit," 
as no trace of it can be found. 

It is a source of much regret that the birth 
and j)areutage of this good old juan are un- 
known. Xciihcr is it known who his wife was, 
or when she died. lie died more than a hun- 
dred years ag<j and his mortal remains were 
laid at rest in the quiet graveyanl be-ide 

Drawers Creek, in the shadow of the church 
he loved so well; but many of the clocks which 
his mind and hand fashioned are still marking 
time with a regularity and fidelity that im- 
presses all who behold them; they stand as 
mute reminders of him who set theii- wheels in 
motion when this now nnghtv republic was in 
its infanc}-. 

Adolpi£ Ulrig Wertmulleu. 

Adol)ih Ulric Wertmuller, the first famous 
j)ortrait painter of Delaware, was born in 
Stockholm, Sweden, February 18, 1751, and 
died on his idantation on Naaman's Creek, iu 
the upjier end of New Castle county, October 
5, ISll. Through the researches uf Librarian 
Conrad, of the Historical Society, we are 
placed in jxissession of some interesting facts 
relating to the lustory of this early and dis- 
tinguished artist. At twenty-one years of age 
he went to Paris and put himself under the 
instruction of his cousin Bosliu, one of the 
chief portrait paintei-s of the French capital, 
and afterwards recei\-ed instruction from S'ien. 
He was aihnitted as a member of the Boyal 
Academy (if Painting and Sculjiture on Jnly 
;iti, 17^1, upon the presentation of two por- 
traits of certain cnnncnt men; in the year be- 
fore he had been breveted "Fii-st Painter of 
the King of Sweden." 

Upon this appointment he jiainted, for (!us- 
tavus 111., "Ariadne," and "Marie Antoinette 
A\'ith H<-r Two Children in the Cardeii of the 
Little 'I'rianon," both now in the National ^lu- 
scuiu at Stockholm. In 17S7 he painted his 
famous ]>ieture of "Danae Beceiving Jupiter 
in a Shower of Cold," which, for both concep- 
tion and purity of execution, entitles him to a 
conimaiuling jdacc among the jiaiuters of his 

,Mr. AVertmnller was tiually (lri\-eu from 
France by the disorders and ]ierils of the 
Irench Revolution, and sought a hume iu 
America. He reached Philadelphia ]\Iay 1.'?, 
1794, where he lived for two yeaiv. On ac- 
count of the death fif his agent he was called 
to Sw(>den, where he remained four years en- 
gaged in the settlement of an estate wliich ho 
iidicritcil. Beturniug in Novendier, 1800, he 
resumed his residence in Philadeliihia, where 
he remaiued until 1803, when he botight a 
plantation containing (nie hundi-ed and forty- 
five acres iu Brand\-\\iiie hundred, near the 

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Penusylvauia line. This plaiitatiou was situ- 
ate at the confluence of Naanian's C'reeli with 
tlie Delaware Ki\er. Here he lived in peace 
and quiet until his death, as stated above, on 
the 5th of October, ISll. 

Adolph Ulrie Wertnuiller, on January S, 
IbOl, married Elizajjeth, granddaughter of 
lion, (jiustavus Ilesselius, one of the early 
iSwedish settlei-s on tlie Delaware. Ilesselius 
was also an artist and is saitl to liave been the 
first organ builder in tlie colonics, lie was a 
brother of .Vndrcw and Samuel Ilesselius, who 
served as pastors of tlie Old Swcdcr^' ( 'luircli 
in "Wilmington at different times. After Wert- 
muller's removal to Delaware he seems to have 
relinquished his brush and dev<)tc(l his time 
largely to farming pursuitb; but his death is 
saitl to have resulted from the noxious effects 
of paint on his system. He was only in his 
sixty-first year when he died. 

A\'hcn actively engaged in his profession he 
had the honor of painting a portrait of ( icneral 
Washington. Three inontlis after his arrival 
in riiiladelphia — in August, 171)4 — he was 
accorded this honor and painted the portrait ■ 
from life. His journal states that Wasliington 
sat for him in the Senate chandicr. I'ndcr 
date of Xovember 8 of the same year he made 
this entry in his journal: "Finished the \n>\-- 
trait of (jencral Washington, first Presiiieiit 
of Congress, a black velvet coat, bust, half 
length canvas. This portrait is for myself." 
His original ])ortrait of Washington, scrupu- 
lou.-ly jircserved, was, after his death, s(dd 
at auction in Philadelphia with his other pic- 
tures for the small sum of fifty dolhirs. It is 
now owned by John AVagner, of Piiiladel- 
jJiia. Among a Hund)er of copies made for 
eminent men of tiiat day was one for Robert 
Morris, the great financier of tlie IJevolutioii. 
The will of -Mr. Wertmuller is dated 1 )ccem- 
ber 25, 1S02, while yet a resident of Phihulcl- 
pliia. lie describes himself as a portrait 
painter. He devised all of his estate to his 
wife Elizabeth, mentioning in jjarticular a 
Bhare to which he was entitled by tlic will of 
one Joachim Wretman, a merdiant of Am- 
i-terdam, he being one of several children to 
whom a legacy of forty thousand florins of 
Holland was bequeathed bv said will. PndT 
date of July ?,, ISll, AVertmullcr made a 
codicil to his will in which he states that since 
the making of his will he had l.cccjme ]i<is- 
sessed of the farm on XaamanV creek. This, 

too, he devised to iiis wife. The will was evi- 
dently proven in Piiiladcl])iiia, and a copy was 
recorded in the office of tiie register of wills 
of .\ew Castle <'ouiity, Delaware. His name 
is signed i<, ilic will ^uqily ns -A. Wcrt- 
muller." He was burit-d in the old graveyard 
of Swedes' Church, Wilmington, among those 
of his countrymen who had gone before. His 
wife survived him only three months, and was 
laid by his side in the sacred ground where tlio 
ashes of so many of the first settlers on the 
Delaware repn^e. So f;ir as known there wei-e 
no children, and the name of Delaware's fii>i 
artist and painter has become extinct. 

^IaJOI: PeTKI! JAC^l'liT. 

.Major Peter Jacpiet, one of the Kevolu-' 
tionary heroes of Delaware, was born on Long 
Hook farm, near Wilmington, Ajiril <>, 17.')1, 
and died September ];i, l,s;i4. His grand- 
father, Jean Paul Ja(piet, was a French Prot- 
estant refugee, but the date and place of his 
birth are unknown. He came to this country 
with his family in 1i1:j4, bearing a letter of in- 
troduction from the directors of the West 
India Company to Governor Stuyvesaut. This 
letter stated that Jatpiet had served the com- 
pany faithfully in Prazil, and as he came to 
this country with the view of becoming a 
planter, and was a worthy man, Ciovernor 
Stuyvesaut was requested to interest himself 
in his behalf. 

With this strong endorsement daquet was 
not ])erniittcd to remain long in idleness. It 
becoming evident that better governmen* 
was necessary in the lower settlements, Stuy- 
vesant appointed Ja(|uet vice-governor Jn 
"South liivor," as the Delaware was then 
called, and gave him a commission dated Xo- 
vember L'!i, 1 (;:,.■). Ho was directed to make 
arrangements for trade and keep order among 
the people. He fixed his ofiicial place of resi- 
dence at Fort Cassimer, and there he laid out 
the town of Xew Castle in December, 1(;.55, 
and organized a govermncnt for the settle-' 

Covernor Jaquet procieded vigorouslv to 
^vork. On the 2()th of I'ebruary, lii.")(>, it was 
resolved in Coum-il ''that all the inhabitants 
should enclose their farms and lots by the 
middle of March, under a penalty of six guild- 
ers; that all who had goats should keep Jierds- 
men, or be answerable for damapes; that no 

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one slioulJ come into the fort cither by laixl Ifook, aiiJ lierc lie lived during the remainder 

or water witliout tir-t annunncing himself; that uf hi.- life, 'i'he date of his deatii i.s iinknowo. 

ny [daces for luiildiiig should be granted be- Little or ncthing is known of the cdiildren 

twecn Sandhook and Christina; tiiat the fiire.-ts of ( iu\ iriKir .l:i(juct. lie iiad a ^(,n named 

slioidd be jireservcd for the use uf the fort and Peter, and a chmgiiter named Maria, married 

of the town." And on the 22d of May, "tiiat to ISaron Isaac iJaiuw, who came to this coim- 

all owners of swine sliould put yokes on them try in 1 (;:).">. IK- became reduced in circum- 

witiiin twVnty-four hours, or have them shot stances and dieil Xovember 11, 17l;j, leaviu"- 

down by soldiers." his widow and four cdnldreu destitute. 

A sy^tcm of taxation for the support of the It is probable tluit there were other eliildren 

government was also devised; the history of besides Peter and ^iaria, for in later tinl^s 

taxation in Delaware begins, therefore, with there wa.-^ a JJev. Joseph Jacpiet, some time 

the administration of Viee-Ciovcrnor Ja(put. recf<jr of St. James the (Jreater, at J3ristol 

As might have been expected, the introduc- who died in I'hiladelpbia ,Mav i'4, ISUi). He 

ti(in of crude laws for the regulation of the was a di-itingnished scholar and philanthropist, 

people, together with taxation, caused the gov- IFe had an only daughter who married David 

erm.r to fall into disfavor. His admini-tra- A\'. Sellers, of Philadeljihia. 

ticm was denounced, complaints were lodged ^Major I'cter Jaiput, wlio as has been said 

with Stuyve.sant, who had appointed him, and was born April 0, ITol, was the son of Peter 

be was (dnirged with incompetency, blatters and grandson of A'ice-( iovernor Jean Paul 

grew W(U>e from day to day, until Governor Ja(piet. His mother's C'hiistian name was 

Stuyve-ant was forced to dismiss him, whicdi l-dizaiu-th, but of what familv slie was is un- 

he (lid April I'H, Ifi.'.T. That intrigue was uscil known. Xeither is it known when his parents 

to clfect his removal is apparent. Jacob Al- died. 

rich was appointed his successor in Holland P<^'tcr Javpiet was reared on the Lon" Hook 

by the btirgomasters and council of Amster- farm, which tiually descended to him. There 

dam, as governor of that city's colony. His his grandfather and father had lived and died 

commission was given to him in Amster- and there he died. The farm, therefore' 

dam, December lit, 1050, and renewed in ha<l been in the Jaquet family fur three lon<r 

Port Amsterdam (now New York) in the Xew generations, or from l(iS-t to i8;]4, a period Si 

Netherlands, April 1:^, 1057; his residence one hundred and fiftv years, when it i)assed 

was fixed at New Castle, then called Xew out of the family nanie,' because Peter left no 

Amstel. descendants. 

Ja(|uet's administration was brief, lasting When the war of the Revolution broke out 

scarcely over a year, but it was a stormy one. Peter Jaquet at once identified himself with 

His succe^sor was charitable enough to admit the iiatriots, and was c<,iiniji.ssiuni'i| ( iu 

that the com])laints against him proceeded Cajitain Henry Darby's company. Colonel 

rather from hatred than from trutli, having ffaslet's regiment of Delaware .-tato trouns 

their origin very likely in his efforts to e<tab- in Continental service, January 17 1770 ifl 

lisli law and order, and collect taxes. was then twenty-two years of atre He l,o^o,„!l 

iavmg retired from the cares ot office, -a second lieutenant in Colonel Hall's Dd 

Jaquet s.'ttled down to a quiet life of agri- ware regiment, Contineiit^il Pst^ildishmc'iit 

culture. And after the capture of the country ' Xovember 27, 177G, and captain in the - ' 

by the English in ItJG-t, he became a .subject regiment April 5, 1777, and served to'f] ^ 

of Creat Ihitain; was appointed a justice of (du.-e of the war. On retiring from the serv' ''^> 

the peace and performed the functions of that he was breveted maj</r Septoiuber ;>0 1~\-i 

otlice until the delivery of the territory to Wil- When Afajor Jacpiet .lied, (Sej)tein'bcr' 13 

Ham Penn in October, 1GS2. He took iij) a 18;U,), he had reached the ripe age of eig-htv 

tract of 2f)0 acres of land, the warrant for years, five months and .seven davs H - ■ 

which was granted December 22, 1G,S4. Tt buried among his kindred in the gr'avevar(l\'!f 

lay on the Christiana, oi)posite the old town Old Swedes' Chundi, "\Vihniii<>ti)ii -i 'l * 

of Wilmington, which then embraced a tract broad slab contains tlie followino'~enit'iiil •' '^ 

at the f(H.t of ]\rarket street, east and west. "Major TVter Jaipict, born '(! J --4 

•lean Paul Jaquet's tract was known as Pon^ and diwl September PI ^^9,l T ;,',„ 1 li ' 

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Delaware regiment January 4, 177C, and was 
in every general eugagenient under Washing- 
ton which took place in Delaware, PenUbvlva- 
iiia, New Jersey, New York, and the Eastern 
States; was ordered South to the Soutlieru 
army under Gates, and with the brave liarou 
De Xalb was in the battle of (Janulen, when 
the Delaware regiment of eight companies was 
reduced to two, of ninety-six men each, and 
when the command devolved on ]virk\vo<Hl 
and himself as oldest captains. Was 
in the battle of Guilford, second bat- 
tle of Camden, siege of Ninety -six, and battle 
of the village of that name; battle of Juitaw 
Springs, and in every battle under Greene, 
until the capture of Cornwallis at Yorktown." 

'J'his is, as a writer remarks, "a little strong- 
ly drawn, but it is in the main correct." His 
tomb, which is in an excellent state of preser- 
vation, is conspicuous in the historic church- 
yard and attracts the attention of many visi- 

Major Jaquet mamed Eliza P., daughter 
of Elisha Price, of Chester, probably after his 
return from the war. She was born Novem- 
ber 25, 17G9 and died ifay 5, 1834, in her 
sixty-seventh year, having gone to her grave 
three months and eight days before her hus- 
band. She was more than fifteen years his 
■junior. Her remains repose under the same 
slab with those of her warrior husband. They 
left no descendants. 

Major Jaquet became a member of the 
Delaware State Society of the Cincinnati, and 
served as vice-president from July 8, I7t)5 to 
1828, when it ceased to exist as a State or- 

Captain II. II. Delias, in his very full history 
of the Society of the Cincinnati in Delaware, 
says that the ccrtilicate of membeshii) of the 
gallant major, and his sword, are now in the . 
possession of his grand-ne])hew, Samuel Price 
Jaquet, Kadior, Delaware county, Pa. 


^Xfaj. Robert Nirkwood, one of Delaware's 
lu-volutionary heroes, was a native of ]\Iill 
Creek hundred. New Castle county. At the 
beginning of the Pevolution, he was engaged 
in the mercantile business, but he quickly en- 
tered the service to fight for independence. 
He was commissioned first lieutenant in Capt. 
Henry Darby's company, Colonel liaslet's re- 
giment of Delaware State troops in the Con- 

tinental service, January 17, 177G. He rose 
to the rank of cajnain December 1, 1770, was 
transferred to Colonel Hall's Delaware regi- 
ment, Continental Establishment, as second 
ranking captain, and ser\'ed to the close of the 
war as senior captain in comujand of the Dela- 
ware battalion; he was brevetted major Sep- 
tember uO, 17s3. ^lajor Kirkwood saw mncli 
hard service, and -was recognized as a brave 
and meritorious officer. Having a taste for 
military life, he sought an appointment in the 
regular army, and when St. Clair's force was 
being organized to fight the northwestern 
Indians, he was commissioned captain in the 
Second regiment United States Infantry, 
March 4, 17!)1, and joined the army at Cin- 
cinati. He marched in that unfortunate ex- 
peilition under the command of ^lajor Gen- 
eral Arthur St. Clair, and was slain in the 
battle near Fort Pecovery. AVhen the army 
was routed he refused to retreat, and fell at 
the head of his company "bravely sustaining," 
as is stated in Lee's INfemoirs of the "War in the 
Southern Department of the United States, 
"his point of the action. It was the thirty- 
third time he had risked his life for his coun- 
try, and he died as he had lived — the brave, 
meritorious, unrewarded Kirkwood." 

His commission as first lieutenant, when he 
entered the Pevolutionary army, in 1770, was 
signed by John Hancock, President, and 
Charles Thom]>son, Secretary of Congress. 
Cajitaiu Delias says, in his history of the Dela- 
ware Slate Society of the Cinciuati. that l\irk- 
wood's commission as brevet major, dated Si'f)- 
tember ."30, 1783, with his commission as first 
lieutenant, are now in possession of his great 
grandson, Newell Kirkwood Kennon, St. 
Clairsvillc, Pjelmont couiity, Ohio. His certi- 
ficate of mend)ershi|) in the Society of the Cin- 
ciiiiuiti is in po.ssession of his grandson, Gen. 
PobertK.AVhitely,TT. S. Anny (retired), who 
has (le])osited in the Delaware Historical Socie- 
ty, Wilmington, ^fajor Kirkwood's journal, 
kept by him through the Revoliuion, and also 
his sash stained with his blood when he fell 
in St. Clair's defeat. It is needless to add that 
these mementoes of the gallant jiatriot and 
soldier are sacredly treasured as priceless relics 
of one of Delawai'c's luiblest sous. 

A 1,1 EX ITcLane Axn tue ^[cLaxe Family. 

Col. Allen !^^cT.aue, an eminent citizen of 
Delaware by adoption, was born in Philadel- 


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pliia, August S, 174G, and settled in Kent 
county in 177'1. He was earl}' in the Held in 
the cause of independence. In 1775 he was 
appointed lieutenant in Col. Caesar A. Kod- 
nev's regiment uf Delaware militia, and in 
177U joined Washington's army and was dis- 
tinguished in the actions at Long Island, While 
riains, Trenton and Trinceton. His bravery 
at Princeton won him the appointment of cap- 
tiiin, and ho was assigned to Col. dohn Tatlou's 
Additional regiment, January lo, 1777. He 
received his commission from AVashington. 
His partisan company was in service on the 
out])osts of Philadelphia during its occupancy 
by the British. In 1779 he was made a major 
in Lee's partisan corps, and took a prominent 
part in the battles of Paulns Hook and Stony 
Point. He was present at the siege and sur- 
render of "^'orktown, and retired from service 
XovendxT !•, 1782. 

^lany thrilling incidents in the life of Colo- 
nel .Mcl.:iii(' are relate<l, which show his 
bravery as a soldier. In his movements lie 
somewhat resembled in dash and intrepidity 
Light Hor^e Hnrry Lee. He sent his spie.-- into 
the British lines at Philadelphia disginsed as 
farmers, and at times provisioned the enemy 
at market rates with '"beef" which was noth- 
ing more imr less than the carcasses of British 
cavalry hl/^^(■s killed by Continental bullets 

Ills l\'ats (if jiersonal daring were numerous. 
On one occasion he fell into an ambuscade 
near Philadelphia, accompanied by only four 
troopers, his company being in the rear. One 
of his attendants saw the enemy, and crying 
out, "( 'ajitaiu, the British !" fled with his com- 
panions. ]\rcLane saw the enemy drawn up 
on both sides (^f the road, an<l a file of them 
fired on him. He dashed away amid a shower 
of l)nllets and ran into a larger body. Turning 
abruptly, he fled, pursued by a dozen troopers. 
He distanced all but two, one of whom he shot. 
Tlie other he engaged in a hand to hand con- 
flict, during which he received a severe saln-e 
wound \u tlie hand. Finally he killed his an- 
taponi>t an<l cscaiK'd. He t<'ok refuge in a 
mill pond, where he remained until the culd 
water st(ip]ic'd the flow of blood frouL his 
wound. At another time he was surprised by 
a dozen British troopers, hut charged through 
them and escajied. 

After the war. Colonel ^fcLaue settled ;it 
Smyrna, and entered upon peaceful avoca- 
tions. He was a member and speaker of the 

Delaware Legislature, for six years a privy 
councillor, for many years judge of the Court 
of Cunimon Pleas, and United States .Marshal 
of the Delaware District from 17'JU to 1798. 
He was al.-o collector of the port of Wilmiug- 
ton from ISOS to the date of his death, which 
occurred Way 2:^, 1829. His reimnns were 
buried in Asbury Church Cemetery, "Wil- 
mington. Deleft descendants. 

Louis ^IcLane, who was celebrated for his 
])ul)lic services, was a son of Col. Allen Mc- 
l.ane, and was born in Smyrna, ?ilay 28, 17SG. 
In 1798 he entered the navy as a midshipman, 
and cnnsed for a year under Commodore De- 
catur in the frigate Philadelphia. Betiring 
from the .-t'a, he studied law with James A. 
Bayard and was adnutted to the bar in 1807. 
In 1817 he was elected a member of Congress 
from Delaware and remained in that otiico 
until 1827. During this i)eriod, in opposition 
to his constituents, but on conscientioud 
L'rounds, he voted against permitting slavery 
in Missouri. From 1827 to 1829 he was 
Cnitcl States- Senator, and ;Minister to Eng- 
land from 1829 to lS31. In the latter year, 
on his return, he entered the Cabinet as Sec- 
retary of the Trear-ury, and held that office 
until" 18;5:i, when he was appointed Secretary 
of State; he retired from political life the fol- 
lowing year, ^h: i^IcLane was president of 
the Baltimore iuid Ohio Bailroad Company 
from 18.37 to 1 847. In 1845 he was entrusted 
by President Polk with the mission to Eng- 
land during the Oregon negotiations. He was 
a delegate to the Beform Convention at An- 
naiM.lis in the winter of ISSO-.'-.l. In 1812 Mr. 
McLane married the daughter of Bobert :Mil- 
ligan, and had i-su<'. He di.'.l in Baltimore, 
October 7, 1857. 

Hon. Bobert ]^rilligau ;McLane came of a 
distinguished ancestry, as has been shown. He 
was a gran<lson of Col. Allen ;^^cLane, the 
Bevolutionary hero, and the eldest son of 
Lo\iis "NfcLane, the eminent stat.'smim and 
jioliliciau. Hewasbirrn in AVilmington, Dela- 
ware. .Tune 23, 181."., and .hed in Paris, 
France, April Ifi, 1898, at the advanced age 
of nearly eighty-three. He was e<lueated at St. 
Afarv's College, Baltimore, and then went 
with his father to Europe, where he studieil 
for two years at the Colleu'e Bourbon, Paris. 
AVhen he returned home C.encral .Tackson ap- 
pointed him a ca.let at "Wot Point, where he 
was arailuated in 18,37. 

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In 1S41 Mr. ilcLaue was seat to lluUaud 
to exaniinu tlie system of tlykcs and draia- 
age, and ia I'aris was laanied to iMiss tleorg- 
ine Un|uliart, dauglitc-r of a i.ouisiaaa aiur- 
chant. Ja 184:3 lie Irft th.,- army and be-an 
tlie practice of law. J a JSl.', hj was elected 
to the ]\larylaad llou^e of Delegates, and in 
1S47 was seat to Congress as a Ueaiocrat. He 
was returned agaia ia 1S4<J. la 1853 Presi- 
deat Pierce scat Jam to Cliiaa as Miaister, but 
at his own request he was soon recalled. He 
M-iis eniiaeatly successful ia his diploaaitic 
laissioa, aad upoa his return to tlii^ couat.ry ia 
ISoC lounged anew into active party work, 
liuchaiuia rewarded hiai in 18511 witli the ap- 
pointaieat of Miaister to Mexico. 

if r. :McLaao resigacd his [wsition ia Mexico 
at the outbreak of the Pebellioa, aad returaed 
to Paltimore. There he became a conspicuous 
opponent of the National (iovcrnmeat aad 
fruad of the Coafederatps. Ia 1803 he was 
couascl for the Westera Pacific IJailroad, and 
in 18(i4 aad 1805 visited Europe several times 
Jle was elected to the State Senate of ifarv- 
land la 1870, aad two years later wrested from 
ex-Governor Swann tlie Democratic noadna- ' 
tion for Congress, thus re-enterim: the Ifouso 
twenty-eight years after lea vim; it. lie M'rverl 
two terms, refusing a third. In 1883 he was 
made the Democratic candidate for Ciovcraor 
of :\raryland aad was elected to that positioa 
^vhich he still lield in March, 1885, when he 
wa3 aj^poiated ]\rinister to Fraace by Pre^^i- 
dent Clevelaad. In that position he served for 
four years, aad then retired froai pablic life. 

All things considered, the political career 
of PoLert ililligan McLanc was one of the 
longest and aiost distinguished in the history 
of tlie country. lie became very much at- 
tached to Fraace aad the French people, and 
resolved to live there. He spoke the French 
language with flueacy aa.l ])u]isli, aad spent 
the last days of his lon<>- life in Paris. His re- 
mains were brought home aad iaterred in 
Baltimore, the city of his adoption. No greater 
niaa ever went forth from Delaware, and tlie 
city of Wilmiagton is ]n-oud to claim him as 
one of her sons. 

Dr. Allen ifcLaae was bora in Smvrna, 
Kent county, Delaware, ia 1785. Tlis father 
•was Col. Allen ]\rcLane, of the Pevoluticm, 
and his mother was Pebecca Walls, sister of 
Lewis Walls. [Nfinister to England. Dr. Allen 

ilcEane was educaled at Newark Academy 
and Princeton; he then studied medicine aad 
graduated from the University of Peaasylva- 
ait in 1811. He coaimeaced the practice of 
his ]ir<d'c.-si(ni at .\e\v Castle, but .-uiui after- 
wards reiii(i\eil to Wilmingliiii and st'llled 
permaaeatiy. Dr. .Mcl.aae served ia the war 
of 1812. lie was one of the first May.irs of 
the city of Wilmiagloa. He married Cathe- 
rine C ., daughter of ( ieorge aad Mary Thomp- 
son Head, .June IS, 1812, and they had i-siie: 
L Samuel: 11. Allen; IH. .Mary| IV. .Julia- 
V. fieorge. The sous all die<l ia early man- 
hood. Dr. ]\IcLane, the father, died in Wil- 
mington, January 11, 1845. 

Lvni.v DAitR.ion of the Pevoi.ution. 

By Henry Darrach, of Philadelphia, not re- 
lated to her family. 

(The Darragh family is aot related to the 
families spelling their names Darrach and 

Lydia Darragh is remembered ia American 
'history on account of the services she reiulered 
her country in giving iaformatioa to General 
AVashington, encamped in AVhite Marsh, dur- 
ing the winter of 1777-78, of the iateaded at- 
tack (if the British forces then stationed at 
Philadel[)]iia. Her timely information en- 
abli'd Washington to lie pre]xire(l when the 
enemy came to make the attack. Her de- 
scendants from early daj's have resided in 
Delaware aad Maryland. 

She was the daugliter of John Barrington, 
of Dublin, Ireland. On November 2, 1753, 
at Quaker ^Meeting, Dulilin, she married Wil- 
liam Darragh. They came to this country 
shortly after tlieir marriage, and settleil ia 
Philadel]ihia. Lydia Darragli died December 
28, 178!), in lior sixty-first year; her liusbaad 
died June 8, 1783, age sixty-four years. Both 
were buried in the Friends' burial ground, 
southeast corner Fourth and Arch streets, 

Her will, showing the correct spilling of 
her name and names of her childi-en, is re- 
corded at Philadelphia in Will Book H, j). 413 
(yr. 17110). 

She bad nine childrea, as follows: 

I. ]\fary, bora 1754, died ia infancy; II. 
Charles, horn November 18, 1755; d. June 5, 
18()1 (not knowa to have married). Ensign 

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in Second Pennsylvania, 1777, and lirst lieu- 
tenant; retired July 1, 17?S; 111. Ann, born 
August 12, 1757, died Aunust 17, IfSlO; mar- 
ried; no issue; W. AViiliaiu; V. Lytiia; ^'I. 
^larv; all three died in infaney; 

\'1I. ,Ii)lin, born Deeendter 5, 17(j;i; died 
July 23, 1S21 or 1S22; niairied Feln-uary 7, 
1787, ^largaret Stewart Porter, of Delaware; 
born l)T-<" i, 17(!9; died .May 10, 1811. 
Issue I'iulit eidldren, viz: 

i. (First) — Lydia Parrington, born De- 
cember 17, 1787, died January 10, l8;it, 
mari-ied James Short; issue one chihl, AKx. 
Darragii Short, born 1810, died June 'J, 18;J4, 
married 1831 or 2, Anna Jamiina Naudain, 
of A'ew Castle county, Delaware, born ISl 1 ; 
'died 1872; issue one oliihl, James Hall Slmrt; 
born Xcw Castle, Delaware, March 23, 1834, 
died ilareh 12, 1897; married Novendier 4, 
18.'")8, ifartlia Pollen Ilumplireys, Smyrna, 
Delaware, born Oetolicr 13, died NovimuIkt, 
IMm;, and had issue, inne children, viz: 

( 1 ) Ali'x. I )arragh Sliort resides near War- 
wick, ,Md.; married, Deecndjer 22, l88tj, 
Clara P. Simons; issue four children, George, 
Edgar Lawrence, ]\Iabel and Martha Ellen; 
(2) "Wilb'am C. Short, resides near Ceeilton, 
]Vid.; married, Alaroli 'J, 1882, Anna P. For- 
aker; i^.-u(■, viz: James ITall, Joseph P. Pearl, 
Edwin C., Leroy; (3) Anna Jamima Short, 
Baltimore, ]\rd.; (A) Fmma Xaudain Short, 
Baltimore, :\ld.; (f)) Martha E. Siiort, mar- 
ried; ((1) Leah K. Short, Cecil county, ^Md. ; 
(7) Lydia Parrington Darragh Short, Palti- 
more, ^Id.; (8) Tliomas Enus Short, Cecil 
cotmty, .\r,l.; (H) Esteila Short. 

ii. (Second (duld of John Darragh and ^far- 
garet Stewart Portct-), viz: Alex. Porter Dar- 
ragii, b. August 2(';, 178!), ptirser in Knif^'d 
States navy and died at sea, January 0, 1831; 
buried at Cibraltar; married, Septendier, 
1823, Eliza Tucker Armistead, of Norfolk, 
Va., died Xovember 20, 182G. Issue two 
children: (1) ;^^argaret Porter Darragh, b. 
September 2(!, 1824, married, April 2, 1842, 
Dr. Tliomas Newton, of Norfolk, \\\.\ issue, 
Eliza T. Newton, Sally Newton, Perklcy 
Newton. (2) :\rartha Julia Darragh, b. .Vo- 
vember f), 182."): d. Noveiid)er, 182r). 

iii. (Third child of John Darragh and ^far- 
paret Stewart Porter), Ann, born Decendier 
5, 1701, died June 24, 1800, iv. John Dar- 
ragh, born December 20, 17(13, died De<-eiii- 

ber 20, 17'J3; v. ifargaret Stewart Darragh, 
born Decendier 28, 171^*:), died June 20, 1840; 
\i. Susannah Dari'agli, b. January 14, 17'J8, 
died January 21, 1880; vii. Eliza Darragh, 
born Jidy l(i, 1800; died July I'J, 180J; viii. 
Eliza Darragh, born April' 24, 1802, died 
July 20, 1885; married, Septendier 8, 1830, 
John Janvier; died .May 2H, 181)0, age eighty- 
one years, 10 niontiis, 10 days. Issue Jnlien 
D. Janvier and Alargaret W . Jan\icr, liotli 
of New Castle, Delaware. 

VIII. ■\Villiam, born July 23, 1700; died 
December 11, 17t»0. 

IX. Susanna, born December 19, 1708; 
died Septendier 18, 1792. 

pAlJliATT ( 1 i:.NK.VI.0fiY. 

Philiji Larratt, the emigrant of the family, 
So far as is known, is su[iposed to have come 
from iMigliuid; but however that may be, he 
had settled in Kent county, Delaware, prior to 
the year 1755. He w;ls bom in the year 17"J9. 
lie owned a large tract of land in South Mur- 
derkill hundred, prcpbably fo\ir or five hun- 
dred acres, upon which he re^ided. lie also 
owned a ^looji called the Frietuhlilp, in 
which he shi[i])ed polk, corn, bark and staves 
to Philadelphia, lie took an active interest 
in pulilie atTairs, and on October 0, 1775, was 
coiiinii--ioii( (1 by Hon. John Penn, Governor 
of Pemisylvaiiia, as high sherilT of Kent coun- 
ty. -Mr. P.arnitt was re-elected shcriiT Octo- 
ber 1, 17Tii, and serx'ed in that capacity dur- 
ing the ReN'oliitionarv war, in which he I'cMi- 
(Ici'cd most etiicii lit ser\ices in aid iif the 
struggling colonies. An e\idciice of this is 
afforded by the fact that on December 20, 
1777, the General .Assembly aiiiirojiriated 
t\v(nty-iiiiie jiounds to Pliili|i Barratt, Sheriff 
of Kent county, for public services to repay 
liiiii for money ad\aiiced and expended in aid 
of the cause. He was also a justice of the 
jicace for Kent c<iiiiity, his coiiiiiiis-ion being 
dateil June 30, 17^3. 

In Octolier, 1779, Philip Parratt was elect- 
ed a member of the Legislature, and on Dc- 
i-eiiiber 22, 1779, voted for John Dickinson, 
Nicholas Van Dyke and George Pead, as dele- 
gates to the Congress of the United States. 
Under the authority of the Legislature, in tlie 
early jiart of the year 17so, lie |Mid to the 
State militia for Kent countv the sum of 

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three thousand sLx hundred pounds, that 
amount being appropriated by tiie ilouse of 
Assembly to him for tlmt pnrposc. lie seems 
to liave taken a prominent part in the Legis- 
hiture during all this period. Eketrd lirst in 
ITtil, he was a member continuously from 
that date until the session of 17b3, during 
whieh period he served as a memlier of the 
Bi)eeial committee to ascertain the names of 
such persons within his co\inty as shall have 
furnLihcd the commissary's or q\iartermas- 
ter's departments with supplies for the use of 
the Continental army; also to dispose of sun- 
ilry sujiplies in Sussex county. lie was a 
member of the Standing Committee on Ac- 
counts on behalf of the Assendily. He was 
present at the meeting of Council, February 
4, 17S2, on behalf of the Assembly, and de- 
livered a letter from Alexander Hamilton, 
aide-de-camp, dated at iliddlebrook, April 20, 
1779, addressed to the conunaiuling otiieer of 
the Delaware regiment, and enclosing an act 
of (Viugress of December IG, 177S, for annex- 
ing to that regiment Capt. McLane's com- 
jiaiiy; also a resolution of General Assembly 
of dime 1, 1779, annexing Capt. ^ifcLane's 
company to the Delaware regiment, together 
with certain resolutions of General Assembly, 
dated October 31, 1780, empowering the 
State treasurer to purchase a certain sum of 
money in specie for the benetit of the olhcers 
of the Delaware regiment who had been made 
prisoners on Long Island; and also a certificate 
under the hand and seal of General Washing- 
ton, dated December 31, 17S1, together with 
a memorial of Allen McLane, dated January 
30, 1782, and founded thereon. On Janmu'v 
24, 17S3, ifr. Barratt presented to the Coun- 
cil a bill for raising twenty-six thousand two 
hundred and fifty pounds for the service for 
that year. And on February 4, 1783, on be- 
half of the House, he asked for a Committee 
of Conference of the Council in relation to it. 

On January 14, 1783, Thomas ]\rcXean, 
Plnlip Barratt and Nathaniel "Waples, of the 
House, and John Banning and Joshua Polk, 
of Council, were apjiointed a general comnn't- 
toe on pidilic accounts. 

These brief references to his public services 
show that he took cpiite an important part in 
the county and State, and did his utmost to 
further the success of the patriotic cause. 

Philip Barratt was among the first converts 

to Methodism, and was an intimate friend of 
Bishop i'rancis Asbury, whom he aided and 
defended during tlie Kevolutionary war. In 
JNlay, 1780, he and Waitman Sipple, feeling 
that a place of worship was necessary, took 
steps to found a chapel. He contributed an 
acre of ground; the result of their elforts was 
the present chapel, called in memory of him 
J>arratt's Chapel. Lt is now known as the 
"cradle of ilethodism" in consequence of the 
fact that Bishops F'raucis Asbury and Thomas 
Coke met there in 1784, and arranged the pre- 
liminaries for organizing the Methodist I']pis- 
copal Church. 

l*hilip Barratt married Miriam ; 

their children were: I. Andrew; II. Elijah; 
HI. Caleb; IV. Nathaniel; V. Mary; VI. 
Philip, Jr.; VI r. iliriam; YIIT. Lydia. He 
died on October 2S, 1784, in the 'fifty-fifth 
year of his age. liy his will, dated !May 18, 
1783, he devised all his estate to his chihlren 
above named, and directed that it should be 
partitioned among them. 

T. Andrew Barratt, eldest son of Philip and 
^Miriam P)arratt, l)orn September 22, 1751), 
died April IS, 1821, was pnjbably the mo-t 
prominent, lie studied law and was admit- 
ted to the bar of Kent county. He was a 
mend>er of the special convention of Dela- 
ware which met for the ratification of the 
Constitution of the United States, taking the 
place of Dr. James Sykes. He was also a 
nu'iiiber of thi^ convention which framed the 
( 'onstitiition of 1792. Also a director of the 
Farmers' Jiaiik at Dover, 1808-1811-1815. He 
was elected high sheriff of Kent county in 
]7S(), and apjiears to have been in otfice by 
successive elections for Twelve years, from 
1780 until 1792. He was eleete<l a member 
of tiie Assembly froia Kent comity on Octo- 
ber 20, 1791; was a member (if the Senate 
fr(jm January 15, 1S12, until 1814, and dur- 
ing this time, 1812, '13, '14, served as speaker. 
On Xovember 12, 1810, he was elected a 
jiresidential elector as a Federalist, and voted 
for Iiufus King for President, and Eobert C. 
Harper for Vice-President. And again on 
Xovendier 14, 1820, during the "era of good 
feeling," he voted in the Electoral College for 
James ^lonroo for President, and Daniel Rod- 
ney for Vice-President. On January 23, 
1799, he was appointed by Gov. Bichard Bas- 
sett an associate judge, and served as such with 

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great credit until liis election to the Senate. 
As will be seen froiii this brief account of liis 
life, Andrew B:irratt was a prouiinent man in 
his generation. 

Andrew liarratt married, December 10, 
17?>, Ann, daughter of John Clarke, Esq. 
The}' had children, as follows: 

i. Elizabeth, born September 12, 17T'J, mar- 
ried Joseph White, had three children, An- 
drew Earratt, John and Ann Clarke AVhite; 
ii. Ann, burn October 18, 178 1; married Dr. 
Eobert Dill, of Milford, Del., and died Feb- 
ruary lo, ISll, leaving two children, Ellen 
l.eighton Dill, born December 1, 1805, died 
IXcember 25, 18G8, and Robert Dill, born 
:March IS, 1801), died October IG, 1832; iii. 
John, born February 9, 17S4, died in 1818, 
was a i)r(:)minent lawyer, and became Secre- 
tary of the State of Delaware. He married 
Ann Luff, and had children, as follows: 1. 
Elizabeth (ifrs. AVilliam Townsend), wIkj had 
three children, John Barratt Townsend, born 
December 31, 1S32, died February 2, 1859, 
had one son, John Townsend, of Frederica, 
Del.; Anne Townsend, wife of Hon. Jonathan 
S. Willis, has one daughter, Elizabeth Town- 
send Willis Ofrs. AVilliam IL McCallum), of 
Philadelpliia; and Alary Townsend, married 
first to Joseph Smithers, after his death to her 
cousin, Hon. Nathaniel Barratt Smithers, of 
Dover; 2. Ann (Mrs. James S. Buckmaster); 
3. Mary (Afrs. John AV. Cullen); iv. George 
Barratt, Af. ])., l>orn February 17, 1787; 
studied medicine and practiced for some years 
in E'ciit cniinty, Del.; married Rachel Lutf, 
wlio survived him, and after his death married 
Paris Carlisle; v. Alary (Polly) Barratt, born 
April 12, 17S9; \\. Sarah, born September 21, 
1791, married in 1825 to AVilliam K. Lock- 
wood, and died a month after her marriage; 
vii. Letitia (Letty), born April 24, 1704-; viii. 
Aliiiam, born January 24, 1797; ix. Piiilip 
Barratt, liorn October 23, 1799. 

IL Elijah Barratt, Isl. D., son of Philip and 
Miriam Barratt, was born on his father's farm 
near Frederica, Kent county, Del., in 1771. 
He was sole executor of his brother Nathaniel 
Barratt, who died in November, 1797, and 
also de\isee of the farm which had been al- 
lotted to him upon the partition of Philip Bar- 
ratt's estate by Judge Thoniiis AVhite, Richard 
Lockwood and Covernor Richard Bassett 
fNovember 13, 1797. AVill Book N, p. 18 4. 
tVc.V Tn his shnrt professienal career Dr. 

Elijah Barratt attained a high position iu 
medicine. He was a member of the Dela- 
Wiu-e Stiite !Medical Society, having been 
elected iu 1790, and was active iu it until his 
death. He read the second essay which was 
delivered before that Society about 1791 on 
"The Influenza." ((Jarllard's Aled. Journal, 
February, 1880, Delaware State ^ledical Sue, 
by L. P. Bush, AL D., 188G, Scharfs His. 
Del., vol. I, p. 473, Scharfs His. of Delaware, 
1889, A'oL 1, p. 483.) Dr. Barratt studied 
medicine under Dr. Nathaniel Lutf, his 
brollier-in-law, and became a practitioner, al- 
though he never graduated, a not unconunou 
occurrence in those days. 

Dr. Barratt was prominent not only as a 
physician, but also in political aifairs; he was 
a strong Federalist, and refused to be a candi- 
date for Congress. Henry M. Ridgely, United 
States Senator from Delaware in 1827, was an 
intinuite friend of Dr. Barratt's, as the follow- 
ing incident taken from his life will illustrate: 
"Abotit the time he was admitted to the bar, 
Air. Ridgely became involved in a duel, wliich 
came very near costing him his life. The cir- 
cumstances were as follows: Dr. Barratt, of 
Dover, had been grossly insulted by a Air. 
Shields, of AVilmington, and in accordance 
with the spirit of the times, sought satisfaction 
through the "code" and desired Air. Ridgely 
to be the bearer of his challenge. The latter 
did so, and Shields refused to meet Dr. Bar- 
ratt, but challenged the bearer of the message. 
Ridgely felt he was obliged to accept; the duel 
was fought, he was severely wounded, and for 
a time it was thought he could not live. He 
recovered after a painful prostration, and pub- 
lic feeling was so aroused against his antagon- 
ist that he left AVilmington never to return. 
(Scharfs Hist, of Delaware, A^ol I, p. 572). 
The reason why Shields refused to meet Dr. 
Barratt was that Dr. Barratt was a noted shot, 
was a most determined man and evidently 
meant liusiness, and he was afraid to take the 
risk, while Ridgely, although a good marks- 
man, was not as cool or experienced as him- 
self. 'J'his the duel subsequently demon- 
strated. (Told me in 1S84 i)y Nathl. Bar- 
ratt Smithers, a grandson of Dr. Barratt"! 
Dr. Barratt was commissioned a justice of the 
peace September 5, 1793. (Scharfs Hist, of 
Delaware, A^ol. II. p. 1040.) He was one of 
the trustees of the first AFethodi^t Church, 
niilt in 179G, at Camden, Delaware. The 

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(Iced wa3 dated Jidy 27, 17iiG, for one half 
acre from Daniel Lowber to Elijah Barratt 
et ah, trustees for the people called iMethodidts 
ill and about the village of Caiiulcii, on the 
road from J)o\'(r to ('aiilerluiry. (Scharf'ri 
Jlist. of Delaware, Vol. II. p. 1 i;i;).) In the 
assessnieiit of taxes for the year 1^)1U, in Mis- 
pillion and what is now billfold hundred, Dr. 
Elijah 15ai'ratt'.s estate is returned as contain- 
ing three Inindred and thirty acres. (Scharf's 
Hist, of Delaware, ^'ol. 11. pp. 1175.) He 
was nominated' January 21, 1702, as I'rivy 
Councillor, at a meeting id' both Iloust's of 
the Legislature, but was defeated. (Aliii. 
Council Voh II. p. 1230.) lie died April 11, 
ISOtt, and is buried in the family burying 

Dr. Elijah l^arratt married Margaret 
Fisher, a descendant of -Tohn Fisher, who 
came with Penn on the "Welcome."' Their 
children were: i. Lydia I3arratt, married .John 
Smithors, February G, 1821; ii. ynsaii Fisher 
Barratt, boni 1782, died ^larcli 2, 1M24, mar- 
ried Xathaniel Sinithcrs; iii. Mary Barratt, 
died August 7, 18.11, marrie(l tirst, 'riimuas 
Orcen, second, Kobert 1!. diimii; iv. I'.liza 
Bairatt, born in July, 17'.*2, died in I''ebrnary, 
18(51, married Boy. AVilliam I'rcttymau; v. 
Margaret Barratt, married "William Knatts; 
vi. Edward Barratt, died young. Dr. Bar- 
ratt's descendants are numbered among the 
following families, well known in Kent coun- 
ty: Smithers, (ireen, Jump, Knatt, Pretty- 
man, Burchenal, Cowgill, Cannon, Freeman, 
Lovering, Wiu-ner, Ijiing, (irahame, Sorden, 
Lowe, Longfellow, Dill, Burton, ^Ldvim, 
Fescendcn, Cainvell, "Welton, Bowie, Stime- 
strcet, Almoncy, Lathrop and Pemberton; 
but as he had no sons, tlie name of Barratt 
has died out in this branidi of the family. 

III. Caleb Barratt,' son of Philip' and 
]\ririam Barratt, born ^May 17, 1702, died Xo- 
vember 15, 1825, aged fifty-three years, and 
leaving three children: i. Elijah, born in 1795, 
emigrated to Indiana in 1830; ii. James, born 
in 1797, removed in 1832 to Phihulelphia, 
where he died February 12, 18G2. He mar- 
riod ^fary Xcall, daughter of Jonathan Neall, 
of Milford. Caleb Barratt cultivated the farm 
in ^furderkill hundred beq\ieatlied to him by 
his fatlier; and while he was well-known and 
respected as a substantial farmer, he never 
took any part in juiblic atfairs, cxrciit that he 
was a]ip<iinte(l by the goveriiui- ;is coiiimis 

sioner and assessor of real and personal prop- 
erty for Kent county for the years 1819, '2U, 

IV. Nathaniel Barratt, son of Philip and 
^Miriam Barratt, born in 1773, died in 1797, 
c'onteiited himself with carrying on farming. 
Hon. Xathaniel Barratt Smithers, his grand- 
nephew, is his namesake. 

\'. J\Iary Jiarratt, daughter of Philip and 
Miriam Barratt, married (leorge Willsoii. 

\'ll. ]\Iiriaiii Barratt, daughter of Philip 
and iliriam Barratt, married Thomas Martin- 
dale, and had children, as follows: i. Thomas 

^Martindale, married Sudler, and after 

her death, Jarrett, and by these two 

marriatres has six children: 1. Josephine, vdin 
of Dr.'.Meily, 2. .Miriam (.Mi-s. X. B. Buck- 
master), 3. Kli/.abeth (.Mrs. J. Frank Cam- 
eron), 4. Bev. ThoiiuLs E., marrii-<l II. Haz- 
zard, 5. Stephen, and *'.. William .Martindale; 
and ii. Sarah. 

VIII. Lydia Barratt, daughter of Philip 
and Miriam liarratt, married William Patton, 
and ha.l cliildreii: i. Mattliew; ii. Barratt Pat- 

James Barratt, Sr., son of Caleb Barratt, 
was born in 1797 on his father's farm near 
Frcderica, Kent county, Delaware, and re- 
moved to ^lilton in 1823, where he built and 
occu]>ied the first brick house. lie ami (Jov- 
eriior David Hazzard engaged in the grain 
business, and also operated a bark mill, in 
which the Hon. Joseph ]\laull was interested 
with them. James l^arratt was one of the 
re|)resentativesforSussexci)Uiity in the House 
of Bei)resentatives during the session com- 
mencing October, 1831, and was a director in 
1831 and 1832 of the Georgetown Branch of 
the Farmer'b State Bank of Delaware. He 
was a member of tlie M;usoiiie fraternity and 
connected with I'^nion Lodge, iS"o. 7, of Dover. 
In 1832 he removed to Philadidphia and en- 
gaged in the grain business with Samuel 
Xeall, who M'as a native of ^Milford, Delaware, 
under till' firm name of Xeall i Barratt, and 
later as James Barratt tV Son. ^Much of their 
bu^iness consisted of consignments ot grain 
from Delaware, which arrived in Philadelphia 
in small sloops and schooners of light draught, 
which were in early times cidled shallops. 
They carried 1,000 to 2,500 bushels of wheat, 
corn and oats, and on arrival were uidoaded 
by colored men from half bushel measures 
. into bags, and sold on the wharf or stored in 

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tlitir wurc'hoiise, 402 South Delaware avenue. JJanatt, eldest cliilJ of Jauies and Mary 1. 

Li IbJ-t he helped orgiUii/.e the Corn Kx- (Cuniining,-) Barratt, was burn Augu.-t 'J, 

ehango of Philadelphia, and was its fifth JJ^5(J, and married, Noveudjer 7, IbbJ^, htlie, 

l>residi'nt in 1859. dangliter of Kieiiard II. Watson, Kscj. Their 

Jaiued JJarratt married Ellen i.eighton, cliildren are: I. UiehardWatsoii liarratt, horn 

daughter of Dr. Robert and Aim (liarratt) Xovend)er 10, ISSi); 11. .Mary Irvine liarratt; 

Dill, who died Ueccnilier'25, 1808. Tliey had HI. AVilliam Cummings Harratt. William 

issue:, 1. Alfred Barratt, boru Februarv 14, C. i^arratt is the .secretary of the I'owellou 

1823,'maiTied ilartha Cummins; II. danus Club, of AVe=t Philadelphia, and is conneeted 

Barratt, Jr., Ixirn Deeemher 27, iM'd, mar- with the Eani Lino 8. S. Co. 
riid -Mary Irvine Cummiug; III. ilary Bar- Xorris S. Barratt, seeond sou of the late 

rati, born September 27, 1S28, died dt'ily 27, ^lary Irdne Cunuuings and James ]'>arratt, 

Ib'JO; IV. Pobcrt Dill Barratt, boru Deeem- Jr., was born in the eity of Philadelphia Au- 

ber 8, 1S29; V. Caleb Barratt, boru February gust 23, 1802; educated at private and imblic 

IJ, 1S;J2, died Api-il, ISoo; VI. Anmi J!ar- schools, studied law and was admitted to the 

ratt, burn August IC, 1838; VII. Klleu Bar- Philadelphia bar Deeember 1, 18S3, and is 

ratt, born January 0, 184.'., dietl January !l, now engaged in the praetiee of his profession. 

1845. ' " He has been Assistant City Solieitor of Phila- 

Thc Corn E.xchange of Phihidelphia, now delphia .since ISltO, al-o solicitor for the liu- 

hetter known by the more signifieaut name of reau of Puilding Inspeetors, mendier of the 

the Commercial E.xehangc, "was eomposed of AVest I'hiladelphia Republican Clul) and 

a membersliip conspicuous for loyalty to the Yoiuig lieiiublieans, and of the Historical 

Pniun, and for zeal and liberality in sustaining Society of Pennsylvania, lie is a Past ]\[as- 

the (iovermnent in all its efforts tu put down ter uf Lodge Xo. 2, Lrc^e and Accepted ;Ma- 

tlie rebellion. Xone uf its members were m<>re .*ons, and Oriental ( haiiter, Xo. Is;'>, II. A. C., 

active in this work, and in sending into the as well as the Sous of Delaware of Philadel- 

war a fully equipped regiment known as the ])hia, of which he was a charter memlier. ^Nlr. 

"Corn Exchange," or 118th Pennsylvania Barratt has bt eu bistorian of that society 

Volunteers, than James Barratt, Jr., who was since ISOO, and takes a dt-ep interest in his- 

burn in ]\Iilton, Delaware, and who was toric'al matters, especially relating to Dida- 

lirought to Philadelphia by his father wiieii a ware. 

boy. He was admitted to the firm of James Xorris S. Tiarratt was married October 17, 

Barratt & Son in 185G. James I'.arratt, Jr., 181)4, to Ellen, .laughter of Tiionuis IL Leyer- 

represented the Seyenth ward in Conunon iug, of Baltimore, Aid. Their children are: 

Coimcils in 18C2, 'C3, '04, '05, and on Janu- T. .Xorris Staidey liarratt, Jr., born August 

ary 12, 1805, he was appointed one of the 27, 181)5; II. Thomas Levering Barratt, born 

commissioners under the authority of Coun- Seiitember 20, IS'jO. 

cils, to pay bounties to yolunteei-s. This com- • 

mission distributed oyer twelve millions of 
dollars. On May 25, 1805, he was elected a 

'J'liE B.\i;ki;u Fa.mii.v. 

port warden, and in 1807 ^vas elected vice- 'I'his is an old English family. Those of its 

prc-sident of the Com Exchange. lie was numbers in the T'uited States whu are of 

first lieutenant of the Corn Exciiange (inard, colonial ancestry may trace their lineage from 

ami a member of Company D, First Bcgiment, four ancestors, all <d" whom left their English 

Lodge 51, F. and A. iL, as well as of the homes in the seveuteenth ceului-y to try their 

T^niun League. lie died February 2, 1872. fortunes in the splendid heritage then opening 

James Barratt, Jr., married Mary Irvine to the Euglisli race. They were: Samuel 

Ctnnmings, :May 10, 1855, and had four chil- P.aiker, burn in lOlS, settle,! in Xew Castle 

dn-u: I. AVilliam Cummings Barratt, boin c.unty, Del., in lO^.'i; Iiubert Barker and his 

.\n-nst It, IS.'.O, man-ied Effie Watson; II. liruther, John lini'ker (the hitti^r sometimes 

Ellen Dill Barratt, born in April, 1858; II r. errum'uusly called Fraiu-is'), settled in Ply- 

^lorris S. Barratt, bom Atigiist 2:!, 1M12, niuutli, ]\Iass., in 1 020, having duiibtless came 

married Ellen Levering; IV. James Barratt, uver with the Pilgrims in 1020; and James 

burn Septend)er 28, 1804. AVm. Cuniuiings Barker, uf Shro])shire, England, bom in 1017, 

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settled in Rhode Island in or about 1034, hav- 
ing come over on the ship Mary and Juhn. 
Samuel Barker was a lineal descendant of 
John JJarkcr, of Shropshire, England, who 
married, in 1549, Elizabeth Hill, a sister of 
Sir IJowland Hill, the first I'rutestant Lord 
^fayor of Lonthm. The two ^Massachusetts 
Earkers, Robert and John, were doubtless de- 
scendants of the same ancient and honorable 
Rurker family of Shropshire, from which it 
lias been found that Samuel Rarker, of Dela- 
ware, and James Rarkci-, of Rhode Island, are 
•descended. The Barkers were for many cen- 
turies almost exclusively connected with 
Shropshire, a county equalled liy few others 
in England as to the number of its old historic 

The Herald's Visitations of Salap com- 
mence the pedigree of this family, whose 
name appears to have been originally Coverall 
or C'alverhall, with Richard de Coverall, who 
married Margaret Pigot, and then pass over 
the intermediate generations to AVilliam Bar- 
ker, also called Coverall, who married the 
licircss of the Goulstons of Ooulst(ni. The 
connecting links have been sup|)lied from the 
Court Rolls of the ^fanors of Warfield and 
Claverley, and after about 15 GO one begins to 
find parish church registers. In Domesday 
Book, !N'igellus, a clerk, was lord of the niaiKir 
of Calverhall or Coverhall, after which it 
passed into the king's hands, and he gave it to 
"William de Dunstanvillc, wlio sublet it under 
the feudal system to these de Calverhalls. 

In the reign of Edward II, the overh>i'd of 
the manor was BarthiJomew de Bedlesmero. 
In the civil wars then continually waged, he 
was attainted and hanged. The undertenants 
of his manor probably shared in his disgrace 
and fall, and two of them appear to have 
fled southward, for in 1327 two men calling 
themselves le Bercer and le Smythe are found 
at Ilallon and Hilton in the parish of "War- 
field, where they probably followed the call- 
ings of shepherd and armorer respectively, and 
founded the two Wariield families of Barker 
and Smythe. Tradition averred that this Ber- 
cer was "William de Calverhall; and his de- 
scendants, when after two hundred years they 
settled again the northern part of the county, 
at Claverley, "Wolverton and Coleshurst, seem 
to have reassumed the name of Cove,-; 11 as an 
alias, so that they were known by both names. 
Tlie name Barker is derived from the old Xor- 

man "bercer," which signified the elected 
herdsman of the village or manor. 

Eollowing is the genealogical record of the 
Barker family of Shropshire, England, from 
the year 1200 A. D. to the birth in Eebruary, 
1G48, of Samuel Barker, who in ]\Iarcli, 1GS5, 
settled in New Castle county, Del. This was 
ciun])iled from data collected tlirough years of 
careful research by the Rev. William Gibbs 
I'arkcr, of the Aston ifanor branch of the 
family, who was born in 1811, and died in 
Philadelphia, 1807. He was evidently a man 
of high attainments and great intellectual 


1. ]{andul]ih de Calverhall, tenant of the 
manor of Caherhall, County Salap, England, 
A. D. 1200. 

2. William Fitz-Ralph de Calverhall, of 
Blancminster, tenant in fee of William de 
Dunstanvillc, A. D. 1219. 

3. William de Calverhall, tenant, 1240- 
1250. ]\Iarricd Wenkiana. 

4. William de Calvcrluill, tenant, 12s4. 
ifarried Aliiia. 

5. Richard de Calverhall, tenant, 1319. 
^Married ifargaret, daughter of Peter Pigut, 
of Willaston, County Salap. 

"I'lieii follow several generations of the de 
Calverhalls, among them Roger de Calver- 
hall, until the male line as tenants of the 
manor of Calverhall became extinct, and the 
estate descended to Agnes de Calverhall, 
daughter and heiress, who married Hugh Dod, 
of Edge, whose family possessed Calverhall 
Manor until 1850. 

But we find in 1327 AVilHara le Bercer, at 
Ilallau, in Warfield, County Salap. ]Iis son 
Roger le Barker, of Hallon, mariiexl Alice 

, who survived him. He died in 1308, 

possessed of large estates in Hallon. Roger 
le Barker left two sons: I. AVilliam, of Hal- 
lon, married ilargery, daughter of William 
Whorwood, died in 1411; II. Robert, of Hal- 
lon, wliose descendants long lived there. Wil- 
liam Barker's son, Henry Barker, of Hallon, 
married I^fargery, daughter and heiress of 
Stephen Lovestick, of Hallan, wlio survived 
her husband. Henry Barker obtained land at 
Hallon from William Wlmrwood, and dic(l in 
1438. He left a son, William Barker, of Hal- 
lon, gentleman, who enjoyed great estates 
there, married Ann, daughtrr of John Colvu- 

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sun Kuulowc, of Howley, in Wai-iield, and died 
in 14bU. This AVilliam Baikcr left two suns: 
I. (jeorgu Barker, of llallon, who married 
EUeu Cumber, of Kinvcr, County Stall, and 
had a daughter, Ann JJarker, who was tlio 
heiress of the llallon estate; which estate 
passed by several heiresses to the Davenport 
famil}'-, whieh still holds it; 11. John, who 
married Elizabeth, daughter and co-heiress of 
"William Cirene, of Aston Manor, in Claver- 
ley, Salap, and died at Aston in 1507, leaving 
a son, John Barker, of Aston, who man-ied 
^largaret , and died in 15131; she out- 
lived him, and died in 15oS. 

Humphrey Barker, son of John and Mar- 
garet ( ) Barker, had two sons: I. 

Thomas Barker (alias Coverall); II. AVilliam 
Barker (alias Coverall), who married tirst 
Margaret, daughter and heiress of John Goul- 
ston, of Cioulston Cheswardine; she was 
buried at Clavcrley, Noveniber 2G, 157(i; and 
second, Frances, relict of "William AVhitmore, 
of Aston; she died in 1538, before her hus- 
banil, who was buried at Claverh'V, October 
■M, 15t)0. 

The children • of AVilliam and Margaret 
(Goulston) Barker were as follows: I. .folin, 
married first to Joyce, daughter of Edward 
Bui'ton, and second, in 1540, to Elizabeth 
Hill, sister to Sir Bowland Hill, tirst Protest- 
ant Lord ^layor of London, from which latter 
marriage the l^arkers of Wolverton are de- 
scendi'd; IL AVilliam, of Colcharat, County 
Salap, who married Joan, daughter of AVil- 
liam Home, and from whom the Barkers of 
Colcharat, Hopton Castle and Fairfield are de- 
scended; in. Bandulph, who for killing' a 
nuiu lied out of Shropshire, and froiu wlunu 
the Barkers of Little Over and A^alc K'lyal, 
Chester, are descended; IV. Richard. 

liic'hard Barker, of Aston Hall, fourth son 
of William and ]\[argaret (Goulston) Barker, 
• took the oath of allegiance to Jauu'S I. He 
was'buri<'d at Claverley, February 12, IGOO. 
His first marriage was with Joyce, daughter of 
Bichard Colclougli, and they had children: 
I. AVilliam, died young, in 15G0; II. John; 
III. Frances, died in 1576; I\^. Joan, born in 
1572, died young. ^Mistress Joyce" (Col- 
clough) Barker died, and was buried in Claver- 
ley, June 25, 1572. Bichard I3arkcr then 
married ^fary, daughter of Thomas Orainijcr; 
she died, it appeal's, without issue, and was 

buried at Claverley, October 'J, 157G. The 
third marriage of Ivichard Barker was with 
Agnes Hatton, of Heathton, JS'ovember 24, 
1578. Their children were: I. Bichard; II. 
Elizabeth, born in 15S2, died young; III. 
Joan, born in 1581; IV. Philip, born in 1590, 
died young; V. Jane, born in 15'J1, died 
young; \l. Thomas, born in 15!J5. Mistress 
Agnes (Hatton) Barker survived her husband 
eight years, died, and was buried at Claverley, 
April 30, 1017. Thomas Barker, as the 
yuungest son, inherited Aston Manor. He 
married in 1(.!21, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Thomas Sniythe, of Hilton; Thomas Barker 
died in 1044, and his wife in 10?i'; they were 
the ancestors of the Barkci-s of Aston ilanor. 
Aston Hall remained in the possession of the 
Barker family for about three hundred years. 
It came to John Barker, who died in 1500, 
with his wife, l^llizabeth Grene, the heiress 
of Aston, and it remained with his descend- 
ants until 1748, when -Matthias Barker, the 
heir, sold it. It afterwards jiassed into the 
hands of the Bracebridgcs, and is the original 
of Irving's Bracrhridge Hall. 

John Barker, second son of Bichard and 
Joyce (C<dcloiigli) I^arkcr, was bajitizcd Oc- 
tober 21, 1570. He was church warden at 
Claverley cliinvh in 1G20, and was buried 
there ]\Iay 11, 1G38. He married in IGIO 
Eleanor, daughter of Nicholas Eregleton ; she 
was ba])tized at Claverley in 1588, marri.Kl 
-Vugust 8, IGIO, and was buried at Claverlev, 
:\Liy 1, 104(1. Their son, John Barker, of 
A-toii, was bapfizrd at ClaveHy, July 11, 

1011, married Mary , who survivid 

him, and was buried at Claverley, July 28, 
1GS2. Thev had ehildren: T. ^Tary, bom in 
1030; II. John, of Nether IIoo, was born in 
1041, married in 1700 to Elizabeth AVoob 
ryche, and from them are descended the Bar- 
kers of Coiigreve; III. Frances, born in 
1G43, died in 1044; lA^ :\raigerv, born in 

Bichard Barker, who died in 1 GOO, had by 
his wife, Agnes Hatton, a son, Bichard Bar- 
ker, M-ho was baptizcil October 20, 1570, and 
buried April 25, 1G30. He married Dorothy 
"V\''horwood; their children were: T. Frances, 
born and died in 1011; IT. .\mbrose, bap- 
tized August 20, 1012, ha.s no known descend- 
ants; ITT. John Barker, baptized April 21, 
1010; lA^ Bichard Barker, born in 1G25. 
John Barl;er, the third of the above nnined 

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fliiklrcu of Kielianl and 1 )urotliy (W'lior- 
wuuJj liarker, liaJ bCN'cral chiltlrcUj aa ful- 
luWi: i. Saimic'l, bajjlized at L'laverloy 
church, Shrcjiiihire, Kiighiiid, I'Y'ljruary 'I'l, 
lli-lS, emigrated, it appeals, lu "Xcw i'ing- 
huid," JJehiwaro, boiiglit two Inuidred acres 
of hind on Red Clay Creek, New Castle eoiui- 
,ty, built himself a residence thereon, married 
and left uiunerous descendants, died in 1720, 
and was buried in Old Swedes' churchyard, 
W'ihnington, Del., July 25, 1720 (see church 
records); ii. Anne, born in 1(J51, died in 
171:!; iii. Sarah, born in 1U53; iv. Joseph, 
b<irn in l(J5(i, from whom the IJarkei-s of 
Cokbhill, Warwickshire, England, are de- 
scended; V. Jeremiah, born in 1(](J0, lias no 
known descendants. 

'J he Aston branch of the family ls now 
(July, 18!.t8) represented by tlie following 
living membei-s: Hev. Joseph Henry 15ar- 
ker, born in 1809, residing at llerford, Eng- 
land; Delavere Barker, born in ISKl, living 
at l)iepi)e, Erance; Captain William Cecil 
Pjarker, British Xavy, born in 18o9; Arthur 
Kowlaiid Barker, architect, Winchtleld, Eng- 
land, born in 18-12, and his sons, Kev. Arthur 
Leigh Barker, born in 1870, Baymond Turner 
I'arker, architect, born in \^~rl, Claude Ed- 
ward Barker, born in 1874, and Cecil Vernon 
Barker, born in 187G. The last named faniilv 
are descendants of Bev. William (iibbs I'jar- 
ker, and have full records of the Aston and 
other branches of the family. 

The oldest Barker family document extant 
is believed to be one of which the following is 
a co|)y. It was ^v^itten by Elizabeth, widow 
of ^Matthias Barker, of Asliton .Manyr, who 
died in 1727, aged 45. 

"The life of ^Matthias Barker represented 
to his children. 

"Thy father was a strict observer of the 
Sabbath, a constant Ercquenter of the Ordi- 
nances, a diligent Beader of Cod's Word; a 
Bejirover of Vice and an Enconrager of Vir- 
tue; a diligent Instructor of his Eaiuily; he 
was much in Braying, Laborious in his Calb 
ing, Serviceable to his Xeighliors and Eaitli- 
ful to his Eriends. In a Word, he was Tem- 
perate, [Meek, Baticnt, Beaceable, irumble, 
Honest, and Heaveidy-mindi^d. These and 
the like Virtues were conspicuous in Thy 
Eather; Co thoii and do likewise; I,uke 10th, 
V. 57. Tho' your Eatlier bo dead and liurie<l, 
let his Virtue^ live in vour Bractice. 

"Altho' your father in the grave be laid, 
Tread you his steps ; jou need not be afraid 

But you llio heaven of lieavens bhall bee, 
And reign wilh Uun to all eternity." 

'J'he Hallon Manor, in Warheld, County 
Salaj), the original family seat of the Barker 
family, was in possession of the Barkei-s for 
two huiKlred and lifty years when the heiress 
married one of the W'annerton.s. It was 
caHed Jlallon, after a Saxon chief of that 
name, who fought a battle in the fields below, 
and crossed the ri\er at the spot now called 
Hallon's Eord. 

With regard to the wives of these Barker 
ancestoi-s: 'The Bigots of Willaston were 
an old Shropshire family, elaiming descent 
from one Boger Bicot, who came from Nor- 
mandy, in lOliO; the Whorwoods of Comp- 
ton and Babbington were a Statfordsliire 
family who afterwards intermarrie<l a good 
deal with the Barkers. William Whorwood 
left some lands in Hallon to Henry, son of 
William Barker; of the Lovesticks of Hallon 
nothing is known, but ]\largery was a consid- 
erable heiress; the name is probably a corrup- 
tion from Lostock, the Bowleys of Bowley are 
an old and renowned "Wartield family, their 
original name being lioulowe. One of Anne's 
ancestors, Boger de Boulowe, was slain at 
Evesham, fighting one of the rel)ellious barons, 
but the name was probably Saxon rather than 
Xorman in its origin; the Crenes of Aston; it 
was by maiTiage with their heiress that th.c 
Barkers obtained most of the Aston estate. 
The pedigree goes back for several genera- 
tions, but with no detail; they seem to have 
been originally Yorkshire folk. The Col- 
cloughs were an old StafFordshire family of 
consideration; Bichard, the father of Joyce, 
was mayor of N"ewcastle-nnder-Tyne in 1478, 
and married a daughter of tho well known 
Havenjiort family. 

The descendants of Samuel Barker (1085) 
of Xew Castle county, Bel., as com])ilcd by 
Jesse J. Barker, of Bl'iiladelphia, in ISliS, are 
as follows: 

Samuel Barker wa.s ba])tized in Clavorley 
(diurch, County Salap, England, Eebruary 
22, 1 048. To Samuel I'arkor a grant was madf; 
by William Bonn, March 27^ 1085, of two 
huiidre<l acres of land in Christiana hundred, 
lu'ar what is now called Barker's Bridge, 1^(4. 
This was the old homestead of the Barker 

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family, and rfuiainud in tlieir hands until the 
death of William Uarker, about ISIU. 
yauiuel Ijarkt-r, 1, dic-d intestatu in J uly, 
f TiiU, at an advanced age, and was huiied ni 
Uld Sweih'b' c-huivhyard, in W ilniiuyldM, 
J)el., July L'j, 17:^0. 'lie left four chihiivn: 
1. Jc«ej)li, '2, who died about January, 17.')'); 
il. Danifl, l', who dieil about 175U; 111. 
^lary, •!, married in ISt. Paul's church, Ches- 
ter, i*a., Sei)teniber 2o, 1700, to William 
Kirliard^t)n; 1\'. Anna (Mre. William 
llii-k>). All of these children left descend- 

dosejih Barker, 2, son of Samuel ]3arker, 1, 
was married September 27, 171lJ, in Old 
Swedes' church, Wilmington, to .lohaniia 
C'laytoii. He died about January 20, n.'i.'i, 
which was the date of probate of his will, leav- 
in<;- tlireo children, but no widow; both his 
wife and their daughter, Mana, born Se])tem- 
ber 24, 171S, having apparently died bcfoie 
liim. The surviving chililren were: 1. 
Samuel,;!; II. Kebecea, 3 (Mrs. Few); 111. 
Susanna, .'5 (Mi's. Edward Carrill), marrit'il 
in Old Swedes' church, AVihnington, in 1714. 
Samuel Barker, 3, son of Joseph, 2, and 
Johanna (Clayton) Barker, was born, it ap- 
]iears, at the old liarker homestead, near liar- 
ker's Dridge, Xew Castle county, Del., .March 
20, 1721; the birthplace of all his children 
seems to have been the same. lie was bap- 
tized in 01(1 Swedes' church, Wilmington, 
March 21, 1721. He died in 1801$; his will 
was probated October 27 of the same year. 
Sanuiel liarker, 3, was mari-ied to llachel, 
daughter of Jeremiah Ball; she was born 
July 24, 17.32, and survived her husband, 
lie was a vestryman at St. James' church, 
Stanton, Del., in'l701-92, and in 1801. His 
children were as follows: I. ilary, 4, born 
about 1752, married !May 9, 1773, at New 
Castle, Del., to Moses McKnight; 11. 
Jiticph, 4, born June 10, 17.54, married three 
times, (1) ^larv Collins, (2) Agnes Sipjile, 
(3) Margaret Laws; TIT. Esther, 4, (Mr-^. 
'riieo]jliilus Evans), born in- August, 17."i7; 
IV. Abuer, 4, born July 31, 17<)0, removed 
to Pittsburg, Pa., and in 1800 married Ellen 
Scandrett; Y. Jeremiah, 4, born February 
22, 17(14, married Sally, daughter of (iov- 
ernor lletb, of Virginia; VT. William, 4, 
born near Parker's Pridge, Del., served dni-- 
iiig the war of the Pevolution in a Delaware 
regiment, was in the battle of the Erandywine 

and other engagement.-^, never married, died 
about lb40 on the Parker homesti'ad near 
Stanton, Del.; VII. Padiel, 4, (.Mrs. Jo.-^eph 
Kvans), born Oetober 24, 1 ?(;!•; N'lll. 
-Miraham, 4, was a vestryman of St. .lames' 
church, Stanton, Del., in 17:»7, died .soon 
after his father from the kick of a horse; JX. 
J esse. 

Jesse Parker, 4, youngest son of Sannnd 
and Kachel (Ball) Parker, was born about 
1772, and died unmarried in New York City, 
July 2(), lb,52. Jn early lite he left the old 
homestead, and with his t)rothers, Abner, 
Joseph and Jeremiah, went to ri'side in Pitts- 
burg, Pa. lie and Abner were large and suc- 
cessful merchants there, prospering greatly. 
,\<.-i^{i. Jiarker withdrew from the tirni about 
1.^07 or 1808, and after traveling for a time, 
settled in Paris, France, where he became a 
banker and broker in the Pourse, and made a 
large fortune. In July, 1,S12, he returned to 
America, and settled in New ^'ork, where 
his death occurred July 28, l!sr)2, at the a"e 
of about eighty years. 

Joseph Jiarker, eldest son of Sanuiel and 
Pa.diel (Ikll) Parker, .served with distinction 
in the Pevolntionary War; he was captain >! 
the ship General ffoitlyumery (marines), 14 
guns, 120 men, in I77(i, and of the Artillery 
in 1777. His burial place is at Parker's Land- 
ing, near Magnolia, Del. Mary Collins, to 
whom Joseph Parker was married February 
■21, 1771), was born May 25, 1703, daughter 
of lion. Thonnis Collins, last colonial gov- 
ernor of Delaware; she died December 27, 
17113, survived by four of her si.\ children. 
On February 7, 1797, Joseph Barker married 
Agnes Sijiple, who died Novend)er 12, of the 
same year. The third wife of Captain Parker 
was .Margaret, eldest daughter of Hon. John 
Laws, formerly judge of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas of county, Del. She was 
born in 1777, married February 19, 1799, 
and died August 2, 1S19, in the forty-third 
year of her age. Her remains were interred 
ill the Old Swedes' churchyard, Wilmington. 
Tlie children of Joseph and Mary (Collins) 
Parker were as follows: T. lOlizabeth, 5, born 
October 30, 1781, died at the age of eleven 
vears; TL Sarah, .'">, born September 28, 
1783, died in 1803; TIL Maria, 5, born Oe- 
tober 3, 1785, married January 28, 1803, to 
Dr. Cieorgo Stevenson, of Pevolutionarv 
faiiH^, left descendants, among whom are the 


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cliiklren of Prof. Jamed \Y. Mai-shall, of 
^Va=hillgtoIl, IJ. C, Misa Aime AKCliiitock 
and .Mias ilaria S. iliggins, both of riiiludel- 
pliia, Alalia S. Juuory and Joliu Kmory; JV. 
8usan, 5, bom J anuary 3, 17S«, died iu 17UU; 
V. JJr. Thomas Collins, 5, born February 11, 
17U0, leaving one cliild, .Mary Jean, wiio dud 
iu 1830, aged fifteen years; VI. Wilham 
Samuel, 5, born April 11, 17!)2. 

Jeremiah liarker, lifth child of Samuel and 
Raehel (Ball) Barker, born near Stanton, 
Del., February 24, 1704, died at Louisville, 
Ky., July 2ti, 1842. He was married to 
Sarah, daughter of Governor lletli, of Vir- 
Kiniu, residing at Winchester, Ya. She was 
born May I'J, 1772, and died November 3, 
lS2r) at Xenlle, Ohio. Their children were: 
I \^ies, born Alarch 24, 1792, died at Cin- 
cinnad, Oldo, March 1, 184U, was married in 
ISOO to Morgan Neville, and had children, 
i Aforgan Lafayette, born 1811, died in 185 5, 
leaving descendants in Columbus, Ohio, ii. 
John, U. S. A., died in ISSl, iii. Jnlian, born 
in 1813, lived in New Orleans, and died leav- 
ing issue, iv. William B., of Columbus, Ohio, 
died without issue, v. Cornelia (Mi-s. James 
Craham), of New Orleans, died leaving issue, 
vi Eugene, died unmarried, in New Orleans, 
about 1854; II. Samuel, born January 4, 
171)5; III. Henry Ileth, bom June 24, 

17'J7,' maii-ied Baker, ha<l one child, 

a daugliter, who died young; IV. Susanna, 
liorn :May 28, 1799, died November 17, 1799; 
V Josejih, born December 8, 1800, died 
Lcbruarv 10, 1826; YL Kachcl, born July 
14 1803, died September 12, 1872, was mar- 
rif^l June 5, 1828, to Charles Foster; of New- 
port, ICv., who was born ^farch 7, 1801 ; had 
children, i. Sallie (Mi-s. Moses (ioo.buaii), 
had two children, Foster and Blanche, both<l, ii. Alice (Mrs Frank Coodman), 
has four chiklren, iii. Kate W., died iu 1851, 
aged seventeen; iv. Fanny S., married tirst 
to Alexander Cros^man, IT. S. N., and after 
his death to Edward Ban-y, a lawver of Fliila- 
(h'l|ihia, also now ileceased, v. Blanche <lay- 
h.rd; YIT. Sarah, born in Pitt.sburg, Pa., 
L)iv('iiiber 24. 1805, married .Tune 17, 1828, 
in Neville, Ohio, to Charles l\r. Strader, and 
had children, i. Sarah, ilicd in infaurv, ii. 
Tolm, died in infancy, iii. Jeremiah P., <lied 
in 1848. iv. Faiinv P., married tu C.eneral 
AVilliam ^Ivei-s. V. S. A., who .li.-d in 18,^7. 
had seven rhildren, Sallie IT., CMi-. Charhs 

Page) of San Francisco, Cal.; Randolph, M., 
AL U., of Washington, D. C; three, William, 
Charles and Kobert, who all died young; 
Henry F., of New York city, and Philip S., 
who died in 18>.)U, in Brussels, Belgium, leav- 
ing issue, V. Charles AlclL, of Louisville, Ky.; 
vi. John II., born in 1!540, died iu .Montana 
in Ls8ti; vii. Jesse B., died in 187U, aged 
twenty-seven, leaving twoekildren, Humphrey 
il. and Jessie B. (Mrs. Joseph E. Cardiner); 
viii. lilanche F., died in infancy, ix. Jacob, 
died in infancy; YIII. William, bom August 
13, 1808; died in Louisville, Ky., July 30, 
la3(j; IX. Jesse; and X. Abraham, twins, born 
September 15, 1811; both died in lllinoks, of 
cholera, in 1.^33, within two months of eadi 

Abner Barker, second son of Samuel and 
Rachel (Ball) Barker, bom on the old home- 
stead near Barker's Bridge, Del., July 31, 
17G0, died in Pittsburg, Pa., July 8, 1829, 
was married, September 18, 1800, in Pitts- 
burg, to Ellen Scandrett, bom December 12, 
1780, and died March 7, 1833; she was a niece 
of (ieiieral Richard Butler, who was killed in 
Noveiidier, 1791, at St. Clair's defeat in In- 
diana, by tlie Indians, and who was one of five 
brot.hei-s, Richard, Thomas, Edward, William 
and Pierce Butler, who all served with dis- 
tinction as commissioned niHcers iu the Revo- 
lutionary war. The children of Abner ami 
Ellen (Scandrett) Barker, all bom in Pitts- 
burg, Pa., were as follows: I. Alana Butler, 
bom Julv 1, l>^<n, died December 1(1, 1802; 
]L Richard Ibitler, b'lm November 23, 18ii3, 
died August 4, ISHO; 111. Tloratio Nelson, 
bom December 7, 1805, died at Salem, O., 
Ajn-il 25, 18C4; lY. William J. P.., bom Feb- 
ruary 28, 1809, died Sejitember 14, 1827; Y. 
John Woods, born Febriuiry 23. ISll, died 
Alarch 10, 1835; YL Jean Ann, born July 
10, 1814, died February 19, 1815; YIL Jesse 
E.lward, born Mav 8, 181G, died August 14, 
1817; YIII. Ellen Butler, born July 19, 
1818; IX. Thomas A., born April 5, 1821, 
<lied February 1-5, 1859, leaving chiklren: X. 
(ieorge Stevenson, bom June 21, 1824, died 
Januarv 11. 1892. leaving is-ne. 

Rieliard Butler P.arker, (5) eldest son of 
\biier and Ellen (Scandrett) Barker, was born 
in Pitt^bur-. Pa., November 23, 1803, and 
die,! ;it Beaver, Pa., .\ugu~t 4, 18r,0. He was 
inarrie.l iu 1'^20, iu Pitt-burg, to Eliza, 
(laughter of 'i'honuis Hunter, fnmierly of the 

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British j\'avy; she was born Juue 5, ISOD, at 
tlie uaval sUitiou in JJuutry liay, Irehmd, and 
died in Thiladelphia, Pa., Aiarcli 12, J88y. 
I'lie children uf iiichard \i. and Eliza (Hun- 
ter j JJarker were: 1. Iviehard liutler [<>), born 
A\igust 20, Ib'll, died January 20, lS2b; 
11. I'hnily IJewees (0), born ^'oveniber It, 
lt52S, died Alay 25, 1S33; 111. Al)ner (0), 
born .M'areli 4, 1831, died February 5, l6;i;J; 
VI. Eliza (0), born April 2U, 1833, died Alay 
27, 1S04, married in 1852 to Janietj Craft, 
had two children, i. Ada 13. (7), ii. Harry M. 
(7), born .ill ue 'J, 1850, married Deceiidjcr 11, 
1888, to ^lary Watson, who was bom in 
1807, has four cliildren: Helen (8), born Oc- 
tober 31, ]88'.», Alexander (8), born .March 'J, 
ISUl, Henry .M. (8), born December 14, 

18'J3, and , bom June 27, 18'J5; \'. Ellen 

(0), born October 7, 1835, died ^lay 27, 
1837; W. ilary (0), born December ^5, 
1837, died September 4, 1853; Vll. Frank 
(G), born February 27, 1840, died January 0, 
1841; Vlll. Ada (0), born September 2, 
1844, died January 17, 1850; IX. Jesse J. 
(G), born at Beaver, Pa., December 28, 1S4G, 
married January 20, 1873, to ilary W., 
dan^'litcr of James Ilyndshaw Cook, who was 
bom September 29, 1851, and has six chil- 
dren, i. lialph Emei-son (7), born July G, 
1874, ii. Elizabeth Cook (7), bom April 7, 

1877, iii. Edith (7), bom September 27, 

1878, iv. Neville (7), born April 8, 1880, died 
i^lay 18, 1882, v. Pierce (7), born August 30, 
1883, vi. Pnth Mary (7), born June 2, 1885; 
X. James K. Butler (G), born :\Iarch 23, 1849, 
died X'ovember ^7, 1803. 

Ellen Entler Barker (5), third daughter of 
Abner and Ellen (Scandrett) Barker, wa.s bom 
in Pittsburg, Pa., July 19, 1818, and (1898) 
is still living. She was married, ^larch 21, 
1837, to Samuel P. Adams, grandson of Sam- 
uel Adams, signer of the Declaration of In- 
dependence. They had children as follows: 

I. Edgar (0), born April 9, 1838, married 
Barbara P. Trimble, who was born in 1843, 
died in 1887, and liad children, i. Ida (7), 
born Septendier 2S, 1804, ii. George T. (7), 
bom October 3, 1867, died October 5, 1807; 

II. Emma (G), hom Julv 27, 1840, died Julv 
17, 1842; III. Horatio Nelson (0), bora Au- 
gust 24, 1842, died in Louisville, Kv., May 
7, 1884, married in 18G7 to America Corn- 
wall, who was born in 1845. had children, i. 
!Marie P. (7), born ^fay 7, 1871, married O,- 


tober25, 1890, to Sanmel Dalrymple, ii. Ellen 
L. (7), born December 29, 1870; i\'. ^lilton 
Butler (Oj, U. S. A., born April 11, 1845, 
married -May 1, 1878, to Anna AV. Lewis, 
horn in 1855, has children, i. Carl Nelson (7), 
born February 22, 1879, ii. Lewis Milton (7), 
born :May 22, 1882; V. Elma (0), bom Feb- 
ruary 17, 1848, married November 13, 1873, 
to I honias Tanner, wiio was born April 13, 
1843, and died June 29, 1898, had one child, 
Ailams Plummer (7), bom July 10, 1870; 
VI. Samuel Phunmer (G), born December 9, 
1850, married August 21, 1877, to Fannie C. 
Powers, who was born in 1857, has foiu' chil- 
dren, i. Ola aMay (7), born November 12, 

1878, ii. Elma J>. (7), bom January 20, 1880, 
iii. Fannie C. (7), born July 11, 1882, iv, 
Leila (7), born Ajiril 30, 1891; VII. Lola (G), 
born July 20, 1853, died in infancy; Vlll. 
Mary (0), born November 7, 1855. 

I'homas A. Barker (5), sixtii son of Abner 
and Ellen (Scandrctte) Barker, bom April 0, 
1821, died February 15, 1859, was married to 
Eliza Okely, who was bom October 21, 1820, 
and died ilarch 27, 18G2; they iiad children 
as follows: 1. Ocorge Okely (0), bom Ai>ril 
28, 1844, died October 0, 1849; II. Frank A. 
(0), bom January 9, 1847, died November 9, 

1879, married Emma Noble, had one child, 
Harry N. (7), born August 29, 1872; III. 
Harry T. (0), born August 28, 1849, manned 
Annie V. ^McLean, liad children, i. George 
ifcLean, bom April 24, 1874, ii. Adele, born 
June 0, 187G, eacli died aged aliout eleven 
years; IV. Ellen O. (0), bom March 11, 1854, 
manned Henry C. Brown, has children, i. 
Edith O. (7), born October 25, 1884, li. a boy 
who died in infancy. 

George Stevenson Barker (5), youngest soa 
of Abner and Ellen (Scandrett) Barker, was 
born in Pitt.sbufg, Pa., June 21, 1824, and 
died at New Brigliton, Pa., Jan\iary 11, 1892; 
was married Se]itend)cr 14, 1847, to Rebecca, 
daughter of David Iloopes, who was born Feb- 
nuary 8, 1824, died in 1898; they had chil- 
dren as follows: T. Charles A. (G), born April 
10, 1849, married Seiitomber 14, 187G, to 
Jean D., daughter of Thomas Farley, has 
children, i. Annie F. (7), born Octol>er 19, 
1877, ii. Rebecca L. (7), born August 10, 
1879, iii. Jean Darsie (7), born November 19, 
1882, died December 23, 1888, iv. diaries 
A. (7), bora November G, 1803; II. Louis H. 
(G), born September G, 1851; III. William 

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S. (U), Lorn February 2-i, 1855, ditti JJcceia- 
ber '25, lbi)'2, married Elizabeth Alakeuwii, 
hud children as follows, i. liiehard (^Tj, died 
an infant, ii. Katheriue, iii. Eleanor (7); IV. 
i'rederiek (J. (OJ, born September lU, 1857, 
mariied (1) (Jertnulc 'i\i\VM>eiid, who died 
without issue in 18S9, and (2) in 18D0, her 
sister, Juliette Townsend, has children, i. (ier- 
' trude (7), died in 1890, aged four yeai-s, ii. 
Dorothy (7), born May 5, 1894, iii. Kebeeca 
(7), and iv. Cieorge S. (7), twins, born Septem- 
ber 8, 1895; V. Caroline II. (tj), bom January 
23, 1800, married Henry A. Burnett, hus chil- 
dren, i. Robert, ii. George (7), born in 1888; 
VI. Elizabeth II. (6), born November 27, 
1803, niamed David A. Gurdeii, hud chil- 
dren, i. Grace, died young, ii. Ihivid A., Jr. 
(7), born in 1895. 

^lary Barker (4), eldest daughter of Sam- 
uel and ]iaehel (Bull) Darker, was married 
^May 9, 1773, to M*^ises ilcKnight, who died 
Juu"uary 29, 1802. Their children were: I. 
^Villium (5), who married Catherine, daugh- 
ter of Joseph and Ann (Caldwell) McClurg, 
had children, i. ]\Iary Ann (0), died w^itliout 
issue, ii. Joseph (0), married (hrst) ^lury A. 
Acliison, had two children, and (second) Mi\v- 
paret Acliison, by whom he had .seven chil- 
dren, iii. AVillium (0), married Surah Ormsby, 
had eleven children, iv. Dobert (0), man-ied 
Elizabeth O'llarrali Denny, had ten children, 
v. James A. (0), married (1st) ilartha A. Og- 
den, had two ciiildren, secondly Surah .M. 
Kliddes, had two children, vi. George S., mar- 
ried (tirst) Caroline Yeo, no issue, secondly, 

Amelia -s , had three children, vii. Charles 

((■>), married Jeanie Baird, had six children, 
viii. Henry (6), died without issue, i.\. Ivl- 
ward (0), died witho\it issue, II. Isabella (0), 
who died March 13, 1831, who was nmrried 
in Dei'cmber, 179S, to James Ball, who was 
born in 17(!4, died in 1S23; their children 
were, i. "William !McKnight (6), born Mardi 
12, 1800, ii. :Nfary, born in 1804, died niuaur- 
ried in 1840, iii. Susan (0), born in 1807. diecl 
unmarried in 1828, iv. Hannah (O), born .May 
10, 1810, died :May 3, 1887. v. James AV. ((i) 
l.oru November 28, 1814, died :Nray 22, ISC.I , 
vi. Jesse Barker (tl), lioru November 12, 
1818, died January 17, 1800, vii. Annabell.i 
(0), horn October'SI, 1820, die<l October .'.. 
1885; ITT. Sarah (5), nnirried to Tsuae 
Hdlmes; TV. .Tohn (5), died unmun-ied in 

-May, 1851, aged si.\ty-seven; \'. Kachel (0), 
tiled unmarried in 1804. 

Joseph (0), eldest son of William and Cutli- 
erine (,\lc( lurg) .McKuiglit, and his tirst wife, 
.Mary (Achison) McKnight, had two ciiildren; 
by his second wife, Margaret (^.Vchisun) .Mc- 
Knight, he had seven children; lii.s family wus 
us follows: 1. Willium (7), murried Kate, 
daugiiter of Dr. Abraham uud Jane (Davis) 
Senseny, hus children, i. Joseph, ii. William, 
iii. Edgar S. , iv. Alice, v. Bessie, vi. Arthur, 
vii. JMarcns A., viii. Mary A., IF. David .\. 

(7), nuirried ^fellie , uu issue; 111. J<,- 

bcph (7), married Belle , t\v<^ children; 

IV. Kate (7), married John Speer, hus chil- 
dren: i. .Margaret, ii. J. Ham.~ey, iii. Joseiih 
.McK'night. iv. ilenrielta (Mrs. (ieorgu 
l.aughlin), has one child, tieorge Laughlin, 
Jr., v. Nellie ]McK.; V. Hany C. (7), mar- 
ried Elizabeth Henderson, has children, . 
]{obert, ii. Joseph, iii. .Margaret, iv. Harry 
C., v. Rebecca, vi. Webster H.; VI. Mary 
Ann (7), murried AVilliam Uced, had chil- 
dren, i. .Margaret, ii. Catherine, iii. Thomas, 
\U. Alexander A. (7), has two children; 
A'lII. .Margaret A. (7), married John S. Lyon, 
has children, i. J. Stewart, ii. Afarguret, iii. 
Fanny, iv. Anne, v. Catharine; IX. Nellie 
(7), died .March — , 1889. 

William .McKnight (0), second son of Wil- 
liam and Catherine (.McClurg) McKnight, und 
his wife Sarah (Ormsby) .McKnight, had chil- 
dren as follows: I. Kate (7), (^Irs. Josojih 
^IcCammon), had chiMren, i. Joseph, ii. 
Ormsby, iii. .Vhby, iv. Kdith; II. William 
(7), died without issue; III. Ixobert O. (7), 
died without issue; IV. Wharton (7), married 
Elizabeth Ilersli, had children, i. Cornelia, 
ii. AVilliam, iii. Sarah O. , i\-. Eliza, v. Loui>a; 
V. Charles (7), died without is^ne; \'l. llenrv 
(7), died without issue; VII. Jane O. (7i; 
VIII. (7) (.Mrs. William Watson), has chih 
dren, i. Ormsby, ii. IMarie; IX. Emeline (7), 
man-ied Rev. Samuel Ala-xwcll, D. D., has one 
child, Kmeliue; N. Edward (7), died without 
issue; XI. Thomas Reed, mai-ried Lydia ^le- 

Ifobert .McKnight (0), third son of Wil- 
liam and ('atherine (.McClurg) ]\IcKnight, 
was boi'u January 27, 1820. died Oi-t.iber 25, 
1885, was nian'ie<l in 1847 to Elizabeth 
O'llara Dennv, had children as follows: I. 
Harmon D. (7) ;Ih Woodruff (7), married Cora 

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JJordenj 111. Kate Cassatt (7); IV. Bessie D. 
(7), Uiarricd ^lajor Tlioiuas J. (Ji'egg, U. S. 
.\., has cliildruii, i. Elizabetli, ii. Alartba, iii. 
J^lleii, iv. Alice; V. Henry (7j; VI. I'lora (7;, 
iiianied iu lbb7 to William L. i''ieice, lias 
children, i. Elizabeth, ii. AViliiaui, iii. Ivub- 
ert; \'ll. ^lary S. (7), died iu lijUU, une year 
old; \'ll'i. liobert (7j, died in IbsD, wiiliout 
issue, aged twenty-eight; IX. Philip S. (7j, 
died ill lbG5, ..ged two years; X. Alice .\1. (7j, 
died in -May, 1654, aged eiglitecn. 

Jauies A. -McKnight {S>), iVairtii sou of Wil- 
liam and Catherine (.McL'lurgj -McKniglit, 
married, tii-bt, Martha A. Ogdeu, iutd three 
children; rccoudly, Sarah Al. Khodes, had two 
children; the family is as follows: I. Kliza O. 
(7), (-Mrs. George Breck), has children, 
i. Alary, ii. George; II. Mary (7), deceased; 
III. Bobeita (7); IV. Stella S. (7); V. Wil- 
liam It. (7). 

(leorge S. AIcKnight, fifth son of AVilliain 
and Catherine (McClurg) Alclvuight, had by 
liis first marriage, with Caroline Yoe, no i>sue; 

by his second marriage, with Amelia , 

he liad children: I. Isabella (7); II. William 
(7): 111. Alary (7). 

Chai'lcs .McKiiight (0), sixth son of Wil- 
liam and Catherine (AlcCliirg) .\fcKuight, 
born Sc]itcml)er 24, 1826, unimed Jeauie 
Baird and had children: I. Thomas II. 15. (7); 
II. Ellen (7); IIL Charles, Jr. (7), man-ied 
Eliza Wilson, has children, i. Bachrl, ii. 
Charles, iii. Bobcrt; IV. Alary B. (7); V. 
Jeanie (7): VI. Eliza (7). 

The descendants of Isabella AlcKnight (5), 
eldest daughter of-AIoses and Alai-y (Barker) 
AIcEniglit, and her husband, Jauies Ball, are 
as f.ilh.wv: T. William AlcK. ((>), married 
Airs. Bachel Jewett, widow, had one child, 
James 11. (7); II. Alary (6); III. Susan 
(()); IV. Hannah (6), born Alay 10, 1810, 
died Alay ?>, 1887, was married in 18:59 to 
Samuel D. N^ewlin, who was born Octolier 1, 
■ISO.-), died July 2.'), 188.-., had children, as 
follows, i. James B. (7), born September 2.5, 

1840, died , married, in 1877, Emma 

J. Clark, ii. Charles Al. (7), born August 12, 
1842. died niuuarried July 3, 1894, iii. Har- 
riet T. (7), born September 18, 1843, iv. 
Alary A. (7), born Februarv, 1840; v. 
Alonzo (7), bora May 27, 1847,' died July 1, 
1892, married, in 1871, Anna J. Jones, who 
was born iu 1850, had three children, Dorii, 
bi.rn l'>72, Alonzo, born 1874, and James .\., 

born 1875, vi. Jessie (7), died iu infancy; 
V. James W. (6), boni"November 28, 1814, 
died Alay 22, 1801, married Ann Grithn, had 
one child that died in infancy; VI. Jesse 
Barker ((J), born Novemljer 12, 1818, died 
January 17, 1890, married, in 1851, Alarj' O. 

Draper, who was born , died in 1872; 

their children are, i. Isabella AIcK. (7), born 
January 17, 1852, married, in 1809, to 
William L. Hanna, who was born December 
25, 1848, has children, 1. Alary E. (8), (Mrs. 
William K. lliggins), born October 24, 1870, 
died Septcnd)er 28, 1895, had cliildi-en, Heis- 

Jer (9), bom iu 1891, and Mary (9), born in 
1893; 2. James B. (8), born July 30, lb73, 
died February 4, 1890; 3. Willard E. (Sj, 
born December 5, 1875; 4. Lulu E. (8), born 
X'o\-ember 10, 1878; 5. Jesse B. (8), born 
June IS, 1881; 0. Annabel (8), born Novem- 

■ber 4, 1880; 7. Laura E. (8), bora June 10, 
1889; ii. James Washington (7), born Alarch 

7, 1854, died iu 1885, uuirricd Alatilda Lister, 
had one child, James B. (8), born January 
25, 1872; VII. Annabella (0), bora October 
10, 1820, died October 5, 1885, man-ied 
Charles F. Town), who died in 1880, had 
children, i. Anna (7), born in 1845, died 
Ajtril 24, 1885, was juarried in 1807 to El- 
wood AlcKee, had one child, Francis T. (8), 
born January 30, IbOM, married October 10, 
1895, to Harriet Afitchcll, who was bom June 
27, 1870, ii. James Ball (7), ])orn Xoveniber 
18, 1853, died in February, 1857. 

The descendants of Bachel l^arker, third 
daughter of Samuel and Bachel (Ball) Bar- 
■kcr, l)orii Oct(Jicr 24, 1709, dicil December 
31, 1S5S, was luarried .June l.'l, 1794, to 
Josejdi Evans, a brntlicr of Oliver Kvans, the 
inventor, bom August 0, 1760, are as follows: 

I. Ann (5), born X^ovenibcr 15, 1795, died 
unmarried July 7, 1812. 

II. Alary ("Polly"), (5), born Se])teniber 

8, 1797, died Xovember 8, 1SS5, married to 
John Bobiuson, had children, i. ]\lary A. (0), 
(Mrs. Fisher), had six children, Benjamin Cr. 
(7), Alacy A., Evans B., Sallic E., Alartha 
and Joseph, Charlotte, Shadrach T., 
Grace and James vS. ; iii. Elinor J. H. (G) 
(Afrs. Lsaac Amos), had six children, Benja- 
min S. (7), Sarah F., Joseph E., Alartha E., 
.\iniie E., auil Calvin Amos; iv. George (0), 
had one child, Charles Evans (7); v. Thomas 
E. (0), had seven cliildren, Frances (7), 
William ^1.. Elizabeth B., Macv, Josephine, 

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Xaomi J. and Roberta; vi. Kacliel S. (0) 
(Mi-s. Nathan Ueau), had seven ehil(h-eu, 
AVilliam E. (7), Joseph E., Nathan II., IKiiry 
li., John L., -Mary A. and ^Morris M.; vii. 
John (0), died in 1824, aged three yeai-s; viii. 
Enincis A. (0), died in 182G, aged one year; 
ix. Joseph E. (C), born September 15, 1817, 
died September 27, 1891, married Lavinia 
Price; X. Asbui-y (G), died in infancy. 

III. Leah (5), born Alareh 3, ISOO, died 
August 2y, 18C9, was married in ilay, 1824, 
to Francis A. \Vhitaker, wlio was born in Xo- 
vember, 1799, died in ^larch, 18713, had 
children, i. Emeliiie (G), born June 5, lb25, 
married Dr. Samuel B. Irwin, who died ^lay 
19, 189G, had four children, 1. Anbury E. 
(7), 2. Samuel, .'3. Ella V. (-Mrs. J. II. (ilis- 
son), and 4. Alphonso, who married Anna 
Hires, and had two children, I). Hayes A. and 
!Margai-et A.; ii. Kacliel E. (G), born Marcli 

1, 1827, mamed tii-st to Kev. W. Camiibell, 
had cliildren, 1. Annie E., 2. "William, after- 
wards married Johnson Simj)es, and had 
children, 1. Jolni F., 2. E. Everett; iii. Jo- 
seph E. (G), bom October 29, 1.S29, died 
June 7, 1853; iv. Eliza A. (G), born January 
23, 1833, married Dr. Charles T. Simpers, 
had children, Francis W. (7), Gertrude, 
Charles T., Alfred S., J. Ford and Eliza W .; 

V. William II. (G), born February 19, 1835, 
married, in 18G3, ^lary E. Xeafie, had 
children, 1. Jacob N. (7), who married Keba 
Xoblit, and had two children, Jacob N. (8), 
and Ethel L., both of whom died in infancy; 

2. Anna L. (7) (ilrs. Horace Hchnbold), who 
had three children, Jacob X. (8), Horace IL, 
and one that died an infant; vi. Frances L. 
(6), bom December 17, 1837, was married, 
in 18G6, to Rev. James H. Payran, has four 
children, James II. (7), Mary L., Olive W. 
and Alice A. 

IV. Rachel (5), t\vin sister of Leah, born 

March 3, 1800, died , married James 

Tweed, of Delaware; V. Thomas J. (5), born 
December 7, 1801, died young, unmarried; 

VI. Evan "W. (5), bom November 8, 1803, 
died young, unmarried; VII. Jesse Barker 
(5), bom October 12, 1805, died young, un- 
married; VITI. Oliver F. (5), born July 25, 
1807, married, died without issue; IX. Ab- 
ner P.arker (5), bom IMarch 5, 1809, diwl 
young, unmarried; X. Oeorge (5), liorn 
March G, 1811, died young, unmarried; XL 

' Joseph (5), born December 20, 1812, died 
young, unmarried. 

The descendants of Esther Barker (4), 
second daughter of Samuel and Rachel (Rail) 
Barker, born in August, 1757, died May 27, 
1810, married to Theophilus Evans, a brother 
of Oliver Evans, the inventor, born Septem- 
ber 23, 1753, died December 2G, 1809, are as 
follows: I. William (5), born X'ovember 2G, 
1785, died December 30, 1818; II. Mary 
("Polly") (5), l)oni in June, 1789, died Sep- 
tember 21, lhG7, was married to James 
Drumniond, who died June 9, 182G, aged 
about thirty-two, had children, i. Evan, born 
August 25, LS18, died without is.sue June 
29, 1S43; ii. Mary A. E. ((J), born N'ovendx-r 
G, 1820, died April 21, 1890, married .May 
24, 1842, to Hiram Ball, who was born Sep- 
tendjer 3, 1819, died December 11, 1891, had 
nine children, of whom six were li\-ing in 
189G; iii. John Wesley (G), bom January 20, 
1825, died September 13, 188!), man-ied" Cor- 
delia E. Standiford, XWendjer 27, 1851; 
III. Ann (5), who died June 20, 1845, un- 
married; IV. Rachel (5), born in 1791, died 
-March 10, 1865, unmarried; V. Cliaries (5), 
born in 1794, died :\Iay 22, 18G8; VI. John 
(5), bom ]\Inrch 8, 1801, died October 23, 

The children of Mary A. E. Drumniond 
(G~), eldest child of James and Mary (Evans) 
Drumniond, and her husband Hiram Ball, 
were as follows: I. ;Marietta (7) (Mrs. 
AVilliam F. Ely), bom March 23, 1843, died 
A\m\ 4, 1883, had chil.lren, i. Caroline (8) 
(Ah-s. Grant); ii. AVilliam F. ; iii. Janied L. 
(8); iv. Charles E. (S); v. Frank (8); vi. 
John B. (8); vii. Bettie (8); viii. Alarj- E. 
(8); ix. Thaddeus (8); II. Georgiana (7) 
(Airs. J. C. Ely), born February 7, 1845, has 
children, i. Anna il. (8); ii. Lillian E. (8); 
iii. (iertrude E. (8); iv. James E. (8); IIL 
AVilliam E. (7), bom January 13, 1847, died 
October 10, 1847; IV. Elizabeth S. (7) 
(Airs. John Hess), has children, i. Alollie AL 
(8); ii. Jennie E. (8); iii. Rachel E. (8); iv. 
James B. (8); v. Edward AL (8); vi. Frank 
E. (8); y\\. Delmar (8); viii. Alyrtle \. (8); 
Y. Rachel E. (7), born April 21, 1851, mar- 
ried in 187G to Charles Hess, has children, 
i. Charies B. (8); ii. Emma E. (8); iii. James 
B. (8); iv. Alary A. (8); v. XVllie AL (8); 
AM. John W. (7), born Alay 1, 1854, mar- 

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ried ^fartlia J. Curry, who was born in 1851), 
lias fliildreii, i. Charles ('. (8); ii. Mary K. 
(8); iii. Xellie (S); iv. James Chandler (8); 
V. Carrie L. (8); VII. Charles D. (7), born 
Jiilv 24, Lsr.d; Vlir. James D. (7), born 
]\Iareh 28, 18(ii); IX. Franklin E. (7j, bom 
]\Iareh 2C, ISGl, died July 8, 180-t. 

Followiufr is a record of the descendants 
of Daniel Jiarker (2), son of Samuel liarker 
(1), of Xcw Castle county, Del., 1085: 

Daniel Barker (2) died about 1750. lie 
inan-ied Elizabeth Nicliolas; they had ^ix 
children, as follows: I. Doreas (.3); 11. 
IU)bert (.1), the eldest son, was nmrried Octo- 
ber 10, 1704, to Deborah Jordan, in Old 
Swedes' eliurch, Wilmington; III. John (ii), 
was married in Old Swedes' elnireh, Wiinung- 
ton, Del., September II, 170.';, to ^liriam 
Craip, and was living in 1775; IV. Nieholas 
(3), born -May 8, 1737, died :March 24, l.s20, 
niarrie<l Uannah Allen; V. Sanniel (3), mar- 
ried -Margaret Cireentield, April 25, 1703, in 
Old Swedes' eliureh, AVihiiiugton; \\. 
Elizabeth (3) (Mrs. Barry). 

I'iie descendants of Xieholas Barker (3), 
third son of Daniel and Elizabeth (Nicholas) 
Barker, and his wife Hannah Allen, accord- 
ing to data furnished by Anderson il. Bar- 
ker, of Kem]rs ilills, X. C, are as follows: 
Xieholas Marker, niamed Hannah, daughter 
of John and I'hebe Allen, who was born July 
10, 1741, died December 10, 1834; they 
settled ill Baudolph co\inty, X. C., and had 
six children: I. -Vmy (4) (Mi's. Charles C!ox), 
l)orn January 18, 1704, died May 1!), 1839; 
IT. Elizalietii (4), born May 17,' 1700, died 
of cancer while on the way {(> Indiana; 111. 
Abner (4), bom August il, 17(iH, date of 

death unknown, nuirried Lydia , and 

removed to Indiana, they had children, i. -\a- 
than (5), ii. Xieholas "(5); IV. John (4), 
born April 7, 1771, died April 3, 184:», mar- 
ried fii-st Mary Osborne, and secondly, Itutli 
^[endenhalh had children by both man-iages, 
as follows: i. Simeon (5), born October 1!', 
1703; ii. Xieholas (5), born October 3(1, 
1705; iii. ]\Iatthew (5), born Xovemlxr 11, 
1707; iv. ]\!ary (5), bom Xovember i:», 
1700; v. Edith" (5), bom March 3, ISOI ; vi. 
Bachel (5), bom December 8, 18112; vii. 
Amy (5), born August 7, 1804; viii. Enoch 
(5),' born December 20, 1800; ix. John (5), 
bom ]\rarcli 11, 1800; .x. Elizabeth (5), bom 
February 9, 1811; .xi. David (5), born .\n- 

gust 10, 1814; all these children of John Bar- 
ker went to reside in Indiana; V. Isaac (4), 
born December 4, 1773, married tirst Hannah 

Davis, secondly, .Mary ; he removed 

to Indiana; VI. Enoch (4), born September 
0, 1770, died.Sei)tendH-r 14, lS4,s, was mar- 
ried about 1800, in Cane (^-eek meeting- 
iiouse, Chatham county, X. C, to Elizabeth, 
daughter of John and -Mary Davis, who was 
born' December 20, 1782, died Xovend-er 30, 
1834. Their children were, i. Sarah (5), 
ii. Daniel (5), iii. Xieholas (5), iv. John (5), 
v. Isaac (5), vi. Seth (5), vii. an infant, bom 
February 22, 1814, viii. ^lary (5), ix. 
Hannah' (5), x. Elisha (5), .xi. Thomas (5). 

Xathau Barker (5), elder son of Abner 
and Lydia Barker, was born April 23, 1702, 

niari-ie'd Ruth , I'orn December 5, 

1707, and removed to Indiana; they had 
children, as follows: T. Hannah (0), bora 
February 28, 181 G; II. Lydia (0), born 
March 2, 1818; IIL IsUry (0), born October 
10, KSIO; IV. Charles (0), born December 
17[ 1S21 ; V. Achsah CO), bom February 14, 
l,s21; VL Abner (0), born July 20, 1820. 

Nicholas F.arkcr (5), younger son of Ab- 
nc^r and Lvdia Liarker, marrit'd Sarah Purvoe, 
and had 'chihlren: I. Abner (01, living in 
1S!>0; 11. Bebecca (0), living in ISOO; IH. 
Sarah (0), living in 1800; IV. Lydia (0), 
living in 1800; V. Hannah (0), decea.sed; 
VI. Thonuis CO, died in Indiana; VII. Ban- 
doli)h (0), died in Indiana. 

The descendants of Kno<-h (4) and Eliza- 
beth (Davis) B.arker were as follows: 

I. Sarah (5), born Novenilier 2'.), 1801, 
died October Ki, ISKI, married .Luiuary 1, 
1S24, to Thomas Cox; 

II. Daniel (5), born October 7, 1803, died 
January 1, 1802; married February 17, 
1825, to Lydia Cox, had children, i. Bebecca 
(0), boi'n .January 15, 1820, died Xovember 
10, 1827, ii. Enocli (<i), bom September 20, 
1S27, nun-ried Bliebe Lee, iii. -Vsenath (O, 
born June '5, 1820, married to Oideon Cox, 
Septendicr 13, 1858, iv. Bridget (((), born 
.\ngu-t 27, 1830, married first Samuel An- 
derson, seeciudly, E. Lee, v. Malilon (0), born 
Sei)tendier 10, 1833, died July 12, 1803, mar- 
ried September 7, 185',l, to Bhebe ^lenJen- 
hall, had two children, Solomon 1'-. (7), of 
Wilminiiton, Del., and .Vndevson .M. (7), of 
ICemp'^ Mills. X. C: vi. Sarah (0), l,om Xo- 
\cniber 5, is;i5, died Januarv 5, l.s02, \\\. 

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Elizabeth (0), Lorn Jamiary -l^, 1S3S, mar- 
ried W. Lloyd, viii. Elzeua (U) (.Mrs. \V. 
Shields), bora March '6\, 184U, ix. Caleb 
(0), born March 7, l64ii, married Laura 
Qiiate, X. Sophia (Ci) (,Mi-s. Frank Marley), 
born April 4, 1844, xi. Daniel (G), born 
]\Iarch \-l, 1JS40, married Louisa IMills, xii. 
Keveus (0), born ]\rarch 12, 1S49, maiTied 
Mary IMartin; 

IIL JSI^icholas (5), born September 11, 
1805, died May IG, 184G, married November 
S, 1S27, to Catharine Cox, has children, i. 
Jouatlian (G), born October 24, 1828, died 
April 16, 1850, ii. Elizabeth (G), born Sep- 
tember 1, 1830, died October IS, 1852, iii. 
Mary (6) (Mre. Thomas T. Ilinshaw), born 
December 10, 1832, iv. Simeon (G), born 
September 14, 1835, married Ivuth Ilinshaw; 
V. Ezra (G), born Fcbrnary 10, l>>;iS, mamed 
in Indiana, vi. Cyrus (G), born Septend;er 
S, 1840, married in Indiana, vii. Nathan (G), 
born March 7, 1843, married M. Ilinshaw, 
^^ii. Amy (6) (ilrs. J. II. Craven), born Oc- 
tober 5, ISiG; 

IV. John (5), bom February 12, 1807, 
died December 28, 1890, married iMarcli 20, 
1S32, to Anna Cox, had children, i. Phcbe' 
(G), bom January 18, 1833, ii. Elizabeth 
(G), born February 22, 1835, iii. :Mary (6), 
born May 30, 1837, iv. Isaac (G), born Sep- 
tember 15, 1839, V. Eebecca (G), born Feb- 
ruary 27, 1842, vi. Esther (G), born April 
24, 1845, vii. Sarah (G), born December 1, 

V. Isaac (5), bom January 19, ISIO, died 
in 1820; 

VL Seth (5), bom August 13, 1812, died 
in 1894, married Margaret Cox; their child- 
ren are, \. Catharine (C) (ilrs. L. AVard), 
born November 11, 1834. ii. Elizabeth (G), 
bom September 23, 1836, first ^rifc of J. Ilin- 
shaw, iii. Hannah (6), bom December 13, 
1838, iv. Iluldah (6), bom December 1, 
1840, second wife of J. Ilinsliaw, v. Itachel 
(G), bom March 25, 1842, vi. ^[^vy (6), born 
October 25, 1844, vii. Seth (G),'bom Feb- 
ruary 18, 1847, \\\\. Eenjamiu (6), born 
January M, 185] ; 

VII. An infant (5), born Februarv 22, 

VIII. ilary (5) {^Ivs. Da\ad Fariow), bora 
Sejiteudier 20. 1815; 

IX. Hannah (5) (Mrs. Mahlon Hackett), 
born Alarch 5, 1818; 

X. Klisha (5), burn April 15, ISi'ii, mar- 
ried Hannah J. Allen, removed to Indiana, 
has children, i. Amelia (G), bom Sejjtember 
24, 1855, ii. Martha (G), bom May 25, 1858, 
iii. John (Inrncv (G), bom December IS, 

XI. Thomas (5), bom July 16, 1827, mar- 
ried J. Little. 


]\[iddletown, New Ca-tle county, Del., son of 
tlie late Samuel and Anne Jtebecca ( King- 
giild) Comegys, was Imi'ii in Kent cuunty, 
-Md., L\Liy 24, 1M5. Following are the 
records of his paternal and maternal ancestry: 
The duuieijijs FainUij. — Cornelius Co- 
megys, the pioneer imnugrant of the family, 
became a resident of Kent county, .Md., about 
the year 1670, and with his family was na- 
turalized in 1672, by an act of a.ssenibly 
(Chapter 29), entitled: "The humble peti- 
tion of Hansen Cornelius Comegys, the elder, 
ilillimenty Comegys, his wife, Cornelius Co- 
megys, the younger, Elizabeth Comegys, 
William Comegys and Hannah (^omegys, 
their children." They settled on the Chester 
liiver, and the oi-iginal homestead remained 
in the family until the early part of the pres- 
ent century; it was the heritage of Cornelius 
Comegys, 2, from whom the "Quaker Neck" 
branch of the family has ita descent. 

William Comegys, younger sou of Come- 
lius and ]\rillimenty Comegys, went ta 
Crumpton, Aid., then known as ifcAllister's 
Ferry. He had one son, William Comegys, 
2, who married Ann Cosden, Novendjer 28, 
1734. Their children were: I. John, bom 
Februar}- 4, 173G; II. Alethea, born June 9, 
1737, manied Joseph Ireland; III. and IV. 
twins, Al])heus and .Mphonso, bom Decem- 
ber 15, 1738; V. Edward, bom January 13. 
1741; VI. Nathaniel, bom Februarv 23, 
1745; VII. Ann, born June 2^, 1747; 
VIII. Jesse, born October 30, 1749; IX. 
Edward William, born April 2, 1752; X and 
XI. twins, Jonathan and Elizabeth, born 
February 7, 1757: XIL Cornelius 3, born 
July 4, 1758. William Comegvs died Alarch 
29, 17G4. 

John C'omeg^s, eldest son of AVilliam and 
Ann (Cosden) Comegys, was married October 
15, 1757, to Sarah Spencer, and had children: 

I. Samuel, was marn'erl Jainiarv 15. 

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17S0, to ~Mary (iloanes, and had cliil- 
(lieii, i. John, ii. Sarah, iii. Margaix-t, 
iv. Saninc'L Sanaiel Coniegys was inaniud 
again, February 14, 17!>1, to J\Iary Freeman, 
an.l liad cliiklren, i. Freeman, ii. -Mary, iii. 
Nathaniel, iv. Samuel, v. Juiward F., horn 
Ai>ril o, 17'JT, married iliss Farly, uf Ahi- 
Lama, had children, John, (ieorge and Kate, 
and by a second marriage liad two sons, W'ill- 
iam and Fdward, was still a resident of Ala- 
bama, September Iti, 1S75, vi. William, vii. 
-Miilinienta (Mrs. Thomas J. Mann), had 
tliree children, ilary Ann, Joseph and 
Samuel, viii. ^\'ashil,lgton, married Miss 
Palmei-, had eiiildren, Samuel William, 
(Jcorge \\'. and John E.; was married again 
to Leonora Xewman, and had three children, 
Washington, Alary and Henry; his eldest 
son, Samuel William Comegys, married (!. 
A. C. JMassey, June 20, 184S, and had two 
children, Annie -M. aiul Charles E. ; 
II. John; 

lir. Ann, born September 4, 17G3; 
ly. Isaac, born June 9, 1705; 
V. Jcrns, born August 8, 1768; 
A'l. William; 
YIT. Sarah; 

VIII. Nathaniel, born December 10, 
1771, married Hannah ilyers, and had 
children ; 

i. John ^fvers, married Mrs. Anna W. 
(Comegys) liinggold, November 20, 1824, 
a daughter of Nathaniel and Franciua (Wor- 
rell) Comegys, and widow of James King- 
gold; the children of this marriage were: 1. 
Nathaniel W., maiTied January 15, ISTii), to 
Helen, daughter of (ieorge Wilson and .Mar- 
garet (Kinggold) Spencer, had two children, 
(ieorge Siiencer and'John ]\I., 2. Haniiah, 
married November 27, 1849, to John F. Xew- 
man, liad live ('hildren, John F., Emma, Ella, 
Bessie and Tfobert Lee, 3. Anna, nuuTied 
December 15, 1853, to Stuart II. Emory, has 
five chihlreu, Kate, Anna, Stuart Ti., John 
\M. C. ami William N. John ilyers Comegys 
died in Ids seventy-seventh year, February 

ii. Samuel, married November 20, 1832, to 
Anne KcbiH'ca, daughter of James and Sarah 
(Williamson) Kinggold, had children: 1. 
Sarah AVilliamson (Airs. "Williani Emory), 
who had five children, William Comegys, 
ilarj', Anna, Alice and Samuel Comegys; 2. 
Mary Keliecca (Afrs. John W. Ireland), has 

si.K children, Emma, William, Herman, 
Louisa, May and Hallie; 3. Anna Elizabetli, 
deceased; 4. John .Myers, now residing in tlie 
West; 5. Samuel, married Ella, daughter of 
John F. and Anna (Comegys) Newman; 0. 
William Alexander; 7. Milliminta; S. 
Hannah Myei-s (,Mi-s. William It. Kose), of 
Talbot county, Aid., has throe children, Wil- 
liam, Anna Kose and Sophie; 'J. Kichard 
Williamson, who married Susan Foster, of 
(^leen Anne county, Md., and has five chil- 
dren; U). Fdward Thomas, who married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of James W. Ilurtt, of Kent 
county, Aid., and has one daughter; IT. Na- 
thaniel, Avho man-ied Catherine Kose, of Tal- 
bot county. Aid., and has five children, So- 
phia, Kose, AValtcr, Charles, Nannie and 

Ali)honso Comegys, fourth child of AVil- 
liani and Ann (Cosden) Comegys, married and 
had children: 

I. .John, who married Ann, daughter of 
Jonathan and Mary ((iriffith) Comegys, and 
had children, i. Alplionso, married Sarah F. 
Alorgan, and had one son, John E. , ii. Fran- 
cis, iii. Ann Alaria; 

II. Francis. 

Nathaniel Comegys, sixth ehihl of Williani 
and Ann (Co.sden) Comegys, nuirned Hannah 
Wallace, and had children: 

I. Williani, who married Elizabeth, daugli- 
ter of Colonel John AVard, of Cecil county, 
Aid.; Colonel AVard was a Kevolutionary sol- 
dier, and his great-gran<lchildren, resident in 
Kent county. Aid., have in their ])ossession 
the epaulettes which he wore at the battle of 
Long Island. The only child of William and 
Elizabetli (War;l) Comegys was John Ward, 
who on August 0, 1820, niamed his cousin, 
Ann Alaria, daughter of John and Ann (Co- 
megys) Comegys, and had children, i. 
(!('(»rgia, married February 25, 1845, to Ed- 
wai-d W. Comegys, has cliildren, Alary A''ir- 
glnia, Columbia, Stimmei-field, Edward Glan- 
ville and John AVard, ii. A^irginia E. , iii. 
AVilliam, iv. Indiana Af., v. John Ward; 

If. Hannah, born in 1771, married Ken- 
jamin Comegys, ami had one sou, Bartis Co- 
megys, who on October 13, 1818, mamcd 
Evelina AL, daughter of A''achel Doi-sey, of 
Baltimore, ]\Id., and had children, i. Eliza- 
beth I). (Afrs. K..bert AV. Cliffe). ii. Benja- 
min, married ]\Iary, daughter of Williani F. 
Bartlette, iii. John P., married (leorgina 

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Mitchell, and has five children, 15artis, Eve- 
lina M., Harry D., P. and C'aruliiiL', iv. Es- 
sex 1)., V. Pliilip T. , vi. ('atlieriiie ( '. , vii, 
SalJic M., viii. ilary C. ; 

III. Jolm. 

Natlianiel Coinegj's, by a second marriage, 
■\vitli Francina Worrell, had one dangliter: 

I. Ann Worrell Coniegys, married James 
King-gold, and had two cliildren, i. -Mary, ii. 
Francina; after the death of .Mr. Uinggold 
she married John Myers C'omegys, and iiad 
clnldren, i. Xathaniel \\'., ii. Hannah, iii. 

Jesse Coniegys, eighth child of William 
and Ann (Cosden) Coniegys, married ,Mary • 
Everett, and had children : 

I. Cornelius; 

II. Maria; 

TIT. Sarah, who married Jolm Wallace, 
and had children, i. Frank, ii. So[)hia, iii. 
Cornelius, iv. Araniinta, v. Conu'gys, ^i. 
Eenjanun, vii. John, viii. Artliur. 

Jonatiian Coniegys, tentii cliiid of William 
and Ann (Cosden) Comegys, married Mary 
Griffith, and had children: 

I. Ann, born June 21, 1775, married Au- 
gust 2!t, 1707, to John Comegys, liad children, 
i. .\l]dionso, ii. Francis, iii. Ann Maria; 

II. Fdward; 

II r. Klizabetli, married first, Jacob Ab- 
bott, and had one son, Jacob Abbott, 2; af- 
terwards she married Samuel Brown, of jSTcw 
Jersey, and hail one son, Thomas Comegys 

IV. i\Iary; 
Y. Ariana; 

A^I. Jonathan, who was married, Jannarv 
12, ISIT), to Harriet Stradley, and had chil- 
dren, i. Mary, ii. Edward William, who mar- 
ried (ieorgia, daughter of Jolm Ward and 
Ann ilaria Comegys, and hail five children, 
!Mary Virginia, (Columbia, Siimmertield, Ed- 
■ward Glanville and John AVard, iii. Sarah 
A., man-ied first to B. F. Harris, of Pittsburg, 
I'a., and had two children, Cornelia and 
Franklin, afterwards became ^Irs. McLean, 
and had one daughter, Emma, iv. l-'.liza, \'. 

Ariana, married Stewart, of Penn- 

sylvaiua, and had si.x children, Frank, Har- 
riet, Tanthns, Edward, ^lansfield and Ida. 

Cornt'lius (\)iiiegys, 3, twelfth and young- 
est child of William and Ann (Cosden) Co- 
megys, was a gallant soldier, and in his event- 
ful career displayed alike in war and in |ii'ace 

many admirable traits. He left Cliarlestown, 
;M(1., July 1, 1770, as a sergeant in the "Fly- 
ing Camp." On its way to Fort \\'ashington 
the regiment stopped in Philadelphia; there 
he passed the memorable I'onrth of July, 
1770, the natal day of our country, which 
happened to be the young officer's own eigh- 
teenth birthday, and shared the joyful and 
sublime emotions of that aus]ti<'io)is moment. 
.\fter the fall of Fort Washington, he was en- 
trusted with the care of the invalid soldiers, 
to eonduct them safe to Ilackensack, X. J. 
I'pon the exjiiration of his term of enlistnienr, 
he again entered the army, and served as en- 
sign under <Ieneral AVashiiigton at \\'hite- 
mai-sh, after the battle of (iermantown. He 
went to Philadelphia directly after the evacu- 
ation of that city by the British troojjs in Sep- 
tember, 1778; and when the government was 
organized, under the Articles of Confedera- 
tion, <'ornelius Ctimegys was appointed to a 
clerkship in the Treasury Department, and to 
him was assigned the duty of preparing and 
countersigning the Continental currency. 

In 17^2 Cornelius (Jomegys, 3, retired 
from jndilie life, anil entered the counting- 
room of Willing A- Morris, in which Kobert 
^lorris, the renowned financier, was a ])artner. 
.Mr. Comegys soon became a favorite with the 
tirm, and in 17S4, a.ssisted by the credit of 
the acting partners, he began business as an 
importer ui dry goods. The same diligence, 
courage and faithfulness which had made him 
a brave and valuc'd soldier, now won the es- 
teem anil cunfidence of all who had business 
dealings with him, either as suliordinate or as 

On July 4, 1840, the day on which he com- 
])le{ed his eighty-second year, he wmte the 
history of his honorable and eventful life for 
the use of his (diildren. 

Cornelius Comegys, 3, was first married to 
^liss Paul, of Philadelphia, who died without' 
issue. His second wife was Catherine Baker; 
their children were: I. Hannah (^Irs. ila- 
sun), had one daughter, Kate (ilrs. Smith); 
II. Julia \. (^Irs. Sargent); III. Josejihine, 

first wife, and IV. Ella, second wife of 

(lilmore; \. Jacob, married iliss Lee, of 
Boston, ^fass; VI. ^fortimer, died young. 

The Iliii</(/okl FaniiUj. — In 10r)0 Thomas 
Uinggold came to Kent county, ^Id., with his 
two sons, John and Jame^i; he was then in 
his fortieth year. About the year 1057, or 

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before that date, Thomas Einggold was mar- 
ried a sccdiid time, to -Mrs. (Mu-istian Ilili, 
widow of 'I'homas 1 1 ill, Sr., wiiosc entire 
laii(h'il estate ]\fr. TJiiigpold secured liy a deed 
exeeiited Xoveiubcr 5, ](i57, to 'J'homas Hill, 
Jr. To his sous, James and >rohn liiiigfiojd, 
he eonveyed, December 2, KitJl, '"the one- 
half of his land called Tluntiiigtield, which 
is in estimation twelve luiiidred acres, lying 
on the east side of the Chc-sapeakc J Jay." 

.Major James Ringgold, of Iliuitingtield, 
"lord of the nianor on Eastern Neck," son of 
I'homas Kinggold, was twice married. By 
his tii-st wife he had one son, Thomas Ring- 
gold, '2. His second wife was Mary, daughter 
oi Cajitain Itobert Vaugliti; their children 
were: I. William; IT. John; III. James; 
IN'. Charles. ^lajor Janus Ringgold died in 


Thomas Kinggold, 2, eldest son of Major 
James Ringgold, was lirst married to Sarah 

, who died, leaving an only son, 

Thomas Ringgold, 8. lie was again married, 
iSeptember 17, KUtO, to ^lary, daughter of 
]\Iarmaduke and Kebecca Tylden; she died 
Sei)tendier T), 1708, leaving children: I. Sarah, 
luqiti/cd Scptendier 2!», 1700; II. Klias, bom 
Scplcmbcr (>, 1702; III. James; IV. Joseph. 
'J'homas Ringgold, 2, was buried October 10, 
1711; he left his third wife, Frances, and 
two small children: I. Josias; IT. Jlary Ann; 
the latter was baptized after her father's 
death, April 10, 1712. 

William Kinggold, first son of ilajov 
James and ^lary (Vaughn) Ringgold, mar- 
ried ^lartha , and had children: 1. 

Susanna, wife of T^enjaniin AVickes, son of 
Samuel and Frances (Wilmer) Wickes, ajid 
a direct descendant of ^Fajor Josc]>h Wickes, 
wlio, in 1G51, settled in ivent county, ]\[d., 
where he occupied man}' responsible ])osi- 
tions; II. John; JII. James; IV. Thomas, 
4; y. Tvebecca. William Ringgold survi\ed 
liis wife, and died in 175-1. 

C'harh'tj Ringgold, youngest son of ^fajor 
James and ^lary (Vaughn) Ringgold, was 
married January 17, 1705, to Elizabeth 
I5urke; they had children: I. -Tames, liorn 
June 30, 1709; II. Charies, 2, bom April 
27, 17i;i; III. Vincent, born Auffust 12, 

Thomas Ringgold, 3, eldest son of Thomas, 
2, and Sarah Ringgold, was married Ma\ 1, 
1712, to Rebecca, daughter of Simon and 

Ivebecca Wilmer, the progenitors of the Wil- 
mer family in Kent county, Md., where 
Simon AVilmer was active and influential in 
church and civil affairs; he was elected a 
vestryman of St. T'anl's [jarish, January 24, 
10tt3, and in ItJ'JS represented Kent county 
in the State Legislature. The children of 
Thomas and Ivchecca (Wilmer) Ringgold 
were: T. Thomas, 5, born Decendier 5, 1715; 

II. Ifebeca, baptized June 4, 1727; III. 
William; IV. Sarah (Mrs. Alexander Will- 

.Major William Ringgold, whose estate on 
the Eastern Neck is now styled "The Her- 
mitage," third child of Thomas and Rebecca 
(Wilmer) Ringgohl, was one of the (Commit- 
tee of Safety, (Observation and Correspond- 
ence, during the licvolutionary War, and a 
member of the convention which met at An- 
napolis, August 14, 1770, and formed the 
first Constitution of the State of ilaryland. 
He received his military commission from 
^Matthew Tilghman, president of "The Dele- 
gates of the Freemen of .Maryland in Conven- 
tion." lie was first married, January 1», 1750, 
to Sarah Jones; their children were: T. Dr. 
Jacob Ringgold; II. (Afi-s. Blunt); 

III. Rebecca (Airs. John Williamson), whose 
daughter, Sarah Williamson, married James 
Jiinggold, and had cldldrcn, as follows: I. 
James; IT. Alexander; III. William; IV. 
Richard Williamson, former i)rcsident of 
Washington College, Kent county, .Md.; V. 
Thomas; VI. Sarah AV.; VIT. Anne Re- 
becca (Mi-s. Samuel Comegys), n>other of 
William Alexander Comegys; VIII. :\lary; 
IX. Jacob; X. Washington. 

By his second marriage, to his cousin, 
]\Iary, daiighter of AVilliam and Rosa (Blaek- 
iston) Wilmer, ]\rajor AVilliam Ringgold had 
children: T. AVilliam; II. T'eregrine; HI. 
Hester (.AIi-s. Holland); IV. Henrietta, mar- 
ried to Captain Thomas Harris; A''. ■ 

(Airs. :\Iiller); A'T. Sarah Rebecca; A'lT. 
Eliza; A' I IT. Fannie. 

AVilliam Ringgold, :M. D., son of Major 
AVilliam and .Mary (Wilmer) Ringgold, was 
a member of the Legislature of ^hu-yland 
during the sessions of 1823-24. He married 
]\Tartha, daughter of Hans and Mary (Ilyn- 
son) Hansen. Their children were: I. AVil- 
liam, born in 1704, married ilaria Xicholson; 
TI. T^eregrine, born in 17!I0, married Decem- 
ber 2H, 1822, to yii[ry C, daughter of AVilliam 

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and Mary (Seai-s) Coe ; III. Harriet Rebecca, 
Lorn ill ITHS, married Septeiiibor 7, 1820, 
to John Stevenson Constahle; IV. James 
Alexander, born in ISOO; \. Frederick (Jiis- 
taviis, born in ISOl; VI. ^lary Hansen, bom 
Sejitember 10, 1803, married October it, 
1821, to lion. James IIodi;vs, of Liberty Hail, 
ICent connty, ild., son of James and Alary 
(C'laypole) Hodges. Dr. Jfinggold died Feb- 
rnary 14, 1832.' 

Flias Einggold, eldest son of Thomas, 2, 
and Mary (Tylden) King-gold, was married 
April 15, 1725, to Hilary Hordley; they liad 
one son, Thomas, a posthumous chiM, who 
died very young. Elias Tvinggold died in Xo- 
vember, 1737. In his will, dated in Oetober, 
1737, he mentions his ''loving wife, Mary," 
and provides for his child, then unborn. 

Josias Iiinggold, son of 'Ihomas, 2, and 
Frances Ringgold, was nnirried August 11, 
1730, to Sarah Smith. 'J'heir children wer •: 

1. Thomas, born December 14, 1731; II. 
Thomas, born [March 25, 1734; III. Josias, 

2, born Se].tember 28, 1735; IV. Sarah; V. 
Mary; VI. Ann; VII. Hannah; VIII. 
Rebecca. Josias Ringgold died in 1770. 

Josias Ringgold, 2, third son of .losias and 
Sarah (Smith) Ringgold, had children: I. 
Josias, 3, who was born in 17G2; II. Hen- 
rietta, married Colonel Isaac Perkins, who 
was a son of Ebenezer and Sarah (Banics) 
Perkins, and a distinguished officer in the 

, Continental Anny; he began his military ser- 
vice as captain in the Fourth Battalion of the 
'"Flying Camp," of 177(!; was styled a "Nam- 
ing patriot;" was a delegate to the Maryland 
Convention which ratitieil the Constitution of 
the United States, April 28, 1788; being 

. wealthy and influential in Kent county, ^Id., 
is said to have raised and fully equipped at 
his o^\^l expense, a company for the service 
of the colonies in the Rcvolutionarv struggle; 
III. Sarah. 

Josias Ringgold, 3, son of Josias Ringgold, 
2, married ]\Iarv, daughter of Charles and 
Sarah (Kennard) (iroome, in 1802. Their 
children were: I. Josias, 4; II. Sarah Ann; 
III. Charles; IV. ilary Ann, married Feb- 
ruary G, 1827, to Dr. Jacob Fisher, son of 
Rev. Isaac and Bathsheba Fisher, who was 
born December 2, 179G, sen'cd as register of 
wills of Kent coimty, Aid., died February IS, 
1859; their chiMrcn were, i. ^\^^r^• .Matilda, 
ii. Alfred Henry, iii. Samuel Croome, iv. 

Jacob Frederick, v. Josias Ringgold, vi. 
Isaac Montgomery, vii. Clorinda Cornelia, 
viii. Ringgold AVilliams, ix. Charles Joseph 
Croome, x. Henry Theodore, xi. Flla Theo- 
dora; V. Henrietta (Iroome (Mrs. Joscjih 
Rasin), had children, i. Atlce, ii. Joseph, 
uuirried Sarah Paca; VI. AVilliani (Jroome. 

Josias Ringgold, 4, eldest son of Josias and 
ilary (Groome) Ringgold, was married in 
December, 182G, to .\nn Fliza Cruikshank; 
they had children: I. William Groome; II. 
Ann Elizabeth, married October 31, 18G7, to 
.lolin Kennard Aldridge, has one child, Eliza- 
beth Bella; III. Sarah Hem-ietta, married 
first to iliilfonl lilackiston, and had children, 
i. Emma Ringgold, ii. Laura, iii. James 
Thomas; she afterwards married Major Rich- 
ard Smyth; IV. Alary (iroome, married Octo- 
ber 7, 1857, to James Henry Price, has chil- 
di'en, i. Anna, ii. Josias, iii. Alary Belle, iv. 
.\nnie; afterwards married Benjamin Black- 
iston Wroth, and had children, i. Charles; ii. 
Kelvin, iii. Elizabeth, iv. Benjamin lilack- 
iston, v. William Groome; V. Josias, 5, 
married December 14, 1SG5, to Catherine 
(■amble, has children, i. Emily W., ii. Wil- 
liam (iroome, iii. R(J)crt Gandile, iv. Edna; 
\\. Isabella Sluby, married October 31, 
18GG, to James A. Cruik.shank, M. D., of 
Louisiana, has children, i. James, ii. Robert; 
yn. Laura Eugenia, married in Xovendier, 
18G2, to John Kennard Aldridge, has chil- 
dren, i. AVilliam, ii. John Henry; VIII. Cath- 
erine Browne. 

The early years of Williani Alexander Co- 
megys were spent in his native county, where 
he enjoyed the advantages of an excellent edu- 
cation. In 18G2, when about seventeen years 
old, he left Kent county, Aid., for Smyrna, 
L)el., where he remained about three years, 
as salesman in a general store. Returning in 
18G5 to his home, he was for two yeai-s nccn- 
pied in farming, after which, in 18G7, he went 
to Baltimore, Aid., as clerk in the State Grain 
Ins])ector's office, having been appointe<l to 
that jiosition by Governor Bowie. In 1^71 
he again returned to his native county, anil 
was engaged until 1873 in mercantile bu-^i- 
ness, at Kennedyville. From 1873 to 1SS3 
Air. C(»megys was a dealer in grains and ag- 
ricultural implements at Aliddletown, Xew 
Castle county, Del.; in the latter year he 
disposed of his business in order to assume tlie 
position of teller in the AIiddleto\vn Xational 

I ■ I 



Bank. In Xovember, 18S2, ho Lad been 
elected ou the Democratic ticket to the State 
Lcgishiturc, and in the fall of 1S.S4 he was 
re-elected; being chosen speaker of the 
House of Ivei)rcsentativc3 during this scssicm; 
he resigned his position in the National ]iank, 
January 1, 1885, in order to give his attention 
more fully to his legislative duties. In 1 )e- 
cend)ei'; iSSi:), iMr. Comegys was appointed 
Chief Dci)uty Collector of Internal Kevenne, 
with ofHce at Wilmington, Del.; the 
duties of this office he performed efficiently 
until June 1, 1SS8, at which date he resigne(L 
During the spring of 181)1 he again endjarked 
in the grain Imsiness at .Middletown, and con- 
tinued in this b\isines3 until February, 181)1, 
when ho received his apiwintment to his pres- 
ent position, that of Special Deputy Collector 
of Customs. In 1870 'Mv. Comegys, who 
takes a warm and intelligent interest in the 
affaii-s of the borough in which he resides, was 
elected treasurer of ]\liddletown; in 1892 he 
was elected a light and water commissioner 
for four years, and re-elected for a further 
period of five years, in 1890. lie supjjorts 
the Democratic party, and is a member of 
Union Lodge, No. 6. A. O. U. W. 

"William Alexander Comegys was married 
in :Mi.ldlotown, Del., April 30, 187l>, to 
Frances F., daughter of Ivobert A. and Mary 
(Rouse) Cochran; ^Ir. Cochran is a native of 
Xew .Castle, Del., and his wife of Harford 
county, ^Id. The children of ifr. and ^frs. 
Comegys are: I. Robert A., born Jnly 8, 
1873, now studying medicine at the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania; II. Joscjdi P., born 
Novend)er 1, 1883; and two sons, Birkhead 
and Harry, who died in infancy. Mr. Co- 
megys is a member of the Protestant Fjiisco- 
pal Church, and seiwed from ]875 to 1890 as 
vestryman of St. Ann's church, at IMiddle- 

By Henry Voorhees Stilwcll, Philadelphia. 
— Practiced medicine at New Castle, Dela- 
ware. Ho was born in Philadelphia .Tuii(> 17, 
1822, died at New Castle November 7, ISSl, 
and was buried at North Laurel Hill Ceme- 
tery, Philadelphia. Dr. Lesley was a gradu- 
ate of the LTniversity of Pennsylvania, grand 
master of the Isl. W. Crand L(jdge, 
Free and Accepted .Masons, of Dela- 

ware, and a member of the State Legislature. 
He was married June 10, 1844, to Jane Les- 
ley Voorhees, born April 7, ISIG, died in 
Xew Castle, Del., July 31, 1874. She was 
the daughter of Henry P. Voorhees, mer- 
chant of Fultonville, .Montgomery county. 
New York, and Jane Cowenhoven, his wife, 
born ]\Iarch 12, 1792, died ]\Iay 7, 1874. 

Dr. Lesley was the son of Peter Lesley, born 
in Philadelphia June 19, 1793; died in Phila- 
delphia ^larch tl, IS,"),"), married Eliza- 
beth Oswal.l Allen, born in Pldladelphia ^Lly 
20, 1793, died in FhihKlelj.hia August 17, 
1832, daughter of Jolm Wineidl Allen and 
Sarah Rand, his wife. 

The said Peter Lesley was the son of Peter 
Lesley, born in Aberdeenshire, Scotlandj 
1738,'^ and died in Phihulelphia ilarch 31, 
18ir>; married Catharine Kitler, born 1757, 
died in Philadelphia December 25, 1832. 

The coat of arms of (he Lesley family — (u 
dcmi-gntfin, rani])ant, motto "gril) fast") was 
granted Bartholomew IvCsley by Queen ^far- 
garet of Scotland on account of his rescuing 
her from drowning, while they were crossing 
a swollen. stream; he seized her by the girdle, 
while she frequently told him to "grip fast;" 
this was tlie origin of the motto. 

JOSHUA PUSEY, Esq., Philadelphia, 
Pa., son of the late Jacob and Louisa (Web- 
ster) Pusey, of Wilmington, Delaware, was 
born ]\rarcli 27, 1842, at Auburn, now York- 
Ijii, New Castle county, Del., where liis father 
(stablished cmc of the early cotton mills of thi^ 

^fr. Pusey's early life was full of change 
and adventure. He received a liberal educa- 
tion in private schools, and at the age of 
eighteen, Avhcn with a publishing house in 
Philadel]>hia, having an intense desire to see 
tlie Old \Vorld, he took steerage passage on an 
Irish packet ship for Londonderry, Ireland. 
He traveled through parts of Ireland, Scotland, 
and England, thence to the continent, through 
Holland, Cermany, parts of France, Switzer- 
land, Italy and Austria. He also traveled 
through lilyria, Styria, Croatia and Hungary; 
having in the year and a half of his interest- 
ing and eventful wanderings walked several 
thousand miles without a companion, and 
learneil several languages on the way. Some 
time after his arrival at Buda-Pesth, the capi- 

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till of ITungaiy, lie Icanu-d of tlie l);ittle of 
IJiill l\iui. The next evciuiig lie was lioiiie- 
wanl bound, deteniiiued to euliat in the war 
for the Union. When he arrived at Liver- 
pool, he had not sufticient nidiiey to pay liis 
]iassage aeross tiie Atlantic (not having wailed 
for an expected draft at J5iidu-resth). He 
therefore obtained a position on a steamer, 
and on arriving at New York went iniiue- 
diatelv to AVashiiigton, with the -view of en- 
listing in a cavalry regiment. .Mr. I'lisey, 
however, returned home, and after si)eiiding 
a part of the succeeding summer at the farm 
of the late ]\Iilton Conrad, at West drove, 
Chester county. Pa., he enlisted in the First 
Pennsylvania Kitles— the celebi-ated '-Jiuck- 
tails" — with Alexander ilcClurg, a school 
teacher at West Chove, who was killed near 
]\Ir. Pusey at the terible battle of i-'rcdericks- 
burg, in December, 18(32. 

.Mr. Pusey was severely wounded in the 
same battle, in the thick of the fight; a ball en- 
tering his neck, just escaping the carotid ar- 
tery, and, i>assing through the root of the 
tongue, it shattered the jaw on one side into 
fragments and broke it s<iiiarely off ,,n the 
other side. Ilis jaw and chin" hung down 
111 tliat condition for some three weeks, before 
being brought up into proper jdace. 'J'he 
shot rendered him uncouseious for a time, but 
when he returned to consciousness he found 
liimself between the Union and Confederate 
forces in the midst of a fierce artillery duel, 
a pandemonium of shrieking and hissing 
shells and other missiles. As he was in dan- 
ger of being hit at any moment, he crawled 
into a ditch, and there remained for a while, 
mitil, afraid of being captured bv the enemy' 
he walked towards the Union lines, and was 
finally picked up by an ambulance and taken 
to an improvised tield hospital not far from 
Pappahannock Piver. Here he saw Cajjtain 
Irederick Taylor, then commanding the regi- 
ment who had been slightly wounded in the 
I'attk'. Captain Taylor .seeing :\[r. Pusey 's 
terrible eondition, and supposing that his 
wound was ].robably fatal, took Mr. Pusey by 
tlie hand, and with tears in his eyes sininly 
said -'My dear fellow." 

_ :\rr. Pusey, after further experiences in hos- 
pitals adjacent to Fredericksburg, tinallv 
wrote home that he had been severely W(,un.i- 
ed. II,s brother after some time discvered 
Ills whereabouts, and he was takc^i to Wil- 

mington, where he was successfully treated 
by seven surgeons and physicians, among them 
Dr. Kane, a brother of the former colonel of 
the Jiuektaijs; but it was many months before 
lie could talk. 

After s|)ending part of the summer of 18(i3 
with .Milton CJonrad, to recuperate his 
strength, .Mr. Pusey eiiliste<l in an emergency 
artillery company, that was stationed at Push 
Jiiver, .Md., about the time of the battle of 
(icttysburg. Subsequently, in the spring of 
1SC4, he went to Washington and there en- 
gaged extensively in the mainifacture of 
bricks, which business he carried on for sev- 
eral years, until he .sold out his interest. Ko 
then rcniovcMl to Philadelphia, and after- 
wards studied law, finishing his studies in the 
otKce of the well-known lawyei-s (ieorge IP 
Karle and Pichard P. White, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in the latter part of 1873. 
.Mr. Pusey is a member of the bar of various 
circuit courts of the United States and has 
been a counsellor of the Supreme Court of 
the United States for twenty years past. lie 
has made a specialty of patent, trade-mark 
and copyright cases; in fact his jn-actice, 
which is an extensive one, has been exclusive- 
ly in that line for many years. ^Ir. Pusey has, 
in the course of his jji-actice, had occasi(m to 
travel in almost every State and territory of 
the Union. 

He is a member of Post 2, of ]'hiladej|>liia, 
of the (irand Army of the Pepublic; of the 
Franklin Institute; the Historical Soeiiiv of 
Pennsylvania, the Ducktail .Association, and 
other soeieties, including the Sons of Dela- 
ware, of whose '"club song" — which is always 
sung standing at the meetings of the soeiety 
— he is the composer. 

!Mr. Pusey resides in a channing country- 
seat, "ilapelinden," in the hills of Delaware 

Joshua Pu.sey was married Novenil)er 15, 
ISOfi, to Pebecca K., daughter of Joseph P. 
and Sarah W. Kenderdine, of Philadeliihia. 
Their children are: I. .Albert Payinoiul; 11. 
Grace Fdna; TIT. Josephine Certrude, de- 
ceased; TV. Frederick Taylor; V. Walter Car- 
roll; and one that died in infancy. ]\Ii-s. Re- 
becca Pusey died T^ecember G, 187(5. Joshua 
Pusey was again married Xovember 18, 1S7;), 
to Caroline F. C. S., daughter of the late 
.\braham Z. and Sarah C. Slirevc, formerly 
of Salem, X. J. The children of this mar- 

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riage iire: I. Arthur "Wancii; II. Clarence 
Carton, iliwl young; III. Ikla B. Tlic family, 
although not all nieuibcrs of the Society of 
Fricmls, loan that way. 

P. (). kan.-ilowne, Delaware- county. Pa., son 
of Joshua and Pehecca (Keiuleixline) Pusey, 
was horn in Phihulelphia, Pa., June ;5, 1.S72. 

Ilis i>riniary education was obtained in the 
juiMic schools of Chester county, Pa., near 
Avondalc. SuLsequently he attended the 
FHcndr,' ScIkmJ (.f Philadelphia and 
was graduated from the Friends' Central 
lligli Scho(d of that city, in ISSI). After 
completing his studies there he went to his 
father's country-seat near Lima, Delaware 
county, I'a. He Wiis aftenrards ch(i>en as- 
sistant manager of a hosiery mill in Kensing- 
ton, Philadelphia county, and held that posi- 
tion for one year. During that time he hegan 
the st\idy of law. In January, ISOl', he en- 
tered the office of Colonel "Wendell Phillips 
iJowman, in Philadelphia, and there com- 
jileted his legal studies. On February 1, 181H, 
^fr. Pusey was admitted to the bar of Phila- 
delphia county, and since that time has been 
in active jjractice and associated mth Colonid 
Pownian. He is also a member of the bar of 
Delaware county, Pa. 

ilr. Pusey is conspicuous in the service of 
the National Guard of Pennsj'lvania. En- 
listing as a i»rivate in Company C, First Pegi- 
ment, in June 1802, at the time of the irome- 
stead nuts, he has risen rapidly until he is now 
a member of the colonel's staff. lie held all 
the non-commissioned offices, was battalion ser- 
geant major of staff, was afterward, in Febru- 
ary, ISDG, promoted to battalion adjutant, 
and in the same year was appointed regimental 
adjutant under Colonel Bowman. He dis- 
charged the duties of his office mth marked 
ability dunng the TIazleton riots in 1897, and 
was among the first to vobniteer at ]\[t. 
firctna in ilay, 1898,- when the soldiers of 
Pennsylvania's National Guard were asked to 
enlist in the army of the United States in the 
war against Spain. 

!Mr. Pusey lias taken a deep interest in the 
Law Academy of Philadelphia, which was 
founded in 1783, has served as assistant 
secretary, secretaA' and vice-president, and 
is now i)re.sident of that institution. His home 

is at Lansdowne, Delaware county, Pa., and 
he is a mi'mhor of several clubs there. 

On December 3, 181)5, in Brooklyn, N. Y., 
Frederick Taylor Pusey was married to Nellie, 
daughter of John S. and Charlotte (Purchase) 
Ogihie. They have one child, John Stuart 
Ogilvie, bom ,\rarch 10, 181)8. ]\Ir. Pusey is 
a member of the Society of Friends; the mem- 
bers of Mrs. I'nsey's family are conuei-ted 
with the Congregational Church. 

son of Joshua and Rebecca K. Pusey, was 
born in PhihuleliJiia August 'J, 1874. Ho 
was educated and graduated at the Friends' 
Central High School, Philadelphia, and is en- 
gaged with his father in the jiatent practice. 
Walter C. Pusey married Fdith L., daughter 
of Pusey P. and ( 'aroline S. Bve, September 
27, 1898. 

HON. AVILLARD HALL, late of Wil- 
mington, Del., son of Willis and Mchitable 
(Pool) Hall, was bom in Westford, iMass., De- 
cember 24, 1780. 

Judge Hall's Christian name was the fam- 
ily name of his great-great-grandmother, ]\[ar- 
garct Willard, an English lady, who with her 
brother, ^[ajor Simon Willard, left their an- 
cestral home in the county of Kent, England, 
crossed the ocean, and settled in Cambridge, 
]\Iass. ^lajor Willard, who became the an- 
cestor of a large and widely extended^ family 
of that name, and of many allied names, in 
this country, served the colony of, ^lassachu- 
setts as legislator and judge, and held a com- 
mand in the early Indian wars. He died in 
Charlestown, ilass., leaving seventeen chil- 
dren, ilargaret Willard manned Captain 
Dolour Davis; they had one daughter, who- 
became ili-s. Stephen Hall, and whose son, 

— Hall, was the father of Rev. Willard 

Hall, grandfather of the judge. 

Pev. Willard Hall was noted for liis piety 
and his inttdlectual gifts. He resided in West- 
ford, JImss., where his son, Willis Hall, was 
born and died. ^lehitable (Pool), wife of 
Willis Hall, was a member of the family of 
high standing and intbience iii Hollis, N. II.; 
a brother of ^Irs. Hall's was a noted leader 
in i)i>litics. It may readily be inferreil from 
this scanty outline that the ancestors of Hon. 

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AVillard Hall were people of strong character, 
and of fine mental powers, developed and 
strengthened by culture; to these may be 
added a sound physical constitution, the out- 
come of generations of teni]jeratc and whole- 
some living. 

'J"o his grandfather, whose namesake he was, 
.ludgo Tlali owed niucii of the ti-aining ru- 
<'eived at the most susceptible period of life, 
tiiat of early youth. For three years he at- 
tended the academy at Wcstford, ilass., be- 
came a student of Harvard at the early age of 
tiftei'U, and was graduated four yeai-s later, 
in 1799. The president of Harvard College 
at that time was a relative of the youth, the 
Kev. Joseph AVillard. In ISO;^, young \\"\\- 
lard Hall was admitted to the bar of Hills- 
l)oro)igli county, N. H. The coui-se of his life, 
so far as regards the scene in which it was to 
be laid, was determincnl at this time by an ap- 
])arently fortuitous i-ircumstance. Ha})peu- 
ing to read a speech made by Hon. James A. 
Bayard, he found himself .so j)Owerfuliy iui- 
jiressed and attracted by it that he wrote to 
]Mr. Bayard, and receiving from tliat gentle- 
man a courteous and enci>uraging rejdy, de- 
cided to seek a home in Delaware. Leaving 
his father's house on hoi-seback, April 7, ISO:], 
he reached AVilmington A))ril 10, was exam- 
ined l)y Hon. James A. l>ayard and James 
1'. Wilson, Esq., and admitted to the bar of 
Xcw Castle county. He soon became distin- 
guished not only for his legal acumen, learn- 
ing and sound judgment, but for those still 
higher qualities which inspire confidence and 
esteem. He was in consequence chosen to 
perform many important piiblic services. In 
1S12 he was appointed secretary of State 
by (lovernor Haslet, and again in 1821, by 
Governor Collins, serving under each appuint- 
ment for a term of three years. He was elect- 
ed to the National House of Kepreseutatives 
in 1816 and in 1818, but preferring to re- 
main at home, declined re-election. Ho was 
elected to the State Senate in 1822. 

Upon the death of Hon. John Fisher, AVil- 
lard Hall received from President Afonroe, 
Afay (), 1823, the appointment of district 
judge of the United States for the District of 
Delaware, and soon after removed from 
(leorgetown to AVilmington, which was his 
residence during the remainder of his life. 
Ketiring thus from a profession which he had 
adorned by his exemplary purity of lit'i', no 

less than by his ability, and his fidelity and 
promj)tuess in the disciiarge of every duly, ho 
continued to display upon the judicial bench 
the same sagacity and impartiality, the same 
single-mintled devotion to the constitution and 
legal system of the country which had fur- 
nished tii<; reason for his elevation. During 
his incumbency of almost a half century, Imt 
one decision of Judge Hall's ever incurred un- 
favorable criticism; and that criticism became 
hushed as the waves of excited feeling sub- 
sided, and the principle that underlay his de- 
cision was more clearly apprehended. The 
case gi'ew out of the detention of certain pris- 
oners, civilians, charged with the murder of 
soldiers during the War of the liebellion, 
the accused being citizens of South Carolina 
and Georgia. 1'hey were held by the War 
Department, at Fort Delaware, and relief was 
sought for them by means of a writ of hahcas 
corpus, which Judge Hall gi-anted. His rea- 
soning in the case was acute and profound, 
and the Executive Department endorsed his 
action by its acquiescence; but the decision, 
conscientiously upholding the majesty of the 
Constitution and rights of the citizen, in op- 
])Osition to the turbulent currents of popular 
feeling, at that time (18GG) still in a state of 
general upheaval, required no snmll degree of 
courage. II is impartiality was the more mani- 
fest on account of his own devotion to the 
cause of the Union, to which he had given his 
su])port throughout the whole struggle. 

,Mr. Hall's duties as U. S. district judge, 
while they were important, were not engross- 
ing, and left him leisure for attending to other 
dcjiartments of pui)lic service. He was a 
delegate from Xew Castle county in iSlil to 
tlie convention for framing a new constitu- 
tion for the state of Delaware, and was one 
of the leadei-s in that con\cntion; among his 
colleagues were John M. Clayton, -lames 
Kodgei-s and George He<.>d, Jr. From the time 
when he was Si'cretary of State, in 1822, he 
was an active and earnest promoter of the pid)- 
lic school system. I'he school board of Wil- 
mington was organized in 18r)2, and from that 
time until 1870, Judge Hall was its pre>ident. 
Throughout his life, he was constant in sup- 
])orting the cause of temperance. At the time 
when "colonization" was looked to with hope 
as the solution of many ])er]dexing ditficulties, 
Judge Hall gave the si'heme his liest efforts; 
for many years he was jiroident of the State 

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Colonization Society of Delaware. At a later 
period, ho became an active member of the 
Society for the Education of the Colored Pecj- 
})le. lie was president of the Wilmington 
Savings Fund Society from its organizatinn 
until the intirmities of advancing age made his 
retirement necessary, lie rendered active and 
zealous service to the Delaware State Bible 
Society for nearly fifty years; during thirty 
years of that time he was j)resident of tlie or- 
ganization, and was absent from a meeting of 
the society but once, wiieu detained at home 
by illness. lu his eighty-fourth year he be- 
came a meud)er of tiie Delaware llisturical 
Society, and as long as he was able, he at- 
forded to the society the aid of his intluence 
and counsel, attending its meetings as regular- 
ly as his declining strength permitted. 

Willard Hall was married not long after his 
admission to the bar, to a daughter of the late 
Chancellor Killen. They had one daugliter, 
Lucinda II. (.Mrs. Porter), who died in IfeUtt. 
Mi-s. Hall dieil in 1824; in 182U Judge Hall 

mari-ied . He was a member of the 

llaiiuver Street Presbyterian Church, with 
which he connected himself March 8, ISiiT. 
On Sejitember 23, 1829, he was elected a rul- 
ing elder, and continued in this office until his 
death. For more than forty years, he taught 
the Bible class connected with the Sunday- 
Bchool; at least once, he represented his con- 
gregation in the General Assembly. Judge 
Hall was the author of a pamphlet entitled ''A 
Plea for the Sabbath, Addressed to the Legal 
Profession," and of an address on the same 
Mdiject, delivered in Baltimore in 1844. The 
whole of Judge Ilall's life and career form a 
"living epistle," written in unmistakable clnn- 
aetei-s. It was not until his ninetieth winter 
that the venerable jurist retireil from active 
duties; and a tranquil passage from time into 
eternity, ^May 10, 1875, was the fitting con- 
clusion of his vigorous and useful life. 

youngest sou of Pierre Samuel DuPont de 
Xemours and Nicole Charlotte. Marie Louise 
Le Dee de Rencourt, was born in Paris, 
France, June 24, 1771. The celebrated 
statesman, Turgot, his father's intimate 
friend, stood his sponsor, and chose his bap- 
tismal names on account of their uu>aning; 
a selection in everv wav highly sitriiifi<'ant. 

His early education was carried on at home, 
upon his father's estate of Bois des Fosses, 
near the vilage of Chevennes, in what is now 
the De|)artment of Seine and ilarne. ile was 
a diligent student, besides being active and 
coui'ageous, taking jilcasurit in rural sports. 
His favorite .sciences were botany and chemis- 
ti'y. In his father and the men who were his 
associates, young DuPont happily found the 
incentive to moral and intc^llectual exertion 
which springs from constant inten-ourse with 
Worthy exemplai's; nor was he deticient in the 
liower to aiipreciatc or the ambition to emu- 
late their sujiei'iority. His controlling motive 
secmeil to be a desire to become worthy and 
useful. During his earliest years, he enjoyed 
tlu' care of an excellent and tender mother; 
liut she died when he was thirteen years of 
age, in 1784. When, in the ensuing year, 
the navigator La Perouse was tilting out his 
vessels for cireiunnavigatiug the globe, young 
DuPont was eager to join the expedition; but 
he submitted cheerfully to the decision of hia 
father, who was not willing to let him leave 
home at so early an age. 

It was not long after this that the chemist 
Lavoisier, whom !M. I'urgot had jilaced as su- 
perintendent in the government i)owder mills, 
and who was also a friend of the elder 
DuPont, and had conceived a warm atfection 
for his son, asked to have the youth placed 
under his charge and tuition, promising to se- 
cure for him the reversion of his own office. 
To this the father consented, and Irenee 
DuPont was ])]aced first in the government 
mills at Essonne, there to acquire a i)raetieal 
knowledge of the nnninfacture of gunpowder. 
lie was still engaged with his characteristic 
energy and application in this pursuit, when 
the Revolution broke out, and new circum- 
stances called him to far difFerent .scenes and 
activities, lie had barely attained his nui- 
jority when his father jilaced him at the head 
of a printing and jiublishing establishment in 
Paris; in wliicli the latter had invested very 
largely, and which was to be conducted in the 
iuto-est of the constitutional ]iarty. After 
the terrible scenes of August 10, 1792, when 
father and son undauntedly placed them- 
selves among the defenders of the King, at 
the Tuileries, ami when Irenee DuPont saved 
both his father and himself fi"om falling vic- 
tims to the ferocity of the mob, they wero 
obliged to separate, and for a .short time, the 

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young man found slielter at Kssojine; but only 
too soon they found tlieuiselves ro-unitud, iu 
the gloom of J^ii Force. Hero their sutfer- 
ings were to some extent mitigated by the 
visits of the young wife of Irenec, Soj)iiie 
-Madeline (l)alnuis) DuPont, whose grief and 
devotion had wrought upon the feeling's of one 
of the more humane jailers, so that he per- 
mitted her to come in the disguise of a i)('as- 
ant, and minister to their want^. Daily they 
awaited the order for their execution, when 
the fall of Kobespierre brought them sudden 
release. > 

They were free, but as may be supposed, 
their fortunes were almost entirely wrecked, 
and this fact, together with the uncertain con- 
dition of affairs which prevailed for ycai-s after 
the Kevolution, led to the emigTation of the 
entire family to America. The elder son, 
^'ictor DuPout, who had been for several 
years in consular positions in America, and 
had lately returned to his native land, crossed 
the ocean once more with his father and 
brother, and they arrived with their families 
at Newport, R. I., January 1, 1800. It was 
but a few months later that the idea of 
umlertaking the manufacture of gimpowder 
presented itself to the mind of Kleuthere 
Irenee DuPont. The powder made in this 
country at that time was of very in- 
ferior quality; that imported from Eng- 
land was greatly esteemed, but ilr. Du- 
Pont believed, correctly, that the way was 
oj^ii for successful competition with the Brit- 
ish powder-makers, by bringing domestic 
manufacture up to the standard of the latest 
improvements. He therefore returned to 
France, and at his former place of employ- 
n.cnt, the mills of Essonne, studied the actual 
condition , of the industry, after which he 
brought to America, in August, 1801, a sup- 
j)ly of plans, models and machinery for his 
projected enterprise. After months of exami- 
nation and discussion of proposed sites for his 
factory, he selected a tract of land about four 
miles from Wilmington, Del., on the Brandv- 
wine Kiver, which enjoyed the advantage of 
abundant water power, and which he pur- 
chased in June, 1802, removing thither with 
his family in July. To the perfecting of the 
nuinnfacture of powder, to the imjirove- 
ment of the facilities and the safeguards re- 
quisite for work of that nature, M. DuPont de- 
voted the remainder of his life. Disappoint- 

ments, partial failures and all other obstacles 
were met and overcome with the same untir- 
ing tliligence, the same cheerful and patient 
courage. In less than thirty years, he had 
niade his powder factory the largest in the 
I'nited States, and a uuxlel of excellence for 
those times. 

-Xk less liroad iu his views and in his sym- 
pathies than" his illustrious father, In'nce 
Dul'unt interested himself, as an Americau 
citizen, in whatever pertaiued to the welfare 
and progress of his adopted country, ainl of 
the community iu which lie had liis iiouu'. 
He was active and liberal in promoting local 
improvements and enterprises for the ad- 
vancement of agriculture and the industrial 
arts. lie was opposed to the institution of 
slavery, and deprecated its influence upon the 
white race; indeed, it was upon this ground 
that he declined the states of Maryland and 
A'ii-ginia as locations for his factory and his 
home, although the latter state was recom- 
mended to him by his father's friend, Presi- 
dent Jefferson. As a member of the American 
Colonization Society, he did what lie could 
towards the solution of that most difficult 
problem of our rcpidilic. lie served as a di- 
rector of the United States Bank. From boy- 
hood, he had always been easily and dceplv 
affecteil by the sorrows and trials of others, 
and his jirivate acts of beneficence equalleil 
his public liberality. Considered in the light 
of ilr. DuPont's character and life, his illus- 
trious godfather's beautiful choice of names 
for him ajipears almost a prophecy. 

Eluthcrc Irenee DuPont died in Pliila- 
deljihia, where he had gone, intending to make 
a brief stay, on October 31, 1834. His wife, 
the beautiful and devoted Sophie i\radeleine 
Dalmas, was born July 22, 1775, and died 
November 27, 1S2S. 

MOUBS, the founder of the DuPont family 
in the United States, was born in Paris, 
France, December 11, 173!). 

His attention was early turned to serious 
political and financial questions, and at the 
age of twenty-three, he had published some 
jiapcrs of national finance v/hicli attracted the 
notice of ?il. Quesnav, the celebrated econo- 
mist, who liecanie the friend of the young 
author. .\n intimacy with the eminent 

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statesman, Turgot, afterwards the able and 
c-durafiiMUis minister of tinatioe of Louis XVI, 
tlie "iiest minister France ever had," was also 
Ir.iHght about by a work writteu by .M. Du- 
lont de Nemours, aiul published in 17 04, he 
being then twenty-tive yeai-s old. It had for 
its subject the export and import of cereals. 
Tlie fricndsiiip that subsisted between these 
two congenial spirits remained unbroken \iu- 
til the lieath of Turgot, in 1782. For a few 
years, ^M. DuPont edited the Journal de V agri- 
culluic, (lit commerce et des finances and tlie 
Ephcmertdefi da Ciloyen, suppressed in 1772. 
His laboi-s in setting forth the principles of 
that school of far-seeing ami ujjright politi- 
cal economists who were vainly endeavoring 
til avert the calamities impending over tludr 
country, and destined to overwhelm the ex- 
isting order before the close of the century, 
had not been iiuobjerved by the crowned 
heads of Furope. ]\Iany of them testified 
their approbation by bestowing titles and de- 
corations u])ou him; and in 1772, Stanislaus 
Augustus, king of Poland, invited him to that 
country, and made Lim governor of his ne- 
])hew, Prince Adam Czartoryski, and secre- 
tary of the Council of Public Education. 

In 1714, at the beginning of the reign of 
the ill-fated Louis XYI, 1\\. IJuPont was re- 
called to France, to aid ^L Turgot, now 
comptroller-general, in carrying out his ]dan6 
of reform. But the measures proposed by 
them, many of which were originated by ]\L 
Dii I'ont, were far in advanc of the time^, and 
were not carried into effect until after many 
years had passed, and many changes had taken 
place. Among the services of ]\L DuPont to 
the government was the devising of a scheme 
for better regulation of provincial affaii-s, 
wliich if. Turgot recommended to the king. 
Put the orders which should have been the 
stay of France were its worst foes; — the nobil- 
ity and the clergy united against the minister 
and his plans for reform, and he was dismiss- 
e<l, DuPont of course sharing his fate, and 
being banished from Paris. Later, however, 
JL DuPont was again in the public service, 
and negotiated the treaty of Vei-saillcs, by 
which American independence was recuiiniz- 
ed, and a comitiercial treaty with Gi-eat Bri- 
tain. He was rewarded by being made Coun- 
cillor of State and Inspector General of Agri- 
culture and Commerce. lie was secretary of 
the Notables in 1787, and drew up for'Ca- 

luune his memorial upon abuses, laid before, 
that body. Only the king's intervention saved 
him from banishment at the time of Caloniie's 
dismissal. M. DuPont de Nemours was the 
constant upholder of a constitutional mon- 
archy, and as unswervingly, in both the Stated 
(leneral and the Constituent Assenddy, the 
op[)onent of radical revolutionary measures. 
His courage was undaunted, and his constancy 
unvarying; yet he was one of the few who 
walked unharmed amid the secret and open 
perils of that volcanic epoch. He was a con- 
spicuous figure in the Constituent Assembly, 
being twie-e its president; and having opposed, 
in that boily, the issue of pajjer currency pro- 
posed by the revolutionists, he was attacked 
by a mob at the breaking up of the session, 
and would have lost his life had he not been 
protected by the Garde Xationale. It is matter 
of general history that the measure was car- 
ried, and the assignats, as the notes were 
called, were issued; also, that the results de- 
monstrated fully the wisdom of M. DuPout's 

On the memorable tenth of August, 1792, 
DuPont de Nemours and his youngest son, 
Fleuthere Irenee DuPont, went armed to the 
Tuilcries, to defend the royal family from the 
anticipated attack upon the i)alace. Only tho 
courage and adroitness of the younger man 
saved their lives on that day of horrors. Both 
were, howe\-er, apjircliended, after having con- 
cealed themselves for several weeks, and con- 
signed to the prison of La Force. During a 
part of that time, the astronomer Lalande had 
given the elder DuPont shelter in the national 
observatory; and it is said that while in hid- 
ing there, he wrote his Pliilosopliie de 
I'ltnirers; a significant indication of his sur- 
passing equanimity. While, with his devoted 
son, he was awaiting his turn for execution in 
gloomy La Force, Robespierre filled u]i the 
measure of his cruelties, and himself fell a 
victim to the guillotine, his death freeing those 
whom he had condemned, and among them 
the DuPonts. L'pon the liberation of the 
veteran statesman followed the renewal of liia 
struggles against the Jacobins, the ]iarty re- 
sponsible for the horrible excesses of the Bc^ 
volution. The French people were now sur- 
feited vnth carnage, and the reactionary party 
obtained a majority in the elections oif 1797, 
when M. DuPont was made president of the 
Council of Ancients. 'J'he Republicans, how- 

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ever broke up the comieils by an armed furee, 
destroyed M. DuPoiit's house and property; 
\ie narrowly escaped being transported to 

In 171J9, M. DuPoiit de Nemours emigrated 
with his family to tlie United iStates. Jlere 
he was received with warm regaril an<l distin- 
gui^hed consideration, and cemented lasting 
'friendships with some of the most eminent 
statesmen of that day. lie returned to his 
native coimtry in 1802. The First Consul of- 
fered him several a])jx)intments, which he 
declined, preferring tlie more tranipiil exer- 
cise of his talents in the field of authoiiihip. 
But his influence with Napoleon was nsed 
for the promotion of the Louisiana purchase. 
At the request of President Jefferson, he for- 
mulated a plan for national education, which 
was given to the world in ISTi, and after- 
wards partly adopted in Prance. In IS 14, 
after the fall of Napoleon, J\L DuPont was 
madrsec'retaiy of tlie provisional government; 
upon the restoration of the Jjourbons, he was 
api)ointed councillor of .state. When the 
banished emperor returned from Mlba, Al. 
DnPont for the last time left his country, re- 
joining his family in America. He died near 
Wilmington, Angust C, 1817. llis wife, Ni- 
cole Charlotte Marie Louise le l^ee de Tven- 
conrt, a woman of rare qualities of mind and 
character, and an exemplary wif(> and mutlu-r, 
had died in 1784. 

As a writer, M. DuPont was endowe<l with 
H fertile intellect and tireless industry, lli^ 
papei-s, pamphlets and more extensive works 
on political, scientific and literary topics can- 
not be enumei-ated. Some of those not pre- 
viously mentioned in this article are: 
Physiocratie, an analysis of Quesnay's systeui 
(1708); Le commerce de la Compaynle ilrs 
ludcs (1769); a partial translation of the Or- 
lando F arioso (1781); a memoir of Turgot 
(1782); a treatise on the liank of 
Prance (180C); Metnoires sur differ- 
ents objets d'Jtisfoire natiirdJe (1807); Pr 
Vorigine et des progres d'line science nonrcUe 
(1707); De Vadiinnistration drs clinnins 
(1707); Objections et repun.-ivs snr Ic com- 
merce des grains et dcs farines (17iMi); Obxvc- 
vations siir les ejfets de la liberie du commerce 
des grains (1770); Table synoiilitjuc des prin- 
cipes de I'economie politicjue (177.")); Idecs 
sur les secoiirs a donner aii.r paurres maladi's 

dan line grande villc (1780); Analyse histori- 
(jtte de la legislation des grains depais lUf/J 


son of A^ictor and (iabrielle Josephine La- 
fitte (de Pelleport) Du Pont, was \)<>vn at 
C harieston, S. ('., .March 21), 17'J7. 

Jlis grandfather was the celebrated politi- 
cal economist and statesman, Pierre Samuel 
DuPont de Nemours, the friend of Quesnay 
and Turgot, and the author of nu\ny works, 
more or less coiuprehensive, on political, com- 
mercial and scientific subjects. After suffer- 
ing severely for his moderation during the 
stormy scenes of the French Kevolution, and 
escaping the guillotine only by the death of 
Iiobespierre, that di»tinguished num emi- 
grated with his family to America in 1799. 
A few years earlier his son, Victor DuPont, 
had through his influence been sent as French 
('onsnl to the port of Charleston, S. C, and 
was residing tiiere in that capacity when 
Charles Irenee DuPont was born. He after- 
wards removed to the State of Delaware, set- 
tling near the Prandywine Creek. 

In that locality Charles I. DuPont was dur- 
ing most of his life engaged in nuinufactnr- 
ing. He also pnrchased various tracts of land, 
and devoted mnch of his attention to their 
improvement and cultivation. Mr. DtiPont 
■was animated by a zealous public spirit, and 
njade effectual exertions to promote the in- 
terests of the State, by increasing its railroad 
facilities. None, jjcrhaps, among tiie origina- 
tors of the Delaware P. P., were more active 
than he in obtaining subscriptions to its stock; 
and it is maiidy through his inflnence as state 
senator that in 18r,r> an appropriation from 
the state treasury was sci-nrcd, in aid of its 
construction, lieiug a director of the P. W. & 
P. P. P., he persuaded that company to take 
hold of the enterprise. Tie afterwards served 
a,^ director of the road in which he had been 
^(- heartily and effectively interested. Tie was 
,1'or many years a director of tlie Farmers' 
P.ank of AViimington. Mr. DuPont fre- 
<|ucntlv re|)rc^entctl New Castle county in 
loth brandies of the State Legislature; he 
was elected to the Senate first in 1841. Tie 
^vas a meud)er of the "Whig jiarty, and, while 
film in his adherence to its jiriuciples, dis- 
]ilayed so lilieral and courteous a spirit as to 
win respect and esteem, and much personal 

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fiicnJship, in the ranks of both parties. Tiiis 
iiyard was dcepuneJ and rendered permanent 
L} liis honorable character, the dignity and 
consistency of his life, and liis nnvaryin^ 
[•enevolenee. lie lived to see his adopted 
country pass through the throes of rebellion, 
and in tliat time of trial nninifested liis lo\e 
for the L'jiion not only by professions ul dcvu^ 
lion, but by generous contributions in aid of 
the go\ernnient. 

diaries Ireuee DuPont was nnuried, Octo- 
ber 5, 1824, at New Castle, Del., to Uorcas 
"\lontgomery, daughter of the lion. Xicholas 
\'an Dyke, of Delaware. This lady died in 
IboS, and ^Ir. Du Ponf afterwards married 
Ann, daughter of Hon. lleury ]\I. Ividgely, ui 
] 'over, Del., who, with two children, survived 
him. Three children by his first marriage also 
survived him. Charles I. DuPont died re- 
gietted by all his fellow-citizens, January ol, 
1SG9. For some years before his demise, he 
had lived retired from active business, though 
siill jire.-erving an undiminished inti'rest in 
llie affairs of the community and of the coun- 

Admiral U. S. Xa-\-y, son of Victor and Ga- 
brielle .loscjjhine Laiitte (de Pelleport) Du- 
Pont, was liorn at Bergen Point, N. J., Sep- 
tember 27, 1803. 

A warm friendship subsisted between his 
gi-andfathi-r, Pierre Samuel DuPont de Ne- 
mours, the eminent statesman and writer, the 
founder of tlie DuPont family in America, 
and Presiilenti Jefferson and Madison. From 
the latter, the coming admiral received, at 
iiie age of twelve, his first naval appointment, 
wbiidi conferred upon him the berth of mid- 
shipman; it was dated December 19, 1815. 
'1 his he gladly accepted, declining for its sake 
an appointment to West Point, which was 
tendei-ed to him about the same time. Ex- 
President Jefferson wrote on this occasion to 
'},[. Du Pont de Nemotirs, in a very friendly 
strain, a letter which after events proved to 
Le proi)hetic, as it expressed ^fr. Jef- 
ferson's hope that the youth might become a 
high admiral, and perform a distinguished 
])art in the defense of his country. 

As the aid of Commodore Stewart, young 
Du Pont made his first cruise aboard the 
Fra7tl-]iii, a ship of seventy-four guns, in tho 
^rcditerranoan ; joining tho Erie before bis 

return to the United States, lie spent at thia 
lime three years on the sea. His second 
cniise took him again to the .Mediterranean, 
on the frigate CunntUulion; his third, on 
the frigate Cuiujfc^s, to the West Indies 
and the coast of iJrazil. (3n his fourth cruise, 
made on tho ^Mediterranean station, in the 
A(j(7/t Curulina, ship of seventy-four guns, 
( ounnodore John Podgers connnanding, he 
waa promoteil to the rank of siuliug master. 
In April, 1S2G, he received a commission as 
lieutenant, after which he served three years 
tin the Unlur'io, sluop of war; then, in 1835, 
iluring the Florida War, on the W'arroi and 
the Conntitulton, in llie Ciulf of .Mexico; 
and from 1838 to 1841, on the United States 
:-hip (Jidu, in the -Mediterranean. In 18i2 
h( was promoted to the rank of commander, 
and sailed in the following year for China, 
in connnand of the brig Perry, but becom- 
ing very ill, was obliged to return home from 
liio Jeneiro. He was placed in command of 
the frigate Congress, Hag-ship of Commo- 
dore Stockton's fleet, in 1845, was transferred 
to the sloop of war Cyane, and made for 
himself a record of brilliant and faithf\d ser- 
vice in the Mexican War. Having been pro- 
moted in 1855 to the rank of captain, he went 
to China and Japan iu 1857, in command of 
the M innesoUi, the steam frigate which con- 
veyed William B. Peed, Esq., United States 
^linister to those countries, charged with the 
business of drawing up important treaties. 

But the most distinguished services of this 
naval veteran were those rendi'red in connec- 
tion with the war of the IJebellion. He was 
]/laccd in connnand of the Philadelphia Navy 
^ ard in 18G0, relieving his first commander, 
the famous Commodore Stewart. In 1861, 
before open hostilities had begun. Captain 
DuPont, on his own responsibility, sent an 
iiinied steamer with forces to the Chesapeake 
l!ay, to protect the transit of troops to Annap- 
olis. In June of tliat year, he wa.s made presi- 
dent of a lioard at Washington, D. ( '., charged 
with th^^ business of examining the coasts of 
the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, 
and furnishing a report upon which the plans 
for naval operations during the war should 
be based. In October, he sailed from New 
York as flag-officer commanding tho South 
Atlantic Llockading squadron, which took 
part in the capture of the forts and harbor of 
Port Poyal, November 7, 18C1. This bril- 

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liant success was followed by many equally 
ufiective operations, both on the coast and 
upon inland waters, by which the blockade 
was maintained with increasing striiiycncy. 
Captain UuPont's commission as rear ad- 
miral was tendered to him July III, IS (12. In 
the attack upon Charleston, April 7, IblKi, the 
land forces were not able to co-operate; it ac- 
cordingly failed, but not until the after most 
heroic efforts had been made by Admiral Du- 
Pont's fleet and the irou-clads. For its de- 
fence, the city had between two and three 
hundred guns; the naval attack was made with 
only thirty-two, and pei'sisted in until half of 
them were silenced. Admiral DnPont then 
withdrew from the harbor and sent the iron- 
clads, according to orders received from 
"\\'ashington, to the Gulf of Mexico. Although 
not approved by the Navy Department at the 
time, his judgment was coincided in by the 
able commanders of the iron-clads, and was 
fully conlirmed by later events. Admiral I)u- 
Pont was recalled from his connnand June 3, 
and relieved July 3, 18G3. The success of 
Captain John Rodgers, scut by the Admiral 
to intercept the Atlanta, atlded a happy inci- 
dent to the termination of his brilliant career. 
Vario)i3 services, which if less illustrious, 
were not less important than those rendered 
on the seas, occupied the intervals between ■ 
them. They included the labors performed in 
numerovis commissions, boards and courts. 
One of these was a commission under the au- 
thority of Congress to investigate the light- 
Louse system of the United States, with a 
view of introducing improvements. A per- 
manent Light House Board was then estab- 
lished, of which he was a member, and which 
itgulated the lighting of the sea-coast on the 
present admirable plan. In 18-i-l, Captain, 
then Couunauder DuPont, was appointed by 
fcjecretary Bancroft as one of a committee to 
take into consideration the formation of a 
Naval Academy, and to formulate a plan for 
its organization. This was subsequently ef- 
fected at Annapolis, and he was frequently 
called to act as one of the board of examiners. 
Admiral DuT'ont, in the prime of his man- 
hood, professed his allegiance to the religion 
of Christ, and became! a member of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church. During the in- 
tervals of Lis more active naval services, he 
I'articipatcd in the business of the church, at- 
tending its State and National conventions, 

and giving cordial encouragement and help to 
its enterprises. Especially did he use his in- 
liuence for the promotion of foreign missions, 
his experience of many lands unvisited by the 
gospel having convinced him of their import- 
ance. The knowledge thus accjuired, as well 
as his deep interest in the work, led to his be- 
ing chosen as president of the American 
Church Missionary Society. Admiral Du- 
Pont's health had been impaired at the time 
ol his cruise in Chinese waters, and after his 
return from the South Atlantic, it failed 
'■apidly. He was advised to make a tour of 
Europe, but could not be persuaded to leave 
his country in time of war. Having gone to 
pay a short visit in Philadelphia, he died in 
that city, June 23, 1S(;5. Admiral Du Pout's 
bit of little more than six decades was not one 
cf renun-kable length, counting by years; but 
reckoning by deeds, his was a grand longevi- 
iy. It was a life long enough to leave bright, 
indellible traces uik.u the pages of o\u- coun- 
tiy's history, and to lay up for succeeding 
generations a legacy of example, made illus- 
trious by steadfast endeavor, patriotism and 
sincere, manly piety. 

JOHN P. DONA HOE, Wilmington, Del., 
son of John and Bridget (Daley) Donahoe, 
was born in County Tyrone, Ireland, August 
12, 1841. 

ifr. Donahoe's parents were natives of 
County Tyrone, and were of sturdy ancestry. 
'Ihe Donahoe family is one of the oldest in 
H eland, and the Daley heritage is one of mili- 
tary and ecclesiastical distinction. John 
Donahoe, father of John P. Donahoe, came 
to America in 1841, to prepare here a home 
for his family. The following year his wife 
and sou bade farewell to their Irish village 
and sailed for this country. Their voyage 
across the Atlantic was a long one, and tem- 
pestuous, and brought them only poignant 
grief, for on their arrival at Wilmington, 
Del., they were met with the sad intelligence 
that the husband and father they had come so- 
far to rejoin had died in Philadelphia. There 
\^as a cholera scourge in the land, to which 
John Donahoe and two brothers had been vic- 
tims. Mrs. Donahoe bravely took up the 
flruggle alone, selected Wilmington as her 
home, and there remained until licr death on 
January 1, 1896. 

John P. Donahoe entered St. Joseph's- 

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paiocliial bchuol uu tlie banks of the liraudy- 
wiiif, and received a good education. At an 
early age he was apprenticed to a cuuper, 
learned the trade and worked at it until the 
hieaking o)it of the Civil AVar. lie was tpiick 
lu respijud to the call of Tresidenl J,inculn 
foi volunteer troops, and on April 17, IbOl, 
enlisted in Company A, First regiment, Dela- 
ware \'Dlunteers. Three months later, ujiun 
the expiratiiiu of the regiment's term nt cn^ 
listment, he was honorably discharged, and on 
October U, ISGl, joined the United States 
^Marine Corps, in which he served until hon- 
oiahly discharged four years later. 

John 1*. Donalioe's military record is higli- 
1} creditable. He served witli Admiral Far- 
r.igiit in all liis engagements on Imard the 
United States steamer Wct^t field until Jan- 
uary 1, 1,>(;;J. On that datL' the boat was 
blown up in the harbor of Galveston, Texas. 
!Mr. Donahue was transferred to the Cliflon, 
and renuiined as one of its marines \mtil 
.ScDteniber 9, 1863, when it was sunk and 
cajitured at Sabine Pass, Tex. All who sur- 
1 ived were made prisoners by the Confeder- 
ates, and Mr. Donalioe was confined at llamp- 
ttcad, Tex., in a parole camp, at Red Ui\i'r 
Uottum, La., and at Camp Ford, ne.;ir Tyler, 
Ttx., fur twenty months and eleven days, lie 
made two attempts at escape, but was recap- 
tured and compelled to undergo^ greater liard- 
ships than before. lie suffered indescribable 
torture. Frequently he was forced to nuike 
long marches barefoot, when the bruises and 
cuts on bis swollen feet were so terribly ag- 
gravated as almost to prevent his dragging 
liiiii.-elf ailing. During his long service, he 
j.articipated in thirty-five general engage- 
ments and many skirmi.slies. From all the 
e\ idence he has been able to obtain, he is the 
only sur\ivor of the command to which he 
first belonged. 

'Mr. Dnnahoe was the central fig\ire in a 
number of memorable incidents of the war. 
At the caj)turc of the Clifton he was second 
captain of a 30-ponnd Parrott gun. "When 
the Stars and Stripes were hauled down in 
teken I if surrender, he refused to capitulate 
and continued firing the gun as long as he 
could get some one to load it. In fact, ho 
only left the gun when firced away by his 
siil)ericir oflicers. Fven then he was nut vet 
ready to yield tlie ship and its supplies, and, 
seizing a carbine, he bmke everv buttle uf 

medicine in the disi)ensary stures that they 
jnight not fall into the enemy's bands. The 
Cliftun was sunk, with tliirty-ti\e shots be- 
neath its water lino and was on lire three 
times, lint one gun, the UO-|)ouncl Parrott, 
ci.uld be tii'ed at the end of the engagement. 
Pre\i(_ius to the b.iss ef the Cliflvn ]\lr. 
I )onahoe had eifectively operated the same 
Parrott gun against the Confederate gunboat 
Mail/ T. This gunbuat was not clad in 
tieel, as are the fighting vessels of to-day, but 
t(^ protect its machinery and ammunition cot- 
ton bales were used. On ^lay 1, lbtj3, during 
an engagement, Mr. Donahoe threw a shell 
int(j the ^•es^cl. The explosion wiiicli resulted 
killed nine and woiuided seventeen of its men. 
'1 hen the gninboat struck her tiag, and the 
Cliflon bad apparently an easy vii tury. 
Some daring and skilled gunner on the Mary 
T., however, sent a last shot at the Union ves- 
.^el. The shell lodged in the Clifton's steam 
drum and disabled her machinery. The 
Miirij T. ran up its flag again and steamed 
I'way. ifr. Donahoe quickly trained his Par- 
iiitt gun upon the Imat and carried away ono- 
ihird of its port side wheel, but, altliough 
badly erijijiled, the vessel escaped. This oc- 
curred at liutto la Pose, on the Atcbafalaya 
Pi\er and Alligator Payou, La. The Clifton 
had engaged a fort on one side and a cotton- 
clad gunboat on the other, all within a dis- 
tance of tliree hundred yards. 

On ^lay 20, 1S(!,"(, ^Ir. Donaboe was re- 
l(a>ed from his ( 'unl'ederate jiri-un and sent 
1i Prooklyn Pariacks, X. Y. 'i'here he com- 
pleted his term of enlistment, and on October 
]-l, lS(i;"i, was honorably discharged. 

The public services of ^Ir. Donahoe in civil 
life liaA'e been as meritorious as his military 
career. He Avas elected a Delaware State 
Senator in 1SS9, speaker of the Senate in 
1S91, and a member of the Constitutional 
< ConAcntion of lSOC-97. He has been a mem- 
ber of the Democratic State Central Commit- 
tee and Avas a mendier of the Xew Castle 
county ex('cutive connnittee \u\\\\ ^fay, ISOO. 
t>ii XoA-ember G, 1S94, he was nominated by 
the Democrats for Congress, but Delaware 
A\as carried by the Pepublicans, and Mr. 
Dcinahoe Avas defeated, ^[r. Donalioe is a 
iiK'mber of a number of military societies and 
other organizations. lie Avas mustered into 
the Union Veteran Legion, Encampment Xo. 
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member of Encampment No. 3-i, of Wilming- 
ton. At the National Encainpiueut of tlie 
].rg:ion, held in Newark, N. J., he was iinani- 
uiiiusly elected junior vice national chancel- 
lor. Tic is a meiid)er of Oeneral I'hil. Sheri- 
dan Tost, No. 23, Ct. a. K., Department of 
l)elaware. ifr. Donahoe lieloiigs also to St. 
^'i^cent De Paul's Society, has served as State 
delegate of the Ancient Order of Hibernians, 
it Cliief Knight of the Knights of St. Law- 
rence, vice-president of the Irish-American 
National llistorical Society for Delaware, 
and prominent in many other organizations. 

^Ir. Donahoe has been engaged in business 
in Wilmington for about thirty years, and has 
been as successful as a business man as he was 
brave as a soldier and patriotic as a statesman, 
lie is president and general nnmager of the 
Enterpri.'^e ^lannfacturing and Sujjply Co., of 

John P. Donahoe was married, on Novem- 
ber 8, 1870, to Mary, daughter of Edward 
and Catharine Colton, of Sandwich, Mass. 
Their children are: I. Catherine, deceased; 
11. Mary; III. John; IV. Cecilia; V. Agnes; 
\I. Lillian; VII. Edward; VIII. Benjamin; 
IX. Helen; X. Pauline; XI. Thomas, de- 
ceased; Xir. George; XllF. Martina. !Mr. 
Donahoe and family all attend St. Patrick's 
E. C. Church. 

PHILIP K. CLAEK, AVihnington, Del., 
feon of John C. and Elizabeth (Keybold) 
Clark, was born on the homestead of his 
father, near Delaware City, ]\rarch 4, 1832. 

John C. Clark was born March 0, 1799, 
and married in 1826, Elizabeth, eldest daugh- 
ter of ^Major Philip Keybold, whose biograiihy 
^^ill be found in the history of Delaware 
(1888), page 904. In 1827' he purchased a 
large landcnl estate of 1,000 acretj adjoining 
the place of his birth, upon which he after- 
wards lived until his death, July 29, 18G9. 
On part of this tract and on the adjoining 
farms of ^fajor Philip Keybold and his six 
sons, Philip, "William, John, Barney, An- 
thimy and Clayton, were the famous Key- 
bold and Clark peach orchards, noted for their 
productiveness and pecuniary value. ilr. 
( 'larke was a rare Christian character; before 
he was twenty years of age he was ehdsen 
rulinrr elder in St. George's Presbyterian 
Church, and held that ottice for over fifty 
years. lie was a director in the State Bank 

in Delaware City from its establishment in 
1849 until his death; was trustee of Delaware 
College at Newark, and for many years trus- 
tee of the poor, an otlice which Ik; said he 
■woidd rather hold than any in the gift of the 
S(ate. .Mr. ('lark was president of the con- 
vention tliat nominated Lincoln for the Presi- 
dency in 18(!0. Eew men in the State have 
maintained the relations of life, whether inib- 
lic, official or domestic, with such singular 
])urity, earnestness and fidelity as John (J. 

Philip K. Clark, who was his second son, 
attended the public schools of the neighbor- 
hood and also Delaware College. When 
Iwenty-two years of age he settled at Wood- 
land Earm near Christiami, Delaware, and 
Soon afterwards married Ennna A., daughter 
of David and I'lizabeth Compton, of ^laurice- 
town, N^. J. Their children are: I. J. Curtis; 
II. George W.; IlL Marion; IV. Edwin C.; 
A'. May; VI. Bessie; VII. Clara. In 1880, 
ilr. Clark was elected sheriff of New Castle 
county. Two years previous he was noniiiuited 
for that office, but the Kep\iblican party be- 
ing confident of defeat no effort was made, 
and no candidates were nominated for Con- 
gressorforthelx'gislattire, yet by his own en- 
{ i-gy and perseverance, as expressed by the op- 
position papere, "he came within an ace of be- 
ing elected sheriff." He proved a faithful 
and popular officer, discharging his varied du- 
ties in a manner reflecting credit upon himself 
and the position. Upon the expiration of his 
term of office he removed to Wilmington, 
where he has since resided, conducting a real 
estate and brokerage business. 

Philadel])hia, Pa., son of Franklin ^lenden- 
hall and Anna ^Nfaria (Atkinson) Harris, was 
born in Philadeli)hia, December 25, 1839. 

His great-grandfather, Samuel Harris, was 
born in Delaware in 1743; of the date of his 
death no record is extant. He wa.s a soldier 
in the patriot army, in the Kevolutionary war. 
Jo?ei)h Harris, son of Samuel Harris, wad also 
a native of Delaware, born in 1797), died May 
m, 1808. He fought for his country in the 
^\ar of 1812. In 1817 he married Jane 
Jacpu'tte. I'ranklin !Mendenhall Harris, the 
elder, their son, was born in l)(daware, July 1, 
ISIS; he died Novend>er 27, 1839, at Gelves- 
ton, Tex., at the early age of twenty-oTU", leav- 


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jrig a youuy wife, Anna Maria Atkiiisun, to 
\ liom he was manifd Uctoliur 21, IblJS. Hid 
bull and luiuiL'sakc was born nearly a iiiontli 
:ilter his untimuly death. 

Franklin M. Harris, 2, was edueated in the 
piihlie M-liuols of his native eity, so justly ad- 
mired for the tliorotifi,h and jiractieal 
training they aiford. lie evineed early 
in life a deeided talent, as well as 
a strong ineliiiation, for bnsiness, and 
\\liile M'areely beyond boyhood, became 
interested in building, and began to take 
J, art in the rapidly ailvaneing iiuprovemeiits 
cf the city. Apt in atfairs, honest and perse- 
\eriiig, ]\lr. Harris's suecess appeared from the 
jir.-t to be a foregone conchision. His career 
was, liowever, interrupted at an eaidy stage by 
the war of the Kebellioii; patriotism impelled 
him to \-oliiiiteer for the defense of his coun- 
try's flag, and at the very beginning of the 
conflict, he enlisted in the Eighteenth I'eiin- 
syhaiiia N'ohiiiteers, for the tliree months' 
t,er\ice, and was mustered in as corporal, April 
M, 18(Jl. His term expired in August of the 
sriine year, after which he re-enliste(l in the 
Ninety-fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers, and 
was mustered in as sergeant of ("onipany A; 
on May f), 1SG2, he was promoted to first ser- 
geant, and in October of the same year, re- 
ceived his commission as second lieutenant. 
His ne.xt promotion, November 1-t, 18U2, was 
tc a first lieutenancy; and this rank he held 
until honorably discharged on account of dis- 
abilities contracted in the service. Lieutenant 
Harris ri'turned to his home with an envialde 
record as a brave and faithful soldier, after 
liaviug taken part in the engagements at West 
T'oint, Oaines' Mill, Savage Station, "White 
Oak Swam]), Oharles City Cross Roads, Mal- 
vern Hill, Second Bull l\un, Chantilly, Fred- 
ericksburg, Franklin's Crossing, Chancelloi-s- 
vllle, Mary's Heights, Salem Heights, Oettys- 
hurg, liaiipahannock Station and !Mine Knu. 

At the close of this memorable ])eriod of 
service, Mr. Harris resumed his activities in 
<he building business, aTid set vigorously to 
v\ork to recover his lost ground. He under- 
took some of the most extensive building oper- 
ations in the city, and his business iiu-reasing 
in a short time to very large proportions, he 
established the ])resent firm of Franklin M. 
Harris A- Co., of which he is senior partner. 
Since he first engaged in husiness, INfr. Harris 
lin? hail no strikes, nor any difficulties with his 
cni]ilovees, because he has aUvavs Iven c rc^'cl 

to give them their just dues. He has at times 
employed thousands of mechaiiics of all 
trades; and the confidence witli which he is 
ugarded is proved by the fact that many of 
the men now in his employ have worked for 
him for more than thirty-live years. Since 
Ib^i), the year in whiidi the firm of Franklin 
M. Harris et Co. was organized, the business 
has uiade rapid advances, the operations of the 
film reacdiing into the .surrounding couutry, 
Miany miles from Philadcl])hia; the firm has 
Lcen entrusted with some of the largot con- 
tracts in this and neighboring cities. 

]\Ir. Harris has for nine years been a mem- 
ber of the City Council, Select branch, hav- 
ing been elected first in 18S!i. He represents 
ihe Thirty-second ward, a fine up-town sec- 
lion e)f tiie city, whose many elegant and 
healthful iieight)orhoods bear testimony to his 
\igilant and judicious care for the interests of 
his constituents. For his perseverance and 
success in obtaining feir his ward its full share 
of ai)propriations for improvements, ^^Ir. Har- 
ris has been jocosely styled "the watch-dog of 
I tic departments." Kor has his intere-t been 
confined within the narrow limits of his own 
Mard; he has eagerly promoted the advance- 
ment 'of Philadelphia by all material improve- 
ments, his will and ability to do so having been 
receignizcd by his appointment as a member 
of many important committees, especially 
such as were appointed to make investigations, 
01 to take charge of improvements requiring 
mechanical skill for the>ir execution. His en- 
thusiasm for publi.- works, his experience ri 
In.ilding on a large .scale, and his thorough 
knowledge of nu'chanics have made him an 
iuuMirtant and useful me^mber e>f the Public 
Pnihlings Commission. He is also chairman 
ui Council's Committee on Itailroaels, and a 
member of the committees em finance, schools, 
electrical boilei-s, inspection, Fairmount I ark 
and Soldiers' Monuments. He is president of 
Ihe Pilaster Bricklayers' Company, the second 
organization of its kin.l, in point of age, in the 
Fnited States; ex-president of the Master 
Ihiilders' Fxe-hauge; and a member of many 
fratc-rnal organizations. 

Franklin M. Harris was marne.l m Unla- 
delohia. Pa., on September 1, 1S(;1, to Mary 
S , datuihter of Frederick AV. and Bosanua 1 . 
Youiiii; of Philadelphia. Th.'ir clnhlivn are: 
1. Franklin M. Harris, Jr.; H. Mary Howard 
Harris (Mrs. Lewis A. Smith). 

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"Wilmington', Del., sou of Aluxaiuler Craw- 
I'oul and Temperance Ann (Harris) Lattouius, 
A^as Lorn on the place known as the J'^liasou 
Farm, adjoining IJIackbird Station, New Cas- 
tle county, Del., January 5, 1800. 

Tlie Dattonuis family is of Huguenot ori- 
gin; the branch residing in Delaware is de- 
scended from James Lattomiis, who settled in 
Appoquinimink hundred. His first 
of land was in 17i)7; in 1770 he bought the 
property near Odessa, known as the Jjishop 
iScott I'arni, and now owned by Cieorge L. 
'Jown^.'ud. On Jlay 20, 170G, James Latto- 
nius was married to Susanna (iooding. In a 
deed recorded at AVilmington, in Deed Record 
S, vol. 2, page 29i), it is stated that Susanna 
Gooding was a granddaughter of John Good- 
ing, a prominent man in the early history of 
Ecd Lion hundred. James Lattomus died 
]\Iay 17, 1777, leaving three children: I. 
Liana; II. John; III. James. Jolm Lattomus 
became a farmer and cabinet-maker. From 
him lias descended that branch of the family 
now living at Townsend. 

Janu's Lattomus, 2, became a noted niinis- 
Ici of tlie Methodist Episcopal Church. He 
spent much of his itinerant life in \'irgin'ia. 
In ISOO, he was a member of tlie General (,'on- 
frrcnce, and offered the following resolution, 
which sliows tliat he was a man of advanced 
ideas: "That every member of the !Metliodist 
Episcopal f'hurcli holding slaves shall, witliin 
the term of one year from the date hereof, 
give an instrument of emancipation for all 
liis slaves; and the Quarterly ]\[ceting ("on- 
fcrence shall determine on the time the slaves 
shall serve, if the laws of the State do mit ex- 
pressly prohibit their emancipation." Xega- 
tived. — Journal of General Conference, ISOO. 
'Mr. Lattomus returned to Delaware in 1801, 
and was assigned to a charge on the Smyrna 
circuit, but in a very few years was obliged 
by failing health to retire from the work of the 
ministry. Rev. James Lattonms was man-ied, 
January 1, 1801, to Rachel, daughter of Cor- 
nelius !N"audain, who was like himself, of 
French descent, and a native of Delaware. 
Their children were: L James Cornelius; II 
Renjamin Allfrce; TIL Robert INL Combs. 
Rev. Mr. Lattomus died i^Iarch 4, 1807, and 
was interred in the graveyard of St. Anne's 
IL E. Church, at IMiddletown, Del. 

James Cornelius Lattomus became a farm- 

er, and resided nearly all his life in Appoquin- 
imink hundred, New Castle county, Del. His 
T.olitical views were those of the Whig party. 
Ik married Mrs. Ann (ilildrum) Corrie, 
widow of (jcorge Corrie; she was born in Ap- 
)io(iuinimiiik hundred in ISOO. 'Ihcir chil- 
dren were: I. John; II. Diana; III. Rachel; 
IV. James; V. Robert; VI. Alexander Craw- 
ford; VII. Amanda; VIII. Joseph; IX. Jien- 
janiin. James C. l.attuinus died in Kenton 
hundred in 184'J, and was Iniried in the Union 
cemetery in Appoquinimink hundred; he was 
a member of the Union ^I. E. Church. Mrs. 
J. C. Lattomus died in 1>77, at the residence 
(d her son, Alexander C!. Lattomus; she was 
buried by the side of her laisband. 

His father's death having left this large 
family in very straiteiUMl ein-nmstaiic 's, Alex- 
an<ler Crawford Lattumus began making his 
own living at the age of fourteen. L'efore he 
was of age, he and his brother, James Latto- 
mus, rented a farm. They farmed together 
until the}' were able to cultivate two farms, 
when they separated. Mr. A. C. Lattomus is 
now a prominent and well-to-do fanner of 
Rlackbird hundred, owning several highly im- 
proved and thriving farms in dilferent ])art3 
of the State. In his political views he is liber- 
al, He has been elected twice to the board 
of school commissioners. Alexander ('raw- 
ford Lattomus was manied, December 24, 
18G1, to Temperance Ann, youngest daughter 
of James aiul ^lary (Brockson) Harris; !Mr. 
Harris was a prosperous farmer, and a Demo- 
cratic leader in A))po([uinimink hundred. He 
was a descendant of Sa])iens Harris, one of the 
early settlers of the State, and a large land 
owner in lowei Xcw T'a.stle county. The 
children of Mr. and ,^^rs. A. C. Lattomus are: 
I. Mildred, born October 15, 1802, died in in- 
fancv; IL ^^arv AniandiL, born Ajiril 17, 
lS(;i, died in childhood; III. James W., Esq., 
of Wilmington; IV. Amanda Florence (Mvfi. 
Samuel J. Brockson), of Kenton, bom Au- 
gust 8, 1870; Y. Joseph E., born March 16, 
1874, married Emma Brockson. Soon after 
the birth of his son James W., j\Ir. Lattomus 
removed to the fann he had pui'chased near 
Green Sjn-ing, where he has since resided. 
Both he and his wife hold membershi]) in the 
Salem ^Methodist Rrotcstant Church in Black- 
bird hundred. 

Their third, but now eldest living child, 
James Walter Lattomus, attended the distri^-t 

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school until he was about fifteen yeai-s old, 
when he was sent to the Smyrna High School 
for one year. lie then assisted his futhi'r on 
the fiirm, attending Prof. Iloe's private school 
during the winter months. In lb88, he began 
teaching at Van Dyke's school; after tilHng 
this engagement for one year, he resigned, in 
order to enter Delaware College, whicli he did 
in Scptcniber, 1SS9. By earnest and diligent 
study, Mr. Lattonuis completed the four years' 
CdUi-sc in tliree yeai-s, graduating third in his 
class in 1;^02. Soon after his graduation, he 
was elected principal of Saint Cieorge's jiul)- 
lic school, which jjosition he resigned in July, 
Isn;], in order to accept the principalship of 
tlie Felton jiublic schools to which he had 
been elected. Tiie last-named position also he 
resigned, in 1895, and in September nf thiit 
year, entered tlie Law Department of Wash- 
ington and Lee University, from which he was 
graduated in June, 189G. In the same 
month, !Mr. Lattonius was admitted to the l)ar 
of Virginia, but returned at (ince to his native 
state, and opened an office in Wilmington in 
I'ebruary, 1897, where he has since been prac- 
ticing, lie is a Past Councillor of Felton 
Council, Junior O. V. A. 31., and a first lieu- 
tenant (if the Delaware College Cadet Corps. 
!Mr. Lattnnnis holds mend)er^hip in Grace !M. 
E. church, AVilmincton, Del. 

II OX. JA:^[ES POXDER, late of :Milton, 
Del., was the son of lion. -lolin and Hester 
f ^lilbv) Pondt'r, and was born in ^liltou, Octo- 
ber ;'.i, 1819. 

The great grandfather of Gov. Ponder, a 
gentleman of English descent, named John 
Ponder, was the first of the family who re- 
sided in Delaware. He came to this state 
from Virginia, and took out a patent for the 
land which is still tlie heritage of the family. 
His sou, James Ponder, was a farmer, cidti- 
\ating his extensive patrimony, which is in 
liroadkiln hundred, Sussex county. James 
Ponder was man-ied to Sarah AVarren, of Ce- 
dar Creek liundred; their children were: T. 
John; II. Eleanor, wife of John Powland, a 
farmer of Sussex county, whose sister wa.i 
married to Governor Paynter; III. Elizal)eth, 
wife of licv. S. Ferry, a Presbyterian minis- 
ter; IV. "Mary, wife of John Grav, removed 
to Iowa in 1842. 

The only son of this family, John Ponder, 
2, was born on the homestead in August, 1 701 . 

After attending in his youth the schools of hu 
neighborhood, receiving a good plain educa- 
tion, he left his father's farm in 1809, at the 
age of eighteen, to become a clerk in the store 
of ilajor Ilazzard, father of the late Gov. 
Ilazzard, at Aiiltou. A few years later, during 
the war of 1812, he ser\'ed in the ranks of 
his country's defenders; this service waa re- 
warded by the government with ceiliiin land 
warrants. After the war, .Mr. Ponder formed a 
]iatnershii) with Arthur ]Milby, .styling the 
firm ^lilby k. Ponder, in a business including 
general merchandise, and the purchase and 
shijunent of Sussex county iron. 'J'housands of 
tons were annually shipped to point,s in A^ew 
Jei-sey, jirincipaliy in vessels owned by the 
firm. .Milby & Ponder also dealt in lumber, 
firain, wood and quercitron bark. This part- 
nei-ship continued \uitil 1830, from which 
time until 1843, John Ponder conducted the 
business in his own name; his son James, after- 
wards Gov. Ponder, then became his partner, 
and the firm of John Ponder & Son held on 
in its steady and successful course until the 
partnershij) was dissolved by the death of its 
senior member. John Ponder, 2, was a suc- 
cessful man in his business affairs, and was also 
generally jiojiular. He was a Democrat, and '-i 
warm admirer of Gen. Jackson, lioth pei-son- 
ally and as President of the United States. 
j\Ir. Ponder served repeatedly as Commis- 
sioner of the Levy Court of Sussex county. 
He served four years as state senator for that 
county, liaving been elected in 1852. 

John Ponder was married in 1810 to Hes- 
ter, dauglitcr of ('apt. Xathaniel ",Milby, and 
niece of his partiu'r, Arthur ^lilby. ^li-s. 
Ponder's father was the master of a coasting 
vessel; ho died of yellow fever at Portsmouth, 
Ya., and was buried there. The children of 
this marriage are: I. James; 11. Anna, vnie 
of the late Chancellor Saulsbury; III. an in- 
fant, died very young. Mi-s. I'onder died in 
1S27. 3Ir. Ponder died in 1SG3, of paralysis. 

After a thorough course of studies in the 
"Milton, Lewes ami GeorgetoMm academies, 
James Ponder, in 1838, entered his father's 
store as clerk, and continued in that position 
until, as has been saiil, he was admitted to an 
interest in tlu' business, .Tan\iary 1, 184:1. 
During the twenty yeai-s of jiartnership, the 
firm was very largely engaged in the building, 
j/urchase and sale <if trading ves-sels, which 
James Ponder eoutinue<l after the decease of 

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liis father, having at that time reliiiquishoil 
tlie store whieh liad heeu carried oti from the 
foundation of the business. In IMdO, he ereet- 
etl a steam saw-uiiil for the manufaeture of 
lumber, ship-tind>er and ([uereitron bark, be- 
low the l)rid;ic aeross the Ih-oadkilu Creek, and 
ou the soiuh bank; at this mill a very exten- 
sive and tlourishiug business was carried on; 
the stoek of bark alone at one time was valued 
at forty thousand dollars. J^y purchases, 
James Ponder added extensive tracts to the 
origiiuil estate, jiatentcd liv the first John 
Ponder, and became the largest laud-owner 
in Sussex county. His estate was divided.into 
farms, kept in productive condition by care- 
ful cultivation; a considerable ])ortion of the 
laud was ilevoted to ])each culture. 

From the tinu» when he attained his nui- 
jority, dames Ponder was a su]iporter of the 
l)emocratic party, lie was elected to the 
State Legislature in 185(5. During the scis- 
sion of 1857, he assisted iu the election of 
James A. Bayard and ^rartiii AV. Tiates to the 
U. S. Senate, and introihu'cnl the bill for the 
incorjioration of the Junction and Breakwater 
Pnilroad, now the Delaware, ]\Iaryland and 
Virginia Pailroad, and operated as a part of 
the great P. P. P. sj'stem. He was elc<'t^?d 
to the State Senate in 18(i4, and was s]ieakcr 
of that bo<ly in 1 S(J7. In 1870, ho Avas ele<-ted 
on the Democratic ticket, by a large majority, 
to the highest office in the gift of the State, 
that of go\-ernor. In every official pasition, 
dames Ponder was distinguished by the .same 
faithfulness to the trust im|)osed upon him, 
and the same digidty of denu'anor. He was 
inaugurated as governor January 17, 1871, 
and administered the State Executive Depart- 
ment for four yeai"s most honorably and satis- 
factorily. Gov. Ponder was connected with 
the Kent County ^tutual Insurance Company 
from its organization in 1S17, and was for 
many yeai-s one of its directors and for several 
j'ears before his death was its president. lie 
was for many ye^i-s also on the board of direc- 
tors of the Farmers' Pank of Delaware, was 
president of the fSeorgetown branch, and after 
his removal to AN'ihuington, iu 1S75, a direc- 
tor of the Wilmington branch. 

Hon. James Ponder w;is married, in July, 
1851, to Sarah, daughter of (Jideou and Sarah 
Waples, of ^lilton. Their children are: I. 
Ida; 11. John, who resides at the old home- 
stead near IVIilton; TIL James, wiio died in his 

seventh year; J\'. James ^V. Ponder, who is 
jiracti<'ing law iu \\ ilmiugton. I'Dr many 
generations, the Ponder family have been 
members of the Protestant Kpiscopal Church. 
Potli the (iovcrnor and his father were oflico- 
bearei-s in that eonununion, the latter Inning 
been vestryman and warden of St. ifatthew's 
1*. K. Church, in ('edar Creek huiuli-ed, and 
the former a warden of the Church of Sr. 
John the Paptist, at -Milton. Kx-(iovernor 
J'ouder died at his residence in Milton, D(d., 
Xovendier 5, 181)7. 

MFRPIS TAYLOR, Wilmington, Del., 
editor of Kvenj Evening, was bom in Wil- 
mingtou, December 10, 1851. He is a son 
(jf IJeujamin Taylor, who during the war of 
tlic Rebellion was first assistant engineer of 
the II. S. Steamship Altthanid, and died of 
yellow fever iu (luarantine at New York, in 
August, ]8r);J. The family in this couutry 
descended frtmi Peter Taylor, a worthy fol- 
lower of AVilliam Penn, who came over with 
the Projuietor's earliest expedition, and set- 
tled iu what is now Chester county. Pa. His 
descendants are numerously represented in the 
Taylor fauulies of Ciiester and Delawiire 
c(Uinties, Pennsylvania, and of Cecil county, 

]\Ierris Taylor atteiuled Public School Xo. 
4, on Washington street above Second, which 
was at that time the high school of the city. 
He jiassi'd through all the grades of the in- 
stitution, his class during the last year includ- 
ing a number of boys who subsequently be- 
came noted in varioiis walks of life. Among 
them were ex-Postmaster William F. Ilarrity, 
of Philadel])hia, Secretary of the Common- 
wealth of I'ennsylvania; A. S. L. Shicdds, 
Ksq., a leading attorney of the same city; 
Henry C. Conrad, Esq., ex-President of the 
City Council; aiul ex-City Solicitor Henry 
C Turner. 

Early in 1864, Mr. Taylor entered the of- 
fice of the old Delaware Gazette, where he 
leanied the printer's trade. He afterwards 
woi'ked in the office of tlie Journal and 
Slalesjnan, and in June, 1870, went to 
Smyrna, Delaware, to work on the 
Smyrna Herald, then owned by James W. 
S])rnance. The retirement of the editor of 
this jtaper a month later, was the occasion of 
^fr. Taylor's introduction into the ranks of 
journalism: aiul during the ensuing twidve 

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iiiuiitlis lie acted as editor, publisher, euiu- 
pubitor, pressman and general manager of tlio 
pajicr, tlioiigli the financial results of ids la- 
bors were not such as to convince him that tho 
lot of a journalist was either a happy ur a 
j>rosj)erous one. 

In August, 1871, "^\v. Taylor went to Phil- 
ndel])hia, and for about a month worked as a 
"sub"- in the various oftiees of that city. He 
then returned to AVilmington and took a p(J- 
sition in the composing room of Every Even- 
iiiij. SubsecpuMitly, he held a ease in tlu^ 
eom]iosing room of the old Coiiunririal. Ou 
AjH-il 1, 1872, (J. P. Johnson, then jiroprie- 
tor of the Delaware Gazelle, began to issue a 
daily edition of his pajter, on which }\\r. Tay- 
lor was eini^loyed as city editor. He held 
this position until February, 1882, wdien he 
resigned, to assume the cit}' editoi-ship of the 
Suiulay Slav. In May of the same year, he 
and Jerome B. Bell formed a partnershii), 
and jiurehased the Gazelle of Mr. Johnson, 
the ]iublicMtion of which they eontimuMl until 
Decendier 10, 1883, when tliey sold it to the 
proprietors of Every Evening. In A])ril, 
ISSl, !Mr. Taylor became a niemlier of the 
editoiial staff of Every Evening, ha\'ing s])e- 
cial charge of the political department. lie 
represented that journal at Hover during tho 
legi-^latlve session of 1885. Ke afterwards 
became nnmaging editor, and since Septem- 
ber, 1891, has been editi>r-in-chief. 

Xot only was ^fr. Taylor brought into ciin- 
iiection with political affairs as a jounialist, 
but he also took an active pereonal interest 
in jiolitics, and was locally ])rominent in the 
Democratic party almost from the time when 
he cast his first vote. At the legislative ses- 
sion of 1877 he Avas elected clerk of the State 
Senate, and performed the duties of the oftice 
Anth great credit. In April, 1879, he was 
elected a member of the Board of Kdiu'ation 
from the First ward, but resigned in the Sep- 
tember following, having been nominated for 
member of the City Oonncil, to which ]>o- 
sition ho was elected by a large majority. lie 
served until the expiration of his term, ia 
Juii(\ 1882, during which time he was cliair- 
nuui of tlie finance and legislative connuit- 
tecs, and tix)k a prominent part in all the ]n'o- 
eeedings of Council. In June, 1884, he was 
again elected, this time from the Third ward, 
defeating the retiring mendier, 'I'lmnias John- 
son, ]ie|)ublican, by a nuijonty of thirimi. 

In June, 18SC, he was re-elected by a nui- 
jority of over five hundred. During his sec- 
ond term, Mr. 'J'aylor was again chairman of 
the finance committee, and also of the com- 
mittee on park.H, actively participating in the 
legislation that rcMdlcd iu the purchase of 
the ])ark grounds along the IJrandywine and 
in the Fleventh ward. He retired from 
Council at the ex])iration of his second term, 
in June, 1888, declining, in the face of strong 
])ressure, a re-nomimition that would have 
l)een ecpiivalent to a re-election, ^fr. Taylor 
was also reading clerk of tiie Delaware 
House of Bejiresentatives, during the se>.-lou 
of 1887. 

In addition to his work on the press of 
Wilmington, ^fr. Taylor has served as cor- 
respondent of leading jounuils of Xew York, 
Philadelphia and Baltimore. At present, iu 
])oiut of continuous service, he practically 
stands at the head of the newspaper workers 
of "Wilmington. 

JFSSE K. 1'>.VY1,IS, Wilmington, Del., 
son of Samuel I!, and Sarah (Kendall) Baylis, 
of l^randywitie hundred, was born in ^Vil- 
mington, Feln-uary 10, 1841]. 

^Nfr. l^aylis received a good education in the 
public schools of his native city, and after 
leaving school learned the trade of sash mak- 
ing. After some years ho extended the busi- 
ness by making it indude other articles neces- 
sary to builders. He was the first to intro- 
duce the tile and mantel business into Wil- 
mington and was engage<l in the sale of tiles, 
mantels and grates at 718 Market street until 
he became the lessey of the Wilmington 
Cirand Opera House. It was in 1874 that 
!Mr. Baylis ass\imed the management of that 
l)oi)ular j)lace of entertainment, which he has 
conducted ever since so judiciously, and with 
such regard for the comfort, convenience and 
jjleasure of the pulilic as to give great satis- 
faction to the patrons of the house. During 
the past twenty-f(nir years, all the leading 
artistd of the country have appeared in the 
(irand Opera House, with marked success. 
.Mr. P.aylis is wcdl known as a public-spirited 
citizen, taking jdeasure in any service that 
he can render to the interest of the commu- 
nity, lie was for eight years a mendier of 
the Boiu-d of Education. In 18!tr) he was 
electe<l jiresident of the City ('(juncil, and 
ser\ed one term in that capacity with faith- 

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fulness aiul efficiency. lie is treasurer of the 
(uiardiau Loan Association. ^Ir. Jlaylis is 
an ardent Dcniocriit, and was the first presi- 
<h-nt of Council adhering to that party for 
juanv years. He is a monibcr of Washington 
Lodgei Xo. 1, F. and A. .M.; of St. John's 
Chai)tcr, No. 1, M. A. M.\ and of St. .John's 
Conmiandery, No. 1, Ivnights Tenijilar. 

Jesse K. Baylis was married October 12, 
1805, to Ellen K., daughter of ^Afahudii P. 
and (,'atlierine i\Iason, and granddaughter of 
Park ^lason, an old and honored resident of 
AVihningtou. TluMr children arc as follows: 
I. Poscoe F., born F'ebruary 2, ISCiS, edu- 
cated in the ])nl)lic ;>chools of Wilmington, 
and at present a clerk in the office of iho. su- 
perintendent of the Philadel|)hia, Wilming- 
ton and Baltimore Pailroad, where lie has 
been employed since the time of his leaving 
school, lie is a member and past master of 
Washington Lodge, No. 1, F. and A. ^I., and 
of St. John's Chapter, No. 1, Iv. A. ^\.\ 
Roscoc Y. Baylis nian-ied Nina, daughter of 

John 11. and Graham, and has two 

children, i. Jesse X., Jr., ii. TIelen; If. 
AVynard T^., born January !», JSTo, educated 
in the ]nil)lie schools, is at present a clerk in 
the freight department of the Philadeliihia, 
Wilmington and Baltimore Bailroad; III. 
Lester X., born August 21, ISIS, now en- 
gaged with his father in the management of 
the (irand C)i)era House. 

wtllta:\i west s:\rrTiTEKS, Esq., 

PhiladeliJiia, Pa., son of William llenry and 
!Mary .1. (Reed) Smithei"s, was born ]\ray 5, 
1SG4, in Philadeli)hia, whither his parents 
had removed from ]\[ilton, Sussex county. 

Capt^iin William Henry Smithers, eldest 
son of TTon. Elias Smithei-s, of ]\rilford, Del., 
manned !^^ary J., daughter of Joseph and 
]\rary (Tngraham) Becd. !Mr. Bced was a 
native of Virginia, and had settled at ^lilton, 
Del., and 'S\\-i. Bced was a daughter of An- 
thony IngTaham, one of the five sons of John 
Tngraham, the first of the family to settle in 
Sussex county. 

In 1^05, her husband having died in Phil- 
adelphia, ]\rrs. William TL Smithei-s re- 
turned with her three daughters and her son, 
William West, an infant only a year old, to 
her fonuer home in ^filton, Bel. Bere the 
boy attended school until 1870, when ho 

came with his mother to Philadelphia, and 
secured a position in a mercantile house for 
a few months. Bi August, 1877, his uncle, 
]"!lias P. Smithers, Esij., an attorney in Phila- 
(h'lphia, took him int(j his olHce. With this 
nncle lie began the stud)' of law, and in June, 
1S87, took the degree of l^L. B. as a graduate 
of the Law School of the Bniversity of Penn- 
sylvania. !Mr. Smithers was the first student 
of the J-aw School to take two honoi-s, being 
chosen by the Faculty to deliver the graduat- 
ing oration, and also receiving the first jirize 
(known, as the Slierwoiid jjrize) for the best 
essay. Bis oration was entitled, "Diffusion 
of National Sentiments," and his essay had 
for its theme, '"'riie Belation of Attorney and 
Client." The latter has since been j)ublished, 
and is used by Pennsylvania law stnihnts as 
a text-book. After graduation, .Mr. Smithers 
remained with his \incle, Flias P. Smithci-s, 
until September, 1S8'J, when he oijened his 
o\\ n offices. lie has since enjoyed a lucrative 
and im])ortant general jiractice, meeting w\\\\ 
)iarticular success in jury cases. In the midst 
of his i>rofessional engagements, however, 
-Mr. Smithers finds recreation and improve- 
ment in literary ])ursuits. Besides the able 
essay above named, he luis published "The 
Life of John Lotland, the ^ifilford Bard," and 
"A Coaching Trip Through Delaware," as 
well as numerous newspaper and magazine 
articles on a variety of topics. 

Mr. Smithei-s has traveled all over this 
country and Canada, and spent two siimmers 
in Eurojje. He reads, writes and speaks the 
French lang\iage with fluency, and has the 
distinction of being one of the few lawyers 
at the J'hiladeli)hia bar who are able to trans- 
act business with Frenchmen in their own 
tongue, lie is a member of the Masonic Fra- 
ternitv, of the I. 0. O. F., the Junior O. U. 
A. :\r", the 1. O. B. IsL, the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania, the Sons of Delaware, the 
Law Association, and both the General and 
the I>aw Alumni Associations of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. 

On June A, 1889, AVilliam West Smithers 
was man-ied to Virginia Scott, daughter of 
Honore B. and Cornelia (Beynon) Lyons. 
They have one child. Gene, bom April 3, 

PETER B. AYABS, AVilmington, Del., 
son of Benjamin D. and Jane Ann (Elkintun) 

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Ayars, was bom in Bridgeport, N. J., April 
17, 1S42. 

His jiatenial aucestoi-s were Scotch; the 
inattTDal, French. Noah Ayai-s, great-graiid- 
I'ather of Peter B. Ayars, was born in Ayr- 
shire, Scothiud, .and was among the passon- 
gei-s the good ship ]l[a7j/lower brouglit to 
Anierit-a on her second trip westward over 
the Athmtic. lie made his first home in this 
country with the original settlers at Ply- 
moutii, ^lass. Afterwards he removed to 
Cumberland county, N. J., and, it is said, 
founded the to\\ai of Bridgeton. lie was a 
soldier in the Ixevolutionary war, and his cer- 
titicate of discharge from the Continental 
army is now in possession of Pet<?r 15. Ayars, 
who has, also, it may he mentioned iiero, the 
i-ertitlcate of the discharge of his maternal 
grandfatiier, Benjamin DuBois, fmm tlie 
same army of patriots. 

Noali Ayai-3, 2, grandfather of Peter B. 
Ayars, and son of Noah Ayai-s, is su])posed 
to have been horn in Bridgeton, N. J. It is 
certain that he was educated there, engaged 
in business, died, and was buried tiiere. lie 
married iliss DuBois. Among their children 
were Robert, Joseph, Noah, 3, and Benjamin 
1). Noah Ayars, 3, is the only sur\'ivor of 
the family. Ue is still liWng in Ih-idgetofi, 
at an advanced age. His ^v^fe died in Phila- 
delphia in 18G1, and is buried in that city. 

Benjamin 13. Ayai-s, father of Peter B. 
Ayars, was born in Bridgeton, N. J., in Oc- 
tober, 1812. He attended the schools of tliat 
place and resided there during his youth. 
AVhen old enough to begin a trade, he went 
to Philadeliihia and learned carpentry, in 
which occupation he was engaged until his 
death. Benjamin D. Ayars married Jane 
Ann, daughter of John and Eliza Elkinton. 
Their children were: I. Elizabeth (^[rs. 
George Zane), of Bridgepfirt, N. J., deceased, 
as is her husband also, had children, i. Eliza- 
beth (Mrs. Andrew Henry), of Lebanon, Pa., 
ii. Georgiana (^Ws. Elwood Tussey), of Wil- 
mington, Del.; II. Benjamin, of Chester, 
Pa., married Elizabeth Steelman, had one 
child, Benjamin, 2, patentee of the "Ayars' 
!Mail Catcher and Deliverer," died in 1895, 
aged twenty-four; III. John B., died in 
1S50, from smallpox; IV. William IL H., 
died in 186G; V. Peter B.; VI. Mary J. 
(>rrs. Stratlon Mitchell), of Chester, Pa., Iiad 
children, i. George 11., ii. Clinton K., iii. 

Isaac M., iv. Bertha, all of Chester; VII. 
George W., accidentiilly choked to death, at 
the age of eighteen; VI 11. Charles, died 
aged twenty, from cold and e.xposure; IX. 
Amanda (.Mrs. Emiuit E. Stidiiamj, of W'il- 
miiigtou. Mr. Stidham was at one time 
coroner of New Castle county, Del. Benja- 
min D. Ayai"s died in Chester, Pa., November 
25, 1888; his wife in Bridgeport, N. J., in 
1855, wiiere they are both buried. 

Peter B. Ayars lived in BridgeiJort until 
ho was nine years ohl and then came to Wil- 
mington, where he attended thu public 
schciols and Traverse Academy. When ho 
reached the age of sixteen he returned to 
Bridgeport and learned carriage blacksmith- 
ing. lie worked at his trade until the break- 
ing out of the Civil War, when he was amung 
the lirst to utfi'r his services ior the preserva- 
tion of the Union. 

On ^lay 25, 18G1, Mr. Ayai-s enlisted in 
Philadelphia, in Company E, Thirty -second 
regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers; the regi- 
mental number was changed to uLuoty- 
ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers. He par- 
ticipated in every important engagement 
of the Army of the Potomac until April 6, 
18G5, the day of the battle of Sailor's C'reek, 
Va. In all, he fought in tifty-four liattles, 
always bravely and always in the forefront 
but not without severe injuries to himself. 
He was several times wounded, first at Spott- 
sylvania Court House, Va., May 15, 1861, 
when he received a bullet in his left shoulder. 
At the battle of Petersburg, October 28, 
18G1, he was wounded in the right leg, and 
on April (i, 1SG5, he lost his left arm at the 
battle of Sailor's Creek, Va. ilr. Ayai^s was 
a gallant soldier, fearless in the face of dan- 
ger and undaunted by the most imposing 
array of the enemy, and his services for his 
country were fitly rewarded by numerous 
promotions. He entered the army as a pri- 
vate and passed through all the grades of 
nou-conunissioned officers. In April, 18G4, 
he was promoted to second lieutenant, and iu 
June, 18G4, he was commissioned first lieu- 
tenant of his company. On April 0, 18G5, 
when his arm was shot off, he was acting ad- 
jutant of his regiment. He was discharged 
with the rank of captain, Mny 15, 18G5, at 
the otlicei-s' hospiUil, Annapolis, ild., under 
Special Order, No. 82, which discharged all 
ollicers in the hospitjil at that time. 

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A\'lieu the war was over he went to Cliester, 
Pa., and tliere K'anied telegraphy. In the 
fall of 1805 he removed to Wilmington and 
was employed as an operator in the railroad 
sernce of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and 
Jialtimore Pailroad. He remained in said ser- 
vii'e for nine years and was then tendered a 
position in the AVilmington postoffice. lie ae- 
' eepted it and was a popular and faithful at- 
taidie of the office for a period of fourteen 
years. The past nine years he has held the 
offiee of deputy collector and inspector of 
customs at AVilmington, and has proved a ca- 
jiahle and etficient appointee. He is a mem- 
l>er of DuPont Post, No. 2, G. A. K., of Wil- 
mington, and past junior vice-commander- 
in-chief of the Grand Army of the Kepublic. 
^\y. Avars is, also, supreme commander of 
the Legion of the Ped ( 'ross. lie holds mem- 
bei-ship in the State Historical Society and 
the Sons of the Povolutiou. lie is a staunch 
PcpuMican and an active party worker. 

On :May 10, ISO;"), in Chester, Pa., Peter 
E. Avars married Annie E., daughter of Har- 
per and ^ilargaret J. Dunn, of IMiiladcliihia, 
Pa. Mrs. Ayai-s was horn in Philadeljihia, 
December 2,^1848. Their children are: I. 
Clara (^h-s. Joseph N. Warren), of Chester, 
has children, i. Esther, ii. Thonuis N., iii. 
Edward, iv. Jay, v. George; II. IMargaret 
J. (:Mrs. John C. Green), of Wilmington, has 
ohildrcn, i. John C, 2, ii. Alice A.; HI. 
Florence (Mrs. George Cox), of Wilmington; 
has two children, [Margaret and (jcorgc Ed- 
ward Cox; lY. Edward F. J., student in 
Delaware College, Newark, Del.; enbstcd 
in the war against Spain as sergeant of Com- 
])anv M, First Delaware Infantrj', United 
States Volunteers, Aiiril,lSOS; V. Anna D., 
and VI. Elizabeth, twins, the latter died in 
infancy; VII. Hai-per, died in infancy. .Mr. 
Ayai-s'and family are membei-s of the Dela- 
ware Avenue Baptist cluireh, of Wilmington. 
]\Ir. Ayars is superintendent of the Sunday- 
school and president of the New Castle Coun- 
ty Sunday-School Association, of Delaware. 

GEOPGE P0M:MEL, Wilmington, Del., 
son of the late Gustav\is and Minnie (Ilerbst) 
Pommel, was born in Dayton, Ohio, Mav 
28, 1S.")1. 

Both of ^Ir. Pommel's parents were of 
German descent. His paternal great grand- 
father, Wilhelm Pommel, served for more 

than half a century in the army of the Grand 
Duke of Sa.xc- Weimar. For about thirty 
years lie enjoyed the rank of Feldherr, or 
general, and when past the age of active ser- 
vice, received the ai)pointment of jjaymaster 
of the army. Hut this was not the only recog- 
nition of the brave and worthy general's long 
services, for on the fiftieth anniversarv of his 
enrollment in the army, he was presented 
by the Grand Duke with a silver goblet full 
of gold coins. The cup is now in the posses- 
sion of Charles Pommel, youngest sou of 
Gustavus ]^)nnnel. General Pommel passed 
his life in his native land, dying there at the 
age of .seventy-four years. His long and hon- 
orable military career commenced in his early 

George Pommel, son of General Pommel, 
was also a native and a lifelong resident of 
Weimar, Saxony. His ]mblic services, 
though less brilliant, were ])erhaps nut less 
valuable than those of his father, he being a 
Ealhsherr, or member of the council of the 
city; but they were cut short while he was 
still in the prime and vigor of manhood, at 
fifty years of age, by the fall of a fire engine 
upon him, which caused his death. Besides 
three daughtei-s, Avhose names are not kno\\^l, 
(ieorge Pommel liad two sons: I. Angustus, 
a jeweler, who was in business for about 
twenty years in New York City, Avhere he 
died; and II. Gustavus, father of George 
Ponmiel, 2. 

(Justav, or Gustavus, Pommel, was bom in 
Weimar, Saxony, Jau\iary 28, 1817. He was 
educated in that city, and became a locksmith 
and whitesmith. At the age of seventeen, ac- 
cording to national regulations, Gustavus 
Poninud was examined for service in the 
army, but on account of a slight irregularity 
in his gait, was rejected by the exanuners. 
This decision i)leased the youth well, for he 
had already formed a strong desire to become 
a citizen of this western republic. In 1835, 
therefore, he emigrated, and spent the first 
live years of his life in .Vmerica in various 
cities, where he worked at his trade, and in 
the manufacture of surgical instruments. 
About ten years after coming to the I'^nited 
States the diligent and thrifty young artisan 
was able to return on a visit of nearly a year's 
length to his native land, during wliich time 
he was married. Coming with his bride again 
to America, they first resided for two years 

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in luiuliiig, Pa., and then removed to Uuy- 
ii n, Ohio, where ^Ir. Koniniel \v;is master 
iiRcliaiiic <if the machine sliup of Thompson 
iV Sciii>. ihe rest of his life was passed in 
1 leading, where during most of tliose years 
lie was employed as maehiidst hy the I'hila- 
del|)!iia and Heading Railroad. His wift', to 
wlidiii he was married in ^\'einlar in lW4(i, 
iliiii at the ago of fifty, in Reading, .Mareli '1 1, 
isT."). .\ir. Rommel siirvivt'd her for almost 
ten years, and Tiled February 1, ISs.'). IJoth 
wi're ititrrred in Reading. All hut one ct' 
their ti\c children survived them. 'The t;im 
ily is as follows: 1. J-ily, horn in Reading, I'a., 
I'ehriiary IC, 1847, died at the age of sixteen 
years; II. William, of Dayton, Ohio, horn 
dune L'^, 1S48; 111. George; IV. Louisa 
(Mrs. Henry B. Derr), born in Reading, .May 
.'ill, ISf)."!, has three children, i. Charles, ii. 
Howard, iii. Lily, V. Charles, born in Read- 
ing, April 1, 1857. 

At the age of seventeen, after receiving a 
good education in the common schools of the 
city of Reading, (ieorge Ronmicl began an 
a])prenticcshii) of three yeare in the machine 
shoi)s of the ]-]ast Pennsylvania Railroad. At 
the expiration of that time he went to Terre 
Haute, Ind., where for about two years he 
worked for the Vandalia Railroad Company. 
He then retin-ned to Reading and engaged in 
mercantile business, but this enterjirise being 
unpros]>erons, went again to Terre Haute, 
and remainetl there until Xovember, l87->. 
From that time until Jantiary C, 1874, he was 
once more a resident of Reading. He then 
entered the employ of the Wiluungton and 
Reading, now Wilmington and Xorthern, 
Railroad, at Coatesville, Pa.;. his services to 
this road have been efReient and well ajipre- 
I'iated. He has been in the employ of the 
company for twenty-four years, and sin.-e 
April, 1875, lias been master mechanic, tilh 
ing the position ably and satisfactorily. .Mr. 
Rommel is a member of the following fratei'- 
nities: Lafayette Lodge, Xo. 11, F. and .\. 
-M., Wilmington; Star of Hope Lo(l<ie, .\o. 
1:M», T. O. O. F., Coatesville, Pa.; and Onon- 
daiio Tribe, Xo. 8.3, L O. R. :^L, Coatesville, 
I'a. lie is a staunch Re])ublican. In .luiie, 
ls|i7, he was elected to the board of educa- 
tion from the Twelfth ward of Wilmington. 

(Ieorge Rommel was married in Reading, 
Pa., .May 28, 1874, to Flizabeth A., daughter 
of Thonni> T. and Aninc (^filan) Sand-. 

Their children are: 1. George S. ; IL 
Charles T.; IlL William (i. Air. and .Mrs. 
Jiommel and their two cdder sons are faithful 
and active members of Olivet i'resllyterian 
churidi. Mr. Ronjinel is an elder of the 
church and its treasurer, ln'sides teaching in 
its Sabbath-school. (ieorge S. and (^'harlcs 
']'. Rommel are respectively librarian and as- 
sistant librarian of the school, and are al-o 
meud)ers of the church choir. 

(ieorge S. Rommel, eldest son of George 
Rommel, graduated from the high school of 
Wilmington at the age of sixteen, i-eceiving 
the prize oti'ered by the Wihnington Morning 
News for snjterior etiiciency in the studies 
forming the high school eiirricidum. ,Vfter 
his graduation he entered the; si'rvice of the 
Wilmington Street and Sewer Department 
as rodman, and i)erfornied the duties of that 
position intelligently and faithftdly for two 
yetirs. He then entered the sophomore class 
in civil engineering of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, and took the full four years' course. 
Peing honorably graduated, he was appointed 
instructor in civil engineering in the same in- 
stitution, and still acts in that capacity, re- 
tlecting credit upon the University, and en- 
joying the ajjprobatiiin of the senior members 
of its Faculty. 

Fourth street, Wihnington, Del., son of Pat- 
rick and Hilary (.MacK'iidey ) .>rcLonghlin, 
was born in (Jountv Antrim, Ireland, June 8, 

His paternal and materinil ancestors were 
Scotidi. They settled in Ireland at an early 
date, having been driven with many others 
ti-oui their native land by religious pereeeu- 
tioii. Rut little is known of their history. 
J'atrit'k .McLoughlin, Sr., was born in County 
Antrim and spent his life there. He was 
twice married, and by the two marriages had 
twenty one children, most of whom died in 
early life. One of these children of his tii-st 
wife, Fliza, is living. His second wife wai 
Mary .M(d\inley. They had live children: 
I. William, deceased; II. John, residing in 
Irelaiul, on the homestead; 111. .Martha, de- 
ceased; IV. Patrick, Jr. 

Patiick ^rcLonghlin, Jr., received his edu- 
cation in Ii'eland and was engaged there in 
agricidtural pursuit.s until 1843. In that 
year, when he had arrived at manhood's cs- 

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tate, he came to America and settled in Xew 
York City, lie learned gas tittiiig and fol- 
lowed that trade for eiglit years. In 1S51 he 
moved to \\'iimington and entered tiie ciii- 
l)ioy of tlie Wilmington Coal Gas Comjiany, 
with which corporation he has, until recently 
been connected in various capacities. He is 
now retired. He is au adherent of the Ke- 
publicau party. Patrick ^IcLoughlin, Jr., 
was married in November, 1S4S, in Kew 
York City, to ]\Iary Jane, daugiiter of John 
and Mary Hogg, natives of (Jounty Down, 
Ireland, ilrs. JMcLoughlin was born in Dun- 
dee, County Do\vii, Ireland. Mr. and Mrs. 
ilcLoughliu have children: I. -Mary; II. 
John; III. Kobert, deceased. The family 
attend Olivet Presl^'teriau church. .Mi's, 
ilary Jane ilcLoughlin died in Wilmington, 
April i'4, 1855. 

^Ir. ]\lcLoughlin, in 1881, revisited his na- 
tive country and sj)ent a few months with his 
relatives and friends, returning to his adopted 
home with pleasant recollections of the kind- 
ness of the kinsmen, who entertained him 
amid the scenes of his youth. 

CHARLES TAYLOR, Wilmington, Del., 
son of Edward and Elizabeth (McHride) Tay- 
lor, w;is born in Upland, Delaware countv, 
Pa., May 22, 1860. 

His ancestors were English on his father's 
side, and Irish on his mother's. His father, 
Edward Taylor, came to America as a young 
man and settled in Pennsylvania. He was a 
weaver, and worked at his trade in Delaware 
coimty for many years, then rcmove<l to 
Wasliington, D. C, and was employed in the 
government printing office. He died there 
about 1891. His widow still resides in Wiish- 
iugton. EdwiU-d Taylor had children: I. 
George, died in Kansas City, Mo., at the age 
of twentv-two; II. Annie (ilrs. Harry Tay- 
lor), of Washington, D. C; III. Sarah (:\Irs. 
George Bailey), of Washington; lY. Charles; 
V. Edward, of Nebraska. 

Charles Taylor acquired his education in 
the pnljlic schools of Delaware county, Pa., 
and afterward learned weaNTng. He went iut<) 
the factory at the age of eleven, and contin- 
ued there until he was twenty-five. In 1885 
he established himself in the hosiery business 
inGermautown,Pa.,havingas partners, Henry 
H. Hawthorne, Thomas West and Ambrose 
West. About 1890 the Messrs. West \vith- 

drew from tlie firm and since that time the 
business has been conducted by the two re- 
nuiining partnei-s. In 1S'J2 they removed 
their ]ilant to Wilnnngloii and greatly en- 
larged it. Their null.-, are known as the Stand- 
ard .Mills, and manufacture all descriiitions 
of hosiery. Two hundred pei-sons are em- 
ployed and their output finds ready markets, 
chiefly in the United States. The hrm name 
is Taylor &. Hawthorne. ^Mr. Taylor is the 
jiresident. ^Mr. Taylor is a Republican, and a 
member of Lafayette Lodge, No. 11, V. and 

A. :\L 

Charles Taylor was married in Philadelphia 
Septendjer i;5, 18S2, to .Mary T., daughter of 
John and Louisa .Moore, of Ohoter, Pa. 
Th(>y have one child, IJhia, liurn July 1, 
1884. They attend the .Methodist Churc'ii. 

SANFORD F. SAWIN, Wilmington, 
Del., son of Aaron S. and Louisa (llolsizer) 
Sawin, was born in Phillipsburg, N. J., Jan- 
uary 2G, 1855. 

His paternal ancestors were English, his 
maternal German. His paternal grandfather 
was a blacksmith and a resident of (Grange, 
Mass. His children were: I. ilarshall, de- 
ceased; II. Frank; III. .\aron S., deceased; 
IV. Charies; V. Phebe. Mr. Sawin died in 
Orange, [Mass. 

Aaron S. Sawin was born February 28, 
1829. He learned stone cutting when a young 
man and followed that occupation for many 
years. lie resided in New Jersey during jjart 
of his life, and s])ent his last years in ^^'il- 
inington, Del. He niamed Louisa llolsizer, 
and had several children, .\aron S. Sawin 
died in AVilmington November 27, 1SG2. His 
widow still resides in tliat city. 

Sanford F. Sa\vin was but six yeai-s old 
when his parents removed to Wilmington. 
He was educated in the public schools and af- 
terward entered the car-building shops of the 
Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore 
Railroad Company. He acquired a thorough 
knowledge of his trade and worked in the 
shops for a number of years. In Jidy, 1890, 
he was promoted to foreman of laborers in the 
lumber yard and at the same time became 
lumber insjiector. On January 1, 1892, he 
was made foreman of the lumber mill, a po- 
sition which lie still holds. Air. Sawin is a 
member of Industry Lodge, No. 2, A. O. U. 
W., of Wilmington. He is a Republican. 

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On June 2, 1882, in Wihainglon, Sant'onl 
Y. Sawin was inamed to Sarah A., datigliter 
<)( (liur^t' and Isabella (Covey) Jlinin', ut' 
Wilniiii^ic 11. Their children are: I. Frank 
11.; il. Leonard, deceased; III. Nellie; IV. 
Lcroy; V. George. Mr. Sawin and fanuly at- 
tend the Protestant Episcopal Church. 

DAVID r. CUKLETT, Wilmington, 
Pel., son of Lewis and Elizabeth (i'orter) 
Curlett, was born in Xew Castle, Del., De- 
cember 2i;, 1S2L 

His pateriml ancestors were Welsh; the ma- 
ternal, Scotch. His father was a native i.if 
Xew Castle and spent his life in tiiat city as a 
jdastorer and contractor. He was a busy and 
highly respected citizen, lie nmrried I'^liza- 
betli Porter, and had children: 1. Janu's, do- 
ceased; 11. Lewis, (leceased; TIT. Margaret, 
deceased; IV. Eliza, deceased; V. .Matilda 
(.Mrs. Sannud Pilcv) widow; VF. :\Iarv, de- 
ceased; VTT. David P. Mr. Curlett died in 
Wilmington in 18:59. 

Da\id P. Curlett was a student in the old 
aeiidemy in Xew Castle, Del. When he was 
sixteen years old he was sent to Camden, X. 
.L, ti) learn blacksmithing. Tie spent si.\ years 
acquiring this trade but could not, in the same 
time, develop a liking for it, and he tlierefore 
relimiuished it and turned his attention to 
plastering, the business which his father had 
so successfully followed. To this he soon ad- 
ded contracting, and he has erected many 
buildings in ^Wilmington and elsewhere. Xot- 
withstiinding his many years of business life, 
he is still vigorous and I'ctains the manage- 
ment of his affairs in his own hands. lie is 
happy in the respect of all who know him so- 
cially, and in the confidence of those with 
whom he has business dealings, ilr. Chirlett 
is a member of Washington Lodge, Knights 
of Pythias, and of Oriental Lodge, X"o. 27, 
Free and Accepted j\rasons. He is independ- 
ent in politics and believes merit in an aspir- 
ant for fiftlce to be of greater moment than his 
political affiliations. 

On February 21, 1844, T)avid P. Ciudett 
married Jane, daughter of Owen and T'.liza- 
beth Zebley, of Wilmington. They had 
■■iiildren: I. Elizahcth (^Irs Fred. AV. Tay- 
lor, of WilnnTigton,V, IT. Samuel, of Wil- 
mingtnn, married L'liza ]\Iicklen; TTT. Lewi-, 
of T'lvviiod, married Laura Hunter; IV. Anna 
]\rary (Airs. Coldwell), of AVilmington; V. 


and \'l. Matilda and Kmnia, twins, the former 
is (J\Irs. Thomas Denny), of Cape Charles, 
\'a. ; the latter is dcjeased; \'T1. David, and 
Vlll. Frank (twins), born February I'J, 
18oo; the former resides in Wilmington, 
is an upholsterer and cabinet-maker, nuir- 
ried May 12, 1880, to Laura, daughter of 
.lohn and .Margaret ilahoney, of WilmingtuOj 
and had children: i. Elsie; ii. John; the latter, 
Frank, is deceased; IX. (Jeorge, of near !Mal- 
vern, l^a., marrieil Tllizabeth Speakman; X. 
ilargaret; XL Henry; XIl. Jane, an,l XIII. 
I'Tia (twins), died in infancy. Poth ^Ir. and 
]\lrs. Curlett still enjoy good health. , 

XEAL COXLEY, Wilmington, Del., sou 
of the late James and Elizabeth (Moore) Con- 
ley, was born in ('hristiana hundred, Xew 
Castle county, Del., August 27, 1845. 

His paternal ancestors came from Ireland; 
his maternal ancestry, so far as traced, is 
American. His ])aternal grandfather died in 
Ireland; his grandmother, Susan Conley, emi- 
grated to America with her sons James and 
Xeal and daughter- Jane about 1838, ami set- 
tled in X'^ew Castle county, Del. !Mrs. Conley 
died at Pi.-ing Sun, Xew Castle county, at the 
ad\anee(l age of one hundred and eight years. 
She was buried in the Old Swede?" Church 

James Conley, deceased, was born in 
County Antrim, Trcdand. His home here was 
in Christiana hundred. New Castle county. 
He was a stone mason, and was for forty years 
in the employ of the DuPout Powder Com- 
])any. lie was twice i^irried. Ily his first 

nnirriage to Elizabeth, daughter (pf 

]Moorc, he had two sons: I. John, of Chris- 
tiana hundred; II. Neal. V>\ the second 
iniion, with Jane Wier, he had four children, 
of whom three survive: I. Susan; II. James; 
111. ifary. 

Neal (^onley spent his life, prior to 1888, 
in Christiana hundred. He was educated in 
the public schools and afterward learned 
stone-nuisonry. He was employed for many 
years by the DuPont Powder ('ompany. In 
1S8S he came to \Vilnnngton and in connec- 
tion with his brother John formed the lirni 
of Conley Eros., dc\ders in coal, wood, lime 
and cement. The firm docs, also, all kinds of 
heavy hauling. Neal Conley is a lle])ubliean. 

Neal Conley was married in Christ's church 
])ars()nage, Christiana liundred, to Hannah 
l\r., daughter of ( 'liristoplier and Sarah Eos- 


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scrt. Their cliildron are: I. James; II. 
Sarah; III. Abraham; IV. Jolm. One cliikl 
dird ill iufaue}'. A daughter, Laura, aged 
six yeai-s, was aeeidentaliy burned ti^ death 
in tiie yard of the sehool she attended. ]Mr. 
C'onley attends lue Keformed Episcopal 
C'hureh, in wliicli lie is vestryman, lie is 
-also superintendent of the Sunday-school. 

JOHN McLOUGIlLlN, Xo. 802 Jackson 
street, Wilmington, New Castle county, Del., 
only living son of Patrick and .Mary Jane 
(lliigg) _Mi-Loughlin, was burn in Wilming- 
ton, i)el., September iiS, 1S51. 

John McLoughlin was educated in tlie pub- 
lic schools of Wiimiiigton, Deb, and after 
conij)leting his scholastic course was appren- 
ticed to Gawtiirop Jirotliers, plumbei's and 
gas titters. After serving his ap[)reuticesliip, 
ilr. .Mcl.oughlin • remained with thi' tirm, 
Working as a journeynian, until April, isTT, 
wiu'U he obtained the position wliicii he now 
holds in the service of the Wilmington lias 
( Vimjiany. Mr. ^McLoughlin is a skilful work- 
man, highly esteemed by bis employers and by 
his fellow-citizens. He is a member of the 
Jvcpublican party, actively interested in local 

John ^rcLoughliu was married in Wil- 
mington, Del., January 20, ISM, to .Mary 
Jane, daughter of Sidney ami ^lercy Hud- 
son. Their children are: T. Alay Jane; 11. 
William John; III. Myrtle Rodinia; IV. Kob- 
ert Sidney, died in infancy. .Mrs. ^fcLougli- 
lin died at her home in Wilmington June 4, 
ISSl), at the age of twenty-eight years, and 
her remains are inten-ed in the Wilmington 
and Brandywine Cemetery. 

C0L^•:.^rAX b. Harris, Wilmington, 

son of Bowen C. and Sarah .\. (Mclntyre) 
Harris, was born at Warren Tavern, Cluster 
county. Pa., :\rarcli 29, ISGO. 

His paternal ancestoi-s were natives of Png- 
land. Three brothei-s of the Harris family 
came to America early in the eighteenth cen- 
tury and settled in Pennsylvania, 'i'iie great- 
great-grandfather f>f Coleman B. Harris was 
a colonel of Continental troops in the Kevolu- 
tioniii-y War and parliei])ated in many battles 
during that momentous struggle, 'i'he grand- 
father of ^fr. Harris was a native of T'liester 
county. Pa., and spent his entire life there. 

I'owen Harns ^^■as born and ednrated in 

Chester county, and resided all his life there, 
engaged in farming. He married Sarah X., 
daughter of .lames -Mclntyre; they had one 
child, C(jlemau 1!. .Mr. Harris died Decem- 
ber 22, 1S71. His widow resides in ('liester 

('(demaii H. Harris attended Lock's select 
schocil in .Xorristown, Pa., and was afterward 
gTaduate<l from the West Chester Xoi'iuil 
Sciiool at West Chester, Pa. After comi)let- 
ing his education lie went to Downingtown, 
l*a., and learned jiattern-making in tlie shojis 
of the Dcjwningtown .Manufat'turing Com- 
pany. He then removed to Wilmington, and 
since 1SU2 has been manager of the Delaware 
.Machine Works. He is unmarried, lie i? a 
member of Lafayette Lodge, Xo. 14, \. V. 
and A. M.; Delta Chapter, Xo. (i, P. A. ('., 
and St. John's Conimandery, Xo. 1, K. T. 
He is also a menil)er of .\. \. O. X. .M. S., Lu 
l^u Teni])le, Philadelphia, and of the i'hila- 
delphia Consistory, .V. X. S. R., Thirty-second 
degree. He has independent views in poli- 
tics, and i> not connected with any party. He 
attends the Protestant Kjjiscopal Church. 

Cll.VRi.KS K. lI.\riL\WAY, Wilming- 
ti-in, Del., son of Edgar and .Marietta (Elton) 
Hathaway, was born in ( 'anandaigua, .\. Y., 
January "i;3, 18r)2. 

His parents were both natives of ('anan- 
daigua. His father is dece;ised; bis mother 
still resides in .Mareellus, X. Y. 

Charles V.. liatlun\-ay went to the jiublic 
schools, and aflerwaril worked on the farm 
until he was twenty-tive yeai-s oi aue. Then 
he left home, and for Mime years was employed 
in a sash and door factory in Wellsboro, Pa., 
the latter jiart of the time as foreman. From 
Pennsylvania he crosseil the line liaek into 
Xew York, ami worked at his trade for a year 
in Elniira, after which he n-turned to the 
farm. I'or two yeai-s lie renniined in Ontario 
county, X. Y., and in LS1»2 came to Wilming- 
ton. In 1S04 he became the senior member 
(■f the tirm (jf Hathaway A: \ \\n tieldei-, jiro- 
prictius of the Delaware Hendiuij: Works, of 
Wilmington, and has c ontiniu'd in the busi- 
ness to the pi'csent. .Mr. Hathawav is a Re- 
jiubliean (d' independent ])roclivities. 

Charles E. Hathawav was married in Law- 
renccville. Pa., to Belie, daughter of .Mfred 
and Marv -lane (Dean) Van (ielder. Their 
.•hildrcnarc: T.J. Willi>: U. M. Mvrtis: III. 

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Inez v.; IV. Mun-ay; V. K Emereon; VI. 
Ciraee F. ^h. Hathaway and family attend 
the ]\Iethodist C'hureh. 

SA:\IUEL BLEE lewis, Wihainf,'ton, 
Del., son of George -B. and Sarah F. (Illee) 
Lewis, was born in riiiladelpliia April lii', 

] I is grandfather, ( ioorgc Lewis, was the fir.-t 
of the family to find a lionie in America, lie 
eanie from (icrmany and settled in Pliiladel- 
[ihia, where he eontinned to reside until his 
death. He married .Miss Somniers; they had 
children: L .la.'oh; 1 [. (ieurge B.: 111. 
Sophia; 1\'. .Mary; V. William, the only one 
now living. 

(icorge P>. Lewis, father of Samuel Llee 
Lewis, was born in Philadelphia in 181S. In 
1S4'J he came to AVilmington, where he en- 
gaged in the nuinufacture of bricks. He mar- 
ried Sarah S., daughter of Samuel and Alii- 
gail Llee, and had children: I. Samiud 
Lice; II. Jacob S., member of Company 1, 
One Hundred and Kighty-third regiment, 
Pennsylvania Infantry, who was taken ]iris- 
oner at Cold Harbor June 3, 18G4r, confined 
in Andersonville prison and died there of star- 
vation; 111. William J., of AVilmington, mar- 
ricnl ^lary ^IcXamce, who is deceased; IV. 
(ieorge L., grocer, of Wilmington, married 
Theresa 1 hillock; V. ifary (Mi-s Henry 
(iiiest), of Portland, Ore.; VI. Francis, of 
AVilnnngton, married ]\Lary Jenning-s; VI I. 
John A., of Wilmington, married Sarah Zanes, 
who is deceased; VTII. Kate P., deceased, 
(ieorge 15. Lewis died in LSS8; his -wife died 
l)eccnd)cr •_'(), IS'Xi. 

Sanniel IJlec Lewis has been a resident of 
AVilmington since he was six years old. He 
was educated in the piddie schools of the city 
and learned brickmaking under Samuel AIc- 
Cauley; !^Lly 7, 1861, he enlisted in Company 
F, First regiment, Delaware Voluntxi'er In- 
fantry, and served in this regiment until Au- 
gust of the same year. His name appears in 
the army records as Sanmel Lewis, as he 
onutted giving his middle name in both en- 
listments. On 22, 1802, he re-enli-t- 
ed in Company D, Fourth Delaware A'^olnn- 
teers, and was with that regiment until the 
end of the war. IMi-. T>ewis ])arlicii)ated in the 
following cngagement.s: Pethesda Church, 
Cold Harbor, 15ottom's Bridge, Petersburg, 
AVeldon Ivailroad, Jerusalem Plank Poad, 

Peebles' Farm, lioanta Creek, Dobney's 
-Mills, Gravel Pun, Five Forks and Appomat- 
tox. He was mustered out at Arlington 
Heights June o and jjaid June 7, iStif), 
at \\'ilmingk)n, and imme<liatcly resumed 
work at his trade. Since 1S0(J he has been in 
the employ of the Delaware Terra Cotia Com- 
pany and since ISOt) has been nninagcr of its 
I'lant, a position he has filled most elHciently. 
-Mr. Lewis is a member of ( ieneral Smith Post, 
Xo. 1, G. A. P., of Wilmington. He is a 
past couimandcr of the l'o.-,t ajid past com- 
mander of the Department of Delaware, of 
which he was commander in IS'JO and Ifi'Jl. 
His political atiiliatious arc with the Itepubli- 
can party. 

Samuel Blee Lewis was married in Wil- 
mington X(jvend)cr 21, 1S07, to Pachel, 
daughter of Thomas and Susan Glasgow. 
-Mrs. Lewis was born in Wilmington, April 
1 it, 1S4G. Their chihlren are: I. Emily Ayres, 
born August 22, 18158, died March 3, ISS-t; 
IL Sarah Stine, born Xovember 8, 1870, died 
-May 19, 18'J4; IlL George W., born July 20, 
1873; lA". Kate, born October 21, 1875, died 
January 19, 1870; V. -Mary, born October 
17, 1877, died August 29, 1879; VI. Xellie 
B.,^born October 23, 1S78, died August 27, 
1879; VII. Florence, born October 8, 1880; 
A'llL Samuel 1!., (2), born April 22, 1882, 
dietl July 17, 1S82; IX. Susan, born January 
1, 1888, died X'ovember 24, 1891. Mr. Lewi's 
and family attend the Afethodist Church. 

JOHX C. BKLSOX, 2, Wilmington, Del., 
son of John C. and Alargaret (Bowen) Brisou, 
was born in Wilmington, Del., Alay 9, 1849. 
As a youth he attended the pidilic .schools 
of AVilmington and then began an apprentice- 
ship as a phnnber in Philadel])hia. Before 
completing his trade he returned to AVilming- 
ton and here acquired the remaining knowl- 
edge and experience necessary to qualify him 
as a master plumber. He has been engaged 
at his trade here since that time. In 1881 he 
established himself in business on his own ac- 
count and in 1891 a.ssisted in the formation 
of the Brison Plumbing and Heating Com- 
pany, of which ho is secretary and treasurer. 
Thomas B. Brison, also a native of AVilming- 
ton, is president of the company. John (,'. 
Hrjson is a member of AVilmington Lodge X"o 
1, A. O. U. AV.; Fairfax Lodge, X^o. 8, I. o! 


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O. F. ; Lafayette Lodge, No. 2, K. of V., and 
Wilmington Conclave, No. 22, I. O. H. lie 
attends tlie ^Methodist Cluireli. 

CHAKLES HAY WARD, Wiluiiugton, 
Del., son of Joseph and Sarah (Woodrow) 
llayward, was bom in Boston, ]\rass., January 
U, ilS-14. 

J lis iiatenial ancestors were English; his 
maternal, Scotch. Ilis j^arents were the first 
of the family to come to the United States. 
Thomas Ilayward, grandfather of Charles 
Hayward, was born in Barnett, near London, 
England, and spent all his davs in his native 
land. lie had children: L AVilliam; II. ,Io- 
sej)h; III. ilaria (JIi-s. James Dubson), of 
London, England; ilr. Dobson is an employee 
in the London jiostoffice. 

Joseph Ilayward arrived in America in De- 
cember, lS4o, selected Boston as his home and 
never removed from that city. He nian-ied, 
in England, Sarah AVoodrow; their children 
were: I. Sarah, deceased, wife of John Hall, 
United States Navy; 11. Charles Joseph Hay- 
ward, died in December, 18(11 ; his widow died 
in November, 1SS5. Their remains were 
buried in Forrest Hills Cemetery, r)oston. 

Charles Ilayward passed liis early years in 
the public schools of Boston, and after finisli- 
ing the coui-se there was engaged \v'ith his 
father in tlie express business, iintil the spring 
of ISCl. Then President Lincoln's call to 
arms came, and although but seventeen years 
old, ilr. Ilayward nunle prompt response and 
enlisted for three montlis' service in Company 
I, Twelfth regiment, ila-ssachusetts Volun- 
teers. Upon the expiration of this period he 
i-e-enlisted in (Jompany I, First regiment 
Massachusetts Volunteers, and served in this 
regiment \mtil 1802, when he was discharged. 
He i-etnrncd to his home, and a few weeks 
later enlisted in the United States Navy. He 
was assigned to the sliip Gemshol- and did 
duty on the water for one year. He went back 
to Boston but the war was not yet ended, and 
he could not remain inactive while so many 
other l)rave men were at the front. He ac- 
cordingly enlisted in the Second ^rassaclm- 
se'ts Cavalry, and Wiis with this regiment until 
February 22, 180 4, when he was taken pris- 
oner at Drainsvillc, Va. For thirteen months 
thereafter he was confined in the Pemberton 
building at Andersonville, at SavanTiah and at 
^lellon. At the expiration of this time he was 

exchanged and discharged at Annapolis, Md. 
^Ir. Ilayward immediately returned to 
Boston, where he resided until 1884. He af- 
tei-wartl lived in Baltimore for one year, in 
Philadelphia two years, and in Wilmington, 
L)el., ten years. During the greater |)art of 
this time he was engaged in the insurance 
business. On Janiuuy 28, 18Du, he was ap- 
pointed to his jjresent position, that of secre- 
tary and treasurer of the Delaware Benehcial 
Association. .Mr. Ilayward is a member of 
various secret organizations; of Delaware 
Conclave, No. 43U, 1. O. II.; Soongataha 
Tribe, No. 21, I. 0. If. M.; is a grand trustee 
of .Moriel Encampment, Knights of St. Joiin 
and JLiIta, and an E.xcellent Senator of Wil- 
mington Senate, No. 102, Knights of Essenic 
Order; he is alsO prominent in Alasonic circles. 
He is a Pe]iublican in his political views. 

Charles Hayward nian-ied in "Wilmington, 
February 27, 1891, Ella, daughter of James 
and Julia A. "Workman. They have children: 
I. Charles, born in February, 1894; 11. Nel- 
lie, born in September, 1895. [Mr. Hayward 
attends the Union Metliodist church. 

GEOKC.E W. P.UtVIN, Wilmington, 
Del, son of George and iLirgaret A. (Staley) 
Par\-in, was born in Plymmith township, 
^Montgomery county, Pa., February 14, l.S."i9. 
Ilis parents are still living and are rc^idnits 
of Philadelphia. 

George "W. Parvin attended the public 
schools of Plymouth to\\^lship and there 
learned carpentry. After completing hi^ a[)- 
prcnticet-hip, he worked as a journeyman fur 
a few years and then devoted three years to 
the trade of machinist with B. F. Shaw, of 
Piiiladelphia. In 1SS2 he removed to "Wil- 
mington, and in March, 1890, established 
himself in business as a carpenter and builder. 
He is a member of Eureka Lodge, No. 23, A. 
F. and A. .M. In his political views he is in- 

George "W. Parvin was twice married. On 
July 15, 1SS5, in "Wilmington, he was mar- 
ried to Anna, daughter of Thomas J. and 
Mary J. (Douch) Ilihlebrand. ifr. Hildebrand 
is a resident of AVilmington; his wife is dead. 
^h: and Tilrs. Parvin had two children, who 
died in infancy. ^Irs. Parvin died Scptcnd)cr 
29, 1S9.".. 

]\rr. Parvin married again, September 15, 
1897, in Philadelphia. His bride was ^far- 

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garet, (laughter of "William and Annie 
(Lyons) 'I'ownsend, and widow of J-awrom-e 
ilulson. -Mr. and -Mi's. Parvin attend the 
.A[. K. Church. 

J!y her lirst husband Mrs Parviu had these 
children (surname -Melson): 1. Frank; IF. 
Earl; III. Ilenrv, deceased; IV. Lawrence, 

mington, Del., son of William AV. and Eleanor 
(Torrence) Ward, was born at, Lazaretto, Del- 
aware county, Pa., March 4, 1850. 

His grandfather was AVilliam Ward, a na- 
tive of Pennsylvania and a farmer, wdiose chil- 
dren were: I. Joseph; II. Abraham; II L 
Elizabeth; IV. AVilliam AV. 

AVilliam W. AVard was born in Delaware 
county. Pa., in 1S07. He was engaged in 
farming there for more than thirty yeai-s and 
then removed to Philadelphia, where he ^v■as 
emj)loyed as gateman by the I'hiladelnhia, 
AVilunngton and Baltimore Railroad Com- 
pany. He married Eleanor Torrence; their 
children are: T. Jane (Mrs. Charles Cravatt), 
of Philadelphia; II. Jolm T., engaged in the 
nallinery business in Chicago, 111.; LIT. Abra- 
ham, night foreman of the Philadeljjhia, AVil- 
mington and Paltimore Railroad roiinddiouso 
in Philailelphia; IV. Samuel, died at the age 
of twenty-nine; A''. AVilliam IL, engineer of 
Public Ledger building, Philadelphia; A"L 
Annie E. (Ihs. Robert Rlack), of Philadel- 
phia, wi.luw; A^IL :\rary I). (Mrs James D. 
luigers), (if Philadel])hia, widow; VIIL Elea- 
nor T., died at the age of twenty; IX. Alexan- 
der Snnth; X. Emma (Afrs Robert To|)pin), 
of Philadelphia. ]\lr. AVard died in Philadel- 
phia in ISSl, aged seventy-four years; ^Irs. 
AVard died in 1874, aged sixty yeai-s. 

Alexander Smith AVard attended the piddic 
schools of Lazaretto, and from his thirteenth 
to his twenty-first year was employed on his 
father's farm. On May 29, 1870, he secured 
a jiosition as fireman on the Iiuladel])lua, 
AVilnnngton and Paltimore Railroad, and on 
Septendier 15, 1877, was promoted to en- 
gineer. I'or several yeare lie has had charge 
of one of the locomotives which haul the 
New York and Wilmington express from 
Philadelphia to Washington. ]\Ir. AVard is a 
member of Division 342, Brotherhood of I-o- 
comotive Engineers, the Pennsylvania Rail- 

road Relief Association and Provident Coun- 
cil, Xo. 105, Legion of Honor. 

On July 13, 1870, Alexander Smith AVard 
was married to Ella E., daughter ol' William 
V. and J'di/.abelh Ci. (Leibert) Warnick, born 
in I'ennsylvania, August !), 1852. Their chil- 
dren are: I. I'^leanor M., born November 7, 
1877, died April 5, 1885; II. Lillian W., born 
April 5, 1878, died April 20, 1881; III. How- 
ard M., born August 0, 1881; IV. AVarren 
A., born June 29, 188(5; V. Oscar T., born 
Xovember 7, 18iJ0; AM. Helen IL, inru 
March 7, 1894. JVlrs. AVard is a mendier of 
the Presbyterian Church. They reside at X'o. 
7 14 ]Cirk\V(Jod street, AVilmington. 

A\'ilinington, Del., son of Orrin and Lydia 
(Howard) AVaterman, was born in Wintlirop, 
Kennebec county. Me., December 17, 184',). 

'I'he grandfather of AVilliam Bradford Wa- 
terman was John AVaterman of ^NLiine, wdio 
had these children: I. John, 2; II. Cordelia; 
HI. Orrin. 

Orrin AVatenuan was born in i\Iaine and 
was a machinist. He married I^ydia, daughter 
of Nathan and Lydia Howard, a native of 
l^^aine. 'i'heir children were: I. (Jeorge O., 
assistant comptroller for the Central Railroad 
of New Jersey, in New York; II. 
Charles IL, assistant storekeeper for the Cen- 
tral Railroad of New Jersey, at Elizabeth, N. 
J.; 111. William B.; I\^ Lydia I. (.Mrs Theo- 
dore 1). Durliug), of Pennington, N. J.; A^ 
Benjamin F., died in 1802, aged ei