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A L 








■ ■ 



of Liortt) darolina 

From Colonial Times 
to the Present 

Editor- in - C/i iff 

Samuel A. Ashe 


Charles L. Van Noppe 


Greensboro, N. C. 

M C M V 1 

THE ri"^ ^'-'"^ 

392151 K 

„^. , <. LMNOX AND 
nLUl--NrOi;NDATlON8 ^ 


By Charles L. Van Noppen 

All rights reserved 

• • 

Kemp P. Battle . 
John C. Buxton 
Theo. F. Davidson 
Junius Davis 
RuFus A. Doughton 
Thomas J. Jarvis 
James Y. Jovner . 
Charles D. McIver 
William L. Poteat 
James H. Suutiigate 
Charles \V. Tillett 

Chapel Hill 


. Asheville 




. Raleigh 


Wake Forest 


. Charlotte 

Advisory Board ix 

Contents xi 

Portraits xv 

Contributors xvii 

Raleigh, Walter i 

Dare, Virginia 8 

Adam, Robert 19 

Adams, Spencer Bell 22 

Anderson, George Burgwin 28 

Ashe, John Baitista 32 

Ashe. John 36 

Bailey. John L 53 

Braswet.i., James Craig 55 

Bi-Ni)Y, Jesse Moore 59 

BrxN. Benjamin Hickman 62 


Came'UEll, Robert Fishdurne fz 

Coun. Henry Wellington 78 

CoRBETT, Michael J 82 

Cox, Joseph John 86 

Cox, Jonathan Elwood 89 

Craig, David Irvin 96 

Craven, Bra.\tos 102 


CRAWFORD) Leon IDAS Wakefield 112 

Creecy, Richard Benbury 119 

Davidson, William Lee 124 

doughton, rufus alexander 1 29 

Franklin, Jesse , 133 

Gregory, Isaac 139 

Hadley, Thomas Jefferson 146 

Haid, Leo i53 

Harrington, Henry William 158 

Harvey, John 163 

Hill, William H 176 

Hill, Joseph Alston 181 

HoBBS, Lewis Lyndon 184 

Hobgood, Franklin P 189 

Hogun, James 196 

Howard, George 203 

Hume, Thomas 213 

Hunter, Theophilus 218 

Jack, James . . .' : . . 221 

Johnson, Andrew 228 

Johnston, Samuei 241 

Jones, Allen 252 

Jones, Thomas 256 

Lawrence, Thomas 262 

Leak, Thomas Crawford 270 

Leazar, Augustus 275 

MacKay, James Tver 284 

Macon, Nathaniei 291 

Martin, Fran^ois-Xavier 306 

McQueen, Henry C 315 

Mendenhall, Nereus 319 


Miller, Robert Johnstone 325 

Miller, William 328 

MoTT, John James 331 

Murphey, Archibald De Bow 340 

Parker, Walter Scott 349 

Parks, Hugh, Sr . 355 

Peebles/Robert Bruce 361 

Philips, Frederick 366 

PoGUE, Joseph Ezekiel 370 

Robertson, Lucy H 375 

Saunders, William L 381 

Simpson, John 390 

Spaight, Richard Dobbs, Sr 397 

Spaight, Richard Dobbs, Jr 403 

Speight. Richard Harrison 406 

Stephen.s, John Walter 411 

Stone, David 422 

Tate. Samuel McDowell 430 

Tourgee, Albion Winegar 440 

Urmstoxe, John 450 

Wakefield, William Haines 456 

Watson, Cyrus B 460 

White, Matthew H 469 

Willard, Martin Stevenson 473 

Womack, Thomas Brown 481 

Young, Robert Simonton 488 

Saunders, William L Frontispiece 

Adams, Spencer Bell facing 22 

Braswell, James Craig " 55 

BuNDY, Jesse Moore " 59 

BuNN, Benjamin Hickman " 62 

Campbell, Robert Fishburne " 72 

Cobb, Henry W " 78 

CoRBETT, Michael J " 82 

Cox, Jonathan Elwood ** 89 

Craig, David Irvin " 96 

Craven, Braxton " 102 

Crawford, Leonidas Wakefield .... "112 

doughton, rufus alexander " 1 29 

Hadley, Thomas Jefferson " 146 

Haid, Leo ** i53 

HoBBs, Lewis Lyndon *' 184 

HoBGooD, Franklin P "189 

Howard, George *' 203 

Hume, Thomas " 213 

F.AWREXCE, Thomas " 262 

Leak, Thomas Crawford " 270 

Lfazar. Augusti-s ** 27s 


McQueen, Henry C facing 315 

Mendenhall, Nereus " 319 

MoTT, John James ** 331 

MuRPHEY, Archibald De Bow .... " 340 

Parker, Walter Scott ** 349 

Parks, Hugh, Sr ** 355 

Peebles, Robert Bruce " 361 

Philips, Frederick ** 366 

PoGUE, Joseph Ezekiel ** 370 

Robertson, Lucy H ** 375 

Speight, Richard Harrison " 406 

Tate, Samuel McDowell " 430 

Wakefield, William Haines " 456 

Watson, Cyrus B " 460 

White, Matthew H " 469 

WiLLARD, Martin Stevenson " 473 

Womack, Thomas Brown " 481 

Young, Robert Simonton " 488 

Samuel A. Ashe 
Robert Bingham 
William A. Blair, A.M., LL.D. 
G. Samuel Bradshaw, A.M. 
Benjamin H. Bunn 
Bavlus Cade 

Walter Clark, A.M., LL.D. 
Collier Cobb, A.M. 
R. D. W. Connor, Ph.B. 
Hexhv G. Connor 
Mrs. L. W. Crawfuho 
Wii.i.iAM E. DoDD. Ph.D. 
Rdhekt Dick Dduolas, A.B. 
•'Marshall De L. Haywood 
l. lvndon iiobiis, a.m. 
William Henky IIoyt, A.M. 


Thomas N. Ivey, A.M. D.D. 
Bertha Marvin Lee 
Paul B. Means, A.B. 
Gertrude Mendenhall, B.S. 
James H. Myrover 
Frank Nash 
Walter L. Parsons 
William S. Pearson, A.B. 
Tho.mas M. Pjttman 
Georoe Rountree 
William Waiter Scott 
Egbert W. Smith, A. B.. D.D. 
Charles M. Stkdman, A.B. 
Zebulon V. Taylor 
Stki-hen B. Weeks, Ph.D., LL.D. 
E. Payson Wili.ard, Ph.B. 
. WllHEKS, A.M. 


rfHE capital of the State of North Carolina was 
at its incorporation in 1792, named the City of 
Raleigh, in remembrance of "the Citie of Ra- 
leigh," which was to have been established, 
about two centuries before, on Roanoke Island 
_ by the English colonists under the direction of 
Sir Waller Raleigh ; and thus the name of that English statesman, 
soldier, sailor, scholar and courtier, who first conceived the idea 
of creating an English nation in the New World, and led the way 
in colonization, has been perpetuated here in the State within 
whose territory he made the first entrance into the wilderness of 

The family of Raleigh was an old and honorable one of Devon- 
shire, but had fallen somewhat into decay; and to retrieve his 
fortunes, Walter Raleigh, of Fardell, the father of the subject of 
this sketch, on the awakening of a mercantile spirit early in the 
sixteenth century, connected himself with some of the merchants 
of Exeter, His third wife was Catherine Campernoun, the wid- 
owed mother of Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Walter Gilbert, and 
by he- Raleigh had two sons. Sir Walter and Carey Raleigh. 

Catherine Champernoun was connected with Mrs. Kate Ash- 
ley, who indeed was aunt to her son. Sir Humphrey Gilbert; and 
she was also connected with the Carey family; and Queen Eliza- 


beth's nearest kinsman was Henry Carey, Lord Hunsdon, the 
son of Mary Boleyn, the Queen's aunt. 

When Anne Boleyn lost her head, and Elizabeth was declared 
illegitimate, the cast-off Princess, not then in her teens, was com- 
mitted to Kate Ashley, whose husband was her kinsman, and who 
as governess was charged with her education and oversight ; and 
so well was this trust discharged that Elizabeth regarded Kate 
Ashley with filial affection. During this period of her young life 
it would seem that Elizabeth was intimately thrown with Hum- 
phrey Gilbert, the elder half-brother of Walter Raleigh, for on 
his departure to explore Newfoundland she sent Raleigh to him 
with the direction that he should send her his picture and should 
be careful of himself; **as one whom she had tendered;" and 
doubtless she also knew Raleigh himself in his infancy. These 
circumstances and associations probably had much to do with 
Raleigh's subsequent career, for the Queen showed no favor to 
her father's kinspeople, but was evidently attached to those con- 
nected with her on her mother's side. 

Of Raleigh's early life but little is recorded. He was born in 
1552, at his father's manor house of Hayes, and the only record 
of his education is a meagre account that at an early age he be- 
came a commoner of Oriel ; had a distinguished career at Oxford, 
being esteemed a wit as well as a scholar, although not a student 
at the University for three full years. 

At eighteen he was in active service as a soldier in the civil 
wars of France, where he remained some six years, gaining laurels 
and fame. In 1576 he was in Ireland, where Sir Humphrey Gil- 
bert had been President of Munster. It was about that time that 
Queen Elizabeth bestowed on Sir Humphrey a patent authorizing 
him to make discoveries and settlements in America, in effect 
conferring on him a princedom in the New World, with permis- 
sion to colonize his possessions with Englishmen. In this first 
attempt at colonization, Walter Raleigh was associated with his 
great half-brother, but did not accompany him on his ill-starred 
expedition. In 1580 and 1581 Raleigh was a soldier in Ireland, 
and bore dispatches to the Queen in December, 1581. remaining 


at court. In the following April the Queen conferred on Raleigh 
the command of a band of footmen in Ireland, **chiefly that our 
pleasure is to have our servant, Walter Raleigh, trained some 
time lon^2:er in that our realm for his better experience in martial 
affairs, and for the especial care that we have to do him good, in 
respect of his kindred that have served us, some of them (as you 
know) near about our person. These are to require you that the 
leading of the said band may be committed to the said Raleigh ; 
and for that he is. for some considerations, by us excused to stay 
here, our pleasure is that the said band be, in the meantime, till he 
repair into that our realm, delivered to some such as he shall de- 
pute to be his lieutenant there." Raleigh seems never to have 
joined his troops in Ireland, but remained at Court, where the 
Queen **took him for a kind of oracle." Particularly did he com- 
mend himself to her by an act of gallantry in spreading his fine 
cloak **reverentially on the ground before her Majesty, whereon 
the Queen trod gently over a miry slough, rewarding him after- 
wards with many suits for his seasonable tender of so fair a foot- 

At Court Raleigh developed into a favorite courtier, and after 
the death of his brother, the charter of colonization being about 
to expire, he solicited and obtained a renewal of it. It is to be ob- 
served that this favor was bestowed by Elizabeth only on these 
two half-brothers, whose fortunes she seemed inclined to push be- 
yond that of others ; although it is equally true that they were both 
deserving of peculiar distinction because of their personal char- 
acteristics and attainments. 

Having obtained this charter, ambitious and hopeful, Ra- 
leigh fitted out two barks and sent them forth under the com- 
mand of Amadas and an old companion-in-arms, Barlowe, who 
had served with him in France, giving them particular directions 
as to how they should proceed. Raleigh evidently proposed to 
avoid the bleak northern coast and to discover an eligible location 
for a colony in a more temperate latitude. Many gentlemen ac- 
companied this expedition, which indeed excited great interest 
among the mercantile classes of England. Observing Raleigh's 


directions, his admirals safely arrived at Roanoke Inlet early in 
July, 1584, and formally took possession of the land as the domain 
of Walter Raleigh under the royal grant of the English Queen. 
The accounts carried back were marvellous. The newly dis- 
covered land was a veritable Garden of Eden. The popular furor 
at the success of the expedition was immense, and Raleigh was 
the hero of the age. The Queen was transported with enthusiasm. 
She named the new country for herself, and bestowed upon 
Raleigh the honor of knighthood, and various lucrative monop- 
olies, and otherwise sought to advance his interests. 

At great expense Raleigh the next year equipped a second ex- 
pedition to Virginia, and as soon as that had sailed, sent out the 
Davis Expedition to discover a northern route to India, from 
which *'Davis Straits" on the ice-bound coast of North America 
takes its name. 

It was about this time that Elizabeth entered into a treatv with 
the Protestants of the Netherlands, and thus gave cause for war 
with Spain, and there were rumors of an intended invasion of Eng- 
land. In this supreme moment Raleigh was called on to play an 
important part, and his skill in maritime as well as military affairs 
gave him still greater consequence. He became Lord Warden of 
the Stannaries and Vice-Admiral of Devon, and no man in Eng- 
land was more engaged in public business than he. 

To build forts, to equip fleets, to muster and arm the companies 
of his territory were the severe duties that taxed his energies to 
the utmost capacity. 

The first attempted settlement at Roanoke ended in disaster. 
Lane's Colony came to naught; so in 1587 Raleigh, whose means 
were now much impaired, proposed a new plan, and admitted 
I.,ondon merchants to a share in his enterprise. Nineteen of 
these associates remained at home: while thirteen, John White 
and a dozen others, were constituted "the Governor and Assistants 
of the Citie of Raleigh in Virginia." These accompanied the 
colony to Roanoke. White returned to England the same year 
for additional supplies. In March, 1588, Raleigh prepared a 
supply expedition to be commanded by Grenville ; but a Spanish 

It r 






attack being imminent, the Queen forbade the departure of any 
vessel, and particularly assigned Grenville to duties of defence. 
In July, 1588, the great Spanish Armada, whose coming had been 
expected with such apprehensions, at length made its appearance, 
and Raleigh bore himself bravely in that great sea-fight. His ship 
was one of those which kept up the pursuit till the last, and he 
saw the ending of what Sir Henry Watton called "the morris 
dance on the waves." 

The next year an expedition with supplies set sail, but meeting 
with hostile vessels, was beaten back to England; and Raleigh 
then found himself so engaged that of himself he could do nothing 
more, and so he made a further assignment to those already in- 
terested in the colony, divesting himself of nearly every right as 
the absolute proprietor. There was still an inhibition on the de- 
parture of vessels from England ; but Raleigh finding some ships 
whose owners desired to send them to the West Indies to trade 
and prey upon the Spaniards, obtained the Queen's assent to 
their departure on condition that they would carry relief to the 
colonists at *'the City of Raleigh," in Virginia. And so at last 
White again left England in March, 1590. He found that the 
colonists had abandoned Roanoke Island ; and the Lost Colony of 
Sir Walter Raleigh has ever since lived a mystery in song and 
story. It is recorded, however, that Raleigh never forgot their 
sad fate, and between that time and 1602 he sent five separate ex- 
I>editions for their rescue. 

After the destruction of the Armada in 1588, under Raleigh's 
advice England boldly took the seas against the Spaniards in the 
contest for m.astery, and every year and every month brought its 
new duties and its new toils. In the Fall of 1588, under his ad- 
vice, a great expedition carried the war into Spain, and on land 
and sea victory attended every blow. In T591 it was a great expe- 
dition against the Azore Islands in which Raleigh's boldest cap- 
tain and beloved kinsman, Grenville, lost his life. The next year 
it was the expedition against Panama. And then came his mar- 
riage and consequent imprisonment — and the only hours of home 
life at his beautiful Manor of Sherborne, where for a season he 


toyed with love and revelled in the pleasures of intelligent recrea- 
tion. In 159s he set sail for Guiana to explore that country. 
And then he gained his highest title to renown in the victory at 
Cadiz. There the loss of life was great, but despite all the car- 
nage, Raleigh pursued his intent and, though sorely wounded, did 
not desist until the last Spanish flag had struck and the last 
enemy was vanquished. Again at Fayal he distinguished him- 
self, performing surprising feats of personal valor. 

During all these years he also served in Parliament, and boldly 
grappled with questions requiring extensive information and a 
comprehensive understanding of the condition, the needs and re- 
sources of the English people. 

He was truly a progressive statesman of the most advanced 
school ; laying down principles and policies far ahead of his day, 
and urging measures to relieve trade, commerce, agriculture and 
manufactures, to relieve of all those restrictions which had their 
origin in the benighted times of the Middle Ages. He was for 
freedom — freedom of the citizen, freedom of trade, disenthrall- 
ing the people from the burdens which tradition had fastened upon 
them. He was a prodigy in genius, a man of lofty mind, lofty 
purposes, and of wide intelligence. He loved knowledge and was 
ever a hard and systematic student, and enjoyed the pleasures 
that wait on a comprehensive understanding. 

In the year 1603 Elizabeth died, James of Scotland fell heir 
to the kingdom, and an end came to the active career of Walter 
Raleigh, then in the meridian of his splendor and usefulness. 
There is a hasty line by an obscure writer that Raleigh contem- 
plated the possibility of a commonwealth, and it is said that his 
unprinted writings were treasured by John Milton, John Hamp- 
den, and other patriots of the next generation. But he was not 
charged because of his liberal principles, but for an alleged con- 
spiracy in the interests of Spain, in which there was no proof of 
his complicity. The proceeding was not a trial ; it was a measure 
to remove Raleigh even though at the cost of his innocent blood. 

In November, 1603, the gates of the Tower closed in upon him 
— the poet, the scholar, the gallant seaman, the brave soldier, the 


admirable statesman and unswerving patriot, the first man of his 
time in varied accomplishments and universality of genius. For 
fifteen years he was confined to the Tower, and there he slaked his 
thirst for ambition in deep study and new lines of thought. His 
first recourse was chemistry, a science then little understood and 
not often practised. And he wrote history, ancient and modem, 
treatises on military and maritime aflFairs, and on subjects well 
nigh covering the entire realm of knowledge. At length in the 
spring of 1618 Raleigh was released to go about with a keeper to 
make provision for a voyage in search of gold in South America. 
The misfortunes of that voyage ended his career. He was now 
charged with breaking the peace with Spain, and was executed 
under his old sentence. 

In 1602 Raleigh had sent Mace to make further search for his 
colonists in Virginia. When Mace returned, Raleigh was in 
prison and his rights in Virginia were forfeited to the Crown. 
Three years later ten of Raleigh's associates in the City of Ral- 
eigh, together with others of his old-time friends and connections, 
obtained a new grant from the Crown, and, following the original 
instructions Raleigh had given to John White, made in 1607 a 
settlement on the Chesapeake, and the work of creating a new 
nation in the New World begun by Walter Raleigh twenty years 
before was continued, and the result is the United States of 

S. A. Ashe. 


' HE name of Virginia Dare is, speaking after 
the manner of men, immortal. The people of 
the Western Hemisphere in the centuries to 
come will ever recall her as the first of the 
English race to be born in the New World. 

Other names of that distant era will fade away 

from the remembrance of man, hut in the far future, when 
hundreds of millions of people shall inhabit America, little 
Virginia Dare will still live in song and story. 

Of her brief life but two incidents are recorded: she was 
born; and she was baptized into the Christian faith according 
to the rites of the English Church — and then her life and fate 
were involved in impenetrable obscurity. But she was the first 
of the English-speaking race, of American birth, to behold these 
American skies, and to breathe the pure air of a virgin con- 
tinent, then uncontaminated by the oppressions of men, and 
which has become the home of the free and the land of Liberty; 
and even the mystery attaching to her unfortunate fate imparts 
to her an additional interest, which grows with the passing 

On July 4, 1584 — auspicious day — Walter Raleigh's captains, 
Amadas and Barlowe, first sighted land somewhere about the 
"Cape of Fere," and a few days later came to anchor in the un- 
known waters of the New World, near what we call Cape 


Hatteras. When their boats first grated upon the sand, they 
sprang upon the beach, and Captain Amadas proclaimed: "We 
take possession of this land in the right of the Queen's most 
excellent Majesty, as rightful Queen and Princess of the same," 
and then they delivered the same "over to the use of Walter 
Raleigh, according to her Majesty's grant and letters patent 
under her Highness' great seal." Some days later they went 
twenty miles into the Sound and came to an island which the 
Indians called Roanoke. After remaining two months exploring 
this delightful country, they returned home, and Queen Eliza- 
beth bestowed upon her new possessions the name of Virginia, 
in commemoration of herself, the Virgin Queen. 

The next year, for purposes of exploration, seven ships great 
and small, carrying io8 men, but no women or children, set sail 
from England on the 9th of Aprils and arrived at Roanoke on 
July 3d. It was expected that other settlers would come to 
join them later. For a year they lived on Roanoke Island and 
explored the sounds and country. Among them were distin- 
guished mathematicians, scientific men, and competent draughts- 
men and painters, who were to investigate and make known the 
manners and customs of the natives and the material resources 
of the country. Relying on being supplied from home with 
needed provisions, they did not plant crops or provide for their 
own sustenance, and in the following Spring their stores were 
exhausted. In the meantime some of the Indians on the main- 
land had become very hostile; but the few who lived on 
Croatan, as that portion of the ocean banks on which Cape 
Hatteras is situated was called, were always friendly. After 
many vicissitudes, being often in peril of death from starvation 
and of being cut off by Indian enemies, some vessels touching, 
they unfortunately determined to abandon the settlement and 
return home. Sailing in June, they reached England safely on 
July 27, 1586. But hardly had they set sail before the ship 
bringing the promised supplies arrived, but, finding the island de- 
serted, it also returned to England. 

A fortnight later. Sir Richard Grenville, Raleigh's cousin, 


arrived with three ships ; and unwilling that the country should 
be abandoned, he left fifteen men in Fort Raleigh, on Roanoke 
Island, well supplied with provisions. The next year a permanent 
settlement was designed; but now Sir Walter thought it best 
that the Colony should be located at some more eligible harbor 
on the Chesapeake Bay, and gave directions accordingly. He 
also associated with himself in the enterprise some thirty mer- 
chants and adventurers, and the government of the Colony was 
invested in a corporation named "The Governor and Assistants 
of the Citie of Raleigh," of whom twelve were to go to Virginia, 
the others interested remaining in England. 

It was also necessary that some women should accompany 
the Colonists, and as the settlers were not to return to England, 
that they take their wives and children with them. No woman 
had yet ventured to cross the great ocean. No woman had ever 
thought to separate herself from home and home ties and seek 
a strange life in the distant country. Doubtless to procure 
female Colonists strenuous efforts were made, with only partial 
success. But among those who were now interested in the 
enterprise was John White, a man who had already made three 
voyages to Virginia, a man of education, an artist as well as 
a competent manager. He had drawn the charts and maps made 
on previous explorations, and the pictures he had drawn and 
painted of the Indians and of scenes in Virginia are still pre- 
served in the British Museum. His daughter Eleanor had lately 
married Ananias Dare; and it was arranged that White should 
come as Governor, and Ananias Dare should be an Assistant, 
and that Eleanor, yet a bride, was to accompany her husband and 
father. This perhaps tended to induce other women to em- 
bark, and sixteen of them agreed to undertake the experience 
of untried life in far-away Virginia. Of these ten appear to have 
been wives of Colonists, and with them were nine children. 
There were in addition 91 men, and with the Colonists were 
two Indians, Manteo, of the Hatteras tribe, and Towaye, then 
in England, who now returned to Virginia. 

On the 26th of April, 1587, they departed from Portsmouth 


in one large vessel and two smaller ones, and on the 22nd of July 
they arrived at Hattorask. On reaching Roanoke Island, the 
Colonists could but have had their ardor dimmed and their ai>- 
prehensions aroused by finding that the fifteen men left in Fort 
Raleigh a year before had been murdered by the Indians. But 
nevertheless they disembarked there, although their destination 
was intended to be at Chesapeake. At once they began to make 
themselves comfortable, building houses and arranging for de- 
fence against hostile Indians. 

On the 13th of August an interesting ceremony took place. 
By direction of Sir Walter Raleigh, Manteo, one of the Hatteras 
Indians who had been to England and who had always been 
friendly with the whites, "was christened in Roanoke and called 
Lord thereof, and of Dasamonguepeuk," which was the name 
of that part of the mainland lying opposite to Roanoke Island. 

Five days later, on the 18th of August, "Eleanor, daughter 
to the Governor, and wife to Ananias Dare, one of the Assistants, 
was delivered of a daughter in Roanoke, and the same was 
christened there the Sunday following; and because this child 
was the first Christian bom in Virginia, she was named 


Although in the list of the Colonists no one is particularly 
named as a minister, or as a physician, yet without reasonable 
doubt the settlement must have been provided with both, and 
the mention of the administration of the rite of baptism without 
any other particulars would indicate that it was performed in 
the manner usually practised among the English people at that 
time, which was according to the usages of the Church of 

The ships had now unladened their stores and began to take 
in wood and fresh water, and the planters also prepared their 
letters and tokens to send back to England. At length on the 
22d of August the whole company requested the Governor to 
return to Ensfland "for the better and sooner obtaining of sup- 
plies and other necessaries for them." It had already been 
determined that the Colonists should remove "fifty miles 


further up into the main presently," and Governor White ob- 
jected to his being absent, as his **goods might be both spoiled 
and most of them pilfered away in the carriage, so that at his 
return he would be utterly unfurnished," wherefore he con- 
cluded that he would not go himself to England. The next day, 
however, they came to him again, renewing their entreaty and 
promising "to make him their bond under their hands and seals 
for the safe preserving of all his goods, so that if any part 
thereof was spoiled or lost, they would see it restored to him." 
Governor White at last yielded to their extreme entreaties, and 
departed from Roanoke on the 27th of August, and the two 
larger ships then at Hattorask sailed away, leaving only a pinnace 
with the Colonists. 

White, who had been in three previous voyages, probably 
knew as much about the new country as any one. He had now 
come out as Governor and brought with him his daughter and 
valuable personal belongings. There was every reason for him 
to hurry back. He reached the west coast of Ireland on the 
i6th of October; but circumstances prevented his return until 
1590. He left Plymouth on the 20th of March of that year, and 
came to anchor at Hattorask on the 15th of August, three years 
after he had bidden good-bye to his daughter and his little 
granddaughter, Virginia Dare. 

After numerous distressing experiences, he approached Roan- 
oke Island. In his account of his voyage published in 1593, he 
says : "We put off from Hattorask, being the number of nineteen 
persons in both boats ; but before we could get to the place where 
our planters were left, it was so exceeding dark, that we over- 
shot the place a quarter of a mile. We let fall our grapnel near 
the shore and sounded with the trumpet a call, and afterwards 
many familiar English tunes of songs ; and called to them friendly ; 
but we had no answer; we therefore landed at daybreak. In all 
this way we saw in the sand the print of the savages' feet of two 
or three sorts trodden in the night; and as we entered up the 
sandy bank, upon a tree, in the very brow thereof, were curiously 
carved these fair Roman letters, C. R. O., which letters presently 


we knew to signify the place where I should find the planters 
seated, according to a secret token agreed upon between them 
and me at my last departure from them; which was, that in any 
way they should not fail to write or carve on the trees or posts 
of the doors the name of the place where they should be seated ; 
for at my coming away they were prepared to remove from Roan- 
oke fifty miles into the main." Governor White also says that 
he found on one of the chief trees graven the word CROATOAN 
without any cross or sign of distress. He also found where 
divers chests had been hidden and long since digged up, and 
much of the goods in them spoiled and scattered about ; of these 
three were the Governor's own chests, and about the place were 
many of his things spoiled and broken, and his books torn from 
the covers, and the frames of his pictures and maps rotten and 
spoiled with rain, and his armor almost eaten through with rust. 
The Colonists had long since departed. Governor White did 
not have command of the ships, and although Croatoan was 
near by, for one reason or another no particular effort was made 
to search that part of the banks for the English settlers ; but the 
vessels bore away and eventually came to anchor in Plymouth 
on the 24th of October, 1590. 

In subsequent years expeditions were sent to find the Lost 
Colony. Even as late as March, 1602, "a barque of Dartmouth, 
called The Concord, set sail for the northern part of Virginia; 
at which time likewise, Sir Walter Raleigh once more bought 
a barque and hired all the company for wages by the month, 
employing therein for chief Samuel Mace (a sufficient mariner, 
who had been twice before at Virginia), to find out those people 
which he had sent out thither by Captain White, 1587; and who, 
if so be they could happily light upon them, were like enough 
to instruct us the more perfectly in the quality of the natives." 

I 'n fortunately all the vessels sent out had also in view the ob- 
tainincr of sassafras and other such cargoes for purposes of trade; 
and coming to the coast north or south of Roanoke, they ob- 
tained their cargoes and returned home without entering Roan- 
oke Sound, and the Colonists were never discovered. 


At length the settlement was made at Jamestown in 1607, and 
the authorities in England gave positive directions that efforts 
should be made to find the Lost Colony and relieve their dis- 
tresses. Expeditions were sent by land and water, but without 
avail. Powhatan, the Emperor of the Virginia Indians, resided 
at the Falls on the James River, and the Indians on the Roanoke 
were not under his dominion. Still he had influence with them ; 
and from friendly Indians it was learned that after the arrival 
of the colony at Jamestown, he had caused the settlers, who 
for more than twenty years had lived peaceably and intermixed 
with the Indians south of the Chowan, to be slaughtered, al- 
though some few were said to have escaped. The exploring 
party under Newport, in 1608, "went southward to some parts of 
Chowanook and the Mangoangs, to search there those left by 
Sir Walter Raleigh.'' Smith in his "True Relation," speaking 
of Paspehegh, the King of the few Indians who lived near 
Jamestown, says: "What he knew of the Dominions he spared 
to acquaint me with, as of certain men cloathed at a place called 
Ocanahonan, clothed like me." 

And again : "He sent from Warraskoyack Master Scitle- 
more and two guides to seek for the Lost Colony of Sir Walter 
Raleigh. We had agreed with the King of Paspehegh to conduct 
two of our men to a place called Panawicke, beyond Roanoke, 
where he reported many men to be appareled. We landed him at 
Wlarraskoyack, where playing the villaine and deluding us for 
rewarde, returned within three or four days after, without going 
further." This was in 1608. 

Alexander Brown, in his "Genesis of the United States," has 
reproduced a rude drawing made from Indian descriptions and 
sent by Thomas Nelson from Virginia in 1608 to illustrate 
Smith's "True Relation" in this particular matter. On this 
map Warraskoyack is on the Nansemond. Ocanahonan seems 
to be on the Nottoway. On the Tar is located "Pakrakanick," 
and near it on the map is a legend : "Here remayneth four men 
clothed that came from Roanoke to Ochanahonan." Between the 
Chowan and the Morratock (Roanoke River) on the map is an- 


other legend : "Here the King of Paspehegh reported our men 
to be, and wants to go." And that region is designated 
**Pananiock." From this it would seem that White's Colony, after 
his departure, did remove into the interior, and located in either / 
what is now Bertie County, or south of Albemarle Sound. 

William Strachey, who was Secretary of the Jamestown Colony, 
arriving there in 1610, in his 'Travaile in Virginia," written 
161 3, repeats information received by him from an Indian of 
Powhatan's tribe named Machumps, who had been to England, 
and was a man of intelligence, having friendly relations with 
the English, and to whom credit is due. Strachey says: '*The 
highland is in all likelihoods a pleasant tract, and the mould fruit- 
ful, especially what may lye to the Southward, where at Pec- 
carecamek and Ochanahoen, by the relation of Machumps, the 
people have houses built with stone walls, and one story above 
another ; so taught them by the English who escaped the slaughter 
at Roanoke, at what time this our Colony, under the conduct of 
Captain Newport, landed within the Chesapeake Bay; where 
the people breed up tame turkeys about their houses, and take 
apes in the mountains; and where at Ritanoe the Weroance 
(the Chief) Eyanoco preserved seven of the English alive, four 
men, and two boys and one young mayde (who escaped and fled 
up the river of Chowanook) to beat his copper," etc. 

And again, says Strachey : *'That the men, women and chil- 
dren of the first plantation at Roanoke were by practize and 
commandment of Powhatan (he himself persuaded thereunto 
by his priests) miserably slaughtered, without any offence given 
bun, either by the first planted (who twenty and od years had 
p>eaceably lyved intermyxed with those savages and were out 
of his territory) or by those who now are come to inhabit some 
parte of his desarte lands." 

And still again: **He (Powhatan) doth often send unto us to 
temporize with us, awaiting perhaps a fit opportunity (inflamed 
by his furious and bloody priests) to offer us a taste of the same 
cup which he made our poor countrymen drink of at Roanoke." 

For twenty years the Lost Colony seem to have lived on friend- 



ly terms with the Indians bordering on Albemarle Sound; and 
then on the arrival of the Jamestown settlers, Powhatan had them 
cut off, but few escaping. It is a bare possibility that the "young 
mayde" who found protection at Ritanoe, on the Chowan, was 
Virginia Dare, whose father, probably succeeding White as 
Governor, might have found means for her escape, although 
doubtless many children in the meantime had been born in the 

The only other reference in history to these unfortunate Colon- 
ists was made by Lawson in 1708: "A further confirmation of this 
we have from the Hatteras Indians, who either then lived on 
Roanoke Island or much frequented it. These tell us that several 
of their ancestors were white people, and could talk in a book as 
we do ; the truth of which is confirmed by gray eyes being found 
frequently amongst these Indians and no others. They value 
themselves extremely for their affinity to the English, and arc 
ready to do for them all friendly offices. It is probable that this 
settlement miscarried for want of timely supplies from Eng- 
land, or through the treachery of the natives, for we may reason- 
ably suppose that the English were forced to cohabit with them 
for relief and conversation ; and that in process of time they con- 
formed themselves to the manners of their Indian relations; and 
thus we see how apt nature is to degenerate." 

Lawson 's book is a complete study of conditions in Carolina in 
1708: of the people, the Indian tribes, their languages, manners 
and customs; and of the country and its natural products. The 
Hatteras Indians, it would seem, were no different from the 
others, except gray eyes were frequently found among them ; and 
they had the language, manners and customs of an Indian tribe. 
At that time, 1708, the Hatteras Indians, occupying the sand- 
banks in the early days known as Croatan, had but sixteen fighting 
men. They were probably of Southern origin like the Cora- 
nines, while the other tribes of Albemarle and Pamlico were of 
Northern origin. In the Indian War (1711-1716) these Indians 
were friendly to the whites and fought for them, some of them 
being captured by the Indian enemy, and the tribe became very 


much impoverished, and probably was still further reduced in . 
numbers. For 50 years at least these Indians remained in their 
old locality. In 1763, the Hatteras Mathaminkut Indians were 
still living on the coast of Hyde County. (Col Rec. vol. 6, p. 995.) 
What became of the remnant of that small tribe is uncertain, but 
the tradition of a mixed race inhabiting lands on Drowning Creek 
in Robeson County indicates that they may have farmed a part of 
that settlement. It is said these people were found on Drowning 
Creek by the Scotch who first settled the Upper Cape Fear (1735) 
— about twentv vears after the Indian War, when the Hatteras 
Indians were living on the sandbanks of Croatan. In 1754 they 
were described as follows: "Drowning Creek, on the head of 
Little Pcdee. fifty families, a mixed crew, a lawless people, pos- 
sess the lands without patent or paying quit rents; shot a sur- 
veyor for coming to view vacant lands, being enclosed in great \/ 
swamps." But at that time these families were not regarded as 
Indians, and are said to have possessed slaves, to speak the Eng- 
lish language, to till their lands, and practise many of the arts of 
civilized life, being in these respects different from any Indian 
tribe then known on the continent. The diflFerence between the 
Hatteras Indians and the other tribes some forty years before 
was scarcely observable ; the change indicated above was too great 
to be natural, unless indeed the tribe received many accessions of ^ 
families trained to civilized life.* 

It may be that some few of the colonists who escaped the 
slaughter in 1607 made their way to the sandbanks, or that at 
some earlier time some of the English colonists had intermingled 

♦Mr. Hamilton McMillan, A.M.. in 1888, wrote an account of the Croa- 
tan Indians of Robeson County which is instructive and of historical im- 
portance, connecting that tribe with the Hatteras Indians, with whom 
some of Raleigh's colonists appear to have co-mingled ; and in 1891 that 
painstaking and laborious scholar, Dr. Stephen B. Weeks, published a 
ver>' valuable pamphlet in which he collated extracts from Strachey, and 
Smith, and the Relation of the Virginia Company bearing on the fate of the 
Lost Colony — that being the first publication of the kind within the knowl- 
edge of the Editor of this work; and the Editor desires to make his 
acknowledgements for information to both Mr. McMillan and Dr. Weeks. 


their blood with these Indians ; but after a hundred years the ef- 
fects had disappeared, except alone in the gray eyes then found 
among them. Certainly no houses replaced the wigwams. 

But while this faint trace of the blood of the early English set- 
tlers probably exists, yet there is no reason to suppose that little 
Virginia Dare was ever connected in any way with this tribe. Her 
fate, like that of her mother, is a mystery that time and circum- 
stances have not revealed. She, however, lives in agreeable fic- 
tion. It has been said : '*By the Indians, Eleanor Dare, the first 
mother of the white race known to them, is said to have been 
called, in their figurative and descriptive way, The White Doe,* 
and her baby, the little Virginia, the first white infant they had 
ever seen, *The White Fawn ;' and there is a pretty tradition that 
*after her death her spirit assumed that form — an elfin fawn — 
which, clad in immortal beauty, would at times be seen haunting 
like a tender memory the place of her birth, or gazing wistfully 
over the sea, as with pathetic yearning for the far-away Mother- 
land !" Another tradition is "that in that sweet form she was 
slain by her lover, a young Indian Chief, who had been told that 
if he shot her from ambush with a certain enchanted arrow, it 
would restore her to him in human form." 

The venerable Colonel Creecy has also, in his pleasant way, per- 
petuated a "Legend of the White Doe/* and Mrs. Sallie Southall 
Cotton has written a poem on the same subject. 

But we pass these legends by, as also one perpetuated by Law- 
son. "I cannot forbear," said that historian, "inserting here a 
pleasant story that passes for an uncontested truth amongst the 
inhabitants of this place (Croatan) ; which is, that the ship which 
brought the first colonists does often appear amongst them, under 
sail, in a gallant posture, which they call Sir Walter Raleigh's 
ship, and the truth of this has been affirmed to me by men of the 
best credit in the countr}\" 

But not only does Virginia Dare live in story; the State of 
North Carolina has perpetuated her name by calling a county 
after her that embraces the very spot where she first saw the 
light of day. S. A. Ashe. 


ROBERT ADAM was the first captain of the 
Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry, which 
was organized on the 23d of August, 1793. He 
was a Fayetteville merchant, characterized by 
the thrift and steadfastness of his nationality; 
but the old records represent him as a man of 
liberal views and public spirit, and especially devoted to his com- 
mand, never begrudging his time or the contents of his purse in 
the promotion of its interests on imposing occasions — parades, 
celebrations, etc. 

Camp Adam, a beautiful grove on Haymount, in the center of 
which was a large stand for public exercises, was named in honor 
of this gallant Scotch captain, and remained intact up to the 
breaking out of the Civil War. There the Fourth of July celebra- 
tions, May-day picnics and similar ceremonies were wont to take 
place. Handsome residences now cover the site of old Camp Adam. 
Robert Adam prospered at merchandising in Fayetteville, but in 
the closing years of the eighteenth century he removed to Wil- 
mington, and continued in business for some time, with a country 
place nearly opposite Wrightsville Beach. At this residence he 
died on the nth of June. 1801, in the zenith of his manhood, 
aged only forty-two years. Many years afterward his remains 
were exhumed, conveyed to Fayetteville and deposited in a grave 
in the southwest comer of old Cross Creek Cemetery. 


On a warm day of early Fall I stood beside the resting place of 
this sterling citizen and faithful soldier, within a few feet of the 
high bluff which forms the extremity of the inclosure. In the 
hot sunshine a lizard, lithe and sinuous, flashed green and gold 
across the old broken wall, vibrant and electric with nature's warm, 
glowing life; from the mill below the whirr of machinery beat 
the air with the throb of industrial force, and the water dashed 
off the mill-wheel with impatient vigor and went foaming and 
whirling on its way. But where I stood was the realm of repose 
and peace, and the majesty of silence was over all. Let the epitaph 
on the plain marble tablet above his head tell the short, simple 
story of Robert Adam's life : 

"Beneath this stone are deposited the mortal remains of Robert Adam, 
a native of Greenock, Scotland, and for many years a merchant of Faycttc- 
ville and Wilmington, who departed this life June ii, 1801, aged forty-two 
years. He was universally beloved and regretted. In his conduct and 
deportment through life was combined all that should adorn the Christian 
character and constitute the honorable man, the kind husband and affection- 
ate parent. 

" 'Stranger, welcome to the scene — 

The last in Nature's course, 

The first in Wisdom's thought.' 

» »» 

Robert Adam left to his successor a military corps which has 
achieved an illustrious history through a period of one hundred 
and twelve years, never having forfeited its organization or 
allowed it to fall into disuse from the day of its founding to the 
present time. It offered its services in the War of 1812, and 
marched toward Wilmington, going into camp near that city, 
but its presence on the field was not needed. Many of its members 
took part in the war with Mexico. It was one of the first bodies 
of volunteer soldiery to tender itself to the State and the Con- 
federacy, being Company H of the famous Bethel Regiment at 
Yorktown ; and during the four years following its rank and file 
furnished to other regiments, battalions, etc., some of the most 
distinguished officers in the Southern armies. It enlisted for the 
Spanish-American War, but was not mustered into active service, 


being in Colonel Burgwyn's Regiment, its commander Major Ben- 
jamin R. Huske, and was encamped on Tybee Island, opposite 
Savannah, Georgia, until the close of hostilities. 

Its peace record has been brilliant and full of stirring incidents. 
In its devotion to the South and the memory of the Confederate 
soldier, it retired from the State Guard some years ago rather 
than discard the honored grey when blue was adopted as the 
regulation color of uniform. It has since been rehabilitated, and 
is now Company F, Second Regiment, National State Guard, 
Captain N. H. McGeachy commanding. The old Independent 
Light Infantry now constitutes a battalion, there being a reserve 
corps still wearing the grey, the battalion under command of 
Major J. C. Vann. At the centennial celebration at Philadelphia, 
in 1876, the company, then commanded by Major Charles Haigh, 
won highest praise from prominent officers of the regular army 
for its bearing, drill and exercise of arms in the great parade of 
July 4th. It has also taken part in many other imposing public 
ceremonies in different parts of the country. 

In 1828 the General Assembly of North Carolina, in tribute to 
its distinction as a corps and to its splendid service, passed a 
special act conferring the brevet rank of major on its captain 
and of captain on its lieutenants. This act is in force to-day. 

The motto of the Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry is the 
exclamation of the great King Henry V. of England, just before 
the battle of Agincourt in France: 

"He that hath no stomach to this fight, let him depart." 

/. H, Myrover, 


3 N the opening chapter of an unpubHshed book 
written by Hon. Albert J. Beveridge, member 
of the United States Senate from Indiana, 
entitled "The Young Man and the World," he 
discusses the matter of man's limitations to 
success in these truthful words: "First let him 
learn his limitations; let him take time enough to think out just 
what he cannot do. By finding out one's limitations is not meant, 
of course, what society will permit you to do, but what nature 
will permit you to do. You have no other master than nature. 
Nature's limitations only are the bounds of your success. So far 
as your success is concerned, no man, no set of men, no society, 
not even all the world of humanity, is your master, but nature 
is. A man may make himself what he will within the limitations 
nature has set about him." 

No man will fail of success in life who believes that his Creator 
designed no limitation upon his advancement save that imposed 
by the laws of nature. This belief or conviction or faith finds 
its fullest fruition in a free country. It is strangled in its infancy 
in a despotism where it has neither air nor room nor light in 
which to bud, to flower and bring forth fruit. Sometimes it seems 
to come as a gift direct from Heaven, regardless of environment, 
but as a rule it owes its origin to the natural forces which surround 
and envelop a man who realizes in his childhood or early youth 

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that his duty demands of him great efforts, and who knows by 
sad experience, already and so soon, that his struggle with poverty 
will be fierce and hard. It does not flourish amidst the vice and 
luxury engendered by a vast accumulation of wealth. 

The supreme power of such a faith has been well illustrated 
in the life of Judge Spencer Bell Adams. His parents, John A. 
Adams and Sarah A. Adams, came from Virginia to North Caro- 
lina in 1857 and settled near Dobson, in Surry County. Here 
Judge Adams was born on the isth of October, i860. His father 
was a farmer and large slave-holder. He was respected wherever 
known for his integrity and unflinching adherence and devotion 
to whatever principle or cause he believed to be right. He had 
strong convictions. Notwithstanding his interest apparently 
pointed the other way, he was intensely opposed to secession and 
devoted to the Union of the States. Yet when hostilities com- 
menced between the North and the South, he espoused the cause 
of his own section, and sept his sons to the battlefield, although he 
had no faith in the final result. He was an ardent Whig, and 
Judge Adams owes a part of his name to the fact that he was 
bom during the Bell and Everett campaign, in which his father 
took an active part. He was called after John Bell of Tennessee, 
the Whig candidate for President. His mother was a Christian 
woman of unusual force of character, who was loved for her 
benevolence and kindness. She had great influence with both her 
husband and her children, who were devotedly attached to her. 

The early days of Judge Adams were full of perplexity and 
severe trial. Whilst only a lad he realized that he must depend 
absohitcly upon his own exertions. His father, whose fortune 
had been destroyed by the result of the Civil War, died when he 
was only two years of age, and his mother died when he was 
eleven. They left to their children only the heritage of a name 
loved by their neighbors and without stain or reproach. Yet 
young as he was, and dreary as the outlook for him seemed to be, 
he was not discouraged nor disheartened. He resolved to make 
the money necessary to defray the expenses of his education, it 
mattered not how severe the task. And so he did. He toiled at 


manual labor wherever he could find employment, and with his 
earnings paid for his board and tuition at the schools which he 
attended later at Riceville, Virginia, and Booneville and Rocking- 
ham, North Carolina. He entered the famous law school of 
Dick and Dillard at Greensboro in January, 1881, and remained 
there until February, 1882, when he obtained from the Supreme 
Court of North Carolina license to practise in the several courts 
of the State. He soon thereafter located at Yanceyville, the county 
seat of Caswell, and commenced a professional career which has 
been eminently successful, and which has won for him the respect 
of all who have an interest in the profession of law and love its 
good name. 

Judge Adams has always been a Republican in his political 
faith, although tolerant of the opinions of others who differ with 
him. He has ever asserted publicly and privately that in his 
opinion the success and glory of our country is inseparably con- 
nected with the success of the Republican Party. Those who 
know him do not doubt his sincerity, however much they may 
question the accuracy of this statement. His aggressiveness, his 
capacity for organization, and his recognized loyalty and fidelity 
to its principles have given him a commanding influence in his 
party, of which he is an acknowledged and trusted leader. In 
November, 1882, he was elected clerk of the Superior Court and 
ex-ofUcio probate judge for Caswell County. He was reelected in 
1886 by a very large majority, only twelve votes having been cast 
at the polls against him. He was again reelected in 1890 and 
1894. He resigned this office in 1896, two years before the term 
for which he had been elected had expired. He was elected a 
judge of the Superior Court in November, 1896, and took the 
oath of office on December 30, 1896. Yielding to the insistent 
demands of his party friends, who regarded him as the strongest 
candidate they could possibly name, he resigned his position as 
a judge of the Superior Court to be a candidate for Congress in the 
Fifth Congressional District against Hon. W. W. Kitchin, the 
Democratic nominee, by whom he was defeated. He moved to 
Greensboro in the fall of 1898. He was elected secretary and 


treasurer of the North Carolina Railroad Company in July, 1899, 
and held this position until July, 1901. In May, 1900, his party 
called upon him to carry its banner in a hopeless struggle. He 
had done so before, when he made the fight against Mr. Kitchin, 
a strong man, in a district overwhelmingly Democratic. 
Hon. Charles B. Aycock, one of the ablest, most popular and most 
eloquent men living in the State of North Carolina, was nominated 
by the Democratic Party for the office of governor. His great 
personal strength was supplemented by the intense feeling en- 
gendered by the race issue in that campaign. Judge Adams was 
selected by the Republican Party to make the fight against him. 
Although it was manifest to all that his defeat was certain by a 
large majority, he accepted the nomination, and made the sacrifice 
without a murmur. In the estimation of his political friends he 
gained rather than lost prestige in this campaign fought under 
very adverse circumstances. He was appointed by President 
Roosevelt, and confirmed by the Senate on the ist of July, 1902, 
chief judge of the Choctaw and Chickasaw Citizenship Court, a 
special appellate court created by act of Congress to try questions 
as to Indian citizenship in the Indian Territory. His associate 
judges were H. S. Foote, formerly of Mississippi, and W. L. 
Weaver, ex-member of Congress from Ohio. The work of this 
court was completed and its existence was terminated by limitation 
on the 31st of December, 1904. Judge Adams then returned to 
Greensboro, where he has since resided and been engaged in the 
practice of his profession. His business is large and lucrative. 

His judicial career, both as a State and a Federal judge, won 
for him high praise. His conduct on the bench was marked by 
firmness, impartiality and courtesy to all. He soue^ht the path 
of duty and followed where it led, regardless of the results to 
himself. A notable instance of his adherence to duty and his 
respect for the constitutional rights of the citizens of the State 
was his decision in Wood z'. Bellamy. This case was heard by 
him at chambers at Raleigh, in April, 1896, and will be found in 
120 North Carolina Reports, at page 212. In March, 1897, the 
'^Fusion'* legislature passed an act entitled "An Act to Charter 


the Eastern Hospital for the Colored Insane, and the Western 
Hospital for the Insane, and North Carolina Insane Asylum at 
Raleigh, and to Provide for their Government," which purported 
to repeal the charters of the North Carolina Insane Asylum at 
Raleigh, the Western North Carolina Insane Asylum near Mor- 
ganton and the Eastern North Carolina Insane Asylum near 
Goldsboro, and to abolish the offices of superintendent and direct- 
ors of such institutions and to recharter them under other names, 
and to create offices to be filled by officers under such designations. 
The object of those who passed the act was manifestly to provide 
places for persons of the same political faith. Public interest in 
the decision of the court as to the validity of the act was intense. 
If it was sustained and declared to be constitutional, it meant that 
these institutions would be at the mercy of the politicians of both 
political parties, as they might be respectively victorious in future 
contests. Wood v, Bellamy was the test case. Judge Adams ad- 
judged the act to be illegal and unconstitutional in so far as it at- 
tempted to abolish the offices of superintendent and directors of 
such institutions or to deprive the holders thereof of them before 
the expiration of the terms for which they were respectively elected 
and appointed. This decision was a sore disappointment to a few 
extreme partisans, who desired to see the act sustained; but the 
best men of all political parties rejoiced that this young Republican 
judge rose superior to temptation and declared the law as it was, 
and that he was sustained by the Supreme Court of the State, to 
which an appeal had been taken from his decision. For the firm- 
ness, moral courage and learning shown by him in rendering this 
decision Judge Adams received unstinted praise from the most 
prominent and influential newspapers in the State, as well as from 
the people at large. At the close of his term of office as chief 
judge of the Choctaw and Chickasaw Citizenship Court he was 
complimented in very high terms by the Department of Justice 
at Washington, District of Columbia, for the ability and integrity 
with which he had discharged his duties. 

The domestic life of Judge Adams has been fortunate and 
happy. He was married on the 19th of February, 1884, to 


Miss Lizzie L. Swift of Caswell County, a lady who, by her refine- 
ment of character, her gentle disposition and high sense of duty 
to her husband and children, has made their home one of rest, 
contentment and happiness. 

The story of the life of Judge Spencer B. Adams is well worth 
the study of every boy whose young life is burdened by poverty 
and anxiety for the future. It will teach him that in this great 
American Republic the avenues to honor and prosperity are open 
to all who recognize the dignity and honor of labor, who follow 
the pathway of morality and virtue and who keep the faith with 
their own conscience and with their fellow-men. 

Charles M. Stedman. 


I N'E of the many North CaroHna soldiers who 
li rose to distinction during the War between the 
' States was George Burgwin Anderson, who was 
t born in the county of Orange, near Hillsboro, 
' North CaroHna, on the 12th of April, 1831. His 
father was Colonel William E. Anderson, and 
his mother belonged to a well-known North Carolina family, whose 
several branches have varied ihe spelling of their patronymic, 
writing it both Biirgwin and Burgwyn. Mrs. Eliza Anderson, 
mother of the general, was a daughter of George Burgwin, of 
New Hanover County, 

George B. Anderson, after due preparation, entered the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina and remained there during the session 
of 1847-1848. In the latter year he was appointed to a cadetship 
in the United States Military Academy at West Point, his stand- 
ing being always near the head of his class. 

On graduating, the first of July, 1852, he was appointed brevet 
second lieutenant in the Second Dragoons, and was commissioned 
second lieutenant on the 21st of March, 1854. He was promoted 
to the rank of first lieutenant on December 13, 1855. From May 
27 to September 8, 1857, and from August 8, 1858, to June 24, 
1859, he held the post of regimental adjutant. The greater part 
of the active service of Lieutenant Anderson in the United States 
Army was in the West. Much of the Kansas turmoil, immediately 


preceding the war, fell under his personal observation, and he 
marched under Colonel Albert Sydney Johnston to quiet the 
Mormon troubles in Utah. Upon the outbreak of the War between 
the States, George B. Anderson was one of the first of those de- 
voted Southerners who resigned from the Army of the United 
States — indeed, Lieutenant Anderson did not wait for North 
Carolina to pass her Ordinance of Secession, but resigned on the 
25th of April, 1861. Upon tendering his services to North Caro- 
lina they were gladly accepted, and he was commissioned colonel 
of the Fourth regiment of State troops in May, 1861. The or- 
ganization of the regiment was begun at Raleigh and completed 
at Garysburg, and it arrived at Manassas on July 29th. Though 
too late to participate in the battle of Manassas, the Fourth regi- 
ment did garrison duty in that vicinity till March 8, 1862, when it 
was ordered to Clark's Mountain, near Orange Court House. 
Though only a colonel in rank, Anderson was now acting as com- 
manding officer of a brigade composed of the 49th Virginia, the 
27th and 28th Georgia, and the 4th North Carolina, Major Bryan 
Grimes acting as colonel of the last-named command. On the 8th 
of April orders were received to repair to Yorktown, and here some 
skirmishing occurred. On the 4th of May, 1862, Yorktown was 
evacuated and the brigade, under Acting Brigadier General An- 
derson, repaired to Williamsburg, where the troops on May 5th 
witnessed for the first time a pitched battle, though not allowed 
to participate, being held in reserve. The first important battle 
in which the troops under Anderson were engaged was at Seven 
Pines, otherwise known as Fair Oaks, and his conduct in this fight 
won for him a commission as brigadier general. At Seven Pines, 
Major Grimes commanded the Fourth regiment, and Anderson 
was commander of the brigade, though not yet a brigadier general 
in point of real rank. One of the many acts of prowess which won 
fame for Colonel Anderson occurred at Seven Pines, when he 
seized the flag of the 27th Georgia Regiment, whose color-bearer 
had been shot down, and led a charge which captured one of the 
enemy's works. President Davis was present at this battle, and 
immediately promoted Colonel Anderson, who received his com- 


mission as brigadier general on the 9th of June, 1862. The new 
brigade assigned to General Anderson was composed entirely of 
North Carolina regiments — the 2nd, 4th and 30th. In the seven 
days' fight around Richmond, Anderson's brigade won a high 
reputation, and its commander received a wound in the hand at 
Malvern Hill. In the Maryland campaign, the brigade formed a 
part of the command of General D. H. Hill, whose single division 
held McClellan's whole army in check at South Mountain until 
the arrival of Longstreet. Having on this occasion held McClellan 
at bay till Jackson could capture Harper's Ferry, Hill's division 
three days later, on September 17, 1862, was engaged as the great 
battle of Antietam, known in the South as Sharpsburg. Here 
Anderson's brigade was again engaged, and here he received a 
wound which eventually proved fatal. In this battle, as was 
usually the case, the Confederates were largely outnumbered, Mc- 
Clellan's force being upwards of 87,000 men, while Lee's was less 
than 40,000. In this unequal conflict General Anderson was struck 
on the foot by a minie ball and fell to the ground. At first the 
wound was not thought to be of a dangerous, or even serious, na- 
ture. Together with his brother and aide-de-camp, Captain 
Walker Anderson, who had also been wounded at Sharpsburg 
and was afterwards killed at the Wilderness, General Anderson 
was carried to the home of his brother. Colonel William E. Ander- 
son, in Raleigh. His wound growing worse, amputation was de- 
cided upon, but this operation was too late. He died on the i6th 
of October, 1862. This event cast a gloom over the State, and 
at Raleigh, the capital, a public meeting, called by the Mayor, was 
held to take suitable action looking to his burial. 

The remains of General Anderson are interred just northward 
of the Confederate plot in Oakwood Cemetery, at Raleigh, and a 
white marble shaft marks his resting place. On Confederate 
Memorial Day, in 1885 — May loth — General Anderson's life and 
military career were the theme of an eloquent and instructive ad- 
dress delivered by Colonel Alfred Moore Waddell, and from that 
are obtained many of the facts mentioned herein. Other tributes 
will be found in the North Carolina Confederate regimental his- 


tones, where Rev. E. A. Osborne, formerly a colonel in the Con- 
federate Army, says : "The writer of this sketch knew him well 
and loved him much. He was a perfect specimen of a man in 
every way, a graduate of West Point, a devoted churchman, a 
pure and chivalrous gentleman, as modest and chaste as a 
woman, as brave and daring as a man could be. His was a 
very great loss." Later on. Colonel Osborne says : "He had a 
handsome figure, was a fine horseman, a splendid tactician, had 
a clear musical voice, a mild blue-gray eye, a fine golden beard, 
long and flowing, and a very commanding presence. His dis- 
cipline was mild, but firm ; and his patriotism of the very highest 
order." In the same work, General William R. Cox writes of 
Anderson as follows: "Physically he was a splendid specimen 
of young manhood, six feet in height, broad-shouldered, erect 
and thoughtful, and endowed with a commanding and well 
modulated voice." More brief, yet none the less forcible, is a 
tribute to General Anderson by that heroic veteran. Colonel Frank 
M. Parker, who says: "The State gave no finer soldier to our 

While General Anderson was a lieutenant' in the United States 
Army, prior to the war, he was married on November 8, 1859, 
to Miss Mildred Ewing, of Louisville, Kentucky. To this union 
were born two children, one of whom died young; the other, 
George B. Anderson, Esq., still survives. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 


P N a letter written by Colonel Pollock in February, 
1718, he mentions Mr. Ashe, and about that 
time John Baptists Ashe married Elizabeth 
Swann, a daughter of Colonel Sam Swann by 
Elizabeth Lillington, and a sister of Speaker 
Sam Swann of the succeeding generation. It is 
probable that Mr. Ashe located in the Albemarle about the time of 
his marriage, and that all of his children were born in that section. 
He was Receiver of the "powder money" at Bath from 1723 to 
1726. On January 15, 1724, Governor Burrington appeared in the 
colony and took the oaths of office,* Mr. Ashe was a member of 
the old Wiltshire family of that name, and Edward Ashe, one of the 
Board of Trade and Plantations, having direction of the colonies, 
was his kinsman; Burrington had known several members of Mr. 
Ashe's family in England, and was not unnaturally drawn to him 
in this new and wild country. By his marriage Ashe had be- 
come son-in-law to the wife of Colonel Maurice Moore and a 
nephew of Edward Moseley, and was allied with the family con- 
nections of the Porters and Liliingtons, which represented the 
interests of the people in opposition to the interests of the Lords 
Proprietors. Governor Burrington, through his association with 
Ashe, thus fell under the influence of the leading inhabitants of 
the Province, and he undertook to advance their purposes, being 
'Vol. 3. p. 371. 


in full accord with them. Indeed it appears that the officers rep- 
resenting the Lords Proprietors informed their lordships that 
Burrington was preparing to bring about a revolution similar to 
that which in 1719 had wrested South Carolina from their control ; 
so that on the 7th day of April, 1725, the Lords Proprietors ap- 
pointed Sir Richard Everard to succeed Burrington. In July 
Everard took the oaths and dissolved the Assembly which was 
favorable to Burrington. The new Assembly met in November, 
Maurice Moore being the Speaker, and Burrington a member of 
the Legislature, along with Mr. Ashe. The Governor had under- 
taken to prorogue this Assembly before its meeting, and Ashe 
was appointed one of the committee to draw up a protest. The 
House, however, having transacted some business, of itself ad- 
journed to the following April agreeably to the prorogation. 
When it met, Ashe, who represented Beaufort precinct, was 
chosen Speaker, Speaker Moore not appearing. The House again 
resolved that the prorogation was illegal, and an address was pre- 
pared and approved and ordered to be signed by the Speaker, and 
delivered to the late Governor of the Province, Burrington ; and 
another address was prepared and signed by the Speaker and sent 
to the Lords Proprietors, in which the House severely arraigned 
the Chief Justice, Attorney General, and the Secretary as "evil- 
minded persons, who have for many years been the common dis- 
turbers of the peace and tranquillity of the Province." In all these 
matters Ashe was the warm friend of Burrington, and when Bur- 
rington because of his disorderly conduct was indicted, he ap- 
peared as attorney for him. 

Burrington had joined with Colonel Maurice Moore in opening 
up the Cape Fear, and in 1725 grants were located at Old Bruns- 
wick and along the river, by Burrington and others. And there 
Ashe also located in 1727. Burrington's relations with Ashe were 
so friendly that on his departure from the Province and return to 
England he left all of his affairs in Ashe's hands. 

In 1729 the Crown purchased Carolina, and Burrington was ap- 
pointed the first Royal Governor of North Carolina. He recom- 
mended the appointment of Ashe among others as a member of 


his council, and doubtless expected his aid in his administration. 
But now conditions were changed, and Burrington, on his return 
in 1 73 1, instead of being friendly with what might be called the 
Popular Party in the Province, was required by the Crown to as- 
sert prerogatives which Ashe and his friends would not submit 
to. It soon appeared to the Governor that "Ashe was altogether 
bent on mischief."* In the council he organized opposition to the 
Governor and eventually controlled that body against him,f while 
in the House Edward Moseley exerted a potent influence in op- 
position to the Governor's instructions. A great contest ensued, 
characterized by bitterness and personal enmity. Both Ashe and 
Burrington resorted to the most extreme measures, and on one 
occasion Burrington caused Ashe's arrest and incarceration. So 
resolute and determined were the leaders of the Popular Party 
to maintain what they regarded as their chartered rights, that 
during Burrington's entire administration not a single Act was 
passed by the General Assembly. At one time it was in con- 
templation that Ashe should go to England to obtain Burrington 's 
recall, but the communications of Ashe and Rice, covering charges 
of misconduct on the part of Burrington, and the Governor's own 
indiscreet letters to the Board of Trade, rendered that unnecessary ; 
and in the summer of 1733 Gabriel Johnston was appointed to sup- 
plant him ; but Governor Johnston did not arrive in the Province 
until June, 1734. 

Ashe had joined his family connections in making the settle- 
ment on the Cape Fear, which at that time was a wilderness 
separated by a great distance from the inhabited parts of Car- 
teret precinct, of which it formed a part — and it may be stated in 
passing that many of the early deeds and grants for land on the 
Cape Fear are recorded at Beaufort. 

On the formation of New Hanover Precinct and the passage 
of the Currency Act of 1729, Ashe became Treasurer of the new 
Precinct, and retained that office until his death. While he owned 
lands on Rocky Point, and had a sawmill higher up the Northeast 
River, his residence plantation was at Old Town; and he died 
♦C. R. Vol. 3, p. 332. tC. R. Vol. 3, p. 331. 


there in November, 1734. He left two sons and one daughter, the 
latter becoming the wife of George Moore, a son of "King" 
Roger Moore. The youngest son, Samuel, born 1725, was after- 
wards Governor of the State, 1795- 1798; the eldest son was 
General John Ashe, born in 1720, and distinguished for his Rev- 
olutionary services. 

As some indication of the ideas then prevalent on the Cape Fear, 
the following extract is made from the will of Mr. Ashe: "I will 
that my slaves be kept at work on my lands, that my estate may 
be managed to the best advantage, so as my sons may have as 
liberal an education as the profits thereof will afford. And in 
their education I pray my executors to observe this method : Let 
them be taught to read and write, and be introduced into the 
practical part of arithmetic, not too hastily hurrying them to 
Latin or grammar; but after they are pretty well versed in these, 
let them be taught Latin and Greek. I propose this may be done 
in Virginia, after which let them learn French. Perhaps some 
Frenchman at Santee will undertake this. When they are ar- 
rived to years of discretion, let them study the Mathematics. To 
my sons when they arrive at age I recommend the pursuit or 
study of some profession or business (I would wish one to the law, 
the other to merchandise), in which let them follow their own 

"I will that my daughter be taught to write and read and some 
feminine accomplishments which may render her agreeable, and 
that she be not kept ignorant as to what appertains to a good 
housewife in the management of household affairs. " 

S. A. Ashe, 


JOHN ASHE, the eldest son of John Baptista 
Ashe, bom in the Albemarle region in 1720, is 
spoken of by the historian Jones as the most 
chivalric hero of the Revolution. His career, 
at least, was remarkable for its dramatic epi- 
sodes. At ten years of age he was bereft of 
Gis mother, and at fourteen he lost his father, himself the oldest 
of three orphan children. But even under these unhappy circum- 
stances, his early life was fortunately cast. His uncle, Speaker 
Sam Swann, eminent for his virtues and public worth, was his 
guardian, and he was raised at Rocky Point among his kindred, 
the families of Colonel Maurice Moore, Edward Moseley, the 
Porters, Swanns and Lillingtons. He was possessed of a compe- 
tency, and is said to have been educated in England, and he named 
two of his sons after English kinsmen, from whom he doubtless 
at that period received some particular kindnesses. He was a read- 
ing man and possessed a library which he prized so highly that 
during the Revolution he made particular efforts to preserve it, 
secreting it in a huge, hollow cypress in Burgaw swamp. 

A man of good address, he excelled as an orator, and perhaps 
in this regard he was unequalled by any of his contemporaries in 
North Carolina. When he came to man's estate, his elders were 
men of atTairs, and he had to wait his turn to enter upon official 
life. At thirty-one he became a Justice of the Peace for New 


Hanover County, and the next year he was elected to the Assem- 
bly to succeed his uncle, John Swann, then appointed to the 

In 1749 John Starkey, of Onslow, who was his friend, had 
brought in a bill to establish a free school ; and an appropriation 
of 6000 pounds had been made for that purpose. The first day 
Ashe took his seat as a member of the Assembly, he, Ormond and 
Starkey were appointed a Committee to prepare an answer to the 
opening speech of the Governor. The answer was reported 
to the House by Mr. Ashe and was clear and spirited, and without 
a doubtful note: **We intend to frame such other laws as shall 
be judged needful and consistent with the circumstances of our 
constituents, whereby the public worship of Almighty God may be 
effectually supported, the virtuous education of our youths pro- 
moted, our trade and navigation enlarged and encouraged."* 

At the session of 1754 the Committee of Propositions and 
Grievances, of which Ashe was a member, reported a recom- 
mendation that the 6000 pounds theretofore appropriated for a 
public school should be used for that purpose ; but the exigencies 
of the moment required the Assembly to divert it for the defense 
of the western parts of the Province then attacked by the Indians. 
However, that Assembly allowed an aid of 40,000 pounds to the 
King, and 18,000 pounds in the same bill was appropriated to 
establish public schools, but for some reason the Board of Trade 
always withheld the King's assent, and the law was never car- 
ried into effect. 

The year 1754 ushered in many changes in North Carolina. In 
that year the French and Indian War broke out, and Colonel Innes 
was appointed to command a regiment raised in North Carolina 
for the protection of Virginia. At that time John Ashe was the 
senior Captain of Innes* Militia Regiment, and he now became 
^lajor of that Regiment ;t and he was also an Aide of Colonel 
Innes, and as such went to Virginia for him on military business. 
He continued an active member of the Assembly, always employed 
on important matters; and at its session in December, 1758, when 
♦C. R. Vol. 4. p. 1332. tVol. 5. P- 163. 


the Assembly appointed an agent for the Province in London, it 
appointed a Committee of Correspondence to communicate with its 
agent, composed of Speaker Swann, Barker, Starkey, George 
Moore and John Ashe.* At the same session "Mr. Ashe, accord- 
ing to order, laid before the House an address to his Majesty," 
in which after mentioning the expense the province had borne in 
defence of the Colonies, the Assembly asked that the allowance 
the Crown was expected to make by way of reimbursement "might 
be used in purchasing a glebe for each Parish, and erecting and 
establishing a free school in each County."t The address was 
ordered to be presented to the King, but Ashe's plan for free 
schools was not to materialize. Governor Dobbs had other views, 
and the fund allowed by the King was eventually dissipated 
through the contrivances of the Governor. 

The antagonism between the leaders of the Assembly and the 
Governors, which began in the proprietary times and was more 
pronounced after the purchase of the Province by the Crown, 
continued with increasing violence during Governor Dobb's ad- 
ministration. The Assembly, under the control of Swann, Ashe 
and their associates, claimed the exclusive right of naming the 
Treasurers, the Agent at London, and Public Printer, and of 
laying taxes and directing the payment of all public moneys. 
The Governor denounced these leaders as being a "junto whose 
purpose was to absorb the po.wers of the Governor and Council." 
It was indeed a long and obstinate conflict, the popular leaders 
being insistent on establishing and maintaining the rights and 
liberties of the people and the rightful powers of the Assembly. 

At the Assembly of 1762 Swann declined to serve longer as 
Speaker, and Ashe, who had constantly risen in importance, suc- 
ceeded him; and at the Assembly of February, 1764, he was re- 
elected to that commanding position. At the session of November, 
1764, a new element entered into the political situation. Parlia- 
ment had adopted a resolution that the Colonies should be taxed 
to support the Empire, and in June a Committee of the Massa- 
chusetts Assembly addressed a circular letter to the other Colo- 
♦Vol. 5, p. 1087. tVol. 5. p. 1094. 


nies on this subject. On November 17th Speaker Ashe laid this 
communication before the Assembly, and a Committee composed 
of the Speaker, Starkey, McGuire, Harnett and Maurice Moore 
was appointed to make a suitable reply to it.* In their answer 
North Carolina expressed her concurrence with Massachusetts.f 

Another sharp conflict over the exclusive rights and privileges 
of the House, not only as against the Governor and the Crown, 
but as against the Council, also made this session memorable ; and 
at its close the House formally resolved: 'That the Treasurers do 
not pay any money out of any fund by order of the Governor and 
Council without the concurrence or direction of this House." 

Governor Dobbs, then quite old, died on March 28, 1765, and 
Colonel Tryon, who had arrived some months earlier as Lieuten- 
ant-Governor, entered on the administration, and convened the 
Assembly at New-Bern on May 3rd. In addition to provincial 
matters, the purpose of Parliament to tax America now became a 
cause of irritation and excitement. That was a question so novel 
that public opinion was not entirely settled. In June, Otis of 
Massachusetts first suggested a Continental Congress, and that 
course was later determined on. In North Carolina the feeling 
was so strong, says Bancroft, **that the inhabitants set up looms 
for weaving their own clothes ; and South Carolina was ready to 
follow their example." At the May session the Assembly had 
been prorogued till November, and North Carolina had no oppor- 
tunity of appointing delegates to that first Continental Congress, 
which met on October 7th ; and indeed, in October, Governor 
Tryon prorogued the Assembly again until March ; and eventu- 
ally he dissolved it without allowing it to meet again. The Stamp 
Act, passed in March, was to go into operation in the Colonies in 
November; but although William Houston had been appointed 
Stamp Master for North Carolina, the stamps had not yet arrived 
from England. Nevertheless the people of Wilmington and of 
the Cape Fear determined that the Act should not be enforced in 
the Province. There were several great popular demonstrations 
against the Act, and, on the i6th of November, Houston, having 
♦Vol. 6, p. 1296. tBancroft. 


come to Wilmington from his home in Duplin, was seized by the 
people under the leadership of De Rosset and forced to resign 
his office.* Two days later Governor Tryon had fifty of the 
gentlemen of the Cape Fear to dine with him at Brunswick, and 
they told him that they could not permit the act to be enforced; 
while John Ashe, the Speaker, warned him that it would be re- 
sisted to blood and death.f On November 28th the stamps arrived, 
but, there being no Stamp Master, remained on shipboard. There 
was, however, a general cessation of business throughout the 
Province, although there was no cause for an outbreak until in 
January, when two merchant vessels coming into the Cape Fear 
were seized because their clearance papers were not duly stamped. 
Some days then elapsed before the law officers determined what 
course the Government should pursue. In the meantime the lead- 
ers on the Cape Fear were arranging their plans. The Mayor of 
Wilmington resigned, and Moses John De Rosset, a strenuous 
leader against the Stamp Act, was elected to replace him. Rocky 
Point for a generation had been the residence of Moore, Moseley, 
Swann, Ashe and Lillington ; and it was still the centre from 
which emanated the influences directing public action. The people 
of Onslow, Duplin and Bladen were brought together at Wilming- 
ton to meet those of New Hanover and Brunswick ; and they en- 
tered into an association : — ''Detesting rebellion, yet preferring 
death to slavery, ... we hereby mutually and solemnly 
plight our faith and honor that we will at any risk whatever, and 
whenever called upon, unite and truly and faithfully assist each 
other to the best of our power in preventing entirely the opera- 
tion of the Stamp Act. "J Of this association Bancroft says: 
"Still more bold, if that were possible, was the spirit in North 
Carolina." On that occasion John Ashe was the leading spirit. 
He was now to make good his warning to Governor Tryon that 
the people would resist to blood and death. Like some John 
Hampden he drew his friends around him, and at the meeting at 
Wilmington, on the i8th of February, he and his kinsman, Alex- 
ander Lillington, and Colonel Thomas Lloyd became "Directors" 
♦Vol. 7. p. 168. tVol. 7, P. Notes III. tVol. 7. p. i68c. 


to direct the movement;* and General Hugh Waddell was ap- 
f>ointed to marshal and command the citizen soldiery, numbering 
near 1000 armed men.f It was not a mob, but an orderiy move- 
ment of the people under civil authority of their own appointment, 
with the military subordinate to the Directory, at the head of which 
was the Speaker of the Assembly. Accompanying the Directors 
were the Mayor and corporation of Wilmington, and gathered 
around them were all the gentlemen of the Cape FearJ — a. glori- 
ous cavalcade of patriots intent on a high purpose and full of high 
resolve. But it was treason. Well might the eloquent Davis ex- 
claim: **Take care, John Ashe! Hugh Waddell, beware!" 
Marching to Brunswick, Fort Johnston was seized, the Crown offi- 
cials arrested, the war vessels of Great Britain defied, their com- 
manders constrained to surrender the detained merchant ships, 
and the Stamp Act was annulled in North Carolina. In triumph 
the people returned to their homes victors over the government 
and the King's forces. The effect and influence of this daring and 
victorious movement on the spirit of the Province can neither be 
estimated nor portrayed. 

In a few months the news came that the obnoxious Act was re- 
pealed ; and that brief period of storm and rebellious action gave 
place to one of great joy and demonstrations of loyal attachment 
to the King; and in the midst of the rejoicing a new Assembly 
was elected. Governor Tryon had manifested his indignation at 
the course of Judj^e Maurice Moore, Ashe's brother-in-law, dur- 
ing" the Stamp Act times, by suspending him from his office, and he 
keenly felt the conduct of the other insurrectionary leaders. How- 
ever, only the Southern counties had been offensive in their action, 
and the public men in the other counties had not been drawn into 
actual rebellion. The Assembly met in November. Ashe did not 
attend for some days after its meeting, and John Harvey of Per- 
quimans county was chosen Speaker. Ashe, however, entered 
actively on the business of the Assembly, and together with Fan- 
ning and Robert Howe was appointed on a Committee to prepare 
an address to his Majesty on the repeal of the Stamp Act. This 
♦Vol. 7. P- 17-2- tVoI. 7, p. 174. tVol. 7, p. 174. 


address was manly and patriotic. It referred to the action of the 
Colonists, to their apprehensions, to the burdens "much too heavy 
for us to bear,*' to their late unhappy situation, and expressed joy 
and thankfulness at the action of the King and Parliament in re- 
pealing the Stamp Act, "as thereby the happiness of your subjects 
is secured and fixed upon the true basis of public liberty;" 
throughout it all, however, there were expressions of love and loy- 
alty to the best of Kings, and a declaration of "the glory and hap- 
piness of the inhabitants of this your Province of North Carolina 
to look upon themselves as part of the British Empire."* From 
Boston to Savannah joy and loyalty filled the atmosphere. In the 
ecstasy of the moment, the Assembly, ignoring its long and per- 
sistent denial of the King's prerogative to fix the seat of govern- 
ment at New-Bern, magnanimously petitioned the King to locate 
it there, and appropriated ten thousand pounds to build a palace 
for the Governor at that place. 

Ashe's old friend Starkey, the Treasurer, had died before the 
previous session of the Assembly ; and a dispute had arisen, as in 
former years, between the Assembly and the Council as to the ex- 
clusive right of the Assembly to nominate the Treasurer, and at 
that session the vacancy was not filled. The Governor had, how- 
ever, appointed Sam Swann temporary Treasurer; and now the 
Legislature was to elect to the office. The Assembly nominated 
Ashe; the Council, insisting on its rights, nominated Lewis De 
Rosset. For a time neither body would recede ; but eventually 
the Council agreed itself to nominate Ashe, thinking thus to save 
its claim to share in the nomination ; and he became Treasurer of 
the Southern District. 

In 1768 the Regulators having raised a riot at Hillsboro, Gov- 
ernor Tryon called out the militia of Rowan and Mecklenburg 
Counties to overawe them, and John Ashe accompanied him on 
that expedition as Major-General. Again in 1771, when the Regu- 
lators broke up the Court at Hillsboro, Governor Tryon deter- 
mined to suppress them by a display of military power. The Leg- 
islature had made no provision for this movement, and there were 
♦Vol. 7. pp. 397-408. 


no funds to pay the expenses. Montfort, the Treasurer of the 
Northern District, refused to advance any money; but Ashe, the 
Treasurer of the Southern District, not only supplied what funds 
he had, but issued his own notes to pay the expenses. As the re- 
sult of Mont fort's action, no troops were raised in the Northern 
section. Again was Ashe appointed Major-General, and as such 
he participated in the Battle of Alamance; and when, after the 
Regulators had been dispersed and Tryon had received his ap- 
pointment as Governor of New York, he turned over the command 
of the army to Ashe and hastened to his new post. 

The next Assembly met Governor Josiah Martin in November, 
1772. The Assembly in 1768 had directed the Sheriffs not to col- 
lect a certain tax of three shillings ; and at this session it proposed 
to direct the Sheriffs not to collect a certain tax of one shilling. 
The Governor declared that this would be a fraud and dissolved 
the House before it could place the resolution on its journal. Ashe 
was a member of the House, and, as Treasurer, obeyed its will in 
this matter and refused to require the sheriffs of his district to 
collect the tax. The Governor dissolved the Assembly, and there 
was a new election. When the Assembly met in January, 1773, 
Harvey was chosen Speaker in place of Caswell ; and by a com- 
bination between Caswell's friends and the Northern District, Cas- 
well defeated Ashe for Treasurer. At the Assembly that met in 
December, 1773, a standing Committee of Correspondence was 
appointed to communicate with the other Colonies, and Ashe was 
one of its members. The Governor dissolved that Assembly on 
March 28, 1774, because of disagreements over the court law and 
its action and spirit in regard to Continental affairs. In the prog- 
ress of events the Port of Boston was closed that spring, and in 
July the inhabitants of the Cape Fear Counties met at Wilming- 
ton and issued a call for the election of deputies to the first Pro- 
vincial Congress :* and of that body Ashe was a member. Writing 
on September i, 1774, Governor Martin alludes to the fact that 
"the Northern Counties were then controlled by Sam Johnston 
and that the Southern Counties were supporting John Ashe ; and 

♦Vol. 9. p. 1016. 


that these counties, usually in antagonism, were now in harmony, 
and he apprehended every embarrassment from their union." 
That Fall, Committees of Safety began to be formed in the sev- 
eral counties, and Ashe was a member of the Committee for New 
Hanover. He realized the necessity of resolute action, and, again 
gathering his friends around him, he led the way for the people to 
follow. Having met the situation in 1765 and 1766 with a strong 
hand, he now prepared to be armed and ready for the crisis he 
saw approaching. He had long been Colonel of the New Hanover 
Regiment. He now freed himself from duties to the Crown, and 
declining a reappointment tendered him by Governor Martin,* 
began to -organize troops independently of the Government. On 
March 10, 1775, Governor Martin wrote rf "It is rumored that 
in the counties of Brunswick and New Hanover, the people, at 
the instigation of some of the leaders, have met and chosen field 
officers for a regiment; and that Mr. Robert Howe, formerly 
captain of Fort Johnston, is training some people in the former 
county to arms." Elsewhere the Governor reported "that Ashe 
had declined his appointment as colonel and had accepted the ap- 
pointment at the hands of the people." It was stated by survivors 
of the Revolution that he was the first person in North Carolina 
to receive a military commission from the people. After that 
time independent companies began to be formed in the other 

On March 6th the New Hanover Committee adopted an as- 
sociation that :t "We do most solemnly engage by the most sacred 
ties of honor, virtue and love of country," etc., and they resolved 
to "offer this paper to all citizens for their signatures." There 
were some of the inhabitants of the town wavering, and Gov- 
ernor Martin represented to the Crown that: **Ashe had, at the 
head of a body of 400 or 500 men, menaced the people 
with military executions if they did not immediately subscribe 
the association." Without doubt, being now an active leader 
in the throes of a revolution, Ashe used every influence that could 
be exerted to infuse zeal among the people, to fix the wavering 
♦Vol. 10, p. 48. tVol. 9. p. 1 157. tVol. 9, p. 1 148. 


and to overawe those who were disinclined to cast their fortunes 
with the revolutionists. He was stalwart, bold and determined. 
With him were his kinsmen, and Harnett and Howe, Moore and 
Lillington; unhappily De Rosset and Waddell, leaders in 1765, 
had now passed away. Harnett, Ashe, Howe and Abner Nash 
were particularly marked out by the Governor as proper objects 
of proscription because **they stand foremost among the patrons of 
revolt and anarchy." * 

On May 8th the express with the news of the Battle of Lex- 
ington reached Wilmington; intense excitement prevailed; 
and Governor Martin, alarmed by the organization of an inde- 
pendent company at New-Bern by Abner Nash and his associates, 
fled from his palace and sought safety in Fort Johnston, reaching 
there June 2nd. From there he began to communicate with the 
disaffected in the interior, and he planned to strengthen the fort 
and garrison it with more troops. In the meantime John Harvey 
had died, and on May 31st Howe, Harnett and Ashe wrote Sam 
Johnston urging that another Provincial Congress should be at 
once held.f On June 12th the Committee of Safety of the Cape 
Fear counties took an oath of secrecy, and a week later they 
adopted an association binding themselves "to go forth and sac- 
rifice their lives and fortunes to secure freedom and safety." Three 
days later, on June 23rd, the Mecklenburg Resolves, supplanting 
the old government in Mecklenburg County and inaugurating 
an independent government based on the will of the people, were 
published in the Cape Fear Mercury; and the cry for independence 
from the interior gave strength to the Cape Fear leaders. J Bla- 
den and the sea coast counties "were pursuing the example of 

Ashe determined to expel the Governor from North Carolina 
soil and to remove the cannon from Fort Johnston and to destroy 
the fortifications ; and he planned by means of fire-rafts to drive 
the British cruisers from the harbor. He embodied his forces, and 
on July 1 8th, being joined by detachments from Brunswick and 
Bladen, he marched to Fort Johnston and with his own hand ap- 
♦Vol. 10, p. 98. tC. R. Vol. 9, p. 1285. tC. R. Vol. 10. pp. 45. 48. 


plied the torch to the fort. His plan to drive the cruisers from 
the river by fire-rafts was not, however, carried into effect,* and 
Governor Martin continued on board his shipping, but his com- 
munication with the Loyalists was interrupted and very uncertain. 
The stimulus of this action aroused and nerved the patriots in 
every quarter of the Province and the Revolution went forward 
by leaps and bounds. A month later the third Congress met, and 
it invested the functions of government in a Provincial Commit- 
tee of Safety. Royal rule had ceased in North Carolina. Provi- 
sion was also made to organize military forces. Minute men were 
provided for, and also two regiments of Continental troops. Ashe 
desired the command of the first of these regiments; but his 
brother-in-law, James Moore, who had greater military experi- 
ence, was preferred to him, receiving a majority of one vote. 
Without question this defeat was a source of great mortification. 
His proud spirit quivered with disappointment. But he knew his 
duty and performed it. Mr. George Hooper is quoted as saying 
"that he could never forget General Ashe's return from the Con- 
vention of Hillsboro in September, 1775. He was in a state of 
prodigious excitement. His object was to raise a regiment ; and he 
accomplished it. You cannot imagine what a commotion he stirred 
up. He kindled an enthusiasm in New Hanover and the adjacent 
counties, of which there is no parallel in the traditions of the State.'*t 
In February, 1776, the Highlanders and Regulators assembled 
at Cross Creek, and Colonel Moore marched against them, along 
with his forces being a company of Independent Rangers en- 
listed by Ashe, and paid a bounty by him out of his own purse ; and 
he fought with them at Moore's Creek. Immediately after that 
battle the Provincial Congress met and reorganized the militia, 
appointing brigadier-generals for the different districts. Ashe 
was appointed to command in the Wilmington District. In April 
and May the British began to gather in the lower Cape Fear, and 
the militia of the State was called out to defend Wilmington. 
The command of that army was with General Ashe, and the force 
was stated to number over 9,000 men. He hemmed in the British 

♦Vol. 10, pp. 142, 143. 

tA. M. Hooper's Memoir, University Magazine, Oct., 1854. 


forces, until finally the fleet sailed away; and, the danger being 
passed, in August he disbanded his troops. While he thus com- 
manded the army, his brother was President of the Council. 

He continued in active service, both in military and civil af- 
fairs, being constantly a member of the Congresses, and later of 
the Assemblies, and, cooperating with the other leaders, directing 
the affairs of state. In December, 1776, Caswell being elected 
Governor, Ashe was appointed Treasurer, and in 1777 he was 
elected by the Assembly, and he held that post until 1781. 

When Washington was hard pressed in the Fall of 1777, the 
State of North Carolina offered to send a force of 5,000 militia 
to his aid. It being thought that this force would be sent, Gov- 
ernor Caswell on the 7th of February wrote to General Ashe:* 
**If the militia shall be ordered to march to the aid of the United 
States, will it be agreeable to you to command them? If it will, 
'twill give me pleasure ; otherwise, I think it may be necessary for 
me to go with them." General Ashe, in reply, said that while in- 
disposed to the command, yet after the next session, if it 
should be not "expedient for Governor Caswell to go, and should 
it then be offered, I may perhaps accept it.^f That detachment 
was not raised ; but in October a detachment of 5,000 was to be 
sent to the South, and Governor Caswell wrote to General Ashe :t 
"I am now apprehensive I shall not go, and cannot think of offer- 
ing that appointment to any other gentleman than yourself. Let 

me entreat you to accept it This request I make to you 

not only from my own inclination that you should have this com- 
mand, but also on a full conviction that the troops will more 
readily turn out ; indeed, I have engaged to some of the officers 
who have turned out here that either you or myself would com- 
mand them. ... If you go, I will give every assistance to your 
treasury office that I possibly can." 

It was arranged that Ashe should accept the commission of 
major-general and undertake this command, the commission being 
sent him on the i8th of November, i778,§ and Governor Caswell- 
agreeing to perform his duties as treasurer in his absence. Orders 

♦Vol. 13, p. 30. tVol. 13. p. 55. 

tVol. 13, p. 256. §Vol. 13, p. 289. 


were issued at once for detachments of militia to be drafted and as- 
sembled at Elizabethtown. The method of raising militia troops 
all during the war was to apportion about fifty to each county, and 
each county apportioned that number among the various com- 
panies. The result was that while a regiment was raised from each 
district, neither the privates nor the officers of the regiment had 
any previous acquaintance, but the organization was a medley 
and mixture, without any element of confidence or cohesive 
strength. General Rutherford's brigade being ordered out, 
quickly responded ; but the detachments from the other sections 
of the State were slow in assembling. At length, however, regi- 
ments were collected from the New-Bern District, from those of 
Edenton, Halifax and Wilmington. Another was commanded by 
Colonel Perkins. Governor Caswell remained at Kinston, urging 
the troops forward. On December 8th he wrote to General Lin- 
coln, from Kinston : "At length the troops from the Northern 
and Eastern Districts of this State have crossed the river at this 
place. The whole, I expect, will join General Ashe at Elizabeth- 
town six days hence; from whence they will be able to reach 
Charleston in about a fortnight. I am much concerned to know 
the greater number of the militia who have firearms have such 
as are by no means fit for service, and many of them have no 
arms at all. I flatter myself, notwithstanding Governor Lowndes's 
information to me, that arms will be furnished them." 

It was expected that arms would be furnished at Charleston to 
this North Carolina detachment : but General Rutherford's brig- 
ade, which was in advance, got all the arms that could be supplied. 

On December 29th, Caswell wrote to Ashe, who was still de- 
tained at Elizabethtown, that militia was hourly expected at Kins- 
ton; that he was concerned to learn that the troops were so far 
short of the number ordered out, and he added : "The deficiencv in 
arms and accoutrements I am sensible of, and equally concerned 
at, but it seems that these deficiencies cannot be removed here. 
I was led to believe that he (General Lincoln) thought our people 
would obtain arms at Charleston, and I sincerely hope they will." 

When the Legislature met in January, the Governor reported 


to that body that of the 5,000 troops called out, he was fearful 
not more than half had marched, and those badly armed. 

Lincoln's forces were posted along the Savannah River, and 
when Ashe reached that vicinity he was ordered to proceed im- 
mediately to Augusta and to cross the river and to take post at 
Briar Creek, and then himself to return to Lincoln's camp for a 
council of war.* He reached Briar Creek on the 27th of Febru- 
ary, and in obedience to instructions left his command in charge 
of General Bryan and attended the council, at which it was agreed 
that he should cross Briar Creek and strike the enemy at their 
•first post down the river, and clear the way for Rutherford to 
cross. He reached his camp at noon on March 2d. It was in the 
depths of a narrow swamp, nearly forty miles long, lying between 
the creek and the river, and a mile or so from their juncture. 
Ashe had represented to General Lincoln its unfavorable location, 
admitting of no escape from an attack in the rear by a superior 
force. There were but few horsemen with the command; but 
General Bryan had established a line of heavy pickets to the rear 
and had sent the Light Horse to obtain information. At 3 o'clock, 
on the afternoon of the 3d, information was received that the enemy 
were approaching, about eight miles above. "We immediately 
beat to arms, formed the troops into two lines, and served them 
with cartridges, which they could not prudently have been served 
with sooner, as they had several times received cartridges which 
had been destroved and lost for want of cartouch boxes. We 
marched out to meet the enemy — some carrying their cartridges 
under their arms, others in the bosoms of their shirts, and some 
tied up in the corners of their hunting shirts." A few Georgia 
Continentals and Colonel Perkins's Regiment, on the right of the 
first line, engaged the enemy. The Halifax Regiment, on the left 
of the second line, broke and took to flight. The Wilmington and 
New- Bern Regiments, after firing two or three rounds, followed 
their example. The Edenton Regiment continued for two or 
three discharges longer, when they gave way, just as Colonel 
Lytle with his light infantry and a brass piece came up. He saw 
♦Vol. 13. pp. 51. 39. 


the impossibility of rallying the troops, and he followed in rear 
of the fugitives, reserving his fire." 

Ashe, who had been in the rear of Colonel Perkins's Regiment 
and the Georgians on the first line, hurried to check the fugitives, 
but although assisted by Majors Blount, Doherty, Colonel Perkins 
and other commanding officers, he was unable to rally them. They 
made their way to the river, where most of them crossed, while 
others turned up the swamp and reached Augusta. The loss was 
ten or twelve killed, about the same number drowned, some 
missing; but a large majority threw away their arms in their 
flight. There were about 600 in the camp at Briar Creek, and they 
were assailed by 800 British Regulars, and their defeat was inev- 
itable. Apparently General Lincoln erred in placing this force 
at the bottom of a bag from which there was no avenue of escape, 
except by dispersing through the swamps. A year later he re- 
peated this mistake at Charleston, and himself was forced to sur- 
render his entire command. General Ashe immediately asked for 
a Court of Inquiry, which, after the examination of many wit- 
nesses, decided :* "That General Ashe did not take all the neces- 
sary precautions which he ought to have done to secure his camp, 
and to obtain timely intelligence of the movements and approach 
of the enemy ; but they entirely acquitted him of every imputation 
of a want of personal courage, and thought that he remained in 
the field as long as prudence and duty required." Ashe himself 
thought that he did everything in his power to obtain timely in- 
telligence of the movements of the enemy; still this inglorious 
termination of his expedition weighed heavily upon him. Excuses 
that even form a reasonable justification do not relieve the sting 
of defeat. The period for which his men were enlisted was to ex- 
pire on April loth. They would remain no longer; and somewhat 
later General Ashe himself returned to his home, keenly feeling 
the misfortune that had befallen his command. He resumed his 
duties as Treasurer, but General Lillington having been appointed 
Brigadier-General of his district on February 4, 1779, he had no 
subsequent military command. 

♦Moultrie's Memoirs, University Magazine, Oct., 1854. 


In the last days of January, 1781, Major Craig took possession 
of Wilmington, and from that time onward his Tory bands rav- 
aged the country, making captures of such Whigs as they could 
find. *'Two of the General's sons, having been taken, were con- 
fined on a prison-ship and sentenced to be shot. One was Samuel 
Ashe a Captain in the Continental Line, the other his youngest 
son, William. A day was fixed for the execution, and it would 
have taken place if Major Craig had not received authentic in- 
formation from the Whig camp that a dreadful retaliation was in 
their power.*' The General himself took refuge in the recesses 
of Burgaw swamp. He was betrayed, and a party of dra- 
goons was dispatched to capture him. Attempting to escape, 
he was shot in the leg and carried a prisoner to Wilmington. 
While in confinement he contracted the smallpox; but when 
convalescent was parolled and returned to his home, where he 
at once made preparations to remove his family to the back 

In October he began this journey, and with his family reached 
the residence of Colonel John Sampson, in Sampson County. 
There suddenly the end came. Taken with a paroxysm of pain 
at 12 o'clock at night, he expired before the dawn of day. 

Bright and glorious had been his years of manhood, but dis- 
appointment, suffering and calamity marked his exit from the 
world. The first in North Carolina to begin the Revolution, with 
arms in his hands, he passed away before Cornwallis's surrender, 
and without a view of the promised land of independence, and 
ignorant of the glorious victory which was then to reward and 
rejoice the patriots who survived him. 

Early in life General Ashe had married his cousin, Rebecca 
Moore, the sister of Judge Maurice Moore and of General James 
Moore. His eldest son, John, early took arms in the Revolution ; 
his son, Captain Samuel Ashe, commanded a troop of Light 
Horse, serving in New York and Pennsylvania ; William was lost 
at sea on board of a privateer, and A'Court died in 
his youth. His daughter Mary, in 1777, married Colonel William 
* University Magazine, Oct., 1854. 


Alston, and was the mother of Governor Joseph Alston, of South 
Carolina, who married the ill-fated Theodosia Burr. Eliza Maria 
married William H. Hill, and was the mother of Joseph Alston 
Hill. Harriet married Dr. Laspeyre. None of his sons left issue, 
and none of his descendants bear his name. 

Speaking of his powers of oratory, Mr. George Hooper is 
quoted as saying : **He struck the chords of passion with a master 
hand. His words roused the soul like the roll of the drum or the 
roar of artillery at the commencement of an action. Every breast 
heaved, as if with the sentiment of the Athenian orator: 'Let us 
away ! Let us arm ! Let us march against Philip ! ' " Mr. Sam 
Strudwick, who had "mingled in the fashionable and political 
circles of the great metropolis of England, speaking of General 
Ashe, declared emphatically that there were not in the city of 
London four men superior in intellect to John Ashe.'* 

But his chief title to fame rests neither on his powers of oratory 
nor his intellectual capacity, but rather on his resolute patriotism 
and bold leadership in starting the ball of revolution that brought 
independence to his country. 

S. A. Ashe. 


^HE subject of this sketch was a jurist of un- 
it blemished reputation and held in the highest 
" personal esteem throughout the State during the 
I period of his activity. He was the son of 
f Gabriel Bailej-, who resided in Pasquotank Coun- 
, ty, where the family had long been settled, and 
he was bom on August 13, 1795. After his preliminary educa- 
ticwi he entered the University at Chapel Hill, where his scholastic 
education was completed, and then studied law under Hon. James 
Iredell, at Edenton. Governor Iredoll was one of the most ac- 
complished lawyers, as he was one of the strongest and most su- 
jKTJftr in intellectual endowments of tlie public men of the State, 
and this association with that distinguished and thorough lawyer 
and gentleman had a most excellent effect on the young law 

Having received his license, he returned to Pasquotank and 
established himself as a lawyer in Elizabeth City ; but his residence 
in Chowan had not been without a deeper effect on his life, and on 
the 26th of June, 1821, he was happily united in marriage to Miss 
Priscilla Brownrigg of that county, a daughter of Thomas Brown- 
rigg, who was a grandson on his mother's side of Colonel Benja- 
min Hill, and whose father, Richard Brownrigg, appears to have 
come from Ireland many years before the Revolution and to have 
had considerable possessions in Ireland and in Jamaica, as well 


as in Chowan County. Easily taking his place among cultured 
gentlemen of that day in Elizabeth City, in 1824 Mr. Bailey was 
elected to represent Pasquotank County in the House of Commons 
and was elected to the Senate in 1827 and 1828. Again in 1832 
he was a member of the Senate, and now his reputation as a man 
of fine judgment and as a Constitutional lawyer was so well es- 
tablished that when delegates were chosen to represent Pasquo- 
tank in the Convention of 1835, he was selected to be a member 
of that body. In the Convention he voted to amend the religious 
tests for office, admitting Roman Catholics, who had formerly 
been excluded. He voted against the alteration in the Constitu- 
tion providing for biennial elections of the General Assembly, but 
he voted to submit all of the amendments which had been agreed 
to by the Convention to the people, while Mr. Macon, Judge Ruffin, 
Mr. Edwards, and others who like himself were Conservatives, 
voted against that proposition. By the first General Assembly 
held under the amended Constitution he was elected a Judge of 
the Superior Court, a position for which he was admirably quali- 
fied by his character, his personal traits and his judicial attain- 
ments. For more than a quarter of a century he rode the circuits 
of the State, holding court many times in every county in North 
Carolina. He wore well on the bench. Every year added to his 
reputation and to the esteem in which he was held. The people 
in every part of the State became familiar with his personality, 
and because of his fine carriage and excellence he attained a high 
place in the popular regard. He continued on the bench until 
1863, when circumstances led him to resign his office, and after- 
wards he made his home in Asheville, where he resumed the prac- 
tice of the law and became as highly esteemed in that community 
as he had been in his old home. 

In the salubrious climate of that mountain region he regained 
his health and attained a ripe old age. He was survived by his 
sons, Thomas B. Bailey and Hon. William H. Bailey, formerly 
of Charlotte, but later in life a resident of Texas, but his amiable 
wife preceded him to the grave by a few years. He died at Ashe- 
ville on June 30, 1877, in the 82nd year of his age. S. A. Ashe. 

tvh: %^rv7 YORK 



SAMES K K.Mti HWASWKLL. (listint^'inshcii as 
I a banker ;i'jiJ liiisiiifs- iiiiui, \\■^^^ Imni in-ar 
I llattlelioro. (.ti tljc i;Ui (i;i,v ..£ August. iJ't.8. 
i He is tlK- y.-iiifjcK! -m„ living,- of 'riioinas T. 
' Braswcll aii'i Ktnily Strilliii-s Br:.^\vell, who 
: still liviiif,' n( 'Ik' lii mil- iii vv'iii'Ii Jamcj 
:.i; I'raswell was bom. 
■'l,.-.nias P. Braswell. llicTailior nV fauR's rrai"-. is ,.f <.i^t<:h• 

■ 1,. , 

. f du 



'Oi-y^'-' fe='->-i*^ 



gAMES CRAIG BRASWELL, distinguished as 
banker and business man, was bom near 
I Battleboro, on the 17th day of August, 1868. 
I He is the youngest son living of Thomas P. 
Braswell and Emily Stallings Braswell, who 
; are still living at the home in which James 
Craig Braswell was bom. 

Thomas P. Braswell, the father of James Craig, is of Scotch- 
Irish descent, and the sterling honesty of the one and the wit of 
the other of these two great people are concentered in him. He is 
one of the most progressive men in Nash County and one of her 
most honored citizens. He was born in Edgecombe County in 
the year 1833, and during his youth and early manhood lived in 
Edgecombe County, where he married Emily Stallings, and in 1866 
moved to his present home in Nash County. 

Mr. T. P. Braswell's early educational advantages were limited, 
but by application, constant reading, and extensive travelling there 
are few better informed men of to-day ; being denied many advan- 
tages, yet his innale manhootl soon asserted itself, and he forged 
his way to the front, and by his honesty of purpose, indomitable 
will-power, and sound judgment he has won a high place in the 
esteem of his fellow-men. He has filled every public position 
which he has ever sought, and indeed some have been thrust upon 
him without his desire, and he has declined many, preferring the 


quiet of his splendid home to the cares of public life. He has been 
constable, deputy-sheriff, Commissioner of his county. Chairman 
of the Democratic Executive Committee, and member of the Leg- 
islature, which last position he declined to accept again, and 
finally retired from public life. 

He is to-day the largest planter and land-owner of Nash County, 
and is extensively engaged in stock-raising, owning one of the 
finest herds of Jersey cattle in the State. In addition to his farm- 
ing interests, he is largely engaged in other business. He is the 
senior member of the large mercantile firm at Battleboro, N. C, of 
T. P. Braswell & Son, which business is conducted by his oldest 
son, M. C. Braswell, of whom more will be said later. He is a 
large owner of real estate in Rocky Mount, Battleboro, Nash and 
Edgecombe Counties. He is a stockholder in all the large corpo- 
rations organized in and around Rocky Mount and Battleboro for 
the past few years, and indeed the organization of many of them 
can be attributed to him ; for instance. Planters' Bank, which bank 
has gained a State reputation, although only six years old. 

Mr. T. P. Braswell realized, as no man can except one similarly 
circumstanced, the advantage of thorough education, and he has 
spared no effort to give his children every advantage which edu- 
cation can bestow, and well have they repaid his efforts. 

M. C. Braswell, his oldest son, after leaving the University was 
graduated from a business college, and has taken the very fore- 
front of business enterprises, and is himself an extensive planter. 
Indeed he is one of the safest and foremost business men of his 
entire section. 

His second son, Dr. R. M. Braswell, was a student of the Uni- 
versity and graduated from the Maryland University, and is to- 
day one of the leading physicians of Eastern North Carolina. He, 
too, is a large planter and extensively engaged in other business 
enterprises, having been instrumental in organizing and carrying 
on much of the business in and about Rocky Mount, and is espe- 
cially noted for being one of the most open and candid men who 
ever lived in our midst. No one ever heard it said of him that his 
position on any question was doubtful or deceptive. He is a use- 


ful man to society, for being so open and candid himself, no Dr. 
Jekyl and Mr. Hyde can live near him without the Mr. Hyde being 

Reared by a loving Christian mother, whose influence is so 
deeply impressed on him, and benefited by the example of the 
trio above referred to, the subject of this sketch came upon the 
stage of life. 

He was prepared for college at Homer's Military School at Ox- 
ford, N. C, and was graduated from the University of North 
Carolina in the summer of 1890. 

During his boyhood days he was taught by his parents that it 
was honorable to do manual labor, and when at home for his 
vacation he was deprived of no pleasure, but his duties must come 
first. He took part in his father's business in every way, and was 
educated in the arts of all farm work. 

As soon as he left college he sought the commercial field, and 
for a short time was connected with Dun's Mercantile Agency 
at Winston, N. C. Remaining there for a short time, he moved 
to Rocky Mount in 1891, and as the town was just organizing 
large and extensive tobacco factories and warehouses, he em- 
barked in the tobacco business and commenced the tobacco trade 
in co-partnership with his father under the firm name of J. C. 
Bras well & Co., which has since been incorporated. From the 
year 1891 to 1900 Mr. Braswell was a quiet worker in this busi- 
ness, laying the foundation of the active business which was soon 
to follow. 

On the 1 2th of June, 1901, he was happily married to Miss 
Lillian Grizelle Burton of Durham, N. C, and his charming wife 
has made his home life all that the most exacting could ask. She 
is the granddaughter of the late Rev. Alex. Walker and the 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Burton, and inherited both 
on the paternal and maternal lines those admirable traits that 
adorn her character and have made her justly esteemed as one of 
the loveliest of her sex. Mr. Braswell has since then built and 
moved into one of the handsomest homes in Eastern North 


During the past few years especially Mr. Braswell's fine char- 
acter has become more manifest and more thoroughly recognized, 
and his worth is appreciated by all with whom he has come in 

By his unquestioned honesty, by his never-failing energy, by 
his absolute fairness, by his determination to get what belongs to 
him, and to be just as sure that he gets nothing that is not his, 
by a strict adherence to his motto, **Live within your income, be 
thorough and exact in business, avoid evil things and men, and 
have your eyes open to every opportunity," he has won the confi- 
dence and esteem of all men with whom he has come in contact ; 
and though yet a young man, he is to-day president of the follow- 
ing corporations : Planters' Bank of Rocky Mount, Rocky Mount 
Sash and Blind Company, Rocky Mount Hosiery Company, J. C. 
Braswell Tobacco Company, the Chamber of Commerce, the Mari- 
gold Heights Land Company, Secretary of the Planters* Cotton 
Seed Oil Company, Director of the Rocky Mount Storage Ware- 
house Company, Wilkinson Bullock & Company Insurance and 
Loan Office, the Rocky Mount Brick Company, and he is Vice- 
President of the Rocky Mount Savings & Trust Company. He is 
also one of the Commissioners of the town of Rocky Mount, and 
a member of the Board of Graded School Trustees, and Vice- 
President of the North Carolina Bankers' Association. 

These positions of trust to which he has been called by his as- 
sociates fully attest the confidence and esteem in which he is held. 

Adding him to the trio above described, it may be said that 
they form one of the most honorable families within the limits of 
that part of the State. They are at all times in the closest touch 
with each other. They are all men of great public enterprise, 
fully abreast with the times, not afraid to venture, with plenty of 
means to back any enterprises on which they may embark, and 
last but not least, are always together. So it is not difficult to 
understand that when they venture others are ready to follow. 

B. H. Bnnn. 

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C- tUL-'C^U 


fESSE MOORE BUNDY. a well known and 
greatly esteemed citizen of Atlantic City, N. 
J., was bora in Deep River neighborhood, 
Guilford County, North Carolina, on the 27th 
of March, 1837. His parents, John and Mary 
Moore Bundy, were members of the Society of 
Friends and were people of sterling worth and strict integrity, 
John Bundy was quiet and unassuming in his manner, but of act- 
ive mind and sound business ability. He was of Irish descent, his 
father being a native of Ireland. He was born in 1803 and died 
in 1885. His occupation was that of farming. His mother, too, 
was a sirong, lovable character, and to her and her teaching of 
the truths of the llible her son ascribes much of his success in life. 
Thus Jesse M. Hundy received his early impressions of life and 
his preparation for its duties in that best of all training schools — 
a well ordered home upon a well managed farm. He grew up 
strong and healthy in mind and body, assisting in the various 
kinds of work which at that time more than in our own included 
many pursuits, as that of blacksmith, carpenter, mason, etc. This 
developed in the boy a fondness for any kind of mechanical work 
and made him acquainted with the requirements of various oc- 
cupations. In after life these qualifications have rendered him 
capable of doing the work of four or five men in several positions 
which he has been called to assume, notably as Superintendent of 


Guilford College during its inception when new buildings were 
being erected, brick made, lumber secured, and many men under 
his sole management. 

As a boy he attended the public schools of the day, and later 
entered New Garden Boarding School — ^now Guilford College. 
While there his favorite studies were natural philosophy, physics, 
and kindred subjects. 

During his boyhood his father removed to Indiana and settled 
at Monrovia. There for a time Jesse pursued farming as his oc- 
cupation. After attaining his majority he established and oper- 
ated a successful carriage manufactory, thus exercising the gift 
which had shown itself from his tenth year — of handling tools 
and serving mankind through his knowledge of mechanics. 

On the 27th of October, 1859, he married Mary Jane Copeland, 
of Rich Square, North Carolina, with whom he became acquainted 
while they were both students at Friends' Boarding School. After 
his marriage he remained at Rich Square for six months and en- 
gaged in teaching. In the Spring of i860, with his wife, he re- 
turned to Indiana and settled at Monrovia, which became their 
home for eighteen years, engaging in manufacturing as before. 
During those years three children were born, two of whom died 
in infancy. The surviving child, a daughter, Anna Moore, was 
married in 1892 to Rev. John B. Jacobs, who only a few months 
after their marriage was drowned while bathing in a river. Anna 
and her little daughter Pearl make their home with Mr. and Mrs, 
Bundy at Atlantic City, gladdening the hearts of their parents as 
the shadows lengthen in their lives. 

In 1874 Jesse Bundy removed to Rich Square, North Carolina ; 
and in 1878 he and Mrs. Bundy became Superintendent and Ma- 
tron of New Garden Boarding School. They remained in this 
position for seven years. These were the years of transition from 
a boarding school to a college, and it would have been almost im- 
possible to find a man who so thoroughly combined the character- 
istics needed by the occupant of this position as did Mr. Bundy ; 
while his wife was most admirably fitted to manage the large and 
diverse household. Jesse Bundy seemed equally at home in the 


Faculty meeting, or with the student body, with the carpenters, 
the masons, the brick-makers ; and by his quiet dignity and genu- 
ine sympathy endeared himself to all who worked with him, from 
college president to the boy who carried water for the workmen. 

Since his residence at Guilford he has been engaged in vari- 
ous pursuits in Indiana, Chattanooga, Tenn., Philadelphia, New 
York. In the latter State he had charge of a large hotel at Colum- 
bia White Sulphur Springs. For several years past Mr. and 
Mrs. Bundy have made their home in Atlantic City. At first in 
rented property they conducted a charming home-like hotel, and 
now in their own new commodious and thoroughly up-to-date 
hotel. The Archdale, they entertain in such a manner that guests 
find ever\' convenience of hotel life added to the most cordial, 
friendly and sympathetic association from those in charge. It is 
indeed an ideal resort. 

Jesse M. Bundy has always remained a Friend and has for 
many years been an elder in the church. His life is full of en- 
couragement and has been spent in whatever locality his lot has 
been cast in the cause of truth and righteousness. His is the kind 
of life which makes, and will continue to make, our nation great, 
God-fearing, honest, upright in every particular. In politics he 
has always been Republican, but never a partisan. He is well 
known in those sections in which he has resided, and in every place 
he is held not only in esteem, but in affection. 

L. L. Hobbs. 


^ENJAMIN HICKMAN BUNN, distinguished 
as a lawyer and public man, was born in Nash 
County on the 19th of October, 1844, a"d has 
continued to reside in his native county all 
' through life. His ancestor, Benjamin Bunn, 
and his brother, coming from London in Colo- 
nial days, first settled in Virginia and then removed to Edge- 
combe County, North Carolina, locating in the section which was 
later formed into Nash County. The earliest public service re- 
corded of the family was in the Spring of 1776, when Sir Peter 
Parker's fleet lay in the Cape Fear River and ten thousand North 
Carolinians stood ready under General Ashe to repel the threat- 
ened invasion, among them being Benjamin Bunn, a lieutenanl 
in Captain James Gray's Company from Edgecombe, and the 
Council of Safety in North Carolina at Wilmington on June i 
1776, resolved that he should be fully commissioned accordingly. 
One of his sons, Redmun Bunn, was Senator from Nash 
County in 1788, and frequently represented his country there- 
after in the House, but generally the members of the family 
appear to have devoted themselves to their private business 
and not to have sought official station. Enjoying the 
pleasures of their home life, they were contended to till their 
flelds and cultivate their estates, living in happiness and 





. n 


'< AND 



A great-grandson of Benjamin Bunn, Redmun Bunn, success- 
fully united the business of merchandizing to his farm work and 
exercised a strong influence in his community. He was esteemed 
particularly for his high sense of honor, his gentleness and chival- 
ric bearing. He had an acute intellect and was known for his 
keen wit, and was highly regarded in his community for his social 
virtues. In person he was striking and his manners engaging. 
Once, being in Macon, Ga., with his eldest son, William H. Bunn, 
a gentleman, seeing their names recorded at the hotel, approached 
them, and introducing himself as a citizen of London, said 
to Mr. Bunn: "I was struck by the name of William H. 
Bunn; that is the name of one of the Queen's assistant 
counsellors, and you are the very image of him. I never 
saw such a likeness. 

Mr. Bunn married Miss Mary Hickman Bryan, and they were 
the parents of the subject of this sketch. 

Blessed with perfect health and living in boyhood in the country, 
where he did light farm work, attending to the stock and engaging 
in country pastimes, Captain Bunn developed into a strong, 
healthy young man. He attended the preparatory schools in the 
neighborhood until he was sixteen years of age, when the war 
breaking out, on the 20th of July, 1861, he enlisted as a private 
in Company I of the 30th North Carolina regiment, commanded 
by Colonel Parker, and served as a private until September, 1862, 
when he was elected second lieutenant of Company A., 47th North 
Carolina regiment, with which he remained connected during the 
rest of the war, although in 1864 he was assigned to the command 
of the corps of sharpshooters of the brigade. At the battle of 
Gettysburg the regiment was subjected to a terrible experience on 
the first day and suffered severely, and on that occasion Captain 
Bunn was wounded in front of Seminary Heights. He was car- 
ried back to the hospital and removed to Winchester, but recov- 
ered rapidly and soon rejoined his company, and from that time 
onward participated in every battle fought by General Lee until 
he was again wounded, on the 25th of March, 1865. Indeed, he 
was one of two officers of his command who were on duty every 


day of the campaign of 1864 and who participated in every fight 
in which the division took part. 

Shortly before the campaign opened in 1864 he was assigned to 
the command of a corps of sharpshooters, and he continued on 
that exposed and arduous service until the end of the war. In the 
Wilderness campaign, he with his sharpshooters was on duty 
fourteen out of nineteen successive nights, guarding the front line 
of the Confederate army. Participating in all the great battles 
of the war, he rendered efficient service on every field ; and being 
thrown in close contact with his commanders, he acquired the per- 
sonal acquaintance and friendship of the generals who directed 
his movements, especially of General MacRae, commanding his 
brigade, General Heth, commanding the division, and General 
D. H. Hill, the corps commander, as well as of General Lee him- 
self. On one occasion General MacRae declared his corps of 
sharpshooters, to which Captain Bunn's company belonged, the 
best body of men that he had ever seen, the most thoroughly 
drilled and disciplined. As an illustration of their discipline an 
incident is narrated as occurring on October 27^ 1864, at Burgess's 
Mills. The brigade being sent forward, Captain Bunn's sharp- 
shooters were advanced to discover the position of the enemy, he 
being instructed to locate the Federal lines without firing and to 
apprise the commanding general of their location. He conducted 
his men through a dense underwood and suddenly emerged into 
a beautiful open pine forest about 200 yards deep, behind which 
was an outlying field grown up with tall broom straw. As soon 
as Captain Bunn reached the pine forest he discovered the Fed- 
eral skirmish line in full view, and halting they commenced to talk 
to each other, the Federals calling out : "Come over, Johnny, and 
join us. Don't you think you have been fighting long enough? 
Come over and let's make friends," etc. Sending word back to 
General Mahone, the commanding officer, orders were received to 
hold his position. Presently, when the brigade had come up, the 
engagement began, Captain Bunn's sharpshooters advancing rap- 
idly ; but as soon as they had passed beyond the forest a Federal 
line of battle, previously unseen, ran from the broom straw and 


fired a volley at them, who, however, were so well trained that by 
a direction given by a mere motion of Captain Bunn's sword, each 
one lay as close to the ground as possible and the volley passed 
over them and not a man in the company was harmed. At that 
very moment the Confederate line of battle emerged from the 
woods in their rear and a fearful contest ensued. The sharp- 
shooters, being between the firing lines, lay as quiet as if dead with 
the balls from both armies whistling over their heads. This sit- 
uation was relieved only when the Federal line was repulsed and 
the Confederates marched over the prostrate sharpshooters, who 
were rejoiced to be once more free from their perilous position. 

Captain Bunn passed through all the dangers of that campaign 
without harm, but on the 25th of March, 1865, before Petersburg, 
he received a wound in his right hand cutting the sinews of all 
his fingers and breaking several of the bones. He was taken to 
the Winder hospital and there remained until the Sunday morn- 
ing when Richmond was evacuated. Having dressed for the first 
time since he had been wounded, he walked from Richmond to 
Danville and then proceeded by rail to Rocky Mount, arriving 
there the day Lee surrendered. 

His brother, Elias Bunn, who was adjutant of the 12th 
North Carolina regiment, was wounded at Hanover Court House 
on May 27th, at the very beginning of the seven days* fight 
around Richmond, and after lingering about a month, died on 
July 2nd. His other brother, William H. Bunn, was captain of a 
cavalry company and was killed on the battlefield at Burgess's 

On the return of peace. Captain Bunn at once began the study 
of the law with his uncle, Hon. W. T. Dortch, of Goldsboro. His 
grandfather had died at the early age of 26, and his grandmother 
married a second time, Mr. William Dortch, and their son, Hon. 
W. T. Dortch, a half-brother of Captain Bunn's father, subse- 
quently married Captain Bunn's first cousin on his mother's side, 
and there were intimate relations existing between the uncle and 
nephew, and Mr. Dortch admirably prepared him for the bar. 
Receiving his license in 1866, he began to practise at Rocky Mount 


the next year, and soon made his impress on his community as a 
fine and competent lawyer. 

When his business was thoroughly established he had the good 
fortune to be happily married to Miss Harriet A. Philips, a 
lady of very superior charms and accomplishments, and a daughter 
of Dr. James A. Philips, a prominent physician of that section. 

The loss of his two older brothers threw much responsibility 
upon him and led to unusual exertions to perform his duties and 
to win a high position in life. A strong and practised speaker, 
he was appointed as a sub-elector in the Seymour and Blair cam- 
paign of 1868, and he has engaged in every political campaign 
since then. In 1875 ^^ ^^s elected a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention, and rendered conspicuous service as Secretary 
of the Committee on Privileges and Elections of that body, whose 
work was most important in preventing the control of the con- 
vention from passing into the hands of those who were not favor- 
able to any constitutional reform. Captain Bunn was also instru- 
mental in having important legislation adopted, being one of those 
who regulated the calendar of work and arranged the same before 
the convention each day, the convention being almost a tie and all 
matters being passed by the vote of the presiding officer. 

In 1880 he was a delegate to the National Convention that nomi- 
nated General Hancock, and he made a strong campaign in be- 
half of that distinguished Federal general, whose troops he had 
fought on many a battlefield. He represented Nash County in the 
General Assembly in 1883, and upon the appointment of a joint 
committee on The Code, the usual rule was varied and the compli- 
ment of being chairman was conferred on him, although only a 
member of the House, while several very distinguished lawyers 
represented the Senate on that committee, which was composed 
of twenty-two members. 

The next year he served as Presidential elector, and for six 
years, beginning in 1888, he represented his district in the Con- 
gress of the United States and was very close to the Speaker of 
the House of Representatives, who conferred upon him the chair- 
manship of one of the important committees, the Committee on 


Claims. On this committee he performed arduous legislative ser- 
vice, examining into many claims and drawing up reports for 
the action of Congress. As an illustration of his exhaustive work, 
in his report on the bill for the relief of J. M. Lanston, he set 
forth the whole sum expended for expenses in every contested 
election since the organization of Congress. His report in the 52nd 
Congress on the French Spoliation Claims was also exhaustive. 
While he made many fine addresses in the House, his speech on 
the Federal Election Bill was probably his highest and crowning 
effort, and brought him merited distinction. In it he gave full 
expression to Southern thought on the relations of the sections 
under the Constitution, and ably discussed the causes of dissen- 
sion between the North and the South. This speech was exten- 
sively circulated, and portions of it were incorporated into the 
Democratic handbook for the next campaign. Indeed as a Rep- 
resentative in Congress he performed his duties with great effi- 
ciency and to the entire satisfaction of his constituents and main- 
tained a high position among his associates. He retired from 
public life at the end of the 53rd Congress, having thus far filled 
every position to which he has aspired. 

As a lawyer Captain Bunn has been very successful, excelling 
as an advocate and as a manager of jury cases, while equalled by 
but few in legal learning. He has appeared in nearly every capi- 
tal case which has been tried in Nash County in thirty years, and 
in every important civil suit since he has been at the bar ; and he 
has been the attorney for the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Com- 
pany and for Nash County almost continuously for thirty years. 

His motto in life has been, "To live so that the world will say 
of me after I am dead that *Here lies an honest man/ " He sug- 
gests that any man who is honest and energetic will succeed, and 
he has never been able to conceal his contempt for deceit in any 

5. A. Ashe. 


5N his day and generation Hiitchins Gordon Bur- 
ton was a leader of the bar in North Carolina, 
was governor of the State, was a reprcsenta- 
I tive in Congress, and filled other offices of 
honor and trust, as this sketch will show later 
He was a native of Virginia. When three 
years old his father, John Burton, died. The maiden name of 
John Burton's wife was Mary Gordon. On the death of his father 
young Hiitchins was left to the care of Colonel Robert Burton, a 
North Carolina statesman, who was his uncle and then resided in 
Granville County. 

On coming of age Hutchins G. Burton settled in Mecklenbui^ 
County, North Carolina. Probably his first appearance in public 
office was in 1809, when he was elected to represent his adopted 
county of Mecklenburg in the North Carolina House of Commons. 
He served in a similar capacity at the session of 1810, and during 
the sitting of this assembly he was elected ( November 28th) to the 
office of attorney general of North Carolina. This office he held 
until 1816, when he resigned — his resignation being accepted by 
the Legislature on the 21st of November in the year last men- 
tioned. Taking up his abode in the town of Halifax, Mr. 
Burton represented that borough in the North Carolina House of 
Commons at the session of 1817. Having later been elected to 
represent his district in the Congress of the United States, he ap- 


peared in the House of Representatives at Washington on Decern- 
ber 6, 1819, and was duly sworn in as a member. He served un- 
til the 23rd of March, 1824, when he resigned. When the next 
General Assembly met it elected Mr. Burton to the office of gov- 
ernor of North Carolina on December 3, 1824, and four days 
later, on December 7th, he was duly inaugurated. His term of 
office ended on December 8, 1827, when his successor. Governor 
James Iredell, was sworn in. During the time that Governor Bur- 
ton was in office he was a great social favorite as well as a Chief 
Magistrate of wisdom and discretion. Possessing oratorical gifts 
of a high order, he was frequently in demand at the Fourth of 
July celebrations which were then conducted in Raleigh, as well 
as elsewhere, on such a grand scale and with so much ceremony 
and enthusiasm. It was Governor Burton's fortune also to extend 
an official welcome to the illustrious "guest of the nation," Gen- 
eral Lafayette, when that great soldier passed on his triumphal 
journey through North Carolina in 1825. Chief Justice Taylor 
and other distinguished citizens were sent as a committee to meet 
America's great friend when he entered the State from the north- 
ward at the end of February, and, after various entertainments at 
Halifax and elsewhere, the party reached the State Capital on 
^larch 2d. On that day a formal speech of welcome was made 
by Governor Burton and replied to by Lafayette. Both speeches 
are printed in the Raleigh Register of March 8, 1825. In opening 
his remarks I^ifavette said : 

"On the first moment of my return to the blessed shores of America I 
anticipated the pleasure to revisit this State, and here to witness the pros- 
perous result of that independence and self-government the cry for which 
had been heard from North Carolina long before it was reechoed in a 
Continental Congress." 

In the same newspaper we find a toast, offered by Lafayette at 
the entertainment in his honor, which was as follows : 

"The State of North Carolina, its metropolis, and the 20th of May, 
1775. when a generous people called for independence and freedom, of 
which may they more and more forever cherish the principles and enjoy 
the blessings." 


In toasting General Lafayette, Governor Burton offered the 
following sentiment : 

"The man who estimated as but dust in the balance all the blessings of 
this life when in the opposite scale were placed liberty and independence." 

Among the numerous other toasts offered at this entertainment 
were the following : 

By Colonel William Polk, who presided : 

"Lafayette, the last of the Revolutionary general officers — may the even- 
ing of his life be as happy and serene as the meridian of his days has been 
great and glorious." 

By Chief Justice John Louis Taylor : 

"George Washington Lafayette, worthy of the great name he bears — alike 
for his military knowledge, public services and private worth." 

By George Washington Lafayette : 

"The new ship of the line, North Carolina, a source of pride to her 
friends — may she ever prove a scourge to her enemies." 

By State Treasurer John Haywood : 

"The battle of Brandywine — that epoch in the history of the war of the 
Revolution when French and American blood first flowed together in the 
same brotherly current and was oflfered a rich oblation on the altar of 

By Judge Henry Potter : 

"Our venerated guest — may the immense temple of freedom which he, as 
a master workman, contributed to erect, ever stand as a lesson to oppres- 
sors, an example to the oppressed, a sanctuary for the rights of mankind. 


Part of this toast, said Judge Potter, he had adopted from the 
language of Lafayette's farewell address to Congress. 


By Editor Joseph Gales, of the Raleigh Register: 

**Thc people, the source of all political power — may the time soon arrive 
when their influence shall have its wholesome effects on the governments of 
the Old World/' 

When Lafayette proceeded southward on his tour, an escort of 
honor, both civil and military, again accompanied him, and at 
Fayetteville — a place named after him — he was again the recipi- 
ent of a patriotic demonstration before being turned over to the 
hospitalities of South Carolina. 

On the 6th of December, 1825, Governor Burton was elected 
Grand Master of the Masonic Grand Lodge of North Carolina, 
and served in that capacity till the 6th of December, 1827. A 
handsome oil portrait of him is now owned by the Grand Lodge. 

Under the old State Constitution the Governor's term of office 
was one year, with the provision that he could not serve more 
than three terms in six years. Governor Burton served three 
terms ; and about the end of his last, when he was not eligible for 
reelection, President John Quincy Adams nominated him Gov- 
ernor of the Territory of Arkansas; but, for political reasons, 
this nomination was not confirmed bv the United States Senate. 

Governor Burton died on the 21st of April, 1836, probably 
while on a visit to relatives in Lincoln County, as his death oc- 
curred in that vicinity. He was interred in the burial ground of 
Lenity Church at Beatty's Ford, in Lincoln. His wife was Sarah 
Wales Jones, a daughter of the Honorable Willie Jones of Hali- 
fax, so celebrated as a Revolutionary statesman. Many descend- 
ants of Governor Burton are now living. His widow married 
Colonel Andrew Joyner, to whom reference will be found in a 
separate sketch. 

Marshall Dc Lancey Haywood. 


at Lexington, Virginia, December 12, 1858. 
His parents were of Scotch-Irish extraction. 
His father, John Lyle Campbell, A. M., LL.D., 
occupied with distinction for thirty-five years 
the Chair of Chemistry and Geology in Wash- 
ington College, afterwards Washington and Lee University. 
Professor Campbell's grandfather, Alexander Campbell, who 
came from the North of Ireland to the Valley of Virginia, was one 
of the original trustees of Liberty Hall Academy, the germ of 
Washington and Lee University. 

Professor Campbell married Harriet Hatch Bailey, who was 
bom in Plttsfield, Mass., where her father, the Rev. Rufus W. 
Bailey, D. D., was pastor of prominent Presbyterian churches, 
founded what is now known as the Mary Baldwin Seminary, in 
Staunton, Virginia, and was at the time of his death, in 1863. 
President of Austin College, Texas, 

Robert Campbell, the subject of this sketch, became a student 
of Washington and Lee University in 1873, and was grad- 
uated in 1879 with the degree of Master of Arts. He was the 
winner of two prize medals, one for the highest standing in 
the schools of Moral Philosophy, English Literature and 
Modern Languages; the other for the best essay in the Uni- 
versity Magazine. 

. •Mm;i^Ni-. (;,\Ml>liKU. 

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ii •■^■ii, liiLjiiiiH. Doccmljcr 12, 1S5S 

^r .■:i:'i- v.tu- of Si-.^ii-li-Irish extrai-ti'in 

■^ \.! :. j-jiiii [,yl.-t.:nnijbell. A. M.. LI,.l.). 

-, A ■ 'Ail!' .iiMirctii^n fw thirty-five ye:ir- 

■"-i •■'■' "' ^'"■"li^try an.l ("Icoloffv in Wa^;- 

■ -i:'!- \\'a>iiiiv;l'>n ami liCe Universiv. 

-,:'cr. AKxatKii-i CampbclL \xh > 


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After his graduation he taught for three years at Charlestown, 
West Virginia, Tinkling Spring, Virginia, and Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, after which he entered the Union Theological Seminary at 
Hanipden-Sidney, Virginia. 

He was pastor of the Millboro and Windy Cove churches, 
Bath County, Virginia, 1885-1889; of Davidson College Church, 
North Carolina, 1889-1890; of the church at Buena Vista, Va., 
1 890- 1 892. In the Fall of 1892 he accepted a call to the pastorate 
of the First Presbyterian Church, Asheville, N. C, where he has 
labored for thirteen years with marked success and growing dis- 
tinction. In 1893 he received the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
from Davidson College. 

Dr. Campbell is a man of broad culture, his range of reading 
and study having been unusually wide in the fields of science, 
theology and the humanities. He is an accomplished amateur 
botanist, having begun the study of plants at the age of eleven in 
rambles with his father, who was a devoted student of natural 
science, and having found his chief recreation from the indoor 
studies of his manhood in excursions to the broad fields and path- 
less woods in search of some rare plant, or in cultivating closer 
acquaintance with old friends in the vegetable world. His study 
of nature is not a mere matter of scientific dissection and analysis. 
He is one of those "who, in the love of Nature, hold communion 
with her visible forms," to whom *'she speaks a various lan- 
guage." He is a sympathetic student of the poets, especially of 
such as stoop tenderly over the 

*'\Vee, modest, crimson-tippit flower," 
to whom 

**The meanest flower that blows can give 
Thoughts that do often lie too deep for tears." 

A few years ago Dr. Campbell presented to the Asheville High 
School a collection of 160 dried plants, beautifully mounted, with 
the view of promoting the study of nature, and in the hope that 
this limited herbarium would constitute the nucleus for a larger 
collection in the future. 


Dr. Campbell is a man of fine executive ability, as is shown by 
the thorough and effective organization of the large church of 
which he is pastor, and by the aggressive work of the Home Mis- 
sions Committee of Asheville Presbytery, of which he has been 
chairman since the creation of the committee in 1896. But his 
greatest success has been in the pulpit. He excels in expository 
preaching, especially in making clear and simple the difficult 
doctrinal teachings of God*s Word. His sermons are closely logi- 
cal, his style simple and chaste, and his illustrations always il- 
lustrate. He never touches a subject without illuminating it. He 
is mighty in the Scriptures, his quotations and proofs from the 
Word of God being the aptest, the most appropriate and the most 
convincing the writer ever heard from any man. He is strictly 
orthodox according to the standards of the Westminster Confes- 
sion, the Shorter Catechism and the Epistles of St. Paul ; but he 
does not condemn as heterodox those who do not agree with him 
in his theological, political and scientific views. He is strict with 
himself and liberal with other people, because in theory and prac- 
tice he allows others the same liberty which he demands for 
himself. The Old Testament prophet says: "What doth the 
Lord require of thee, O man, but to do justly and to love 
mercy and to walk humbly with thy God?" St. James, the 
apostle of common sense, says : "Pure religion and undefiled 
before God and the Father is this, to visit the fatherless and 
widows in their affliction, and to keep himself unspotted from 
the world." Dr. Campbell lives very closely up to this combined 

In the Greek Church the officiating priest speaks from behind 
a screen so as not to be seen by the people lest God's message to 
them be obscured by the presence and personality of the messen- 
ger. This is a fine and impressive ideal, and Dr. Campbell fills 
this ideal. He is God's messenger delivering God's message to 
the people, himself invisible, and this unconsciousness of himself, 
this absorption of his personality in his message, is one of the 
chief factors in his unusual power as a preacher. 

As a presbyter he is one of the most distinguished in the South- 


ern Presbyterian Church. He is the chiefest force and power in 
the Presbytery of Asheville and the founder and mainspring of 
its home missionary work among the mountaineers, which is the 
most successful and the most germinant domestic work in the 
Southern Presbyterian Church. 

His paper on the classification of the Mountain Whites, pub- 
lished in the Southern Workman and reproduced in pamphlet 
form, is the ablest, most just and sympathetic statement which 
has yet appeared of these strong, patriotic and pure-blooded 
Anglo-Saxon people and of their claims on the country at large 
for their victories at Cowpens and King's Mountain, for their 
crippling of Comwallis at Guilford Court House, for their 
forming a very large proportion of our army in Mexico, for their 
splendid bravery in Lee's army, and for the fact that of the 2800 
men called for from North Carolina for the Spanish War, 2500 of 
them came from within fifty miles of Asheville. 

Dr. Campbell's activities, though occupied chiefly with his 
duties as pastor of the First Church of Asheville, are not confined 
to it alone. His interest in and work for the so-called Mountain 
Whites has already been referred to. He has taken a deep and 
intelligent interest also in the Southern blacks. When a boy of 
only thirteen, in 1871, the college servants of Washington and 
Lee University, in which his father was professor of science, 
asked him to teach them to read and write, and he of>ened a night 
school, which was attended for several years by many of the most 
intelligent negroes in and around Lexington. This was with the 
entire approval of the professors and students of the university; 
and it was an earnest of the only solution of the negro problem, 
which is that, if the negroes are to be uplifted, it must be done by 
their being taught by white teachers of the ex-slave-holding class. 
"If the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch." The 
negro is blind about himself because he cannot see, the Northern 
white man and white woman are blind about him because they 
will not see, and neither the one nor the other has followed the 
Scripture injunction, "Anoint thine eyes with eye-salve that thou 
mayest see." And so the result of the nation's dealing with the 


negro since 1865 (in spite of our having divided our educational 
bread between his children and ours to the extent of one hundred 
and thirty million dollars of tax money, in our poverty, since the 
surrender), is convincing the Northern people that in dealing with 
the neg^o the nation has made a mistake in some way and this 
mistake must be corrected somehow. Dr. CampbeU's effort to 
correct this mistake in his paper on "Some Aspects of the Race 
Problem in the South" has given him a national reputation. The 
genesis of this paper was a sermon urging the Asheville Presby- 
terian Church in particular, and the Southern Presbyterian 
Church in general, to engage earnestly in giving the Gospel to the 
Africans among us as well as the Africans in the Dark Continent, 
as the only "eye salve" through which a man or a race can be en- 
abled to say, "Whereas I was blind, now I see." The publication 
of this sermon was demanded bv all classes in Asheville, Northern 
and Southern, white and black. Revised and expanded, it was 
printed in pamphlet form and an edition of 3,000 was soon ex- 
hausted. A second edition of 10,000 must soon be followed by 
another issue. This very able paper has gone to almost every 
State in the Union and has been most favorably commented on 
by such papers as the Springfield Republican, the New York 
Evening Post, the New York Nation, the Philadelphia Press, the 
Pittsburg Dispatch, and other leading papers of both North and 
South. Hundreds of letters were received, many of them from 
distinguished Northern men, thanking the author for having 
treated the subject with so much intelligence and breadth of view 
and in a spirit so fair and kindly. Dr. Campbell is also the author 
of a sermon on the church fair, published by the Presbyterian 
Committee of Publication, Richmond, Virginia, which has had a 
wide circulation and a wholesome influence in correcting erro- 
neous views and harmful practices in the line of Christian benevo- 

Dr. Campbell's paper read before the chief literary club of 
Asheville on "The Dog in Literature and Life" was most highly 
commended for its style, its humor, its learning, its culture and 
its broad sympathy. Some said that Charles Lamb did no better 


in the Essays of Elia, and some that Addison did no better in the 

Dr. Campbell has been in Asheville for thirteen years, and 
though he has had calls to wider fields with much larger salaries, 
he has declined to leave the Asheville church, the Asheville cli- 
mate and the home missionary work of the Asheville Presbytery. 
If we had more preachers with Dr. Campbell's brains, piety, zeal, 
culture, liberality, patriotic citizenship and sanctified common 
sense the Church would soon have the ** world for her parish." 

Dr. Campbell was married October 8, 1885, to Sally Montgom- 
ery RuflFner, youngest daughter of William Henry Ruffner, LL. 
D., the most distinguished educational leader Virginia has pro- 
duced since Thomas Jefferson's day. In every church served by 
her husband she has been universally honored and beloved as the 
model pastor's wife, prudent, tactful, sympathetic and abounding 
in good works. 

Dr. and Mrs. Campbell have one son, William Henry RuflFner 
Campbell, bom December 17, 1889. 

Robert Bingham, 


■ Caswell County, North Carolina, on the 21st 
I day of January, 1866, and is therefore just forty 
I years of age. He was the youngest child of 
Henry Wellington Cobb and Mary Blackwell 
Howard, and is descended from old English 
stock. In 1613 Joseph Cobb emigrated from England to Vir- 
ginia. Just before the Revolution three of the Cobb brothers set- 
tled in North Carolina, and one in Georgia : while the oldest 
brother moved North. One of his maternal ancestors, Henry 
Howard, was a Revolutionarj' soldier and took part in the battle 
of Guilford Court House. 

Until the subject of this sketch had reached the age of four- 
teen years he remained at home upon the farm in Caswell County, 
doing light farm work during the summer months, and thus early 
formed those habits of industry which have had such a marked 
influence upon his career. During the winter months he attended 
such public schools as the country afforded, and from time to time, 
subscription schools supported by the more substantial farmers in 
his neighborhood. Before he had reached his eleventh year his 
father died, and at the tender age of fourteen years this country 
lad left the parental roof in order that he might lighten the burden 
of a widowed mother and began his bailie with the realities of 
life. He secured a position in a retail dry-goods store in Danville, 
Virginia, and while there, even at this early age, when it would 

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seem that questions of a serious nature could find no lodg- 
ment in the mind of one so young, realized his need of a more 
liberal education, and notwithstanding the fact that his em- 
ployment kept him engaged from early dawn until dark, by 
attending night schools, enlisting the aid of private tutors, and 
burning the midnight oil he acquired a sound English educa- 
tion, studied the higher branches of mathematics, read in the 
original tongue some of the masterpieces of the great Latin poets, 
and thus laid broad and deep the foundation of his future 

The life of a business man always appealed to him, and in the 
year 1883, being then just seventeen years old, he entered Eastman 
College, Poughkeepsie, New York, from which he afterwards 
graduated in its business course. Returning from Eastman Col- 
lege to Danville, he started in business for himself as a tobacco 
buyer, and in the year 1885 moved to Greensboro, North Caro- 
lina, and continued in the same business. It was while he was 
engaged in this occupation in Greensboro that his capacity as a 
business man and his pre-eminence as a judge of leaf tobacco at- 
tracted the attention of the officers of the American Tobacco Com- 
pany and he was offered the position of manager and buyer for 
this company in Greensboro, North Carolina. 

During his residence in that city Mr. Cobb took a lively interest 
in public affairs, was chairman of the most important committee 
of the Board of Aldermen, and organized and became the first 
president of the Industrial and Immigration Association ; and to 
him in a large degree is attributed the remarkable growth and 
prosperity this city has had during the past few years, and the 
citizens of Greensboro have watched his career with exceeding 
gratification, while he, in turn, has never failed to take a keen 
interest in all that pertains to its welfare and upbuilding, and he 
still remains one of the contributing members of its Chamber of 

After a residence in Greensboro of a few years Mr. Cobb was 
made manager and buyer of the American Tobacco Company and 
the Continental Tobacco Company with headquarters in Danville, 


Virginia. From that point he was transferred to the city of Rich- 
mond, Virginia, and again promoted, and after a residence of a 
few months at this last named city, was once more promoted and 
made manager of the leaf department of the American Cigar 
Company with headquarters in New York City. Since that time 
he has been advanced from manager of the leaf department to sec- 
ond vice-president, then to first vice-president, and to-day occupies 
the position of first vice-president and manager of the selling de- 
partment of the American Cigar Company, also vice-president and 
director of the American Stogie Company, first vice-president and 
director of the International Cigar Machinery Company, director 
of the Havana Tobacco Company, Havana Commercial Company, 
Cuban Leaf Company, Havana American Company, and Porto 
Rican Leaf Tobacco Company. 

On the 25th day of January, 1887, Mr. Cobb led to the altar 
Miss Jennie Bethell Scales, a daughter of Colonel and Mrs. J. I. 
Scales, of Greensboro, North Carolina, and two children were bom 
of this union, both of whom, since the death of their mother, live 
with their father, who has never remarried. 

Thoroughness in whatever is undertaken is perhaps the most 
prominent trait of character of the subject of this sketch. No 
question which engages his attention is ever laid aside by him until 
he has mastered its minutest detail. At the time he was first ap- 
pointed manager of the leaf department of the American Cigar 
Company, although he was recognized as one of the foremost 
authorities in this country upon American leaf for plug and smok- 
ing purposes, he was nevertheless to a large extent unacquainted 
with the merits of cigar tobacco and Havana leaf. To the end 
that he might be thoroughly cognizant of all the details of the 
onerous duties imposed upon him by his advancement he studied 
Havana leaf, not only upon the floors of the different warehouses 
of the country, but also went direct to the Cuban fields and there 
remained until he was so familiar with the growth, cultivation and 
treatment of Havana tobacco that he is to-day the successful 
manager and director of the largest cigar manufacturing corpo- 
ration in the world. 



Among those things to which he attributes the success he has 
attained he places, above all, the influence of his mother, and after 
that, industry and uncompromising honesty, study and extensive 
reading, and the habit of thinking deeply upon any question which 
engages him. Asked the question what suggestion from his ex- 
perience and observation would he offer to young Americans as to 
principles, methods and habits which he thought would contribute 
most to attain true success in life, his businesslike reply was : "Be 
industrious, honest, and absolutely thorough in whatever is under- 
taken." These principles he has made a part of his life. 

Zebulon V. Taylor. 


[he life of M. J. Corbett is another striking il- 
lustration of the oft repeated statement that, in 
this country, the door of opportunity stands 
ajar and that any man who will may enter 
therein and achieve abundant success, if only 
I he be a man; one possessing high integrity, en- 
ei^, industry, prudence and sound sense ; that family influence, 
fortune and friends are not essential to an honorable career, the 
only essential being character — manhood. 

Mr. Corbett was born in Lismore, County Waterford, Ireland, 
on the 4lh day of August, 1856. His parents were of good social 
position but of limited means, his father, John Corbett, being a 
small farmer and contractor. He was sent to the National 
Schools, then, as now, under the charge of the Christian Brothers, 
until his eighteenth year, when he stopped school for the purpose 
of assisting his father in the work of the farm; but this soon 
proved insupportable to the bright lad whose ambition had been 
stirred by the tales of the success of his countrymen in the great 
Republic beyond the sea, and receiving encouragement from an 
uncle, the late Mr. James Corbett, then a resident of Wilmington, 
he determined lo try his fortune in the same fair land. 

With the blessings and prayers of his parents, who had reluc- 
tantly consented, Mr. Corbett left his home and arrived in the city 
of Wilmington, N. C. on the 28th day of March, 1878, and im- 
mediately set to work to obtain employment. 



The fates seemed propitious, and he at once secured a tempor- 
ary position with the firm of Preston Gumming & Company, sup- 
plying the place of a clerk on vacation. On the return of the 
latter he passed into the employ of B. F. Mitchell & Company, at 
a nominal salary, but so alert and attentive to duty was he that 
the firm, apprehensive of losing his services, gave him a substan- 
tial increase of salary. At the end of the year he secured more re- 
munerative employment with Mr. J. B. Worth, who was just start- 
ing in the peanut business ; but the venture was not satisfactory, 
and Mr. Worth decided to move to Petersburg, Virginia, and re- 
quested young Corbett to go with him ; but the offer was declined, 
and he went into the service of a well known firm, which, to the 
astonishment of the community, soon failed, leaving Mr. Corbett 
again without employment. 

This was a g^eat disappointment, but it did not daunt his ardent 
spirit. He decided to go to New York, and went on the first 

During his connection with B. F. Mitchell & Company and Mr. 
Worth he had, by diligence, obtained a more competent knowledge 
of the peanut business, the methods of cultivation, the sources of 
supply and the best markets, and also some acquaintance with the 
largest dealers in New York and throughout the country. 

Before he left for New York, Mr. W. I. Gore, knowing his 
thorough reliability, informed him that he had a large supply of 
peanuts and requested him to take samples and try to sell some of 
them on commission. His efforts were successful beyond his 
fondest expectations. 

In the meantime he had received several inquiries from Wil- 
mington as to his return. Having felt the fascination of the life 
of that goodly city, being drawn by the most potent of earthly at- 
tractions, and encouraged by his previous success and by numer- 
ous letters. Mr. Corbett again set sail for Wilmington. He was 
met at the dock by Albert Gore, son of Mr. W. I. Gore, with a 
message from his father to make no business engagements until 
he could have an interview with him. 

At that interview, held the next morning, Mr. Gore offered to 



furnish the capital to enable Mr. Corbett to start in business for 
himself; but fearful of debt and apprehensive of the result, Mr. 
Corbett asked for time to consider the proposition. 

Pending its consideration several persons had offered him em- 
ployment, and he returned to Mr. Gore almost persuaded to de- 
cline his generous offer. But Mr. Gore, kindly, large hearted, 
sagacious man that he wtas, saw that the root of success was in this 
young man and strongly urged the venture. To this kindly in- 
sistence on the part of Mr. Gore the city of Wilmington is proba- 
bly indebted for one of its most progressive and useful citizens. 

The result of this business venture was thus simply and mod- 
estly told by Mr. Corbett many years afterwards : 

"I started out, rented a store and decided to handle some goods on 
commission, as the risk of losing money would be less in that than in any 
other kind of business. As my good friend predicted, the first year's busi- 
ness showed a profit, and the second year made a still better showing. In 
the meantime Mr. Gore had taken his son Albert Into his business as 
partner, and at the end of the second year they proposed to combinie my 
business with theirs and form a general partnership, to which I agreed. 
This partnership continued and prospered until 1888, when Albert Gore 

**In 1892 Mr. W. I. Gore decided to give up active business and with- 
drew, Albert taking his place. As I was then the senior partner, the style 
of the firm was changed from W. I. Gore & Co. to Corbett & Gore In 
1894, on account of failing health Albert Gore was forced to give up active 
business and withdraw, leaving me sole proprietor of the business. In 
1901 I had the business incorporated under the style of 'The Corbett 
Company/ " 

This meagre statement fails to give the impression that, by this 
time, Mr. Corbett had amassed a considerable fortune and was one 
of the most potent factors in the industrial life of the community. 

In addition to the successful conduct of his regular business 
Mr. Corbett has been largely instrumental in the promotion, or- 
ganization and management of many important and flourishing 
enterprises in the city of Wilmington. 

He is vice-president and one of the original directors of the 
People's Saving Bank, one of the original directors of the Murchi- 


son National Bank, president of the Wilmington, Southport and 
Little River Company, member of the firm of Stone & Company, 
and one of the board of managers of the James Walker Memo- 
rial Hospital. 

W^hile not a politician in the ordinary acceptance of the term, 
Mr. Corbett has always taken a lively interest in public affairs and 
has always been quick to respond on occasions, such as the splen- 
did movement for decent government in 1898, to calls upon his 
purse or person; and his aid and counsel have generally been 
sought in emergencies and never refused. 

He is also prominently identified with the social life of the city, 
being a member of all the oldest and most exclusive social organi- 
zations, having been on the board of managers of the Cape Fear 
Club for many years, a member of the Carolina Yacht Club and of 
the Cape Fear Golf Club. 

In 1884 Mr. Corbett was married to Miss Mary Josephine 
Deans, and to her inspiration and counsel he has always attributed 
in large measure the credit for his success in life. Their union 
has been signally blessed; ten children have been bom to them, 
nine of whom are still living, and although Mr. Corbett, possess- 
ing much of the social charm for which the sons of Erin are 
justly noted, is much sought after, he is distinctly a family man, 
and it is in his home circle surrounded by family and troops of 
friends that he is seen at his best. 

He has paid three visits to his parents and to the scenes of his 
childhood ; one in 1887, again in 1892, and finally in 1903 he took 
over his oldest two daughters. 

Mr. Corbett is a member of the Roman Catholic Church and 
firm in his adherence to its principles. He takes an active interest 
in church affairs and without ostentation is very liberal in the 
support of the church and her charities. 

George Rountree. 


JOSEPH JOHN COX was the second child of 
Jonathan E. and Elizabeth Hare Cox, and was 
born in Northampton County in I845. His 
parents were prominent members of the Society 
of Friends, and in 1859 were employed to take 
charge of the school at New Garden as super- 
intendents, which position they filled for many years with great 
satisfaction to the board of trustees. 

In consequence of this event, the education of Mr, Cox was 
obtained at New Garden Boarding School under the thoughtful 
religious care of his parents. As a student he was distinguished 
for diligence in study, sterling integrity of character, great kind- 
ness, and purity of life. These traits that marked his youth by 
Christian grace were developed and strengthened from year to 
year until in business, in church pffairs, and in family life he 
was known as a man of wide sympathies, of remarkable strength 
and symmetry of character, tender-heartedness, and modesty of 

Dr. Cox made good use of the excellent instruction at New 
Garden School, and became well prepared for the study of medi- 
cine, which he pursued first in Cincinnati, and later at the Jeffer- 
son Medical College, in Philadelphia, where he graduated in 1871. 
As a physician he was successful and greatly beloved, admin- 
istering to physical suffering in the spirit of th" Great Healer. 


On account of the strain on his bodily strength he gave up, in 
later years, the practice of medicine, and engaged with energy 
and great ability in manufacturing enterprises in the city of High 
Point. In this, as in every other undertaking of his life, he 
achieved success, and was esteemed as the leading citizen of his 
city. He served many years as mayor, and was such at the time 
of his death. 

Dr. Cox manifested an enthusiastic interest in public charities 
and enterprises of all sorts, and cooperated by personal effort 
and by donations with Christian philanthropists, and was a lead- 
ing member of the church to which he belonged, the Society of 
Friends, in all matters pertaining to its welfare. His ability and 
interest were recognized by North Carolina Yearly Meeting; and 
his service for twenty years as a member of the board of trustees 
of Guilford College was greatly appreciated, he having served for 
several years as chairman of this body, occupying this position 
at the time of his death. He had at heart the deepest interest in 
the growth and usefulness of the college, subscribed to its en-» 
dow^ment, and in every way possible sought to promote its influence 
for good in North Carolina. Every phase of Christian activity 
appealed to him, and his sympathy was not circumscribed by any 
narrow bounds of sect or of country. His interest was world- 

At the time of his death, which occurred in his fifty-eighth year. 
Dr. Cox was superintendent of a Bible school, an elder in the 
Friends' Church, in which capacity he had served for several 
years, treasurer of the Foreign Missionary Board of North Caro- 
lina Yearly Meeting, treasurer of the largest factory in High 
Pf»int, director of one of the banks, mayor of his city, and chair- 
man of the board of trustees of Guilford College, in all of which 
places of trust he was conspicuous for ability and fidelity. 

While possessing superior ability, Dr.Cox was a modest man. 
He did not advertise himself; he did not seek the upper seat in 
public assemblies. There was no self-display in his nature. He 
sought the golden mean between extremes, and there found the 
path of duty and followed it to the end. No man had the con- 


fidence of the people in a higher degree than he. His counsel 
was nought in business, in the affairs of the church and in the 
private life of those who needed the advice of a sympathizing 
friend. From whatever point of view he was beheld, Dr. Cox 
stood forth as the upright man, conservative, yet progressive, and, 
although self-depreciative rather than over-confident, possessing 
that quiet dignity and strength of character which, coupled with 
his untiring energy, brought to pass great results. 

Although rich in men of noble character and great achievements, 
our State may well take a just pride in the pure and lofty soul that 
animated Dr. Cox throughout his life; for an example of self- 
control, serenity of spirit, and spotless character, such as he ex- 
hibited, is a rich and noble heritage which deserves to be handed 
down to posterity, that in it all the sons and daughters of our be- 
loved State may be permitted to share. 

L. L. Hobbs. 



JONATHAN ia.-vVf)on cox 

'i;> iTii'V mi.-.its 



9 O history of the industrial achievements in North 
Carolina during the last two decades would be 
complete without the name of J. Elwood Cox. 
It is to be noted that, in addition to the many 
successful enterprises and various movements 
I projected in the industrial circles of this State 
vitn which he has been prominently and actively connected, his 
church and the great cause of education have found in him an 
ardent and generous supporter. A life which has so impressed 
itself as to win title to preeminence among those who have 
wrought so successfully for themselves and their communities in 
the strenuous life of the past twenty-five years must, of necessity, 
furnish sonic lessons worthy of study. 

He is of sturdy English lineage. Joseph Cox, who came from 
England and built a home in the county of Perquimans, was his 
(arlicst known ancestor in this State. This godly man was both 
a teacher and a preacher. He held the faith of tlie humble Quakers 
of that day. and was one of the pioneers in the promulgation of 
its simple tenets in that and the neighboring counties of the tide- 
water section of North Carolina. He was the great-grandfather 
of the subject of this sketch. 

Another great-grandfather was William Rogerson, who early 
onli'teil in the Revohitionary War, and was a gallant soldier. 
He was with Arnold in his celebrated and desperate move- 


ment on Canada in 1775, and was wounded in the assault on 

In the neighboring county of Northampton J. Elwood Cox was 
bom on the ist day of November, 1856. His father, Jonathan E. 
Cox, was likewise a teacher and an adherent of the Quaker faith. 
In 1858 he quit his Northampton farm to accept the position of 
superintendent of the Quaker school at New Garden, in Guilford 
County, which he successfully conducted for many years prior 
to its development and change into Guilford College. He was at 
the helm and was the main stay of this school in its darkest hours. 
From 1858 until his death he was a pillar of strength in his church 
and contributed generously of his time, labor and means to the 
cause of education throughout the entire State. His was the 
simple life of the farm, on which he reared and trained his boys 
under the rigid regulations of farm government. But the school 
and the church were the field in which were displayed the purity 
and the strength of his real character and the lofty ideals of his 
life. In private and in public place he stood for the things that 
are pure, true, just, honest, lovely and of good report. His char- 
acter was the embodiment of the virtues of the model citizen. He 
wore, in the language of Tennyson, **the white flower of a blame- 
less life." The alumni, students and friends of Guilford College 
should yet cut and hew from the enduring granite of his native 
State a monument and place it on the beautiful campus of the 
college in honor of his good name and sainted memory. 

The son, Elwood, was less than two years of age w^hen he was 
transplanted from Northampton to the Guilford County farm, on 
which he was reared and trained in the habits of a simple and in- 
dustrious life. The habits of steady, systematic work and the ro- 
bust health there acquired were the groundwork of his successful 
career. The farm was the athletic field on which were developed 
his physical powers. 

During these years he completed the course of study at Guil- 
ford College (then New Garden), after which he pursued for a 
year a business course in a business college of Baltimore. While 
attending the Baltimore college, he felt for the first time the touch 


and pulse of the outside world and realized the necessity of a 
better and higher education. After this he spent one year in 
teaching and study. During the years of 1874-75 he attended 
Earlham College, at Richmond, Ind., where he completed his 
collegiate course. In 1876 he entered into the serious battle of 
life, starting as a travelling salesman for one of the Guilford 
County nurseries, and by frugal habits and strenuous work soon 
succeeded in the accumulation of several thousand dollars. On 
the 23d day of October, 1878, he was married to Miss Bertha E. 
Snow, the only daughter of Captain William H. Snow, the founder 
and father of the real High Point, to which place he moved in 
the year of 1880. The issue of this marriage is one daughter. 
This union proved to be a most important and fortunate turn- 
ing-point in his life. It led him into contact with that sterling, 
aggressive and progressive citizen, Captain Snow, who was the 
original pioneer in the hardwood industry of North Carolina. 
His quick eye was not slow in foreseeing the future in this line 
of manufacturing. Shortly after his removal to High Point Mr. 
Cox erected a small factory for the manufacture of shuttle blocks 
and bobbin heads. It was at that time a new industry. Prior to 
this the farmer of the Piedmont belt had attached no value what- 
ever to the persimmon, dogwood, the hickory, the oak and other 
growing timber, and IkkI annually destroyed them by fire in order 
to put them out of liis way. It is no wonder now that his business 
from the beginninjx was a success beyond his most sanguine 
anticipations, and has largely assisted in bringing to High Point 
the second largest pay-roll in the State. He extended his opera- 
tions as his business developed and increased, and step by step 
laid the foundations of the great business which has grown and 
expanded until it covers, through its branch plants, nearly every 
State of the South, and until its finished product reaches nearly 
ever}' country of Europe. This great work of Mr. Cox was so 
quietly done that it had brought him a fortune before the public 
had recognized or appreciated the size or significance of this great 
industry. So firmly has he established his business and so wisely 
has he extended its operations that he now supplies the demand 


of nearly the entire world for shuttle blocks. This demand long 
ago exceeded the capacity of his plant at High Point and made 
necessary the establishment of a number of plants throughout 
the Southern States. The successful operation of these plants 
and the handling of their products has not only given Mr. Cox 
a reputation at home and abroad, but it has brought a large 
amount of money to his immediate section of the State. 

The remarkable success of Mr. Cox in this one great industry 
has enabled him to be of great service to his community and his 
State in other fields of activity. Scarcely less important has been 
his work along other lines. It was in the latter part of the year 
'88 and in the early part of the year '89 that he, in conjunction with 
less than half a dozen citizens of his own town, and with a few 
leading citizens of Randolph, resolved to secure the location and 
construction of a railroad from High Point to Asheboro. There 
was no more active spirit in that enterprise than Mr. Cox. The 
result of that movement was a charter and the creation and or- 
ganization of the High Point, Randleman, Asheboro & Southern 
Railway Company, and the construction of that railroad, which 
was put into operation in July, 1889. Mr. Cox was one of the first 
directors of that railroad company, and has been a director of 
the same continuously since its organization. For years he has 
served as one of the executive committee of this company. 

In 1891, when the new life and the constantly expanding busi- 
ness of High Point demanded greater banking facilities, Mr. Cox 
was the leading spirit in the organization and establishment of 
the Commercial National Bank of that place, and in recognition 
of his public spirit and fine business qualifications the stockholders 
thereof, at their first meeting, elected him president of the same, 
which position he has held continuously for fourteen years. Un- 
der his directing genius the Commercial has grown into one of 
the safest, strongest and most successful financial institutions of 
the country. 

Mr. Cox was also one of those who originated and launched the 
Home Furniture Company — one of the first and most successful 
furniture plants of his town. He was also a charter shareholder 


in the creation and organization of the Globe Furniture Company — 
another large plant established for the manufacture of the higher 
grades of furniture. The conception of the idea of a consolida- 
tion of the Home and the Globe into one company — the Globe- 
HcMne Furniture Company — making it the largest furniture plant 
in the South, with a paid-up cash capital of $175,000.00, originated 
in his fertile brain. He is and has been, since the said consolida- 
tion, president of this company, and has contributed much to its 
great success. 

Mr. Cox is also a director of the Greensboro Loan and Trust 
Company, one of the strongest financial institutions of Greensboro, 
whose deposits now approach the two million mark, and likewise 
president of the Southern Car Works of High Point, and several 
other industrial and manufacturing companies in his own and 
other towns. 

This crude sketch conveys but a vague idea of his busy life, 
and is the merest outline of that part of his life-work with which 
the public is more or less familiar. Separately and alone he has 
invested much of his accumulations along lines which are telling 
in the uplifting and upbuilding of his town. The Elwood Hotel 
of High Point — one of the handsomest structures, and one of 
the most attractive and creditable hotels of this State — is a strik- 
ing proof of his public spirit. A beautiful home and numerous 
other handsome edifices bear witness to the fact that his money is 
not idle, and in numberless wavs has contributed to the sub- 
stantial growth and extension of his home town. 

Aside from these monuments which line the way of his strenu- 
ous business life, his left hand has not known what his right hand 
has done along more modest lines for the real weal and better- 
ment of his fellow-men. He is the executive head of the local 
school board, and has led in all movements having for their object 
the increase of school facilities and the extension of educational 
advantages to every child of his town. Outside of his own com- 
munity his efforts have been equally noteworthy in generous 
contributions to the great educational awakening in North Caro- 
lina. As chairman of the board of trustees of Guilford College, 


and as treasurer of the Guilford College Endowment Fund, he 
has rendered invaluable aid in the financial support of that in- 
stitution. No man in or out of his church has labored more 
diligently or more effectively for an ample endowment of his 
Alma Mater. In the affairs of that institution his wise counsel 
and generous hand respond to every emergency. In all plans for 
its enlargement and improvement he invests the same energy of 
thought and diligent tenacity of purpose that he does in looking 
for dividends from his own private affairs. It is no secret, or, if 
it is, it need not longer be, that through his diplomacy and tactful 
efforts large accessions to the endowment fund have been secured. 
His colleagues on the board are authority for the statement that 
he is never too busy to meet any draft which this institution, en- 
deared by the memories of his boyhood and hallowed by the 
sacrifices of his sainted father, draws upon his time or his purse. 

But the money value of the life of J. Elwood Cox is not its 
only value. There is another side to this busy life, so prolific in 
results. It has assets other than the dollars coined through strenu- 
ous toil. It is paying dividends other than those covered by the 
semi-annual check. It is floating bonds other than those whose 
coupons are clipped and counted on the cold deposit slip. Its 
earliest investment was under the guidance of parental love. Its 
sheet anchor is that of the church of the father and the mother 
who were of the salt of the earth. The wayward steps of youth 
were shadowed by its tender benedictions. In the devious and 
unballasted ways of manhood, when lured by the siren haunts 
of lust and mammon, its pole-star is still the church. The real secret 
then of the success of Mr. Cox may be found in the simple, frugal 
habits of his life, moulded and patterned in conformity to the 
simple tenets of his church, and after the manner of the pure 
home life of his Christian parents. 

It has fallen to the lot of this writer in the rapidly shifting vi- 
cissitudes of this life to know something of many men of this 
generation, and among the uncounted number he has never known 
a cleaner life than that of J. Elwood Cox. During a personal ac- 
quaintance covering more than a quarter of a century, and ap- 



proadiing intimacy in many things wlierein there was no need for 
veil, there never fell from his lips anywhere or at any time a 
syllable which could not have been uttered in the presence of his 
devoted wife. His deeds, too, are as chaste as his language. In 
ttiought, in word and in daily wa!k his life is as pure as that of 
a woman. It is neither marked nor marred by the taint of to- 
bacco or the use of any stimulant. This is so rare in the average 
life of the commercial world, where men grow wild and reckless 
in the mad pursuit of filthy lucre, that it needs to be told and 
preserved on record. It is not to be claimed that the life of J. 
Elwood Cox is perfect, but among the many portraits which adorn 
the pages of these interesting volumes there is not one which will 
hold its own longer under the white light of inspection than this 
imperfect portraiture. 

G. S. Bradshaw. 



SHE Reverend David Irvin Craig was bom in 
Orange County, North Carolina, February ii, 
49. His ancestors on both sides were of the 
sturdy Scotch-Irish stock. They emigrated 
to this country in 1747, after the disastrous 
battle of Culloden. Landing at Philadelphia, 
they located and Hved for a short time in Pennsylvania, and were 
under the ministry of the Reverend James Campbell. They left 
Pennsylvania about the year 1749 and came direct to North 
Carolina, refusing to stop in Virginia, because, as they said, "We 
have had enough of Popery and Churches established by law." 
They first located in the old "Haw Fields," in Orange County, 
but finding that the titles to the lands were in dispute, they re- 
moved to the waters of "New Hope," in Orange County, and 
permanently located between Hillsboro and Chapel-Hill, about 
the year 1752; and to this day portions of the lands purchased 
from the Earl of Granville, under the reign of King George, to- 
gether with the deeds, are still in the possession of the family. 
One of their first acts was the erection, about 1760, of a Presby- 
terian church, which they called "New Hope." This church still 
lives in a fairly prosperous condition, and the building now oc- 
cupied is the fourth since 1760. 

The first known ancestor of the subject of this sketch was 
William Craig, who was born in Scotland, but emigrated to 


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America from Ireland. His wife was the "widow Long," whose 
maiden name was Margaret Logan. They had four sons and one 
daughter, all of whom were bom in the "Old Country." The 
names of the sons were John, David, Samuel and James. David 
was an officer in the Revolutionary War and died in 1785. He 
has many descendants in Tennessee and in the Western States. 
His wife and children settled on lands in Maury County, Tennes- 
see, received as pay for his Revolutionary services. His brother, 
James Craig, was a private soldier in the Revolutionary War, and 
was the great-grandfather of Reverend D. I. Craig. This man, 
James Craig, married Rebecca Beall. They had four sons and 
four daughters. The name of one of these four sons was David 
Wilson Craig, who married Isabel Nelson, of the "Haw Fields ;" 
and these were the parents of James Newton Craig, the father of 
Reverend D. I. Craig. 

Mr. James Newton Craig was a farmer, mechanic and magis- 
trate, a man of influence in his community, of strong mind and 
high spirit, methodical in his habits, and of a lofty sense of honor. 
His wife was Mary Emiline Strayhom, a daughter of Major 
Samuel Strayhom and Mary Moore, and a granddaughter of 
William Strayhom, son of Gilbert, who was severely wounded 
in the battle of the Cowpens. This lady, the mother of Reverend 
D. I. Craig, is still living at the ripe old age of eighty-two, and 
her influence upon the intellectual, and especially upon the moral 
and spiritual, life of her children has been very marked. 

In his country home young Craig learned industry and self- 
dependence by hard manual labor, working on the farm with the 
slaves during the Civil War. Books were the delight of his leisure 
moments, the love of learning developing early and inspiring him 
to overcome the difficulties arising from the disastrous results of 
the Civil War in the way of securing an education. In 1867 ^^ 
entered Hughes' Academy, at Cedar Grove, N. C, and after sev- 
eral enforced interruptions completed in 1874 a four years' course 
of studv under the careful instruction of the then well-known 
educator in Middle North Carolina, Samuel W. Hughes. 

In 1874-5 he was a student at Davidson College, and in 1878 


graduated from the Theological Seminary of Columbia, S. C. 
On May 31st of the same year he was licensed to preach the Gospel 
by Orange Presbytery in Greensboro, N. C. 

On July, 6, 1878, he began his ministry at Reidsville, N. C, soon 
after the death of his lamented predecessor, the Reverend Jacob 
Doll. The Reidsville Presbyterian Church at that time numbered 
only thirty-five members, and Bethsaida and Oak Forest Churches 
were grouped with it in one pastorate. On June i, 1879, Mr. 
Craig was formally ordained pastor at Reidsville, and for nearly 
twenty-seven years he has served this church. During this timef 
he has received and declined a number of calls and overtures to 
other fields of labor. Though greatly bereaved by death and 
afflicted financially, the church has enjoyed a steady and healthy 
growth under his long pastorate, there having been added to its 
roll nearly 400 names, an average of more than fourteen per year. 

On September 7, 1881, Mr. Craig was most happily married 
to Miss Isabel Gertrude Newman, of Columbia, S. C. She was 
born in the city of Baltimore, Md., and is a daughter of Joseph 
Newman and Joanna Burke, who being ardent Southerners, re- 
moved from Baltimore to Columbia at the beginning of the Civil 
War. Beautiful in person and character, of a sunny spirit and in 
fullest sympathy with his ministerial work, she has been to him an 
ideal helpmate. Their home, blessed with four children, is a 
most happy and hospitable one. 

As a preacher and theologian Mr. Craig is well equipped, con- 
servative, and thoroughly orthodox. He believes with all his heart 
that the whole Bible is the Word of God, and preaches it with 
an authority and assurance bom of absolute conviction. His 
sermons are richly instructive and evangelical, well arranged, and 
clearly expressed. His delivery is earnest and animated, his 
prayers humble and fervent. His whole bearing in the pulpit is 
characterized by that persuasive blending of solemnity and ten- 
derness which marks the true ambassador of Jesus Christ, which 
we can explain and describe only by that sacred but much abused 
word, unction. With a cautious and conservative temper, a horror 
of the sensational, and a deep aversion to controversy, Mr. Craig 


combines high spirit, warm feelings, and strong convictions, 
which on proper occasions he never hesitates to declare and 

His popularity and usefulness have not been confined to one 
town or congregation. For many years he was the efficient agent 
of Home Missions in Orange Presbytery, and a member also of 
the Home Mission Committee of the North Carolina Synod. By 
the Synod he was elected sixteen years ago one of the original 
ten Regents of the Synod's Orphans' Home, which office he still 
holds. In the eminent success of this noble institution Mr. Craigf s 
administrative fidelity and wisdom have been a continuous factor. 
For ten years he has been the Stated Clerk of Orange Presbytery, 
and for five years the Stated Clerk of the Synod of North Caro- 
lina. His industry and courtesy, his mastery of ecclesiastical 
forms and precedents, his habits of neatness, accuracy and method, 
combine to make him in both these responsible positions the ideal 

In 1891 he published in pamphlet form a "History of New Hope 
Church," containing the fruit of much careful research into the 
early family history of Orange County, and constituting a work 
which the future historian of the county and the State will prize. 
A few years later, by request of Orange Presbytery, he prepared, 
as Chairman of a Revision Committee, an elaborate Manual of 
Orange Presbytery, embodying a vast amount of information and 
eliciting the warm commendation of his fellow-Presbyters. On 
July I, 1902, he delivered as an address before the Biblical and 
Evangelistic Institute at Davidson College a "Summary of Pres- 
byterianism in North Carolina." This was published in the 
Presbyterian Standard of July 9 and 16, 1902, and is a most valu- 
able historical treatise, clear in arrangement, accurate in detail, 
and showing, especially in the earlier portions, Mr. Craig's marked 
taste and aptitude for historical research. 

But it is probably as a man and a pastor that Mr. Craig has 
done his greatest work in the world, a work that in the nature 
of the case cannot be tabulated. He is such a golden-hearted Chris- 
tian gentleman, so modest, so true, so brave and brotherly and 

39*jl 51 ^ 


unselfish, so devoted to whatsoever things are honest and lovely 
and of good report, so consecrated to his Master, that his influence 
on all around him, though like the sunlight, silent, has yet been like 
it, powerful, fructifying, blessed. Though a wise and experienced 
counsellor in the courts of his church, yet his highest usefulness 
even there has been perhaps the unconscious influence upon his 
brethren of his courtesy and fairness in debate, his nobility and 
gentleness of spirit, his charity in judging others, his freedom 
from self-seeking, his loyalty to his convictions of truth and duty. 

In the homes of his congregation, and of numberless families 
of other or no ecclesiastical connections, he has been the faithful 
pastor, the welcome friend, the loving comforter and guide. 

On July 5, 1903, the twenty-fifth anniversary of his pastorate 
was celebrated in Reidsville. His devoted friend and fellow- 
Presbyter, the Reverend Egbert W. Smith, D.D., pastor of the 
First Presbyterian Church of Greensboro, N. C, presided and 
delivered the address. Notwithstanding the chairs that lined the 
aisles, and were placed in every available spot to add to the seat- 
ing capacity of the church, numbers had to remain outside unable 
to enter. Services in other churches were suspended, and nearly 
all Reidsville turned out, regardless of age, sex, or denomination, 
to testify its love and admiration. After Dr. Smith had spoken 
with warmest appreciation of Mr. Craig's character and work, an 
experience meeting was held, and from ministers and members 
of his own and other denominations came spontaneous and most 
loving tributes to his worth. In telling of the good he had done 
to them strong men faltered and broke down, overcome with 
emotion. It was a memorable and touching scene, honorable 
alike to the good people of Reidsville and to their eminent fellow- 
citizen. For twenty-five years he had borne among them the 
white flower of a blameless life, and how many homes and hearts 
its fragrance had sweetened and blessed eternity alone can reveal. 
If the spirits of the saints in glory are permitted to revisit the 
scenes and friends of their earthly life, then surely the house that 
day was bright with the presence of those who had gone up 
thence, and who from beholding the King in His beauty had re- 



turned to look again upon the face of that beloved pastor, whose 
ministrations had been their guide in life, their comfort in death, 
and are to-day their grateful memory in heaven. 

Mr. Craig is yet in the mellow prime of life, with possibly his 
best work yet before him. Long may it be before the Master calls 
him to that upper realm where instant vision shall be perfect joy 
and immortal labor shall be immortal rest. 

Egbert W. Smith. 


I HE life of Braxton Craven is an emphatic denial 
I of the oft-repeated sentiment that North Caro- 
lina is not favorable to the growth of self-made 
men. Tliat this distinguished educator and 
preacher was a man in the highest sense of the 
word is a fact recc^nized by thousands. That 
he was "self-made" cannot be doubted by any who are acquainted 
with his hfe- struggle, which lifted him from the plane of an ob- 
scure farmer boy, without ancestral prestige and social advantages, 
to that of a masterful educational and religious leader. 

Every man who rises into an enviable prominence must be an 
apt student in one of two schools. He must study nature in its 
physical aspects, or study what is called human nature. Hence 
the farm and the schoolroom are the principal arenas in which the 
elements of greatness are born and nurtured. 

Braxton Craven enjoyed rare and ample opportunities in both 
schools. As a boy on the farm he came in inspiring contact with 
nature, and during a life of over threescore years he never lost 
the thrill of that inspiration with which every inhabitant of God's 
"out-of-doors" is well acquainted. As a teacher from his seven- 
teenth year he studied all the suggestive intricacies and problems 
of human nature, heeding all its warnings and obeying all its sug- 

He was born August 22, 1822, among the bold and picturesque 

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hills of Randolph County. It is fortunate that he found himself 
in his earliest years an inmate of the home of that honest/ God^- 
fearing farmer, Nathan Cox, whose type impressed itself strongly 
CXI that whole section. 

In this home young Braxton played the part of an obedient son, 
never shirking work, but ever striving to make himself useful. 
There was one yearly occasion which carried the eager, inquisi- 
tive boy out of his little circumscribed world, and that was when 
he went with the wagons to Fayetteville, then one of the most 
prosperous towns in the State. On one of these trips he came into 
possession of his first book, an ordinary spelling-book. He found 
it full of voices calling him onward. An intense mental thirst 
seized him. To change the figure, it w^s as if a spark had dropped 
into the boy's magazine. - It is not Strang^ that^ shortly after- 
ward, he became an avic^ pupil in the neighborhood school. He 
drank in facts as the flower drinks in the dew.. No amount of 
physical labor during the day could destroy the charm of mental 
exercise at night in th^ glow of the lightwood knot. The ele- 
mentary branches of an English education were to him a 
Sybarite's feast. 

It was not long before the masterful element in the mind- 
hungry boy asserted itself in the determination to become a 
teacher. At the age of sixteen he began to teach a small sub- 
scription school in the neighborhood. He so thoroughly mas- 
tered Pike's Arithmetic that he made a manuscript which con- 
tained the solution of every problem in the book. And he was 
only a boy of sixteen ! While he taught his pupils the elementary 
branches he himself was climbing high on the hills of knowledge^ 
drinking of every fountain. About this time he was converted 
and became an active and zealous member of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. In 1840 he was licensed to preach. The "boy 
preacher" became the wonder of the community. 

It was not long before he became a pupil in the Quaker school 
at New Garden. He attended two sessions of nine months each. 
Here he studied Latin and Greek and Philosophy. He actually 
memorized the whole of Abercrombie's Philosophy, and wrote 


out Latin translations and the solutions of problems in higher 
mathematics. Having completed the course at New Garden, he 
accepted a position as assistant teacher in Union Institute. This 
school was taught in a small house near the site of the present 
college buildings at "Old Trinity." After working as assistant for 
two years he succeeded Dr. Brantley York as principal. 

On September 26, 1844, ^^ was united in marriage to Miss 
Irene Leach, of Randolph County, and their union proved most 
happy. There were four children: Emma, James L., William 
and Kate. All except the last named are dead. 

In January, 1851, the institution was rechartered by the Legis- 
lature and became the Normal College. Its work was the prepara- 
tion of high-grade teachers. The year before the young principal 
had stood a thorough examination, and had received his diploma 
from Randolph Macon College. To show that he deserved this 
diploma, it is sufficient to state that he got into a dispute with the 
professor of mathematics over the correct solution of a problem 
in calculus, and won the victory over the professor. In 1852 
he received the degree of A. M. from the University of North 
Carolina. Later he received the degree of D. D. from Andrew 
College, Tennessee, and LL. D. from the University of Missouri, 
the chancellorship of which was offered to him in later years. 

When Union Institute became the Normal College, Braxton 
Craven climbed another round on the ladder of his life's purpose. 
The ascension gave him sincere pleasure, yet it was then that the 
iron began to enter his soul. Against the most fearful odds, but 
with a sublime faith,- he had begun to make an institution which 
should measure up to the requirements of a great State and to 
the stem, vigorous demands of his own high ideal. Having com- 
menced such a task, he must pay the price. He must meet in- 
difference, face prejudice, combat opposition, struggle with pov- 
erty, and, at the same time, wear that smile which is worn only 
by the great soul working to the consummation of a g^nd 

The history of Trinity College is the history of Braxton Craven. 
His life-blood flows through every vein and artery of the institu- 


tion. It began to flow away back in the days of Union Institute. 
Trinity is a great college now, the wealthiest and most influential 
south of the Potomac. Who will say that those currents are not 
flowing still ? Since that dark November day when Craven ceased 
from his earthly labors great minds and hearts have emptied their 
richest resources into the life of the college. Yet, after all, the 
institution represents the life of its great founder. Through 
classroom and campus his presence is felt ; over towers and dome 
his spirit seems to brood; and in all the endeavors and achieve- 
ments of the institution bis influence still abides. 

The first connection between the college and the North Carolina 
Ccmference was effected in the latter part of 1851, when the Con- 
ference endorsed the college with the understanding that min- 
isterial students should be educated free of charge. The institu- 
tion was still connected with the State. The amended charter 
of 1853 directed the Literary Board of the State to lend the 
Trustees $10,000 upon the execution of a suitable bond. In pro- 
curing securities Craven experienced considerable difiiculty, but 
his determination triumphed, and he had the satisfaction of seeing 
a handsome brick building erected. 

In 1859, by an act of the Legislature, the college became the 
property of the North Carolina Conference. There was no longer 
any connection with the State, and the name was changed to 
Trinity. From 1859 to 186 1 the institution enjoyed great pros- 
perity. During these years Dr. Craven battered down much of the 
opposition to himself and the college. Current expenses were 
fully met and the prospects for a handsome endowment were very 
bright — a fact based on the strong personality and commanding 
influence of the president. 

Dr. Craven had a pronounced military spirit. He was well 
acquainted with the details of Napoleon's battles. He was able 
to describe minutely the various stages of each battle. So it is 
not strange that when the Civil War began he took an active 
part in it. The Confederate archives show that Captain B. Craven 
was in command of the post at Salisbury, December 20, 1861, and 
that he was relieved in January, 1862. During this time he was 


still connected with the college as president. In 1863 he resigned, 
and was for two years pastor of the Edenton Street, Raleigh. In 
the fall of 1865 h^ w^s reelected president, and the doors were 
opened in the following January with only a few students. He 
had with his own money liquidated the debt to the Literary Board, 
before referred to, and, while he held the bond against the cor- 
poration, he refused to press his claim and demanded no interest. 
There was in him nothing mercenary. He spared neither himself 
nor his money in advancing the interests of the college. He very 
often supplemented the professors* salaries with money out of 
his own pocket. 

In 1875 the large wing of the building was completed. It con- 
tains still an auditorium, which is considered the best in the whole 
State. The plans and specifications were drawn up by Dr. Craven, 
and worked out on higher mathematical principles. In the con- 
struction of the new wing a considerable debt was incurred and 
this drove the iron still deeper into Dr. Craven's soul. Until his 
death this debt was a great burden. It is no compliment to the 
Methodists of North Carolina that they compelled this heroic man 
to run the college without an endowment fund, keep up repairs, 
pay the salaries of professors and all contingent expenses. In 
1875 the Treasurer's report showed that the president was under- 
paid, while three of the professors were overpaid. Yet in 1878 
the Conference Committee on Education reported that "over and 
above all liabilities the property of the college is, at cost value, 
worth over $30,000, and yet not more than $5,000 from all sources 
has been received by the college in donations. Hence the institu- 
tion has not only paid the faculty and all current expenses, but 
has in some way contributed largely to the real property. This 
is not only unusual, but it is unique in the history of male colleges, 
and is perhaps the only instance of the kind among American 
institutions." This is quoted in order to emphasize the admin- 
istrative ability of Dr. Craven. 

From a physical and mental standpoint Dr. Craven was an 
unusual man. Nature had bestowed on him an ample largess. 
The body was short and stocky, with a tremendous width of 


shoulders. The head was large, with very high forehead ; the eyes 
were dark and deep set ; the jaw was square ; the lips were thin, 
and the mouth broad. Every part of his face denoted great 
strength and firmness. On his chin he wore a square-cut beard. 
He would command attention in any crowd, and the first thought 
suggested was that of strength. His eyes could be soft and be- 
nignant, or flash like half-hidden fires. His health up to the last 
year of his life was perfect, and the family say that he never 
missed a meal in his life on account of sickness. He never had 
a headache in his life, and he never had a dream. He was capable 
of great labor. He rarely retired before one o'clock in the morn- 
ing. Long after the lights were out in the students' rooms the 
light burned in the president's office. He was able to do with a 
minimum of sleep, which was always deep and restful. 

Upon such a strong physical basis was reared a strong in- 
tellectual structure. A mere glance at the brow, mouth and 
contour of the head would tell at once of a large amount of g^ay 
matter. A mind which could drink in the substance of the ele- 
mentary branches of an English education by the light of the 
pine-knot at the close of the day of strenuous physical labor, and 
which enabled the boy only sixteen years old to meet the demands 
of a school usually taught by a man of mature years, certainly 
gave promise of high intellectual exploit. And the promise was 
fulfilled. The writer of this sketch conscientiously feels that in all 
his experience with men he never met one with such intellectual 
power as Braxton Craven. He was thoroughly conversant 
with all the leading events of the day. He was well versed in 
history. He read every worthy new book of fiction. He was 
able to read fluently four different languages. He was well read 
in law and medicine, having taken a course in each. He was 
able in his examination for a diploma at Randolph Macon College 
to vanquish the professor of mathematics in a dispute over a 
problem in integral and differential calculus. He made as- 
tronomical calculations. He forced a prominent astronomer in 
Washington City to change his figures with reference to the points 
from which the famous solar eclipse of 1869 would be visible. 


He applied the principles of calculus to the construction of the roof 
of the auditorium finished in 1875. Every year he reviewed the 
senior class in the branches taught in the three preceding years. 
He could turn from the exposition of great principles in inter- 
national law to the solution of the most intricate problem in 
mathematical astronomy or the translation of the most difficult 
passages in Juvenal or Thucidydes. He seemed perfectly at 
home in every branch of study contained in the college curriculum, 
which even then in some departments, especially higher mathe- 
matics, was as high as any collegiate institution in the South. In 
knowledge of the classics, the sciences, history and literature he 
was truly a master. He was no specialist. His mind was om- 
nivorous. Professor Doub said that he was a man of "encv- 
clopaedic knowledge." 

Dr. Craven's duties as president of Trinity College were mainly 
administrative, yet he abundantly exercised himself as teacher. 
In this capacity he evinced preeminent ability. Teaching with him 
was an art, and that art was born in him. He cared very little 
for superficial details. He held strategic principles with a very 
firm mental grip, and it was his effort to enable the pupil to have 
the same grip. One of the first lessons he taught was the high 
value and pressing necessity of self-reliance in intellectual de- 
velopment and research. He had a contempt for mere scholastic 
mechanism. Consequently, he despised rules. He sought to im- 
press on the pupil's mind the glory of being able to make his own 
rules and blaze an original path through every intellectual forest. 

He constantly emphasized the truth that education is not mere 
acquisition of facts or simple mastery of contents, but that it is 
a development which reaches far above the mental domain into 
that higher spiritual atmosphere in which true greatness in God's 
sight is nurtured. He often said that his supreme object was to 
"make men." Arnold of Rugby never exerted a stronger and 
more salutary influence over his pupils than Braxton Craven over 
the boys and young men whom he taught. His influence was 
something wonderful. Scattered throughout North Carolina and 
the whole South are hundreds of men in all vocations whose 


hearts give a quick, tender throb when the name of Braxton 
Craven is mentioned. They say that their strongest impulse 
toward a high, independent manhood was given by their revered 
preceptor and that his strong influence abides. The writer of this 
sketch once had occasion to go into the office of one of our prom- 
inent men to ask for a contribution to a fund devoied to the 
painting of an oil portrait of Dr. Craven. The gentleman re- 
sponded with a liberal contribution and said, ** Certainly I will 
give something to honor Dr. Craven. He expelled me from 
college, but I love him." This illustrates Craven's strong hold 
even upon recalcitrant pupils. 

It can be truthfully said that Dr. Craven made men. In looking 
over the list of the alumni alone, the writer finds the following 
facts bearing upon living persons : There are nearly one hundred 
ministers of the Gospel, many of whom have attained to high 
prominence in North Carolina and other States. Nearly fifty 
are lawyers, two of whom (F. M. Simmons and L. S. Overman) 
are United States senators. Four are supreme court judges. 
One is a judge of the United States district court. Several are 
members of Congress. No less than twelve of the leading educa- 
tional institutions have an alumnus of Trinity in the faculty. It 
is a remarkable fact that the Trinity alumni, with but few ex- 
ceptions, have been successful in life. 

There has never been the slightest difficulty in measuring the 
manhood and appraising the life-value of Braxton Craven. That 
he was one of the greatest sons of North Carolina is a fact ac- 
knowledged by all who knew him or knew of him. Hon. Josephus 
Daniels, editor of the Xcws and Observer, says: 

"About twenty years ago. I am told by a member of Congress, at a 
meeting of the North Carolina delegation in Washington, they were dis- 
cussing the big men in North Carolina — the men of big brain and original 
power — and the consensus of opinion was that the two biggest men in 
North Carolina were Dr. Craven and Judge Schenck." 

As a preacher Dr. Craven was strong and virile. There was 
nothing abstruse in his sermons. He applied the Gospel to the 
practical affairs of life. There was no mold upon his thought. 


It was as fresh and inviting as a mountain daisy. His intellectual 
conscience compelled him to be severely logical. The wings of 
fancy were somewhat clipped. Hence he was not an orator in the 
popular sense. Yet he ofttimes possessed an eloquence which 
shook open the very gates of the heart. There was not in the 
Methodist Church any place of honor that he could not have 
reached had he been so inclined. He had many friends among 
other churches. There was a strong bond of friendship between 
him and Dr. Talmage. His was a broad catholic spirit whose 
intensity of vision as he looked at truth obliterated all creedal 
lines. While one of the strongest of Wesleyans, he managed to 
find something good in every evangelical creed. His was the 
spiritual nature which apprehended God concretely in human ex- 
perience rather than in mystic abstractions and psychic visions. 
He was a man who was acquainted with God and His Son. He 
talked with the Divine One daily and bore the marks of the 
Crucified One. 

In describing the latter days of Dr. Craven I cannot do better 
than to refer to the excellent biography of him written by Pro- 
fessor Jerome Dowd, an admiring pupil. Professor Dowd says: 

"Soon after his return from General Conference (1882) he became low- 
spirited, and began to look worn and broken in health. Fifty years of 
incessant and severe mental and physical activity, together with the financial 
troubles at the college, had told on his constitution. He lost flesh and power 
of endurance. He found that his accustomed labors fatigued him more 
than ever, and that his sleep for the first time in his life was irregular and 
broken. His health continuing to fail, he went to Piedmont Springs, 
Stokes County, in July, remaining several weeks. But receiving no decided 
benefit from the water, he returned to his home, stopping en route to his 
home to see his friend, Colonel J. W. Alspaugh. Colonel Alspaugh urged 
him to go North and consult a specialist. To this Dr. Craven replied: *I 
will go, but you are trying to cheat death of its victim.' In September, 
Dr. Craven, in company with his son. Will, made a trip to Baltimore, and 
consulted Dr. Opie. The physician prescribed certain medicine and diet, 
and giving such encouragement as he could, sent the patient back home. 
The physician communicated the fact to Will that the worst might happen 
at any moment. However, the patient enjoyed his trip North, as he had 
always enjoyed others, and came back in hopeful and buoyant spirits." 


But the iron was piercing to its length. In November, Dr. 
Craven was compelled to give up his active duties as president. 
While flesh and blood showed the deadly strain, the spirit was 
strong and buoyant. There was no abatement of his interest in 
the usual affairs. It was on the night of November 7, 1882, while 
he was in thc^ bosom of his beloved family, that the final summons 
came, and without a word or struggle the great soul went to its 
God. He was buried in the little cemetery near the college. A 
plain shaft stands at the head of his grave, and upon it is this 
inscription : 

"Braxton Craven, D.D., LL.D., bom August 26, 1822. Died Novem- 
ber 7, 1882." 

In later years a splendid building was erected by loving pupils 
and friends on the campus of Trinity College, Durham, and it is 
called "Braxton Craven Memorial Hall." A more imposing 
monument it is than the simple marble shaft which stands in the 
little graveyard at Trinity ; yet his true monument is unseen. It 
is a Voice, unhushed by death, which, while rivers run and seasons 
come and go, will speak to the generations of the old North State 
and call them to the high places of manhood and womanhood. 

Thomas N. Ivey. 


f EOMDAS WAKEFIELD, fifth son of William 
' Duiilop and Christina Elizabeth Crawford, was 
born near Salisbury, Rowan County, on April 5, 
1842, His father, who had been a brilliant stu- 
dent and a first-honor graduate of the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, was an able lawyer 
and political leader. He served his State in both branches of its 
Legislature, introducing the bill that created Davie County, and 
afterward representing Davie and Rowan in the Senate. He 
married the attractive and accomplished daughter of Major 
Thomas Mnll, and after the death of the latter moved his family 
to his wife's girlhood home. On his old colonial estate, part of 
the original lands purchased by the Scotchman. Dunn, Mrs. Craw- 
ford's great-grandfather, extensive farming operations were car- 
ried on through an overseer, while Mr. Crawford gave most of his 
own time to his law-office; and here the brothers, attending day 
school in Salisbury and engaging heartily out of school hours in 
the varied work and amusements abundantly afforded by forest, 
field and stream, received their daily training and laid the founda- 
tion of a sturdy manhood. 

Unfortunately, Mrs. Crawford was left a widow when Leonidas 
was two years old. With much strength of will and force of char- 
acter she managed the estate, and successfully performed the 
duties of both parents to her sons. When after some ten years 

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she was married to Peter M. Brown, Esq., a man of wealth and 
unusual business enterprise, Leonidas became a resident of Char- 
lotte. A favorite with his step-father, he was used by him outside 
of school hours in such a way that he gained a rather extensive 
industrial education and learned to know well many different 
classes of men. This experience was an invaluable part of his 
preparation for after life. 

When among the first volunteers from this State to the Con- 
federate Army were three of the Crawford brothers, the anxious 
mother sent her youngest son to Olin high school, in Iredell 
County, hoping to prevent his volunteering ; but six months later, 
with his mother's blessing, he went out as junior second lieu- 
tenant of the Forty-second regiment of infantry. He soon be- 
came senior second lieutenant, and was a capable, fearless officer. 
One who knew the four brothers well said years afterward : 

"Their Christian mother sent them out with tears and prayers, and her 
protecting spirit surely went with them, for they fought like devils and 
yet never got a scratch." 

The first hard fighting of the Forty-second infantry was near 
Bermuda Hundreds, when after a long and dangerous charge 
the enemy was routed. Lieutenant Crawford and two other 
gallant officers were the first to cross the breastworks. Having 
been entrusted bv General Martin with the delivery of an im- 
portant despatch to General Beauregard, he braved perilous ex- 
posure to shot and shell and successfully executed his commission. 
In the second battle of Cold Harbor the conflict on June 3d was 
especially fearful, and the Confederate lines were broken at several 
points. In order to retake these lines a desperate charge was 
made that night. Lieutenant Crawford, in command of the left 
wing, reached and crossed the breastworks, but being almost 
without support, was forced to surrender. At the headquarters 
of General Hancock he was closely interrogated as to the move- 
ments of Lee's army, but as he told even less than he knew they 
gained nothing. Later he was strongly advised by General Kil- 
patrick to escape the horrors of imprisonment by taking the oath 


of allegiance and going North — ^advice that appealed in vain to 
the proud Confederate. He was sent to Point Lookout, and later 
to Fort Delaware, where he remained until after Lee's surrender. 
This year of hard prison life, crowded with stem lessons and 
solemn experiences, was made memorable by more than one 
thrilling episode. 

Released from prison June 23, 1865, Mr. Crawford returned as 
soon as possible to Charlotte. Pitiful indeed were the changes 
wrought by the war, and vain seemed the hope of completing 
his long-interrupted education. Being deeply impressed that his 
work was that of the ministry, his friends advised that he enter 
upon it at once. Determined, however, to have better prepara- 
tion, he reentered the academy in Olin, and a year later entered 
the University of Virginia. At that time the University of North 
Carolina was closed and that of Virginia was unequalled in the 
South. Having neither time nor money to take the full university 
course leading to a degree, Mr. Crawford applied himself to well- 
selected subjects, and in two years graduated in the schools of 
English and Moral Philosophy. During his university course he 
was active in Christian work. He had been licensed to preach by 
his home church, and in 1867, while visiting Baltimore, he was 
called to serve as assistant pastor to Dr. Williams, of Chatsworth 
Methodist Church. He declined this call and took instead a post- 
graduate course in Moral Philosophy in the university. Twice 
afterward he was offered a pastorate in the city of Baltimore, but 
loyalty to native State and home church induced him to cast his lot 
with the itinerants of the North Carolina Conference. 

In 1868 he was formally received into this Conference, and 
during a period of twenty years served five churches, completing 
a four years* term, first at Hillsboro, then at Salisbury, Fayctte- 
ville, West Market Street, Greensboro and New-Bern. By un- 
tiring energy, studious habits, strong and impressive sermons, 
faithful pastoral work, and the gracious bearing of a polished 
gentleman, he endeared himself not only to the members of his 
own denomination, but to the best citizens in all these places, and 
it was only the time-limit imposed by Methodist polity that sev- 


ered his connection with any people. Both at Fayetteville and 
at New-Bern efforts were made, though vainly, to engage his ser- 
vices in educational work. 

In 1890 he was elected by the unanimous vote of the Board of 
Trustees to the Chair of Theology in Trinity College. He had 
just closed the first year of his second pastorate at West Market 
Street Church, Greensboro, and was reluctant to give up the work 
of the ministry. At a sacrifice, however, in obedience to the call 
of the church, he accepted the trust, and throwing his whole heart 
into the work of his department faithfully served the college for 
four years. When in 1895, for lack of funds, the trustees were 
forced to abolish the schools of Theology and of Law, he gladly 
retired and resumed the work of the pastorate. 

During his second year at Reidsville, where he did a fine work, 
he was elected editor of the North Carolina Christian Advocate, 
then the official organ of the two Conferences in the State. His 
term of editorship covers a storm period, the true history of which 
will some day make a most interesting page in the story of North 
Carolina Methodism. When strong pressure was brought to bear 
to draw the paper into a movement antagonistic to the State 
schools, Dr. Crawford, believing this policy to be narrow, unwise, 
and entirely out of harmony with the true spirit of Methodism, 
stood true to his convictions, regardless of cost, and though he 
thus became a target for the opposition, never did he lose his 
dignity or self-respect nor swerve in the slightest from his posi- 
tion. His high aim was to hold the church in the right relation to 
the State and State institutions, and so to improve the Advocate 
in its spiritual and intellectual tone that it might be worthy of a 
place in every Methodist home. Despite serious obstacles, he suc- 
ceeded in increasing its circulation and making it rank with the 
best Southern Methodist organs. At the end of six years, in the 
belief that his purpose was accomplished, he retired from the paper 

Always alive to the interests of his denomination, while editing 
the Advocate he bought a lot on Lithia and Spring Garden Streets, 
Greensboro, near the State Normal College, and with a little finan- 


cial aid built a comfortable house of worship, in which he or* 
ganized a Sunday school and a church, which he served as volun- 
teer pastor. Desirous of making this chapel a self-sustaining 
charge and of recuperating his own health, on retirement from 
the Advocate he was glad to be appointed the regular pastor, and 
he continued to serve on a meagre salary for four years. Spring 
Garden Street Church, well organized in every department, stands 
a monument to his ability to build from the ground by sheer power 
to attract and to hold. In 1904 he was appointed to Main 
Street Church, Reidsville, where the community was as enthu- 
stastic in receiving as the people of Greensboro were sad in losing 

Dr. Crawford has ever been a friend of education. During 
his first pastorate in Greensboro, in 1883, when Greensboro Female 
College was about to be sold at auction to satisfy a heavy mort- 
gage, he determined, if possible, to save it to the church. To this 
end he visited at his own expense several prominent towns and 
succeeded in interesting a sufficient number of friends to form 
a joint stock company to buy the property and continue the Metho- 
dist school. For several years he was one of its directors and a 
large factor in its successful management. In the establishment 
of the State Normal and Industrial College he saw the fulfillment 
of a long-felt need of the women of the State. In securing the 
donation of a site for its location he was a factor, and he has al- 
ways been one of its staunchest upholders. On his leaving Greens- 
boro strong resolutions were passed by the faculty, and an aflFec- 
tionate letter written by the Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tion, all expressive of the highest appreciation of his pastoral 
service to the college during his residence in the city. Largely 
through his efforts the secondary schools of his Conference were 
freed from debt and established upon a firmer basis. He is a 
trustee of Weaverville and Rutherford Colleges, and of Daven- 
port College for Young Women. For fourteen years treasurer 
of his Conference, he has successfully managed its financial m- 
terests. He is chairman of its Sundav School board. He is chair- 
man of the board of managers of the Greensboro City library, 


and has long been the beloved chaplain of the Greensboro camp 
of Gmfederate Veterans. 

Dr. Crawford has always felt that he sustained an irreparable 
loss in the interruption of his education by the Civil War. He 
also realizes that the life of an itinerant Methodist minister, 
with its frequent changes from place to place, is not favor- 
able to broad scholarship and accurate learning. But he has 
economized time, studied seriously both men and books, and thus 
reached a high standard. Central College, Missouri, and Weaver- 
villc College, North Carolina, conferred upon him the degree 
of D. D. In May, 1901, the College of Bishops of his church ap- 
pointed him a member of the second Ecumenical Conference of 
world-wide Methodism, which was held in Washington City, his 
onlv colleague being General Robert B. Vance. 

Dr. Crawford has often said that the essentials to success are 
a high and definite aim, industry, self-reliance, temperance in all 
things, and abiding faith in God. These, together with an 
Ultimate knowledge of human nature and rare tact in dealing with 
people, are characteristic of the man himself. . By the intelligent 
and influential he is recognized as a strong preacher and a safe 
leader. His manner of presenting the truth is peculiarly his own, 
having a directness and subtle power which make it appeal both 
to the heart and the intellect of his hearers. As a man of affairs 
his judgment is clear and discriminating. As a pastor he is un- 
excelled, and his influence on a community is wide and lasting. 
Those who know him best believe him equal to any position in 
the gift of his church. 

Among the strongest influences over his life have been the per- 
fect companionship and intelligent sympathy of a devoted wife. 
On December 12, 1872, he was married to Miss Marianna PuUen, 
of Raleigh, a woman of thorough education and refinement, deep 
piety, great executive ability and much personal charm. From 
this union there are six living children. 

A character so positive as Dr. Crawford's must at times clash 
with the views of others, but no man of his type has, perhaps, 
fewer enemies and a larger circle of friends. One's contem- 



poraries rarely see the whole man in just the right proportions, 
but when, years later, his faults and virtues have been accurately 
weighed, the deliberate, final judgment of true history, whose ears 
are deaf alike to enmity and flattery, will be : 

Leonidas Wakefield Crawford — a true man. 

Bertha Marvin Lee. 


f ICHARD BENBURY CREECY, long distin- 
guished as one of the able editors of North 
I Carolina, was born on Drummond's Point, lying 
I on Albemarle Sound, in Chowan County, on 
. the igth of December, 1813. 

In tbe latter years of the seventeenth century, 
about 1680, five Huguenot brothers sailed from France to seek an 
asylum from persecution in the wilds of America, and eventually 
settled in the counties adjacent to Albemarle Sound. One of these. 
Job Crcecy, was the first American progenitor of the subject of 
this sketch. Colonel Creccy is also descended from General 
Thomas Eenbury, one of the leading statesmen of the Revolution, 
who was Speaker of the House of Commons during the Revolu- 
tionary War, fought at the Battle of Great Bridge, and also ren- 
dered much other service to the cause of his country in the 
struggle for independence. On the formation of the new govern- 
ment of the United States, with Washington as president, General 
Washington appointed him collector of the port of Edenton. 

Colonel Creecy is also descended from General William Skinner, 
who was the treasurer of the eastern district of North Carolina 
befnre the passage of the act appointing one treasurer for the whole 
State, and he was also a general of the Albemarle militia during 
the Revolntionary War and rendered important service to the 
State in that capacity. 


The father of Colonel Creecy was Joshua Skinner Creecy, a 
business man and planter who did not enter into public life, but 
inheriting a military inclination was colonel of the militia. His 
character was of good report ; he was kind, genial and generous, 
esteemed and admired by his friends ; his death at the early age 
of twenty-nine was much lamented. He married Mary Benbury, 
a lady of large family connections, whose natural graces were 
enhanced by the feminine accomplishments of her day. While the 
family home was on the farm, they lived also in Edenton, and en- 
joyed the excellent society for which that town has long been so 

In early youth the physical condition of the subject of this 
sketch was frail and unpromising, but the careful attention that 
was bestowed on him eventually resulted in strengthening his 
weak constitution, and after many vicissitudes and trying ex- 
periences in life he has attained an age not often reached by men. 
In youth he was studious and fond of reading, but diffident of his 
powers to do all things well. He was a pupil at the Edenton 
Academy, where so many of the young men and women of the first 
circles of eastern North Carolina were taught. Afterward, he re- 
ceived at Warrenton private instruction from Reverend J. H. 
Saunders, the learned father of the late Colonel William L. 
Saunders; and then in 1831 he entered the University of North 
Carolina, graduating in 1835. He studied law and obtained his 
license in 1842, and began the practice at Edenton at once, but 
after three years he was led to abandon his professional career 
and devote himself to agricultural pursuits. The war left him 
in reduced circumstances, and in 1870 he founded the Elisabeth 
City Economist which he has continued to publish without inter- 
mission for a period of thirty-five years, and even now at the ad- 
vanced age of ninety-two he goes to his office every day and writes 
his editorials with all the vigor and dash that characterized his 
productions in early manhood. In 1901 he prepared and pub- 
lished "Grandfather's Tales of North Carolina History," and he 
has in contemplation, notwithstanding his advanced years, the 
preparation of a second volume on the same lines. Colonel Creecy 


has always been a belle lettre scholar, fond of literature, and that 
flavor has permeated his life. It led him after the war, when he 
was broken in fortune, to turn to the editorial profession as a 
means of livelihood, and his editorial productions have had much 
literary merit, blending humor with philosophy, and pleasing both 
in style and manner. Another of their characteristics has been 
their historical features. Fond of bodes early in life. Colonel 
Creecy read much of the local history of the Albemarle section 
and of the State, and he became very familiar with the public 
characters who had played an interesting part on the stage of 

Before the war, when he had ample means and leisure, he wrote 
a "Child's Histpry for the Fireside," and when he became editor, 
not unnaturally, he gave his readers the benefit and advantage of 
his own explorations into historical lore, and the Economist has 
been distinguished among all the other papers of the State by its 
historical and reminiscent articles that are greatly enjoyed by its 

In 1831 it was Colonel Creecy's good fortune, in passing through 
Raleigh on his way to the university, to hear Judge Gaston de- 
liver two great speeches. The Legislature at that time was being 
held in the Governor's mansion at the foot of Fayetteville Street, 
the capitol building having been burned down, and a proposition 
was under consideration to move the State capital to Fayette- 
ville. Judge Gaston opposed the proposition and by his address 
£ided in defeating it. He afterwards heard Judge Gaston 
and other famous orators in the Convention of 1835, ^^^ his ac- 
count of the giants of those days, and his reminiscences and anec- 
dotes of the public men who have adorned the annals of the State, 
have contributed to make the columns of the Economist widely ap- 
preciated and of gjeat value to the younger generation who were 
not familiar with the former statesmen of North Carolina. Loving 
his State and having an affection for the University of North 
Carolina, and an interest in all of the men who were students with 
him or who were afterwards connected with his alma mater, his 
editorials have been permeated with a spirit of patriotism, and 


he has striven to upbuild the State and to promote the welfare 
of the people. 

Enamored of his professional work, Mr. Creecy has not sought 
political preferment. In early life he was a Whig, like most of the 
other gentlemen of his section, and in 1842, just as he received his 
license to practice law, he was almost by accident and without 
any expectation or desire on his part nominated as a Whig candi- 
date to represent the counties of Chowan and Gates in the Senate ; 
but, as he has always contended, he was fortunately defeated. 
He was a magistrate and sat as a member of the Court of Quarter 
Sessions for Chowan County while he was farming before he re- 
ceived his license; and after his retirement from the practice he 
performed the same duties in Pasquotank County. During the 
first administration of President Cleveland he served as collector 
of the port of Elizabeth City, but other than this he has held no 
public station. 

As a member of the Press Association of North Carolina, it 
has been a pleasure to his editorial brethren to have him partici- 
pate in their meetings, and he has been president of the Associa- 
tion. Twenty-five years ago he met with an accident which has 
required him to use crutches and has confined him largely to his 
own home. This physical infirmity has tended somewhat to aid 
Colonel Creecy in his editorial and literary work, and doubtless 
led to the publication of his ** Grandfather's Tales," a volume that 
abounds in the fine humor which is characteristic of all Colonel 
Creecy's writings. It also contains his reminiscences of many 
of the distinguished men of the State, and is a loving tribute 
oflfered by an affectionate son to North Carolina, with the hope 
that it would interest the young people of the State in the study 
of their local history. It is well calculated to entertain both young 
and old, and there is a vein of philosophy running through it 
that imparts a value, as well as its historical basis and agreeable 

In his life Colonel Creecy has been influenced by three men who 
became his ideals ; first. Reverend Joseph H. Saunders, who was 
his preceptor at the academy at Edenton and afterwards his 


private instructor at Warrenton, and who was his friend in after 
years ; next, Judge Gaston, several of whose gjeat speeches Colonel 
Creecy listened to with admiration, and whose personal acquaint- 
ance he enjoyed; arid lastly, his own father, whose memory has 
been his constant inspiration through life. And when we con- 
sider the particular characteristics of these ideals, one is inclined 
to say of Colonel Creecy, noscitur a sociis, for he unites amiability 
with culture, purity of character with intellectual power, and 
moderation and temperance with decided purpose and strength of 
tmderstanding ; while his longevity and unimpaired faculties at 
his great age may be attributed in large measure to his even, 
cheerful and hopeful disposition and to his admirable Christian 

Colonel Creecy is a member of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
and has for years been a vestryman of Christ Church at Elizabeth 
City. Speaking of his long and varied experience in life, he says 
that he sometimes thinks that every life has in it some element 
of failure and that his own is not an exception : "Money I failed 
to accumulate; the world's blazonry I have failed to win; but 
health, home and friends I have had, and I am content." After 
all, a contented mind and a life passed amid pleasant surround- 
ings and in the full enjoyment of the appreciation of cultivated 
friends are much more to be desired than wealth with its anxieties 
and the disappointments of ungratified ambitions. Being asked for 
some suggestion that might be helpful to young people. Colonel 
Creecy suggests : "Honesty, integrity, friendliness, timeliness, god- 
liness, benevolence, cheerfulness, firmness in the right, modest 
assurance, and a careful study of great speeches by great men." 

On November 5, 1844, Colonel Creecy was happily wedded to 
Miss Mary B. Perkins, by whom he had ten children; eight of 
them still survive. 

S. A. Ashe, 


tlLLIAM LEE DAVIDSON was bom in 1746 
in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, and was 
killed February 1, 1781, at Cowan's Ford, 
North Carolina, while disputing the passage of 
the Catawba River at that place by the British. 
_ He was the youngest son of George David- 

son, When he was four years old he came to North Carolina with 
his father, who settled in Iredell County, then Rowan, within the 
bounds of Centre Church. He was educated in the schools of the 
neighborhood and at the Academy established at Charlotte, which 
was at that time in a flourishing condition, and the training ground 
for many patriots of that section. 

In early life he married Mary, the eldest daughter of John 
Brevard, who "had eight sons in the rebel army," and sister of 
Ephraim Brevard, the author of the Mecklenburg Declaration of 
Independence. The young couple settled on the Western bank 
of Davidson's Creek, about two miles west of Centre Church, and 
on the southern side of the public road. There were bom 
to them four sons: George, John Alexander, Ephraim Brevard 
and William Lee ; ! and three daughters ; Jean, Pamela and 
Margaret. Some of the children remained in North Carolina 
and now have descendants in Iredell County, but most of the 
family moved westward, and their descendants are now to be 
found in Missouri, Arkansas and adjoining States, in which 


they have reflected additional honor upon their illustrious 

General Davidson frequently omitted his middle name in his 
signature, and this fact has led to some question as to his having 
a middle name. Many documents are in existence, however, bear- 
ing his signature, in which his middle name is used — among them 
his last will and testament, which is on file in Salisbury, and these 
leave no room for doubt. 

During the critical period preceding the Revolution, committees 
of safety were organized throughout the colony, which were com- 
posed of the ablest of the patriots of each section. In the mem- 
bership from Rowan we find William Lee Davidson, along with 
John Brevard, Griffith Rutherford, Matthew Locke and others, 
who added fame to that community. His bearing as well as his 
sagacity is show by his selection as captain of the "up-river" 
company of militia. 

When the Provincial Congress, in session at Halifax, in April, 
1776, determined to raise four regiments additional to the first 
and second which were already in the field, Davidson was ap- 
pointed major of the Fourth of which Thomas Polk was colonel 
and James Thackston lieutenant-colonel. Under the command 
of General Francis Nash his regiment at once marched to the 
North to join the army of Washington which at that time was 
feeble and very despondent. His regiment participated with 
credit in the battles of Princeton and Brandywine and in the 
bloody encounter at Germantown on October 4, 1777, in which 
Xash was killed, its valor was conspicuously proven. On this 
field Major Davidson was promoted for gallantry to be a lieu- 
tenant-colonel. He was in the Battle of Monmouth and the other 
battles of the North until 1779, when he was ordered South to 
reinforce Lincoln at Charleston. 

In passing through North Carolina, Lieutenant-Colonel David- 
son received permission to visit his family after an absence of 
three years, and upon his approach to Charleston he found it im- 
f)ossible to join his regiment, as the city was surrounded by Brit- 
ish. In consequence of this he avoided capture. He returned 


at once to Mecklenburg and became active in subduing Tory in- 
surrections, which had become numerous since the recent success 
of British arms. In one of these encounters at Coulson's Mills, 
on the Yadkin, about July i, 1780, Davidson received a wound 
which kept him from the field for two months and came near 
ending his life. The capture of Rutherford at Camden left 
the militia of the Salisbury District without a brigadier-general 
to command them. To this position the General Assembly by act 
of August 31, 1780, commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel Davidson. 
Zealous endeavors were made by him for the reinforcement of 
General Greene, who was protecting Morgan as he made his way 
across the State to Virginia with the prisoners taken at Cowpens. 
When Cornwallis reached the Catawba on January 28, 1781, in 
his pursuit of Morgan, he found it much swollen by recent rains 
which delayed his passage for three days. Davidson's small force 
was detailed to guard Tool's, Sherriirs. Beatties' and Cowan's 
fords. Davidson himself took direct command at the latter ford. 
Being a difficult and rarely used ford, it was not guarded at all 
until late on the 31st, when some movement of the British doubt- 
less led Davidson to suspect that they would probably attempt 
to effect a passage there. It was perhaps this which induced him 
to take direct command at that place. When the British arrived on 
the morning of February i, 1781, in the midst of a drizzling rain, 
they were surprised to see the camp fires of the Americans, as 
they had thought the ford unguarded. Upon the first fire from the 
Americans, the Tory guide deserted in the middle of the stream, 
and the British thus left to their own devices, came straight across 
instead of following the usual line of travel which would have 
brought them out several hundred yards below. The obliquity 
of the direction of the fire and the darkness of the early morning 
diminished the effectiveness of the resistance by the Americans. 
Upon realizing the condition of affairs Davidson, who was at the 
main ford below, rallied his little band of three hundred, and while 
bravely leading them was pierced by a fatal bullet and fell dead 
from his horse. By this time many of the British had crossed. 
The handful of Americans, with camp fires in the rear to give the 


British a better view, and with a vastly superior force in front, 
was forced to retreat and leave the body of the beloved com- 
mander upon the field. 

After dark, however, his body was recovered by Richard Barry 
and David Wilson, who were in the battle that morning, and was 
carried by them upon horseback to the home of Samuel Wilson, 
Sr., where it was prepared for burial. The widow was brought 
by George Templeton, who was her nearest neighbor, and the 
body was buried that night at Hopewell Church, in a grave which 
is now unmarked except by a pile of bricks. Although his career 
was terminated when he was but thirty-five, he lived long enough 
to serve his country well and to be honored by the General As- 
sembly of his adopted State, by the Continental Congress, and his 
fellow patriots in arms. 

On September 20, 1781, upon motion of Mr. Sharpe, the Con- 
tinental Congress passed a resolution, requesting the Governor 
and Council of State of North Carolina to erect a monument to 
General Davidson at the expense of the United States — an honor 
which was bestowed only a few times. But during those iron 
times the cause of life and liberty was so engrossing that there 
was little time or money that could l)e given to the dead, and 
the monument was not erected during the existence of the Con- 
tinental Congress. During the first century after the death of this 
patriot, the matter was taken up in Congress in 1803, 1824-5, ^^^ 
1841-2, but without favorable consideration, although in 1842 
f July 19th) the Senate passed a bill making an appropriation 
for the monument. This bill was introduced by Senator Graham, 
whose father, General Joseph Graham, was in the battle of 
Cowan's Ford, serving as Captain under General Davidson. From 
1842 until January 4, 1888, there is no record that any considera- 
tion was given the matter by Congress. Then, at the instance of 
the writer, Senator Vance introduced a bill, passed by the 
Senate on April 11, 1888, making an appropriation of $10,000 for 
this monument, but this bill never secured favorable considera- 
tion by the House of Representatives. With this encouragement, 
however, the subject was before Congress almost continuously, 


until January 30, 1903, when through the efforts of Hon. W. W. 
Kitchin a joint resolution introduced by him became a law, mak- 
ing an appropriation for the erection of the monument originally 
contemplated by the Continental Congress. This monument has 
now been erected upon the Guilford Court House battleground, 
an honor to General Davidson, to the Congress which authorized 
it and to the friends through whose efforts the law was enacted. 
But Davidson's name has had other honors bestowed upon it 
and with less tardiness. When Davidson County was established 
in 1822, the General Assembly named it in honor of this patriot. 
In 1835, when the Presbyterians determined to establish a college, 
they named it in honor of William Lee Davidson, whose sword 
was subsequently presented to it and now hangs in the Library. 
Perhaps no better estimate of the man can be given than that by 
his friend and fellow patriot, "Light Horse Harry" Lee, who 
said of him with whom he served long: "The loss of General 
Davidson would have always been felt at any stage of the war. 
It was particularly detrimental in its effect at this period, as he 
was the chief instrument relied upon by General Greene for as- 
sembling the militia. A promising soldier was lost to the country 
in the meridian of life, at a moment when his services would have 
been highly beneficial to us. He was a man of popular manners, 
pleasing address, active and indefatigable." 

W. A. Withers. 





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DOUGHTON, one of the strongest public men 
of the northwestern section of the State, was 
bom at Laurel Springs, Alleghany County, on 
the lOth of January, 1857. 

The earliest of his name to c(Hne to America 
was Joseph Doughton, who came to this country fn»n England. 
The father of the subject of this sketch was J. Horton Dough- 
ton, a farmer of Alleghany County, whose enei^ and sterling 
integrity brought him the entire respect of the people of his 
county, and for some years he was a county commissioner. His 
practical judgment and acquaintance with the law and with the 
public concerns of his county gave him such prominence that he 
also served as chairman of the Inferior Court of Alleghany. 

In his youth the subject of this sketch was robust, and living 
on a farm he was required to do regular farm-work, and he 
Ifamed at an early age the advantage of energy and of economy 
from the precepts and example of his father, while the influence of 
his mother, whose maiden name was Rebecca Jones, was par- 
ticularly strong on his moral life. Few counties of the State are 
generally more prosperous than those of Alleghany and Ashe, 
where the farms are small and grass grows to advantage and 
stock is reared in numbers, nearly all of the inhabitants being in 
comfortable circumstances and having a high appreciation of the 


benefits of education. After attending the local schools, Mr. 
Doughton received the basis of his education at Independence 
Academy in Virginia, and then spent two years at the University 
of North Carolina. His inclinations were for a professional 
career, and he chose the law as being in accord with his disposi- 
tion and talents and as opening up the best avenues to success; 
and so, in 1880, he took a course in Law at the University of 
North Carolina, and having obtained his license, opened his office 
at Sparta in the Fall of that year and soon became one of the lead- 
ing attorneys of his section. 

Intelligent, energetic and patriotic, Mr. Doughton was always 
active in public matters, and in 1887 he was nominated by the 
Democrats to represent his county in the House, and after a strong 
campaign — for the parties in his county were about evenly di- 
vided — he was elected. Intimately acquainted with the matters 
that affected the welfare of his constituents, he discharged his 
duties as a legislator to their satisfaction, and he was elected 
without opposition their representative again in 1889 and in 1891. 
Becoming a good parliamentarian, quick in apprehension, careful 
and painstaking, he was considered, at the session of 1891, the 
strongest member of the House, and he was elected Speaker of 
that body. In the Speaker's chair he wisely exerted his influence 
and power for those measures that tended to the advancement 
of the people and of the State, and he established himself thor- 
oughly in the confidence of the public men associated with him. 

For some years the Farmers' Alliance had been powerful within 
the Democratic Party, and in nearly every section its control was 
felt in determining the careers of the public men. But in Alle- 
ghany County Mr. Doughton's influence was a restraining force, 
and the Democratic people did not swerve from their party 
allegiance. He remained a straight-out Democrat, and wisely 
and prudently sought to safeguard his party from the insidious 
undermining of the Populist leaders. 

In 1892 his personal popularity and the strong hold he had 
gained on the respect and good-will of the people led to his 
nomination as Lieutenant-Governor, and he entered into the cam- 


paign with vigor, and largely increased his reputation as a pub- 
lic speaker. Being elected Lieutenant-Governor, he became 
ex officio the presiding officer of the Senate, and in performing 
his duties in that capacity he exhibited so much courtesy and such 
parliamentary skill as to win the commendation of even his politi- 
cal opponents. At the session of 1895 the Democrats were in a 
minority in that body, and his position was the more delicate 
on that account, but still his fairness and impartiality received 
the praise of all. 

He participated in the various campaigns that have since been 
made in the State, and has exerted all of his influence for the 
preservation of the Democratic organization. As a speaker he is 
deliberate, but forceful ; clear in his ideas, he expresses them in 
an agreeable manner, and is very successful in carrying his 
audience along with him to his own conclusions. Indeed, mingling 
freely with the people and conversant with their modes of thought, 
he is skillful and happy in presenting his views so that they can be 
readily understood and appeal to the judgment of the people. 
For some years after his retirement from the office of Lieutenant- 
Governor he devoted himself more particularly to his private 
affairs, but in 1903 he was again a member of the House, and 
was recognized as a leader of that body, being one of the ablest 
and wisest among the experienced public men who were members 
of that session of the Legislature. His long acquaintance with 
the financial affairs of the State led to his being chairman of the 
Finance Committee, having supervision of the tax laws and re- 
quiring estimates of the probable receipts of public funds as a 
basis for the appropriations; he was a leading member of the 
Judiciar\' Committee, and indeed in many respects he was re- 
garded as a leader of the House. He led the fight for an issue 
of State bonds to cover the deficit in the public funds, and after 
an arduous contest he was able to secure the passage of the meas- 
ure. He also supported the Watts Bill, which limited the manu- 
facture of spirituous liquors to incorporated towns and left it to 
be decided by vote of the people whether whiskey should be 
sold in saloons or through dispensaries or its sale be entirely 


forbidden. This temperance legislation was intended more par- 
ticularly to arrest the debauching effects of the small distilleries 
that had sprung up in the country, where there could be no 
police supervision, and Mr. Doughton in the interest of the 
country people eagerly pressed the passage of the bill, which was 
regarded as one of the most important and progressive measures 
yet proposed by the Democratic leaders. His course in this 
matter well illustrates his general action as a public man. With 
strong common sense, he knows the needs of the people, and 
he boldly seeks to promote those measures which he believes 
will be to their advantage and will benefit the public welfare. 
When he feels that he is right, no consideration can sway him 
from his path, but he goes forward with a strength of purpose 
that brooks no opposition. 

Beginning life as a hand on his father's farm, Mr. Doughton 
became a lawyer and then combined agriculture with his pro- 
fessional work. As he grew in prosperity he became concerned 
in some milling enterprises, and his good judgment and attention 
to business having been rewarded with gratifying success, more 
lately he has become interested in banking. He is now attorney 
of the North Carolina Railroad. 

Mr. Doughton is a member of the Masonic Order, and is 
Senior Warden of Sparta Lodge 423 at this time. He is a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Church. 

On January 10, 1883, he was married to Miss Sue B. Parks, 
and two children have blessed their wedded life. 

S. A. Ashe. 


f HE old English word "franklin" denoted a free 
man. When we peruse the personal history of 
Jesse Franklin we may reasonably conclude 
that there is something in a name, after all. 
He was a free man. belonged to a family 
warmly attached to the cause of freedom, and 
valiantly fought to make others free. He was a native of Orange 
County. Virginia, born on the Z4th of March. 1760. His father 
was Bernard Franklin, and his mother's maiden name was Mary 
Cleveland. The lady just mentioned was a sister of that fierce 
and relentless mountaineer, Colonel Benjamin Cleveland, whose 
very name spread consternation throughout the ranks of the 
Tories in our War for Independence. 

The first service of Jesse Franklin in the Revolution was when 
he was still a resident of \'irginia. When about seventeen years 
old he enlisted, and returned to his home after his term of service 
had e.xpired, Bernard Franklin having determined to remove to 
N'orth Carolina, sent his son Jesse to spy out the land. The lat- 
ter's choice fell upon a location on the head waters of Mitchell's 
River in Surry County. To this place later came Bernard Frank- 
lin with his household, one of his sons being Meshach Franklin 
(then a child) who afterwards represented his district in the 
Cf^ngress of the United States. 

The lot of the Franklin family was not a tranquil one in its new 
home. The neighborhood was infested with Tories of the worst 


stripe — house-burners, horse-thieves, and desperadoes of every 
class, who usually made their incursions upon the defenceless set- 
tlements while the men of the families were absent in the army. 
But woe unto the marauders who were caught! The Whigs (usu- 
ally led by Colonel Cleveland) were often addicted to the old 
Scotch practice called Jedwood justice — to hang in haste and try 
at leisure. Not only in their own neighborhood, but many miles 
away on the far eastern confines of the Piedmont section, these 
hardy mountaineers often turned up when the Tories least ex- 
pected them. One instance will suffice, as related by a Whig offi- 
cer, Colonel Ransom Sutherland, in a letter written many years 
after the war (April lo, 1821,) and published in the North Caro- 
lina University Magazine for September, 1854. Sutherland says, 
speaking of the Tories who escaped from the battle of Moore's 
Creek : 

"Those of the old Regulators, now Tories, that got home betook 
themselves to the woods like outlaws (I mean their leaders), and 
continued to commit depredations on the lives and properties of those 
who had been active against them. I myself was the first who fell 
a victim to their malice as to property. In a few days after the battle 
of the Bridge, a party assembled in the night at my residence, then 
in the midst of them, set fire to my houses and burned them down. 
One of these was a well-finished dwelling house; another a store- 
house, with about $3,000 worth of goods and upwards of $1,000 in cash, 
and all my books and papers for upwards of seven years' dealing. 
This stroke threw me into a state of complete bankruptcy. But Col- 
onel Cleveland from the mountains came down with a party of men, 
scoured the country, picked up some of the outlaws, and hung several 
of them to trees in the woods. One of them — a Captain Jackson as 
he called himself — was hung within half a mile of the place on which 
my houses had stood that he caused to be burnt. I do not recollect 
to have heard much more of those wretches after Cleveland had done 
with them." 

At the time of the Revolution Colonel Sutherland lived in 
Caswell County (until 1777 a part of Orange), but later removed 
to Wake. We have quoted his reference to the above incident 
concerning Colonel Cleveland because Franklin was Adjutant 
of Cleveland's regiment. 


At the bloody battle of King's Mountain, October 7, 1780, Ad- 
jutant Franklin greatly distinguished himself. Captain Samuel 
Ryerson, a brave loyalist who had fought with the foremost on 
his side, and had been wounded more than once, surrendered to 
Franklin when he saw that further resistance was fruitless. In 
tendering his sword, Ryerson remarked: '*You deserve it, sir." 
In the work entitled '^King's Mountain and its Heroes," by Ly- 
man C. Draper, this circumstance is recorded, and in another part 
of the volume is a sketch of Franklin, from which we make the 
following extract : 

"On one occasion a Tory party under Jo Lasefield captured him 
and had him ready to swing off, when he said: 'You have me com- 
pletely in your power! But if you hang me, it will prove the dearest 
days work you ever performed, for Uncle Ben Cleveland will pur- 
sue you like a bloodhound, and he will never cease the chase while 
a solitary one of you survives/ Though they hung him, the bridle 
with which they did it broke, and he fortunately dropped into the 
saddle of his horse, bounded away, and escaped. Besides his service 
at King's Mountain, he participated in Guilford Battle, and attained 
the rank of Major before the close of the war." 

One of the descendants of Jesse Franklin was the late Judge 
Jesse Franklin Graves, of Surry County, a gentleman in every 
wav worlhv of his descent, who wrote two sketches of his ances- 
tor. The first appeared (1856) in the second series of "The Old 
North State," a volume by E. W. Caruthers, who described the 
sketch's author as "a young lawyer residing at Mount Airy." The 
second production was put forth when this young lawyer had 
passed the meridian of life and retired from the bench with high 
honors. He was, in the latter instance, called upon for an address 
at Guilford battleground when a monument had been erected by 
Governor Thomas M. Holt, bearing the names of Joseph Win- 
ston, Jesse Franklin, and Richard Talliaferro. Of Franklin, 
Judge Graves said in par^: *'I am proud of North Carolina and all 
that her sons have done ; but I am before you with peculiar pride 
for the reason that Jesse Franklin, my grandfather, was in the 
bloody contest on this battlefield, and I admit that I am proud to 
see his name inscribed on the beautiful monument which is dedi- 



cated to the memory of the heroes who here turned back the proud 

invaders Jesse Franklin's mother was a sister 

of thd noted Whig leader, Benjamin Cleveland, and the brave old 
Colorlel put great confidence in his nephew, and placed him in 
many positions where his courage and discretion were severely 
taxed. He always came up to his uncle's high expectations." 
The full text of the address last quoted will be found in the memo- 
rial volume of the Guilford Battleground Company, published in 

After the return of peace, Jesse Franklin received many high 

honors from his grateful countrymen. 

In 1793 and 1794 he was a member of the North Carolina 
House of Commons. From December 7, 1795, till March 3, 1797, 
he served as a member of the House of Representatives of the 
United States. 

After his retirement from Congress he again became a State 
Legislator, serving in the House of Commons at Raleigh in 1797 
and 1798. On December 12, 1798, the General Assembly elected 
him United States Senator in place of Alexander Martin, for the 
term ending March 3, 1805. Before Calhoun became Vice-Pres- 
ident the Vice-Presidents did not usually preside over the Sen- 
ate, but the Senate elected Presidents pro temporei who were the 
presiding officers. In March, 1804, Jesse Franklin was thus elect- 
ed to preside over the Senate, and he performed that duty until the 
end of his term. At the same time Nathaniel Macon was the 
Speaker of the House ; so during that year both Houses of Con- 
gress were presided over by North Carolinians. Probably no 
other State ever enjoyed the same honor. 

A few months after his return home, Mr. Franklin was elected 
State Senator from Surry County and served as such in 1805 and 
also in 1806. While the latter session was in progress he was 
again elected to the United States Senate, December, 1806, suc- 
ceeding David Stone, who, however, defeated him at the session 
of December. 181 2. 

Mr. Franklin was an ultra-democrat, and in the war of 1812- 
181 5 he advocated vigorous measures by the administration. 


After his second retirement from the United States Senate, 
Major Franklin acted as one of the Commissioners to sell lands 
which had recently been acquired by the treaty from the Cherokee 
Indians. The territory thus acquired was 679,189 acres in all, 
and the sales by the State opened up the country in question for 
the use of settlers. He was also on a commission to treat with 
the Chicasaw Indians, one of his colleagues being Andrew Jack- 

On the 5th of December, 1820, Major Franklin was elected 
Governor of North Carolina; and on the 7th of December he 
took the oath of office. He served until December 7, 1821. In 
his message of November 20, 1821, to the General Assembly, he 
declined a reelection. He was succeeded by Gabriel Holmes. 

Governor Franklin did not long survive his retirement from 
office. His death occurred in Surry County on August 31, 1823. 
In its issue of September 30th following, the Weistern Carolin- 
ian, a paper published at Salisbury, said : 

"Died. — At his residence in Surry County, after nine months' suf- 
fering with the dropsy, Jesse Franklin, Esq., late Governor of this 
State. Both as a politician and as a private man, Governor Franklin enjoy- 
ed, perhaps, as great a share of the public confidence and private esteem 
of his fellow-citizens as any contemporary individual in the State. 
Various public trusts had been confided to him prior to his election, 
in December, 1820, as Governor of the State. For many years he was 
Senator in the State Legislature; was a commissioner with General 
Jackson and General Meriwether, who concluded a treaty of cession 
with the Chicasaw Indians; was also one of the commissioners who 
effected a treaty and the purchase of a large section of country from 
the Cherokees. He was but a lad during the Revolutionary War, 
yet he shared largely in the toils and privations of the struggle for 
our independence. By his activity in the cause of the Whigs he be- 
came peculiarly obnoxious to the Tories. They took him prisoner, 
treated him with great rigor, and were about hanging him when a 
party of Whigs rescued him and saved his life." 

The maiden name of the wife of Governor Franklin was Meckey 
f^erkins. Of his posterity, Judge Graves said, in his Battleground 
5^<ldress : *'He left three sons and five daughters. His descen- 


dants are numerous — some in North Carolina, some in Tennessee, 
and some in Mississippi. Many of them fell in the Confederate 

The widow of Governor Franklin survived him some years and 
died on February 20, 1834. In chronicling her demise, the Ral- 
eigh Register of March 14th following contained this notice : 

"Died. — At her residence in Surry County on the 20th of February, 
after a very short indisposition, in about the 69th year of her age, 
the much-lamented Mrs. Meckey Franklin, widow and relict of Jesse 
Franklin, deceased, late Governor of this State. She has left eight 
children, a long train of connections, and a large circle of acquaint* 
ances to deplore her irreparable loss. Of her it may be truly said, one 
of the brightest ornaments of society is gone. She was one of those 
rare characters who, in her many deeds of charity and benevolence, 
acted from disinterested motives. The poor of her neighborhood 
can well testify to this amiable trait of her character. Without dis- 
simulation she extended the hand of friendship— envy had no do- 
minion over her — she never detracted from the character of others. 
'Do unto others as you would have them do unto you/ was her 
golden rule of conduct. In all the various relations of mother, mis- 
tress, and neighbor she was an excellent pattern for imitation; and 
in all the social obligations of life she was truly exemplary in the 
discharge of her duty." 

In his political tenets, habits of life, and dress, Governor Frank- 
lin was ultra-democratic. He would never allow his portrait to 
be painted. The biographical sketch of him in Caruthers gives 
an incident which also shows that he was not a disciple of Beau 
Brummel in the matter of apparel. It seems that while attend- 
ing a session of the Legislature at Hillsboro he found it necessary 
to get some new shirts. The seamstress who made them followed 
the fashion of the day by fitting them up with ruffles and frills. 
These, he thought, did not become the representative of a plain 
people like his constituents, so he altered the garments to suit him- 
self by ripping oflF these unnecessary adornments with a pocket 

Maf shall De Lancey Haywood, 


[ HOUGH his services were of too conspicuous 
a nature to be entirely lost sight of, very few 
of the present generation are acquainted with 
the career of Isaac Gregory, a brigadier-gen- 
eral of North Carolina troops in the Army of 
the Revolution. All efforts on the part of the 
present writer to obtain the dates of his birth and death and other 
important matters connected with his personal history have been 
futile; yet our information concerning his public life — ^both civil 
and military — is full and satisfactory. 

When the second independent Provincial Congress of North 
Carohna met at New-Bern on the 3d of April, 1775, Mr. Gregory 
was a delegate from Pasquotank County to that body. In August, 
1775, another Provincial Congress was convened, and held its 
sessions at Hillsboro, not adjourning till September loth. On 
September glh this body elected Mr. Gregory lieutenant-colonel 
of the Pasquotank Regiment of North Carolina militia. On the 
sanw day he was also elected a member of the Committee of Safety 
lor the Edenton District. 

Prior to 1777, when the County of Camden was erected out of 
> portion of Pasquotank, the latter county was divided into two 
Actions by the broad expanse of Pasquotank River. On account 
0' the difficult communication between these sections, two regi- 
"Knts of militia were organized in Pasquotank ; and, on the 22d 


of April, 1776, Lieutenant-Colonel Gregory was promoted to the 
rank of colonel and placed in command of the second regiment 
of Pasquotank militia, Thomas Boyd being at the same time made 
colonel of the first Pasquotank regiment. On the same day that 
Gregory was elected colonel (April 22, 1776) he was also placed 
on a committee charged with the duty of procuring arms and 
ammunition for the Continental troops. Colonel Gregory was a 
member of the Provincial Congress which sat at Halifax in 1776 
during the months of November and December ; and on December 
23d that body elected him a justice of the court of Pleas and 
Quarter Sessions for the county of Pasquotank. 

To do away with the inconvenience caused by the division of 
Pasquotank County by the river, the General Assembly of North 
Carolina decided to erect a new county out of that portion of its 
territory on the northeastern side of Pasquotank River. 
Accordingly, on the 19th of April, 1777, Senator Joseph Jones 
obtained leave of the Assembly, then in session at New-Bern, to 
prepare and introduce a bill for that purpose. It was accordingly 
introduced into the Senate and passed by thatbody on the 21st of 
April, being sent to the House of Commons on the same day. 
Having been passed by the House of Commons also, it was ratified 
on the 9th of May and became Chapter 18 of the Laws of 1777, 
first session. The new county was called Camden, as a compli- 
ment to Charles Pratt, first Earl of Camden, an English states- 
man who had befriended the American colonies. By the above 
enactment Isaac Gregory, Joseph Jones, Lemuel Sawyer, Demsey 
Burgess and Caleb Grandy were appointed commissioners to fix 
upon a county-seat and erect a court house, jail, etc. Gregory 
was the first State Senator from Camden County, serving con- 
tinuously from 1778 till 1788, and again at two sessions in 1795 
and 1796. 

On May 15, 1779, Colonel Gregory was promoted to the rank of 
brigadier-general of his district, being the Edenton District, in 
which Pasquotank and Camden Counties were included. 

After the fall of Charleston, Governor Caswell was appointed 
major-general by the Legislature to command the militia forces 


of the State ; and he concentrated the militia first on Deep River, 
where the regiments of Exum and of Jarvis were encamped, and 
these with some other regiments formed a brigade, the command 
of which was conferred on General Gregory, who joined General 
Caswell, took command of the brigade, and led it at the battle 
of Camden, South Carolina, on the i6th of August, 1780. Though 
this battle reflected little glory on the Americans as a whole, it 
is the "concurrent testimony of friend and foe," as Schenck puts 
it, that Gregory's North Carolina brigade won for itself im- 
perishable renown ; nor was there a soldier in that brigade braver 
than its leader, who received two bayonet wounds and had a 
horse killed under him in the action. 

In speaking of the affair at Camden, Roger Lamb (a Loyalist 
historian quoted by Schenck) says: '*The Continental troops be- 
haved well, but some of the militia were soon broken. In justice 
to the North Carolina militia it should be remarked that part of 
the brigade commanded by General Gregory acquitted themselves 
well. They were formed immediately on the left of the Con- 
tinentals, and kept the field while they had a cartridge to fire; 
Gregor}' himself was twice wounded by a bayonet in bring- 
ing off his men. Several of his regiment and many of his 
brigade, who were made prisoners, had no wound except 
from bayonets." 

In commenting on the above account by Lamb, and similar 
statements from other sources. Judge David Schenck, in his work 
entitled ''North Carolina, 1780-1781," says: 

"The bayonet wounds received by General Gregory, of North 
Carolina, and the men of his brigade attest the fact that the militia 
of North Carolina stood before this terrible weapon in the hands 
of the disciplined regulars of the British army, and grappled 
with their adversaries in deadlv conflict. But few instances in 
military history occur where the cross of bayonets is recorded; 
but, when so, the weapons were in the hands of veterans who had 
been 'mechanized' into unflinching soldiers. I venture to assert 
that history does not record another instance where native courage 
and a sense of duty enabled untrained militia to engage regular 


troops with the bayonet and * force them back/ This peculiar 
glory belongs to North Carolina, by the concurrent testimony of 
friend and foe." 

After the rout at Camden many wild rumors were afloat, and 
some histories (possibly on the authority of letters written shortly 
after the battle) state that General Gregory was there taken 
prisoner. In a despatch dated August 21st and addressed to Lord 
George Germain, Cornwallis stated that General Gregory was 
among the killed. As a matter of fact, Gregory escaped, though 
Griffith Rutherford, another brigadier-general of North Carolina 
militia, was wounded and captured. Less than a month after the 
battle the General Assembly passed a joint resolution (September 
nth) providing "that Brigadier-General Gregory be furnished, 
at the expense of the State, for immediate service, with a gelding 
of the first price in consideration of the one by him lost in the 
late action near Camden." 

Gregory, no doubt, put his gelding to "immediate service" by 
riding him back to the front in October, for he was with the re- 
mains of Jarvis's and Exum*s regiments, aggregating but 200 
men, operating with General Sumner in front of Cornwallis, then 
at Charlotte; and later guarding the northern frontier against 
incursions from Virginia. In the Fall there was sharp skirmishing 
where he was stationed, with some loss of life. The British 
seized Norfolk in January, 1781, and began their efforts to sub- 
jugate eastern Virginia and the Albemarle region from that 
point, as they did the Cape Fear region from Wilmington as their 
central stronghold. General Gregory was again quickly in ser- 
vice on the Virginia boundary ; and met the enemy on the thresh- 
old. It was during this campaign that a circumstance occurred 
which for a time placed him under a cloud, though he later was 
fully vindicated. Concerning this affair, McRee, in his Life and 
Correspondence of James Iredell, says: "About this time a 
scandalous attempt was made to destroy the character of General 
Gregory, who, at the head of a portion of his brigade, was guard- 
ing the northeastern frontier of the State against hostile incur- 
sions, and especially against predatory parties from Portsmouth. 


It was cunningly contrived that the following letters should fall 
into the hands of the Americans: 

** *G. G. — Your well formed plan of delivering those people now under 
your command into the hands of the British General at Portsmouth gives 
me much pleasure. Your next I hope will mention the place of ambus- 
cade, and the manner you wish to fall into my hands, etc, etc, etc 

" *And am, Dr. Gregory, 

" 'Yours with esteem.' 

*• 'Gen. Gregory : — A Mr. Ventriss was last night made prisoner by three 
or four of your people I only wish to inform you that Ventriss could 
not help doing what he did in helping to destroy the logs. I myself de- 
livered him the orders from Col. Simcoe. I have the honor of your ac- 
quaintance' " 

"These notes," continues McRee, "produced a degree of excite- 
ment and alarm in the American camp nearly equal to what would 
have occurred had as many fire-balls exploded their magazines. 
For a time universal distrust prevailed. The General a traitor! 
Who, then, could be trusted? The unfortunate victim of this 
foul conspiracy was arrested and confined by his own men, and 
subjected to the degradation of a trial before a court-martial. The 
proofs of his innocence, soon collected, were overwhelming; and 
he was restored to his rank and the public confidence. His high 
spirit had been, however, incurably wounded, and the memory 
of the transaction cast a saddening shadow upon his after life. 
This was not of the nature of those stratagems that are sanctioned 
by military laws and countenanced by men of honor: a base and 
covert attempt to blast the name of a patriot and soldier, it rivalled 
in infamy the turpitude of a blow dealt a woman by a coward. It 
is referred to by Simcoe in his volume recording the services of 
the Queen's Rangers." 

In the above account, McRee says that copies of these spurious 
notes were found among the papers of Judge Iredell, but that this 
account of the affair from Simcoe*s work (McRee's own copy 
being lost) is given from memory. He, therefore, advises his 
readers to consult Simcoe. By doing this, we are led to view the 
matter in a light equally favorable to General Gregory; and it 


gives us a better opinion of the British, for the affair was not a 
studied conspiracy on their part, as Simcoe's account will show. 
He says, in his work on the Queen's Rangers : "About this time a 
singular event took place. The passage from the Great Bridge 
on Elizabeth River had hitherto been secure; but a party of the 
enemy from its banks fired upon a gunboat that was returning 
with the baggage of the detachment that had been relieved, and, 
having wounded some of the people in it, took the boat. Captain 
Stevenson, who had commanded at the Great Bridge, lost his bag- 
gage ; and, among his papers was found a fictitious letter which 
he had written by way of amusement and of passing his time to 
General Gregory, who commanded the North Carolina militia 
at the west landing, detailing a plan which that officer was to fol- 
low to surrender his troops to Lieutenant-Colonel Simcoe — ^the 
whole plausibly written and bearing with it every appearance of 
being concerted. The manner of its falling into the enemy's hands 
strengthened these appearances. At first it served for laughter 
for the officers of the Rangers ; but, when it was understood that 
General Gregory was put in arrest, Captain Stevenson's humanity 
was alarmed, and the letters which are in the appendix passed be- 
tween Lieutenant-Colonel Simcoe and Colonel Parker, who had 
taken the boat. They prevented all further bad consequences." 
In transmitting to Colonel Parker, of the American forces, the 
explanation by Captain Stevenson, Simcoe wrote (March 4, 1781) 
as follows : "Ties of humanity summon me to declare that Cap- 
tain Stevenson mentioned to me, some hours before it was known 
that the gunboat was taken, the fictitious letters you found among 
his papers. At a distance the matter appeared in a ludicrous 
light : as it may otherwise lead to serious consequences, I solemnly 
confirm the truth of Captain Stevenson's explanation of the affair ; 
and add upon the sacred honor of a soldier and a gentleman, that 
I have no reason to believe or suspect that Mr. Gregory is other- 
wise than a firm adherent of the French King and of the Con- 
gress." To this letter Colonel Parker (on March 5th) replied: 
"The honor of a soldier I ever hold sacred, and am happy that 
you are called upon by motives of humanity to acquit General 


Gregory. As to my own opinion, I believe you, but, as the man- 
agement of this delicate matter is left to my superiors, I have for- 
warded the letter to Baron Steuben, who I trust will view it in 
the same manner I do.'* 

Though restored to his rank and the confidence of his associates, 
it was natural that the feelings of General Gregory should be 
"incurably wounded" by the knowledge that his long, faithful and 
valiant services should not have rendered him safe from sus- 
picion of treachery. And yet the Americans who suspected him 
are not so much blameworthy for believing evil of any one when 
it is remembered that Arnold, one of their bravest generals, had 
turned traitor only a few months before, and was even then fight- 
ing in the ranks of his country's enemies in the very vicinity 
where the Virginia-Carolina campaign was being carried on. 

One of the American privateers fitted out in North Carolina 
toward the close of the war was called the General Gregory. 
While lying in the Port of Edenton a mutiny occurred on board 
this vessel, and several of its officers were murdered. 

General Gregory survived the Revolution some years. In 1790 
he was living on his plantation in Camden County, and is recorded 
as owning twenty-three slaves. At that time the census shows 
that at least two persons were living in the same vicinity who 
bore the name Isaac Gregory. 

General Gregory has numerous descendants now living, chiefly 
in eastern North Carolina. One of his sons was General William 
Gregory of Elizabeth City. 

Marshall De Lattcey Hayzvood. 


ant of a line of strong, forceful and useful an- 
cestors. The founder of the Hadley family in 
North Carolina was Thomas Hadley, of Scotch- 
Irish ancestry, who, near the middle of the 
eighteenth century, settled on the Cape Fear 
River in Cumberland County. Characterized by that thrift and 
industry for which the Scotch-Irish are noted, he soon ac- 
quired considerable property and won a leading position in 
the life of the community. Strong in his convictions, dauntless 
in spirit, independent in thought, and devoted to liberty, he es- 
poused the American cause in the great contest with the mother 
country, serving his adopted State faithfully both in the halls of 
Congress and on the field of battle. In 1776 he was chosen to 
represent the town of Campbellton, now Fayetteville, in the Pro- 
vincial Congress which convened at Halifax, November J2th of 
that year. This was the fifth and last, as it was the most import- 
ant, of those remarkable provincial conventions which inaugurated 
the Revolution in the colony of North Carolina and organized the 
government of the independent State. On December i8th the Con- 
gress adopted the first Constitution of the State of North Caro- 
lina, and two (lays later elected Richard Caswell governor. After 
his term in Congress Thomas Hadley entered the provincial army, 
served with credit, attained the rank of captain, and, while at 







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home on leave of absence, was murdered by a marauding band of 

On his mother's side, too, Mr. Hadley comes from a worthy 
ancestry. His maternal grandfather, Joseph Richardson, repre- 
sented Johnston County in the General Assembly of North Caro- 
lina, for three terms in the House of Representatives, and for two 
terms in the Senate. His record in the Assembly was satisfac- 
tory to his constituents and creditable to himself. 

Mr. Hadley 's father was Thomas Hadley, a lifelong and suc- 
cessful farmer. Like his grandfather of the Revolution, he was a 
man of energetic, forceful mind and character; of firm convic- 
tions, not hastily conceived nor easily abandoned; an uncompro- 
mising Whig, and an ardent Prohibitionist. His wife was Mili- 
cent, daughter of Joseph Richardson. She was a woman of great 
force, morally and spiritually, and her influence on the develop- 
ment of the character of her son was very strong. 

These characteristics of thrift, industry, and sturdy independ- 
ence of mind which marked Mr. Hadley's forefathers reappear in 
a larger degree in their descendant, the subject of this sketch. He 
was born in Wayne County, North Carolina, July 9, 1838. His 
early life was spent on the farm. He was a strong, robust boy, 
fond of sports and not averse to work. Early put to school, he 
received such mental training as the elementary schools of the 
day could give. In spite of the traditions that have come down to 
us, and are still kept feebly alive by those who live only in the 
past and find nothing in the present worthy of praise, those "old 
field*' schools were poor institutions of learning, both in equip- 
ment and in methods of instruction. Mr. Hadley's early educa- 
tion was consequently very defective. His success has come in 
spite of his faulty training. "The greatest obstacle to my suc- 
cess in life/' he wrote on one occasion, "has arisen from want of 
thorough training at school. The cramming method then — as I 
fear is too prevalent now — instead of expanding and educating, 
served only to cramp, enfeeble and dwarf the mind. This, like all 
other bad habits, became deeply rooted, so that all through life I 
have realized the mistake of my school-days. I am sure nothing 


more important can be impressed on the student than the jibsolute 
necessity of thoroughness in whatever is undertaken. Anything 
short of this is of little value, if indeed it is not altogether useless 
and harmful/' At the age of eighteen Mr. Hadley left the coun- 
try school and entered the Male Academy of Wilson, where he 
spent one year under the instruction of Mr. D. S. Richardson, one 
of the ablest teachers in North Carolina. In the fall of 1858 he 
entered the University of North Carolina, and was duly gradua- 
ted as Bachelor of Arts. Immediately upon graduation Mr. Had- 
ley, like his ancestor of 1776, obeyed the call of his State to take 
up arms in her defence. 

With the modesty which has always been one of the most no- 
ticeable, as it is one of the most attractive, elements of his charac- 
ter, he did not seek promotion of personal ambition in oflFering 
his services to his State. Had he sought high rank in the army 
he could easily have attained it. Possessing many of the quali- 
ties of character necessary for leadership, as well as the mental 
and moral training which fitted him for it, he could also have had, 
had he wished it, the influence which would have obtained for 
him a commission from the first. But mistrusting his own abili- 
ties, with an eye single to the welfare of the land he loved, he 
oflFered his services in the ranks, enlisting in 1862 as a private in 
Company A from Wilson County. This company became a part 
of the Fifty-fifth North Carolina Regiment. The regiment 
was organized at Camp Mangum, near Raleigh in the Spring of 
1862, Colonel John Kerr Connelly in command. Two months 
later Mr. Hadley's comrades elected him one of their lieutenants. 
His subsequent career fully justified their judgment; by his cour- 
age and gallantry on the field of battle Lieutenant Hadley won his 
way to the command of his company. 

The first fighting in which Lieutenant Hadley participated was 
as a volunteer in the attack on Washington, N. C, September 6, 
1862. From this time until the close of the war, except during 
an interval when he languished in a Federal prison, he was con- 
stantly in active service. In the battle of Suffolk, April 30, 1862, 
the officers of the Fiftv-fifth North Carolina won "cordial words 


of commendation" for the admirable way in which they handled 
their men. Two months later the regiment joined General Lee 
in his invasion of Pennsylvania. During the battle of Gettysburg 
Lieutenant Hadley was in the thickest of the fight. Those troops 
killed "farthest to the front" were of the Fifty-fifth North Caro- 
lina. During the retreat from Gettysburg the regiment formed a 
part of the rear-guard of the Confederate Army. At Falling 
Water they repulsed a determined attack during which Lieutenant 
Hadley was wounded. Throughout the campaign he had borne 
himself with conspicuous bravery and ability. But the fighting 
even at Gettysburg was almost tame in comparison with that in 
which his regiment took part in the Wilderness in May, 1864. It 
was called upon to bear the brunt of perhaps the severest attacks 
made on the Confederate lines during the battle, but repulsed 
them with great damage to the enemy and severe loss in its own 
ranks. A second time a fearful wound, which disabled him for 
several weeks, bore testimony to Lieutenant Hadley's gallantry. 
His services won for him well-deserved promotion, so that when 
he was able to take the field again he did so as captain of his 
company. During the closing days of the year Captain Hadley 
was engaged in the struggles around Petersburg; and then came 
the inevitable but none the less sad end. After Appomattox the 
men returned to their desolated States to achieve greater victories 
in peace than they had won in war. Throughout the struggle no 
man, whether in high command or in the ranks, had borne him- 
self more gallantly than had Captain Hadley. As "the bravest are 
the tenderest," so they are the most modest. Conscious of hav- 
ing done his duty well, he returned quietly to his home, took up 
the broken threads of his career, and since then has sought con- 
stantly and unostentatiously to build up that country in whose 
defence he had fought so well. 

The call to arms had interrupted Mr. Hadley's studies. Im- 
mediately upon the close of the war, therefore, he resumed them 
at the University, received the deg^ree of Master of Arts, read law 
under Judge William H. Battle, and was admitted to the bar in 
1866. It was a dreary outlook which the young lawyer faced. 


The State lay prostrate under the conqueror's sword ; millions of 
dollars worth of property had been destroyed, cities and towns 
desolated, highly cultivated farms turned into waste lands. His 
own property had shared in the general ruin, and necessity forced 
him to devote his splendid talents, which would have ornamented 
his profession, to other fields of labor. The year after his admis- 
sion to the bar he devoted to teaching in Kinston, North Carolina. 
In its results his work was successful; but financially school- 
teaching in North Carolina has never been an attractive profes- 
sion, and in 1867 it was at low tide. The stem and ever-present 
problem of earning a livelihood drove Mr. Hadley, as it has driven 
other able men — to North Carolina's irreparable loss — from the 
schoolroom to the store and farm. 

Since then those talents which might have been devoted to the 
training of the undeveloped mental resources of the State have 
been devoted to the development of her material resources. To 
him, and to dozens of other such men, North Carolina owes it that 
her industries have awaked from sleep; that her hamlets have 
grown into thriving towns, and her towns into busy cities; that 
her waste fields have been cultivated into garden spots. To this 
great work Mr. Hadley brought an industry which never failed, a 
thrift which never wasted, an energy which never slept, a public 
spirit which looked beyond the bounds of private advantage, and 
a fairness and integrity in all his dealings which won for him not 
merely the wealth of gold, but a greater wealth in the respect and 
confidence of his fellow-men. 

In 1867 Mr. Hadley was happily married to Miss Sallie San- 
ders, of Wilson. From this union eight children have sprung, 
five of whom are living. 

Among the most important services Mr. Hadley has rendered 
his community, and indeed the entire State, was the establishment 
and organization of the first system of public schools in the town 
of Wilson. Looking far into the fuure, he caught a vision years 
ago of the great possibilities which lay before the people of the 
New South. He saw too that they could reach their full devel- 
opment and realize the richness of their inheritance only through 


universal education at public expense. He therefore put himself 
at the head of a movement in his own community to establish a 
system of public graded schools, and became the first chairman of 
the board of trustees. These schools were among the very first 
schools of this character established in this State, and from them 
as a radiating centre has gone out an influence the greatness and 
extent of which none can measure. 

Among the characteristics which Mr. Hadley inherited from 
his Scotch-Irish ancestors his independence of thought is one of 
the most striking. Throughout all his relations in life, in busi-> 
ness, in politics, in society, in religion, he has been his own intel- 
lectual master. One instance is an illustration of this. Though 
he has generally allied himself with the Democratic Party in pol- 
itics, he does not do so after the fashion of the blindly-devoted par- 
tisan. On all great public questions and political issues he has 
decided convictions, arrived at only after careful study and 
thought. These convictions he expresses as nearly as possible at 
the polls. Such consideration led him, for instance, to support 
Mr. McKinley on the money issue in 1896. He follows this line 
of action without ostentation and without seeking to influence the 
opinions of others. He has never sought and never held political 
office. His has been the life of a quiet citizen who has chosen to 
influence his generation and subsequent generations by the force 
of example. Such a life is a striking illustration of the success 
which ever attends a strict and conscientious adherence to hon- 
esty, truth, and justice. Within the bounds of these a strong in- 
dependence of thought and action has marked his career. These 
qualities, coupled with temperance and industry, are the secrets of 
his success. 

Though engrossed in the complicated affairs of large business 
relations, Mr. Hadley has found time to indulge a taste for good 
literature. He is a man of scholarly inclinations, has read much, 
and has a retentive memory. With an easy flow of language, he 
is never at loss for words to express his ideas and is an interesting 
conversationalist. In him is found a rare combination of the ex- 
perience of the man of business and the tastes and culture of the 


student and scholar. His success is a vindication of the conten- 
tion that a collegiate and scholarly training is an advantage to the 
man of business, so called. 

In person Mr. Hadley is tall, erect, and without stiffness. He 
is approachable without encouraging familiarity, pleasant and 
easy in manner without compromising his natural dignity. 

For nearly forty years he has labored among the people of east- 
ern North Carolina. His life has been spent in times of danger, 
in times of poverty, in times of gloom and despondency. But 
with a splendid faith in the destiny of his country and her people,, 
he has never despaired of their final success. He has seen th^ 
community to which he has devoted his life grow from a cross — 
roads store to a village, from a village to a thriving town ; he ha^ 
seen the people of his State rally nobly after a destructive wai — 
and from dire poverty and ruin advance to prosperity and wealtl^a 
from ignorance and illiteracy to a high degree of learning and in^.. 
telligence. In this wonderful transformation he has borne n__^ 
small part. By his industry, 'his counsel and his success he has s^/ 
an example of encouragement to others. The influence of sucr^ 
men grows with the growth of the State and expands with the ex- 
pansion of her prosperity. 

R, D, W. Connor, 




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f EW men in North Carolina are better known 
than the Rt. Rev. Leo Haid, O. S. B., D. D., 
I Abbot of Maryhelp Abbey at Belmont in Gas- 
i ton County, President of St. Mary's College at 
the same place. Vicar Apostolic of North Caro- 
lina, and titular Bishop of Messene in Greece, 
eminent prelate and educator is a native of Penn- 
rania, bom at Latrobe in Westmoreland County, on the 
h of July, 1849, His father, John Haid, followed the vocation 
lurseryman. and was a man of character, industry and firmness, 
: maiden name of the Bishop's mother was Mary A. 

lishop Haid received his preparatory education in the common 
ools at his home, and afterwards entered St. Vincent College 
Westmoreland County, graduating therefrom in June, 1868. 
ving determined to study for the priesthood, he matriculated 
5t. Vincent Theological Seminary, and there pursued his stud- 
under the Benedictine Fathers. He graduated in 1872, and 
» took a course in Duff's Business College at Pittsburg. His 
t active work was previous to his graduation from the Thco- 
ical Seminary, when in 1869 he taught in St. Vincent College. 
holds the degree nf Master of Arts from Duff's Business Col- 
;. and the degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon hint 
Rome. In addition to his duties as Professor, he was Secre- 


tary of St. Vincent College, and Chaplain from January 6, 1873, 
to July, 1885. He was elected Abbot of the Benedictine Order in 
North Carolina on July 14, 1885, and was consecrated as a Mitred 
Abbot by Bishop Northrop of Charleston on November 26, 1885. 
On December 7, 1887, he was made Vicar Apostolic (de facto 
Bishop of North Carolina) and titular Bishop of Messene and 
was consecrated by Cardinal Gibbons on July i, 1888. Bishop 
Haid was for six years President of the American Cassinese con- 
gregation of the Benedictine Order, and is President of the 
Southern Benedictine Society of North Carolina. He presided 
over the Council of the Benedictine Abbots of the world at Rome 
in 1893. 

In the Magazine of American History for February, 1895, is an 
interesting article by Dr. John Spencer Bassett, entitled "A North 
Carolina Monastery,*' which speaks of the early work of the Bene- 
dictine Fathers at Belmont, in Gaston Countv. In this article it 
is stated that when Bishop Haid was consecrated Vicar Apostolic 
and Bishop, "he refused to resign his abbatial position, and by a 
special arrangement common in ancient times, but never before 
employed in the United States, he was allowed to fulfill his new 
duties and still to retain his office as abbot." The Benedictine 
Order in which Bishop Haid holds so conspicuous a place, was 
founded at Monte Cassino, in Italy, about the year 529 by St. 
Benedict of Nursia. Its great service to the cause of religion and 
educational enlightenment in Europe during the Middle Ages is 
a matter of history. It still flourishes in Europe, especially in 
Austria, and year by year is gaining a stronger foothold in the 
United States, where its work is pursued with unabated vigor. 

On the arrival of Bishop Haid and his companions at Belmont, 
then called Garibaldi, towards the end of July, 1885, they found 
almost a wilderness. The farm, once good, had been neglected 
during and since the war ; the buildings, nearly all wooden struc- 
tures, were unfit for their purposes and altogether inadequate for 
their wants. Undaunted by difficulties, the little community set 
to work. Instead of repining or begging for aid, they took upon 
themselves the most menial tasks, and soon the scrubbing brush. 

LEO HMD 135 

whitewash and paint gave a more inviting appearance to their 
surroundings. The religious routine, observed for nearly 1400 
years in Benedictine Monasteries in Europe, was introduced at 
Maryhelp Abbey, and has not been neglected for a single day 

The Bishop and the young Benedictines who accompanied him 
to North Carolina were all graduates from St. Vincent College, Pa., 
thoroughly trained teachers, and the following September found 
them in charge of some fifty students from many States — some 
from the North who would not part company with their former in- 
structors. From the very beginning the solid foundations were 
laid for a thorough commercial, classical or theological education, 
as the students might select. Special care was given to the edu- 
cation of priests for North Carolina. The Bishop found only 
five or six priests in the State at his consecration in 1888 ; he has 
since ordained no less than thirty-seven. More than twenty 
Catholic churches have been erected since his advent. Two or- 
phan asylums, hospitals, parochial schools and female academies 
testify to the untiring acivity of the Bishop and his co-laborers. 

While solicitous for the religious, educational, and charitable 
departments, the material welfare of the institution was not neg- 
lected. The college buildings are among the most spacious and 
comfortable in the State. Electric lighting, steam heating, sani- 
tar\' plumbing, etc., add to health and comfort. The grand Ab- 
bey Church challenges the admiration of all visitors ; its Munich 
stained-glass windows are not excelled in beauty by any in Amer- 

The industrial influence for gj)od has not been lost on the vicini- 
ty. The farm is in excellent condition ; choice orchards and large 
vineyards are a source of real pleasure and also add to the in- 
come of the community. A fine herd of blooded cattle is com- 
fortably housed in the great Pennsylvania bam which attracts so 
much notice. The land in the neighborhood has doubled or 
trebled in price since the Benedictine Monks have made this their 
home. Not satisfied with working in North Carolina, a very 
beautiful site was secured on Clear Lake, Pasco County, Florida, 


in 1889, upon which was erected St. Leo's College, since elevated 
to the dignity of an independent Abbey by Pope Leo Thirteenth. 
Situated in a most charming and healthy part of Florida, the Col- 
lege has a large attendance from the North, and many of the best 
families in Cuba send their sons to St. Leo's. 

An industrial school was established some years later on a 
large tract of land six miles south of Manassas, Prince William 
County, Va. In this, now a flourishing institution, a thorough com- 
mercial education is given, almost gratis, by the Benedictine 
Fathers from North Carolina. The large farm affords a splen- 
did opportunity to instruct the older boys practically in agricul- 
tural pursuits. Indefatigable in his zeal, the Bishop in 1902 
opened a Benedictine College in Savannah, Ga. For many 
reasons the military feature was introduced, and the "Benedictine 
Cadets" have already gained an enviable reputation. The Gov- 
ernor of Georgia acknowledged their military standing by sending 
commissions to the officers. Though in its infancy, this military 
college promises to become one of the leading educational insti- 
tutions in Georgia. It will be evident from what is here only 
mentioned that Bishop Haid and the young Benedictines working 
with him are true to the noble traditions of their illustrious order. 
North Carolina is certainly very fortunate in having such a body 
of able, energetic, conscientious men in its boundaries. Their 
motto is "In omnibus glorificetur Deus," which they received in 
the religious rule written by St. Benedict at Monte Cassino, Italy, 
1400 years ago. 

As a matter of course. Bishop Haid is precluded by his sacred 
calling from an active participation in the politics of the day, but 
he exercises his right of suffrage, as every good citizen should. 
In so doing he has identified himself with the Democratic Party, 
and still holds to the principles of that organization. 

Though no longer to be classed as a young man, Bishop Haid. 
is still in the prime vigor of life; and, in all human probability . 
has many years of religious activity yet before him. 

His life's work has been, to a great extent, merged in that of th^^ 
order of which he is the head in North Carolina, but his persoi 



ality is one which must appeal to any one even apart from his posi- 
tion or calling. 

The seriousness of speech and action which might be expected 
from his German ancestry is mingled with a ready wit and keen 
sense of humor. 

Of slightly more than medium height, slender and erect, with 
long brown beard and dark curly hair, both liberally sprinkled 
with gray, and quick, sparkling eyes. Bishop Haid surely attracts 
attention and quickly wins friends. 

As an orator his reputation is, perhaps, as great as an adminis- 
trator, but what stands forth more prominently than either is the 
genuine democracy of the American citizen going hand in hand 
with ihe dignity of the ecclesiastic. 

Robert Dick Douglas. 




f HE most noted patriot of the Pedee section of 
North Carolina during the war of the Revolu- 
tion was Brigadier-General Henry William 
Harrington, of the County of Richmond, which 
was a part of Anson County when he first set- 
tled there. This gentleman was bom about the 
year 1748. Like many of the most active partisans on the Ameri- 
can side in our War for Independence, he was a native of Eng- 
land. From that country he emigrated to the West Indian island 
of Jamaica, but did not long remain there. On coming to the 
British Colonies from the West Indies, he first made his home in 
the northern part of South Carolina on the Pedee River. While 
there he married Rosana Auld. This lady was a daughter of 
Major James Auld, and her home was Anson County, North 
Carolina. The latter circumstance doubtless influenced her hus- 
band to take up his residence in this State. His removal to 
Anson County occurred in 1776. shortly after the beginning of 
the war in which he was destined to bear an important part. 

Harrington's first military commission in the war was issued to 
him before he removed from South Carolina, he being appointed 
Captain of a Volunteer Company of Foot in St. David's Parish, 
Craven County, on the 3d of August. 1775, by the Provincial 
Council of Safety. About this time he also became Chairman of 
the Committee of Observation of St. David's Parish. In June, 


1776, Captain Harrington marched his company to Haddrell's 
Point, and there took part in the operations against Sir Henry 

As heretofore noted, Captain Harrington removed to Anson 
County, North Carolina, in 1776. When Richmond was severed 
from Anson in 1779, and erected into a separate county, he was 
commissioned colonel (November 25, 1779) and placed in com- 
mand of the militia forces in Richmond County. In the spring 
of 1780 he led his regiment to aid in the coast defences of South 
Carolina, there being under the command of General B<^jamin 

Immediately, on the capture of General Rutherford, Colonel 
Harrington was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General of 
North Carolina militia to succeed Rutherford. During the same 
year he sat as a member of the House of Commons of the State, 
representing Richmond County. The Tories became very active 
at the South, but Harrington was an efficient officer and success- 
fully suppressed them. Early in September he had a force of 
500 militia, embracing companies from the Albemarle and Cape 
Fear counties, at Cross Creek. He drove the Tories before 
him and marched into South Carolina to gather supplies. At 
length, however, the General Assembly appointed Colonel David- 
son to be Brigadier-General of the Salisbury District, and Har- 
rington thereupon offered his resignation when he had suppressed 
the enemy. That being done in the Fall of 1781, he seems to have 
retired from the service, but appears to have been again active in 
1 782. He was a very excellent officer and had the full confidence 
of his soldiers. Like nearly all brave men, he was generous and 
merciful to a fallen foe, as well as tender and affectionate in his 
home life. 

During the war Tories burned General Harrington's dwelling 
to the ground, robbed him at the same time of much personal 
property, destroyed a valuable library he had collected, and kid- 
napped many of his slaves. One of the persons largely con- 
cerned in this outrage settled in North Carolina after the war and 
Harrington brought suit against him for the loss he had sustained, 


finally succeeding in his suit after a varied and complex course of 
litigation. This reduced the Tory to poverty ; but Harrington on 
witnessing the distress of female members of his enemy's family 
at the prospect of being turned out of doors, stifled the recollec- 
tion of past injuries and gave them a deed for their home. 

Another instance is recorded to show the generosity of General 
Harrington. He was riding with two of his aide-de-camps 
along a country road, and directed those officers to push forward 
to a neighboring inn, while he turned from the main thorough- 
fare to' spend the night with a friend. On the General's return, 
unattended, he was accosted by a highwayman, who presented a 
gun at his breast before he could reach for his pistols, and ordered 
him to deliver his valuables. Seeing himself at the mercy of the 
robber, Harrington dismounted and handed over his purse con- 
taining five guineas. Much to his astonishment the highwa3rman 
took two and considerately returned the other three guineas, re- 
marking that the traveller might need this money for the ex- 
penses of his journey. General Harrington was then ordered to 
walk about a hundred yards away from his holster pistols while 
the robber disappeared into the forest. At a subsequent period 
this latter-day Robin Hood was captured, together with other 
Tory marauders, and sentenced to death. On recognizing his 
old acquaintance, Harrington took him aside and questioned him 
concerning his past life and the reason why he — a man apparently 
of good impulses — had fallen into evil ways. Being favorably 
impressed with replies to these inquiries, he oflfered the prisoner 
a pardon on condition that he enlist under the American banner. 
This offer was accepted, and the former Tory became a faithful 
soldier of Harrington's brigade and one devoted to his generous 

The above facts concerning General Harrington we have gath- 
ered from a South Carolina work called the History of the Old 
Cheraws, by the Right Reverend Alexander Gregg, Bishop of 
Texas. That work also says: 


**In person, General Harrington was small, but well formed and hand- 
some. His education was good and his mind highly cultivated. After 
a life of eminent public service and private virtue, he died at his seat in 
Richmond County, on the 31st of March, 1809, in the sixty-second year 
of his age."' 

As heretofore mentioned, General Harrington married Rosana 
Auld. To this union were bom four children : Rosana, who mar- 
ried Robert Troy ; Henry William, Junior ; James Auld, who mar- 
ried Eleanor Wilson ; and Harriet, who married Belah Strong. 

In his domestic relations General Harrington was especially 
blessed. Of his home-life Bishop Gregg says : 

"After the war General Harrington was elected a member of the Leg- 
islature of North Carolina, and in that and other positions of trust served 
his adopted State with unswerving fidelity. Strongly inclined, how- 
ever, to retirement, he rather avoided than sought the excitements and 
distinctions of public life, and gave his latter years to the peaceful pur- 
suits of agriculture, the cultivation of the social relations, and the sweets 
of domestic life. Happily constituted for contributing to the endearing 
pleasures of home, he was peculiarly blessed in having to share with him 
in those delights one who was not more admired for her understanding 
and excellence of character than beloved universally for those beautiful 
traits by which the life of woman in every relation is adorned. 

General Harrington is recorded in the Census of 1790 as own- 
ing sixty slaves. He was an indulgent master ; and many of his 
negroes, who were kidnapped by Tories during the Revolution, 
found means to return to him after the war. 

In 1 79 1 the Legislature of North Carolina elected General Har- 
rington one of the commissioners to fix the seat of government, 
and a street in the capital city of the State is named in his honor. 
In his 1892 Centennial address on Raleigh, Dr. Battle describes 
Harrington as '*a planter of immense estates and baronial style of 

In 1789, when the first election of trustees of the University of 
Xorth Carolina took place, General Harrington was elected a 
member of the Board and served until 1795. 

As already stated, General Harrington's death occurred on the 
31st of March, 1809. Both the Raleigh Register and the Ral- 


eigh Star of April 13th, in that year, contained the following obit- 

"Died: — ^At his seat in Richmond County, on the 31st ultimo, in the 
sixty-second year of his age, General Henry W. Harrington. He was 
an active and useful officer, and acquired honor in the Revolution which 
secured to this country its independence. In private life he exercised 
all the virtues that recommend a man to our confidence and regard. The 
nicest sense of honor and strictest principles of justice marked every 
transaction of his life. In his more domestic relations he was eminently 
amiable — the most tender and affectionate husband, the kindest and most 
indulgent father, a sincere and zealous friend. His memory will ever 
be cherished by all the virtuous and good of his acquaintance." 

A word in conclusion concerning the two sons of General Har- 
rington may be of interest. His elder son and namesake, Henry 
William Harrington, served a short while in the Navy. His plan- 
tation in Richmond County contained 13,000 acres. He did not 
marry. He represented his county in the North Caro- 
lina House of Commons ; also in the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1835, and was among those in the latter body who 
were active in their efforts to secure the repeal of the constitu- 
tional provision aimed at Roman Catholics. In the course of the 
debates he said that twelve years before the Convention met, he 
had begun his efforts for the removal of this **stain on the escutch- 
eon of North Carolina." James Auld Harrington, younger son 
of General Harrington, graduated from the University of North 
Carolina in 1808, and became a planter. He was a citizen of 
South Carolina and died in 1835. His elder brother, above men- 
tioned, survived him many years. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 


[ HE origin of the Harvey family in North Caro- 
lina has been the subject of much speculation 
and has been accounted for in various ways. 
The traditional accounts credit Virginia with 
furnishing this distinguished family to North 

_ Carolina, but whatever may be true of the other 

branches of the family, this is not true of the branch from which 
John Harvey sprung. During the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury the first John Harvey of whom we have any record, and his 
wife Marj'. lived "at ye Heath in Snetterfield Parish in Warwick 
Sheare in Ould Inglanrf." One of their sons, Thomas Harvey, 
came to North Carolina some time about 1680 as private secretary 
to Governor John Jenkins. He himself afterwards served as 
Deputy Governor during the absence of Governor Archdale. Upon 
his arrival here he found others of his name who were already 
prominent in the official life of the Province. They had settled in 
Perquimans Connty of Albemarle Sound, occupying a strip of land 
between the Yawpim and Perquimans rivers known to this day 
as Harvey's Neck. Governor Jenkins died December 17, 1681. 
Within less than four months Thomas Harvey showed his devo- 
tion to the memory of his patron by marrying the bereaved widow 
Tohannah. In those early days in North Carolina, when the num- 
ber of men in the Province greatly exceeded the number of women, 
it was probably regarded as contrary to public policy for a spright- 


ly woman to hide her charms behind a widow's veil. Six years 
after her second marriage Mrs. Harvey died. Thomas Harvey 
bore his loss with becoming fortitude and within less than six 
months resigned his sorrows into the keeping of Sarah Laker, the 
daughter of a prominent colonial official, Benjamin Laker, and his 
wife Jane Dey. By her Thomas Harvey had three children. The 
second son, a Thomas also, married Elizabeth Cole, daughter of 
Colonel James Cole of Nansemond County, Virginia. This union 
continued only a few years, Thomas Harvey dying during the 
winter of 1729. He left four sons, Thomas, John, Benjamin 
and Miles. In his will he made provisions and left directions for 
the education of these boys ; another legacy in this will was one of 
a hundred pounds proclamation money for the poor of Perqui- 
mans County. 

The second of these four boys was destined to become the most 
illustrious of the Harvey family. John Harvey was born some 
time about 1725. He married Mary Bonner, daughter of Thomas 
and Abigail Bonner of Beaufort County, by whom he became the 
father of ten children. 

We know nothing about John Harvey's early life. As soon as he 
was old enough to understand such things he manifested a lively 
interest in provincial politics ; the traditions of his family, no less 
than his own inclinations, would lead him to do so. Such a prom- 
ising young man, supported by family influence, wealth, and edu- 
cation, could not fail to attract the attention of the local politicians 
of the popular party. He had scarcely laid aside his childish ways 
before they brought him forward as a candidate for a seat in the 
General Assembly. 

John Harvey's first service in the Assembly began with the June 
session of 1746. He took his seat on the thirteenth day of the 
month. From that day to the day of his death the Assembly was 
to be the arena where he was to win fame for himself and help to 
win liberty for his country. He arrived one day after the or- 
ganization of the House which was effected by the election of 
Samuel Swann as Speaker. The session was a short one, lasting 
but sixteen days, and Harvey had only to listen and learn. 


Harvey had entered the Assembly, however, just in time to be- 
come involved in one of the bitterest contests connected with our 
colonial history. The early North Carolina charters had given to 
the counties of Chowan, Perquimans, Pasquotank, Currituck, 
Bertie, and Tyrrell the privilege of sending five members each to 
the Assembly, and had allotted to all the other counties only two 
each. As these latter counties grew in wealth and population they 
looked with jealous eyes on the extra privilege of the older coim- 
ties. Rivalries and friction enhanced by local prejudices arose 
out of this inequality. By having five members each the northern 
counties had a majority of the Assembly, and of course controlled 
legislation. The southern counties could do nothing but patiently 
await their opportunity to strike a more nearly even balance. It 
happened that just at the time John Harvey entered the Assembly 
the Governor, Gabriel Johnston, a hard-headed Scotchman, threw 
himself into the controversy on the side of the southern cotmties. 
In November, 1746, he called the Assembly to meet at Wilmington. 
On account of the difficulties in reaching Wilmington at that 
season of the year, the northern members had declared that they 
would not attend an Assembly held at that place. Relying upon 
the fact that they composed a majority of the members, they ex- 
pected, of course, that no session could be held without them. In 
this they reckoned without their host. Little did John Harvey 
and his colleagues think that Samuel Swann and his colleagues, 
for the sake of a petty sectional advantage, would surrender one 
of the most cherished constitutional principles for which the colon- 
ists had ever contended — that no number less than a majority of 
the Assembly ought to be considered a quorum. But this is just 
what the southern members did, for at the bidding of a Royal 
Governor they formed a house composed of less than a majority, 
and proceeded to business. Only two bills were passed at this 
session — one to make New-Bern the capital of the province, the 
other to reduce the representation of the northern counties to two 
members each. After this had been done the Governor with many 
honeyed words sent them home. His management had been suc- 
cessful, but he raised a storm he could not quiet. 


Of course the northern counties refused to recognize the valid- 
ity of laws passed by this rump Assembly. So when the Governor 
issued his writs for a new election, commanding them to choose 
two members each, they refused obedience, and chose five each as 
usual. John Harvey was one of those elected for Perquimans. 
But the Governor declared the elections void. Thereupon the 
northern counties appealed to the King. The controversy was 
long and bitter. Eight years passed before a decision was reached 
on the appeal, and during these years the northern counties, refus- 
ing to send only two members each — the only number the Governor 
would recognize — were not represented in the Assembly of the 
Province. It was not until March 14, 1754, that the Board of 
Trade filed its report with the King ; the decision was in favor of 
the northern counties. 

Governor Johnston, dying in 1752, did not live to see the end of 
the controversy he had helped to fasten on the colony. His suc- 
cessor was Arthur Dobbs. He arrived in North Carolina in Octo- 
ber, 1754. bringing instructions to call a new Assembly in which 
the representation was to be distributed as it had been prior to 
1746. This Assembly met in New-Bern, December 12th. John 
Harvey was returned at the head of the Perquimans delegation. 
John Campbell was there from Bertie, leader of the northern 
forces ; Samuel Swann from Onslow, leader of the southern fac- 
tion. The northern faction was of course hostile to Swann, and 
for the first time in fourteen years an opponent for the speakership 
appeared. A most interesting contest resulted between Campbell 
and Swann in which the former was elected. 

With his return to the Assembly John Harvey began his long, 
uninterrupted career of service which was to end only with his 
death. He gradually won his way forward in the councils of the 
province to a place second to' none. As early as 1756 he became 
the recognized leader of the northern party. When the Assembly 
met in September of that year, John Campbell was too ill to attend 
and so sent in his resignation as Si>eaker. The northern mem- 
bers at once nominated Harvey to succeed him. It so happened 
however that, as CampbelKs resignation was unexpected and no 


one kx>ked for a contest for the speakership, several of the north- 
ern party did not arrive in time to take part in the election. 
Their absence gave the southern members the majority and they 
elected Swann. This was the last attempt to defeat Swann. 
Events soon occurred which welded the two parties together for 
united resistance to the encroachments of the Governor, and har- 
mony being the first essential for success, Swann was allowed to 
preside over the Assembly without opposition until he voluntarily 
resigned the honor. 

The great event of Governor Dobbs's administration was the 
French and Indian War. No man was more British in his enmity 
to the French or more Protestant in his hostility to their religion 
than was Arthur Dobbs. He made the wringing of money out 
of the Province for the prosecution of the war the paramount ob- 
ject of his administration. The Assembly met his demands as 
liberally as they thought the situation and circumstances of the 
Province justified, but they could not satisfy the Governor. 
Greater demands pressed in impolitic language gave birth to sharp 
controversies over the limits of the prerogatives of the Crown and 
the extent of the privileges of the Assembly. In these John Har- 
vey was one of the leaders in stoutly maintaining that the only 
authority on earth that could legally levy taxes on the people was 
their General Assembly. 

While the war occupied public attention little else occurred to 
attract general interest. The time and attention of the Assembly 
were largely given to schemes for internal improvements. John 
Harvey was concerned in much of this uninterestingly necessary 
work. He served on most of the important committees, and was 
frequently called upon to preside over the House while in commit- 
tee of the whole. This was the school in which he received the 
training that was to enable him to lead the House in the darker 
davs to come. 

Governor Dobbs died in March, 1765, and was succeeded by 
William Tryon. Tryon's first Assembly met at New-Bern, May 3, 
1765. He laid before the House some correspondence relative to 
the establishment of a postal route through the Province, and 


recommended that an appropriation be made for the purpose. 
This was of course a matter of the first importance, and the As- 
sembly, desiring more information than was then available, re- 
solved to postpone final action until the needed data could be col- 
lected. However, ''desirous that a matter of such public utility 
should take eflFect" at once, the House appointed a committee to 
arrange with the postmaster-general for a temporary route until 
more definite action could be taken. The chairman of this com- 
mittee was John Harvey. The work was pushed with vigor and 
success, and a route was laid out from Suffolk in Virginia to the 
South Carolina boundary line, a distance of two hundred and 
ninety-seven miles. In a letter to Governor Bull of South Caro- 
lina urging him to have the route continued to Charleston, Gov- 
ernor Tryon says, evidently referring to the committee, that the 
route was established through North Carolina **by the assiduity of 
some gentlemen*' of this Province. It is scarcely necessary to add 
that the route proved of the greatest advantage to North Carolina 
in the great struggle to which the country was approaching, but 
in a way little relished by William Tryon. 

In December Tryon dissolved the old Assembly and issued writs 
for the election of a new one. Nearly a year passed, however, be- 
fore he allowed the members to come together, and the Assembly 
did not meet until November 3, 1766. On that day Richard Cas- 
well, representing Dobbs County, "moved that John Harvey, Es- 
quire, be chosen Speaker; and (he) was unanimously chosen 
Speaker and placed in the chair accordingly." And so John Har- 
vey had at last come to his own. The place now assumed as 
leader of the Province he never lost, though once temporarily laid 
aside on account of ill-health. It is, of course, impossible from 
the bare records that have come down to us to estimate accuratelv 
the exact share which John Harvey had in the stirring scenes 
enacted in the Province from now until his death. But we do 
know that his position as leader of the Assembly carried with it 
the leadership of the popular party in the Province. How he bore 
himself in that exalted and responsible position the success of 
that revolution guided by him in its inception bears witness. 


Grave matters awaited the attention of Mr. Speaker Harvey 
and the North Carolina Assembly. The Massachusetts Assembly 
in February, 1766, and the Virginia Assembly in the following 
May, issued their famous circular letters to the colonies inviting 
their cooperation in resisting taxation by the British Parliament. 
They protested against the acts aimed at the regulation of the 
internal policy of the colony, and urged the evident necessity that 
in their remonstrances and petitions to the King against these acts 
"the representations of the several Assemblies should harmonize 
with each other." In November John Harvey laid copies of these 
letters before the North Carolina Assembly. The members seem 
to have missed the real significance of the proposal they contained 
— united action, the thing most dreaded by the British Ministry — 
declined to join with the other colonies in their protests, and gave 
John Harvey merely verbal directions to reply to the letters. A 
committee was appointed, however, consisting of John Harvey, 
Joseph Montfort, Samuel Johnston, Joseph Hewes, and Edward 
Vail, to draw up an address to the King for the North Carolina 
Assembly. Henry Eustace McCulloh, through Harvey's influ- 
ence, was named agent to present the address. Both Johnston 
2nd Hewes disapproved of these proceedings and declined to act 
on the committee ; the other three members drew up an address 
and sent it to McCulloh, who duly presented it to His Majesty. In 
his letter of instructions to McCulloh, Harvey improved upon the 
action of the Assembly by directing him to act with the agents of 
the other colonies. 

A new Assembly met in October, and Harvey was again unani- 
mously elected Speaker. The Assembly and the Governor met on 
g^ood terms, and at first the business of the session proceeded as 
smoothly as a ship on the glassy bosom of a tranquil lake. But 
as beneath the smoothest surface often dangerous reefs lie hid on 
which the unsuspecting vessel goes to wreck, so beneath the sur- 
face of smooth words with which the Governor greeted the House 
lay ihe rocks of disaster. In the preceding May the Virginia As- 
sembly had passed a series of resolutions denying the right of 
parliament to levy taxes on the colonies and maintaining the right 


of the people peaceably to assemble for the redress of grievances. 
These resolutions were sent to the Speakers of the several Assem- 
blies as the circular letters had been sent. Harvey laid them be- 
fore the North Carolina Assembly November 2d. This time the 
members redeemed themselves by spreading on their journal simi. 
lar resolutions as expressive of the sentiments of North Carolina. 
When Tryon learned of these treasonable resolutions he declared 
that they "sapped the foundation of confidence and gratitude," 
and therefore dissolved the Assembly. 

When the new Assembly met at New-Bern in December, 1770, 
Richard Caswell was elected Speaker. It has been frequently 
stated that the Assembly took this step because they were anxious 
to placate Tryon, and John Harvey on account of his bold stand 
for the privileges of the people was not acceptable to the Governor. 
Such a statement is not only erroneous, but does a great injustice 
to all the persons concerned. It is an insinuation that the As- 
sembly could stoop to the sacrifice of their leader in order to 
please a Royal Governor; it is an insinuation that Tryon had no 
better sense than to bite at the bribe; it is an insinuation that 
Richard Caswell was not true to the interests of the people and 
was willing to lend himself as a peace oflFering at the expense of 
his leader; it is an insinuation that John Harvey was willing to 
show the white feather after having so arrogantly waved the red 
flag. There is no need to seek such a complicated explanation of 
such a simple event ; the plain truth is that John Harvey was at 
home sick when the Assembly convened and so a substitute had to 
be found. What better substitute could be found for bold John 
Harvey than the versatile Richard Caswell? It may as well be 
said here thai John Harvey's relations with Tryon were of the 
most friendly, and even confidential, nature. In that event in 
Tryon 's career for which he has been most blamed, the Regulator 
War, he received the sympathy and support of John Harvey. 
The Regulator disorders reached their climax at Alamance, after 
which Tryon went to New York, and Josiah Martin came to 
North Carolina. 

Martin met his first Assembly at New-Bern November 19, 1771. 


Not many days passed before he quarrelled with the House over a 
measure which he denounced as "a monstrous usurpation of 
authority that proves irrefragably the propensity of this people 
to democracy." He little dreamed that the time was near at hand 
when the proudest boast of "this people" would be this very "pro- 
pensity to democracy." 

The Assembly did not meet again until January, 1773. Richard 
Caswell, whose bold conduct had been the cause of Martin's wrath, 
might very justly have demanded that the members endorse his 
conduct by reelecting him Speaker. But realizing that it was an 
improper time for self-seeking, he deferred to the real leader of 
the Assembly, and himself nominated John Harvey. From this 
session till the end of royal rule in North Carolina John Harvey 
was continuously elected Speaker of the Assembly without opposi- 
tion. This January session ended in confusion. During the pre- 
ceding summer Governor Martin, acting under certain instruc- 
tions from the King which the Assembly had positively declmed to 
follow, had caused the boundary line between North Carolina and 
South Carolina to be run in such a way as to operate to the disad- 
vantage of this province. He now called upon the Assembly to 
defray the expenses of this work and the House peremptorily and 
sharply refused. In order to give them an opportunity to recon- 
sider their action, which, under the rules of the House, could not be 
done at that session, Martin prorogued the session from March 6th 
to March 9th. On the 9th when he was ready to meet the As- 
sembly again, he found to his astonishment that the majority of 
the members had gone home. He therefore convened the remain- 
ing: ones and commanded them to form a House. They refused 
unless a majority of the members should return. When Martin 
asked John Harvey if he expected a sufficient number to return 
to make a majority, Harvey replied that he had not "the least ex- 
pectation" that any such event would occur. In an outburst of 
rage Martin declared that "the Assembly had deserted the busi- 
ness and interests of their constituents and flagrantly insulted the 
dignity and authority of government," and forthwith dissolved 


It was now becoming apparent to all Americans that if they 
were to make a successful stand for their liberties they must stand 
together. So when John Harvey at the December session in 1773 
laid before the House letters from Virginia proposing that each 
colony appoint a committee of correspondence to keep in touch 
with the committees of the other colonies, the idea found ready 
acceptance. The following were elected a committee for North 
Carolina: John Harvey. Robert Howe, Cornelius Harnett, Wil- 
liam Hooper, Richard Caswell, Edward Vail, John Ashe, Joseph 
Hewes, and Samuel Johnston. Thus North Carolina took her 
first step towards union. The next step was the natural conse- 
quence of the first and was easy to take. This was the call that 
now went abroad throughout the country for a Continental Con- 
gress. When Martin learned that North Carolina was deter- 
mined to join in this Congress he determined to prevent it by re- 
fusing to call the Assembly together until too late to elect dele- 
gates. Fortunately his private secretary communicated this in- 
telligence to John Harvey. Harvey flew into a rage, and ex- 
claimed angrily, **In that case the people will call one them- 
selves!" **He was in a very violent mood," wrote Samuel John- 
ston to William Hooper, *'and declared that he was for assembly- 
ing a Convention independent of the Governor, and urged upon us 
to cooperate with him. He says he will lead the way, and will 
issue handbills under his own name, and that the committee of cor- 
respondence ought to go to work at once." 

Harvey's bold and revolutionary proposition fell upon willing 
ears. The people rallied to his support; the Convention was 
called ; and in defiance of Governor Martin's proclamation for- 
bidding it, met at New-Bern, August 25, 1774. Seventy-one dele- 
gates were present, among them the ablest men in the colony. 
When they came to choose their presiding officer all eyes turned 
to one man, the father of the Convention, John Harvey. A series 
of resolutions was passed denouncing the acts of Parliament, stat- 
ing the claims of the Americans, and expressing approval of the 
call for a Continental Congress to which delegates were elected. 
John Harvey was authorized to call another Convention whenever 


he thought it necessary. No more significant step has ever been 
taken in North Carolina than the successful meeting of this Con- 
vention. It revealed the people to themselves; they now began 
to understand that there was no special magic in the writs and 
proclamations of a Royal Governor ; they themselves could appoint 
delegates and organize legislatures without the intervention of a 
king's authority. This was a long step towards independence; 
John Harvey took it, the people followed. 

Thwarted in his plans to hold North Carolina aloof from the 
Continental Congress, Martin made the best of a bad situation and 
summoned the Assembly to meet him at New-Bern, April 4, 1775. 
John Harvey immediately called a Convention to meet at the same 
place April 3d. It was intended that the members of the Assembly 
should also be delegates to the Convention. This plan was care- 
fully carried out, though as the Convention was a larger body 
than the Assembly, there were members of the former who were 
not members of the latter. On April 3d, John Harvey was again 
unanimously elected Moderator of the Convention, and on the next 
day Speaker of the Assembly. The peculiar situation is therefore 
presented of one set of men forming two bodies — one legal, sit- 
ting by the authority of the Royal Governor and in obedience to 
his call ; the other illegal, sitting in defiance of the Royal Govern- 
or's authority and in direct disobedience of his proclamation. We 
have the curious spectacle of the Governor calling on the former 
body in the strongest language at his command to join him in dis- 
persing the latter body composed of the same men whose aid he 
solicited. *'When the Governor's private secretary was announced 
at the door/* wrote Colonel Saunders, **in an instant, in the twink- 
ling of an eye, Mr. Moderator Harvey would become Mr. Speak- 
er Harvey and .... gravely receive His Excellency's message." 

The Convention remained in session four days. Its work be- 
longs to the general history of the State rather than to the biog- 
raphy of John Harvey. The last session came to order at nine 
o'clock in the morning of April 7. Harvey was again authorized 
to call a Convention whenever he deemed it necessary, but as he 
was in feeble health, the same authority was granted, in the event 


of Harvey's death, to Samuel Johnston. After this one thing 
only remained to be done — to give expression of the grateful 
thanks of the convention to John Harvey (now about to retire for- 
ever from the contentions and worries of earthly conventions) for 
the "judicious and faithful" exercise of the duties of his office 
and the great services he thereby rendered his country. 

The clock now pointed to the hour of ten and the provincial 
convention quietly transformed itself into the General Assembly. 
The Governor's opening message to the Assembly was as insulting 
a document as any minion of royalty ever wrote to the bold repre- 
sentatives of a free people, proud of their freedom. The House 
denounced it in a series of vigorous and radical resolutions which 
they instructed their committee to embody in their reply to the 
Governor's message. When these came before Martin's eyes his 
indignation and anger rose to white heat, and in words of wrath, 
April 8, 1775, he dissolved the Assembly and so put an end for- 
ever to British rule in North Carolina. 

During the months of April and May the people of North Caro- 
lina saw many events of far-reaching significance. They saw the 
assembly ing and adjournment of the most revolutionary body ever 
held in North Carolina. They saw the convening and dissolu- 
tion, after a stormy session of four days, of the last Assembly held 
here under royal rule. They saw the Governor of the Province 
openly defied in his palace at the capital, closely watched by armed 
men, and virtually besieged in his own house. They saw the guns 
he had set up for his own protection seized and carried oflF by the 
very men he had been sent to rule. And finally, they saw the 
flight of the terrified ruler from his palace at New-Bern to the 
protection of the guns of Fort Johnston at the mouth of the Cape 
Fear. The atmosphere was charged with the spirit of revolution. 
Men sucked it into their lungs with the very air they breathed and 
then showed it forth to the world in their acts. The Committees 
of Safety were everywhere active in the discharge of their various 
duties, legislating, judging, executing, combining within them- 
selves all the different functions of government. The news of 
the battle of Lexington spread like wildfire through the Province 


and men everywhere flew to arms. The committee of Mecklen- 
burg met at Charlotte and immortalized the 31st of May. 
The proceedings of the second Continental Congress, which met 
amid all this excitement, were followed with the keenest interest. 
Deserted by their Governor, left without a legislative body or the 
legal means of convening one, totally without courts of justice, 
nothing was left for the people to do to save themselves from an- 
archy but to take the administration of their government into their 
own hands. This they did, and the people from subjects became 
sovereigns, from colonists became citizens, and their country from 
a Province became a State, in reality if not in name. 

And so the destined revolution had come. No man had done 
more to produce it than John Harvey. No man watched its out- 
come with greater hopes. But it is one of the tragedies of human 
life that men often are not permitted to see and enjoy the fruits 
of their labors and sacrifices. So it was with John Harvey. On 
the last day of May in the year 1775, those three sterling patriots, 
Robert Howe, Cornelius Harnett, and John Ashe, who had fought 
so many battles for liberty by John Harvey's side and under his 
leadership, wrote to Samuel Johnston : "We sincerely condole 
with all the friends of American liberty in this Province on the 
death of our worthy friend Colonel Harvey. We regret it as a 
public loss, especially at this critical juncture.** Few the words, 
but sincere the tribute, from those who knew his virtues and ap- 
preciated his worth. 

R. D. IV. Connor, 



(HERE is a family tradition that at the time of the 
marriage of Judge Maurice Moore, his class- 
mate at Harvard, William Hill, came from Bos- 
ton to the Cape Fear to attend the iharriagc; 
at any rate, about that time, there being much 
_ communication and trade between Wilmington 

and Boston, and many of the Cape Fear youths being educated in 
New England, some very bright young men came from Boston to 
make their homes on the Cape Fear, and among them was William 

This gentleman having graduated at Harvard in 1756, at first 
taught school on the Cape Fear, and then became a merchant at 
Brunswick. On September 29. 1757, he married Margaret 
Moore, a daughter of Nathaniel Moore, and a niece of "King" 
Roger Moore and of Colonel Maurice Moore ; and thus he became 
closely allied with that large and influential family. He himself 
was always spoken of as an elegant and accomplished gentleman 
and a noble man. The first historical reference that is preserved of 
him is in the Journal of Josiah Quincy. who visited the Cape Fear 
in March, 1773, for the purpose of arranging to establish a CtMn- 
mittee of Correspondence on Pubhc Affairs. Mr. Quincy says: 

"Lodged the last 1 
iam Hill, Esquire, i 

ight in Brunswick, N. C, at the house of Wil- 
most sensible, polite gentleman, and though a 
replete with sentiments of general liberty, aiul 


warmly attached to the cause of American freedom." On March 
28th Mr. Quincy's entry is: "I go to church this day at Brunswick — 
hear W. Hill read prayers." 

Mr. Hill was a duly appointed lay reader for the church at 

In 1774 the chief question between the Colonies and the Crown 
was as to paying the tax on tea. After a great deal of agitation 
and compromise, it was finally arranged that thf Colonies might 
have the East India tea on such terms and conditions that it was 
thought all objection to paying the duty would be removed; and 
in the fall of that year some tea was imported into the Cape Fear 
in the brig Sally, owned by Mr. Hill, for himself and others. On 
November 23, 1774, the freeholders of the town of Wilmington 
met and appointed a committee the more effectually to carry into 
execution the resolutions of the Continental Congress; and the 
first matter brought before the committee for action was this im- 
portation of tea ; and they asked Mr. Hill whether the tea might 
not be regularly despatched out of the Colony by the vessel it came 
in. Mr. Hill at once replied that he did not know what the col- 
lector and controller of the King's Customs might say about that, 
but he added : *'The safety of the people is, or ought to be, the su- 
preme law ; the gentlemen of the committee will judge whether 
this law (the safety of the people) or an act of Parliament should 
at this particular time operate in North Carolina. I believe every 
tea importer will cheerfully submit to their determination. I can 
answer for, gentlemen, your most obedient." 

From this it will appear that Mr. Hill at that early date enun- 
ciated the doctrine that the safety of the people, as determined on 
by themselves, was superior to an act of Parliament. At that 
time no one had gone farther in laying down principles for public 
action. During the course of the Revolutionary War Brunswick 
became so exposed that the merchants and gentlemen there aban- 
doned their homes and removed to Wilmington. At the end of 
the war Mr. Hill had saved something out of the general impov- 
erishment that was the fate of the Cape Fear gentlemen. 

Mr. Hill left four sons: John, Nathaniel, William Henry and 


Thomas. Nathaniel was sent to Scotland, was apprenticed to an 
apothecary and received his degree as a physician at the Medical 
College of Edinburgh, and was a celebrated physician of Wil- 
mington. Thomas, the youngest son, was a planter, a man of fine 
culture and high standing, and was the father of Dr. John Hamp- 
den Hill, and others. The eldest son, John, in 1781, was an offi- 
cer in the Continental Line, fought with Greene at Eutaw Springs 
and continued >yith him in the service until peace was declared 
and the army disbanded in 1783. He also left a numerous prog- 
eny, among his children being Dr. Frederick J. Hill, of Orton, 
who has been called **the father of the common school system in 
North Carolina." 

The third son of Mr. William Hill, William Henry Hill, the 
subject of this sketch, was a lawyer and a planter. He studied 
law under Mr. Barrett in Boston. When North Carolina became 
a member of the Union in 1789, General Washington appointed 
him the first District Attorney of the United States for the Dis- 
trict of North Carolina. He was a gentleman of brilliant parts 
and finely educated. When about 1794 parties began to rise, he 
adhered to the administration, which was under control of the 
Federalists. He represented his county in the State Senate in 
1794 and he was a representative of his district in Congress for 
two terms from 1799 to 1803. Jefferson had been beaten for the 
presidency in 1796 and Mr. Hill was a strong opponent of Jeffer- 
son's election. At the next presidential election he also was ac- 
tive against the Virginia statesman, and indeed Jefferson lost 
three votes in North Carolina that year which he had carried four 
years before. The election was thrown into the House and Mr. 
Hill, along with Dickson, Grove and Henderson, voted for Aaron 
Burr in preference to Jefferson. At that time Burr was regarded 
as one of the finest characters and most admirable men in the 
United States. Mr. Hill warmly sustained the Adams adminis- 
tration, and one of the last acts of President Adams on the night 
his term expired was to appoint additional Federal Judges under 
an Act of Congress, known to history as the "Midnight Judges," 
and one of his appointees was the subject of this sketch. Jeffer- 


son, however, ignored these appointments and they did not take 
effect At the succeeding congressional elections the Republi- 
cans in North Carolina made great efforts to defeat Hill and 
Grove, and were successful, and Mr. Hill retired from public life. 
During his service in Congress party rancor rose to an unparal- 
leled height ; personal abuse and vituperation were commonly in- 
dulged in, while indeed during that formative period of our insti- 
tutions there were those who honestly feared that Republicanism 
was only another name for anarchy, and that Federalism was in- 
consistent with the freedom of the people. So rancorous was the 
animosity engendered that the outgoing president, Adams, would 
lend no countenance to the inauguration of his successor, but left 
the Capitol and drove out of the city before Jefferson took the 
oath as President. 

After his retirement, Mr. Hill continued to practice law, and 
was an eminent advocate ; it is said that he had a fine voice, was 
fluent, eloquent and impressive. 

He married first Elizabeth Moore ; then Alice Starkey, both of 
whom died without issue; and finally he married Eliza Maria 
Ashe, a daughter of General John Ashe. 

In May, 1784, Captain John Hill bought from Mary Harnett, 
the widow of Cornelius Harnett, an estate in the suburbs of Wil- 
mington. The name the property bore at that time was "May- 
nard," and under that name it was conveyed to Captain John Hill ; 
on December 9, 1788, Mr. Hill conveyed that property to his 
brother, William Henry Hill, who made his home there, and 
who called it "Hillton," the name which it has ever since borne. 
Dr. John Hampden Hill ascribes the origin of the name to Cap- 
tain Hilton, who explored the Cape Fear in 1663, the river along 
there being called Hilton River ; but the property does not appear 
to have been known as Hilton prior to its occupancy by the sub- 
ject of this sketch. 

Mr. Hill's circle of friends was among the most cultivated gen- 
tlemen of the State, and Hillton was the seat of that elegant en- 
tertainment for which the Cape Fear country was so justly fa- 
mous. In December, 1799, Mrs. Hill accompanied her husband to 


Philadelphia. There she met with her first loss — ^the death of her 
little girl. A letter from Philadelphia thus alludes to the inci- 

"Mr. and Mrs. Hill have gone to Bordenton to pass the remainder of 
the summer. . . . Though it is a severe trial to their fortitude, it is 
one happy effect of their religion that it teaches them perfect resignation 
to the will of Heaven." 

The following children arrived at maturity : Anna, who became 
Mrs. Charles Wright, and whose son, William Henry Wright, 
graduated at the head of his class at West Point, and was a dis- 
tinguished engineer officer; Mary, who became the wife of Dr. 
James F. McRee ; Julia, who married Dr. Ezekiel Hall, and was 
the mother of Justice Samuel Hall of the Supreme Court of Geor- 
gia ; William and Joseph Alston. 

Mr. Hill's useful and brilliant career was brought to an untimely 
close by his death in 1809. 

5*. A, Ashe. 


If HE late Mr. James G. Burr, of Wilmington, has 
' left his impressions of Joseph Alston Hill, a 
son of Mr, William H. Hill and his wife, Eliza 
Ashe, and named for his cousin, Joseph Als- 
ton, of South Carolina. 

He was bom at Hilton, his father's residence, 
1800, and' at the age of nine had the misfortune to lose his 
her. His mother, however, directed his education, and he 
iduated at Yale College, and was trained for the bar at the 
ebratcd Litchfield Law Scliool. He came to the bar with a 
id probably belter disciplined than that of any other man who 
J preceded him in North Carolina. Thus prepared, thus skilled 
dialectics, with a genius e([ual to the greatest occasion and lof- 
;t efforts, it is no wonder, says Mr. Burr, though he died at the 
"ly age of 35, that he left behind him a fame co-extensive with 
• State, He seems to have inherited rare oratorical powers 
rm his grandfather, General John Ashe, who had the reputation 
being a wonderful orator, Mr, Strudwick declaring that there 
■re not four men in London equal to him, Mr, Hill's gesticu- 
ion was graceful and his voice full, rich and flexible. He had 
rival of his years as a debater and orator, and no superior of 
y age in North Carolina. His talents were versatile, and he 
uld as the occasion demanded, convince, convulse with laughter, 
move to tears. His style was chaste, not florid, not disdaining 


ornament, but using it simply for illustration, and yet his oratory 
was often fervid. His speeches before the Linonian Society, 
when a lad, on Fisher's Resolutions, on the Bank Bill and Tariff 
or Nullification, sustained what is claimed for him. In the Inter- 
nal Improvement Convention at Raleigh in 1833, he met in debate 
the ablest men in the State, and the journals show that he tri- 
umphed in carrying all the resolutions he submitted, and tradition 
reports that so splendid was his exhibition of ability that his claim 
to leadership was generally, if not universally, conceded. The 
great question before that Convention was whether the system of 
Internal Improvements should be based on lines running North 
and South, or on East and West lines. Governor Graham, then at 
the zenith of his fine powers, advocated the former ; Mr. Hill, the 
latter. The late Mr. William Ruffin portrayed to the writer the 
great triumph which Mr. Hill achieved on that occasion. Indeed 
Judge Gaston is quoted by Mr. Burr as pronouncing Mr. Hill the 
most brilliant man of his age in North Carolina. 

In social life without pretension, distinguished for his playful 
humor, his satire, which left no sting in the wound, his fund of 
anecdote, his joyous vivacity, and his delightful abandon, he was 
the centre of attraction always, and his society was sought by 
people distinguished for politeness and hospitality and somewhat 
given to conviviality; but he did not g^ve entirely to society what 
nature designed for nobler uses. He did not neglect the duties of 
his profession which involved labor and study, and he was so 
close an observer and so diligent a student in his private hours 
that his advice was asked by the old and grave, who valued his 
wisdom and learning as much as the more volatile his pleasantry 
and fun. 

It was in the year 183 1, at the Fall term of the Superior Court 
for New Hanover County, that six negroes were placed on trial 
for their lives charged with attempting to excite an insurrection 
among the blacks against the whites. The horrid massacre of the 
whites, men, women and children, in the Nat Turner rising, had 
recently occurred, and although there was much feeling in the 
community, the trial was conducted with the utmost fairness and 


impartiality. The negroes had the benefit of the ablest counsel 
their owners could obtain. That distinguished jurist, Honorable 
Robert Strange, subsequently United States Senator, and grand- 
father of Bishop Strange, presided with great dignity. Mr. Alex- 
ander Troy was Solicitor, and the Court appointed Mr. Hill to as- 
sist the Solicitor, and in fact he conducted the trial throughout. 
Mr. Burr says : 

''I shall sever forget the impression made upon me by the death- 
like silence that reigned in that crowded court room when Mr. Hill 
rose to address the jury. His exordium was delivered in calm and 
composed manner, and without the least exhibition of feeling, but 
as he proceeded in his argument he seemed to be transformed, his 
crest rose, his form dilated and his eyes flashed continuous fire, 
while his rapid but graceful gesticulation added much to the impres- 
siveness of the scene. His denunciations were overwhelming, his 
sarcasm withering, and his burning eloquence flowed onward and 
onward like the rush of a mighty mountain torrent. The doom of 
the prisoners at the bar was sealed; it could be seen in the* com- 
pressed lips and clinched hands of the jury." 

It was a magnificent effort, causing the heart to throb and the 
pulse to leap with a quicker beat. Mr. Burr adds : 

"The six criminals who were convicted were executed together on 
^''c same scaffold." 

Mr. Hill died in the summer of 1835 from an attack of bilious 
fever, before he had reached the prime of his life, and in the 
"^idst of an active, useful and honorable career. He was prob- 
ably the most eloquent orator that the State of North Carolina 
^s produced. 

S, A, Ashe. 


^ EWIS LYNDON HOBBS is a native of Guil- 
ford County and was bom on the 17th of May, 
1849, at New Garden, North Carolina. His 
parents were Lewis and Phtebe Cook Hobbs. 
He was named for Lyndon Swaim, a highly- 
; esteemed citizen of Greensboro to whom his 
father was much attached. 

The religious denomination to which President Hobbs belongs, 
and which founded the college over which he presides, was the 
first to gain a foothold in the Carolina wilderness. The first place 
of worship erected within the State was the Meeting House at 
Pasquotank, finished in 1703. which has been standing until within 
a few years. George Fo.^t, the founder of the Society of Friends, 
himself came to this settlement in 1672 to visit the Friends and 
encourage them not only in preaching the gospel to Indians as 
well as white men. but in founding schools in which "their chil- 
dren should be taught everything useful in creation." Although 
the previous year Edmundson found but one Friend in the settle- 
ment, with such precepts and examples their numbers quickly in- 
creased, and it would have been surprising had the Friends exert- 
ed a less powerful influence than they did upon the educational, 
religious, and social life of the early settlers, and later upon the 
commnnities where they were established. Meetings began to 
be held as early as 1677; and the Yearly Meeting, composed of 

i.VN!)()N HOIJliS 

: 1 


1 ar^V.i 

rj to \i 


h ii 

i: ). 

Til.- i 







the various local Meetings scattered throughout the colony, was 
established in 1698; and in 1791 it was removed from Centre 
to New Garden, where many Friends established themselves 
earlier than 1754, and where in 1837 New Garden Boarding School 
was opened to boys and girls alike. Here President Hobbs re- 
ceived his preparatory training. 

His ancestors came from Pennsylvania with the wave of 
Scotch-Irish and Quaker emigration which swept southward 
about the middle of the eighteenth century. His father was 
a teacher, a man above the average in education and spiritual 
refinement, a dignified, lovable character. He taught in the 
"little brick schoolhouse" which the Friends of New Garden at 
once built near their Meeting House. He died while still a 
young man, when his son Lyndon was only three months old. 
**The little boy will never know his father," he said with regret, 
and this has been perhaps the keenest sorrow of his son's life. 

If he was forced to begin life without a father's love and care, 
he was doubly blessed in the strong, courageous mother, who 
filled to the best of her ability the place of both parents to her 
children. Inheriting much from his worthy father and absorb- 
\n^ the gentle and ennobling influences which his mother cast 
al)ont him, President Hobbs began early to foster principles of 
integrity and uprightness and to make the best of the opportuni- 
ties al)out him, and even to make opportunities in the midst of 
difficulty, in order that he might cultivate his mind and equip 
himself for usefulness in life. Having received his preparatory 
training at New Garden Boarding School, now Guilford College, 
from tliere in 1872 he entered Haver ford College, near Phila- 
delphia. This is also a Quaker institution, founded by the com- 
bined action of the Friends of New England, New York, Pennsyl- 
vania and Baltimore, and is one of the best-equipped colleges in 
the country. While there he pursued his studies with a real love 
of learning and entered with zest into the college sports, both of 
which characteristics he happily still retains, so that not only in 
the class and lecture rooms, but on the ballground as well, the stu- 
dents have his cordial sympathy and cooperation. Upon his grad- 


nation in 1876 he entered at once upon what has grown to be his 
life-work by accepting a place as teacher in the New Garden 
Boarding School. The classics were his chosen field, and for sev- 
eral years his work was largely confined to the Latin language 
and literature. After special work in this direction he received 
the degree of A. M. from his alma mater. Since that time he has 
studied at Clark University, Massachusetts, and has broadened 
his culture by intelligent observation while traveling in Europe. 

In 1888 the Boarding School was changed to Guilford College, 
with additional buildings and greatly augmented funds, and the 
course of study so developed as to put it on a par with other 
colleges of the State. At that time L. Lyndon Hobbs was elected 
by the board of trustees as president, which position he has ever 
since continued to occupy. Entering zealously upon duty at the 
school, he has worked unceasingly for the welfare and improve- 
ment of the institution ; and the establishment and success of the 
college is due in no small degree to his faith in its future and his 
intelligent realization of its present needs and opportunities. Not 
only has this care been exercised towards better equipment and 
larger endowments, but for the growth and symmetrical develop- 
ment of the individual students in all that is best and highest. 
He moves among them the embodiment of a cultured Christian 
gentleman, courteous toward all, thinking of self last, without 
guile, and his very presence commands the putting forth of the 
noblest and best that is in one's nature. The entire growth of the 
college during the fifteen years of his presidency, and the strong 
young men and women who have received their ideals here and 
have gone out to their work in the world, will perpetuate better 
than could any monument his love and loyalty to the cause of 

From his youth a member of the Society of Friends, he has all 
his life manifested an interest in its welfare. As a boy he was 
punctual at the Sabbath School and constantly attended the meet- 
ings held in the old Revolutionary Meeting House at New Garden, 
where he had the privilege of hearing sermons from some of the 
most gifted ministers of the denomination both in this country 


and from Elngland. The seed fell into good ground and has been 
bearing fruit for years in a simple, loyal life lived for others far 
more than for any personal gain or glory. His attachment to the 
church is warm and sincere, and his execution of every trust im- 
posed upon him is faithful to the extent of his ability. He has oc- 
cupied almost every position of service within the denomination, 
having been clerk of Monthly and Quarterly Meetings, overseer, 
and for many years an elder. This position in the Society of 
Friends ranks with that of minister in responsibility and 
importance. For several years he has served the whole body of 
Friends in North Carolina as clerk of their Yearly Meeting, an 
office which embraces not only clerical duties, but those of pre- 
siding officer as well. It is often a very difficult thing to judge 
quickly and impartially of the merits and weight of opinions ad- 
vanced. At such times his quickness and fine spiritual perception 
as well as good judgment and perfect fairness seem almost 

Not only within the bounds of his own denomination has his 
influence been felt. He has been active in every movement for 
the improvement of our public schools, and by addresses and per- 
sonal persuasion has forwarded the cause of local taxation for 
educational purposes. Largely through his effort the first rural 
graded school was established in North Carolina, located in a 
handsome brick building upon the same piece of ground, but not 
the same spot, where his father taught the children of his day. 
For four years he was a member of the State Board of Examiners, 
and for several years of the County Board of Education. He has 
been chairman of the Guilford Graded School Board ever since 
its formation, and devotes both time and means to the advance- 
ment of the children of the community. 

President Hobbs*s writings have been mostly lectures, ad- 
dresses, articles in reference to the college and its work and in 
reference to the Church or for its instruction and development. 
Duing his European trip he wrote a series of articles for the 
college magazine descriptive of his travels or of some phase of 
life that impressed him. 


A man of retiring nature, he has by no means sought the honors 
that have come to him, but as they come he proves himself strong 
in the assumption of them and fitted to g^ace the position with 
dignity and honor. In his inaugural address he says : 

"In accepting the position as first president of Guilford College I 
recognize the grave responsibility which is placed upon my shoulders* 
yet I am happy in the belief that I accept that charge with humility and 
in the fear of Gk)d, knowing full well that with the added responsibil- 
ity will come added strength for serving my fellow-men in the cause of 
education. While I have not sought the headship of this institution, 
since it has fallen to my lot, I accept it as a divine commission, and pray 
to be found faithful in the discharge of my duties, in order to best pro- 
mote the success of the institution in its grand mission of disseminat- 
ing sound learning and molding Christian characters." 

This prophetic hope has been most worthily fulfilled with yet 
greater hopes for the future. 

In 1881 President Hobbs married Mary Mendenhall, eldest 
daughter of Dr. Nereus Mendenhall, a well-known educator of 
the past generation. 

Should you ask that the life of President Hobbs be summed up 
in few words, none seem more fitting than those by the Psalmist, 
"Thy gentleness hath made me great." 

Gertrude Mendenhall. 




^ rjo //..^ ^ 



■ IV 

/ / / 



fRANKLIN P. HOBGOOD was born on his 
' father's farm in Granville County, North Caro- 
I Una, February 21, 1847. ^'s grandfather, 
I Thomas Fowler Hobgood, came to this country 
, from Wales about the year 1770, and some 

[ years later settled in Granville County, North 

Carolina. His father, James Benton Hobgood, was a substantial 
farmer, highly regarded for his great force of character and for 
his sterling integrity. As an agriculturist he was energetic, pro- 
gressive and siiccessftil. In the affairs of his county and section 
he took an unfaltering interest, and at the time of his death he 
was one of the most prominent figures in his county. Mr. Hob- 
good inlcrmarried with Miss Elizabeth House, of- Brunswick 
County, Virginia, in the year 1830. By her he had twelve chil- 
dren^six snns and six daughters — the subject of this sketch being 
the eighth child of this fine large family. Mrs, Hobgood was a 
woman of rare character, her virtues being yet held in high es- 
teem by the older people of her section, who delight to speak her 
praises even now. 

Reared upon the farm, Professor Hobgood was trained to the 
manly hardihood which can be won neither so quickly nor so thor- 
oughly in any other occupation under the sun. Surrounded by 
the simple elements of rural life and pursuing the healthful 
tasks of such nccupalion, the future educator and philanthropist 


won for himself the strength of body, breadth of mind, the moral 
force and fibre, the catholicity of sympathy, which make him a 
remarkable man among remarkable men. 

His home was six miles distant from Oxford, where was sit- 
uated a celebrated school for boys at that time presided over by 
James H. Horner, Esq. He rode on horseback to and from this 
school each day for a period of three years, thus traveling more 
than six thousand miles in preparing himself to enter college. 

Much of his earlier reading and study was done by the fireside 
of a farmhouse, pine-knots being often used to gpive off both heat 
for the comfort of the body and for the enlightenment of the eye, 
while the young student was putting down those strong and deep 
foundations of learning upon which the work of his mature man- 
hood now so securely rests. Those who have come upon the scene 
of active life in these later times know very little of the disad- 
vantages whereunder the youth of the time of our Civil War 
labored in their efforts to secure the elements of culture ; and pity 
it is that they also know too little of the peculiar strength and fine- 
ness of those fibres of character that are won in the dire battles 

with adverse conditions. 

The preparatory education of the subject of this sketch was 
rudely interrupted near the close of the Civil War by his enroll- 
ment in a corps .of Junior Reserves of the Confederate States. 
He served as a young soldier for the term of six months, a part 
of that time as a private in the ranks ; but afterwards as a clerk to 
the brigadier commanding his corps. At the close of the war he 
returned to his home and promptly resumed his studies in prep- 
aration for college, having at that time among his classmates 
President Winston, of the North Carolina College of Agriculture 
and Mechanic Arts, and Associate- Justice Piatt D. Walker, of 
the Supreme Court of North Carolina. 

As soon as practicable, in January, 1866, he entered Wake 
Forest College ; and, applying himself with great earnestness and 
assiduity, he was graduated in 1868 at the head of his class. 

At about the age of sixteen years he conceived the purpose, from 
which he never swerved nor faltered for a moment, of following 


the profession of a teacher, and his education was pursued with 
that end distinctly in view. He felt himself called to the work 
of teacher, and he has often been heard to say that he believed a 
call to that high vocation was as necessary to the teacher as is 
the divine call to him who is to be a minister at the altar of 

Shortly after being graduated he accepted a professorship in 
a school for girls conducted in the present Orphan Asylum build- 
ings in the town of Oxford, and known at that time as St. John's 
College. In January, 1869, he was employed as principal of a 
boys' school in the town of Reidsville, North Carolina, where for 
two years he taught with most remarkable energy and success, in 
that short time preparing for college some of the most prominent 
men of the Piedmont region of his native State. 

At the end of his two years of successful teaching at Reidsville 
the young educator became president of the Raleigh Female Sem- 
inary ; and for ten years he maintained that institution in a high 
state of efficiency and success, evincing, to the satisfaction of an 
exacting public, that he was not alone a very fine teacher, but that 
he was also a man of exceptionally good executive ability as well. 
This seat of education was originally the residence of Colonel 
William Polk, at the head of Blount Street and beyond North 
Street. The buildings have since been demolished and removed. 
This Raleigh school for women was the first school of its kind 
that was established for Baptist girls after the war between the 
States ; and its young president, then twenty- four years old. was 
among the first persons in the whole South to advance the standard 
of education for women and secure its essential re-adaptation to 
the changed conditions brought about by the tempests of war. 

Professor Hobgood's conspicuous success in this Raleigh in- 
stitution for women soon marked him out as a man qualified for 
a wider field and more permanent work than was possible in the 
institution wherewith he was then connected; and so, in 1880, 
be was called to the presidency of the Oxford Seminary, where 
for twenty-five years he has wrought manfully, tirelessly, and 
wisely, as well as successfully, for the better education of women 


in the South ; and where, in the zenith of his powers and useful- 
ness, he is laboring at this moment to impress the future of his 
country and of the world by furnishing that future with the 
blessings of cultivated motherhood. 

The Oxford Seminary wherewith Professor Hobgood is now 
associated, and with whose great influence upon the culture of the 
South his name will continue to be associated in the grateful 
memories of generations to come, is a Baptist school ; and it was 
established in the year 1850 by the late Samuel Wait, D.D., whose 
memory in North Carolina is blessed and green, and will con- 
tinue to be green and blessed while the people of the old Common- 
wealth have the power to gratefully recall those who have been 
their benefactors. 

The late John Haynes Mills succeeded Dr. Wait in the presi- 
dency of the Oxford Seminary ; and he, in turn, was succeeded by 
the subject of this sketch. Thus the names of Wait, Mills, and 
Hobgood are linked together in the making of an institution for 
the education of women that has few equals anywhere and has 
no superiors in the section of the South wherein it stands and for 
whose women it teaches and achieves. 

In January, 1904, the buildings of this noble school were wholly 
destroyed by fire. Nothing else in the history of Professor Hob- 
good *s connection with this school shows quite so plainly the 
quality of metal there is in this man as his determined action 
after the destruction of his school plant by fire. An ordinary man 
would have given up in despair under the pressure of his large 
losses, or else would have sought a position in some other institu- 
tion. But he did not so. He devised plans for new and larger 
buildings, and set about the embodiment of his admirable plans 
with so much of intelligent vigor that the seminary began its next 
session on time in the completed new buildings, and has before 
it now a future fuller of promise than any other that ever beck- 
oned it onward in time past and gone. 

For nearly, or quite, thirty-five years Professor Hobgood has 
given himself to the higher education of women with an en- 
thusiasm of devotion that is exceeded by nothing else but the rare 


wisdom with which he has wrought in his chosen calling. And 
already he begins to reap his reward in the assured consciousness 
that thousands of his former pupils are now matrons presiding 
in cultured homes and radiating the fragrance of matronly Chris- 
tian culture in their homes and in their social spheres from 
womanhood that got its bent and direction from his teachings and 

Professor Hobgood's devotion to his chosen vocation has won 
for him a very high place among those who labor for the higher 
education of women. That his reputation has gone into other 
States is evidenced by the fact that a few years ago he was elected 
president of the Richmond Female Institute — ^now the Woman's 
College — of Richmond, Virginia. This position he promptly de- 
clined, preferring to remain at Oxford and build up a great school 
which should embody his own enlightened views as to what a 
modem school for women should be. 

Not alone in his own particular field of effort have Professor 
Hobgood's abilities been recognized, but other spheres of useful- 
ness and influence have been freely opened to him. For a number 
of years he has been chairman of the Board of Education of Gran- 
ville County. He has been president of the Teachers' Assembly 
of North Carolina. For a quarter of a century he has been a 
member of the board of trustees of Wake Forest College. For 
twelve years he has been a member of the board of trustees of 
the Baptist Orphanage at Thomasville, North Carolina. In all 
these places of trust and responsibility he has shown himself to be 
a man of rare wisdom, prudence and ability. It is certain that 
he takes rank as an educator and philanthropist along with the 
first men of this Southern section. 

On the 6th of October, 1868, before he had well entered upon 
the activities of life, he intermarried with Miss Mary A. Royall, 
a daughter of Reverend William Royall, D.D., LL.D., late pro- 
fessor of English in Wake Forest College. His marriage was 
very fortunate, Mrs. Hobgood being a woman of rare endowments 
of both heart and mind and in all respects a model wife and 
mother. They have reared a family of six children, five of whom 


are living; one, a young man of highest promise, died at the age 
of twenty-one years. One son, Colonel F. P. Hobgood, of Greens- 
boro, has already attained distinction in the profession of the 
law and has been prominently identified with the military of his 
native State. One of Professor Hobgood's daughters is the 
wife of F. W. Hancock, Esq., for many years the secretary and 
treasurer of the State Board of Pharmacy of North Carolina. 
Another daughter is the wife of General B. S. Royster, adjutant- 
general of North Carolina under both Governors Russell and 
Aycock and also a distinguished attomey-at-law at Oxford. One 
son is now a medical student in the State University. The young- 
est daughter, an accomplished young woman, is still with her 
parents to brighten their lives. 

Professor Hobgood does not live unto himself alone. He is a 
man of catholic sympathies and throws the great weight of his 
personal influence into every movement that tends to enlarge men 
and bring about the conditions out of which comes the increase 
of industrial, social and civic righteousness. 

He is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
of the Masonic fraternity, and also a Knight of Pythias. In 
politics he is an earnest and conscientious Democrat, believing 
fully that all the people are better than any of the people. In 
religious belief and practice he is a Baptist, though narrowness 
of religious belief is as foreign to his nature and interests as are 
the personal movements that lead to dishonor in any walk of life. 
He has always been active in the work of his own particular 
Church and in the general work of his denomination. He was 
for a number of years the honored moderator of the Flat River 
Baptist Association. 

He was led to adopt the profession of teaching by his own 
personal judgment and preference; but he gratefully ascribes his 
first strong impulse to strive for the distinctions and real prizes 
of life to a noble woman who was at one time a teacher in his 
father's family, and whose beautiful life inspired him with an am- 
bition to have somewhat to do in leading out the young minds of 
the world to the conquest of the "True, the Beautiful and the 


Good." It was this early ambition that led him to the college at 
the first, and then onward to all that he has done and is doing for 
the elevation of the world and to the highest things. 

He ascribes his success in life mainlv to two influences, viz.: 
the quiet and simplicity of his home life on the farm, permeated 
and ennobled by the godly lives and examples of his father and 
mother, and to the splendid influence of his noble wife. Asked 
once to give a motto that might surely guide the young to large 
usefulness in the conduct of the movements of life, he said : "A 
spirit of helpfulness to others and a supreme devotion to personal 
duty will win anything here that is worth the winning" — and this 
seems to have been the keynote of his own useful and well-rounded 

The editor of this sketch has known Professor Hobgood in- 
timately for twenty years, and it is a pleasure to him to say a 
word as to his friend. 

His nature is large. He has a large frame. He has a large 
mind. He has a large heart. His culture and information are 
extensive, but he uses them with entire modesty, the airs of the 
pedant being utterly distastful to him. He is simple in his tastes 
and unpretentious in his intercourse with men. He is friendlv 


and companionable, being genial as few men are genial. He was 
fitted by nature, and he has fitted himself by study and personal 
ser\'ice, to occupy a large place among the hosts of good men and 
women who are leading the world by right paths up from the 
lower to the higher things which lure them to come and take pos- 
session of their ow-n. 

Baylus Cade, 


pORTH CAROLINA in the Revolution furnished 
' ten regiments to the regular service — the Con- 
I tinental Line. Five of the colonels of these 
I became general officers, the only generals 
North Carolina had in the regular service. 
^ They were General Robert Howe, who rose to 
be major-general — our sole major-general — and four brigadiers. 
General James Moore, who died early in the war ; Genera! Frands 
Nash, mortally wounded at Germantown and buried near the field 
of battle — a brother of Governor Abner Nash ; Genera! Jethro 
Sumner; and General James Hogun. 

The lives and careers of the first three named are well known. 
For some reason the data as to the two last have been neglected. 
The Honorable Kemp P. Battle, by diligent search in many 
quarters, was able to restore to us much information as to Genera! 
Jethrri Sumner, of Warren County, and, indeed, to rehabilitate 
his memory. As to General James Hogun, of Halifax County, 
the task was more difficult. Little has been known beyond the 
fact that he was probably from Halifax County, and that he was 
a brigadier-general. The late Colonel William L. Saunders re- 
quested the writer to investigate and preserve to posterity what- 
ever could now be rediscovered as to this brave ofiicer. 

It may be noted that North Carolina has not named a county 
or township or village in honor of either of the four generals — 


Howe, Moore, Sumner, or Hogun: Moore County was named 
in honor of Judge Alfred Moore, of the United States Supreme 
Court. General Nash was the only one of the five thus honored, 
the county of Nash having been formed in 1777, the year of 
General Nash's death at Germantown. 

General James Hogim was born in Ireland, but the year and 
place of his birth are unknown. The name is spelled Hogun, 
though usually in Ireland, where, the name is not uncommon, it 
is written Hogan — with an a. He removed to Halifax County 
in this State, and to the Scotland Neck section of it. He mar- 
ried. October 3, 1751, Miss Ruth Norfleet of the well-known 
family of that name. In the Provincial Congress which met at 
Halifax April 4, 1776, and which framed our first State Consti- 
tution, James Hogun was one of the delegates for Halifax County. 
He was appointed paymaster in the Third Regiment (Sumner's), 
but November 26, 1776, he was elected colonel of the Seventh 
North Carolina Repment, and on the 6th of December an elec- 
tion was ordered to fill the vacancy in the North Carolina Congress 
caused by his resignation as a member of that body. 

Colonel Hogim marched North with the Seventh, and Colonel 
Armstrong with the Eighth, and both regiments arrived in time 
to take part in the battles of Brandywine and Germantown. That 
winter nine North Carolina regiments were in winter quarters 
at \ alley Forge, Colonel Abram Sheppard's regiment, the Tenth, 
spent the winter in the smallpox camp at Georgetown on the 
Potomac. Quoting from the Prefatory Notes of Volume 13 of 
the State Records, it appears that in March the number of our 
privates at Valley Forge was 900; 50 had died since January in 
camp : 200 were then sick in camp, and an equal number were 
in hospitals in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The officers of 
the Sixth Regiment had been sent home to recruit more men, 
and all new recruits and absentees were to be brought to camp. 
In May there were in camp, rank and file, 1450. On May 29th 
the Continental Congress resolved that the regiments in camp 
should be consolidated into new ones ; and a call was made on 
North Carolina to raise four more battalions of Continentals. 


Colonel Hogun and the supernumerary officers were directed to 
return to North Carolina for service in the new battalions. The 
Legislature provided that 2648 men should be detached from the 
militia to serve as Continentals for nine months, a certain quota 
being apportioned to each county, of which each militia company 
was to furnish its proper share. These drafted militia-men thus 
became Continentals, and after their nine months' actual service 
was completed they were to be exempt for a period of three 
years. The duty of organizing these troops fell on Colonel Ho- 
gun, who was elected to command the first battalion that was 
raised. In July, 1778, Colonel Hogim, having organized his regpi- 
ment at Halifax, marched 600 strong to the northward. In 
August he reached Philadelphia and hastened on to Washington's 
headquarters at White Plains. In November Colonel Hogun 
with his regiment was engaged in throwing up fortifications at 
West Point, which was the beginning of fortifying that post which 
became so important and which has since been so famous in our 
history. At that time the four consolidated North Carolina regi- 
ments constituted a brigade under the command of Colonel Clark, 
numbering 1200, and were with Washington at Fredericksburg, 
thirty miles further east on the Connecticut line. 

On January 9, 1779, Congress appointed Colonel Sumner and 
Colonel Hogun to be generals to fill the vacancies caused by the 
death of General Nash and by the promotion of General Howe. 
Colonel Hogun was senior in rank to Colonel Clark, who, entering 
the service as major on the ist of September, 1775, in the follow- 
ing April became lieutenant-colonel, and in February, 1777, be- 
came colonel on the promotion of Nash as brigadier-general. 
Hogun was commissioned colonel of the Seventh Regiment in 
November, 1776, and although Clark was in command of the 
brigade, Hogun, who was on other service, was his senior. The 
Legislature of the State recommended Colonel Clark's promo- 
tion, and Colonel Clark was also warmly advocated by his brother- 
in-law, William Hooper, at that time a member of the Continental 
Congress. The officers of the brigade, however, generally sus- 
tained Hogim's right to promotion, he being the senior in com- 


mission, and General Washington stated that while not under- 
valuing Colonel Clark's services, Colonel Hogun by his distin- 
guished gallantry at Germantown had earned the promotion, and 
he was therefore elected and commissioned a brigadier-general 
on January 9, 1779, at the same time as General Sumner. General 
Hogun continued to serve with the army at the North until 1780. 
In the early part of 1779 General Sumner with his brigade was 
ordered South to aid in the defence of Georgia and South Caro- 
lina. He fought at Stono Ferry on June 20, 1779, and later Gen- 
eral Hogun was ordered with his brigade also to reinforce General 
Lincoln in South Carolina. 

At the head of his brigade he passed through Halifax and 
Wilmington, in February, 1780, and took part in the memorable 
defence of Charleston. When General Lincoln surrendered that 
city on the 12th of May, 1780, though he surrendered five thou- 
sand men, only one thousand eight*hundred of them were regular 
troops, and the large part of these were General Hogun's North 
Carolina brigade. General Sumner, our other brigadier, who had 
commanded that part of the North Carolina line which was at 
Charleston before General Hogun's arrival, was at home on sick 
furlough, as were many officers who had lost employment by the 
consolidation of the depleted companies and regiments. With 
that exception, North Carolina's entire force of regulars was lost 
to her at this critical time. The surrendered militia was paroled, 
but the regular troops, headed by General Hogun, were conveyed 
to Haddrell's Point in the rear of Sullivan's Island, near Charles- 
ton. There they underwent the greatest privations of all kinds. 
They were nearly starved, ])ut even a petition to fish, in order to 
add to their supply of food, was refused by the British. These 
troops were also threatened with deportation to the West Indies. 
General Hogim himself was offered leave to return on parole. 
Tempting as was the offer, he felt that his departure would be 
unjust to his men, whose privations he had promised to share. 
He also knew that his absence would aid the efforts of the British, 
who were seeking recniits among these half-starved prisoners. 
He fell a victim to his sense of dutv, and died at Haddrell's Point 


January 4, 1781, where he fills the unmarked grave of a hero. 
History affords no more striking incident of devotion to duty, 
and North Carolina should erect a tablet to his memory and that 
of those who perished there with him. Of the one thousand 
eight hundred regulars who went into captivity on Sullivan's Island 
with him, only seven hundred survived when they were paroled. 

We do not know General Hogun*s age, but as he had married 
in 1 75 1 he was probably beyond middle life. In this short recital 
is found all that careful research has so far disclosed of a life 
whose outline proves it worthy of fuller commemoration. Could 
his last resting place be found, the tablet might well bear the 
Spartan's inscription: "Siste viator, heroa calcas." "Pause, 
stranger. It is on a hero's dust you tread." 

General Hogun left only one child, Lemuel Hogun, who mar- 
ried Mary Smith, of Halifax County. To Lemuel Hogun, March 
14, 1786, North Carolina issued a grant for twelve thousand 
acres of land in Davidson County, Tennessee, near Nashville, as 
''the heir of Brigadier-General Hogun." In October, 1792, the 
United States also paid him $5,250, being the seven years' half- 
pay voted by Congress to the heirs of brigadier-generals who had 
died in service. In 1814 Lemuel Hogun died, and is probably 
buried at the family burial-ground in Halifax County. General 
Hogun resided in Halifax County, North Carolina, about one 
mile from the present village of Hobgood. In 181 8 the widow of 
Lemuel Hogim and her children moved to Tuscumbia, Alabama. 
Numerous descendants are to be found in that State and in 
Tennessee and Mississippi. In the late war General Hogun's 
papers, which might have furnished materials for history, were 
:seized by the Federal troops and presumably destroyed, though 
it is barely possible they may be yet preserved hi some Northern 
liistorical collection. It is known that among these papers there 
was at least one letter from Washington to General Hogun. 

These five heroes — Howe, Moore, Nash, Sumner and Hogun — 
were, as has been said, the only generals from this State in the 
regular service. After the war Colonel Clark became a general 
in the United States Army. 


We had several generals who commanded militia ordered out 
on three months' tour or on special service at sundry times, such 
as General Griffith Rutherford and General William Lee David- 
son, for whom counties have been named: Generals Butler and 
Eaton and Lillington and Major-General Ashe and Major-Gen- 
eral Caswell. General Davidson had been a lieutenant-colonel 
in the Continental Line, but was a brigadier-general of militia 
when killed at Cowan's Ford. There were other distinguished 
officers, as Colonel William R. Davie, Major Joseph Graham 
(who, as brigadier-general, commanded the brigade sent to Jack- 
son's aid against the Creeks in 1812), and several others who 
acquired the rank of general after the Revolution. 

The militia figured more prominently in that day than since. 
The important victories of Moore's Creek, King's Mountain and 
Ramsour's Mills were won solely by militia, and Cowpens and 
other fields by their aid. Rutherford and Gregory commanded 
militia brigades at Camden, as Butler and Eaton did at Guilford 
Court House and as General John Ashe did at Briar Creek. It 
mav be of interest to name here the colonels of the ten North Caro- 
lina regiments of the Continental Line : First Regiment, James 
Moore. On his promotion to brigadier-general, Francis Nash. 
After his promotion, Thomas Clark. Alfred Moore, afterwards 
judge of the United States Supreme Court, was one of the cap- 
tains. Second Regiment, Robert Howe. After his promotion 
to major-general, Alexander Martin. On his resignation, 
John Patten became colonel. In this regiment Hardy Murfree, 
from whom Mnrfreesboro in Tennessee is named, rose from cap- 
tain to lieutenant-colonel; and Benjamin Williams, afterwards 
governor, was one of the captains. David Vance, grandfather of 
Oovcmor \'ance, was a lieutenant. Third Regiment, Jethro Sum- 
ner. After his promotion it was consolidated with the First 
Rcj^iment. In this regiment Hal Dixon was a lieutenant-colonel 
^n{\ Pinketham Eaton was major, both distinguished soldiers; 
and William Blount, afterwards United States Senator, was pay- 
master. Fourth Regiment, Thomas Polk. General William Lee 
-^viflson, killed at Cowan's Ford, was lieutenant-colonel of this 


regiment, and William Williams was at Valley Forge ad- 
jutant. Fifth Regiment, Edward Buncombe, who died of wounds 
received at Germantown, and for whom Buncombe County is 
named. Sixth Regiment, Alexander Lillington and afterwards 
Gideon Lamb. John Baptista Ashe, of Halifax, who was elected 
governor in 1802, but died before qualifying, was lieutenant- 
colonel of this regiment. Seventh Regiment, James Hogun. 
After his promotion Robert Mebane. In this regiment Nathaniel 
Macon, afterwards Speaker of Congress and United States Sena- 
tor, and James Turner, afterwards governor, served together as 
privates in the same company. Eighth Regiment, James Arm- 

. strong. Ninth Regiment, John Pugh Williams. Of this Regi- 
ment William Polk was major. Tenth Regiment, Abram 
Sheppard. They&tate had in the Continental Line a battery 
of cavalry, led/respectively by Samuel Ashe, Martin Phifer and 
Cosmo de Mieklici. 
These aj?c the few details which, after laborious research, have 

- been erfrtftu^d as to General Hogun, his origin, his services, and 
his descendants. He was a brave, faithful and competent officer, 
and his memory iHerits more consideration than has been given it. 

Waller Clark. 




c.i-.dRi;!. ihj\vai:i> 


#EORGE HOWARD, born in Tarboro, Edge- 
combe County, North Carolina, September 22, 
1829, was the son of George Howard, a native 
J of Baltimore, Maryland, and of his wife, Alice 
' Clark Thurston, a native of Caroline County, 
I Virginia. George Howard, Sr., the first mem- 
ber of the family to settle in North Carolina, came when a young 
man to the town of Halifax and on March 25, 1824, established 
a weekly newspaper which he called the Free Press. He re- 
moved to the town of Tarboro August 22, 1826, where he con- 
tinued the paper under ihe same name until August, 1833, when 
it was chanf;ed to the Tarboro l-'rcc Press. In January, 1852, the 
name was again changed to Tlie Southerner, under which it has 
continued to the present time. The Free Press and its successors 
were at all times strong, fearless, and able advocates of the princi- 
ples and policies of the Democratic Party, enjoying the confidence 
and receiving the support of the people of Edgecombe and ad- 
joining counties. Mr. Howard spent a long life of honorable 
usefidness in the town of Tarboro, rearing a large family, all of 
whom married and spent their lives there. They and their de- 
scendants arc numbered among the most honorable and highly 
respected ciii«ns of ihc town. Mr. Howard died March 25, 
1863. He was survived by his wife, a woman of strong mind, 
clear judgment, and devotion to duty, who died several years later. 


The subject of this sketch received his early education in the 
schools of Tarboro, noted for their thoroughness and excellence. 
When but fourteen years of age he became the editor of his 
father's paper. The editorials written by him are marked by 
clearness of style, vigor of expression, and soundness of judg- 
ment. There was probably no county in the State in which there 
was a higher degree of intelligence than Edgecombe, or in which 
the people were more strongly democratic in all respects. The 
Southerner was both a leader and exponent of their spirit and 

Six years later Mr. Howard entered upon the study of the law 
at the State University, under Honorable Wm. H. Battle and 
Honorable Samuel F. Phillips, and was admitted to the bar at 
the Spring Term, 1850, of the Supreme Court. He was shortly 
thereafter elected solicitor of the Court of Pleas and Quarter 
Sessions of Greene County. During the year 1854 he moved 
to the rapidly growing town of Wilson, then in the county of 
Edgecombe, entering at once upon a large and lucrative practice 
in Edgecombe and the surrounding counties. At that time the 
Bar of which he soon became an active member was composed of 
such men as William Norfleet, R. R. Bridgers, John L. Bridgers 
and William H. Johnston, of Edgecombe; William T. Dortch, 
George V. Strong, W. T. Faircloth, of Wayne; Edward Conig- 
land, of Halifax; B. F. Moore, of Wake; Joseph J. Davis, 
of Franklin; William B. Rodman, of Beaufort; Asa Biggs, of 
Martin, all of whom attended the courts of the adjoining counties. 
To have taken a prominent position among such men early in 
his professional career gives an assurance of a high order of 
mind, good equipment and strong character. 

At the session of the General Assembly of 1854, by the action 
of his friends and without his knowledge, he was elected reading 
clerk to the House of Commons. He discharged the duties of the 
position so satisfactorily that he was unanimously reelected at 
the next session. At the session of 1854-5 by his personal in- 
fluence and popularity he was largely instrumental in securing 
the passage, against most active opposition, of the bill establishing 


the county of Wilson. By this time, although Mr. Howard was 
one of the youngest men in his party, he had become, by reason 
of his sound judgment, large and accurate knowledge of political 
conditions, and acquaintance with leading men, one of the trusted 
leaders of the Democratic Party in North Carolina. Returning 
to his home after the adjournment of the General Assembly, he 
at once became the most influential citizen of the new county, en- 
joying the unlimited affection and confidence of the people. He 
rendered most valuable service by his counsel and assistance in 
the work of organizing and launching the new county upon its 
successful career. 

Upon the election of Honorable M. E. Manly to the Supreme 
Court, November, 1859, Mr. Howard was appointed judge of the 
Superior Court of Law and Equity by Governor Ellis and his 
Council; at the next session of the General Assembly he was 
elected to the position for life. As indicating the high estima- 
tion in which judicial office was regarded by the members of the 
Bar, it is interesting to note that, although then of but small 
financial means, Mr. Howard surrendered a rapidly growing 
practice, yielding an annual income of more than $5000, to accept 
the judgeship at a salary of $1950. His action was not, in that 
respect, exceptional. At the same time Judge Osborne and Judge 
Heath were appointed to the bench. His appointment is thus 
referred to by John W. Moore in his History of North Carolina: 

"J"^ge Howard was much younger than his two colleagues, but had, 
for several years, divided with Honorable Wm. T. Dortch the honors and 
emoluments of the Goldsboro district, then presenting the richest legal 
harvest to be found in North Carolina. His fine presence, quickness of 
apprehension, and legal abilities gave him large success upon the bench, 
while his personal qualities brought troops of friends wherever he was 

His appointment to the bench removed Judge Howard from 
participation in politics, but as a patriotic citizen he retained an 
active and intelligent interest in the important, and, as the sequel 
showed, epoch-making events transpiring in the country. He 


had from his youth been a close student of the history and the 
institutions of the country. He accepted, both by heredity and 
conviction, the political principles of the sages of the Democratic 
Party. At the time when sectional hatreds were being engendered 
and radical men with radical measures were coming into control 
of both sections of the Republic, he opposed what he regarded as 
extreme in both, and in i860 supported and advocated the nomina- 
tion of Stephen A. Douglas for president. When the election 
of Mr. Lincoln and his call for troops to coerce the seceding 
States brought the dispute to the final test. Judge Howard acted 
in accordance with the opinion expressed by him in an editorial 
of May 22, 1852, in which he said : 

"We believe that the General Government and the State Government 
both take their authority, so far as the people of North Carolina are con- 
cerned, from the exercised sovereignty of the people of the State in Coa- 
vention assembled — that both are creatures of the same. That whenever 
in like manner and form they choose to exercise it again, the allegiance 
to it will be superior, paramount to the allegiance to either Government 
The citizens acting under the primitive sovereignity of the State could 
be by no means treated as traitors, for it is preposterous to suppose that 
statesmen intended that there should be practically double treason." 

That a young man of twenty-three years should formulate 
and express so clearly the view held by a large majority of the 
people of the South upon this vexed question is a striking il- 
lustration of the thoroughness with which the men of the South 
had studied their political institutions and their relations to the 
State and Federal Governments. When Judge Howard entered 
the Convention of 1861, he was asked by Judge George E. Badger 
whether he believed in the legal right of Secession ; to this ques- 
tion he answered in substantially the words quoted from the 
above editorial, whereupon that eminent jurist and statesman said: 
"We agree substantially.'* 

Judge Howard, together with Honorable William S. Battle, 
represented the county of Edgecombe (Wilson then voting with 
the mother county) in the Convention which met in the city of 
Raleigh. May 20, 1861. He voted for and signed the Ordinance 


of Secession. In the organization of the Convention he was made 
chairman of the committee on military affairs and of the com- 
mittee on the executive department. The Convention held four 
sessions. It was composed of the strongest men in the State, 
many of whom had occupied the highest positions in the public 
service. Many of the younger men during and since the Civil 
War attained high positions, rendering eminent and patriotic ser- 
vice in military and civil life. Judge Howard was easily among 
the leaders and supported all measures for the defence of the 
State and for the prosecution of the war. Many of these he in- 

He remained on the bench until the surrender of the armies 
of the Confederacy and the organization of the provisional State 
Government; then, together with all of the other judges and 
other officers of State, he retired. During the larger part of his 
career on the bench the war prevented much civil litigation, yet 
he established a reputation for learning, firmness and fairness in 
the administration of justice. 

Judge Howard was also a member of the Convention of 1865. 
In common with all sincere, patriotic men, who had been loyal 
to their State from the commencement to the conclusion of the 
war. he accepted with the same sincerity and patriotic purpose the 
results of the struggle. In the adjustment of the State to the new 
conditions he was ready to join in such measures as the changed 
political status of the people demanded. He refused to vote for 
or indorse any ordinance or legislation inconsistent with the 
honor or ^ood faith of himself or the people whom he represented. 
His conduct at that trying time, when the future was clouded with 
uncertainty, was strongly characteristic of and entirely consistent 
with his mental and moral convictions. An ordinance was in- 
troduced declaring that the ordinance of May 20, 1861, "is now 
and hath at all times been null and void ;" a substitute was there- 
upon offered by D. D. Ferebee, of Camden, declaring "the said 
ordinance to be null and void, and the same is hereby repealed, 
rescinded, and abrogated." Judge Howard with eighteen other 
delegates voted for the substitute, which was defeated. The orig- 


inal resolution being upon its passage, the following voted in the 
negative : George Howard of Edgecombe, W. A. Allen of Duplin, 
T. J. Faison of Sampson, D. D. Ferebee of Camden, H. Joyner of 
Warren, M. E. Manly of Craven, A. A. McKoy of Sampson, H. 
F. Murphey of New Hanover, and R. H. Ward of Rockingham. 
Judge Howard declared that he and his people were unwilling to 
vote a renunciation of their beliefs or a falsification of their prin- 
ciples, but were ready to ratify the ordinance and abide by it in 
good faith as a settlement now and forever of the question. He 
said afterwards, speaking of his course in the Convention : "I be- 
sought no leniency, but pursued the course which my judgment 
and conscience approved." Of the people of Edgecombe, for 
whom he always had a warm affection, he said : 

"In the noblest and most republican of all pursuits they brought them- 
selves by their soundness of head and heart to the position of the banner 
county of the State, and with every characteristic of true, conservative 
republicanism through self-reliance — seeking neither position nor place 
nor power, with no airs of superiority, no cringing to power, cherishing 
always great veneration for law and order, an earnest devotion to the 
Constitution of our fathers, and a faithful adherence to what they be- 
lieved to be the true interests of their country — amid the wreck of their 
prosperity and the desolation of their homes they stand ready to bury 
the past and to devote their energies to rebuilding the waste places and 
to developing the new civilization by which they are surrounded." 

Judge Howard was appointed a delegate to, and attended, the 
Convention which met in Philadelphia August, 1866, which sus- 
tained the policy of the President. He was elected to the State 
Senate of 1866-67. At this time, when old political organizations 
were dissolved and new alignments were being made, "in all 
things true to the honor of the South and Democracy, he yet be- 
lieved in burying the past, and promptly adjusted our laws to the 
civilization of freedom, and without hesitancy sustained all meas- 
ures necessary to the adjustment of the law to the new conditions 
resulting from the war and the abolition of slavery." He intro- 
duced the bill, which was enacted into law, permitting the negroes 
to testifv in the courts. At the end of his term in the Senate, 


Judge Howard retired to private life, engaging actively in the 
practice of his profession in Tarboro, having returned to his native 
town at the end of the war. By the enactment of the reconstruc- 
tion measures, followed by the adoption of the Constitution of 
1868, the negroes dominated Edgecombe and other eastern coun- 
ties politically, thus forcing into retirement many of the wisest and 
strongest men in the State. During the struggle of the people 
from 1868 to 1876 to redeem the State, Judge Howard was "at all 
times a quiet, faithful, unflinching worker" for Democratic su- 

In the spring of 1878 his friends presented his name to the 
State Democratic Convention for nomination as Justice of the Su- 
preme Court. In a letter to a personal friend and prominent gen- 
tleman, then in public life, he said : 

"While it is true, as I stated to you, that the position of Supreme Court 
Justice will, if conferred, come very opportunely and turn my life into 
a channel very agreeable to my wishes, it is equally true that I shall not 
permit an adverse result to disturb me. The friends who have brought 
forward my name, and those who have spoken a word of encouragement* 
have done so without any suggestion from myself, and I shall ever appre- 
ciate and shall ever keep in green remembrance their kind efforts." 

This was the last time which he permitted himself to be drawn 
into a political contest. He received a very flattering vote in the 
Convention. He was a delegate to the National Democratic Con- 
ventions of 1868 and 1880. 

At the General Assembly of 1885 he was elected a member of 
the Board of Trustees of the Universitv of North Carolina and in 
the summer of that year was appointed by Governor Scales and 
served on a commission with John W. Graham and Thomas W. 
Patton, charged with the duty of revising the laws for the assess- 
ment and collection of revenue. He was for many years, until by 
reason of failing health he resigned, a Director of the Wilmington 
and Weldon Railroad and Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Com- 
panies. He was the first President and, afterwards, one of the 
Directors of the Pamlico Banking and Insurance Company and a 


Director of the Tarboro Cotton Mills and Fountain Cotton Mills. 
He was at all times deeply interested in and actively promoted 
every enterprise looking to the growth and improvement of his 
native town, serving on the Board of Town Commissioners, on the 
Board of Trustees of the Tarboro Academy and of the Public 

Together with all thoughtful citizens of this and other Southern 
States, Judge Howard gave very careful thought to the questions 
and problems growing out of the political and industrial and social 
relations of the white and negro races. He took a large view of 
the subject from the standpoint of a well-wisher of the negroes, 
and greatly desired to see them given every opportunity to im- 
prove their condition. He favored fair and liberal aid to theiB 
education. In common with the large majority of Southern men, 
he regarded their enfranchisement in 1868 as a great political er- 
ror and in every way injurious to them and to the State. In 1898, 
when the conditions in the State demanded that the electorate be 
placed on a sound, safe basis, he became deeply interested, express- 
ing his thought and feelings in the following words : 

"The negroes are bound to us by so many ties and have been led or 
forced into their present position, so little of their own choice, I do pray 
for their deliverance from destruction or further degradation and hope 

that enough good strong men may be found to protect them 

The problem is an awful one, with so many tendencies to the degradation 
of both races, yet I feel hopeful that our Christian civilization will be 
able to master it." 

He indorsed the suffrage amendment of 1899, although he 
thought that a small property qualification should be made to en- 
courage the negro in industry and economy. 

Judge Howard was married in 1861 to Miss Anna Ragland 
Stamps, daughter of Dr. Thomas Stamps, a prominent physician 
and citizen of Milton, Caswell County, North Carolina. In no 
event of his life was he so abundantly blessed as in this union, 
which continued with ever-increasing happiness for forty years. 
Mrs. Howard died on the nth day of June, 1901. On February 


24, 1905, Judge Howard died within a short distance of the spot 
where he was born, surrounded by his children, loved and honored 
by those among whom he had spent his honorable and useful life. 
Six children, two sons and four daughters, survive him, to wit: 
George Howard, W. Stamps Howard, Mrs. Lizzie Baker, Mrs. 
Alice Cobb, Mrs. Hattie Holdemess and Miss Mary Romain 

In his social relations Judge Howard was genial, kind, sym- 
pathetic and absolutely loyal to his friends. In his family rela- 
tions he was an affectionate, devoted son, brother, husband and 
father. In his civil and political relations he was patriotic, ever 
seeking to promote the welfare of the community, the honor of his 
State, and the preservation of constitutional liberty, by insisting 
upon a strict construction and honest administration of govern- 
mental powers. In his business relations he was just, honest, fair 
and, to the unfortunate, generous. In all respects "He was a 
strong man. He was an independent thinker. His matured 
opinions were deeply rooted and he adhered to them, not with 
animal stubbornness, but with a moral loyalty which no opposition 
and no force of attack could weaken." 

His religious convictions were the result of careful study of the 
Scriptures; they controlled his life and conduct. He believed 
strongly and deeply in the fundamental truths of Christianity, ac- 
cepting the doctrines of Calvinism as held and taught by the Pres- 
byterian Church. A member and Ruling Elder of the Presby- 
terian Church, he greatly admired its simple forms of worship and 
mode of government, and gave largely to the Church and to the 
support of its ministry. At Barium Springs Orphanage he erected 
a commodious building as an appropriate memorial to his wife. 

Judge Howard was among the strongest men reared in a county 
which has produced an unusually large number of strong men. 
He possessed a singularly strong mind, admirably adapted to the 
study and practice of his chosen profession. His judgment of 
men and things was sound, conservative, and usually correct. 
While absolutely free from the slightest approach to the dema- 
gogue, he was an ardent, loyal Democrat, believing intensely in the 



capacity of the people to construct and administer their govern- 
ment through their chosen officers. He had a zealous regard for 
the rights of the individual and was quick to discover and prompt 
to resent any tendency, political or otherwise, which recognized or 
encouraged class distinctions or special privileges. He was a par- 
tisan, as are all men of strong convictions, feeling a pride in the 
achievements and traditions of his party and grieving at whatever 
he regarded as a departure from the teachings of its founders. 

Henry G. Connor. 



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SHOMAS HUME an accomplished English 
scholar and educator, was born at Portsmouth, 
Virginia, October 21, 1836. His father was the 
Rev. Thomas Hume, a Baptist clergyman, bom 
in Smithfield, Virginia, and his mother, Mary 
Ann Gregory, daughter of Dr. Richard B. 
Gregorj', of Gloucester County, Virginia, and Jane Adelaide 
Gregory, of Gates County, N. C. 

His paternal grandfather was the Rev, Thomas Hume, of Edin- 
burgh. Scotland, who, soon after his graduation from the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh and his ordination as a minister of the Estab- 
lished (Presbyterian) Church, removed to the United States to 
look after some property interests in this country. He married in 
A'irginia. where his only child, Thomas, was born, and died sud- 
denly while preaching the opening sermon as Moderator of the 
Baltimore Presbytery, when the son was scarcely six years old. 

Thomas Hume, the father, was educated at the Virginia Bap- 
tist Seminary, now Richard College, became pastor of the 
Court Street Baptist Church, Portsmouth, Virginia, before he 
reached his twenty-first year, and held pastorates in Portsmouth 
and Norfolk for forty years. Mr. Hume was a man of remarkable 
talent and many-sided energy, being principal owner and financial 
manager of Chesapeake College, Superintendent of Education for 
the city of Portsmouth and Norfolk County, president of a bank- 
ing and fire insurance company, and director of the Seaboard and 


Roanoke Railroad. He was president of the State Convention of 
his denomination and of many benevolent societies. He was a man 
ing and fire insurance company, and director of the Seaboard and 
of broad culture and deep piety, with a rare balance of qualities, a 
spiritual leader, and yet a man of affairs. 

The North Carolina side of his mother's line was connected 
with our Colonial and Revolutionary life through the Harveys,-. 
Gregorys, and Winns, and with the social life and prepress of the^! 
State. On the Virginia side she was descended from a long line= 
of distinguished English physicians. 

Young Thomas Hume was a somewhat delicate child, but very^" 
active and alert, well sustained through properly directed exercise, 
and fond of the special pleasures of the seaboard, boating, fishings 
hunting, and of the usual open-air games. His childhood was 
spent, for the most part, in the city of Portsmouth, with frequent 
rides to plantations on Elizabeth River owned by his father and 
grandfather. He was also very studious and fond of reading, 
with large opportunity of indulging these tastes. His circumstan- 
ces did not require manual labor or any remunerative employment, 
nor did he have any special difficulties to overcome in acquiring 
an education. His inherited tendencies and home surroundings 
made him lay hold on the excellent educational opportunities he 
enjoyed. He attended the Virginia Collegiate Institute at Ports- 
mouth, where he won distinction as a student of languages. 

At the age of fifteen Thomas Hume entered Richmond CoU^^, 
where he was graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. 
A year later he entered the University of Virginia, where he 
did advanced work and obtained diplomas in several schools. 
While at the University of Virginia he was Washington society 
editor of The Literary Magazine, and president of the Young 
Men's Christian Association, which he had helped to organize 
and whose constitution he wrote, the first College Young Men's 
Christian Association in the world. These interests of his college 
days he has always sustained, and is now a member of the ad- 
visory committees of the magazine and the Y.M.C.A. at the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. 


As he purposed devoting himself to the business of teaching, 
young Hume accepted the professorship of French and English 
Literature in Chesapeake Female College, near Old Point Com- 
fort, but had not fairly begim work when the war broke up that 
prosperous institution. During his residence there the church at 
Portsmouth, of which he was a member, corresponded with him 
in regard to his duty to enter the ministry, and urged upon him 
the acceptance of a license to preach. He purposed continuing 
his course in a German university, but was prevented by the open- 
ing of the Civil War. 

When the war began he became a member of the Third Regi- 
ment, Virginia Infantry, of which he was made chaplain, but after 
continued field service was transferred to the post-chaplaincy at 
Petersburg, Virginia, the most important of hospital stations dur- 
ing the siege of that place. He remained in Petersburg as the 
official pastor of the Confederate hospitals till General Lee*s 

After the war he became principal of the Petersburg Classical 
Institute, a college preparatory school of one hundred pupils, and 
there in concert with Thomas R. Price and W. Gordon McCabe 
he began the movement for the better teaching of our own lan- 
guage and literature in the South. He traveled and studied 
abroad, and on his return became president of Roanoke College, 
Danville, \'irginia, serving the Baptist church of Danville as pastor 
for several years. From 1876 until 1885 he again made Norfolk 
his home, and was FVofessor of English and Latin in Norfolk 
College and for four years pastor of the First Baptist Church. He 
was for f\\'e years lecturer on English philology and literature in 
the National Summer School for teachers at Glens Falls. New 
York, and has for several years given lectures before literary so- 
cieties, clubs, and colleges on educational and literary topics. For 
three years he has conducted courses in the Summer School of 
the South at the University of Tennessee. 

Dr. Hume became Professor of the English Language and Lit- 
erature in the University of North Carolina, at Chapel Hill, in 
1885, where he has done good service to the cause of education 


throughout the State in organizing and conducting the work of his 
department in English Philology as well as Literature and in 
stimulating interest in the study of literature and the teaching 
of English. He has also extended his work into other States 
where he has been much sought after as a lecturer. He has 
been active in the years gone by in the Teachers' Assembly, in 
Biblical assemblies, in the religious work of his own denom* 
ination, and in cooperation with Christians of every name es- 
pecially interested in Christian work in colleges. The National 
Executive Committee of the Young Men's Christian Association 
nominated Dr. Hume as director of their work in the towns and 
colleges of North Carolina, and for five years after coming to the 
State he gave his services as superintendent of that work. He is- 
sued some Helps to the Study of Shakespeare before coming to the 
University of North Carolina. The pressure of work in his de- 
partment, until quite recently, has allowed him little time for the 
execution of literary plans long since matured. His department 
v»as divided in 1902, when he became Professor of English Litera- 
ture, and his friends hope that the ripest years of his life will be 
devoted largely to literary production. His lectures and dis- 
courses published in newspapers and magazines lead us to expect 
much from him in this direction. 

Doctor Hume has received the degree of A. M. and D. D. from 
Richmond College, Virginia, and the degree of LL. D. from Wake 
Forest College, North Carolina. He is a member of the Modem 
Language Association of America, is president of the Shakespeare 
Club, and has been president of the Philological Qub of the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina and of the North Carolina Baptist His- 
torical Societv. 

Dr. Hume inaugurated the movement that led to the establish- 
ment of the Chair of English in the University of Virginia, and 
was offered the professorship. 

In politics he has always been a staunch Democrat. Of Pres- 
byterian stock on his father's side and Episcopal on his mother's 
side, he is at once a loyal and liberal Baptist. "I have had to 
weigh my convictions," he says, and "estimate those of others dis- 


criminatingly and liberally and cultivate sympathy with *whatso- 
things are true.' " 

From childhcx)d Dr. Hume has been a devotee of standard 
literature and a close student of the Bible. His tastes and 
personal preferences led him into teaching, and his interest in 
literature has sustained him in it. A sense of responsibility for, 
and peculiar relations to, the religious life of his first pupils led him 
to combine preaching with teaching, and he is widely known both 
as preacher and teacher. 

Dr. Hume's experience and observation would suggest to 
young Americans that "culture for service should be the ideal 
and the motive. Make the best of yourself because God ex- 
pects it and is ever with you, and because you can thus serve your 
fellow-men. Do the thorough work required by this ideal and let 
success take care of itself, and you will have the best safeguard 
against depression and against materialism. Study! Study! 
Work ! Work ! Live for the human brotherhood." 

One of his most accomplished students says that his enthusiasm 
is contagious and inspiring. While he is a careful scholar and 
exact in his method, his teaching makes its appeal to the imagina- 
tion and the moral nature. 

A well-known educator once remarked that Dr. Hume's mission 
had been to bring men to the spiritual interpretation of literature. 
The founder of a prize in the University in honor of Dr. Hume 
describes him as the most illuminating man in the teaching of 
literature he has ever listened to and that he interprets Shake- 
speare in the mere reading of it. 

Dr. Hume married, October 31, 1878, Anne Louise Whites- 
carver, and to them were born four children : Thomas, Anne Wil- 
mer, wife of Professor W. R. Vance, Washington, D. C, Mary 
Baynham Gregory, and Helen. 

Collier Cobb. 


i EW men were so closely identified with the form- 
ation of Wake County and its early history, both 
Colonial and Revolutionary, as Colonel Theo- 
philus Hunter. His home was Hunter's Lodge, 
three or four miles south of the present city 
of Raleigh, on what is now called the Fayette- 
ville road. Spring Hill, a plantation somewhat nearer Ralegh, 
was the home of his son, Theopliilus Hunter, Jr., who died about 

Wake County was created by Chapter 22 of the Public Laws of 
1770, but said Act did not take effect till March 12, 1771. The 
charter of the county was of a later date by a few months, being 
signed by Governor Tryon on the 22d of May, 1771. During 
the space intervening between the date of the act of creation and 
the time when Tryon's charier made Wake a complete and dis- 
tinct county, much work had to be done in the way of laying out 
boundaries, erecting buildings and the like. The above mentioned 
chapter appointed Theophilus Hunter one of the commissioners 
to run the boundary between Wake and its mother counties of 
Johnston, Orange, and Cumberland, He was also appointed one 
of the commissioners to lay off land on which to erect a court 
house, jail, stocks, etc. ; and it was the duty of another board of 
which he was a member to contract with workmen for the erection 
of said buildings. 


When Governor Tryon was on his march to quell the insurrec- 
tion of the Regulators in the spring of 1771, he made Hunter's 
Lodge (the seat of Colonel Hunter) the principal place of rendez- 
vous for his troops, and his personal headquarters were there from 
the 2d until the 8th of May. There he was joined by the Wake 
troops under Colonel John Hinton, and by re-enforcements from 
other counties. When the army marched back from its campaign, 
under the command of Colonel John Ashe (Tryon himself having 
returned earlier), the Wake regiment was disbanded at Hunter's 

The first Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions which ever met 
in Wake County held its session on the 4th of June, 1771. Of 
this tribunal, Theophilus Hunter was the Presiding Justice, and 
ten other Justices sat with him. The county-seat of Wake, where 
the meetings of this Court took place, was sometimes called 
Bloomsbury, sometimes Wake Court House, and sometmies 
Wake Cross-Roads. It was about where Raleigh is now located. 
The Provincial Council of Safety met there in 1776, and the As- 
sembly in 1 781. Hunter was a justice of the above court not 
only while North Carolina was a British dependency, but on the 
23d of December, 1776, was elected to the same post by the Pro- 
vincial Congress at Halifax, when the Colony had become an 
indepcnclent State. As early as the 6th of October, 1772, if not 
prior thereto, Hunter held a commission as major of the Wake 
County regiment of the colonial militia of North Carolina, com- 
manded by Colonel John Hinton, and was continued in this regi- 
ment with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, when the Whigs as- 
.<iume(l the control of the State and began their efforts for inde- 

The first service rendered by Theophilus Hunter to the cause of 
the American Colonies was in the Provincial Congress of North 
Carolina which met at Hilisboro in August, 1775, when he sat as 
a delegate from Wake County. That body, on the 9th of Septem- 
ber, elected him lieutenant-colonel of North Carolina troops for 
the county of Wake; and he was reelected to the same rank on 
the 22(1 of April. 1776, by the Provincial Congress at Halifax. 


On the 19th of April, 1776, he was also elected a member of a 
committee whose duty it was to secure arms and ammunition for 
the Continental Army. About the beginning of the year 1778 he 
became county surveyor of Wake. He was also the county's rep- 
resentative in the North Carolina House of Commons at its ses- 
sion of 1783. 

In 1790, when the first official census of the United States was 
taken, Colonel Hunter owned more slaves than any other citizen 
of Wake County except William Jeffries. 

In the will of Colonel Hunter he refers to his wife as Jane Hun- 
ter, but her maiden name is unknown to the present writer. Among 
the children he left were three sons: Theophilus (commonly 
known as '*Orphy"), who died about 1840 in Wake County; 
Henry, who died in Wake County in 1810; and Osborne, who died 
in Johnston County in 1810. In addition to these sons were 
four daughters: Delilah, who married Colonel James Hin- 
ton ; Irene, who married a Mr. Lane ; Mary, or "Polly," who mar- 
ried Governor Gabriel Holmes; and Edith, who remained un- 

From the above children of Colonel Hunter have descended a 
numerous posterity, among whom were Lieutenant-General The- 
ophilus Hunter Holmes, of the Confederate Army, and the North 
Carolina poet, Theophilus Hunter Hill. 

Colonel Hunter died either in the year 1797 or early in 1798. 

Marshall De Lancey Hayivood, 


( HE family of Jack (which is now well scattered 
throughout the United States) resided for the 
most part in Pennsylvania and North Carolina 
during the colonial period and at the time of 
the Revolution. It was of Scotch-Irish de- 
scent. Several brothers of the name came to 
Pennsylvania from Ireland about the year 1730, and one of these, 
Patrick Jack, made his home in North Carolina about the year 
1760. His first place of residence was in Rowan County. At 
the time of the Revolution he was well advanced in age, and was 
living in the little hamlet of Charlotte, in Mecklenburg County, 
where a number of children had grown up about him. So patri- 
otic were his four sons in the War for Independence, and so pro- 
nounced were the old man's own views on the subject of liberty, 
that when the British entered Charlotte on September 26, 1780, 
he was dragged from a bed of sickness out of doors and his house 
consigned to the flames. "All of old Jack's sons are in the rebel 
army, and he himself is a promoter of treason," said the British, 
by way of an explanation of their barbarity. The aged patriot 
did not long survive this ill-usage, and died before independence 
was acknowledged. His nine children were James Jack (subject 
of this sketch! . whose Revolutionary services were in North Caro- 
lina and who later removed to Georgia: John Jack, who also re- 
moved to Georgia; Samuel Jack, who was twice married and 


left descendants ; Robert Jack, who remained in Pennsylvania, but 
whose only married son, John, died in Romney, Virginia, where 
he left descendants; Charity Jack, who married Dr. Cornelius 
Dysart; Jane Jack, who married William Bamett; Mary Jack, 
who married Captain Robert Alexander; Margaret Jack, who 
married Samuel Wilson; and Lillie Jack, who married Joseph 
Nicholson. From these children hundreds of descendants have 

To the career of Captain James Jack we shall now confine our 
remarks. The date of his birth is stated in one account to have 
been 1739. This corresponds with his obituary, which says that 
he Nvas in his eight- fourth year when he died in December, 1822; 
yet he stated in December, 1819, that he was then in his eighty- 
eighth year. This would made 1732 the date when he was bom. 

He had reached years of maturity when he removed with the 
other members of his father's family to North Carolina. On the 
20th of November, 1766, he married Margaret Houston; and, in 
October, 1768, set up a household of his own in the hill country at 
the headwaters of the Catawba river. There he remained until 
August, 1772, when he removed to his father's home in Mecklen- 
burg County, and the entire family moved into the town of Char- 
lotte in February, 1773. In Charlotte, Patrick Jack (father of 
James) opened an inn; and at a later time, owing to the infirmi- 
ties of age, the active management of this establishment fell upon 
James. Both father and son prospered in a business way, and be- 
came owners of much landed property in the vicinity of Char- 
lotte. In this town they were living at the outbreak of the Revo- 
lution, their inn being a favorite resort for the patriots of Mecklen- 
burg — so much so that the British did not fail to destroy it when 
an opportunity offered, as heretofore noted. 

The Spring of 1775 found the entire Jack family arrayed on 
the side of the Colonies, and when the Mecklenburg patriots took 
their famous action in May of that year, James Jack rode as an 
express messenger from Charlotte to Philadelphia to make known 
to the Continental Congress the action of the people of Meck- 
lenburg. His journey was in June. 


On December 7, 18 19, Captain Jack made an affidavit in which 
he said : 

"Having seen in the newspapers some pieces respecting the Declara- 
tion of Independence by the people of Mecklenburg County in the State 
of North Carolina, in May, 1775, and being solicited to state what I know 
of that transaction, I would observe that for some time previous to, and 
at the time those resolutions were agreed upon, I resided in the town of 
Charlotte, Mecklenburg County; was privy to a number of meetings of 
some of the most influential and leading characters of that county on the 
subject before the final adoption of the resolutions and at the time they 
were adopted. Among those who appeared to take the lead may be 
mentioned Hezekiah Alexander, who generally acted as chairman, John 
McKnitt Alexander, as secretary, Abraham Alexander, Adam Alexander, 
Major John Davidson, Major (after General) William Davidson, Colonel 
Thomas Polk, Ezekiel Polk, Dr. Ephraim Brevard, Samuel Martin, Duncan 
Ochletree, William Wilson, Robert Irwin. 

"When the resolutions were finally agreed on, they were publicly pro- 
claimed from the court house door in the town of Charlotte, and received 
with every demonstration of joy by the inhabitants. 

**I was then solicited to be the bearer of the proceedings to Congress. 
I set out the following month, say June, and in passing through Salis- 
bury, the General Court was sitting; at the request of the Court I handed 
a copy of the resolutions to Colonel Kennon, an attorney, and they were 
read aloud in open court. Major William Davidson and Mr. Avery, an 
attorney, called on me at my lodgings the evening after, and observed 
they had heard of but one person, a Mr. Beard, but approved of them. 
I then proceeded on to Philadelphia, and delivered the Mecklenburg 
Declaration of Independence of May, 1775, to Richard Caswell and Wil- 
liam flooper, the delej^ates to Congress from the State of North Carolina. 

"I am now in the 88th year of my age, residing in the county of Elbert 
in the State of Georgia. I was in the Revolutionary War from the com- 
mencement to the close.** 

During the first week in June, 1775, there was in session at 
Salisbury a Court of Oyer and Terminer appointed by Act of 
Assembly for all the counties of the Salisbury district, with jurors 
drawn from Mecklenburg and the other counties of the district as 
well. Colonel Alexander Martin was the judge holding the Court, 
and he appointed Adlai Osborne clerk. Some of the jurors drawn 
from Mecklenburg County, belonging to the Alexander family and 


others participating in these patriotic meetings at Charlotte, did 
not attend, probably because they had already set up an independ- 
ent government for themselves and did not recognize the General 
Court held under the laws of the Province. Colonel Martin and 
Adlai Osborne, like the other principal persons at Salisbury ex- 
cept two lawyers, Dunn and Boote, were, however, warm and 
zealous patriots, and it was altogether natural that the proceed- 
ings of the Mecklenburg people should have been read in open 
court with the sanction of Colonel Martin, the acting judge. Less 
than two months after that, it being suspected that Dunn and 
Boote were dangerous characters, Colonel Martin having consult- 
ed with Colonel Polk, Sam Spencer, Adlai Osborne, Colonel Ken- 
non, and others, caused them to be arrested, and under the escort 
of 60 armed men commanded by Colonel Polk, removed to South 
Carolina, where they were kept in confinement for more than 
a year. Colonel Martin was thanked for this action by the Com- 
mittee of Safety at Salisbury immediately afterwards. 

According to Captain Jack's own statement he served in the 
Revolutionary War from the commencement to the close. For a 
more detailed account of his services, we are indebted to the His- 
tory of Mecklenburg County by Dr. Alexander, which says : 

"He probably served in the Snow campaign in 1775. His large ac- 
quaintance with the people enabled him to raise a company of men whom 
he led forth on Rutherford's Cherokee campaign in 1776. He was with the 
troops embodied who opposed Cornwallis when he entered Charlotte in 
September, 1781. Captain Jack also led his company in General 
Polk's brigade in April, 1781, joining General Greene at Rugel/s Mills 
and serving a three months' tour of duty. The particulars of other ser- 
vices of Captain Jack are not preserved. It is only known that he was 
ever ready for service, and was so popular with his company that they 
induced him not to seek or accept promotions, which indeed he did not 

desire The close of the war left him poor. He had freely 

advanced all that he possessed in the great struggle, a portion of it as a 
loan to North Carolina. His unrequited claims at the time of his death, 
upon North Carolina, amounted to 7.446 pounds State currency. In 1783 
Captain Jack removed to Georgia, settling in Wilkes County." 

In 1790, after James Jack had settled in Wilkes County, Geor- 


gia, a new county was severed therefrom and named for the noted 
statesman and patriot, Governor Samuel Elbert. 

In Elbert County the remainder of Captain Jack's life was spent. 
There he engaged in farming. His death occurred on the i8th of 
December, 1822. His connection with the Mecklenburg Declara- 
tion of Independence invests his career with particular interest. 
An interesting obituary of him appeared in the Raleigh Register 
of January 17, I823, and we here reproduce it in full: 

"Died. — In Elbert County, Georgia, on the i8th instant (ultimo), 
Captain James Jack, in the 84th year of his age. He was bom in the 
State of Pennsylvania, from whence he removed to North Carolina and 
settled in the town of Charlotte, where he remained till the end of the 
Revolutionary War, in which he took a decided and active part from 
the commencement to the close, after which he removed to Georgia with 
his family, whom he supported by the sweat of his brow. He spent the 
prime of his life and his little all in the glorious struggle for independ- 
ence, and enjoyed it with a heart warmed with gratitude to the God 
of battles. In the spring of *75 he was the bearer of the Mecklenburg 
Declaration of Independence to Congress. His claims on the State of 
North Carolina for Revolutionary services and expenditures were 
audited by Colonel Matthew Locke, and amounted to 7,646 pounds in 
currency. Those papers being of little value at that time, he left them 
in the hands of a friend, who dying some years after, the claim to him 
was lost. It fell, possibly, into the hands of some speculator, who may 
be now faring sumptuously on the fruits of his toil. But wealth had no 
charm for him; he looked for a 'house not made with hands, eternal 
in the heavens, whose builder and maker is God.' He has left a widow, 
two sons (his eldest. Colonel Patrick Jack, of the U. S. army in her 
late contest with Britain, having died about two years past), a daughter, 
besides a numerous offspring of grandchildren and great-grandchildren. 
Some few of his old comrades who bore the burden and the heat of the 
day are still living. Should this notice catch the eye of any one of them, 
it may draw forth a sigh or elicit a tear to the memory of their friend, 
more to be valued than a marble monument." 

By reference to an army register covering the period when he 
served during the war of i8i2-'i5, we find the record of Patrick 
Jack (son of Captain James Jack) to have been as follows: Bom 
in North Carolina, and appointed to the army from Georgia, 


on April 2, 181 2, as lieutenant-colonel of the Eighth infantry; 
promoted to the rank of colonel on July 6, iSt2, honorably dis- 
charged on June 15, 1815 ; and died on January 25, 1821. 

The account of the origin of the Jack family given in the ban- 
ning of this sketch, we have drawn from the sketches of North 
Carolina by C. L. Hunter. In that work we also find some ac- 
count of the descendants of Captain James Jack and his wife Mar- 
garet Houston. Their children were five in number, as follows: 
Cynthia Jack, born September 20, 1767, who married A. S. Cosby, 
and left descendants : Patrick Jack (Colonel U. S. army, as above), 
born September 27, 1769, who married Harriet Spencer and left 
descendants ; William Houston Jack, bom June 6, 1771, who mar- 
ried Frances Cummins and left descendants ; Archibald Jack, bom 
April 20, 1773, who died young; James Jack, Jr., bom Septem- 
ber 20, 1775, who married Annie Bamett, and left descendants. 
Colonel Patrick Jack, U. S. A., above mentioned, had a son. Cap- 
tain Abner M. Jack, who was the father of Guy Jack, to whom we 
shall presently refer. 

The scope of the present sketch will not admit of a detailed ac- 
count of the numerous posterity which has sprung from the above 
children of Captain Jack. Their lives have been spent for the 
most part, in Georgia, the Gulf States, and Arkansas. 

The descendants of the old patriot, Captain James Jack, have 
shown themselves in all wars succeeding the Revolution to be 
worthy of such an ancestor. His son was an officer in the second 
war with Great Britain ; grandsons fought for Texan indepen- 
dence at San Jacinto, and were also in the war with Mexico ; and 
in the Confederate army were more remote descendants. One of 
the family's present members, Guy Jack, of Kemper County, Mis- 
sissippi, wrote an account of his family for the "Monument Edi- 
tion" of the Charlotte Observer of May 20, 1898, when the war 
with Spain was in progress, saying in conclusion: "I was too 
young to go with my father to battle for Southern rights. I have 
volunteered my services to my State should I be needed to fight 
for America's honor and the freedom of the oppressed in the war 
now going on. God has blessed me with a happy home, the best 



wife in the world, and seven of the finest little Jacks in America, 
all without spot or blemish." 

While the commendable occupation of raising "little Jacks 
without spot or blemish" is continued in different branches of the 
family, we may safely predict that the name will not be unknown 
hereafter when America needs the services of her patriotic sons 
cither in peace or in war. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 



fN PuUen Park in the suburbs of the city of Ra- 
leigh is an odd, old-fashioned house, contain- 
ing but two rooms, one above the other, which 
the patriotic ladies of the city have removed 
from its original site to the Park for preserva- 
tion. It is the house in which was boni Andrew 
Johnson, President of the United States during the period of Re- 
construction, who was impeached by the aggressive element of the 
Republican Party because of political differences in regard to the 
treatment of the white people of the South after the war between 
the States. 

Andrew Johnson was born in Raleigh on December 29, 1808. 
His father, Jacob Johnson, had been a soldier in the Revolutionary 
War. At the time of his death in 1812 he was city constable, sex- 
ton and porter to the State Bank. His death was hastened by 
exertions in saving the life of a friend from drowning. "Although 
for many years Jacob Johnson had occupied but an humWe sta- 
tion, in his last illness," says the editor of The Raleigh Star, in its 
issue of January 12, 1812, "he was visited by the principal in- 
habitants of the city, by all of whom he was esteemed for his 
honesty, sobriety, industry, and his humane, friendly disposition. 
Among all by whom he was known and esteemed, none lament 
him. except perhaps his own relatives, more than the publisher of 
this paper, for he owes his life on a particular occasion to the 
kindness and humanity of Johnson." 


Mrs. Johnson was left very poor at her husband's death ; and 
her son, the subject of this sketch, had no educational advantages 
whatever. He never attended school a day in his life. At the 
age of ten he was apprenticed to a tailor in Raleigh, and during 
that period of his life he used to listen with delight to a young 
man, William G. Hill, afterwards an esteemed physician of the 
city of Raleigh, as he read to the boys at work extracts from the 
speeches of Burke, Pitt and others, from the Columbian Orator, 
and observing his interest in the book, young Hill gave it to him. 
At the time Andrew Johnson did not know a letter of the alphabet, 
and from this book, by application and unaided, he learn to read. 

At the age of 16 he ran away from his master and worked for 
some time as a journeyman tailor at Laurens, South Carolina. Re- 
turning home, in May, 1826, he accompanied his mother and step- 
father to Greeneville, Tennessee. The party set out from Raleigh 
with all their possessions in a two-wheeled cart drawn by a blind 
pony. The long and dangerous journey was successfully accom- 
plished. Arriving at Greeneville, young Johnson soon obtained 
employment and very speedily married Eliza McCardle, a young 
woman of refinement and some education, who taught him to 
write. In 1828, while still under age, he was elected an alderman 
of Greeneville, and two years later he became mayor of the town ; 
and the next year he was appointed by the County Court a trustee 
of Rhea Academy, and he participated in the debates of a literary 
society of Greeneville College. Evidently the disadvantages of 
his deficient education had by this time been somewhat overcome. 
He was a democrat by nature and by the circumstances of his 
life ; and when in 1834 he entered into public life he advocated the 
adoption of a new constitution for Tennessee which abridged the 
influence of large land-owners. He had been an ardent follower 
of John Bell, but when on the formation of the Whig party Bell 
turned against General Jackson, Johnson remained a "regular 
Democrat," and in 1840 he was an elector for the State at large 
on the Van Buren ticket, and made a great reputation for his ora- 
tory. Three years later he became a member of Congress and 
was continuously re-elected for ten years, when the people of Ten- 


nessec chose him to be Governor of the State. In 1855 he was 
again elected Governor, and on the expiration of his term was 
elected United States Senator. 

As his career indicates, he had now become a strong man, a 
man of great force and power — an adversary in debate to be feared 
even by the most accomplished of his opponents; yet he never 
wholly overcame the want of early refinement or the deficiencies of 
his education. That he was not a man of culture was often made 
apparent, and it is said that sometimes in the course of heated ar- 
gument his thoughts would find expression in oratorical passages 
that were doubtless the remembrance or echo in his mind of the 
selections, contained in the Columbian Orator, read to him by 
Dr. Hill, and which had found a lodgment in his plastic brain be- 
fore he had learnt how to read. 

So esteemed was he at home, that at the Democratic national 
convention held at Charleston in i860, the Tennessee delegation 
presented him as their candidate for the presidency. 

Although Mr. Johnson strenuously favored all measures for the 
benefit of the working classes and clashed severely with property 
holders and especially with slave-owners, yet he was not at all 
opposed to the institution of slavery, but rather maintained the 
view that, according to all social and natural laws, there were 
classes in society and that the proper position of the negroes in 
the Southern States was that of bondage and subordination to the 
whites. In the great campaign of i860 he was a strong supporter 
of the nominee of the Southern Democrats, John C. Breckenridgc, 
but when the secession movement began he declared his unyield- 
ing opposition to secession and his resolute purpose to sustain the 
Union ; and when Tennessee seceded he retained his seat in the 
United States Senate as Senator from that State. 

On March 4, 1862, President Lincoln appointed him Military 
Governor of Tennessee ; and his influence in Tennessee being cast 
against the South was disastrous to the Southern cause. He or- 
ganized twenty-five Federal regiments in that State, promoted 
the Union sentiment, and held Congressional elections and 
sought to maintain Tennessee as a State in the Federal Union. 


He thus became an important factor in winning the final victory 
for the Federal government. Indeed one hazards nothing in say- 
ing that he was more effective in accomplishing the result of the 
war than any other one person in the United States. 

At the National Republican Convention held in Baltimore, June 
8, 1864, he was nominated for Vice-President. In his letter of 
acceptance, he disclaimed any departure from his principles as a 
Democrat and placed his acceptance "on the higher duty of sus- 
taining the Government." He was for the Union and against 
the Confederacy, and his actions were in conformity with his 
avowed principles and purposes. In this he differed widely from 
those men at the South who, declaring themselves favorable to 
Southern independence, still sought to embarrass the Confederate 
administration and neutralize its efforts, on the pretext of main- 
taining Constitutional liberty. 

President Lincoln fell by the hand of an assassin on April 14, 
1865, and the next day Vice-President Johnson took the oaths as 
President of the United States. He made no changes in the ad- 
ministration, but retained all of Mr. Lincoln's cabinet, and sought 
to conduct affairs on the same lines as his predecessor. 

He, however, inherited from Mr. Lincoln a difference with Con- 
gress that led to an open rupture. Mr. Lincoln's view was that a 
State could not withdraw from the Union, and that the Southern 
States were still members of the Union although a large majority 
of their inhabitants were in insurrection and rebellion. On De- 
cember 8, 1863, Mr. Lincoln made an offer of amnesty and pardon 
to those resisting Federal authority who should submit, but with 
certain exceptions. In his proclamation then issued he announced 
that "whenever one tenth of the voters of a seceded State, bein.g 
qualified voters under the laws of the State before secession, and 
excluding all others, shall re-establish a State government, the 
State shall be recognized as again in the Union ;" but he added 
that it was proper to state that whether members sent to Congress 
shall be admitted to seats rests exclusively with the respective 
Houses of Congress. 

This claim of Mr. Lincoln of his right to recognize a loyal gov- 


ernment in a State, was not agreed to by Congress ; and in July, 

1864, Congress passed a bill asserting the jurisdiction of Con- 
gress, and providing that the President should not recognize such 
a State government until "after obtaining the consent of Con- 
gress/' Mr. Lincoln took issue with Congress on that matter and 
defeated that bill by a pocket veto, so that it had no effect what- 
ever. He subsequently made public his reasons for this veto, 
which led to an angry protest by some of the most violent Repub- 
licans. But he resolutely adhered to his own views and purposes, 
and was endorsed by the people by re-election, and the subject was 
not broached again during his lifetime. His determination was 
known to be the immediate restoration of civil authority as quickly 
as practicable, and in that General Grant heartily concurred with 
him. So, when the Confederate armies were disbanded in April, 

1865, he and his Cabinet drew up a proclamation inaugurating 
steps for the restoration of North Carolina to the Union. Imme- 
diately after his death the Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton, 
presented this plan to President Johnson, and the Cabinet all 
agreed that it should be followed. 

A month after the surrender of General J. E. Johnston's army, 
President Johnson invited Governor Swain, Hon. B. F. Moore 
and Mr. William Eaton to confer with him on the subject of re- 
constructing the government of North Carolina. He laid before 
them his plan to appoint a provisional governor, who should con- 
vene a convention to be elected by such voters of the State as were 
voters under the laws and constitution existing before the war as 
would be allowed to vote under his amnesty proclamation. These 
gentlemen could not approve of this plan. Their view was that 
the President had no right to appoint a provisional governor for 
the State, but that the existing government of the State should be 
allowed to restore the State to the Union ; and that, since Governor 
Vance was then in arrest and confined in prison, the presiding 
officers of the two Houses of the Legislature should convene the 
Legislature, and that body should call a convention to restore the 
State to the Union. Their view recognized the existing govern- 
ment of the State, which the President would not assent to. The 


difference between them was irreconcilable, and they withdrew. 
There were other North Carolinians, however, in attendance on 
the President, and these endorsed the Presidential plan and, at 
the request of the President, recommended a person for the ap- 
pointment of provisional governor, and they selected W. W. Hol- 

If the only object had been the speedy restoration of fraternal 
relations between the people of North Carolina and the people of 
the Union, the method proposed by Governor Swain was certainly 
the correct one ; but that was not the entire purpose of either the 
President or of the Congress; while the choice of Mr. Holden, 
as the instrument in restoring the State, was both unphilosophical 
and unfortunate. 

The method of reconstructing the State was, however, not Pres- 
ident Johnson's, but Mr. Lincoln's, adopted by him in 1863, and 
insisted on in 1864, and particularly developed by him and his 
Cabinet as to North Carolina in 1865, *^"d merely carried into ef- 
fect by President Johnson. But President Johnson had not only 
the purpose to reconstruct the State on those lines, but the addi- 
tional purpose, as he formally and emphatically declared, of "mak- 
ing treason odious." The State governments during the Con- 
federate times were to be utterly ignored, and the principal inhabi- 
tants who had been in insurrection were to be punished as rebels 
and traitors. 

On the 29th of May, 1865, the President set on foot the restora- 
tion of North Carolina by issuing his proclamation and appoint- 
ing W. \V. Holden provisional governor. His proclamation was, 
word for word, like that of Mr. Lincoln, December 8, 1863, ex- 
cept that President Johnson now excluded some additional classes 
from amnesty and pardon, limiting still more narrowly those who 
could participate in the election of members to the State conven- 
tion. Under his programme North Carolina was in November, 
1865, reconstructed as a State in the Union. Similar proceed- 
ings were had a little later in all the seceded States except Texas, 
as to which there was more delay. These Southern States ratified 
a proposed amendment to the constitution abolishing slavery, 


which without their vote would not have been adopted; and in 
April, 1866, the President issued his proclamation to the effect 
that North Carolina and nine other States, therein specified, had 
always been States of the Union, and were then States in the 
Union ; and that the insurrection that had existed in them was at 
an end. Representation had been apportioned to them by Con- 
gress as States. They had been divided into judicial districts as 
States ; as States they had participated in amending the Constitu- 
tion of the United States; as States the Supreme Court had 
allotted them to circuits; the Senate had confirmed the appoint- 
ments of judges, district attorneys and marshals for every one of 
them, and the chief justice held a circuit court in the State of 
North Carolina. 

The President held and declared that these States were mem- 
bers of the Union and that Congress ought to admit them to rep- 
resentation. Still Congress did not admit them to representa- 
tion. In regard to North Carolina, it should be stated in passing 
that at an election for governor in November, 1865, Jonathan 
Worth was chosen by the people in preference to W. W. Holden, 
who at once sought to poison the mind of the President in r^ard 
to affairs in this State, urging that his defeat was a victory for the 
Confederates and rebels, and that Worth ought not to be allowed 
to execute the office of governor; but that the President should 
intervene and re-appoint him provisional governor. The Presi- 
dent, however, was soon undeceived and recognized that the pro- 
ceedings in North Carolina were not in antagonism to the Union 
nor to the authority of the Federal government. At a somewhat 
later date the President himself made a visit to North Carolina to 
see the grave of his father at Raleigh where some of the citizens 
had caused a monument to be erected ; and then he visited the 
State University at Chapel Hill, and he manifested a particular 
interest in North Carolina and its affairs. 

On December 14, 1865, Thaddeus Stevens, a leader of the vio- 
lent Republicans in Congress, warned his party that if the Presi- 
dent's plan of reconstruction were allowed — if the late Confeder- 
ate States were admitted to representation on the old basis — these 


States together with the Democrats of the North would control 
the country. He insisted that the constitution should be amended 
"so as to secure perpetual ascendency to the party of the Union." 
To that end he had two plans, one to reduce the representation of 
the Southern States in Congress; the other to enfranchise the 
Blacks and disfranchise the Whites. The latter course was adopt- 
ed; and in June, 1866. there was brought forward a plan of re- 
construction based on negro suffrage. The Northern mind, how- 
ever, was not then prepared for such a measure ; but on that ques- 
tion the issue was joined between the President and the violent 
Republican leaders. It emphasized the clashing of Congress 
with the President, who had disagreed with Congress on the con- 
tinuation of the Freedmen's Bureau and on the bill giving certain 
civil rights to negroes, both of which he had vetoed, and both of 
which Congress had passed over his veto. Many Republicans sus- 
tained the President, who had acted throughout with the approba- 
tion of Mr. Lincoln's cabinet and of Chief Justice Chase and other 
Justices of the Supreme Court ; and so the Thad Stevens element 
found it necessary to wait, and to inaugurate a fierce campaign to 
solidify Northern sentiment. The North quivered under the pas- 
sionate appeals made to inflame sectional hatred and to arouse re- 
lentless animosity. One illustration must suffice. Mr. Shella- 
barger. a leading Republican of Ohio said : ''They framed iniquity 
and universal murder into law. Their pirates burned your un- 
armed commerce upon every sea. They carved the bones of your 
dead heroes into ornaments, and drank from goblets made out of 
their skulls. They poisoned your fountains ; put mines under your 
soldiers* prisons ; organized bands whose leaders were concealed in 
your homes ; and commissions ordered the torch and yellow fever 
to be carried to your cities and to your women and children. They 
planned one universal bonfire of the North from Lake Ontario to 
the Missouri." Such was the keynote of the campaign of hate the 
Northern statesmen inaugurated. The seed fell on fruitful ground. 
Malice became the ruling passion of the Northern people, and the 
result of the election brought great comfort to Thaddeus Stevens 
and his associates. But the President remained firm in his con- 


viction that the governments in the Southern States, which had 
been recognized by the Executive Department and by the Judicial 
Department, ought to be recognized by Congress. Under the 
fierce assaults of the Stevens faction, embracing the Marats, Dan- 
tons and Robespierres of that period, three members of the cabinet 
recanted and resigned. Secretary Stanton, however, remained. 

On January 7, 1867, it being resolved to remove the President, 
a committee was raised to impeach him, but although a close and 
searching examination was made, even of his private actions, no 
pretext could then be found on which to base proceedings against 
him. He was, however, deprived of the command of the army, 
for fear that he might use the military power against the enforce- 
ment of Congressional measures. Two months later, despite his 
veto, the statehood of the Southern States was annulled and they 
were remanded to military rule. Their laws and constitutions and 
governments were set aside, and a major-general was set over 
them, his will being the law. On the same day the tenure of office 
act was passed. When this act was presented to the President his 
cabinet advised him that it was unconstitutional; and Secretary 
Stanton gave an elaborate opinion to that effect. It was, how- 
ever, passed by Congress over the President's veto. Under its 
provisions the President could not remove an officer who had been 
confirmed by the Senate, without its consent ; but, when the Sen- 
ate was not in session, he could suspend such an officer. Mr. Stan- 
ton forfeited the confidence of the President, and in August, 1867, 
the President informed him that "public considerations of a high 
character constrained him to ask for his resignation." The reply 
of the Secretary was that "public considerations of a high char- 
acter constrain me not to resign until Congress meets." The 
President then suspended Mr. Stanton, and when Congress v^ 
in session on February 21, 1868, he removed him. 

The President stood in the way of the full execution of the pur- 
poses of the Republican leaders. In 1866 they had failed to find 
a pretext for impeachment proceedings. Senator Sumner, in his 
opinion filed in the impeachment proceedings, mentions that when 
the tenure of office act was passed, "in order to prepare the way 


for impeachment, by removing certain scruples of technicality, its 
violation was expressly declared to be a high misdemeanor." Sec- 
retary Stanton, a member of the cabinet, was apparently working 
to accomplish the purpose. He prepared the way. On the same 
day that he was removed, a resolution of impeachment was intro- 
duced. When the articles were presented to the Senate, the Presi- 
dent's counsel asked for forty days to prepare for the trial, but 
were allowed only ten. The keynote of the proceeding is found in 
Senator Sumner's opinion : "This is the last of the great battles 
with slavery. Driven from these legislative chambers, driven 
from the field of war, this monstrous power has found a refuge in 
the Executive Mansion, where, in utter disregard of the Constitu- 
tion and laws, it seeks to exercise its ancient, far-reaching sway. 
All this is very plain. Nobody can question it. Andrew Johnson 
is the impersonation of the tyrannical slave power. In him it lives 
again. He is the lineal successor of John C. Calhoun and Jeffer- 
son Davis ; and he gathers about him the same supporters." "It 
is the old troop of slavery, with a few recruits, ready as of old 
for violence — cunning in device, and heartless. With the Presi- 
dent at their head, they are now entrenched in the Executive Man- 
sion. Not to dislodge them is to leave the country a prey to one 
of the most hateful tyrannies of history; especially is it to sur- 
render the Unionists of the rebel States to violence and bloodshed. 
Not a month, not a week, not a day should be lost. The safety of 
the Republic requires action at once." 

Mr. Sumner then insisted that the impeachment proceedings 
were political and not judicial. He did not propose to confine 
himself to the charges and specifications that had been brought 
against the President, but contended that he should be removed, 
whether or not. He was charged particularly with removing Sec- 
retary Stanton from oflfice. Mr. Sumner said : "Here in the Sen- 
ate we know oflficially how he has made himself the attorney of 
slavery — the usurper of legislative power — the violator of law — 
the patron of rebels — the helping hand of rebellion — the kicker 
from office of good citizens — the open bunghole of the treasury — 
the architect of the whiskey ring — the stumbling block to all good 


laws by wanton vetoes and then by criminal hindrances ; all these 
things are known here beyond question. To the apologists of the 
President, who set up the quibbling objection that they are not al- 
leged in the articles of impeachment, I reply that, even if excluded 
on this account from judgment, they may be treated as evidence." 

In 1865 and early in 1866 the Southern States, in conformity 
with the President's plan, had abolished slavery by ratifying the 
13th amendment to the Constitution. Two years after slavery 
was abolished Senator Sumner voiced what was in the hearts of 
his confreres and associates in the above extracts from his judg- 
ment and opinion filed in the impeachment proceedings. Only 
one article was voted on by the Court of Impeachment. It was 
the nth article relating to the removal of Secretary Stanton. 
Thirty-five Republicans voted for conviction; nineteen Senators 
voted not guilty, among whom were three Republicans who re- 
fused to follow the lead of Stanton, Stevens and Sumner. 

The President indeed had been guilty of the offence of wishing 
to restore the Union and to establish peace and order at the South 
and fraternal feeling throughout the country. He had taken up 
the work of Reconstruction and had brought the Southern States 
again into harmonious relations with the Federal government. But 
he had not trampled under foot the Constitution of the Union and 
had not imposed such conditions as would secure the dominancy 
of the Republican party. That was his crime. It was unpardon- 

His contention was that the Southern States had always remain- 
ed members of the Union, and that Congress had no right under 
the Constitution to interfere with suffrage in any State; and he 
further contended that it was unwise and inexpedient to invest the 
negroes at the South with suffrage, as they were not prepared to 
use the ballot with intelligence and discretion. At the North, 
where they were few in numbers and their political influence was 
unimportant, they were still generally denied the right of vote. At 
the South their power would be great; and untutored and ig- 
norant, the result of conferring suffrage on them could only be 
unfortunate. Some of the more thoughtful of his adversaries, in- 


deed, admitted the force of this reasoning, and spoke of the meas- 
ure of investing the negroes with the ballot as an experiment that 
might, or might not, prove judicious. 

As it was, President Johnson made a great effort against the 
purpose of Congress, but without avail. Thaddeus Stevens, who 
boldly declared that all these proceedings in which he was the lead- 
er were extra-Constitutional, dying in August, 1868, lived only to 
see the inauguration of negro suffrage at the South and the ascend- 
ency of his party in the Southern States through the aid of the 
negroes. Senator Sumner, living until 1874, saw the system he and 
his associates had erected tottering to its fall, but he died in 
March, 1874, just before the North itself, in the Congressional 
election of that year, largely repudiated the doctrines he had so 
violently advocated. 

While President Johnson's course after the war threw him in 
opposition to the leaders of the Republican Party his efforts to 
maintain the Union during the war, and his avowed purpose to 
make treason odious, and his want of sympathy with the better 
classes at the South, prevented him from having the regard of the 
Southern people; although naturally they rejoiced that the pur- 
pose of the Republican leaders to remove him from the Presidency 
was defeated by his acquittal. 

On the expiration of his term in March, 1869, he returned to 
Tennessee, and at various times soufT^ht office at the hands of the 
people, without avail, until in January, 1875, he was elected to the 
United States Senate as a Democrat ; but six months later, July 
30. 1873. he was stricken with paralysis and died the following 

Viewed from the standpoint of a Union citizen, he rendered tlie 
United States services during the war for the Union that were of 
incalculable advantage. Had it not been for his action and his 
influence in Tennessee, and had Tennessee been as firm as North 
Carolina for the South, the contest indeed might have ended differ- 
ently. Xot a polished orator, he was a man of massive powers, — 
virile, resolute and never dismayed. He stood manfully for the 
right, as he conceived it to be, but was unable to thwart those who 



deemed negro suffrage necessary to perpetuate the power of the 
Republican Party. A single decade however sufficed to destroy 
the Africanized governments set up at the South by his adversa- 
ries, and the passage of time justifies his resolute action and the 
wisdom of his judgment. 

S. A. Ashe. 


; HEN Governor Gabriel Johnston came as Gover- 
nor of North Carolina, he was soon followed by 
a brother, who later became the surveyor- 
general of the province. This gentleman mar- 
ried Helen Scrymoure, and their eldest child is 
the subject of this sketch. Samuel Johnston 
was born at Dundee, Scotland, December 15, 1733. He was not 
three years of age when his parents removed to North Carolina. 
His falhcr located in Onslow Precinct where he had large inter- 
ests, the county scat being called Johnstonville in his honor. On 
his death Mr. Edward Starkey became guardian of the orphan 
children, and the subject of this sketch ever cherished the most 
friendly feelings for him. Young Johnston was educated in New 
England, and then read law under Mr. Thomas Barker, who re- 
sided in Chowan. He acted as clerk of the Superior Court of 
Chowan from 1767 until the courts ceased in 1773; and he was 
the deputy naval officer for the province till the opening of the 
Revolution, having purchased that office from the appointee of the 
Crown who remained in England. 

In 1765 Mr. Johnston purchased a plantation in Chowan County 
called Hayes, and that became his place of residence. Here he 
surrounded himself with every comfort and many of the elegancies 
of life, and made a residence that had no superior in the province. 
He married Miss Frances Cathcart, a daughter of Dr. Cathcart, 


and was surrounded by an interesting family. His sister Isa1)dla 
was engaged to be married to Joseph Hewes, but died suddenly ; 
and Mr. Hewes ever afterwards was an intimate friend of Mr. 
Johnston. Another sister, Hannah, married James Iredell, who 
had the greatest veneration for his distinguished brother-in-law. 
His brother John was like himself a sterling patriot and man of 
affairs. In the same community were John Harvey, Thomas 
Jones, Charles Johnson, Colonel John Dawson, who married a 
daughter of Governor Gabriel Johnston, Edward Buncombe, Ste- 
phen Cabarrus, and other gentlemen of the first water. It was in 
this society that Mr. Johnston passed the years of his early man- 
hood, and entered on the activities of life. For ability, learning, 
wealth and character, he was among the foremost of the gentlemen 
of the province. During the period of his career there were sev- 
eral very great men in North Carolina, and a considerable num- 
ber who united shining talents with patriotism and character ; and 
still others not so richly endowed with natural gifts who yet were 
practical men of affairs, and attained great prominence because of 
their usefulness and adroit political management. In general ex- 
cellence Mr. Johnston surpassed them all. He stood as a gjeat 
pyramid securely erected on a solid granite base. "He bore the 
greatest weight of care and labor lightly as a mountain supports 
its crown. His powerful frame was a fit engine for the vigorous 
intellect that gave it animation. Strength was his characteristic. 
In his relations to the public, an inflexible sense of duty and jus- 
tice dominated. There was a remarkable degree of self-reliance 
and majesty about the man. He commanded the respect and ad- 
miration, but not the love, of the masses of the people." He was 
lofty and unbending in his attitude, but the soul of honor, and 
never departed from the dictates of his reason. As an illustra- 
tion of the respect with which he was regarded, the testimony of 
Governor Martin, when a fugitive on board his shipping, may be 
quoted. In October 1775, after Johnston had called together the 
Congress as moderator and had accepted from it the position of 
treasurer of the Northern District as a Revolutionary office, Gov- 
ernor Martin in notifying him of his suspension as the naval offi- 


cer of the province, adverts to "the respect I have entertained for 
your private character;" and in communicating to the Crown the 
establishment of a Revolutionary government under the Provin- 
cial Council of Thirteen, he speaks very disparagingly of the other 
members, but says : **Mr. Samuel Ashe and Mr. Samuel Johnston 
have the reputation of being men of integrity." 

As early as 1760 Mr. Johnston was a member of the Assembly 
from Chowan County, and naturally took a prominent part in the 
proceedings of the Assembly. During the Stamp Act times, he 
was a thorough patriot, although there was no occasion for any 
popular demonstration in the Albemarle section. 

When the Regulation troubles came on, like Harvey, Caswell 
and all the other men of prominence in the Eastern Counties, he 
supported law and order as against the anarchy threatened by the 
spread of the Regulation movement. In 1770 when the Regula- 
tors broke up the court at Hillsboro, and by their riots brought on 
a crisis, the Assembly, led by Johnston and others, enacted on the 
one hand very sweeping remedial legislation, such as laws to regu- 
late attorneys' fees, to regulate officers' fees ; to direct sheriffs in 
lev>'ing executions, to authorize the Inferior Courts to establish 
tobacco warehouses wherever needed ; to prevent the collection of 
the sinking fund tax, and other measures calculated to remove 
every cause of discontent. On the other hand Mr. Johnston and 
his associates proposed to put a stop, by law, to riots and disorder, 
and he drew and introduced the bill which has been called the 
"Bloody Act." This Act among other things provided that upon 
indictment found against any person for any of the crimes de- 
scribed in the Act, the judges of the court shall issue their procla- 
mation, commanding such offender to surrender within sixty days 
and stand trial ; on failure of which he should be deemed guilty of 
of the offence charged, and "it shall be lawful for anyone to kill 
and destroy such offender, and his lands and chattels shall be con- 
fiscated to the King for the use of Government." This clause the 
law officers in England said "was irreconcilable with the princi- 
ples of the Constitution, full of danger in its operation and unfit 
for any part of the British Empire." But as it was by its own 


limitations upon the point of expiring, and the total repeal of it 
might have very fatal consequences, the Act was not disallowed, 
but the Governor was advised not to assent to any new law for 
preventing tumults and riotous assemblies, unless it should be en- 
tirely free from the objections stated. 

The condition of affairs in the province required a strong hand 
and a severe law to maintain government and repress anarchy. 
While this Act passed the General Assembly, its severity was rec- 
ognized even by those who enacted it. As a repressive measure, 
however, it had its effect, so that after the battle of Alamance the 
Regulation troubles entirely ceased. Some writers speak of Ala- 
mance as the first battle of the American Revolution. It had no 
connection with the American Revolution. The Regulators were 
not demanding their rights and liberties as against the measures 
of parliament, but were resisting the laws of the province. That 
they had grievances is evident, but those grievances were not at 
all akin to the British exactions which led to the Revolution. John- 
ston and his associates, who had ever been devoted and zealous in 
their adherence to the rights of the Colonies, were not inconsist- 
ent in maintaining law and order and government in 1771, and in 
taking up arms in 1775. 

At the first session of the Assembly after the return of the army 
from Alamance, the Assembly, to relieve the burdens of the peo- 
ple, proposed to repeal the tax of one shilling on the poll imposed 
many years before to provide a sinking fund. The Assembly 
claimed that the object of that tax had been accomplished. On 
the other hand the Governor denied this statement and denounced 
the proposed appeal as a fraud. Johnston drew and introduced 
the bill ; and he gave the weight of his influence to this measure 
of relief. The issue was sharp. It was feared that the Governor 
would dissolve the Assembly, and in anticipation of such action, a 
resolution was adopted directed the sheriffs not to collect this tax. 
The Governor, acting speedily, however, dissolved the Assembly 
before the resolution could be spread on the minutes. Still Cas- 
well, the Speaker, communicated the resolve to the treasurers; 
and John Ashe, the treasurer of the Southern District, did not 


require the sheriffs to collect it; although the Governor by his 
proclamation especially commanded them to do so. In the con- 
tests of that session Johnston was the leading figure, antagonizing 
the Governor at every point ; and yet a few months later we find 
the Governor writing to him and asking free communication, "as 
I entertain such respect and esteem for your person and charac- 

At the next session, January, 1773, the Court Law was the-chief 
cause of difference. The Court Act of 1771 was about to expire, 
and the King, at the solicitation of British merchants, had directed 
that in the new law there should be no attachment allowed against 
the property of non-resident debtors. The Assembly insisted on 
providing for such attachments, notwithstanding the King's in- 
struction. Sam Johnston introduced the Bill. The Assembly 
passed it. The Governor would not assent to it and dissolved 
the Assembly. The Court Law expired by its own limitation, and 
there were no Superior or General Courts held in the province. 
A third Assembly was now elected, and it met in December, 1773. 
Harvey was Speaker. Immediately on meeting, it appointed a 
committee to correspond with the other Colonies on matters re- 
lating to America which now assumed renewed importance. 

It also passed a Court Bill, but without avail. On December 
2 1st it petitioned the King to repeal his instructions and appointed 
a committee, composed of Speaker Harvey, Sam Johnston, John 
Ashe, and others, to ask Tryon, "who happily for this country, for 
many years presided over it," to carry this address to the King. 
Thereupon the Governor much mortified and offended, prorogued 
the Assembly till March. When the House met March, 1774, it 
adopted a resolution directing the sheriffs not to collect the one 
shilling poll tax, and the Governor prorogued it till May. In all 
these proceedings Johnston had been among the foremost. Con- 
tinental affairs were now claiming attention. Colonel Harvey re- 
ceived information that the Governor did not intend to convene 
another Assembly, and forthwith he conferred with Willie Jones, 
Sam Johnston and Colonel Buncombe, and declared that he would 
issue handbills and the people would convene an Assembly. The 


day following this conference Johnston wrote to Mr. Hooper and 
asked his advice, and asked him to speak of it to Mr. Harnett and 
Colonel Ashe, and other such men. Johnston was fully abreast 
of the foremost in his purpose to take determined action for the 
rights of the people. Hooper and Mr. Iredell, who looked up to 
Johnston with veneration, had prophetic visions of America fast 
striding to independence, and Johnston doubtless was entirely 
aware of their thoughts on that great subject. 

At length in July news was received at Wilmington that the 
port of Boston had been closed by Act of Parliament. The in- 
habitants of the district met in general meeting, William Hooper 
presiding, and appointed a committee of which Colonel James 
Moore was the head to address the people and urge them to elect 
delegates to represent them in a general meeting. This was the 
first appeal to the sovereignity of the people. The call was made 
by James Moore and three of his associates, and it was favorably 
received throughout the Colony. The deputies were elected, John- 
ston and Harvey being members of the body. After appointing 
delegates to the Continental Congress, it clothed Harvey, and in 
case of his inability Johnston, with the power to call a new Con- 

At that time Johnston was one of the chief leaders. On Sep- 
tember 1st, 1774, Governor Martin wrote to his superiors in Lon- 
don : 

"That the seven counties of the Northern District are now under the 
absolute guidance of a Mr. Johnston, who is deputy naval officer and 
was one of the clerks of the Superior Courts while they existed in this 
province, but who under the prejudices of a New England education, as 
I suppose, is by no means the friend of government he ought to be, 
having taken a foremost part in all the late oppositions, in which it is 
probable, if not certain, he has been influenced also by his aims to the 
treasuryship, for which he was a candidate at the last appointment with- 
out success." 

Events were now proceeding with no measured steps. A new 
Assembly had been elected, and Colonel Harvey called for a new 


Congress. The latter met at New-Bern on April 4th; the As- 
sembly the next day. The representatives of the people were 
nearly identical in both, and the delegates to the Congress were 
invited to seats in the Assembly. The Governor's Council had 
measurably deserted him when the first Congress met and had 
affiliated with the representatives of the people; and because of 
the resolute answer made to the Governor's opening address, pre- 
pared by Johnston and others, without the transaction of any busi- 
ness the Governor dissolved the Assembly on the third day of 
the session, while the Congress continued its business as represen- 
tatives of the people. Seeing that the inhabitants of the Colony 
were falling away from the Government, Governor Martin sought 
to enlist the Regulators and Highlanders in his support, and esti- 
mated that 1400 of them were on his side. 

On May 6th news of the battle of Lexington was received at 
New-Bern, and a great impulse was given to patriotic action. 
Early in March the people on the Cape Fear had formed military 
companies, and now an independent company was raised at New- 
Bern, to the consternation of Governor Martin. Indeed Mr. 
Hewes, a delegate to the Continental Congress, who reached Phila- 
delphia on the 9th day of May, two days later wrote to Johnston 
urging the people to arm. "I tremble," said he, ''for North Caro- 
lina. Every county ought to have at least one company armed 
and exercised. Pray encourage it. Speak to the people. Write 
to them. Urge strongly the necessity of it.'* At that time Colonel 
Harvey was ill, and about May 25th he passed away, leaving 
Johnston the great Central figure of the Revolution in North Caro- 
lina. The action of Abner Nash and his associates at New-Bern 
was so resohite that Governor Martin, like Dunmore of Virginia, 
fled from his palace for personal safety, reaching Fort Johnston 
on June 2(1 ; and indeed it was time. On May 20th the Wilming- 
ton committee had invited the committees of that district to meet 
at Wilmington on June 20th for some determined action. Similar 
proceedings were in progress in every county. But none equalled 
the action of Mecklenburg. There on the 31st of May the com- 
mittee declared all commissions void, directed the nine companies 


of the county to elect officers, and each company to elect two se- 
lect men to act as magistrates, who should form a County Court, 
and required all taxes and public dues to be paid to the chairman 
of the committee ; thus establishing a free government, independ- 
ent of the Crown. This was more than a declaration of independ- 
ence. It was independence itself. These resolves, so far in ad- 
vance of any action taken at that time elsewhere in America, were 
printed in the North Carolina Gazette of New-Bern on June i6, 
1775; and Richard Cogdell, the chairman of the committee of 
safety, dispatched them to Sam. Johnston, who a few days later, 
writing to Hewes at Philadelphia, said : 

"Tom Polk, too, is raising a very pretty spirit in the back cotuitry 
(see the newspapers). He has gone a little farther than I would choose 
to have gone, but perhaps no further than necessary." 

The spirit of independence was indeed bom. 

In July Ashe burned Fort Johnston and drove the Royal Gover- 
nor, Martin, from the soil of North Carolina; and on the 21st of 
July Johnston called for an election of deputies to attend the Third 
Provincial Congress. By that body, which met at Hillsboro on 
Monday, August 21st, he was chosen moderator, and preparations 
were made by it for war. Two Continental regiments were raised, 
and six battalions of minute men ; and the militia of each county 
was organized. Johnston was appointed chairman of a commis- 
sion to issue $125,000.00 in paper money, and he was elected 
treasurer of the Northern District. It was the end of the provin- 
cial system of government. Old things had passed away. The 
sovereignty of the people succeeded to the power of the Crown. 
In each county there was a committee of safety ; and one for each 
district, and a Provincial Council of thirteen members, with full 
powers of government ; and of this council Johnston was an im- 
portant member. Shortly after the adjournment of the first session 
of the council, at the end of October, 1775. Johnston visited Bos- 
ton, but was again at his post of duty in December, and was 
charged as one of the commissioners to fit out an armed vessel at 


Edenton. Knowing that Governor Martin was forming plans to 
subjugate the province, at that session the council gave directions 
for defence. On the 5th of February, Donald McDon- 
ald called on the Loyalists of the interior to repair to the royal 
banner at Campelton. On the loth the committee of safety or- 
dered Caswell to march his minute men to the Cape Fear, and 
similar orders were given to Thackston at Hillsboro, while 
Moore and Lillington were active near Wilmington. Harnett 
called the council to meet at New-Bern on the 27th of February, 
but happily the victory at Moore's Creek, on that very day, se- 
cured safety from the impending danger. Still Johnston was sent 
as one of a Committee to confer with the Council of Virginia and 
arrange for operations. The movement of the Tories, the clash 
of arms, the complete victory, had a tremendous effect in North 
Carolina. On April 4, 1775, the 4th Provincial Congress met. 
On the next day Johnston, writing to Iredell, said : "All our people 
here are up for Independence." He himself was a leader in the 
movement. The embodiment of that spirit, he was unanimously 
elected president of the Congress; and he was also appointed 
chairman of the Committee of Secrpcy, Intelligence and Observa- 
tion. On the 1 2th of April a select committee, of which Harnett 
was chairman, made its report declaring for independence, which 
was unanimously adopted by the Congress. It was the first expres- 
sion of a purpose to separate from Great Britain uttered by any 
province. Proposing independence, the members considered a 
Constitution establishing a form of Government. Johnston wrote : 

"Our prospects at this time are very gloomy. Our people are about 
forming a Constitution. From what I can at present collect of their 
plan, it will be impossible for me to take any part in the execution of 
it. Numbers have started in the race of popularity, and condescend to 
the usual means of success." 

It appears that the Congress had a printed copy of the South 
Carolina Constitution and also a copy of that of Connecticut. It 
was proposed to build on the latter. Johnston's view was that the 
only check on the power of the representatives of the people was 


to be found in annual elections, and he differed with other leaders 
in regard to the election of magistrates by the people and other pro- 
visions making the judiciary dependent on the changing mood of 
the populace. Eventually the adoption of a Constitution was post- 
poned ; and the Provincial Council was replaced by a committee of 
safety of whijh Willie Jones became the president. On August 
9th the council of safety adopted a resolution : 

"That since the General Congress has declared that the Colonies arc 
free and independent States, it be recommended to the people to pay the 
greatest attention to the election of delegates to form a Constitution." 

This was thought to be especially aimed at Mr. Johnston. There 
was a bitter warfare made against him in Chowan, during the 
course of which his opponents proceeded to such extreme lengths 
that he was burned in effigy by the people who had theretofore ad- 
mired and loved him. By such means he was defeated; but he 
took his defeat philosophically. Doubtless it was exasperating; 
but his greatness of soul lifted him above the prejudices of the 

His business as treasurer took him to Halifax in attendance on 
the Congress. Arriving there on the 7th of December, after the 
Constitution had been put in some shape, he wrote to Iredell : 


"As well as I can judge from a cursory view of it, it may do as well 
as that adopted by any other Colony. Nothing of the kind can be good. 
There is one thing in it I cannot bear, and yet I am inclined to think it 
will stand. The inhabitants are empowered to elect the justices in their 
respective counties who are to be the judges of the County Courts. 
Numberless inconveniences must arise from so absurd an institution." 

"They talk," said he, "of having all the officers, even the judges 
and clerks, elected annually, with a number of other absurdities ;'' 
and he characterized the majority of the Congress "as a set of 
men without reading, experience or principles to govern them." 
More reasonable counsels prevailed. The instrument appears to 
have been put in better shape by the Congress itself. Stability 


and independence were secured to the judiciary, and a represen- 
tative Republic was established, with the safeguard that Johnston 
himself had prescribed of annual elections of the representatives; 
In the outcome it would seem that Johnston's views were adopted 
rather than those of Willie Jones and Tom Person. 

At the first session of the Assembly Johnston was again elected 
treasurer of the Northern District ; but after holding it some time 
he resigned, saying, *'In the infancy of our glorious struggle, 
when the minds of many were unsettled and doubtful of the event, 
I joyfully accepted every appointment, etc. At this period, when 
the Constitution of this State is happily and permanently estab- 
lished, etc., I request the favor of being permitted to decline." 

He took his seat in the Senate at the session of May, 1779, and, 
being fully reestablished in the veneration of the public, was elect- 
ed to represent the State in the Continental Congress, where he 
served from 1780 to 1782. The war period then being over, he 
addressed himself for five years to his personal affairs ; but in 1787 
he was elected Governor of the State and served as such for two 
years. In 1788 he was a member of the convention that against 
his protests rejected the United States Constitution; and he was 
president of the convention the next year that ratified that instru- 
ment. While still Governor he was chosen the first Senator to 
represent the State in the Congress of the United States. In that 
body he stood primus inter pares. No one was more highly re- 
spected by his fellow-senators. In February, 1800, he was appoint- 
ed a judge, but after three years on the bench he returned again 
to private life, and passed his remaining years, until his death in 
1816, in the enjoyment of his well-earned retirement. At Hayes 
he surrounded himself with paintings, statuary and treasured vol- 
umes. His correspondence has been preserved; and the contents 
of his library are to-day the rarest treasures of the State. In- 
deed it is thought they are unequalled in interest by any private col- 
lection at the South. His last surviving descendant was Mr. 
James C. Johnston, a gentleman famed for his attainments and 
culture and great wealth, who left no issue. 

5. A. Ashe, 


J WO noted brothers who wielded a powerful influ- 
I ence in shaping the course of North Cardina 
through the troublous times of our Revolution- 
ary struggle for independence (though widely 
different in politics after the war) were the 
Honorable Willie Jones of the county of Hali- 
fax, and General Allen Jones of the county of Northampton. It 
is of the latter that the present sketch will treat. For an account 
of this Jones family in general, the reader is referred to the gen- 
ealogy compiled by Colonel Cadwallader Jones and published at 
Columbia, South Carolina, in 1900. 

Allen Jones was bom on the 24th of December, 1739, and re- 
ceived his education at Eton, the noted English college. There 
were at that time in England many friends of the young student's 
father, who was Robert Jones, Jr., commonly called Robin Jones, 
then holding office under the Crown as attorney-general of the 
province of North Carolina. 

The country seat of Allen Jones in Northampton County was 
called Mt. Gallant. Across the Roanoke in Halifax was the Grove, 
the home of his brother Willie (pronounced Wiley), but Willie 
Jones himself seems also to have been a resident of Northampton 
at one time ; for, on a list of county court clerks made out in 1772, 
his name appears as clerk of the court of that county. 
Though Allen Jones had seen some service as a member of the 


Colonial Assembly before the Revolution, he gained his greatest 
distinction during that war. Prior to the 4th of July, 1776, four 
North Carolina Provincial Congresses met in defiance of British 
authority, one also meeting a few months after independence had 
been declared, and in all five of these bodies Allen Jones sat as a 
delegate from Northampton County, also filling other positions — 
military as well as civil. 

It was on the 25th of August, 1774, that delegates elected by the 
freeman of North Carolina met at New-Bern, much to the horror 
of His Excellency, Josiah Martin, last of the Royal Governors. 
One of these delegates was Allen Jones, who was also prorhptly on 
hand in the same capacity when another congress or convention 
met in the same town on April 3, 1775. When the third Con- 
gress met, August 20, 1775, at Hillsboro, hostilities had com- 
menced and it became necessary to place the State in a posture of 
defence. On the 9th of September, during the session last men- 
tioned, Allen Jones was elected colonel of North Carolina militia 
for the county of Northampton ; and he was also elected a member 
of the committee of safety for the Halifax district on the same 
day. By the time the next Provincial Congress met (Halifax, 
April 4, 1776) a great military victory had been won by the North 
Carolinians at Moore's Creek Bridge, February 27th, and the Con- 
gress at Halifax appointed a committee to take into consideration 
what disposition should be made of the prisoners there captured ; 
also what should be done relative to other persons disaffected to- 
ward the Whig Government. Of this committee (which pursued 
its investigations for some days) Allen Jones was chairman. On 
April 22, 1776, Colonel Jones was promoted to the rank of briga- 
dier-general and placed in command of the Halifax district. 

Another Provincial Congress met at Halifax on November 12, 
1776, continuing its session till the loth of December. General 
Jones was a member of this body also; and among the com- 
mittees on which he served was that which drew up the State Con- 
stitution and Bill of Rights. 

General Jones was without military training, and his reputation 
as a soldier was not so great as that gained by him as a states- 


man. In making a return of his brigade to Governor Caswell on 
September 8, 1777, he wrote : 

"I do not know whether my return is proper, for I confess my ignorance 
in miHtary affairs." 

Jones saw some service in the field, however; and, in October, 
1780, joined the army of General Gates with a detachment of five 
hundred men. The Assembly of North Carolina having passed 
an act empowering the Governor, with the advice of his Council, 
to march North Carolina militia (not exceeding 2,000) to the as- 
sistance of either Virginia or South Carolina whenever deemed ad- 
visable, that action was a source of some dissatisfaction to General 
Jones. When there was a likelihood of his being sent southward 
in the Fall of 1778, he wrote Governor Caswell on October 21st 
as follows : 

"We have always been haughtily treated by South Carolina till they 
wanted our assistance, and then we are sisters ; but as soon as their turn is 
served, all relationship ceases." 

The first State Senate which ever sat in North Carolina was the 
one which met at New-Bern on the 7th of April, 1777, and the 
journals of that body show that Allen Jones represented North- 
ampton County therein. He was re-elected senator for several 
terms, becoming Speaker on the 12th of August, 1778, as successor 
to Whitmel Hill, who had been chosen a delegate to the Continen- 
tal Congress. On October 25, 1779. General Jones himself was 
elected a member of the Continental Congress, and was succeeded 
therein by his brother Willie about a year later. When Allen 
Jones went to the Continental Congress, he wrote to the 
North Carolina Assembly, November i, 1779, recommending that 
the senior colonel in his brigade, Thomas Eaton, should be ap- 
pointed brigadier-general for the time being, and this was accord- 
ingly done. General Eaton commanded this brigade in the battle 
of Guilford Court House and elsewhere. General Jones was sev- 
eral times married, and left numerous descendants. Among his 


in-law were Governor William Richardson Davie, General 
las Elaton and Judge Sitgreaves. 

stated in the beginning of this sketch, AJlen Jones and his 
ler Willie were widely different in politics after the Revolu- 
-Willie being the leader of the extreme Republicans of that 
while Allen was a Federalist. For several terms after the 
lution Allen served in the State Senate. He was one of those 
framed the State Constitution in 1776, and he was a warm ad- 
;e of the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1788 
[789, He was a lawyer of learning and ability and of fault- 
:haracter. He stood among the first men of his generation. 
le death of General Allen Jones occurred at his seat, Mt, Gal- 

in the county of Northampton, on the loth of November, 

Marshall Dc Lancey Haywood. 


■EFERRING to the author of the hymn "Amcr- 
S ica," Oliver Wendell Holmes said: "Fate tried 
f to conceal him by naming him Smith." When 
\ we read the name Thomas Jones, we are led to 
f suspect that Fate may have had a similar por- 
^ pose in view ; and we may add that this apparent 
effort at concealment has succeeded admirably so far as recollec- 
tion by our generation is concerned, though none of the Revolu- 
tionary statesmen of his day was better known in the political 
circles of North Carolina. 

In the North Carolina Historical and Genealogical Register for 
January, 1901, are some abstracts of wills which are on file in the 
court house of Chowan County, and these give the names of three 
testators named Thomas Jones, to wit : Thomas Jones who made 
his will in 1765; another Thomas Jones who made his will in 
'775 (each mentioning a son Thomas) ; and also the subject of 
our present sketch, Thomas Jones, who made his will in 1797, 
the year of his death. The last named refers to sais, Zachariah, 
Levi and Thomas ; daughters, Mary Brinn and Elizabeth Beasley; 
and grandchildren, Josiah and Elizabeth Sweeney, The three 
first above mentioned persons bearing the name of Thomas Joaes 
may have formed a line of descent — being grandfather, father and 
Of the public life of Thomas Jones of Chowan in Revolutionary 


times we may gather much from the public records, though our 
State histories throw little light on his career. The sketch of him 
in Wheeler's History covers exactly three lines, with about one 
line added by way of an apology for not telling more. 

Mr. Jones was a native of Gloucestershire, England, was bred 
to the law, was one of the very finest men of the province in 
genius and learning. About the time of the arrival of James Ire- 
dell at Edenton, Mr. Jones was clerk of the court. He was not a 
man of large means, but was esteemed one of the principal men of 
his community. He was married and had an interesting house-v 
hold that was on terms of intimacy with the Johnstons and others 
of that social circle. In 1771 Iredell mentions him as "one of the 
best as well as most agreeable men in the world." A year later 
he mentions, "Drank tea with Mr. and Mrs. Harnett at Mrs. 
Jones's." Harnett and his wife were then returning from a trip to 
the North, and their route homeward lay through Edenton. 
About the same time Mr. Iredell mentions, "All Saturday morn- 
ing was writing Mr. Jones's catalogue of books." 

In the troubles with Governor Martin and with the Crown, 
Mr. Jones, like Johnston, Hewes and Iredell, was a strong patriot 
and was a member of the First Provincial Congress which met 
at New-Bern on the 25th of August, 1774, and also of the Second 
Congress that met on April 3rd, at New-Bern, being likewise a 
member of the House of Commons that met at the same place on 
the next day. That was the last Assembly until the adoption of the 
State Constitution. In the Provincial Congress which met at 
Hillsboro, August 20, 1775, he was also a delegate. At that time 
Governor Martin was a fugitive and had been driven from North 
Carolina soil by John Ashe, who a month earlier had burnt Fort 
Johnston where the Governor had taken refuge. The counties of 
the province were under the control of local committees of safety, 
and the fabric of the old government was in ruins. The sover- 
eignty of the people was being exercised by the Provincial Con- 
gress, and it became important to establish some system of gov- 
ernment providing an executive head for the administration of af- 
fairs. On September 9th the Congress appointed for this purpose 


a Provincial Council composed of thirteen members, Mr. Jones be- 
ing one of the representatives of the Edenton district in that body; 
and to the council were given full powers of government. It was 
to meet at Johnston Court House once ever>' three months, and 
oftener if necessary, at that or such other places as might be 
deemed proper. 

Mr. Jones was a member of the committee, which was composed 
of forty-five other gentlemen, who prepared this plan of govern- 
ment. He was also appointed by the Congress on a committee to 
confer with those inhabitants of the province who had been de- 
terred from joining in the common cause by any religious or polit- 
ical scruples. Other important business was also committed to his 
charge. It was this Congress that, while rejecting a proposed con- 
federation, made provision for a military force and prepared for 

Mr. Jones, being a member of the Provincial Council, attended 
the meetings of that body and was an active influence in its opera- 
tions. At its first meeting in December, it directed that all per- 
sonal communication with Governor Martin should be cut off and 
that armed vessels should be fitted out with dispatch ; one at Wil- 
mington, one at New-Bern and one at Port Roanoke ; and Thomas 
Jones was appointed one of the commissioners to fit out the last 
of these. He was also appointed a commissioner to purchase ma- 
terial and employ proper persons for the purpose of supplying 
arms and ammunition. At the next meeting of the Council, on 
the 28th of February, 1776, Mr. Jones was appointed with two 
others to confer with the Committee of Safety of Virginia for the 
common defence. 

On the 4th of April, 1776, the Fourth Provincial Congress met, 
Mr. Jones being a member of the body, and he was appointed on 
a select committee to devise measures for the better defence of 
the province; and indeed he was employed on most of the im- 
portant business of the Congress ; and was on the Committee of 
Secrecy, Intelligence and Observation. 

It was the select committee of which he was a member that re- 
ported the resolution empowering the delegates from this province 


to concur in declaring independence. The patriots of that day 
were engaged in great affairs. Writing on Sunday morning, April 
28th, Mr. Jones said : 

"In my time I have been used to business, both public and private, but 
never yet experienced one-fourth part of what I now am necessarily 
obliged to undertake — we have no rest either night or day. The first thing 
done in the morning is to prepare every matter necessary for the day; 
after breakfast to Congress, there generally from 9 until 3; no sitting; 
a minute after dinner, but to the different committees; perhaps one person 
will be obliged to attend four of them between 4 o'clock and 9 at 
night; then to supper, and this generally brings us to 12 at night. This 
has been the life I have led since my arrival here. In short, I never was 
so hurried." 

It was in the midst of all this haste and work, while General 
Qinton was on the Cape Fear waiting for Lord Cornwallis's seven 
regiments, and while McDonald's dispersed Highlanders were be- 
ing secured and an army was collecting to resist subjugation, that 
a plan of government was brought forward for adoption. On the 
14th of April Mr. Jones was appointed one of the committee to 
prepare a temporary civil government ; and on the 27th of April 
the House went into a committee of the whole to consider resolu- 
tions proposed as the basis of a temporary civil government. The 
next day Mr. Jones wrote : 

**The Constitution goes on but slowly. The outlines of it made their 
appearance in the House for the first time yesterday. The plan as it now 
stands would be subject to many alterations — a House of the Representa- 
tives of the people, all freeholders to vote ; second, a legislative council, 
one member from each county, and none but freeholders will have a right 
to vote for the members of this council. Next, an executive council, to 
consist of a president and six counsellors, to be always sitting, to do all 
official business of government." 

He mentions: '*\Ve have a printed copy of the South Carolina 
Constitution, which is now in full force with the inhabitants of that 
country." Parties and factions had, however, already divided the 
patriot leaders. Mr. Johnston, the president of the Congress, was 
not friendly to a pure democracy, nor had he any patience with 
demagogues. He was a man of so much consequence, however, 


that after the first clashings those who might be called the radi- 
cals yielded to his views in some measure, and some of the differ- 
ences appear to have been adjusted. He himself mentioned on 
the 20th of April, "that some have proposed that he should take 
up the plan of the Connecticut Constitution for a groundwork, 
but that all the g^eat officers instead of being elected by the peofde 
at large were to be appointed by the Assembly, but the judges 
should hold during good behaviour." His own view was that the 
only check in a democracy was annual elections. However, the 
attempt to form a permanent Constitution at that time was aban- 
doned, and Mr. Jones was one of the committee appointed to pro- 
pose a temporary form of government until the end of the next 
Congress. By the new plan the Provincial Council and the Com- 
mittees of Safety for each district were dissolved, and a Council of 
Safety composed of thirteen was appointed with full power to act 
for the defence and protection of the people. Mr. Jones was a 
member of the new council, and he attended its sessions and con- 
ducted the affairs of State, along with the other members of that 
body. It was this council which organized and sent forward Gen- 
eral Rutherford's expedition against the Cherokees in the fall of 
1776. The last Provincial Congress met on the 12th of Novem- 
ber, at Halifax, and Mr. Jones was again a member of that body. 
In view of the purpose to adopt a State Constitution, a particular, 
effort had been made to exclude Mr. Johnston. Mr. Jones was 
again a member of the committee having that matter in charge, 
and he presented the work of the committee to the Congress, and 
the Constitution was mentioned as Jones's work. That he had a 
large share in framing the Constitution must be true ; but to Har- 
nett has been ascribed the provision extending religious toleration 
and also the provisions so narrowly limiting the power of the exec- 
utive. To Caldwell, Caswell, Burke, Allen Jones and Willie 
Jones also have been attributed parts of the handiwork. Judge 
Ashe in a letter to the Assembly, in 1786, said: 

"If my opinion of our Constitution is an error, I fear it is an incurable 
one, for I had the honor to assist in the forming it, and confess I so d^ 
signed it, and I believe every other gentleman concerned did also." 


From this it would seem that the Constitution was the work of 

While it did not meet with the approval of Mr. Johnston, yet so 
far from its being a pure democracy, the powers of government 
were conferred on the Assembly ; and Johnston's idea of annual 
elections was made the foundation stone of the edifice. 

With this last and chief public work of Thomas Jones he dis- 
appeared from public life, and although it appears that he sur- 
vived some twenty years, his subsequent career has left no im- 
pression on the annals of the State. 

Thus attributing to him a leading part in bringing into exist- 
ence our State Constitution, it may be said that while this great 
document may survive to remote generations, few will remember 
the master workman whose hand designed it — for "the pyramids 
themselves, doting with age, have forgotten the names of their 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 
S. A. Ashe, 


«HOMAS LAWRENCE, who has been an impoi- — 

tant factor in advancing educational interest -* 

in Western North Carolina, is a native of Scot=- 

land. His father, John Lawrence, was born ^^^ 

, Cooper, Fifeshire, where his grandfather was * 

; small landed proprietor. Through the unfaitl 1- 

fulness of an Edinburgh banker Mr. John Lawrence lost his pa" 
rimonj' early in life, and after learning the carpenter's trade, nu- 
ried Christina Johnstone, a member of a family who were for gei 
erations retainers of the celebrated House of Douglas. 

The subject of this sketch was born at Crossford, a charmi« 
rural village in Lanarkshire on the Upper Clyde, a region pi' 
turesque and romantic and the scene of many historical incidentsL 
Bothwell Castle, the ancient stronghold of the Douglas, and Til- 
lietudlem Castle, immortalized by Scott in "Old Mortality," areoi 
the immediate vicinity. Sent to the parish school before he w» 
five years old, Thomas Lawrence's earliest playmates were blood 
relations of Robert Bums. In 1838 when he was but six years 
old, for he was born June 15. 1832, his parents with their young 
children came to the United States and settled in All^heny Gty, 
Western Pennsylvania. Of the children, there were three daugh- 
ters and five sons, Thomas being the oldest. In after life two of 
these brothers followed the fortunes of the Army of the Potocnac, , 
while a third, Major R. J. Lawrence, became a gallant Confederate 


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officer. After the settlement of the family at Allegheny, Mrs. 
Lawrence was for a time an invalid, and Thomas was sent into the 
country to live on a farm with a Scotch family. He took his 
school books with him, for it was expected that he would attend 
school during the winter months in the rude log-cabin schoolhouse 
near by ; but during the three years he passed with those friends, 
doing all kinds of farm work and with a boyish ambition to do 
everything well, there was one thing he would not do — ^he would 
not go to school. There was, however, a good library in the 
house, and Thomas has even now a distinct recollection of the 
pleasure he derived from reading the **Lay of the Last Minstrel," 
"The Winter Evening Tales" of Hogg — the Ettrick Shepherd — 
and other such books. 

Returning to the city at the age of twelve or thirteen, he was 
given the choice of attending school or going to work, and with 
his dislike for schoolmasters he chose the latter. But his taste 
for reading grew, and he shared with another Allegheny boy, An- 
drew Carnegie, the privileges of the Anderson Library founded 
by Colonel Anderson, the remembrance of the benefits derived 
from which has led Carnegie to provide so many magnificent free 
libraries in this country and the British Islands. 

Although he read largely of biography and the poets, as he 
grew older he felt the lack of training that he should have gotten 
at school, and while working at the bench ten hours a day he man- 
ap^ed to go through alone, in a single winter, Robinson's Practical 
Arithmetic. He also connected himself with a debating society, 
attended night school one winter, and studied German with a 
neighbor who was a Gcrninn schoolmaster. Associated during 
the day with an intelligent German employed in the same estab- 
lishment as himself, he made rapid progress in that language, 
which stood him in good stead when in after years he was a stu- 
tient at the German universities of Bonn and Leipsic. 

From the age of thirteen to eighteen he was employed in the 
largest soap and candle manufactory in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania ; 
and having the purpose always to do a little more than was ex- 
pected of him, making the interest of his employers his own, he 


mastered the details of the business, and so won the confidence of 
his employers that they offered to give him an interest in the es- 
tablishment if he would remain with them until he was twenty- 
one and then continue in the business. He remembers with pride 
their statement to a friend that he had never deceived them and 
that he was the most profitable man or boy they had ever had. 

But in the meantime, the lad became animated with a purpose 
to perfect his education and seek a professional career as a lawyer. 
He left the shop and attended Westminster Academy at AU^^cny 
City a part of two winters, returning to the factory, where there 
was always a position for him, when school was closed, studying 
and reciting to a friend at night until he was ready to enter the 
Western University of Pennsylvania, where he graduated in 1858, 
leading his classes in Mathematics, Latin and Greek. At that pe- 
riod he fell much under the kindly influence of a devoted friend of 
his family, Professor Robert Grierson of the Western University, 
a ripe scholar, a graduate of Edinburgh University, who was a 
cousin, and had been a pupil, of Thomas Carlyle when in his earlier 
days he with Edward Irving taught the academy at Annan. Af- 
ter graduating, his circumstances not permitting a post-graduate 
course at Edinburgh which Professor Grierson strongly urged, he 
entered upon the study of the law, but was drawn towards the 
ministry by the desire of his devoted Christian mother and that of 
his pastor in childhood and youth. After a prolonged and sctcrc 
struggle, his law books were laid aside and he entered the Theo- 
logical Seminary of the United Presbyterian Church at Allegheny 
City, graduating in 1861 and licensed to preach in the Spring of 
the same year. He was ordained pastor of the U. P. Congrega- 
tion of Putnam, Washington County, New York, declining an ur- 
gent call to a congregation in Philadelphia. After a successful 
pastorate of five years, he resigned his charge with the intention of 
spending some time abroad with his young wife, for he had mar- 
ried on June 7, 1865, Miss Sarah M. Carl, of Argyle, New York. 
Going abroad he took a post-graduate course extending over two 
years at the universities of Bonn and Leipsic, his partictilar stud- 
ies being the Hebrew language and Old Testament exegesis. 


Returning to America in 1869, he spent a short time in the West, 
and then took charge of the Sharpsburg Church in the suburbs of 
Pittsburg and changed his ecclesiastical relations from the United 
Presbyterian to the Presbyterian Church. For about eight years 
he discharged the duties of minister in that Presbytery, and then 
accepted a thrice-repeated call to the chair of Greek in the colle- 
giate department, and of Greek and Hebrew exegesis in the theo- 
logical department of Biddle University at Charlotte, North Caro- 
lina. This institution had been established by the Northern Pres- 
b\^erian Church for the education of teachers and ministers for 
their large mission field lying within the bounds of the two colored 
Presbyterian Synods, covering the South Atlantic States ; and as 
Dr. Lawrence had been intimately associated with the members of 
the Board of Missions for Freedmen located at Pittsburg, and his 
scholarly attainments were known, his services were much desired 
in that connection ; and although loving his pastorate, he felt con- 
strained to accept the third call as the voice of his Master. 

The faculty of that institution was comprised of strong, cultured 
Christian men, and Dr. Lawrence was associated on the board of 
trustees with General Rufus Barringer, Major John E. Oates, 
Major Watson Reed, Dr. E. Nye Hutchison and Dr. J. Y. Fair, 
and other Southern gentlemen of large experience and wide in- 
fluence. Xo institution for freedmen ever enjoyed, and probably 
none ever will again enjoy, so thoroughly the respect and good- 
will of the entire community benefited bv its work as the Biddle 
University did during the period of Dr. Lawrence's connection 
with it, nor did ever the faculty of any similar institution enjoy to 
the same degree the social standing and prestige that were the lot 
of its professors and teachers at that time. 

The twelve years passed at Biddle University were the most 
laborious and perhaps the most useful of Dr. Lawrence's life. 
During an absence of eight months he raised $50,000 for new 
buildings. Indeed there was no building at Biddle, when he be- 
came one of the professors, deserving the name of a college build- 
ing : but Dr. Lawrence secured ample funds for the erection of one 
of the best buildings, for educational purposes, found south of 


Washington City — without one dollar of debt. Dr. Hutchison 
has said : *'For this noble work Dr. Lawrence received not a penny 
of pecuniary compensation. His energy and scholarship in the 
lecture-room, and then his success in securing, unaided, the $50,000 
necessary to pay for the cost of the University building and other 
buildings, go far to prove Dr. Lawrence the builder of Biddle 

For a large part of the time the general supervision of mission 
work in the adjacent regions also fell to the lot of Dr. Lawrence 
while he was engaged with his classes in two departments of the 
University. He was in the habit of dismissing his pupils at the 
end of the school year, as they were about to go out to teach or to 
preach the Gospel among their people, with the injunction that 
they should seek to win the confidence of the best element of the 
white people in, their several communities; and he advised them 
that as Presbyterians they might naturally expect, if they conduct- 
ed themselves properly, the encouragement and counsel of the 
Presbyterian ministers and sessions of their vicinity ; and that this 
would greatly increase their influence with their own people. This 
advice, however, did not harmonize with the spirit and policy of 
the executive officers, at that time, of the Freedmen's Board, lo- 
cated at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, whose ideas with reference to the 
social relations of the two races were ultra-sentimental and im- 
practicable. They acted and spoke as if the negro had not a sin- 
gle friend south of Mason and Dixon's line. This, together with 
a constant interference with the local board of trustees and of the 
faculty in the management of the details of the administration of 
the University, led to the resignation of the board of trustees, com- 
posed of the prominent gentlemen already mentioned and of the 
whole faculty. The board at Pittsburg, however, insisted on Dr. 
Lawrence remaining as Dean of the Theological Faculty, which he 
could not well do, under the circumstances, without surrendering 
his self-respect, and so he declined to remain. 

How far wrong those Pittsburg gentlemen were in their views 
and sentiments, and how correct was Dr. Lawrence's position, is 
well illustrated by the fact that on the 12th day of March, 1866, 


the legislature of North Carolina incorporated a college for the 
education of teachers and ministers of the Gospel of the colored 
race, the preamble of which was : 


"Whereas, The well-being of the State is greatly dependent on the 

religious and intellectual culture of the subjects thereof; and whereas, 

there is at this time no college or literary institution where those of the 

colored race who aspire to be teachers and ministers of the Gospel can 

xeceive a suitable education, therefore," etc. 

And by this Act a corporation of forty-eight members was cre- 
ated under the name of the 'Trustees of the Freedmen's College of 
!North Carolina," the corporators being among the most influen- 
tial and devout members of the Presbyterian Church. 

And Dr. Lawrence some vears later had the satisfaction of be- 
ing told by the secretary of the Freedmen's Board that that board 
was then more in s>'mpathy with his position than their own at the 
time referred to, and he also learned from another member that 
the board had bitterly repented the mistaken policy it had pursued. 

Shortly after leaving Biddle University, Dr. Lawrence was call- 
ed to New York to consult with the officers of the Home Mission 
Board of the Presbyterian Church with reference to the school 
missionary work they had undertaken in Western North Carolina, 
in the inauguration of which he had been largely instrumental 
while engaged in the freedmen's work, and with which he was 
subsequently more closely connected. This mission work has so 
greatly prospered that it now embraces ^v^ large boarding-schools, 
eighteen primary schools and two academies, planted for the most 
part in the sequestered portions of the mountain region and taught 
by devoted teachers, industrial and Christian training being em- 
phasized. One of the boarding-schools is for boys, where they re- 
ceive an elementary Christian education and are taught the best 
methods of farming. 

Dr. Lawrence has a general supervision of two of the larger 
boarding-schools and is president of the Normal and Collegiate 
Institute, a school of a grade corresponding to the State Normal. 
The prestige which this institution enjoys for thorough work and 


the record which its graduates have made are high encomiums on 
the useful life of Dr. Lawrence. This institution has practically 
furnished to that part of the State lying west of the Blue Ridge 
a second Normal school, supplying an education equally as thor- 
ough as that of the State Normal, and at less cost, although the 
State contributes nothing to its support. While largely attended 
from North Carolina, it draws support from all the South Atlantic 
States and sometimes has pupils from the trans-Mississippi region. 
Thirteen years have passed since Dr. Lawrence organized the 
Normal and Collegiate Institute, and its success has been beyond 
his most sanguine expectations, as well as that of the management 
which is located in the city of New York. 

At Biddle University Dr. Lawrence had manifested his extraor- 
dinary endowment in the art of stimulating students to apply 
themselves diligently to the acquisition of knowledge; and he so 
impressed himself upon them that although years have elapsed 
since they daily gathered in the lecture-room, they still refer to 
him in terms of profound respect and warm affection as a great 
teacher and as a minister of the Gospel and as a sincere Christian 
friend. As valuable as his work among the freedmen was, it has, 
however, been surpassed in importance by his labors in connec- 
tion with this mission work and as president of the Normal and 
Collegiate Institute at Asheville. 

Professor S. F. Venable, graduate of the University of Virginia 
and superintendent of public schools of Buncombe County, has 
borne testimony to the inestimable advantage this work has been 
to Western North Carolina. He speaks of the Institute as a grand 
school for the education of hundreds of white girls of North Caro- 
lina, many of whom without it could never have hoped for such 
an education, and he continues : 

"Dr. Lawrence in the executive position is the soul of this system. 
With a managing capacity equalled by few and possibly surpassed 1^ none. 
full of love for his work and those committed to his charge, of unlimited 
energy, and an accomplished scholar, no one could be better fitted for the 
place he occupies, and it is impossible to measure the vast good to humanity 
accomplished by his work. Not only is he educating hundreds yearly who 


are to be the mothers of the coming generation, but in his graduates he is 
furnishing teachers of the best character for the schools of the surround- 
ing sections that so much need their help. As superintendent of schools, I 
eagerly seek for those of his graduates that he recommends, and with 
scarcely an exception have found them to be highly satisfactory. Coming 
in our midst a comparative stranger, he has by his high character as a 
Giristian gentleman endeared himself to all who know him personally or 
know of his grand work. No earthly reward can repay him for his labors 
and self-sacrifice, but nothing could so amply repay him as the conscious- 
ness of the blessings that he has conferred on so many, and the love and 
gratitude that will follow him wherever he may go." 

By his first marriage Dr. Lawrence had two children — Dr. 
Caroline Carl Lawrence, medical missionary in the valley of the 
Nile, and E. A. Lawrence, member of the Pittsburg Bar — and by 
his second marriage he has one child, who is a minor. 

In 1881 his acquirements led the Western University of Penn- 
sylvania, his alma mater, to confer upon him the degree of D. D., 
which he so justly deserved. 

As a student he has read and studied all the standard works 
particularly relating to his mission in life. Of the books which he 
has found most helpful is, first of all, the Bible, then such others 
as the Shorter Catechism, Foster's Decision of Character, Memor- 
abilia of Socrates, with the Dialogues of Plato, read in the original, 
and works of that character. Few professional men have read 
more largely of the principal Latin authors, especially of the 
poets. His familiarity with the pages of Virgil, Horace, Juvenal, 
and the like has been kept up, their perusal furnishing the recrea- 
tion and solace of the scant leisure of a busy life, in reviewing 
which, he thinks that his mother's influence and prayers, with those 
of his venerated pastor in childhood, had most to do with the for- 
mation of his character and his determination to lead such a life as 
has brought him his eminent success. 

S, A, Ashe. 


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Rockingham, North Carolina, May 2, 1831, the only child of 
James Pickelt Leak and his wife, jane Wall Crawford. Mrs. 
Leak's father, Thomas Crawford, removed about 1830 to Paris, 
Tennessee, where he achieved considerable success in the manufac- 
ture of iron and cotton. She was a devout woman, of gentle 
manners and refined taste. Her husband, James Pickett Leak, 
was a man of energy and firmness of character, alert in body and 
mind. By occupation a merchant and planter, he held at various 
times public office in his county, and was greatly esteemed as an 
adviser in alt business affairs. During the administration of Gov- 
ernor Dudley he was one of the Council of State, to which position 
he gave punctual and conscientious attention. His was a long and 
useful life, and it stood for courage, for kindness in word and 
deed, for business success without avarice, and for accurate in- 
formation about practical things. It seems needless to say the 
son of such parents had the advantage of correct bringing up. 
Few boys have had a wiser father or better mother. He enjoyed 
also the advantages of travel. In journeys between Anson and 
Paris, Tennessee, as well as in accompanying the family to the 
health resorts and cities of the North and East, young Leak had 
unusual opportunity to sec many phases of the life of that period. 

He attended the schools of his native village, going later to the 
imiversity of the State, from which he graduated in 1853. 

In January, 1855, he was married to Miss Martha Poythress 
Wall, daughter of Mial Wall and sister of the late Henry Oay 
Wall of Richmond County, a lady of unusual grace and beauty of 
character. She died January 7, 1898, greatly lamented, and is 
survived by seven of their eight children. 

Until the close of the civil war Mr. Leak led the life of a South- 
ern planter of that period, living in comfort on his farm in a typi- 
cal Southern home. Here he entered with enthusiasm into the 
sludy and practice of agriculture, discovering and utilizing thus 
early not a few of the methods insisted upon at the present time 
for successful farming. Possessing a clear, strong intellect, he 
easily mastered every detail of the situation. His administrative 
capacity was ilcveloped, and the power to mentally weigh and de- 


termine correctly was cultivated in the management of his slaves ; 
and upon these qualities his later success has rested. The skill 
that organized and managed his plantation then has since, under 
other conditions, brought him success in cotton-milling and in 

His farm, being in the line of Sherman's march, was overrun 
and pillaged, every animal on it being killed or carried off. Un- 
able to procure other stock in time, his land that year was largely 
prepared for planting by his slaves, two men cheerfully pulling 
the plow while another held it in the ground. With the freeing of 
the slaves his eyes were turned from the farm to seek some other 
business ; and while still retaining a lively interest in agriculture, 
he has never actively returned to it, though much attached to 
country life. 

About 1868 he removed his residence to the town of Rocking- 
ham, taking from that time on a prominent part in all movements 
looking to its progress. His farm lands were sold and the pro- 
ceeds invested in cotton mills, to the management of which the 
last thirty years of his life have been largely devoted. In 1874 
he was one of the organizers of the Pee Dee Manufacturing Com- 
pany at Rockingham, North Carolina, for the manufacture of cot- 
ton fabrics. This was followed a few years later by the Rober- 
dell Manufacturing Company of the same town. In both of these 
enterprises he has since been a leading spirit. They are two of 
the strongest and most successful corporations of our State, each 
operating two cotton mills, whose product stands high in the mar- 
kets of the country. His son, W. C. Leak, is president of the Pee 
Dee Company, while another son, T. C. Leak, Jr., holds that posi- 
tion in the Roberdell Company. Another similar enterprise whose 
success has been largely due to his business sagacity is the cotton 
mill of Leak, Wall and McRae, and since for business reasons in- 
corporated under the firm name. This mill is also located near 
Rockingham, and manufactures cotton fabrics. Several years ago 
Mr. Leak relinquished the presidency of it in favor of his son. J. 
P. Leak, who now has the active management. 

In 1891 Mr. Leak organized the Bank of Pee Dee at Rocking- 


ham, North CaroHna, of which he has since been the president. 
This was one of the earliest banks started in that section. His 
reputation as a skillful financier and as a man of integrity of char- 
acter has commanded at all times for it the confidence and patron- 
age of the public. Its success has been so marked as to encourage 
the organization of a number of other banks in the surrounding 
countr>'. Closely allied with the Bank of Pee Dee is the Richmond 
County Savings Bank, organized by himself and others in 1901, in 
which, however, he did not accept official position. 

In politics Mr. Leak is a Democrat and takes active interest in 
party affairs. While never desiring public office, he has consist- 
ently aided the cause of good government in a most loyal and ener- 
getic manner. 

Hunting and fishing have been the forms of recreation in which 
he greatly believes. Life in the woods has for him a charm 
which neither time nor change of circumstance can break. It has 
been the constant tonic of his life and to it he ascribes good 
health and all attendant blessings. Around his plantation home 
in the ante-bellum days were deer, turkey, and foxes in sufficient 
abundance to afford good sport, while the near-by waters of the 
great Pe^ Dee and its tributaries were well stocked with fish in 
summer, and freely visited by ducks and geese in winter. Environ- 
ment gave him leisure to hunt and fish. A constitution, never 
robust, needed the stimulus, and an inherited fondness of the 
thing did the rest. Since boyhood an expert in the use of fire- 
arms, he has at different periods been unerring with shotgun, 
rifle, and pistol. On one occasion, while riding along the public 
road, he heard his dogs start a deer, and knew at once where he 
could get a shot. Having a pistol in his pocket, he quickly dis- 
mounted and ran to a near-by stand in time to kill the deer as she 
ran by, striking her with two out of the three shots fired. For 
many years he had marked success hunting deer, having killed no 
less than five hundred. 

Mr. Leak adorns the social circle, where he excels in conversa- 
tion. He has about him a vein of humor and a capacity for per- 
petrating jokes that afford light and cheer in the darkest hour, 



and have made his life one of sunshine. As a companion he is en- 
tirely lovable. His leading characteristics are great self-control, 
marked consideration for the opinions of others, coupled with a 
capacity to reach wise conclusions and to act without hesitation. 
He has always been intensely devoted to the South, her institu- 
tions and history. To young people he is uniformly considerate 
and helpful, encouraging them in all laudable efforts. In senti- 
ment and affiliation he is a Methodist. In his seventy-fourth year, 
he is active and well preserved and, by cultivating a philosophical 
spirit in all things, he has gotten out of life much genuine 

W. L. Parsons. 

--'BSARy j 








* r ^ 


% UGUSTUS LEAZAR was bom on his father's 
I plantation, Leazarwell, in Rowan County, 
March 27, 1843, The Leazars trace their de- 
scent to a Huguenot ancestor who settled in 
Maryland about the close of the seventeenth 
century, his sons going to Pennsylvania where 
a branch of the family lives. John Leazar came from Pennsyl- 
vania to North Carolina in 1789, the deeds for his considerable 
plantation in Rowan County dating 1790. He probably brought 
a German wife with Him, German tradition descending in the fam- 
ily. John Leazar, the second, grandfather of the subject of this 
sketch, found a German wife in North Carolina, Elizabeth Cole- 
man (Kuhlmann), whose father Philip, and grandfather Nicho- 
las, were Protestant citizens of Strasburg and brought their Ger- 
man religious books to America in 1764. A brother of Elizabeth 
Coleman became assistant attorney general of the United States, 
and the Coleman family has been noted for brilliant mentality. 
John Leazar, the third, father of Augustus, married Isabella 
Jamison, of typical Scotch-Irish stock, her ancestors being elders 
in the Scottish Kirk for generations. It was at the house of her 
father, Colonel James Jamison, the first citizen of his community, 
that the resolutions were drafted {by guests during a Presbytery), 
which being presented to Presbytery, resulted in the founding of 
Davidson College. Augustus Leazar inherited his tenacity, his 


deep-lying tenderness and that strong sense of right which after- 
wards distinguished him, largely from his mother's side of the 
house, and his type of intellect, his gift of oratory and his ardent 
temperament chiefly from his father's side. From his father he 
received the inspiration to high ambition, from his noble mother, 
good as beautiful, the influence so strong upon his moral and 
spiritual nature. Later other noble women helped and strength- 
ened him. In 1865 ^^ was married to the sweetheart of his child- 
hood, Cornelia Francis McCorkle, daughter of William Brandon 
McCorkle and his wife Mary Marshall, granddaughter of the 
Revolutionary patriot, Francis McCorkle and Elizabeth Brandon. 
This Elizabeth Brandon was the fair young maid who gave 
George Washington a famous breakfast. Two sons and one 
daughter were born to this marriage, the daughter, Carry Augusta, 
surviving. After a few years his wife died. In 1888 he married 
Clara Fowler, daughter of Wm. G. and Margaret Alexander 
Fowler, descendant of the William Fowler to whom Congress 
granted lands in recognition of his naval service in the Revolu- 
tion. She died in 1895, leaving one son, Augustus Leazar, Junior. 
The education of Augustus Leazar was begun very young. He 
entered Davidson at thirteen and graduated at seventeen >¥ith first 
honor in the large class of i860, every member of which was his 
senior. His father was originally opposed to secession, but gave 
both sons to the seceded State. The first public speech of Augus- 
tus was made when a boy of eighteen in raising Company G of 
the 42d Regiment, North Carolina State Troops, for the Confed- - 

erate service. He was commissioned first lieutenant of this com 

pany and went out with it March 15, 1862. In the fire of battle, atr= 
New-Bern, around Richmond, at Cold Harbor, at Drewry's Bluttrr: 

and Bermuda Hundreds, at Hare's Hill, in the trenches at Peters 

burg, at Fort Fisher, at Kinston, at Bentonville, he dared and en 

dured for the principles whose righteousness never ceased to 
his pride. His regiment was in Hoke's brigade and bore th< 
brunt of the fighting on many a field. When the end came hij 
company numbered six, himself in command. With bitterness o' 
soul he took parole at Bush Hill, Randolph County, May 2, 186^ 


and faced reconstruction. Bitterness had long passed before his 
last years, and he taught his children to honor the patriot on either 
side. But none ever twice said "rebel" in his company. He had 
longed to be a Greek scholar, but now there was no chance for 
that or any other professional preparation. To teaching he turn- 
ed, at first for bread. The work called out the best that was in 
him, and he gave himself to it for seventeen years. Soon to his 
quiet country school at Prospect and Coddle Creek came young 
men from distant States to be prepared for college or trained for 
life-work. Thoroughness was the absolute requisite of his pupils' 
work ; rapid advancement was secondary. Often to the talented 
and needy he freely gave extra hours even to midnight, with mar- 
velous progress as the result. Instant obedience he demanded and 
received. Many a good citizen was made of a lawless youth, and 
none revere his memory more than these. His character wrought 
more than his discipline, and the best in his pupils responded to 
him. Scattered far and wide, they "adorn his doctrine," and 
exemplify it by being rather than seeming. The latter part of his 
teaching was done in Mooresville, Iredell County, partly with his 
brother-in-law, Stephen Frontis, as co-principal in a school that 
"built the town" for years. In 1870 Davidson conferred on him 
the degree of A. M. Later he became a trustee of Davidson and 
so served until his death. For the celebration of her semi-cen- 
tennial commencement in 1887 he was orator before the societies. 
While teaching, a newspaper outfit was thrown upon his hands, 
and for two years he taught by day and often later, writing by 
night and superintending his farm on Saturday, while on Sunday 
he managed the Sunday-School and sat with the session of which 
he was clerk, besides attending the two ordinary services. He 
had joined the Presbyterian Church in his fourteenth year and was 
for forty years a ruling elder in her courts. His public career 
began in 1882 with nomination by the Democracy of Iredell to re- 
present her in the House of Representatives. He had been a Pro- 
hibitionist in the State campaign of 1880 and nobly earned some 
enmities that ceased not their hostility to his death. Public sen- 
timent was not ripe at that time for the great reform which has 


since come, thanks to the pioneers. But, with the handicap of his 
avowed convictions and with such a candidate as David M. Fur- 
ches pitted against him, he was triumphantly elected; and in his 
second campaign more than doubled his majority. In the House 
he at once became a leader, and so continued with growing power 
throughout his four consecutive terms. Brilliant, strong, cul- 
tured, studious of the interests of his State and familiar with her 
history, with unusually sturdy convictions and utter courage, with 
readiness and fluency of expression combined with rare clearness, 
directness and conciseness, he was a debater with few equals, a 
leader of men, a master of assemblies. His record upon all econo- 
mic questions was distinguished by a wise statesmanship that re- 
sulted in great and lasting benefit to the taxpayers. He was an 
earnest champion of the establishment of a railroad commissicm ; 
and he conspicuously fought the gift of convict labor to private 
corporations. He was known as the dangerous antagonist of all 
jobs and schemes. He insisted that the penal institutions should 
be self-supporting and not a burden to honest citizenship. In and 
out of the Legislature he gave thought and action to agricultural 
interests. Reared upon the farm, he had there learned to plow 
(with his father's ex-slaves just after the war), and soon acquir- 
ing lands, his love of the soil and interest in the development 
deepened all his life. The Assembly of 1882 elected him a mem- 
ber of the reorganized Board of Agriculture upon whose exectm— 
tive or finance committee he served many years. During th^ 
greater part of his legislative career he was chairman of th»-< 
Committee on Education. It can be said that he accomplishe-'^ 
more for the cause of education in North Carolina than any oth^^'' 
man in public service during that period. In 1885 the Universit^^i^/ 
yet weak from war and reconstruction, sought the modest apprc:^ 
priation of $15,000. Mr. Leazar had not been personally co«^- 
nected with the University except that he had lectured for si^r 
weeks before the Summer School there upon English. He was Si 
Presbyterian and a loyal son of Davidson, but loved ''Davidson as 
his mother, the University as his State." He was the author oi 
this bill increasing the appropriation. It aroused g^eat opposi- 



tion, as was foreseen. He was never a wire-puller, and his fight 
was made from the floor of the House in a speech of great power 
and eloquence. It was the patriot's plea and carried the day. In 
the Senate the bill was in the hands of alumni who made a zealous 
and successful fight. Two years later the usefulness, the life, of 
the University was imperilled, and in that crisis he again victori- 
ously defended her. It was doubtless in recognition of such ser- 
vice, as well as of his fitness, that he was elected and reelected a 
trustee of the University. Of the State Normal College he was 
an early and faithful champion. 

He was the author of the bill to establish the A. and M. Col- 
lege, first called Industrial School. This college, says Governor 
Jarvis, "will stand a monument to his name." The Wautauga 
Club, some newspapers, and a few men of Mr. Leazar's stamp 
had agitated the matter, but it took vital form late one night dur- 
ing the Assembly of 1885, when Mr. Leazar and Dr. Charles W. 
Dabney prepared the bill which became law. The value of Dr. 
Dabney's assistance Mr. Leazar always declared. Dr. Dabney 
says: "As an experienced legislator, he dictated the language of 
the bill to me as I wrote, and he afterwards took it and revised 
it.*' That he did this fully is shown by the original in the office 
of the Secretary of State ; it is entirely in Mr. Leazar's handwrit- 
ing. He was peculiarly fitted to lead in this movement by his 
rare scholarship and attainments, by his experience as a teacher 
and his interest in agricultural and other industrial lines of work. 
He was a trustee of the college tor many years, serving on the ex- 
ecutive committee, devoting his ability effectively to its interests. 
One of its literary societies bears his name. 

In the Democratic State Convention of 1888, when for personal 
reasons very averse to the honor, he escaped nomination as lieuten- 
ant-governor by a slender minority. He was returned the same 
vear to the General Assemblv. 

In 1889 he was elected Speaker of the House. It is worthy of 
note that he came to this position absolutely untrammelled by 
pledges. Political trades his soul despised, and he was never in 
their bondage. A student of affairs and men as well as of books. 


he formed committees wisely in the State's interest. In his hands 
the phrase "dispatch of business" had meaning. The channels of 
legislation were kept unclogged and the House adjourned with 
cleared dockets. "At the same time his culture lent to the dis- 
charge of the duties of the chair a finish and elegance that has 
rarely if ever been surpassed in the history of the House." In 
1892 he was a candidate for the congressional nomination from 
his district and met a defeat with peculiar honor, in that victory 
was offered upon terms inconsistent with his high ideals. 

Promptly he entered the campaign and contributed largely to 
the election of the nominee. From the beginning of public life 
till cut off by broken health, his voice was at the service of his 
party and the principles of good government. And his was a 
Damascene blade in battle. Courteous withal, he always num- 
bered kindly acquaintances among honorable opponents. 

Mr. Lcazar, being in entire sympathy with the agricultural in- 
terests of the State, became an important member of the Farmers* 
Alliance early after its organization, but when Colonel Polk, Hon. 
Marion Butler and Dr. Cyrus Thompson converted the Alliance 
into a political party known as the Populist or People's party, he 
publicly withdrew from the Alliance and, faithful to his own 
political convictions, continued an earnest Democrat. He zeal- 
ously advocated the election of Governor Carr in 1892: and in 
1893, "P^" his inauguration, Governor Carr called upon Mr. Lea- 
zar to put into practice his theory as to the finances of the Pen- 
itentiary, appointing him the head of the Penal Institutions. It 
was a challenge which he was not the man to decline, though the 
wcrk was most uncongenial and foreign to his trend. He had 
had "no time to make money," though always equal to making a 
living. Now for the first time, probably, manifesting on a large 
scale his executive ability, he made the Penitentiary, with the 
great State farms, gradually approach self-support, until in his 
last year in office it turned back into the State treasury ever>' 
dollar of appropriation and had earned a surplus of $63,000. Per- 
manent improvements were made which amounted to more than 
the appropriation for the four years. The convicts were wisdy 


and humanely cared for. The moral tone of the army of em- 
ployes was noticeably raised in response to the character of the 
man at the. top. When his bonded term of office was half spent, 
in 1895, the Fusion Legislature abolished the office and appointed 
his successor under a different name. The books and keys were 
courteously but positively refused this claimant, and Mr. Leazar 
prepared to resist in the courts. He was advised that he had no 
case, but won in the fight. 

His health was sacrificed in the work of this office, and diabetes 
developed toward the end of his term. He recognized the inevi- 
table, laid aside many ambitions and squared himself for a life of 
restricted work. His term finished, he returned to the home he 
so loved to spend peacefully with his children the years now likely 
to be few. It is remarkable that thus late in life he should have 
given successful attention to his own finances. His farms in 
Rowan County yielded increased pleasure and profit. Let it be 
said that his relations with his tenants (all white) were remark- 
able and characteristic. No man lived two years upon his land 
without being worth more materially. Loyally he helped them, 
and their attachment was touching. Again and again he bought 
a tenant's cotton at market price, and, selling later at a better, 
gave him the profit ; nor were they reminded when his sale was 
at any loss. He taught them agriculture, economy, thrift, honor ; 
he broadened their horizon. He believed this his simple duty. An- 
other instance of his great-heartedness to the lowly, and of his 
loyalty, was the bequest of a goodly sum to the surviving ex- 
slaves of his father^s household. 

Other business interests now had his attention. He became a 
director of the Bank of Mooresville, of the Home Insurance Com- 
pany of Greensboro, continuing a director of the N. C. Midland 
Railroad, towards whose building he had been a leader. He was 
largely instrumental in the building of the first macadam road 
made in Iredell. No longer able to do what he called work, he 
still quietly accomplished much, and patriotism in matters great or 
small glowed undimmed. 

There was no office in the gift of his countrymen that he would 


not have adorned. And there had been a time in his life, again 
quoting Governor Jarvis, when 

"He could have attained higher positions in the State had he yielded 
his convictions and accepted the situation. No temptation, no flattery, 
no threat could move him from the path of duty and of right as he 
saw it. He loved his State and he loved to serve it. He was ambi- 
tious, but his was an ambition to do the right thing and to do it in 
the service of his State, his fellowmen and his God. He was able and 
wise. He had himself written, 'Whatever his profession, every man is 
a citizen and owes a duty to the State as he does to his God, for the 
State is his ordinance for the good of society.* He met defeats, but 
he believed 'the essential to success is character, loyalty to right, 
loyalty to God. Without it there is no real success, with it there is 
no failure.* " 

He knew for months that the end approached rapidly, but there 
was peace. He had been true to every relation in life, first in the 
home, and then in the world, as scholar, teacher, soldier, citizen, 
statesman and churchman. His religion was everywhere seen to 
be the dominant fact of his life. The book kept most constandy 
near him was a Greek New Testament. It is indeed a striking 
illustration of the truth and power of the gospel of Christ that a 
mind so strong and so acute, so ready to find weak places in any 
argument, and so keen to penetrate all shams and pretence, should 
have bowed before the majesty of gospel truth and accepted with- 
out doubt the teaching of Scripture as the veritable word of God — 
that a man of such imperious will, and so intolerant of seeming 
subjection to any other, should have submitted himself with the 
docility of a little child to his Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, and 
rested his hope of salvation wholly there. And so he fell on sleep 
February i8, 1905. 

Courage, honor, sincerity, faithfulness, energy stood out boldly 
in his character. With them blended deep tenderness, g^eat per- 
sonal charm and magnetism. Enemies he made here and there — 
he was not suave to trickery or injustice. Little children nestled 
to him — appropriating his lawn for their park — ^young men and 
maidens flocked to his Bible class, the aged rejoiced in him, the 



strong sought his strength, the sorrowing turned to him for per- 
fect sympathy, the outcast looked to him for uplift ; and he failed 

Perhaps he nowhere better summed up the philosophy of his 
life than in a brief word on his death-bed to a young legislator 
who had come to see him. With failing breath he said : "It pays 
better — in the long run — ^to be on the right side." 

S. A. Ashe. 


JLADEN COUNTY from its first settlement has 
given to North Carolina some of its finest dti- 
I zens. The Owens, Robesons, Porterfields, 
Browns, McNeills, McRees, Salters, McDow- 
ells, and Lloyds are not unknown to fame. 
About the year 1780 there came from Scot- 
Faiid to Bladen Iver and Ann Miller MacKay, their family con- 
sisting of four sons and one daughter. Their son John married 
Mary, a daughter of William Salter and Sarah Lloyd. 

William Salter was one of the early patriots of Bladen and was 
a delegate to the first Provincial Congress, elected in August, 1774, 
and also to the Federal Congress of 1775 ; the Lloyd family was 
equally devoted to the patriot cause. 

To John and Mary MacKay was bom in Bladen County, 00 
July 17, 1792, James Iver MacKay, the subject of this sketch. Af- 
ter being prepared at the Raleigh Academy, where he delivered 
an elegant address July 4, 1809, young MacKay entered the 
University of North Carolina along with his first cousin, Wil- 
liam J. Cowan ; but does not seem to have graduated at that insti- 
tution. He studied law ; and that he was well educated and pos- 
sessed attainments as well as character is amply evidenced by the 
fact that at the age of twenty-three he was elected to represent his 
county in the State Senate ; and he gave such great satisfacttcm to 
his constituents that for four terms he was successively reelected 


to the Senate. He then gave way and was succeeded by John 
Owen, who was one of the most talented young men of the State, 
and who subsequently enjoyed the respect and confidence of the 
people of North Carolina in an unusual degree. 

In 1822 MacKay again returned to the Senate, and again in 
1826, and once more in 1830. 

In the meantime he had served as United States District At- 
torney, and had won high regard and an extensive reputation as a 
brilliant lawyer. In his profession he was learned and skillful, 
ardent, firm and earnest in performing every duty that devolved 
upon him. In 1 831, when Edward B. Dudley declined to be a 
candidate for Congress, the friends of General MacKay brought 
him forward to represent that district, and he was elected, and for 
nine terms he continued to serve the people of the Cape Fear in 
the Congress of the United States. Entering into public life at 
twenty-nine, and at a time of great political agitation and tur- 
moil, he so steered his barque as to avoid shipwreck, and by a 
steadfast and undeviating adherence to his political principles he 
so strengthened himself in the confidence of his constituents that 
towards the end of his career he was opposed by no competitors. 
In his earlier years there was only one party, that known as the 
Republican Party, of which Clay and Adams and Jackson and 
Calhoun and Crawford were all members. But Jackson quar- 
relled with Clay and then with Calhoun, and grave issues arose 
because of the tariff and nullification by South Carolina, and be- 
cause of Jackson's fierce onslaught on the National Bank and his 
removal of the deposits. Also within the State there was a fierce 
conflict raging between the East and the West over the inequali- 
ties perp'^tuated by the old Constitution. General MacKay, pos- 
sessed of great wisdom, avoided the rocks and shoals of the uncer- 
tain sea of politics, and year by year attained a higher position in 
the confidence of his party associates. He adhered with con- 
stancy to the administration, or regular Republicans. And al- 
though many of his friends followed Calhoun on the one hand and 
Henry Clay on the other, and eventually allied themselves with the 
Whig Party, he remained the champion of the regular Democracy. 


When in 1840 the Whigs swept the State, he was still reelected 
to Congress from his district. 

In 1843 General MacKay was Chairman of the Committee of 
Ways and Means, and drew a Tariff Bill that, however, failed 
to pass; but his report on the tariff was widely circulated and 
was received as the best expression of Democratic thought In 
1846 Robert J. Walker was the Secretary of the Treasury and 
he desired a still larger reduction of the tariff. In conformity 
with the views of the administration, the tariff act of 1846 was 
prepared, largely in conference with Secretary Walker, and was 
introduced by General MacKay, the chairman of the committee 
in the House. It was the best tariff that had been proposed in 
many years ; and was the overthrow of that system which Henry 
Clay for a quarter of a century had been building up. 

It passed the House, but in the Senate the vote was doubtful. 
Two years before Mr. William H. Haywood had been elected to 
the Senate under instructions for tariff reform, but he considered 
this measure as too far-reaching for him to support it Still his 
relations with President Polk and with the Democratic party were 
such that, while unwilling to vote for that particular measure, he 
was unwilling to embarass the administration and the Democratic 
Party by defeating it. His vote against it would have defeated it 
Should he not vote, there would be a tie in the Senate and the 
casting vote of Vice-President Dallas would pass the measure. 
Mr. Haywood, therefore, determined not to vote, but to resign in 
preference. So at the last moment, when the vote was being taken 
in the Senate Chamber, seeing that the result would be a tie, he 
:announced his resignation and withdrew from the body. 

As this tariff bill was the lowest that had for many years been 
enacted into law, so it was in its effects the best that ever was 
passed by Congress. It is true that many fortunate circum- 
stances combined to promote the prosperity of the country, in the 
years following, in an unusual degree. But the great prosperity 
on which the country then entered is also largely to be attributed 
to this measure of the wise statesman of the Cape Fear. For fif- 
teen years no effort was made to repeal it. Indeed while every 


senator and representative from New England opposed its ad(^ 
tion, yet so satisfactory had been its operation that the entire 
country was thoroughly content. What had once been the great 
and absorbing tariff issue, threatening the dissolution of the Union, 
had passed utterly away, and at the election of 1856 the subject of 
the tariff was not mentioned in the platform of any political party. 
That great question of the tariff was apparently most happily 
solved by the MacKay act of 1846. 

In 1848, at the Democratic National Convention, the name of 
General MacKay was presented by North Carolina for the position 
of Vice-President. In that year General MacKay decided to re- 
tire from congressional life, and was succeeded in Congress by his 
friend, William S. Ashe. 

General MacKay was on terms of particular intimacy with 
President Polk, with whom he had served in Congress, and who 
always had a tender spot in his heart for North Carolina and 
North Carolinians. The late Hon. Archibald Arrington of Nash 
County used to tell an anecdote that was characteristic of the 
General. A party of friends went to call on the President ; when 
the introductions were over, General MacKay wandered over the 
room turning over a book here and looking at a picture there — 
when suddenly he called out over his shoulder : "Oh ! Polk, there 
is a vacancy in the navy and I want it." "Ah !" said the Presi- 
dent, "is there ? I hadn't heard of it ; but I suppose you may have 
it." **But, Mr. President, I don't want any supposing; I want it 
now." And he got it. 

Mr. Arrington also said that General MacKay was called by his 
colleagues the "watch-dog of the treasury," or "old money bags," 
because he was so economical as to public expenditure and so care- 
ful to protect the treasury from unnecessary outlay. 

While a representative in Congress General MacKay was very 
useful to his constituents and was instrumental in securing ap- 
propriations for the construction of the arsenal at Fayetteville, 
and for building Fort Caswell at the mouth of the Cape Fear 

General MacKay's family was of the Presbyterian faith ; but he 


did not attach himself to that denomination, and yet his contri- 
butions to it were exceedingly liberal. In some respects he was 
eccentric, but he was a keen business man and accumulated large 
wealth, while particulariy noted for his rigid integrity of charac- 
ter and contempt for meanness and deviation from the paths of 
rectitude. A country gentleman, in affluent circumstances, long 
associated at Washington with the strongest and most polished of 
our public men, he was a student of political economy and of the 
g^eat questions that agitated the public mind during the excited 
period of his career ; but essentially he was a man interested in the 
community where he was bom and whose good-will and respect 
he valued more than aught else in the world. He possessed a 
warm, kind heart, and was well-known for his benevolent disposi- 
tion and wide charity. It is still a tradition that many a poor 
youth he set on the road to competency and that many unfortu- 
nates were sustained by his bounty. 

He had married a woman of great beauty and unusual capacity, 
Miss Ann Eliza Harvey, who bore him one son, James Travis, 
who, however, died in infancy, and they had no other children. 

Without descendants, he proposed by his will to gratify his 
natural inclinations to serve those with whom he had been asso- 
ciated in life. For his Bel font plantation he had some years be- 
fore his death been offered $27,000; but he declined it, and item 
7th of his will reads as follows : 

"I give and devise after the termination of my wife's widowhood, 
my above-named Belfont plantation to William J. Cowan and my ex- 
ecutors, hereinafter named, and their heirs in trust for the county of 
Bladen, on the express condition that the said plantation shall be used 
as an experimental farm, and that the poor of the county and the 
poor and indigent orphans, who are directed by law to be bound out, 
shall be kept, maintained and employed on said plantation under such 
rules and regulations as the county court of said county may pre- 

This was virtually establishing an orphan asyltmi for the county 
of Bladen, being the first effort in that direction which the writer 
is now advertent to within the State of North Carolina. The fca- 


ture annexed to the bequest of establishing an experimental farm 
was likewise far in advance of the prevailing thought at that era. 
Since then experimental farms have been established both by the 
general government and by the Agricultural Department of the 
State of North Carolina ; but General MacKay was far in advance 
in seeking to give practical effect to such sentiments. 

In like manner he felt himself free to deal with his slave proper- 
ty according to his benevolent disposition. Those slaves inherited 
from his parents and acquired by marriage, in number between 
200 and 300, he determined to emancipate and to settle in a home 
of their own in Liberia ; and item loth of his will is : 

"It is my will and desire that the slaves hereinbefore excepted be 
hired out by my executors for two or three years in order to raise 
funds for their transportation to the colony of Liberia, and as soon as 
that object can be effected, my executors are hereby strictly enjoined 
to take the requisite means for the transportation of said slaves to 
Liberia, under the direction and patronage of the Colonization 

This provision of his will was after his death in 1853 
carried into effect by his executors, and some of the older resi- 
dents yet retain a vivid impression of the scene when the negroes 
left Elizabethtown some two years later to take shipping at Wil- 
mington for their voyage to Liberia. Some years ago one of these 
negro women came back from Africa having the appearance of 
being well-to-do, and reported that the MacKay negroes had pros- 
pered in their new home, her object in returning being to induce 
others of the connection to go back to Liberia with her. She said 
that her grandfather had risen to be one of the great men of the 

On September 14, 1853, General MacKay being at Goldsboro on 
business, accompanied by his friends. Colonel John McDowell and 
Benjamin Fitzrandolph, was seized with a mortal malady and sud- 
denly passed away. His sudden and unexpected death excited 
wide regret throughout the State. At Wilmington, as his remains 
were borne through the city, there was a g^eat public demonstra- 


tion. His body was met by the military, bells were tolled, and an 
escort accompanied the remains to their last resting-place in the 
family burying ground on his home plantation. The steamboat 
which conveyed the sad cortege from Wilmington to Elizabeth- 
town was decked in the habiliments of woe, and its monotone wail 
resounded continuously through the forests that lined its banks. 

General MacKay was a fine conversationalist and was person- 
ally a great favorite among his associates. Of him the venerable 
Colonel Wheeler, who knew him well, and who also was well ac- 
quainted with the other public men of the United States for a 
long period, has put on record this estimate of his character : 

"As a statesman he was of unquestioned ability, of stern integrity, 
capable of great labor and patient investigation. He was in public 
as in private life a radical economist, and belonged to that school of 
which Mr. Macon was the father, and he with George W. Jones, Cave 
Johnson of Tennessee and John Letcher of Virginia, were faithful 

That he served with great acceptability as chairman of the 
Committee of Ways and Means at a time when Congress con- 
tained so many eminent characters, and was presented by North 
Carolina as the Democratic candidate for the Vice-Presidency, at- 
tests the esteem in which he was held and his intellectual endow- 

General MacKay left no posterity, but Mrs. Thomas H. Sutton 
of Fayetteville, and Mr. D. C. Whitted, of Chadboum, are among 
his near kin. 

S. A, Ashe. 


(ATHANIEL MACON was born December 17, 
1758, at what was then known as Macon Manor, 
some twelve miles south of Warrenton. It was 
not far from the old Bute County Court House; 
and young Macon was sent to school to Charles 
Pettigrew along with the sons of the next-door 
neighbor, Philemon Hawkins. At the age of fifteen he joined 
his former schoolfellow, Benjamin Hawkins, at Princeton Col- 
lege, New Jersey. For two years he followed the curriculum of 
that valuable institution: but the times soon became too stirring 
for the work of college men, and Macon joined his fellows and 
did his first military service under the flag of New Jersey 
and at the time when Washington was fleeing before the 
enemy and without any real prospect of ever again becoming suc- 
cessful in the fateful war already begun. The young militiaman 
was not thoroughly educated — his course of study had been cut 
short in its very midst ; yet he was not so poorly trained as some 
have persistently asserted ; his letters show that he could use the 
English language well and that he was not less familiar with the 
ordinary forms of expression than was Thomas Jefferson, one of 
the best educated men of America. 

In the fall of 1776 young Macon, now approaching his 
eighteenth birthday, returned to Warren County and there began 
a course of reading in English history and law. How much he 


accomplished is not known, for he never entered regularly the 
practice of law, though he manifested a fine knowledge of the 
principles of law late in life. His acquaintance with the leading 
facts of history as portrayed by Hume, Robertson and Gibbon was 
creditable. This quiet life at Bute Court House was, however, 
broken up by the threatened invasion of North Carolina in the 
summer of 1780. He volunteered along with many of his fellow 
"countymen" and was made captain of his company ; this honor he 
declined, preferring for some unknown reason to remain in the 
ranks. The company to which he belonged was placed under com- 
mand of Major Benjamin W. Seawell of Halifax, and marched by 
way of Wake Court House to Hillsboro, thence to Camden, where 
they met Cornwallis and were shamefully beaten. Seawell's com- 
panies seem to have behaved reasonably well. They kept together 
and appeared some days later on the Yadkin ready to renew the 
contest with the English. Macon did not see further active mili- 
tary service; but when he retired from the army it was to enter 
the Legislature as a member of the Senate from Warren Coimt}'. 
On leaving the army he declined to receive any pay for his ser- 
vices; and he had not accepted the bounty to which he was en- 
titled by law. He thus gave as a patriot of his time and personal 
eflFort to the country which he was proud to call his own. 

In the Legislature Macon at once attained a respectable rank. It 
was here he came into close harmony with Willie Jones ; here he 
first formulated those rigid ideals of integrity and the righteous 
conduct of political affairs from which he was never dissociated 
in the public mind. The first of these principles was that there 
should be no paper money in a community, that gold and silver 
should constitute the total medium of exchange. Another notion 
of his was that States, like individuals, should "pay as they go," en- 
tailing no debt on future generations ; a public debt was to him the 
opposite of a public benefit. He believed in manhood suffrage 
with a few limitations — ante-dating most other advocates of this 
governmental doctrine ; and that all voting should be done vk*a 
voce — the man who had not the courage to openly express his con- 
victions ought not to be allowed to vote. Annual legislatures he 


thought essential to the welfare of the people; he did not believe 
in large salaries, nor did he have very much patience with "ora- 
tors ;'' a few plain-spoken words sufficed to make his views under- 
stood, and he thought others ought to be equally direct and clear- 
cut. To waste time in a legislature was to rob the people. Noth- 
ing escaped his attention ; he was often on committees and some- 
times harshly criticised his people on their happy-go-easy ways. 
Still it was his firm conviction that the people would always do 
right if made to understand public business. In 1786 he was 
elected delegate from North Carolina to the Continental Congress ; 
he promptly declined the honor. Macon remained in the State 
Senate as long as he chose; and when he declined reelection his 
brother John Macon succeeded to the position. 

In 1783 Macon was married to Miss Hannah Plummer of War- 
renton. The young couple settled on Hubquarter Creek, a small 
tributarv of the Roanoke, twelve miles north of Warrenton and 
twenty-five miles distant from the Macon neighborhood — the 
Shocco section. On a slightly elevated plateau covered with 
"original-growth" forest trees the famous Buck Spring residence 
was built about this time. It consisted of two small but well-con- 
structed houses facing each other. One of these houses was Ma- 
con's own apartment. It consisted of one large room with a 
low-pitched attic above and a commodious wine cellar below. Op- 
posite the sixteen-feet-square house just described stood a second 
one — an exact counterpart of the former. This was the kitchen ; 
on the second floor was another attic which was used as a sort of 
nursery. The nearest neighbor's house was probably five miles 
away. He loved the wilds of nature, the chase and the freedom 
which comes from isolation. There was nothing handsome in the 
houses he caused to be erected, nothing indicating a pride of pos- 
session so common with his class, yet he made Buck Spring fa- 
mous. He was exceedingly fond of the fox chase and kept near a 
dozen thoroughbreds for the benefit of those who might join him. 
John Randolph was a most frequent companion on these chases, 
and in 1819 James Monroe, then president, arranged his Southern 
tour so as to take in Buck Spring and one of Macon's fox chases. 


His wife died in 1790; in 1791 he was sent to Congress from 
what was then called the Hillsboro district, which included War- 
ren' County. He remained a member of the national l^slature 
from 1 79 1 to 1828 without a break — a period of thirty-seven years! 
During these thirty-seven years he made many important speeches, 
exerted a powerful influence on national legislation, and contribu- 
ted more, far more, than any other North Carolinian of any time 
to the higher and better politics of his country. For say what we 
may of some of his limitations, he was never simply a party man; 
nor was he at any time a mere provincial, seeking the agg^ndise- 
ment of his State at the expense of the nation. Indeed, he rebuked 
the North Carolinian **log-roller" of his day as unworthy of his 
people and a menace to the nation. 

Macon entered the national House of Representatives when 
Washington was president, Thomas Jefferson secretary of state, 
and Alexander Hamilton secretary of the treasury ; he was an ad- 
mirer of all these masterful men, but he was not overawed by them. 
and he ventured to think for himself and to vote accordingly. The 
first evidence of this independence, though some partisanship was 
also present, appeared in his call for an investigation 61 the treas- 
ury department ; his resolutions expressing a lack of confidence in 
Hamilton were presented on February 23, 1792; they aroused an 
angry debate, but produced no other immediate effect than to show 
the growing discontent with the methods of the Secretary of the 
Treasury. Two years later the investigation came, and it was 
shown that there had been just grounds for all the complaint 
Macon had made. 

When the Jay treaty with England was ratified, in June, 1795, 
Macon made earnest protest against it; during the winter and 
spring following he was one of the staunchest opponents of the 
measure, insisting that the House of Representatives, like the Eng- 
lish House of Commons, could lawfully withhold the appropriation 
necessary to the validity of a treaty. In this he was of the same 
opinion with Jeflferson, Madison and Gallatin. The outcome of 
his efforts was failure ; but he attributed the defeat of the opposi- 
tion not to Ames's brilliant speech on behalf of the administration, 


but to the moral weakness of some of his fellow-partisans in re- 
sorting to the absentee method of evading the issue. In the cam- 
paign of 1796 Macon was an able supporter of Jefferson for the 
presidency ; and from 1796 to 180 1 he was Jefferson's chief lieuten- 
ant in North Carolina. Macon was, however, more than a poli- 
tician at this time ; he was sincerely convinced that the salvation 
of both the Union and the States depended on the success of Mr. 

The Federalists were equally industrious and almost as well led 
as their opponents. They planned to silence their enemies by law, 
to stifle the press and force the Republicans, who were friendly to 
France in her contest with Great Britain, into an unpopular atti- 
tude by declaring war against the French Republic, which Jeffer- 
son and his followers would certainly approve. When the Feder- 
alists failed to carry their war policy they commenced a series of 
attacks on their opponents through the alien and sedition bills. 
These were passed after much angry debate, and the leading 
French immigrants, not excepting the distinguished scientist Vol- 
ney, were forced to leave the country. Newspaper writers and 
campaign speakers were imprisoned in various parts of the coun- 
try, despite the amendment to the national constitution to the 
effect that the liberty of speech and of the press could not be re- 
strained. Macon did his utmost to prevent the passage of these 
laws, and he did still more to bring them into discredit after they 
had been placed on the statute book. 

In 1798 the Kentucky Resolutions declaring that the alien and 
sedition laws were unconstitutional and if persisted in would be 
resisted by the sovereign power of that State, were passed and sent 
to the various States for approval. A majority of the legisla- 
tures indorsed them. Macon favored them earnestly; but the 
North Carolina Assembly, just then under the influence of Wil- 
liam R. Davie, refused to approve them. It was by a narrow mar- 
gin in the Senate that the State was saved to the Administration 
and prevented from casting its influence on the side of Thomas 
Jefferson in his great fight for what he called the essential rights 
of free men. 


The Jefferson campaign proper came on in 1800. The Repub- 
licans were well organized for that day. Macon was their chief in 
North Carolina ; Richard Stanford of Orange County was a strong 
assistant, and in Virginia, James Madison, William B. Giles and 
the young John Randolph were the strongest leaders. In New 
York Aaron Burr was their champion; in Pennsylvania Albert 
Gallatin. The Rutledges of South Carolina, and William H. 
Crawford of Georgia, belonged to the same great political party. 
These names are mentioned to show what class of men were Ma- 
con's political associates. The result of the long and bitter con- 
test was the election of Jefferson and the reversal of the policy of 
the last twelve years. Rightly enough Macon was chosen Speaker 
of the House under the new regime. In addition to being Speaker 
he was offered the patronage of his State, but seldom, probably 
never once, did he make use of the power thus put within his 
grasp. He informed the president of the merits of candidates for 
office only when asked to do so. He distinctly declined to coun- 
tenance any removals from office in his State for political purposes 
except with one class of men ; under Washington and Adams some 
few Tories had been appointed to important positions in North 
Carolina ; Macon thought these ought gradually to be replaced by 
good "Whigs of '76," as he termed the revolutionists. 

As Speaker Macon had little patience with the members who 
desired to be everlastingly on the floor whether they had anything 
to say or not. In consequence he was disposed not to recognize 
too promptly representatives who were given to "spread eagleism." 
Glad would he have been to apply the "previous question" rule 
now so freely employed in debate. And in 1809, after the expira- 
tion of his term, he lent himself heartily to the plan of establish- 
ing certain hard and fast rules for the protection of the House and 
the expedition of business. These rules soon acquired the name 
"iron-clad," and were used in 181 1 by Henry Qay to direct and 
limit the deliberations of the so-called "lower branch" in such a 
way as to give the Speaker despotic powers. 

The most important piece of legislation that Macon and his good 
friend John Randolph, his majority leader, caused to be enacted, 


was the bill authorizing the annexation of Louisiana. President 
Jefferson, on learning that by getting a secret grant of two million 
dollars, with which to conduct the negotiation with Napoleon con- 
cerning the opening of the Mississippi and the possible cession of 
the site of New Orleans, he might settle once for all the all-im- 
portant Mississippi question, called in Macon and Randolph to 
know what the House would do if such a carte blanche were asked 
for. They assured him, after knowing what the plans of the Ex- 
ecutive were, that the bill would pass, that Congress would vote the 
appropriation. Randolph conducted the scheme safely through 
the House, but it was Mr. Speaker's moral support and strong in- 
fluence which enabled him to win many a point against the united 
opposition of the Federalists. 

In the fall and winter of 1804-1805 it was decided among the 
leading Republicans that some of the judges of the United States 
Supreme Court should be impeached and removed from office. 
President Jefferson was a bitter opponent of the Supreme Court. 
Chief Justice Marshall was regarded as a personal enemy. The 
judges had played into Jefferson's hands during the past two or 
three years by reading the people homilies at the opening of the 
circuit courts in the various States on the iniquities of Democratic 
government. Jefferson himself was held up to the scorn and ridi- 
cule of conservative people; he was declared to be an atheist, an 
autocrat, an anarchist and unworthy of the esteem of any decent 
man. Judge Chase had possibly sinned most flagrantly in this 
respect. He was singled out for punishment ; should the remedy 
planned for him act well, other and stronger doses were to be ad- 
ministered to his unruly brethren. It was agreed further in the 
White House that Randolph should conduct the impeachment. 
Joseph H. Nicholson of Maryland aspired to the high position thus 
to be made vacant and Randolph hoped to win a popular standing 
which might open the way for him to the Executive Mansion. 
Such scheming as this did not please Macon. It was an article of 
his creed that intrigue was ruinous to a party; and later in his 
career he declared to his old friend Gallatin that the Jeffersonian 
party died of this disease in 1820 to 1824. Accordingly he coun- 


selled against the impeachment on the ground first that it was un- 
wise politically, and probably not deserved morally. "Suppose," 
said he, **the judges had flattered the president and the party in 
power, would they now be threatened with removal? Hardly. 
Flattery is worse than abuse and far more dangerous. If you will 
not punish men for committing the greater offence why arraign 
them for the lesser ? Besides, when opinion is freely expressed it 
becomes its own corrective. If the judges speak falsely they will 
soon lose their hold on the people ; if truly then it is best for the 
country to hear them." Such unpartisan advice was not wel- 
come in the White House; Randolph refused to accept it and 
Nicholson's aspiration continued to rise. The impeachment was 
attempted; it failed. Randolph made himself ridiculous in his 
speeches before the Senate and Jefferson was chagrined beyond 
measure. Chief Justice Marshall took a new hold on the great 
court of which he was the head. Macon alone had foreseen the 
result, though he did not remind his fellow Republicans of his ad- 
vice after the event. It is clear enough that the opinion of the 
Speaker of the House in matters political was worth heeding. 

From the failure of the impeachment proceedings Randolph 
gradually drifted away from the President ; he became a formida- 
ble opponent and finally had to be removed from his place as chair- 
man of the committee on ways and means. Macon was closely at- 
tached to Randolph; he inclined to take his side as against the 
President, and before the autumn of 1807 he had drifted so far 
away from Mr. Jefferson that the latter decided that he must not 
be reelected Speaker. Joseph Vamum of Massachusetts was 
"slated" for the place. Macon was aware of the intended change; 
he remained quiet at his home in North Carolina that Fall until 
some weeks after the opening of Congress and the election of 
Speaker. Illness was given out as the cause of the absence ; but 
no one knew better than Macon himself that there was another 
and stronger reason. Jefferson did his share to reconcile his for- 
mer friend ; but he did not succeed. Macon stood aloof, leaving 
the Administration to get on as best it might with its new allies, 
the Republican recruits from New England. 


He took, however, a most active part in legislation; served on 
the committee on foreign relations and made himself doubly famil- 
iar with this department of affairs. As the war cloud continued 
to rise and expand in the political sky Macon's office grew in im- 
portance. When the next election for Speaker occurred Macon 
ran strongly and received what to him was a most flattering vote, 
that of nearly all Southern members. His strength was increas- 
ing when Madison took up the reins of government which Jeflfer- 
son had gladly let fall on March 4, 1809, advocating in his place 
the name of Albert Gallatin of Pennsylvania. When, however, 
Gallatin took service in Madison's cabinet, Macon renewed his 
relations with the White House and became at once the mouth- 
piece of the administration in the House. From 1809 to 181 1 
there was no stronger man in that branch of Congress. As leader 
of the Southern Republicans he commanded a powerful following. 
He became chairman of the committee on foreign relations and 
from the beginning of the session he took a most active part in 
the management and direction of legislation. His was the most 
important position in the House after that of Speaker. It was his 
business to propose some means of escape from the miserable rela- 
tions with England. On December 19, 1809, he introduced a ser- 
ies of retaliatory resolutions which early in January took the 
form of the "Macon Bill No. i." After much discussion the bill 
went to the Senate, where it was picked to pieces by the Smith fac- 
tion in that body — a group of men bent on the undoing of Madi- 
son's administration and hoping to compass his defeat in 1812. 
Macon felt and manifested a manly contempt for the men who 
could thus jeopardize the interests of the country to satisfy a 
grudge against the President and his Secretary of State, Mr. Gal- 
latin. However, his bill was killed by amendments, for when it 
was reported back to the House in the early spring its author de- 
clared that he would not now support it. "Macon Bill No. 2," 
written by John Taylor of South Carolina, was now introduced; 
it was a much weaker measure than the former one. Macon op- 
posed it, but it passed both houses of Congress and became a law 
Mav I, 1810. 


Late in 1815 Macon was chosen by the North Carolina Assem- 
bly to fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of Senator Stone. 
The election was almost unanimous, and the faithful servant of his 
people had reason to congratulate himself on the universal ap- 
proval of the choice. Macon resigned his seat in the House and 
immediately appeared at the bar of the Senate to take the oath of 
office. He at once took hold of the financial side of senatorial 
legislation and soon made himself felt. He gave ample satisfa^ 
tion to the North Carolina people, and he was returned to the 
Senate without a show of opposition until his voluntary with- 
drawal in 1828, when he had reached the Psalmist's limit of active 
human life. 

In the Senate there was immediate cause for Macon to exert 
himself. It was now that the famous "liberal construction" of the 
national Constitution came into vogue. Since President Monroe 
speedily declared against the new departure, the Senate being 
largely composed of Republicans in good standing, the so-called 
upper House supported staunchly the presidential party. Henry 
Clay, continuing in the Speaker's chair of the House, became the 
centre of opposition and the place where the greatest extravagance 
was either actually put into the form of law or proposed. Macon 
set himself firmly against all the policies of the Qay party ; from 
this time forth his efforts were exerted in a negative way. The 
new national bank, the Cumberland road, the protective tariff were 
all opposed step by step, as had been the Federalist legislation of 
twenty years before. Mr. Clay's wonderful fertility of expedient, 
his ever-expanding latitudinarian policy, aroused Macon's dislike 
and finally his fixed political enmity. There was not another man 
in the country whom Macon regarded as equally dangerous. 

In the earlier years of the century Macon had shown himself a 
friend of the United States Supreme Court; he had opposed the 
proceedings of 1805 ; he had been among the first of Southerners 
to admit the right of the Supreme Court to pronounce upon the 
constitutionality of acts of Congress. But in 1819 when Mar- 
shall's great constitutional decisions became the absorbing themes 
of the day, he began to see in the Court an enemy of the Union 


and the Constitution as he understood those terms. The McCul- 
loch versus Maryland decision and the Cohens versus Virginia 
case aroused the Southern Democracy and called forth from Jef- 
ferson a renewal of his war of words on the national courts. The 
Virginia leaders planned an amendment to the national Constitu- 
tion which should set definite bounds to the jurisdiction of Mar- 
shall and his court. Macon joined the Virginians; he renewed 
his relations with Jefferson, and from this date to the end of the 
ex-President's life they kept up a somewhat intimate correspond- 
ence. When Macon was authorized to have a statue of Washing- 
ton made without limit as to cost, at his request Jefferson recom- 
mended Canova and delineated the style of the work in every de- 
tail. But the "spirit of 1800" was not to be aroused outside a 
few Southern States. No amendment to the Constitution was 
enacted. There were not five men in Congress, Macon said, who 
held the opinions of genuine Republicans. 

Indeed the Missouri question, the ever-recurring slavery prob- 
lem, had absorbed the attention of the country. Macon was se- 
riously alarmed for the safety of the South in view of the expand- 
ing power of the hostile North. He exerted himself to the ut- 
most to defeat the so-called compromise of 1820; he regarded it as 
a surrender. Few Southern members felt the danger as he did. 
He declared that the Union of 1788 was dissolved and that an- 
other of unlimited powers was being erected in its stead. John 
Randolph of Roanoke joined him in his warning complaint, but 
without avail. The compromise was carried by Southern votes. 
As Macon rode homeward he noted the topography of the coun- 
try and marked the effect of climate on the institutions of the 
people. He wrote Bedford Brown of North Carolina about this 
time that the country would probably break up and that the region 
south of the James and Cumberland Rivers would form an inde- 
pendent republic based on agriculture and slave-labor as the foun- 
dation of society ! This was gloomy prophecy ; but time proved 
it to be not entirely visionary. 

As the presidential canvass of 1824 approached the various can- 
didates appealed to Macon for support. His influence was worth 


more votes than that of any other Southern member of the Sen- 
ate. Thousands of children bore his name; counties and towns 
were named for him and his short and pithy sayings were every- 
where quoted as the essence of sound common sense and practi- 
cal wisdom. He favored William H. Crawford, but was unwilling 
to take part in the Congressional caucus which was called to nom- 
inate him in February, 1823. He had never believed in caucus 
methods, and anything which resembled intrigue he reprobated 
Every effort was made to get him to attend. Crawford's friends 
wrote to Gallatin, now an old man retired from active public life, 
beseeching him to influence Macon ; and Gallatin wrote Macon a 
letter on the subject, but without avail. The "old fogy," as the 
Whigs of a few years later delighted to call him, remained stead- 
fast, although he gave his active support to the able Georgian can- 
didate, who would have been elected but for an unfortunate stroke 
of paralysis which put him hors de combat at the opening of the 
active campaign. 

It was at this time that Southerners first put forward the plan 
of nominating Macon for the Vice-Presidency, it being contended 
that he would be a safe man for the office in view of the probable 
early decease of Crawford. Nothing came of the plan, which was 
of Georgian origin and supported by Virginia. Four years later, 
when John Quincy Adams was casting about for a Southern run- 
ning mate to strengthen his ticket against the invincible Jackson, 
Macon was the man to whom overtures were made notwithstand- 
ing the wide divergence of opinion between the two. Macon de- 
clined to entertain the proposition, quickly discerning its incon- 
gruous features. However it was no small tribute from Adams 
and his friend, especially when it is remembered that Macon had 
voted in the Senate against every important measure of the Ad- 
ministration. Between 1824 and 1828 Macon was chairman of the 
committee on foreign relations, and was three times President 
pro tern, of the Senate. 

But the sands of his long political career were running out ; he 
had firmly agreed with himself that he would retire when he 
reached the age of seventy. He was as good as his word, and 


when the time arrived he sent his resignation to the General As- 
sembly giving up an unexpired term of two years. His short 
statement of his public career inclosed with his resignation is a 
remarkable document because of what it said and because it is ab- 
solutely true from beginning to end. He left public life sorely re- 
gretted by thousands and at a time when North Carolina would 
gladly have kept him in his place. He retired to Buck Spring, his 
remote country estate, to spend a short ten years in undisturbed 

But the fierce campaigns of 1828, the weakening of Qay's hold 
on the nation, the agitation during these years olE the right of a 
legislature to "instruct" Senators in Congress, the break-up of 
Jackson's first cabinet and the resulting contest with South Caro- 
lina on the question of "nullification," all engaged his attention and 
in some instances drew from him characteristic opinions. How- 
ever, he refused to manifest any public interest in these contests 
until 1836, when \'an Buren's election seemed doubtful in North 
Carolina. Notwithstanding his opposition to Jackson in 1824 and 
1828, he supported him in 1832 and "came out" for Jackson's pro- 
tege in 1836 and headed the electoral ticket in his State. He 
made no canvass, as indeed he had never done, but he allowed his 
decided opinion to go forth to the people. All the influence of 
Calhoun and his friends, John Branch and Willie P. Mangum, 
was exerted to the utmost to defeat Van Buren in North Carolina, 
but to no avail. Macon's influence was still enormous among the 
masses. The Democratic ticket was elected by a small majority 
in the State; in the nation it was also successful. It can hardly 
be doubted that Macon's example was decisive for his State. It 
was to be his last campaign. The last public act of his life was to 
journey to Raleigh to cast his vote as an elector. He was the ob- 
ject of universal attention on this visit; he was persuaded to ex- 
press to the public his decided encouragement at the outcome of 
the bitter fight, and he pronounced once again his doctrine that 
the people are capable of self-government. 

In one other way Macon contributed to the political life of 
North Carolina during this short decade of retirement. He was 


a delegate to the Constitutional convention of 1835 and was made 
its president by unanimous voice of its members. He was unques- 
tionably the man for the position, though it is quite evident from 
his speeches that he was already in his dotage. He contributed 
much to the spirit of forbearance and peaceful compromise so 
much needed in that body. Some members from western coun- 
ties had entered the convention with the fixed purpose of seceding 
from the State unless that section obtained a more equitable rep- 
resentation in the legislature. The demands of the west were 
not yielded and there was much bitterness of feeling, but happily 
no revolutionary attempts were made. 

In his simple home during these last years Macon appeared at 
best advantage. He owned some two thousand acres of land, 
after having given two daughters their marriage portions; his 
plantation was cultivated by seventy negro slaves ; and his yearly 
income was ample for his simple tastes. He received visitors con- 
stantly, and always with the ease and suavity characteristic of his 
race. His neighbors were naturally proud of him; they relied 
on him for counsel in their every-day affairs and appealed their 
disputes to him for settlement. He read a good deal, tfiough he 
was not a "bookish man," especially the Bible. Macon dressed 
carefully in clothes made from the best of materials ; his linen was 
of the old-fashioned style and his boots were always of the make 
suited to a gentleman of 1776. He loved strong drink, though he 
did not indulge to excess, and he was wont to keep his cellar well 
stocked with the best of wines. The guest at his table was always 
"treated to a full bottle," with the contents of which he was ex- 
pected to aid his digestion. 

Macon was a Baptist, though the Methodists of North Caro- 
lina and Virginia did him the signal honor to call tfieir new semi- 
nary of learning, just now being established, Randolph-Macon Col- 
lege after him. This turns out, by the way, to be the only monu- 
ment ever erected to the memory of this good and high-toned 
North Carolina leader. He was sensible of the honor bestowed, 
but he seems never to have given the institution any considerable 
sum of money. Macon's religion was of tfie simplest kind — after 


the manner of his Huguenot ancestry ; he heard a sermon once a 
month, but read the Bible to his slaves every Sunday morning. 

Death came at last, and the old Revolutionist knew its approach 
was near. He was not afraid, but called in his ser\'ants and gave 
them instructions about his final resting-place, which was to be a 
barren hill-top in the midst of his plantation. The carpenter, too, 
was called and ordered to construct a plain pine coffin and to pre- 
sent his bill for the same at once. This was done, and Macon 
paid the last debt that man could owe his fellows. These details 
being over he dressed himself in the way he desired to be buried, 
and in a few hours life passed away. The spirit of a remarkable 
man had taken its flight. Honesty, faithfulness to his vision, had 
been his unchanging traits; scarce another such a man has ever 
lived. His impress upon North Carolinians has not yet been ef- 
bced. His traits became in a large measure theirs; he was their 
greatest teacher, one whose word and deed were always uplifting, 
who never flattered any man or party and yet retained the love of 
good men everywhere. In Washington he had been honored with 
high station ; he had contributed something to the tone of our early 
national life; both the House and the Senate acknowledged long 
after he had departed the value of his example. His place had 
not been filled at his death ; there was no other Macon, nor is it to 
be expected that vastly changed conditions could produce another 
such man and patriot. He actually beliez-ed in and practised 

William E. Dodd. 


jRANgOIS-XAVIER MARTIN, printer and 
editor, lawjer and jurist, was bom in Mar- 
seilles, France, March 17, 1762, and his boyhood 
was spent in that city. The two most authori- 
tative sketches of his life do not agree, how- 
I ever, as to the character and incidents of his 
early training. Judge Howe, whose sketch is prefixed to the sec- 
ond edition of Martin's "History of Louisiana," published in 1882 
(New Orleans), is much fuller on many points; he analyzes more 
carefully and minutely the character of his subject, tells anecdotes 
of his life and points out his weaknesses. The man who walks 
before us in his pages is a living, moving organism, and the 
sketch bears every evidence of being the work of a scholar who 
sought earnestly for the truth. On the other hand, Judge Bul- 
lard (vol, 2, French's "Historical Collections of Louisiana," Phila- 
delphia, 1850) , presents a sketch written in the style of two gen- 
erations ago, dignified, formal, stilted and with less of human in- 
interest to attract, but the author was for many years an associate 
of Martin on the Supreme Bench of Louisiana and had every op- 
portunity of learning his early history. According to Howe, Mar- 
tin's "family seem to have been plain and quiet people, Trom whom 
he derived as his sole inheritance a rugged physique, a keen intel- 
ligence, and a robust will ;" of his education he has no exact knowl- 
edge. But Judge Bullard says Martin was descended from one 


of the most ancient and respectable families in Provence ; that his 
father was a merchant of high standing, of piety and extreme 
exactness in the management of his business ; that the son's early 
studies were strictly domestic and conducted by a learned eccle- 
siastic who also acted as chaplain to the family ; tfiat he acquired 
a critical knowledge of Latin and the elements of English and 
Italian, and that he was intended for a commercial life. 

Judge Bullard says further that Martin had an uncle in Martin- 
ique who supplied provisions to the French navy, and in that way 
acquired a considerable fortune, and that the nephew set out to 
Martinique when eighteen years old to go into business with this 
relative. It was not long before the uncle withdrew his funds 
from business, returned to France and died ; the neohew was left 
sufficient means, however, to commence an establishment on his 
own account, but youth and inexperience brought financial disas- 
ter. Martin remained in Martinique probably about three years ; 
he had in the meantime become interested in a commercial ad- 
venture to North Carolina ; his partner had died and he proceeded 
to North Carolina himself in the hope of recovering something of 
the sums due him. 

The date of his coming to our State has not been fixed. It is 
said that he became a volunteer in the Continental armv. This 
would indicate that he was in the State as early as 1782. We 
know that he was here in 1783 (History of N. C, 11., 265). He 
failed to recover the money due, and found himself a stranger in a 
strange land and with but an imperfect knowledge of the lan- 
guage. But North Carolinians, then as now, were ready to wel- 
come and aid the man who showed that he had within himself the 
elements of courage and will. Martin first supported himself as 
a teacher of French, but seeking more remunerative fields deter- 
mined to become a printer. He knew nothing of that business, 
but applied for a position. There seems to have been at that 
time but one printing establishment in the town, that of Robert 
Keith and Company, who on August 28, 1783, revived the North 
Carolina Gazette, or Imperial Intelligencer and Weekly General 
Advertiser, using the types and press of James Davis. Judge 


Bullard says that Martin served his apprenticeship with James 
Clark, but there was not a printer in the town by that name. It 
is possible that Judge Bullard meant to say James Davis, but it 
seems that Davis had at that time retired from business, that his 
son, Thomas Davis, was established in Halifax, and that Martin's 
first service was with Keith, for we know that about this time 
Keith advertised for a "couple of lads fourteen or fifteen years of 
age" to learn the business. 

At any rate Martin learned the printer's trade in New-Bern ; by 
characteristic frugality and industry he soon got a start in life; 
by the aid of friends secured a press, probably Keith's, and later 
acquired his newspaper, the North Carolina Gazette. We do not 
know at what time he became editor of this sheet, but he was editor 
March 23, 1793, niost probably several years before that date. 
After securing his press Martin printed his newspaper and is said 
to have also printed almanacs and school books, and to have ped- 
dled them through Craven and the adjoining counties, but none of 
these imprints have come under my observation. If this was ever 
done it was perhaps soon outgrown, for as early as 1785 he had 
attained the dignity of a publisher, and on November 22, 1785, 
"Martin and Company, printers in the town of New-Bern," were 
applicants for the public printing (State Records, XVII., 279). 
He seems to have engaged in other business also, for in 1786 the 
French consul in Charleston gave judgment against him for 589 
pounds in the case of J. J. Coulougnac of New York, by whom 
Martin had been employed in that city in 1785. In time his print- 
ing business became lucrative ; Ogden was admitted as a partner 
and the business was continued as long as Martin remained in 
North Carolina. 

But even in his earlier days printing and peddling books and al- 
manacs and editing a newspaper were not enough for the active 
mind of Frangois-Xavier Martin. He began the study of law, 
encouraged to the step by Abner Nash, who had learned his in- 
herent worth. He was admitted to the bar in 1789 when twcnt>- 
seven, and took position not as a brilliant advocate, but as a stu- 
dent of laws and of jurisprudence who was destined to become a 


jurist. That he had already attained an honorable position in 
the aristocratic society of New-Bern is shown by his presence on 
the committee to receive General Washington on his visit in 1791. 
Martin's practice of law helped him as a printer of legal works 
and vice versa. In 1791 he issued his first legal compilation, "The 
Office and Authority of a Justice of the Peace," so far as known 
the first law book coming from his press. This was followed in 
1792 by his "Statutes of the Parliament of England in force in 
North Carolina." This was an official collection, prepared in obe- 
dience to a resolve of the legislature. It involved a vast amount 
of labor, but was sharply criticised by the compilers of the Revised 
Statutes of 1837, who say that his work is poorly done, that stat- 
utes are inserted that were never in force and others omitted that 
were, while his amazing ignorance of the law literature of the 
State is seen in his statement that he had no guide to indicate what 
British statutes had been made to apply to North Carolina, al- 
though chapter i. Laws of 1749, gives such a list. In 1793 he 
translated and published "Latch's Reports ;" in 1794 he published, 
under a resolution of the Assembly, a collection of the "Private 
Acts of North Carolina," and in 1795 appeared his "Acts of the 
General Assembly of North Carolina," 1791, 1792, 1793 and 1794. 
This was a reprint of the session laws for those years with a few 
omissions, was intended as a supplement to Iredell's Revisal of 
1 79 1, and was issued privately. In 1797 appeared his notes of 
''Decisions of the Superior Courts of North Carolina." In 1802, 
the firm name now being Martin and Ogden, he published his 
translation of Pothier on Obligations, the first done into English, 
and anticipating by four years that by Evans in England. 
Martin's edition had an extensive circulation in the United States. 
It is said that he was by this time such an expert compositor that 
the English translation was never reduced to manuscript, but was 
set directly from the French original. He also compiled and 
printed a volume on Sheriffs, another on Executors, and pub- 
lished a number of novels, including "Lord Rivers," "The Fe- 
male Foundling," "Delaval," "The Rural Philosopher, a Poem," 
ami some others like "Stephanie de Bourbon" that were transla- 


tions from the French. In 1804 he published under direction of 
the legislature, a revision of the laws of the State in two volumes, 
known as Martin's Revisal. The two volumes are usually bound 
together. The first reprints the laws of 1715-1791 then in force, 
and covers the same period as Judge Iredell's Revisal of 1791 ; the 
second covers the period 1 791 -1804, and appendices briijg some 
copies down as late as 1807. 

Martin also published a "History of North Carolina," in two 
volumes (New Orleans, 1829). He had begun collecting materials 
for this work as early as 1791 and had brought them all together 
before he went to the Southwest in 1809. His volumes as issued 
are a dull compilation, mostly from printed sources, but with no 
exact reference to authorities; they are arranged largely in the 
form of annals and contain much that is irrelevant or of little im- 
portance. He had exceptional facilities for his day for this work, 
but was indifferent to the collection of facts even when his op- 
portunities were of the best — witness his history of printing in 
New-Bern ; he was even willing to change facts to suit a purpose, 
as he did in the history of the Quakers. He made little effort to 
set forth events in the relation of cause and effect; he failed to 
grasp the note of freedom under law and restlessness, under the 
violation of law that so pervaded and dominated the colonial life 
of North Carolina, and his work as a history has never been of any 
value either for its facts or their interpretation, although still 
quoted by the unknowing. 

In 1806 and 1807 he represented New-Bern in the House of 
Commons. His career in North Carolina was now drawing to a 
close. He spent 28 years in the State ; out of nothing created a 
competence and an assured position; became a proficient in the 
common law, in the laws of the United States, and had not neg- 
lected those of Rome and of France. His career so far as it con- 
cerns North Carolina is that of a printer, editor and lawyer, a re- 
viser of statutes, a compiler of law books and a historian. 

In Louisiana he became a jurist, building there on the deep and 
wide foundations previously laid. On March 7, 1809, President 
Madison appointed him one of the judges of the superior court 


of the Territory of Mississippi ; he filled that position for a year 
and was transferred March 21, 1810, to the bench of the superior 
court of the Territory of Orleans and removed to New Orleans. 
He continued to occupy that position till the admission of the 
State to the Union, in 181 2, when the territorial courts ceased to 
exist. He was appointed attorney general of the new State, Feb- 
ruary' 13, 1813, and served in that position till his appointment as 
a member of the supreme court of the State. His commission as 
supreme judge is dated February i, 1815, and from then till March 
18, 1846, he sat on the supreme bench; from the death of Judge 
Matthews in 1836 he was the chief justice till he left the bench, 
and as he had been deprived of office by the adoption of the con- 
stitution in 18 1 2, so in 1846 he was again to lose office by the 
adoption of the new constitution of 1846. 

During the long service of 31 years on the supreme bench Judge 
Martin was not content with a mere formal discharge of his 
duties; he did not permit himself to wither away into a clever 
clerk. His duties as judge were performed with entire strictness, 
while his labors in other fields of intellectual work were immense. 
When he came to the supreme court of the Territory there was a 
formidable task before him. The Territorv of Louisiana had been 
French, then Spanish, and then again French before it came to the 
United States. O'Reilly governed by Spanish law and had su- 
perseded the French laws. When Louisiana came to the United 
States habeas corpus, the system of proceedings in criminal cases, 
and trial by jury, were introduced. In 1808 was promulgated the 
Digest of the Civil Laws then in force in Louisiana, commonly 
called the Old Code. That compilation was little more than a 
mutilated copy of the Code Napoleon, but did not abrogate pre- 
vious law and was considered as declaratory law, repealing only 
such as were repugnant to it and leaving partly in force the volu- 
minous codes of Spain. It was therefore necessary to study and 
compare French and Spanish codes and to consult the Roman law. 
This was, perhaps, the beginning of comparative jurisprudence in 
the United States. On coming to New Orleans Judge Martin 
sought to help on this work by beginning the issue of reports of 


cases decided by the superior courts. His first volume appeared 
in i8i I ; the second in 1813 and brought the decisions down to the 
establishment of the State Government. The Code of 1808 was 
revised in 1825 and a Code of Practice was promulgated. By an 
act of 1828 all the civil laws in force before the promulgation of 
the codes, with a single exception, were abrogated. It was decid- 
ed, however, that the Roman, Spanish and French laws repealed 
were the statute laws of those nations, and of Louisiana, and that 
the legislature did not intend to abrogate those principles of law 
which had been established or settled by the decisions of the 
courts. The result was that the Codes of Louisiana were inter- 
preted by the decisions of her courts and by the principles of the 
civil law so far as they could be applied. It will be seen, there- 
fore, that while Judge Martin was on the bench there were many 
new questions demanding solution which were of unusual diflS- 
culty and importance. Conflicts of decisions were to be recon- 
ciled ; anomalies to be reduced to order; the complications of colo- 
nial jurisprudence to be investigated; the problems of territorial 
government, those of the Code of 1808, the relation between the 
civil law and the American system, the relation between the Fed- 
eral and State powers, the constitution of 1812, the Code of 1825, 
were to be solved; a jurisprudence was to be created. How well 
Judge Martin performed these varied and complicated duties, 
what patience, clear-sightedness and vigor he brought to the crea- 
tion of a system of jurisprudence in Louisiana, is a part of the his- 
tory of that State. 

Judge Martin continued with unabated activity as a maker of 
books on law. Besides his two volumes of reports of decisions in 
the territorial supreme courts, he published 18 volumes of deci- 
sions of the supreme court of the State, the last of these appearing 
in 1830; in 18 17 he published in two volumes, in French and Eng- 
lish, his Digest of the Territorial and State Statutes, later known 
as Martin's Digest ; in 1827 he published his "History of Loui- 
siana" in two volumes, and in 1829 a "History of North Carolina" 
in two volumes, as we have seen. His total literary output in 
North Carolina and Louisiana was about 34 volumes, for he was 


one of those rare men, says Judge Howe, "to whom study, obsti- 
nate toil and the constant exercise of the thinking faculty were the 
prime necessities of life." In recognition of his great labors he 
was made a foreign associate member of the Academy of Mar- 
seilles in 1817, a LL.D. by the University of Nashville, and in 
1 84 1 the same degree was given him by Harvard University. He 
died in New Orleans December 10, 1846, and was buried there. 

In personal appearance Judge Martin was below the medium 
height, with large head, a Roman nose and a thick neck. 
He was very near-sighted in his younger days and totally 
blind for the last ten years of his life. His conversation 
was entertaining and argumentative and he was fond of the 
Socratic method. He was always shabbily and sometimes 
even dirtily dressed, for he never married, having the temperament 
and habits of a miser and being too much "absorbed in the study 
of law and the practice of parsimony." He left a fortune inven- 
toried at $396,841.17, and worth, perhaps, half a million. It was 
left by will to his brother, Paul Barthelmy Martin, who had come 
out from France a few years before. The State brought suit to 
break the will, claiming two things: (i). That the will was void 
as a legal and physical possibility, for it was in olographic form 
antl unwitnessed, and could not have been written by a blind man ; 
( 2 ). That if not void for that reason, it was void as an attempted 
fraud on the fiscal rights of the State, since it was claimed that 
Paul B. Martin was to distribute this property among heirs living 
in France, and the State required a 10% tax on bequests going to 
foreign legatees. The contentions of the State were defeated in 
the Supreme Court, and after the death of the brother a large 
share of the estate did go to a niece living in southern France who, 
because of her goodness, was known as the Providence of the 
community where she resided. 

Xo juster tribute can be written of Frangois-Xavier Martin than 
that of Judge Howe in the close of his sketch, who speaks of him 
as a man "who was truly honest, who was soundly learned, and 
who above all made his laborious life of lasting value to the 



This sketch is based on the appreciative sketches of Judge Howe 
and Judge BuUard, mentioned at the beginning of this paper ; on 
my "Press in North Carolina in the i8th Century;" on my "South- 
em Quakers and Slavery," and on the notes for my Bibliography 
of North Carolina. There is a portrait of Martin in the second 
edition to his "History of Louisiana" (New Orleans, 1882), and a 
marble bust belongs to the Supreme Court of that State. 

Stephen B. Weeks. 

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HENRY c. McQueen 

SHE family of McQueens from whom the subject 
I of this sketch is descended on the paternal side 
• is distinguished and widely extended. In the 
Highlands of Scotland they adhered to the 
k cause of Charles Edward, the Pretender, with 
_ [ loyal and romantic valor, and when' his sun went 

down forever on the fatal field of Culloden many of them left the 
wild and picturesque scenery which surrounded their early homes 
and emigrated to America. Among the first of this number was 
James McQueen, from whom Henry C. McQueen is lineally de- 
scended. His father was Edmund McQueen, a physician of emi- 
nent character and respected by his contemporaries and associates. 
He was the first mayor of the town of Lumberton. Endowed by 
nature with a resolute spirit and unflinching courage, he possessed 
that singleness of heart and unfailing integrity essential to high 
character and lofty purpose. A sense of duty and sentiment of 
honor constituted the spring of all his actions. His mother was 
Susan Moore, who was of a New York family known alike for its 
intellectual qualities and moral virtues, and to his mother's guid- 
ance her devoted son ever attributed much of his success in life. 
He was horn in the town of Lumberton in the county of Robeson, 
State nf Xorth Carolina, on the i6th day of July, 1846. The eariy 
days fif his boyhood were spent in the schools of his native town, 
and later lie was sent to the Hillsboro Military Academy and af- 


terward to the famous Bingham School at "The Oaks" in Orange 
County. He passed his vacations and holiday seasons in pastimes 
and sports not unlike those enjoyed by others in his own station in 
life. He hunted in the swamps and everglades of Robeson County 
and fished in its bright and golden waters which ever delight the 
eye of the traveller, and which can be found only in the region 
where the cypress abounds. 

The section in which he was bom was intensely devoted to the 
fortunes of the South in the war between the States, and he inherit- 
ed strongly this sentiment with an abiding faith in the justice of 
its cause. Animated by the martial spirit of the race from which 
he sprung, he enlisted while a lad in the Confederate Army, and 
was attached to and became a member of the First North Carolina 
Battery of Artillery. The boy soldier, whether in camp, on the 
march, or upon the field of battle, won the affection and admira- 
tion of his comrades by the faithful and conscientious discharge 
of every duty which devolved upon him. On the 15th day of 
January, 1865, his career as a soldier was brought to an end by the 
capture of Fort Fisher, when he was wounded and made prisoner. 
He was detained by the Federal authorities until the close of the 
war, which soon followed this event so calamitous to the fortunes 
of the Southern Confederacy, yet so honorable to its glory. Upon 
his return home, towards the close of 1865, from a military prison, 
he was penniless and his friends and family were in like condition. 
However, he was not helpless nor did he despair. He inherited 
from his father not only the hereditary physical courage and firm- 
ness of his race, but from both father and mother what is far more 
enduring and important, that moral firmness of an exalted nature 
which enabled him, regardless of self, to stand for the right and 
combat the wrong. It was the force of this moral power which 
gave him strength at the close of a great and disastrous war to 
assume with cheerfulness and resolute will the duties and respon- 
sibilities which the result had cast upon him. 

He commenced his business career in Wilmington, North Caro- 
lina, in 1866, and it has been one of uninterrupted honor and suc- 
cess. He is a member of the firm of Murchison and Company, 

HENRY c. McQueen 317 

ciistingiiished for its fair dealing and without blemish or stain. 
He has served two terms as president of the Produce Exchange 
of the city of Wilmington, now known as the Chamber of Com- 
merce. Since 1898 he has been a member of the Board of Andil 
and Finance of the city of Wilmington, and has been its chair- 
man since 1896. This board has entire control of the finances of 
the city. In 1899 he originated and carried through to complete 
Miccess a plan by which a large portion of the debt of the city, al- 
tliough not due for many years, and bearing a greater rate of in- 
terest, was refunded at four per cent, saving many thousand dol-' 
lars, reducing its obligations materially and enhancing its credit, 
while large sums at the same time have been expended upon im- I 
provenients. During the same period he has been c 
of the sinking fund of the city of Wilmington, and his name h 
dissolubly connected with its financial honor and success during 
an era which taxed the courage and ability of the bravest and best. 
In March, i8<;9, the Murchison National Bank of the city of 
Wilmington was organized. Its founders were strong men, 
skilled in finance and thoroughly conversant with the business in- 
terests of the country at large, as well as of their own immediate 
section. With one accord they named Henry C. McQueen as its 
President, He has ever executed the trust wliich was confided to 
him with unquestioned integrity and with rare skill and ability. 
Its success has been remarkable and unexcelled in the financial 
history of the State. To-day not a single bank in North Caro- 
lina has so large a deposit account, and none is held in higher re- 
pute. From the day when its doors were first opened for business 
to the present time it has felt the lasting impress of the splendid 
financial capacity and superior management of its first and only 
president. Nor has the success of that other great financial insti- 
tution of Wilmington always under his guidance and control been 
less marked. Organized in April, 1900, the People's Saving Bank 
reached a degree of prosperity which has made it a marvel to its 
friends and to the public. He has been for many years a member 
of the directory of the Carolina Insurance Company of Wilming- 
ton, which has a high and honorable rea)rd. He was one of the 


organizers of the Bank of Duplin at Wallace, North Carolina, in 
i903» and became its president, which position he still holds. He 
is actively connected with various other important enterprises in 
Wilmington and its vicinity. 

The personality of Henry C. McQueen is most attractive. He 
combines a quiet dignity and reserve with gentleness and courtesy. 
His frankness and sincerity at once enlist confidence. Perhaps 
the most marked feature of his character, next to his moral firm- 
ness, is his unaffected modesty, which has endeared him to his asso- 
ciates and won for him universal respect wherever he is known. 
In his intercourse with his fellow-men he is singularly free from 
selfishness, and his chief incentive in the struggle of life has been 
a supreme sense of duty and tender attachment for his wife and 
children. His success has been won without willful wrong to 
any one of his fellow-men and without self-abasement or compro- 
mise of right. Above all he is a consistent Christian with an abid- 
ing faith in the life to come and an absolute confidence in its im- 
mortality. He has been for many years a member of the First 
Presbyterian Church of Wilmington, and since 1898 has been 
chairman of its Board of Deacons. 

He was married on the 9th day of November, 1871, to Miss 
Mary Agnes Hall of Fayetteville, North Carolina, a woman whose 
Christian virtues and gentle heart made her the charm and delight 
of the circle in which she moved. She was the daughter of Avon 
E. Hall, a merchant of high repute. The maiden name of her 
mother was Margaret Bell, a most accomplished lady, whose 
father was a distinguished architect. From the time of their mar- 
riage until her death in January, 1904, their home was one long 
happy dream where discord was unknown. It was embellished 
by the generous hospitality of a gentleman, the benevolence of 
Christianity, and that unaffected kindness to all which ever at- 
tracts those of gentle birth and honorable ancestry. Its simplicity 
was the reflex of the refined and quiet life which Mrs. Mary Agnes 
McQueen had always led. It had been a life filled with the sweet- 
ness of kind and generous deeds. 

Charles M. Stedman. 


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2 N 1759 James Mendenhall of Pennsylvania set- 
tled on the banks of Deep River, purchased a 
tract of land of Earl Granville, and founded a 
village, subsequently named Jamestown by his 
son Geoi^e. James moved further south, set- 
tling finally in Georgia. 
George Mendenhall married Judith Gardner. Among the chil- 
dren born from this marriage were the distinguished lawyer, 
George C. Mendenhall, and Richard, who was the father of Dr. 
Nereus Mendenhall, the subject of this sketch. 

His mother was Mary Pegg, a woman of remarkable beauty, 
industry, and strength of character. The home which Richard 
built stands in Jamestown, and was noted for the generous hos- 
pitality which reigned therein through a long and interesting pe- 
riod of N'orth Carolina history. Statesman and philanthropist, 
men of almost every nationality and every phase of humanity, 
from a commodore to a street beggar, have there found food and 
shelter. Richard Mendenhall was a man of excellent intellectual 
ability, sterling integrity of character, and a leadii^ member of 
the Society of Friends in North Carolina. 

Nereus was the fourth child in this home, and was bom on the 
14th of -August, 1819. His father considered it his duty to 
provide for the education of his children, and saw that a good 
school was maintained for his own and for the children of the 


neighborhood. Nereus early showed remarkable mental power, 
and learned his lessons with such ease and quickness that his in- 
structor, the well-known Andy Caldwell, "did not see when that 
boy learned; he did not study hard." 

His love of learning displayed itself in his boyhood days. He 
and his two brothers, Cyrus Pegg and Richard Junius, were ex- 
pected to cultivate the large garden. Nereus's part was always 
well done ; and when rest time came and the other boys sought 
the street and marbles, he climbed to a seat he had prepared in the 
large fig tree and read his books. The thoughtful boy with his 
deep blue eyes full of wonder, poring over the learning of the 
ages, the fig leaves shutting him in from the sun and from the 
passers-by, presents a picture which foreshadows his future life. 

At the age of thirteen he was sent to Greensboro to learn the 
printer's trade, and was intimately associated with Lyndon Swaim, 
whom he ever afterwards held in the highest esteem. He worked 
faithfully at his trade and saved his money to pay his way at 
Haverford College, Pennsylvania, which institution he entered in 
1837. He entered the freshman class and did two years' work in 
one ; and in one year more he performed the work in the junior and 
senior years, graduating in 1839 at the head of his class. Al- 
though the regulations at Haverford were much more strict than 
we should find at a similar institution to-day, Nereus Mendenhall 
passed through his course without the violation of any rule, and by 
his unswerving devotion to truth and righteousness, as well as by 
his brilliant intellectual powers, attracted the attention of the 
faculty and board of managers, and drew to himself their life-long 
affection and respect. 

To show that his spiritual life kept pace with his mental develop- 
ment the following testimony is given, which Dr. Mendenhall near 
the close of his life gave to his classmate and devoted friend, 
Doctor Richard Randolph, of Philadelphia: 

"The revelation which in my little dormitory at Haverford came to 
me when a student there, as alone at the narrow window I read 
Psalm XXXIV 10: The young lions do lack and suffer hunger, but 


ihcy [hat seek ihe Lord shall not > 
unable at some times to see how i 
have never relinquished nor ceased to cherish.'' 

In 1845 he graduated at the Jefferson Medical College in 
Philadelphia. He was successful in the practice of medicine, but 
his health could not Sland the strain arising from his sympathy 
H-ith human suffering. He therefore gave up the practice and 
was employed as principal of New Garden Boarding School, 
founded by the Friends of North Carolina, and opened in 1S37. 

As an instructor Dr. Mendenhall soon became famous. His 
knowledge of all branches of learning was profound and his clear 
insight into character, mental and spiritual, naturally fitted him to 
adapt his instruction to the student's capacity. Under his system 
of teaching, so thorough as to give a lasting reputation to N'ew 
Garden Sdiool, the institution flourished: and many young men 
and women from him received an inspiration which led not only 
to more extended study elsewhere, but to an appreciation of the 
benefits of education that in many cases has marked the career of 
his pupils, and made them standard-bearers in educational work 
in this and in many other States. 

In !S5i Dr. Mendenhall was married to Oriana Wilson, a 
wcuiian of quick discernment, excellent judgment and warm sym- 
pathy with all who from any cause were in need. Her devotion 
to her husband during a period of enfeebled health was most 
marked, and doubtless was instrumental in his restoration. 

Finding the confinement incidental to the profession of teaching 
too taxing on his health, he gave up his place at New Garden 
School and became a civil engineer, for which his decided mathe- 
matical genius specially fitted him ; and his work in the survey of 
many of the railroads in the State and in South Carolina proved 
of great service. Notably was this the case in the location of the 
road from Salisbury to Asheville. 

Whatever his occupation, he was successful. This was due to 
his minute knowledge of details and to his persistent effort. He 
yet found time for study, and while on surveys difficult and labo- 
rious read much in almost every field of learning. The Latin Ian- 


guage he read with great ease. He also possessed an accurate 
knowledge of Greek and Hebrew, both of which languages he 
studied largely for the sake of better understanding the Bible, of 
which he was a life-long student. He subscribed to the great 
English Reviews and read them eagerly. His mind was full of 
questioning, and at one period tossed by doubts which nearly 
every thoughtful mind encounters in greater or less degree. The 
result of investigation always brought him to a sure basis, and like 

"To one firm faith his spirit clung, 
He knew that God was good." 

In i860, through the urgent request of the trustees of New Gar- 
den School, Dr. Mendenhall returned as principal and remained as 
such through the stormy days of the Civil War. In all that time 
the school was maintained. Dr. Mendenhall by inheritance, by 
education, and from his own profound reflection was opposed to 
slavery, and if any question of righteousness was involved, never 
hesitated to say so. As a member of the Friends' Church he was 
also opposed to war. He therefore had to encounter a double- 
headed evil during the struggle which ended in the freedom of the 
slaves. While he disapproved of withdrawing from the Union, 
and the establishment of the Southern Confederacy, the ways of 
the Reconstructionists of 1867 were so repulsive to him that he 
gave his sympathy and support to the Democracy of the State, and 
was elected twice by the Democratic Party to the State L^sla- 
ture. where his wide information and deep interest in the educa- 
tional and in every other interest of the State made him a most 
valuable member. 

Dr. Mendenhall was a prominent member of the commission ap- 
pointed by the State for the location and construction of the hos- 
pital at Morganton. His knowledge as a physician of the re- 
quirements of such an institution, his marked ability as a civil en- 
gineer, and his excellent judgment of material and work, made 
his services for the State on such a commission invaluable. The 
full board was composed of Governor Graham, Dr. Mendenhall, 


Captain Denson, Dr. Whitehead, Dr. Grissoni. and Thomas G. 
- Walton. They laid the foundations broad and deep, such that fu- 
ture builders would have to build upon them, and acted in much 
wisdom with eventhing that was connected with the beginning 
of the institution. They spent one-third of the original appro- 
priation to obtain a supply of pure water from the mountains. 
They even went so far as to purchase the watershed from which 
the supply was obtained. Future generations will bless the men 
who did this noble work. 

The late Mr. James Walker of Wilmington, the contractor, a 
native Scotchman, a stone mason by trade, a competent and hon- 
est man, repeatedly stated that the leading spirit in all this was 
Dr. N ere us Men den hall. 

In 1876 he received an appointment as a member of the faculty 
of the Penn Charter School in the city of Philadelphia, where he 
spent two years. He was then made a member of the faculty of 
Haverford College and taught two years in his Alma Mater. His 
health did not permit him to continue longer in the schoolroom. 
While there he was elected alumni orator ; and being always deeply 
interested in religious questions, he prepared an address in which 
he expressed the results of his investigation in science, literature, 
and religious history, so far as these subjects relate to faith and 
practical religion. 

In religious belief he was a Friend, though tolerant towards all 
denominations and beliefs. After much reflection and research, 
the Christian doctrine and philosophy preached by George Fox 
and e.\p&iii7dcd by Jiobcrt iiurclriy and William Penn he fully in- 
dorsed, and believed that these eminent Friends promulgated in 
its essence the doctrine of primitive Christianity. 

Though in feeble health the last few years of his life, Dr. Men- 
denhall maintained to the end a deep interest in all matters per- 
taining to the welfare of his fellow-men, and was specially in- 
terested in education and in religious philosophy. He was for 
many years the chairman of the board of education of Guilford 
County and held that position at the time of his death. 

His interest in the Bible never abated. He kept the English 



Bible and a copy of the Greek New Testament by his bedside dur- 
ing his last illness, and evinced to those who were interested in 
Biblical scholarship his acquaintance with the latest investigation 
and interpretation of modem scholars. He welcomed research, 
whether in science or in history or in Biblical literature, and had 
no fear of the results of modem scholarship on the proper rela- 
tion of the Bible to Christianity. Indeed, it had long been his be- 
lief that no interpretation of the Bible could set aside a well-es- 
tablished scientific fact, and he rejoiced to see the renewed interest 
in Bible study and religious questions which has grown out of the 
doctrine of evolution and the consequent idea of progression in 
religious history. 

In the beautiful autumn days of 1893 his life gradually ebbed 
away, and October the 29th at sunset his spirit passed to the 
"upper room." 

Dr. Mendenhall knew almost all forms under which the human 
worships the divine, and welcomed light from every source. From 
all his study he came back with Whittier "to what he learned be- 
side his mother's knee — *A11 is of God that is and is to be, and God 
is good.' " 

From the poems of Whittier he gained much consolation, often 
remarking, '*He has traveled over the same ground." The poet's 
conclusions were very gratifying to him, and these lines from the 
"Shadow and the Light" were often upon his lips: 

"Nor bound nor clime nor creed Thou know'st, 

Wide as our needs Thy favors fall, 
The white wings of the Holy Ghost 
Stoop seen or unseen o*er the heads of all." 

L. L. Hobbs. 


nilERT JOHNSTONE MILLER, third son of 1 
I Cieorge and Margaret Batliier Miller, bora at 
Baldovie, near Dundee, Scotland, July ir, 
1758, and reared in the "Jacobite" Episcopal 
Omrch, under the ministry of the venerable 
Bishop Rait of Brechin, was designed for the 
,■ and sent to "the classical school" at Dundee ; but in 1774 
came to America upon invitation of an elder brother, a prosperous 
East and West India merchant in Charlcstown, Mass. 

When the Revolutionary struggle began he declared himself a 
friend of liberty, joined General Greene's army when it passed 
through Boston, and took part in the battles of Long Island, 
Brandywine and White Plains, in the first of which he received a 
severe flesh wound in the face. He was with the army during the 
dreadful winter at Valley Forge, He came South, probably 
when Washington made his famous campaign on Cornwallis, and 
was in \'irginia near Yorktown when mustered out of the service. 
He settled in Southside, Virginia, near Bute County, later Frank- 
lin County, North Carolina. 

In 1785, through the instrumentality of Dr. Coke, he joined a 
Conference held in Franklin County and become a Methodist 
preacher on Tar River circuit. Disapproving the policy of sep- 
aration from the Church of England, however, he withdrew 
from the Methodist Society in about one year. 


His health failing in 1786, he removed to Whitehaven, Lincoln 
County, where he became lay-reader to a congregation of Church 
of England people, who chose church wardens and elected a ves- 
try. Here, greatly respected and beloved, he became their pastor, 
save in the matter of administering the sacraments, which they 
received at the hands of a Lutheran minister who lived in the 
vicinity. Quite naturally Mr. Miller was also teacher of a "classi- 
cal school." During eight years that this relationship existed he 
became intimately acquainted with this Lutheran minister and his 
clerical brethren in Rowan, Guilford and Randolph. To aid in 
counteracting a prevalent evil (indiscriminate preaching by un- 
authorized persons), Mr. Miller, urged by his congregation and 
advised by the Presbyterian clergy, agreed to accept ordination of 
the Lutherans, distinctly reserving his Episcopalian beliefs. 

On May 20, 1794, he was ordained, and in his letter of orders 
was held to be "obliged to obey ye rules, ordinances and customs 
of ye Christian Society called ye Protestant Episcopal Church in 
America." At this time efforts were made to organize the Epis- 
copal Church in North Carolina. Mr. Miller had been elected a 
member of the standing committee by the Tarboro convention of 
November 21, 1793. He attended the Tarboro convention of May 
28, 1794, as a clerical member, read the morning service on the 
second day of the convention, voted with the other clergy for 
Bishop, and signed as one of the clergy the certification of Rev. 
Charles Pettigrew's election as Bishop. Dr. Pettigrew was never 
consecrated, and it was twenty-one years before another Episcopal 
convention was held in North Carolina. 

During this period Mr. Miller's work naturally followed along 
Lutheran courses. Secretary of the Synod in 1803 and 1804, 
president in 1812, author of the Constitution adopted by the SjTiod 
of 1803 upon the lines laid down by the Episcopal General Con- 
vention, and as a laborious missionary among them, he was a 
leading spirit in the Synod. Dr. Bemheim, the Lutheran his- 
torian, magnanimously says : "Our Church owes a debt of grati- 
tude to his memory which cannot be cancelled or forgotten." 

On March 12, 1787, Mr. Miller married Mary Perkins, daugh- 


ter of John Perkins, Esq., of Lincoln, whose wedding gift to his 
daughter was a fine plantation in Burke, two miles from Lenoir 
(now in Caldwell County), which Mr. Miller named "Mary's 
Grove" in honor of his wife. Hither he moved from Whitehaven 
in 1806, whence his work with the Lutherans continued until 1821. 
Without receiving, asking for or expecting salary, he labored in- 
cessantly, serving his charges at Whitehaven, Smyrna and St. 
Peter's in Lincoln, St. Michael's in Iredell, Christ Church in 
Rowan, and Trinity in Burke, besides making long joumeyings 
into other States. To illustrate the extent of his missionary 
tours beyond the State, one made in 181 1 may be noted, when he 
traversed South Carolina, the present State of West Virginia, the 
Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, and the eastern part of Tennes- 
see, travelling 3000 miles, baptizing 2 adults and 60 children, 
preaching 67 times, and receiving $70.44 for his support without 
asking for a cent ! He was absent on this journey four months. 

In 1 81 7 the Episcopal Church was organized in North Carolina 
and, at a convention held in Raleigh, April 28, 1821, Bishop 
Moore, of Virginia, presiding, Mr. Miller presented his letter of 
Lutheran orders and on May ist was ordained a deacon and ad- 
vanced to the priesthood. The hopes of his youth were realized, 
but he was now an old man and the best vears of his life had been 
given to Lutheranism. It was the misfortune of Episcopacy and 
not his fault that his missionary labors of thirty years had not 
been performed for his own church. In 1823 John Stark Ravens- 
croft was made the first Bishop of North Carolina and rested from 
his labors in 1830. He was succeeded by Bishop Ives. Mr. Mil- 
ler served under both Bishops. 

His bodily strength gradually decayed with increasing 
years until May 13, 1834, when he fell on sleep. He was buried 
in the family graveyard at "Mary's Grove." 

**Parson" Miller, as he was universallv called in his later vears, 
was by tradition accounted an eloquent, earnest and effective 
preacher. His sermons, many of which have been preserved, 
prove him to have been a man of deep piety, learning and culture. 

W, W. Scott. 


i HE evanescence of earthly fame is well illus- 
trated by the career of William Miller, some- 
time Governor of North Carolina, for little can 
we now learn of his life save by reference to the 
works wherein his public actions are recorded. 
He was a citizen of the Giunty of Warren, 
and in 1802 ^if not eariier) was a student at the University of 
North Carolina. He entered upon the study of law, and was later 
licensed to practise. By 1810 he had won a high place at the bar 
and was appointed Attorney-General of North Carolina to succeed 
the Honorable Oliver Fitts, who had resigned. Mr. Miller's com- 
mission as attorney- general having expired in the year he received 
his appointment, he was elected to represent Warren County in tfie 
lower house of the Genera! Assembly which met on the 19th of 
November, 1810. He was also a member of the House of Com- 
mons of the State in the years 1811, 1812, 1813 and 1814. At 
the sessions of 1812, 1813 and 1814 he was Speaker of the Hotise. 
During his service as Speaker in the session of 1814 he was elect- 
ed Governor of North Carolina on the 30th of November, and 
took the oath of office a few <lays later, on December 7th. 

At the time of Governor Miller's entrance upon his duties as 
chief magistrate, the second war with Great Britain was in its last 
stages. On December 24. 1814. the treaty of peace was signed at 
Ghent ; but, owing to the slow means of travel at that time, the 


news was some weeks in reaching America, and hostilities con- 
tinued in the meantime. The bloody battle of New Orleans, as is 
well known, occurred two weeks after the contending countries 
had agreed to cease hostilities. When the General Assembly of 
181 5 met, Governor Miller in his official message (November 
22d) referred with pride to the outcome of the war, saying: 

"The names of Niagara, Champlain, Plattsburg, Baltimore and New 
Orleans renew ideas precious and consolatory. They show to kings 
and parasites of royalty that the rights of man are the precious gifts 
of Heaven. In fine, the war, with all its calamities, has illustrated the 
capacity of the United States to be a great, free, and flourishing 
nation. It has put to flight the stale objection of the imbecility of 
republics for warlike operations, and furnishes additional evidence, if 
any were wanting, of the superior capacity of freemen for the exer- 
tion of every species of corporeal and mental energy." 

At the southern terminus of Fayetteville street in the city of 
Raleigh was once the building erected for a governor's mansion, 
which in 1876 became a public school and was later demolished to 
make room for a more modern school building. The erection of 
the old mansion was begun during the administration of Governor 
Hawkins, but Governor Miller (the immediate successor of Haw- 
kins) was its first occupant. The present mansion in Burke 
Square at Raleigh was begun by Governor Jarvis, but not com- 
pleted until the administration of Governor Daniel G. Fowle. 

The administration of Governor Miller ended in December, 
1817, when his successor, John Branch, was inaugurated. While 
serving as governor, Mr. Miller was cx-officio president of the 
i)oard of trustees of the University of North Carolina. In 181 7, 
just after his term as governor had expired, the Legislature elected 
him a member of that board, and he remained thereon until his 
death nearly ten years later. 

At the sessions of the General Assembly of 1821 and 1822 Mr. 
Miller served as State Senator from the county of Warren. 

At the session of the Senate of 1822 a proposition was made to 
establish the countv of Davidson, and Governor Miller, with a 


broad and enlightened spirit, and perhaps recalling the favors 
shown him by the Western people, voted for the measure. At 
the succeeding election he was brought forward again by his 
friends for State Senator, but now a great clamor was raised 
against him. He had voted to establish a western county ! That 
would give the west another representative, and might enable the 
west to call a constitutional convention; and by the same vote 
that a convention could be convened, the convention could be con- 
trolled ; and **we would lose our Constitution." Thus it was that 
the friends of General M. T. Hawkins, his opponent, pressed the 
point that Governor Miller had endangered the safety of the east 
and put in jeojardy ''our Constitution." The opposition engen- 
dered was irresistible, and General Miller went down before it. 
The incident serves to illustrate a phase of the conflict between the 
east and the west that was in progress from the opening of the 
century, that led to the holding of "a western convention/' with 
the threat to break the State in twain, and which was continued 
with great bitterness and wrath until by the votes of Otway Burns 
and Judge Gaston the convention of 1835 was called. Even then 
the amendments agreed on received in some of the eastern counties 
not a single vote, and Otway Burns, the popular hero of his peo- 
ple, was never again honored by their suffrages. 

Governor Miller being rejected by his county, doubtless suffered 
severe mortification, but his State influence was not lessened. 

On the incoming of the new administration in 1825, President 
John Quincy Adams appointed him Chargi d* Affaires to Guate- 
mala in Central America, which he accepted. 

The Raleigh Register of July 15, 1825, mentions the departure 
of Governor Miller and of Dr. Baker, the Secretary of Legation, 
saying : "They are at Norfolk, whence they will sail in a few days 
in the Government vessel *Decoy.' " 

Governor Miller, however, did not survive his arrival in Central 
America many months. His death occurred at the capital city of 
Guatemala shortly after his arrival, about the opening of the year 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 

M, M^^. 



. .f 

"i ■ . ' 



SHE Mott family is of Nova Scotia origin, the 
founder of the American branch having been a 
London merchant by name John, who removed 
before the revolt of the Colonies to Halifax, 
continuing business there. His descendant, the 
Rev. Thomas Smith Webb Mott, was the father 
of the subject of this article, and was well known to the best 
people of \orth Carolina in the years prior to the Civil War. 

As a priest of the Protestant Episcopal Church he ministered 
to various charges in the State, and it was while rector at Hills- 
hon>. Xorth Carolina, that his son, Dr, John James Mott, was 
bom nn May 7, 1834. 

Tlio reverend gentleman afterwards taught a high school at his 
rcsi<Knce on Lower Creek, near Lenoir, North Carolina, and pre- 
pared many of the youths of the Piedmont section for college, or 
for ihc struggles of life where a college education was denied. He 
was repined a stem commander, rich in book lore and enthusiastic 
in hJf calliiig. Of his family three sons became physicians. His 
wife was Miss Susan Amanda Phillips, whose strong traits of 
charLicttr was transmitted to her sons, as it is an accepted theory 
that inmi ihc female side boys do most inherit. The influence of 
his lather was a marked factor in determining the life of our 
subject, since nn stronger man has ever been seen in the Episco- 
pal prii.---thood in North Carolina than the Rev. T. S. W. Mott. 


The youth of Dr. Mott was passed at his paternal home in the 
lovely valley of Lower Creek, in clear view of those beautiful 
twin mountains, Hawks Bill and Table Rock, and engaged in exer- 
cises best fitted to make a strong manhood. Shooting, hunting 
and horseback exercise were his passionate delight, while he de- 
veloped a fondness for flowers and animals of all kinds which has 
never forsaken him, and which in his later years has served to 
keep old age green and flavor it with a spice of youth. From his 
father's school young Mott took a course in Catawba College, 
Newton, North Carolina, whence to prepare himself for his chosen 
profession he went to the Jefferson Medical College at Philadel- 

The active work of life was begun in 1856 at Seattle's Ford, 
North Carolina, and on the 8th of July of that year he married 
Miss Theodosia Caroline Hendrix of the Wilkes County family of 
that name. To them were bom nine children, of whom six now 
survive, one of these being the very brilliant Marshal L. Mott, 
now district attorney in the Indian Territory. 

The life of Dr. Mott in the years succeeding his marriage up to 
and including the years of the Civil War in no wise very greatly 
differed from that of the country physician in the South. He en- 
joyed the best practice in his section by long odds and made a 
name in his profession beyond the bounds of his practice. 

His friends were many, though not of the influential class as a 
rule ; but they were true to him through all the succeeding years 
of war and reconstruction, and his name is still remembered with 
respect and affection in that section from which he has been ab- 
sent more than thirty years. 

In politics Dr. Mott was a staunch Whig in those days, and 
the incident is yet remembered by the older people about Lenoir 
how that during a term of court at that place he hurrahed on the 
public square so lustily for Millard Fillmore as to cause the Demo- 
cratic Judge Ellis, afterwards Governor, to order his arrest for 
contempt of court. The story goes that cries for Buchanan similar 
in character had gone unnoticed by the court, and this riled Mott 
to the point of resistance, so that placing his back against the 


court house, and drawing a knife, he successfully defied the par- 
tics sent to take him before the court. 

The !ate Webb Austin of Lenoir, who was eye-witness of the 
resistance and of its reason, said that Colonel B. S. Gaither of 
Burke, himself a Whig, but a friend of the Court, before which 
he had a large practice, interfered to establish better relations be- 
tween the contemned and the contemner, and finally accomplished 
the task in some way unknown to Austin. 

Dr. Mott. like so many North Carolinians of that era. whose 
position, it would seem, is never to be understood either by the 
North or the South, was opposed to secession and the disruption 
of the Union, and took no part in effecting that unfortunate 
schism, and yet he coidd but feel sympathy for the brave men, 
his friends and neighbors, who were battling against terrific odcJs 
to make that schism good and permanent. Constitutionally in- 
trepid, he did not fear to express his views in the ver\- heat of 
war, and openly supported Mr. Holden for Governor in 1864 upon 
a platform looking to peace; but he rendered obedience as a citi- 
zen to the Confederate authorities, State and National, and main- 
tained uninjured his relations with his clientage of the sick and 
suffering as became his profession. 

The appreciation of these facts on the part of the people of 
Catawba County sent him as their representative to the Legisla- 
ture elected under the Andrew Johnson reconstruction, and this 
is the only elective office he ever held. The ashes of the volcano 
were then warm under foot, the Howard amendment was rejected 
by the Legislature, and the worse times prophesied from its rejec- 
tion came in the guise of congressional reconstruction and with 
it unrestricted instead of restricted negro suffrage. 

In the face of obloquy and ostracism Mott took his stand with 
the Republicans, who then first organized in North Carolina. To 
that party, through many succeeding years in victory and defeat, 
he maintained a loyal allegiance. On one question only did he- 
subsequently differ from it. That was the currency question. He 
voted for Rryan in 1896. though he did not support him in his 
second campaign, for what reasons I am not advised. 


In 1870 Dr. Mott changed his residence from Catawba County 
to Statesville, in the neighboring county of Iredell. A controlling 
consideration in this change was doubtless the fact that in 1868 
he had been chosen by the board of directors of the Western North 
Carolina Railroad their president. 

His election was accomplished under circumstances unusual in 
those peaceful days, and after a struggle for control marked by 
all the bitterness and savage partisanship which distinguished the 
reconstruction era. This is no fitting place in which to express 
personal opinions as to the right or wrong of views then held by 
the champions of the two parties who met in Statesville in August, 
1868, to decide the question of controlling the patronage of this 
State enterprise. Governor Tod R. Caldwell was in command of 
the eight State directors, then newly named by Governor Holden, 
Governor Vance opposing at the head of the four stockholders' 
directors. The battle of words was long and furious. Every 
point of parliamentary law was fought over. The chair was filled 
by Judge A. S. Merrimon, serene, courteous, granitic in purpose 
and ruling. The old court house was filled to the windows with 
representative citizens from all that fine section of country which 
lies between Salisbury and Asheville. The Democrats headed by 
Colonel Samuel McD. Tate, the then president by appointment of 
retiring Governor Jonathan Worth, sanctioned by the unanimous 
vote of the private stockholders, were in possession, which is said 
to be nine points in law. The Republicans were new men for the 
most part and small holders of stock, but with the g^eat seal of 
the State to their commissions. 

All the precedents were with the Republicans, but certain chang- 
es in the by-laws of the company of recent date, and perhaps made 
in view of the contingency of reconstruction, gave a practical veto 
upon the State's proxy to the united vote of the private stock. 
Upon this state of the law the quarrel hinged. Caldwell with all 
the fervor of his Irish nature threw down the gage of battle, 
and \^ance met it in the confidence of many past victories and with 
scornful derision for his foe. The chair was with Vance, but not 
eager to be, controlling most admirably an excited body of men, 


who were eager not alone to be with him, but to frown upon any 
who were not with him. Roman stiffness was needed by the op- 
position and Caldwell did not lack for it in himself, but he was 
not so fortunate among his followers. 

There was among the State directors one name unknown to the 
people outside his county, but since given the fitting diristening 
of the Iron Duke: that was the name of J. J. Mott, who upon that 
occasion came to the front of the stage in a marked manner. Dr. 
Mott had not been thought of in connection with the ofhce to which 
he was then chosen, nor had he, perhaps, thought of it himself; 
but when the determination of the Democrats to resist to the last 
ditch any surrender of what they regarded as their own property 
became evident, the keen glance of Caldwel! rested upon the placid 
features of Mott unmoved amidst all the excitement, and the Re- 
publican directors, following Caldwell's lead, voted him president. 

The Hon, Nathaniel Boyden, then the Republican Congressman 
from the Iredell district, took the floor and made a passionate ap- 
peal for harmony and the completion of the road to the Ten- 
nessee line. He was a large property owner, a lawyer of State 
reputation, and had recently left the presidency of the North Caro- 
lina Railway to take a seat in Congress. \'enerable in years and 
dignity though he was, his words fell upon hostile ears. Finally 
a compromise was arranged outside ihe dixtrs by which Mott be- 
came the acknowledged head of the road in control of its patron- 
age; but the financial management was left with Colonel Tate, for 
whom the new office of financial agent was created by a stock 
vote. Both Merrimon and Vance were continued as private stock- 
holders' directors. Colonel Tate and Dr. John C. McDowell of 
Burke were the other directors of that interest. 

Thus ended a sample struggle between the outs and ins of that 
day and time. 

In 1872 Senator Pool, then in chief control of North Carolina 
patronage, named Dr. Mott collector of interna) revenue for the 
6th district in place of Samuel H. Wiley of Salisbury, who had 
held that very lucrative position since the organization of the 
State by Andrew Johnson, The headquarters of the office were 


removed to Statesville, and there for the next ten years the affairs 
of the State Republican Party were largely administered. When 
Mott retired from this office, he named his successor, Thomas N. 
Cooper, Esq., and it is not too much to say that for twenty years 
the subject of this sketch wielded a power and influence in our 
State such as neither Mangum, Badger, Graham, Vance or Ran* 
som ever aspired to, much less exercised. 

Caldwell was elected Governor in 1872 largely by his aid. In 
the Legislature of that year he was of material value in bringing 
about the election of Merrimon as United States Senator over 
Vance, a result due to the solid Republican vote in union with 18 
bolting Democrats. He organized and was chiefly responsible for 
the Liberal movement of 1882, by which the great Tilden majority 
of 17,000 was whittled down to a beggarly 800, in favor of Judge 
Bennett over Oliver Dockery for Congressman at large in that 
year. His home district was among the most active seats of 
rebellion against former political leanings, and returned Dr. Tyre 
York, a Republican, to Congress over the Hon. W. M. Robbins, 
before considered immune from defeat. While the States south 
of us in those years were surrendering even the pretence of a Re- 
publican organization. Chairman Mott was contesting North Caro- 
lina inch by inch with his political foes. I omitted mention of the 
fact that after 1876, up to and including 1886, he was the chair- 
man of the State Republican Committee. 

In national conventions of his party our subject was ever a 
conspicuous figure, being often chairman of his delegation or as- 
signed prominent committee work. He was during several con- 
ventions the staunch friend of Senator Sherman for the presiden- 
tial nomination, and he favored Arthur against Mr. Blaine in 1884. 
He heartily united with the political fusion of 1894 by which the 
State passed for the time from its old moorings. Never a stump 
speaker, this man's power with the pen has more than supplied 
that deficiency, for such it must be accounted in American public 

This writer has long regarded the late Judge Edwin G. Rcade 
as the most incisive and pungent prose writer of whom the State 


can boast. If this opinion be at all well founded, then the further 
opinion may be worthy of respect when it is said that Dr. Mott 
falls but little behind the Judge as a writer of English undefiled. 
Unlike the Judge, his work will have no permanent place in the 
State's history, being composed as it is of fugitive articles for the 
press, letters of advice upon public questions written at the re- 
quest of presidents and cabinet officers and never intended for 
publication, together with editorials in the party organs during his 
chairmanship of a party committee for which credit was purposely 
given to others. 

The Charlotte Observer has frequently printed letters from him 
upon subjects of general, not party, interest, and one in particular, 
originally appearing in a Chicago magazine, but taken into the Ob- 
serz'cr for North Carolina readers, deserves more than a passing 
notice. It related to the subject never ending, never to be solved 
during this generation — the negro question. In that the writer 
took strong ground in favor of the gradual colonization of the 
Afro-American. In lucid manner he detailed imaginary speeches 
by the negro to his former owner in which the true inward feeling 
of the non-slaveholder or "poor white" of the South towards him 
was pointed out, the underlying selfishness of Northern philan- 
thropy was more than hinted at, and the neglect of duty by the old 
master painted in colors touching the tenderest fibres of our 

It was the cry of wandering Israel denied a resting-place for 
her weary feet and vexed by the police cry to move on. The ar- 
ticle was written at the instance of General Green B. Raum of 
Illinois, who after talking upon this subject with Dr. Mott, and 
impressed by his viewpoint, urged that the people of the North- 
west needed enlightenment upon a question which, though fre- 
quently discussed by them, he, Raum, was sure they were in the 
dark about. The article was in truth an eye-opener, even to well- 
informed men in the South. 

With some acquaintance with North Carolina's public men of 
the present time, this writer ventures the opinion that the philoso- 
phy of representative government is not better understood or more 


carefully considered in giving judgment upon issues by any one 
among them than by the farmer politician of Iredell. His read- 
ing, though not voracious, has been accurate and confined chiefly 
to Shakespeare, Greek, Roman, English and American history. In 
these he is at home. Allusion is made to our subject as a farmer, 
and it may be observed that he is a most excellent farmer and 
has never faltered in his love for the fields. He is regarded 
as one of the best wing shots in the west, and dog and gun have 
a charm that yield to naught save his love for a fine horse. 

At his home two miles east of Statesville may be found the best 
strains of blue-grass flesh, while every animal, from the tiniest 
fowl to the lordly bull, is selected for its blood. Though seventy 
years of age, the Doctor will mount no steed that is not full of fire, 
and he is seemingly in touch with every form of animal nature. 
These incidents are mentioned chiefly to illustrate the value fond- 
nesses of this nature, acquired in early life, have in keeping green 
the old age of a devotee. In recent years the Doctor has with- 
drawn himself from any active participation in public affairs, but 
this by no means implies that he is a misanthrope or indifferent to 
the welfare of his country. No shrewder critic of passing events 
is to be found. He is profoundly convinced of the absolute need to 
our futurei national well-being that the South shall have within it 
two well-organized combative political forces, and that if the folly 
of successive Xorthern administrations of the Government con- 
tinues indifferent to this need, the growing wealth of our section 
will ere long give us the Government to be administered section- 
ally in turn, and thus realize again Washington's one fear of the 
Republic from which our first deliverance through seas of blood 
has been so recent. 

Is there not reason for this opinion to be found on any street 
corner North or South? 

It is in private circles that Doctor Mott shows his best side. 
Reminiscent, humorous after the style of the old South, eighteen 
carat gold in loyalty to those he loves, philosophic or suggestive 
when fitting, well-bred in manner, chivalric in respect to women, 
he is in all things a delightful host or comrade. 


In person the man would be remarked in any crowd for his tall, 
willowy figure, carried without stoop despite his seventy years, 
and evidencing great sinewy strength. A pale countenance lit up 
with dark eyes, quick to show anger or esteem, with a fine mouth of 
shining white teeth, and you have the man. Tossed for a quarter 
of a century on the rough seas of reconstruction politics, he has 
preserved his name pure and fought down an opposition unknown 
to the men either of the present generation or of that preceding 
the war. In the peaceful refuge of home he looks back on those 
times and the men who figured in them without the bitterness 
which once distinguished him. Never unappreciative of honest 
differences in opinion, the mellow reflex of his setting sim in- 
clines to charity and its kindred virtues. As a striking force in 
the political history of the State in an era isolated from the com- 
mon current of our civic life, he deserves a place among the men 
of mark who have for good or ill affected our well-being. 

The Iron Duke, as friend and foe dubbed him, has been a hard 
fighter ; but this writer is of opinion that never knowingly did he 
aim a blow to the injury of our common mother. North Caro- 
lina, whom he loves as well as the rest of us. 

W, S. Pearson, 


PHE spirit of patriotism which had impelled men 
to risk all for the sake of independence, and 
which had called forth a splendid statesman- 
ship in tlie struggle over the Federal Constitu- 
tion, inspired men at the close of the War of 
1812 with equal urgency to consider the crying 
needs of the several commonwealths, to conserve their ser\-ices 
and to develop their resources. This spirit found in North Caro- 
lina admirable expression in Archibald De Bow Murphey, bom 
in Caswell County in 1777, the son of Colonel Archibald Murphey, 
a N'orth Carolina Revolutionary officer, and graduated with the 
highest distinction at the infant State University in 1799, where 
he taught for two years. Murphey began to practise law in 1802, 
and rose rapidly to the position of a recc^nized leader of the most 
brilliant bar in the legal annals of the State. In 1812 he en- 
tered the State Senate as representative from Orange County, and 
no man ever brought into that body a truer patriotism, a states- 
manship more philosophic and far-seeing, or exerted, during the 
same period of legislative activity, a more powerful influence on 
his contemporaries or the legislation of the State. He sought to 
awaken North Carolina to a knowledge of her own resources and 
character, to arouse a State pride that would bring to an end 
the westward emigration which was draining her popula- 
tion, and to profit by the universal calm to recover the position of 

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importance in the Union which the rapid growth of other States 
and her own supineness were fast iindennining. "Rising above 
the influence of little passions." he said, "let us devote our labors 
to the honor and glory of the State in which we live by establish- 
ing and giving eflfect to a system of policy which shall develop her 
physical resources, draw forth her moral and intellectual ener- 
gies, give facilities to her industry and encouragement to her en- 
terprise." In the lack of transportation facilities, and in the scat- 
tered commerce which enabled adjoining States to reap its profit 
and to control her circulating medium, he discovered the cause of 
her declining fortunes and brought forward internal improvement 
in the legislature of 1815. as a comprehensive project of State ac- 
tivity. The main features of his plan, as matured a few years 
later, were to deepen the advantageously located inlets and sounds 
of the treacherous coast ; to render navigable the principal rivers 
and their tributaries far into the interior for boats of light draff, 
to join by canals the rivers Roanoke, Tar or Pamlico, and Neuse, 
and the Neiise with the sea at Beaufort, and to concentrate at one 
point the commercial product of the country watered by each of | 
them ; to join in like manner the Cape Fear, Lumber, Yadkin, and 
Catawba Rivers, and to concentrate their commerce upon the Cape 
Fear ; to connect by turnpike roads these waterways with the more 
remote places and also certain rivers where canals were impracti- 
cable; further to drain the swamps in the southern and eastern 
counties and reclaim them for agricultural purposes. This bold, 
comprehensive, and well-connected system of internal improve- 
ments, equal in breadth of conception to the great scheme that 
De Witt Clinton was then launching in New York, was designed 
to provide by the best methods then known to science, and by the 
aid of natural advantages for inland navigation enjoyed by no 
neighboring State, cheap and easy transportation from all sections 
to the best inlets of the sandy barriers which locked out the com- 
merce of the world, and to build up a home market by the concen- 
tration of trade at a few points within the limits of the State suited 
to the growth of large cities. This 'was to be the plan of opera- 
tions, and the practicability of each enterprise was a question for 


the engineers. The State hesitated to embark in the undertaking, 
but companies for improving the navigation of the principal rivers 
were incorporated or enlarged in scope and aided by direct ap- 
propriation or by subscription of stock. Numerous surveys 
were made, and in 1819 Hamilton Fulton, an English engineer of 
distinction, was engaged to superintend public works. Fulton re- 
ported Javorably on the plans drawn up for him by Murphey with 
remarkable completeness of detail, and conducted surveys of har- 
bors, rivers, and routes for roads. A fund for internal i^^^ov^ 
ments was established, consisting of the proceeds from the sale 
of land acquired from the Cherokee Indians, and a board was ap- 
pointed to manage the fund. North Carolina hailed Murphey as 
the successful promoter of inland navigation, the hope and pride 
of the State, and his plans attracted wide attention and admira- 
tion in the country at large. But narrow views, sectional preju- 
dices and jealousies, incompetent management, and the pecuniary 
embarrassment prevalent in the State, a condition largely due to 
the very evils that were to be remedied, conspired to thwart all at- 
tempts. So bold and so vast a scheme seemed visionary to many, 
and it lacked the united support essential for success. The grow- 
ing western part of the State stood most in need of projects for 
oi)ening up its resources, while the east, blessed with fine rivers, 
and with an influence in the General Assemblv, under the Consti- 
tution of 1776, out of all proportion to population, was unwilling 
to be taxed for improvements in behalf of the common good that 
the west pleaded for. The inequality of representation, which for 
years baffled the efforts of many distinguished legislators, pro- 
voked a demand for a change in the Constitution. The move- 
ment shaped by Murphey's proposition in the legislature of 1816 
for a constitutional convention developed a bitter struggle between 
the east and the west which led to an unsuccessful convention of 
the friends of reform in 1823, and culminated in the constitutional 
convention of 1835. To conciliate favor, therefore, instead of ap- 
plying the fluctuating fund to the execution of one or two enter- 
prises at a time, as Murphey had proposed, inadequate appropria- 
tions were made for various parts of the general plan in all sec- 


tions, and disappointment was inevitable. The costs of the work 
proved far in excess of the estimates of the principal engineer, 
while the navigation companies suffered from the neglect of the 
State and stockholders, the absence of capital seeking investment, 
and injudicious management, and several failed. The enthusiasm 
aroused by the splendid exertions of Murphey gave way to timid- 
ity, and after a few years the undertaking was abandoned. With 
the coming of railroads the utility of many of its features was 
lost. "But the fame of its author as a patriot, statesman and 
sage," said Governor William A. Graham, a leader in another era 
of internal improvements, "should not be dimmed by mistakes or 
failures in the details of its execution or the advances made in the 
science of engineering in a subsequent age." The expenditures 
on the work were amply repaid by the topographical and statistical 
knowledge obtained, and by the stimulation given to public spirit 
and enterprise. Murphey's report on internal improvements in 
18 1 5 contains the first suggestion of a geological survey under 
government auspices in America, and the geological work in North 
Carolina during this period marks its beginnings. 

Internal improvement, although the field of his greatest and 
most persevering efforts, was but a part of the policy of common- 
wealth upbuilding inaugurated by Murphey, and it is his early 
and enlightened labors in the cause of education which serve most 
potently to keep fresh the memory of his name. The first Consti- 
tution of North Carolina, like that of Pennsylvania, was distin- 
guished by a provision for elementary and higher education, but 
only the university it contemplated was established, and that de- 
pended largely on private munificence for support. Since 1802 
successive governors had called the attention of the General As- 
sembly to the need of schools. Governor Miller's message of 1816 
was referred to a committee of which Murphey was chairman, 
and he drafted a masterly report urging the establishment of "a 
judicious system of public education," which should "include a 
gradation of schools, regularly supporting each other, from the 
one in which the first rudiments of education are taught to that in 
which the highest branches of the sciences are cultivated." 


The eloquence and logic of his plea for education resulted in the 
appointment of a committee with Murphey as chairman to digest 
a system founded on the principles stated. Inspired by his theme 
with a zeal that brought all his varied talents into play, and matur- 
ing his ideas by a study of educational systems and methods of in- 
struction in America and Europe, he submitted a plan of educa- 
tion, in 1817, as comprehensive, compact, and definite in detail as 
the scheme of internal improvement he was then advocating. Mur- 
phey made the primary school the foundation stone of his system 
and proposed to establish in every locality that would provide a 
suitable house and lot a primary school in which teachers paid by 
the State should instruct poor children free of charge, and others 
at fixed rates. **These schools," he said, "would be to the rich a 
convenience, and to the poor a blessing." For secondary educa- 
tion he proposed to erect ten academies and to divide the expense 
of establishment and maintenance between the State and ten aca- 
demical districts. The State University, then in its twenty-second 
year, crowned the whole system, and liberal plans were devised for 
its improvement. Courses of studies, modes of instruction, and 
government of schools were discussed in the report with singular 
foresight. A board of public instruction, consisting of six intelli- 
gent and efficient men elected by the General Assembly and the 
Governor, cx-ofUcio, as chairman, was to put the plan gradually 
into eflFect, to superintend its operation, and to manage a fund for 
public instruction. But Murphey's characteristic humanity car- 
ried him too far. "Poverty," he said, "is the school of genius; it 
is a school in which the active powers of man are developed and 
disciplined, and in which that moral courage is acquired which 
enables him to cope with difficulties, privations, and want. But it is 
a school which, if left to itself, runs wild ; vice in all its depraved 
forms grows up in it. The State should take this school under 
her special care, and, nurturing the genius which there grows 
in rich luxuriance, give to it an honorable and profitable direction. 
Poor children are the peculiar property of the State, and by proper 
cultivation thev will constitute a fund of intellectual and moral 
worth which will greatly subserve the public interest." He pro- 


posed, therefore, that the State should advance into the academies 
and the University, and feed and clothe while there, as many 
poor children who gave the best assurance of future usefulness as 
the fund for public instruction would permit. The report of 1816 
suggested that teachers be selected from these youths, who should 
teach poor children gratuitously at the primary schools in return 
for their own education and support at the public expense. The 
bill embodying the provisions of the report passed its first reading 
in both Houses, but the impracticable clause for the maintenance 
as well as education of poor children, which its friends declined to 
eliminate, caused this magnificent plan, perhaps the nearest ap- 
proach to the American public school system possible at that early 
day, to sink into the obscurity of the public archives, where He the 
other matchless monuments of the progressiveness, scholarship, 
and patriotism of its author. Five years later Bartlett Yancey, a 
former student in Murphey's office, drafted a bill which estab- 
lished a fund for common schools, but not until 1840 did North 
Carolina have a school system, and then she turned back to her 
statesman of 181 7 for a model. An asylum for the instruction of 
the deaf and dumb was also included in his plan. 

Murphey retired from the State Senate in 1818 and was elected 
judge of the Superior Court, but remained chairman of the board 
of commissioners of inland navigation. He resigned from the 
bench in 1820 after a brilliant career as judge, giving up bright 
prospects of elevation to the Supreme Court, in which he sat by 
special commission in several cases, to repair his private fortune, 
once considerable, but now threatened with ruin because of his 
over-sanguine investments in navigation companies and western 
lands, unfortunate liabilities as surety, and the hardness of the 
times. While engrossed in the duties of a large practice at the 
bar, he was called to render a new service to his Alma Mater, 
whose interests he cherished as his own. In the deed of cession 
to the United States of the territory of Tennessee, North Carolina 
had reserved the right to grant lands for Revolutionary services 
and had given to the university as its chief endowment from the 
State the lands of her soldiers who left no heirs. Tennessee now 


asserted her sovereign rights as a State. Judge Murphey was 
sent by the university to confer with the Legislature of Tennessee, 
and by adroit management obtained a compromise by which the 
lands were divided between the University of North Carolina and 
the College of East Tennessee and the College of Cumberland. 
At this time and until the close of his life Judge Murphey was en- 
gaged in a final project for promoting the interests of North Caro- 
lina, an elaborate work on the political, civil, natural, and aborig- 
inal history of the State. "We want such a work," he wrote a 
friend. **We neither know ourselves nor are we known to others. 
... I love North Carolina, and love her the more because so much 
injustice has been done to her. We want some great stimulus to 
put us all in motion, and induce us to waive little jealousies, and 
combine in one general march to one great purpose." Judge Mur- 
phey's indefatigable energy, his broad culture and philosophic 
cast of mind, his literary taste and attainments, and the ease, sim- 
plicity, and elegance of his style, fitted him preeminently for this 
task, and he had access to a wealth of material of which compara- 
tively little has come down to our day. The work would have been 
of priceless value had he lived to complete it. But pecuniary 
difficulties pressed heavily upon him, and in the summer of 1824, 
while in Tennessee, he was overtaken by a sickness which afflicted 
him during the rest of his life. Twice he appealed to the General 
Assembly for aid in publishing his work, but it would do no more 
than to procure for him, through our minister, Albert Gallatin, a 
list of documents relating to Colonial North Carolina in the Brit- 
ish archives in London. The Legislature of 1829 declined his 
offer to collect and publish the early archives of the State, and 
sixty years passed away before this effort bore fruit. Poverty and 
disease ended his brave struggle with fate. He died in Hillsboro, 
February i, 1832, his ambition unrealized, his labors unapprecia- 

Murphey was in advance of his age. The time was not ripe 
for the realization of his large plans, and he never knew the satis- 
faction of success. To the fulfillment of his design he dedicated 
his life and fortune, remarkable versatility of talents, and a com- 


prehensive genius of a high order. A generation after Murphey 
left her legislative halls, when the State had become noted for its 
wretched transportation facilities and for the greatest illiteracy in 
the Union, North Carolina recalled his message. At the bar 
Judge Murphey had no superior among his contemporaries as an 
adept equity pleader and a master of the art of cross-examination. 
His manner of speaking was like earnest, emphatic conversation, 
but when warmly enlisted in the cause of a greatly wronged client 
he displayed great oratorical powers. In the breadth of his cul- 
ture and the chaste elegance of his literary style he was unrivalled, 
and among men in professional and public life he had few supe- 
riors as a literary character in the nation. The nobility of Judge 
Murphey's character, his simplicity, grace, and dignity of manner, 
his kindly, benevolent nature, and the sad pathos of his life en- 
deared him to all. Notwithstanding the failure of his plans and 
the disappointment of his life, his influence became singularly far- 
reaching, and it has remained for men of another age to properly 
appreciate his greatness and to render him honor. Murphey was 
a prophet, it has been well said, and receives the prophet's reward. 
Archibald De Bow Murphey was the second son of Colonel 
Archibald Murphey (1742-1817), who settled on Hyco Creek in 
what is now Caswell County, North Carolina, in 1769, and a grand- 
son f)f Alexaiuler Murphey of York County, Pennsylvania. His 
mother, Jane De Row (1750-1827), daughter of Solomon De Bow 
of Caswell, was a native of New Jersey and descended from Hen- 
<lrik De Boog of Amsterdam, Holland, whose four children emigra- 
ted t(^ New Amsterdam about 1649. Judge Murphey married, No- 
vember 5, 1801, Jane Armistead Scott, and had four sons and one 
dau^^hter. William Duffy Murphey (1802-1831), the eldest (A. 
B.. University of N. C, 1821), died without issue. Victor Moreau 
Mur])hey (1805-1862), the second son (A.B., University of N. 
C. 1823: A. M., 1829), studied medicine in Philadelphia and set- 
tle<l in Macon. Mississippi, in 1835, where he represented his coun- 
ty in the lej^^islature of the State, 1838-^39, and enjoyed a high repu- 
tation as a physician. He left three sons and three daughters, 
four of whom are living. Cornelia Anne Murphey (1806-1840), 


only daughter of Judge Murphey, married, first, John Paine Car- 
ter, and, second, John Murphey Daniel. She was one of the most 
beautiful and accomplished women of her day in North Carolina. 
From her son and two daughters, children of her first marriage, 
are descended many of the Aikens, Carters and Worths of North 
Carolina and Virginia. Peter Umstead Murphey (1810-1876), 
third son of Judge Murphey, attended the University 1824- '25. 
He entered the navy as midshipman in 1831, served during the 
war with Mexico, and held the rank of lieutenant at the outbreak 
of the Civil War, when he resigned to enter the Confederate ser- 
vice. His gallant conduct as commander of the "Selma" in the 
Battle of Mobile Bay was highly commended by both Union and 
Confederate officers. Captain Murphey married first, Catherine 
R. Bancroft and had one son, now dead, and one daughter, Mrs. 
Theodore O. Chestney, of Macon, Ga. He married, second, Emily 
R. Patrick of Philadelphia, and had two children, Mrs. Frederick 
A. Hoyt, of New York, and Randolph Clay Murphey, of Fanquier 
Springs, Va. Alexander Hamilton Murphey (1812-? ), youngest 
son of Judge Murphey, was educated at the Bingham School and 
moved West after his father's death. He had a son living in 1840. 

William Henry Hoyt, 




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J HE men who cleared away the ashes of old Chi- 
cago and filled the world with wonder over their 
I marvellous new city, displayed no greater cour- 
age and enterprise than did the young sons of 
' Carolina, who, putting aside the dead ashes of 
the old regime at the close of the civil war, have 
built upon the old foundations a new and better State, where reli- 
pon and education join hands in their great character-building 
processes, and the busy stir of trade and the hum of wheel and 
spindle mark a new era of material progress. No record of these 
men would be complete without honorable mention of Walter Scott 
Parker, of Henderson. 

He was bom in Wilson County, North Carolina, December i, 
1849. His grandfather, Solomon Parker, was a man of means, 
and at his death left each of his sons in comfortable circumstances. 
His father was Theophilus Parker, a man noted for large char- 
ity and strict integrity. He was a foimder and leading member of 
Salem Haptist Church in Wilson County, and was possessed of a 
fair estate, ov\ning lands and slaves. 

His mother was Gabrielle Wilkinson, a daughter of Benjamin 
Wilkinson, who repeatedly represented Edgecombe County in the 
General .Assembly of North Carolina. She was of Scotch descent 
and possessed the thrift, enterprise and strength of character so 
characteristic of her countrymen. She died about the beginning of 


the civil war, at a time when her young son had greatest need of 
her guiding hand. 

Young Parker was a youth of eleven years when the war began. 
At its close the spirit of a man had come upon him while he was 
vet a bov. When he was fourteen an accident had disabled his 
father, and the overseer had gone to the war, so that the man- 
agement of the farm and slaves was cast upon him. Upon his 
father's recovery in 1866, he clerked for a short time in a store 
near his home, but the experience of his boyhood and the condi- 
tions that followed the war stirred him to larger enterprise As 
he expressed it : "The general poverty of the people in 1866 was 
inducement enough to stir the energies of a boy who wanted to do 
something." At the age of sixteen he borrowed a few hundred 
dollars from his father, who had succeeded in saving something 
from the wreck of the war, and began business on his own ac- 
count at Joyner's Depot, which he prosecuted with such diligence 
and ability that when he reached the age of twenty years he found 
himself able to incur the expense of a course at college. His edu- 
cation as a boy had been limited to the opportunities of the ordi- 
nary country school of that period, the nearest being four miles 
from his home, and one year at a military school taught by a 
wounded soldier. Such leisure as he had from the farm and 
store was given to reading and study, which greatly stimulated 
his purpose to make life a success. In 1870 he left his business 
in charge of a partner, who had been admitted for that purpose, 
and entered Trinity College for such a special course of study as 
would fit him for success in the higher departments of business. 
Tlie taste for reading and study thus early cultivated has proved 
a lasting acquisition, and his interest in the literary and intellec- 
tual movements of the day keeps well abreast of his more material 

His college work done and his business prospering, Mr. Par- 
ker was now in a position to gratify his domestic tastes, and in 
1876 was happily united in marriage with Miss Lucy A. Qoss, 
daughter of Rev. William Closs, D.D. Dr. Qoss was for neari^ 
fifty years engaged in the Methodist Episcopal ministry. He 


possessed ability of a high order and at an early age attained prom- 
inence in the North Carolina Conference, which soon extended 
to the General Conference. He was a man of large view and sur- 
passingly fine judgment. Bishop Pierce pronounced him the 
lawyer of the Southern Methodist Church and the greatest deba- 
ter in the General Conference. He died in 1882, in his seventy- 
fourth year, and is buried at Henderson. It is a distinct loss to 
North Carolina that no adequate record of his life has been writ- 
ten. Mrs. Parker was a bright and accomplished woman, possess- 
ing a large measure of her distinguished father's intellectuality. 
She had fine social and domestic tastes, and was an admirable 
helpmeet to the aspiring young man. This union proved most 
happy and congenial and has been blessed with four children, 
three of whom are now living. 

The necessity for a larger field of operations induced his removal 
to Enfield in 1878, where success still followed upon his efforts; 
but his activities demanded yet larger scope and led to his locat- 
ing in Henderson in 1884. Here he found a wide-open door and 
ample employment for all his faculties, and for twenty years he has 
been a large factor in the social and commercial life of the town. 
For a time he conducted a general retail store, but in 1890 he 
closed out the retail business and established the only exclusively 
wholesale house in the State outside the city of Wilmington. Nine 
years later the jobbing trade in the State had developed to large 
proportions, a meeting of representatives of the trade was held at 
Asheville in 1899, and the North Carolina Wholesale Grocers' As- 
sociation was organized with Mr. Parker as president. 

Mr. Parker possesses fine business sense and judgment and 
large comprehension joined to fine capacity for detail. These, 
with great industry, enterprise, and strict integrity, have made 
him a prosperous man while yet "in love with life and raptured 
with the world, and young enough to enjoy the fruits of his energy 
and thrift." It is worthy of note that those in his employ find him 
liberal and share in his prosperity. He rarely changes his business 
help. The men in his wholesale store in Henderson are looked 
upon as fixtures. Residents of the town scarcely realize that there 


was a time when they were not there; and they have their own 

The business community has been eager to show its recognition 
of Mr. Parker's excellent qualities and to utilize his g^fts in the 
management of its most important financial institutions. He was 
director in the Bank of Henderson until its consolidation with the 
Citizens' Bank, and is now director of the Citizens' Bank, Hender- 
son, and also of the First National Bank of Wcldon since its or- 
ganization, and of the First National Bank of Rocky-Mount. All 
these institutions are highly prosperous, efficiently and ably ad- 
ministered, and possess the confidence of the communities where 
they are operated. About 1894 he became interested in cotton 
manufacturing and organized the Roanoke Mills Co., Roanoke 
Rapids, with a capital of $200,000, since increased to $272,000. 
He has been president since its organization, and has administered 
its aflFairs with such signal ability that the plant is now worth in 
the neighborhood of half a million dollars. He is also treasurer 
and manager of the Patterson Store Co., Rosemary, North Caro- 
lina, having stores at Roanoke Rapids and Roanoke Junction. 

So little is known of Roanoke Rapids, but lately sprung into 
prominence as a manufacturing settlement, that it will not be im- 
proper in this connection to give it a passing mention. Long be- 
fore the day of railroads, the Roanoke Navigation Company, first 
chartered in 1812, did the carrying trade of the Roanoke River, 
whose navigable extent, including its tributaries, the Dan and 
Staunton, was something like three hundred miles, being greater 
than was **known to be used anvwhere in the United States." The 
Roanoke Canal, at and above Weldon, provided a great water- 
power. The directors of the Navigation Company stated in 1824, 
*'There is perhaps no place in the United States, approached by 
steamboats, where there is more extensive command of water, and 
where it can be more conveniently applied to machinery. Here 
we have eighty feet of fall, with a volume of water thirty feet wide 
and three deep, from a never-failing source." The advent of rail- 
roads, and, later, the civil war, destroyed the shipping interests, 
and the canal was suffered to fall into disuse. All suggestions for 


uiilizing the canal were fruitless until a company, formed by Gen- 
eral Mahone and Senator Cameron, undertook to re-open it about 
1890. Near the same time, possibly a httle later, Major T. L, 
Emry, of Weldon, organized the Roanoke Rapids Power Com- 
pany, which constructed a canal near the line of the olii one, and 
developed some seven thousand horse-power. Mr. Parker became 
interested in this latter enterprise in a small way. but sufficiently 
10 draw his attention to the advantages of the place for cotton 
manufacturing and lead to his initiation of the company already 
mentioned. About the same time a party of Northern capitalists 
organized the United Industrial Company for operating a knitting 
mill. These mills were organized in the woods and the materials 
for ilieir construction were hauled in wagons from Weldon, six 
miles distant. Other enterprises followed, including the damask 
and silk mills. There is now a mill village of some two or three 
thousand people, with good railroad facilities, schools, two Bap- 
tist churches, one Methodist Episcopal and one Episcopal. The 
splendid water-power, and the impetus of enterprises already in 
successful operation and those projected for the near future, give 
promise of great enlargement of this young manufacturing settle- 

Farming is Mr. Parker's out-door recreation and gives liiiii 
greater delight than any of his business enterprises. Unlike most 
persons who engage in this occupation for pleasure, he realizes a 
profit from his investment. His only known failure has been in 
Angora goat-raising. In this he found neither pleasure nor profit, 
and very feelingly exposed through the News and Observer the 
fallacious theory of those who urge the advantages of goat-rais- 
ing in North Carolina. His conclusion is that it doesn't pay to do 
everything the experts advise. 

In politics Mr. Parker is an intense and nncompromising Demo- 
crat. He has not yet seen any Democratic blunder so bad as the 
fundamental unsoundness of Republican policies. He loves the 
campaign and the convention, rarely fails to attend the precinct 
primary, and always has a candidate whom he supports with un- 
wavering loyalty. He asks nothing for himself but a fair tax 


rate. He has been mayor of Toisnot and was an alternate dele- 
gate to the National Democratic Convention in 1900. 

It is in his home and family, however, that he finds greatest 
pleasure. Though a member of the Croatan Club, and one of its 
board of managers, his leisure is given to his family and to his 
choice library, in which he takes great delight. His taste in read- 
ing takes a wide range. As a student and bookman he passes 
manv hours with the old classics in communion with the master 
minds of past days. As a business man he is alert to know ever\' 
new achievement in the scientific and intellectual world of to-dav. 
As a man of broad sympathy, and in intimate touch with men and 
women, he finds their fancied experiences as represented in fiction 
real to his imagination. He sows beside all literary waters, and 
reaps a harvest of large mental culture and varied information. 

His elegant home on Andrews Avenue is the centre of a bounti- 
ful and easy hospitality. His accomplished wife and daughters 
are active and prominent members of the patriotic societies and 
women's clubs, and the brightest and most influential women of 
the town and State are often gathered in their parlors in confer- 
ence or entertainment. Mrs. Parker inherits from her father the 
friendship of the older Methodist preachers, and the older presid- 
ing elders and bishops of her church find the prophet's chamber 
always in order for their coming. 

In Mr. Parker and his family are combined the traditions and 
ideals of the old South with the progressiveness and larger accom- 
plishment of the new South. 

Mr. Parker was asked for suggestions to young Americans out 
of his own experience and observation. He replied: "Industrv* 
and integrity are the main essentials for success; self-denial, 
hard work and good habits. Close attention to detail has gov- 
erned in all my undertakings." 

Thomas M. Pittman. 

fOU: ,, 


^^ff^r^/i (fon^C^ ^^^^ 

HI'Cll PARKS, Sli 

C III.X 111. Mil.,-..-! "Iihl. •!, ■ 

/ . 


t HEN the subject of this sketch passes in review 
before the mind's eye the writer is reminded of 
the "old oak" so often seen standing like a sen- 
tinel about the dwelling house on the typical 
little farm of Piedmont, North Carolina, sturdy 
and stately in its matured strength, and majes- 
tic in its grim defiance of every assault from mad wind or angry 
storm. At the end of nearly fourscore busy years Hugh Parks, 
Sr., in the zenith of his matured powers, resembles the oak in the 
solid strength and majestic symmetry of his severely built and 
well-rounded character. 

In a scant home, on a lowly farm, cut and hewn out of the pri- 
meval forest that covered soutlieastern Randolph, on the 8th day 
of February, 1827, his tender ears first caught the sound of the 
music of the running waters of Deqj River, on whose banks he 
has wrought and toiled in the battles of these eventful years. Like 
the great majority of the boys of his day and place, he was with- 
out the means necessary to obtain a collegiate education, and his 
early advantages were such only as could be obtained in a sparsely 
settled "neck of the backwoods" remote from all commercial and 
educational influences. The boy of that day never read a news- 
paper or a magazine, and a railroad was to him what the "naviga- 
tion of the air" is to the small boy of to-day. The environments 
of eighty years ago — "the paths our fathers trod" — are paths 


along which the teacher of to-day may wander with profit and 
gather figs instead of thistles for his pupils. 

It was in the severe training of the farm during the first twenty- 
five years of his life that Mr. Parks acquired his habits of work, 
and during these years from occasional attendance at the common 
schools and one term each under John D. Clancy and Mr. J. H. 
Brooks at Asheboro he was enabled, largely by his own efforts, to 
obtain what was called in those days a "common school educa* 
tion.*' This was supplemented by the study and experience of 
about four years in teaching in different districts. It was in 1852 
that he entered the general store of Mr. Isaac H. Foust, in that 
day one of the largest merchants and planters of the country, and 
began work as salesman and merchant. Here he continued until 
1858, when, in partnership with G. W. Williams and John D. Wil- 
liams of Fayetteville, North Carolina, J. M. Coffin of Salisbury, 
North Carolina, and his employer, Mr. Foust, he bought the plant 
of the Randolph Manufacturing Company, then known as the 
Island Ford Mills. 

Here began his life's work — the erection of the monument which 
shall perpetuate his name. The purchase of this property fulfilled 
the dream of his youth. The day he assumed the management of 
this property was the proudest of his long life. He planted there 
every hard-earned penny he had brought from the farm, the school 
and the counter. In the prime of his young, robust manhood, 
hardened and severely trained by the toil of his earlier years, in- 
spired by the confidence reposed in him by his partners (the best 
and most successful men of their day), ambitious to achieve 
success, he seized with the grip of a master this opportunity of his 
life, and, practically unaided and inexperienced, launched into the 
manufacture of cotton goods, mastered every detail of the business, 
and made dividends for his partners and a fortune for himself. He 
is now the sole survivor of that group of splendid men, and years 
ago became the sole proprietor of their interests in this company. 
He held the position of secretary and treasurer of this company 
from 1858 to 1903, when he voluntarily surrendered the same to 
his son, Hugh Parks, Jr., and assumed the presidency, in which 


position he still g^ves to the company the ripened wisdom of his 
declining years. 

Under his management the Island Ford Mill, a quaint old 
wooden factory building with about twenty-five looms and 1700 
spindles at the time of the purchase in 1858, has grown and ex- 
panded in name and size until to-day it stands in the name of the 
Randolph Manufacturing Company, one of the strongest corpora- 
tions of Randolph County, equipped with spacious modem struc- 
tures of brick and filled with looms and spindles of the latest im- 
provement. Within a half a mile of this plant stand the flourish- 
ing mills of the Franklinville Manufacturing Company, of which 
Mr. Parks is president and a director, and whose genius has con- 
tributed largely to its building, expansion and success. These 
two mills are located on Deep River, around which the prosperous 
village of Franklinville has been built on a branch line of the great 
Southern Railway. These mills, under the directing genius and 
conservative managen:ent of their owners, have not only made 
money and wealth for themselves, but have contributed particu- 
larly to the substantial prosperity of the agricultural country ad- 
jacent to and surrounding them by providing an ample market for 
the products of the fann, and generally to the uplifting and up* 
building of the whole county. 

For nearly the half of a century these mills stood without a 
railroad on the quiet banks of the river, building slowly but surely 
for themselves and the county. Their stock was not heralded in 
the money markets. No bank was troubled to clip their coupons. 
No trust company was asked to accept their mortgage. They 
gave none. They relied upon their own resources. The judg- 
ment docket of the court was never adorned with their names. 
The word of Hugh Parks was as good as his bond, and his bond is 
and always has been above par. 

These mills with their mercantile establishments, lands and other 
belongings, constitute his life-work, and they are the living record 
of that economy, energy, perseverance, honesty, truth and good 
moral deportment "with which," he himself has wisely said, "any 
young man may win success." They are the crowning evidence 


of the virtues, the self-denials, the sacrifices and the struggles of a 
sturdy, sober and strenuous life. 

It is to be noted that no summary of his achievements would 
be complete without the recital of two facts. First, he never left 
the community in which he was bom and reared. There, among 
his fellows with whom he started in the race of life on the same old 
hills, he has wrought, toiled, won and now towers as the leader. 

Secondly, he was a pioneer in his special line. He blazed the 
way. It was nearly two decades after he started before John B. 
Randleman, John H. Ferree, O. R. Cox, Dr. J. M. Worth, J. E. 
Walker, T. C. Worth, W. H. Watkins, Robert P. Dicks, J. A. Cole, 
A. W. E. Caple, T. L. Chisholm, S. Bryant, S. G. Newlin and 
other manufacturers of that county embarked in the business. 
While Mr. John B. Elliott, Mr. A. S. Homey, Mr. George H. 
Makepeace, Mr. Samuel Walker, Mr. Dennis Curtis, Mr. Ben- 
jamin Moffitt, and others, were at different times engaged in the 
business, none of them made it exclusively their life-work. To 
Hugh Parks must be accorded the distinction of being the lead- 
ing pioneer manufacturer of Randolph County. 

He could have gone elsewhere, as did Mr. J. M. Odell, Mr. J. A. 
Odell and others, and made more fame and a greater fortune; 
for he is built of the stuff that wins anywhere and ever>'where, 
but it is doubtful if he could have been more useful elsewhere in 
the accomplishment of good for himself and his county. His 
work and the influence of it have been potent factors in the growth 
and development of the county of Randolph and in the Piedmont 
belt of North Carolina. 

It is a great thing to live and succeed at any time, but it re- 
quired superior talent to live and succeed through the dark hours 
and stirring events of some of the years since 1858. In some of 
these years there were storms firece and destructive. Across his 
pathway winds, mad and adverse, swept with relentless fury. Over 
many an angry wave he has watched his frail bark with bated 
breath. The summit on which he stands serene to-dav in the 
majesty of uncrowned age and in the enjoyment of a comfortable 
fortune cannot be appreciated without a count of the odds and 


obsUicJes which marked the eadier and darker days of doubt and 

Two intluences added to his courage at all times. His inherit- 
ance from his parents, John Parks and Sarah Parks, who were 
of the salt of the earth, was honesty, truth, Justice, industry, and 
integrity in all things. Into his life on the azd of July, 1868, 
there came a new influence — a helpmeet in the person of Miss 
Eliza Cook, of Fayetteville, North Carolina, who blessed his home 
with four children, all of whom, save one, have passed into "the 
narrow aisle," In the twilight of the evening of his well-spent 
life these tender memories come hack to shed their hallowed ra- 
diance over the lengthening shadow. 

Another striking feature of the life of Mr. Parks is his modesty 
and his aversion to anything like display or notoriety. He has 
never held public office, save that of county commissioner. Purely 
for the accommodation of his neighbors, he has held the posi- 
tion of a justice of the peace for forty-two years. Time and again 
he has been tendered political honors, but no inducement, however 
exalted or enticing, could tempt him to neglect his life-work. And 
yet, while always attentive to his private business, he never fails to 
discharge his full duty as a citizen in the primary and at the bal- 
lot box. He is a Democrat of the Andrew Jackson class with the 
courage of his convictions and the conviction of his courage. 
In the support of his church, the Methodist, in aid of schools 
and all other movements for the good of his community, he is al- 
ways broad-gauged and public-spirited, measuring up to the ideal 
standard of a model citizen. A pigmy may give a mortgage on 
inherited realty and start a cotton mill with open markets to-day, 
but it took a giant to launch one in 1858 and keep her above the 

History has done scant justice to the real men who have lit- 
erally shouldered North Carolina since 1865 and put her on her 
feet. The wondrous achievements of the last three decades are 
not to be credited to those who have made the most noise and 
figured most conspicuously in all the newspapers. The student of 
histor>, who in the future shall seek the causes or forces which 



have contributed most to our industrial enterprises, cannot over- 
look that quiet, unassuming class of our citizenship who have made 
possible this revolution and who are doing the real work. Hugh 
Parks is a leader in this class. To him and men of his class and 
stamp North Carolina is indebted for what she is and has to-day. 

G. S. Bradshatv. 

'-^SZJlJi^&>^ . 

Roiu:i-;r liKr'.T- im 

lisc'jvcr th:U tJH' ]>. 

(|ii;irUT .11 tin- 
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V.-A:,,.:-\v: Scollai!.;. 



HE student of English history will not fail to 
discover that the power and prosi>er!t>: of the 
colonial possessions of Great Britain in every 
quarter of the globe Jiave been largely aug- 
iiK-ntcd by the Scotch race. Although devot- 
edly attached in every age to the traditions and 
of their country, witli a chivalrous and romantic love for its 
wild and attractive scenery, their spirit of enterprise and love of 
adventure has often led Ihem to bid fareweii to the land so dear 
to them and seek homes in other regions, where there was greater 
reward for their daring, their industry and thrift. They can be 
found in Canada, Australia, South Africa, India and wherever 
the flag of the English Empire waves from the rising to the set- 
ting sun. Many emigrated to this country in the eighteenth cen- 
tury, and both they and their descendants have ever been recog- 
nized as most desirable citizens, attached to free institutions and 
ready to defend them with their lives. Among those who 
sought our shores were John Turner Peebles and- his brother, 
Robert Peebles. They emigrated from Peebleshire, Scotland, and 
settled in Northampton County in this State. Both were earnest 
and unflinching advocates of the independence of the col- 
onies. The former was the paternal grandfather of Judge Robert 
Bruce Peebles. His brother, Robert, was a member of the Provin- 


cial Congress, November 12, 1776, and represented Northampton 
County five times in the House of Commons. . He also served as 
Captain in the Revolutionary army. 

Robert B. Peebles was born July 21, 1840, near Jackson, in 
Northampton County. His father, Ethelred J. Peebles, was a 
planter. He was respected by all who knew him for his sterling 
qualities of head and heart. His mother, Lucretia Tyner, was a 
woman of great force of character, of a gentle and attractive dis- 
position, who was devoted to the fortunes and interests of her 
husband and children. She ever exercised a large influence over 
both and contributed greatly to their prosperity and happiness. 
Her father, Nicholas Tyner, in his day was a man of influence. 
He took an active part in the Revolutionary War and participated 
in the Battle of Guilford Court House. 

Judge Peebles inherited from his parents a strong physical con- 
stitution, and from the early days of his boyhood he manifested a 
love for outdoor sports. He has ever been passionately fond of 
hunting and fishing, especially the latter. Neither the strain of 
professional work nor political or judicial honors have eradicated 
or lessened this desire. Whenever a short vacation from work, 
even in later years, has furnished the opportunity, it mattered not 
what was the season of the year, he would gather some of his 
friends and carry them to his home and enjoy with them the 
fishing in the diflferent ponds of Northampton County, so well 
known to him, with as much zest and delight as when a boy. But 
even when a lad he never allowed such pleasures to interfere with 
his habits of study or his duties. As a youth he was both stu- 
dious and thoughtful. He was prepared for college at J. H. 
Horner's celebrated school, at Oxford, in Granville County, and 
entered the University of North Carolina in 1859. From both 
these institutions he received the highest honors as a scholar. His 
stay at the university, however, was cut short during his junior 
year by the commencement of hostilities between the North and 
the South. While there he was a member of the Philanthropic 
Society and of the Zeta Psi Fraternity, in both of which he held 
high positions. In obedience to what he considered to be his duty. 


he relinquislied the honors and pleasures of university life and in 
August, 186!, joined the Confederate army. 

His record as a soldier was exceptionally brilliant, even among 
comrades who were all brave. Il deserves a more extended notice 
than Che limited space in this sketch will permit. He first saw 
service as a private in Company E, 56th North Carolina Regi- 
ment. He was promoted for good conduct to a lieutenantcy in 
the same company and was afterwards made adjutant of the 3Sth j 
Regiment. He fought at Petersburg, Dniry's Lane, Bermuda S 
Hundreds, Plymouth and on many other fields wiih a disregard 1 
for his own life which endeared him to all who loved the cause for ] 
which he and they struggled. During the last days of the Confed- 
eracy, so full of disaster and yet of glor>', he was especially distin- 
guished. He was the last man to leave Fort Stcadman on March I 
25, 1865. At Five Forks he won the admiration of all who wit- ■ 
nessed his conduct, and in recognition of his services was on that'j 
battleheld made assistant adjutant-general of General Matt W. 
Ransom's brigade. In the army of Northern Virginia he estab- I 
lished for all time a reputation for cool and determined courage, .f 
equalled by few and surpassed by none. 

At the close of the Civi! War he assumed the new burdens 
which devolved upon him with the same resolution and deter- 
mination which he had hitherto manifested upon every theatre of 
action to which duty had called him. While a boy he had chosen 
the practice of law as his pursuit during life. He had no taste 
for any other profession or calling. He promptly commenced its 
study at Chapel Hill under the guidance and instruction of Hon- 
orable \V. H. Battle, who, for many years, was one of the judges 
of the Supreme Court of North Carolina, and who contributed 
by his learning and integrity to its high renown. He commenced 
his professional career on the first Monday in September, 1866, 
as attorney for Northampton County in the Court of Pleas and 
Quarter Sessions, to which position he had been elected and which 
he continued to hold until that court was aboHshed in August, 
1868. He practised law with great success until he was elected 
one of the judges of the Superior Court. He appeared as counsel 


in many cases of importance, and his services were sought not 
only by the public at large, but by his brother lawyers, who valued 
highly his learning and capacity for legal affairs. No man has 
ever lived in North Carolina who had more completely the con- 
fidence of his clients, whom he served not only with ability, but 
with an aggressive fidelity which attracted both their gratitude 
and friendship. 

He has always been an uncompromising Democrat, firm and de- 
cided in his political convictions as in all other matters. In the 
section of North Carolina in which he lives he has been for many 
years one of the recognized leaders of his party, and when a cool 
and fearless man has been needed in any campaign, all eyes at 
once have been turned towards him, and he has never failed to 
answer any call. Yet so broad and catholic are his views of life 
and humanity and so kind and charitable his dealings with his fel- 
low-men, that those who differ with him in their political faith 
hold him in high esteem and many of them entertain for him 
warm personal regard. He was a member of the House of Com- 
mons in 1866-67 3"d also in 1883, 1891 and 1895, the name of that 
branch of the Legislature having been changed to the House of 
Representatives by the Constitution of 1868. He was a trustee of 
the University from 1865 ""^^^ his election as judge in November, 

Judge Peebles was married on December 7, 1875. to Miss 
Margaret B. Cameron, a refined and accomplished lady of kind 
and gentle disposition and most attractive personality, who united 
with her husband in rendering his home delightful to all their 
friends, who ever received both a most generous and unstinted 
hospitality. She was the daughter of Paul C. Cameron, of Grange 
County, a gentleman without reproach in its true and proper 
sense, who was respected wherever known for his attainments, 
his integrity and morality. He was recognized throughout the 
State as an unselfish friend to education and especially to the Uni- 
versity. He gave to it of his means freely and was always ready 
to assist in any way to advance its prosperity and usefulness. 
Her mother, Annie Ruffin, was the highest type of a Christian 


woman, who by her presence made society brighter and purer and 
by the lesson of her life elevated humanity. She was the daughter 
of Chief Justice Thomas Ritffin, of the Supreme Court of North 
Carolina, who was recognized by common consent as the greatest 
equity lawyer who has adorned the judicial annals of the State. 

The personal characteristics of Judge Peebles are marked and 
decided. He never evades any responsibility, but is positive in 
all matters when duty requires him to act. He is absolutely sin- 
cere, devoid of cant, of pretence and hypocrisy. He is a human 
man, full of pity for the weak and helpless, for those in distress 
and poverty, and he has always aided them gladly, freely and gen- 
erously. To those who know him best he stands for the highest 
model of physical and moral courage, and he has sustained a rep- 
utation for these virtues, with a modesty as rare as it is becoming. 

One of his chief qualities as a presiding judge has been a love 
of truth and fair play. The penniless litigant and most abject 
criminal in a court over which he presides will have a trial as fair 
and impartial as the man of wealth and power. Bom with an 
analytical mind, patient in research, with a memory which holds 
tenaciously and accurately to all the material evidence in every 
case, with a power rarely equalled to discern promptly and state 
clearly the legal principles upon which its decision rightfully de- 
pends, when elected judge he carried to the bench qualifica- 
tions of the highest order. Upright, firm and enlightened judges 
are absolutely essential to the existence of a free government. 
From the foundation of our republic to the present day the judi- 
ciary- of North Carolina has occupied a prominent position in the 
estimatitin of the good and great of her sister States. In later 
years, when the impartial historian shall review the official lives 
of the judges of our Superior Court, he will cause to be recorded 
upon the pages which shall be written for the guidance and in- 
struction of the youth who shall come after us, his well-consid- 
ered judgment that Robert Bruce Peebles ranks wttb the best 
and greatest of the Nisi Prius judges of North Carolina. 

CItarlcs M. Sledman. 


t REDERICK PHIUPS was bom in Edge- 
combe County, North Carolina, June 14, 1838. 
His father was Dr. James Jones Philips, a man 
of strong: character, culture and ability; his 
mother was Harriet Amanda Burt, a refined 
and ciilliired woman, whose graces of character 
rendered her a helpmeet to the skilled physician. The influence 
of both parents was seen in the son, but that of the mother was 
particularly strong and marked. 

The youth was not very robust, but as he took readily to ath- 
letic sports, fishing and hunting, and was fond of horseback riding, 
his strength increased with his growing manhood. But he did 
not grow into perfect health and strength until he had spent a 
year in manual labor on the farm. 

He studied in the preparatory schools at Tarboro, his county 
town, and for several years received instruction from Mr. 
Wiiibourne, a noted educator. Afterwards he attended St. James's 
College, Maryland, from which he entered the University of 
North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He graduated from the University 
in 1858, and eiitered at once upon the study of law in Judge 
Pearson's law school, completing the course in i860. It will thus 
be seen that Frederick Philips was given the best training that 
his time and section afiforded. 

Young Philips entered at once upon the practice of his profes- 


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sion at N'ashville, North Carolina, and was appointed clerk and 
master in equity for Nash County, He had thus made an auspi- 
cious beginning in his life-work when the Civil War broke out, 
and Frederick Philips was among the first to respond to the call 
of the State to defend her rights and the homes of her peoiile. He 
saw active service during the entire conflict, following Lee and 
Jackson and Pender. 

He enlisted in tlie first company from the county of Edgecombe, 
which was the Edgecombe Guards, composed of 200 men, and 
from which company two companies were later formed, our sub- 
ject being elected as second-lieutenant of the Confederate Guards. 
with T, W. Battle as captain. The company was made a part of 
the 15th North Carolina, under the command of General Mc- 
Kinney, and went immediately to Yorktown. In the winter of 
1861 Lieutenant Philips was, owing to ill-health, compelled to 
leave the service and return home, where he remained until after 
ihe battles around Richmond, when he again entered the service 
as adjutant of the 13th North Carolina Regiment, commanded by 
Colonel F. M. Parker, which regiment was a part of General 
Cenrge B. Anderson's brigade and Genera! D. H. Hill's division. 

The regiment was engaged in a number of the most important 
battles, among which were those of Second Manassas, the one at 
South Mountain and that at Bloody Lane, where our subject was 
severely wounded while delivering the message of the death of 
General Anderson to Colonel Tew, the senior colonel of the regi- 
ment. It was indeed a hazardous undertaking, and our subject 
was compelled to crawl in front of a heavy fire from one end of 
the regiment to the other to deliver the message to his command- 
ing officer. It was the last message Colonel Tew ever received, 
for as he arose to signal that he understood the message he was 

After being laid up for a number of weeks from the wound 
Captain Philips received in the scalp while delivering this mes- 
sage, he again returned to the service and was engaged in the 
many baltles in which General D. H. Hill participated, the prin- 
cipal of which were the battles of Fredericksburg, Chancellors- 


vjlle and Gettysburg. In this latter bloody engagement Adjutant 
Philips was with Ramseur's brigade in the all-night attack. 

At the battle of Kelly's Ford, after the retreat of General Lee, 
Mr. Philips was wounded, having his thigh bone broken, and 
was permanently disabled. He was compelled to go on crutches 
for a number of years afterwards. In the fall of 1864 he was 
assigned to do quartermaster service at Richmond, but was unable 
to return to the active service of the Confederacy, which he loved 
and for which he had fought so gallantly. 

After the war he returned to Tarboro and began anew the 
practice of his profession. On the 14th of January, 1864, he had 
married Miss Martha S. Hyman, and her thorough sympathy 
and wifely devotion became the most important factor in his life. 
Starting again at the bottom, and in his home town, he soon built 
up a lucrative practice, and became one of the foremost lawyers 
of his section. He began his life-work at Tarboro as junior part- 
ner of the late Honorable R. R. Bridgers. He was engrossing 
clerk of the Legislature of 1864 and 1865, and was prosecuting 
attorney for Nash County. He was a staunch Democrat, devoted 
to the principles of his party, true and unfaltering. Many a time 
he led the forlorn hope of his section with overwhelming odds 
against him, and he was an active worker in nearly every politi- 
cal campaign for forty years. In 1884 he was nominated and 
elected judge of the Superior Court for the Second Judicial dis- 
trict, and became known throughout the State for his sound judg- 
ment and sterling qualities. 

Upon his retirement from the bench he did not resume the 
practice of law, but gave his time and great executive ability to 
the management of his large estate, consisting of farms, city 
property, and investments in various securities. He was ever 
active in all the affairs of life ; a devoted churchman, being senior 
warden of Calvary Parish, Tarboro ; mayor of the town of Tar- 
boro ; president of the Pamlico Insurance and Banking Company, 
and one of the largest stockholders and a director of the Commer- 
cial and Farmers' Bank in Raleigh. 

He was ever a loval son of the University of North Carolina^ 



long a trustee, and for many j'ears a member of the executive 
committee until his death. He never missed a commencement 
occasion, and always lent his wisdom and his wit to the seriou9i| 
councils and to the social fimctions of his Alma Mater. 

Judge Philips died at his home in Tarboro on January 
1905, and North Carolina lost one of her most patriotic and pub- 
lic-spirited sons. He was a gallant soldier, an upright judge, a 
successful farmer, and a useful citizen. In his home life he was 
singularly blessed and happy. His wife still lives at the old home 
in Tarboro, and among the State's most esteemed citizens are 
their eight children, five daughters and three sons, Mrs. Herbert 
W. Jackson, of Raleigh; Mrs. Hal. G. Wood, of Edenton; Mrs. 
Dr. John F. Woodward, of Norfolk, Virginia; Mrs. Albert Pike, 
of Washington, D. C; Miss Leila Burt Philips, of Tarboro; Dr. 
James J. Philips, Mr. Frederick Philips, and Mr, Henry Hyman 

Collier Cobb. 


JOSEPH EZEKIEL POGUE, one of Raleigh's 
successful business men who has been con- 
nected in an influential way with much that 
has contributed to the development of the mate- 
rial interests of the capital of the State, is one 
of those whose undertakings have generally 
been marked by success ; and not only as a citizen of Raleigh has 
he exerted a beneficial influence, but in a wider sphere he has con- 
tributed to the promotion of agriculture and to the betterment 
of the State, especially of that section of which Raleigh ts the 
centre and which is more particularly interested in the State 
Fair. Mr. Pogne is essentially a self-made man, and he has 
attained his influential position in the capital city of the State by 
dint of his unaided exertions, his patriotic devotion to the best 
interest of the commimity, and to the confidence which his meri- 
torious course in life has inspired among his fellow-citizens. 
Coming to Raleigh a comparative stranger, he has attained an 
enviable position and has been of particular service to his adopted 

His father, John Pogue, was a Methodist minister, resident 
in eastern Tennessee. He was devoted to his calling and per- 
formed his duties in life so satisfactorily as to enjoy the confidence 
and esteem of those within his pastorate. In particular was he 
highly regarded for his unswerving integrity, his justness of 


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views, and his scrupulous regard for the rights and privileges of 
others. He married Priscilla Carter, whose father had been a sol- 
dier in the War of the Revolution, and who treasured the memory 
of his services in the cause of Independence and instilled into her 
son sentiments of patriotic devotion to the welfare of his country, 
while also exercising, along with her husband, a strong influence 
on his moral and spiritual life. 

Mr. Pogue was born at RogersviHe Junction, in the County 
of Jefferson, Tenn., on the 13th of September, 1851. He was 
raised in the country and blessed with excellent health and 
indulged in youth in those country sports which so greatly develop 
the frame and lead to robustness and vigor of constitution. At 
the time when he shoidd have been put to school, the war was in 
progress and his educational advantages were limited, and lie en- 
joyed only such training as he received at home and in the neigh- 
borhood schools. While still a youth he was employed on the 
farm and did steady labor for seven years, performing all kinds 
of manual labor incident to farm life. This work, bringing him 
in close connection with the laws of nature, resulted in a valuable 
training, and taught him practically one of the greatest lessons of 
life, lliat to succeed he must do well all things that he undertook, 
and thai for the best results work had to be properly performed 
and done at the right time. The training received on the farm 
proved of great advantage to him in after life, and much of his 
success is to be attributed to the energy of character then devel- 
oped and to the practical experience of those early days. 

In 1870 he left East Tennessee and coming to North Carolina, 
located at Hillsboro, where he became connected with a tobacco 
factory and traveled as a salesman for it at the South. Becoming 
conversant with tobacco and its manufacture, in 1875 he moved to 
Henderson and there engaged in the business of manufacturing 
tobacco. His design was to manufacture the best goods, and 
fortunately his venture was a success and his reputation as a 
manufacturer of high grade tobacco became firmly established, 
and his sales extended not merely to the towns and hamlets of 
North Carolina, but throughout the adjoining States as well. 


Socially, he was highly esteemed, and he firmly established him- 
self in the confidence of the entire community. Particularly was 
he regarded as a man of rare business tact and judgment and one 
of the progressive citizens of the thriving town. 

On February 20, 1884, he was happily married to Miss Hen- 
rietta Kramer, a lovely lady of Raleigh, and after nine years' suc- 
cessful operation at Henderson, he removed to Raleigh in Septem- 
ber, 1885, where he expanded his business and entered on a still 
more successful career as a manufacturer of tobacco. Busily 
engaged in his manufacturing duties, Mr. Pogue nevertheless in 
1889 accepted an election as alderman of the city of Raleigh, and 
during his term inaugurated many plans of public improvement 
Particularly did he advocate the improvement of the streets which 
has since been so admirably accomplished and which has added 
so much to the attractiveness of the city of Raleigh, and he also 
was largely instrumental in putting the fire department on that 
fine basis which has ranked it among the best in the United States, 
and w^hich has resulted in considerably lowering the rates of insur- 
ance on Raleigh property. He also introduced the initial resolu- 
tions to celebrate the centennial of the city, and his movement cul- 
minated in one of the finest displays that has ever been witnessed 
in any American town of no greater population than Raleigh. In- 
deed his whole course as an alderman was on a high and patriotic 
plane and resulted largely to the advantage and improvement of 
the city. In 1896 he was elected president of the Chamber of 
Commerce of the city and brought to his work the same laudable 
enterprise which he manifested as an alderman, and during the 
three terms that he presided over the chamber he had the gratifi- 
cation of observing the beneficial results of the movements he 
inaugurated and aided to bring to a successful conclusion. In 
1899 he was elected secretary of the North Carolina Agricultural 
Society, which position carries with it the management of all the 
details of the State Fair under the direction of the president of the 
society. Especially has his administration been signalized by an 
enlargement of the grounds, the purification of the midway, and 
by rendering that annual gathering more attractive year by year. 


The association at the time he became secretary had long been in 
financial straits and its operations hampered for the want of 
means ; bnt his wise and energetic action was rewarded with great 
success, and the gate receipts have been increased four-fold, and 
the crowds winch have been drawn to the Fair have on some days 
numbered over twenty thousand. The object of the society is the 
improvement of agriculture, and the benefits which he has aided 
in accomplishing for the agricultural interest of the central portion 
of the State have been notable. And at this writing he has in 
\-iew the submission of other plans for the promotion of agriculture 
in the State and advancement of that industry in which so many 
of our people are engaged. 

Mr. Pogue has ever been Democratic in his political atBlia- 
tions, and iie has been active in local politics for the sole purpose 
of advancing the interests of the city, improving the city govern- 
ment and introducing better methods of administration. Seeking 
purer methods of local government, he made a bold, strenuous, 
persistent and successful opposition to ring rule. He is a 
member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and of the Im- 
proved Order of Red Men, and he has passed the chairs in both 
organizations, and has represented the former in the meeting of 
the Grand Lodge of the State and in the latter he now is the Great 
Junior Sagamore in the State Council. He is also an honorary 
member of the Junior Order of American Mechanics. 

In the midst of the duties of a busy life Mr, Pogue still finds 
time to gratify his inclination for reading, and the books which 
have been favorites of his are chiefly histories. Particularly has 
he been interested in historical literature dealing with Cromwell 
and N'apoleon, and with the colonial period in America. The 
exercise which he chiefly enjoys is active outdoor exertions, but 
still he uses the dumb-bells, which he finds of advantage in the 
way of physical benefit, and which has tended to maintain his uni- 
form good health. 

He regards that his success is largely due to his early train- 
ing on the farm and the development of his character and capacity 
while in contact with men in active life. Especially when travel- 


ing as a salesman throughout the Southern and Western States, 
his association with the commercial men with whom he was 
thrown tended to stimulate his ambition to succeed, and his experi- 
ence at that time was of incalculable benefit in his business affairs. 
Being asked for some suggestion for the advantage of the 
young men of to-day, he says: 

''In this day of strenuous competition it takes the best there is in any 
man to succeed. The prize, however, is in reach of every young man of 
average physical and mental capacity. A sound body is the most valuable 
asset, coupled with the proper intellectual and moral training, together 
with a correct decision as to what occupation in life his talents best qualify 
him to pursue. Study the Bible diligently and follow its teachings. Piti- 
ful indeed is the career of any man, however brilliant and successful, who 
forgets God and is unmindful of his mercies." 

Mr. Pogue's married life has been very happy. Mrs. Pogue, 
educated at St. Mary's, is a lady not only of a lovely personality, 
but of unusual culture; and she is a general favorite in a wide 
circle of appreciative friends. They have one son living, Joseph 
E. Pogue, Jr., whose course at the University of North Carolina 
has gained him the esteem and admiration of the Faculty and has 
given great satisfaction to his parents. 

5*. A. Ashe. 



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Z OR many years Mrs. Lucy H. Robertson has 
been widely known in educational circles 
throughout the State. At the time of her birth 
the conception of true womanhood was rapidly 
changing. Happily, the period had passed 
when the only future planned for a girl was 
that her personality might be absorbed by one more masterful 
than her own by right of sex, if not of sense, and men were 
frankly admitting abilities and possibilities for a career once 
thought neither possible nor desirable. But the period of the 
highest type of true chivalry had not fully dawned — that period 
in whicli strong men of knightly spirit are striving to remove 
every obstacle in the way of her full development. In all ages 
the best poetry and the finest romance have implied a peculiar 
e.xcellence in woman, but not until this age have attempts been 
made to define her spliere of action and infiucnce, especially to 
warn her against what she may not be and do. 

It is not too much to say of Mrs. Robertson that she embodies 
the highest ideals of both the present and the past. For first of 
all she is a womanly woman. Altogether, aside from class-room 
work, she possesses a broad culture, a large outlook upon life, 
a dignity and poise of manner, together with a kindhness of 
heart that make her most attractive and lovable. Evidently the 
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where parents sacrifice that children may have better advantages 
than their own, nearly every forceful life may trace its beginnings. 
To such a home, in the town of Warrenton, September 15, 1850, 
Lucy Henderson Owen was given— a daughter richly doivcred 
in person, mind and heart. If we believe, with Oliver Wendell 
Holmes, that the best training begins a hundred years before 
one's birth, then this birthright was hers from a noble and cul- 
tivated ancestry. Her father, a merchant by occupation, was a 
man of great industry and sterling integrity, and her mother a 
woman of such strong character and remarkable energy as to 
make her a striking personality in any community. Teaching 
having been a profession in the family for nearly half a century, 
it was a natural ambition that the daughter should be well fitted 
for this work. In 1852 a move was made to Chapel HUl, and a 
few years later to Hillsboro, then one of the centers of the social 
and intellectual life of the State. In this refined and cultivated 
atmosphere her girlhood days were happily spent. The school 
of the Misses Nash and KuUoch was in the height of its pros- 
perity, and girls were attracted thither from far and near by the 
acknowledged thoroughness of its instruction. For seven years 
Lucy Owen was one of its brightest and best pupils. With eager 
docility she mastered its currictdum and afterwards spent two 
studious years in the Chowan Baptist Institute, of which her 
uncle by marriage, Dr. Archibald McDowell, was president, with 
her own aunt, Mrs. Mary McDowell, as his able assistant both in 
teaching and in the management of the school. The war be- 
tween the States had just closed with its impoverishing results, 
and the higher colleges for women like Vassar, which now 
numbers its students by something less than a thousand, were 
considered an innovation, subject to criticism and ridicule. 
To one of these colleges, however, under more favorable dr- 
cumstances, this girl of many talents might have been iiresistibty 
drawn. But scarcely conscious of superior mental endowmentSi 
she was not dreaming of a career different from that ot other 
girls, and a year after graduation she was married to Dr. D. A. 
Robertson, a resident of Hillsboro. 


A deeply religious nature has always been one of Mrs. Robert- 
son's characteristics. Hardly can she remember when she did not 
think seriously on religious subjects, and when about twenty 
years of age, with intelligent knowledge of its history, doctrines 
and polity, she connected herself with the Methodist Episcopal 
Church South. In this church of her choice she has exerted 
an ever-widening circle of influence. 

Professionally, Dr. Robertson stood with the highest, and as 
a citizen was public spirited and useful. In 1872, with his young 
wife, he moved to Greensboro, where they at once set up a charm- 
ing home and thoroughly identified themselves with the best in- 
terests of their adopted city. Mrs. Robertson's social g^fts and 
graces were speedily recognized, and with a rare personal charm 
she attracted and held a host of admiring friends. 

Christian womanhood in its organized capacity was then just 
coming to the front, and women with ideas and capacity for 
leadership were in demand. The Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union found in her a staunch supporter, and in the Woman's 
Foreign Missionary Society she has, from its organization, been 
a strong, successful leader. For several years she was vice-presi- 
dent of the North Carolina Conference Society, and when this 
Conference was divided in 1890, she was elected president of the 
Western Society. This office she has held by a unanimous ballot 
from year to year. As a presiding officer she has been fre- 
quently compared to a bishop, with such ease and dignity does she 
preside over this intelligent body of women, whose love and ad- 
miration for her know no bounds. 

In the meantime additional cares had come to Mrs. Robertson 
in the birth of two sons, but notwithstanding accumulating re- 
sponsibilities she never neglected the intellectual or the aesthetic 
side of her nature. She had the wisdom to discern that while 
the mechanism of education was past, the processes of growth 
are not confined within college walls; that a close friendship 
with books makes one heir to the world's treasury of thought 
and knowledge, and that to eyes that can see and to ears that can 
hear a whole universe of beauty may speak. To read, to travel. 


to indulge a decided artistic taste were her chief delights. A 
teacher was wanted for Greensboro Female College ; her ser- 
vices were sought, and safely entrusting the details of its manage- 
ment lo a near relative residing in her home, she accepted the 
position. In literary associations she found 3 most congenial 
atmosphere, and an aptitude for teaching made the work pleasant 
and successful. In Januarj-, 1883, her first deep sorrow came 
in the death of a devoted husband. The occupation of teaching, 
taken up at first without thought of long continuance, now be- 
came her life work. Not, however, till her boys had grown to 
manhood and had gone out to take their place in the world's 
work and make a home for themselves did she break up her own 
home nest. 

For fifteen consecutive years Mrs. Robertson was a member 
of the faculty of Greensboro Female College. Having resigned 
this position in 1893, the same year the Department of History 
was given her in the State Normal and Industrial College, and 
for seven years it was held with ability and success. Her con- 
nection with the Normal, with its large body of earnest students 
from every county in the State, and her association with its 
wide-awake faculty, was a period of enlarged usefulness and 
influence, and of much mental enrichment, and this connection 
was reluctantly severed only at the urgent call of Greensboro 
Female College to a still larger sphere of influence — a call to be- 
come its lady principal. To this responsible office she brought 
the ripened experience of years, an intimate knowledge of the 
nature and needs of college girls, and her own high ideals of 
college community life. With large executive ability she also 
combined that infinite patience with small details which only a 
woman can command. The touch of a masterful yet tactfid hand 
was at once felt on all its internal affairs, and the college began 
to throb with a new life. When two years later a new president 
must needs be found, it was in the eternal fitness of things that 
she should be elected, thereby becoming the first woman 
college president in the Southern States, and the head of the 
second oldest chartered Woman's College in the United States. 


Not so much by the will of man as by the natural trend of 
events, by the sequence of cause and effect, the place was open 
to her. Because she was every inch a queen, and had already 
been so crowned by thousands of loving hearts, this throne 
of power was rightfully hers. Believing that this was her 
Father's will concerning her, she accepted the trust committed 
with full reliance upon His guidance and strength. Had she 
been able to foresee the strange vicissitudes through which the 
college was so soon to pass, she might not have had the courage 
to link her own destiny so inseparably with it. It was as much 
their loyal allegiance to her as love for their Alma Mater that 
stirred the hearts of the alumnae so profoundly, and fired them 
with that indomitable faith and courage that first rescued the 
college from an ignoble death, and later, when consumed by fire, 
caused it to rise phoenixlike from its ashes. 

The conditions which Mrs. Robertson has been obliged to face 
during the three years of her administration could not have been 
more difficult and testing, but through them all she has come 
forth triumphant. The college rebuilt on an enlarged and im- 
proved plan, with its halls overflowing with g^rls, attests most 
eloquently with what success she has wrought, and with what 
confidence parents entrust to her care their choicest treasures. 
Surely the financial limitations which alone hinder the unfolding 
and development of her high ideals will be speedily removed by a 
handsome endowment. 

The value of such a woman to the church and to the State is 
simply incalculable. The "Mother of a thousand daughters,'* 
through them her ennobling, uplifting influence is being multi- 
plied a thousand fold, and will extend to coming generations. 
Truly, "her own works do praise her in the gates." Fame she 
does not covet, but she shall be well content if from the heights 
of her own splendid attainments she may continue to reach down 
a loving hand to help those who fain would climb to come up 

Mrs. L. W. Crawford. 



n! all 

S F asked to name the greatest man North Carolina 
has produced, the writer of this sketch would 
say without hesitation, 'Colonel William L. 
Saunders." Few men in our State have ever 
been so thoroughly and so widely esteemed ; no 
1 one has had more fully the confidence of the 
yed to a fuller extent the respect, esteem, and ad- 
who have been brought into intimate relations 
with Itini. "Indeed, the opinion is widely entertained Ihai he was 
one of the most remarkable men of his day. He was a strong 
man in thought, a strong man in action, and he wielded an in- 
fluence among the thinking men of his State that was second to 
none." I have quoted the estimate of a man intimately acquainted 
with hini for many years. 

Colonel Saunders came of a family of ancient lineage, and was 
the product of many generations of right hving. His people were 
among the earlier settlers in Virginia, and had moved from Glou- 
cester County to the Albemarle section of North Carolina, in 
search of better bottom land and broader acres, when the territory 
owned by Lord Granville was opened to settlers. 

His father, the Reverend Joseph Hubbard Saunders, matricu- 
lated at the University of North Carolina from Chowan County. 
He was graduated A.B. in 1821, and received his Master's degree 
(A.M.) in 1824. From 1821 to 1825 Joseph Hubbard Saunders 


was a tutor in the University of North Carolina. Mr. Saunders 
left the instruction of youth in the University for the priest's call- 
ing, and became a clergyman of the Protestant Episcopal Church. 
The same high devotion to duty that had marked his career at 
Chapel Hill as student and teacher was as marked a characteristic 
of the preacher ; and he lost his life at the early age of thirty-nine 
in the yellow fever scourge of 1839 at Pensacola, Florida, minister- 
ing to the needs of his people. 

William Laurence Saunders, historian and statesman, was bom 
at Raleigh, North Carolina, July 30, 1835. He received his prep- 
aration for college at the old Raleigh Academy and in large 
measure from the instruction of his mother. He entered the 
University of North Carolina in 1850, and was graduated there- 
from with honor in June, 1854. He returned to Chapel Hill the 
following Autumn and studied law under Judge William H. 
Battle, obtaining his license in 1856 and receiving the degree of 
LL.B. in 1858. 

In 1857 he settled in Salisbury for the practice of his profes- 
sion, and had already established himself in what he thought was 
his life-work when the war between the States broke out. He at 
once, in April, 1861, volunteered for the war as a member of the 
Rowan Rifle Guards, and went with that company to Fort John- 
ston at Smith ville, now Southport. In June, 1861, he was ap- 
pointed a lieutenant in Reiley's Battery, and went with that bat- 
tery to X'^irginia, making a most excellent artillery officer. 

He continued to see active service throughout the war. In 
January, 1862, he became a captain in the Forty-sixth North 
Carolina Regiment, of which E. D. Hall was colonel, and served 
with Cook's Brigade, Hoke's Division, A. P. Hill's Corps. He 
was twice wounded: once at Fredericksburg in the right cheek; 
and again in the Wilderness, where the ball entered his mouth 
and passed out at the back of his neck, the wound believed at 
the time to be fatal. 

He soon rallied from his wounds, however, and served until the 
end of the war. In 1862 he received his commission as major; 
in 1863 he became lieutenant-colonel, and in 1864 full colonel 


and commander of the regiment. The historian of the Forty- 
sixth Regiment says : 

"May I, 1864, found the regiment with comparatively foil ranks, and, 
by the restored heallh of the sick and wounded, numbering over 500 strong. 
The efficient Colonel, W. L. Saunders, who succeeded Colonel Hall, 
having lent hi^ best energies during (he winter to bring it up lo a high 
state of discipline, it marched away from its comfortable quarters on the 
4th of May in better condition than ever to meet the trials and struggles 
of its last and most terrible campaign. On the Sth of May, in the dense 
undergrowth of the Wilderness, the Union Army was encountered — the 
Forty-sixth being in line immediately on the plank road. The record of 
that day of butchery has often been written. A butchery pure and simple 
it was, Jinrelieved by any of the arts of war in which the exercise of mili- 
tary skill and tact robs the hour of some of its horrors. It was a mere 
slugging match in a dense thicket of small growth, where men but a few 
jirds apart fired through the brushwood for hours, ceasing only when ex- 
haustion and night commanded rest. All during that terrible afternoon 
the Forty-sixth held its own, now gaining, now losing — resting at night 
on the ground over which it had fought, surrounded by the dead and 
wounded of both sides. Early on the morning of the 6th the battle was 
renewed with increased vigor by the enemy, who had received reinforce- 
ments during the night, and it was not long before the heavier weight of 
the Union attack began to slowly press back the decimated Confederate 
line. Matters were assuming a serious aspect when Longstrcct's corps. 
fresh from the West, with Lee at its head, trotted through the weakened 
line and forming under fire, soon had the enemy checked, driving him 
back to his original position. The writer had the pleasure of witnessing 
this glorious scene — the most sou [-in spiring sight imagination can con- 
ceive, and one never to be forgotten." 

It was in that fierce and protracted struggle that Colonel Saun- 
ders was so severely wounded. For some time he was separated 
from his command, but soon rejoined it. The Forty-sixth from 
that day was constantly engaged, leaving a trail of blood along 
its route until on the eighteenth of June it crossed the James and 
occupied a position in the intrenchments near Petersburg. On 
the twenty-seventh of February Lieutenant-Colonel McAllister, 
with a part of the regiment, was detached for service in North 
Carohna. but Colonel Saunders, with the larger part of the regi- 
ment, remained with General Lee and shared in all the terrible 


experiences of life in the trenches at Petersburg and the still more 
trying ordeal of the retreat to Appomattox. There G)lond 
Saunders was parolled, and with the failure of the G>nfedcracy 
he faced the new duties and responsibilities that were thrust upon 
him by the deplorable condition of his country. 

In February, 1864, he married Miss Florida Cotton, a daughter 
of the late John W. Cotton of Edgecombe County. His young 
and beautiful wife, a woman of many graces and of fine intelli- 
gence, to whom he was passionately devoted, died in July, 1865; 
and Colonel Saunders never married again. Bereaved and deso- 
late, he lived for some time in Florida in hope of regaining his 
health, which had been seriously impaired by the hardships of 
his army life. On his return to North Carolina he settled at 
Chapel Hill, within the shadow of the university, for which he 
ever cherished the warmest affection. 

During the exciting period of Reconstruction from 1867 to 
1870 Colonel Saunders was deeply interested in public affairs. 
In 1870 he contributed to the Wilmington Journal, of which 
Major Engelhard, his brother-in-law, was editor, an article on 
the Holden-Kirk war that attracted wide attention. It was re- 
garded as the strongest and most perfect article ever published 
in the State, and although unsigned, it established for him an 
enviable reputation. 

The Conservatives were successful at the election held in 
August, 1870, and obtained control of both Houses of the As- 
sembly. On the organization of the Senate in November Colonel 
Saunders was elected chief clerk of that body, and served by re- 
election four years in that capacity. While in this position he 
was engaged as associate editor of the Wilmington Journal, his 
connection with his brother-in-law, Major Engelhard, in this 
work being to their mutual advantage. Both were fine writers, 
both ardentlv attached to North Carolina, both active and zealous 
and wise. Their appearance in the editorial field was a distinct 
gain to North Carolina. The influence of the Jotirttal had greatly 
increased under the direction of Major Engelhard, and now it 
became still more important in matters of state. Thrown at 


Wilmington with Mr. George Davis and other leaders of 
thought in that centre of action, Colonel Saunders became greatly 
esteemed and admired by tlicm and won their hearty sympathy 
and entire confidence and cooperation. 

Towarcis the close of the Reconstruction period, when Colonel 
Saunders was doing so much to rescue the State from the ruin 
and degradation that threatened her, he was sought by the United 
States authorities, as he was said to be the Emperor of the In- 
visible Empire, another name for the Ku K!ux Klan. He left 
Raleigh for a few days, going on a fishing trip out into the coun- 
try, in order to mature his plans and arrange his private matters 
before he should be arrested. The day before his return he was 
found by an intimate and trusted friend, who told him that a 
large sum of money was being quietly raised for him, to enable 
him to slip away from this country and spend the rest of his life 
in England or in Europe, beyond the reach of the authorities in 

But Colonel Saunders would not listen to the entreaties and 
kind offers, but returned at once to Raleigh, where he was ar- 
rested by the United States authorities and carried to Wash- 
ington, to be examined by the Ku Klux Committee of Congress, 
with the hope and expectation on the part of those who caused 
his arrest of extorting from him a confession of his own com- 
plicity in the acts of the Ku Klux, or of at least procuring evi- 
dence against others. 

He appeared before the committee and was asked more than 
a hundred questions, which he simply declined to answer. A 
member of this committee says: 

"He was badgered and bullied and threatened with imprisonment, 
but with perfect self-possession and calm politeness be con- 
tinued to say, 'I decline to answer.' It was a new experience tor the com- 
mittee, because the terror aroused by the investigation had enabled them 
to get much information; but they recognized that they had now en- 
countered a man, who knew how to guard his rights and protect his honor; 
and after some delay he was discharged with his secrets (if he had any) 
locked in his own bosom, and carrying with him the respect and admiration 
of all who witnessed the ordea! through which he had passed." 


The political forces of that day were largely under the direction 
of the young colonels and captains of the war period, and with 
them Colonel Saunders had a personal acquaintance and an army 
association which increased his influence. His strength of 
character, his lofty purposes, his resolution and unerring wisdom, 
quickly established him in the primacy of political advisers. But 
he was very quiet. It is to be doubted if he ever made a sj^eecfa 
during his whole career, yet his views prevailed. While Secretary 
of the Senate and editor of the Journal — during the period of 
1870-76 he exerted a strong influence on public measures and 
contributed largely towards the rehabiliment of the State after 
the wild orgies of the vultures of Reconstruction times. 

In 1876 Major Engelhard was nominated and elected Sec- 
retary of State, and in the Fall of that year Colonel Saunders 
removed to Raleigh, where in association with Peter M. Hale 
he established the Observer, Mr. Hale was also a graduate of 
the University, a distinguished soldier, an able writer, and a suc- 
cessful editor. For ten years he had experience as a publisher in 
New York, as a member of the firm of E. J. Hale and Son. The 
Observer under the management of Messrs. Hale and Saunders 
was from the first the best paper ever published in North Caro- 
lina and commended itself to the people in all sections of the 

As a writer Colonel Saunders was excellent. He thought 
clearly, wrote tersely, and expressed himself with clearness and 
vigor. He disdained ornament and aimed to strike sledge-hammer 
blows in the vernacular. In the use of words, however, he was 
a master, and Swift himself was not his superior either in st>-lc 
or execution. In 1879 Colonel Saunders retired from the 
Observer upon the advice of his physician, and in that same year. 
on the death of Major Engelhard, then Secretary of State, he 
was appointed to that office and by continuous reelections he 
held it until his death. 

When appointed Secretary of State he had already attained a 
position of first prominence among the statesmen of North Caro- 
lina. He had urged the construction of the Western North Caro- 


Una Railroad and the development of the resources of tJie west; 
and liberal in his views as lo expenditures, his watchword was 
progress. It was largely under his influence that the new insti- 
tutions in connection with the public charities that are so honor- 
able to the State were begun and constructed, 

A close friend of Governor Jarvis, and of the editor of the 
Obsen'er, which under its new management remained the leading 
political influence in the Stale, and strongly posted in every de- 
tail of administration, he now became in some measure the 
director of events; and as years passed the regard in which he 
was held continually increased, until he was recognized as the 
mentor of his party. He gave to each successive campaign the 
impress of his personality, and in collaboration with his active 
associates he largely supplied the facts and arguments that were 
embodied in party publications, and more ihan any one else he 
dictated party policies. Thus from 1868 until the better class of 
whites were firmly established in power. Colonel Saunders and 
his co-laborers were in the performance of as high and important 
duties as ever engaged the best endeavors of patriots ; and not 
only did he have the satisfaction of the glorious achievement, 
but he enjoyed the homage of good and true men who venerated 
him for his virtues while applauding htm for his wisdom. 

From the reopening of the University of North Carolina in 
1875 he was one of its trustees until his death. One closely 
associated with him says : 

"In the discharge of hi^ duiies in these capacities, although for the 
larger pari of the time a confirmed invalid and great sufferer, he did as 
much to 'revive, fosler, and enlarge' the University, according to the testi- 
mony of the Faculty themselves, as any one had ever done. In'the tribute 
they paid to him soon after his death they used this language: 

"From his graduation to the day of his death he was loyal to his 
Alma Mater and gave lo her the best thoughts of his big bratn and 
the ardent afTeciion of his great heart. Watchful, steadfast, patient, and 
wise, he never lost sight of her interest, never wavered in her support, 
and. when the crisis demanded it, marshalled and led her alumni to her 


In grateful recognition of the services of her eminent son the 
University of North Carolina in 1889 conferred upon Colonel 
Saunders the degree of LL.D. 

Soon after entering upon the duties of his office as Secretary 
of State he began his great work for all students of our history, 
and devoted eleven years to the accomplishment of the most 
important work of his life, the compilation of the "Colonial 
Records of North Carolina," a work of the greatest historical 
value. Concerning this work it has been truly said that it is the 
greatest reservoir of facts, from which all must draw who would 
write accurately and truthfully the history of the first century of 
our civilization. 

The work "was done by a true and loving hand, under the 
inspiration of a brave and loyal heart, without the least expecta- 
tion or hope of reward of any kind, and solely for the honor of 
the State which give him birth and the people to whose welfare 
he devoted all the years of his life." The spirit of a lofty patriot- 
ism is seen in his closing words, his last public utterance, in 
which he invoked God's blessing on his native State : 

"And now the self-imposed task, begun some eleven years ago, is fin- 
ished. All that I care to say is that I have done the best I could that 
coming generation might be able to learn what manner of men their an- 
cestors were, and this I have done without reward or hope of reward 
other than the hope that I might contribute something to rescue the fair 
fame and good name of North Carolina from the clutches of ignorance. 
Our records are now before the world, and any man who chooses may see 
for himself the character of the people who made them. As for myself, 
when I search these North Carolina scriptures and read the story of 6er 
hundred years' struggle with the Mother Country for Constitutional Gov- 
ernment, and the no less wonderful story of her hundred years' struggle 
with the savage Indian for very life, both culminating in her first great 
revolution ; when I remember how the old State bared her bosom to the 
mighty storm, how she sent her sons to the field until both the cradle 
and the grave were robbed of their just rights; how devotedly those sons 
stood before shot and shell and deadly bullet, so that their bones whitened 
every battlefield; when I remember how heroically she endured every 
privation, until starvation was at her very doors and until raiment wis 
as scarce as food, and with what fortitude she met defeat when after 
Appomattox all seemed lost save honor ; especially when I remember how. 


in the darkest of all hours, rallying once more to ihe slniggle for Con- 
stitutional Government, she enlisted for ihe war of Reconstruction, fought 
it out 10 the end, finally wresting glorious victory from the very jaws 
of disastrous defeat, I bow my head in gratitude and say as our great 
Confederate commander, the immortal Lee, said when, watching the bril- 
liant fight at a critical lime in one of his great battles, he exclaimed in 
the fullness of his heart, 'God bless old North Carolina!'" 

Of the Prefatory Notes which Colonel Saunders prepared for 
each of his several volumes it is to be remarked that tJiey are 
of surpassing excellence, whether regarded from a literary 
standpoint or that of the philosophical historian. They consti- 
tute an enduring monument to his fame which will survive for 
centuries; and they will hand down to posterity the name of the 
author as a man of great brain, fine powers, and lofty patriotism. 

Though a martyr to rheumatism, which rendered him unable to 
walk and nearly helpless, and suflFering still from tlie wounds re- 
ceived in the war, he would often go on with his labors in great 
bodily pain, never asking or receiving any compensation for his 
services, the only reward he received being a vote of thanks from 
the General Assembly of North Carolina. 

The work being finished and the last volume published, the 
stimulant that had sustained him being withdrawn, William 
Laurence Saunders entered into rest April 2, 1891. 

Collier Cobb. 


f HOUGH the services rendered to the cause of 
liberty in the war of the Revolution by Briga- 
dier-General John Simpson make his history 
one of State-wide interest, his name is more 
particularly identified with the county of Pitt, 
_ where he resided. Indeed, he was a man of 
some note before Pitt County was severed from Beaufort in 

John Simpson was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on the 8th 
of March. 1728. He was a lineal descendant of Roger Clap, for 
many years the captain of Castle William in New England dur- 
ing the early colonial period. Clap's daughter, Elizabeth, mar- 
ried Joseph Holmes and had a daughter, Aurelia Holmes, who 
married John Simpson. To the latter was bom another John 
Simpson, who married Mary Randall and was father of our pres- 
ent subject, John Simpson, who came to North Carolina. 

John Simpson came to Beaufort County, North Carolina, with 
quite a colony of New Englanders somewhat later than the middle 
of the eighteenth century. He was commissioned lieutenant in 
Captain John Hardee's Company in the regiment of Colonel 
Robert Palmer on the 9th of July, 1757, by Governor Dobbs. 
Shortly thereafter, in 1760 he was elected one of Beaufort's rep- 
resentatives in the Lower House of the Colonial Assembly; and 
while a member of that body introduced a bill (November 19. 


1760) which afterwards became Chapter 3 of the Laws of 1760 
(passed at the fourtli session in that year), establishing the 
County of Pitt. The inhabitants of that section had petitioned 
the Assembly to set up the new county on account of the incon- 
venience caused by the great extent of Beaufort, and the fact that 
the latter county was divided by a "boislrous and tempestuous 
river" — to quote the sonorous language of their meinorial in 
de^gnating the placid waters of the Tar, Under the Church of 
England, then established by law in North Carolina, Pitt County 
formed an ecclesiastical territory known as St. Michael's Parish. 
John Simp-soit. together with John Hardee, William Spier, 
George May and Isaac Buck, were appointed commissioners, 
whose duty it was to make all necessary arrangements for the 
government of the new county — such as the erection of a court 
house, a jail, a pillory, stocks, etc. It was provided that these 
buildings and penal appliances should be placed on the land of 
John Hardee on the south side of the Tar River near a house 
of worship called Hardee's Qiapel. This was a few miles south- 
east of where the town of Greenville (county-seat of Pitt) now 

Colonel Simpson was an officer of one <•( llic earliest Masonic 
lodges ever established in North Carolina. It was called "The 
First Lodge in Pitt County," and, in 1766 or shortly prior thereto, 
was chartered by the Right Worshipful Jeremy Gridley, Grand 
Master of Massachusetts. The first officers of the Pitt County 
Lodge were : Thomas Cooper, worshipful master ; Peter Blin, 
senior warden; John Simpson, junior warden; James Hall, secre- 
tary ; Richard Evans, treasurer, and Thomas Hardy and James 
Hill, stewards. At a later date, on October 23. 1767, Cooper 
became Deputy Grand Master of the Province of North Carolina, 
by virtue of a commission sent him from Boston by the Right 
Worshipful Henry Price, Grand Master, pro tempore. 

On November 20, 1766, Simpson was appointed register of 
Pitt County by Governor Tryon, and this appointment was re- 
newed by Governor Josiah Martin on November 13, 1771. 

When the troubles with the Regulators occurred during the 


administration of Governor Tr}'on, Colonel Simpson was a strong 
supporter of the government, and held his regiment in readiness 
to aid in opposing the insurgents when New-Bern was threatened 
by them during the imprisonment of Hermon Husband. Simp- 
son, however, was not at the Battle of Alamance on May i6, 
1 77 1, though one or more companies from his regiment fought 
in that action — ^notably that commanded by Captain Robert 

On March 13, 1771, Colonel Simpson was appointed high 
sheriff of the county of Pitt by Governor Tryon. From the early 
dawn of the Revolution to its successful close, he was a patriot 
faithful to everv trust. Before the war he had been a member 
of the Colonial Assembly; and, when the troubles with Great 
Britain commenced and committees of safety were organized 
throughout North Carolina in 1774, he was an active member 
of the committee in Pitt. Matters going from bad to worse, it 
was determined by the patriots of North Carolina that a conven- 
tion or Congress independent of the existing laws should be held 
in New-Bern on the 25th of August, 1774. Being advised of 
this movement, the committee of safety of Pitt County met at 
Martinborough on the 15th of August and elected John Simpson 
and Edward Salter to represent their county in the convention 
at Xew-Bcrn. For the guidance of these gentlemen the following 
resolution of instructions was passed: 

'^Resolved, That John Simpson and Edward Salter, Esqs., do attend 
at the town of New-Bern on the 25th inst. in general convention of this 
province, and there to exert their utmost abilities preventing the grow- 
ing system of ministerial despotism which now threatens the destruction 
of American liberties; 

"And that you, our deputies, may be acquainted with the sentiments 
of the people of this country, it is their opinion that you proceed to 
choose proper persons to represent this province in a General Congress 
of America, to meet at such time and place as may be hereafter agreed 
on ; that these delegates be instructed to a declaration of American rights. 
setting forth that British America and all its inhabitants shall be and re- 
main in due subjection to the Crown of England and to the illustrious 
family of the throne, submitting by their own voluntary act and enjoy- 


ing all their free chartered rights and liberties as British free subjects; 
that it is the law of legislation and of the Britiih Constitution that 
no man be taxed but by his own consent, expressed by himself or by his 
legal representatives," 

The above delegates were in attendance at New-Bern at the 
appointed time. When a similar Congress met at New-Bern 
on April 3, 1775. Colonel Simpson, with additional colleagues, 
was again present. Between the sessions of these Congresses, 
on November 3, 1774, the committee of safety of Pitt Count)' 
had met and taken action, looking toward sending supplies to 
the town of Boston, whose port was then blocked by the British 
Government. Colonel Simpson was appointed a member of a 
sub-committee of twenty-four to assist the vestry of St. Michael's 
Parish in Pitt to raise these supplies. A sub-committee of three 
(on which Colonel Simpson also served) was likewise appointed 
to acquaint the general committee of the entire province that the 
county committee of Pitt had been duly organized and were ready 
to communicate and advise with them. A general election for a 
new committee took place on December 9. 1774, and Colonel 
Simpson became a member of this also. He was elected chair- 
man (succeeding John Hardee) on the 17th of December, 1774- 
The committee again met on the 1 rth of February, 1775, and 
direcled Colonel Simpson to secure a vessel on which to send the 
supplies for the relief of Boston; another order was made, pro- 
viding for an election on the loth of March following, to choose 
delegates for another Provincial Congress to sit at Hillsboro. 
This election resnited in the choice (among others) of Colonel 
Simpson. On the same day that the election was held three citi- 
zens were cited to appear and answer the charge of having ob- 
structed collections for the relief of Boston. 

Early in July, 1775, an insurrection of slaves occurred in Pitt 
and adjoining counties, but was nipped in the bud before an up- 
rising took place. This "deep laid horrid tragick plan," as Simp- 
son called it. was inspired by an English sea-captain, one 
Johnson, and some hundreds of slaves were more or less con- 
cerned in it. Upwards of one hundred patrollers were appointed 


by the committee of safety; and it was resolved that any slave 
who should resist arrest and be killed by /them should be paid 
for by the county. Parties of light-horse were also ordered out 
to aid the patrollers ; and on the day they began to make arrests, 
upwards of forty insurgents were landed in jail. Though none 
of these slaves suffered capitally, some received as many as eighty 
lashes, and a few of the most dangerous had their ears cropped. 
In reporting the affair to Colonel Richard Cogdell, chairman of 
the committee of safety of Craven County, Colonel Simpson 
wrote, on July 15, 1775, as follows : 

"From whichever part of the country they come, they all confess nearly 
the same thing, viz. : that they were one and all, on the night of the 8th 
inst., to fall on and destroy the family where they lived, then to proceed 
from house to house (burning as they went) until they arrived in the 
back country, where they were to be received with open arms by a num- 
ber of persons there appointed and armed by the Government for their 
protection; and, as a further reward, they were to be settled in a free 
government of their own. Captain Johnson, it is said, was heard to say 
that he would return in the fall and take choice of the plantations upon 
this river. But as it hath pleased God to discover the plot, it is of the 
Lord's mercies that we are not consumed. Let us therefore beseech Him 
to continue our very present help in every time of need." 

The Whigs of North Carolina openly charged Josiah Martin» 
the royal Governor, with instigating the intended insurrection 
mentioned above. Though Martin did not admit all that was 
charged against him in this connection, he acknowledged that 
he favored arming slaves should it be found necessary in sup- 
pressing the rebellion. Indeed, this was one of the British policies 
for forcing the colonies back to their allegiance. At Williams- 
burg, in Virginia, Lord Dunmore had fiercely declared : "If any 
insult is offered to me, or those who have obeyed my orders, I 
will declare freedom to the slaves and lay the town in ashes/' 
But the Colonists were now gaining the upper hand, and conse- 
quently the bark of a royal Governor was worse than his bite. 

When the Provincial Congress of North Carolina met at Hills- 
boro on August 20, 1775, Colonel Simpson was among those 


present ; and, on September gth following, when the North Caro- 
lina militia was organized, he was placed in his old command 
as colonel of the Pitt regiment. The other officers were Robert 
Salter, lieutenant-colonel; George Evans, first major, and James 
Armstrong, second major. These officers were re-elected by the 
Provincial Congress at Halifax on April 22, 1776, 

On December 9. 1775, Colonel Simpson was elected a member 
of the committee of safety for the district of New-Bern (of which 
Pitt County fonned a part) ; and, about a fortnight later, on 
December 23rd, was commissioned a Justice of the Court of 
Pleas and Quarter Sessions of the county of Pitt. On August 
14, 1778. he became a member of the Governor's Council and waa 
a faithful attendant at its meetings. In 1780, he had risen to the 
rank of brigadier-general; and, in 1782, was a member of the 
North Carolina House of Commons. 

Genera! Simpson's home in Pitt County was called Chatham — 
taking its name from the title of the "Great Commoner" for whom 
Pitt County was called— William Pitt, Earl of Chatham. 

After the Revolution an academy was established in Pitt 
County by Chapter 67 of the Private Laws of 1786. Of this 
school. General Simpson was one of the trustees, his associates 
being Richard Caswell, Hugh Williamson, William Blount, James 
Armstrong. James Gorham, John Hawks, John Williams, Robert 
Williams, .'\rthur Forbes, Benjamin May, John May and Reading 
Blount. The same act which incorporated this academy changed 
the name of Martinborough to Greenesville, as a compliment to 
General Nathanael Greene ; and since that time Greenesville has 
become Greenville. The old colonial town of Martinborough 
was several miles from tVie town of that name on whose site 
Greenville now stands. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Simpson, the wife of Genera! Simpson, died 
March 25, 1805, aged 67. She was a daughter of Colonel John 
Hardee or Hardy — we find both spellings in the records — an active 
Revolutionary patriot of Pitt County. By this marriage, General 
Simpson left quite a number of children. Only four, however, 
were married. These were : General Samuel Simpson of Craven 



County, who was four limes married and left an only daughter, 
wife of the Reverend William P. Biddle; Susannah Simpson, 
who married Lawrence O'Bryan; Ann Simpson, who married 
John Eason, and Sarah Simpson, who married Dr. Joseph 
Brickell. In addition to the four just named (all of whom left 
descendants) General Simpson had tw^o sons and two daughters, 
viz. : John Hardee, Joseph, Mary Randall and Alice. 

The death of General John Simpson occurred on the ist of 
March, 1788, and his remains were interred in Pitt County, on 
the southern side of Tar River at the old Hardee place, a little 
over five miles south of Greenville on the Greenville and Wash- 
ington road. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 


[ LLUSTRATiVE of the slow growth of popula- 
tion and the powerful influence exerted by im- 
niij;raiils coming into the colony of North 
Carolina is the fact that 130 years passed from 
what is counted as the beginning of settlement 
till a native became governor of the Stale, 
During the colonial jjeriod it was hardly expected that natives 
shoidd auain to this dignity, that office being reserved for crown 
favorites. But with the coming of independence there was no 
imniecliale change, for of the five men who filled the governor's 
office from 1776-1793, Caswell, Nash, Martin, Burke and Johns- 
ton, neither was born in the State; nor was either of ihe signers 
of the Declaration of Independence; while of the members of the 
Old Congress nearly one-half were not natives, and it is not till 
we come to the signing of the Federal Constitution that we find 
natives in a decided preponderance. 

Richard Dobbs Spaight, Sr., the first native of North Carolina 
to become governor of the State, was born in New-Bern, N. C, 
Alarch 25. 175S. His father was Richard Spaight, an Irishman 
of an ancient and honorable family who had come to North Caro- 
lina a few years before and had already attained positions of trust 
and influence, lie had Iieen paymaster to the North Carolina 
troops in Braddock's expedition ; was private secretary to Gov- 
ernor Dobbs; clerk of the Provincial Council, and from February 


4f A7S7» a member of the same; was treasurer, secretary and 
clerk of the crown, and in all of these positions a staunch sup- 
porter of Government schemes, as typified in the person of Gov- 
ernor Dobbs. He married Margaret Dobbs, sister of the gov- 
ernor. The Dobbs family was established in Ireland as early 
as 1596 by John Dobbs; perhaps its most distinguished repre- 
sentative was Arthur Dobbs (1689-1765), high sheriff of Antrim, 
member of Parliament for Car rick fergiis, engineer and surveyor- 
general of Ireland, promoter of efforts to discover the Northwest 
Passage, author, and governor of North Carolina. In the last 
position Dobbs was not on a bed of roses ; the people were demo- 
cratic in the extreme and freest of the free; much of his time 
was spent in petty squabbles with the lower house of the Assembly 
over patronage, in which the governor usually came out second 

Governor Dobbs died in 1765, when his nephew, Richard Dobbs 
Spaight, was seven years old ; the parents of the latter died soon 
after ; a guardian was appointed for the child, and at the age of 
nine he was sent abroad and finished his education at the Uni- 
versity of Glasgow. There was evidently in him a streak of Re- 
publican blood, for despite his anti-democratic family history 
and training he returned to America in 1778 and became an aide- 
de-camp to General Caswell, who commanded the North Caro- 
lina militia and as such was present at the disastrous defeat at 
Camden. This was the end of his military career except some 
home service a few years later as lieutenant-colonel of a regiment 
of artillerv, which position he resigned in 1789 (N. C. S. R. 
XXI. 529). 

After the Camden campaign Spaight returned to his home and 
in 1 78 1, 1782. 1783 and 1792 represented New-Bern town in 
the House of Commons. In 1785, 1786, 1787 and 1801 he rep- 
resented Craven County. When he entered upon public legis- 
lative life Spaight was only twenty-three years of age. He seems 
to have become an active member, although not appearing on the 
floor with undue frequency. He served on the committees on 
privileges and elections, finance, depreciation, militia, treasury 


and money, on representation in the Continental Congress and on 
special committees ; but that the will of the majority did not sit 
lightly upon him when they seemed in error is proved by various 
protests against the action of the Assembly signed by him. He 
was Speaker of the House of Commons during the session of 
1785; and in 1786, when the important questions of army frauds 
and malpractice in office by the judges were being examined by 
the two houses in joint session, they chose Spaight as chairman 
of the whole — a remarkable tribute to the ability as a presiding 
officer of so young a man. 

In 1782 Spaight was nominated for the Continental Congress, 
but failed of election; on April 25, 1783, he was appointed by 
Governor Martin a delegate in place of William Blount resigned 
and was elected in 1784. While in that body he seems to have 
been faithful in the discharge of his duties, and corresponded 
regularly with the executives of North Carolina. He served on 
the important committee of finance, on that to devise a plan for 
the temporary government of the western territory;* and on 
December 29, 1783, was elected one of the committee of States, 
which body possessed and wielded all the power of government. 
He was reelected for the year beginning in November, 1785 
(X. C. S. R. XVTI. 503). 

Spaip:ht was chosen a delegate to the Philadelphia Conven- 
tion of 1787; was in Philadelphia as early as May 13, and re- 
mained through the whole proceedings. He is said by Wheeler 
to have been responsible for that part of the Constitution which 
requires that senators be elected by the States.f He was one of 
the sic^ners of the Constitution on behalf of^ North Carolina, the 

*\Vhcn the plan adopted by the Committee was presented to the Con- 
gress, it contained a provision that after the year 1800 slavery should 
not be permitted in any of the States that might be formed out of that 
territory. When the subject was under consideration in the Congress, 
Mr. Spaight moved to strike out that provision, and his motion carried. 

tThe North Carolina delegates in the Convention, although acting 
generally with the great States, North Carolina being at that time one 
of the largest States of the Confederation, yet did not cooperate with 
the delegates from Virginia. Virginia had offered a plan of Union that 


other signers being William Blount and Hugh Williamson. He 
then returned to North Carolina and in July, 1788, was a member 
of the Hillsboro Convention from Craven County, where his 
handiwork was to be put through a fiery test by the radical democ- 
racy of North Carolina. Although sympathizing largely with 
that democracy, Spaight supported the Constitution in the con- 
vention, but it failed of adoption. Its ratification was simply 
delayed till certain amendments were adopted. 

In November, 1787, Spaight was nominated for governor of 

was national in its character; by it Senators were to be elected by the 
House of Representatives, and they were likewise to be ai>portioned to 
the States on the basis of population. The Convention, however, re- 
jected this provision and resolved that the Senators ought to be chosen 
by the State Legislatures. Then came up the subject of representation 
in the Senate. The smaller States insisted on equality. At first North 
Carolina voted with the larger States against the old rule of State equal- 
ity and in favor of some equitable ratio of representation in the Senate, 
as well as in the House. 

On this question a deadlock occurred. The smaller States were im- 
movable. The Convention was about to end in failure. Unwilling to 
break up without result, the Convention, however, referred the matters 
at issue to a grand Committee composed of one member from each 
State. Mr. Davie represented North Carolina on that Committee. The 
smaller States had claimed equal representation in both Houses; the 
larger States now yielded their claim to representation in the Senate in 
proportion to population in consideration of a proviso that the Senate 
should have no power to alter or amend a money bill. Such was the 
compromise agreed on by the Committee. It was very distasteful to 
the larger States. North Carolina, however, abandoned her associa- 
tion with the larger States and voted with the smalter ones and carried 
the day. Thus it was that North Carolina, by throwing her voice in 
favor of an equal representation in the Senate, broke the deadlock and 
rendered it possible for the Constitution to be framed. Her action re- 
stored in a vital point the Federal system based on State equality. It 
preserved the sovereign character of the States and perpetuated the 
dogma of Statc*s rights, and set the key-stone in the arch which has 
supported the liberties of this country and prevented consolidation. 

On the floor of the Convention Mr. Williamson was the most active 
of the North Carolina delegation, but Mr. Spaight exerted a strong 
influence and doubtless contributed particularly to this important action 
which resulted in the framing of the Federal Constitution. 


the State, but the Federalist Party was still in power, and while 
he had acted with them in the matter of the Constitution he was 
still too much of a Republican to suit the conservatives, and 
Samuel Johnston was chosen. On the coming of the Stale into 
the new imion in 1789 he was also nominated for senator, but 
failed again for the same reasons as in 1787. 

These continued lalxirs had undermined the health of Spaight 
which was never robust, and he retired for the time from public 
life. The next four years were spent largely in efforts to bring 
back life and strength by travel in the West Indies and other 
mild climates, but while he was in a measure successful he never 
again enjoyed perfect health. 

He again represented New-Bern in the House of Commons 
in I79i, and was by that Assembly chosen governor. He suc- 
ceeded Alexander Martin and was in turn succeeded in 1795 by 
Samuel Ashe. In 1793, while governor, he was elected and 
served as elector for president and vice-president. It was during 
his administration that the Assembly first met in Raleigh, and 
that place became the fixed capital of the State. The Indians in 
Buncombe County also gave trouble, and he was called to face 
the question of neutrality in the threatened war between France 
and England. He issued a proclamation of neutrality on Sep- 
tember 25. 1793. and caused certain privateers, then being fitted 
out in Wilmington, to be seized. He was thus brought into con- 
flict with Bloodworth, and Hill, United States district attorney, 
but his position was sustained by the Federal authorities. 

After a few years in private life he was elected a representa- 
tive in Congress to fill the unexpired term of Nathan Bryan, 
deceased, and took his seat December 10, 1798 (3d sess., 5th 
Cong.). He was reelected to the sixth Congress, 1799-1801, but 
his feeble health during these years prevented him from taking 
an active part in the proceedings. When the contested presi- 
dential election of 1801 was thrown into the House of Repre- 
sentatives, Spaight with five of the other North Carolina rep- 
resentatives voted for Jefferson; the other four voted for Burr. 
At the end of the sixth Congress (March 4, 1801) he returned 


home and declined reelection. But the Republican Party was now 
in power, the Federalists were in desperate straits, and party spirit 
was at its highest. Spaight was the recognized leader of the 
Republicans in the New-Bern section, and John Stanly of the 
Federalists. Spaight was elected to represent Craven County 
in the State Senate in 1801 ; Stanly succeeded him as member of 
the Federal Congress. There were frequent discussions be- 
tween these leaders; these became personal and bitter; Stanly 
charged Spaight with dodging under plea of ill health when mat- 
ters of grave import, like the alien and sedition laws, came up in 
Congress. Spaight replied in a handbill, which caused Stanly 
to send a challenge. It was accepted and the contestants met on 
the outskirts of New-Bern on Sunday afternoon, September 5, 
1802. On the fourth fire Governor Spaight was mortally 
wounded and died the next day. Criminal proceedings were be- 
gun against Stanly ; he applied to the Governor for pardon, justi- 
fying his action. Stanly later attained positions of honor and 
died in 1834. 

Governor Spaight married about 1795 Miss Mary Leach, of 
Holmesburg, Pa. They had two sons: Richard Dobbs Spaight 
Jr., who also became governor, and Charles B. Spaight, and a 
daughter, Margaret, who married Honorable John R. Donnell. 
The sons died unmarried, but there are living descendants 
throughout the female line. 

That Spaight was republican to the core is evinced by his en- 
tering the American army when all previous training and personal 
historv would have carried him to the other side, and bv his 
espousal of the interests of the new radical party when offices and 
rewards seemed bound up with the conservatives ; that he was a 
man of ability is clearly shown by the numerous offices filled and 
by the early age at which they were attained. He performed 
always faithfully and well his duty as he saw it, and there is no 
stain on his public or private character. 

Stephen B. Weeks, 


gHE State of North Carolina has had two gov- 
ernors — father and son — who bore the name 
Richard Dohbs Spaight; and in the maternal 
line ihcy were descended from a sister of 
Arthur Dobbs, one of the royal governors. The 
_ family of Spaight, Uke that of Dobbs, was set- 
tled in Ireland. Sketches will be found elsewhere in this work 
of the elder Governor Spaight, and also of Governor Dobbs. 

Richard Dobbs Spaight, the younger, was bom in the town 
of New-Bern in ihe year 1796. When he was only six years old 
his father died (September 6. 1802) in consequence of a wound 
received the preceding day in a duel with ihe Honorable John 
Stanly. The diiel between these two gentlemen was the out- 
growth of a political controversy. 

The younger Spaight received his preparatory education in 
the schools of New-llcrn, and afterwards entered the University 
of North Carohna. From the latter institution he graduated in 
1815. Later be took up the study of law; and, in due time, re- 
ceived his license as an attorney. 

In 1819 Mr. Spaight sat as a member of the North Carolina 
House of Commons from his native county of Craven; and was 
State Senator therefrom in i8io, 1821 and 1822. Shortly tliere- 
after he was elected to the Eighteenth Congress of the United 
Slates, his term extending from December i, 1823, till March 3, 


1825. In the same year that he retired from Congress, he was 
again elected State Senator from Craven County, and served con- 
tinuously from 1825 till 1834. Twice during his career in the 
State Senate — in 1828 and 1830 — ^he was placed in nomination 
for Speaker ; but the honor on the first occasion fell upon a gentle- 
man with a surname somewhat similar to his own — ^the Honorable 
Jesse Speight — and the Honorable David F. Caldwell was elected 
in the second instance. 

In the State Constitutional Convention of 1835, the representa- 
tives from Craven County were Richard Dobbs Spaight and Wil- 
liam Gaston. In that body Mr. Spaight was chairman of the 
committee which prepared and submitted rules for the govern- 
ment of the Convention ; and was one of those who voted to re- 
peal that portion of the Constitution which, in terms, prohibited 
Roman Catholics from holding office — ^though this disqualifying 
clause had always been a dead letter, as shown by the political 
honors heaped upon Thomas Burke, William Gaston and other 
Roman Catholics, at different times in our State's history before 
the Constitution was amended in 1835. 

The General Assembly elected Mr. Spaight governor of North 
Carolina in 1835, ^^^ he was duly inaugurated on the loth of 
December in that year. He was the last governor elected by 
the Legislature. He served as governor a little more than 
one year, until December 31, 1836. when his successor, Edward 
B. Dudley (the first governor elected by popular vote) was sworn 
in. In this first contest before the people Spaight was the oppos- 
ing candidate to Dudley, but was defeated. 

Governor Spaight took little part in politics after his retire- 
ment from the executive chair. Returning to New-Bern, he 
there practised law until his death, which occurred on the 2d of 
November, 1850. He was never married. 

News of the death of Governor Spaight having reached Ral- 
eigh on the 2 1 St of November, the Legislature adjourned out of 
respect for his memory, in pursuance of the unanimous passage 
of a set of resolutions introduced by Senator William B. Shepard 
as follows: 



"Resolved: By the Senate and House of Commons, That Ihc members 
of the present Legislature have heart! with deep sensibility of the 
death of Richard Dobba Spaight, one of the Governors of the State of 
North Carohna, and the last under her old Constitution. 

Rfsolved: That in testimony of our respect for one who has fiUed 
the high position of Chief Magistrate of this Commonwealth, we will 

Resolved: That a copy of these resolutions, signed by the Speakers 
of the Senate and House of Commons, be forwarded to the family of 
the late Governor Spaight as a testimony of our sympathy in th 

Governor Spaighl was a zealous member of the Masonic Fra-' 
ternity and often attended sessions of the Grand Lodge. He was 
well posted on Masonic law. and an indefatigable worker on com- 
mittees. From December 14. 1830, till December 17, 1832, he was 
Grand Master of the Grand Lodge. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 




t R. SPEIGHT is a product of North Carolina 
country life. Born and reared in the country, 
lie has given his life, professionaUy and per- 
sonally, to country work and country people. 
Whatever is best in him he has given out to 
the country ; and whatever is best in the coun- 
try he has absorbed into himself. In him the progressive spirit 
of the New Soiuh, which takes its color from the modem city, 
has kept faith with the noble traditions of the Old South, which 
drew its inspiration from the plantation. He was bom on a farm 
in Edgecombe County, January 5, 1847. From his father, John 
Francis Speight, a minister of the Methodist Protestant Church, 
he inherited the talents which have made him a successful man 
of business, and the inclinations which have led him throughout 
his career to take an active interest in public affairs. His mother 
was Emma Lewis, a woman of strong religious convictions, whose 
influence on the religious anil spiritual life of her son Has been 
a constant source of strength to him since his childhood. From 
cliikihood he has been a member of the Methodist Protestant 

Dr. Speight was a delicate child and consequently was not 
given the regular tasks which usually fall to the lot of the country 
Ixiy. His great delight was running about the farm and roaming 
in the woods, where he fell in love with nature and learned the 

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language and habits of llie flowers and Ihe birds. At home his 
hours were chiefly devoted to reading, a habit which, becoming 
stronger as he advanced in life, has had no little to do with his 

His early school life was interrupted by the war between the 
States, At the age of seventeen he laid aside his books to assume 
the musket. In April. 1864, he entered the Army as a corporal 
in Company K., Sevenly-first North Carolina Regiment. His 
regiment participated in the battle of South West Creek, below 
Kinston, and in the battle of Bentonsville. Typhoid fever pre- 
vented his being present at the surrender of General Johnston.^ 

Upon his recovery from Ihe fever, Dr. Speight resumed his 
preparatory studies, and, after completing them, entered the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. Here he spent one and a half years 
and then entered upon his profej:sional studies at the University 
of Maryland. He received his degree in 1870, returned to Nortll 
Carolina and settled on Swift Creek, in Edgecombe County, in 
the midst of a fine farming section and delightful social Hfe. The 
next year he was married to Miss Margaret Powell, daughter 
of Mr. Jesse Powell, a prominent citizen of the county and one of 
Dr. SpL-igJil's neighbors. Their home, famous for its charming 
hospitality, soon became the centre of a dehghtful social life. 

Dr. Speight has led an active, arduous life as a practicing 
physician, and has earned well-deserved success in his profes- 
sion, of which he is a close and constant student. No drive is 
too long, no weather too severe, for him to attend to its exacting 
duties, and no patient is too humble to receive his most careful 
attention. He is a member of the Edgecombe County Medical 
Society, of wliich he has been several times president; an honorary 
member of the Wilson County Medical Society, and a member of 
the State Society, of which he has been vice-president and a mem- 
ber of its board of censors. 

Dr. Speight has large farming interests. His farms lie on 
Swift Creek and are among the most fertile, as well as among 
the best cultivated in the State. Cotton, com, tobacco and pea- 
nuts are produced in large quantities. He brings the same degree 


of intelligence and study into his farming that he does into the 
practice of his profession, and consequently realizes large divi- 
dends from his investments. 

As president of the Edgecombe County Farmers' Alliance, and 
as a prominent and active member of the State Farmers* Alliance, 
he has contributed no little to the development of the agricultural 
interests of North Carolina. His associates have recognized his 
services to the agricultural interests of the State by electing him 
in August, 1905, vice-president of the North Carolina Farmers' 
Alliance, and a delegate to the National Farmers' Congress 
at its annual meeting in Richmond. He is president of a 
cotton seed oil mill located near his farm, and has managed 
it with a considerable degree of success. The mill was erected 
largely throujjh his influence and energy and has proved a suc- 
cessful enterprise, contributing much to the upbuilding of the 
immediate section in which it is operated. 

But if there is anything in which Dr. Speight finds more in- 
terest than in the practice of medicine, it is in politics. In his 
political career he has done signal service to his county and to 
his State. An ardent Democrat in the larger meaning of the 
word, as well as in its party significance, his ardor finds vent in 
political service to the whole people regardless of party affilia- 
tion. He made his first essay into political life in 1885, when he 
was nominated by his party as a candidate for the State Senate 
from Edgecombe County. Defeated at the polls, he returned 
again to the contest in 1890 and was elected to the Senate by a 
majority of three hundred. His services in the Legislature were 
creditable to himself and acceptable to his constituents, so that in 
i8c)8 when political conditions in the State called her very best 
talent to the General Assembly, they rallied around Dr. Speight 
and sent him again to represent them. During this session he 
added greatly to his reputation as a wise and conscientious rep- 
resentative. Among the important services he rendered the State, 
two deserve especial mention. As chairman of the committee 
on Insane Asylums, he prepared and introduced the bill to revise. 
amend and consolidate the insanity laws of the State, a much 


needed measure, which, after considerable debate, passed both 
houses by large majorities. During the discussion, Dr. Speight's 
work received hearty commendation from his associates. The 
other service mentioned was the introduction of the bill to erect 
a memorial to Senator Vance. Dr. Speight's bill carried an ap- 
propriation of $3,000 for the erection of a statue of the great 
war governor in the capito! square, but with his consent it was 
amended so as to increase the sum appropriated to $5,000. The 
bill as amended passed both Houses by rising votes. The presi- 
dent of the Senate appointed Senator Speight a member of the 
committee to select the statue. The visitor to Raleigh cannot 
fail to be impressed with the good taste and fidelity with which 
the committee fulillied its duty. If the example thus set by Dr. 
Speight and his associates in honoring the memory of one of 
North Carolina's great sons shall be followed by future legis- 
latures, this service will entitle him and them to the gratitude of 
the patriotic citizens of the State. Few, if any. States have been 
more backward in erecting memorials to their distinguished 
leaders than North Carolina ; yet there is no other way in which a 
State can so effectively stimulate in her sons a worthy and proper 
ambition to patriotic public service, a sentiment which is the true 
foundation of success in a Republican Government. The people 
of his county showed their appreciation of his service in the 
Senate by reelecting Dr. Speight to the General Assembly of 
1901. During this session he again served as chairman of the 
committee on Insane Asylums. 

Dr. Speight's services to the State have not been confined to his 
legislative career. He was appointed by Governor Elias Carr 
a director of the North Carolina Insane Asylum and served on 
the board for six years. In 1900 he was reappointed by Governor 
Russell, but, as he was a member of the General Assembly, de- 
clined to serve. In the spring of 1905 he was appointed a mem- 
ber of the board of directors of the State Prison, 

In 1890 he was a delegate from North Carolina to the National 
Convention of the Democratic Party. 

Dr. Speight's private life has been singularly happy. He 13 


father of a large family, twelve children having been bom to 
him, eleven of whom are living. These are the children of his 
first wife, whom he lost after a married life of twenty-three years. 
In 1896 he was married to Miss Margaret Whitefield, daughter 
of George W. Whitefield, who was a prominent lawyer of Edge- 
combe, and later of Wilson County. They have no children. 
Their home is one of those ideal Southern homes that one rarely 
finds except in novels. A large, roomy, rambling house, situated 
in a beautiful grove, surrounded by green pastures and broad 
fields, it is known far and wide for its open and enticing hospi- 

Dr. Speight is fond of outdoor life. His favorite sport is fol- 
lowing the hounds, and he keeps a pack constantly about him. 
His open-air life has developed the delicate boy into a robust man 
of great physical endurance, active, energetic, persevering and 
determined. It has taught him the value of close and accurate 
observation, so that he is well versed in the habits of nature. 
But with it all, he is very uncommunicative, a fact that produces 
a little surprise when one discovers behind his silence a fund of 
quiet humor, none the less striking because it is altogether un- 
expected. He takes an active but not officious interest in the 
welfare of his neighbors, to whom he is always ready to extend 
a helping hand whenever he can be of service. These habits 
of life and qualities of character coupled with a strong love of 
home and home-life have been the foundation upon which his 
success has been built. 

R. D. W. Connor. 



"Under the inHuencc of such feelings, and impelled by fanalicism 
«nd love of power, ihey would not stop at emancipation. Another 
step would be taken— lo raise them to a political and social equality 
with ihcir former owners — by giving them the right of voting and 
holding office." — John C. Calhoun, in 1849, 

[ EIE altitude of the people of the South towards 
the Union at the end of tlie war was affected, 
more or le.'^s, by the political antecedents of indi- 
viiluals. Those who believed secession to be 
a method of separation authorized by the Fcd- 
vrnl Constitution felt that they had done their 
best, their wliole duty, and now preferred submission to pro- 
longing what was necessarily a desperate and hopeless strtigple. 
Those who had regarded that dogma as an unjustifiable political 
heresy accepted its final overthrow with more equanimity. Both 
classes, however, welcomed peace, not with glad hearts, but with 
contented resignation, looking to the future with an anxiety not 
unniingled with hope, and determining with God's help to make 
the best of conditions which they could not control. The sol- 
dier, too, welcomed peace. To him it was a cessation of the hard- 
ships, privations, and dangers to which he had been hourly ex- 
posed, and to his kinsfolk it brought relief from the terrible 
strain of a continuous anxiety about the loved ones at the front. 
Certainly all these classes desired and hoped for the reestablish- 


ment of civil government, and that could be expected only in the 
Union. There is no possible room for doubt that they were 
wholly sincere in accepting the situation and attempting to ac- 
commodate themselves to it. There was no pretence of a revived 
love for the Union. They hoped that with justice and fair treat- 
ment by their conquerors it might come later. Now it was a 
sighing for peace and an opportunity to rehabilitate their fortunes. 
They would not have been surprised at some proscription among 
them, indeed rather expected it. They never once presumed to 
hope that they could take up the thread of their political life 
right where they had broken it four years before. They did not 
think they could become immediately an active part of that gov- 
ernment which they had fought to destroy. "The people of 
North Carolina,'* said their representatives in Legislature as- 
sembled December 9, 1865, "are loyal to the Government of the 
United States, and are readv to make anv concessions not incon- 
sistent with their honor and safety for the restoration of that 
harmony upon which their prosperity and security depend." 

The negro, intoxicated with his new-found freedom, embraced 
it as bringing to him life without work and without the control 
of the dominant white man. He loved to realize it by severing 
old ties, by changing his name, by moving from place to place, 
and by insolently, in season and out of season, announcing that he 
was as good as any white man, a doctrine taught him by his 
liberators. In this, truly, was the beginning of evils, which, 
though in a modified form, continue until this day. For him, 
with a child*s intellect and a child*s experience of the world 
united with a man's strength and a man*s passions, there must 
be an era of tutelage before he should be fitted for the duties of 
citizenship. Could the old master, between whom and him were 
many ties of affection and gratitude, be trusted to train and guide 
him in the affairs of this world? Could the Southern churches, 
always interested in his moral and religious welfare, be trusted 
with his moral and religious training? No, said the radicals; his 
friends were at the North, his enemies at the South. Converting 
John C. Calhoun's prophecy of 1849 '^^o history by using the 


past, instead of the future, tense, "Owing his eniandpaiion to 
the people of the North, the negro regarded tlieni as friends, 
guardians and patrons, and centered alt his sympathy in them. 
The people of the North did not fail to reciprocate, and favored 
him instead of the whites." 

The first outcome of this feeling was the Freedman's Bureau, 
a benevolent mistake, tending more to intensify evil conditions 
than to alleviate them, causing the negro to look more and more 
to the North for aid and less and less to his neighbors of the 
South. In some instances the officer in charge of a local bureau 
was a man of intelligence and character, who realized the delicate 
responsibilities of his position and sought lo do justice between 
white and black ; but this seemed to render him obnoxious to the 
powers that were, and he was soon removed. Others were liltle- 
souled tyrants, bent on humiliating the whites, as they pandered 
to the more dangerous passions of the negroes. All this, however. 
was endurable. It lo some extent might have been expected. 
Something must be allowed to the smaller passions of the con- 
querors. The souls of many men are so pent in the narrow limits 
of self-love lliat there is no room for magnanimity. It is a gift 
of God onlv to tlic iruly great. So the Soulh did not expect its 
conquerors to be magnanimous ; it did hope that they would be 
wise. The thrusting of unlimited negro suffrage upon it then 
was a bitter disappointment as well as a terrible humiliation. It 
made of government a curse instead of a blessing, a source of 
corruption instead of a foe to corruption. 

I do not assert that the South had a monopoly of virtue, and 
the radicals at the North a monopoly of hatred. There were 
extremists at the South, too; irreconcilables, men whose advice 
was dictated wholly by their passions, so was as wholly unwise. 
The essential difference between the sections is to be found in 
this — the radicals at the North were the predominant element, 
whereas in the South the extremists were a small and uninflu- 
ential minority. This arose not from any dissimilarity in the 
characters of the two peoples, but solely because one was the con- 
queror and the other the conquered. With the latter occupying 


to some degree the position of a suppliant, cautious counsels must 
prevail. The white race of the South had its defects, but it 
was not sordid. Its long association with an inferior race which 
it held in bondage tended to make it proud, self-suf&cient» and 
sometimes overbearing, if not cruel. But nowhere in the world 
was the white man so free, so independent, so sensitive to any 
encroachments upon his natural or political rights, as in the South 
before the war. When, therefore. Congress made the recent 
slave the political master of this proud, this self-reliant, this sensi- 
tive race, it established a slavery more corrupting, more debasing, 
more cruel than that which had recently been abolished by con- 
stitutional amendment. The evils resulting from such a policy 
were so evident and so far-reaching that the leaders in Congress 
could not have adopted it unless they had first been blinded by 
fanaticism, by hatred, or by lust for political power. 

The news of the perpetration of this infamy, as they called it, 
was received by the people of North Carolina with intense bitter- 
ness. What should they do? The vilest negro brute who stood 
upon the street comers and crowded ladies off the sidewalk, lest 
they should come into contact with his bestial person, could vote, 
while General Lee and Governor Vance and thousands of the 
best citizens could not. What could they do? To fight was no 
longer possible. Expatriate themselves? They were poverty- 
stricken, their property, if they owned any, burdened with mort- 
gages, and they could take nothing with them. Besides, was it not 
their country, their home, won by the blood or sweat of their an- 
cestors? Could they bear with patience the thought that these 
negroes, these slaves but of yesterday, African barbarians, who 
now were their political equals and absorbing to themselves the 
lion's share of all public places and public utilities, should also 
be looking forward to the time when they would become the social 
equals of their wives or daughters or sisters? It was then that 
the Ku Klux Klan (I use the term generally) appeared in the 
State, and it was welcomed by some, as, if not a solution of the 
problem, certainly tending to ameliorate conditions. 

This organization, arrogating to itself as it did the power of 


punishment and of life and death, would under normal conditions 
have been a deadly threat to the peace and welfare of the com- 
munity, and as such all the power of the Government should have 
been exerted to destroy it. The excuse for its existence then must 
be found in the conditions which gave rise to it. The negro 
(I repeat), yesterday a docile slave, to-day a political master 
and wild with the delusion that, at last, he had the white man 
at his feet ! — were ever conditions so maddening to a proud and 
Iiigh-spirited race as they were to the people of the South at that 
period? But this was not all. An ignorant and corrupt majority 
has never yet lacked unprincipled leaders. Profligates from the 
North joined profligates from the South (carpet-baggers and scal- 
awags) in the great feast which the wise men of the day had 
spread for them. They brought the Union League with them, 
ostensibly to protect the negro in the enjoyment of his civil and 
political rights, but really to make of him a political unit wholly 
under the control of these profligate adventurers. It became an 
instrument for the intimidation (destruction in some instances) 
of a smalt class of negroes who were not only willing but anxious 
to confide in their former masters. But the Union League was 
more than an efficient political machine. It became a military 
organization in which the negroes were armed and drilled and 
taught that they had nothing to fear from the whites, that the 
United States Government would sustain and defend them, do 
what they might ; that their friends were in office and would con- 
tinue in office ; that the whites, far from having any rights which 
they were bound to respect, were a conquered and degraded race, 
whose lands were nltimately to be taken from them and parceled 
out among the loyal negroes. The effect on the credulous, un- 
taught African mind was powerful. All this before the organiza- 
tion of the Ku Klux. An open organization among the whites, 
even for protection, was an impossibility. It would have been 
heralded at the North as disloyal. It would have brought about 
numerous conflicts between the armed whites and the armed blacks, 
resulting in a race war whose horrors can scarcely be imagined, 
with interposition of the Federal Government not to be avoided. 


But the Klan with its secrecy, its weird methods and disguises, 
its gruesome symbols and its appalling midnight raids, could in- 
timidate and control the negro, and administer justice to criminals 
who otherwise would escape, without drawing upon the people at 
large the vengeance of the Federal Government. 

Arguments like these appealed to many good men and they 
became members of the Klan, while others as patriotic, but more 
conservative, declined to have anything to do with an organiza- 
tion w^hose mission was confessedly illegal. 

It was in 1868 that signs of its existence began to appear in 
Orange, Alamance and Caswell Counties, weird warnings to the 
obnoxious, persistent rumors of ghostly night-riders, who after 
riding about would disappear at some old cemetery; notices 
tacked up, decorated with skull and crossbones and signed by 
some potentate of the infernal regions; rough board cof&ns left 
at the house over night of some loud-mouthed and insolent negro 
leader, etc., all intended to excite the superstitious fears of the 
most superstitious of all semi-civilized races. Upon the negroes 
at large the effect was immediate. Their tone became milder, 
their approaches to the more respectable whites more respectful. 
The drunken street loafer was converted into a busy laborer, the 
politician ceased to harangue crowds of idle negroes on the streets, 
and ladies could pass along them without danger of insult. 
But this improvement was not agreeable to the leaders of the 
negroes. All the power of the Union League was invoked to up- 
hold the courage of its members. To do this they must be con- 
vinced that what they had seen or heard was not supernatural, 
but only white men whom they knew, masquerading for effect. 
Night after night the bolder spirits among them were put as 
spies about the home of any suspected white man. Soon, how- 
ever, this was discovered, and the watchers were driven off. 
This counter movement among the negroes must be checked, so 
some of the negro leaders were taken out of their houses at night 
and whipped by disguised horsemen. To this point there is no 
doubt that the Klan had the situation well in hand. Then the 
white radicals suggested to the negroes retaliation, and the bum- 


ing of barns and other buildings cx)mnienced, to be followed, how- 
ever, almost immediately by the swift justice of these midnight 
executioners. The barn-burners were either shot or hung. The 
next step in this progressive war was a movement among the 
Ku K!ux themselves to rid the section of the obnoxious white 
radicals who they had good reason to believe were the histi- 
gators of this retaliation or had taken an active part in the attempt 
to make the negro the political master of the white man. 

Judge Albion W. Tourgee was once condemned by the KJan, 
but the condemnation was reversed at the insistence of one of 
the most influential leaders of the organization, and he was not 
molested. T, M. Shofner, of Alamance (author of the Shofner 
Act), was condemned, and he saved his life only by fleeing. John 
W. Stephens, of Caswetl, was condemned, and after repeated 
warnings executed. 

"John Walter Stephens was bom in Guilford County October 
14, 1834. His parents were good people, comfortably situated on 
a farm, and were consistent members of the Methodist Church. 
His father died when he was about eighteen years of age, leaving 
a wife, four sons, and two daughters. Waller, with his brothers, 
lived on the farm and supported the family. A few years later he 
learned to make harness, and went into tlie harness business. His 
education was of a very ordinary sort, for he had only the advan- 
tages of the common schools. He studied a great deal at home, 
however. When he grew into more matured life he often mourned 
his lack of education, and he used to say that was what every poor 
man owed to slavery." 

Later he took up his residence in Wentworth, where his first 
wife died, and he married again. About this time he engaged in 
the tobacco business and became agent and collector at York- 
ville. South Carolina, for a manufacturer named Powell. 

He was residing in North Carolina at the outbreak of the war, 
but refused to volunteer, and saved himself from conscription 
by securing a petty office under the Confederate Government. 

It was after his return to Wentworth that he killed two of a 
neighbor's chickens, which were trespassing upon his grain, and 


carried them to the wife of that neighbor and offered them to 
her, an offer which she in the heat of temper declined. He then 
took them back to his own house and had them cooked for his 
dinner. That afternoon the neighbor, Mr. Ratcliffe, had him ar- 
rested for larceny and he was bound over to court. Being unable 
to secure the bond, he spent one night in jail. As soon as he was 
released the next day he armed himself with a stick and a pistol, 
went across to Ratcliffe's store and attacked him, striking him 
a heavy blow on his head. A Lieutenant Baker, standing by, at- 
tempted to interfere, and Stephens, drawing his pistol, opened 
fire, wounding Baker (fortunately a scalp wound) and a young 
fellow named Law, a son of a magistrate, in an arm. It was this 
episode that afterwards gave him so much trouble when he be- 
came a politician, causing him to be dubbed by his foes Chicken 
Stephens. He may be wholly absolved from any felonious intent 
in the transaction (I have given his own story), still the episode 
with its sequel throws some light on the immediate cause of his 
death, and I relate it for what it is worth. 

In 1866 he removed to Yancey ville, in Caswell County, and, 
realizing his opportunity, when the suffrage was conferred upon 
the negro he became a Republican. 

Conditions in Caswell at that time were different from those 
in any one of the group of counties immediately about it. While 
the negroes were in a majority, they were influenced by Wilson 
Cary to divide offices with the whites, and the latter generally 
were allowed the county commissioners and one member of the 
House of Representatives, Wilson himself being the other mem- 
ber. He was an old-line negro, and out of politics was probably 
as valuable a citizen as could be found among his race. Stephens. 
however, soon became a political power in the county, head of the 
Union League and general organizer of the negroes. 

It is difficult for one who did not live at the period to under- 
stand the virulence of party animosity at that time. But when 
he realizes that each campaign was a contest for supremac>'' bc- 
Iwccn the races, the difficulty vanishes. White men like Stephens. 
then, who organized, controlled and directed the political strength 


of the negroes, in opposition to the whites, was by them regarded 
as the very worst of traitors and the vilest of criminals — just 
as it would be now if there should be a war between the races 
and a white man should lead the negroes to the destruction of 
his own race. John W. Stephens was one of the shrewdest and 
boldest and most vindictive of the negro leaders. He it was who 
in the Union League meetings suggested lo the negroes retalia- 
tion upon the whites. He it was who organized a system of spy- 
ing upon those white men who were thought to be of the Klan, 
and he was himself the active agent of the government in the at- 
tempt to destroy the Klan in the county of Caswell. In this sense, 
it became a life-and -death struggle between hini and that organiza- 
tion. After numerous warnings and opportunities to make his 
escape or change his manner of life, he was condemned, and agents 
to exeaite the decree of the Klan were appointed. 

There was a Democratic meeting in the court house at Yancey- 
ville. May 21. 1870. Squire Hodneit was speaking and Stephens 
was present, taking notes. Ex-Sheriff F. A. Wiley had been 
approached by him in the morning with a proposition that he. 
Wiley, should be a candidate for the office of sheriff on the Re- 
publican ticket, and Wiley had promised to give him an answer 
before he left town. Mr. Wiley, as he was preparing to leave for 
his home, went up-stairs. spoke lo Stephens as he sal in the crowd 
of listeners, and the two went down-stairs. Stephens was seen 
no more alive. Wiley afterwards by satisfactory evidence ac- 
counted for his own movements. He had called Stephens down 
to tell him that it was impossible for him to comply with his re- 
quest in regard to the shrievalty, and after some further con- 
versation had left him standing near the door of the court house, 
and had himself immediately gone and made his preparations 
for return home. 

Stephens was missed a half-hour before sunset. The next 
morning his body was found in the room formerly occupied by 
the derk and master in equity, but then used as a wood room. 
It was lying upon a pile of wood and about his neck was a slip- 
noose buried deep in his flesh, while on each side of his neck and 


in his breast were wounds made by a dirk. Beside him lay his 
hat and the bloodv dirk with which he had been stabbed. The 
deringers which it was known he had with him were gone, but 
his gold watch and chain were unmolested. There were a few 
drops of blood on the floor and one on the window sill, and the 
door was found to be locked and thumb-bolted on the inside. 

There can be no reasonable doubt that Stephens was executed 
by authority of a decree of the Ku Klux Klan, and that his exe- 
cutioners were very few in number. Who they were no one, un- 
less some of their number are still living, knows. Able detectives 
for years after the event worked upon the problem and were never 
able to get a clue. Rumors there have been, mere gossip, which 
could not for a moment stand the test of intelligent investigation. 
It may be that the members of the Klan, in or about Yancewille, 
knew that Stephens was to be executed if possible that day, and 
it is almost certain that they were stationed about with a view 
to prevent interference, but that they knew who the executioners 
were is not at all probable. There is a very strong impression 
among some that the deed was done by strangers from a distance, 
made up and disguised for the purpose, aided and abetted by the 
resident members of the Klan who could be safely trusted, but 
without their knowledge of the minutiae of the act or of the per- 
sonnel of the actors. 

It is too close to the event to measure with accurate scales 
the guilt of the transaction, but it is certain that much the larger 
share of it must be imputed to the wise men of the day who 
thought that they could by legislation, or by force, reverse the 
laws of God and of nature. 

Stephens, under ordinary conditions, would have been a man 
of average usefulness, and could have proven a good character in 
court at any time ; but there was no man who used negro suffrage 
as a means for his own political elevation who was not polluted 
by it, and Stephens was not an exception. His vote and his influ- 
ence were both to be counted on by the rogues in 1868-9, whether 
he participated in the distribution of the spoils or not. He rep- 
resented Caswell in the Senate of that L^slature, and he enjoyed 



the prominence which that position gave him. He could retain 
it only with the aid of his negro constituents, and he courted 
their favor in ways that rendered him wholly obnoxious to the 
whites. He, though formerly a consistent member of tlie Metho- 
dist Church, was dismissed from its communion in disgrace. 
He was not a criminal in a legal sense, deserving death. He was 
only a self-seeker, without the excuse even of fanaticism, op- 
posing himself against the strongest prejudices of a maddened 
and outraged people. What wonder then that he should have 
been consumed by their wrath ! 

Frank Nask. 



[ HE North Carolina statesman, David Stone, be- 
longed to a New England family whose earliest 
American ancestor, Gregory Stone, was born in 
England in 1592 and died in Massachusetts in 
1672. He married Lydia Cooper, and among 
his children was John Stone (bom in 1619, died 
1683), who accompanied his father to America. This John Stone 
married Annie Howe and had (among other children) David 
Stone, who was born in 1646 and died at Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts, in 1737. Samuel Stone, a son of this David, was the father 
of Zedekiah Stone of North Carolina. 

Zedekiah Stone was bom in Massachusetts in 1710. He re- 
moved to North Carohna in Colonial days and settled on lands 
purchased from the Tuscarora Indians in Bertie County. 
Throughout the Revolution he was a firm patriot and served the 
State in many civil capacities. He was a member of the Provin- 
cial Congress at Hillsboro in August, 1775 ; member of the Com- 
mittee to procure arms and ammunition for the Continental Army, 
April 19, 1776; member of the Provincial Congress at Halifax in 
November, 1776; commissioner to procure guns for public use, 
December 4, 1776; and State Senator from Bertie County in 1777, 
1778, 1779. and after the war in 1786. The number of slave* 
owned by him in 1790 was twenty-five. He married Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Hobson, vec Williamson, and one of his children was David 


Stone, our present subject. Zedekiah Stone died in December, 

David Stone was born on the 17th day of February, 1770, at 
Hope, his father's home, about five miles from the town of Wind- 
sor. His father, being a man of means, determined to give him 
the best educational advantages, and sent him to Princeton, from 
which college he graduated with the first honors in 1788. Re- 
turning to North Carolina, he studied law imder General William 
Richardson Davie at Halifax, and in 1790 was licensed to practise. 
In the same year, not being yet twenty-one years of age, he rep- 
resented Bertie County in the House of Commons and was con- 
tinuously reelected until 1795. In that year, at the early age of 
twenty-five, he was elevated to the bench, but resigned his judge- 
ship after a service of three years. In 1799 he was elected a Mem- 
ber of Congress, but so shining were his talents and so extraordi- 
nary his popularity that the following year, November, 1800, at 
the age of but thirty, he was elected to the United States Senate, 
to succeed Timothy Bloodworth, and served until the beginning 
of the year 1807. Jesse Franklin having been elected to succeed 
him in the Senate, the Legislature at the same session, on Decem- 
ber 15, 1S06, elected Mr. Slone to a judgeship, and he resigned 
as senator to enter on his duties as judge. After a service on the 
bench of two years he was in November, 1808, elected governor, 
was sworn in as such a fortnight later, and served two annual 
terms, the last ending December 5, 1810, when his successor. Gov- 
ernor Benjamin Smith, was inaugurated. 

During Governor Stone's term of office one of the most im- 
portant matters before ihe public eye was the celebrated suit by 
the heirs of Earl Granville to recover the northern half of North 
Carolina. As far back as 1729, when the other Lords Proprietors 
of Carolina sold their lands to the Crown, the Earl of Granville 
had retained the domain which was apportioned to him, being the 
northern half of this State, and this descended in the house of 
Granville until the time of the Revolution, when it was confiscated. 
After the war suit was brought by Lord Granville's heirs for the 
recovery of this vast tract. The plaintiffs finally lost their suit, 




but the case caused some consternation in North Carolina for a 
while. It was pending while Governor Stone filled the executive 
chair, and he urged the importance of making some provision to 
meet the claims of those who had purchased from the State, in 
case of a decision against the sufficiency of the title derived from 
the State. "The honor of the State," said he, "is greatly inter- 
ested that her citizens who have confided in her justice should not 
be placed at the mercy of an alien to our laws and Government" 
At the next session Governor Stone reentered the North Carolina 
House of Commons from Bertie County, serving in 1811 and 1812. 
On the 7th of December, 1812, the war having begun, he was 
again elected to the United States Senate, taking the place of 
Jesse Franklin, who had defeated him six years before. Although 
elected as a war man, Mr. Stone's course relative to war meas- 
ures in Congress met with great disapproval in North Carolina, 
and resolutions of strong censure were adopted by the L^sla- 
ture which caused him to resign after attending but two sessions 
of the Senate. On December i, 181 3, the State Senate appointed 
a committee to act jointly with a committee from the Lower House 
in taking into consideration the course of Mr. Stone as a Senator. 
This committee consisted of State Senators Thomas Wynns of 
Hertford, John Branch of Halifax, and Colonel Joseph Hawkins 
of the county of Warren. This action (looking to inquiry) by 
the Sfitate Senate was taken by a majority of five in that body, and 
on December 2d the House of Commons concurred by a majority 
of four, appointing on said joint committee Messrs. Thomas Ruf- 
fin, borough representative from the town of Hillsboro. Lewis 
Williams of Surry, John Hare of Granville, John Craige of 
Orange. William R. Johnson of Warren, and R. Carter Hilliard 
of Nash. On December 15, 1813, this joint committee (through 
Senator Branch) laid its findings before the Legislature in the 
following language : 

"The committee appointed to inquire into the political conduct of David 
Stone. Esquire, a Senator from this State in the Congress of the United 
States, respectfully report that it was to have been expected that any 
man who valued the honor and safety of his country ¥rould not have 


wilhhcld (hat aid which was indispensable to the preservation of both; 
much less was it to be anticipated that one who to the dulies of a citizen had 
superadded the strongest professions of his approbation of the measures 
of the general Government in entering into the war — who impliedly, if 
not expressly, avowed himself among the foremost of its supporters — 
would have adopted a course of conduct directly opposite to that ex- 
pected by his constituents and hostile to the honor and interests of his 
country. This has been done by the Honorable David Stone. The senti- 
ments of ihe people of this State and of the LegiMature at its last session 
were unequivocally in favor of a prosecution of the war in which the 
United Slates was engaged with Great Britain. Their opinions were 
known 10 Mr. Stone, and those professed by him were in unison with 
them; under these professions he was chosen a Senator, No circum- 
stance has since occurred to alter the opinions of the people of this State 
or of that body by whom he was chosen; no circumstance could occur 
which would authorize a change of these opinions so long as we value 
our national character and desire that the peace which we so ardently 
wish for may be obtained without disgrace ; yet we find that, for reasons 
which he has thought proper to withhold from the people of this Slate, the 
conduct of Mr, Stone has been directly in opposition to his professions; 
and we are forced to believe that he avowed principles which he did not 
possess, or that he without cause changed the course of his poliliea! con- 
duct, whereby he has. as far as his voice or his example could extend, 
jeopardiMfl the safely and interests of his country. Justice demands that 
those who are fighting our battles should receive the support confiding in 
which they enlisted under our banners. Honor forbids the adoption of 
any measure by which our national character may be tarnished, and 
policy dictates a vigorous prosecution of the war, by which we may obtain 
an early and an honorable termination of it. 

"Rcsoh-rd, therefore, That the said David Stone hath disappointed the 
reasonable expectations and incurred the disapprobation of this General 

The above resolutions were duly adopted by a small majority; 
but man>' of the leading members of the General Assembly 
joined in demanding that their formal protest against such cen- 
sure should be entered on the journals of the two Houses. The 
protests will be found in the Senate Journal of December 25th, 
and in the House Journal of the same date. Among the fourteen 
Senators protesting we find the well-known names of Archibald 
D, Murjdiey of Orange. Robert Williams of Pitt, John Hinton of 
Wake, Archibald McBryde of Moore, and Barnabas McKinne, 


Jr., of Wayne. Attached to the protest entered on the House 
Journal we find the signatures of John Stanly, Duncan Cameron, 
James Iredell, Maurice Moore, Paul Barringer, William Boylan, 
John Steele, Jesse A. Pearson, and thirty-four others — forty-two 
in all. 

It will be observed that the above vote of censure does not 
specify the actions of Senator Stone for which he was so strongly 
assailed. A series of resolutions in the House of Commons on 
the 23d of November, 181 3 (the consideration of which was in- 
definitely postponed), had contained the following specifications 
against him : that he "did, for reasons best known to himself, but 
in opposition to the true and obvious interest and policy of the 
United States, and contrary to the wishes and expectations of the 
good people of this State, vote against a law imposing a direct 
tax on the people of the United States in order to support the 
war; against the act laying an embargo to restrain and prohibit 
the illicit intercourse and correspondence kept up in time of war 
by the British Tories of our country with the cruel and savage 
enemy hovering on our seacoast and feeding them from our har- 
bors and shores ; against the appointment by the President of the 
Honorable Albert Gallatin as Ambassador to the Court of Russia." 

The slight majority in the Assembly against his course per- 
haps determined Senator Stone to await the verdict of a new As- 
sembly, and he withheld his resignation until the meeting of the 
next session. A year later, November 21, 1814, he tendered his 
resignation, and his letter to Governor Hawkins was laid before 
the House of Commons December 5, 1814. The full document 
will be found in the Journal of that body. Among other things, 
Senator Stone said that when first solicited bv members of the 
Legislature to become a candidate he had answered that, while 
he should feel honored by the choice, he did not desire the office, 
but would serve a session or two if chosen; that he could not 
promise them to serve longer, as his family and domestic concerns 
required his personal attention. He then continues : 

"It is true I hoped to be able to attend till I could hail the return of 
peace to my country. But a short attendance at the summer session of 


l8lj convinced me that this was a vain hope. It was not possible for me 
to think that to wage the war, in which wc were engaged, by embargo, by 
miiitia tours of duty for distant expeditions, by short enlistments of regular 
troops, by a profuse and, as I verily believed, unnecessary expenditure 
of public money, and by sending our most distinguished citizens lo trav- 
erse Europe as solicitors for peace, could lead to a speedy and honorable 
termination of the war. Indeed so very strange did these things ap- 
pear lo mc, as war measures, that to my judgment it seemed, it the 
enemy had dictated our course, he could not well have selected one that 
would with more certainty, and scarcely with more expedition, conduct 
«s to a division among ourselves — to bankruptcy and, as I feared, to 
ruin! Not being able, therefore, lo approve nor to withstand the torrent by 
which wc were urged forward, 1 determined neither to incur responsibility 
for measures adopted against my judgment nor longer to engage myself 
in the disagreeable task of opposing those legislative provisions by a 
majority thought necessary for carrying on an arduous war. but to retire 
to private life and wait with resignation tor a more auspicious season 
when the delirium of the moment should pass away. On my arrival at 
Riilcigh during the last session of the Legislature, with the intention to 
resign, I found a degree of excitement prevailing in that body which for- 
bade me placing in their hands so important a trust as that of appointing 
A Senator. How this excitement had been produced I neither knew nor 
inquired ; nor did I care further than this, ihat it was much mortification 
to me that the legislative council of the Stale should be so greatly agitated 
by so senseless a clamor. Much against my wish I attended the last ses- 
sion of Congress. When the embargo was again recommended by the 
President, and passed again by a large majority of the House of Repre- 
sentative*. I as a member of the Senate voted for it, not becaiiM my 
opinion of the measure was in the least altered, but because the suffering 
it must occasion would in a short time, I hoped, recall the sober sense 
of the nation, and we should finally gel rid of that self -destroying engine 

The political atmosphere of our country is so loaded 

with clouds and threatening in its aspect that I should certainly retnatn 
at the post assigned me if I conceived that by remaining I could be of 
any service, whatever sacrifice it might cost me. But my opinion and 
views differ so radically from those of the persons who conduct the affairs 
of the nation, and who appear to be strongly supported by the public senti- 
ment of (he nation, and as I am conscious I possess a very fallible judg- 
ment, but which, such as it is. must be my guide in the performance of 
my public duty, entirely independent of and uncontrolled by party, I 
therefore conclude it is best for me to withdraw from the scene." 

It has been said that after the resignation of Senator Stone he 


never regained his political popularity. We may also add that he 
never sought it. He had learned by long experience that political 
honors did not necessarily carry happiness with them. He longed 
to be free from public duties. An interesting family was grow- 
ing up about him, and to these children he now turned his 
thoughts. Had the gratification of ambition been a source of de- 
light to him, he would have been the happiest man in North Car- 
olina. He was only forty-eight years old at the time of his death. 
In the short space of twenty-two years — from 1790 till 1812 — he 
had been seven times elected a member of the North Carolina 
House of Commons, once elected a Congressman, twice elected 
judge, twice elected governor, and twice elected United States 

Governor Stone was married twice: first, on March 13, 1793, 
to Hannah Turner, a sister of Judge William Turner of Ten- 
nessee, by whom he had one son and four daughters ; and second, 
in June, 181 7, to Sarah Dashiell, who had no children. The son 
died childless ; but through his daughters there are many descend- 
ants of Governor Stone now living. 

The death of Governor Stone occurred in Wake County on the 
7th of October, 181 8. That event was recorded by the Raleigh 
Register in its issue of October 9th as follows : 

"Died. At his seat on Ncuse River, on Wednesday morning. David 
Stone. Esquire, a gentleman of great erudition and learning, who had filled 
every honorable appointment which the State could bestow, having presided 
over it as governor, been member of both Houses of Congress, had at two 
different periods a seat on the bench of justice, and was frequently in 
the Legislature of the State. His residence was formerly in Bertie County; 
but for several years past he has lived as a private citizen, cultivating 
a valuable estate in this vicinity. He has left a widow, a numerous family, 
and many friends to deplore his loss." 

Governor Stone's grave is now in the centre of a dense Wake 
County wilderness — a place as wild as when the Red man had 
no rival claimant to the soil. No human habitation is near. Yet 
on this spot once stood a happy home surrounded by fertile gar- 
dens and fruitful orchards. To find it one must go east from 


Raleigh along the county road, which is an extension of New- 
Bern Avenue, take a plantation road about a mile beyond Neuse 
River, and another mile southward on this will bring the visitor 
to a point as near the place as a vehicle can go. Then walking 
some hundreds of vards through a great pine forest, one comes 

"A grave in the woods with grass o'ergrown." 

Here rests all that is mortal of David Stone, sometime Judge, 
Governor of North Carolina, and United States Senator! By him 
are interred his wife and one of his children. No monument 
marks the spot, but a heavy granite wall has survived the ravages 
of time and incloses the three graves. Nearly covered by leaves 
and underbriish are the fallen chimneys of his house. "The wind 
passeth over it and it is gone ; and the place thereof shall know it 
no more." 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 

SAMUEL McDowell tate 

f O more fortunate environment for the produc- 
tion of men of a high t>pe has been found than 
tlie border tier of our quondam Slave States 
ftirnislicd to the generation which reached man- 
hood at the opening of the Civil War, and no 
heredity was more pronounced and vivacious 
than has marked the Protestant families of North Ireland, whether 
of French, English, or Scotch extraction. 

Tlie subject of this sketch was born under the conditions above 
indicated and came of the race we think so highly favored — his 
ancestry in both lines being a graft of French Protestants upon 
Scotch-Irish stock, that stock which for two centuries past has 
shown good blood on sea and shore. Of it were the men who 
starved in Londonderry and who marched under Havelock to the 
relief of Lucknow. Its scions rowed up the St, Lawrence under 
Wolfe, stormed King's Mountain, and charged at Cowpens, They 
in a large measure laid the foundation of our civil greatness by 
relentless opposition to any union, however faint, of Church and 
State, and to any constitution which savored at all of a monar- 
chical cast. 

Samuel McDowell Tate, eldest son and child of David and 
Susan M. Tate, was born at Morganton, in the fair and noUe 
Counly of Riirkc, on the 8th day of September, 1830. He was de- 
nied a classical education, not, as in so many other cases, for want 

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SAMUEL McDowell tate 431 

of means, but rather in consequence of the death of his father 
during the early youth of the son, who thenceforth became the 
chief care of his widowed mother and the object of her anxious 

But no want of Latin and Greek has ever held back such talent 
as kind Nature bestows upon men of his mould, and in the gram- 
mar schools of his native State and of Pennsylvania, the Slate 
of his mother's people, he laid the foundation of an excellent edu- 
cation, which stood him well in hand in many a contest with pen 
and tongue. Colonel Tate was a ready writer of graceful and 
exact English, a sensible, cogent talker at all times, and upon 
occasions a pathetic and persuasive speaker. He read but few 
books, those however always good ones; but of newspapers and 
reviews he was a voracious gleaner. 

Before the age of the commercial traveler he saw the need of 
that class in business, and he lived some years in Philadelphia, 
fitting himself for tie life of a merchant in the best sense of that 
badly abused word. He returned to North Carolina in the early 
fifties and soon took the leading trade of the rich slaveholders of 
Burke and her tributary country. 

Attacked by the Western fever which comes at some time of 
life to most of the adventurous men of the Atlantic slope, he 
sought a taste of Texas experience and journeyed on pony express 
through the greater part of that State in the years 1855-56, in- 
vesting in real estate, much of which his heirs retain. 

When the late Colonel Charles F. Fisher, of patriot memory, 
contracted to build the first section of the Western North Caro- 
lina Railroad from Salisbury to Morganton, Tate took service 
under him and as agent managed his large and varied financial 

A Democrat and strongly partisan, he attended the Convention 
at Charleston, and later attended all the Conventions ol his party 
save only that one which in 1872 nominated Horace Greeley for 
the Presidency. His sympathies were ardently Southern, and 
during the momentous year of i860 he was greatly interested in 
all the political movements. Although much engrossed in rail- 


road work, when President Lincoln called on North Carolina to 
furnish her quota of troops to coerce the seceded States, and 
Union Whigs and Secession Democrats vied with each other in 
rushing to the defence of their State, he abandoned his employ- 
ment and answered the call to arms. 

While in April and the early days of May, without waiting for 
the State to leave the Union, Vance was raising his "Rough and 
Ready Guards'' across the mountains, and Thomas Settle with 
fife and drum was getting together his company in Rockingham, 
and William P. Bynum, already appointed lieutenant-colonel, was 
organizing his Second Regiment of State troops at Raleigh, Tate 
was hastily winding up his business and calling on his neighbors 
and friends to form a company to serve under the command of 
his enterprising chief, Colonel Charles F. Fisher. 

As Captain of Company D of the Sixth Regiment he served in 
the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia, and on the morning of the 
2 1st of July the regiment reached Manassas Junction just in 
time to render most important service. Disembarking and hear- 
ing the boom of distant cannon, they marched directly to the 
battlefield and were led to the front of the Henry House, near 
which Rickett's Battery was hurling its deadly missiles into the 
Confederate line. Within a few moments the guns of that cele- 
brated battery were silenced and captured : but in that fatal chaige 
Colonel Fisher was killed and hundreds of others had fallen. It 
was however the turning-point of the contest. Here it was that 
Bee, like Fisher, fell, bravely calling on his men to stand firm 
against the heavy columns of the advancing enemy, pointing down 
the line to General Jackson and saying: "Look at Jackson, he 
stands like a stone wall !" — words that will never die. But Kirby 
Smith then reached the field with other reinforcements, and the 
day was saved and that stampede began which made the battle of 
Manassas, the first great battle of the war, so memorable in our 

Colonel W. D. Pender was then appointed to succeed Fisher 
in the command of the Sixth Regiment ; and under him the regi- 
ment led the advance in the battle of Seven Pines, behaving with 

SAMUEL McDowell tate 433 

such gallantrv that when the battle was over President Davis, 
who being on the field had witnessed its movements, saluting Coi- 
onel Pender said to him: "General Pender, your commission as 
brigadier bears date of to-day ; I wish I could give it to you upon 
this field." As the Sixth North Carolina liad the distinction to 
engage the enemy at the first onset, so it had the prouder one 
of being the last upon the field. Captain Tate served with great 
distinction not only in these battles, but at Gaines' Mill and in 
other battles in the front of Richmond and at Second Manassas, 
ending that battle near the Henry House on the very ground where 
the regiment had behaved so gallantly at its first baptism of blood 
on the 21st of July, 1861 ; and there Captain Tate won his pro- 
motion and became major of his regiment. 

At Sharpsburg his regiment added to its fame; and after the 
battle of Fredericksburg it was assigned to a North Carolina brig- 
ade commanded by General R. F. Hoke and shared the fortunes 
of that admirable commander. 

The closing days of June, 1863, found Major Tate and the 
Sixth Regiment at York, Pa., and then hurrying back to Gettys- 
burg they pressed the enemy so closely that the Sixth Regiment 
crossed bayonets with them. The next day, the 2nc!, was a glo- 
rious occasion in iht career of Colonel Tate. Late in the after- 
noon the Sixth North Carolina, being then under his command, 
drove the enem_\' from East Cemetery Hill and possessed them- 
selves of it. All of the eye-witnesses concur in stating that the 
Sixth North Carolina Regiment, gallantly led by him, engaged in 
a hand-to-hand encounier with the enemy intrenched behind the 
wall on the heights, where men were killed not only by bayonets 
and pistol shots, but by being clubbed by muskets and the ramrods 
of the artillerists. It was on that field that the lamented Colonel 
Avery fell, and Major Tate became lieutenant-colonel of the regi- 

On the 7th of November, 1863, at Rappahannock Bridge, Col- 
onel Tate was wounded and ordered to the rear, and at the end 
of the famous Valley Campaign he was very severely wounded on 
the 19th of October, 1864, at the battle of Cedar Creek. The 


Sixth Regiment shortly afterward reached the trenches in front 
of Petersburg, where Colonel Tate underwent all the fearful ex- 
periences incident to that siege. In the night attack on Fort 
Steadman, before daybreak on the morning of March 2Sth, 1865, 
Colonel Tate was in command of his regiment, which along with 
the S7th captured Fort Steadman, and as usual he rendered in 
that desperate assault gallant and valiant service. On that occa- 
sion he was again severely wounded and was sent home, where 
he suffered greatly. But his resolute spirit never failed him ; and 
when Stoneman's raiders in April, after Lee's surrender, burst 
through the mountains and approached the Catawba, Colonel Tate, 
still suffering, with great resolution joined with others in check- 
ing their advance. 

In the hearts of the men he commanded in war he found in times 
of peace friendship and loyal support; and the private soldier is 
after all the best judge of the commander. 

The generation now reaching manhood can with difficulty pic- 
ture from, all their reading the state of the country east of Chat- 
tahoochee and south of the Potomac River in the spring and sum- 
mer of the year A. D. 1865. Hopeless despair overtook the old 
men, bitterness and proud anguish possessed the women, a greed 
surpassing the greed of Ahab for vineyards characterized the 
camp-followers and commissary chiefs, proscriptive hatred 
burned in the breasts of the native Unionists, insolence and bar- 
baric display marked the conduct of. the freedman, while the pa- 
rolled soldiers, alone of all, worked in patience and with desperate 
resolution to rebuild the ruined homes of the devastated South- 

In that sad yet stirring era of convalescence from war's long 
fever, ere yet the relapse of Reconstruction had been encountered 
and overcome. Colonel Tate in his own quiet way was as much to 
the front as when mounting the stone wall on Cemetery Hill at 
Gettysburg on the evening of the 2d of July. Scarcely had the 
last Confederate force laid down its arms when the stockholders 
of the Western North Carolina Railroad, knowing his business 
capacity, his ready tact, his solid and well-disciplined judgment, 

SAMUEL McDowell tate 435 

his rare management of men, his economy and industry, selected 
him for president of their disorganized, bankrupt, and war-wasted 
corporation. He proved himself in that station to possess a real 
live spark of the great Hamilton's genius of finance. He repaired 
the roadbed and rebuilt bridges; he revamped old rolling stock 
and put it to work; he solicited business and infused the people 
with something of bis own energy ; he haggled over every shilling 
that went out and saved with judicious care the straggling few 
that came in, so that in some way, unaccountable to his employers, 
who saw no debt arising to account for the result, he righted their 
affairs and enhanced their property. 

This done, Provisional Governor Holden very promptly turned 
him out of office, and when Holden in turn went out, with Worth 
carne back Tate, who, identified with the great work from its 
infancy, continued with it in one capacity or another almost unin- 
terruptedly to the time when it passed forever from the control of 
North Carolina to that of Northern capitalists. 

In all the tortuous history of that great corporation, whose 
railway is now so important a link in interstate commerce, and 
which is destined to still higher planes of usefulness and nolo- 
riely, Ccilonel Talc labored and strove for its completion, and the 
skillful and prudent seamanship of this quiet man at last brought 
the battered and badly buffeted hulk safe to the port of friendly 
sale and final completion. 

With wise foresight he early in the Reconstruction legislation 
advised his stockholders to consent to a division of the road and 
the creation of a new corporation, the Western Division of the 
Western North Carolina Railroad, which was turned over to the 
late George W. Swepson and his associates, with the hope and 
expectation that the work on the Eastern Division could be pressed 
forward the more effectively under that arrangement. 

With the Eastern Division, from Salisbury to the French Broad 
River, Tate continued through that era as the financial agent of 
the stockholders and trustee for the payment of debts already 
contracted, having surrendered his presidency to the appointee of 
the Holden Board of 1868. 


The loss of the State's credit in the Northern markets caused a 
comparatively trifling loan to assume the proportions of a threat- 
ening mortgage. For this he was unjustly berated by a portion 
of the State press, and he was foully aspersed by men who were 
self-confessed thieves ; but through it all Colonel Tate passed un- 
scathed by fire, and confidence in his integrity was not at all 
shaken among the people of his State. 

Never in any strict sense of the term a politician, he was sent 
to the Legislature of 1874 from his native county by a majority 
of 400 in excess of any vote theretofore polled by his party. In 
this field of action his usefulness was apparent. Quiet, thought- 
ful, and sagacious, he wielded great power. With decided convic- 
tions, and a man of force and energy, he nevertheless sought no 
display, and his character and bearing were free from the element 
of aggressiveness. In the Legislature he became at once and 
easily chief in all matters of practical legislation. His fine finan- 
cial ability was recognized on all sides, and the confidence and 
esteem accorded him made him a leader. He drafted and had 
passed laws by which the Western Road was saved to the State 
and its construction re-attempted ; he put in familiar and popular 
use the lease and working of the State's convict force upon her 
works of internal improvements, this same Western Road being 
the chiefest of the beneficiaries. He labored untiringly and with 
great success as chairman of the Finance Committee to provide 
ways and means for the enlargement of our leading charities and 
the establishment of new ones ; he carried to completion by most 
dexterous management the legislation which founded and sus- 
tained through trying years that noblest of all charities, the superb 
Hospital for the Insane at his own home in Morganton. 

So long as that vast pile of cunningly woven brick shelters from 
worse and acuter sorrows its own burden of stricken souls there 
kindly and skillfully ministered to, so long will the services of 
this unassuming man to his State and to his species be remem- 
bered by the appreciative men of coming generations. His de- 
scendants need want no fairer trophy of their ancestor's capacity 
for large and difficult undertakings. 

SAMUEL McDowell tate 437 

In 1880, 1882 and 1884 he again sat for Burke in llie Lower 
House of the Legislature, retaining and adding to his reputation 
for sterling worth and remarkable sagacity, and rendering labori- 
ous and unselfish service to the State of his love and to the party 
in whose creed he was reared, that party which still bears strongly 
the wonderful impress of the mind ot Jefferson. 

Closely associated with Colonel William L. Saunders, the faith- 
ful mentor of the Democratic Party, allied with Colonel Hamilton 
C. Jones and the other brave and manly spirits who had served 
with him during the war, and possessing the ample confidence of 
the conductors of the State press, Colonel Tate was an important 
factor in every public matter of import during the period of his 

In 1886, there being a Democratic President. Controller of the 
Currency Trenholm tendered Colonel Tate, without solicitation on 
his part, the position of examiner of National Banks in the dis- 
trict stretching from West Virginia to and inclusive of Florida. 
It was a most worthy compliment worthily bestowed, and, save 
the position of census-taker for his native county in 1850 and of 
postmaster at Morganton during the Buchanan administration, it 
was the (inly Federal ptisition ever held by him ; and in the dis- 
charge of his duties he proved a most efficient officer, taking rank 
at the department, because of his capacity, integrity, and thorough- 
ness, as one of the most excellent of all the agents of the Gov- 

In person Colonel Tate was of medium height, with a frame 
sinewy and adapted to long fatigue, a carriage dignified without , 
being haughty, an address most charming when he chose to please, 
but in general undemonstrative and in keeping with his habitual 
taciturnity and reserve. His public business was transacted with- 
out a ripple of excitement, but he probed every detail and was 
always master of the subject on which he was engaged. His 
home-life was in harmony with his character. Quietly he pur- 
sued the even tenor of his temperate way, esteemed by his neigh- 
bors, respected by his party, and conspicuous among that band 
of devoted men who in war and peace have upheld the modest. 



upright, conservative, liberty-loving, tyrant-hating character of 
our dear mother, North Carolina; a manly man, thoughtful of 
those about him and enjoying to the fullest the affection and re- 
gard for those at his fireside. 

Prudent in his financial operations, he amassed a competent 
estate and erected an elegant home in the midst of a community 
long distinguished for culture and the kindred graces of polite 
life, and here he found his greatest enjoyment. 

Colonel Tate married in October, 1866, Miss Jennie Pearson, 
daughter of the late Robert C. Pearson of Morganton, by whom 
he became the father of a large family of children, and who sur- 
vived him but a few short years. She was a veritable pillar in 
church and society. Both were members of the Presb^'terian 
Communion, were charitable in act as well as thought, and were 
animated by a spirit of true benevolence. 

On the death of treasurer Donald Bain in 1893, Governor 
Holt, who was his life-long friend, appointed Colonel Tate State 
treasurer, and the appointment gave great satisfaction to the 
people of the State. He was nominated in 1894 to succeed him- 
self, but he was defeated in the Populist upheaval of that year, 
along with all the leaders of his party. His administration of 
the treasury department was conceded to have been in all re- 
spects admirable, and he again displayed his fine talents and 
abilities as the most competent financier of that period of our 

He never afterwards held office, but devoted his declining 
years to the welfare of his family and friends and in rendering 
such public service as was interesting to his community. With 
his townspeople he was very popular and he delighted in being 
useful to them, and in particular he derived much satisfaction 
from his success in securing the location of the Deaf and Dumb 
School at Morganton. 

He died suddenly at his home on June 25, 1897, just as he 
was about to entertain Judge Robinson, then holding court in 
Morganton, and some members of the bar who were invited to 
take tea with him. His funeral the Sunday following was by 

SAMUEL McDowell tate 


far the largest ever known in the county, all the countryside at- 
tending with many from a great distance. He sleeps in the 
town cemetery, which was purchased through his agency and 
wliich commands one of the loveliest views in the State; the fit- 
ting repose of one of the most admirable men of his community 
and one of the best and truest of al! the sons whom Burke County, 
fruitful in brains and courage, has ever given to the State, no 
less efficient and excellent in peace than in war. 

tV. S. Pearson. 



Williamstield, Ashtabula County, Ohio, Ihlay 

1838. He was a son of Valentine and Louise 

I Winegar Toiirgee. His boyhood was spent on 
his father's farm until about 1846, when the 

I family removed to Kingsville, Ohio, where he 
entered the academy. He matriculated at the University of 
Rochester in 1859. enlisted as a private in the Twenty- seventh 
New York \'olunteers in April, 1861, and was seriously wounded 
at Bull Run. In consequence of this wound he was discharged 
from the army and reentered Rochester, where he was graduated 
witli the degree of A.B. in 1862. In the Fall of 1862 he enhsted 
in the 105th Ohio \'o!nnteers and soon after was promoted to a 
lieutenancy. At Perrysville, Kentucky, he was slightly wounded, 
and was captured at Miirfreesboro, Tennessee, in January, 1863. 
He was a prisoner for several months, at Atlanta, Milan, Salis- 
bury, and Libb.\', and then was exchanged. He was married May 
14, 1863, to Miss Emma L. Kilboume, of Conneaut, Ohio. On 
account of his \voun<ls he quit the service in 1864. In 1865, how- 
ever, lie was appointed major of a negro regiment, and was on 
his way to join his command when the war closed. He located 
in Greensboro, \. C. in 1865, where he published the Union 
Register, 1866-67. I^*^ *^'^s ^ delegate to the loyalist convention 
in Philadelphia in 1866. and represented Guilford County in the 


Constitutional Conventions of 1868 and 1875. He was Superior 
Court Judge of the Seventh juciicial district from 1868 to 1875. 
After his term as judge expired he removed to Raleigh and was 
pension agent there until 1880. In 1881 he took up his residence 
in New York and began the publication of The Continent, a 
magazine. The next year, however, he moved it to Philadelphia, 
where, after lingering for three years longer, it expired. Subse- 
quently he made his home in Mayville, N. Y., and while there 
became Professor of Legal Ethics in the Buffalo Law School. He 
had the degree of LL.D. conferred upon liim by Rochester in 
1880 and by Copenhagen in 1883. In 1897 he was made Consul 
at Bordeaux, and died at that place May 21, 1905. 

This epitome of the life of a remarkable man is to be found 
in the current biographical dictionaries. For a work like this it 
is only a section of his life that can have any importance, that 
passed in North Carolina, It is the carpetbagger, the politician, 
the lawyer, the judge, only, who has any part in North Carolina 
history. A list of his works will be found at the end of this sketch. 

Immediately after the war the white men of North Carolina 
hoped to establish the industrial and material prosperity of that 
Stale with the aid of Northern capital and Northern immigrants. 
There were very, very many waste places to be built up. Among 
themselves there was little capital. Their young men could work 
and wanted to work. Among them there was indeed a cheerful, 
if not joyous, acceptance of any work, however rough, however 
discordant with their antecedents. Each new immigrant, then, 
who came with money was bringing to them new and better 
opportunities, and he was welcomed, if not with warmth, cer- 
tainly with hospitality. But this newcomer must remember, 
and must respect, the prejudices of the people among whom he 
located. Now these people believed that since Ham no 
hiunan legislation could bring about a state of equality 
between the white and the black races. This belief was more 
than a prejudice, it was a passion. It was more than a 
theory, it was a creed, their faith in which was as strong as their 
confidence in Holy Writ. He, this newcomer from the North, 


must not advocate equal suffrage for the negro. He must not use 
that suffrage as a means to advance his own political fortunes. He 
might be considerate and kind to the negro, but he must not meet 
him on a social plane different from that with which they met him. 
He might establish churches and schools for him, but he must not 
worship with him in the former, nor provide teachers for the latter 
who taught and practised social equality. It was not that the 
negro was taught, but what was taught him, that provoked the 

Mr. Tourgee was a young man when he took up his residence 
among us — only twenty-seven years of age. In his veins flowed 
the blood of the Canadian Voyageur and the New England 
Puritan. To the former he owed the vividness of his imagination 
and the force and energy of his langujige, to the latter his in- 
domitableness and calm, cautious courage. Something indeed of 
the sternness of the Puritan may have remained a part of his 
character, but nothing of his fanaticism and little of his faith. 
When he located at Greensboro he had no delusions about the 
negro. He appreciated his condition and had some idea of his 
limitations. He had an intellectual apprehension too of the intense 
racial antipathy of the whites for the negroes, but had no sym- 
pathy for it. To him it was a pitiful weakness and not a divine 
instinct. He seemed to have the Latin's toleration for miscegena- 
tion. Perhaps this was an inheritance from a French-Canadian 
ancestry, perhaps a theory, which he would have repudiated in 
practice. For this he afterwards classed himself "among the 
Fools," "those who hoped that in some inscrutable way the laws 
of human nature should be suspended, or that the state of affairs 
at first presenting itself would be but temporary;" and in doing 
this he admitted that he was not a martyr and claimed that he 
w-as not a self-seeker. 

He was a man of real culture and ability, having a definite and 
clear policy, and being determined to pursue that policy regardless 
of consequences. He was not an enthusiast; there was no 
enthusiasm in his nature ; but he was calculatingly ambitious, and 
perfectly willing to use the means which the unwisdom of Con- 


gress had provided him with to advance his own personal interests. 
He knew things and men, but it was a knowledge of the brain, 
and not that deeper knowledge of the heart. He was one apart, 
observing the springs of hnman action, but wholly without sym- 
pathy and with only ill-concealed contempt. So he had no personal 
magnetism, and without this no one, it makes no difference how 
great his mental endowment and equipment may have been, was 
ever a man of commanding force. 

What wonder, then, that such a man, with different antecedents,, 
different ideals, different ambitions, and looking at public ques- 
tions from a diametrically opposite point of view, should soon be- 
come the worst hated of the foes of the white man ? 

His first public service in the State was as member of the 
Constitutional Convention of 1868. A man so ambitious, so able, 
so cultured, could not fait to use an opportunity like this to leave 
his impress upon the fundamental law of the State. He was 
largely influential in securing: 

1. Equal civil and political rights to the negroes. 

2. Abolition of all property qualifications. 

3. Election by the people of all officers. 

4. Penal reform — the abolition of the whipping-post, stocks, 
and branding. 

5. Uniform and ad-valorem taxation. 

6. Provisions for an effective public school system. 

7. Judicial reform, resulting in the Code of Civil Procedure. 
His persistence, in sea.son and out of season, in advocating the 

first of these objects has made the people forget, to a great degree, 
his real service to them in securing the last six. As a matter of 
fact, few men have lived in the State who have conferred upon it 
such lasting good as did A. W. Tourgce ; and yet he was a partisan 
leader of a motley horde, not many of whom were blessed with 
any sense of common decency or common honesty ! On all party 
questions affecting the relations of the races he without scruple 
voted with these people. He was willing to put a negro officer 
over a white militia company. He was willing to regiment white 
and negro companies together. He was willing to have mixed 



schools. In short, as between the negro and the white man the 
scales should stand balanced exactly. 

One can scarcely imagine, now, the intense bitterness with 
which the large majority of the best people of the State regarded 
the completed work of this Convention. It did indeed place upon 
them burdens grievous to be borne, the greatest of which was 
unlimited negro suffrage. They went to work, however, and 
sought to defeat it at the polls. With an emasculated white elec- 
torate, though, they could do nothing against the horde of negroes 
and their white allies. In the gubernatorial campaign of that 
year ( 1868) nearly all the best and purest and ablest men in the 
State, regardless of former party affiliations, took part in behalf 
of Mr. Thomas S. Ashe and against Mr. W. W. Holden — ^but 
in vain. 

In that election Mr. Tourgee was elected judge of the seventh 
judicial district. He came to the bench absolutely devoid of legal 
experience or legal training. He came to it too with that old idea 
of his that the white people of the State, like an unbroken colt, 
must be watched and guided and controlled, lest they should kick 
out of traces and refuse longer to obey the bit. The truth is that, 
though very sore over recent events, they would soon have been 
content with him as judge, had he respected their traditions, 
realized that reforms were things of slow growth and could not 
be forced, and that arbitrary attempts on his part to secure the 
rights of the negroes would only convince them that he could never 
be an impartial judge for the whites. Instead of this, however, 
at his first court he sent for the Chairman of the Board of County 
Commissioners and asked him if there had been any negro jurors 
drawn for that term. He told him that there were not, but simply 
because there were none in the county fit for the purpose. Judge 
Tourgee reprimanded him sharply from the bench, directed that 
the old list should be destroyed, and forced him in the presence 
of the court to draw other names from the box until he had 
secured enough negroes to satisfy his own sense of justice, and 
then proceeded to try cases with a jury thus selected by him- 
self. This was heralded over the district, and the white people 


knew, or thouglit they knew, what they had lo expect from such 
a judge. Besides, he offended against their traditions and their 
sense of propriety hy taking part in political meetings, riding in 
political processions, and adjourning court to attend political con- 
ventions. Once in Orange County he left the court on Tuesday 
to attend a convention, but refused to discharge the Grand Jury. 
That body, at the suggeslion of Mr. Josiah Turner, presented 
him for neglect of duty. The presentment, in Mr. Turner's hand- 
writing and characteristic style, lay in the court house at Hills- 
boro for many years, but has since disappeared. The result of 
all this was that the white people at large regarded Judge Tourgee 
with intense disgust and bitterness. He was not their judge, 
but an alien placed over them by their conquerors. He was a par- 
tisan on the bench, using his opportunities to protect his own fol- 
lowers and to punish his political foes. Of course much must 
be allowed to the virulence of party feeling at the time, which 
was e.\ceedingly bitter; sttll, makjng all duo allowances {or 
this, the defects of his temperament, his character, and his training 
were such as to make him fall far short of being a just and up- 
right judge. 

As I have said, when first made a judge he knew little law and 
little of court procedure. He was, however, an able, ambitious, 
indomitable man. so he set to work to make himself a good law- 
yer. His habit was. as soon as he reached a town where he was 
to hold court, to require the clerk to attend upon him with copies 
of the pleadings in each of the civil cases which were to be tried. 
Having great powers of concentration and remarkable quickness 
of intellect, he thus made himself familiar with the points at 
issue in each case before he entered the court house. He in 
consequence soon made himself an efficient judge in cases in which 
there was nothing in the subject matter or the parties to arouse 
his prejudices. He could never have been more, for at no time 
during his stay in the State was he a thoroughly conscientious 
man, and it makes no difference how brilliant a man may be, he 
can never make a just and upright judge with conscientiousness 


Twice was Judge Tourgee's life in serious danger from the 
Ku Klux. It must be remembered that that organization was 
in itself a government, having its own laws by which its mem- 
bers were bound. Those laws prevented, or were intended to 
prevent, all hasty action. No punishment was ever inflicted by 
the order itself without calm, cautious, deliberate consideration 
by the ablest and wisest members of the body, particularly in 
cases of life and death. The great evil of such an organization, 
even when it may be a necessary evil, is that, however cautious 
it may be, it can not exclude from its membership many hot- 
headed, unruly, whiskey-fired young men. This element, being 
more active, more energetic, more determined, and more malig- 
nant than the older, more sober and more cautious members, 
sometimes, in disregard of their own laws, took matters into 
their own hands, and in the garb of the order whipped or wounded 
where there was little justification. In Orange County, for in- 
stance, only two men were executed under the orders of the Klan, 
the barn-burners in Bingham township. Two were shot 
(wounded), one hung, and quite a number whipped by those 
who had erupted from the Klan. In the order itself, then, there 
was this continual struggle between the hot-heads and the more 
intelligent and cautious leaders. 

A company of young men, members of the Klan (such is 
the tradition), had agreed among themselves to meet Judge 
Tourgee on his way from Pittsboro to Hillsboro, and just south 
of the latter place to put him to death, without saying any- 
thing at all to the Chiefs of the Klan. Of their number was a 
barkeeper in Hillsboro. He, while under the influence of liquor, 
divulged the plan to a young man from Chapel Hill on the after- 
noon before the night in which it was to be executed. That young 
man on his way home stopped at the house of a woman named 
Clark, who had herself been disciplined by the Ku Klux for being 
too intimate with negroes, and said enough to her to let her know 
the fate of Judc^e Tourgee should he proceed to Hillsboro that 
ni.i::ht. She left immediately and took her stand near the Chapel 
Hill road to intercept the Judge. She had not long to wait before 


he made his appearance. She stopped him, told him of her sus- 
picions and fears, and induced him to avoid Hillsboro and go to 
Graham. Thus his life in all human probability was saved. This 
incident he afterwards idealized in his "FooKs Errand/' convert- 
ing the woman, Clark, into a beautiful young lady. 

At a period subsequent to this, and about the time of the execu- 
tion of John W. Stephens, the Klan itself seriously considered the 
necessity for the removal of Judge Tourgee. The death sentence 
was about to be passed upon him when an influential leader of 
the Klan, coming late, appeared. As soon as he was informed 
of the state of affairs he interfered, and after much persuasion 
succeeded in having the decree reversed. After this the carpet- 
bag judge's life was as safe as any other man's. 

It is said in Greensboro that Judge Tourgee was exceedingly 
anxious that the attorneys for Kirk's prisoners should have ap- 
plied to him for a writ of habeas corpus; that he was prepared 
not only to issue it, but to see that it was executed. 

**Yet,'' says he, in *'The Fool's Errand," **it was a magnificent 
sentiment that underlay it all — an unfaltering determination, an 
invincible defiance to all that had the seeming of compulsion or 
tyranny. One can not but regard with pride and sympathy the 
indomitable men who, being conquered in war, yet resisted every 
effort oi the conqueror to change their laws, their customs, or 
even the personnel of their ruling class; and this, too, not only 

with unyielding stubborness, but with success 

It must be counted but as the desperate effort of a proud, brave, 
and determined people to secure and hold what they deemed to 
be their rights." 

He knew his life was very seriously threatened all during the 
Ku Klux era, yet with a calm, cool, serene courage he went about 
his work, and that too among a people not one of whom would 
have shed a tear at his untimely taking off, many of whom would 
have welcomed it as a positive blessing. 

At the end of his term, January i, 1875, ^^ Q"*^ the office of 
jud^e an excellent lawyer, and later practised in Greensboro and 
in Raleigh with some success. He was in the convention of 1875, 


still a partisan and the leader of the Republican forces. There 
he was simply an obstructionist and did nothing positive. In a 
general way, it may be said he uniformly opposed every altera- 
tion of the Constitution proposed by any member. 

In 1878 his "Code with Notes and Decisions" came from the 
press, and in the following years his "Digest of Cited Cases." 
Each of these was, in its sphere, an exceedingly valuable contri- 
bution to the legal literature of the State, though both have since 
been superseded by more modern works. In his preface to the 
Code he with fine taste and excellent judgment ignores his 
own prominent part in the adoption of that system and says 
simply : 

"That there are evils attending the abandonment of the old system and 
the adoption of the new. no one can doubt. That the circumstances under 
which it was adopted in this State have placed it under the interdict of 
prejudice from the outset, every one will admit, and it must also, I think, 
be admitted that even under this great disadvantage, it has secured a 
permanent foothold not to be disturbed either by legislation or con- 

It was in 1879 ^^^^^ ^^^ attained a world-wide reputation by the 
publication of his novel, *'A Fool's Errand." It was published 
anonymously and created immediately so great a sensation that the 
author's identity was not long concealed. At the present time it 
is out of fashion, but the writer is inclined to rate it as the second 
best of the political novels which have been published in this 
country, and he believes that there will ere long be such a revival 
of interest in it that it will not be permitted to die. 

In 1880 Judge Tourgee gave the people of North Carolina a 
taste of his quality as a political satirist in the '*C" letters. By 
universal consent it is admitted that for keen but polished satire 
these letters were inimitable./ He left the State soon after, and 
here we must part with him too, pausing only to quote David 
Nelson at the grave of the "Fool," as a fair estimate of his own 
character : 

"He was a good man, according to my notion, and an earnest one; but 
— somehow it seemed as if his ideas wasn't calkilated for this meridiin." 


The following are the chief publications of Judge Tourgee: 
■"Toinette," 1874, title changed to "A Royal Gentleman" in 1881 ; 
The Code with Notes and Decisions, 1878; Digest of Cited Cases, 
1879; "A Fool's Errand," 1879; "Bricks Without Straw," 1881; 
"John Eax," 1S81 ; "Hot Plowshares," 1883; "An Appeal to 
Cffisar," 1S84; "A Man of Destiny," 1885; "Blade Ice." 1885: 
"Eulton's Inn," 1886; "'Letlers to a King," 1886; "The Veteran 
and His Pipe," 1887; "Pactolus Prime," 1888; "Murvale East- 
man," 1889; "With Gauge and Swallow," 1891 ; "An Outing with 
the Queen of Hearts," 1892; "A Son of Old Harry," 1892; "Out 
of the Sunset Sea," 1893 ; "The Mortgage on the Hiproof House," 
1896; "The Story of a Thousand," 1895; "The War of the 
Standards," 1896. i>-t*«y Frank Nash. 

^^ ^.^^ ^M ^^^ "^5:^ 


n mountebanks and quacks ii 

1 divinity." 

physick, so there are 

J O declares an old English theologian, and well 
proved is his assertion by the wild career in 
Colonial days of a worthy who signed himself 
"John Urm stone, Missionary." And some- 
times the final "e" was dropped from the name. 
Of this individual Bishop Cheshire says: "He 
did more harm to the cause of the Church in North Carolina than 
any other man who has ever figured in our history, and it is ut- 
terly incredible that he should have been allowed for ten years 
to blast the prospects of the Church in the Province by his pres- 

Urmstonc was an Englishman, born in Lancashire about the 
year i66.^, and possessed the advantages of a college education. 
He came to North Carolina during the year 1710 or early in 171 1, 
and soon found fault with everything and everybody. 

At the time of his arrival the Colony was in a turmcMl. Some 
five years earlier the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts had sent over some missionaries, and their comii^ 
was followed by a troublous time of political and religious com- 
motion and of resolute struggle between the contending factions, 
during which Glover and his Council, being adherents of the 


aggressive Church party, fled to Virginia. One of these mission- 
aries was Reverend John Adams, who was settled in Pasquotank 
and Currituck, and whose ministrations for two years and a half 
were highly valued by his flock; hut in August, 1708, he felt 
forced to abandon his work and took his departure, and his vestry 
applied to the Society to send over a successor to him ; and thus 
it was that Urmstone came to North Carolina. 

The accounts given by these missionaries of affairs in the Col- 
ony, while always challenging a judicious scrutiny, throw much 
light on the existing conditions. 

On leaving, Mr. Adams wrote : 

"I have lived here in a dismal eounlry about two years and a half, 
where I have suffered s world of misery and trouble boih in body and 
mind : I have gone through good report and evil report and endured as 
much as any of your missionaries have done before me ; and whoever 
succeeds me will have this advantage, that none of Ihe country will be 
prejudiced to his person (as all who adhered to the Quakers are to 
mine) ; and this in my opinion will conduce not a liule to the success of 
his labors," 

Mr. Urmstone says of the people: 

■■M>>n are j,.cinTaIly nf all trndes, and women the like within their 
spheres — except some who are the posterity of old planters or have been 
very fortunate and have great numbers of slaves who understand most 
handicrafts. Men are generally carpenters, joiner', wheelwrights, coop- 
ers, butchers, tanners, shoemakers, tallowchandlers, watermen, and what 
not ; women, soap-makers, starch -makers, dyers, etc. He or she that can't 
do all these things and hath not slaves that CRn, over and above all the 
common occupations of both sexes, will have but a bad time on it, for 
help is not to be had. At any rate, every one having business enough of 
his own makes tradesmen 'turn planters, and these become tradesmen. 
All seem to live by their own hands, of thetr own produce, and what they 
can spare goes for foreign goods." 

In his account of the course of events in the Colony, he says 

"Colonel Hyde, although called in by all sides, after long debates, per- 
sisted in Mr. Glover's opinion of not suffering the Quakers to be of the 
Council or have anything to do with the administration. An AnttaHf 


was called. With much difficulty we had the majority. The Assembly 
was made up of a strange mixture of men of various opinions and in- 
clinations: a few Churchmen, many Presbyterians, Independents, but 
most an>'thingarians — some out of principle, others out of hopes of power 
and authority in the government, to the end that they might lord it over 
their neighbors; all conspired to act answerable to the desire of the 
President and Council. I was at this solemn meeting a great part of 
the time they sat." 

Urmstone himself was apparently an "anjrthtngarian" outside 
of his religious cloth. 

After telling of his agricultural labors he complains also of 
the inhabitants, saying : 

"My neighbors seem to like well my industry, but are far from afford- 
ing me their assistance in anything. They love to see newcomers put to 
their shifts as they themselves have been, and cannot endure to see any* 
body live as well as themselves without having undergone the slavish 
part and learned to live independent of others." 

This lack of hospitality of which the missionary so bitterly 
complained may have been true as to himself, but was not the 
case with more desirable immigrants, including reputable clergy- 
men. In 1 712 the Reverend Giles Rainsford, also sent by the So- 
ciety, came to the Colony, and met with a far different reception. 
Governor Hyde himself was one of the first to welcome Rains- 
ford, saying: "Give me leave, sir, to give you an invitation to 
my house, where you shall be most welcome as long as ever you 
please ; nor shall you have the occasion to complain of the coun- 
try, as Mr. Urmstone has." After the arrival of Rainsford the 
two missionaries divided the territory in which they were to labor, 
Urmstone taking the northeastern shore of the Chowan River, 
and Rainsford the southeastern shore. In one of his letters Rains- 
ford said : 

"Since the whole country is entitled to my labors, I visited his shore, 
which (I am sorry to say) has been a long time neglected. Mr. Unn- 
stone is lame and says he cannot do now what he formerly has done; 
but this lazy distemper has seized him, by what I hear, ever since his 
coming to the country." 



In another letter Mr. Rainsford said that Urmstone had bought 
a fine plantation on the Virginia border and was living at ease, 
though he had exposed himself to popular contempt by his 
"wretched way of begging and other indiscretions." Speaking of 
Rainsford, Urmstone said : 

"He is now set down in my parish, a.nd saith when the inhabitants 
have once heard him they'll forsake me and I must be turned out. I fear 
he is of a very contentious temper." 

Like the horseleech's daughters, Urmstone's never-ending cry 
was "Give! Give!" — and yet with sublime effrontery he writes to 
Governor Nicholson at Boston, saying: "Star\'e and dig I cannot, 
and to beg I am ashamed." Later he defended himself against 
some of the charges against him by telling the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel that his "sacred character" in itself 
was enough to draw down on him the contempt of a pack of 
profligate and loose people and zealous sectarians. He also bit- 
terly complained that his vestry (which was hostile to him) in- 1 
eluded among its members two professed Anabaptists, tlircc ve- 1 
hement Scotch -Presbyterians, and one descendant of a Quaker. 
Jn another letter he said that one Anabaptist who was recom- 
mended for a vestryman claimed to be a physician, fortune-teller, 
and conjurer. 

When Mr. Rainsford said Urmstone was guilty of "indiscre- 
tions" he did not malign him. One of these indiscretions was 
getting drunk, and the other was profane swearing. For the 
former offence a bill of indictment was found against him by the 
grand jury of Chowan Precinct in April, 1720. Of Urmstone's 
lamentations the Reverend Francis L. Hawks, in his "History of 
North Carolina" {volume 2, page 351) says: 

"Every letter is filled with complaints of his unparalleled sufTcrinKS, 
and solemn assurances of Ihe impending starvation of himself and family, 
while they generally wind up with a pathetic farewell to his English 
friends and a businesslike announcement that he had drawn certain billj 
of exchange which he wished duly honored, not forgetting to add instruc- 


tions as to the remittances in English goods, which he assures his sad- 
dened countrymen he can sell at an excellent profit Six times in tea 
years he assured them that he expected himself and family to be laid in 
the tomb from sheer want of food before he could possibly hear from Eng- 
land ; and yet he orders a variety of articles to be sent which could not 
possibly arrive until, upon his hjrpothesis, the grave would have hidden 
alike him and his necessities. And yet this man, thus eternally starving. 
contrived to buy land and negroes and stock, to hire white servants, to 
procure tools and agricultural implements, to be the proprietor of horses 
and boats, and. in short, appears to have been the only missionary dur- 
ing the proprietary rule that ever acquired any property in the country, 
while from his own letters we gather the fact that he had administered 
the Lord's Supper but twice in five years." 

In 1717 Urmstone wrote to the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel that if a Lord Proprietor were to come to North Gir- 
olina he would be looked upon as no better than a ballad-singer. 
In another letter he said it would be better to be curate of a bear- 
garden than Bishop of North Carolina. 

Urmstone's wife died in North Carolina in October, 1719. He 
had several children. When his oldest son was approaching 
manhood he left America and went back to England, followed 
by parental execrations. 

Unquestionably the best service done the cause of religion in 
North Carolina by Urmstone was when he left the Colony in 
the spring of 1721. He arrived in London the latter part of the 
following July. His business affairs were left in charge of Ed- 
ward Moseley. 

Though the Colony of North Carolina was happily rid of Urm- 
stone, America was not. After a short stay in England he again 
crossed the Atlantic and became rector of Christ Church in Phil- 
adelphia. There the discords, controversies, and drunkenness of 
his career in Carolina were reenacted. All other efforts to rid 
Philadelphia of his presence being of no avail, he was finally paid 
to leave. He removed to Maryland, where his conduct was no 
better ; and in that Colony he was accidentally burned to death in 
1 73 1, while in a state of intoxication. This we learn from the 
late Bishop Perry's "History of the American Episcopal Church." 



So closes the story of John Urmstone, Missionarv. While his i 
career in itself is not one of importance, we have given it to show ] 
thai "all sorts and conditions of men" fonned the population c 
our Colony, and that even the Church was not free from evil in- ^ 

"Wherever God erects a house of prayer, 
The Devil always builds a chapel there." 

Marshall De Lancey Hay-a 


O some men the paths they are to follow through 
life seem plain from childhood. Others delib- 
erately choose their work in later years. But 
mere accident or force of circumstances seems 
to control the destinies of many. A few are 

_ strong enough and brave enough to carve out 

their fortunes in the face of obstacles and discouragements, 
and to these conies the joy of mastery over difficulty. 
Goethe sa\s : 

"For Hie flowering of the best gifts circumsUnces inust be pro- 
pitious, but the paramount function of the KiEted ii to relist old 
cireuni>lance<i and create new ones, to break through the surroundingl 
and fences of timorous customs and leap toward success." 

Circnni. Stan CCS did not seem propitious for making a physician 
out of Dr. Wakefield, but he is to-day a physician and a successful 

He first saw the light in the town of Arkell. Wellington County, 
Ontario, Canada, on November 19, 1855, His mother was Ann 
limit Haines, of an old English family that made its way to Can- 
ada about the year 1825. She was a woman of great force of 
character and beautiful life, whose influence on the moral, intel- 
lectual, and .spiritual future of her son was firmly stamped. It is 
said that men arc usually like their mothers in taste, disposition, 
temperament, and character. 

//. „ 


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The father was descended from George Wakefield, who emi- 
grated from England to the Province of Canada about the year 
1822. His children and his children's children continued to live 
there in happiness and contentment until Henry Wakefield, the 
Doctor's father, decided to seek a milder climate in this South- 
land, and settled near what was then known as New Garden 
Boarding School in Guilford County, North Carolina, 

In Canada he had held the office of Reeve of Egremoni, and was 
a lieutenant in the Canadian army. After becoming a citizen of 
the United States and of North Carolina, he was loyal in his de- 
votion and sen-ed for years as an acceptable and honored magis- 
trate in Guilford Cotmty. His temperament was notably a judi- 
cial one, and he was recognized as a man of goal judgment, 
strong natural ability, unbending honesty, and kindness of heart 

The confidence and esteem in which he was held might be 
illustrated by many incidents, but one will suffice for our purpose. 
Two neighbors had a misunderstanding in regard to some money 
transactions, and a serious difficulty arose between them. They 
were about to embark in a suit at law which would have proved 
expensive and unsatisfactory and which would have continued for 
vcar>. Sonic one suggested that each mnn '^hrtuM en to Henry 
Wakefield and make a statement of his case and leave the decision 
with him. To this they agreed, and an immediate settlement en- 
tirely satisfactory to both was the result. 

Under the fostering care of such parents the boyhood and 
young manhood of Doctor Wakefield passed in even tenor on the 
farm. He always did his part in the field and meadow, in garden, 
barn, and stable, and did it well. The outdoor life, the hard work, 
the contact with nature and the soil, were all of direct benefit to 
him in every way, and the high school course between the plow 
handles was most valuable training tn his case, as it almost always 
is. He was fond of riding, fishing, hunting, and of the other 
sports a country boy can have. The influence of good books was 
also felt in early life, and Pilgrim's Progress particularly appealed 
to him. 

Until he was a full-grown man he had few school advantages. 


but he was always thorough and accuratein what he learned. He 
finished the course at New Garden Boarding School, now Guilford 
College, and began his business career as a hardware merchant 
in Greensboro in the year 1879. 

From the beginning he was successful and his business pros- 
pered and grew. He seemed to have found his life's work, but 
fates decreed otherwise. 

On November 23, 1881, he was married to Miss Mary C. 
Adams. The days went by and finally their eldest child was se- 
verely ill. The father watched tenderly over the bedside, studied 
the symptoms, and helped the little one back to health and 
strength. In former days he had wished to study medicine, but 
the opportunity was denied him. Now the old desire came back, 
and he determined that nothing should prevent him from carry- 
ing out the thought and wish of those past years. The decision 
was made as he sat by his suffering babe, and in 1886 and 1887 
we find him a student in the Jefferson Medical College, Phila- 
delphia. Later he went to Louisville, Kentucky, where he gradu- 
ated with honors in 1890 and immediately returned to North Caro- 
lina and began regular practice. Meantime he had continued to 
direct the affairs of his hardware company, and did not sever his 
connection with it until he sold out in 1893. 

He is a specialist, confining his work to the eye, ear, nose, and 
throat, and has made for himself a name and reputation through- 
out North Carolina and adjoining States. In 1897 he went to 
New York and took a post-graduate course in order to prepare 
himself thoroughly for his chosen work and to equip himself in 
every possible way. Two years later he was chosen managing 
editor of the Carolina Medical Journal, which position he still 
holds. Under his management the Journal has continued to grow, 
improve, and succeed. He was also Professor of eye, ear, nose 
and throat diseases in the North Carolina Medical College at 

Seven children have been bom into the familv, six of whom are 
now living in the delightful home in Charlotte, North Carolina, 
where culture, contentment, peace and happiness meet in blessing. 


Dr. Wakefield is an Elder in the Presbyterian Church, a Demo- 
crat in politics, and a genial, social, cultured gentleman, interested 
in every good word and work, well informed on all the questions 
of the day, and devoted to his family, his friends, his city and his 

The call back to old mother earth has reached him, and one of 
his most delightful recreations is his farm near Charlotte, in which 
he takes the liveliest interest and from which he reaps not only a 
harvest of fruit and grain, but of joy, relaxation, and happiness. 

It is said that North Carolina people do not write, but from Dr. 
Wakefield's pen have come a number of notable articles on medi- 
cal subjects and an occasional item of more general interest. 

The life-story given thus briefly, simply, and fairly is one of 
interest and encouragement, and one from which many valuable 
lessons may be learned. North Carolina's sons in every field are 
doing honor to their mother State, but so quietly and modestly 
are they working out their destiny and hers that we often fail to 
note their strength and force, their vigor and beauty and power. 

ff. A. Blair. 



(YRUS B. WATSON was born in what is now 
Forsyth County, then Stokes, near Kemers- 
ville, North Carolina, on the fourteenth day of 
I January, 1845. His father, John Watson, was 
grandson of Drewry Watson, a native of 
t Scotland, who settled in Prince Edward 
County, Virginia, about 1740 and whose wife was a Barksdale 
of Halifax, from whom the subject of this sketch takes his middle 
name. John Watson was a solid, substantial farmer noted for 
his honesty and integrity, his wisdom, intelligence and breadth 
of view. He was a careful, conservative, original, and thought- 
ful man, an ideal justice of the peace of the old school, and for 
years before the war was chairman of the Wardens' Court. He 
was widely known and esteemed, and, in his day and generation, 
modestly but faithfully did his part in the growth and develop- 
ment of this section of North Carolina. 

Mr. Watson's mother was a Folger, and her great-grandfather 
was a brother of Abia Folger of Nantucket, the mother of Ben- 
jamin Franklin. In her later years her resemblance to Franklin's 
portraits was so strong and striking as to cause frequent com- 
ment. She was a woman of culture, reiinement, and strong in- 
tellectual force, and left a marked influence not only upon her 
son. but upon the entire community about her. 

Mr. Watson's grandmother was a Wilson, sister of Joseph Wil- 

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son, the famous Solicitor of the Western District of North Caro- 
lina, who was one of the most distinguished lawyers of his day, 
and wlio appeared before the Supreme Court of tlie Stale in al- 
most every case that came up from any of the Western counties. 
As Honorable W. H. Battle said in his address at the meeting 
held in the Supreme Court Room in January, 1870, after the an- 
nouncement of the death of Judge Ruffin : 

"The business of llie Court in ihose days was condueled by gentlemen 
who were called "The Bar of the Supreme Court." and the practice was 
confined to them with almost as much exclusiveness as was formerly that 
of the Court of Common Pleas in England to the Sergeanta-af-Law. It 
was a rare instance that any other member of the profession ventured to 
appear before the Court; for it required no little moral courage to do so. 
The members who then composed the Supreme Court Bar were regarded 
as erjual. if not superior, to the members of such bars in any other State 
in the Union. Your honors will at once acknowledge the justice of this 
high encomium when 1 recall the names of William Gaston, Thomas 
Ruftin, Henry Seawell, Archibald Henderson. Archibald D. Murphey, 
Gavin Hogg, Moses Mordccai, Joseph Wilson, and James Martin." 

From such ancestry, and with ideal home influences about him, 
the subject of this sketch spent his childhood days with his one 
brother and two sisters at the neighborhood school, on the farm, 
and around the home. He was a strong, active, manly, vigorous 
boy, full of life and fun, and from his earliest childhood trained in 
careful, steady work, so that industry became a fixed habit and 
the thought of idleness repulsive. Fortunately for the boy, he 
had access to good books and early learned to love them. When 
only a lad. history, biography, poetry, and fiction were not only 
his delight and recreation, but they gave him the taste for litera- 
ture and reading which has marked his entire life. He has from 
boyhood been a close student of Shakespeare and other dramatists 
and a lover of the best fiction. His knowledge of and his love 
for natural history and geography are constant sources of sur- 
prise and wonder to his friends and acquaintances. At the early 
age of five he began his studies in the home school, and at fif- 
teen he passed to the Kernersville High School, which he left to 
enter the army. 


His war record is interesting and striking. He enlisted in Com- 
pany K, Forty-fifth North CaroHna Regiment, organized in the 
early Spring of 1862 at Camp Mangum, near Raleigh, of which 
Junius Daniel was the Colonel. Doctor J. M. Hines was the 
Captain of Company K, and his manly qualities and uniform 
kindnesses Mr. Watson has always held in the fondest remem- 
brance. Colonel Daniel was a graduate of West Point, and from 
the organization of the regiment until the beginning of the seven 
days* fight before Richmond he drilled his regiment incessantly, 
and so disciplined them that they became prepared to enter upon 
that career which brought to the organization so much fame and 
glory. Mr. Watson has contributed to the Regimental Histories 
an account of the fortunes of that regiment during the war which 
is not only interesting but very instructive. He himself was 
wounded in Maryland, in the Battle of the Wilderness, and much 
more severely and seriously at Spottsylvania on the 19th of May. 
We make room for a single quotation from his Regimental 
Historv : 

*'0n the 17th or i8th of May, and after the enemy had drawn back their 
line into the woods, giving up the entire field where the conflict raged 
on the I2th, I asked permission of Lieutenant Frank Erwin, commanding 
my company, to pass the picket-line and go over into this angle to make 
observations. It was a bright May day. There was no fighting on any part 
of the line, and by his permission I went. The pickets permitted me to 
pass, and I went over the breastworks to that portion of the field which 
had been occupied by our brigade, and then to the right to the position 
which had been occupied by Ramseur's brigade. On my arrival in this 
angle I could well see why the enemy had withdrawn their lines. The 
stench was almost unbearable. There were dead artillery horses in con- 
siderable numbers that had been killed on the loth and on the early morn- 
ing of the I2th. Along these lines of breastworks where the earth had 
been excavated to the depth of one or two feet and thrown over, making 
the breastworks. I found these trenches filled with water (for there had 
l>een much rain), and in this water lay the dead bodies of friend and foe 
commingled, in many instances one lying across the other, and in one or 
more instances I saw as many as three lying across one another. All 
over the field lay the dead of both armies by hundreds, many of them torn 
and mangled by shells, many of the bodies swollen out of all proportion. 
some with their guns yet grasped in their hands. Now and then one 


could be seen covered wilh a blanket, which had been placed over him 
afler he had fallen. 

'"Those bodies were decaying. The water was red, almost black with 
blood. Offensive flies were everywhere. The trees, saplings, and shrubi 
were torn and shattered beyond description; guns, sotne of them broken, 
bayonets, canteens, and cartridge boxes were scattered about, and the 
whole scene was such that no pen can or ever will describe it. I have 
seen many fields after severe conflicts, but nowhere have I seen anything 
half so ghastly. I returned to my company and said to old man Thomas 
Carroll, a private in the company, who was frying meal at the fire. 'You 
would have saved rations by going with me, for 1 will have no more 
appelite for a week.' On the iQlh our corps marched in the afternoon 
ftround the enemy's right, crossed one of the prongs of the Maliapony 
River, and attacked the enemy on his right flank and rear. We carried 
no artitlery.'and as it happened that which we hoped would be a success- 
ful surprise to the enemy turned out to be a desperate and unsuccessful 
battle. We found a large body of troops coming up as reinforcements 
from Fredericksburg. We attacked them. The engagement began per- 
haps two hours by sun and lasted until in the night, and under cover of 
darkness our corps returned to its former position. In this engagement our 
regiment suffered severely. The colonel of our regiment, the brave 
Colonel Samue! H. Boyd, was killed while leading a charge. My own 
company came out of the fight with not an officer or non-commissioned 
officer. In this last charge the wriler received a severe wound from which 
he has never entirely recovered. The next day the armies commenced 
3 mnvement toward Richmond, confronting each olher and ftghling almost 
daily, which finally culminated in the great battle of Cold Harbor, June 
3d. in which bailie the enemy received awful punishment and our regi- 
ment again suffered severely. While this battle was raging. I was lying 
helpless in ihe Winder Hospital at Richmond, listening to the roar of ihe 

As soon as he was able he hastened back to the army with his 
arm in a sling and remained in service until the end, indeed taking 

part in the last charge at Appomattox, 

Of those surrendered by General Lee, 5132, according to the 
parole list, were North Carolinians; but those figures do not in- 
chulc all of the North Carohnians who were at Appomattox. 
Many escaped. Mr. Watson says in the Regimental Histories: 

"Many officers and soldiers, seeing surrender impending, moved by dil- 
like to give up Ihe struggle or fear of Northern prisoRs, to which it xnt 


thought we would be sent, slipped through the lines to evade surrender, 
and thus their names do not appear on the parole list. On the morning 
of the surrender at Appomattox I was with my regiment (Forty-fifth) 
at the time the last charge was made by Grimes's division, to which it be- 
longed. At the time I was suffering from an old open wound. Thinking 
that all prisoners would be marched back to City Point and thence trans- 
ported to Northern prisons, I left the field and started home, moving down 
the Appomattox, intending to cross in the rear of Sheridan's cavalry dur- 
ing the night. I was captured late in the afternoon, about ten miles down 
the river, and was brought back to General Grant's camp with about 150 
others caught in like case offending. Without waiting for daylight we 
were started early next morning for City Point. Owing to the condition 
of my wound, however, I was left at Farmville for medical treatment 
and was paroled there a few days later. In this way the names of no small 
numbers of soldiers (some of whom effected their escape), who were with 
their commands at Appomattox, failed to appear on the parole-list." 

On being paroled Mr. Watson made the best of his way 
through many difficulties to his home, and soon began to cast 
about with the purpose of earning his livelihood. For a while he 
was employed as a clerk in a store at KemersviUe ; but while at- 
tempting to cut wheat at home, his old wounds broke his shoulder 
down and gave him trouble. Later, in 1866, he accepted a clerk- 
ship in High Point. Here an accident befell him which opened 
the wound on his right shoulder, and he now saw that it was 
necessary to abandon any vocation that required manual labor, 
and that he must seek a livelihood in some other career. Al- 
though not well prepared for professional life, his thoughts 
turned to the law, and he was fortunately able to enter upon the 
study of that profession in Lexington under General James Madi- 
son Leach. He had a resolute purpose to succeed, and addressed 
himself to his studies with a determination to master his profes- 
sion. Indeed, there was a high incentive. Admitted to the bar 
in June, 1869, and at once beginning the practice in Winston, he 
was happily united in marriage to Miss A. E. Henley, and their 
union has been blessed by an interesting family, five of their 
children having grown up around them. From the first Mr. 
Watson was successful in his practice. He gave time and care 
to every case, and studied not only the law, but the methods, work. 


and peculiar characteristics of the most distinguished lawyers 
with whom he came in contact- He sought that which was best 
and strove to attain superior excellence. As a result his practice 
became very extended. Perhaps no attorney has a belter reputa- 
tion for ability in examining witnesses and in forcibly presenting 
his case to the jury. He has been employed in many great cases 
and has always risen to the height of the occasion. There has 
never been any disappointment in his effort. Where he has not 
achieved success he at least deserved the victory. Among his 
great speeches will long be recalled his masterly effort in the 
case of Gattis vs. Kilgo, at Oxford, which won for him the highest 
applause. He is a constant, thorough, and careful student of 
human nature, and knows men, understands how they Ihink, what 
they think, what their mental processes are, and what the men 
themselves really are. 

It has been often said that the State has produced no greater 
criminal lawyer; but he early made it a rule that he would not, 
under any circumstances, prosecute a case where capital punish- 
ment was the penalty. In many of the great criminal trials he 
has thus been the leading lawyer for the defence, and by his ear- 
nestness, zeal, anil capacity he has attained an eminence seldom 
achieved at the bar. His ideas of the ethics of the profession are 
high and proper, and while he is an antagonist to be feared, yet 
his conduct of a cause Is always to be admired. 

Mr. Watson's ancestry has been Democratic from the days of 
Jefferson, and he himself, imbued with the most patriotic senti- 
ment, has been a devoted Democrat throughout his career. Look- " 
ing only to the honors of his profession, he has never sought 
office or political preferment ; but always deeply interested in 
the success of his party, he has freely given his services in every 
important campaign. On the hustings he is an exceedingly pop- 
ular speaker, and he presents his views not only forcibly, but in 
such a captivating way as to carry his audience with him. In- 
deed it has been the fortune of but few to treat public questions 
so masterfully in debate and to find such favor with the people. 
In 1882 he was elected to the State Senate, and again in 1892. 


Then in mature manhood, learned in his profession, experienced 
in matters of public interest, he made a record that exceedingly 
gratified his friends. Among the important matters that engaged 
his attention was the necessity of constructing good roads in this 
State, and he led in that movement, so that at one of the recent 
conferences it was ascribed to him that he was "the father of the 
good road movement." It is said that he read and studied the 
road laws of every State, and then prepared and had passed the 
road law of Forsyth County, which he called "the Alternative 
System," which has since been adopted in many other counties. 
In 1893 he represented his county in the House of Representa- 
tives. At that session he originated the Anti-Lynch Law, which 
is now embodied in the State Code. He was easily the leader 
of the body and served with ability and renown. 

In 1890 the Farmers' Alliance began to play an important role 
in the Democratic Party, and as each year passed it added to 
its strength in the State. At length, in 1892, its leaders sought 
to draw the farming element into a separate organization and 
nominated Mr. Exum for Governor. But their defection was 
not sufficient to defeat the Democratic nominee, Elias Carr. Four 
years later, although the Populists nominated Mr. Guthrie for 
Governor, their leaders induced the Populist voters to vote for 
Honorable D. L. Russell, the Republican candidate. The out- 
look for Democratic success was now hopeless, but Mr. Watson 
was asked to lead the Democratic ranks. 

No one who witnessed the magnificent State Convention of 
1896 in the Academy of Music at Raleigh will ever forget it 
Every delegate in it — and the flower of the party was there — felt 
that it was a crisis in the affairs of the party in this State. Two 
years before the party had been overwhelmingly defeated by a 
fusion of the Republican and Populist Parties. The Party had 
lost every representative in Congress, the Legislature, and nearly 
every countv officer in the State. It was an hour of feverish 
anxiety, when personal differences were forgotten and personal 
ambitions were subordinated and when the ablest and best leaders 
of the party were looking for the strongest man in the State to 


lead in the titanic struggle ahead. After a thorough and most 
careful canvass and analysis of the situation and search for the 
man of the hour, Cvrus B. Watson was unanimously chosen for 
the herculean task. No greater compHment was ever paid to a 
North Carolinian by his own people. When his name was men- 
tioned to that magnificent assembly of splendid men the scene 
beggars description. It surpassed, if possible, the intense enthu- 
siasm of the great Convention of 1876 in Metropolitan Hall when 
Vance was called to carry the standard of his party. It was 
worth all the sacrifice and hardship imposed by war and all the 
toil and self-denial of the intervening years to have lived this one 
hour in the ringing acclamations of that great body of the first 
men of this old commonwealth. Mr. Watson would have been 
more than human if he could have resisted this honor, which was 
wholly unsought and which came to him like a peal of thunder 
from a clear sky. Burdened with the cares and responsibilities of 
a busy professional life and taxed to the utmost of his strength 
by the exacting demands of his extensive law practice, he forgot 
self and with his whole heart accepted the standard of his party 
in the darkest hour of its history, and gave to his State a service 
akin to that which he rendered with daimtless courage from '5i 
to '65 on the crimsoned field of battle. He emerged from defeat 
as lie did in 1865, undaunted and undismayed, and resumed his 
life's work as quietly and as serenely as the humblest citizen in the 
humblest walk of life. 

Scarcely less remarkable was the honor bestowed by his friends 
in the memorable contest in the General Assembly of 1903 for 
United States Senator. Instinctively and without effort on his 
part, sentiment on the part of some of the best men of the party 
had crystallized into a movement favoring his election to the 
United States Senate. It was felt that in view of his distin- 
guished service and sacrifices to his State, in war and in peace, 
he was entitled to this high honor. It was recognized, too, that 
there was no man in the party more splendidly equipped for this 
exalted position. In the contest, lasting more than a month, he 
was again defeated by a close vote, and again Mr. Watson re- 


turned to his home carrying with him the proud assurance that 
he occupied a higher and^ more permanent place than ever before 
in the esteem of the people of North Carolina. It may be said 
without exaggeration that these honors stand unmatched in the 
history of North Carolina and give him an abiding place on the 
historic page of the great State he has served with such signal 
devotion and fidelity. 

Mr. Watson has been for years a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church South, and is still a careful student, constantly 
reading good books, and is fully informed on all the topics of the 
day, not only politics, but in science and the arts as well. He is 
in great demand as a speaker at all public gatherings, and the old 
soldiers look to him for leadership and a touching address upon 
all occasions when they come together. 

His integrity is known of all men, his character, ability, and 
standing are the highest, and he has a most charming personality. 
His fund of good stories seems almost inexhaustible, and it is the 
delight of his friends to gather about him and listen to his in- 
teresting anecdotes that flow in such boundless profusion from 
his lips. Almost his only recreation is the game of billiards, 
which he greatly enjoys, and his interest in his farm work, which 
he has never lost. 

Now in the prime of life, blessed with health, strength, and 
vigor, having a brilliant and well-trained intellect and a true, 
warm, and tender heart, he has endeared himself to his fellow- 
men, earned the respect of all who know him, and richly deserves 
the success he has attained. 

W, A. Blair. 
S, A. Ashe. 

• ■ ■!.;.■-"•* 

'i^ ' 


f li(.)UT four miles from the town of Hertford in 
Perquimans County a farmer, Stephen White, 
and his wife, Mary, whose maiden name was 
Wyatt, were living in a humble home in the 
year 1851. Farming at that period was not a 
very renumerative occupation, but it provided 
the means of solid comfort ; and while no money was accumulated, 
living was bountiful and life was independent, and the careful, 
industrious husbandman, although not in the enjoyment of riches, 
had pleasant social relations even with the most prosperous of his 

Far removed from the madding crowd, the placid, quiet exist- 
ence of the farm was particularly conducive to a religious life, and 
the elevating practices of religion were almost universal. The 
home-life of all, rich and poor alike, was permeated with fervid 
religious sentiment, and the mother reared her children with 
scrupulous care in her own communion. There was no purer, 
sweeter, and more moral atmosphere than on the farms of North 
Carolina, and in this respect there were but few regions that 
equalled that known as the Albemarle section, where the gentle 
faith of the Quakers had taken deep root in the early days of set- 
tlement and had exerted a refining influence for many genera- 
It was under such circumstances that the early life of Matthew 


H. White, the subject of this sketch, was cast. He was the son 
of Stephen and Mary White, and was bom on his father's farm on 
the 5th day of September, 1851. When only three years of age, 
however, he had the misfortune to lose his father; but nearly 
every sorrow has its compensations. By this bereavement he was 
thrown more thoroughly under the particular care of his mother, 
whose influence thus entered more into the woof and warp of his 
life than would otherwise have been the case. 

Always active and robust, and with a disposition to be helpful 
to his mother, even as a boy he became greatly interested in the 
work about his home and in accumulating something for his 
mother and himself. Addressing himself to his daily tasks with 
a vigor bom of an affectionate and appreciative nature, he early 
emerged from boyhood into man's estate. One sees him to-day 
a man of large frame, well developed, and apparently the posses- 
sor of unusual physical strength. At sixteen he had attained a 
robust and vigorous manhood. One of his emplo3rments at that 
age was cutting wood for sale on his mother's account She set 
a task for him of two cords a day, and allowed him fifty cents per 
cord for all beyond the task. He usually cut four cords per day, 
and thus earned a dollar a day for himself. Thus occupied ia 
supplying something for the support of his mother and himself, 
Mr. White had no great turn for books and was denied the benefit 
of even such educational advantages as the neighboring town af- 
forded. But such a man was irrepressible. Notwithstanding his 
want of opportunities, he overcame all obstacles and fitted himself 
for a man's work in life. On reaching his twenty-first year he 
was able to purchase a farm containing 333 acres, four miles from 
Hertford, for which he paid down $500 in cash and agreed to pay 
the balance of the price, $1,500, in six years. Now he had a still 
greater stinuilus to exertion, and he applied himself with such 
energy to his work that in three years he had paid off the last of 
the mortgage. Successful in this, he afterwards entered upon a 
career in which he displayed a wonderful insight into business. 
Whatever he undertook prospered. He made no mistakes and 
his transactions were always profitable. His just sentiments, his 


cheerful, sunny disposition, and the kindly feeling which beamed 
from his pleasant countenance seemed to be in natural accord with 
his success in life. He engaged with excellent results in fanning, 
and particularly in raising and fattening stock. For horses he had 
a fancy, and he dealt largely in them and handled them with ex- 
ceptional advantage. He also invested in lumber and in lands 
for trading purposes; and seldom did he make a transaction that 
added nothing to his bank account. Year by year he amassed 
means and his accumulations notably increased, and he was en- 
abled to fall into that manner of life which was most inviting to 
him. He has long had a stock-farm where he raises fine-blooded 
horses, and which has an established reputation even in distant 
parts of the State. There is no pleasure like that accompanying 
successful achievement, and Mr. White has enjoyed the gratifica- 
tion of having His fine horses praised by all at the races and horse- 
shows of the State capital and other fairs and exhibitions. 

Having made his own money, Mr. White has known how to in- 
vest it to advantage. While careful, he is not so conservative as 
to keep always within beaten paths, but he strikes out for him- 
self. He blazes his own way in business matters. Thus he was 
one of the originators of the Albemarle Ice Company, and is the 
president of that company, whose operations have met with grati- 
fying success. He was likewise one of those who organized the 
First National Bank of Elizabeth City, and has been a director in 
it ever since it was begun. He was also a director in the Hert- 
ford Banking Company, and likewise in the Great Eastern Life 
Insurance Company. 

While not a politician, Mr. White is a Democrat, like most of 
his associate.s, and he has always taken an interest in the local af- 
fairs of his town and county. 

His religious affiliations are with the Methodists, but he is 
broad-minded and liberal in his social intercourse, and he is one of 
the governors of the Hertford Club, whose object is to promote 
the amenities of life among the citizens. His relations, social, 
business, and political, to his community are thus seen to be agree- 
able, useful, and important. Whatever will tend to promote Ihc 


general welfare finds in him a warm and zealous advocate, and 
when he undertakes anything it generally is accomplished. The 
word failure is not in his vocabulary. In every town there is 
usually some man who stands foremost for public spirit and en- 
terprise, and Mr. White has earned the reputation of being in this 
respect the first citizen of Hertford. 

In the month of January, 1871, before he was twenty-one years 
of age, Mr. White was happily married to Miss Mattie E. Perry. 
She has borne him two children, but neither now survives. 

Denied educational advantages in his own youth, Mr. White 
has been interested in helping others. For the past twenty years 
he has each year aided five or six deser\'ing young people, girls 
and bovs, to obtain an education. He has advanced them the neccs- 
sary means, taking their notes without security. This kindness 
on his part has been appreciated, and with but few exceptions all 
whom he has helped in this way have been so successful in life 
that they have paid promptly the amounts lent them. At this par- 
ticular time Mr. White is educating nine young people. This 
aiding others has brought him much gratification. He finds it a 
real pleasure to observe the successful careers of those whom 
he has benefited in this respect. Mr. White has not connected 
himself with many societies, but is a member of the Elks' 
Lodge 856 at Elizabeth City. Not only has he been help- 
ful in assisting to promote business enterprises, but he has given 
liberally to all charitable and religious purposes that enlist the 
sympathies of his community. 

Mr. White may well be classed among the self-made men of the 
State. He has been indebted to others but little for the success 
which has attended him in life. His fine character, sterling worth, 
and the confidence he has inspired among his business associates 
were the foundations of his success. His advice to young men is 
therefore of particular value. *'A young man," says he, "should 
acquire good habits, should lead a life of sobriety and industry, 
hand out a square deal to everybody, and stand to his contracts, 
whether good or bad." 

^ — i—^ ^ 


ARTIN STEVl-XSi>\ Wil.LAKi. -4. „^'i 
January 17. 183S. in Wasiiitiyi'ii N-j.-tli • jtpy 
lina. On Dct-eiiil>er S- '■i^^. I": liiitntst Mi« 
Elizabeth Gettip I Miw- .[,: „:t;.-i ..t" W-lliwi. 
H. Oliver of Ncw-i>r„ 

His father, Mr. AIU>' -> »..-ia,.i *j> ,«. 
a long line of New Ims'^'-i m-t- .tts (roin :% 
list prinniri' lit and oMci! *.i ] - ^ ■_': -' cri'.. -r 
i.l. will, ua- born ;i: '-■■ '■,.■■ : i-.i 

■ariie to N''irtii Carolina in '"^^ t- . .-v ■ ; A-rh 
■■ii,i;,it:eil in a wliolesalo Im^iH' ■■ it. >\ i-l' 
in-uni lie I'! to Gr«-nsl>i)r.v -.t, '.>"■■■ ..,. . 
iIjc- war uiidiT a o unmission from C',.'--:v--r 
cUiri: at Thoniat-vitlc of shoes and otiiei -tii;.- 
ratf ' '•■■vernnK-nt. In iX6fi he came !■> V<ii 
lud the wholvsal.- cr ■•■ry firm of Willar.' 
i-n(li.-<l for a ntinilicr .:i irars the Urgeiit 
ill ihe Stntc. He never ].<U. .r soupht puh- 
'-,it uas for more than hall i ■•inTnn- a Rul- 
>-.!iyH'rian Church. He always ilistin- 
(liiti. his scrupulous honesty, i-xinriic m-i'l- 
■••.•■I iiiiliimitable jwr severance. 
■.'.\. the first person of the name in this c>Mm- 
■ liiisells in 1636. He was one of the mo*t 

Mt — 1_^— ^ 



January 17, 185S. in Washmg:toii, North Caro- 
lina. On December 5, 1883, he married Miss 
Elizabeth Getlig Oliver, daiighler of William 
H. Oliver of New-Bern. 
His father, Mr. Albert A. WUlard. was de- 
scended ihrongh a long line of New England ancestors from a 
number of the most prominent and oldest families of that section. 
The elder Mr. Willard, who was born in Still River, Massachu- 
setts, May 19, 1S28, came to North Carolina in 1845 together with 
several brothers and engaged in a wholesale business in Wash- 
ington. From Washington he moved to Greensboro in 1861 and 
was engaged during the war under a commission from Governor 
Vance in the manufacture at Thomasville of shoes and other sup- 
plies for the Confederate Government. In 1866 he came to Wil- 
mingfton and established the wholesale grocery firm of Willard 
Brothers, which transacted for a number of years the largest 
business of that kind in the State. He never held or sought pub- 
lic office of any kind, but was for more than half a century a Rul- 
ing Elder in the Presbyterian Church. He was always distin- 
guished for his deep piety, his scrupulous honesty, extreme mod- 
esty, and for patience and indomitable perseverance. 

Major Simon Willard, the first person of the name in this coun- 
try, landed in Massachusetts in 1636. He was one of the most 


prominent men of his day in New England and commanded the 
Middlesex Regiment of the State of Massachusetts in King Phil- 
lip's War. Dr. George M. Bodge, in ** Soldiers in King Phillip's 
War/' says of Major Willard that "he was one of the noblest in 
the roster of the grand old Puritan officers." Among other prom- 
inent positions held by Major Willard was that of Deputy to the 
General Court of Massachusetts from 1636 to 1654. From that 
time to this each generation has been distinguished for capacity 
and excellence, and during the War for Independence several of 
his descendants were officers in the Revolutionary Army. 

The maternal grandmother of Martin S. Willard was Hannah 
Emerson. She also was descended from a long line of New Eng- 
land ancestors, several generations in succession having been Con- 
gregational ministers, and among her first cousins was the dis- 
tinguished Ralph Waldo Emerson. 

His mother was Mary Hannis Stevenson, daughter of Martin 
Stevenson and Mary Taylor Stevenson of New-Bern, North Caro- 
lina, and through this side of his family Mr. Willard is connected 
with a number of prominent North Carolina families. Honorable 
Hannis Taylor is a near relative, being connected with Mr. Wil- 
lard through both his (Mr. Taylor's) father and mother. 

Mr. Willard has always been physically robust and in boyhood 
took an active part in all school and college sports. During late 
years he has been particularly interested in yachting, and his chief 
relaxation from the cares of business has been in this attractive 
pastime. In his early life Mr. Willard received regular and sys- 
tematic training from his father in habits of industry and fru- 
gality. He cannot remember that he was ever given outright one 
dollar in money, but for simple kinds of employment he was paid 
fixed and liberal amounts, which were always entered in an account 
book. When money was to be spent it was always drawn from 
this fund, and an entry made what it was spent for. The habits 
inculcated by these methods have been of wonderful value to him 
in all his after life. His father kept him at private schools in his 
own town, and for a short time at the Hopkins Grammar School in 
New Haven, Connecticut, where he was prepared to enter Yale 


College. The year he would have entered Yale (1873) his father 
unhappily met with business reverses, and he was prevented from 
continuing his studies, and returned home to take up the active 
pursuit of seekinir a livelihood. 

He was first employed as clerk (1874) in the insurance office 
of Colonel John Wilder Atkinson in Wilmington, continuing with 
him until he became chief clerk, when he resigned his position 
(1883) to commence business for himself. Shortly after enter- 
ing the insurance business he associated with him.self Dr. Armand 
J. De Rosset, and this partnership continued for a period of eight 
years and until Dr. De Rosset on account of failing health was 
obliged to retire from active business. In 1887 Mr. Willard se- 
cured from the Legislature of North Carolina a charter for the 
Carolina Insurance Company, and the company being organized 
soon afterwards, Mr. Willard was elected its Secretary, and he 
has continued in this position ever since, having the entire man- 
agement of the company's affairs. 

Mr. Willard aided materially in the reorganization of the Wil- 
mington Liglit Infantry and for nine years was an active member 
of that organization, and while first sergeant of that company he 
was appointed adjutant of the Second Regiment N. C. S. G., and 
continued in that position for several years. When he retired 
from active military duty he was placed on the Reserve Corps of 
the W. L. I., and has been a member of that organization ever 
since except for the short time of the Spanish War. During that 
war the company volunteered for active service in the United 
States Army, and Mr. Willard, together with a number of other 
Reserve Corps members, took their places and performed the ac- 
tive work of keeping up the home company. During this period 
fNovemher, 1808) the political revolution in Wilmington oc- 
curred, and Mr. Willard took a very active part in cjuieting that 
disturbance and restoring his town to the government of its white 

Among the positions of responsibility and trust held by Mr. 
Willard are member of the Board of Commissioners of Naviga- 
tion and Pilotage of the port of Wilmington, of the Board of 


Managers of the James Walker Memorial Hospital, of the Board 
of Managers of the Board of Commerce, and for eight years 
Chairman for the Board of Assessors for New Hanover County. 

Mr. Willard's most conspicuous public service has been as a 
Member of the Legislature of North Carolina, representing New 
Hanover County in the sessions of 1899 and 1901. His election 
with Mr. George Rountree to represent New Hanover County was 
one of the dramatic incidents of the White Supremacy campaign 
of 1898, and was of such importance that the great Metropolitan 
dailies, which had begim to look to Wilmington for startling new 
items, gave considerable notice to it. The selection of these two 
gentlemen was the result of an agreement between a committee 
of business men and Governor D. L. Russell that if the nominees 
of the Democratic Convention should be withdrawn and two other 
gentlemen selected by the business men of the city substituted, he 
(Governor Russell) would use his influence to prevent the nom- 
ination of a Republican ticket. This course was finally agreed to, 
although its wisdom was very much doubted at the time by some 
of the most prominent Democratic leaders. As a result of this 
agreement Messrs. Willard and Rountree were selected by the 
business men, and these gentlemen were the only persons voted for 
at the November election for Members of the House of Represen- 
tatives and were therefore unanimously elected. They were also 
reelected to the Legislature of 1901 without opposition. 

Mr. Willard's work as a member of the Legislature brought him 
into great prominence all over the State. The treasury of the 
State was almost depleted, and still there was need for increased 
appropriations for school purposes, for the charitable institutions 
of the State, and for pensions to Confederate veterans. The ne- 
cessity for more modern methods of taxation was apparent, and 
to Mr. Willard was chiefly assigned the duty of preparing a new 
revenue bill which would yield the necessary income to the State 
while not increasing the burden of taxation unnecessarily. To 
this duty he gave diligent and painstaking work, and the result has 
since been seen and recognized. While the new revenue law at 
first raised a storm of protest from the large corporations of the 



State, it lias since been admitted lo be an equitable measure and is 
now working smoothly; the opposition has given place to favor- 
able comment and the necessary revenue has been secured. The 
new features incorporated in the laws for the taxation of cor- 
porate interests have received the outspoken approval of the lead- 
ing men in the State's Government, both executive and judicial, 
while the corporations which at first condemned the law now admit 
that it is far more equitable than previous laws. While a Mem- 
ber of the Legislature, he was called upon to explain through the 
daily press many sections of the proposed law, and he did so in a 
number of articles which were printed in the papers published at 
Raleigh. He also advocated in several extended articles, and in 
the face of violent opposition, the adoption of an inheritance tax, 
and this feature was finally incorporated into the law. 

Because of Mr. Willard's knowledge of the insurance business 
he was made chairman of the Insurance Committee of the Honse 
of Representatives, and to him was assigned the task of preparing 
an insurance law for the State. Under the measure wlitch he pre- 
pared and introduced the Department of Insurance was instituted. 
It provided for a full and complete management of all kinds of in- 
surance companies, and the public advantage of the Insurance 
Department working under it has been most marked. Statutes 
modeled on the North Carolina insurance law have since been 
enacted in a number of Southern States and are working equally 
as well as in this State. A few newspaper comments will show the 
popular appreciation of this act and also of the law providing for 
the investigation of fires, which was drawn and advocated by Mr. 
Wiilard. The following are from several of the leading State 
papers : 

"The insurance men North and South arc nnich pkaseil with ihc »ct 
of the North Carolina General Assembly ronceming insurance matterfl. 
Our townsman. Representative M. S. WilEard, is to be congratulated upon 
being the author of a measure the provisions of which so clearly and 
thoroughly comprehend the needs in this connection, and which gives such 
universal satisfaction. The secretary of one of ihe largest insurance 
companies in Ihe North writes to a gentlrm.-in here requesting that copies 


of the Willard Bill be sent to some Texas parties. He says he has pointed 
with pride to the legislation of North Carolina, and especially the Willard 
Bill, showing the good results to both the public and insurance interests" 
(Wilmington Star). 

The Insurance Herald, the leading insurance journal of the 
South, referring to the reduction in rates in North Carolina by the 
insurance companies, contained the following : 

"At the last session of the North Carolina Legislature insurance laws 
were passed which met with general commendation from citizens and fire 
insurance companies. Particularly important to the better welfare and 
improved conditions of the State was the Fire Marshal Law, charging the 
insurance commissioner with the investigation of fires and the prosecution 
of charges of arson, etc. The vigorous manner in which Commissioner 
Young has performed his duties in this respect has had a favorable effect 
Inasmuch as the increased hazard of obnoxious laws must be met by 
some increase of rate, many fire underwriters believe that meritorious 
laws should also be encouraged by some decrease in rate. It is evident 
that this liberal spirit actuated the Executive Committee of the South- 
eastern Tariff Association in its adoption of the following resolution at a 
meeting November 8th." 

( Here followed a copy of the resolution reducing rates in North 
Carolina from 25% to 33 1-3%.) 

The Raleigh Ncivs and Observer in a long article on the subject 
contained the following : 

**A11 the insurance papers arc commending North Carolina's fire in- 
surance law and congratulating the State on the recent reduction in rates." 

The following is from the Wilmington Despatch: 

"Direct and indirect compliments are being paid North Carolina's new 
and most admirable fire insurance laws as set forth in the now famous 
'Willard Bill/ drafted and engineered through the last legislature by 
Mr. M. S. Willard of this city, by the press throughout the South and in 
many parts of the North and West." 

The Despatch then quotes a long article from the Richmond 


7'iiiics which tells of the effort to have the North Carolina Law 
passed in Mississippi, closing by urging the Virginia Legislature 
to enact a law similar to the North Carolina Law. 
The Wilmington Messenger contained the following : 

"The act of the General Assembly of North Carolina to regtilale in- 
surance companies, and known as the 'WilUrd Law,' will probably be 
adopted in Virginia, Georgia, Mississippi and Texas. It is regarded as 
the be^t solution of the insurance problem that has been enacted into law 
in the South, and it is not only fair to the insurance companies, but makes 
a great saving for insurers. Representative Willard. the author of the 
act, is a practical, experienced and successful insurance man himself, and 
his bill is making him considerable reputation." 

Mr. Willard also introduced and caused to be passed the Act 
giving New Hanover County a stock law. This measure was vio- 
lently opposed by a large number of farmers in the county. Mr. 
Willard was convinced that such a law would soon be recognized 
as of great benefit to the county at large and felt compelled to urge 
its passage in spite of the strong opposition of so many of his own 
people. The wonderful development of the trucking interests in 
New Hanover, due almost entirely to this law, has demonstrated 
the wisdom of Mr. Willard's action. 

Mr. Josephus Daniels in the Raleigh News and Observer has 
this to say of Mr. Willard's work as a legislator: 

"The need of the hour is more legislators like Mr. Willard. Independent, 
studious, wise and progressive, the State and New Hanover Gjunty have 
reason to be proud of the constructive legislation Mr. Willard has had a 
large part in shaping." 

Mr. Willard has since early manhood been a prominent Mason, 
having held the highest position in all the local Masonic organiza- 
tions. In i8i>8 he was elected Grand High Priest of the Grand 
Chapter of the Royal Arch Masons in North Carolina and served 
the usual term. He has held minor offices in the Grand Lodge of 
Masons and is now one of the principal officers of the Grand Cora. 
mandery of Knighls Templar in North Carolina. Under his dircc- 


tion the magnificent Masonic Temple in Wilmington was erected, 
this being at the time the most conspicuous building in Wilming- 
ton and the first temple erected in the State. Mr. Willard has 
also been actively connected with a number of other prominent 
buildings in Wilmington, among which may be mentioned the 
large three-story factory of the Willard Bag and Manufacturing 
Company, of which he is president, and the office building owned 
and occupied by the Carolina Insurance Company. He will no 
doubt serv^e this latter company in the erection of a still more at- 
tractive and expensive building on a site recently purchased by 
them on the most prominent business block in the city. He is at 
present chairman of the building committee which is erecting the 
William H. Sprunt annex to the James Walker Memorial Hos- 
pital. In the Spring of 1906, the bag factory was destroyed by fire, 
entailing a heavy loss on the company, but Mr. Willard and his 
associates are rebuilding on a larger scale in a more eligible 

While not taking so active a part in the other organizations, Mr. 
Willard has also held the office of Chancellor Commander of 
Stonewall Lodge, Knights of Pythias, this being the oldest 
Pythian Lodge in the State, and is also a member of the Indepen- 
dent Order of Red Men. In his religious life Mr. Willard has al- 
ways been surrounded by earnest Christian influences and has for 
some time been a member of the First Presbyterian Church of 

P. JVillard. 

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E ^iONG the active men at the State capital 
whose influence is a strong force in the pro- 
gress of the community is Thomas Brown W'o- 
mack, who moved to Raleigh from Chatham 
County in 1894 and made his home there. 
Judge Womack is descended on his mother's 
side from General Thomas Brown, one of the leading patriots of 
Bladen County in the days that tried men's souls, his first military 
service heing with Governor Tryon at the battle of Alamance in 
1771. General Brown ardently espoused the cause of liberty at 
the beginning of the troubles with the Mother Country, was made 
lieutenant-colonel in 1775, and later became a very active partisan 
officer of the lower Cape Fear. In 1781, when the British domi- 
nated the Cape Fear region and drove the Whigs from their homes, 
some sixty of General Brown's neighbors found refuge in Duplin 
County and were organized by him and made an attack on the 
Tory post at Elizabethtown, held by three hundred Tories. That 
was one of the most brilliant and bloody affairs in our partisan 
warfare. The attack was at midnight and entirely successful, the 
Tory leaders and many others being killed and those who sur- 
vived being dispersed, and as a consequence, the Whigs repos- 
sessed themselves of that territory. Colonel Brown afterwards 
was appointed brigadier-general. He seri'ed in the State Senate 
in 1786, and also in 1788, exerting a strong influence in the de- 


liberations of that body ; and during the whole course of his life 
was greatly esteemed throughout the Cape Fear region. Through 
his mother also Judge Womack is one of the numerous descend- 
ants of John Sharpley. and has the same descent as Bishop W. M. 
Green of the Protestant Episcopal Church, whose saintly character 
caused him to be so widely admired. 

On his father's side Judge Womack's ancestry is equally dis- 
tinguished in social and civil life. His father, John Archibald 
Womack, was named for his two grandfathers, John Womack and 
Archibald McBryde. John Womack was a grandson of Ashby 
Womack, who was bom at Suffolk, England, August 15, 1683, 
and settled in Prince Edward County, Virginia, in 1716, where he 
died February 4, 1756. He was a son of Edward Womack, who 
was born March 12, 1653, and died at Suffolk, England, Septem- 
ber 8, 1723, being himself a son of Laurence Womack, Bishop of 
St. David's, who was born at Norfolk, England, May 23, 16 12, and 
died in 1685. 

Bishop Womack, or Womock as he usually spelled the name, 
was a son of Laurence Womack, who was rector of Lopham, as 
was his grandfather Arthur Womack. The Bishop in his early 
ministry had a benefice in the West of England, where he acquired 
fame by his preaching. In 1661 the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
was conferred upon him. From 1660 to 1683 he was Archdeacon 
of Suffolk, and on November 11, 1683, ^^^ was consecrated Bishop 
of St. David's. 

Bishop Womack was a great controversial writer at the restora- 
tion of Charles II, proving himself an able literary advocate of 
the old liturgy. He published twelve theological works, the last 
in 1683, entitled **Suffragium Protestantium. Wherein our gov- 
ernors are justified in proceedings against Dissenters." 

He was twice married, having children by each marriage, but 
left a will devising his property to his nephew Laurence Womack, 
rector of Castor of Yarmouth. 

John Womack came to North Carolina from Virginia in the 
latter part of the eighteenth century, and was elected to the L^s- 
lature from Caswell County in 1787. His son Green, Judge Wo- 


mack's grandfather, first settled at Hillsboro. engaging in the 
mercantile business, but later moved to Pittslx)ro, where he mar- 
ried Ann McBryde in 1825, 

Archibald McBryde, John Archibald Womack's maternal 
grandfather, was born in Wigtownshire, in northwest of Scotland, 
September 28, 1766, and came to America shortly after the cessa- 
tion of hostilities, penniless, settling in Moore County, North 
Carolina. In 1797 he married Lydia Ramsey of Chatham County, 
who was a daughter of the owner of the celebrated Ramsey's 
Mills at which point Lord Cornwallis encamped and crossed Deep 
River when on his retreat from the Battle of Guilford Court 
House. There were bom of this marriage four sons and seven 
daughters. They have left numerous descendants scattered 
through several of the Southern States, among whom is Honor- 
able Hugh M. Street. ex-Speaker of the Mississippi House of Rep- 
resentatives and a prominent business man and politician of Meri- 
dian, Mississippi. 

Archibald McBryde was twice elected to Congress, serving 
from May 22, 1809. to March 3, 1813, was several times State 
Senator, and was Solicitor of the Wilmington district. 

Dr. Camthers says that Mr. McBryde bad prepared the notes 
for a history of the war in the Scotch region, but that he died be- 
fore he had completed his manuscript. A number of his notes 
were turned over to Dr. Caruthers by Dr. Charles Chalmers, his 
son-in-law, and were freely drawn from in Dr. Caruthers' book en- 
tilled "Revolutionary Incidents." 

Moore says Mr. McBryde was an avowed Federalist, and the 
only one reelected from this State to Congress during the middle 
of Mr. Madison's term. He declared that: 

"Mr. McBryde was a lawyer of Moore County who was Brcatly re- 
spected tor his good sense and many virtues. To legal and political piif- 
sutlE he added laborious investigation and the preservation of rhe Revo- 
lutionary incidcnis of the State. To General Joseph Graham and Mr. 
McBryde arc the people of this age largely indebted for what is known 
of that momen toils epoch." 

Mr. McBryde died February 15, 1836, and was buried at 


Grange, on Deep River in Chatham County, his tombstone bearing 
this inscription : 

''By perseverance, industry and attention he arose from poverty 
and obscurity to a seat in Congress, and for some time Solicitor for 
the State for the Wilmington Circuit." 

Judge Womack's father was John Archibald Womack, a mer- 
chant and farmer of Chatham County, a man of strong intellec- 
tual power and of business capacity. Among his notable traits 
were piety, high integrity, industry and careful attention to what- 
ever occupied him. He was forty-three years a Ruling Elder in 
the Presbyterian church at Pittsboro, and was a frequent attend- 
ant on his Church Courts, being three times a Commissioner to 
the General Assembly of the Southern Presbyterian Church. No 
man exerted a greater influence for good in his section of the 
State. For twenty-five years he was public Administrator of 
Chatham County, and during those many years he settled more 
than two hundred estates without having one account impeached 
or excepted to for any improper expenditure or failure to per- 
form his duty. For twenty-seven years he was a justice of the 
peace, trying and determining more than a thousand cases, and 
only one case was reversed on appeal to the higher courts. He rep- 
resented his county in the important Legislature of 1870-72 and 
so impressed himself on his fellow-members by his sterling worth 
and business qualities that he was nominated for the position of 
Secretary of State on the Democratic Ticket at the ensuing 

A devout man, moderate in his views, temperate in all things, 
careful and painstaking, and strict in the performance of every 
duty and obligation, his example exerted a great influence in 
forming the character of his son, who also received from him his 
fine intellectual endowment, while to his mother Judge Womack 
is largely indebted for that training in religious and spiritual mat- 
ters which has been the basis of his own exact walk in life. 

Born on the 12th day of February, 1855, his father's re- 
sources having been crippled by the result of the war during his 


childhood, Judge Womack did not receive a collegiate education; 
but after attending a few years at the Pittsboro Academy, when 
only fifteen years of age, he entered a store as clerk and sold goods 
and kept the books of the concern. 

The training then received has been of great service in famil- 
iarizing him with accounts and developing clerkly habits and or- 
der and system in his methods, business qualities that are not 
generally acquired by members of the bar. When he had reached 
the age of nineteen years he found himself the possessor of $250 
which he had saved, and having an incUnation for the law, this 
enabled him to begin the study for that profession under the direc- 
tion of his neighbor. Honorable John Manning, afterwards Pro- 
fessor of Law at the State University. In June, 1876, he ob- 
tained his license and opened an office at Pittsboro, and two years 
later was chosen Solicitor of the Criminal Court of Chatham 
County and discharged his duties very acceptably. 

In 1883 he represented Chatham and Alamance Counties in the 
State Senate, and at the next election was chosen a Member of the 
House of Representatives. His legislative career won for him 
many friends, and as his acquaintance widened his popularity and 
influence became more extended. 

The following year Governor Scales conferred on him the ap- 
pointment of proxy to represent the State in the A. & N. C. R. R. 
Co., that position making him the personal representative of the 
Governor of the State in all matters connected with the manage- 
ment of that road, of which the State owned about Iwo-thirds of 
the stock. In 1889 he became principal clerk of the House of 
Representatives ; and the next year was appointed by Governor 
Fowle. Judge of the Superior Court, to fill the unexpired term 
caused by the resignation of Judge John A. Gilmer, an office he 
was admirably qualified to fill. 

In 1894 he was persuaded to accept the chief clerkship in the 
office of United States Collector of Internal Revenue Simmons, 
and he displayed a mastery of (he details of that business thai ex- 
cited the admiration of his friends. In 1899 he was appointed 
Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Institution for the 



Deaf and Dumb and the Blind at Rakigh, and four years later he 
was elected by the Legislature chairman of the commission to 
codify the public laws of the State, a work for which he was emi- 
nently qualified. 

Industrious and painstaking, his methodical habits led him to 
prepare a Digest of the Supreme Court decisions which he pub- 
lished in two volumes in 1891, and the third volume in 1898, and 
an Index in 1902 ; and in 1904 he published the "Laws of Pri- 
vate Corporations of the State of North Carolina," while at the 
same time he was much engrossed in preparing for publication the 
Revisal which was adopted by the General Assembly of 1905. 

He originally began the practice of the law alone at Pittsboro, 
was a partner of Honorable John Manning from 1881 to 1883, and 
in 1894 he moved to Raleigh, forming a copartnership with Mr. 
R. H. Hayes, who resided at Pittsboro. In 1898 he moved to 
New York city as special counsel for a large corporation, but after 
a year's experience in the metropolis he returned to Raleigh and 
opened a law office there on March i, 1899. ^^ Raleigh Judge 
Woniack, besides doing the literary work that has in some meas- 
ure occupied him, has built up a substantial practice and is in the 
enjoyment of a handsome business. He served for two years as 
president of the Chamber of Commerce, and is actively interested 
in the uplift of the capital city. 

He is a man of very acute mental power and endowed with a 
remarkable quickness of apprehension, a strong speaker, present- 
ing his views with a clearness not often excelled ; and no one is 
better grounded in the principles of the law or has a more ac- 
curate acquaintance with the decisions of the Supreme Court, 
while he is particularly distinguished for the systematic methods 
he adopts in his practice. 

During his youth Judge Womack, while studious and inclined to 
his books, was fond of out-of-door sports, and until recently he 
practised wheeling as an amusement and for exercise, and is now 
frequently found among the spectators at the baseball and football 

On the 30th of November, 1881, he married Miss Susie Taylor 


of Pitisboro, and their union lias been a most happy am! con- 
genial one. 

He feels that the influences that have chiefly directed his 
course in life originated at the fireside of his father's home — the 
example of his estimable father and the religious training of his 
admirable and devoted parents. But his own personal worth, hts 
ability, industry, and his purpose to attain the highest excellence 
in whatever he undertakes, have in the estimation of his friends 
been the prime factors in his achieving the gratifying success that 
has attended his professional career. 

In political matters Judge Womack has ever been an active 
and zealous Democrat, and he has warmly cooperated in the ef- 
forts of Senator Simmons, who as chairman of the State Com- 
mittee has managed several campaigns in the State with great suc- 
cess, while in religion he is a staunch Presbyterian, an officer in 
the First Presbyterian Church at Raleigh, and enjoys the high 
esteem of his associates in that church. 

In June, IQ05. Walce Forest College conferred upon Judge Wo- 
mack the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws, 

S. A. Ashe. 

I - 


' Cabarrus County, near Concord, at the beauti- 
' ful country home of his father. Major Robert 
Simonton Young, on the 28th of September, 
1861. His father was of Scotch-Irish descent 
and came of one of the best and most prominent 
families of Cabarrus County, and not one of them had borne the 
old name more worthily than he, who, when he fell in defence of 
home and country, left a spotless record as husband, father, citizen, 
and soldier. His mi'mory as a soldier Doctor Young perpetuates 
as a worthy and active member of the United Sons of Confederate 

Major Young was one of the most prosperous and pn^ess- 
i\-c fanners in the Pieilmont section of North Carolina. He *■»* 
a Democrat and a Secessionis