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Full text of "Biographical history of North Carolina from colonial times to the present;"

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BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 
" OF NORTH CAROLINA ^ 

'OLD NORTH STATE'^ EDITION 

THIS EDITION IS STRICTLY 
LIMITED TO SEVEN HUNDRED 
AND FIFTY REGISTERED AND 
NUMBERED SETS, OP WHICH 
THIS IS SET NUMBER^ 








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THE NEW YORK 
PUBLIC UBRARY 



A^Tf H. LENOX AND 
IlL^UUi FOUMOATION8 



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of I-iorti) vi.arolina 



From Colonial Times 
to the Present 




Editors 

Samuel A. Ashe 

Stephen B. Weeks 

Charles L. Van Noppen 

VOLUME II 

Charles L. Van Noppen 

PUBLISHER 

Greensboro, N. C. 

-7 



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• • _• • • • 

• ••• • • 






Copyright, 1905 
By Charles L. Van Noppen 



All rights reserved 



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Kemp P. Battle . 
Jqhn C. Buxton 
Theo. F. Davidson 
Junius Davis . 
rufus a. doughton 
Thomas J. Jarvis 
James Y. Joyner . 
Charles D. McIver 
William L. Poteat 
James H. Southgate 
Charles W. Tillett 



Chapel Hill 

Winston-Salem 

. Asheville 

Wilmington 

Sparta 

Greenville 

Raleigh 

. Greensboro 

Wake Forest 

Durham 

. Charlotte 



/ 



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Advisory Board vii 

Contents ix 

Portraits xiii 

Contributors xv 

Robert Washington Allison i 

John Phifer Allison 6 

Albert Anderson lo 

William Carter -Bain 14 

Andrew Balfour 17 

George W. Brooks 20 

Thomas Burke 27 

William Preston Bynum 33 

William P. Bynum, Jr 42 

Stephen Cabarrus 47 

Julian Shakespeare Carr 51 

Samuel Price Carson 60 

Richard Cogdell 64 

John Daves 67 

George Davis 71 

Junius Davis 82 

James Few 89 

Burgess Sidney Gaither 93 

William Gaston 99 



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CONTENTS 



Calvin Gra\'es io8 

Thomas Jefferson Green 114 

Wharton Jackson Green 120 

Hezekiah Alexander Gudger 126 

Egbert Barry Cornwall Ha^^bley 133 

\JPLeasant Henderson Hanes 139 

John Wesley Hanes 146 

Cornelius Harnett 152 

Louis D. Henry 163 

William Jackson Hicks 167 

Jacob Franklin Highsmith 173 

John Hinton 178 

James Hunter 180 

Herman Husbands 185 

James Innes 194 

James Iredell 198 

Charles Earl Johnson 203 

John Lawson 212 

William Lenoir 219 

John Van Lindley '222 

William Little 228 

^James Anderson Long ^. 231 

Frederick William Von Marshall 237 

Joseph Martin 240 

John Motley Morehead 250 

James Turner Morehead 259 

Eugene Lindsay Morehead 265 

James Turner Morehead 272 

Joseph Motley Morehead 278 

Mark Morgan 282 

Maurice Moore 293 



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CONTENTS xi 



James Moore 298 

Alfred Moore 302 

Hardy Murfree 307 

John Milton Odell 315 

James Alexander Odell 320 

^'illiam Robert Odell 325 

Samuel Finley Patterson 328 

RuFUS Lenoir Patterson 334 

Samuel Legerwood Patterso!^ 344 

Lindsay Patterson 352 

RuFus Lenoir Patterson, Jr 357 

William Polk 361 

John Porter 369 

Robert Payne Richardson, Jr. . • 374 

Griffith Rutherford 381 

Levi M. Scott 386 

Henry Seawell 394 

John Sitgreaves 398 

Benjamin Smith 401 

Seth Sothel 406 

James Haywood Southgate 410 

Frank Shepherd Spruill 416 

James J. Thomas 421 

Calvin Henderson Wiley 427 

Patrick Henry Winston, Sr 441 

Patrick Henry Winston, Jr 450 

George Tayloe Winston 460 

Robert Watson Winston 467 

Francis D. Winston 475 

Nicholas Washington Woodfin 481 



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John Motley Morehead Frontispiece 

Robert Washington Allison facing i 

John Phifer Allison " 6 

Walter Carter Bain " 14 

William Preston Bynum " 33 

William Preston Bynum, Jr " 42 

Julian Shakespeare Carr " 51 

George Davis " 71 

Junius Davis ** 82 

Thomas Jefferson Green " 114 

Wharton Jackson Green " 120 

Hezekiah Alexander Gudger " 126 

Egbert Barry Cornwall Hambley " 133 

Pleasant Henderson Hanes " 139 

John Wesley Hanes " 146 

William Jackson Hicks " 167 

Jacob Franklin Highsmith " 173 

Charles Earl Johnson " 203 

John Van Lindley " 222 

James Anderson Long " 231 

James Turner Morehead " 259 

Eugene Lindsay Morehead " 265 

James Turner Morehead " 272 



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John Motley Morehead Frontispiece 

Robert Washington Allison facing i 

John Phifer Allison " 6 

Walter Carter Bain " 14 

William Preston Bynum " 33 

William Preston Bynum, Jr " 42 

Julian Shakespeare Carr " 51 

George Davis " 71 

Junius Davis ** 82 

Thomas Jefferson Green " 114 

Wharton Jackson Green " 120 

Hezekiah Alexander Gudger ** 126 

Egbert Barry Cornwall Hambley ** 133 

Ple.\sant Henderson Hanes " 139 

John Wesley Hanes " 146 

William Jackson Hicks " 167 

Jacob Franklin Highsmith " 173 

Charles Earl Johnson " 203 

John Van Lindley " 222 

James Anderson Long " 231 

James Turner Morehead " 259 

Eugene Lindsay Morehead " 265 

James Turner Morehead " 272 



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xiv PORTRAITS 



Joseph Motley Morehead facing 278 

Mark Morgan " 282 

John Milton Odell " 315 

James Alexander Odell " 320 

William Robert Odell " 325 

Samuel Finley Patterson " 328 

RuFUs Lenoir Patterson, Sr " 334 

Samuel Legerwood Patterson " 344 

Lindsay Patterson " 352 

RuFus Lenoir Patterson, Jr " 357 

Robert Payne Richardson, Jr " 374 

Levi M. Scott " 386 

Henry Seawell " 394 

James Haywood Southgate '' 410 

Frank Shepherd Spruill " 416 

James J. Thomas " 421 

Calvin Henderson Wiley " 427 

Patrick Henry Winston, Sr. '* 441 

Patrick Henry Winston, Jr " 450 

George Tayloe Winston " 460 

Robert Watson Winston *' 467 

Francis D. Winston " 475 

Nicholas Washington Woodfin " 481 



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Samuel A. Ashe W. H. Macon 

Chas. B. Aycock, Ph.B., LL.D. Paul B. Means, A.B. 

J. S. Bassett, Ph.D. Mason E. Mitchell 

Kemp P. Battle, A.M., LL.D. J. H. Myrover 

Rich. H. Battle, A.B., LL.D. Frank Nash 

W. A. Blair, A.'M., LL.D. Junius Parker 

G. S. Bradshaw, A.B., A.M. William S. Pearson, A.B. 

R. D. W. Connor, Ph.B. E. W. Sikes, Ph.D. 

A. W. Cooke, A.M., LL.B. C. Alphonso Smith, A.M., Ph.D. 

G. H. CoRNELSON, A.M., D.D. Charles M. Stedman, A.B. 

D. I. Craige, D.D. Zebulon V. Taylor 

O. B. Eaton J. H. Thornwell, D.D. 

Adelaide L. Fries, A.M. S. B. Turrentine, A.M., D.D. 

Geo. a. Grimsley, A.M. William I. Underwood 

MarshallDeLanceyHavwood S. B. Weeks, Ph.D., LL.D. 

John S. Henderson, LL.D. Geo. T. Winston, Ph.D., LL.D. 

Maxcy L. John, Ph.B. 



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ROBERT WASHINGTON ALLISON 




fHE subject of this sketch was born in Charlotte, 
North Carolina, on the 24th day of April, 1809. 
His father was William Allison and his mother 
Margaret Young. His grandfather, Robert 
Allison, married Sarah Graham, sister of Gen- 
eral Joseph and George Graham of Revolution- 
ary fame, so that on both sides of the house he was descended 
from a noble, liberty-loving people. 

Left fatherless at the tender age of seven, he went to live with 
his Grandmother Allison at Poplar Tent, Cabarrus County, North 
Carolina. It was under the fostering care and strong, resolute 
will of this noble type of womanhood that he developed the self- 
reliance, courage and strength of character which brought him 
in later years ample means and wide influence and caused him to be 
known as "the foremost man of Cabarrus." 

Mr. Allison was a cultured, educated. Christian gentleman, 
fitted both by nature and grace to adorn any sphere either in 
church or state. A man of sterling integrity, irreproachable 
character, unswerving in fidelity to duty, honest and upright in 
all his dealings, kind-hearted and generous, faithful to every 
trust, pure in life, chaste in thought and guarded in speech, he is 
eminently worthy of being embraced among those who have con- 
tributed to the progress of the State. 

Other men may perchance have written their name higher upon 



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NORTH CAROLINA 



the page of fame, but none deeper in the hearts of their friends 
nor more legible in the '*Lamb's Book of Life." Others may have 
been more famous, none more useful; and while there are few 
great deeds to record, as the world counts greatness, few have 
accomplished more lasting good or died more revered. Like 
David, he served well his day and generation, and when "he fell 
on sleep," "devout men carried him to his burial and made 
lamentation over him." 

Mr. Allison was a self-made man. At the age of fourteen he 
left school and entered the store of his uncle, Joseph Young, at 
Concord, North Carolina, where by his diligence, promptness, 
honest dealing and faithfulness he continued to rise until he not 
only owned the store, but also accumulated large property inter- 
ests. His fortune represented to him honest money, "no specula- 
tion, nor turn or twist of hand, but the increase of capital honestly 
made and cared for." 

While engaged in merchandising, he did not neglect his mind, 
but improved his leisure moments by storing his memory with 
useful information that in later years made him such a charming 
and instructive conversationalist. Always literary in his taste, 
as increasing means afforded opportunity, histories and standard 
works became his companions. Quoting dates and facts with 
accuracy, he soon became the oracle of the community. His 
opinion was eagerly sought for and taken on any subject. While 
not a practitioner, he possessed superior legal talent, which was 
always used in the interest of truth. Gifted with a logical and 
analytical mind, he thought clearly. At a glance he would strip 
a question of its tinsel and verbiage and seize upon the point at 
issue. Eminently practical in his conclusions, tender and sym- 
pathizing in heart, he became the safe counsellor of the widow 
and orphan, and so careful was he in statement that he never had 
to retreat from an opinion es^pressed. 

On the 31st of May, 1842, in the thirty-third year of his life, 
Mr. Allison was happily married to Miss Sarah Ann Phifer, 
daughter of John Phifer and Esther Fulenwider, and a 
member of one of the most prominent families in the county. 



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ROBERT WASHINGTON ALLISON 



To this union there were bom nine children, four of them dying 
young. The five who lived to be grown were Esther Phifer, 
who married Captain Samuel Elliott White of Fort Mill, South 
Carolina, who erected the first monument to the Women of the 
Confederacy in the South, and the only monument to the faithful 
slaves in the world. She died April 28, 1903, leaving her husband 
and one child, Grace Allison, wife of Colonel Leroy Springs of 
Lancaster, South Carolina, and a grandchild, Elliott White 
Springs. 

Rev. Joseph Young Allison, D.D., married Sarah Cave DaVant 
of Columbia, South Carolina. Dr. Allison is at present pastor of 
the First Presbyterian Church, Lake Charles, Louisiana. They 
have one daughter, Margaret DaVant Allison. 

John Phifer Allison, State senator from Cabarrus, married 
Annie Erwin Craige of Salisbury, North Carolina, now living at 
Concord, North Carolina. 

Mary Louise Allison died January 8, 1879. 

Adeline Elizabeth Allison married Colonel John M. White of 
Fort Mill, South Carolina, who died in 1877. She married in 
1891 Captain J. M. Odell of Concord, North Carolina, where she 
at present resides. 

Mr. Allison had an ideal home. His wife proved to be a help- 
meet indeed, the embodiment of all that was good, pure and ele- 
vating. The heart of her husband safely trusted in her, and her 
children rise up and call her blessed. She was literally eyes to 
the blind, feet to the lame, and abounded in good deeds. She died 
February 23, 1889, after forty-seven years of wedded bliss. 

The hospitality of this house was unbounded. A large, roomy 
house, the latch-string hung on the outside and a warm welcome 
awaited you within. It was a "Bethany" where niany a tired 
preacher turned aside to rest a while. For over a quarter of a 
century the writer went in and out at will, and cherishes with 
affection the memory of this home as one of the dearest spots on 
earth to him. It was the "trysting place" of the young. Their 
secrets were safely guarded, their happiness consulted, their 
pleasures encouraged and their confidence sweetly won. To see 



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NORTH CAROLINA 



him surrounded by his nieces, nephews and their friends, with 
his face wreathed in smiles, no wonder he was the idol of their 
hearts. 

In his home life he was simple in his tastes and regular in his 
liabits. When twenty-five years of age, his physician said he 
would not live a year, but by an active out-of-door life, dieting, 
horseback riding and tremendous will power, he became physically 
as well as mentally and morally strong, outliving his physician and 
all the friends of his youth. 

After retiring from business, as a pastime he overlooked his 
farm, and was rated as the best farmer in the county, and to the 
day of his. death always had the first bale of cotton on the market. 
He was a man of method and system, and regulated his affairs, 
both public and private, accordingly. He had a place for every- 
thing and everything in its place. He could lay his hand on any 
paper, book or writing either in his office or at home. For over 
forty years he kept a daily recoi;d of the weather, and could tell 
of any specially unseasonable days in two-score years. 

In intercourse with his fellow-man his word was his bond. He 
dealt in nothing but truth and honesty. To give Mr. Allison 
as authority for any statement was to conclude the matter. 

Modest as a maiden, retiring and shrinking in disposition, Mr. 
Allison shunned prominence. Notoriety in any form was abhor- 
rent to his sensitive disposition. Against his protest, he was 
elected a member of the legislature of North Carolina in 1865 
and 1866. Without making a canvass, he was elected a member 
of the State Constitutional Convention in 1875. Such was the 
confidence and esteem of his fellow-citizens, that although never 
a seeker of office, for years he was clerk and master of equity 
in Cabarrus County, and for many years chairman of County 
Commissioners. From 1870 to 1874 he was a member of the 
Board of Trustees of Davidson College. For a half a century 
he was elder in the Presbyterian Church in Concord, North Caro- 
lina. Until the beginning of the war between the States he was a 
Whig in politics, a Democrat afterwards. He was introduced to 
Andrew Jackson in 1833 in the White House at Washington, and 



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ROBERT WASHINGTON ALLISON 



was by him appointed postmaster at Concord. A scene he loved 
to relate was what he saw on a visit to the State Constitutional 
Convention at Richmond, Virginia, in 1829. There were seated 
on the platform James Madison, James Monroe, ex-Presidents of 
the United States; John Marshall, Chief Justice of the United 
States, and John Randolph of Roanoke, the noted orator of 
Virginia. 

Mr. Allison died at Concord, North Carolina, September 21, 
1898, at the advanced age of eighty-nine. Although many years 
past the allotted time to man, by reason of strength his bow still 
abode in strength and his eye was not dim. His was age without 
its infirmities. To the last his hearing was distinct, his mind 
dear, his memory active, his hope bright and his faith assured. 
"Like a shock of com fully ripe, he was gathered into the gamer." 

Mr. Allison connected himself early in life with the Presbyterian 
Church, and adorned the profession he made. There have lived 
few, if any, better Christians than Mr. Allison. "He lived his 
religion, and his example was for Christ and the church." 

Rev. W. C. Alexander and Rev. C. F. Rankin conducted the 
funeral services, and on the 22d day of September, 1898, as the 
sun was setting, he was planted away in the cemetery of the First 
Presb\^erian Church to await the Resurrection mom. 

On his tomb one might write, "Faithful unto death," and above 
it, "The hand of faith could confidently carve a crown." 

/. H, Thornwell. 




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JOHN PHIFER ALLISON 

(HE subject of this sketch was born at Concord, 
the county seat of Cabarrus County, North 
Carolina, the 22d day of August, 1848. A long 
line of illustrious ancestry preceded him in his 
native county. A sketch of his father, Mr. 
R. W. Allison, appears elsewhere in this work. 
In the line of his maternal ancestry the following names are worthy 
of note: The Hon. Matthew Locke, member of the Provincial 
Congress at Hillsboro in 1775 and also of the Congress at Halifax 
in 1776, member of the legislature for twelve years, and also 
member for six years of the United States Congress; Martin 
Phifer, member of the legislature prior to and after the war of 
the Revolution; and Martin Phifer, Jr., colonel in the war of 
the Revolution. 

Mr. Allison's father, familiarly known as "Squire Allison," was 
for many years the most honored and venerated citizen. His 
mother, Mrs. Sarah Ann Phifer Allison, was not only esteemed 
as a model wife and mother, but also loved by all who knew her 
as a true '^mother in Israel." Hence that splendid heritage, the 
best that earth can bestow upon any of her sons, a pious, cultured 
parentage, has been the position of our subject. The third of 
nine children of a godly, refined Southern home, the choicest 
environment for the best development of childhood, youth and 
young manhood, Mr. Allison's maturity has been no mockery of 



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JOHN PHIFER ALLISON 



bis birth and rearing, for his character stands to-day, in the prime 
of his powers, the natural and logical fulfillment, the proper fruit- 
age of those high principles of life which he must have breathed 
from bis earliest moment. 

In childhood and youth a delicate state of health barred the 
young life, while delighting in games and out-of-door sports, from 
the more vigorous discipline of tasks calling for steady, severe 
manual labor. This limitation also presented difficulties to be 
overcome in the acquirement of his education. But in this, as in 
so many other respects, Mr. Allison had in his father a most 
valuable exemplar, for from him he learned that the longest, 
happiest and most useful life is rarely attained by those upon 
whom Dame Nature has showered her choicest physical gifts, but 
oftenest by those who wisely treasure and use what she has 
granted. Mr. R. W. Allison, never of robust health, in early life 
even frail, attained through prudent regard for his physical man, 
"high thinking and simple living," the great and honored age of 
a half score years beyond the coveted four-score — and with 
faculties unimpaired. This shining example has not been granted 
in vain to the son, and, barring accidents, a similar crown awaits 
him. 

The high schools of Concord and Bingham's Military School 
gave their discipline in the arts and sciences to the young man 
until having decided, entirely through personal preference, upon 
a btisiness career, thus following his father's example, he pursued 
a course of professional study at the Mercantile College of Balti- 
more, from which he was graduated in 1867. In 1869 he entered 
upon the active work of life as a merchant, taking charge of the 
large and successful business of general merchandise conducted 
by his father for over forty years, and which, as proprietor and 
manager, he continued with signal success for thirty years more. 
The management of this business has of late been merged into 
a corporation, by which Mr. Allison has been enabled to give 
more of his thought and time to activities more congenial certainly 
to his health and possibly to his natural tastes. For along with 
his mercantile enterprise, Mr. Allison soon discovered in his 



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8 NORTH CAROLINA 

nature a deep love for the land as the true foundation of a 
country's prosperity and happiness. In his father, again, he had 
an inspiring example, and parallel to and harmonizing with his 
career as a merchant has been his career as a planter of that pro- 
gressive type which furnishes the model and inspiration of every 
agricultural community. His influence by counsel and example 
has been forceful and prevailing in delivering his fellow-farmers 
from the bondage of the one-crop idea to the independence and 
success of diversified farming. It is as planter, possibly, that 
Mr. Allison exerts his widest influence among his fellow-citizens. 
For even as merchant he studied and fostered the interests and 
trade of the farmer more than of any other class, his customers 
relying much upon his judgment on fertilizers, machinery and 
methods of agriculture. As a safe leader, his advice is sought and 
accepted eagerly, for the thoughtful recognize that it is bom of 
a practical and successful experience. 

Mr. Allison, while sternly maintaining the wisdom of diversified 
crops for the South, claims that cotton is king of the crops of 
our Southland, and must be so recognized by both our agricultural 
and manufacturing industries, without permitting that rule, how- 
ever, to degenerate to a despotism. With well-defined, advanced 
but sound views upon the industrial welfare of our whole land, 
he has given unselfishly of his time, thought and means to the 
organization and establishment of the Southern Cotton Growers' 
Protective Association, and was for four years its watchful and 
active secretary and treasurer. As an influential member of the 
Executive Committee of the Southern Cotton Company, he further 
evinces his open-eyed, progressive consideration of the South's 
greatest material interests. 

As a sound financier, Mr. Allison's ability is widely and vari- 
ously confessed and employed in the position he holds, or has 
held, in the following successful enterprises: president of the 
Cabarrus Land, Lumber and Mining Company; president for 
eight years of the Concord Building and Loan Association; 
director from 1893 to 1897 and on the Finance Committee from 
1893 to 1897, and on the Finance Committee from 1893 ^^ 1899 



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JOHN PHIFER ALLISON 



of the North Carolina Railroad Company; and director of the 
Concord National Bank, the Gibson Cotton Mill Company, the 
White, Morrison, Howe Company and the Brown Manufacturing 
Company. 

As chairman of County Commissioners for two years and as 
State senator for a like term, Mr. Allison has served the civic 
welfare of his community and State with laudable fidelity and 
marked executive and legislative ability. A fellow-senator re- 
marked upon the close of his term in the Senate that as member 
of several most important committees no one had rendered his 
State better, service during that time. He has been unswerving in 
his identification with the Democratic Party. 

Mr. Allison was married October 5, 1880, to Miss Annie Erwin 
Craige, youngest daughter of the Hon. Burton Craige of Salis- 
bury, North Carolina, who has been to him "an helpmeet indeed," 
a hearty sympathizer in his every word and work. Mrs. Allison 
is a cultured woman, endowed with a charm of manner which has 
made her a social favorite. She is a prominent leader of the 
Daughters of the Confederacy, a member both of the North Caro- 
Kna Society of the Colonial Dames of America and of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution. Mr. Allison was for 
several years president of the New South Club, the social organi- 
zation of the men of Concord. Both are members and loyal 
supporters of the Presbyterian Church. 

As a man Mr. Allison is a well-poised, symmetrical, manly per- 
sonality. The soul of honor, his ideals in all the walks of his 
varied, active life are the highest. Generous and sympathetic in 
his every attitude toward his fellow-man, he is loved and honored 
by all who know him. In temperament, wisely conservative, in 
judgment, cool and deliberate, he never permits the impulse of 
the moment to sway his action or thought. His heart is tender 
and unselfish, counting nothing human alien to it. His com- 
munity is proud of him, and owns his life and character an inspira- 
tion to noble thought and rich achievement. 

George H. Cornelson. 



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ALBERT ANDERSON 




fLBERT ANDERSON of Wilson, North Caro- 
lina, and one of the prominent physicians of 
Eastern North Carolina, presents a career which 
will be studied with interest by those who are 
seeking to find successful men who have man- 
fully overcome early disadvantages and forged 
their way to places in the front rank of the men of their day and 
times. He was born of respectable but poor parentage, on a small 
farm at Eagle Rock, in Wake County, North Carolina, on 
October i8, 1859, ^^^ ^s the son of Jesse and Mary Anderson. 
In the years of his early life he was of rather delicate healthy 
and it appears likely that his continuing to do work on the farm 
until the age of nineteen was in the end a blessing, for to-day 
he is a strong and vigorous man, with both energy and physique 
to accomplish great things. Be that as it may, the boy plowed 
and hoed and worked at the usual manual labor that boys perform 
on small farms in North Carolina, went to school a few months 
in each year, stopping off for ** foddering time," and whenever 
else he was badly needed at home, fished and fought as occasion 
demanded, laughed and played with the other boys of the neigh- 
borhood, but all the time fired with a secret belief that his time 
was not yet come, that it would come, and that when it did come 
he would become an educated, cultured man, and would go into 
the great world beyond the confines of the little farm and become 



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ALBERT ANDERSON ii 

an active, vital part of what he only caught glimpses of in his 
boyish imagination. The vital influence the years of hard manual 
work had in shaping his future and developing his character may 
well be considered when the doctor himself says that it wielded 
a more potent influence than even his college contact in later 
years. Leaving the farm at the age of nineteen, he spent some 
time at the Raleigh Male Academy, and later entered Trinity 
College. Here he came under the benign and most splendid 
educational influence which in writing the biographies of North 
Carolinians will not be effaced for a century to come, the personal 
influence of Dr. Braxton Craven, the noble founder of Trinity, 
and the man whose grandest tribute in history will be the inspira- 
tions he gave to struggling, ambitious young men. 

At Trinity College it is needless to say that the young man, 
who was working between recitations in part to help pay his 
expenses, stood well in the classes; suffice to say his record was 
one of the best, and in 1883 he graduated from Trinity with the 
d^;ree of M.A. The inspiration of the now sainted Craven must 
have been felt in the direction the young man turned, helping 
others in firmly getting their feet in the educational path he had 
with such vigor essayed to find, for the next four years he was 
principal of the Middleburg Male Academy at Middleburg, North 
Carolina. Here, in addition to his duties as principal and chief 
instructor, he found time to delve further into his scientific studies, 
and fascinated with the study of pure science, and filled with 
delight at the prospect of being able as a physician to help others 
daily in life, he began the study of medicine. So thoroughly did 
he cover the medical course, while instructing the boys at Middle- 
burg, that after only one year's study at the University of Vir- 
ginia, in its excellent medical school, he went up for the final ' 
examinations with the graduating class, and this he did suc- 
cessfully; and a few weeks later also passed successfully the 
examinations of the North Carolina State Board of Medical 
Examiners. 

Shortly afterward he entered upon the practice of his profession 
at Wilson, North Carolina, where he now resides. During this 



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12 NORTH CAROLINA 

same year, December 12, 1888, he wedded Miss Pattie R. Wood- 
ard, a sister of the wife of Governor Charles B. Aycock, who 
has ever been to him a royal helpmate. No children have blessed 
this union, but a more devoted couple does not live in North 
Carolina. 

In 1889 Dr. Anderson attended a course of post-graduate in- 
struction for some months at the New York Polyclinic, and in 
1892 he was appointed by the North Carolina State Board of 
Health to attend a special course offered by the United States 
Government to State Boards of Health, who were empowered to 
nominate two of their best men. In 1896 Governor Russell 
appointed Dr. Anderson a member of the State Board of Health, 
a position he filled with honor to the State and credit to himself 
for several years. The organized profession of the State have at 
various times shown their kindly appreciation of his work in 
behalf of scientific medicine, for in addition to having held various 
minor positions in the State Medical Society, he was in 1898 
the annual orator, and the same year he was elected for a term 
of four years a member of the State Medical Examining Board, 
and he has performed the arduous duties of that position so well 
as to reflect great credit upon the judgment of the society in 
placing the important trust upon him. 

He was also one of the charter members of the Seaboard Medi- 
cal Association and its president in 1902. At the session of the 
State Medical Society at Hot Springs, North Carolina, in 1902, 
he was one of the chief supporters of the plan for revising the 
constitution of the Medical Society of the State of North Caro- 
lina, and making the County Medical Society in each county the 
basal unit of organization, and requiring that all gentlemen of 
the profession desiring membership in the State Society should 
be enrolled members of their home County Medical Society. He 
presented a strong paper in advocacy of the new plan, and ren- 
dered valuable assistance to the committee having the matter in 
charge, and had the satisfaction of seeing the revised constitution 
unanimously adopted. The new constitution adopted, its pro- 
moters sought to find ten active, leading physicians who had the 



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ALBERT ANDERSON 13 

confidence of the profession in their respective sections of the 
State to act as councillors, and Dr. Anderson was unanimously 
elected councillor for the Fourth District, composed of the eight 
counties nearest him. Actuated solely by his love for the inter- 
ests of his profession, he visited each of these counties during the 
following few months, and successfully organized a county 
medical society in each one of them. At the 1904 session of the 
State Society his work was commended, and he was unanimously 
re-elected councillor. In 1903 he was elected a member of the 
House of Delegates of the American Medical Association, and in 
1903 and 1904 represented the State Medical Society in the 
National Association, this State having only two delegates in that 
body as representatives of the North Carolina profession. His 
genius for organizing has been well illustrated in the development 
of the Wilson Sanatorium, an institution founded by him and 
Dr. C. E. Moore of Wilson, in 1898, for the treatment of acute 
medical and surgical cases. Established in a small town where 
there had never been a public hospital before, and with the tra- 
ditional objections of many to overcome, the institution has been 
a success from the beginning, and is a credit to the accomplished 
staff as well as to the town of Wilson. 

In his political affiliation Dr. Anderson has always voted the 
straight principles to steer the ship of state aright at all times. 

His experience with fraternal societies has been a limited one, 
he being a member only of the Junior Order, United American 
Mechanics. In his religious professions he is a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and under the shelter of his 
handsome home (one of the most beautiful in Wilson) the way- 
faring Methodist preacher is always assured of a hearty welcome 
and a persistent invitation to prolong his stay. 

Dr. Anderson is a tall and rather stoutly well-built man, clean 
shaven and with an appearance almost clerical, both in his quiet 
garb and sober look. A man of great energy and indomitable will 
power, none who come under the spell of his splendid personality 
wonder at his success in life, the cause of which he once summed 
up in one word, "persistency." /. Howell Way. 



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WILLIAM CARTER BAIN 

[MONG the North CaroHnians who in a quiet 
way have achieved distinction and aided in the 
upbuilding and advancement of their communi- 
ties, none deserve more recognition than 
William Carter Bain of Greensboro. He 
belongs to that class of men who, unaided and 
by their efforts, have overcome all obstacles that stood in the 
pathway to success. Coming to maturity at a time when North 
Carolina was dormant in the industrial world, and without the 
advantages that come with special privileges, he set to work with 
a brave heart and willing hands to carve his own way to fortune. 
His success should prove an inspiration to any youth who craves 
the title "Captain of Industry." 

Mr. Bain was born in Guilford County, near the village of 
Liberty, on January 8, 1839, being the son of Jonathan and Lydia 
Carter Bain. His grandfather, John Bain, was one of seven 
brothers who came to America from Ireland in 1760. While yet 
a mere lad, Mr. Bain exhibited a taste for mechanics, and when 
quite young he began to learn a trade. He served an apprentice- 
ship in carriage and wagon making for four years, working four- 
teen hours a day. During the early period of his life the sterling 
qualities of industry and strict sobriety were firmly established 
in his character. 

Circumstances were such as to deprive Mr. Bain of the best 



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THE REW YORK 
PUBLIC UBRAR 



AEICK, LENOX AKD 
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WILLIAM CARTER BAIN 15 

educational advantages, but by industry and economy he managed 
by the time he attained his majority to save a sufficient sum of 
money to defray his expenses at a good school. About this time 
the clouds of civil war broke over the country, and, responding 
to his State's call, he enlisted in the service of the Confederacy. 
He was sergeant of Company G, Forty-sixth North Carolina 
Regiment, from 1862 to the close of the war, and participated 
in many of the manceuvers and battles 0/ Lee's army. Although 
in the thick of many bloody fights, he was never wounded. He 
was not so fortunate in escaping capture and imprisonment. He 
was first captured in Maryland, on September 13, 1862, and im- 
prisoned at Fort Delaware. After a month or two he was paroled, 
and later he was exchanged and returned to his company. He 
was next made a prisoner of war on April i, 1865, when he was 
taken to Point Lookout, Mar>'land, and held until June 25th, 
nearly three months after the war had ended. 

Upon his return from the war, Mr. Bain joined his brother in 
the manufacture of carriages and wagons. About 1875 he em- 
barked in the business of a contractor and builder of houses. He 
began in a modest way, always studying how to improve and 
advance his art. To-day he is recognized as one of the leaders, 
in his line of business in the South. Some of the more notable 
buildings Mr. Bain has erected are the following: Residences 
of L. Banks Holt at Graham, J. S. Carr at Durham, W. C. Powell 
at Wake Forest and R. B. Raney at Raleigh ; Carolina and Howard 
hotels at Pinehurst, the Holt-Morgan Cotton Mills at Fayetteville, 
the Oneida Cotton Mills at Graham, the State Normal and In- 
dustrial College dormitories at Greensboro, the agricultural build- 
ing of the North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic 
Arts at Raleigh, the Wachovia Loan and Trust Company build- 
ing at High Point and the City National Bank and the Carnegie 
Library buildings at Greensboro. All of these are up-to-date and 
substantial structures of architectural beauty. 

In addition to looking after his extensive business as a con- 
tractor and builder, Mr. Bain has found time to devote to affairs 
in other lines. He organized and is president of the Greensboro 



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i6 NORTH CAROLINA 

Wood Fiber Plaster Company, and is also president of the Central 
Carolina Construction Company, which absorbed his individual 
interests as a contractor and builder. Mr. Bain has established 
and operates a plant for the manufacture of artificial stone in 
various shapes and sizes for any and all kinds of building purposes. 

Mr. Bain finds relaxation and interest in operating a model farm 
of 200 acres, situated in the suburbs of Greensboro, where he 
spends a portion of the^ time he can take from his diversified 
business interests. 

In politics he is a Democrat, with strong prohibition prin- 
ciples. During his residence in Greensboro he has been prom- 
inently identified with all the contests that have arisen over the 
liquor question, and his work in behalf of temperance has been so 
effective that he is regarded as one of the most influential leaders 
of the moral forces. He is a leading member of Grace Methodist 
Protestant Church, Greensboro, and is deeply interested in the 
affairs of that denomination, having been an official member of 
his church for a number of years. 

On December 19, 1861, Mr. Bain married Mary A. Lane, a 
daughter of Alfred K. Lane and Polly Coble Lane, natives of 
Randolph County. They have had ten children, of whom six are 
now living. 

William I. Underwood, 




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ANDREW BALFOUR 




f HOUGH slain while upholding the rights of 
America, his adopted home, Andrew Balfour 
was a Scotchman, a native of Edinburgh, and 
son of a merchant of that city who also bore 
the name Andrew Balfour. He set sail from 
Greenock, Scotland, 6n the 20th of May, 1772, 
and arrived in Boston, Massachusetts, on the i8th of July. In 
his old home he had met with business reverses, and sought to 
retrieve his fortunes in the New World. His first wife, whose 
maiden name was Janet McCormick, he left in Scotland, intending 
to send for her later, but she died on June 17, 1773, leaving an 
infant daughter, Tibbie, who was later brought to America and 
lived in Charleston, South Carolina, for a while, but afterward 
joined her father. Balfour's second wife was Elizabeth Dayton 
of Newport, Rhode Island, by whom he had a son Andrew and a 
daughter Margaret. He also had a sister Margaret and a brother 
John Balfour, who was a merchant of Charleston, South Carolina. 
John Balfour of Charleston left three children, Nancy, Margaret 
("Peggy") and Andrew. 

After engaging in business in the Northern colonies without 
success, Andrew Balfour, subject of this sketch, lived for a while 
in South Carolina, engaged in making salt, and later still (about 
1778) came to North Carolina, making his home in Rowan County. 
When the county of Randolph was established out of parts of 



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i8 NORTH CAROLINA 

Rowan and Guilford, he was elected one of its first representatives 
in the North Carolina House of Commons in 1780. He was also 
commissioned colonel of State troops. He was a man of superior 
intelligence, a man of nerve, character and standing. In 1780 he 
was captured by a band of marauding Tories, but a party of 
Whigs soon embodied and attacked and dispersed his captors and 
released him. In the partisan warfare of the period Colonel Bal- 
four was an active participant, and on several occasions com- 
manded detachments in the field. David Fanning, in his narra- 
tive, says it was the boast of Balfour that there should be no rest- 
ing place for a Tory's foot upon the earth. On March 10, 1782, 
when Fanning's forces were scouring the Haw River country, 
that daring leader surrounded Balfour's house and killed him in 
the presence of his sister Margaret and Tibby, the daughter of 
his first marriage. The second wife of Colonel Balfour had not 
then come to North Carolina. In a letter written about six months 
after the event to Mrs. Balfour, then in Newport, Rhode Island, 
Margaret Balfour says : "On the loth of March about twenty-five 
armed ruffians came to the house with the intention to kill my 
brother. Tibby and I endeavored to prevent them, but it was all 
in vain. The wretches cut and bruised us both a great deal, and 
dragged us from the dear man. Then before our eyes, the worthless, 
base, horrible Fanning shot a bullet into his head, which soon 
put a period to the life of the best of men and most affectionate 
and dutiful husband, father, son and brother. The sight was so 
shocking that it is impossible for tongue to express anything like 
our feelings; but the barbarians, not in the least touched by our 
anguish, drove us out of the house and took everything they could 
carry off, except the negroes, who happened to be all from home 
at the time. It being Sunday, never were creatures in more dis- 
tress. We were left in a strange country, naked, without money, 
and what was a thousand times worse, we had lost forever a near 
and dear relative." 

All of the above sketch is based upon an account of Colonel 
Balfour in Caruthers's "Old North State in 1776." From the same 
source we learn that bills of indictment were found against Fan- 



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ANDREW BALFOUR 19 

ning and one Frederick Smith, charging them with the murder 
of Colonel Balfour. Fanning was never apprehended, but Smith 
was hanged in the spring of 1783. Two Frederick Smiths were 
lietitenants under Fanning — one from Chatham and one from 
Randolph. It was the latter who was executed. 

Colonel Balfour's widow later came to North Carolina from 
Rhode Island. In a note by Governor Swain to Fanning's Narra- 
tive wc find the following brief account of the family of Colonel 
Balfour: "His widow, who came to North Carolina after his 
death, December, 1784, was much respected, and held the office 
of postmaster at Salisbury until 1825, discharging its duties with 
great fidelity and acceptability. Her son Andrew married Mary 
Hcnly and had nine children, five sons and four daughters, all of 
whom removed to the West except Mrs. Eliza Drake, wife of 
Colonel Drake of Asheboro. His daughter Tibby married John 
Troy, who had three children — ^John Balfour Troy, now of Ran- 
dolph County; Margaret, who died in Davidson County in 1813, 
and Rachel, who married Lewis Beard, now in the West. His 
third and remaining child, Margaret, married Hudson Hughes 
of Salisbury, who had two daughters, one of whom married 
Samuel Reeves of Salisbury." 

As has already been noted, Tibby Balfour was a daughter of 
Colonel Balfour's first marriage, while all of his other children 
were by his second wife, whom he married after coming to 
America. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood, 




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GEORGE W. BROOKS 

[EORGE W. BROOKS, a judge of the United 
States District Court for North Carolina, was a 
native of Pasquotank County, North Carolina, 
where he was born on March i6, 1821. His 
ancestors, having originally located in Virginia, 
were among the early settlers of Albemarle. 
His father was William C. Brooks, who, bom in Gates County, 
eventually became a large merchant at Elizabeth City, where he 
was greatly esteemed. He married Mrs. Catherine B. Knox, the 
widow of Captain Hugh Knox, whose maiden name was Davis, 
her ancestors being among the first Who settled in Pasquotank 
County, and who for several generations were prominent in their 
community. 

In his youth the subject of this sketch was a strong, robust 
boy, but not active nor fond of the customary sports of the young. 
He received his early education at Belvidere, in Perquimans 
County, at an academy which the Society of Friends had estab- 
lished there and which was regarded as an excellent institution. 
His circumstances in life did not permit him to obtain a collegiate 
education, but with great determination he overcame the difficulties 
that attended his situation, and studied law, receiving his license 
to practice in the county courts in 1844, and two years later he 
passed his examination for Superior Court license. His appear- 
ance was unprepossessing, and he was slow and almost painfully 



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GEORGE W. BROOKS 21 

awkward because of his diffidence and embarrassment. But he 
bad the spirit to endure, and he had resolved to succeed at every 
personal cost. He was pertinacious, painstaking and studious, 
so that although his entrance into the bar was anything but 
brilliant, yet he soon attracted favorable attention, and the numer- 
ous friends of his parents manifested their regard for him by 
giving him their countenance and support. Through their aid 
he soon obtained business in the courts, and by his own industry 
and attention to the affairs of his clients he speedily established 
himself in their confidence, and drew to himself a lucrative prac- 
tice. It has been said that he was penniless when he came to the 
bar, but in fifteen years he had accumulated a large estate, which 
was admitted by all to have been justly and honorably acquired. 

On the 20th of June, 1850, he was happily married to Margaret 
Costin, a daughter of James Costin of Gates County, who bore 
him five children, and under the stimulus of her affectionate sym- 
pathy he redoubled his efforts to succeed at the bar and to attain 
a high position among the purest and best of his community. As 
was usual at that period, investments were made chiefly in land 
and negroes, and as Mr. Brooks amassed means he purchased 
quite a number of slaves, nearly all of whom, however, were 
bought at their request, as they feared they might fall under the 
dominion of a less kind master ; for there was much of the milk 
of human kindness in the nature of Judge Brooks. No one had a 
temper so little disposed to oppress or to be unjust in his dealings 
with any one; and but few men had a more tender nature or a 
heart so S3rmpathetic toward the unfortunate. 

The feeling among the Quakers in Eastern Carolina had long 
been unfriendly to African slavery, and among many of the slave- 
holders in their vicinity it came to be thought that sooner or later, 
as the institution of slavery was repugnant to the general trend 
of the world's progress and enlightened sentiment, the system of 
servitude in vogue at the South would be abolished and property 
in the labor of a fellow-man would cease. Judge Brooks became 
deeply imbued with that idea, and some years prior to 1861 he 
predicted that emancipation would be the result of the agitation 



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22 NORTH CAROLINA 

that had been so violent since 1834, and he ceased making pur- 
chases of slaves. His views on this subject were avowed in public, 
and were so distasteful to the other slave-holders in his section 
that they indulged in very severe criticisms of his course in that 
respect, and many of his personal and warmest friends frequently 
remonstrated with him against his giving utterance to opinions 
so widely at variance with the sentiments of his community. He, 
however, never yielded his right to express his opinions about 
matters of public concern, and while he made no public addresses 
on the subject, yet neither private remonstrance nor the clamor 
of those who were not his intimates ever influenced him to refrain 
from expressing his views. 

From youth he was a firm adherent of the Whig Party, and 
early in his career, in the year 1852, there being apprehensions 
that the Whig Party in his county would be divided into two 
warring factions, in order to heal the breach he consented to accept 
the nomination for the legislature. Being successful at the polls, 
he served with great acceptability to his constituents, but he 
refused to accept the nomination for a second term, and declined 
to become a prominent figure in the political strife of his com- 
munity. 

Being a Whig, and with his views with regard to slavery, he 
was inclined to look with greater favor on the course of the 
Northern people in i860 and 1861 than most of his neighbors did, 
and his Union sentiments remained unchanged even when hostili- 
ties began between the sections. He avowed his Union senti- 
ments and his expectation that the South would be unable to 
achieve her independence ; but he did not throw himself so defiantly 
in opposition to his friends and neighbors as to arouse their antag- 
onism. He lived during the war peacefully at home, remaining 
always convinced of the ultimate triumph of the Union army, but 
he never failed in his kindnesses to those who were in distress, 
and was always ready to help and succor the unfortunate and 
needy without regard to their loyalty to the Federal Government. 
His conduct was ever based on a spirit of charity and governed by 
practical benevolence. 



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GEORGE W. BROOKS 23 

When President Johnson issued his proclamation in 1865 that 
North Carolina was restored to the Union, and Governor Holden 
was appointed provisional governor of the State, and Chief Justice 
Chase of the Supreme Court of the United States recognized 
North Carolina as being again a State in the Union, holding the 
Federal Court in her borders, the President, in August, 1865, 
appointed Judge Brooks Judge of the District Court of United 
States for the District of North Carolina, and the Senate confirmed 
his appointment in January, 1866; and he exercised the functions 
of his office in this State. However, he accepted the position of 
delegate to the convention of 1865 and 1866, which was convened 
to adjust the constitution of North Carolina to the new condition 
of things, and he was an influential member of that body. 

The services of Judge Brooks in the Federal Court were ardu- 
ous and severe. At that time the State had not been subdivided 
into several districts, and there was much litigation in the Federal 
Court between citizens of other States and of North Carolina, 
oftentimes rising to high importance. In addition, there was a 
multitude of cases growing out of bankruptcy proceedings, while 
the criminal docket was long and very tedious to dispose of. Be- 
ginning with 1866, Judge Brooks was subjected to a heavy ordeal 
in attending to the large business that devolved upon him. His 
duties were highly important, and by his courtesy, his practical 
good sense and his desire to be absolutely fair and just and im- 
partial, he won the highest respect and the entire good will of 
the members of the bar, nearly all of whom differed from him 
in politics. 

In addition to his admirable personal and judicial conduct in the 
ordinary course of the administration of justice. Judge Brooks 
had another title to the regard and good will of the people of 
North Carolina. It fell to his lot to have the unique distinction 
of having rendered great service to the citizens of the State in the 
way of establishing peace and order at a period when public 
affairs were on the verge of a bloody war. 

An election was to be held for members of the legislature about 
the beginning of August, 1870. Governor Holden, then governor 



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24 NORTH CAROLINA 

of the State, had caused several thousand troops to be embodied 
under Colonel George W. Kirk, and had declared the counties of 
Alamance and Caswell in a state of insurrection, and had author- 
ized Colonel Kirk to arrest prominent citizens in those and in 
some of the neighboring counties. On the 15th of July, about a 
fortnight before the election, Colonel Kirk had arrested a large 
number of the most influential gentlemen in that section of the 
State. On the i6th of July an application was made to Chief 
Justice Pearson for a writ of Habeas Corpus, which was granted. 
When the writ was served on Colonel Kirk he said, "Tell them 
such things are played out. I have my orders from Governor 
Holden and shall not obey the writ. I will surrender them on 
Governor Holden's orders, but not otherwise, unless they send a 
sufficient force to whip me." Judge Pearson, on the return of 
this writ, communicated with Governor Holden the fact that 
Colonel Kirk claimed that he was acting under the gov- 
ernor's orders, and desired to know if that was so; where- 
upon the governor replied that the arrests were made by 
his order, and that "Colonel Kirk now detains the prisoners by 
my order." 

Judge Pearson later and in subsequent proceedings directed that 
the writ should issue with instructions to exhibit it to the governor, 
and "if the governor orders the petitioner to be delivered to the 
marshal, well; if not, I have discharged my duty; the power of 
the judiciary is exhausted and the responsibility must rest on 
the executive." As was expected, the governor paid no attention 
to the writ, but proceeded to hasten the organization of a military 
court to try the arrested persons by court martial. 

Finding that no relief could be had from the judicial author- 
ities of the State, the eminent gentlemen who had appeared for 
the detained citizens. Governor Bragg, Judge Battle, Judge Merri- 
mon and the venerable B. F. Moore, with whom, indeed, were 
associated other lawyers of the first distinction in the State, be- 
lieved it incumbent on them to exert all their influence to prevent 
a rising of the people, embracing a large number of the Confed- 
erate veterans who had returned to their homes, and their em- 



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GEORGE W. BROOKS 25 

bodying and destro3dng Colonel Kirk's force and rescuing the 
prisoners. To that end these gentlemen exercised their strongest 
influence; and at their instance, in order to suppress the dispo- 
sition of the people to right their wrongs with force and power, 
they procured General M. W. Ransom to make a hasty visit to 
Judge Brooks, then at his home in Elizabeth City, and apply to 
him to take cognizance of the matter on a petition of Habeas 
Corpus. Never before had there been an application to a Federal 
judge invoking the Constitution of the United States for the pro- 
tection of the citizens of the State from the arbitrary exercise 
of despotic power on the part of the State governor. It was what 
was called a case of the first impression. Judge Brooks, having 
concluded that it was his duty to grant the writ, with that fear- 
lessness which had ever been a characteristic of his quiet but 
determined nature, at once did so, and made it returnable before 
him at Salisbury. When his action became known he was roundly 
denounced by the State authorities for interfering in a matter in 
which he had no jurisdiction ; but nevertheless he proceeded as a 
just and fearless judge to execute the law as he understood it. 
When it was found that he could not be swayed by denunciations, 
the governor hastened to order the prisoners to be brought before 
Chief Justice Pearson, who hurried with great speed to the State 
Capitol to resume consideration of the questions involved in the 
Habeas Corpus proceedings that had been begun before him, and 
been interrupted when the judiciary became exhausted ; but it was 
too late for that. The distinguished and eminent lawyers who had 
invoked the power of Judge Brooks now informed the chief justice 
that the petitioners withdrew their proceedings from before him ; 
and they sought their liberty from the judge of the District Court 
of the United States. Colonel Kirk prayed for some delay that 
he might present the causes for the arrest and detention of his 
prisoners, and Judge Brooks granted him reasonable time for 
that purpose, at the end of which, there being no suggestion of 
any cause whatever for the arrest of any one of the prisoners, no 
offense or crime being imputed to any one of them. Judge Brooks 
ordered their enlargement, and thus was put an end to a matter 



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26 NORTH CAROLINA 

that at one time threatened most seriously to involve the whole 
State in bloodshed and civil war. 

For his action in this matter there were bestowed on Judge 
Brooks the highest encomiums from a large majority of the 
citizens of the State. The prisoners exulted in their liberty, and 
a shout of triumph went up from the people. The judge received 
an ovation seldom accorded to any occupant of the bench, and at 
the time no honor would have been too great for the State to lay 
at his feet. 

On his return to his home in Elizabeth City, men of all parties 
awaited him, and in a public demonstration sought to manifest 
their great approbation of his action. They expressed in a public 
assemblage their earnest and grateful appreciation of his fidelity 
in enforcing the law. Indeed, as has been said, "No conquering 
hero returning from the field of victory could have received greater 
applause. It was regarded as a triumph of the law and of justice 
over misrule and oppression." 

Although these manifestations of public approval were grateful 
to the heart of Judge Brooks, his even and moderate course in 
life was in no wise affected by them. Quiet, composed, sympa- 
thetic and kindly, he continued to exercise his judicial functions, 
ever tempering justice with mercy in administering the harsh 
criminal laws of the Federal Government, and always regarded 
as an honor to the bench, until at length, on the 6th of January, 
1882, he passed away, greatly lamented by the entire State. 

5*. A. Ashe. 




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THOMAS BURKE 




I HE ablest advocate and completest orator our 
country affords" is the compliment to Governor 
Burke which we find expressed in a letter 
written in July, 1781, by Samuel Strudwick, 
who was a very competent judge. 

Thomas Burke, a native of Galway, in Ire- 
land, was bom about the year 1747. He left his native country 
on account of some family quarrel, the nature of which is not now 
known. He was the son of Ulick Burke, whose wife, Letitia Ould, 
was a sister of Sir Fielding Ould. The particular branch of the 
ancient and numerous family to which he belonged was known 
as the Burkes of Tyaquin, and Governor Burke, after his removal 
to America, mentioned that his father's estate of that name had 
descended lineally in the Burke family from the time of Henry H. 
Thomas Burke came to America before reaching manhood and 
settled in Virginia, where he at first practiced medicine. Finding 
this calling unprofitable. Dr. Burke resolved to study law, and 
soon attained high station at the bar. He resided for a while 
in Norfolk. At the latter place he was married to Mary Freeman 
in 1770. The only child of this marriage was a daughter, Mary 
Burke, who lived to extreme old age and died unmarried in 
Alabama after the close of the war between the States. 

It was about the year 1772 that Thomas Burke removed with 
his wife to North Carolina. He took up his residence a few miles 



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28 NORTH CAROLINA 

from Hillsboro, in Orange County. His new estate he called 
Tyaquin, after his family's seat in Ireland. Being strongly im- 
bued with the principles of Republicanism, he became one of the 
party leaders of North Carolina during the Revolution, and filled 
many of the highest offices within the gift of the people. He was 
a delegate from Orange County to the Provincial Congresses of 
1775 and 1776. On May 13, 1776, the Congress at Halifax elected 
him paymaster of North Carolina militia for the district of Hills- 
boro, but this post he resigned on his election as a delegate to the 
Continental Congress, and Nathaniel Rochester was elected to 
succeed him. 

In December, 1776, he was elected a delegate to the Continental 
Congress, his associates being William Hooper and Joseph Hewes, 
who with Penn had been signers of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. When Burke arrived in Philadelphia, the scene of war 
was beginning to shift to that vicinity, and less than a year later 
he was present in person as a volunteer officer at the battle of 
Brandy wine on September 11, 1777. On this field he was con- 
vinced that the defeat of the Americans was due in a large 
measure to the inefficiency of General John Sullivan, and pre- 
ferred charges against that officer in the Continental Congress. 
Sullivan made a spirited reply, and the recriminations between 
himself and Burke caused a challenge from the latter, though 
I am unable to ascertain that a meeting ever resulted. Burke 
returned to Tyaquin, his seat near Hillsboro, in October, 1777. 

Dr. Burke was re-elected a member of the Continental Congress 
on April 28, 1777. Toward the end of the same year, on Decem- 
ber ist, he also took his seat as a member of the North Carolina 
House of Commons, having been elected to fill the unexpired 
term of Nathaniel Rochester, who had resigned to become clerk 
of the court in Orange County. In 1777 the county of Burke was 
erected and named in his honor. 

On August 12, 1778, Dr. Burke was again elected a member 
of the Continental Congress, and returned to Philadelphia on 
the 9th of December in the same year. He and his colleague, 
Whitmel Hill, seem to have turned over, the social cares of the 



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THOMAS BURKE 29 



city to another member of the North Carolina delegation, for in 
a letter to Governor Caswell on December 20, 1778, Burke says: 
"The city is a scene of gayety and dissipation — ^public assemblies 
every fortnight and private balls every night. In all such business 
as this we propose that Mr. Penn shall represent the whole State." 

On May 8, 1779, the legislature elected Burke one of the 
trustees of Granville Hall, an institution of learning in the county 
of Granville. On the 25th of October, 1779, Dr. Burke and Whit- 
mel Hill were invited to attend the State Senate of North Caro- 
lina, and, upon appearing before that body, the speaker. General 
Allen Jones, formally thanked them in the name of the Assembly 
for their long and faithful service in the Continental Congress. 
They were also thanked on behalf of the House of Commons by 
Speaker Benbury. On the same day they were re-elected dele- 
gates to the Continental Congress. 

It was on June 26, 1781, that Burke became governor of North 
Carolina by election of the General Assembly, which then sat at 
Wake Court House, where the city of Raleigh now stands. In his 
new ofRce Governor Burke devoted his energies to arming and 
equipping the troops of the State, thinking that Comwallis might 
attempt to retreat through North Carolina, in which event a strong 
force would be needed to check his progress. But Burke's own 
official career was destined to be temporarily interrupted from 
an unexpected quarter. The daring Tory partisan. Colonel David 
Fanning, had formed a resolution to capture the governor, and 
soon put his plan into execution. About daybreak on the 13th of 
September, 1781, after a forced march, the Tories reached Hills- 
boro, where the governor had his headquarters, and entered the 
town from three different directions. In the volume entitled 
**Fanning's Narrative" it is claimed that the Tories lost only one 
man, while they killed fifteen of the American party, wounded 
many and took more than 200 prisoners, among the latter being 
Governor Burke, members of his council and personal staff, and 
likewise some Continental officers. The attacking party next pro- 
ceeded to the jail and liberated thirty military prisoners, one of 
whom was to have been hanged on that day. Notwithstanding the 



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30 NORTH CAROLINA 

overwhelming number of Tories which invested the town, Gov- 
ernor Burke and the occupants of the l)ouse where he lodged made 
a spirited resistance. With him were his aide, Captain Reid; 
his secretary, John Huske, and an orderly sergeant in the Con- 
tinental service whose name is not given. These gentlemen, 
though only armed with their swords and pistols, kept the assail- 
ants at bay until Captain Reid broke through the smoke and re- 
turned, accompanied by an officer in British uniform, who gave 
the governor's party assurances of protection and received their 
surrender. Then the Tories had a long and hazardous march of 
many miles with their prisoners, whom they carried to Wilming- 
ton. Two days after they left Hillsboro an action took place at 
Lindley's Mill, where General John Butler of Orange County 
waylaid them and at the first fire killed eight of Fanning's men, 
including Colonel Hector McNeill. Fanning then charged the 
Americans, and lost twenty-seven killed and sixty so badly 
wounded that they could not be carried from the field, also himself 
having his left arm shattered by a musket ball. The American 
prisoners, however, were not rescued, but hurriedly marched 
toward Wilmington, Governor Burke being under the immediate 
care of a Highlander who bore the creditable sobriquet of '* Sober 
John" McLean. "Sober John" made his home after the war near 
Bluff Church, on the Lower Cape Fear. The Tories and their 
prisoners were soon met by re-enforcements from Wilmington, 
and landed their prisoners safely in that town, which was then held 
by the British. From Wilmington Governor Burke and his party 
were carried to Fort Arbuthnot,on Sullivan's Island, near Charles- 
ton, South Carolina. Here he was closely confined until the 6th of 
November, when he was paroled to James Island near by. While 
at James Island, Governor Burke was an object of persecution by 
many Tories who had refugeed to that place. More than once 
he was fired at, and on one occasion a friend was shot dead by his 
side, while another was badly wounded. General Leslie was will- 
ing to extend his parole to North Carolina, but Major Craig 
(afterward governor-general of Canada) insisted that he should 
be held as a hostage for the safety of Fanning and other Tories who 



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THOMAS BURKE 31 



might be captured in North Carolina. As the dangers of assassina- 
tion daily increased, Governor Burke determined to make his 
escape from James Island, regardless of his parole. This he did 
on the i6th of January, 1782. On reaching the American lines, 
Burke at once wrote a letter to General Leslie, in which he said : 
"I do not intend to deprive you of the advantage which my capture 
would by the rights of war entitle you. ... I will endeavor to 
procure for you a just and reasonable equivalent in exchange for 
me ; or, if that cannot be effected, I will return within your lines 
on parole, provided you will pledge your honor that I shall not 
be treated in any manner different from officers of the Continental 
army when prisoners of war." 

The character of Governor Burke was fiercely assailed not only 
by the British, but by many Americans, for his course in leaving 
James Island while imder parole. And the censure became more 
justified when, on his return to North Carolina, he resumed his 
duties as governor before any exchange was effected. As soon as 
the Assembly met, Burke's term having expired, he did not stand 
for re-election, but requested that body to elect some one to suc- 
ceed him as governor, which was accordingly done on the 22d of 
April, 1782, when Alexander Martin was elected to that office. A 
few days later the speakers of the two Houses of Assembly were 
ordered by that body to wait upon Governor Burke and return 
the thanks of the Assembly for the acceptable manner in which 
he had discharged the duties of his office. 

Governor Burke did not long survive his retirement from office, 
but died on the 2d of December, 1783, at Tyaquin, his plantation 
in Orange. In personal appearance, as described by his daughter 
(heretofore mentioned), he was "of middle stature, well formed 
and much marked by the smallpox, which occasioned the loss of 
his left eye, the remaining one being a fine, expressive blue." He 
was a Roman Catholic in religion, yet held office under the old 
State constitution, which provided that no person should be 
eligible to any position of honor and trust who should (among 
other disqualifying things) "deny the truth of the Protestant 
religion." Probably he was like Judge Gaston — ^believed in all the 



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32 NORTH CAROLINA 

truths of the Protestant religion, but believed a good deal more 
besides. Like his compatriot, Governor Alexander Martin, he 
courted the Muses, and some of his verses are still preserved. 
This latter talent, however, he did not cultivate to any extent. 
In one of his letters he says : "I have lisped in numbers ; but I took 
all possible care to conceal my propensity, having always dreaded 
the idle character of a rhymer." He was "sudden and quick in 
quarrel," and there are letters extant showing that some corre- 
spondence occurred between himself and General John Sullivan, 
also with Colonel Henry Lee, looking to the settlement of differ- 
ences by the code duello. In one of his letters he also intimates 
that distance alone prevented him from calling General Otho 
Holland Williams to account for that officer's views about the 
violation of Burke's parole. How the Sullivan matter ended I 
am unable to ascertain. The affair with Colonel Lee was adjusted 
through the instrumentality of General Anthony Wayne. Burke's 
temper was also the cause of some abusive language to a mes- 
senger of the Continental Congress, who summoned him late at 
night to attend a meeting of that body ; and Congress conceiving 
itself affronted in the person of its messenger, sent charges against 
Burke to the legislature of North Carolina. But Burke was upheld 
by the legislature, and he afterward wrote to President Laurens, 
disavowing any disrespect to Congress as a body. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywo&d. 




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THE NEW YORK 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 



ASTCH, LCNOX A'-'O 
TILDLW FOVNDA'i I -\^-'3 



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WILLIAM PRESTON IJVNUM 

ILLIAM PRKST(JX I.VXLM o( Cliarl-ntr, a 
Ia\vy('r of (li>tnnli.»n ami fornurly a jiustiic of 
the Supreme (Joiirt of tiic Staie, was bom 
Juno 1 6, 1820, in the county of Stoke^, on Dan 
Rivci, where liis father, ifrtniplon i'ynuiu, 
• )wne<l a lai;^''*^ lande^l prop^.it^'. 
lianipt^'n Ijvnum was the s«.n r>t ('iray I'^num and Mar- 
.:. ;'%'n. sister i i\v' < l-.ivr Ci-'neral Wale ll'aniptr,n au'l 
'..: r-jnfrdoratc v'avalry loader atvl S-.'Uth Carolina S'*n.ti'>r. 
•.-. .iS a ciaui^hter of C«>l«'nci John Martin of l\evc>]utinnary 
'-••(•rninc: whom the ♦'Ider Haniih«-«n C Jones of Sali-hnry 
y.' t.' \\ h<'t-ler'b '*Hist(.r) of Xoifh CaroHna" a lu.^'^t 
.'.' ^' • *ch. Thereni Colonel Martin is represiMited as a 

• ■ iTK-r to the rorics of the 1 >an ki\er seeti^n, an«l .>f 

* ai «l h''inor in times of peace. Imvc son< w re horn to 
n LJ; runn, of whom the sui)ieot of this slcetcii v\^4.^ iho 

n ' • '-^t, j'hii Gray Byn'nn, hein^^ p'^rliaps the m.^st 

" .n of Ins ('.av. 

, }, n'lm tjra'i'iated with first hor.ors at Davids.in Cf.l\-i.^t' 

- . I '.a»N imder Cliief Justice Pearsr n. settle<l for ];ractice 

' ""I 'ton. and aftrr his m.:'*. ...u' • w'.h Ann h'Ji/a Shi' :\ 

' r ;»artlt'tl Shipp aiid si^trr of Jn^'^'e W. M. S'lii^p. re- 

1 '.-: Intf.n, where the uk -idian of his hl'r was pa><i'd 

hi- p .pie were stnnn.di W Ini^^s in p..liti--s, aiv: ar'ie'itly 



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C/-t^<yv^ '^^^'-''^, 



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WILLIAM PRLSTC^N BVNLM 



ILLIAM rRi'ST(.)X LVXl'M of CharL.ttt 




a 



lawvcr (.i 'listiiKlb'.n an*l furnnrly a jn.siire of 

the Suprt-me Court of tiir ^taU-, was born 

June !''>. 1 8 JO. in the count x- c»t Stokc^, <n\ Dan 

Ri\<T, wh'vT,* \us father, H-'iMj^tm I'yninii, 

ownc<l a laiLT'^ landed prop«.itv. 

}i*-.nipif'n liynum was the si.n ot ( iray i'^niim and Mar- 

I •^ :N»n. sister rf th*' t' h:r (i-'neral V/;» le J !;u;]j';<%n and 

•'..- C-.nfr(ioratc v'avalry leadvT and S'-nth Carolina sen.i*'»r. 

V. .i> a (htnt^htt-r of C<<!<>nci John Martin of l\ev(»lLiti«mary 

"•crnin:: whom the «dder Hainilt<~»n C. Jones of Sah-hni) 

::'-d t. \\ h^*«dvrr's "History of Xoilh Caroh'na'' a ru.>^t 

! . =' '-^ ii Thereni Colonel Niartin is rej;rescn>ev! <is a 

iri.r to tilt' rori{.s of the Dan River seetiun. an<l wf 

* ar vi Imnu r in times of peaee. hive srjn< w« r*: h'»rn lo 

•^ [i; Tp m, of whom the siiijjeet of this s!cet( h w u the 

• -^ ^ \-t, j'dm Gray Hyn'im, hciiii; jMTli.i[»? the n*..>t 

r r\ of !n> day. 
*. '' nini ;:rad'iated with fir.st hi»m>rs at IXuid^on C' Mv-^m! 
' .1 laA under Chief Justiee Pt-arso:!. settled f'>r i)raetiee 



:t.'Ti. and aftrr his 



•h Ann hJi/a 



f.arll«ni Shipp aiid sister of Jiid'/.e W. M. ^hijM^ re- 
•1 h]t«,n, where the m< rldian '^f his ]i{,. was j):i».-d 
- ;•• )ple were stanndi \\ h':;s in p' li-i's, ai; : ar':<Mitly 



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WILLIAM PRESTON BYNUM 

fILLIAM PRESTON BYNUM of Charlotte, a 
lawyer of distinction and formerly a justice of 
the Supreme Court of the State, was bom 
June 1 6, 1820, in the county of Stokes, oh Dan 
River, where his father, Hampton Bynum, 
owned a large landed property. 
This Hampton Bynum was the son of Gray Bynum and Mar- 
garet Hampton, sister of the elder General Wade Hampton and 
aunt to the Confederate cavalry leader and South Carolina senator. ' 
His wife was a daughter of Colonel John Martin of Revolutionary 
fame, concerning whom the elder Hamilton C. Jones of Salisbury 
contributed to Wheeler's "History of North Carolina" a most 
interesting sketch. Therein Colonel Martin is represented as a 
veritable terror to the Tories of the Dan River section, and of 
great wit and humor in times of peace. Five sons were bom to 
Hampton Bynum, of whom the subject of this sketch was the 
third, the eldest, John Gray Bynum, being perhaps the most 
brilliant man of his day. 

W. P. Bynum graduated with first honors at Davidson College 
in 1843, read law under Chief Justice Pearson, settled for practice 
in Rutherfordton, and after his marriage with Ann Eliza Shipp, 
daughter of Bartlett Shipp and sister of Judge W. M. Shipp, re- 
moved to Lincolnton, where the meridian of his life was passed. 
He and his people were staunch Whigs in politics, and ardently 



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34 NORTH CAROLINA 

hoped that the difference between the sections might be amicably 
composed and the Union preserved. But when, in April, 1865, the 
crisis came, he, like the other Union Whigs of the State, recog- 
nized that war between the North and the South was inevitable, 
and promptly he responded to the demand of President Lincoln 
that North Carolina should furnish troops to coerce the seceded 
States by taking up arms in defense of the South. 

On May i, 1861, Governor Ellis convened the legislature in 
special session, and on that same day a State convention was called, 
the delegates to be elected on May 13th ; and besides the volunteer 
regiments, the legislature provided for the organization of ten 
regiments of State troops, and Governor Ellis, knowing the patri- 
otic purpose and disposition of Mr. Bynum, on May 8th com- 
missioned him lieutenant-colonel of the Second Regiment of State 
troops. The State was not only then in the Union, but the dele- 
gates to the convention had not then been elected ; but so decided 
was the feeling of the people, that the former Union Whigs and 
Secession Democrats alike hastened forward in the common cause. 

The colonel of the Second Regiment was Colonel C. C. Tew, 
a very efficient officer, and the regiment, after being well drilled 
at Garysburg, was stationed for six months on picket duty on 
the banks of the Potomac. But in the spring of 1862, after New- 
Bern had fallen, the regiment was ordered back to North Carolina, 
where it remained until McClellan approached Richmond, when 
it was hurried to the defense of the Confederate capital. 

It was engaged in the battles of Mechanicsville, Cold Harbor, 
Malvern Hill and Sharpsburg, and in the last-named bloody battle 
Colonel C. C. Tew, the brave and accomplished colonel of the 
regiment, was killed. The command devolved upon Lieutenant- 
Colonel Bynum, who was afterward commissioned as colonel by 
Governor Vance the 29th of October, 1862. While the regiment 
was in winter quarters on the Potomac, the legislature of North 
Carolina elected Colonel Bynum solicitor of the mountain judicial 
district of the State in March, 1863, and, accepting the office, he 
resigned his commission in the army, and the command devolved 
upon the gallant Colonel W. R. Cox. At that period the duties 



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WILLIAM PRESTON BYNUM 35 

of the office in the mountain district were dangerous, delicate and 
difficult. Great dissensions and bitter feelings and fatal collisions 
constantly took place between the friends and enemies of the war, 
one side enforcing conscription and the other side resisting it. 
Colonel Bynum, as solicitor, discharged his duties without fear 
and without favor, and so highly was his conduct appreciated that 
he was retained in that position for a period of eleven years, by 
consecutive elections and appointments, until he was promoted to 
the Supreme G)urt bench. 

In the summer of 1865, W. W. Holden was appointed pro- 
visional governor of the State by President Johnson, and on 
reorganizing the State government he retained Colonel Bynum as 
solicitor for his district. In the State convention which met in 
November, 1865, Colonel Bynum was chosen by the people to 
represent the county of Lincoln, and at the ensuing election for 
members of the General Assembly he was again chosen by the 
people to represent the counties of Lincoln and Catawba in the 
State Senate. 

As a member of the convention, he delivered a notable speech 
upon the subject of the Bases of Representation in the Legislature, 
and equalizing it between the Eastern and Western part of the 
State. In the course of subsequent events representation was dis- 
tributed by the convention much upon the lines indicated by him. 

Supporting Republican measures, he advocated the adoption of 
the constitution in 1868, and was again elected solicitor for his 
district by the people, at the same time that the constitution was 
ratified by the popular vote. In 1871, when the question of calling 
a convention to reform the constitution of 1868 in some par- 
ticulars was submitted to the people, he opposed the proposed 
measures, and the opposition to it was successful. During these 
years he was closely associated with Governor Caldwell and the 
leading Republicans of the State, and in 1873, ^P^^ ^^e death of 
Judge Boyden, making a vacancy in the Supreme Court, Governor 
Caldwell appointed him an associate justice of the Supreme Court. 
On the bench at that time were Chief Justice Pearson, under whom 
Judge Bynum had studied law; Judges Reade and Settle, with 



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36 NORTH CAROLINA 

whom he had served in the convention of 1865, and Judge Rod- 
man. As strong and learned as those judges were, Judge Bynum 
was at once received by them as their equal in ability and pro- 
found learning. 

His opinions are found in volumes 70 to 79 North Carolina 
Reports, inclusive, and rank with the best in our reports. The 
general verdict of the Western Bar at least is that Judge B3mum 
is one of the ablest men who has entered upon the duties of the 
Supreme Bench since the war. Chief justices have expressed this 
view, and a careful reading of his opinions will tend to confirm 
the estimate. There is a clearness and a precision in his written 
opinions that make them models, and they are marked by an 
absence of any attempt to display learning by unnecessary dis- 
cussion in stating the conclusions of the court. Many of his 
opinions are notable. Witlkowsky v. Wasson, 71 North Caro- 
lina, contains a noble tribute to the value and sphere of the jury. 
State V, Dixon, 75 North Carolina, is as terse an exposition of the 
law of homicide as can be found. Manning v. Manning, 79 North 
Carolina, is an exquisite piece of judicial pleasantry, while solving 
a difficult problem presented then for the first time in our history. 
In the construction of contracts, all of Judge Bynum's opinions 
breathed the spirit of olden times, when it was considered dis- 
graceful not to pay debt. The case of Belo v, the Commissioners, 
in which he announced with emphasis as the proper principle 
of public action the wise doctrine of "pay as you go," won for him 
merited encomiums, and by it he impressed himself largely on the 
policy of the State. 

In his judicial career Judge Bynum bore himself in a lofty 
manner. He was true to his convictions of right and to his under- 
standing of the law. On occasions he entered his dissent from 
the judgment of his associates on the bench, and not infrequently 
the court has since adopted his dissenting opinions as the law. 
Among his dissenting opinions was that filed in the case of the 
State V, R. and D. Railroad Co., 72 North Carolina, in which 
he refused to concur in the validity of the lease of the North 
Carolina Railroad, and denied the right of the lessees to change 



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WILLIAM PRESTON BYNUM 37 

the gauge of that road. As an illustration of his fairness and 
impartiality, it is recalled that in the case of Brown v. Turner, 
relative to the public printing, and involving the question of 
whether the public printer was an oflScer, the court at first blush 
accepted the idea that as there were public duties to discharge, 
the position of public printer was an office and could be filled 
only by the appointment of the governor. The contestants were 
representatives of political parties, and the determination of the 
court was favorable to the Republican Party. Judge Bynum was 
directed to write the opinion. He undertook to do so, but in 
studying the case with that view he came to a different conclusion, 
and was convinced that under the legislation of the State the 
public printer was a mere contractor and not an officer to be 
appointed by the executive branch of the government. He wrote 
his opinion accordingly, and was sustained in it by the chief 
justice and Justice Rodman, while Judge Reade and Judge Settle 
filed vigorous dissenting opinions. And so in all other cases before 
the court Judge Bynum was relied on to do exact justice, not 
being swerved in any degree from his conviction of what was the 
law and justice. 

The writer of this is permitted to quote the opinion of one of 
the leading lawyers of the State in regard to Judge B)mum's rank 
as a jurist: "When we come to speak of Judge B3mum's judicial 
career, it is there he excelled himself. He was appointed to the 
Supreme Court Bench by Govenlor Caldwell, who succeeded to 
the governorship on the impeachment of Governor Holden. Judge 
Bynum held office from November 21, 1873, "^itil the expiration 
of the term. He served about four years, and no man ever brought 
to the performance of the duties devolved upon him as a justice 
of that court more careful consideratiorf of the matters which were 
to be adjudicated during his term of office. 

"North Carolina is indebted to him for saving its credit, and 
the writer heard the greatest author upon Municipal Bonds in the 
United States say, in the argument of the Wilkes bond case, in 
the Supreme Court of the United States, that the opinion written 
by Judge Bynum in the case of Belo v. Commissioners, 76 North 



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38 NORTH CAROLINA 

Carolina Reports, concerning the law of Municipal Bonds, was 
never excelled by any justice of any court in the United States. 
Indeed, after the Stanly bond case was decided against the bond- 
holders, it was upon the strength of this opinicm that the new 
hearing was granted. The principles laid down in the opinion 
were decisive of both cases. If this case had been cited in the 
first instance before the Supreme Court of the State, it would have 
been impossible for the court to have decided the Stanly case 
as it did. In this opinion Judge Bynum used the following lan- 
guage : 'No check against our indebtedness is so effectual as that 
you must pay as you go, but this is utterly disregarded in the 
legislation which authorizes the issue of bonds payable at a remote 
future period. As soon as the sting of taxation is felt, the self- 
burdened people cast about for relief, and after some hesitating 
scruples plunge into repudiation or other methods involving the 
sacrifice of public faith, with its dismal trail of evils. No refuge 
for repudiation can be found in the legal tribunal of the country. 
They have sternly resisted every subterfuge to escape a just 
obligation of these contracts. No branch of the law has been 
more thoroughly investigated and discussed, with the view of 
setting it upon a just and pure foundation. And it is a glory 
of the law that while by application of legal principles it enforces 
the discharge of such obligations, it at the same time preserves 
the public morals in maintaining the integrity of solemn con- 
tracts inviolable. In no other practical way, perhaps, will the 
taxpayers be sooner brought to a more vigilant watchful- 
ness of their own affairs and a more careful selection of their 
public servants. See Dillon on Municipal Bonds, paragraph 
one,' 

**So important did the counsel for the plaintiffs in the Supreme 
Court of the United States, in the Wilkes bond case, regard this 
opinion, that the entire record and opinion, both, were printed in 
the briefs filed in that court. The gentleman referred to who 
spoke of Judge Bynum was no less a personage than the Hon. 
John F. Dillon, now probably the greatest lawyer in New York 
City. 



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WILLIAM PRESTON BYNUM 39 

**After the expiration of Judge Bynum's term he settled in 
Charlotte and associated with him W. P. Bynum, Jr., and a son of 
the late Judge Shipp in the practice of the law. 

"Many lawyers in Western North Carolina thought, during the 
time he was practicing at the bar, after the expiration of his 
term, that he was one of the greatest advocates in the State. 
He never left anything undone that tended to contribute to the 
success oi his side of the case, and be it said to his credit, he 
never advocated principles of law which he did not believe to 
be correct. Judge B>Tium is over eighty years old at the present 
time, and in full possession of all his faculties. He always 
possessed a very keen sense of humor, and it was to be observed 
from the speeches he made at the bar. Many lawyers think the 
speech he delivered in Gaston County, in what is known as the 
Sheriff's case, was one of the greatest efforts ever made by a 
lawyer in the State. The writer heard a distinguished lawyer, 
who was one of the counsel opposed to him on that occasion, say 
that he never heard anything like it. It should be mentioned in 
connection with his judicial career that he never failed while on 
the bench to read every part of the record and every part of all 
the briefs in every case." 

On the bench he had the entire respect and confidence of the 
legal gentlemen who were in the habit of appearing in that forum, 
and his retirement was much regretted even by those who were 
political friends of the new court. In 1878, at the popular election, 
the personnel of the court was entirely changed, the Democrats 
then electing their candidates. 

Since retiring from the bench. Judge Bynum has steadily re- 
fused all solicitation to re-enter public life, though he has retained 
the entire confidence of his party, which has been anxious on 
more than one occasion to honor him. Apart from attention to 
his private affairs, literature, of which he is fond, has engaged 
a larger share of his time and interest. A well-stocked library 
divides with his garden and flowers the passing day. A certain 
part of his income is devoted to the church and charitable pur- 
poses. A church chapel at the Thompson Orphanage in Charlotte 



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40 NORTH CAROLINA 

and another at Greensboro, near the Normal College, for the con- 
venience of the pupils of that school, have been built at his ex- 
pense. The Germanton Church has received his help, and more 
than one struggling seeker after an education has been aided by 
him. Industry and good judgment enabled him to acquire a fair 
fortune, and in his quiet retired life he had not been indifferent to 
the welfare of his fellow-men, especially remembering the youth 
of the State. The State contains no nobler monument of domestic 
affection and at the same time of usefulness to the youth of the 
State than the gymnasium erected at Chapel Hill in memory of 
his grandson, William Preston Bynum, and at the same time 
intended and dedicated to the use and benefit of the students of the 
University of the State. 

Besides his only son, the Rev. William Shipp Bynum, an 
Episcopal minister of gjeat ability and promise, who died in the 
prime of young manhood, the judge had one daughter, Mary 
Preston, who died unmarried. The son married Mary L. Curtis 
of Hillsboro, daughter of Rev. Dr. Curtis, a distinguished botanist 
and divine of his day. By her there are five living children — ^Mary 
De Rosset, Eliza Shipp, married to B. C. Justice of Rutherfordton ; 
Minna, married to Dr. Archibald Henderson, professor at Chapel 
Hill; Curtis Ashley, now a law student, and Susan, a pupil now 
at St. Mary's, Raleigh. 

Judge Bynum himself performed his duty well as a soldier and 
in the important positions he filled in civil life. His law practice 
occupied, to the exclusion of politics, his best years, and he sought 
neither notoriety nor display. He stood before the State most 
conspicuously during his service upon the bench, but that service 
was the flower and fruit of long previous preparations, well fitting 
him for a judicial career. In a green old age he experiences the 
happiness which comes from right living, love of country and of 
friends, from moderation and self-control. 

His alma mater, Davidson College, conferred upon Judge 
Bynum the honorary degree of LL.D. 

In person Judge Bynum is tall, and distinguished for his fine 
countenance, every feature betokening intelligence and intellectu- 



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WILLIAM PRESTON BYNUM 



41 



ality. His manner is easy, quiet and entirely self-possessed, indi- 
cating the strength of his natural endowments. His family has 
ever been icnown for mental capacity and personal courage. From 
it have sprung three judges, all men distinguished in their 
generation. 

William S. Pearson. 




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WILLIAM P. BYNUM, Jr. 

{HE bench and bar of North Carolina is to-day, 
as it has ever been in the past, pre-eminent for 
its wisdom and scholarly attainments, and as a 
retired member of the one and an active member 
of the other, William P. Bynum, Jr., of Greens- 
boro, North Carolina, stands easily in the fore- 
front among the most accomplished leaders of this learned 
profession. 

He is a scion of a stock in which are intermingled strains of 
English and Welsh blood that has furnished North Carolina dur- 
ing several generations with men distinguished for their ability 
and character. 

Even before Surry County was laid off, embracing the entire 
northwestern part of the State, Gray Bynum was settled in the 
vicinity of Germanton in what is now Stokes Cotmty. He married 
in Virginia Margaret Hampton, a daughter of Anthony Hampton, 
a sister of General Wade Hampton of the Revolution and a great- 
aunt of the illustrious Confederate general of that name. Their 
son, Hampton Bynum, married Miss Mary Colman Martin, a 
daughter of Colonel John Martin, whose parents had moved from 
Essex County, Virginia, to Saura Mountain, Stokes County, in 
1768, when Colonel Martin was but twelve years of age. John 
Martin became a large landed proprietor in Stokes County, and 
was distinguished for his generous hospitality and benevolence 



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WILLIAM P. BYNUM, Jr. 43 

no less than for his integrity and capacity, and during the Revo- 
lution was an active partisan officer, and with Colonel William 
Sheppcrd and Major Joseph Winston effectually suppressed the 
disaffected Tories of Surry County. 

There were five sons issuing from the union of Hampton Bynum 
and Mary Colman Martin. The oldest, John Gray Bynum, easily 
took place among the first men of the State. Another was the 
distinguished William P. Bynum, the lieutenant-colonel of the 
Second Regiment of State troops at its organization, and who, 
after the disappearance of Colonel Tew at Sharpsburg, whose 
fate was long uncertain, remained in command of the regiment 
until 1863, when, being elected by the legislature solicitor of the 
Sixth District, he retired from military service. In 1873 he became 
associate justice of the Supreme Court, and ranked among the 
most esteemed jurists of the State. Another was Benjamin 
Franklin Bynum, who married Charity Henrietta Morris, and 
who, like all of his family, was chiefly engaged in agricultural 
pursuits, but who also carried on the business of merchandising. 
Highly esteemed because of his integrity, blameless life, kindly 
spirit, and deeds of charity, he exerted a wide influence in his 
community. During the war he rendered efficient service to the 
State as major in a regiment of North Carolina troops. 

William Preston Bynum, Jr., the subject of this sketch, was 
bom in McDowell County, August i, 1861, and is the fifth son 
of Benjamin Franklin Bynum and Charity Henrietta Morris. 
Reared in the country, when not at his books he was employed 
in all kinds of work incident to farm life, and taking a lively 
interest in whatever it fell to his lot to do, he early formed habits 
of industry and the practice of applying himself vigorously to 
everything that engaged his attention. Under the care of his 
parents he made rapid intellectual development, but while he in- 
dulged his taste for reading, he was likewise fond of out-of-door 
sports, which constituted his recreation and amusement, and which 
tended to make more firm his naturally robust constitution. At 
first he attended the public schools of his neighborhood, and then 
became a pupil at the Kemersville High School and at the Dalton 



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44 NORTH CAROLINA 

Institute in Stokes County. In January, 1881, he entered Trinity 
College, where he was graduated in June, 1883, at the head of 
his class, having received the Braxton Craven medal for scholar- 
ship in his junior year. After graduation he entered the law 
school of Judges Dick and Dillard at Greensboro, was examined 
by the Supreme Court, and in February, 1884, obtained his license 
to practice law. 

At the suggestion of his uncle, the distinguished judge bearing 
the same name as himself, who was then practicing law at Char- 
lotte, North Carolina, he joined him, and in the early years of his 
professional life had the benefit of Judge Bynum's experience 
and direction. He soon became known as a successful lawyer, 
and in the year 1887 moved to Greensboro, where his ability soon 
made a place for him at the bar in that city ; and on March 9, 1892, 
he led to the altar Miss Mary Fleming Walker. 

Like his distinguished uncle. Judge William P. Bynum of 
Charlotte, he was a Republican in his political affiliations, and in 
1892 was a Presidential elector on the Republican ticket. When 
in 1894 there was co-operation among the opponents of the Demo- 
cratic Party, he was nominated for solicitor of the Fifth Judicial 
District, and elected, and served in that capacity until October, 
1898, when he resigned to accept the office of Superior Court judge 
for that district. In January, 1899, he was appointed special 
assistant United States attorney, and in that capacity successfully 
prosecuted the defendants in the Asheville bank cases, and by his 
management of these cases added to the reputation he had long 
enjoyed in his own State, and extended this reputation to other 
States. When some of the justices of the Supreme Court of 
the State were impeached in 1901, he was one of the counsel 
employed in their defense, and although the charges against them 
were of a political nature, and especially involved their attitude 
to the General Assembly, yet he and his associates managed the 
trial so successfully as to secure their acquittal, notwithstanding 
the Senate, before whom they were tried, was composed largely of 
political opponents, whose associates in the House had preferred 
the charges against them. In April, 1904, he resigned his position 



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WILLIAM P. BYNUM, Jr. 45 

in the service of the United States with a view to devoting himself 
more closely to his civil practice, whose growing importance 
claimed his entire attention. 

No man is more loved and respected by his associates at the 
bar than is William P. Bynum, Jr. While he is universally recog- 
nized as an antagonist to be dreaded, he is no less known as one 
who will not deign to stoop to any trick or artifice to win his case. 
With him the practice of the law is a priesthood in the Temple of 
Truth, and he has never made it a trade or business the ultimate 
end of which is the making of money. His keenest delight is in the 
study of the law as a science, and in supplying a reason as the 
foundation stone of its every principle. He is not content in his 
investigations until he has consulted every source of authority 
which might throw light upon the question at issue. Those who 
come nearest him feel that he must have patterned his professional 
life after Lord Brougham's words when he said : *'It was the proud 
boast of Augustus Caesar that he found Rome a city of brick 
and left it a city of marble ; but how much prouder shall be the 
boast of that man who shall have it to say that he found the law 
dear and left it cheap ; found it a sealed book and left it a living 
letter ; found it the heritage of the rich and left it the inheritance 
of the poor; found it a two-edged sword of craft and oppression 
and left it the staff of honesty and the shield of innocence." 

As a State's prosecuting officer he ranked among the most able 
and successful who have ever graced that office in North Caro- 
lina, and yet his work in this trying position was not more marked 
by his ability to obtain verdicts than by his determination to see 
that justice was done between the State and the prisoner at the 
bar, and when, after investigation, he found in his opinion that 
the facts did not warrant placing the liberty of a citizen in 
jeopardy, no matter how humble, no amount of influence from any 
source, public or private, could be brought sufficient to allow the 
prisoner to be arraigned. He not only would not appear in the 
prosecution, but would refuse to allow his position and his docket 
to be prostituted to any such purposes. 

While distinguished at the bar for his eloquence, scholarship 



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46 NORTH CAROLINA 

and extensive learning, his method of attack is by charging the 
front rather than the execution of a flank movement, and his 
weapon the battle-axe rather than the rapier. Having won his 
victory, he is at all times magnanimous, and will not lend himself 
to such oppressions as his advantages might secure. 

In private life he is noted for his broad-minded, open-hearted 
charity. No struggling young lawyer ever sought his aid in 
vain. His library is free to him, and he is never too occupied 
to aid him with his counsels and suggestions. He is first of all a 
student, and is deeply interested in natural science, and has also 
devoted himself particularly to works on the science of govern- 
ment. He has amassed in his home one of the most extensive 
and weil-chosen private libraries in the State, and is never happier 
than when sitting with the works of the great masters piled in 
profusion about him. 

He has recdved from his alma mater, and well merits, the 
degrees of A.B. and A.M. His favorite book is the Bible, 
and no man in North Carolina outside of the ministry is 
more familiar with its passages or the history of the periods which 
throw light upon its pages. He is a member of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, and his interest in the live questions of the 
day has led him to become a member of the American Civic and 
Social Science Association. Animated by a broad philanthropy, 
he is a member of the Masonic order, and is also an Odd Fellow 
and an Elk. 

Looking back into the past, he attributes his first impulse to 
strike for success in life to the influence of his parents and of the 
books he read in his early years, and his career has been due to his 
home life and to fortunate early companionship and his constant 
contact with right-thinking men, whose association he has enjoyed 
in his vocation. The keynote of success, he suggests, is work and 
steady perseverance, and his highest encomium is the fact that 
those who know him most intimately love him most devotedly 
and respect and revere him most unreservedly. 

Zebulon V. Taylor. 



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STEPHEN CABARRUS 




JN the period immediately succeeding the Revo- 
lution, few men were the equal of Stephen 
Cabarrus in personal popularity and influence. 
Mr. Cabarrus was a Frenchman, born in 1754, 
and came to America while the war was in 
progress. Our records do not throw light on 
his early life. There was a family of Cabarrus in France to which 
belonged Count Francois Cabarrus, bom in 1752, who settled in 
Spain, and was a valued councillor at the courts of both 
Charles IV. and Joseph Bonaparte. This Count Cabarrus had 
a daughter, Jeanne Marie Ignace Therese de Cabarrus, who, while 
the wife of Tallien, influenced that Revolutionist to effect the 
destruction of Robespierre. This lady afterward became Princess 
de Chimay. Coming as he did from the same country, it is 
possible that Stephen Cabarrus was of the same family to which 
belonged the Count. 

It was in the closing year of the Revolution, 1783, that Mr. 
Cabarrus first appeared in the legislature of North Carolina. He 
represented the county of Chowan. As that county was so pro- 
lific of great men, this election was no small compliment to one 
who had only recently come to North Carolina. He was returned 
to the legislature in 1784, the following year, not from the county 
of Chowan, but from the town of Edenton, borough representation 
being allowed under the constitution of North Carolina then in 



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48 NORTH CAROLINA 

force. Sessions of the legislature then being held annually, he 
was again Edenton's representative in 1785, 1786 and 1787; in 

1788 he was again returned from Chowan, and served six terms up 
to and including 1793. He was also the county's representative 
at six sessions from 1800 to 1805, both inclusive. During the 
greater part of his service in the House of Commons he was 
speaker of that body, usually being elected unanimously. He 
filled the post of speaker for ten terms — ^at four sessions from 

1789 to 1792, both inclusive, and at six sessions from 1800 to 1805, 
both inclusive. In 1786, during his early service as a member of 
the House of Commons, he was on the committee which investi- 
gated the great frauds in connection with Revolutionary land 
grants, and was chairman of the committee which examined 
prisoners charged with those crimes. Mr. Cabarrus was an en- 
thusiastic member of the Masonic fraternity, and belonged to 
Unanimity Lodge at Edenton. He was a delegate from that 
lodge to the Masonic convention which met at Tarboro on the 
27th of December, 1787, and reorganized the Grand Lodge of 
North Carolina, which had ceased operations during the Revo- 
lution. Mr. Cabarrus was a member of the State convention of 
1788, which rejected the Federal Constitution ; he was also elected 
in 1789 on the first Board of Trustees of the University of North 
Carolina, and remained a member thereof till 1792. 

It was in the year 1792 that an honor was conferred on Mr. 

Cabarrus which will preserve his name for all time — ^the estab- 

» lishment of the county of Cabarrus, so called as a compliment 

to him. The act establishing this county is Chapter XXI. of the 

Laws of 1792. 

Another very important public ser\'ice rendered by Mr. 
Cabarrus was in connection with the permanent establishment of 
the scat of government at Raleigh. Of all the several legislative 
bills introduced for the establishment and regulation of the new 
capital, the first was the one brought before the General Assembly 
at Fayctteville in November, 1790, providing that the Convention 
Ordinance of 1788 about a permanent seat of government should 
be carried into effect. When a ballot on this bill was taken, the 



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STEPHEN CABARRUS 49 

vote was a tie, and Speaker Cabarrus gave his casting vote in its 
favor, thus securing its passage through the House. When sent 
to the Senate, however, a tie vote resulted also; Speaker Lenoir 
gave his casting vote against it, and it was thereby defeated. But 
in 1791 the legislature passed a similar bill, and several years 
later Mr. Cabarrus was made one of the commissioners to start 
the new city on its career. Something more than a half mile south 
of the Capitol Square' in Raleigh to-day is a street running east 
and west, which is called Cabarrus, in honor of Mr. Cabarrus. 

History describes Stephen Cabarrus as a man of great gen- 
erosity combined with a courtliness of manner and that general 
polish so characteristic of the Frenchman. 

Mr. Cabarrus died on the 4th of August, 1808. The following 
notice of him appears in the Eden ton Gazette of August 11, 1808: 

"With the deepest regret we have to announce the death of the Hon. 
Stephen Cabarrus, Esq., during many years a distinguished member and 
speaker of the Assembly of this State. He died at his seat near Edenton on 
the 4th instant, aged fifty-four years. The perfect and undeviating rectitude 
which at all times marked his conduct in his many public and social rela- 
tions, his humane and charitable disposition, his amiable manners and 
improved understanding, render his loss a subject of universal regret. 
On a retrospect of his life and a recollection of his many virtues, the 
tongue of malevolence must be struck dumb, and eulogy itself confess 
its want of power to do justice to his name. His mortal remains were 
followed to the grave by a numerous concourse of respectable inhabitants ; 
and, summoned by the Grand Architect of the Universe, we trust his soul 
has ascended to the mansion assigned it in its native skies." 

In its issue of the same date, August nth, the Raleigh Register 
said: 

"Died, at his seat in the vicinity of Edenton, on the 4th instant, Stephen 
Cabarrus, Esq. This gentleman was a native of France, but came to this 
country during the Revolution, and served for upwards of twenty years 
as a member of the legislature of this State, for many years of which 
be was speaker of the House of Commons. Those who had the happiness 
of being acquainted with the deceased will bear willing testimony of his 
worth. To sound intellect, improved by a liberal education, he joined 
tfac strictest integrity with the greatest urbanity of manners; and truly 
exemplified in his character that 

" 'An honest man's the noblest work of God.' " 



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so NORTH CAROLINA 

The country seat of Mr. Cabarrus was Pembroke, near 
Edenton. 

He made his will less than a year prior to his death, in 1808, 
and in it mentions his three sisters, Marianna, Cadette and Julia 
Cabarrus, then living at or near Bayonne, in France ; his brother 
Auguste and nephews Thomas and Augustus Cabarrus, then 
living with the testator ; Clarence, wife of his brother Bartholemy 
Cabarrus, living in France, at Paris ; Julia Beaulieu Charrier, wife 
of Jean Charrier, fils, living near Bordeaux, France (this lady 
being sister of the testator's deceased wife, whose name is not 
given) ; Sophia and Polly Niel, General William Richardson 
Davie and Judge John Louis Taylor, He likewise provides in 
this will for the emancipation of several of his servants, each 
of whom was also to receive one hundred dollars. His brother 
Auguste Cabarrus, Judge John Louis Taylor, Samuel Tredwell 
and John Roulhac are named as executors. 

Whether the brother and nephews of Mr. Cabarrus whom he 
mentions in the above-quoted will remained in America or re- 
turned to their native land the writer of this sketch is not 
informed. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood, 




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THE NEW yORK 
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JULrAN SHAKIiSTKARE CARR 

'ONSPlCL*Ut\S cimpiiir tlu^ loadiiiLT ir-' .i 
Nurth Cnrnlina is Julian Shakesj^oarr v^..", 
whosi* paUlii^ %[)irit. liberality ami hciu'\' 't!- o. 
ufiUrtJ viifh an anv'ahle <!isi)'.>ili..n aiul f.u*' 
jmtMm^i can.;^::«'. wdii tor him at 'ui early a.L:.- 
ar envijitilL* |* lic^n, whicl; time has t-nly berve-l 
ni'-re prvnianei.t. 
K'tiTT can w<'ll he cl:r'^e<l am'>n;^ l^:e svlf-made men of 
A.. '>{, si:*\e^s in lii'- has hcen due to tlieir oxnU enert^y, 
J .ri«I (•PlerI•^i^e raMur t'lan to ilit* aeei«ieTit> of hir»h. 
ht^ i .i*^ .lUai'ul t^'..^ to])m<)^t nniul of the ladd'T of 
'. he lias ]»con iLe arehiieet (^f his own fortuiu'. 

• c'u :ni..tanr(\«> of ji'-s earl\ lite a!T«>r(li'il h.im a svV.d 

1 • .. I'{ ua-s t! son of I«hn W e>] -v Carr, a mer- 
• . ' • Hill. wI.M was h< M in hi^li e>te':n hy hi*^ fellow- 
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'■' i :\ th. < '• .ri I f (Quarter Se^^M.?1s. Mr. Carr \va> one 

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\ ) r.a\c at\va\s r^'sided in thai lii^torie county. Ot 
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JULIAN SHAKESPEARE CARR 

fONSPICUOUS among the leading men of 
North Carolina is Julian Shakespeare Carr, 
whose public spirit, liberality and benevolence, 
united with an amiable disposition and fine 
personal carriage, won for him at an early age 
an enviable position, which time has only served 
to make more prominent. 

General Carr can well be classed among the self-made men of 
the State, whose success in life has been due to their own energy, 
intelligence and enterprise rather than to the accidents of birth. 
Although he has attained the topmost round of the ladder of 
citizenship, he has been the architect of his own fortune. 

Still, the circumstances of his early life afforded him a solid 
basis to build on. He was the son of John Wesley Carr, a mer- 
chant of Chapel Hill, who was held in high esteem by his fellow- 
citizens, and whose fine judgment and unswerving integrity gave 
him a strong local influence. 

In the days of the old judicial system, when county matters were 
administered in the Court of Quarter Sessions, Mr. Carr was one 
of the three justices who composed that court for Orange County, 
a high honor, when one recalls the great number of learned and 
able men who have always resided in that historic county. Of 
him it is to be said that he was one of the most excellent and 
estimable citizens of his community, a devoted member of the 



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52 NORTH CAROLINA 

Methodist Church, given to hospitality, linostentatious in his mode 
of living, and in all his dealings he maintained a high standard 
that illustrated the excellence of his character. He was ever a 
true patriot ; indeed, he was descended from Revolutionary stock, 
for his ancestor, John Carr, who was bom in County Down, 
Ireland, in 1728, in colonial days settled in Virginia, and served 
as an ensign in the First Virginia Regiment in the War of Inde- 
pendence; and his patriotic spirit has been perpetuated in his 
posterity. 

The mother of General Carr was Elizabeth Pannill Bullock. 
She was of the Granville family of that name, which for genera- 
tions has been noted for strength of character and sterling worth, 
a family whose members wherever they have resided have always 
stood high and exerted a strong influence in their respective 
communities. 

It is to such a parentage, whose character instead of wealth 
gives a title to respectability, that most of the strong, great men 
who illustrate American life owe their origin. 

Endowed by nature with a frank and amiable disposition, and 
reared under the careful eyes of his excellent parents, Julian S. 
Carr developed into a manly youth. Strong and healthy, he was 
not content to be idle, and when vacation came he was at work 
either on his father's farm or helping in the store. 

He was bom on the 12th day of October, 1845 , and at an early 
age was sent to the village school, and when turned sixteen entered 
the University. But before he had finished the course there the 
demand for recmits to fill Lee's depleted ranks led him to abandon 
college and don the Confederate uniform. He enlisted as a private 
in Company K, Third North Carolina Cavalry, in Barringer's 
Brigade, and took his stand beneath the stars and bars as a man 
ready to make every sacrifice in defense of his country. 

After the war had closed he entered into business with his 
father at Chapel Hill, and then spent a year in Arkansas, return- 
ing to North Carolina in 1870. 

Soon after his retum he was able to make the purchase, for 
$4000, of a third interest in a tobacco partnership which W. T. 



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JULIAN SHAKESPEARE CARR 53 

Blackwell and J. R. Day were conducting at Durham. It was a 
small but prosperous business, with hardly any capital and no 
particular prospect of improvement. That was a day of small 
things in the industrial life of North Carolina. Durham itself 
consisted of only about a dozen houses, and excepting a few cotton 
factories that had survived the war and a few small tobacco 
factories, there were no industrial enterprises in the State. Manu- 
facturing was a new business. Our people had not been trained 
to it, and those who had capital feared to embark in an untried 
field, especially as money brought an interest of eighteen and 
twenty-four per cent. 

However, hopeful of the future, the firm of W. T. Blackwell & 
Company, now reinforced by the quick apprehension of its junior 
member, pressed on their work. The financial management fell 
to the care of Mr. Carr, and so skillful was he that, although he 
was often embarrassed because of insufiicient capital, the business 
continued to expand, and after some years of hard struggle and 
persistent labor it became very profitable. 

And eventually, under the sagacious administration of its man- 
agers, it grew to mammoth proportions, its unparalleled success 
being both gratifying and astonishing to the people of the State. 
Mr. Carr desiring to still further expand, Mr. Blackwell sold his 
interest to him, as Mr. Day had done earlier, and the business 
was continued on still larger lines than ever before. The creation 
and successful management of such a vast business, no less than 
the income it gave, brought Mr. Carr a great reputation. He was 
by long odds the greatest business man who had up to that time 
ever been in the State, while his disposition to make donations to 
worthy objects and his frank, pleasant manners endeared him to 
the public. 

However, Mr. Carr found it to his interest to dispose of his 
factory, receiving for it a large fortune, and since then he has 
devoted his talents to other enterprises, especially to the First 
National Bank of Durham, of which he has been president from 
its creation. Indeed, since his retirement from the tobacco busi- 
ness he has been harder worked than ever before, for his interests 



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54 NORTH CAROLINA 

have been more diversified and have demanded more time and 
attention. But trained in the management of affairs, quick to 
apprehend and master details, and prompt to decide, he has a 
remarkable capacity for the despatch of business, and has em- 
barked in many new undertakings. 

Indeed, no other citizen of the State has had such diversified 
interests or has contributed so generally toward the promotion 
of new enterprises. Whenever some new corporation was to be 
started, the promoters of it generally sought Mr. Carr for advice 
or co-operation, and he has been persistent in endeavoring to 
develop the industrial resources of North Carolina, and par- 
ticularly has he been the originator or the chief promoter of a 
great number of the enterprises that have contributed to the 
rapid growth of his home town — Durham. 

Possessed of ample means, and a man of decided public spirit, 
he has become a member, generally a director and often the 
president, of a long list of corporations, while he has rendered 
useful service as a trustee of schools and colleges in the interest^ 
of an advanced education. Especially has it been agreeable to 
him to devote time and labor as a trustee and member of the 
Executive Committee of his alma mater, the University of North 
Carolina. 

But as large as has been the business interests of General Carr, 
he has found time to indulge his spirit of benevolence by selecting 
worthy objects for large donations, and by liberal contributions 
for charitable purposes, and aiding persons who were in distressed 
circumstances. His purse has been open to a remarkable degree 
to the widow, the orphan, the unfortunate and for the aid of 
young men seeking the means of an education. In these lines 
he has doubtless been of more use to deserving persons needing 
help than any other citizen of the State, and many there are who 
hold him in grateful remembrance for his repeated kindnesses. 

His donations to churches have been important, and while he 
has adhered to the religion he was taught at the knees of his pious 
mother, and has been a leading member of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, South, in North Carolina, he has not confined his 



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JULIAN SHAKESPEARE CARR 55 

benevolence to that denomination, but has been broad enough to 
embrace other Christian churches in his donations. 

When the crisis arrived in the affairs of Trinity College (then 
situated in Randolph County), following the death of Dr. Craven, 
and the Methodist Conference, under whose fostering care the 
institution was conducted, felt impelled by the stress of circum- 
stances to abandon it, General Carr came forward and, assisted 
by two other Methodist laymen, J. W. Alspaugh and James A. 
Gray, undertook the conduct of the college for three years free of 
all cost to the church. 

At the expiration of the three years, Messrs. Alspaugh and Gray, 
feeling that the burden was larger than they cared to share, retired 
from the management of the institution ; but General Carr, single 
handed, stepped into the breach, and by a donation of $10,000 
saved Trinity College to Methodism. Later, when it seemed wise 
to remove the college from Randolph County to Durham, General 
Carr gave his check for $20,000 for the grounds upon which the 
present magnificent plant of Trinity College is situated, and 
donated this beautiful location to the Methodist Church. Truly, 
Methodism and Trinity College have had no more loyal friend than 
General Carr, because he has proved the old maxim, "A friend in 
need is a friend indeed." 

When, by unfortunate circumstances and conditions, Greens- 
boro Female College, the female college of the Methodist de- 
nomination in North Carolina, passed under the hammer and was 
sold to the highest bidder, and was lost to Methodism, General 
Carr headed a syndicate that repurchased the property and saved 
the college to his church. For several years he was president of 
the Board of Directors that managed the institution, and during 
that period the college prospered, and was conducted on a plane 
that won the admiration not only of the Methodists, but of the 
entire people of the State as well. Besides devoting his time and 
talent freely to the management of the college, he gave liberally 
of his means to equip a library and to augment the Educational 
Loan Fund. Scores of young women, as well as young men, are 
to-day possessors of diplomas from these fine schools, and are 



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S6 NORTH CAROLINA 

thus better equipped for good citizenship and greater usefulness 
through his munificence. 

So, too, with Wake Forest, Davidson, Elon College, St. Mary's 
and the Baptist University for Women, the leading institutions 
of learning of their several denominations, for they have each 
been recipients of his beneficence; while the University, his alma 
mater, and properly styled "the head of the educational interests 
in North Carolina," points with pride to one of the stateliest 
buildings on its beautiful campus, and has christened it "the Carr 
building" in honor of its donor. 

When the battleship Maine, peacefully riding upon the bosom 
of the Gulf, was sent to the bottom while the ill-fated crew lay 
sleeping, the country was shocked, and there came the cry, "To 
arms, to avenge the Maine." The general Government called 
upon each of the States to furnish its quota of troops. North 
Carolina promptly raised her complement, the town of Durham 
furnishing two companies, one white and one colored. There was 
some delay before the colored company could be assigned for 
duty, and at his own expense General Carr provided for the 
members of the company pending the action of the Government 
making a regimental assignment. 

When the regiment containing the white company was ordered 
to the front, General Carr followed in its wake, and as far as 
possible saw that "the boys" were provided with every comfort 
consistent with army regulations. Nor was his thoughtfulness 
limited to those from his own town, but every member of the 
North Carolina Regiment who desired or needed anything was 
remembered. The exigencies of the situation forced action upon 
the United States before the department was entirely prepared, 
and the new troops were badly equipped and not promptly paid. 
For months after entering the service they relied entirely upon 
their own private revenues and resources. To relieve the situa- 
tion, which had passed the stage of inconvenience and bordered 
closely upon destitution and suffering, General Carr wired General 
Alger, the Secretary of War, for permission to advance the First 
North Carolina Regiment one month's pay, tendering his check 



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JULIAN SHAKESPEARE CARR 57 

for $25,000. He appointed one white and one colored commissary 
to scout the town of Durham, with instructions that the house rent, 
doctor's and grocer's bills of every family in his community, white 
or colored, whose dependence and support was in the army and 
that needed the assistance, should be paid at General Carr's ex- 
pense. This course of conduct was persistently pursued until 
the two companies were mustered out of service and returned 
home. If there be a parallel to General Carr's patriotism and 
liberality during that period within the entire United States, it is 
unknown. 

An ardent Confederate, he has looked especially after the old 
veterans, and his liberality and active exertions for their benefit 
early led to his election as the president of the Confederate Vet- 
eran Association of North Carolina, an honor which he has now 
enjoyed for many years ; while his efforts in behalf of the Soldiers' 
Home have likewise endeared him to the old veterans. 

On the organization of the United Veteran Association of the 
Confederate States, he was elected as the major-general for the 
North Carolina division, to which post he has annually been re- 
elected, and as major-general he has since commanded the North 
Carolina Veterans wherever they have been assembled. 

General Carr has always been an active Democrat, has made 
large contributions for the benefit of that party, and has exerted 
a strong and beneficial influence in the party councils. Naturally, 
he has had an ambition to share the party honors and to find scope 
for his administrative abilities, confessedly of a high order, in 
conducting the affairs of state; and at one time he desired the 
office of governor, but the nomination was not then conferred, 
and after that his business engagements have precluded such 
public employment, and in the year 1896 he virtually declined 
the nomination. At the National Democratic Convention held in 
Kansas City in 1900, North Carolina and Idaho complimented 
General Carr with their votes for the Vice-Presidency, and during 
that year he was persuaded by many friends to present his name 
for the position of United States senator, an office that he was 
exceedingly well equipped for and would have filled with much 



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58 NORTH CAROLINA 

credit to the State; but the two preceding campaigns had been 
of extraordinary interest and importance to the people, and had 
been won so successfully and admirably by the splendid work of 
Hon. F. M. Simmons that a majority of the people thought that 
the vacant senatorship should be bestowed upon that gentleman, 
whose services had been so important and whose capacity also 
peculiarly fitted him for its high duties. 

General Carr gracefully yielded to the verdict of his party 
friends, and has continued to exert as strong a political influence 
in the State as he has ever done. Indeed, of General Carr it has 
been said that next to Senator Vance he was the best beloved North 
Carolinian and the most universally popular. By united party 
voice he has been four times a delegate from the State at large 
to the National Democratic Convention, and has been instru- 
mental in naming the Democratic candidates for President and 
Vice-President and making the declaration of party principles. 

In the church as well as the State he has rendered conspicuous 
service; he has twice been a delegate to the General Conference 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and also to the Robert 
Raikes Sunday-school Convention at London. 

It has been the fortune of General Carr to have been often 
called upon to deliver public addresses, and in their preparation 
he has exhibited a fund of information on a large variety of sub- 
jects, that bespeaks wide reading, while the elegant composition, 
close argument and just sentiments of his addresses excite 
admiration. 

The reading which he has found most beneficial and most 
attractive is of books of biography and travel ; and notwithstand- 
ing he has been so extensively engaged in manufacturing and 
banking and public employment, he has found time to gratify 
his taste for farming, having established a model farm at Occo- 
neechee, in the vicinity of Durham. 

On being asked what were the relative influences that led to 
his success in life. General Carr replied that he attributed his 
success, first, to his home life and early companionship, which 
formed his character, and then to his contact with men, observing 



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JULIAN SHAKESPEARE CARR 59 

those things that were admirable in human conduct and noting the 
weaknesses and other characteristics that were derogatory to high 
manhood. 

On the 19th of February, 1873, General Carr was united in 
marriage with Miss Nannie Graham Parrish, the accomplished 
daughter of Colonel D. C. Parrish, who owned a beautiful country 
seat in the northern part of what was then Orange, now Durham, 
County. This union has proved a most delightful one, and has 
been blessed with six children, in all of whom their parents are 
fortunate and happy. Eliza Morehead, married to Henry Corwin 
Flower of Kansas City, Missouri; Lallah Rooke, married to 
William F. Patton of Pennsylvania; Julian S., Jr., married to 
Margaret Cannon of Concord, North Carolina; Albert Marvin, 
Claiborne McDowell and Austin Heaton. During the thirty-two 
years of their married life, no couple of North Carolina have en- 
joyed greater respect or esteem than have General and Mrs. Carr, 
for the general has found for his mate a veritable queen among 
women. Their social life has been on an elegant plane, and Gen- 
eral Carr's handsome residence, Somerset Villa, which is an orna- 
ment to the State, is named in honor of his early kinsman, Robert 
Carr, the Earl of Somerset, and here is known of all North Caro- 
linians open-handed, genuine Southern hospitality. 

S. A. Ashe. 




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SAMUEL PRICE CARSON 

[HE family of Carsons have occupied a large 
place in the history of Western North Carolina, 
and the subject of this sketch was the most 
distinguished of that name. About 1773, John 
Carson, a native of Ireland, then just twenty-one 
years of age, located in Burke County, where 
he accumulated a large estate and raised a family of many sons. 
He married first a daughter of John McDowell, and by her had 
five sons and two daughters, and then he married the widow of 
Colonel Joseph McDowell, and by her had four sons and one 
daughter. He was a man of much influence in his county, and in 
1805 and 1806 represented Burke in the legislature. His sons 
also were strong men, and Joseph McDowell Carson was often in 
the legislature, and was a member of the constitutional convention 
of 1835 from Rutherford County, where he resided. A younger 
son, William M. Carson, also represented Burke County in the 
legislature. 

The subject of this sketch was the eldest son by his last wife, 
and was bom at Pleasant Gardens, in the county of Burke, on 
the 22d of January, 1798. Having a fondness for political life, 
at the age of twenty-four he was elected to the State Senate, and 
again in 1824. In that year he also became a candidate for Con- 
gress against Dr. Robert B. Vance, the sitting member, who at the 
previous election had beaten Hon. Felix Walker, who had repre- 
sented that district in Congress for six years, and who, it is said, 



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SAMUEL PRICE CARSON 6i 

was the originator of the expression, "talking for Buncombe." 
The candidacy of Carson, because of his youth and inexperience, 
was treated by Dr. Vance and another competitor, Hon. James 
Graham, with some ridicule; but he possessed talents of a high 
order and won many friends, and Mr. Walker withdrew from 
the campaign and threw his influence for Carson, who was elected. 
At the next election, in 1826, Dr. Vance was again a candidate, 
and on the stump charged old Colonel Carson with disloyalty 
during the Revolutionary War, which Colonel Carson denounced 
as utterly false, and on Dr. Vance's repeating the charge, subse- 
quently Mr. Carson challenged him; and after the election, and 
early in 1827, they met at Saluda Gap, on the South Carolina State 
line- Carson was acccmipanied by David Crockett, and at the first 
shot Vance fell mortally wounded, and died at midnight, his last 
words being, "Out, brief candle." It is said that Carson was very 
much affected in after life by the tragic termination of this affair, 
and that he had expressed the purpose of not shooting 10 kill, but his 
second. Hon. Warren R. Davis of South Carolina, had assured him 
that if one or the other were not killed, the result would be only 
another meeting. Later in life Mr. Carson acted as a second in an 
affair between Hon. David F. Caldwell and Hon. Charles Fisher ; and 
also in another affair between Governor Branch and Governor 
Forsyth of Georgia. In these affairs he performed the full duty 
of the second under the code in seeking to effect an amicable 
adjustment, and in both instances he succeeded. Mr. Carson was 
constantly re-elected to Congress until 1833. A warm Democrat, 
he was a supporter of Jackson's administration, and became 
a close friend of the President, whom it is said he sometimes rep- 
resented on the floor of the House. He was unusually gifted as 
an orator, possessing great command of language, a fine imagina- 
tion and a charming voice. Free from affectation, with a manner 
dignified, easy and graceful, he had the power of swaying an 
audience at will and holding them spellbound by his eloquence. 
Indeed, it has been said of him that he was the best impromptu 
speaker in Congress, and that at a time when there were so many 
men of the highest distinction in public life. 



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62 NORTH CAROLINA 

During his Congressional career, parties and factions and the 
strife of personal ambitions rose to an unusual height. Jackson 
bitterly antagonized Clay on one side and Calhoun, who in 1828 
had been elected Vice-President on the same ticket with himself, 
on the other. On the nullification of the Tariff Act by South 
Carolina, Jackson had forced through Congress his Force Bill, 
and had taken such measures against South Carolina as drove off 
from him many of the State's Rights men in North Carolina, 
among them Mr. Carson. At the election of 1832 Jackson was 
re-elected and Carson was defeated in his district ; but in 1834 he 
was elected by his county a member of the State Senate, his people 
at home being devoted to him. His health, however, was feeble, 
and he resolved in 1835 to move to Texas, then struggling to free 
herself from the oppressions of Mexico. He made a journey to 
that distant country, and on his return found that Burke County 
had elected him a delegate to represent her in the constitutional 
convention that was to be held in June of that year. His brother, 
Joseph McDowell Carson, was also a delegate in the same con- 
vention from Rutherford County. In that body he voted for 
removing the restrictions on Catholics in regard to holding office, 
and for the election of the governor by the people for the term 
of two years, and against Judge Gaston's amendment allowing 
free negroes to vote, provided they possessed $500 worth of prop- 
erty and had not been convicted of any infamous crime, the vote 
in the convention being 55 in the affirmative and 64 in the negative. 
At the conclusion of the session, when the venerable Nathaniel 
Macon was tendered the thanks of the convention for the manner 
in which he discharged the duties of president, Mr. Carson rose 
and expressed a hope that "that mark of well-deserved respect 
to their venerable friend for probably the last public act of his life 
would be testified by the members of the convention standing," 
and every man in the convention rose in response. On the con- 
clusion of Mr. Macon's remarks, and when the applause of the 
convention had ceased, Mr. Carson himself arose and said "that 
he was about to leave old North Carolina to reside in the far 
West, where he should be happy at all times to see any friend 



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SAMUEL PRICE CARSON 63 

from the old State — to be a North Carolinian would be a sufficient 
recommendation ; his house and corn crib should be at the service 
of his friends." 

The next year he removed with his family to Texas, where in 
the same year he was elected a member of the convention of 
Texas, the body which created the Republic ; and he was sent as 
a commissioner to Washington City to intercede for the recog- 
nition of the Lone Star Republic among the nations of the earth. 

In May, 1831, Mr. Carson had married Catherine, a daughter 
of James Wilson of Tennessee, by whom he had one daughter, 
who became the wife of Dr. J. McDowell Whitson of Talladega, 
Alabama, a descendant of Mr. John McDowell, whose daughter 
was the first wife of Colonel John Carson. 

Mr. Carson's health continued feeble in his Western home, and 
in November, 1840, he died at Little Rock, Arkansas. 

S, A. Ashe. 




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RICHARD COGDELL 




his "History of North Carolina" (II, 89, note), 
Dr. Hawks says that the family of Cogdell 
is of Swiss origin, and descended from one 
of the members of Baron de Graffenried's 
colony at New-Bern, North Carolina. The 
name was written Coxdaile in the earlier 
records at New-Bern. 

The most noted member of this family at the time of the 
Revolution and just prior thereto was Colonel Richard Cogdell, 
whose home was in New-Bern. He was born July 8, 1724, and 
was the eldest of the fourteen children of George Cogdell and his 
v/ife, Margaret Bell. 

Colonel Cogdeirs first military service in time of war was 
during the insurrection of the Regulators in 1771, when he held 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the army of Governor Tryon. In 
the year following he was promoted to the full rank of colonel. 

Being in high favor with the existing authorities prior to the 
Revolution, Colonel Cogdell's personal interests might have tempted 
him to take no part in the movements looking to a change in the 
form of government, yet he w^s among the very earliest to support 
the rights of America against the unjust claims of Great Britain. 
He was a delegate from Craven County to the Provincial Con- 
gress which assembled at New-Bern in August, 1774, despite the 
efforts of Governor Josiah Martin to prevent its meeting. In a 



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RICHARD COGDELL 65 

similar Congress at New-Bern in April, 1775, he was also a dele- 
gate from Craven, as he was also to the third Congress held at 
Hillsboro. Thus it will be seen that Colonel Cogdell's services 
in the cause of the colonies were of an important nature long 
before independence was declared. Another position held by him 
prior to the date of the Declaration of Independence was member 
of the Committee of Safety for the New-Bern district. To this 
committee he was elected on September 9, 1775. Of the Com- 
mittee of Safety for Craven County he was chairman. Colonel 
Cogdell was very active and zealous. The determined action 
of himself and associates in raising an independent company at 
New-Bern so alarmed the governor that about May 27th Governor 
Martin fled from his palace and took refuge in Fort Johnston, at 
the mouth of the Cape Fear. Colonel Harvey died in May, and on 
May 31st the Wilmington committee wrote to Sam Johnston, 
who succeeded Harvey as moderator, urging him to convene 
another Congress. In forwarding this letter on the 8th of June 
Colonel Cogdell joined in that recommendation, and also men- 
tioned that the Citizens of Craven were then signing the associa- 
tion and the militia were electing their officers. On the 31st of 
May the committee of Mecklenburg adopted resolves establishing 
a free and independent local government, based on the suffrage 
of the people. These resolves were printed in the New-Bern 
Gazette on June 16, and on the i8th of June Cogdell sent the paper 
to Sam Johnston and wrote to him : '* You will observe the Meck- 
lenburg resolves exceed all other committees, or the Congress 
itself. I send you the paper wherein they are inserted, as I hope 
this will soon come to hand." On June 23, 1775, Colonel Cogdell 
was one of the leaders of the force which seized the six pieces of 
artillery in front of the palace at New-Bern directly after the flight 
of Josiah Martin, the last of the royal governors. On the 7th of 
September, 1775, he was appointed one of the commissioners 
whose duty it was to sign the paper currency of the colony. Colonel 
Cogdell was elected judge of the Court of Admiralty on April 25, 
1776. On May 12, 1779, he was elected treasurer of the district of 
New-Bern. Twice during the Revolution he was a member of the 



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66 NORTH CAROLINA 

North Carolina House of Commons from the town of New-Bern, 
serving in the sessions of 1778 and 1779. A warm promoter of 
education, as early as 1764 he was a trustee of the New-Bern 
Academy. 

Colonel Cogdell married Lydia Duncan on the 8th of July, 1752, 
and had by her nine children, as follows: Ann Cogdell, who 
married John Wright Stanly ; Margaret, who married John Green ; 
Phoebe ; Richard, who married Nancy Ormond ; Sarah ; Susannah, 
who married first Wright Stanly and secondly Bela Badger; 
Charles ; John ; and Lydia, who married Thomas Badger, and who 
was the mother of the North Carolina statesman, Judge George 
E. Badger, United States senator, secretary of the navy, etc. 

Colonel Cogdell was a member of the Masonic fraternity, hold- 
ing his membership in St. John's Lodge, No. 3, at New-Bern. 
His death occurred on the loth of May, 1787. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 




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JOHN DAVES 

[HE patriotic town of New-Bern sent many brave 
soldiers to the field in the war of the Revolu- 
tion, and none of these bore a more honorable 
part in that conflict than John Daves, who re- 
tired from the service at the close of hostilities 
as a captain of Continentals, and became a 
major of State troops in North Carolina several years after the 
return of peace. He was a native of Mecklenburg County, in 
Virginia, and 1748 was the date of his birth. In 1770, or shortly 
prior thereto, he came to New-Bern, where several of his relatives 
had already settled. The first purchase of land in New-Bern made 
by him was on the 2Sth of October, 1770. This was a town lot on 
what was then called Eden Street. He later purchased other lots 
and country tracts as well, becoming the owner of extensive landed 
property prior to his death. 

The first wife of Mr. Daves was Sally Bryan, a daughter of 
John Council Bryan of New-Bern, and the only issue of this 
marriage was a son, who was named for his father and died young. 
This child was predeceased by its mother. 

Though the earliest record of the service of Mr. Daves in the 
Revolution gives him an officer's rank in the Continentals, or 
Regulars, there is a tradition among his descendants that his first 
military experience in that war was as a volunteer in the forces 
of Colonel Richard Caswell throughout the campaign which re- 



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68 NORTH CAROLINA 

suited in the decisive American victory at the battle of Moore's 
Creek Bridge on February 27, 1776. 

Mr. Daves became quartermaster of the Second North Carolina 
Continental Regiment on June 7, 1776, his colonel being Alexander 
Martin, afterward governor of the State. Martin's predecessor 
as colonel was Robert Howe, who had recently been made a 
brigadier-general, and later rose to the rank of major-general. 
The Second Regiment being assigned to the brigade of General 
James Moore, which was made up at Wilmington in the summer 
of 1776, it repaired to its appointed station in due season. Wish- 
ing to be relieved from his position as a staff officer, Quarter- 
master Daves was transferred from that position and commissioned 
ensign, September 30, 1776, in a company of the Second Reg^ent, 
commanded by Captain Charles Crawford, also an officer from 
New-Bern. Toward the end of 1776 the brigade was ordered to 
join Washington's army in the North, but while the North Caro- 
linians were on their line of march, and had reached Halifax, they 
were ordered to return and proceed to the relief of Georgia. They 
were stopped by another countermanding order at Charleston, 
and remained in that vicinity for some months. General Moore 
died January 15, 1777, and was succeeded in his command of the 
North Carolina Brigade by General Francis Nash. Under Nash 
the North Carolina troops joined Washington's forces in the smn- 
mer of 1777. In the actions at Germantown and Brandy wine 
Ensign Daves was engaged, and for his bravery in the latter he 
was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, his commission dating 
from the day of the battle, October 4, 1777. At Germantown his 
brigade commander, General Nash, was killed, as were also many 
other officers from North Carolina, this State leading all others 
in the losses of that day. Colonel John Patten succeeded to the 
command of the Second Regiment, November 22, 1777. Lieu- 
tenant Daves bore a share in the sufferings of the winter of 
1777-78 at Valley Forge. In the spring of 1778 he was on re- 
cruiting duty in North Carolina. He was in the fight at Mon- 
mouth on the 28th of June, 1778. The winter of 1778-79 he 
spent in camp at Morristown, New Jersey. He was one of the 



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JOHN DAVES 69 



officers selected to serve under Major Hardy Murfree in Wayne's 
forlorn hope in the capture of Stony Point on July 16, 1779, 
and was severely wounded in that desperate and successful enter- 
prise. In November, 1779, the North Carolina troops were 
ordered to re-enforce General Benjamin Lincoln in South Caro- 
lina, but did not reach Charleston till the 13th of March, 1780. 
When the American garrison at Charleston was surrendered by 
Lincoln to Sir Henry Clinton on May 12, 1780, Lieutenant Daves 
was made a prisoner of war, and was not exchanged till June, 1781. 
Practically all of the North Carolina regulars being lost to the 
service by the capitulation of Charleston, the Continental regi- 
ments of the State were rearranged, and by this means Lieutenant 
Daves was transferred to the Third Regiment of these "new 
levies" on January i, 1781, while still a prisoner. After his 
release he fought at the battle of Eutaw Springs, September 8, 
1 781, and for his gallantry there, he was promoted to the rank of 
captain, his commission dating from the day on which the battle 
was fought. Captain Daves was "deranged," or retired, and placed 
on waiting orders in January, 1783, and honorably mustered 
out in November of the same year. He became a major of cavalry 
in the North Carolina State troops on the 5th of January, 1787. 

In the year 1783, when the war was over, Captain Daves aided 
in organizing the North Carolina Society of the Cincinnati. This 
order in North Carolina later became dormant, and Professor 
Edward Graham Daves (grandson of Captain Daves) joined the 
Maryland Society in 1884. When the North Carolina Society 
was revived in 1896, John Collins Daves, son and successor of 
Professor Daves, was one of its charter members, and is now its 
vice-president. Major Graham Daves, brother of Professor Daves, 
was an honorary member of the revived society in North Carolina 
and vice-president at the time of his death. 

After the close of the Revolution, Major Daves was appointed 
collector of the port of New-Bern by President Washington. He 
was also appointed by Washington to the office of "Inspector of 
Surveys and Ports of No. 2 District — Port of New-Bern." Be- 
fore North Carolina went into the Union, Major Daves was 



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70 NORTH CAROLINA 

collector of the port of Beaufort. He was a vestryman of Christ 
Church, and also a member of the Masonic fraternity, belonging 
to St. John's Lodge, No. 3, of New-Bern, which was chartered 
before the Revolution by Provincial Grand Master Joseph 
Montfort. 

The death of Major Daves occurred on the 12th of October, 
1804. The Raleigh Register of October 29th in that year con- 
tains this brief notice of his death : 

"Died, at New-Bern, on the 12th instant, Major John Daves, a Revo- 
lutionary officer of great respectability. His remains were interred with 
military and Masonic honors." 

The remains of Major John Daves rested at New-Bern till 
June, 1893, when his descendants had them removed to the Guil- 
ford Battle Ground, near Greensboro, where they now repose. 

In April, 1782, when the war was practically over, the second 
marriage of Major John Daves took place. The lady he then 
married was Mrs. Mary Davis, widow of Oroondatis Davis, and 
daughter of Andrew Haynes by his wife Nannie Eaton. Major 
Daves was her third husband, she having been the wife of Joseph 
Long of Halifax before marrying Mr. Davis. 

By his marriage as above, Major Daves had four children, as 
follows: Sally Eaton, who married Morgan Jones of Maryland 
in 1 80 1 and died in New-Bern in 1802, leaving an only child, 
Mary McKinlay Jones (name changed to Pugh by adoption), who 
married the Hon. Andrew R. Govan ; Anne Rebecca, who married 
Josiah Collins of Edenton, North Carolina; John Pugh, who 
was three times married: first to Mary Bryan Hatch, second to 
Jane Reid Henry, and third to Elizabeth Batchelor Graham ; and 
Thomas Haynes, who married Harriet Hatch, and moved in 1836 
to Alabama, where he died in 1839, leaving descendants. 

Among the children of the above-named John Pugh Daves and 
Elizabeth B. Graham were the late Professor Edward Graham 
Daves and Major Graham Daves, both well known as men of 
letters. Major Graham Daves published in 1892 a pamphlet 
biography of his ancestor. Major John Daves of the Revolution. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 



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THE N'JV.' YC:'K 

PUBLIC Lirr.ArxY 



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Gi:f>RGK DAVIS 

^iO^.^/ all tlu* irrcat nun wl.o ba\>' a<! iii'-'l t'.c 
aisii U ui N'orlh Cin.iin.i n.j <)iio «'. ".x*- to 

n-iT I rc'l liiiii illll-tric»ll.^, w^^iW' his al. ' ••"^. 

A* ^4^!WMf |f^ <tiu- eM)rt' that n<-» ntl.'.T V'.rtli ( ar«!ipian las 

- ' ' -1 At Ti^^- f-T! utratiH^ iiiu»n t>.c a'-l^itios ' f ]\\- he W'-n 

•• -'^ ; t "■( hi: a.-> >'■»<. iat ' >, » "ui as the y.irs {-'i^S'hI he t;ro\v 

■;» L-'iinaMon uiiti! he attaiiic*! the [u»si'tir»n of the n ost 

.• . ••vm nf thr Stat^*. lie was cahr.iicd tor lii^ h^amliig 

r^ h«i'>v''(i for h'? p^"rs(«nal c\C(.ll'"'"'c aiul vc:i' rdWul 

• »iri»'tism an<l t(>r the rx''':r.l sf iitiriients wh.ich ana.ia^cd 
•' ^ .• '/ spl.iTC of life. 

'»%•»• 1 1 fhsMrif^ii'^h^-H I;iK'iij:c. Aip<'I1;^ liif an-.vsiors \va*^^ 

r M •re. vlt'srerKJcd, savs tiic IH-hrian IhuKe, "fioiii an 

.* : -.-h larniiy, aiul nuich. cel'hratcd air.onj^ Ws ooui^'-y- 

. ,.•' r a-.ui v'ai»acity, who first f«'rnie(l the prr-Hit (f 

J 'ii: I'.iij.Mirh from Irrlaiid, and in ir^r cn^a; .1 .)•! 

- • * liie n.itive Tri>h. .ri t!ie aV.'Miip* lo as^«. it the ! ' '.t - 

• • ■: h'S L'lin^ry." Two years Liter ..noth'T a'u ci-t' r, 

e.\n ai>. who coiirapon^rv h^M tin citv of i'.ris^'i 
K\'^ X ^^«»•*^ f^-ndeniiRMl and cxet'iito;! hy the biirAC>'^f'd 
' I* ir.'in-.:-nt 'heeause (f hi"^ ^^t^-ut <iefi"!i«ie o^* the tr':>t 

1 r- hi^ keeping;. In tic X»*w' \\'(.rhl, when James 



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GKORGK DAVIS 

.'<'>X(i all i1ic« iirrcat nwn \\\:r. havr ar'.-riu-.l tl;o 
aii'.aU (>i y.iitli (\M\!'i\a wu '"mic «''. «. ; v . ' to 

roTi<V-r«'] hiiii ilin-trj()l•^, w'^'ic h\> al i'' os, 

ci^I'un and ]''.i:»!ir v;f-rvioi'v y:. (•<! f.,r Imli an 

rini.t-nrt t'lat n« ■ orlicr Ncrth ( .-!r,.!iiiicin r:\> 

'\» I>'s tir t fi.trat .o upon tlie arti\i;i s « i li'*-/ ho \\<^n 

'•• . l ' i' !i' as>'xiat' ., d-al a^ T'k- y.'irs p:'>^«\i ht* i^rew 

V . t.ir.rjtoii uim' lio atiaiiu'fl tho p'-^ltiru of the n-ost 

.!':/'. '1 of the St<it«\ He was a<hiiir«"(^ for l.ii l<'a^n'i^g 

rt '.i'^vf! I'T I. is pi psonal rKC' li 'Ve .'iii'l v« !.'-Tateti 

; -.rri'^f-P) an«l for t!ic t-xpU*:-] sc?iti'ii< nts wh'-^h aiiauati-d 

' • ' V >j)i:' re of life. 

a^ 1 disMngviisht.'fl lineage. Atr«'»n^ hi:- ari'-rstn-s wa^ 

!'--r'^. ii«.*scen(icd, snvs the Hi^t'-rim IIuiiio, "fi :m an 

i'-^h family, and nnich eel' iu-.»tr-d aii.oii^ !i\s c'>':n«.v- 

.al' r and t.ipaeity, who first f'»rT>(.d the pi-'c? ;f 

th<- iai^.didi from Irchiiai, arul in }h\i en^^^;. ' a! 

• ! lh« n.i'lve [risli m the aMciriv tn a>-t:t ll.i- '.: \- - 

• f i^ ccamtrN." Two vcar«; lat^ r an ithvT a".' ^t»r, 

. -'naiT^ v.Iio c«.'iira:rj t'n.sfy h^M th.e eity of I^>ri-t ^l 

'' '^i;. \sas rondenined and exec'itc'l hy the sucvc^r^'il 

i .irhaniont i>ecanse of his stout (k-ft'nse o^ tlie ti"st 

'. *« h'^ keeping. In th-^ X'-w WurKl, wh.en Jaims 



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GEORGE DAVIS 




^MONG all the great men who have adorned the 
annals of North Carolina no one deserves to 
take precedence of George Davis, whose virtues 
rendered him illustrious, while his abilities, 
culture and public services gained for him an 
eminence that no other North Carolinian has 
enjoyed. At his first entrance upon the activities of life he won 
the respect of his associates, and as the years passed he grew 
in public estimation until he attained the position of the most 
eminent citizen of the State. He was admired for his learning 
and talent, beloved for his personal excellence and venerated 
for his patriotism and for the exalted sentiments which animated 
him in every sphere of life. 

He was of distinguished lineage. Among his ancestors was 
Roger Moore, descended, says the Historian Hume, "from an 
ancient Irish family, and much celebrated among his country- 
men for valor and capacity, who first formed the project of 
expelling the English from Ireland, and in 1641 engaged all 
the heads of the native Irish in the attempt to assert the inde- 
pendence of his country." Two years later another ancestor, 
Robert Yeamans, who courageousfy held the city of Bristol 
for the King, was condemned and executed by the successful 
forces of Parliament because of his stout defense of the trust 
committed to his keeping. In the New World, when James 



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72 NORTH CAROLINA 

Moore, who had won high fame as a general, and who, in 1703, 
was governor of South Carolina, married Elizabeth, a daugh- 
ter of Sir John Yeamans, the first governor of Carolina, 
these two streams of blood mingled, and in every succeeding 
generation there have sprung from this famous stock men of 
the highest type of exalted manhood. 

Mr. Davis was entirely the product of Cape Fear influences. 
For a century his people had been among the first in social stand- 
ing in that part of North Carolina, and enjoyed a society not 
surpassed in excellence elsewhere in America. 

The Davis family came from South Carolina to the Cape 
Fear about the time of the permanent settlement in 1725, and 
their association was with the most considerable planters on 
that river. In a later generation Thomas Davis, whose mother 
was a Miss Assup, an Irish lady, married Mary Moore, a grand- 
daughter of both "King" Roger Moore and John Baptista 
Ashe; their son, Thomas F. Davis, married Sarah Isabella 
Eagles, a daughter of Joseph Eagles, a gentleman of elegant 
culture, and she became the mother of Thomas F. Davis and of 
George Davis. The former began life as a lawyer, and then, 
entering the ministry, became the bishop of the Episcopal 
Church in South Carolina. The latter is the subject of this 
sketch. 

Mr. George Davis is descended from Major Alexander Lilling- 
ton and Colonel Sam Swann of the Albemarle colony and of 
Sir John Yeamans and Governor Moore of the South Carolina 
colony, as well as from other equally worthy lines of colonial 
ancestors; and he was among the representatives of those men 
whose axes had first rung in the forests of the Cape Fear, of 
those who had been prominently connected with the history of 
the two Carolinas from the time of the first settlement and who 
had been actors in the most interesting episodes of the history 
of the Cape Fear. With such traditions he grew to man's 
estate, a worthy scion of an illustrious stock, and in his own 
career he exemplified the virtues and excellence he had inherited 
while shedding additional luster on the name of his native State. 



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GEORGE DAVIS 73 



He was born on March i, 1820, on his father's plantation at 
Porter's Neck, then in New Hanover County, and after being 
taught by that excellent instructor, Mr. W. H. Hardin, at 
Pittsboro, he was prepared for college by Mr. M. A. Curtis, 
later the distinguished minister and botanist, who was then 
employed by Governor Dudley as a tutor for his children. How 
diligent he was in his studies and how capable as a student is 
attested by his entering the University of North Carolina while 
still in his fourteenth year, and graduating at eighteen with 
the highest honors of his class. In his valedictory address he 
gave evidence even at that early age of mature thought and 
ripe scholarship. He applied himself to the study of the law 
with the earnest purpose to excel in his profession, and in the 
year 1840 obtained his license to practice law, but was not admitted 
to practice in the courts of the State until 1841, when he attained 
his majority. 

That he was gifted with rare powers of oratory soon became 
evident, but he did not rely on forensic eloquence for success. 
He realized that law is a jealous mistress, and he sought to 
win professional rewards by close and severe study and by 
painstaking preparation, seldom equalled among the lawyers of 
North Carolina. First and last he was a student of the law; 
but he did not neglect that high culture that contributed to make 
him an ornament of his profession. While becoming well versed 
in every department of legal learning, he also maintained a familiar 
acquaintance with the classics, and was an appreciative student 
of general literature. He thus developed not only into the learned 
lawyer, but into the man of letters, the polished gentleman, and 
withal, the eloquent advocate. The Wilmington bar, ever strong, 
never was stronger than during Mr. Davis's career ; and he found 
competitors calling for his best efforts and requiring the exercise 
of his highest powers ; but by diligence and painstaking accuracy 
he successfully coped on many a field with the strongest and most 
distinguished of his adversaries. 

On November 17, 1842, he married Mary A. Polk, a daughter 
of Thomas G. Polk, and a great-granddaughter of Thomas Polk, 



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74 NORTH CAROLINA 

one of the signers of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, a lady of rare loveliness of character and of person, 
and in full sympathy with the elegant tastes of her husband. 

Cast by nature in the mold of his noble ancestors, Mr. Davis 
equalled them in personal characteristics and social accomplish- 
ments, while surpassing them in literary attainments. He had 
a charming personality, was dark rather than a blond, was of 
medium height, with rounded limbs well knit; carried his head 
with an easy poise, was gracious in his manner, and possessed the 
art of pleasing to a remarkable degree. Full of information, quick 
and with a ready mind, he excelled in conversation and was a 
delightful companion. With all the manly characteristics of his 
race, he was bold and courageous when need be, but was ever 
the polished, kindly gentleman. 

Like his brother, the saintly bishop, he was pure in thought 
and action, and a devout Christian. Familiar with the trend 
of scientific thought, he was never shaken in the belief he had 
learned at his mother's knee; but all hard matters of religious 
import that passed his comprehension he humbly relegated to 
the realm of faith, and he accepted with a clear conscience what 
was hidden in obscurity or beyond his understanding. Tolerant 
of human infirmities, he pursued the tenor of his life so evenly 
as never to have excited animosities ; but he so despised a mean- 
ness and duplicity that such an action aroused his wrathful indig- 
nation, and he could neither spare a miscreant nor refrain from 
denouncing any deflection from fair dealing and honorable con- 
duct. Such was the man himself, of a tender and affectionate 
nature, a polished, courtly gentleman, loyal and steadfast in his 
friendships, with high ideals and lofty purposes. His motto seems 
to have been Thoroughness and his guiding star Truth. 

He was always at home among his books, and he made friends 
of the choicest authors. He was thus enabled to give an elevated 
tone to all his addresses, even to those hastily delivered, on a 
sudden occasion, in the court-house, and his reputation grew as 
an elegant as well as eloquent orator. 

On the 8th of June, 1855, he delivered an address before the 



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GEORGE DAVIS 75 



two literary societies of the University on the "Early Men and 
Times of the Lower Cape Fear," which is not only delightful 
in its style of narrative, but abounds in flights of genuine elo- 
quence. The next year he delivered a literary address before the 
Greensboro Female College, which has been regarded by many 
as one of the best efforts of his life. In i860 Edward Everett, 
under the direction of the Mount Vernon Association, delivered 
at Wilmington, as at many other places, his famous address on 
the "Life and Character of General Washington." He was intro- 
duced by Mr. Davis. In Everett's Diary, which has been pub- 
lished, he said that during the course of all his travels he had met 
but one man who he thought was of superior excellence to himself 
as an orator — Mr. George Davis of Wilmington. 

Mr. Davis's reputation constantly grew as an able, great 
lawyer and as an unsurpassed advocate, and when he was to 
speak in the court-house great crowds attended to hear him. 
In politics he was a Whig, and the State and his district being 
Democratic, there were no avenues open to him to political pre- 
ferment, even if his disposition had been to enter upon a public 
career. But official life had no attractions for him ; still, he became 
the mentor of his party in that section of North Carolina, and 
he enjoyed the confidence and esteem of all the citizens without 
respect to party affiliations. 

When in i860 the shadow of a great national convulsion settled 
over the country, the patriotic leaders in North Carolina were 
divided in their views. No man surpassed Mr. Davis in manhood 
or in devotion to the welfare and honor of his people, but he loved 
the Union, and steadfastly counselled moderation. The people 
of North Carolina shared his sentiments, and on January 26, 
1 861, the legislature appointed commissioners to represent the 
State at Montgomery, at Richmond, and in a peace congress 
called by Virginia to meet at Washington City, with the purpose 
of endeavoring to secure a peaceful solution of sectional differ- 
ences ; and Mr. Davis was one of those who attended the Peace 
Congress at Washington on February 4, 1861, which was in 
session three weeks. In that Congress North Carolina and Vir- 



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76 NORTH CAROLINA 

ginia voted against every article adopted but one; still, as weak 
as the report was, it ifras not acceptable to those who controlled 
the Federal Congress. Up to this time the Union sentiment in 
North Carolina had been strong. On the return of Mr. Davis, 
he was solicited to deliver an address upon the situation, which 
he did at Wilmington on March 2d. This address has been 
regarded as a masterpiece of oratory. The people were profoundly 
moved and the hearts of all were deeply stirred. Mr. Davis said 
he had gone to the Peace Congress to exhaust every means to 
obtain a fair and honorable and a final settlement of existing 
differences. He had done so to the best of his abilities, and 
had been unsuccessful, for he could never accept the plan adopted 
by the Peace Congress as consistent with the rights, the inter- 
ests or the dignity of North Carolina. As the result of his 
address and of his position, the whole Cape Fear became united 
in the sentiment and feeling that there was no hope of securing 
the rights of North Carolina by adhering to the Union. Such 
was the confidence in Mr. Davis that the people followed where 
he led. 

When President Lincoln called for North Carolina's quota of 
troops to aid in coercing the Gulf States which had seceded, 
the whole State at once espoused the cause of the South, and 
on May 20th the State seceded. A month later Mr. Davis and 
W. W. Avery were elected senators to the Confederate Con- 
gress, and in 1862 he was again elected to that position, his 
associate being Hon. W. T. Dortch. In the Senate Mr. Davis's 
views were so patriotic, so wise and just, and his excellence 
was so highly appreciated, that on January 4, 1864, President 
Davis invited him to become the attorney-general of the Con- 
federate States, and he continued to hold that position of dose 
association with the President and as legal adviser of the Con- 
federate Government until its final dissolution at Charlotte on 
April 26, 1865. 

During his attendance on the Peace Congress, and while he 
was senator and a member of the Cabinet at Richmond, Mr. 
Davis was thrown in close contact with the most distinguished 



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GEORGE DAVIS 77 



and the strongest men of the country, and he at once took high 
rank among them because of his accomplishments, his intellectual 
vigor and his fervid patriotism. The wife of President Davis, 
who had long been associated with the great men of this country, 
wrote of him : "He was one of the most exquisitely proportioned 
of men. His mind dominated his body, but his heart drew him 
near to all that was honorable and tender, as well as patriotic 
and faithful in mankind. He was never dismayed by defeat. 
When the enemy was at the gates of Richmond he was fully 
sensible of our peril, but calm in the hope of repelling them ; and 
if this failed, certain of his power and will to endure whatever 
ills had been reserved for him." This is an admirable portrayal 
of the man. He was manly and courageous, as well as endowed 
with high virtue and lofty characteristics. He was equal to the 
highest station in social life and the most responsible duties of 
oflScial administration. In his sphere of action at Richmond he 
had no superior, and he warmly attached to him all who were 
brought in contact with him, and he exerted a strong influence 
in determining the action of the Confederate Government in all 
matters of legal import. 

He accompanied the President to Charlotte at the time of 
Lee's surrender, and was with him when Johnston furled the 
last flag, and he was filled with poignant grief at the overthrow 
of the Confederacy. It was indeed a time of heartrending woe 
and fearful anxiety; woe because the fabric of the Confederate 
Government had fallen, involving the most cherished hopes in 
disaster ; all the sacrifices and deaths and sufferings of the South- 
cm people had been for naught; and at that critical moment 
Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by the fell blow of a demented 
actor; and the North, maddened by the horrible crime, accused 
the Confederate authorities with having procured its commission, 
and cried aloud for vengeance. A price was set on the head of 
President Davis, and orders issued for the arrest of his Cabinet. 
Mr. George Davis was greatly distressed. His wife had died 
in 1863, his children were scattered, and he had become engaged 
to be married to a lady, then in Richmond, for whose safety and 



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78 NORTH CAROLINA 

welfare he felt the most anxious solicitude. He was without gold 
or silver or any means. As terrible as the situation was to all 
Confederates, to him it was doubly so. He first sought the home 
of his good brother, the bishop, and then, like other high officials, 
passed down into Florida, intent on escaping to British soil, and 
seeking to provide for his children and fulfilling the obligations 
of his natural affections. It was several months before he could 
get to sea, and then he had to venture in a small, leaky boat with 
rotten sails, running daily the hazard of shipwreck. After a 
month beating about on the sea unavailingly, he determined to 
abandon the voyage and return to Key West. There he was 
arrested. He was imprisoned for some months in Fort Hamilton, 
but was finally released on parole not to leave the State of North 
Carolina. Returning home, he gathered his children around him, 
and again opened his law office and entered upon the practice of 
his profession. On the 9th of May, 1866, while he was still on 
his parole. Miss Monimia Fairfax of Richmond, Virginia, to 
whom he was engaged, became his wife, and their union was a 
most happy one. 

Mr. Davis never afterward sought or held political office, but 
he gave his best thought to the solution of the vexed questions 
which confronted the Southern people in those years of dire 
calamity. He was the wise counsellor, the prudent adviser of 
those who blazed a way out of the difficult wilderness of those 
evil times. In 1868, when the question was of acquiescing in the 
domination of the negroes and their leaders, the carpet-baggers, 
he delivered an address in the opera house at Wilmington which 
was perhaps the most admirable political effort ever made in 
America. And on other occasions he also made memorable ad- 
dresses. In 1876, particularly, he electrified a great audience 
with one of his splendid efforts of oratory. The learned Dr. T. B. 
Kingsbury, whose elegant taste and discriminating judgment give 
particular value to his opinion, said of it in the Wilmington Star, 
of which he was then the editor: "There was humor, there was 
sarcasm, there was an exquisite irony, there were flashes of wit, 
there was an outburst of corrosive scorn and indignation that were 



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GEORGE DAVIS 79 



wonderfully artistic and effective. At times a felicity of illustra- 
tion would arrest your attention, and a grand outburst of high and 
ennobling eloquence would thrill you with the most pleasurable 
emotions. The taste was exceedingly fine, and from beginning to 
end the workings of a highly cultured, refined, graceful and elegant 
mind were manifest. There were passages delivered with high 
dramatic art that would have electrified any audience on earth. If 
that speech had been delivered before an Athenian audience in the 
days of Pericles, or in Rome when Cicero thundered forth his burn- 
ing and sonorous eloquence, or in Westminster Hall with Burke 
and Fox and Sheridan among his auditors, he would have received 
the loudest acclaim, and his fame would have gone down the ages 
as one of those rarely gifted men who knew well how to use his 
native speech and to play with the touch of a master on that grand 
instrument, the human heart. We could refer at length, if oppor- 
tunity allowed, to the scheme of his argument, to his magnificent 
peroration, in which passion and imagination swept the audience 
and led them captive at the will of the magician ; to the exquisitely 
apposite illustration, now quaint and humorous, and then delicate 
and pathetic, drawn with admirable art from history and poetry 
and the sacred Truth — to these and other points we might refer, 
but it would be in vain. How can words, empty words, repro- 
duce the glowing eloquence and entrancing power of the human 
voice, when that voice is one while soft as Apollo's lute, or reso- 
nant as the blast of a bugle under the influence of deep passion? 
How can the pen convey to others the sweet melody of harp or 
viol, or how can human language bring back a forgotten strain, 
or convey an exact impression that is made by the tongue of fire 
when burdened with a majestic eloquence?" Indeed, Mr. Davis 
probably had no equal in America as an orator. Some may have 
surpassed him in some of the elements of oratory, but taking him 
all in all, it is doubted whether any one has measured fully 
up to his high performance. In North Carolina Senator Ransom 
has made some addresses worthy to be mentioned along with 
Mr. Davis's, and probably Joseph Alston Hill also was equal to 
him in some points, but other than these there has been in this 



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8o NORTH CAROLINA 

State no masterful orator that approximated him in his best 
orations. 

A particular incident the writer recalls. General Lee shortly 
before his death paid a visit to Mr. Davis, and the presence of 
that beloved and revered character had brought him still closer 
to the hearts of the people, and when the news of his death was 
announced at Wilmington a public meeting was immediately held, 
at which Mr. Davis made some remarks appropriate to the mourn- 
ful occasion. He appeared dressed in black, with his hands 
crossed before him, his posture and expression betokening the 
sorrow he felt at the death of his friend and of the passing away 
of the great Confederate leader. By the modulation of his voice 
and his simple words of grief, he so moved the audience that in 
every part of the hall men wept, and there was an exhibition of 
public woe that has seldom been equalled. 

But as consummate as was his forensic ability, it was well 
matched by the accuracy of his learning and his mastery of 
the technicalities of the law. He was painstaking and most 
careful. It has been said that a man's writing is an index to 
his character; and even here his habitual carefulness was mani- 
fest, for he formed each letter with the precision of a clerk, 
and his sentences were clear, precise, and left no room for any 
doubt as to their meaning. The quicksands of the law he ever 
avoided, and he conducted the affairs committed to his charge 
on the bed rock of justice and legality. He was employed in the 
most important litigation of his section, and in all the great 
railroad matters connected with the lines centering in Wil- 
mington; and he was the adviser of the authorities of the 
Wilmington and Weldon Railroad, and so admirably were the 
affairs of that ccnnpany conducted that they were always free 
from legal embarrassment. When the sale of the Western North 
Carolina Railroad was determined on in 1880, he was employed, 
together with Judge Thomas Ruffin, to advise the legislature 
and prepare the contract of sale, and their work was a marvel 
of skill, protecting the State's interest at every possible point. On 
the death of Chief Justice Pearson, Governor Vance, in Janu- 



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GEORGE DAVIS 8i 



ary, 1878, offered Mr. Davis the chief justiceship of the Supreme 
Court, which he declined because his first duty in life then was 
to make some provision for the little children that had come to 
him in his age, and upon the bench he would be compelled to 
abandon such a hope. Poor in purse, he lived modestly and 
soberly within his limited means. But his home was a temple 
where the domestic virtues were enshrined and where elegant 
culture and sweetness and light made an atmosphere grateful to 
his nature and in harmony with the tenderness and gentleness 
of his disposition. Around him gathered his friends and kinsmen, 
and he entered with sympathy into their lives and strengthened 
them with high purposes and elevated sentiments. His fondness 
for literature gave a charming flavor to his home life, and par- 
ticularly was he interested in State history, and he was never 
happier than when making original investigations into the histori- 
cal episodes of the Cape Fear. He laid open the book of the past 
and incited others to become familiar with the incidents that 
redounded to the honor of North Carolina in former times. Doubt- 
less it was in association with Mr. Davis that Colonel Saunders 
was inspired to undertake the great work of collecting and pub- 
lishing the Colonial Records which have been so valuable to the 
State, while Mr. Davis's own contributions to historical literature 
have been themselves of abiding interest and importance. 

He continued to lead the life of an eminent private citizen 
until his death at Wilmington on February 23, 1896. Although 
the high official station he had occupied during the period of the 
Confederacy had given him a particular prominence, it had added 
nothing to the full stature of manhood which distinguished him 
among men. His virtues, his culture, his excellence made him 
illustrious, and the people regarded him as their most eminent 
citizen, and revered him for his character, and when he departed 
from their midst he was mourned as no other man of his com- 
munity had ever been. 

5". A. Ashe. 



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JUNIUS DAVIS 

, NE of the prominent lawyers of the Cape Fear 
section, justly esteemed for his high character 
and attainments no less than for his professional 
learning, is Junius Davis, a son of George 
Davis, who was born in Wilmington on the 
17th day of June, 1845. His father was re- 
siding at that time in the old Davis Mansion on Second Street, 
that had been built prior to the Revolution, the bricks for it having 
been brought from England in colonial days. 

Mr. Davis is of illustrious descent, numbering among his 
ancestors Sir John Yeamans, Governor James Moore, Alexander 
Lillington, Colonel Sam Swann, Maurice Moore, Richard Eagles 
and other gentlemen of the first consequence in the colonial period 
of Carolina history. His father, Mr. George Davis, was the most 
eminent citizen of his community during his generation, and served 
with high honor in the Peace Conference in February, 1861, 
as a senator in the Confederate Congress and as attorney- 
general in President Davis's Cabinet. He was particularly dis- 
tinguished as a learned scholar, an able lawyer, for his decided 
convictions, severe integrity and high sense of right and honor, 
while as an orator he probably had no equal in the United States. 
The mother of Junius Davis, the first wife of his father, was 
Miss Mary Adelaide Polk, a daughter of General Thomas G. 
Polk of Mecklenburg County, and a granddaughter of Colonel 



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THE NEW YORK 
PUBLIC UBRARY 

ASTf)R, LENOX AND 
TlLtjLN FOVNOATIONB 



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JUNIUS DAVIS 83 



William Polk of Raleigh, a lady of rare loveliness of character 
and gentleness, who combined fine culture with a thorough dis- 
charge of her duties in life, and who exerted a strong influence on 
the moral and spiritual life of her household. 

The subject of this sketch was rather delicate in youth, and 
his tastes led to books and reading and the pleasures of the house, 
but he also enjoyed the sports of the field with g^n and dog, as 
well as the pastimes of the water, and found recreation in the 
enjoyments afforded by the attractive sounds in the vicinity of 
Wilmington. 

At first he attended the excellent schools taught by Mr. Levin 
Meginncy and Mr. George W. Jewett, but on reaching his twelfth 
year he became a pupil at the celebrated Bingham School at the 
Oaks, near Mebanville, in Orange County, where he remained 
four years, thus passing that period of his life largely in the 
country, while his vacations were spent in the charming circle of 
which his home at Wilmington was the center. 

After the war began his father moved his wife and children 
to Charlotte, and Junius Davis there studied for a few months 
under the Rev. Mr. Griffith. In 1863, at the age of seventeen, he 
enlisted as a private in Moore's Battery, which was Company E 
of the Tenth North Carolina Regiment. Part of the battery was 
with General Hoke at the capture of Plymouth, and being after- 
ward joined by the entire command, marched to Washington, 
North Carolina, and from there to New-Bern to take part in the 
attack upon that place. His battery was hurriedly withdrawn 
from New-Bern and accompanied Hoke's Division to Virginia, 
and was at the battle of Drury's Bluff. About this time his 
battery was attached to a battalion commanded by Major Moseley, 
and shortly afterward he was promoted to corporal. He served 
with his battery in the movements that **bottled up** Butler at 
Bermuda Hundreds, and was engaged in the subsequent battles 
around Richmond until the battery moved into the trenches at 
Petersburg, where it occupied the Salient on the Norfolk Railroad, 
being supported by the brigade of General Gracie. He was daily 
and nightly under heavy fire from artillery and mortars, and par- 



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84 NORTH CAROLINA 

ticipated in the battle of the Crater on the 30th of July, 1864, and 
also in the assault on Fort Harrison, and he continued to endure 
the hard experience which fell to the lot of Lee's veterans until 
the evacuation of Petersburg. Through all these dangers and 
perils Corporal Davis passed with the great good fortune of 
escaping without any serious wound, although he was wounded 
in the neck on the last day in the trenches. 

In the retreat to Appomattox the battery was at first a part 
of the rear guard, and underwent great privation, and was en- 
gaged almost constantly, and particularly was roughly handled 
at Deatonsville and Sailor's Creek ; but on the evening of the 7th 
it was moved forward, and became a part of the van, there being 
at that time no enemy in the immediate front. On the afternoon 
of the 8th of April the battalion, then under the command of 
Major Blount of Georgia, Moseley having been killed at Peters- 
burg, together with other batteries, numbering in all some twenty- 
five or thirty pieces, passed beyond the village of Appomattox 
about a mile and went into park in an old field between the main 
road leading to Lynchburg and the railroad. This being the 
advance, the infantry had not come up, and there was no support 
to the artillery except some seventy-five artillerymen, who had lost 
their pieces and had armed themselves with muskets and rifles they 
had picked up on the route. Shortly after they had camped, a 
squadron of cavalry dashed through the camp from the front 
shouting, "Sheridan's cavalry is upon us. You had better get out." 
The seventy-five extra men immediately deployed in the front as 
skirmishers, while the artillery shelled the woods so effectively as 
to check the Federal advance and drive back the assailing force. 
Late in the afternoon those advanced batteries were directed to 
withdraw, and they returned to Appomattox Court House, but 
still later they again resumed the forward movement, and led the 
march toward Lynchburg, and while on this route, having gained 
the point where they had earlier been attacked, about a mile from 
Appomattox, the enemy was again encountered. The artillery 
was at that time moving on the right side of the road, while on the 
left was a long wagon train. It was just after dark, when 



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JUNIUS DAVIS 8s 



suddenly the stirring notes of a bugle blast were heard, and not 
a hundred yards away came dashing on them a heavy force of 
Sheridan's cavalry, pouring into the artillery a hot. fire from car- 
bines and pistols. The charge was quick and entirely unexpected, 
but immediately the artillery imlimbered and got into position 
with double-shotted canister to repulse the attack ; but the wagon 
train being between them and the enemy, their g^ns could not 
be fired, and a staff officer hastily passing from the rear to the 
front, directed the men to take care of themselves, for resistance 
was now hopeless. 

The squad of men of which Corporal Davis was a part dashed 
mto the neighboring woods, and before going a himdred yards 
their own g^uns were turned upon them, but fortimately they 
escaped. They penetrated the woods about a mile, and being 
uncertain of the situation, remained there that night. Early in 
the morning they met with an officer of McGregor's Mounted 
Battery, who informed them that he had it from the best authority 
that General Lee was about to surrender. The information could 
not be credited, and Corporal Davis and the two men who were 
with him could not fully tmderstand how such a calamity could 
happen ; but on being again assured that General Lee was about 
to surrender the army, they realized the terrible situation, and 
wiA heavy hearts, overwhelmed with distress, they determined 
to make the best of their way out. Moving cautiously along, they 
crossed the river and finally reached Lynchburg, where they met 
Major Blotmt of their own battalion, who, together with some 
men and two of their g^ns that had not been captured, had also 
reached that place. Major Blount drew his men up and made them 
a little speech, advising them to go home subject to his orders 
and be ready to report to him if again called into service. 

Corporal Davis with some companions pursued their sad way 
along the Norfolk and Western Railroad to Liberty, now Bedford 
City, having the purpose to join Johnston's army, and hurrying 
along to escape capture. When they reached the vicinity of Greens- 
boro, they, however, heard of Johnston's surrender, and that the 
last Confederate army had disappeared. Corporal Davis therefore 



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86 NORTH CAROLINA 

came into Greensboro and surrendered himself to the Federal 
provost-marshal at that point and was paroled. 

Returning to Charlotte, all business being at a standstill and 
everything disorganized, it was some time before he could obtain 
employment, although entirely without funds or any means. After 
a while, however, he was engaged to accompany carloads of cotton, 
which was then hauled on open flat cars, and was liable to be 
burned by sparks from the engine as well as liable to depreda- 
tions and thefts by Federal soldiers and others. Cotton about 
that time was selling for $i in gold per pound, and gold was worth 
more than 50 cents premium on the dollar, and Mr. Davis's em- 
ployment was to accompany the cotton and watch it and protect 
it while being transported from Charlotte to New-Bern. 

He was engaged in this business for several months, but in the 
fall of 1865 he returned to Wilmington, being then twenty years 
of age, and in the absence of any other opening, was glad to be 
employed as a clerk in the dry-goods store of Messrs. Weil & 
Rosenthal, esteeming it a kindness on the part of Mr. Weil to 
give him this opportunity to earn his livelihood. Indeed, at that 
time nearly every one was in a similar condition. The soldiers 
returning from the army to their farms found occupation in the 
cultivation of their fields, but the young men of the towns had 
no means of support except such earnings as they could make by 
daily labor, and one who obtained constant and regular employ- 
ment was esteemed fortunate by his associates. As a clerk Mr. 
Davis rendered faithful and efficient service to his employers, 
and passed through the dark days of those uncertain times with 
the resolution to make the most of his circumstances. 

His father, who on the fall of the Confederacy had sought to 
escape to British territory, after an unsuccessful attempt to pass 
beyond seas, was captured by the Federal authorities at Key West 
and had been imprisoned at Fort Lafayette ; but eventually he was 
released on parole and returned to Wilmington and resumed his 
practice of the law, and in 1867 his business was sufficiently re- 
munerative for the son to relinquish his clerkship and to enter 
upon the study of the law, as he proposed to seek a professional 



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JUNIUS DAVIS 87 



career. In that year Junius Davis began to read law in his father's 
office, and made such progress that in the following spring he 
obtained his license to practice in the county courts, and he was 
associated as a partner with his father, and the association con- 
tinued until the death of Mr. George Davis in 1896. 

Inheriting much of the talents of his father and many of his 
characteristics, and trained by him in the details of professional 
work, Mr. Junius Davis fell into the same careful habits, pre- 
cision and thoroughness that were so marked in the career of that 
distinguished lawyer. He early mastered the intricacies of the 
law and became a fine practitioner, and succeeded to the confi- 
dence which his father always inspired among his clients, so that 
he himself became the adviser of the most important interests 
centering at Wilmington, has long been the division counsel for 
the Atlantic Coast Line Railway Company and the attorney of the 
Consolidated Railways, Light and Power Company, and for other 
well-known corporations. Indeed, as a lawyer he has achieved 
eminent success, his practice being very lucrative, and he has 
attained a high position in his profession, his opinion having as 
great weight as that of any other lawyer in the State of North 
Carolina. 

As a business man he is also much esteemed, and among other 
positions he holds is that of president of the Wilmington Railroad 
Bridge Company. 

Mr. Davis has not sought political preferment, but has always 
been an active and zealous worker for the success of the Demo- 
cratic Party. Careful, prudent and far-sighted, he has sought 
results that would be beneficial to his community, and in the 
revolution at Wilmington in 1898 he was one of the members 
of the committee that directed events, and he took an active part 
in those proceedings which have resulted so greatly to the ad- 
vantage of that city and to its commercial and business interests. 
Indeed, he was instrumental during that crisis in bringing about 
the consent of Governor Russell that there should be no Republi- 
can opposition to the election of the Citizens' candidates. 

Partaking of his father's literary and historical turn of mind 



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88 NORTH CAROLINA 

and disposition, he has in like manner been for years interested 
in the local history of the Cape Fear, and has amassed a notable 
collection of historical material. His professional life, however, 
has been so laborious that he has not been led often into the fields 
of literature, and his public addresses have been few. The most 
important of his literary efforts was that when, on behalf of the 
Society of the Cincinnati, he presented to the Supreme Court 
of the State the portraits of James Iredell and Alfred Moore, 
justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. This address 
is of unusual excellence. It has a genuine literary flavor and the 
style is strong, forceful and elegant. It abounds in flights of 
eloquence, while the foundation of it rests on historical facts 
skillfully marshalled, showing research and familiarity with the 
history of the State and fine talents in presenting them in a form 
and manner to entertain and instruct. One catches the pervading 
sentiment of Mr. Davis's own life in its closing sentence: "May 
the example of their useful lives, their spotless integrity and their 
distinguished services inspire coming generations to emulate them 
and follow in the lofty paths they walked through life." 

Mr. Davis is an honorary member of the North Carolina Society 
of the Cincinnati and a member of the North Carolina Sons of 
the Revolution and a member by baptism of the Protestant Episco- 
pal Church. 

On January 19, 1874, Mr. Davis was happily married to Miss 
Mary Orme Walker, a daughter of Thomas D. and Mary Vance 
Walker, a lady admired and beloved by all who knew her. Mrs. 
Davis having died, some years later he married, November 6, 
1893, Miss Mary Walker Cowan, a daughter of Colonel Robert H. 
Cowan of Wilmington, North Carolina. He has had eleven chil- 
dren, of whom nine survive. 

5*. A, Ashe. 



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JAMES FEW 

"And he became famous among men, for they had executed judgment 
upon him." — Esekiel, 

JHE Few family was of English origin. Its pro- 
genitor came from Market Lavington, Wilt- 
shire, with William Penn to Pennsylvania in 
1682. He was a Quaker, and in 1714 his wife 
bore him a son, whom he called William. 
William Few, on attaining his majority, 
removed to a farm that he had purchased in Baltimore County, 
Maryland. Some years afterward he married Mary Wheeler, a 
Roman Catholic of Harford County of the same province, then 
finally severing his connection with the Quaker meeting. James, 
the second son of this marriage, was born in Baltimore in 1746. 
In 1757 William Few came to North Carolina, seeking a climate 
more genial and a soil more fertile. He soon selected and pur- 
chased from James Taylor, a co-religionist and a recent comer 
from Pennsylvania, a tract of land containing 640 acres, beauti- 
fully located on both sides of the Eno River, six miles east of the 
present town of Hillsboro. This land was one gjeat forest, 
as yet untouched by the axe of the settler. He then hired a man 
to make a clearing and build a house for him, and returned home. 
In the fall of 1758, after gathering his crops and selling his land 
and goods that could not be transported, he migrated to North 
Carolina, conveying his effects in a wagon drawn by four horses 



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90 NORTH CAROLINA 

and a cart drawn by two. With him came his wife, four sturdy 
sons — Benjamin, James, William and Ignatius — ^two young daugh- 
ters and four negro slaves. 

William Few prospered in his new home. In 1763 he purchased 
200 acres of land just a mile from the county seat, then Childs- 
burg, now Hillsboro, and made his residence there. In the same 
year he established a grist and saw mill on the Eno, and was 
licensed to keep a tavern at his residence. In 1767 he purchased 
another large tract of land on Little River. 

The boyhood and youth of James Few, the subject of this sketch, 
was passed in labor upon his father's farms and in attendance 
upon a neighborhood school presided over by an excellent teacher. 
He was considered by his family its brightest and most promising 
member. When it is remembered that all his brothers subse- 
quently became distinguished in Georgia (William, later, in New 
York also), he must have been endowed with no ordinary capacity. 
He was destined by his father for the bar, and the removal near 
Hillsboro was in itself an advantage to him in this regard. James 
Milner, the Halifax lawyer, seems to have been a friend and ad- 
viser of the family. Edmund Fanning himself was kind in the loan 
of books, certainly to William, the younger, and probably to James. 
There, too, were the quarterly county courts,of which his fatherwas 
several times foreman of the grand jury, and to which the people 
came in crowds to hear the news, to trade, to discuss current events 
and for the interchange of opinion. 

For many years these hardy sons of the field and the forest had 
been keenly sensitive to any infringement upon their so-called 
natural rights. To secure them they had left the old country for 
the new and braved the thousand hardships and dangers of the 
wilderness. The individualism of their character had indeed be- 
come so assertive in the absence of contact with the world, that 
they were restive even under the restraints of the law. The more 
intelligent among them, too, were talking more and more of politi- 
cal right, particularly of taxation without representation. The 
burden of their complaint was this: "The public officials are 
robbing us under forms of law, and we cannot get redress. Taxa- 



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JAMES FEW 91 



tion is burdensome, and we have no part in the levying of those 
taxes, for are not the very men who are robbing us, Thomas Lloyd, 
Francis Nash and Edmund Fanning, our representatives in the 
Assembly ?" 

Under such influences James Few surrendered his more selfish 
ambition to become a lawyer that he might enter the lists as a 
champion of the people. The motives of men are too complex 
for me to assert that in this he was influenced solely by the 
generous enthusiasm of youth. He may have been foully wronged 
by Edmund Fanning. Hatred of him may have taken him into 
the ranks of his foes. The historian, however, when he comes 
to weigh the evidence here, will scarcely credit the statement 
of an old Regulator who lived a hundred miles from James Few, 
though sustained by the exuberant eloquence of Dr. Hawks, 
against known facts which inferentially but positively negative 
the scandal. However this may be, James Few entered into the 
contest with the inflamed zeal and energy of a crusader. He 
had the divine commission to rid the world of oppressors, and he 
must obey it. 

In the midst of this turmoil of spirit he married, whom I cannot 
ascertain, and his wife, on February 9, 1771, gave birth to twins, 
a son William (mark the name) and a daughter Sally, and their 
descendants exist to-day — some prominent. He seems to have 
resided during this period not at his father's home (now the Kirk- 
land place), but on Little River farm. 

The culmination of his career was reached in the Hillsboro 
riot of September, 1770. He took an active part in all the out- 
rages of that day — in the flogging of lawyers and sheriffs and 
clerks, in the cutting down of Fanning's house and in the destruc- 
tion of his household goods, and in the chasing away from town of 
obnoxious ofllicials and individuals. Not, however, in the mock 
court — ^he was too earnest for that. For these illegal acts he was 
among those indicted at New-Bern under the Johnston Act. 

As a captain of a band of Regulators he fought bravely at 
Alamance. He was, however, overpowered and made prisoner. 
The next day, May 17, 1771, after those slain in battle had been 



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92 NORTH CAROLINA 

buried, he was, in the camp of his foes, hung by the neck until 
he was dead — ^an execution that was wholly arbitrary, not based 
upon any moral, legal, political or military necessity. In short, 
it was one of those murders that is always remembered by the 
world with pity for the victim and horror for the executioners. 
Yet it was withal a heroic death. A messenger from the camp 
thus tells the Moravians of it a few days after : ''A certain young 
man, a fine young fellow, had been captured, and when given 
the alternative of taking the oath or being hanged, he chose the 
latter. The governor wished to spare his life, and twice urged 
him to submit. But the young man refused. Again when the 
rope was placed about his neck he was urged ; again he refused, 
and as he was swung into eternity Governor Tryon turned aside 
with tears in his eyes." Notwithstanding the terrible invective of 
Governor Tryon by Atticus for this imnecessary execution, it 
may be that had Few submitted himself by taking the oath to 
observe the law, his life would not have been sacrificed. 

James Few lived the life of an enthusiast and died the death 
of a martyr. 

Benjamin and Ignatius Few removed to Richmond County, 
Georgia, in 1770. Their father, with the rest of his family, except 
William, joined them there in the fall of 1771. William also went 
to Georgia in the fall of 1775. 

A few years after his death the widow of James Few married 
again, and Colonel Benjamin Few came to North Carolina, secured 
the two children, and returned with them to his home in Georgia. 
In his family they grew to maturity, and from his house Sally 
was married. 

Authorities: I am indebted to a gentleman who married a 
descendant of Sally Few for much information, and to the 
8th Colonial Records, Haywood's "Tryon," page 133 et seq.; 
Cleweirs "Wachovia," page 109; Magazine of American His^ 
tory, November, 1881, and the public records of Orange County. 
The examination of the last was complicated by the fact that there 
were three James Fews in the county, all contemporaries. 

Frank Nash. 



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BURGESS SIDNEY GAITHER 




JURGESS SIDNEY GAITHER, a distinguished 
lawyer and public man, was born in Iredell 
County on the i6th day of March, 1807. 

The Gaithers were early settlers of this 
country. In 1621 there was a John Gater at 
Jamestpwn, Virginia, to whom inducements 
were offered to join the Calvert colonists in settling Maryland, but 
whether he joined them or not the records do not disclose. How- 
ever, the records of Anne Arundel County, Maryland, show a 
warrant for land issued in 1662 by Lord Baltimore to John 
Gaither, probably his son. He married Ruth Morley, and died 
in 1703, leaving eight children, one of whom, Benjamin Gaither, 
bom 1 68 1, married, in 1709, Sarah Burgess, by whom he had 
thirteen children. 

The fourth son of this marriage, Edward Gaither, bom 1714, 
married Eleanor Whittle, and died in 1787, leaving five children, 
of whom Burgess Gaither was the second son. Burgess Gaither, 
bom in 1757, married Milly Martin of Virginia, and moved to 
North Carolina, locating in that part of Rowan which subse- 
quently became Iredell County ; and he represented Iredell County 
in the House of Commons almost continuously from 1792 to 1801, 
while Basil Gaither represented the mother county, Rowan, in one 
House or the other continuously from 1790 to 1802, their terms 
of service being almost coincident. That the Gaithers were influ- 



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94 NORTH CAROLINA 

ential members of their community and were highly esteemed is 
plainly evident from their long and continuous service as repre- 
sentatives of the people in the General Assembly. 

Burgess Gaither died in 1819, leaving ten children, the eighth 
son of whom is the subject of this sketch. 

Burgess Sidney Gaither was educated at Hull's High School 
at Bethany Church, Iredell County, and at the University of 
Georgia, along with E. J. Erwin and his brother Alphonzo, and he 
was a college mate with Alexander Stephens and Robert Toombs. 
On reaching manhood he studied law with his elder brother, 
Alfred M. Gaither, then a leading lawyer at Morganton, and also 
under Judge D. F. Caldwell, and was admitted to the bar in 1829. 
On the 13th of July, 1830, he married Miss Elizabeth Sharpe 
Erwin, a daughter of Colonel William W. Erwin of Burke 
County, and being thus connected with this influential family, he 
continued to make his home at Morganton, where he soon estab- 
lished himself in the confidence of the community. He was ap- 
pointed by Judge Willie P. Mangum clerk of Burke Superior 
Court, and held that office under that appointment until 1832, 
when the law providing for the election of clerks by the popular 
vote was passed, and he was elected to that position by a large 
majority. When the constitutional convention was about to meet 
in 1835, he was elected along with Hon. S. P. Carson as delegate 
to represent the county of Burke in that body. Although then but 
twenty-eight years of age, and the convention contained among 
its members so many distinguished and experienced statesmen, 
Mr. Gaither did not take an inconspicuous part in its proceeding^. 
He had the courage of his convictions, and he expressed his views 
moderately, considerately, but fully. On the great question of 
religious tests for office he said that "he would himself be in favor 
of the most liberal amendment to that article of the constitution, 
for he considered it a blot on that instrument; but, as he was 
convinced, it was the desire of a considerable portion of his con- 
stituents to retain the article, and that if any great alteration were 
made in it, they would not accept of the amended constitution. 
Rather than run the risk of the loss of that, he would accept a 



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BURGESS SIDNEY GAITHER 95 

proposed amendment as reported by the Committee of the Whole. 
He was sorry that so strong a prejudice should prevail in his 
section of the country against the Roman Catholic religion, but 
he had no doubt when the people came to read the able exposition 
of the doctrines of that religion which had been given to this 
convention by the gentleman from Craven (Mr. Gaston), these 
prejudices would entirely vanish and the amended constitution 
would be well received." 

Mr. Gaither was the chairman of the committee to whom was 
referred the districting of the State for electing members of the 
Senate and of the House, and he took a prominent part in the 
proceedings of that body. He voted for the proposed amend- 
ments to the constitution, and Burke County cast but one vote 
against their adoption, and gave 1359 in favor of their ratification. 
During General Jackson's first administration there was a di- 
vergence among the public men of that period, and in December, 
1 83 1, the followers of Henry Clay, calling themselves National 
Republicans, held a convention in Baltimore and nominated him 
for the Presidency, and in December, 1839, a similar convention 
met at Harrisburg, called the Democratic Whig convention, at 
which Mr. Clay was defeated for the nomination, the nominees 
being General Harrison and Governor Tyler. General Harrison 
was elected, but died within a month after his inauguration, and 
was succeeded by Governor Tyler. Colonel Gaither was a delegate 
to that convention, and was an earnest and enthusiastic supporter 
of Henry Qay, and was greatly disappointed at the action of the 
convention, but entered with zeal into the Log Cabin campaign, 
when the State of North Carolina for the first time broke away 
from the Jackson Democracy and gave its votes to the Whig 
candidate, continuing after that as a Whig State until 1852. In 
1 84 1 President Tyler, in recognition of Colonel Gaither 's fine 
services, appointed him superintendent of the mint at Charlotte, 
which was established in 1836 with John H. Wheeler as the 
superintendent, who was succeeded by Colonel Gaither. 

President Tyler, however, soon broke with the Whig Party on 
the question of establishing a national bank, and later, Calhoun 



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96 NORTH CAROLINA 

being the Secretary of State, espoused the cause of Texas, and 
initiated those movements that led to the Mexican War. The 
President's course in this matter was so strongly disapproved of 
by the Whigs that they refused to give him countenance, and 
many of those who held office under his administration resigned, 
among them Colonel Gaither. 

In 1840 Colonel Gaither was elected to the State Senate from 
his district, and again in 1844. At this last session the Senate 
was equally divided between the Whigs and the Democrats, and 
after a week of fruitless balloting for a presiding officer, the body 
organized by the election of Colonel Gaither as president of the 
Senate. In this position he displayed that good judgment that 
had marked his course in life, and his rulings gave entire satis- 
faction to all the members of that body. Indeed, so conciliatory 
was his course and so highly esteemed was he among the members 
not only of the Senate, but of the House, that at the same session 
he was elected solicitor for the Seventh Judicial District, a position 
he filled so ably that in 1848 he was re-elected for a second term of 
four years. He was regarded as one of the most powerful and 
successful prosecuting officers that the State has ever produced, 
taking rank with the celebrated Joseph Wilson of the preceding 
generation, who was known as the "Great Solicitor." While 
efficiently discharging the duties of this office. Colonel Gaither 
also commanded a leading civil practice that was very lucrative, 
and his business yielded him a large income. In 1843 Thomas L. 
Clingman, who had entered public life as a Whig, was elected a 
representative in Congress from the Buncombe district; and he 
was still in Congress in 185 1, when the agitation of the slavery 
question in connection with the territory acquired in the Mexican 
War led to his espousal of the ultra Southern side of that question, 
which many Whigs did not approve of. Still proclaiming himself 
a Whig, General Clingman was again a candidate in 1851, when 
the Whigs in opposition selected Colonel Gaither as his opponent ; 
but though Colonel Gaither exhibited great strength and readiness 
as a debater, proving himself quite the equal of General Qingman 
in joint debate, yet the Democrats held the balance of power, and. 



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BURGESS SIDNEY GAITHER 97 

throwing their vote solidly for General Qingman, elected him. 
Two years later Colonel Gaither again was the antagonist of 
General Qingman, but with the same result, General Clingman 
being again elected, and more firmly establishing his hold upon 
the district, until at length, in 1856, he finally separated himself 
entirely from the Whig Party and avowed himself a Democrat. 
Colonel Gaither continued to be one of the most influential of the 
Whig leaders in the Western part of the State, and in i860 
strongly advocated the election of Bell and Everett, and earnestly 
supported the cause of the Constitutional Union Party. 

But as earnest and determined as he had been in his zealous 
adherence to Union principles, upon the proclamation of President 
Lincoln in April, 1861, he became equally pronounced as a South- 
em man. He was elected to the Senate from his district in 1861, 
and at the first election for members of the Confederate States 
Congress he was elected to that body, being commissioned in 
February, 1862, and two years later was re-elected to succeed 
himself. He was a warm supporter of the administration of Con- 
federate affairs, and toward the end of the war no member of 
Congress from North Carolina was relied upon more confidently 
as an ardent, able and fearless defender of the cause of the South. 
Indeed, he was distinguished for his patriotic bearing during all 
that period of conflict, with its attendant embarrassment, and not- 
withstanding the marked divergence of views among some of the 
old Whig leaders with whom he had been associated in former 
years, he sustained unwaveringly the war measures of the Con- 
federate administration, and gave the whole weight of his per- 
sonal influence for the achievement of Southern success. 

When hostilities had ceased, the condition of affairs was most 
deplorable, but Colonel Gaither displayed unsurpassed fortitude, 
and with a resolute spirit resumed his practice at Morganton, and 
continued to lead an active, busy life, prudently advising the people 
and vigorously co-operating in behalf of good government. 

In the convention of 1835, of which he lived to be the last 
surviving member, he had voted to deprive free negroes of the 
right of suffrage, a proposition on which the convention was nearly 



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98 NORTH CAROLINA 

equally divided, it being carried by only five majority in a vote 
aggregating 127; and now he saw the constitution of the State 
rudely displaced by the ballots of nearly 100,000 ignorant negroes, 
who were installed in power over their former masters by the 
ruthless exercise of arbitrary power by the despotic Federal 
Congress. He saw judges on the bench obeying the directions' 
of major-generals and ignoring the laws passed by the State legis- 
lature, and he witnessed the whole system of law and of practice 
with which he had been familiar since boyhood supplanted by a 
new code and a new system of practice both novel and difficult 
to comprehend. But he turned with resolution from the past 
with its sorrows and misfortunes and wrecked hopes and applied 
himself with a brave heart to the duties of this strange time. 

Notwithstanding his advanced age, he remained the leader of 
the bar in his district until within a few years of his death, and 
he was counsel and took a leading part in most of the important 
cases in the courts where he practiced. His admirable wife died 
in 1859, leaving three children, only one of whom survives, a 
daughter, who became the wife of Dr. R. T. Pearson; and in 1871 
Colonel Gaither married Miss Sarah F. Corpening, by whom he 
had one child, a son. Burgess Sidney Gaither, who, following in 
the footsteps of his father, has attained an enviable position among 
the lawyers of his section of the State. 

On the 23d of February, 1892, having nearly completed his 
eighty-fifth year, Colonel Gaither passed away after an eventful 
career, reaping the rich rewards of a life of virtue, distinguished 
for his abilities and venerated for his noble characteristics. 

5". A, Ashe. 




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WILLIAM GASTON 




[ISTINGUISHED alike as a great statesman and 
jurist, William Gaston was an ornament of the 
State in his generation, while his talents and 
genius were recognized by cultivated people in 
other parts of the country. 
He was bom in the town of New-Bern, North 
Carolina, September 19, 1778. He was of French Huguenot de- 
scent, but his ancestors having refugeed from France to Ireland, 
his father. Dr. Alexander Gaston, was born in the northern part 
of that island. He was a man of ability, and having graduated 
from the Edinburgh Medical College, became a surgeon in the 
English army. He resigned, however, while still a young man 
and moved to New-Bern before the Revolution. His wife was an 
English lady, Margaret Sharpe by name. He was an ardent 
Whig during the struggle with Great Britain, and upon the 
capture of New-Bern by the Tories, in 1781, he was shot down 
by them while he was attempting to escape in a boat on the river. 
As a captain of volunteers, as well as a surgeon in the Whig forces, 
he was obnoxious to the Tories. It is said that he was shot over 
the heads of his young wife and two little children, of whom 
William was then three years of age. The other, a girl, after- 
ward became the wife of Chief Justice John Louis Taylor. When 
in the Congress of the United States, during the war with Eng- 
land, it was intimated by an opponent that Judge Gaston was 



3921 49 A 

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loo NORTH CAROLINA 

wanting in patriotism, he spumed the insinuation, and alluding 
to the tragic death of his father in his presence, he said with im- 
pressive effect, that he "was baptized an American in the blood of 
a murdered father." 

The mother of William Gaston, like the mothers of most great 
men, was a woman of superior mind and considerable energy. 
She was a devout Roman Catholic in faith, and her piety made 
such an impression on her son that he ever adhered to her church, 
though the prejudice against that church in this State was great 
throughout his life. Two brothers who came with her to this 
country having died, after the death of her husband she had no 
relatives in America except her two children, an elder brother of 
William having died before his father. Little was left by her 
husband, but by prudence and energy she managed to support and 
educate her children. At the age of thirteen, William was sent to 
the Roman Catholic college at Georgetown, District of Columbia, 
where such was his diligence and success that he was pronounced 
by one of the professors "the best scholar and most exemplary 
youth in the college." He was the first student to enter there, and 
to-day the Main Hall is named in his honor. Too close application 
caused a failure of health, and he was compelled after about 
eighteen months to return home. Resuming his studies at the 
Academy of New-Bern, he made such progress that in the fall of 
1794 he was able to enter the junior class at Princeton College, 
where he graduated two years after with the highest honors of his 
class. He was wont to say in after years that the proudest moment 
of his life was when he announced this to his mother. 

Soon after graduation he began the study of law under the 
direction of Francis Xavier Martin, then a practicing lawyer of 
ability, the author of Martin's North Carolina Reports and of a 
history of the State,.and subsequently a judge of the United States 
District Court of Louisiana. He came to the bar at the age of 
twenty, in 1798. The same year John Louis Taylor, who had 
married his sister, and was some nine years his senior, was ele- 
vated to the bench of the Superior Court, and turned over his 
business to him. This would have proved a disadvantage to one 



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WILLIAM GASTON loi 

of less ability and industry than young Gaston, but Judge Taylor's 
clients had no cause to regret their change of lawyer, and very 
soon new clients came to his successor, so that he commanded 
while still a very young man a leading practice in Craven and 
the adjoining counties. 

The year after he became of age he was elected senator of his 
native county. In 1808 he was elected to the House of Commons 
from the borough of New-Bern, and was made speaker of the 
body. He represented New-Bern and again was the speaker of 
the House in 1809. In 1812, 1818 and 1819 he represented his 
county in the State Senate ; and in 1824, 1827, 1828 and 1831 he 
again represented New-Bern in the House. In 1808 he was 
elected a Presidential elector for his district, the electors then 
being chosen by districts. In 1813 and 1815 he was elected a 
member of the lower House of the National Congress, in which 
he was deemed a peer of such men as Lowndes, Randolph, Clay, 
Calhoun and Webster. Mr. Webster, who was his junior in years, 
pronounced him the first man in the War Congress of 1813, and 
was so struck with the logical ability of one of Mr. Gaston's 
speeches that he insisted upon its publication, and himself took 
the pen and assisted in its reproduction. His speeches on the Loan 
Bill and Previous Question are rare specimens of parliamentary 
logic and eloquence. In 181 7 he voluntarily retired from Con- 
gress and devoted his life to the care of his family, the duties 
of his profession and service to the State. He served in the Gen- 
eral Assembly, the constitutional convention of 1835 and on the 
Supreme Court Bench, and made occasional public addresses. 

In the legislature he was ever a leader in what could advance 
the best interests of the State and make for the happiness of the 
citizen. In 1808 he drew the "Act regulating the descent of In- 
heritance." In 1818 he was most influential in the establishment 
of the Supreme Court nearly as it now exists in place of the old 
Court of Conference; in 1828 his energies and eloquence were 
successfully exerted to prevent the passage of a measure in rela- 
tion to the banks, which would have been productive of g^eat evil 
throughout the State. At his last appearance in the legislature, 



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I02 NORTH CAROLINA 

in 1 83 1, he made a splendid effort in favor of rebuilding the 
Capitol, which had been destroyed by fire the preceding summer. 
His tact as a parliamentarian was exhibited at that session. An 
artist of standing had proposed to repair Canova's statue of Wash- 
ington, which was mutilated by the fire which destroyed the 
Capitol. Mr. Gaston, as chairman of a committee on the subject, 
made an admirable report in its favor. There was some oppo- 
sition to it on the score of economy, and one old member arose 
and said he had "as much love for General Washington as any- 
body, but the people did not want to spend money in repairing his 
statue, and that it was enough that he was in their hearts." As he 
took his seat, Mr. Gaston arose and said with solemn emphasis, 
"Out of the abundance of the heart, the mouth speaketh." Noth- 
ing more was needed, and the bill passed without a call of ayes 
and nays. Unfortunately, however, the remains of the statue 
were found too liable to crumble from the effect of the great heat 
to which it had been subjected, and it was found impracticable 
to repair it. 

During all these years Mr. Gaston's practice at the bar was 
great and extensive. He was employed in nearly all the im- 
portant cases in the highest courts of the State and in the Federal 
courts of the District of North Carolina. It is said that he 
seldom lost a case on the circuit, and that he made such an im- 
pression on Chief Justice Marshall, who presided in the Circuit 
Court at Raleigh, by his display of legal ability and learning, 
that the chief justice, who was then growing old and feeble, said 
he would resign his office if Mr. Gaston would be appointed in 
his place. Differing with most lawyers, he preferred the first to 
the last speech before a jury, believing that by lodging his view 
of the case well in the minds of the jurors his adversary could 
not dislodge it. Such was his success at the bar, that it is said 
that one day, after he had just gained a case which the opposing 
lawyers, men of ability, expected to win, one of them said to the 
other, "Why is it that Gaston beats us every time?" The fact was 
due to his thorough preparation, together with his superior ability ; 
but perhaps, also, he would refuse to try a case which was quite 



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WILLIAM GASTON 103 

desperate, compelling his client rather to compromise or submit 
to a judgment. He would not impair his influence with courts 
and juries by trying a "bald" case. 

Upon the death of Chief Justice Henderson in 1833, ^^e eyes 
of the people of the State turned to Mr. Gaston, without regard 
to party, and by the legislature of that year he was elected to a 
seat on the Supreme Bench on the first ballot, and by a hand- 
some majority. Thomas Ruffin, whose commission was older 
than that of the other associate (the court then and afterward 
until 1868 consisting of three members), as well as Judge Gaston's, 
was made chief justice by the court then existing, and from that 
time until Gaston's death, nine years later, he was the associate 
and friend of that great jurist. The other associate was Joseph J. 
Daniel, who had been elected in 1832. The three — ^Ruffin, Gaston 
and Daniel— constituted a court which would have done credit 
to any State or nation. They were all strong and able men, as 
well as thorough lawyers of undoubted integrity. Their decisions, 
which were with rare exceptions unanimous, commanded the 
respect of the courts of all the other States, and were sometimes 
quoted with approval in Westminster Hall. Gaston's opinions, 
which are to be found in our reports from the fifteenth to the 
thirty-eighth volume, for learning, elegance of diction and clear- 
ness will compare favorably with those of any other judge in the 
land. While all of his opinions deserve this commendation, refer- 
ence may be made to the opinion written by him in State v. Will 
(18 North Carolina, 121), in which it was decided that where a 
slave, under circumstances calculated to excite his fear of death 
from an assailant, an overseer, in self-defense, killed the overseer, 
the offense was manslaughter and not murder ; and to his dissent- 
ing opinion in State v. Miller, in the same volume, as models of 
elegant and logical reasoning. The former case is memorable in 
the history of the bar in North Carolina, for bringing prominently 
forward as a very able lawyer Hon. Bartholomew F. Moore, after- 
ward for nearly a generation at the head of his profession in the 
State, whose printed brief in behalf of the prisoner in that case 
excited the admiration of the readers of our Law Reports every- 



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I04 NORTH CAROLINA 

where. The opinion written by Judge Gaston was in the line of 
that brief. Some competent judges assign even higher rank to 
his dissenting opinion in Miller's case. During the years of his 
service on the bench, much of the leisure moments he permitted 
himself were occupied by members of the bar and other admirers 
from different parts of the State, who sought his society on 
account of his social gifts. His conversational powers were rare, 
he always contributing valuable information and edifying reminis- 
cence enlivened by wit and humor. That he possessed imagina- 
tion and some talent for poetry is proved by his authorship of 
North Carolina's patriotic anthem, "The Old North State," which 
grows more popular in every successive year. 

Before the convention of 1835, ^^ which so many of our great 
men of that day were members, the constitution had a provision 
that no man should hold office in this State who denied the truth 
of the Protestant religion. Judge Gaston's services in the con- 
vention were desired by the people of his county, and probably 
his consent to serve them was based principally on his wish to see 
to the change of that provision, which reflected on his church; 
though he was interested in the other questions which caused the 
convention to be called. In that convention he was primus inter 
pares, though among his compeers were the then governor, David 
L. Swain ; his associate on the Supreme bench, Joseph J. Daniel, 
and others scarcely less able and distinguished. He spoke with 
power in all the principal debates ; but his speech on the religious 
qualification for office made the greatest impression. It has prob- 
ably never been surpassed for eloquence and effect by any speech 
delivered in a deliberative assembly in the State. Doubtless it was 
owing to his personal influence and that of this great speech that 
the provision was changed, and the words "Christian religion" 
substituted for "Protestant religion." Belief in the Christian 
religion from that time until 1868 was a qualification for office in 
this State. In the constitution of 1868 an amendment provided 
"belief in a Supreme Being" only as a religious qualification. 
Believing after he went on the Supreme bench that he could best 
serve his State and her people in that honorable station, he refused 



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WILLIAM GASTON 105 

a request of the leaders of the Whig Party, then in the ascendancy 
in the legislature, that he would permit them to elect him to fill 
a vacancy in the United States Senate. 

In 1827 a custom was adopted at the University to have an 
"address before the two literary societies" delivered at each 
annual commencement. Judge A. D. Murphey delivered the first 
one and Mr. Gaston that of the commencement of 1832. His 
reputation as an orator and statesman attracted many from a 
distance to the commencement, and Person Hall was crowded to 
the utmost by an eager audience, while many stood about the 
door and windows to catch some of his words of wisdom. The 
subject of the address was the Duty of Young Men, who were 
soon to become leading citizens, to themselves and to the State, 
and it is safe to say that many who heard the address and many 
who have read it, as it went through four or five editions to meet 
the demand for it from time to time, were deeply impressed. No 
other ever delivered at the University has been so much admired 
or so often referred to. It is often alleged that the most success- 
ful students at school or in college are not the successful men 
in after life. He took occasion to refute that error in this address, 
in the following words: "True it is that it sometimes, though 
very rarely, happens, that those who have been idle during their 
academical course have by extraordinary exertions retrieved their 
early neglect, and in the end outstripped others who started in 
the race far ahead. These are the exceptions. They furnish 
cause to humble arrogance, check presumption, banish despair 
and encourage reformation. But as surely as a virtuous life 
usually precedes a happy death, so surely it will be found that 
within the college precincts is laid the groundwork of that pre- 
eminence afterward acquired in the strife of men, and that college 
distinctions are not only good testimony of the fidelity with which 
college duties have been performed, but the best presages and 
pledges of excellence on a more extended and elevated field of 
action." The history of the college graduates of this and other 
States fully establishes the results of the observation and experi- 
ence of this wise man. 



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io6 NORTH CAROLINA 

Three years later, in September, 1835, Judge Gaston delivered 
a similar address at Princeton before the societies of the College 
of New Jersey, which attracted wide commendation. The chief 
justice of the District of Columbia and the governor of Ohio 
quoted largely from it, the former in an address to the grand jury 
and the latter in his inaugural address. 

Of Judge Gaston it may be truly said that everything he did 
or said during his useful life, his example and precepts, tended 
to elevate the standard of virtue and citizenship. He did prob- 
ably more than any other man of his generation to make North 
Carolina respected and beloved by her citizens and honored by 
other citizens of the Union. His patriotic love of the State was 
such that when it was suggested that he should go to some wider 
field of action, where his talents would ensure him greater fame 
and larger income, his reply was : "Providence has placed me here, 
and it is my duty as well as pleasure to do what I can for my 
native State." His confidence in her future was shown by a letter 
to a member of his family, in which he said : "The resources of 
our State lie buried and unknown ; when developed, as they must 
be ere long, she will be raised to a consequence not generally 
anticipated." 

He died as he had lived, and it can be truly said he died in 
harness. On the 23d of January, 1844, he occupied his seat on 
the bench and listened to the argument of a case until near the 
hour of adjournment, when from a sudden attack he became faint, 
and was taken to his room (on the corner of the lot now owned 
by C. M. Busbee, Esq.) and a physician summoned. He revived 
during the evening and entertained friends who called to see him 
with amusing anecdotes. He then told of a party he had attended 
in Washington, when he was in Congress, and that one of the guests, 
a public man, avowed himself a free-thinker in religion. From that 
day, he said, he always looked upon that man with disgust. *'A 
belief," he said, "in an all-ruling Divinity, who shapes our ends, 
whose eye is upon us, and who will reward us according to our 
deeds, is necessary. We must believe and feel that there is a 
God All- Wise and Almighty." He rose to give emphasis to these 



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WILLIAM GASTON 107 

words ; there came a rush of blood to his brain and he fell back 
and expired. He died in the noble avowal of his Christian faith. 

He was an active friend of education as well as of religion. 
For forty years he was a faithful trustee of the State University, 
and took an active interest in her welfare. She was glad to 
confer upon him the degree of LL.D., and Princeton, his alma 
mater, did the same. 

Judge Gaston was married three times. His first wife was a 
daughter of John Hay, a lawyer of high standing at Fayetteville. 
They were married in 1803, and she died within a year without 
leaving a child. In 1805 he married Miss McClure, who died in 
1813, leaving several children, one of whom was the first wife of 
Hon. Matthias E. Manly, afterward a judge of the Superior and 
Supreme Courts. In 1816 he married Miss Worthington of 
Georgetown, District of Columbia. 

He lies buried in the cemetery of his native place, and his 
resting place is marked by a massive marble monument on which 
the only inscription is "Gaston." 

Richard H. Battle. 




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CALVIN GRAVES 




has fallen to the lot of but few men in North 
Carolina to be actors in a scene at once so im- 
portant and so dramatic as that which put an 
end to the political career of Calvin Graves; 
but by his valuable public service, high patriot- 
ism and stem virtue he won for himself an 
enduring monument in the temple of fame. His father, Azariah 
Graves, was a member of a large and respectable family of that 
name that had contributed strong public men to that section of 
North Carolina. John Graves was a member of the Assembly 
from 1788 to 1793, and Azariah Graves himself represented Cas- 
well County in the Senate from 1805 to 181 1, and other members 
of the family were frequently representatives of the people. The 
mother of the subject of this sketch was a daughter of Colonel 
John Williams, who in 1775 was appointed by the Provincial Con- 
gress lieutenant-colonel of the Minute Men of the Hillsboro 
district, and subsequently distinguished himself by the active part 
he bore in the Revolutionary War. On the termination of hos- 
tilities. Colonel Williams located in Caswell County and practiced 
his profession, he being the first lawyer to reside in that county. 
Judge John Williams, his contemporary, resided in Granville 
County. 

The subject of this sketch was bom at his father's home in 
Caswell County in January, 1804; and his father being a pros- 



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CALVIN GRAVES 109 

perous fanner, the son received his primary education under the 
direction of Rev. William Bingham, near Hillsboro, whose 
academy at that day had a reputation not inferior to that of any 
school at the South. Having completed his course under Mr. 
Bingham, when nineteen years of age he entered the University, 
where, however, he remained but one year, when he began the 
study of the law. The elder Judge Settle had married his sister, 
and he studied with him for a year, and then entered the law 
school of Chief Justice Henderson of Granville Coimty, where he 
was associated with other students who subsequently were 
among the most distinguished jurists adorning the bench. Ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1827, at the age of twenty-three, having the 
advantage of strong connections, and himself from boyhood de- 
servedly enjoying the respect and esteem of his teachers and elders, 
he was fortunately exempt from the delay that usually attends the 
efforts of young practitioners to establish themselves in a lucrative 
business. He was distinguished at the bar not merely for his 
learning and ability, for the cogency of his argument and clear- 
ness of his statement, but by his high tone and personal integrity, 
that speedily won for him the personal regard and confidence of 
all who were brought within the sphere of his action. 

When delegates were to be elected to the constitutional con- 
vention of 1835, the people of Caswell County naturally turned 
to Mr. Graves, then in the full maturity of his powers, to repre- 
sent them in that important body. In the convention he voted 
against the change in the religious test for office, but voted for 
biennial sessions and for the election of the governor for a term 
of two years by the people; and he was subsequently active in 
urging the adoption of the amendments recommended by the 
convention, which received nearly three votes to one in opposition 
in Caswell County. His family had been always of Democratic 
aflSliations, and warm supporters of Jefferson and of Madison ; and 
npon the formation of the Whig Party in North Carolina by 
the union of the National Republicans, who followed Qay, and 
the States Rights men, who antagonized Jackson and his Force 
Bill against South Carolina, Mr. Graves remained an adherent 



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no NORTH CAROLINA 

of the administration, and in 1840 was elected a member of the 
House of Commons from Caswell ; and during the session occu- 
pied a prominent position as a discreet and judicious leader of 
his party in that body, which had been under the control of the 
Whigs at the previous session, and was likewise under their con- 
trol at the session of 1840. Re-elected to the House in 1842, and 
his party having the majority in that body, he was honored by 
being chosen speaker; but at the next session, the Whigs being 
in the ascendancy, Edward Stanly succeeded him in the speaker's 
chair; but even at that session he was elected a trustee of the 
University, some of his competitors being distinguished members 
of the Whig Party. In 1846 he was elected to the State Senate, 
and at that session made a speech of unusual merit against the 
Whig measure to redistrict the State at that unusual period of the 
decade. This great effort was by many regarded as not admitting 
of a successful reply, and the Whig leaders made no reply to it. 
The Whig speaker of the Senate, Mr. Andrew Joyner, fell ill 
during the session, and the compliment was paid Mr. Graves 
of unanimously electing him speaker pro tern. At the next session 
both Houses were evenly balanced, and by arrangement Judge 
Gilliam was elected speaker of the House and Mr. Graves speaker 
of the Senate. This was one of the most important sessions of the 
General Assembly. The Raleigh and Gaston Road, which had 
fallen into the hands of the State, was in a hopelessly insolvent 
condition. There were urgent appeals made by Miss Dix for the 
erection of an insane asylum for the care of the unfortunate insane 
who were confined in the jails throughout the State. The people 
were far from prosperous, especially because of the entire failure 
of the crops the previous year, and the western people had no 
facilities of trade or transportation. At an internal improvement 
convention some dozen years earlier a State policy had been 
recommended of east and west lines of railways, but now South 
Carolina and Virginia capitalists proposed to cut the State in two 
by a railroad from Danville to Charlotte, and this measure had 
the warm support of Governor Morehead and the representatives 
of the counties through which the proposed road would pass. 



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CALVIN GRAVES in 



The eastern members opposed that project, while Governor Gra- 
ham and the Board of Internal Improvements and the warm 
friends of internal improvements proposed a feeder to the Raleigh 
and Gaston Road, running from Raleigh to Salisbury, to be 
eventually built to Charlotte. None of these proposed measures 
had enough strength to overcome the opposition, and great dis- 
satisfaction and animosity prevailed. Speaker Graves had warmly 
thrown his influence along with Mr. Gilmer, Mr. Dobbin and 
others for the construction of the insane asylum, but he was 
embarrassed in regard to State action on internal improvements. 
At length a bill introduced in the Senate by William S. Ashe, the 
Democratic senator from New Hanover, providing for the con- 
struction of an east and west line from Goldsboro through Raleigh 
on to Charlotte, and appropriating $2,000,000 of State aid, was at 
the crisis of a very dramatic scene in the House of Commons taken 
from the files of the Senate and after a severe struggle passed the 
House. To secure the support of the friends of Fayetteville, who 
had advocated a different line, it was agreed by the promoters of 
this measure to give State aid to a plank road from Fayetteville 
to Salem; and that bill passed the House. In the Senate, the 
Railroad Bill being taken up, had not strength enough to pass, 
until the Plank Road Bill being passed, Alexander Murchison, 
the senator from Cumberland, conformably to the agreement, 
voted for it, and the vote in the Senate was a tie. The Democrats 
generally, and particularly those of Caswell County, were opposed 
to State aid to internal improvements, holding that the legislature 
had no right to use public funds in that way; and besides, the 
Danville and Charlotte Road, which this bill superseded, offered 
to Caswell County railroad facilities which this measure did not 
give, and without any State aid being asked. Speaker Graves 
thought that the General Assembly had the power to make the 
appropriation, but he realized that his entire county was strongly 
opposed to this bill, with its large appropriations, and offering 
no transportation facilities to his county, and by supplanting the 
Danville Bill, indeed, depriving his people of any hope of railroad 
communication. Speaker Graves had abstained from expressing 



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112 NORTH CAROLINA 

himself at all on the measure, and no one knew what would be 
his action if the bill depended on his casting vote. With breathless 
anxiety the great crowd that was massed in the Senate chamber 
awaited the result when the vote was announced — yeas 24, nays 24 ; 
and the clerk handed the record to the speaker. Mr. Graves 
arose from his chair and in a clear voice announced the result, 
and then he added, "The speaker votes in the affirmative; the 
bill has passed the Senate." The plaudits were deafening, and 
the session of the Senate was broken up without adjourning. 
Tumultuous joy rose from one side and sullen murmurs from the 
other. The speaker realized his duty as a citizen of the State, 
and had the moral courage to perform it regardless of personal 
consequences. He knew that his constituents would strongly dis- 
approve of his action, but he resigned all personal ambitions to 
promote the welfare of the State. He never afterward regained 
his lost popularity, and never was elected by Caswell County to 
any position of honor or trust. As has been said, he committed 
political suicide in the interest of the people of North Carolina. 

He subsequently took an active part in raising the amount of 
stock required by the act to be subscribed by individuals, and the 
requisite amount not having been subscribed, he, with Governor 
Morehcad, Judge Saunders and Mr. Gilmer, was requested by a 
convention of the friends of the road to canvass the State for 
subscriptions, which they did, and after much labor their efforts 
were crowned with success, and the act became operative, and the 
road was built, resulting in benefits and advantages to the people 
even far beyond the most sanguine expectations of those who 
secured its passage. At the time we write, the State's interest, 
which cost less than $3,000,000, is worth more than $5,000,000; 
while the interests of the State have been unified and consolidated 
with most happy results. The sacrifice made by Speaker Graves 
on that occasion has properly endeared him to North Carolinians, 
and a movement is now on foot to erect a monument to his 
memory. 

In 1849 Governor Manly appointed Mr. Graves a member of 
the Board of Internal Improvements, and his successor. Governor 



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CALVIN GRAVES 113 



Reid, renewed the appointment ; and the only public service there- 
after rendered by Speaker Graves was as a member of that board. 

Mr. Graves married Elizabeth, a daughter of John C. Lea, early 
in life, a happy union that was blessed by an interesting household. 

In 1837 Mr. Graves united himself with the Baptist Church, 
and throughout his life exerted an active influence in behalf of 
the good works of that denomination of Christians. 

Mr. Graves died February 11, 1877, aged seventy-three years, 
one month and eight days. He left one daughter and two sons. 
Of the sons, John Williams Graves moved West and died ; George 
Graves married, and Mr. John E. Tucker married one of his 
daughters. 

5*. A. Ashe. 




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THOMAS JEFFERSON GREEN 

JORN of parentage long settled in Warren 
County, the subject of this sketch, in fifteen 
years of active public life, was a representative 
in four different State legislatures, a brigadier- 
general in command during the Texas Revolu- 
ikm, laid the foundations of three cities, by 
legislative enactment established the boundary line between Texas 
and Mexico, which led to the war between the United States and 
Mexico, and the resulting acquisition by our country of New 
Mexico, Arizona, California and Nevada, and was the first active 
advocate of a railroad from the marts of commerce on the Atlantic 
slope to the shores of the Pacific. Such was the record of a man 
of North Carolina lineage, and reared and trained among the 
planters of Warren County. 

Bom in 1801, amidst the throes of political revolution, of which 
Jefferson and Hamilton were the incarnate embodiment of antag- 
onizing ideas, he received the name and espoused the teachings 
of the first, and clung to them with unwavering tenacity until his 
final dissolution amidst the mighty clash of arms resulting three 
score years later on. While, on the other hand, he was heard to 
declare that "the best-directed bullet that ever left the mouth 
of a pistol was when Colonel Burr pulled trigger on the heights 
of Weehawken." 

Partly educated at Chapel Hill and partly at the United States 



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\ 



■ 3 ' 



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THOMAS JEI-rKRSON GRKKN 

,* . ^ -..^v/^i )ilN of I >..rii:t :•''•/ Ini^ «;ctlic'l in W'ati- , 

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THOMAS JKIFKRSON CiKKEN 

iORN of p:.rcr.t:«^t' k:i.i^ setiicl in W'-.n 
County, t^o Su!)j»-ct Lt tills ^k' * h, n. * :i 
jem ' ')i a-'tive public lif-/, was a p [ri m -it •• . 
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THOMAS JKIFIIRSON (iKKKN 

;ORN of p..rd:t,'«;;(' 1( 'j^ «;c:iic'l -ii W'trr . 
Crnnity, tic Su!jj'\*t if li.'.s si- ♦ • h, ii. *..i r 
Jcat > <'f a-^tive pi'.Mjc lu\\ wa.s a r-pn «« ".' ". 
in ^.•".r (i'lT'.Tcut State k.^r.^lalrres. a M/ . . '- 
gtn,* r:il in coiririiuul tliT'i.i;- the 'I'-x.-? i \ .".- 
tioiK lai-; tl e fnni.i.itums uf t:K«*e ci.i' ^ 
• .iL-tn.'".t <.•^t.i• 'i.-i:c'«l tiiC :x')nTn'ar\ lire l./twr'-i. '! \ i- 
». wh- !, lc«l t(. t!'' war Ir-twr-'ii l: ♦» I.'nil' 'i S\.t' - .1: '. 



. .. 'J :i.*, < "a''t«'rir. 1 a^:,! ^ '''.a-la. an 1 \sab tl.e :':-: ' • 
;<!. • /••..' a ra'lr-'o'l 1: 'in tiic ni-.rS . t r<':iiir.fir.' , .^ »' f /\t.: 
.^I >[*" *. *' .'• . • s f 'J^j rac^fi-'. S-K. was tl'C r- •■' I "l 'i ' 
< ! N •' • •I-"a Kil::^.\ a:i(l r(.''ro^l ai. 1 fa!:. 'J ap. ■'... 
J !i' •• r^s • ^', ::: r«n Cor.Tity. 

J'.' :• 1 1 "I. a ..i«".-t &c ''rr<'>'sr\ p.>I/i. :»! r'n-.''n:t: .^i. •! • 
Jl!! • • • ..'m' I*a:':'!t. n v. <•:<• i!i * i'l'a- ra^<- t: \^'- ''in ••'.! • I ..•^" 
( 'v J '. . i^, he p'.^'ivf '1 t' ♦* T'-an.e ar. ! t'-r<-i''<i t!"^ l . i. 
of I'.* 1: -t, an-' « '.;»^;^ I) r "im uk'i trr\ a\«r- '^r r .'.'*:". •■•''. 
jM..i! li- ^ 'Ir/i- n a* -.i'i-t t' * n .. l.iy ela-!i '■! aii.'> :• -'i! : 'j *' 
«.Mr'- \t iT-i l.;*e «.'^ V.r.'e, en tiie • 'I'.t.r i; .1 •:. he wa-- ' "i 
• '.•••■re t'-.'it • t! .* '-t-''T(Ci .'1 l>"!lel t' .-t r\*r In't •'-.i- •.. 



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THOMAS Jr rrl.f;>. \ -.r - f v 


— r 



Military Acadcmj at West Tzmn, be jyirit ^i ir.iiK: aiii i .ui^i 
his proper place anxxig^ his frisiij ani innir^L in " arrta. I'-inr; 

Interested in public aSiir^. lu.^ -hk ora^r ^^amsner -.-f hh 
community, he rcprcscn.ec V.irr^x. Z'jvary rt zitt i^i^-imr* jf 
1826; but shortly- thereafter bt nxar— k:l int x:sixzmrr 'jz 2L^i^ 
Jesse WTiartoo of Xashr-rTir. Temiss«r_ t :.i iac Tr:r*K=iK:L 
Tennessee both in the H?ase and S ^ i i«i\*^ nanrirr' -x luarr-sc. 
and theretipoo he remcn-©d xz Jjuriiz. ti«a: * T ^ .iir ^ aiii *isr- 
gaged in planting, at the same mne r^r^^sma^ m^ r-jzmj n. 
the Territorial legifJarrrre, 

At the end of fine vean ic tins tann^ Id^ iia —--au^ a:.' - ^1 ; 
wife died; ai>d plarrTg ins »aiL " ^Eanji: ' Ztpso^ txirrr r-.-tr 
years of age. whh a naserBa! rm-'r ic if^r. :.s :----:a» v j:"** 1'^ 
assistance of his fine Trann»c 11 lie vj^i;^ I.r:-::-:.- v, 7*s2t 
which had dien jzisS, b e ^uL icr 1 : u^;* :ft ir c^rvs-^ritr^* t—jk 
the dominioo of itocicc. ^Jwr^'cr bat Sim * |s*-'r:r7 *r wjivrmz^ 
Toos, daring %pi:}ls aac 'brVraar inair: nnam laa irPtasi^tt 
forward on an errrerprifce tc mK± vrL aiii isrvir.n. r^.si ,--•:*• 
motives of aiding i^-ym-^msL xl at acrairnK aij*: isrmsi frzc^^^ 
They poured inis Toaa frvn al *-rr:^'-ir^ --:r ir;^ . - rr^-r t*^ 
Southern States, aac aan-njr iMai iJ tiirr* vra: i--'^ it-vt- -j^ 

in matchless cifralrv arac uit ztr-: -rrirr. '^' f:/' r- : --." '. 

this Warren Countj ^tsrjassxx. T":!* c-jTrrn t r—:- r» • ^^ irr >- 
ated them aH was to free -tic nrv i.rvJ * r ,— *•' , >- ^^ 
yoke, and to «reci a free 5*30* liznil^ir .- :-'■*" • - --'^■^^ 
Unioa. 

Arriving is ;*36. Ti*:Kia* >rfl-r">vi jrrr- -» s v -— - : : .-'•^ 
brigadier-gcxxn: aoc t::r-!n*rt v. -pr:m .- : - r^r - <^ - -^ ^ ^ 
brigade. Uoiertakmr t^ vj'f. i#* v-a !'-.-• : - - . ^r- :*- 
mcnts, bat his apcE^ies v •il-^n-ir: a -* " ^r^ ^ • v*- ■ ^>. - -" -'■*' 
In the meactrse tiie otr::^:!''* "wr::** " '>^ ,<r — -;;*' .»'*-' r .-^ 
against overwbehiiiiir t*:*-: HiJt l-'^ ^.'-rr.-*^=s: r^-irr. s-.r— - '>«-•> 
Anna, was a pciwncr Fat* ir. .i-'^r— . li^ V-rr-. V-^ - 
arrive at Vesa»cr, at li<? I'lrn^rta 'jj- tiit ':<£— i: 'r-^ r -^ .-. 
leased and yxx^^ ut a irar •->•- . ^ v--r .*--- ; -r- '-- r 
General GroesL Ifcumnc^ -It;: ^rrpc^'^r=t ^ -'^ 



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ii6 NORTH CAROLINA 

boarded the vessel and brought him ashore, and in this action he 
was fully sustained by the government of Texas, and the dis- 
tinguished prisoner was consigned to his custody for safe keeping. 
During the period when Santa Anna was under his charge, he 
was treated with all the consideration of a distinguished guest. 
The courtesy which a North Carolina gentleman, animated by a 
chivalrous spirit, showed to his unfortunate priscMier was ill 
requited when later General Green fell within the power of the 
Mexican; as if actuated by malice and venom, Santa Anna 
wreaked vengeance on him, ordered him to be heavily ironed, and 
sentenced him to work on the public roads. But man proposes 
without being able to achieve. General Green refused to perform 
the labor, though threatened with death as the alternative. 

After the battle of San Jacinto there was a period of comparative 
quietude, but later Santa Anna ag^in beg^n to make incursions 
that were attended by tmsurpassed barbaric atrocity. Then, as if 
by common consent, a counter invasion was resolved upon by the 
Texans. A force of two or three thousand assembled, but when 
on the eve of movement the larger part were induced to disband 
by President Sam Houston, leaving but 700, who were resolved to 
proceed. They crossed into Mexico, and then the commander. 
General Summerville, determined to abandon the enterprise, and 
starting homeward, was accompanied by one-half of his little 
army. Three hundred gallant fellows, however, refused to follow, 
and determined to try conclusions with the Mexicans on their own 
ground. The battle of Mier was fought, in which 261 Texans, 
after inflicting a loss of some 800 upon the foe, were influenced 
to surrender by a false claim and a falser promise. General Green, 
the second in command, protested vehemently, and called for 
volunteers to cut their way through the enemy's lines, but without 
avail. Disarmed, the little band was being conducted to the castle 
of Perote when General Green found means to enjoin upon his 
men to make a break if opportunity should occur. This they did 
at Salado, and started back for Texas. Subsequently recaptured, 
Santa Anna ordered that every tenth man of his prisoners should 
be led out and slaughtered. Among those unfortunates was Gen- 



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THOMAS JEFFERSON GREEN 117 

eral Green. When all preliminaries to the command "Fire !" had 
been arranged, the captain in charge asked General Green if he 
would make a dying speech. In his answer General Green referred 
to him as a "paid butcher." The Mexican officer repudiated the 
profession, and said, "If General Santa Anna requires paid 
butchers, he will have to find a substitute for me." Finally the 
prisoners were incarcerated in the dungeon of Perote. Sixteen 
of the most resolute determined to escape. To do this they had 
to cut through an eight-foot wall composed of hard volcanic rock 
with the most crude and indiflferent tools. At length it was 
accomplished, and on the night of July 2, 1843, ^^^y escaped, 
and overcoming almost insurmountable obstacles, eight of them, 
after incalculable sufferings and many hairbreadth escapes, reached 
Texas, among them being General Green. 

Shortly after his arrival at home, General Green was returned 
to the Congress of Texas, and during his legislative service intro- 
duced a bill making the Rio Grande the boundary line between 
Texas and Mexico. It was on the basis of this additional claim 
then set up that President Polk g^ve those orders which resulted 
in the Mexican War. The acquisition of the vast territory subse- 
quently acquired by the United States is thus indirectly attribut- 
able to General Green's action in the Congress of Texas. 

It was about that time when Texas was on the eve of annexation 
that General Green returned to the United States and was happily 
married to the widow of John S. Ellery of Boston, a lady of rare 
worth and many attractions. In 1849, <>" ^he discovery of large 
deposits of gold in California, many adventurous spirits crossed 
from Texas to that unknown region, and among them was General 
Green, who, after working for some time in the mines, became a 
member of the first Senate elected in that State, and then was a 
prominent candidate for the United States Senate. He projected 
and laid out the towns of Oro and Vallejo, the latter being for 
some time the recognized capital of California. There being some 
Indian outbreaks, he was appointed major-general of the militia, 
and led an expedition to suppress the savages, and his success was 
such as to still further enhance his reputation. In the Assembly 



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ii8 NORTH CAROLINA 

he took strong ground against a proposition to pass a law which 
authorized the absolute separation of husband and wife upon their 
mutual request, which was a virtual annulment of the sanctity 
of the marriage relation. There were but few who opposed this 
proposition, but, like Senator Green, their antagonism to it was 
so bitter and earnest that after exhausting all devices of parlia- 
mentary strategy, they succeeded in postponing the vote, and 
thereby succeeded in defeating the measure. During the same 
session he introduced and successfully advocated a bill for the 
establishment of a State University, an institution which has since 
become one of the greatest Universities on the continent. Pioneer 
and soldier, he was also a statesman, and he projected a trans- 
continental railroad, and submitted, in 1849, ^" elaborate memorial 
to Congress on the subject. This was the Southern Pacific, of 
which he was one of the original directors. 

Thus in four States General Green served in a legislative 
capacity, bringing to the consideration of public affairs an en- 
lightened spirit and a purpose to advance the social condition of 
his fellow-citizens, while instilling a fervid patriotism. 

General Green, also, on his escape from Mexico, published a 
volume on the Mier campaign, that attests his ability both as a 
writer and as a military man. 

In his declining years he returned to his native county, and 
made his home on a plantation on Shocco Creek known as 
'"Esmeralda," and there passed his remaining days as a planter 
in the midst of old friends, and dispensing an old-fashioned 
hospitality. 

Realizing from the trend of events that a sectional contest must 
inevitably ensue between the North and the South, although 
warmly attached to **the Union of the Constitution," he became 
a Secessionist, and believed that time only made the North a 
stronger antagonist when the bitter crisis should arise. On the 
breaking out of the war, his spirit would have led him to the 
tented field, but he was debarred by a chronic disease, and eventu- 
ally succumbed to its inroads on his constitution; and he passed 
away on the 12th of December, 1863. 



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THOMAS JEFFERSON GREEN 119 

Mr. Tasker Polk has drawn a fine delineation of this famous 
North Carolinian : 

''Among all her illustrious sons of the past, there is not one at the 
shrine of whose memory Warren County bows with greater love and 
reverence than that of General Thomas J. Green. He was generous to a 
fault, noble and grand, fiery and impulsive; heard the Texan cry for 
freedom, left a home of luxury, sought the field where blood like water 
flowed, unsheathed his sword in defense of a stranger's land, nor sheathed 
it till that land was freed. The cry of the oppressed reached his ears 
and was answered by his unselfish heart — ^that heart gave its first beat of 
life 'neath Warren's sky. Bravely and gallantly he fought; his blood 
stained the plains and broad prairies of Texas; the cause for which he 
fought triumphed; the 'Lone Star State' was saved from Mexican perse- 
cution, and his chivalric nature was satisfied. Years passed, but the 
memory of old Warren still remained fresh in his mind. He returned to 
spend the remainder of his illustrious life among his people; and many 
yet there are who remember with pleasure how 'Esmeralda's' door, whether 
touched by the hands of rich or poor, ever swung upon the hinges of 
hospitality." 

S, A. Ashe. 




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WHARTON JACKSON GREEN 

[HARTON JACKSON GREEN of Tokay Vine- 
yard, near Fayetteville, was bom near St. 
Marks, in Wakula County, in the Territory 
of Florida, on the 28th of February, 1831. 
Colonel Green has a distinguished lineage. His 
father. General Thomas Jefferson Green, whose 
career in Texas made him famous, was born in Warren County, 
North Carolina, in 1801. He was a planter, pioneer, soldier and 
legislator. A resident during his eventful life of several States, 
he always moved among the first men of every community with 
which his fortunes were cast, and he served as a member of the 
Congress of the Republic of Texas before that State was admitted 
into the American Union. Early trained as a soldier, he removed 
to Texas and joined in the struggle which that State was making 
for independence, and so conspicuously daring was his service 
there, that he rose by his merit to the rank of brigadier-general. 
While a member of the Congress of Texas, he formulated the 
measure declaring the Rio Grande the boundary between the two 
Republics, which later became the basis of the war declared by 
President Polk against Mexico, that led to the acquisition by the 
United States of Arizona, New Mexico, California and the con- 
tiguous territory. He was a man of high spirit, quick to con- 
ceive and bold in action. 

Through him. Colonel Green is by well-established family gene- 



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WHARTON JACKSON GREEN 121 

Alogy, not to say historic tradition, in lineal descent from Sir John 
Hawkins, one of the immortal quartet of mariners who were the 
conservators of English liberty, civil, religious and political, at 
the most critical jtmcture in English history, the other three being 
Howard of Effingham, Drake and Frobisher. Through the con- 
joint efforts of these four, Philip's grand Armada was forced 
to renounce its proud assumption of "the invincible." Surely, the 
world should look with lenient eye on the foibles of such as these, 
even if Sir John and his cousin, Sir Francis, did, with her gracious 
Majesty's consent and approval, run a few cargoes of African 
savages across the ocean and start the business which Massachu- 
setts and the Providence Plantations followed so systematically 
and with such great profit, eventually selling their own slaves 
to otlier plantations whose climate was more in accord with their 
native and normal instincts. 

ColcMiel Green is also of the same strain as Nathaniel Macon, 
who was his great-uncle, and for whom he entertained the highest 
veneration, and whose political virtues he sought to emulate. 

Through his mother, who was Miss Sarah Angelina Wharton 
of Nashville, Tennessee, Colonel Green is a grandson of Hon. 
Jesse Wharton, formerly United States senator from Tennessee, 
who, like his paternal grandfather, Solomon Green of Warren 
County, enjoyed in a superlative degree a reputation for excep- 
tional justness and uprightness of character, and was of superior 
ability. 

In youth Colonel Green was strong and robust, and richly 
endowed intellectually; had an insatiable appetite for history, 
memoirs, biography and travels, while he was also fond of poetry, 
fiction and the drama. Out of doors he was a practiced horse- 
man, and found recreation in hunting, fishing and the field sports 
which the gentlemen of that day followed with zest and enthusi- 
asm, for his life was largely passed in the woods and along the 
streams in the midst of nature and distant from the artificial 
environments of towns and cities. He received a liberal and 
thorough education at Georgetown College, the University of 
Virginia and West Point, and all through life his traits and char- 



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122 NORTH CAROLINA 

- 

acteristics and personal bearing have been distinctly referable to 
his training and education. Having studied law at the University 
of Virginia and the Cumberland University, on his admission to 
the bar of the United States Supreme Court, in 1855, he was 
associated with Hon. Robert J. Walker and Mr. Lewis Janin in 
his professional career. But the ill consequences of a sedentary 
life eventually compelled him to relinquish his professional work, 
and taking the saddle, he rode 1500 miles throughout Texas, look- 
ing after landed interests; and the exercise and experience re- 
established his health on a firm basis. When the war broke out, 
he at once joined the Warren Guards, a company of the Twelfth 
North Carolina Regiment, taking his place in the ranks as a 
private, but he was soon promoted to be lieutenant-colonel, com- 
manding the Second North Carolina Battalion, which he was 
chiefly instrumental in raising. Along with his command he 
was captured at the surrender of Roanoke Island, the surrender 
being determined on against his strenuous protests. He was soon 
exchanged, and at Washington, North Carolina, he was wounded 
by a shell. His command was ordered to rendezvous at Drury's 
Bluff, and the battalion became a part of Daniel's Brigade, when 
Colonel Green became attached to General Daniel's staff, and 
accompanied him through all the vicissitudes of the war, cour- 
ageously and intelligently performing every duty, until he was 
wounded and captured at Gettysburg. As a prisoner, he was 
first taken to the hospital at Frederick and then to Fort McHenry ; 
thence he was conveyed to Fort Delaware, and finally he suffered 
a long incarceration on Johnson's Island, in Lake Erie. It was 
only a few weeks before General Lee evacuated Petersburg that 
Colonel Green was released from his confinement, and as soon 
as President Davis heard of his return from Johnson's Island 
he nominated him to the Senate for appointment as brigadier- 
general, but in the then critical state of affairs the Senate failed 
to act upon the nomination, as it was compelled to do in regard 
to a multitude of other matters pressing for consideration. When 
peace was restored. Colonel Green returned to his plantation near 
Warrenton and began anew his favorite pursuit in life, agriculture, 



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WHARTON JACKSON GREEN 123 

which not only afforded him agreeable occupation, but allowed 
ample time for that recreation which was so agreeable to him as a 
man of letters. In his library were the friends of his youth and 
the companions of his maturer years — Gibbon, Carlyle, Thiers, 
Prescott, Alison, Motley, Macaulay, Shakespeare, Milton, Byron 
and the whole host of authors who have contributed to the eleva- 
tion of human nature through the efforts of their genius. But 
literature did not alone engage him ; he became a student of politi- 
cal economy and of the great questions that pressed upon the 
people in his day for a correct solution. 

In 1868 he was a delegate to the National Democratic Conven- 
tion, and also Presidential elector, and in 1876 he was again a 
delegate, and participated in the nomination of Samuel J. Tilden. 
Somewhat later, he purchased the Tokay Vineyard, near Fayette- 
ville, and removed there, and in 1882 his prominence as a states- 
man, his high character, fine capacity and merit led to his nomina- 
tion in the Cape Fear district as a representative in Congress. 
After a thorough canvass and a close contest, he was successful 
at the polls by 500 majority, and two years later he was re-elected 
by a majority of 2600. In 1886, when the Congressional con- 
vention was held in his district, he received within a small fraction 
of two-thirds of the delegates through three hundred and thirty 
consecutive ballots, the two-thirds rule having been in use at the 
two previous conventions. The few friends of contesting candi- 
dates, however, by combination, defeated the wish of the majority. 
Under the circumstances, Colonel Green was urged to assent to 
the abrogation of that two-thirds rule, which would have resulted 
in his nomination by a large majority, but he preferred not doing 
so, and virtually declined receiving a nomination unless on the 
basis of a two-thirds majority, and he retired from Congress 
rather than sacrifice an iota of self-respect by deviating from party 
custom. 

In Congress, as in all his public utterances, he advocated a 
strict construction of the Constitution and States Rights. He has 
ever believed that that doctrine was the cornerstone and founda- 
tion of our confederated system of government, and he has clung 



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124 NORTH CAROLINA 

to it in its integrity and pristine purity, fully convinced that on its 
observance depends at last the perpetuity of our beneficent 
institutions. 

Many of his addresses on the floor of the House were on im- 
portant questions, and were well conceived, and contained evi- 
dence that he was thorough master of his subject; while on the 
hustings, he has been a forcible speaker, presenting his views 
with clearness and vigor, and always receiving the approbation 
of his party friends. 

By nature generous, liberal in disposition and prompt in action, 
Colonel Green has always been a popular favorite, and he has a 
pleasing address that at once places him on easy terms with those 
among whom he is thrown. Long engaged in agriculture, his 
interests have been identified with the farming class, and after 
he purchased the Tokay property in 1879 ^^ joined to farm- 
ing the business of wine making and grape culture. The Tokay 
wines have long held a high place among the standard brands 
of America, and that vineyard is understood to be one of the 
largest in the United States outside of California. In its care, 
enlargement and constant cultivation Colonel Green has found 
ample occupation, but still his active mind and large fund of 
varied information render it easy for him to elucidate public 
questions and throw light on matters of interest, and he not infre- 
quently makes some admirable contributions to the public prints. 
He has, however, never appeared before the public in the role 
of an author, notwithstanding he has written so much for the 
public eye, but it is understood that he is now engaged in writing 
an autobiography of a reminiscent character. Taking a great 
interest in Confederate history. Colonel Green was the first presi- 
dent of the Society of Confederate Soldiers and Sailors in North 
Carolina, and so continued for many years. And he has ever 
been an enthusiastic admirer of President Davis, there having 
been a warm personal friendship existing for many years between 
them. A Southern man, full of the traditions of the past, he has 
in defeat borne himself as a chivalrous knight, with no diminution 
of Southern pride, but without fruitless repining. In his ad- 



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WHARTON JACKSON GREEN 125 

vancing years Colonel Green, surrounded by his books, interested 
in his operations at Tokay, with an intelligent appreciation of 
passing events, enjoys the afternoon of life with ease and amid 
comforts, in dignified retirement from the harassing anxieties of 
ambitious conflicts. In his early youth the adventures of Marion, 
and Sargent Jasper's heroism, and the life of Andrew Jackson, 
cut the cord of his own ambition and awoke a response in his 
nature, and his life has had a keynote in accord with their ad- 
venturous careers; and he now dwells with his favorite authors, 
and remembers that the Latin philosopher has said : 

"Invcni portum; spes ct fortuna valctc, 
Sat me lusistis, ludite nunc alios." 

Colonel Green is a member of the Masonic order, and his 
religious affiliations are with the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
of which he is a communicant. 

Colonel Green's varied experience in life leads him to suggest 
that the young men of America' can perhaps with advantage select 
some worthy exemplar for their imitation, and cling to a well- 
marked and fixed purpose to attain the goal they have in view. 
This, he thinks, would tend to aid them in achieving success in 
life on meritorious lines. 

Colonel Green has been twice married ; his first wife was Miss 
Esther S. Ellery of Boston, by whom he had four children, three 
of whom are now living, one being the accomplished and elegant 
wife of Mr. Pembroke Jones, another of George B. Elliott of 
Richmond, the third, Carrie, unmarried ; and he married a second 
time Mrs. Addie B. Davis, the widow of Judge David Davis of 
Illinois, by whom he has had no children. 

S. A. Ashe. 



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J'.VI-r/lAII A!.l'X\XIii:R (iLDCl-R, I:.., . -. 
P^ jiiu-il aii>l 'lipi' mat, was ^miii in t''.<_ •'i»i:!it. 
II K^J ^''i<'i>''n. >t<;te (^\ X»!iii La:'>!'.iid, M v •' 
iCJ ^^\'J- ^^^' rcr"i\vv! lii> cir]) tr.niiinj ::i ' ■ 
AjJ C)nur.'>n ncIi )<•!> of tlic CMiii^ty, an«l l-ni * 

\\'<avcrvii^ ('uilf^r, r.iinc in'iH (.\'".i:ty. ""^ ' . 
Car-Tiina, i»m). nviivir^i: li.:«T liio (K'/rrc « f A M. if' 'ii :'. * 
cnlli ;;f. liv stn.l: fi law at liaiioy's Law Sv'ht-.,!, A^!ic\iilc. N* 
Car'»;.!ia, and \\a.- a'»r^itt* I Uj practice law by ibe S'lprcM- .. . * 
(•! N rt!; L'ar<»'ina in i>^7i. . 

Il' CM[n^*S of A^i^i" SaX'»n nnront;«:;(\ and ''(!• ri^s to ' *'\t' •>♦ • 
! .r-' Nt an-.l n o^t in!i::« ntl d fan.ilics in XW-sN-rn X^rti; <.'a:< . = 
iii> laMifi, J"^t''>!i J. (ind';rr, v/a^ a iv-aii of coris'-lcia' 1(* ;•!• • :- 
i:Hr. i in !'!> ^<.cti,»Ti. was a canii«:ate ff»r ili»* lcij;.-i'«ti:ro i»i : ^- • 
and f'.r :hr c^nvcntiun !.i?'T in IM»I. His onI\ LrotluT, F-n. J * V 
(ji: Il'-T. Jr.. is rlu- prt'^cr.t nuMn'o'T of G-iiLpTss from ti.c 'I '•' - 
Corij^rt'^-ion.d I ):-T:ct. 

Mr. ^iu'iu 't 'A.i> niairitd in i'^75 to Mi>< J-.-n^if H S" ■ 
• IrU.;- :• r f,f i',.. .•^^ J. >:i '^h, wi o vas ? ivrnV'-T of t^x' «' • 
tnt'.onil rMu.pTN.n «d tJ^,^5. a^d li.i> ^y h's ii.arriaL:'.- n.*'' 
•!id''''-n. txso |n .y»i- "IVancis ;\. rind,."T, a praLtiv "'u l.i'. •: 
A-ii«'vi.'' X •:♦!! L\r.)!iiri. and ]itrn..in A. Cl':«'L,t:. 'n 1 : ■ 
in n/la>. '1 ev-i<--.,'id tl.rt*.- i^li's— Mrs. /\'ia L. C-^'*. "-- 
^' rv l\. Xidv.ls an 1 Mii^ Fr.inia (i. l.; t. 



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wa:m 



; irist aii'l <!ij»:- m.it. was h. >rii in tit* <'.>i:iil, 
M.'uii.s.Mi, S\.!c of X-)!iii ( ar'.!;iia, M y . ' 
\>^yj. ii<* rc\ri\.. v! l,i> (\ir]\ trcHiiin*: -n ' • 
r 'nMr.iMi sc!; >« is nf t!ic c«»i:::ly, ,iu<\ 1 :;!•' 
\\'« civci \ tiU ^'•^r.c'.^^*, ^.lnu^ ::!'»' C\''!r.ty \' •' 
Car/i;\i. iX'm). rtM'ivir'i: hu"r I'nt^ dn-roc «f AM. fr- ni :'. * 
lolii^c. lie sti:<I- .1 law at Haiioy's I^iw SvhtM.l, A^litviilc, V 
C»:!»;,!ia, and vs.iN aiir^iTt* 1 Uj practice law by t:u* S'lprf^t ^ . •. 
vi ]\ rtli i\ir'.''na in 1X71. . 

I i' Corn'*') of Ari^l • Sa\< »n pift :il.ti;'\ and 'k 1. t-;l:s to rv . .•' • 
I.ir.^' Nt an! i.-r-t in'l.;' i.ti.i! ian.:lics in \\''/s*» rn N< rti: <'ar- • . 
Jii> fa'licr. I"^«M)!i J. (in.!';rr, wa^ a man of coti^i-lcra' If* ;•'• • : 
iiH-n '« in lii^ -<.1'>»ti. was a car..l'<iate f^r lii'* 1<-l.'^-i »ti:n» ii, • ^. . 
and I'-r :\\v c nvcntiun !".t. r in iSf>i. His onl\ Lr^tluT, I^ -n. J ?•' 
(ji: !l: t, Jr.. is tlu- j)T'"'j*nt nu*niiw r of Cimi^TtS!* fr mi t'.c '1 : ** 
C"«»i.u:''« ^-lun.d 1 )'-rict. 

Mr. ^Iii'Ilci was n'iair;«d in 1X75 io Mi>'^ Jcn.n*« I!. ! • • 
• IcUi::" '' r (.i i'... fiis J. ^:, '*h. w i ,-. v as ,-% n>rn:'.' r of t^-o i •; 
♦ntojMl r n\''n-'«,n «»f T.^^5. ai^'d lui< ^v r's n.arriai:«* ti.o . • 
■ !:d'!'-n. two !^'>ys- -d raiicis A. (itid^.r. a pract'a i:-*^ 1.'. ••: 
Adi.^vi.'-. V r»h C'.'.'»I r.'t. an I ]l(rn.,.n A. (i^id^^tr. in ! : 
in D.da.s, drv.^, ..nd tl.rc'* triiU-Mr^. .Nda L. C ►. < . '!'- 
M rv n. Nid' .is an 1 Mii^ Ki.irna (]i. !.:t. 



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ni'/KKIAII A[,i:XANUl.R (lUUGLR 

[EZhr.iAii ai.kx\ni>i:r (ii;i)G:::i<. l. ,- 

Jitli-;! an*l «iipi nMt. was ])Mrn in iLc .'. •i:iit. 
M:i(li>.>n. >tc/ve of X):fn (.ar-'liKd, M y 
l^yj. ilo rc\.ci\vvl lii.s (.Mfl) tra::iir.: 'ii ' 
C'*SI'ni '11 sdi M Is of t'lo coui'ty, .'iii<! t-.ii * 
Wiavorxiilv roi'.c^H*, iUi:K»::i:'« C\'Urty. ^* ' . 
Cai()'::\i. iSfM). n*va'.virL; h.i'T ihc (iciTce •! AM. fr< :n :' * 
coll. l;o. \u ^tivl- ■<{ law at iJailry's I^iw S^h. ». .1, A^iv.v'ilo, ^» • 
Car* »i Jul, aiul w.is a-u^'itt' I to i)raotice law by tl^o S'lprrr^'r L 
c>f X rtii t"ar«.'ina in 1.S71. . 

\\' v'MriiHs (»f Afi^i • Sa\'»n nirc;i{a.i;<\ am! ''tl. '^i^s Im ••'v «•' 
! ir.4'st ail 1 i/< ^t iii'lu* liti il iaii.:lics in \\'c>*' rn N'«rt;: <.'a:' . 
Jii.s fa'luT. J"^<.'oh J. (in«i;<T, wa< a r.ian oi co-i^ilcia' It* ;-'• • 
incr. •( in ii!> si't' »ti. was a caPiii'iate f<»r iii<* ic^^i.-iitiir-* i*. ' *^ 
an-i f'.r t!ic c nwMitit'n la^T in iN)i. His or.l\ LroiluT, I^ p. ^ '•' 
(ir. Il: T, Jr., is flu- jjr'*^cr,t nu-niixT of C«»n|.^r(.'ss fr.>ni ti.< '1 ■ ' 
Coin^rt s^ion.'! I ):>trict. 

Mr. '^ii.'ii^/r was nnirir<l in i!^r5 to M:^< Jonnic \\ . 
tl.iii:;' ''.r r.\ 1',.. .*rs J. sji rh. vi.o v is ?. pm-h:' t of t' « 
tnt'.MiMl r .n\.Tti.,:i of i>^,v^. aTi-l ha'* ^y bi< n.arriaL," n " 
• r.'l !''•!!. t^so !'• 'Vs'-.I-'raiKi^ :\. rii:.!^,T, a i-ractiv":!^ 1 ' 
Amm^vi!'- \'r*!i C';i'oIirt. an-I Iitrni..n A. Cli'a';,t:. w \ ' 
in n/la^. 'I f'xa^-- .1-1(1 tl.rcf* iriiis— Mrs. /\«ia L. Ch 
M rv \\. S\h .Is anl Mi.< K:.i:na fi. :.:t. 



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HEZEKIAH ALEXANDER GUDGER 127 

In early life Mr. Gudger was an ardent Demcxrrat, and in 1872 
was nominated by a Demcxrratic convention of Madison County to 
represent that county in the legislature; and though the county 
was largely Republican, he was elected by a good majority, and 
served in that capacity for three consecutive terms. While in 
the legislature he served on many important committees, prin- 
cipal among them being the Committee on the Judiciary and the 
Committee on Propositions and Grievances, being chairman of the 
last-named committee during most of his term of office as legis- 
lator, and as such had consideration of local option matters within 
the State. 

Being himself an ardent Prohibitionist, Mr. Gudger undertook 
to accomplish by local option, as far as was possible, prohibition in 
the State, and with this in view, he incorporated churches, schools, 
and religious organizations, and imder the rights of local option 
legislation prohibited the sale of whiskey within certain limits 
of the same, so that Prohibition was practically accomplished in 
most of the country districts. In 1876 he came within one vote 
of being nominated by his party for speaker of the House of 
Representatives. 

In the year 1877 he was, through the personal influence of 
Governor Zebulon Vance, who was a warm personal friend of 
Mr. Gudger's, elected principal of the Institution for the Deaf, 
Dumb and Blind at Raleigh, which position he occupied with 
entire satisfaction for six years, retiring from the same to re-enter 
the practice of law at Asheville, North Carolina. In 1885 he 
was elected to the State Senate from the counties of Buncombe 
and Madison. In 1886 he was admitted to practice before the 
Supreme Court of the United States at Washington. 

In 1888 Mr. Gudger canvassed the entire State for lieutenant- 
governor, representing Governor Holt, the Democratic nominee 
for that office, who was confined to his bed almost during the 
entire campaign with illness, against the Republican nominee, 
Judge Jeter C. Pritchard, and it was a campaign that will be 
remembered from one end of the State to the other as one of the 
niost aggressive of its kind ever known in the State. Mr. Pritch- 



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128 NORTH CAROLINA 

ard and Mr. Gudger were warm friends, however, and their 
friendship, dating from early life, continued on through those 
stormy days, and years later it fell to Mr. Gudger's lot to champion 
his friend through his contest for re-election to the senatorial 
chair, and this he did with an ardor that brought victory out of 
apparent defeat. His great fighting qualities were admirably 
shown in this race when, just before the meeting of the legis- 
lature, there seemed to be growing an opposition to Mr. Pritchard 
that bode no good. Mr. Gudger threw himself into the thickest 
of the fight, and went personally into almost every county of the 
State in the interest of Mr. Pritchard, and gathered the strength 
needed for Mr. Pritchard 's re-election. It was in 1893, and before 
the above-mentioned race, that Mr. Gudger was appointed judge 
of the Criminal Court of Madison County, which position he 
resigned to accept an appointment at the hands of President 
Cleveland as assistant to the assistant attorney-general in the 
Department of Justice at Washington. 

Mr. Gudger is a member of the Masonic fraternity, the Odd 
Fellows and the Knights of Pythias. He served for two terms 
as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Masons in the State of 
North Carolina, and as such rendered many decisions on Masonic 
jurisprudence which will stand as a monument to his memory. 
He has always taken a great interest in Sunday-school and church 
work, and for many years occupied the position of superintendent 
of the Methodist Sunday-school of Central Church of Asheville, 
at that time the largest Sunday-school in the Methodist Episcopal 
Conference. 

During the heated discussion on the financial questions in the 
years 1895 and 1896, Mr. Gudger was an advocate of "sound 
money," and differing from his party on that question, he re- 
signed his position as assistant to the assistant attorney-general 
and re-entered the practice of law at Asheville. He had deter- 
mined to devote the remainder of his life to his profession. How- 
ever, as he had been prominent in political circles in the State, the 
newspapers naturally felt that he was a proper subject for criti- 
cism. This brought him to the front in his own defence ; and in 



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HEZEKIAH ALEXANDER GUDGER 129 

order that he might the better place his views before the public, 
he accepted at the hands of the Republican convention the unani- 
mously tendered position of elector at large for the State on the 
McKinley ticket. He canvassed the entire State, frequently having 
joint discussions, and made what is generally conceded to be one 
of the most brilliant campaigns ever conducted in the State of 
North Carolina. 

On July 28, 1897, he was appointed by President McKinley as 
United States Consul-General to Panama, Republic of Colombia. 
During his occupation of this position Mr. Gudger has seen much 
of South American life, and enough of South American revolu- 
tions to satisfy any one. It has been his lot to act as both Minister 
and Consul-General at the place named, and as such he took quite 
an active part in matters connected with public affairs. 

Those most familiar with Mr. Gudger's conduct during the 
trying days of the revolution at Panama will long remember 
the scenes through which he passed, as well as the many dangers 
that attended the same; and likewise how well and satisfactorily 
he discharged the onerous duties devolving upon him. 

It was through his intercession that compromise after compro- 
mise was made ; and that finally the revolution, which had lasted 
for more than three years, and which had almost completely dev- 
astated ther country, was brought to an end. Mr. Gudger's 
action in these particulars is of historic interest, and was 
eminently beneficial to the United States as well as to the people 
of Panama. It is a remarkable fact that through all these 
troubles he so conducted the affairs of state as to receive the 
approval of his superiors in Washington, and in not one single 
instance did he disappoint their expectations. 

Mr. Gudger has always been a firm believer in the Panama route 
for an interoceanic canal ; and in 1899, when the public mind of 
the United States was directed with almost unanimity to the 
Nicaraguan route, he still retained faith that sooner or later the 
United States would take hold of and build a canal on the Isthmus 
of Panama. 

He was asked to deliver an address on the subject of an inter- 



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I30 NORTH CAROLINA 

oceanic canal before the International Commercial Congress, 
which assembled in the year 1899 in Philadelphia, and in that 
address, which was delivered October 24, Mr. Gudger advocated 
strongly the Panama route, predicting that the United States would 
finally settle down to that as what he conceived to be not only the 
best, but really the only practical route for a canal. He dwelt 
at length on climatic influences, the open harbors, the paralleling 
of the route by the Panama Railroad, the amount of work which 
has been accomplished, and the further fact that this was and 
had been for hundreds of years considered as the natural route 
from New York to California. His comparisons between the 
two projected highways were of such a character as to be most 
convincing to all persons present. 

Naturally, when the eyes of the United States were finally 
turned to the Panama route and the Hay-Herran Treaty had been 
refused by the Colombian Grovemment, Mr. Gudger felt depressed ; 
but he still had faith that something would occur which would 
open up the way for the completion of this great work, and he 
worked toward that end in his reports, articles for the press and 
in many other ways that came to his hand. He had been a close 
observer of public sentiment in the Department of Panama, and 
was not greatly surprised when the revolution occurred and 
Panama declared herself free and independent of the mother 
country. 

At this critical moment, however, Mr. Gudger was at his home 
at Asheville, and though a month yet remained of his leave of 
absence, he reported at once to Washington, where, after receiv- 
ing personal instructions from the President, he was sent to the 
Isthmus on the President's private yacht, the U. S. S. Mayflower. 
His arrival on the Isthmus was hailed with delight by the Panama 
people ; he was regarded as their friend, known to be heartily in 
favor of that great project which they had so much at heart (the 
building of the Panama Canal), and hundreds met him at the 
Panama Railroad station to greet his coming, and he was escorted 
to his consulate by the military band. Mr. Gudger was at this 
time the central American figure on the Isthmus, and as his 



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HEZEKIAH ALEXANDER GUDGER 131 

country's representative he conducted the relations of the United 
States with the new Republic of Panama without a hitch, without 
one particle of trouble, delivering, receiving and exchanging 
treaties between his country and Panama and performing the 
diplomatic relations devolving upon such a position with ease 
and wisdom. 

He was appointed a justice of the Supreme Court of the Canal 
Zone on February 24, 1905, and his appointment was received 
with hearty approval not only by Americans on the Isthmus, but 
alike by Panamanians. 

Speaking of the appointment, Governor George Davis remarked 
that in his long career as a public officer he had never known of 
an appointment that gave more genuine satisfaction.. President 
Amador of the Republic of Panama, in congratulating Mr. 
Gudger, stated that the President could not possibly have ap- 
pointed a person more acceptable to the people of the Isthmus. 
Indeed, this was the general consensus of public sentiment. 

As justice of the Supreme Court, and until a more perfect 
organization of the courts is affected, Judge Gudger has acted 
as circuit judge for the three circuits of the Isthmus. It is ex- 
tremely difficult for any one who is not familiar with South 
American jurisprudence to imagine the difficulties which must be 
encountered in a position like this. While the criminal code is 
Americanized, the civil code which governs the zone is the same 
that governed it before the concession to the United States Gov- 
ernment. Judge Gudger was aided very greatly in discharging 
his duties by virtue of the fact that he reads, writes and speaks 
the Spanish language, and by reason of his thorough knowledge 
of the customs and ways of the Spanish-speaking people. 

The condition of chaos and confusion in which Mr. Gudger 
found the affairs of the courts presented a difficult task, and 
required a great deal of thought, determination and energy to 
put in motion the machinery necessary to place the judiciary on 
that high plane which it should occupy, and to make it satisfactory 
to those who were interested in its workings. 

Judge Gudger has proved himself eminently fitted for this 



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132 NORTH CAROLINA 

task, as he has after three months' service shown himself capable 
of giving such perfect organization to every branch of the Judicial 
Department as to inspire the confidence of all intelligent people, 
and make its machinery move as smoothly as though it had been 
in operation for years. Perhaps the most remarkable thing con- 
nected with his judicial course so far is, that his decisions rendered 
have been so fair, and everybody has such abiding confidence in 
his honesty, integrity and good intentions, that not a single appeal 
has been taken from any decision which he has rendered. 

The writer of this article, a North Carolinian, proud of his 
State, and proud of the great men of his State, has been an 
observer of public affairs on the Isthmus for more than a year, 
where he has been connected largely with the public service ; and 
it is with great pride and pleasure that he is able to state that 
Judge Gudger has the entire confidence of the people, had their 
confidence while he was Consul-General for eight years, and that 
his conduct as judge of the Supreme Court has strengthened his 
hold upon the public mind until now he is regarded as one of the 
central figures of the Isthmus. 

We predict for Mr. Gudger a brilliant career in his new and 
active sphere of life. He is not only a well-trained lawyer, a 
profound thinker, an eloquent- advocate, a wonderfully strong^ 
stimip speaker, but with all he possesses that conscientious devo- 
tion to duty and that indomitable energy which will make his 
career in the judiciary as bright as has been his life for the past 
thirty years. 

Well may North Carolinians feel proud, and the people of the 
entire nation be glad, that such a man belongs to the public service 
of his country. 

Mason E. Mitchell. 



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PUBLIC LIBRARY 



ASTOH. LCNOX A"D 
TlLUt-K FOVWDATICNS 



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LGIiKRT BARRY CORNWALT. IIAMIUFV 




J IE subjcci of X\\\< si etch lia^ IlivI a \ ; • . r-'ii. /k- 

able aiul suoctssful t\.rcxr He is a^: 1'*il;:i>!i- 

ninii ^f tlie be^t i^pr, and n> 'I ii ur uf ^^is 

i:'')iuitr\n:on ba\c >v''\\ iiMie nf tlio ^\"ii..l or 

iiia-le bfUcT use ••! tluir oj-;) 'TMii.i;i. > t]i:«n 

I'-j^bert liarry ^.'nniwpll Lla-i M'*\. IK- \v.i> 1>. irn 

iizanco. Cornvv.tll. riiL^lan.l. May 2, iSmj; I'-tj S(»'i nt J in.^"^ 

Mbk'v anrl El'aMi (Read) JlaniMey. JaTias ]Ktinl-«\ Wc'S a 

.1 t : L;i'ict r, au \tiican explorer and a jT^'^'i* IravclL-r; v i.v-d 

I'll and the Ari;^ ntine Rt^public, and contributed nmch bv ] is 

. ^y a. I'd inrtuencc in In.ildinj:; /.p {:;;reat en'orpri^CN in the Timi ^- 

. ; h^ \\:i^ a man of niiich culture and ind- u'l^a^de will, cut :^v 

iTvln.vtrv, and oi threat personal c^uraco- 1 bo Ila-nbb \' aT.il 

•- I' mi'"' -s ar«* of eld aud di>tin^^'n; '.''d bncrij.;. , a:.! * .e 

Jbv (. it-«>f-nrn\s is tr-n-ed ]fC\r\ as fi^r a^ tb.e tli-rt v-^-b 

' ••/^v. IdiP IIam])iry arms on a srrJdd Ari^cr.t arc I'lr*.*- t. 'b * 

> .nt *n a ti* bl of .l:i{rc, n.^iti) uncb-rncidi bciuL! • 

; . • rt Manibkn' in b.is cb.iblb xm] anil v.>u*.hfiil da\«: r-v • •?'{ 



bcab!\ cUmI \>as fond ^A .ithb-!;c sports, anr] 



-1^ 



a- live ati'l .^tronp;. and lived in the C'^vntrv. Tic \\a> »■ 
! ii' J\'"evath Ib:>'\se ScIk- 1, in tli*? count v of (Jor!u\rJI. r 



d 



. t 



! attcn'bJ the Roval S.!io(\ m Mi;.cs at K-ji^^bi!. t^Mi. 



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1 (iBr:RT BARRY CORN WALT. IIAMBLFA' 




HE subject of thi'^ slctch lia.> hav! a \v"> r-ii: :k- 
ablc aiul siKXi ^^ful career. Ik is d'- I''ii'.f:i>!t- 
luan >A tl^.e best t;p'', and ii' -t niai.' oi h\s 
cn\:n{T\n,:'n have .-e^Mi iM«>ie of tlu^ ••.••ill or 
nia.ie brilcr use '•t tl.^ir ())•;)• 'r»n::i:i<s than 
I'^^bert Harry C>>rin\a;l ihiii ''i'-y. ![<• war born 



cnz'.iucc. Cornvval 



^lan<l, May 2, lS')j; t'^e spii of I in 



Mbley ancl Ellon (Read) JIainbley. ja'r.rs IT, in]»]e\ Wc. .- a 

.1 i! '^inetr, an .\fiican expl >rer and a 'Treat traveler; v-i. .d. 

i/il jiwd the Ari;uuine RepubHc, and coiitributod much bv his 

.^y aiid infltiencc in building* .:p [^reat cn<orprise=5 in the 'I r.u s- 

. ; i:c \va- a man of much cnltnre and ind- nnta'de will, cnci^y 

•T^'rj>(r\. and oi i^reat persv tial c^'irai^e. Tlic llambl^v anil 

• ' '. i:.nv''*5. ar<^ c^i r>ld and di.>tin::^'n:\'-d lincai-., af.rl ^l.c 

■.!•'• c<' il-t)f-a-ni.s is trncrd ba«:k as far as tl^.e tirrt'jtP'l: 

' ".Ty, 'I'h'* Harn])]cy arms on a sliirld Ardent arc tlirco t..Ib. -^^ 

'.iMt '•> a li' Id of A'.urCy motto nndcnuMth b<M'i!L/' 

11 cc yli^n tricinir,i\sc juz^iJit. 

. . • :t Maniblev in b.is cbildliood and y.nitiifnl da\<: rri;. -cd 

I !.ca!;[\ ard was fon«l • t a^h^'^'c sports, atu] \ ;.v^ic.Jly 

; ^ a- .ive and rtroni'-, and lived in the C'^"ntrv. He wa> td'i- 

•• ! .tt IVevith Il'jnse Sc1k»«'1, in tlic con^Uy of (Jornwrdl, and 

:'. \.:d attcn''Aj the Royal SJ.iool oi Mii.os at K jn<ui:;t^^n. 



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EGBERT BARRY CORNWALL HAMBLEY 

[he subject of this sketch has had a very remark- 
able and successful career. He is an English- 
man of the best type, and not many of his 
countrymen have seen more of the world or 
made better use of their opportunities than 
Egbert Barry Cornwall Hambley. He was born 
in Penzance, Cornwall, England, May 2, 1862 ; the son of James 
Hambley and Ellen (Read) Hambley. James Hambley was a 
civil engineer, an African explorer and a great traveler; visited 
Brazil and the Argentine Republic, and contributed much by his 
energy and influence in building up great enterprises in the Trans- 
vaal ; he was a man of much culture and indomitable will, energy 
and industry, and of great personal courage. The Hambley and 
Read families are of old and distinguished lineage, and the 
Hambley coat-of-arms is traced back as far as the thirteenth 
century. The Hambley arms on a shield Argent are three talbots 
passant on a field of Azure, motto underneath being: 

Hctc elim metninisse juvabit. 

Egbert Hambley in his childhood and youthful days enjoyed 
splendid health, and was fond of athletic sports, and physically 
was active and strong, and lived in the country. He was edu- 
cated at Trevath House School, in the county of Cornwall, and 
afterward attended the Royal School of Mines at Kensington. 



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134 NORTH CAROLINA 

He also had the benefit of several excellent private tutors. He 
left school without going to any university or college because, 
after the death of his father, he had to assume the responsibility 
of head of the family. He began the active work of life in the 
city of London in 1880. His education, training and studies had 
prepared him to be a civil and mining engineer. He was also 
given employment in various places in England, principally in 
Devonshire and Cornwall. He completed and finished up his 
course of studies while employed in the executive departments of 
various large corporations in London, under the immediate direc- 
tion and supervision of Mr. J. J. Truran, who for forty years 
was the head executive officer of many old and important com- 
panies doing business in foreign lands, chiefly mining. 

Mr. Hambley was sent to North Carolina in January, 1881, and 
became the assistant to the principal of the Gold Hill Mines, an 
English corporation, holding that position for three years. In 
1884 he returned to England, and was appointed engineer in the 
firm of John Taylor & Sons, one of the oldest and most noted 
engineering firms in Great Britain. He was then chosen by 
Messrs. John Taylor & Sons a special engineer and sent to India 
to examine and report upon the Indian Gold Mines in South 
India, belonging to the Indian Gold Mining Company of Glasgow, 
a company created under the auspices of the old City of Glasgow 
Bank. He remained in India two years, and during that time 
was engaged in the construction of several mining and power 
plants. Upon his return to England in 1886, he was sent out 
to examine the gold mines on the west coast of Africa. In the 
interim, being very fond of travel and adventure, he also visited 
in a professional way almost every quarter of the globe where 
mining was carried on, spending some time in South America, 
Mexico, California, Spain and Norway. 

He also visited the Transvaal, and after returning to London, 
came to North Carolina again in 1887. During the period from 
this time until 1898, the major part of his energies was directed 
toward the upbuilding of the resources of North Carolina, and 
at one time he was manager and consulting engineer to eight 



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EGBERT BARRY CORNWALL HAMBLEY 135 

English companies doing business in North Carolina. During this 
period he was also extensively engaged in farming, and had at 
Rockwell, Rowan Coimty, one of the most valuable herds of Jersey 
cattle in America; and during the same period he became per- 
manently identified with the business of gold mining in North 
Carolina, and was instrumental in organizing several London 
companies for the active development of North Carolina mines, 
the most important one at that time being the Sam Christian 
Hydraulic Company, in Montgomery County, of which he was 
managing director; and he erected at the Yadkin River a very 
large pumping plant for the purpose of supplying water to the 
mines — 2, 500 horse-power plant — forcing water four miles 
through a 20-inch main against a head of 420 feet, and pumping 
3,000,000 gallons of water every twenty-four hours. He was 
also consulting engineer to the Appalachian Company and Stanly 
Freehold. He has been interested for about six years in thfe 
development of gold mines in Granville County, North Carolina. 
He has also had considerable interests in California. 

The Whitney Mine at Gold Hill and the Barringer Mine (in 
Stanly Coimty) he is operating now, and has been for several 
years, either as president of the Whitney Company or as the active 
superintendent and manager. He promoted and started the 
present Salisbury Gas and Electric Light Company. He has been 
since 1886 a director of the Salisbury Cotton Mills, the largest 
and most successful of the cotton mills of Salisbury. He has 
been a director of the Davis and Wiley Bank of Salisbury since 
1888, and is now vice-president of this bank. He is also a director 
of the Yadkin Railroad Company. He has been connected and 
identified with the banking and brokerage firm of Whitney & 
Stephenson of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, since 1898. The chief 
enterprises to which he has given his attention for several years 
past are the development of the Rowan Granite Quarry and of 
the water-power of the Yadkin River, near the famous Narrows, 
about thirty miles southeast of Salisbury. These vast enterprises 
are now being pushed forward under the personal direction of 
Mr. Hamblcy, and will soon be in successful operation. Millions 



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136 NORTH CAROLINA 

of dollars are being expended upon these plants. It is proposed 
to develop about 27,000 horse-power at the Narrows of the Yadkin 
River within the next two years. The company which is behind 
these enterprises of mining, water-power and granite development 
is the Whitney Company, with the following officers: George I. 
Whitney, president; Francis L. Stephenson, treasurer; H. L. W. 
Hyde, secretary — ^all of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania — ^and Egbert 
B. C. Hambley of Salisbury, North Carolina, vice-president. The 
development of these enterprises promises to bring great pros- 
perity to the people of a dozen or more North Carolina counties. 
The completion of the water-power development at the Narrows 
will be the greatest step forward in an industrial way that North 
Carolina has ever witnessed, and is a very costly and stupendous 
undertaking. 

Mr. Hambley has been instrumental in bringing into North 
Carolina not less than six millions of dollars from other States 
and foreign countries, to say nothing of what is now being done 
and is proposed to be done by the Whitney Company and the 
following companies subsidiary thereto : The Rowan Granite Com- 
pany, the Yadkin Land Company, the Barringer Gold Mining 
Company, the Yadkin River Electric Power Company, the Yadkin 
Mines Consolidated Company and the Yadkin and Virgilina 
Copper and Land Company. Mr. Hambley is president of all of 
these companies. 

He is a man of great ability, and his executive capacity is very 
extraordinary. Everything he does in the way of business is 
systematic, careful, sagacious and prudent. Those employed by 
him have never had to wait a day for their wages, and no one em- 
ployed by him has ever failed to be paid every cent due him. 
He is a man of very captivating, persuasive and winning manners, 
and a very fine conversationalist. A man of strong friendships, 
he loves his friends and they love him, and he and they are bound 
to each other as with hooks of steel. He is charitable and kind 
to the poor and needy. He has one of the most beautiful and 
delightful homes in this State, and the hospitality at that home 
is unstinted and unbounded. Mr. Hambley is a charming and 



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EGBERT BARRY CORNWALL HAMBLEY 137 

model host, and those who have been entertained at his home 
in Salisbury, at his Rockwell country seat, at the Whitney head- 
quarters near Gold Hill or on the Yadkin River will never cease 
to remember his bountiful hospitality and considerate kindness, 
courtesy and attention to them in every possible way. The gentle- 
men who are associated with him in business have the utmost 
confidence in his business skill and judgment, and their affection 
for him could not be greater if he were their own brother. He 
has been more successful than any other resident of the State in 
inducing men with large means residing elsewhere to make invest- 
ments in North Carolina. 

Mr. Hambley is a life fellow of the Geological Society of 
London, having been elected before he was twenty-six years old, 
and being one of the youngest members ever elected. He is fond 
of reading the English classics and scientific works, and has col- 
lected a large and very select library. He loves out-of-door exer- 
cise, and is devoted to working in his garden and to playing lawn 
tennis. 

His own wishes and personal preference determined the choice 
of his profession, and he has stated that he values most the 
opportunities he had early in life of being brought in contact 
with men actively engaged in the development and upbuilding 
of the English colonies. 

On February 3, 1887, Mr. Hambley was married to Lottie 
Qark Coleman, daughter of Dr. Littleton William Coleman of 
Rockwell, Rowan County, a physician of great popularity and 
eminence. His wife's grandmother was Lucy Hawkins Coleman, 
daughter of Governor William Hawkins, and wife of Dr. Little- 
ton H. Coleman of Warrenton, North Carolina, to whom Andrew 
Jackson wrote the celebrated letter on the eve of his first cam- 
paign for the Presidency, in 1824. The Hawkins family is one 
of the best and most extensive in America, and Wheeler says that 
*'wherever they have gone, they have left indelible traces of genius, 
enterprise, integ^ty and patriotism." Mr. and Mrs. Hambley 
are very happily married, and have five children — Littleton Cole- 
man Fleming, Gilbert Foster, William Hawkins, James Young 



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J 



138 NORTH CAROLINA 

and Charlotte Isabel. Littleton and Gilbert are now being edu- 
cated at the Asheville School, having spent two years previously 
at St. Paul's, Garden City. 

As an example to young men, Mr. Hambley says that during 
his career from time to time he met with many obstacles, and 
failed to accomplish many things in early life which afterward 
were surmounted by persistent work, energy and perseverance; 
and being asked to give some advice to young people, submitted 
the following: "Be a worker, be true, apply persistent work to 
every undertaking, no matter how important or how insignificant ; 
master every detail in connection with everything you undertake ; 
never admit failure ; there is no such thing as failure when pitted 
against constant work and energy. Be true — ^true to yourself, 
true to your friends, true to God. Be charitable — never be guilty 
of a lie under any circumstances whatever. Travel if you have 
the opportunity, and study human characteristics. Acquire a 
knowledge of the methods, rules and customs of society — the 
society of the noble and rich, the society of the masses and the 
society of good people. Distinguish between vanity and con- 
fidence, and if you can marry well, be sure and do so." 

Mr. Hambley was bom and reared in an English home, in a 
family of culture, elegance and refinement, all the members of 
which belonged to the Church of England. 

John S. Henderson. 




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PLEASANT HENDERSON HANES 

[lOGRAPHICAL sketches have been largely con- 
fined to literary and professional men, or to men 
who have particularly distinguished themselves 
in public service to their State and nation, but 
the quiet business men, whose genius and 
Midustrv develop tlie business life and energy of 
wn* or who improve and build up the agriculuiral interest of 
fTiunitv, have not been properly recpgnixed, 

Carolina has scores of business men who deserve to be 

fd in history. Her heroes of jieace have equaled her 

ar. 

L-ct of this sketch is 3 qiitct, UlOMj^^^^'^ntsiness 
hsM^ made a lasting repuiSkiiaffj^^^M Uoti an 

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PLEASANT HENDERSON HANES 




[lOGRAPHICAL sketches have been largely con- 
fined to literary and professional men, or to men 
who have particularly distinguished themselves 
in public service to their State and nation, but 
the quiet business men, whose genius and 
industry develop the business life and energy of 
a town, or who improve and build up the agricultural interest of 
a community, have not been properly recognized. 

North Carolina has scores of business men who deserve to be 
remembered in history. Her heroes of peace have equaled her 
heroes of war. 

The subject of this sketch is a quiet, thorough-going business 
man, who has made a lasting reputation and set in motion an 
influence for good on the business and agricultural life of his 
country. 

It has been said that "Whoever could make two ears of com 
or two blades of grass to grow upon a spot of ground where only 
one grew before, would deserve better of mankind, and do more 
essential service to his country than the whole race of politicians 
put together." It is also true that he who plans and provides 
to employ brain and muscle not only adds to the material wealth 
of a country, but raises the standard of citizenship and lifts 
mankind to a higher and better civilization. 
Pleasant Henderson Hanes was bom at Fulton, Davie County, 



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I40 NORTH CAROLINA 

North Carolina, October i6, 1845, ^ind was one of eleven children, 
of whom only two, he and his sister. Miss Kate Hanes, survive. 
He comes of one of the old North Carolina families. The first 
of his ancestors to settle in the State was Marcus Hanes, who 
came from Germany and lived a while at York, Pennsylvania, but 
in 1777 moved to North Carolina and settled on South Fork of 
Muddy Creek, near Salem. This ancestor was a Moravian, noted 
for his sterling honesty, practical business judgment and the 
close application to duty for which that race is celebrated. 
His son Phillip built a large brick house near Clemmonsville, 
which is now one hundred and three years old, the nails in which 
are hand made, and the brick bear evidence of their great age 
by the various hues, that proclaim the output of the brick- 
makers of the early colonies. Later this house was used as an 
inn, and has long been one of the well-known landmarks of 
this section. 

Joseph Hanes, one of his sons, was a large landowner, planter 
and slaveholder, who lived in the village of Fulton, on the Yadkin 
River, where he instituted a number of other industries, employing 
his slaves. 

The old church and burial ground at this place still commemo- 
rate the Hanes name. He was succeeded by five sons and two 
daughters. Alexander M. Hanes, the eldest and the father 
of the subject of this article, also enjoyed a large and well-earned 
estate, and lived in the cultured and prosperous, although seques- 
tered, village of Fulton, built and for the greater part owned by 
the Hanes family. 

Mrs. Jane March Hanes, the daughter of Jacob March and the 
mother of P. H. Hanes, was a woman of remarkable strength of 
mind and character. It takes a great mother to make a great son ; 
not necessarily great in intellect, nor great in culture, but great 
in character. In her brain and heart were bom the germs which 
took form and developed into the mind and heart of her soiu 
With such a mother and with such home training we are at no 
loss to determine where P. H. Hanes obtained his breadth of 
mind and force of character, for in him were reproduced the 



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PLEASANT HENDERSON HANES 141 

characteristics and intellectual qualities of his noble mother. His 
early life was spent on the farm. There he learned industry and 
the value of money. There he learned that some measure of self- 
denial is an invariable condition of blessedness in human life. 
There he learned to be upright and self-respecting, working out his 
destiny in the sweat of his brow, loyal to his State and country 
and earnest in his allegiance wherever it rested. 

The Civil War broke out while he was young. His three older 
brothers, Jacob H., George A. and Spencer J., volunteered and 
went to the army, leaving young Hanes to manage the farm. 
Jacob and George were killed in the battles of Spottsylvania Court 
House and Gaines Mill, and Spencer received a wound from the 
effects of which some years afterward he died. The fires of 
patriotism burned so warmly in young Hanes*s heart that he 
enlisted as first lieutenant in the Home Guard, and did splendid 
service in the counties of Davie, Yadkin, Wilkes, Surry and 
Forsyth, and looked after the farm. At the age of nineteen he 
volunteered and went to the army, and joined Lee's cavalry near 
Richmond. His deportment, promptness and faithfulness to duty 
won General Roberts's admiration, who appointed him his special 
courier. Nothing was too perilous or difficult for him to under- 
take if his commanding officer said, go. He was a brave and 
gallant soldier, and remained in that terrible conflict until the 
surrender at Appomattox. His shrewd business management 
manifested itself in the hard and rigorous camp life of a Confed- 
erate soldier. He always kept his horse sleek and fat and had 
something to eat in his haversack. Returning from the war with 
nothing but a strong arm and a stout heart, he commenced to 
repair the losses of his widowed mother and to build his own 
fortune. He had no educational training except a few months 
in a country school and what he could find time to learn at home. 
He developed rapidly as a successful farmer and trader. He 
farmed during the summer and bought and sold tobacco during 
the winter. His restless nature could not long be kept confined 
on his mother's farm. In 1870 he was employed by Dulin & Booe 
of Mocksville to sell tobacco. At that time railroads were few 



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142 NORTH CAROLINA 

and far between, and most of the manufactured tobacco was hauled 
to Southern markets on wagons. In those pioneer days of the 
tobacco business Mr. Hanes hardly had an equal as a salesman. 
The firm was so well pleased with his salesmanship that he was 
the next year taken in as a partner, and they moved their head- 
quarters to Winston. 

An important event now happened in his life. On April 29, 
1873, ^^ married Miss Mary Lizora Fortune of Marlin, Texas, a 
woman of deep spirituality, with true womanly worth, house- 
wifely thrift and domestic skill. Seven children have been bom 
to them, six of whom are living, four bright and attractive 
daughters — Misses Katherine, Margaret, Frank and Ruth — two 
boys — P. H., Jr., and William M. — who give promise of useful 
and successful careers. 

Mr. Hanes foresaw there was a great future in the tobacco 
business and resolved to move to Winston, then a small village 
with a taxable property of less than $100,000. Now it has a 
taxable property of over $7,000,000, and is the largest tobacco 
manufacturing center for flat goods in the world. In 1872 he 
organized in Winston the firm of P. H. Hanes & Company, with 
his brother, J. W. Hanes, and Major T. J. Brown as partners. 
They commenced the manufacture of tobacco in a two-story build- 
ing 40 by 60 feet. The second year the entire building and stock 
were destroyed by fire. They moved to Greensboro and worked one 
year while the factory was being rebuilt. Major Brown now sold 
his interest, and the business was continued uninterruptedly by 
P. H., J. W. and B. F. Hanes. Some years afterward Mr. B. F. 
Hanes withdrew and established a business of his own, leaving 
P. H. and J. W. as the sole owners and proprietors. Never did 
two men labor more earnestly and diligently, and never was suc- 
cess more phenomenal. Twice having been burned completely 
out, they only redoubled their energies, and seemed to come forth 
from the ruins stronger and more powerful than ever. They built 
up a business the fame of whose brands was known throughout 
the entire South, and whose reputation for reliable and honorable 
dealing was equally as well known. In 1900, when the business 



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PLEASANT HENDERSON HANES 143 

had reached a capacity of 5,000,000 pounds, it was sold to the R. J. 
Re>Tiolds Tobacco Company. 

Mr. Hanes did not remain idle, but began at once seeking new 
fields for the investment of his capital. Without any previous 
knowledge of the business, he equipped and is running successfully 
a large knitting pAiU for the manufacture of socks, stockings and 
underwear. 

He is vice-president of the Security Life and Annuity Company 
of Greensboro, an exceptionally progressive and prosperous insti- 
tution ; he is president of the United States Veneering Company, 
which lias the largest woodworking machine in the world, and 
will doubtless revolutionize the veneering business; he is also 
vice-president of the Washington Mills of Fries, Virginia, one 
of the largest cotton mills in the South, and besides these interests, 
just west of Winston he operates one of the most extensive and 
successful stock, dairy, grain and tobacco farms in Forsyth 
County. This latter interest he values chiefly for the pleasure 
it g^ves him in developing high grade stock and general farm 
products, though it has proven a model farm, with excellent 
financial returns. 

In religion Mr. Hanes is a Methodist. For years he has been 
a member of the Board of Stewards of Centenary Church, and 
contributes liberally toward its support. He is likewise a Pythian 
and a Mason, being a member of the Oasis Temple of the Mysiic 
Shrine. 

In politics he is a staunch Democrat, and has always been ready 
to give his time and means for the success of his party. 

Soon after moving to Winston he was elected a member of 
the Board of Aldermen, and served acceptably in that capacity 
for several years. He was progressive, public-spirited, and with 
other able gentlemen of that day laid wisely and well the founda- 
tion of this splendid city. He was on the committee that projected 
and built the first city waterworks and graded schools of Winston. 
While he has always taken a lively interest in public affairs, and 
has kept well informed on public men and measures, he has never 
sought public oflSce. In 1900 he was chosen to fill out an unex- 



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144 NORTH CAROLINA 

pired term as chairman of the Board of County Commissioners, 
and was re-elected the following term. He carried into that 
important office the same sound judgment and executive ability 
that characterized his private life. He knew no man or party 
in the discharge of his duty. He always looked to the best inter- 
est of his county, and tried to get the best results with the people's 
money. He believed real economy consisted in buying the best 
teams and tools that could be bought, and building the best roads 
and bridges that could be built. Soon after he was inducted into 
office he commenced the good roads movement, purchased a com- 
plete outfit for road building and started the work in earnest. 

Like all great movements, it was slow and expensive at first 
and aroused much opposition. In this great work Mr. Hanes 
has been a benefactor to Forsyth County. He foresaw that the 
building of good roads from the field of production to the center 
of consumption would develop both the town and the county as 
nothing else would do. He had the courage to carry forward, 
over the protest of many of the people, a great work that was for 
the public good. He not only has had the satisfaction of knowing 
that he was right, but permanent road building through his un- 
tiring effort became a fixed policy in our county affairs. His work 
and influence in this respect has not been confined to Forsyth 
County. He is president of the Good Roads Association of North 
Carolina, and was appointed by Governor Aycock as a delegate 
to the Good Roads Congresses at Buffalo, Philadelphia and 
St. Louis. 

Mr. Hanes has a pleasing personality, is of medium height, 
carries himself erect and moves with restless energy, full of busi- 
ness, quick, ready and resourceful. He is naturally gentle and 
kind, but when aroused is bold and courageous. He has a keen 
insight into human nature, which has added no little to his remark- 
able success in business. In the sale of merchandise, houses or 
lands, Mr. Hanes stands among the foremost. He seems to know 
intuitively when to buy and sell, and has few equals in a trade. 
His motto is, "What is worth doing at all is worth doing well." 
He is very painstaking and careful and does everything in the 



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PLEASANT HENDERSON HANES 14S 

most improved and substantial manner. While he is by birth and 
training a farmer, and is one of the most practical and successful 
farmers in Forsyth County, he is also a wide-awake, progressive 
business man, and handles large business propositions with great 
skill and ability. He has an indomitable will. He believes that 
there is a "perennial nobleness, even sacredness, in work. There 
is always hope for a man that actually and earnestly works. In 
idleness alone there is perpetual despair.*' He has great faith in 
a young man's power to succeed who has pluck and determination. 
He believes that a man can succeed in any calling who has the 
will and sticks to it, and who learns early in life to labor and to 
wait. 

P. H. Hanes's remarkable career in many respects is wonhy 
of study and emulation. It shows what can be accomplished in 
life with industry and good judgment coupled with honesty, 
sobriety and economy. 

O. B. Eaton. 




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JOHN WESLEY HANES 




iOUN WESLEY HANES was born in the 
quaint, quiet, beautiful, substantial little village 
of Fulton, Davie County, North Carolina, on 
the 3d of February, 1850, and was the sixth son 
and eighth child of the family of eleven that 
blessed the union of Alexander Martin Hanes 
and Jane March Hanes. Alexander was the son of Joseph Hanes, 
who was bom in what is now Forsyth County, February 2, 1784, 
and died in Davie County July 27, 1847. His father, Phillip 
Hanes, and his grandfather, Marcus Hanes, were names well 
known in the history of the earlier days. 

Marcus Hanes was a native of Germany, who, having heard 
much of the New World across the sea with its boundless possi- 
bilities and opportunities, its freedom of thought and action, its 
fertile fields and mighty forests, decided to find a new "Father- 
land" in America, **the half-brother of the world." In the rich and 
inviting York County of Pennsylvania he established for himself 
and family an abiding place and a home, and fondly thought that 
here his days would pass in comfort and in peace. But across 
the border came to his ears wonderful stories of a fairer, milder 
Southern land, and he heard the call and answered it by coming- 
to Carolina in the year 1777. 

The Moravian settlement there had particularly attracted him, 
as he was of that faith, and he located in South Fork, near to 



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JOHN WESLEY HANES i47 

old Salem's borders, for the remainder of his earthly pil- 
grimage. 

Here, too, his family lived until the grandson was attracted by 
the Yadkin River and built his home upon its banks. 

Alexander Martin Hanes was bom March 5, 1809, and died 
April 25, 1861. He was a farmer, and also conducted a tannery, 
which was the largest and best known of any in his entire section 
of country. He was a man of wide influence, quiet, unassuming, 
kind, devoted to his family and successful in all the affairs of life. 
His wife, to whom he was married September 26, 1833, was a 
daughter of Colonel Jacob March, who was bom August 11, 1775, 
and died in Davie G>unty on December 30, 1831, and of Margaret 
Hinkle March, who was bom July 27 y 1775, and passed to the 
great Beyond March 2, 1831. 

The March family were also from Germany, and one of the 
four brothers who came over had settled in what was then Rowan 
County, early in colonial times. 

The family through all the years of our history has been one 
of prominence and note. 

The children bom to Alexander M. and Jane Hanes weVe 
Pauline, who did not live to womanhood ; Spencer J., who received 
a gunshot wound in the trenches at Richmond, which resulted 
in his death; Mary M., who married H. X. Dwire in 1866 and 
who died in 1885; Jacob H., who enlisted at the beginning of 
the war in Company G, Fourth Regiment, North Carolina State 
troops, and was killed at the battle of Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864 ; 
William H., who did not live to manhood; George A., who en- 
listed in Company E., Forty-second North Carolina Regiment, 
and was killed near Gaines Mill, Virginia; Pleasant H., who 
surrendered with Lee at the close of the war, and who is still 
living; Catherine E., who lives in Winston- Salem, North Caro- 
lina ; John W., the subject of this sketch, who died September 22, 
1903 ; Phillip, who died March 14, 1903 ; and Benjamin Franklin, 
who died August 24, 1904. 

As a boy, John Wesley Hanes was sturdy, vigorous and well 
devdoped, accustomed to outdoor exercise and work on the farm. 



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148 NORTH CAROLINA 

but his love for books was strong, and his leisure moments were 
spent in reading and study. He was only a child when the war 
came on, but additional responsibilities fell upon his shoulders 
when his brothers went to the front. 

After the death of his father, the mother, with the family, re- 
moved to Hickory Hill, on Dutchman's Creek, near Mocksville, 
and here the boy began his work. After the war he attended 
Trinity College, and proved himself to be a careful, successful and 
enthusiastic student. 

After leaving college he returned to the farm in Davie County. 
His brother, P. H. Hanes, had been doing a remarkably success- 
ful wagon tobacco trade, and had been induced by A. M. Booe, a 
manufacturer of Mocksville, to join his energy and push and 
experience with his enterprise. This combination prospered, and 
John took his brother's teams and wagons and continued the 
trading in which P. H. Hanes had formerly engaged. But rail- 
road facilities were lacking, and with an eye to the future the two 
brothers decided to manufacture for themselves and to locate in 
Winston-Salem. 

In 1872 they began in a small way, having erected a factory 
here. Major T. J. Brown soon became interested with them, 
and later Mr. P. N. Dulin, who had formerly been a partner with 
Mr. Booe at Mocksville. Unfortunately, Mr. Dulin died, and 
the three remaining partners were obliged to settle with the heirs, 
and, cramped for means, to continue as best they could ; and just 
as they were beginning to prosper, in the second year of their 
business, their factory was entirely destroyed by fire. The;' wed 
considerable money, and had but little insurance, and the future 
seemed discouraging. But with the faith and energy and pluck 
so characteristic of the men, they bought their partner's interest 
and made preparations to rebuild. Meantime, in order that they 
might continue work and supply their trade, they rented what 
was known as the Zeke Jones factory in Greensboro, and manu- 
factured tobacco there for one year while their new plant was 
being constructed. Addition after addition was made to the new 
plant year after year until finally this factory with the additions 



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JOHN WESLEY HANES 149 

was outgrown. Then plans were made for one of the largest and 
best and most modem establishments in the South. This factory 
was carefully constructed, and was soon occupied and filled to its 
utmost capacity. Just as everything seemed to be in perfect order, 
and as prosperity seemed to be smiling upon the firm, another great 
fire, in 1893, originating in neighboring property, came, bringing 
destruction and severe financial loss. Just as had been the case 
before, a larger and better plant was the final result. The busi- 
ness continued to prosper and grow until the firm of P. H. Hanes & 
Company was known throughout the United States, and until the 
volume of business done by them was so great as to be noted 
ever)rwhere. Then the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company nego- 
tiated for and purchased the Hanes business, paying for it a 
princely fortune. 

Mr. P. H. Hanes was often out of the State attending to the 
sales and the salesmen, but Mr. John Hanes was constantly at 
home and in the office and the factory, directing with a clear head 
and a strong, active hand. 

After the tobacco business had been sold, instead of retiring dr 
giving his time only to looking after his investments, Mr. Hanes 
at once began to look about him for some new field of activity 
and work, and established a large and successful plant for making 
hosiery, which he christened the "Shamrock Knitting Mills," and 
to this work he gave his time and thought and energy until the 
summons came. 

During all these years of restless activity, hard work and high 
tcn-"^''^'*, Mr. Hanes had been deeply interested in everything con- 
nected with the growth and development of the community, 
and had always been ready to do his part in public affairs. 

He had served a number of times as president of the Chamber 
of Commerce, and held this position at the time of his death. 
For years he had been a member of its executive boards. He had 
served as president of the Roanoke and Southern Railroad, as 
director in a banking institution and of a number of corporations. 

But his great delight and comfort and happiness was in his 
home. He had been happily married on December 2, 1879, to 



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ISO NORTH CAROLINA 

Miss Anna Hodgin, daughter of Stephen H. and Lucy Moir 
Hodgin of Winston-Salem, and eight children were born to them, 
all of whom are still living. Mr. Hanes was particularly interested 
in the proper education and development of his boys and girls, and 
spared no pains or expense where their best interests were at stake. 

In politics Mr. Hanes was a Democrat, but he was liberal and 
broad in thought and in his reading and devoted to his State and 
community. He was a consistent member of the Methodist 
Church, and deeply interested in its affairs. 

In all the relations of life he was honest, straightforward, frank, 
manly, plain and upright. He had strong convictions, and could 
be depended upon to express them and live up to them. His life 
was a successful one, his character a fine one, his nobility and 
manhood most attractive and inspiring. 

The resolutions lovingly prepared by his associates in the Cham- 
ber of Commerce show the place he occupied in the hearts of the 
people, and from them we quote: 

^"Whereas, John W. Hanes, the honored president of the Chamber of 
Commerce, has been for nearly thirty years identified with the important 
commercial interests of this city, and has been during that period among 
the foremost leaders in the inauguration, expansion and growth of the 
various enterprises promulgated by the Chamber of Commerce for the 
welfare and upbuilding of this city; and whereas he has manifested the 
most zealous and enthusiastic devotion to whatever concerned the vital 
interests of all the citizens of this community ; therefore, be it 

''Resolved, That we, as an organization composed of men engaged in the 
various activities of trade, deem it not only proper and becoming, but also 
as highly incumbent upon us, to turn away for a while from our daily 
employment, to contemplate the successful, honorable and useful career 
of one of our most highly esteemed business associates, whose life has 
been spent in almost daily contact with us in the business and social 
relations of life. 

"Profoundly conscious of the value to a city of a man highly endowed 
with business sagacity, reliable and prudent, a calm, conservative and 
yet aggressive public spirit, combined with unswerving integrity and the 
sterling qualities of a consistent Christian character, we are deeply im- 
pressed with the loss and bereavement we have sustained in the death of 
our presiding officer, our business associate and our personal friend — 
John W. Hanes. 



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JOHN WESLEY HANES 



151 



"Frank and unpretentious, clear-headed, vigorous and strong, honest, 
upright and true, having been honorable as well as successful in business, 
loyal and patriotic in his citizenship, pure in life and conduct and steadfast 
in his Christian faith. 

"Resolved, That we extend to his family our sincere sympathy in this 
time of grief and mourning for one who loved them so tenderly and 
devotedly. 

"Resolved, That these resolutions be spread upon our minutes, that a 
copy be sent to the family of the deceased, and that copies be furnished 
to the city newspapers for publication." 

William A. Blair. 




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CORNELIUS HARNETT 




[HE life and character of Cornelius Harnett have 
excited the admiration of all who have studied 
his career. Bancroft mentions his *'disinter- 
ested zeal" in the public cau§e. Frothingham 
calls him "the foremost actor in the movement 
for independence." According to McRee, he 
was "the representative man of the Cape Fear." Archibald 
Maclaine Hooper, whose name betrays his parentage, writes of 
him as ''the favorite of the Cape Fear and the idol of the town 
of Wilmington." "He was incomparably the first man of the 
Cape Fear country," writes another, "and second to none in the 
State." Governor Swain speaks "of his lofty and disinterested 
patriotism." Mr. George Davis, himself a beloved and devoted 
son of the Cape Fear, grows eloquent in speaking of Harnett. In 
an address on "The Early Times and Men of the Lower Cape 
Fear," he says : "To all the men of whom I have spoken history 
has done some justice, more or less partial. But there was yet 
another who shone like a star in the early troubles of the State, 
of pure and exalted character, of unsurpassed influence with his 
countrymen, and the value of whose services was equaled only 
by the extent of his sufferings and sacrifices in the cause of 
liberty. ... I speak of Cornelius Harnett, the pride of the 
Cape Fear — 'the Samuel Adams of North Carolina.' " 
These expressions of eulogy are justified not only by his services 



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CORNELIUS HARNETT 153 

to the State, but by the confidence and admiration in which he was 
held by his friends and associates, and by the fear and hatred felt 
for him by the enemies of his country. The former manifested 
their confidence and regard in every possible way. They elected 
him to almost every post of honor thfey had to bestow ; they fol- 
lowed him in the perilous path of civil war and revolution; they 
accepted his guidance in the overthrow of one form of government 
and in the organization of another ; and never once did they waver 
in their support. Josiah Quincy, Jr., of Massachusetts, at a time 
when that colony was dominated by the genius of Samuel Adams, 
wrote in his diary that Harnett was **the Samuel Adams of North 
Carolina." Nor were the enemies of American independence 
unmindful of his worth and influence. Governor Martin marked 
him down as one of the four men in the colony who, "by their 
unremitting labors to promote sedition and rebellion," placed 
themselves ** foremost among the patrons of revolt and anarchy." 
Sir Henry Qinton, too, left a record of his estimate of Harnett's 
ability and influence by excepting him, together with Robert 
Howe, from his proclamation of general amnesty in May, 1776. 

Cornelius Harnett was bom April 20, 1723. The place of his 
birth is in doubt. There seems to be no evidence in support of 
McRee's statement that he was born "in the land of Sydney and 
Hampden." His father, a Cornelius Harnett also, had been living 
in Chowan County for a year at least before the birth of his son. 
Harnett's mother, Mary Holt, was a North Carolina woman. 
Caswell, writing to him in 1777, makes reference "to the county 
in which you had the honor to draw your first breath" — ^probably 
Chowan County, where his father lived at the time of the birth 
of the son. In 1726 the elder Harnett moved to Brunswick. Cor- 
nelius Harnett had, therefore, the good fortune of growing up 
with the Cape Fear settlement, becoming early in life identified 
with the interests of its people. 

Some time before 1750 Harnett became a resident of Wilming- 
ton, where he lived the rest of his life. On April 7th of that 
year he was appointed by Governor Johnston to his first public 
oflicc — justice of the peace for New Hanover County. In August 



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154 NORTH CAROLINA 

he was elected commissioner for the town, and during the period 
from 1750 to 1 77 1 he served in that capacity eleven years, though 
not continuously. It was in the discharge of the duties of this 
office that he first displayed his capacity for more important ones 
and won his way into the hearts of his people. 

Harnett's first call to broader fields came in the year 1754, when 
he was elected to represent Wilmington in the Colonial Assembly. 
Twelve other Assemblies were elected in North Carolina under 
the authority of the Crown, in every one of which Harnett sat as 
a member for Wilmington. His legislative career covered a period 
of twenty-seven years, embracing service in the Colonial Assembly, 
in the Provincial conventions and in the Continental Congress. 

To write an account of Harnett's services in the Colonial 
Assembly would be to write the history of the Assembly from 
1754 to 1775. There were few committees of any importance on 
which he did not serve ; few measures affecting the general wel- 
fare about which he was not consulted ; few debates in which he 
was not heard with effect. In the long contests between the 
Assembly and the governors he was ever the uncompromising 
foe to the encroachments of the royal prerogative. 

In 1765 William Tryon became governor of North Carolina. 
His administration was distinguished by the resistance to the 
Stamp Act on the Cape Fear and the insurrections of the Regu- 
lators on the Eno. In the former Harnett was one of the leaders 
who successfully defied the attempts of the governor to enforce 
the act in North Carolina ; in the latter he was one of those who 
upheld the governor's hands in suppressing the disorders in the 
interior of the province. For his services in both of these trying 
ordeals he received the thanks and appreciation of the people. 

After the battle of Alamance the Assembly voted him an allow- 
ance of "one hundred pounds to defray the extraordinary ex- 
penses" he incurred in that campaign, and spread upon their 
journal that they did this not only because they were "convinced 
of the great service rendered his country by his zeal and activity,** 
but also "in consideration of his not having been in any office or 
employment from which he could possibly derive any compen- 



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CORNELIUS HARNETT 155 

sation for the great expense he was at in that expedition." The 
Council expressed pleasure at the attention the House showed 
"to the merit and good service of Mr. Harnett." 

Shortly after the battle of Alamance Governor Tryon left North 
Carolina and was succeeded by Governor Martin. Martin's ad- 
ministration opened with a fight over the Court Law, growing 
out of the refusal of the king to pass any law containing an 
attachment clause. British merchants carried on business in North 
Carolina through agents, never coming here themselves. In course 
of time many of them came to be large landowners in the province. 
In order to secure debts owed by these merchants to North Caro- 
linians, the Assembly in the Tryon Court Law inserted a clause 
empowering the colonial courts to attach this property to secure 
those debts. The British merchants objected to this clause, so 
the king instructed Martin, upon the expiration of the law passed 
during Tryon's administration, to see that it was not inserted in 
the new law. Cornelius Harnett was one of the leaders in this 
fight. He was a member of the committee to prepare the Superior 
Court Bill, and chairman of the committee to prepare the Inferior 
Court Bill. In the bills reported the objectionable clause was 
inserted. The governor refused to break through his instruction. 
The Assembly was stubborn and would not yield. Session after 
session went to wreck on this reef, the Assembly declaring that 
rather than lose this protection they would prefer to be without 
courts altogether, and from 1773 to 1776 there were no courts for 
the trial of civil cases in North Carolina. The governor attempted 
to create courts by the exercise of the king's prerogative, but the 
people refused to honor their decrees and the Assembly declined 
to vote funds for their maintenance. Martin was thoroughly 
beaten, because the people, led by Cornelius Harnett and his 
associates, made anarchy tolerable. The dispute was never 
settled — ^but finally there were no more royal governors and kings 
to interfere. 

By this time it had become apparent to all thoughtful men that 
it was necessary to devise some scheme for united action among 
the various colonies. A common oppression had driven them to 



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156 NORTH CAROLINA 

a common resistance. Foresighted men began to lay plans to meet 
this necessity. In March of 1773 Josiah Quincy, Jr., of Massa- 
chusetts, visited Wilmington. He left an interesting account of 
his visit. The night of March 30th he spent at the home of 
Cornelius Harnett, whom he calls the Samuel Adams of North 
Carolina, "except in point of fortune." Robert Howe also was 
present. They spent the evening discussing the plan of Conti- 
nental correspondence promulgated by Virginia and Massachu- 
setts. Quincy says that the plan was "highly relished, much 
wished for, and resolved upon as proper to be pursued." Accord- 
ingly, at the next session of the Assembly the plan was submitted 
to the House of Representatives and agreed to, and a committee 
of nine persons was appointed to act as a Committee of Corre- 
spondence for North Carolina. Cornelius Harnett was one of the 
members of the committee. This was the most important step 
yet taken toward revolution, for, as Mr. Fiske says, "it was noth- 
ing less than the beginning of the American Union." 

Governor Martin was not pleased with the attitude assumed 
by the Assembly in the disputes with the royal government, and 
so he determined not to convene another Assembly until the 
troubles subsided. Thereupon the people took the matter into 
their own hands and elected a Congress without the authority of 
the governor. This convention met in New-Bern August 25, 1774. 
Among its most important actions was a resolution authorizing 
the counties and towns to organize committees of safety for the 
purpose of enforcing the resolves of the provincial convention 
and of the Continental Congress. The system of committees was 
admirably organized, and worked so successfully that their powers 
were gradually enlarged and increased until they assumed a juris- 
diction that would not have been tolerated in the royal government. 

In all the history of our people there has been nothing else like 
these committees. It would be difficult to find another example 
of government which touched the lives of the people so closely 
as they did. Bom of necessity, originating in the political con- 
ditions of the time, they make one of the most interesting chapters 
in the history of the State. Of them Colonel Saunders says: 



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CORNELIUS HARNETT 157 

"Usurping some new authority every day, executive, judicial or 
legislative, as the case might be, their powers soon became prac- 
tically imlimited." Governor Martin characterizes them as "extra- 
ordinary tribunals." In every respect they were extraordinary, 
insurrectionary, revolutionary. Illegally constituted, they de- 
manded and executed such authority as the royal government 
had never dreamed of, and received such dbedience as it had not 
dared aspire to. Yet not only did they not abuse their power, 
but voluntarily resigned it when the public welfare no longer 
needed their services. They were the offspring of misrule, and 
rose and fell with their parent. 

Of all the committees in the province, the Wilmington and 
New Hanover committees were the most active and most effective. 
When the Wilmington Committee was organized, Cornelius 
Harnett was unanimously elected chairman. When the New 
Hanover Committee was organized a few months later, he was 
unanimously elected its first chairman. Of both these committees 
he was the master-spirit, the genius, the soul. Their work was 
his work. Throughout their existence he dominated their actions, 
and the great work which they did in the cause of freedom is his 
monument. 

The Provincial Congress, in the fall of 1775, extended the 
committee system by organizing the Provincial Council, com- 
posed of thirteen persons, one chosen from the province at large 
and two from each of the six military districts into which the 
province was divided. This Council was the chief executive 
authority in the province, and was given extensive powers. Among 
its members were Samuel Johnston, Cornelius Harnett, Samuel 
Ashe, Abner Nash, Thomas Person, Wiley Jones and Samuel 
Spencer. When the Council met to elect its president, as Bancroft 
says, "that office of peril and power was bestowed unanimously 
on Cornelius Harnett of New Hanover, whose ^disinterested zeal 
had made him honored as the Samuel Adams of North Carolina." 
By virtue of this office Harnett became the chief executive of the 
new government. The organization of this central committee 
with adequate powers and authority immediately bore good fruit. 



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158 NORTH CAROLINA 

Governor Martin wrote that the authority, the edicts and the 
ordinances of the Congresses and conventions and committees had 
become supreme and omnipotent, and that *iawful government" 
was annihilated. Everywhere the spirits and activity of the 
patriots took on new life, and everywhere, according to the royal 
governor himself, the spirits of the Royalists drooped and declined 
daily. There can be no better comment upon the effectiveness of 
the administration of Harnett and his colleagues. 

At Halifax, April 4, 1776, the fourth Provincial Congress met. 
Cornelius Harnett was the member from Wilmington, as he had 
been of the second and third conventions. The victory at Moore's 
Creek Bridge in the preceding February had stirred in the hearts 
of the people of North Carolina a desire for independence, and 
they expected this convention to give official expression to the 
prevailing desire. Accordingly, four days after the opening of the 
session, a committee, of which Harnett was chairman, and Allen 
Jones, Thomas Burke, Abner Nash, John Kinchen, Thomas Per- 
son and Thomas Jones were members, was appointed to draft a 
resolution expressive of the sense of the convention. Cornelius 
Harnett was the author of this resolution, which he reported for 
the committee on April 12th. After a long and spirited preamble 
setting forth the wrongs committed by the "British Ministry" 
against America, the following resolution was recommended: 

"Resolved, That the delegates for this Colony in the Continental Con- 
gress be empowered to concur with the delegates of the other Colonies 
in declaring Independency, and forming foreign alliances, reserving to 
this Colony the sole and exclusive right of forming a Constitution and 
laws for this Colony, and of appointing delegates from time to time 
(under the direction of the general representation thereof) to meet the 
delegates of the other Colonies as shall be hereafter pointed out." 

The convention unanimously adopted the committee's report. 
Comment is unnecessary. The time, the place, the occasion, the 
actors, the action itself, tell their own story. Mr. Bancroft says : 
"The American Congress needed an impulse from the resolute 
spirit of some colonial convention, and the example of a govern- 
ment springing wholly from the people. . . . The word which 



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CORNELIUS HARNETT 159 

South Carolina hesitated to pronounce was given by North Caro- 
lina. That colony, proud of its victory over domestic enemies, 
and roused to defiance by the presence of Clinton, the British 
general, in one of their rivers, . . . unanimously" voted for 
independence. "North Carolina was the first colony to vote ex- 
plicit sanction to independence." The enemies of American inde- 
pendence were not unmindful of the part taken by Cornelius 
Harnett in this action. Sir Henry Clinton had just reached the 
Cape Fear, too late to co-operate with the Highlanders in their 
disastrous attempt to hold the province for the Crown. There 
was nothing left for him to do, therefore, but to issue a proclama- 
tion and sail away. Accordingly he proclaimed from the deck 
of a man-of-war that a horrid rebellion existed in North Carolina, 
but that in the name of his majesty he now offered a free pardon 
to all who would acknowledge the error of their way, lay down 
their arms and return to their allegiance to the Crown, "excepting 
only from the benefits of such pardon Cornelius Harnett and 
Robert Howes." 

In the winter of 1776 the fifth and last Provincial Congress met 
at Halifax. Harnett sat for Brunswick County. The principal 
work of this body was the adoption of the first constitution of 
North Carolina. Harnett was a member of the committee which 
drafted it, and exercised a large influence in its preparation. He 
inspired and probably wrote that imperishable clause which for- 
bids the establishment of a State church in North Carolina, and 
secures forever to every person in the State the right to worship 
God "according to the dictates of his own conscience." 

This convention elected the first officers of the new State. 
Richard Caswell was elected governor. Harnett was chosen first 
councillor of State. By the election of Caswell as governor the 
presidency of the convention became vacant, and Harnett was 
elected to fill the vacancy. The journal of the last of those re- 
markable conventions that converted North Carolina from a prov- 
ince of the British Empire into a free American State is signed 
by "Cornelius Harnett, President." 

Harnett was re-elected to the Council of State by the first legis- 



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i6o NORTH CAROLINA 

lature that met under the constitution. He did not serve long 
in this capacity, as he was soon afterward elected a delegate to 
the Continental Congress, and resigned his seat in the Council. 
He took this action reluctantly. It meant loss of comfort and 
ease, sacrifice of both money and health, but he did not feel 
justified in declining to serve the State at her bidding. He there- 
fore entered upon his duties in June, 1777. Harnett was in the 
Continental Congress at the time of Washington's Pennsylvania 
campaign, and was thus brought face to face with the great diffi- 
culties under which Washington was laboring. These convinced 
him of the necessity of a stronger union among the colonies, with 
some central power having sufficient authority to force the States 
to do their full duty. His appeals to North Carolina through 
letters to his friends are forcible and eloquent. He urged the 
State to keep her battalions well filled. He insisted that taxes 
should be levied to meet the expenses of the war and to keep up 
the credit of the State. He denounced in unmeasured terms the 
greed of those who were taking advantage of their country's mis- 
fortunes to advance the prices of the necessities of life, and urged 
that the Assembly should regulate the cost of at least such com- 
modities as the army needed. He warned his constituents against 
the folly of expecting foreign powers to win independence for 
them, urging them to depend only upon their own patriotism and 
virtue. A detailed account of his services is impossible in this 
sketch. They were worthy of his great career. The field was 
narrow, however; the situation disagreeable, his health poor, the 
expense of living great. He wrote to his friend Burke that living 
in Philadelphia cost him £6000 more than his salary, but adds : 
"Do not mention this complaint to any person. I am content to 
sit down with this loss and much more if my country requires it." 
He missed the comforts of home, wearied of the quarrels and 
bickerings of Congress, suffered with the gout until he was thor- 
oughly worn out. 

Finally much needed relief came. In February, 1780, he made 
his last journey from Philadelphia to Wilmington, "the most 
fatiguing and most disagreeable any old fellow ever took." He 



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CORNELIUS HARNETT i6i 

had only one year of life before him, a year of gloom, of hardship 
and of suffering. In January, 1781, Major James H. Craig, one 
of the most energetic officers in the British army, took possession 
of Wilmington. Harnett was the first victim of his zeal in the 
royal cause. He was captured, imprisoned in a block-house and 
treated with indignities which probably hastened his death. On 
April 28, 1781, he wrote his will, bequeathing his entire estate 
to his wife. He then breathed his last. 

Harnett's grave is in the northeast comer of St. James Church- 
yard, in the city of Wilmington. He contributed liberally to the 
erection of the first St. James Church; for a long time was a 
member of the vestry, and always retained a pew in the church. 
In spite of these things and a great deal of other evidence to the 
contrary, a tradition has come down to us that Harnett was an 
infidel. I find no evidence in support of the statement and much 
to refute it. My opinion, after careful investigation, is that the 
statement is erroneous. Much is made of the epitaph on his 
tomb, said to have been selected by himself : 

"Cornelius Harnett, 

Died April 20, 1781, 

Age 58. 

'Slave to no sect, he took no private road, 

But looked through Nature up to Nature's God.' " 

The above date of Harnett's death is evidently an error. His 
will, in his own handwriting, is preserved in the court-house at 
Wilmington. It is dated April 28, 1781. 

Harnett lived just outside of Wilmington. His house, sur- 
rounded by a grove of fine oaks, stood on an eminence on the east 
bank of the Cape Fear, commanding a fine view of the river. 
Here Harnett lived at ease, entertaining upon such a scale as to 
win a reputation for hospitality even in the hospitable Cape Fear 
country. 

"His stature," says Hooper, "was about five feet nine inches.' 
In his person he was rather slender than stout. . . . His coun- 
tenance was pleasing, and his figure, though not commanding, 



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i62 NORTH CAROLINA 

was neither inelegant nor ungraceful. In his private transactions 
he was guided by a spirit of probity, honor and liberality, and in 
his political career he was animated by an ardent and enlightened 
and disinterested zeal for liberty. . . . He had no tinge of the 
visionary or of the fanatic in the complexion of his politics. . . . 
That he sometimes adopted artifice when it seemed necessary for 
the attainment of his purpose may be admitted with little impu- 
tation on his morals and without disparagement to his under- 
standing. His general course of action in public life was marked 
by boldness and decision." 

His character was worthy of the love and confidence of his 
friends ; his career deserves the appreciation of a grateful people 

R. D. W. Connor. 




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LOUIS D. HENRY 




tHOUGH a native of New Jersey, where he was 
born in 1788, Louis D. Henry settled in North 
Carolina about the time he became of age, and 
spent the remainder of his life in the latter 
State. He was a graduate of Princeton in the 
class of 1809, and after coming to North Caro- 
lina studied law under Edward Graham, an eminent practitioner 
of that profession at New-Bern. 

While a young man, Mr. Henry figured in a duelling tragedy 
with Thomas J. Stanly of New-Bern. Stanly belonged to a bril- 
liant and spirited family whose members have fought more duels 
than any other race of men who ever lived in North Carolina. The 
origin of the Henry-Stanly duel was trivial in the extreme, but 
brought on insults which resulted in the usual evil recourse of 
that time. In a magazine article in Our Liznng and Our Dead 
for January, 1875, an old resident of New-Bern says of this affair: 
'*The origin of the difficulty is said to have been the playful toss 
by Mr. Stanly of a piece of cake across the table, which fell into a 
cup of tea and splashed the liquid on Mr. Henry's vest, at a party 
given by Mr. Gaston. A lady at the side of Mr. Henry made a 
thoughtless remark, which aggravated the trifle between personal 
friends. An insult was imagined, a hasty reply given, then fol- 
lowed a challenge to mortal combat, which terminated fatally. 
On being consulted by his young brother, it is said that the 



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i64 NORTH CAROLINA 

Hon. John Stanly advised the hostile meeting." John Stanly, it 
will be remembered, had killed Governor Spaight in a duel not 
many years before. The duel between Mr. Henry and Thomas 
Stanly occurred on the 14th of February, 181 3, that being Sunday, 
as was also the day on which Governor Spaight was mortally 
wounded. The second of Thomas Stanly was George E. Badger, 
then only eighteen years old, who was afterward United States 
senator, secretary of the navy, etc. The Edenton Gasette of 
February 23, 1813, fiercely arraigned the participants in the 
Henry-Stanly duel in an account of the affair as follows : 

"On Sunday afternoon, the 14th instant, an affair of honor (as it is 
called) took place over the Virginia line between Mr. Thomas T. Stanly 
and Mr. Louis D. Henry, both of the town of New-Bern, which proved 
fatal at the first fire. Mr. Stanly having received his antagonist's ball 
in the right side, fell and instantly expired. We understand Mr. George 
Badger was second to Mr. Stanly, Dr. Scott attending physician and 
Dr. Boyd second and physician to Mr. Henry. The seconds and attend- 
ants of these deluded young men, who had traveled with their friends 
upwards of one hundred miles to decide this 'point of honor,' which in 
all human probability could have been settled in an amicable and honorable 
way, as soon as Mr. Stanly fell, disgracefully made off, leaving the corpse 
on the ground. We learn, however, that from some intimation given, the 
body was soon after found and decently interred by the inhabitants in the 
neighborhood, who had got information of the shocking scene a few min- 
utes too late to take into custody the honorable survivor and still more 
honorable attendants. Mr. Henry, we learn, was the challenger. We 
trust the governor of Virginia, whose duty it is, will demand of the 
governor of this State the above-named gentlemen, in order that they may 
be brought to expiate the crime of which they stand charged by their 
country and their God." 

The above account in the Edenton Gazette, written by James 
Wills, the editor of that paper, was called into question by a 
correspondent of the Raleigh Minerva shortly thereafter, who 
wrote in part as follows : 

"As Mr. Wills does not pretend to be informed with certainty of the 
circumstances which occasioned the meeting, it is inconceivable to me how 
he could presume that the difference might 'have been settled in an 
amicable and honorable way." Candor, I should think, would have pre- 



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LOUIS D. HENRY 165 

stuned otherwise. His assertion that the attendants did disgracefully 
abandon the body of Mr. Stanly I am fully authorized to contradict — and 
to declare that every measure was taken which humanity or friendship 
could dictate, as far as the nature of the case would admit, to insure a 
speedy and proper attention to the remains of Mr. Stanly." 

Mr. Henry was not prosecuted for the death of Mr. Stanly, the 
courts of that period being very lenient to duellists; but up to 
the time of his death this tragedy of his youthful days was ever 
a blight upon his peace of mind. 

Having removed from New-Bern to Fayetteville, Mr. Henry 
at once gained a high position at the bar, and also occasionally 
engaged in politics. In 182 1 and 1822 he was elected to the North 
Carolina House of Commons, and in the same body was borough 
representative from Fayetteville at the sessions of 1830, 1831 and 
1832. At the session last named, which met on the 19th of Novem- 
ber, 1832, he was elected speaker of the House of Commons. 

Mr. Henry declined the appointment of Minister to Belgium, 
which was tendered him, but in 1837 accepted an appointment 
from President Van Buren as commissioner to settle claims under 
treaty with Spain. 

On the loth of January, 1842, the Democratic State Convention 
nominated Mr. Henry for governor of North Carolina as a candi- 
date against Governor John M. Morehead, who was standing 
for re-election. In the election, which took place on the 4th of 
August, Morehead was victorious. In his canvass during that 
campaign Mr. Henry was greatly hampered by sickness. 

Henry's next political service was as Presidential elector, he 
being a delegate to the National Democratic Convention which 
met in Baltimore on the 27th of May, 1844, and nominated 
James K. Polk for President. 

On the 8th of January, 1846, the Democratic State Convention 
met in Raleigh and nominated Green W. Caldwell for governor. 
Over that gathering Mr. Henry was chosen to preside, and it was 
his last public service, for he died shortly afterward, June 13, 
1846, at his home in Raleigh, having removed to the Capital City 
some years before. 



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i66 



NORTH CAROLINA 



Possessed of a clear, sonorous voice, which added a charm to 
the easy flow of English which characterized his style, Mr. Henry 
was surpassed by few men of his day as an orator. In debate he 
was vigorous and spirited even to the point of fierceness at times. 

The first wife of Mr. Henry was Lucy 'Hawkins, daughter of 
G)lonel Philemon Hawkins, Jr., a Revolutionary patriot of Warren 
County. This lady dying without issue, Mr. Henry was married 
secondly to Margaret Haywood, only child of Adam John Hay- 
wood. The gentleman last named was only son of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Sherwood Haywood of Edgecombe, and married a daugh- 
ter of Major Egbert Haywood of Halifax County. 

By his second marriage Mr. Henry had quite a number of 
children, as follows : Louis D. Henry, Jr., who married Virginia 
Massenburg; Virginia Henry, who married Colonel Duncan IC 
MacRae ; Caroline Henry, who married Colonel John H. Manly ; 
Augusta Henry, who married Captain Robert P. Waring; Mar- 
garet Henry, who married Colonel Ed. Graham Haywood; 
Mar>' Henry, who married General Matt. P. Taylor ; and Malvina 
Henry, who married Douglas Bell. Through these children Mr. 
Henry has numerous descendants now living. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 




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WILLIAM JACKSON HICKS 

pHOSE who have visited that noble Masonic 
institution, the Oxford Asylum, and who re- 
member the hundreds of fatherless children 
there provided for, will also recall a stalwart, 
gray-haired gentleman who stands in loco 
parentis to all the juvenile throng. This is 
Superintendent William J. Hicks, and in him the little boys and 
girls of the institution find a sympathetic friend and counsellor, 
ready at all times to follow the teachings of the great fraternity 
by which the orphanage was established, and *'soothe the unhappy, 
to sympathize with their misfortunes, to compassionate their 
miseries, and to restore peace to their troubled minds." Few men 
can be found so well qualified for this position as Colonel Hicks, 
whose kind heart, bright disposition and years of personal experi- 
ence with hard labor and the serious problems of life render him 
no stranger to the sunshine and shadows of the little lives over 
which he exerts so great an influence for good. 

Though a resident of North Carolina for more than a half 
a century, Mr. Hicks is a native of Virginia, having been bom 
in Spottsylvania County of that State, on the i8th day of Feb- 
ruary, 1827. The Hicks family is of English stock. The earliest 
of the name coming to America was Peter Hicks, who was bom 
in England in 1720, but in early manhood settled in Virginia, 
where his son, also named Peter, was bom. The latter, like his 



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i68 NORTH CAROLINA 

father, was a farmer in Spottsylvania County, and for a number 
of years was high sheriff of the county, and he served in the 
Revolutionary War. He attained a great age, passing away in 
1844 niuch venerated in his community, whose esteem he had 
enjoyed to a remarkable degree. His son, Martin Hicks, inherited 
the good will and respect which the community had accorded to 
his father, and throughout his life bore an unblemished name. 
He, too, engaged in agriculture, and cultivated a farm in Spottsyl- 
vania, and there, when twenty-four years of age, in the year 1813, 
he brought his wife, Nancy Pendleton, a daughter of Robert 
Pendleton of the same county. 

But Mrs. Hicks died when their son, William J. Hicks, the 
subject of this sketch, was only three years old, and the loss to 
him of his mother's care was irreparable. 

In his early youth he was somewhat delicate, but as he matured 
he became more robust, and eventually developed into a man of 
large frame and fine proportions, becoming a splendid specimen 
of vigorous manhood. He was taught the rudiments at home, 
and when thirteen years of age he entered school, but his studies 
were soon interrupted by the long-continued illness of his father, 
which led to his being detained at home to manage the farm ; and 
until he was twenty-one he continued engaged at that work. About 
that time his father died, and then he began life on his own account. 

As his educational advantages had been so meager, after be- 
coming a man he determined to improve himself, and during the 
winter months, when his work was interrupted, he attended school, 
and addressing himself with resolution to his studies, he gained 
the elements of a solid education. Indeed, he realized so thor- 
oughly the importance of remedying his deficiency in this respect 
that he applied himself closely to his books when opportunities 
presented, at night as well as by day, and he often kept up a 
friend who was further advanced than himself until one and two 
o'clock at night to aid him in his lessons. Later in life he per- 
fected his education by studying and consulting such books as bore 
on his special work, being aided in his endeavors by friends who 
were drawn to him by his earnestness in the pursuit of knowledge. 



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WILLIAM JACKSON HICKS 169 

He had from his youth up been fond of mechanical works, and 
even in childhood had displayed ingenuity in making tools and 
fashioning miniature mills and such other contrivances; and so 
shortly after the death of his father he forsook the farm and 
abandoned agricultural pursuits, and soon became engaged in 
quarrying stone and in stone-cutting, and thus obtained an experi- 
ence that later in life was to be of great value to him. He also 
became familiar with the business of a millwright and with 
carpentry. His strong, active mind and solid powers and vigorous 
manhood soon made him proficient in these various arts, and he 
also acquired skill as a first-class machinist, and his mechanical 
turn found an ample field for development. His judgment and 
practical sense quickly gained him an enviable reputation, and 
he became known as a workman in whom every confidence could 
be placed for thoroughness and carefulness. In 1852 he was 
employed by Smith, Colby & Company of New York to install a 
mining plant for the McCuUock Gold Mine in Guilford County, 
near Greensboro, and for two years he remained in that part of 
North Carolina. Later he was engaged in constructing and equip- 
ping the paper mill on Neuse River, at the Falls of Neuse, near 
Raleigh, and he was so much pleased with Raleigh that he deter- 
mined to locate there permanently ; and on the 4th of March, 1858, 
he was happily married to Miss Julia Louise Harrison, a daughter 
of John R. Harrison, one of the most esteemed citizens of Raleigh. 
On the completion of the paper mill he turned his attention to 
housebuilding as a contractor and builder, and his wide range of 
experience was very useful to him. He was master of every detail 
of construction, and faithful and correct in all his dealings, and 
his work always gave full satisfaction. 

During the war the State found it necessary to erect a powder 
mill near Raleigh, and the competency of Colonel Hicks was so 
apparent, that although it was a novel business, he was selected 
for that work, and did it most satisfactorily, and then he was 
employed as superintendent of the mill. According to frequent 
and repeated tests made by the Ordnance Bureau at the arsenal 



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I70 NORTH CAROLINA 

at Fayetteville, the powder made at that mill was the best in the 
service of the Confederate Government. As a small-arm powder 
it was very superior, and its uniform strength was somewhat 
remarkable. The management of the mill and the manufacture of 
the powder reflected the greatest credit on Colonel Hicks, especially 
under the trying circumstances of the war. 

In that position Colonel Hicks was of great use to the State 
and to the Confederacy. Careful and prudent, a man of excellent 
judgment, he managed the business committed to his care with 
great acceptability. He continued in this work until the mill was 
destroyed by fire by the Federal Government. 

When peace came, he at first ventured in the rosin business, 
there being a great demand for that article, of which considerable 
quantities were to be found where there had been former dis- 
tilleries ; but soon he again returned to the occupation of a con- 
tractor for building houses, and enjoyed an enviable reputation 
in that line of work. 

In 1869 it was determined by the State to erect a penitentiary 
building, and the confidence felt in Colonel Hicks's character and 
his skill and experience led to his selection by the Board of 
Directors as the superintendent and assistant architect of that 
work, and it was made a part of the contract for its construction 
that he should have that connection with it, and no work was to 
be accepted and paid for without his approval. It was felt that 
his name would be a sure guarantee for fidelity of construction 
and an honorable performance of all contracts and agreements. 
The location near Raleigh being determined on, ground was soon 
broken for the building, and Colonel Hicks's judgment was relied 
on almost exclusively for the details of plan and construction. 
He performed his duties so satisfactorily, that when there was 
an entire change of administration, the Democrats obtaining con- 
trol of the Assembly, Colonel Hicks, in 1872, was cordially re- 
tained, and the General Assembly elected him warden and archi- 
tect, a position he continued to hold for twenty-five years, the 
longest consecutive term on record that such a position has been 
filled in the United States. He discharged all of his duties with 



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WILLIAM JACKSON HICKS 171 

fidelity and wisdom and was a most useful public officer. The 
penitentiary building is an immense structure, and the bricks of 
which it is built were manufactured on the spot, and all the work 
possible was done by the convicts tmder Colonel Hicks's direction. 
Its construction is an enduring monument of his skill and capacity. 
It b well designed, admirably constructed, and was built at a very 
small expense to the people, considering its great dimensions and 
the permanency of the structure. Colonel Hicks also built, under 
the plans of Mr. Sloan, the Philadelphia architect, the governor's 
mansion, and other public works at Raleigh ; and he had the over- 
sight of much other constructive work performed by the convicts, 
and he directed their labor within the enclosure, and to some 
extent supervised their work when employed on the farms and 
on railroad work. His connection with the penitentiary was 
indeed most important and of great benefit to the State, and he 
ever enjoyed the full confidence of the public and the esteem of 
all who had dealings with him. As an architect and builder it 
may be said that he has had no equal in North Carolina; and 
he was often consulted with advantage in regard to private work, 
and he was ever interested in promoting by all means in his power 
such new undertakings as would tend to the advancement of 
Raleigh. 

The constructive work of the penitentiary being finished, eventu- 
ally Colonel Hicks severed his connection with that institution 
and again entered upon private work, going into partnership with 
Mr. Ellington of Raleigh ; but in 1898 he became superintendent 
of the Oxford Orphan Asylum. He was ever esteemed one of 
the best citizens of his community, having the development of 
the State at heart, and he was an active member of the Agricultural 
Society, and was interested in establishing the Raleigh Savings 
Bank, the first institution of that kind established at Raleigh, 
and for some years he was a director of it. 

As superintendent of the asylum he has been as successful as 
in the other avocations in which he was engaged. His adminis- 
tration has been a period of great success, although it should be 
mentioned that his own good work has been effectively supple- 



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172 NORTH CAROLINA 

mented by that of a corps of conscientious teachers and others 
whose aid has been helpful to him. In passing it might be stated 
that of the several thousand children reared within the walls of 
the orphanage since 1872, only one is known to have been placed 
behind bars for a criminal act. Following the course of his 
predecessors, Colonel Hicks has sought to impress upon the chil- 
dren of the institution the honor and benefit of plain living, regular 
habits, fidelity to work and truthfulness, and the good effect of 
his precepts and his personal example cannot be fully estimated. 

In his religious affiliations Colonel Hicks is a Baptist, and his 
walk in life has ever been consistent with his professions. He is 
prominent as a Mason, having taken the three Blue Lodge de- 
grees, followed by the Scottish Rite degrees up to the thirty- 
second, and also being a member of the Chapter, Council and 
Commandery. In politics he has ever been a staunch and un- 
wavering Democrat, has never failed to support his party and 
has never changed his party allegiance. 

Colonel and Mrs. Hicks have had eight children born to them, 
of whom four are living, two sons and two daughters. One of 
the sons, W. B. Hicks, is living in Montgomery County, engaged 
in manufacturing enterprises ; and the other, John M. W. Hicks, 
is living in New York, being treasurer of the American Tobacco 
Company, having recently been promoted from the trusted position 
of auditor for the same corporation. One of the daughters, 
Elizabeth W. Hicks, married Mr. W. A. Johnson, and is now 
living in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania; while Miss Bertha M. Hicks 
resides with her parents. 

S. A. Ashe. 



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JACOB FRANKLIN HIGHSMITH 

[ACOB FRANKLIN HIGHSMITH was born 
in the county of Sampson, North Carolina, on 
the 1st day of September, 1868, his father being 
John J. Highsmith and his mother Mary Ann 
Highsmith, John Highsmith's calling being that 
of a farmer. 
The early life of Jacob F. Highsmith, a lad of strong, vigorous 
physique, was passed in the country, where his parents, though 
well-to-do, daily impressed upon him the virtue and necessity of 
industry, and he was not exempt from the manual labor of the 
farm. 

John J. Highsmith was of a modest, retiring nature, not one of 
the men who "doth protest too much," but of a decided character 
for all that. He taught his son that labor, a part of God's plan, 
was a blessing in building up and hardening the youthful frame, 
confirming the physical vitality and fitting it for the trials of a 
later life. "What avail," he would say, "to educate an invalid? 
To cram the head with knowledge whilst the body goes to waste ?" 
Another of his lessons was that the best money was hard-earned 
money, while he paid justly and impartially but liberally for the 
chores of young Jacob on the farm. The best line to him in the 
copy-book thumbed by his boy at school was, "Evil communica- 
tions corrupt good manners," and he inexorably forbade his son 
keeping bad company. In a word, this Sampson County farmer 



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174 NORTH CAROLINA 

recognized his first duty to be to his God, and for the rest he 
was a faithful husband, a kind, wise, just father and a good 
citizen, and among his fellow-men his character was without a 
blot. To his country he was true, for he was a loyal Confederate 
soldier, serving well for the four years of the war, enlisting in 
Company A, commanded by Captain William S. DeVane, Sixty- 
first Regiment, North Carolina troops. 

Though at all times obedient and respectful to paternal author- 
ity, it was under the salutary influence of his mother that the- 
character of young Highsmith was shaped and directed for a 
future career of strenuous and beneficent effort. Leading a simple, 
homely life, far removed from the great centers of population and 
civilization, Mrs. Highsmith was a woman of singular force of 
character — ^broad minded, full of the charity of an unquestioning 
Christian faith, and gifted with that sweet optimism which "think- 
eth no evil," and believes that God orders all for the best. She 
instilled into her son this broad, catholic view of the world and 
human-kind, and at the same time grounded him in the lessons 
of self-reliance. Rude, boisterous, wayward as is the wont of 
the country boy, Jacob Highsmith was of a deeply s)mipathetic 
nature, and the daily contemplation of that unostentatious Chris- 
tian womanhood sank deeply into his heart — ^a germ for fruitage 
in the future. J. F. Highsmith conneqted himself with the Baptist 
Church early in life — not more than thirteen or fourteen years 
old — ^too early to have gone into a critical analysis of doctrine, 
to which he did not pretend; but even in the acceptance of his 
creed the broadening influence of his mother asserted itself. He 
is no straight-laced denominationalist, but, as he sees it under God, 
he tries to keep the faith. 

Given the average opportunities and advantages of instruction 
in the private schools of the neighborhood and county, young 
Highsmith's mind early turned to the profession for which he 
afterward equipped himself. In truth, almost from his childhood 
he instinctively turned from the theoretical view of education. 
He wanted to learn, because in learning he could do something, 
accomplish something. Riding the mules to water or feeding the 



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JACOB FRANKLIN HIGHSMITH 17S 

stock, the thoughtful lad was communing with nature, watching 
its life and death, its springing up and dying down. He himself 
believes that the resolution was implanted in his mind to become 
a physician on the day when, crossing a field, he found a sheep 
which had been accidentally staked and disembowelled. His heart 
was touched and his mettle stirred to give relief. With a 
needle and thread he sewed up the wound, administered hot coffee 
and saved the sheep's life. With pardonable triumph in his first 
piece of surgery, he said to himself, "If there be skill in this hand 
and sense in this head to save this poor beast, what may I not do 
for humanity with hand trained and brain taught?" 

His academic training completed at Old Salem and Glenwood 
academies in Sampson and Johnston counties, he went forward 
with a fixed purpose in life, took the medical course at Wake 
Forest, and was duly graduated from Jefferson Medical College 
in 1889, being then only twenty-one years of age. He has since 
taken full post-graduate courses in all the branches of surgery 
and medicine. 

Dr. Highsmith, on the 14th of November, 1889, married Miss 
Mary Lou White of Sampson County, very soon after his gradua- 
tion, and they have had seven children, all of whom are living. 

He settled in Fayetteville for the practice of his profession in 
the year 1889, quite a young man to carve out a career in a new 
field, and of course with difficulties confronting him at every 
step. But difficulties are a tonic to men of this stamp. Strong 
in body and mind, he worked hard, and in the meantime his prac- 
tice grew. From the very beginning of his active life as a 
physician and surgeon he realized the need of a hospital or sani- 
tarium in as large a town as Fayetteville with a tributary country 
so extensive. Accordingly, in 1899 the Marsh-Highsmith Hos- 
pital (the partner being Dr. J. H. Marsh) was built on the comer 
of Green and Old streets, a handsome three-story brick building. 
Afterward Mrs. W. E. Cochran, a wealthy and noble-hearted 
Northern woman, purchased what was known as the Robinson 
building adjoining, which she finally deeded to the proprietors of 
the hospital, and in which she endowed a number of charity cots. 



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176 NORTH CAROLINA 

Dr. J. F. Highsmith is now the sole proprietor and general 
superintendent of the Highsmith Hospital (its present name) and 
the Cochran Annex. The institution, under his direction and 
supervision, has recently been greatly beautified and improved 
on the exterior and interior, with all modem appliances of light- 
ing and heating, baths, electric call-bells, telephone service, etc., 
while its surgical and medical equipment is complete. Great care 
is given to sanitation and household service, and patients speak 
in high terms of the admirable system. 

Perhaps Dr. Highsmith has nowhere in his life so strikingly 
demonstrated his ability both as a surgeon and a physician, and 
at the same time his high administrative capacity, as in the success 
which he has achieved in this hospital. Fayetteville people, and 
indeed those of all the surrounding country, regard it not only as 
a necessity, but as a veritable boon. An all-around physician. 
Dr. Highsmith is especially skillful in surgery and the diseases 
of women, and the most difficult cases of both have been suc- 
cessfully treated by him in his hospital. He is efficiently aided 
by a staff of carefully trained nurses, who are under firm but kind 
discipline, and who are hand and heart in their work. 

Dr. Jacob Franklin Highsmith is now in his thirty-seventh 
year, blessed with an excellent constitution, with not only a 
capacity, but a love for work, and one may safely say that this 
strong, earnest man, much as he has already accomplished, is but 
just on the threshold of the broad arena of his labors for humanity. 
Undemonstrative, even abrupt in manner, he has warm friends on 
all sides, for he is himself so faithful in his friendships that he 
**knits his fellow-men to him with hooks of steel." Many of his 
traits — ^his self-reliance, his energy, his optimism — ^are the gifts 
of his heredity, for his is good blood, and his forbears had their 
share in making the history of their country. His mother's 
mother was a Parker of the Revolutionary Parkers, so highly 
spoken of in the notes of Lossing's "Field Book of the Revolutbn." 

Dr. Highsmith is a Democrat, though in no sense of the word 
a politician, and his politics are but a part of what he regards as 
the duties of his citizenship. He has never been an aspirant for 



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JACOB FRANKLIN HIGHSMITH 177 

office, and has filled no position not in line with his profession. 
He has been president of the Cumberland County Medical Society, 
and is now councillor of District No. 5, in accordance with the 
recent division of North Carolina by the State Medical Society. 

His private life is a happy one in his handsome, comfortable 
home on Green Street, surrounded by his family. His wife is 
devoted to his interests, proud of his career, sympathetic of his 
ambitions and hopes and plans for the future. 

Whatever ability may be lacking to the pen which has given 
the above modest sketch, the choice of a biographer was fortunate 
in at least the fact that perhaps no man in North Carolina knows 
Dr. Highsmith better than the writer — ^has studied him more and 
has gone deeper into his inner nature. His extraordinary energy, 
the closeness with which he keeps abreast of all the discoveries 
and achievements in surgery and medicine, and his careful over- 
sight of all the details of his business, are noteworthy. 

But the biographer would say at last that the secret of Dr. 
J. F. Highsmith's success — and he has been very successful — 
lies in his absolute devotion to his profession, his iron, unbreakable 
nerve in difficult operations and critical cases, and his kindly, 
almost womanly sympathy with his patient. 

Truly, how wonderful is science! How mightily doth it move 
in the hands of a strong man for the alleviation of humanity I 
But it moves under an all-wise Creator, who guides the puny hand 
of man, and we say, "What hath God wrought !" 

/. H, Myraver, 




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JOHN HINTON 

,F all the patriots who lived in Wake County 
during the Revolution, probably the most dis- 
tinguished, both as a soldier and statesman, was 
Colonel John Hinton, who was a native of the 
precinct of Chowan, where his father, also 
named John Hinton, resided, his home being in 
that part of Chowan which is now Gates County. 

It was about the year 1750 that John Hinton,. then in the prime 
vigor of manhood, first came to Johnston County. The part of 
Johnston in which he settled was severed in 177 1 and (with parts 
of the counties of Orange and Cumberland) erected into the 
county of Wake. In 1768, when the trouble with the Regulators 
was in its early stages, John Hinton, then a major of Johnston 
County troops, went to Hillsboro to confer with Governor Tryon 
as to the best means of quieting the disturbances. The efforts to 
quell the insurrection by peaceable means having failed, Trj'on 
raised an army in the spring of 1771, and after scattering the 
Regulators at the battle of Alamance on May i6th, put an end to 
the revolt. In Tryon's army Hinton was one of the most trusted 
officers, being colonel of the Wake County detachment, and he 
behaved with distinguished bravery in the battle. 

In the war of the Revolution Colonel Hinton's efforts in the 
cause of the colonies began early. He represented Wake County 
in the second independent Provincial Congress of North Carolina, 



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JOHN HINTON 179 



which met at New- Bern on the 3d of April, 1775. At HiUsboro, 
in the following August, he sat in another Congress of like 
character. On September 9th the Hillsboro Congress elected him 
colonel of the troops of Wake County and member of the Com- 
mittee of Safety for the Hillsboro District, of which district Wake 
formed a part. In the Provincial Congress at Halifax, in April, 
1776, he was once more a delegate. He was also a justice of the 
Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions for Wake County. 

At the battle of Moore's Creek Bridge, on February 27th, 1776, 
Colonel Hinton was present, and there the same courageous spirit 
marked his conduct as at Alamance. 

The death of Colonel Hinton occurred in the spring of 1784. 
His wife was Grizelle Kimbrough, and by her he left many de- 
scendants. In the South Atlantic Quarterly (Durham, North 
Carolina) for April, 1902, there is an accotmt of the life of Colonel 
Hinton written by Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, one of his de- 
scendants. In that sketch will be found many interesting inci- 
dents in his life and career, an account of his family and also a 
list of his children. Two of his sons were Revolutionary officers. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 




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JAMES HUNTER 

^OLON likened the people to the sea and their 
orators and counsellors to the winds, for the 
sea would be calm and quiet if the winds did not 
trouble it. The illustration is none the less happy 
because it may be turned and viewed from 
another side. There would be stagnation and 
death in the sea were it not troubled by the winds. So there would 
soon be the torpidity of slavery among the people could they not 
be aroused to action by their orators. Eternal vigilance is, indeed, 
the price of liberty, and the abiding place of that liberty is in the 
hearts of the people. So much so, tliat a people fit to be free 
has been and always will be free. Continuing the illustration, 
however, as there are great tidal movements in the ocean, inde- 
pendent of winds or weather, so here and there in history are great 
popular uprisings not induced by the appeal of orators. They are 
caused by oppressive or disorderly government, and come not 
from a desire to attack, but from an impatience of suffering, as 
Sully said. The French Revolution and the present stir in Russia 
are instances. In a representative government, whether a consti- 
tutional monarchy or a republic, they have never occurred, and, 
from the nature of things, can never occur. The people of our 
own country have never been aroused to determined action unless 
first stirred by their orators and organized by their leaders. A 



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JAMES HUNTER i8i 



free people, conscious of their freedom, are inapt to see, and when 
seen, not prone to avenge by violence, a minor infringement of 
their collective rights, sensitive though they are to any attack 
upon their private rights. It is the province of orators and agi- 
tators, those sentinels upon the watch towers of liberty, to warn 
the people of any approach of danger. This can be most effectively 
done by a broad and misleading definition of their rights, an 
exaggerated and highly colored statement of their wrongs, and by 
vehement invectives against their alleged foes. In other words, 
the people suffer from a species of political myopia, and things 
and persons and events must be magnified that they may see the 
better. Made thus to believe that they are oppressed, they, nat- 
urally inert, are aroused to action, not from an impatience of 
suffering, but from a desire to attack. This was the method of 
Herman Husbands, the agitator and organizer ; of Rednap Howell, 
the orator and bard ; and of James Hunter, the spokesman of the 
Regulators. 

It was not a new method. It was as old as freedom itself, and 
we see it exemplified in every Presidential election, even to the 
present day. Only the omnipresence of the law and its restraints, 
and the greater sensitiveness of the people to these restraints, pre- 
vent each hard-fought campaign from becoming a series of bloody 
riots, if not a civil war. The absence of these restraints, or their 
effectiveness, made the Regulator movement culminate in the 
Hillsboro riot and the battle of Alamance. 

In these movements it is the office of the agitator and orator 
to stimulate action, and of the leader to organize, guide and con- 
trol the strength of the people so that it may become effective in 
action. In this sense the Regulators had no leader. Herman 
Husbands, the ablest of them, was a great agitator and an excellent 
organizer. But there he stopped short. He lacked the bold deter- 
mination and dauntless courage required of the leader of the 
people in such a crisis. Rednap Howell, the orator and bard of 
the movement, was an active, energetic, shrewd agitator. But 
there he stopped short. He had neither the ability of an organizer 
nor the courage of a leader. James Hunter was intelligent, honest 



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i82 NORTH CAROLINA 

and intrepid, but in the rare qualities necessary to manage and 
control bodies of unruly men he was wholly deficient. 

He came of excellent stock — ^an English family transferred to 
the north of Ireland after the conquest of that kingdom by Crom- 
well. The progenitor of the North Carolina Hunters migrated to 
a Northern colony, probably New Jersey, in the earlier years of the 
eighteenth century. Some years later he removed to Virginia. In 
that province James Hunter, the subject of this sketch, was bom, 
April 8, 1740. His father bore the same name as himself, and 
his mother was an aunt of Alexander and James Martin. He was 
the eldest of nine children. His youth was spent in labor upon 
the farm and in attendance upon a neighboring school. He was 
verging upon manhood when his father removed to the western 
part of Orange County, North Carolina. The location is now 
in Rockingham County. There, among the hills of the Dan, 
the young fellow grew to the full stature of manhood. He married 
Miss MacFarland, and by her had a large family. He was among 
the first to become actively interested in the agitation against the 
county officials. The people had just grievances unquestionably, 
but none of them amounted to positive oppression. The police 
power of the State that now hedges us about on every side was 
scarcely felt then, and the paternal power of the State, that is 
now more and more asserting itself, was then a negligible quantity. 
The only taxes they had to pay was about $1.75 on each poll. In 
the same territory we now pay $2.87 on the poll and 92 3/5 cents 
on each $100 worth of property. They paid Fanning about 
80 cents for recording a deed; we pay from $1 to $1.50. For 
the probate of the same deed they paid 45 cents and we 25 to 50 
cents, etc. Still, there is no doubt that things were at loose ends 
then and required mending. 

Hunter soon became prominent in the councils of the Regu- 
lators. He went with Rednap Howell to Brunswick, and pre- 
sented their celebrated petition to Governor Tryon in June, 1768. 
He bore himself with firmness and courage in the difficult under- 
taking. He presented the petition intended for Chief Justice 
Howard to Judge Henderson at the opening of the fateful court 



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JAMES HUNTER 183 



at Hillsboro, September 22, 1770, and during the disgraceful 
scene that was enacted on the following Monday he protected 
the person of the judge from outrage. 

He had been active in trying to bring the officials to justice, 
had gone to the Salisbury Superior Court in September, 1769, 
and had pressed upon the grand jury indictment after indictment 
against John Frohock, clerk of the court, only to have them 
ignored. He had sued Edmund Fanning in the Hillsboro Superior 
Court, and a jury had decided against him at the March term, 
1770. So firmly convinced was he of the justice of his cause 
that he was sure that these miscarriages could have happened 
only by the corruption of the court and jury. Leg^l remedies, it 
appeared to him, had been exhausted, and he and those acting 
with him were justified in resorting to extra-legal redress. When 
his followers, then breaking beyond control, wreaked their ven- 
geance upon obnoxious officials, he no doubt observed it all with 
grim satisfaction. He was among those indicted at New-Bern for 
his participation in the riot. He, though there, seems not to have 
been prominent at the battle of Alamance. Indeed, according 
to Caruthers, he refused to command, saying, "We are all free 
men and every man must command himself." After the battle, 
he, an outlaw with a price upon his head, made his escape, and 
was in hiding, probably in Western Maryland, for ten months. 
At the end of that time he returned home, rented out his old place, 
entered a piece of land adjoining that and took up his abode there. 
He was never formally pardoned, but events moving rapidly on 
to the Revolution caused him to be courted by both sides — ^by his 
old enemies, who are nearly all Whigs, and by his new friend. 
Governor Martin. At first he certainly inclined to the side of the 
latter. In 1776 he was arrested by the Whigs as a disaflfected 
person, and in May of that year he was paroled by the Provincial 
Congress to Bute County. In August, however, he had returned 
to Guilford County, and was ordered arrested by the committee 
of that county. This arrest he avoided, and appeared before the 
Coimcil of Safety at Salisbury, September 6, 1776, and took the 
oath of allegiance to the State. Thereafter he was a loyal Whig 



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i84 NORTH CAROLINA 

and a useful, efficient patriot. He represented Guilford County 
in the House of Commons from 1778 to 1782, both inclusive, and 
later was sheriff and treasurer of that county. He also presided 
in its county courts until Rockingham County was created in 1785. 
He is said also to have been a major in the county militia and to 
have fought well at the battle of Guilford Court House agaitist 
his old confrere, William Butler. 

He died in 1820, in the eighty-first year of his age. 

He was one of the best products of his period and environment. 
He was honest in intention and act, pure in his living, bold, deter- 
mined and dauntless in the midst of danger, plain, direct in his 
thought and utterance, and as independent and free as the air 
that he breathed. He had much more education than the average 
of his associates. His position of leadership among the Regu- 
lators, far from being sought by him, seems to have been thrust 
upon him by them in recognition of his superior merits. He did 
not hold back, however, from any fear of consequences ; he feared 
no man or set of men. but from an innate modesty based upon his 
thorough conviction that all men should be free and equal. It was 
this that prevented him from being an effective leader of the people 
in action. 

In person he was tall, handsome and well proportioned. Says 
his grandson : "My first impression of him was when he was old, 
but even then he was a fine-looking man, fully six feet tall and 
erect, though he walked with a cane. The Irish brogue was dis- 
tinct in his enunciation, which was earnest and at times fluent. 
He was a strict Presbyterian, and held prayers morning and 
night. His habits were temperate. His library was large and 
miscellaneous, and in the absence of company he was generally 
reading. I never saw him dressed otherwise than in black broad- 
cloth, and his linen was always clean and fresh looking. Kindness 
and benevolence were striking traits of his character, as was mani- 
fested by the lamentations of the poor at his death." 

So he died, honored by all, and surrounded in his peaceful home 
by sorrowing friends and kindred. 

Frank Nash. 



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HERMAN HUSBANDS 




"In fields he dare not fight where honor calls; 
The very noise of war his soul doth wound. 
He quakes but hearing his own trumpet sound." 

— Dryden, 

fHE grandfather of Herman Husbands was one 
of William Penn's colonists, and his father was 
a Quaker in good standing to the time of his 
death. Herman was born October 3, 1724, 
probably in Cecil County, Maryland. From his 
birth to his young manhood he was in the midst 
of a Quaker environment, was subjected to a Quaker training 
and conformed himself to Quaker standards and ideals. There 
can be no doubt that he was, as soon as he was old enough to 
determine the matter, conscientiously an adherent of the doctrine 
of these religionists. For some cause, Caruthers says on account 
of a disagreement between him and the leaders of his church, he 
was disciplined and fellowship was withdrawn from him. He 
came to North Carolina to settle in November, 1755, bringing 
with him his young wife and the first born of his family. 
He settled first in Corbinton, now Hillsboro. Soon after, how- 
ever, he obtained from Earl Granville a grant of 640 acres on 
Deep River. In ten years he took up in this way over 8000 acres 
of what is the best land in what is now Randolph County. During 
the same period he conveyed to others about 3000 of these acres It 



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i86 NORTH CAROLINA 

appears that he was a man of some means at his first coming 
to North Carolina. In 1760 he loaned one Clegg £1500, and took 
an absolute deed from him for 3500 acres, making at the same 
time a parol agreement to reconvey if the said sum was paid in 
fifteen years. It was paid and the reconveyance made in 1769. 
This indicates a confidence in his personal integrity that was justi- 
fied by the event. 

It is well to notice that only two of the deeds or grants made 
to him, and those at his first coming, November 9 and 14, 1755, 
were ever recorded in Orange County, though many were pro- 
bated. In the deeds executed by him to others he always, with 
what seems ostentatious humility or assertive democracy, desig- 
nates himself yeoman or farmer, while the grantee is called 
planter, though he did not own one-fifth as much land as he. To 
all his tracts of land he g^ve appropriate names, and seemed to 
know well their situation, their character and their capacity. Dur- 
ing his residence in North Carolina he seems to have maintained 
a correspondence of some sort with friends in Maryland and 
Pennsylvania — ^not, however, with Benjamin Franklin, as Mr. 
Caruthers suggests, for Franklin was continuously out of the 
country, 1765-75. That he was a great admirer of Franklin goes 
without saying, and he was probably a reader of the Pennsylvania 
Gazette. To a reasonable certainty it may be said that he derived 
his political ideals to a great degree from Franklin's writingfs, 
for in style and method of treatment in his own writings he was 
an imitator of Franklin — ^but at a long distance. He was, how- 
ever, in his reading not confined to the writings of this great man. 
It was a period filled with discussions of the rights of man. They 
occupied no less the attention of the penny-a-liners than of the 
great philosophers and thinkers of the day. Many crude and 
exaggerated notions of them were abroad in the world, and 
Husbands seems to have absorbed many of these. 

It is well to get some clear idea of his character before dis- 
cussing the Regulator troubles, for that character will throw much 
light upon his relations to that movement. 

He had had Quaker antecedents through at least two genera- 



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HERMAN HUSBANDS 187 

tions. He had been bom in a Quaker family. He had been edu- 
cated and trained a Quaker in the midst of a Quaker environment. 
And though his relations to these religionists had been severed, 
he still had the Quaker habit of thought and the Quaker tempera- 
ment. He was then, essentially, a product of the traditions, the 
customs and the religion of the Quakers. He was honest, and, 
in ordinary affairs, plain, direct, simple and truthful. He was no 
respecter of persons or of dignities. He believed an oath to be 
wrong, and to fight wrong. But there the influence of his re- 
ligion stopped. He was not pious. He had none of the deep 
spirituality that characterized so many of his co-religionists, and 
made their faith, notwithstanding some external absurdities, so 
inspiring and beautiful. Transferred to the backwoods of North 
Carolina, he became ambitious for worldly influence and power. 
His ardor in pursuit of these would carry him farther than his 
Quaker conscience could justify. So we can see all through his 
record a shrinking from the responsibilities that his previous 
activity had thrust upon him. It was a struggle, indeed, between 
what in him was artificial and what was natural. This made him 
on several occasions seem cowardly, and when he was in danger, 
shuflSe, dodge and lie. He had in a marked degree cunning, a 
sort of pitiful shrewdness that in the strong man is always con- 
temptible. In him, however, it was more justifiable, because it 
was the only offensive and defensive weapon that his conscience 
would permit him to use. He was, besides, a genuine reformer, 
attacking real evils, very greatly exaggerated to his own mind, it 
is true, but nevertheless very tangible. In bringing rascals and 
thieves to account he was an advocate of a just and holy cause. 
Means against which men of ordinary consciences would revolt 
must be used if thereby the great end could be attained. 

He was, in short, a man of decided mental vigor, with a limited 
education and range of reading, handicapped by his training, 
harrassed and tortured by his conscience, dealing with conditions 
that could be controlled only by a man of force, courage and 
fighting capacity. He had the art and shrewdness to create the 
turmoil, but he could not deal with it or make the best of it. 



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i88 NORTH CAROLINA 

The Regulator movement was in its inception a protest against 
the loose method of levying, collecting and accounting for taxes 
and against the taking by public officials of greater fees than the 
law allowed. Husbands, already a man of great influence in his 
own section,' was particularly active in bringing these grievances 
to the attention of the people, and in organizing them, so as to 
make their protest against them effective. The proposed meeting 
of twelve representatives of the people at Maddock's Mill, in 
Orange County, October, 1766, with the officers of the county, was 
Husbands' plan for accommodating disputes. It would be un- 
profitable to speculate as to what the result of this conference 
might have been. The officers, following Fanning's example and 
advice, did not attend. The term "judiciously" was used in the 
call for this meeting, and he, with what seems on the surface 
provoking technicality, objected to this. The truth probably was, 
that he realized that his defense to the charge of extortion must 
itself be based upon a leg^l technicality which could not be appre- 
hended by the lay mind, particularly when that mind was already 
inflamed by opposition to, if not hatred of, him. The failure of 
this conference was taken by the people as a confession of guilt 
on the part of the officers. Although there was no movement 
on the surface of things during 1767, the discontent was spreading 
all over the county under the artful manipulation of Husbands 
and others. In April, 1768, he converted what was in reality an 
unorganized mob into an oath-bound organization that then for 
the first time assumed the name of Regulators. "We will pay 
no more taxes until we are satisfied they are agreeable to law 
and applied to the purposes therein mentioned" was one of the 
planks of their platform. A few days later, April 8, 1768, they 
had an opportunity to put it into effect. The sheriff levied on 
a horse, saddle and bridle in Hillsboro. About a hundred of them 
came to town, rescued the horse, tied the sheriff to a tree, terrorized 
the citizens, fired several shots through Fanning's house and then 
rode off with the rescued property. The war had begun. The 
Regulators were carrying out their program to pay no more taxes. 
Rumors flew thick and fast up and down the country. On the one 



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HERMAN HUSBANDS 189 

side, that the governor was to raise the Indians and massacre the 
inhabitants, their leaders were to be arrested, hurried off to New- 
Bern or Wihnington, and, without any chance to escape, were to 
be tried there and hanged there. On the other side, the Regu- 
lators were embodying to march upon Hillsboro to slay its inhabi- 
tants and bum the town. Every one was looking anxiously to 
the future, knowing not what would happen. If an oflficer went 
through the Regulator settlements he had to ride for his life, and 
a Regulator dare not come to town unless accompanied by so many 
of his neighbors that he knew he was safe from attack. The 
officers were in reality but a handful compared with the number 
of their foes. They had now, however, the law and the power of 
the government at their backs. The Regulators' open defiance of 
constituted authority had shifted the issue, and the defendants had 
now become the prosecutors. The certainty that the Regulators 
were wrong had put in the background entirely the probability 
that the officers were first wrong, and the cry was that these 
flagrant contemnors of law should be brought to justice. 

Meantime where was Husbands ? Quietly attending to his daily 
duties on his Sandy Creek plantation. He had not joined the 
organization, and now that the storm had broken upon the land 
he hoped to remain in peace far from its center. It was a vain 
hope, for Thomas Hart, accompanied by twenty-nine others, 
among whom was Edmund Fanning, on the night of May i, 1768, 
made a dash out into their settlements armed with legal warrants, 
captured Husbands and William Butler the next day, and brought 
them safe to Hillsboro. The whole country was aroused by this 
and began to embody to rescue these leaders and prevent their 
removal to the East for trial. 

This arrest revealed the artful cunning of Husbands in strong 
contrast with the dauntless courage of William Butler. Said the 
latter when his life was threatened, "I have but one life, and I can 
freely give that up for this cause, for God knows it is just." 
Meantime Husbands squirmed and twisted and lied and made false 
promises that he might be released, taking care at the same time 
to set a trap in the presence of witnesses for his arch enemy, 



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190 NORTH CAROLINA 

Fanning. According to Husbands's own account, Fanning fell 
into this trap, and made him promise, among other things, before 
he would release him, that he would not **show any jealousies of 
officers taking extortionary fees," a virtual confession on Fan- 
ning's part that he was using a public prosecution as an instru- 
ment for private oppression. No doubt Husbands at his release 
went off chuckling to tell his followers how he had outwitted the 
shrewd lawyer Fanning. The truth is, that the officers had in- 
tended to carry him and Butler to New-Bern for trial, but were 
prevented by the rising of the country to the rescue, and so 
attempted to make a virtue of a necessity by arranging bail for 
them and discharging them before they themselves should be 
overpowered by force. 

Husbands's trial came on in the September Superior Court. 
Here, again, we see shuffling and dodging. He is uncertain at 
first about attending trial at all. He goes from town to the camp 
of the Regulators and back to town again. On Monday morning 
the doubt is solved for him by his being committed by the court 
to jail. He is uncertain whether to employ a lawyer. He does 
finally employ James Milner and Abner Nash, giving to the former 
his note for £$0, and to the latter his note for £150, know- 
ing at the time that he would never pay them and hav- 
ing no intention to pay them. He was acquitted, there 
being no evidence that he was a member of the Regulator 
organization or that he had aided or abetted the riot and rescue 
of the preceding April. His lawyers were forced to sue upon 
these notes. He pleaded duress, and the issue was found against 
him at the March term, 1770, of the same court. Executions on 
these judgments were returned, "sale stopped by a mob." He 
satisfied his own conscience by arguing that the statute provided 
a specific fee for attorneys and it was unlawful for them to 
charge more, disregarding the plain fact that the statute intended 
to provide fees for attorneys whose functions did not extend to 
an advocacy of their client's cause in court, so the compensation 
for these services was simply a matter of contract between the 
parties, although the same person was both attorney and advocate. 



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HERMAN HUSBANDS 191 

All this, however, but added to his influence and power among 
the people. When he came in contact with the foe he not only 
came off scathless himself, but bearing spoil with him. He was 
too smart for them all. 

He .was, with John Prior, in the summer of 1769, elected a repre- 
sentative in the Assembly, defeating Edmund Fanning and 
Thomas Lloyd. He appeared at the meeting of the Assembly 
in New-Bern October 23d, and was placed upon the Committee of 
Public Accounts. Governor Tryon, however, in a pet, which he 
afterward explained was caused by illness, dissolved this Assembly 
on November 6. March 12, 1770, a new election was held, and 
Herman Husbands and John Prior were again sent as representa- 
tives of Orange County. This Assembly, on account of the un- 
healthfulness of the season, was prorogued from time to time 
until December 5, 1770, when it met in New- Bern. This was after 
the Hillsboro riot. Husbands was expelled from the House after 
some time spent in the Committee of the Whole considering the 
matter, on December 20, because, first, he was a leader of the 
Regulators ; second, he had published a libel on Maurice Moore ; 
third, he had lied about this libel on his examination by the Com- 
mittee on Propositions and Grievances ; fourth, he had said that if 
he should be confined by the House, he would be released by the 
Regulators. Immediately upon his expulsion. Chief Justice How- 
ard, at Governor Tryon's solicitation, issued a warrant against 
him for this libel, and he was imprisoned in the New-Bern jail 
tmtil February 8, 1771, when he was discharged, the grand jury 
failing to find a bill against him. It was well that he was re- 
leased, for very strenuous efforts were being made by Rednap 
Howell, James Hunter and others to raise the people to go down 
to New-Bern. These efforts were partially successful, for a large 
body of them were marching toward that town when stopped 
at Haw River by a letter of Husbands announcing his release. 

In the narration we have passed by the Hillsboro riot of Sep- 
tember, 1770. Some account of that will be found in the sketch 
of the life of Judge John Williams. There is no doubt that 
Husbands was there, but, as always when the time for action 



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192 NORTH CAROLINA 

came, keeping himself in the background, as he instigated to 
violence others who had no conscientious scruples against it. 

He seems to have pursued the same course at Alamance. 
Caruthers says that though he was active in bringing the people 
together, his Quaker principles would not permit him to- fight. 
When, then, the battle began, he mounted his horse and rode off. 
He was never captured, but after the battle was outlawed, a price 
put upon his head and his farms were ravaged. 

He appeared no more upon the surface of public events in North 
Carolina. He visited the State during the Revolutionary War 
to look after his property interests, but returned soon to Pennsyl- 
vania. Some of his descendants, however, resided for many years 
in the State. 

After Alamance he seems to have gone by his home, collected 
what cash he could, and then, passing through Virginia, took 
refuge in Western Maryland for some months, and later located 
in West Pennsylvania. 

He was very active in, if not a leader of, the Whiskey Insur- 
rection in 1794. He was on the Committee of Safety of the 
Insurrectionists with Bradford, Brackinridge and Gallatin. That 
was an armed resistance to the collection of a Federal tax on dis- 
tilled spirits. It took very much the same course that the Regu- 
lator movement did in North Carolina, and had as its basis the 
same false conception of the rights of man — that is, that each 
individual citizen has the right to determine for himself the justice 
of a law enacted by the government under which he lives. Far 
from being under any obligation to obey it, he may resist it to 
the death and induce others to join him in the resistance — ^a doc- 
trine that is essentially anarchistic. In Pennsylvania they whipped 
the officers, destroyed their property (just as the Regulators did 
in North Carolina) and drove them out of the country. Fifteen 
thousand men under General Harry Lee were sent by President 
Washington against the rebels. As he advanced. General Lee 
issued a proclamation in terms almost identical with that of 
Governor Tryon before Alamance. The Insurrectionists, however, 
wiser than the Regulators, acceded to the terms of the proclama- 



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HERMAN HUSBANDS 193 

tion, surrendered the criminals among them, promised to pay 
arrears of taxes and took the oath of allegiance to the United 
States. Many of them were subsequently tried in the Circuit 
Conrt of the United States and convicted, two capitally. Among 
those convicted was Herman Husbands. President Washington \ 
pardoned nearly all the convicts, and he is said to have pardoned 
Husbands at the solicitation of Dr. David Caldwell, Dr. Rush 
of Philadelphia and the senators from North Carolina, Martin 
and Bloodworth. Husbands, thus released from imprisonment, in 
179s, died on his way home from Philadelphia. 

He was married three times : first unknown ; second, on July 3, 
1872, to Mary Pugh, said to have been sister to James Pugh, the 
Rfeg^lator, who was executed at Hillsboro, June 19, 1771 ; third, 
to Amy or Emmy Allen, in 1766. The last was with him at his 
death. 

Authorities: Husbands' book on Wheeler, p. 301 et seq,; 
Caruther's "Life of Caldwell;" VH. and VHI. Colonial Records, 
and the County Records at Hillsboro ; Weeks's "Southern Quaker 
and Slavery." 

Frank Nash. 




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JAMES INNES 




HE appointment of Gabriel Johnston to be gov- 
ernor of North Carolina in 1733 apparently led 
to quite an influx of Scotchmen to the Cape 
Fear, which was then rapidly coming into note 
as a favorable location in the New World. 
Among those who were attracted to the little 
hamlet of Newton at that time was Captain James Innes, who 
probably had resided at Cannisbay, in Caithness, in the extreme 
northern part of Scotland, near "John O'Groat's house." Within 
a month after the arrival of Governor Johnston he issued com- 
missions to justices to hold precinct courts, and among the justices 
for New Hanover Precinct was named James Innes, and in May, 
1735, the governor recommended Innes for a place in his Majesty's 
Council, and appointed him assistant to William Smith, chief 
baron of the province. Captain Innes speedily became a resident 
of Wilmington, and was a warm friend of the governor in his 
various controversies with the older settlers. It appears that he 
had seen service in the British army, and when, in the fall of 1740, 
four companies of troops were raised in North Carolina for 
service against the Spaniards, Captain Innes was appointed to 
command the company raised on the Cape Fear. This battalion 
took an active part in the sea attack upon Boca Chico, and subse- 
quently aided in the deadly assault upon Fort San Lazaro at 
Cartagena. In that disastrous campaign Captain Innes was inti- 



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JAMES INNES 195 



mately associated with Lawrence Washington, the elder brother 
of General George Washington, and other colonial officers, and 
he himself won g^eat reputation for capacity, judgment and cool 
conduct. This expedition ended disastrously, particularly because 
the troops were swept away by a malignant fever, so that probably 
of the 400 North Carolinians who were engaged on it, not one- 
fifth survived. Returning to North Carolina, Captain Innes be- 
came a successful planter, was colonel of the militia in New 
Hanover County, and one of Granville's agents for the sale of 
his land. In 1750, on the death of Eleazer Allen, he became a 
member of the Council, and was justly esteemed as one of the 
first men of the province. When the French and Indian War 
broke out, in 1754, the North Carolina Assembly promptly pro- 
vided for raising a regiment to assist in the defense of Virginia, 
and Colonel Innes was appointed colonel of that force. Governor 
Dinwiddie, who seems to have known Colonel Innes well, address- 
ing him as "Dear James," and conveying in his letters messages 
from his wife and daughters, tendered him the position of com- 
mander-in-chief of all the forces raised for defense. Colonel Innes 
modestly demurred, but Governor Dinwiddie replied : ** Your age 
is nothing when you reflect on your regular method of living; 
and as for the expectations of the people here, I always have 
regard to merit, and I know yours, and you need not mind or 
fear any reflections." Colonel Fry had been the commander-in- 
chief and Lieutenant-colonel George Washington was under him, 
but Colonel Fry died, and Washington might have expected to 
succeed him. However, on being informed by Governor Din- 
widdie of the appointment of Innes, Washington wrote : "I rejoice 
that I am likely to be happy under the command of an experienced 
officer and man of sense. It is what I have ardently wished for." 
About the last of June, 1754, the North Carolina regiment, which 
had been reduced to 450 rank and file, began to arrive at Win- 
chester, where they found that no provisions had been collected 
for them and no ammunition supplied, and their pay was in 
arrears ; and, moreover, the governor suggested to Colonel Innes 
to build a log fort and magazine, saying that he did not wish 



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196 NORTH CAROLINA 

the force to proceed toward the Ohio, and informed him, "I can 
give no orders for entertaining your regiment, as this Dominion 
will maintain none but their own forces." Indeed, Colonel Innes 
discovered a strong feeling among the Virginians against his 
appointment to the chief command, and a mutinous disposition 
soon developed itself among them. The unfavorable situation led 
Colonel Innes to disband his North Carolina regiment and order 
their return to North Carolina. He himself was directed to build 
a fort on Wills Creek, afterward called Fort Cumberland, and 
not being allowed to go to the front, he remained there in com- 
mand of about 400 men, only forty of whom were North Caro- 
linians. Early in October Governor Sharpe of Maryland pro- 
duced a commission from the King appointing him commander- 
in-chief, and Innes wished to resign and retire, but was prevailed 
on to retain his rank and accept the appointment of camp master 
general; and he remained on the frontier organizing the forces 
and completing the fort. Governor Sharpe did nothing, and the 
next year General Braddock arrived from England with a large 
force of British regulars. When Colonel Washington found that 
the orders gave precedence to British officers of the same grade 
over colonial officers of senior commissions, he threw up his com- 
mission and retired from the service, but was prevailed on to serve 
as an aide on Braddock's staff. Braddock appointed Innes gov- 
ernor of Fort Cumberland, and left him in command there when 
the forces advanced toward Fort Du Quesne. When disaster 
overtook that brave but reckless general, and his routed forces 
returned as fugitives to Fort Cumberland, Colonel Dunbar, then 
in command, precipitately continued his frenzied flight and hurried 
in August to find winter quarters in Philadelphia. 

The flight of the regulars disorganized the provincials, and 
many of Captain Brice Dobbs's North Carolina company deserted ; 
still, there were some forty or fifty North Carolinians at the fort 
remaining with Colonel Innes. Colonel Dunbar left there some 
three or four hundred sick and wounded to be cared for. Colonel 
Innes had urged him to send a reconnoitring party to 
Great Meadows, but Colonel Dunbar could not wait. Colonel 



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JAMES INNES i97 



Innes therefore despatched such a party from his weak 
garrison. 

On the 25th of August Governor Dinwiddie wrote G)lonel Innes 
as follows: 

"Yours of the iTtb of August I received by Jenkins, and copy of both 
yours to G)Ionel Dunbar. His answer to your first is very evasive. Your 
last to him was extremely proper and personal. ... I shall very soon 
augment our forces to laoo men, and then order as many as you think 
proper for your assistance. ... I am, Dear James, yours affectionately." 

Governor Dinwiddie appointed Washington to the command 
of the new levies, and a month later Colonel Innes returned to 
North Carolina on leave of absence. But on the loth of October 
Governor Dinwiddie advised Governor Dobbs that the French 
and Indians had surrounded Fort Cumberland, had killed and 
scalped nearly one hundred of the people and had cut off the 
communication between the fort and the inhabitants. "I wish 
for Colonel Innes's return." Without a day's delay Colonel Innes 
hurried again to Fort Cumberland and remained there until the 
following summer, when, new dispositions being made and the 
immediate frontier being quiet, he returned to North Carolina, 
and eventually retired from the service. As a competent, vigilant 
and efficient officer, faithfully discharging trying duties, he lost 
no reputation amid all the difficulties of the unfavorable circum- 
stances by which he was surrounded. He died at his home near 
Wilmington on September 5, 1759. 

In his will Colonel Innes gave his plantation, Point Pleasant, a 
considerable personal estate, his library and £100 sterling "for the 
use of a free school for the benefit of the youth of North Carolina," 
this being the first private bequest for educational purposes in the 
history of our people. He also made provision for the purchase 
of a church bell for the parish church at Cannisbay, in Caithnesse, 
and directed that £100 should be put at interest for the poor of 
that parish. 

In 1761 Colonel Innes's widow, Jane, married Francis Corbin, 
who had come in 1744 to North Carolina as the agent of Lord 
Granville. 5". A. Ashe. 



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JAMES IREDELL 

[MONG the bevy of illustrious characters who 
were evolved by the heroic times of the Revo- 
lutionary period in North Carolina was James 
Iredell, distinguished more particularly as a 
jurist, a writer and a statesman. He was bom 
in the town of Lewes, Sussex County, England, 
on the 5th of October, 1751, but came to North Carolina when but 
seventeen years of age. He was a son of Francis Iredell and 
Margaret McCulloh, and through his mother was nearly related 
to Henry McCulloh, who was the kinsman of Governor Gabriel 
Johnston, and who, about the time of Johnston's appointment, was 
himself appointed comptroller of the King's rents in the province 
of Carolina, and obtained grants for nearly 1,000,000 acres 
of land for settlement in the province. 

His father having been overtaken by misfortune, in February, 
1768, through the influence of a kinsman, Sir George McCartney, 
young Iredell was appointed controller of the customs at Edenton, 
and in the latter part of the year arrived in that town. Although 
so young, he had been well trained, and had the elements of a fine 
manhood in his composition, and he soon won the friendly interest 
of the gentlemen of Edenton. 

Indeed, even at that early age his friends regarded him with 
admiration. In view of his anticipated departure from England, 
a learned minister wrote to him : **The eyes of great numbers are 



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JAMES IREDELL 199 



very anxiously fixed upon you. You have given your relations 
and friends reason to expect great things from you. God hath 
blessed you with excellent abilities, which you have worthily im- 
proved. I know your intellectual endowment, and the proficiency 
you have made in useful knowledge." His kinsman, Henry 
Eustice McCulloh, who had inherited the large McCulloh grants 
in North Carolina, and was well acquainted at Edenton, had 
apparently arranged for young Iredell to be directed in his studies 
by Mr. Samuel Johnston, and he was at once introduced into 
Edenton society under the most favorable circumstances. Al- 
though he remitted a large part of his salary for the support of 
his parents, he retained a competency for his maintenance while 
he studied law under Mr. Johnston and fitted himself for a pro- 
fessional career. He began the practice of the law in December, 
1770, and at the same time became deeply interested in the public 
questions that were agitating the minds of the colonists. In 1773 
he married Hannah Johnston, the younger sister of Mr. Samuel 
Johnston, and thus became still more intimately associated with 
that great man and with Joseph Hewes, who himself was about 
to be married to Miss Isabella Johnston, and, after her sudden 
death, continued on the footing of a member of that family ; and 
this triumvirate brought to the consideration of public affairs 
an intelligence and a patriotism not excelled elsewhere in the 
province. The writings of Mr. Iredell even at that early time 
arc remarkable for their strength, boldness and vigor. 

Although Hooper was then thirty-two years of age and Iredell 
but twenty-two, in April, 1774, Hooper himself, so able and dis- 
tinguished, wrote to Iredell : **I am happy, my dear sir, that my 
conduct in public life has met your approbation. It is a suffrage 
which makes me vain, as it flows from a man who has the wisdom 
to distinguish and too much virtue to flatter. Whilst I was active 
in contest, you forged the weapons which were to give success to 
the cause I supported. . . . With you I anticipate the important 
share which the colonies must soon have in regulating the political 
balance. They are striding fast to independence, and erelong 
will build an empire on the ruins of Great Britain." This letter 



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200 NORTH CAROLINA 

indicates the trend of thought at that early day and the esteem 
in which Iredell was held by his associates. 

When the laws of the State were to be revised in 1776, Iredell 
was appointed by the Provincial Congress one of the commission- 
ers to perform that important service, and it is said that the Court 
Law of 1777 was prepared by him. When the courts were organ- 
ized in December, 1777, he was one of the three judges then elected, 
and he served on the bench for one term, when, because the salary 
was insufficient, he felt constrained to resign and resume his 
practice. 

In January 1779, the Assembly desired his services as a dele- 
gate to the Continental Congress, but his want of means again 
compelled him to decline this employment ; but on the resignation 
of Waightstill Avery, the attorney-general, in July, 1779, he 
accepted the appointment of attorney-general of the State, and he 
continued in that office until the end of the war in 1782. 

Wlien, at the May term, 1787, the question arose as to the 
validity of a clause in the Confiscation Acts directing the courts 
to dismiss certain cases, and the court questioned the constitution- 
ality of that act. Judge Iredell took strong ground that "an act of 
Assembly inconsistent with the Constitution is void, and cannot 
be obeyed without disobeying the superior law ;" and he upheld the 
court in its determination not to observe the legislative enactment. 
In like manner, when on the Supreme Court bench, he again 
declared "that if any act of Congress or of the legislature of the 
State violates those Constitutional provisions, it is unquestionably 
void." It would seem that no man understood better than he the 
system of government that had arisen in the New World on the 
ruins of the colonial governments. In 1787 Judge Iredell was 
appointed a member of the Council and sole commissioner to revise 
and compile the acts of the General Assembly of North Carolina. 
This task was ably executed, and his work became known as 
"Iredell's Revisal." 

Judge Iredell warmly espoused the cause of a Federal Union 
of the States, and when the Constitution was framed in 1787 he 
became one of the foremost advocates of its adoption. In January, 



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JAMES IREDELL 201 



1788, he published an admirable answer to the objections made 
by George Mason to that instrument. This pamphlet of thirty 
pages antedated all but the earliest papers of The Federalist, and 
it is not surpassed by any of the productions of Hamilton or 
Madison. 

Being a member of the constitutional convention which met at 
Hillsboro on July 21, 1788, he forcibly urged the ratification of the 
Constitution, and, indeed, was a leader in that work, the burden 
of the argument falling upon his shoulders. **He defended, he 
removed objection, he persuaded, he appealed to interest and 
awakened into life the spark of national pride." But his efforts 
were in vain; still, his vigor and the extent and variety of his 
attainments excited the admiration of his adversaries, and although 
he made few converts to his cause, he gained so many friends 
for himself that at the next session of the legislature, when Rowan 
County was divided, the new county was named in his honor, 
Iredell. Further to advance the cause. Judge Iredell and General 
Davie arranged for the publication of the debates in the con- 
vention, and posterity is indebted to these two eminent men for 
this publication, which involved them in pecuniary loss. Defeated 
on this occasion, Judge Iredell redoubled his efforts to secure the 
ratification of the Constitution, and a year later had the satis- 
faction of seeing North Carolina brought again into the Union of 
the States. His reputation had become so widely extended that 
before this event it had been suggested to him that the President 
designed to appoint him a member of the Supreme Court of the 
United States, and if North Carolina should not come into the 
Union, he might remove to Virginia, so that the appointment could 
be made; and on February 10, 1790, he was appointed to that 
high office and unanimously confirmed by the Senate. He had no 
superior on that bench during the time of his service, and the 
writer of this sketch believes that if his life had been spared, he 
would have occupied that position among the jurists of America 
which has been ascribed to Chief Justice Marshall, to whom he 
was in no sense inferior. As a judge, his fame rests chiefly on 
his dissenting opinion in Chisolm v. the State of Georgia, in which 



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202 NORTH CAROLINA 

he held the opinion that the jurisdiction of the Federal court did 
not extend to a suit by an individual against a sovereign State. 
As a majority of the court did not agree with him in that view, 
the Constitution was immediately amended to the eflFect that the 
judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to 
extend to such a suit, thus establishing Judge Iredell's view as the 
fundamental law of the land. The constitutional principles laid 
down by him in this opinion eventually became the doctrine of 
those who maintained the rights of the State and antagonized 
consolidation. 

In the summer of 1799 his honorable life was nearly spent. The 
severe labors of the circuit had undermined his constitution and 
his health gave way. He was unable to attend the August term 
of the court, and, slowly failing, at last died at Edenton on the 
20th of October, 1799, at the age of forty-nine years, and when 
at the zenith of his glorious and useful career. 

The marriage of Judge Iredell was particularly happy, and his 
private life was beautiful. His correspondence has been published 
by his biographer, Mr. Griffith J. McRee, and it is the most valu- 
able contribution to the history of the State that has yet been 
published, unless we except the Colonial and State Records. 

5". A. Ashe. 




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CHARLES EARL JOHNSON 

fHARLES EARL JOHNSON, one of the most 
proniinent business men in the city of Raleigh, 
was born in Raleigh on the 13th of August, 
1851, Mr. Johnson is of distinguished descent. 
He is a descendant of John Johnston, a brother 
of Governor Gabriel Johnston and the surveyor- 
^^eneral of the province, who, about the year 1736, located in 
Onslow County. Samuel Johnston, the eldest son of the surveyor- 
general, was without question the most distinguished of North 
Carolinians during his period of activity — ^before the Revolution, 
during the war for Independence and subsequently in the Senate 
of the United States, where he took rank among the greatest and 
most esteemed members of that body. As far back as 1773 Samuel 
Johnston wrote that he had given much consideration to the rcla- 
tion of the colonies to Great Britain, and he saw nothing else 
to expect but that in the near future there would be a separation 
and the colonies would become independent States. Samuel 
Johnston's younger sister, Hannah, became the wife of James 
Iredell, whose services in securing the ratification of the Consti- 
tution of the United States by the State of North Carolina in 
1789 were largely more effective and important than those of any 
other citizen. Appointed a member of the Supreme Court 
of the United States in 1790, he was undoubtedly the 
greatest member of that body until his death in 1799. 



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204 NORTH CAROLINA 

His dissenting opinion in the case where the State of 
Georgia was sued by an individual contained the basic principles 
on which was founded the Republican Party, which con- 
trolled the United States from 1800 until the election of Harrison 
in 1840, and it was by reason of the observance of the Constitu- 
tional principles announced by him that the Union was maintained 
during the early period of its existence before the idea of national- 
ism became incorporated into the life of the people. His son, 
James Iredell, governor of the State, entered public life as a 
member of the House of Commons in 1813, and continued a 
representative in that body until 1819, serving a few months 
during that year as Superior Court judge, and then returning to 
the House, where he remained until 1827, when he became gov- 
ernor of the State, and then from 1828 to 1831 he represented 
the State in the United States Senate. He was a man of the 
finest abilities, had graduated with the first distinction at Prince- 
ton, and was remarkable for his scholarly attainments. By many 
he was rated as superior to his father. In the Senate he was so 
highly appreciated that when it became desirable to present the 
Southern view of the great political questions in 1830, it was 
designated by his associates that he should engage in the debate 
with Mr. Webster, but as he unfortunately was prevented from 
doing that. Senator Hayne of South Carolina took his place in 
that debate. 

He married Frances Lenox Tredwell, a descendant of John 
Alden and Priscilla Mullins of the Plymouth Rock colony, and 
their daughter, Frances Lenox Iredell, married Dr. Charles Earl 
Johnson and became the mother of the subject of this sketch. 

Dr. Johnson was himself of distinguished lineage. His ancestor, 
Charles Johnson, it is said, was originally a member of the great 
Johnston family of the south of Scotland, of which the Earl 
Annandale was the head and of which Governor Gabriel Johnston 
was a member. When but a youth he followed the unfortunate 
Charles Edward, and after the battle of CuUoden escaped to 
the Continent, and out of precaution dropped the "t" from his 
name. He subsequently returned to Scotland, and then spent 



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CHARLES EARL JOHNSON 205 

some years in London in the service of the East India Company. 
Later he removed to the Albemarle section, where he married a 
daughter of Rev. Daniel Earl. Mr. Earl in 1759 had succeeded 
Rev. Qement Hall as the pastor at Edenton, where he continued 
to officiate until 1778, and at Bandon, fifteen miles above Edenton, 
established a school in which was taught Latin and Greek and 
the higher mathematics. He also established the first large seine 
fishery at the point now known as Avoca, and introduced into the 
Albemarle section that industry which afterward became so im- 
portant. 

Mr. Johnson was a man of ability and lofty patriotism, and was 
held in high esteem by the gentlemen of the Albemarle region. 
In his political action he affiliated with Samuel Johnston, Judge 
Iredell and Allen Jones and their friends. He represented Chowan 
County in the State Senate from 1781 to 1784 and from 1788 to 
1792, and was speaker of the Senate in 1789 at the same time 
when Governor Johnston presided over the constitutional con- 
vention, and he himself was a zealous advocate of the ratification 
of the Constitution of the United States. He was representative 
in the Congress of the United States in 1801 and 1802, but died 
before the expiration of his term. By his marriage with Miss Earl 
he had one son, Charles Earl Johnson, who himself represented his 
county in the Senate from 1817 to 1820, but did not seek a political 
career. He was a planter, and was distinguished for his virtues 
and the elegant culture of his household. He married Frances 
Taylor, a daughter of Major Francis Taylor, who had married 
Miss Person, a niece of General Thomas Person of Granville 
County ; and from this union there sprang Dr. Charles E. Johnson 
of Raleigh. 

Dr. Johnson was bom to affluence and to a high social position. 
Gifted with a robust constitution and rare mental endowments, 
he was from his early years a fine student. He was a graduate 
of the University of Virginia, and before he had attained the age 
of twenty-one he had graduated in medicine at the University of 
Pennsylvania. At first he returned to Bertie, his native county, 
where he practiced until about 1840, when he moved to Raleigh. 



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2o6 NORTH CAROLINA 

Shortly after he located at the State capital an epidemic of fever 
occurred, and Dr. Johnson gained a great reputation for his suc- 
cessful treatment, and as years passed, his reputation in his pro- 
fession became so extended that he was commonly esteemed as 
being at the very head of his profession. On the establishment 
of the North Carolina Insane Asylum, of which he was a zealous 
advocate, exerting his whole influence to secure the passage of the 
measure through the General Assembly, he was appointed the first 
chairman of the Board of Directors of that institution, and he 
performed his responsible duties to the eminent satisfaction of the 
State. His reputation as a physician grew as the years passed, 
and he had repeated offers to remove to New York and associate 
himself with the famous medical men in the metropolis. Indeed, 
on one occasion the celebrated Dr. Sayer sent his own son to 
Raleigh to be treated by Dr. Johnson. 

When the war broke out, the Medical Corps of the North 
Carolina troops was organized by the appointment of Dr. Johnson 
as the surgeon-general of the State. He immediately went on 
duty, selecting and recommending surgeons and assistant surgeons 
for each regiment as it was organized, and was zealously active 
in obtaining supplies of medicines and surgical instruments. He 
established and equipped the first North Carolina Hospital in 
Petersburg, which was opened for patients in October, 1861, under 
the charge of Surgeon P. E. Hines ; and early in 1862 he organized 
and opened the second North Carolina Hospital in Petersburg, 
with Surgeon W. C. Warren in charge. Also in the spring of 
that year he established a North Carolina Hospital in Richmond, 
with Surgeon O. F. Manson in charge, and he established wayside 
hospitals at Weldon, Goldsboro, Tarboro, Raleigh, Salisbury and 
Charlotte. While surgeon-general. Dr. Johnson, with a corps of 
assistants, visited every battlefield in Virginia, taking with him 
medicines and supplies of every kind for the sick and wounded 
soldiers. He was devoted to the care, the relief and welfare of 
the soldiers during his term of office, and his arrangements for 
their comfort, care and convenience were an example which other 
States hastened to follow. In September, 1862, North Carolina 



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CHARLES EARL JOHNSON 207 

having turned over all of her troops to the Confederate Govern- 
ment, transferred her hospitals in Virginia and North Carolina 
also to the Confederate States. After the hospitals had passed 
from under his control, Dr. Johnson felt so largely relieved of the 
duties and responsibilities of his position as surgeon-general that 
he retired, and upon his resignation was succeeded by Surgeon 
Edward Warren. 

Of Dr. Johnson it is to be said that as a man and citizen he was 
of the highest excellence. In intelligence, learning and capacity 
he was no less superior than in character, and no man was more 
highly esteemed for noble qualities and for social virtues. In 
particular was he remarkable for his benevolence, and even after 
his fortune had been impaired by the disasters of the war, his 
charities were limited only by his means. He was a communicant 
of the Episcopal Church and constant in his attendance on its 
services, and he was one of the most devoted churchmen of the 
diocese. Illustrious as he was in descent, by his distinguished 
career and walk in life he gave to his family an additional title 
to popular regard. 

His son, the subject of this sketch, was in youth strong and 
robust and fond of outdoor life and manly sports. He was taught 
at Lovejoy's celebrated academy at Raleigh, and also by Rev. Dr. 
R. S. Mason, and he studied both secular and church history under 
the direction of his father. Circumstances prevented him from re- 
ceiving a collegiate education, and on reaching his seventeenth year 
he entered as a clerk in the dry goods store of W. H. & R. S. 
Tucker, with whom he remained until he was well instructed in 
business and entirely qualified to enter upon a career of his own. 

In 1874 and 1875 he was assistant secretary of the Senate, and 
at that time he was studying law with the purpose of engaging 
in the practice of that profession ; but his father dying in March, 
1876, he was constrained to abandon hopes of a professional 
career and enter upon some gainful occupation. He turned his 
attention to cotton, which at that time was the most important 
staple article in the trade of Raleigh, and he soon became an expert 
in that business. For one year he was a member of the firm of 



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2o8 NORTH CAROLINA 

Lee, Whi taker & Johnson, but in September, 1877, he began busi- 
ness on his own account under the firm name of C. E. Johnson & 
Company, but having no partner. 

At that time the cotton marketed at Raleigh was sold at Nor- 
folk, Baltimore and New York for export. There were but few 
cotton factories in North Carolina, and the export trade was 
through houses doing business at the ports. Mr. Johnson was 
one of the first to see the advantage of direct foreign trade on 
through bills of lading from initial points of shipment in the 
interior. He was instrumental in inducing the railroad com- 
panies to issue their bills of lading direct from interior points 
to points of delivery in Great Britain and on the Continent, and 
he was the first man in this section to inaugurate that business. 
Having arranged the details with the railroad companies, he went 
to Europe and spent four months in making desirable connections 
with the best importing houses and in perfecting the arrangements 
he had in view. He soon saw the necessity for establishing com- 
presses in the interior, and he caused a compress to be erected 
in Raleigh, which was one of the very first erected at any interior 
point in the South, and as his business grew, in addition to the 
compress operated by him at Raleigh he operated a much larger 
one in Hamlet. Subsequently mills began to be erected in North 
Carolina, and the marvelous era of cotton manufacturing set in 
in this State, and Mr. Johnson was largely engaged in supplying^ 
the local demand of the home mills, but in addition he has handled 
for export as much as 150,000 bales per annum. Owing to the 
rapid growth of the milling interests during the past few years, 
nearly all of the staple raised in Middle North Carolina, Soutli 
Carolina and Georgia is required for the home supply, and rela- 
tively the export business has decreased, but he, through his 
agents, is still doing a large business in procuring cotton through- 
out the adjoining States, not merely suppl3ring in parts the mills, 
but also continuing his export business. 

The advantage of the new methods he was instrumental in 
introducing has been largely shared by the planters. It has 
brought about a reduction in the cost of handling cotton between 



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CHARLES EARL JOHNSON 209 

the producer and the consumer to such an extent that whereas 
formerly the planter received only about 2 cents per pound less 
than the price of delivery at the foreign mills, he now receives 
the foreign price less only about i cent per pound, an increase 
benefit to the planter of about i^ cents per pound on his entire 
crop. 

While a man of large business interests, and much interested 
in the prosperity of the people and of the city, Mr. Johnson has 
never sought political preferment. Always a zealous supporter 
of the Democratic Party, he has nevertheless had an independent 
judgment as to men and measures, and has applied the touchstone 
of utility and fitness when considering either candidates or policies. 
He takes a comprehensive view of public matters, and no one 
more quickly sees through the arts of a demagogue or the inapt- 
ness of any demagogical scheme advanced to catch the ear of the 
unwary. 

Mr. Johnson has always been active in church work, and for 
twenty years has been the treasurer of the diocese of North 
Carolina, and during that time has generally attended every 
diocesan convention, and has otherwise given a practical mani- 
festation of his zeal and devotion. Before the establishment of 
Rex Hospital at the old mansion of Governor Manly, St. John's 
Hospital was opened in that building, and Mr. Johnson was one 
of the committee having charge of the work, and contributed 
largely to the success of that deserving charity. Later it was dis- 
continued when the Rex Hospital was opened. Mr. Johnson has 
always been prominent in promoting every enterprise that would 
be of advantage to the city, and at the centennial celebration in 
1892 he was active, and participated earnestly in making that 
celebration one of the most glorious events in the life of the city. 
For many years, until the change in the management of the Sea- 
board Air Line Railway, he was a leading director in that com- 
pany, and was influential in the management. With others, in 
1898 he established the Mechanics' and Dimes Savings Bank, of 
which he has been the only president, and for many years he has 
been the vice-president of the National Bank of Raleigh, and he 



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2IO NORTH CAROLINA 

is president of the Raleigh Ice Company, and also president of the 
Hamlet Ice Company, which was established for the purpose of 
furnishing ice for the refrigerator cars coming from the extreme 
South. In some seasons as many as one hundred cars with peaches 
alone are furnished with ice per day; and he is president of the 
Chesterfield Land and Lumber Company, which owns more than 
25,000 acres of timber lands in South Carolina, and he is director 
in various other companies in which he is interested. His business 
as a cotton exporter and manufacturer and as a banker occupies 
him closely, and his success in every field in which he has operated 
is itself an assurance of his high capacity and fine business qualifi- 
cations. But it is not only as a business man that he excels. His 
walk in life has won for him the entire esteem of all who know 
him. No one thrown in contact with him can fail to appreciate 
the thorough excellence of his character, and he enjoys the confi- 
dence and respect of the community in an enviable degree. 

When Governor Glenn was making up his staff, he invited Mr. 
Johnson to become his aide de camp, and he now serves in that 
capacity with the rank of colonel. This, however, is not the full 
extent of Colonel Johnson's military career. About the close of 
the war, when he was only fourteen years of age, when General 
Joe Johnston was marshalling his forces to contend with the great 
army of General Sherman, the subject of this sketch, animated 
by the spirit of his Revolutionary sires, enrolled himself as a 
private in the ranks of the Confederate army and went out to do 
battle for his country. The war, however, soon ended, and his 
military career was closed without any protracted experience. 

Mr. Johnson has travelled much, and has been abroad, and has 
availed himself of his opportunities to become acquainted with 
matters of interest in Great Britain and on the Continent, and he 
has been broadened by his large experience. Always interested in 
history, he has naturally found pleasure in the history of his own 
State, in which his forefathers were such conspicuous actors. He 
has inherited a large collection of manuscript letters, many written 
in colonial days when this country was a part of the British King- 
dom and before the rise of Republican institutions; and for 



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CHARLES EARL JOHNSON 



211 



years he has been enriching his collection by constant additions, 
with the purpose of eventually depositing it with the State as a 
memorial of the past. 

On the 7th of December, 1876, Mr. Johnson was happily married 
to Miss Mary Ellis Wilson of Charlotte, a daughter of Joseph 
Harvey Wilson, for many years one of the foremost members of 
the Charlotte bar, and a gentleman honored and esteemed not 
merely for his high intellectual endowments, but for the fine quali- 
ties that adorned his character. 

5". A. Ashe, 




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N 



JOHN LAWSON 

fO American States have been more fortunate 
than the Carolinas in their earliest historians. 
Jacques Le Moyne came out with the French 
Huguenot colony in 1562 to Fort Carolina, and 
/p V^"-gM V? P^in^cd ^he South Carolina Indians as he found 
^Q)i^)k^f^ them, in their fresh, vigorous life, uncontam- 
inated and undegenerated by contact with white men. John White 
came with Sir Walter Raleigh's colony of 1585-86 to Roanoke 
Island, and there painted a series of pictures of the North Caro- 
lina Indians which has become the basis of all descriptive works 
dealing with the Indians south of the Chesapeake, just as 
Le Moyne's drawings serve for those of the Gulf coast. In the 
same way Hariot, the companion of White, gave us an extended 
and accurate account of the natural features of North Carolina 
at the time of the first incoming of the English. What Hariot 
and White did at the end of the sixteenth century, Lawson did 
for the same region and in the same way at the beginning of the 
eighteenth. It is from White and Hariot and Lawson that our 
knowledge of the natural features of early North Carolina and its 
inhabitants is drawn. 

John Lawson, traveller and explorer, surveyor, historian and 
humorist, was an Englishman who signs himself "gentleman.'* 
He probably belonged to the Lawsons of Brough Hall, in York- 
shire. Some accounts say he was bom in Scotland, but we know 



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JOHN LAWSON 213 



nothing of his early life save what he tells us in the introduction 
to his history. He was still a young man in 1700, when *'My 
intention at that time being to travel, I accidentally met with a 
gentleman who had been abroad, and was very well acquainted 
with the ways of living in both Indies; of whom, having made 
inquiries concerning them, he assured me that Carolina was the best 
country I could go to, and that there then lay a ship in the Thames 
in which I might have my passage. I laid hold on this oppor- 
timity, and was not long on board before we fell down the river, 
and sailed to Cowes. ... On the ist day of May, having a fair 
wind at east, we put to sea, . . . till the end of July, when the 
winds hung so much southerly that we could not get to our port, 
but put into Sandy Hook Bay, and went up to New York. . . . 
After a fortnight's stay here we put out from Sandy Hook, and 
in fourteen days after arrived at Charleston, the metropolis of 
South Carolina." 

Thus begins Lawson's connection with the Carolinas. He re- 
mained in Charleston till December 28, 1700, and then set out on 
'*a thousand miles travel" through the Indian country toward 
North Carolina. His party consisted of six Englishmen and four 
Indians. They ascended the Santee, discharged their Indians, 
employed another as guide and pack carrier and struck inland, 
wandering in zigzag fashion toward the north, paddling up rivers 
or wading across them, pushing over highlands and morasses, 
among savages, serpents and wild beasts. A large part of the 
journey was made along the great Indian trail known to the Vir- 
ginia traders as the Occaneechi or Catawba path. Lawson struck 
this trail about where it crossed the Catawba River, not far from 
the boundary of North and South Carolina. He probably followed 
it to the modem Hillsboro. In fact, the North Carolina Railroad 
from Hillsboro, through Greenboro, Salisbury and Charlotte to 
the South Carolina line is laid out almost exactly along the line 
of the trail. Large parts of this region were perhaps now visited 
by white men for the first time. Lawson left the trail at Hills- 
boro, turned to the southeast and followed the western bank of the 
Neusc until he crossed to the northern bank at the falls, near the 



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214 NORTH CAROLINA 

modem railroad crossing at Wake Forest. He continued down 
the Neuse, probably passed near the site of Goldsboro, then turned 
north, crossed the Contentnea near Grifton and the Tar at Green- 
ville and thence to the English settlements on "Pampticough 
River, in North Carolina, where, being well received by the inhab- 
itants, and pleased with the goodness of the country, we all re- 
solved to continue" (Monday, February 24, 1701). 

Such was the introduction of John Lawson to North Carolina, 
That this young man, fresh from the culture of the Old World, 
was a boon to the province there can be no doubt. He was doubly 
useful because of his knowledge of surveying, and was probably 
soon made a deputy surveyor, for on April 28, 1708, he became 
surveyor-general. This office demanded skill, courage, energy, 
integrity and some measure of learning ; it conferred a high social 
rank, brought him into contact with the leading men in the prov- 
ince and was the best possible preparation for his account of the 
natural resources of the country. 

We know little of his history apart from his official capacity, 
but man can have in reality little history except as he touches 
the careers of his fellows. All history, all biography, is made 
up of social phenomena, and when man becomes a hermit he ceases 
to interest his fellows. Lawson was one of the incorporators of 
Bath in 1705, and as such was interested in the public library 
which Dr. Bray had sent over to the village about 1701. He seems 
to have kept out of the troubles known as the Cary Rebellion, and 
went on at least one visit to England. In 1709, while in England, 
he was appointed the associate of Edward Moseley in surveying 
the boundary between North Carolina and Virginia. Nothing 
was done on this matter before 1710, and then because of disputes 
over latitude, the Virginians wishing to come too far south, little 
was accomplished. While in England, Lawson became interested 
in De Graffenried's Palatines, and was appointed a director of the 
colony. He returned with the first ships that brought Palatines 
to North Carolina, arriving about April, 171 1, and set to work 
to locate them on Neuse River. This was perhaps his last im- 
portant work. 



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JOHN LAWSON 215 



His death followed hard on the location of the Palatines. This 
new settlement meant more land for the whites, who had been 
steadily encroaching on the Indians for years. The latter had seen 
game diminish, and found themselves driven further from the 
coast as the whites spread fan-shaped into the interior. Lawson's 
work as a surveyor brought him into constant contact with the 
Indians and caused him to incur their hatred. They mistook him 
for the cause, while he was only an agent, in despoiling them of 
their lands. The coming of the surveyor meant to the Indian 
the nearer approach of the whites. These were now distracted 
and broken by internal dissensions, and in September, 171 1, the 
Tuscaroras broke out into open war. 

Early in that month Lawson, De Graffenried and a few servants 
set out from New-Bern to see how far the Neuse was navigable, 
to explore the upper country and to see if a new road could be 
made that way to Virginia. They fell in with a war party of 
Tuscaroras and were taken to King Hencock's town of Catechna 
(on Contentnea Creek, near the present Snow Hill, Greene 
County). De Graffenried tells us that it was at first determined 
to set them at liberty, but that Lawson got into a quarrel with 
a Coree and they were then sentenced to death. The Indians had 
mistaken De Graffenried for Governor Hyde, and he, by threats 
and promises and by shifting all blame on Lawson, was spared, 
but Lawson was put to death. The method we are not sure of, 
but Gale says it was in a way described in Lawson's own history : 
"Others keep their enemies' teeth which are taken in war, whilst 
others split the pitch pine into splinters and stick them into the 
prisoner's body yet alive. Thus they light them, which bum like 
so many torches ; and in this manner they make him dance round 
a great fire, every one buffeting and deriding him till he expires, 
when every one strives to get a bone or some relic of this un- 
fortunate captive." 

The day after Lawson's death De Graffenried was informed 
that the Indians would go to war with the whites, and that the 
people on the Pamlico, Neuse and Trent rivers and on Core Sound 
were the particular objects of their enmity. As this war broke out 



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2i6 NORTH CAROLINA 

September 22, 171 1, we may take the 20th as about the date of 
Lawson's death. His will, dated August 12, 1708, is on file in 
Raleigh. He there speaks of Bath County as his home and 
Hannah Smith as his wife ; he gives her the house and lands then 
occupied by them and one-third of the personal property. He 
had a daughter named Isabella and two or three other children. 
The record of his descendants has been lost. 

Such was the unfortunate end of one of the earliest North 
Carolina historians. His historical and descriptive work was 
possibly compiled for John Stevens's "Collections of Voyages and 
Travels," which was begun in 1708 and finished in 1710-11. The 
second of the series, printed in 1709, is Lawson's "New Voyage 
to Carolina." It appeared in 171 1 as a part of the edition of 
Stevens published that year, and with the same title-page. In 
1714 and 1718 it was republished under the title "The History 
of Carolina (London)." There was a German edition in 17 12, 
"Alleneuster Beschreibung der Provintz Carolina (Hamburg)," 
and another in 1722. These were doubtless issued to encourage 
immigration, and perhaps in the interests of De Graffen- 
ried's Palatine colony. The 1714 edition was reprinted in Raleigh 
in i860, and again at Charlotte in 1903 by Colonel F. A. 
Olds. Both of the North Carolina reprints are very poorly 
done. 

The volume recounts the travels and observations of the author : 
"I shall now proceed to relate my journey through the country 
from this settlement [South Carolina] to the other, and then treat 
of the natural history of Carolina, with other remarkable circum- 
stances which I have met with during my eight years' abode in 
that country." Lawson had had some scientific training ; no man 
of his day had superior or perhaps even equal opportunities to 
learn the country, and no one had a more accurate or extensive 
knowledge than he. There is little in the volume on personal, 
civil or political matters. It is not a history of the early settlers ; 
it is divided into three nearly equal parts: (i) A journal of a 
thousand miles travel; (2) a description of North Carolina; and 
(3) an account of the Indians of North Carolina. It doubtless 



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JOHN LAWSON 217 



partakes of the nature of what we would now call a boom publi- 
cation, but is a valuable picture of the resources and natural 
features of the country. His book is the one contemporary 
authority for that period. He came constantly into contact with 
the Indians and had abundant opportunities for studying their 
life and customs. These he has faithfully portrayed. His account 
of the interviews and intrigues of his party with the Indians whcwn 
they met on the thousand miles journey is picturesque and amus- 
ing, and his observations on the Indians themselves are acute and 
trustworthy. He has left us vocabularies of the Tuscarora, Pamti- 
cough and Woccon Indians, and gives us all our knowledge of the 
last mentioned tribe. There is also in his observations at times a 
keen satire. His natural history is perhaps more at fault. He de- 
scribes the country with its rivers and natural scenery, but Dr. 
Curtis has shown that his accounts of the flora of the country are 
overdrawn. He gives us minute descriptions of beasts, birds and 
fishes, but shows from his classification that he was frequently, 
dealing with unknown forms. 

In 1737 Dr. John Brickell published his "Natural History of 
North Carolina." Sparks sajrs that this book is "an almost exact 
verbal transcript of Lawson's history, without acknowledgment 
on the part of the author or even a hint that it is not original. 
Periods and paragraphs are transposed, parts are occasionally 
omitted and words and sentences are here and there interpolated ; 
but as a whole a more daring piece of plagiarism was never exe- 
cuted." And Field says it "is such a mutilated, interpolated and 
unscrupulous appropriation of the unfortunate John Lawson's 
work of the same sub-title that the transcription is scarcely more 
than a parody." 

But these statements do a grave injustice to Brickell. He tells 
us that his work is a- "compendious collection." He took the work 
of Lawson, reworked it in his own fashion, extended or curtailed 
and brought it down to his own time. His work is more than 
twice as large as that of Lawson's; his professional training is 
everywhere patent, and there is much in it relating to the social 
condition of the colony. Brickell's work is fuller, more systematic 



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2l8 



NORTH CAROLINA 



and more like the work of a professional student ; Lawson's seems 
more like that of a traveller and observer. 

This sketch is based on the material found in Lawson's work, 
in the Colonial Records of North Carolina and on the sketch of 
Lawson in my "Libraries and Literature in North Carolina in the 
Eighteenth Century," where the original authorities will be found 
in detail. 

Stephen B. Weeks. 




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WILLIAM LENOIR 

[HE county of Lenoir in the East and the town of 
Lenoir in the West appropriately commemorate 
the name of a patriot, in war and in peace, 
whose virtues his contemporaries most highly 
appreciated. 

William Lenoir was born on the 20th of May, 
1 75 1, in Brunswick County, Virginia, being the youngest of ten 
children. He was of Huguenotic parentage. When about eight 
years of age his father located near Tarboro, and soon afterward 
died. Bereft of his father's care, his educational advantages were 
very limited; but gifted with natural intelligence, and animated 
by a spirit to excel, he acquired through his personal exertions a 
fair education. When about twenty years of age he was fortu- 
nately married to Ann Ballard of Halifax County, a lady of very 
superior character. 

When the troubles with the mother country began, in 1774, 
young Lenoir fervently espoused the cause of the people, and 
joined the association that was formed in the summer of 1774 
in Edgecombe County, and ever afterward was distinguished by 
his patriotism. In March, 1775, notwithstanding the depredations 
of the Indians across the mountains, being resolved to remove 
to the rich lands of the Yadkin Valley, he located near the Mul- 
berry Field Meeting House, in Surry County, which afterward 
became the town of Wilkesboro, and in the vicinity of which was 
Fort Defiance. 



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220 NORTH CAROLINA 

In the same county were Martin Armstrong, Joseph Williams, 
William Hall, Joseph Winston and Robert Lanier. Benjamin 
Cleveland, however, was probably the foremost citizen. 

Almost immediately after his location in Surry, young Lenoir 
was engaged in defending that frontier settlement, and in 1776 
he accompanied General Rutherford in his expedition against the 
Cherokees, and from that time onward he was almost constantly 
engaged in suppressing the Tories, who were numerous in Surry 
and parts of Rowan County. 

When Ferguson, in October, 1780, penetrated into the western 
part of Rowan County, and the patriots on the frontier embodied 
to drive him back, William Lenoir served as captain under Colonel 
Benjamin Cleveland, but in the final movement he and his com- 
pany officers, obtaining horses, volunteered as privates, and pro- 
ceeded by a forced march with the mounted men to bring Ferguson 
to bay. In the battle that ensued on King's Mountain, where 
they found the British forces. Captain Lenoir was wounded in 
the arm and also in the side, and a third ball passed through his 
hair. And in February, 1781, he was with Colonel Lee in the 
affair with Colonel Pyles near Haw River, where he had his horse 
shot under him and his sword was broken in a hand-and-hand 
encounter. He then raised a company and sought to join General 
Greene previous to the battle of Guilford, but did not reach Gen- 
eral Greene's camp in time to participate in that battle. Indeed, 
throughout the entire war he was an active and zealous and 
efficient supporter of the cause of Independence. As patriotic as 
the men of the frontier section were, General Lenoir himself has 
left a record of the equal patriotism of the women. In describing 
them he has said: "It was their heroic conduct that inspired their 
husbands and sons in the cause of liberty. They urged the men 
to leave home and to prefer to die rather than be slaves." 

After the war General Lenoir continued in the military service 
of the State, and for eighteen years was major-general of the 
militia. 

In a civil capacity General Lenoir also discharged many high 
and responsible duties. Appointed a justice of the peace by the 



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WILLIAM LENOIR 221 

convention that framed the State constitution, he continued as 
such for sixty-two years, his service in that capacity being with- 
out question the longest in the annals of this country. He also 
filled at different periods the office of register, surveyor, chairman 
of the county court and clerk of the Superior Court for the county 
of Wilkes. He served many years in both branches of the State 
legislature, and the last five years of his service in the Senate he 
was speaker of that body. He was president of the Council of 
State and was a member of the convention of 1788 that rejected 
the Federal Constitution, and of 1789 that adopted it. In both 
these conventions he took an active and distinguished part, insist- 
ing strenuously on the necessity of requiring certain amendments 
to the Constitution to guard and protect the rights of the State. 
He was one of the original trustees of the University of North 
Carolina, and for two years was president of the Board, being 
the first citizen to hold that eminent position. In private life 
General Lenoir was as distinguished for his moral worth and 
generous hospitality as in public life he was esteemed for his 
unbending integrity, firmness, patriotism and intelligence. No one 
surpassed him in kindly disposition and in deeds of charity. Suc- 
cessful in his efforts to provide a competency for his family, by his 
will he made liberal provisions for the poor of his neighborhood. 
Indeed, no man in the State of North Carolina was more highly 
esteemed for his virtues and worth and high character than Gen- 
eral Lenoir. To him was accorded not merely length of days, 
but almost uninterrupted health, and it is narrated that at the age 
of eighty-eight years he rode on horseback fifty miles to attend 
the Superior Court of Ashe County, crossing the Blue Ridge, and 
also attended the court of his own county, a distance of twenty- 
four miles from his residence. 

Dying on the 6th of May, 1839, his remains were interred in his 
family burying ground, which occupies the spot where Fort De- 
fiance was erected during the Revolutionary War. 

5. A, Ashe. 



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JOHN VAN LINDLEY 




fUST outside the limits of Greensboro are the 
Pomona Nurseries, now a household word 
throughout the State wherever fruits and 
flowers are prized; and there, in the midst of 
orchards and greenhouses, is set the home of 
John Van Lindley, so well known as a leader 
among the progressive and public-spirited men of that section of 
North Carolina. 

Mr. Lindley is of old English stock, his ancestors coming to 
North Carolina from England by the way of Ireland and Penn- 
sylvania. 

Thomas Lindley, his father's grandfather, with his wife, Sarah 
Evans, who was of Welch descent, was the first of the family to 
come to North Carolina, settling here in 1748, and although Mr. 
Lindley is not a native of this State, having been born in Mon- 
rovia, Morgan County, Indiana, November 5, 1838, the accident 
of birth was speedily remedied by his return with his parents, 
when only three years old, to his father's former home in Chatham 
County, where a few years later his mother, Judith Henly, died, 
leaving him a boy of only eight years of age. His father, Joshua 
Lindley, was a fruit grower and nurseryman, and young John 
grew up on the fruit farm, and all his life has been practically 
engaged in rearing trees, and has thus been enabled to give to this 
vocation the experience garnered through youth and matured 



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i^/^^ 




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^T- — jv r. r-:*, ^^ 




xr- 



JOHN VAX LINDLEV 

\^^y^^Jl- >^ niitsi(^c liit^ liniils of Cirocnslujro are the 
ii.._-J.-^*^^ ionioiv > rrscrics, now a lioiisehold worj 
T ^*CS thnnijh. ' i the State wherever fruits ?\\\ 
J l"^t') llc.'Ai!.. are pri^( d ; and there, m the midst of 
i' '/:• 'M'-N and ^rocnhoiisos, is set tlie home of 
I i n \",in Lindley, so well known as a leader 
>i\e and jmhHc-spiritcd mtii of that section of 




N.rr;, Laro]:'i:» 



•Ill (' 



- of old lu:.^'ish sSt^K'k, Ills ancestors comini; to 
ironi luiLfland hv the wav of lrelan<l and l\nin- 



r 'x 



. I., jdlcy, his father's ;^ra;idfathei, with his wife, Saraii 
» . ■ u .'!'=; of Welch descent, was the urst of the fanniy to 
'^irh (Am'lina. ^citlinu: here in 17.:."^, and although Mr. 
n«tt a native of this St;Jv\ ii-^vJ!!.:^ been born in Mon- 
•^r^aa County, In. liana. November 5. i8^^8, the accident 
('» ".1 was s|Keciil\ reni.\]iod by his return wit!rhis parents. 
•'. • ' n i»:!lv thr^o ^ ^ nrs old, to his fatIuT*s formt r home in Chathan. 
' inity. wiuTc a ff^w year> hxt'-r his niothcr, Judith Ilenly, nit- . 
•!.;.\in!L; bi:n i> ^ vy of only c]\i]i^ ye-irs of a.i::e. His father, Ju-'^-uri 
l.iudifN, w^N a fru'f thrower au'l nnrsrrsniau, and vt^unj; I.mu 
j^rew up on the fruit farm, and all his life has been practically 
rut::i£r*'d in rearlnpf trees, and has thus been enabled to crive to tb.i^ 
vocation the experience j. jrnered through \outh and matured 



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olL. 



^ 



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A?^^ 



\/' 



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JOHN VAN LINDLEY 223 

years. This doubtless has been the foundation of his remarkable 
success in a sphere where many others have failed. Though slight 
in frame and delicate in appearance as a boy, he had stamina, and 
the manual labor of his farm life tended to strengthen his consti- 
tution. Of his proficiency as a workman in those early days he 
was very proud, and he still finds pleasure in recalling that he 
split 800 rails the last day he used a maul. 

Joshua Lindley with his family moved from Chatham to New 
Garden, in Guilford County, in 1851, and continued there the 
nursery business. 

Close application to his occupations left him little opportunity 
for study, and one year at the New Garden School completed the 
limited college course for which he had leisure, outside of the 
lessons in pomology and horticulture learned in farm and garden. 
Toward these pursuits both natural and inherited tendency led 
him, and he threw himself into them with all the ardor and earnest- 
ness which have been his characteristics through life. Soon after 
arriving at manhood the war between the States broke out, and 
Lincoln's call for troops forced every Southern man to make 
decision as to the side with which his sympathies lay. Mr. Lindley 
chose to espouse the Northern cause, and although of Quaker 
parentage, both father and mother being members of the Society 
of Friends, he fought bravely for three years as a private in the 
regular cavalry of Missouri, in the Federal army. 

Returning at the close of the war to his old home, he was re- 
ceived with open arms and unchanged affections by those old 
friends who had stood loyally to their State in the struggle. 

His father had remained at home, and was, like every other 
Southern planter at this period, much impoverished, and his son 
found him owing $5000, indebtedness incurred during the war. 

In 1866. soon after the war, New Garden Nursery, known as 
Joshua Lindley & Son, was re-established, and so well did the 
undertaking prosper, that in ten years, his object being accom- 
plished, and his father's estate cleared of debt, Mr. John V. Lindley 
was in a condition to begin life for himself, and was in future 
able to devote his energies to the building up of his own fortune. 



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224 NORTH CAROLINA 

When a young man he had travelled widely in the Western 
States and visited many parts of the Union, seeking the locality 
in which a poor man might best make his home and fortune, and 
had returned to North Carolina convinced that here was the best 
place possible for that purpose. 

In 1877 he began business as sole proprietor of the Pomona 
Nursery, without other capital than the stock of good credit which 
comes from a long continued course of care, promptness and 
honorable dealing ; and this good credit proved most useful when, 
two years later, unexpected opposition rose, and a combination 
was formed against him, to meet which it was necessary to in- 
crease his funds and enlarge his business. He borrowed money 
without difficulty, and at the end of the year wound up with a 
larger trade and a heavier balance in his favor than ever. He 
did more ; not only had he met the opposition and won the victory, 
but he had met the enemy and won them as friends. Since their 
establishment, nearly forty years ago, the Pomona Nurseries have 
steadily grown, and have developed into the leading nurseries and 
cut-flower business of the State and of the South, giving employ- 
ment to a multitude of salesmen and nurserymen and bringing to 
their owner a fine income and an ever-increasing capital. 

But it is not only as a successful horticulturist that Mr. Lindley is 
known and respected; he is also one of the most public spirited 
of men, and is in the forefront wherever zeal and intelligent energy 
are needed or a leader required in eflForts to further the interests 
of State or county. 

At the close of the war his affiliations were with the Republican 
Party, then the dominant power in the Union, glorying in the fact 
that through its policy the war had been begun, carried on and 
brought to a successful close. But the moment the ballot was 
placed in the hands of negroes Mr. Lindley withdrew from that 
party and ranged himself with the whites of the State, and has 
continued a Democrat ever since, joining heartily with his neigh- 
bors in every plan for the betterment of the country. 

He was one of the prime movers in organizing the Central 
Carolina Fair Association, was its first president, remaining so 



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JOHN VAN LINDLEY 225 

until the fair, which has proved so great a factor in the industrial 
development of Greensboro and the vicinity, was established on a 
secure and permanent basis. 

Mr. Lindley has ever been a leader in all educational movements, 
whether promoted by his own church organization, by other sec- 
tarian bodies or by the public at large. For the last twenty years 
he has been a trustee of Guilford College, and has contributed 
handsomely toward assisting in relieving that institution of a large 
indebtedness, and then also was one of the largest contributors 
toward a permanent endowment fund. 

Some ten or twelve years ago Mr. Lindley built, at his own 
expense, a commodious public school building in his neighborhood 
for the benefit of the residents of that section, and some two or 
three years ago contributed $1000 for the erection of public schools 
throughout Guilford County, which was the beginning of a con- 
certed movement for excellent public schools, in which Guilford 
County now takes the lead. 

Mr. Lindley has shown an equal zeal and interest in the pro- 
motion of good roads, and, with the co-operation of the members 
of the Guilford County Road Association, of which he was presi- 
dent, and of other public spirited citizens, he urged successfully 
upon the people of the county the appropriation of $300,000 for 
the improvement of their roads. Besides these enterprises for the 
public good, Mr. Lindley's name is connected with many and 
varied interests which have aided materially in the prosperity of 
Greensboro and that part of the State. Mr. Lindley is president 
of the Underwriters' Fire Isurance Company, Greensboro, and of 
the Security Life and Annuity Company of Greensboro, and is 
president of the J. \'an Lindley Nursery Company, of the J. Van 
Lindley Orchard Company of Southern Pines and of the Pomona 
Terra Cotta Company, and vice-president of the City National 
Bank, Greensboro, North Carolina, and of the State Horticultural 
Association. He is a director of the Southern Loan and Trust 
Company, of the Vanstory Clothing Company, Gate City Furni- 
ture Company, Greensboro Table and Mantel Company, Odell 
Hardware Company, Southern Stock Mutual Fire Insurance Com- 



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226 NORTH CAROLINA 

pany, Mount Airy Granite Company, Home Fire Insurance Com- 
pany, Southern Underwriters' Fire Insurance Company and of 
the Pomona Cotton Mill Company. 

Of all the enterprises which Mr. Lindley has undertaken and 
carried to success for the upbuilding of the State, he is proudest 
of the organization and successful development of the Security 
Life and Annuity Company, the pioneer legal reserve life in- 
surance company in North Carolina. He feels that the success 
of this home company has given an impetus to the establishment 
and growth of safe legal reserve life insurance companies in this 
State and the South. These companies will keep at home millions 
of dollars that are now going North for life insurance. This he 
regards as one of the greatest needs in the development of his 
own State and of the South. 

In 1889 Mr. A. M. Smith of New York came to Guilf<Jrd 
County and interested Mr. Lindley in a terra-cotta plant, which 
was established and operated under the management of Mr. Smith 
at a loss for one year. Mr. Lindley, with his usual foresight and 
good business judgment, prompted by inherent ambition to suc- 
ceeded in whatever he undertook, bought the plant in 1890 and 
equipped it with the best machinery that could be purchased. In 
three years he had made such a gratifying success of it that he 
doubled the capacity of the plant and began the manufacture of 
sewer pipes, drain tiles, fire brick and chimney flues. The Pomona 
Terra Cotta Works now have a capacity of one hundred and 
sixteen cars per month, and cannot supply the demand. 

Mr. Lindley is one of the Executive Committee of the North 
Carolina Agricultural Society, and is stockholder in many other 
industrial organizations. 

He is thus interested in many enterprises of importance, and 
his name is identified with every undertaking that conduces in 
any way to the growth in prosperity and in the material and 
intellectual advancement of the community in which he lives. 

Yet among his multifarious interests, first in his heart are ever 
the nurseries. At Pomona, 900 acres in one block are devoted to 
trees and young plants, and there are eleven greenhouses for 



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JOHN VAN LINDLEY 227 

flowers; also 350 acres in nursery at Kernersville, North Caro- 
lina, a branch nursery started in the spring of 1904, while at 
Southern Pines and at other points he has large orchards. Still 
he finds time to attend national and local meetings of horticultur- 
ists and pomologists, and he has been prominent in making the 
fight against the disease that threaten the gardens. 

Withal, he is quiet and unassuming, prompt and careful ; indeed, 
he attributes his success in life to his careful attention to every 
detail of his varied business, and he finds great g^tification in the 
fact that he has been able to promote the progress and welfare 
of that section of the country in which he lives as well as the 
State at large. 

George A. Grimsley. 




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WILLIAM LITTLE 




• ILLIAM LITTLE) His Majesty's chief justice 
for the colony of North Carolina, was bom at 
Marshfield, Massachusetts, on the 27th of Feb- 
ruary, 1692. He was a son of Isaac Little, bom 
1646, who resided at Marshfield, and whose 
father, Thomas Little, was living in Plymouth, 
Massachusetts, as early as 1630. The wife of Thomas Little was 
Anne Warren, daughter of Richard Warren, one of the May- 
flower passengers. 

William Little was given every educational advantage, both at 
home and abroad. He graduated from Harvard College in the 
class of 1 7 10. Soon thereafter, when only nineteen years of age, 
his first marriage took place, and he was left a widower without 
children at the age of twenty. Not long after this he spent some 
time in Ireland, and there became a convert to the Church of 
England, being baptized and confirmed by the Bishop of Cork. 
From Ireland he went to England, and engaged in study at the 
University of Cambridge. In England he formed the acquaint- 
ance of the old Yorkshire family of Gale (into which he was 
destined to marry at a later date), and he came to North Carolina 
at the suggestion of Chief Justice Christopher Gale, who was 
then on a visit to England. For an account of Gale, the reader 
is referred to a sketch in the first volume of this work. 
Mr. Little made his home in the town of Edenton after he came 



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WILLIAM LITTLE 229 

to North Carolina. On the 2d of April, 1724, he took the oath 
of office as attorney-general of the colony. This was during the 
first administration of Governor George Burrington. Shortly 
after this Burrington was removed from office, chiefly through 
the efforts of Gale ; and while Gale was absent in England, Thomas 
Boyd acted as attorney-general in the place of Little. Whea 
Sir Richard Everard appeared in North Carolina as successor to 
Governor Burrington, he brought with him a new commission 
as attorney-general for Little, who accordingly resumed his 
duties. Mr. Little also became receiver-general of the colony on 
the 19th of July, 1726, and held the two offices jointly. On the 
2is< of February, 1728, Governor Everard appointed Christopher 
Gale, William Little, John Lovick and Edward Moseley to run 
the boundary between North Carolina and Virginia. In his 
"History of the Dividing Line," Colonel William Byrd of West- 
over (one of the Virginia commissioners) speaks of the chaplain 
of the party going to Edenton, and observes: "He was accom- 
pany'd thither by Mr. Little, one of the Carolina commissioners, 
who, to shew his regard for the Church, offer'd to treat Him on 
the Road with a Fricasee of Rum. . . . Most of the Rum they get 
in this country comes from New England, and is so bad and 
unwholesome that it is not improperly call'd 'Kill Devil.' " 

In the politics of his day Mr. Little seems to have been quite 
favorably disposed toward the Stuart family, and was said to be 
"notoriously disaffected to the illustrious house of Hanover." 
Burrington, on the other hand, was a close connection of Major 
Charles Burrington, whom English historians mention as the 
first person of any consideration who adhered to William of 
Orange when that prince invaded England. Notwithstanding this 
difference in politics, and notwithstanding the fact that they had 
not been on good terms formerly, Burrington, when royal gov- 
ernor, on his quarrel with Chief Justice Smith, appointed Mr. 
Little to the office of chief justice of the province, and the latter 
was sworn in as such on the i8th of October, 1732. 

During his term as chief justice, Mr. Little was involved in 
many of the fierce disputes of that day, which originated in politi- 



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230 NORTH CAROLINA 

cal animosities, and on one occasion was imprisoned by the 
Assembly for contempt expressed in a reply to some charges pre- 
ferred against him by that body. On hearing of this occurrence 
Governor Burrington released the chief justice and roundly abused 
the Assembly for its action. 

Chief Justice Little married his second wife, Pendope Gale, 
daughter of Chief Justice Gale, in 1726. By her he had three 
children, as follows: Penelope, who married Robert Baker; 
William, who removed to the Cheraw district in South Carolina 
and died before the Revolution in 1766; he married first Miss 
Kimbrough and second Catherine Stuart; George, who married 
Mary Anne Person, daughter of William Person, and sister of the 
Revolutionary patriot. General Thomas Person. 

George Little, the last-named son of Chief Justice Little, was 
born in 1731, and resided in Hertford County, formerly part of 
his native county of Chowan. In the Revolution he was major 
of the Hertford County militia, justice of the Court of Pleas and 
Quarter Sessions, member of committee to procure arms and 
ammunition for the Continental army, etc. He left a son, William 
Person Little, a wealthy planter and State senator, from whose 
country seat, Littleton, the town of Littleton, in Halifax County, 
takes its name. This gentleman married Anne Hawkins (daugh- 
ter of the Revolutionary patriot, Colonel Philemon Hawkins, Jr.), 
and left, among other children, the late Colonel George Little of 
Raleigh, who was an aide de camp to Governor Vance during 
the war between the States. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 



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JAMES ANDERSON LONG 

^O period of the history of North Carolina will 
be more resplendent than the era of 1861. It 
gave to the world a race of men illustrious for 
loyalty to their State, courage, fortitude and 
fidelity upon every theatre of action to which 
their duty called them — ^men who for their 
valor, pruritfsj^m and unselfish devotion to the State and pride 
in its glory have deserved and gained a name and fame which 
shall endure so long as time shall last. 

Typical of such men was James Anderson Long. Born in 
Person County, he has spent his life amongst its hills and valleys. 
He was the son of Ratliff J. Long and Mary Walters, and was 
bom on the 23d day of May, 1841. His great-grandfather was 
Paul Walters, who was a farmer in Person County, and his grand-i 
father was Hardy Walters, for many years sheriff of Person 
County. Father and grandfather alike were planters, simple in 
taste, endowed by nature with an abundance of common sense, 
force of character, strong mental equipment, and with a pre- 
dominance of moral instincts and lofty patriotism which have 
been handed down from generation to generation in the family 
and to Mr. Long as an inheritance. 

Mr. Long .<ipent the early portion of his life upon the farm, ana 
here learned the lessons of industry and frugality, and acquired 
habits of thrift and economy, and a healthy moral and physical 



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232 NORTH CAROLINA 

nature, which has added zest to the struggle and victory which 
has been his portion in life. At the age when he should have 
been in school, the call of his country and State was strong and 
irresistible, and he left the plow in its furrow and took up the 
defense of her honor and glory. He had worked upon the farm 
until he entered the army in May, 1862; hence his educational 
advantages were limited to such only as could be had in the 
country public schools, often called the old field schools. And 
yet Mr. Long, surmounting every obstacle, has educated himself 
in the school of life. With an inquiring and comprehensive mind, 
original and receptive, he has acquainted himself with the history 
of events of the past and the lives of great men who have made 
them possible; has kept pace with the developments of his day, 
and has trained his mind for usefulness in whatsoever field his 
endeavors should lead him. His judgment is almost unerring, 
and his counsel has been sought by those who were perplexed in 
private and public life. Verily, he has educated himself, not under 
the drill of the pedant, in the language that is dead, but by solving 
the problems one by one as they came to him in life, by constant 
and unremitting toil and effort, and by making all things, what- 
soever were useful, true, noble and good, a part of his life and 
character. 

He was a soldier of the Confederacy, and saw hard service, 
entering the army in May, 1862. He participated in the battles 
of Seven Pines and Sharpsburg with great credit to himself. At 
Plymouth his conduct on the skirmish line attracted the favorable 
commendation of officers and men. He was at Petersburg when 
it was attacked by Butler; was at Bermuda Hundreds, and was 
taken prisoner on the 25th of March, 1865, at Fort Steadman, 
in front of Petersburg, and imprisoned at Point Lookout until 
July, 1865. In 1863 he was made orderly sergeant of Company H, 
Twenty-fourth Regiment, North Carolina troops. He was a brave 
soldier, loyal, fearless and strong in his patriotic devotion to the 
cause for which he fought; he was indiflFerent to danger, cool, 
resolute and reserved — the type of men so characteristic of the 
armies of Lee and Jackson, and which gave to them their great 



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JAMES ANDERSON LONG 233 

glory of achievement. Just two weeks before his return to his 
home from the army his life was saddened by the death of his 
father. Again taking up the task of making a living for himself 
and others dependent upon him, he was called upon as well to 
assist in the rehabilitation of his county and the State, and to act 
a part in a drama sometimes even more trying than the dangers 
of the battlefield, demanding supreme self-denial and moral 
courage of the highest type. The Southern soldier, returning, 
found fields uncultivated and the family circle broken, with ruin 
everywhere. In the dark days which followed hard upon the heels 
of war, few men did more than Mr. Long to help his fellow- 
men, to aid the unfortunate, to restore peace and prosperity to the 
State and lift the veil of uncertainty, doubt and distress which 
overshadowed the land. 

He is to-day, and always has been, in politics, a Democrat, with 
an abiding faith in the principles of his party; unchanged and 
unchanging, he has held fast to the convictions of his early days. 
In his section of the State, the party has found in him a safe 
leader, conservative, discreet and cautious, but courageous and 
enterprising. Though true to the principles of his party, his 
charity and respect for the opinions of others who differed with 
him have made him greatly esteemed by the public generally. In 
1885 he was elected to the House of Representatives from his 
county, and in 1889 he was elected to the Senate, representing the 
district composed of the counties of Caswell, Orange, Durham and 
Person. In 1901 he was again elected to the Senate, representing 
the district composed of Person and Granville, and was re-elected 
in 1905 to represent the same district. In his public life he has 
ever been conspicuous for moral courage and integrity, which 
prompted him to do his duty as he saw it, regardless of self. In 
1885 he succeeded in passing a stock law for the county of 
Person, which was bitterly opposed by many of his constituents, 
but has since become acceptable to all the county. He was recog- 
nized in the Senate as one of the State's best business men, and 
one of the safest and most conservative of that body. Conse- 
quently, in 1901 he was made chairman of the Committee on 



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234 NORTH CAROLINA 

Banks, one of the most important committees of the Senate, and 
in 1905 was made chairman of the Committee on Finance. In 
1901 he voted against conviction of the judges of the Supreme 
Court who were impeached and tried before the bar of the Senate, 
although it was sought to make the impeachment a party measure. 
As a member of the General Assembly, he was courteous, defer- 
ential and quiet, but firm and decided. He was unostentatious 
and not obtrusive, yet he was aggressive when necessary, and 
always showed the courage of his convictions when occasion de- 
manded. By his gentle, kind manner he won many friends among 
his fellow-members, who are bound to him by ties of friendship 
which are close and sure. Mr. Long felt that his party was 
wrong in adopting the free silver platform, and sided with that 
wing of the Democratic Party known as Gold Democrats, but he 
did not allow this issue to shake in the slightest degree his political 
faith or lessen his zeal for his party. 

For many years Mr. Long has been one of the most prominent 
laymen in the Methodist Episcopal Church of the State. His 
Christian character and splendid business judgment have made 
him much in demand in the councils of his church, and he has 
been honored with many positions of trust and confidence. He 
is a trustee of the Methodist Orphanage at Raleigh, which position 
he has held for some years. He is also a trustee of Trinity 
College, and has been recently elected chairman of the Board of 
Trustees of Greensboro Female College. 

He has always been a zealous promoter of every enterprise 
which tended toward the development of his county and the section 
of State in which he lives. In 1889 Roxboro had no railroad facili- 
ties. It was thought by many that there was an understanding 
between the Richmond and Danville and Seaboard railroads to 
the eflFect that neither should build in this territory, as its business 
must come to the one or the other. The larger cities and towns 
in this section were drawing a large country trade from the county 
of Person, and it did not seem desirable to them that a railroad 
should be built through this territory. The securing of the Lynch- 
burg and Durham Railroad through the county was one of the 



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JAMES ANDERSON LONG 235. 

most signal triumphs in the life of Mr. Long. He felt that duty 
called him to this work. Being combatted at every turn, and 
thwarted by railroad tactics in plans seemingly well laid, his efforts 
were finally rewarded, through the co-operation of friends, by 
the building of the Lynchburg and Durham Railroad, now a part 
of the Norfolk and Western Railroad. During a great portion 
of the time Mr. Long was fighting single-handed the difficulties 
in the way of this railroad. He had determined that there should 
be a railroad through the county, and by the help of others he 
succeeded, and but for his untiring efforts and tenacity of purpose, 
together with the assistance of other prominent men of his section, 
the road would never have been built. He was a director in the 
road until it was sold to the Norfolk and Western Railroad. 

He is one of the trustees of the "Terrell School Fund" of Per- 
son County. About the year 1898 Dr. William Terrell, a resident 
of Person County, died leaving by his will $55,000 to the common 
school fund of the county, the interest only to be used. The 
management of this fund was committed to the hands of trustees, 
and the court appointed Mr. J. S. Bradsher and Mr. Long, and 
gave to them the management of this fund. There was also a 
provision in the will of Dr. Terrell for the building of a school- 
house for each white district in the county, all of which have been 
built, and arc now known as the "Terrell Schoolhouses." 

He was first married in October, 1867, to Miss Mary E. Win- 
stead, who died in May, 1882. She was the daughter of Meldron 
Winstead, and niece of Colonel C. S. Winstead and Colonel J. M. 
Winstead. In May, 1883, he was again married, to Miss Laura 
Thompson, daughter of Sydney Thompson of Leasburg, North 
Carolina, and niece of Hon. Jacob Thompson, who was a member 
of Buchanan's Cabinet. By his first marriage there were three 
children, two of whom died, and by his second marriage there 
were four children, two of whom are now living. 

The success of Mr. Long has been characteristic of the man — 
sure, gradual, steady and certain. From early childhood he was 
ambitious to succeed as a business man, and he has done so to a 
most eminent degree, building up large interests and accumulating 



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236 NORTH CAROLINA 

quite a fortune. He has never failed in any enterprise which was 
under his control. He is at the head of one of the oldest and 
most extensive business houses of his section, having been en- 
gaged in the mercantile business and farming since 1865. He 
is the owner of large city property and farming lands. He 
has manufactured tobacco for many years successfully, is a dealer 
in leaf tobacco, and is also owner of large interests in flouring 
mills, planing mills and saw mills. He is president of the Roxboro 
G)tton Mills and of the People's Bank of Roxboro. His largest 
interest, however, is in farming lands, to which he devotes a great 
portion of his time. , 

He is a model of that class of men who, alike in war and in 
peace, in adversity and victory, have been the same loyal, brave, 
patriotic citizens, true to every trust, neither elated by success 
nor discouraged by disaster, who have guided the State through 
the breakers of war and the rocks of reconstruction into the haven 
of prosperity and happiness, and who have preserved its virtue, 
honor and renown without stain or tarnish. 

Charles Af. Stedtnan. 




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FREDERICK WILLIAM von MARSHALL 




^NE of the most able men in North Carolina in 
the latter part of the eighteenth century was 
Frederick William von Marshall. He was bom 
in Stolpen, Saxony, February 5, 1721, where 
his father, Baron George Rudolph von Marshall 
of Herrn Grosserstaedt was commandant. 
With his three brothers, Frederick William received a strict mili- 
tary education, his parents wishing him to enter the army or fill 
some office at the Court of the King of Saxony. 

During his college days, however, he became acquainted with 
the Unitas Fratrum, or Moravian Church, which he joined about 
1739, becoming one of its most useful members. For some twenty- 
two years he labored in the German and English congregations, 
taking an active part in negotiations with the English Parliament 
and in other affairs, where to his natural talent for leadership was 
added experience in organization and in executing large plans. 

In 1750 he married Hedwig Elizabeth von Schweinitz, and in 
1 761 came to Pennsylvania on important official matters connected 
with the Moravian congregation at Bethlehem. In 1764 and 1765 
he was in North Carolina, being present when the site for Salem 
was chosen, and after a visit to Germany, he returned to Salem 
in 1768, empowered to take charge of all the financial affairs of 
the new town. From then to the close of the century his was the 
leading spirit in the settlement, which under his care grew and 



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J 



238 NORTH CAROLINA 

prospered, until at his death the little cluster of houses in the forest 
had developed into a thriving town, known throughout North 
Carolina and the adjoining States for the thrift, integrity and 
varied industries of its people. 

This was a greater tribute to the keen insight, good judgment, 
wise aggressiveness and far-sighted designs of Marshall than at 
first appears, for the period included the Revolutionary War with 
all its attendant trials and paralysis of commercial enterprise. He 
was not in Salem during the earlier years of the war, having gone 
to Germany on a business trip and being unable to return, and 
when he reached Wachovia in 1779 he learned that an act had 
been passed by the North Carolina legislature of 1777 confiscating 
all lands held by aliens, and the Moravians were in great danger 
of being dispossessed of their 100,000 acres. Fortunately, Mar- 
shall was able to prove to the satisfaction of the State authorities 
that James Hutton of London had held the title only "in trust 
for the Unitas Fratrum," and that during his stay in Europe the 
title had been transferred to him. As he was a naturalized citizen 
of the State, the legislature thereupon, by a special act, confirmed 
his title to Wachovia, also ''in trust" for his church, and the 
Moravians were left in peaceable possession. 

Throughout Wachovia his influence was everywhere felt, but 
Salem particularly profited by his care. At that time all land in 
and around the town belonged to the church and was leased to 
individuals, which gave the "administrator" power to admit or ex- 
clude settlers as he chose. Under Marshall's guidance industrious, 
earnest people gathered there. These people brought with them 
numerous trades, which made the town self-supporting; under 
Marshall's direction the town became the chief trading point of the 
country for miles around. Elsewhere in the New World education 
was lightly considered, and schools for girls were of the poorest 
quality; during Marshall's regime the schools in Salem were so 
well conducted that non-residents wished their children to share 
the advantages, and Salem Academy and College was begun. 
When the congregation needed a new meeting hall, Marshall 
planned and built an edifice which suffices for the large congre- 



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FREDERICK WILLIAM von MARSHALL 



239 



gation of the present day, a striking instance of the accuracy with 
which he forecast the needs of the future. 

Not to all men is it given to see the fulfillment of the dreams 
of their early manhood, but Marshall, at the ripe age of eighty- 
one, had only to look about him to see what his hand had wrought, 
his influence had achieved; and his death, February 11, 1802, was 
mourned far beyond the bounds of his own denomination. He 
was laid to rest February 14th, in the Salem "God's Acre," 
among the brethren for whom he had labored for forty years. 

Adelaide L. Fries, 




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JOSEPH MARTIN 




|0 consider the relations of the American people 
to the Indians is to study greed for land on one 
hand, with hostility, revenge and treachery on 
the other. While many deplore the heartless- 
ness of the whites in their grasping progress, 
all do not realize that such is the course of 
empire. The purpose of this sketch is to tell the story of one who 
stood in the breach between advancing English and retreating 
American and sought to secure for the latter some show of con- 
sideration and justice. 

Joseph Martin, adventurer and pioneer, frontiersman and 
soldier, Indian diplomat and Indian agent, administrator and legis- 
lator, was the third son of Joseph Martin of Albemarle County, 
Virginia. The earliest known representative of this family was 
William Martin, a merchant of Bristol, England. His son Joseph 
settled in Albemarle County, Virginia, and his son, Joseph Martin, 
the second of the name and subject of this sketch, was born in 
1740. While a boy. General Martin developed a character sug- 
gested by the frontier. He had few school advantages, and was 
apprenticed to a carpenter; but he had heard the call of the 
wild, and with Thomas Sumter, later General Sumter of South 
Carolina, ran away from home and made his way to Fort Pitt. 
In 1762 he married Sarah Lucas and settled in Orange County. 
Virginia. He engaged in trading for peltry. Six or eight months 



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JOSEPH MARTIN 241 

of the year were spent on the extreme frontier among the Indians. 
This work helped Martin find himself. It developed the natural 
instincts of the pioneer and explorer, which until then had strug- 
gled in vain for recognition. He was to be a contributor to the 
advance of English civilization across the AUeghanies. This be- 
gan with his attempted settlement of Powell's Valley, now in 
Lee County, Virginia, and Claiborne and Hancock counties, 
Tennessee. He went out in 1769 with some five or six adventurers 
and made a stand on the Kentucky road, some twenty miles north 
of Cumberland Gap, and since known as Martin's Station. Com 
was planted, but the Cherokees came along, war ensued, the post 
was abandoned, and for the time the advance guard of civilization 
was checked. 

Martin then returned to the farm for a few years. In 1773 he 
removed to what is now Henry County, Virginia. In 1774 the 
Shawnee War broke out, and he was commissioned a captain of 
Pittsylvania militia on August 25, 1774, by Lord Dunmore. Dur- 
ing the fall of that year he was engaged in scouting in Culbertson's 
bottom, on New River, in Southwest Virginia. 

Martin's first connection with North Carolina seems to have 
been through the Transylvania Company. In December, 1774, 
he had determined to reoccupy the station which he had settled in 
Powell's Valley in 1769. He set out on Christmas day, and arrived 
in the valley early in January, 177S, with sixteen or eighteen men. 
Soon after this, by the treaty signed by the Cherokees at Sycamore 
Shoals, March 17, 1775, the whole of Powell's Valley passed under 
the control of Richard Henderson & Company of North Caro- 
lina as a part of their Transylvania purchase. To secure Martin's 
services they granted him land, made him their attorney and entry 
taker of the Powell's Valley division of their purchase. Hender- 
son, like others before him, tried to limit the settlements to certain 
sections, and, like them, failed. He also suggested to Martin local 
self-government and an Assembly for his settlement, but the 
Cherokees went on the warpath again in 1776, and the settlers were 
forced to return. 

Martin was made a captain of Pittsylvania County militia by 



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242 NORTH CAROLINA 

the Virginia Safety Committee on October 9, 1775, and with the 
outbreak of the Revolution his real career began. It was a part 
of the British plan to incite the Cherokees to hostility against the 
Americans. While one British army defeated them on the seacoast 
another was to land in West Florida, move northward through the 
Creek and Chickasaw country into the Cherokee nation, gather 
recruits from all these Indians and so crush the colonies between 
two millstones. The first attack was made in the summer of 1776; 
but the plans of the Indians were betrayed by Nancy Ward, prob- 
ably through the influence of Martin, and they were defeated at 
the battle of the Long Island Flats of Holston River, July 20, 
1776. There was then a general movement against the Cherokees 
by Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina. Martin com- 
manded a company under Colonel William Christian of Virginia ; 
Rutherford commanded the North Carolina contingent and 
Williamson that of South Carolina. The campaigns of 1776 
temporarily broke the power of the Cherokees, but it was deemed 
prudent to keep troops amoog them. Martin and his company 
remained on the frontier, at first at Rye Cove on Clinch River, 
then at Fort Lee, just above the mouth of Big Limestone, on the 
frontiers of Washington County, Tennessee. On July 20, 1777, 
a treaty was held with the Cherokees at the Long Island of 
Holston by Virginia and North Carolina. They ceded lands ; they 
agreed also to expel the British agent and to receive agents from 
the States. On November 3, 1777, Martin was commissioned 
by Governor Henry as agent and superintendent of Cherokee 
Indian affairs for Virginia. He was to reside within the nation, 
attend to the affairs of the State with the savages, endeavor to 
maintain peace, to counteract the wiles of British agents and make 
reports. He took up his residence at the Long Island of Holston, 
within the limits of North Carolina, and built a stone house there 
to receive government supplies ; for the next few years he resided 
at the island and discharged his duties, and on February 17, 1779, 
became major of a battalion of volunteers raised to attack those 
Cherokees who still adhered to British interests. 

It was during this period that Martin rendered what was per- 



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JOSEPH MARTIN 243 



haps his most valuable service to the American colonies. His 
office and duties kept him among the Indians, and made him a 
mediator between white men and red. He was to see that each 
observed the terms of the treaty of the Long Island of Holston. 
This was a delicate duty, for the westward moving wave of settle- 
ment cared to recognize the rights of the Indian only so long as 
it suited its purpose. He had also to counteract the influence of 
the British agents who had been expelled by the treaty, but had 
taken refuge with the more hostile elements of the Cherokees, 
who followed Dragon Canoe. Martin ran a constant risk of 
assassination, and took his life in his hand when he went into 
the nation. But he had been adopted into the tribe, and had a 
powerful ally and friend in Nancy Ward, a woman of high rank, 
marked ability and great influence. As we have seen, it was the 
purpose of the British to crush the American colonies between an 
eastern and a western army. It was on the frontiersmen, also, 
that Washington was to depend did the worst come; but it was 
difficult to draw troops from the western settlements for the regu- 
lar army, for the reason that their departure left the frontiers ex- 
posed to the savages. This was the situation in the summer and 
fall of 1780. The American cause had then met numerous defeats. 
Charleston had been captured. Gates's army had been destroyed 
at Camden and Ferguson's march into North Carolina meant the 
overrunning and conquest of the State. This was a critical 
moment for the States. Had Martin failed at this time in his 
diplcmiacy with the Cherokees, had he failed to keep them quiet 
in September, 1780, the overmountain men could not have gathered 
for their attack on Ferguson at King's Mountain, where a telling 
blow was delivered and the vanguard of the British army hurled 
back from North Carolina soil. 

This battle broke the power of the Tories in North Carolina, 
and so undermined that of the savages, but they were anxious to 
make a further trial of strength. Martin succeeded in keeping 
the Cherokees quiet till the King's Mountain campaign was over, 
but could restrain them no longer. They treated with the British, 
and promised war on all Carolina and Virginia. It was necessary 



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244 NORTH CAROLINA 

to carry on a campaign against them from Washington G)unty, 
Virginia, in December, 1780. Martin joined the expedition with 
an independent command of some 300 mounted men from Sulli- 
YSLXi County, North Carolina (now Tennessee). They killed and 
captured a number, destroyed eleven principal towns and many 
supplies. In March, 1781, Martin became lieutenant-colonel of the 
militia of Washington County, North Carolina (Tennessee), and 
on February 26, 1781, was appointed by General Greene to treat 
with the Cherokees on boundaries, on an exchange of prisoners 
and on the terms of peace. He was appointed by Virginia on 
January 13, 1783, to treat with the Cherokees, Creeks and Chicka- 
saws for peace, and on May 17, 1783, was commissioned by North 
Carolina as Indian agent, or agent and superintendent of Indian 
aflfairs, among the Cherokees and Chickamaugas, the latter being 
a southern band representing the worst elements of the Cherokees, 
many of them being outlaws and horse thieves. He was present 
as a representative of both States at a treaty with the Chicka- 
. maugas at the Long Island of Holston, July 9, 1783, and made 
a treaty with the Chickasaws in November of the same year. 
These treaties usually meant a further cession of land to the whites. 

In 1783, under orders from Virginia, he settled Powell's Valley 
for the third time, and his settlement was now permanent. In the 
same year we find him making a private venture in Georgia, 

In 1785 was signed the treaty of Hopewell. No action of 
Martin's life brought down on him more condemnation than this. 
It is the old story of encroachments by the whites, for a North 
Carolina law of 1783 opened for settlement lands to which the 
Indian title had not been extinguished. The treaty of Hopewell^ 
signed at Hopewell, on Keowee River, November 28, 1785, marks 
a new era in the relations of the Cherokee nation with the whites. 
Hitherto they had dealt with the individual States ; now they were 
to deal with the nation. The commissioners of the Confederation 
were Benjamin Hawkins, Lachlan Mcintosh, Andrew Pickens 
and Joseph Martin. The object of the treaty was to define the 
claims of the Indians and whites respectively and so prevent 
encroachments of the former. Martin was also a commissioner 



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JOSEPH MARTIN 245 



for North Carolina (Col. Rec, Vol. XVII., pp. 516, 517), but 
does not seem to have served in that capacity. William Blount 
was present as agent for North Carolina, and agents for Georgia 
were also present. The treaty was mainly the work of Martin. 
The chief question was that of boundaries. The Indians drafted 
a map showing their claims. They were induced to give up Tran- 
sylvania, to leave out the settlements in the Cumberland section 
and also those on French Broad and Holston. The boundaries 
thus fixed were the most favorable it was possible to obtain without 
regard to previous purchases and pretended purchases made by 
private individuals and others. They yielded an extensive terri- 
tory to the United States, but, on the other hand, the commission- 
ers conceded to them a considerable extent of territory that had 
been purchased by private individuals, though by methods of more 
than doubtful legality. The commissioners agreed to remove some 
families from the Indian lands, but they did not agree to remove 
those between French Broad and Holston. This angered the 
Indians, who said that they had never sold those lands. The 
whites were angry because some favors had been shown the 
Indians and because there had not been a still further curtailment 
of their territory, and the States were angry because the commis- 
sioners had encroached on the reserved rights of the States, and 
efforts were made in Congress to destroy the treaty (Col. Rec., 
Vol. XVII., pp. 578, 579; Vols. XVIII., pp. 49, 591, 592; 
Vol. XX., p. 762). Encroachments continued ; orders were issued 
by North Carolina and by the Continental Cong^ress that settlers 
leave the Indian lands. They were even threatened with the army ; 
but treaties, threats and proclamations were alike in vain. The 
terms of the treaty were never fully executed. Martin also signed 
a treaty with the Choctaws at Hopewell on January 3, 1786, and 
with the Chickasaws on January 10. 

Another interesting incident in the life of this pioneer is his 
relation to the State of Franklin. In 1784 the division and hos- 
tility between North Carolina proper and that part of her territor)' 
west of the mountains had become acute. The east was slow to 
provide for the defense of the west and to pay for the same. The 



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246 NORTH CAROLINA 

courts were not sufficient. The west complained. In April, 1784, 
this territory was ceded by North Carolina to the Confederation. 
The settlers, thrown off, as they felt, by North Carolina, and not 
yet received into the Confederation, set up for themselves, begin- 
ning with a convention in Jonesboro, in August, 1784. A little 
later they formally declared their independence of North Carolina 
and organized a government. Martin was a member of the first 
convention, but opposed the scheme for a separate government. 
When this action of the west became known in North Carolina, its 
Assembly repealed the act of cession, established a Superior Court 
for the four Tennessee counties, appointed an assistant judge and 
attorney-general, formed them into a military district and made 
John Sevier a brigadier-general. This prompt redressing of griev- 
ances satisfied the more conservative ; but the more radical organ- 
ized a separate government, and elected Sevier as governor. Then 
followed four years of riots and contentions, discord and discon- 
tent little short of actual civil war. There were rival govern- 
ments and rival officers, one set adhering to the old State and the 
other to the new. Martin had been satisfied by the action taken 
by North Carolina, and counselled a return to the allegiance of 
that State. He stood out as a leading supporter of the old State; 
on December 13, 1787, he was elected by the North Carolina 
Assembly as brigadier-general of the militia of Washington Dis- 
trict (Col. Rec, Vol. XX., p. 225). This put him at the head 
of the forces of the State in the west and brought him into armed 
opposition to the Franklin authorities, but he used this power 
with such prudence and wisdom that actual hostilities were 
avoided, and the State of Franklin died a natural death in 1788. 
But in July, 1788, Governor Johnston ordered Martin to arrest 
Sevier for treason, for encroachment on Indian lands, etc. This 
tended to revive the still, smoldering flames, but with the farce at 
Morganton which followed Sevier's arrest the matter dropped. 

During all this time Martin was Indian agent for North Caro- 
lina, and for the greater part for Virginia as well. His position 
was a trying one. He stood between the Indians who claimed the 
soil and the constantly rising tide of white men who were seeking 



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JOSEPH MARTIN 247 



new homes in the west. The agent had to meet also the machina- 
tions of the Spaniards, who had emissaries among the Cherokees, 
Creeks and Chickasaws, and were constantly inciting them to 
hostilities. 

Early in 1788 the Cherokees became restless. They made 
attacks in Davidson, Sumner and Hawkins counties and killed 
people on the Kentucky road. On June 20, 1788, Congress made 
Martin its agent for six months among the Cherokees. He was 
to investigate their grievances and report. In August he was 
given a similar position for the Chickasaws. But troubles con- 
tinued, and it was found best during the summer of 1788 to make 
an expedition against the Chickamauga band of Cherokees. Some 
800 men were called out ; the Indians were pursued and their lands 
devastated. They retreated to Lookout Mountain and attacked 
the troops in the defile ; the latter became panic stricken and fled. 
Martin planned another campaign at once, but suspended opera- 
tions under orders from the secretary of war. The North Caro- 
lina Assembly of 1789, after much haggling and delay, paid the 
expenses of the expedition. At Martin's request, a committee of 
the Assembly was appointed on November 7, 1789, to investigate 
the affairs of the expedition and to look into various charges that 
had been brought against him. The committee included William 
R. Davie and William Blount, and the report was made by the 
latter. Certain communications by Martin to McGillivray, the 
Creek chief, had been twisted by his enemies into treason. The 
report said that in sending McGillivray the resolutions of Con- 
gress Martin only did his duty, and as for other charges, that 
"depositions of similar import have years past been laid before 
the General Assembly, and the committee do not find them to 
contain any matter sufficient to criminate the said Martin" (Col. 
Rec., Vol. XXL, p. 691). 

But, nevertheless, Martin's enemies were in the ascendant, and 
the Assembly passed a resolution '*that John Sevier is the brig- 
adier-general of the district of Washington, and ought to be obeyed 
as such according to the date of his commission issued in the 
month of November, 1784." Thus, in the closing hours of the 



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248 NORTH CAROLINA 

■ 

session, by political trickery, Martin, without notice, was legis- 
lated out of office, without opportunity for self-defense and with- 
out official accusation, and the place of the man who had served 
the State faithfully in her struggle with the State of Franklin 
was given to the governor of that abortive commonwealth, and 
by the very body which a year or two before had declared him an 
outlaw (Col. Rec, Vol. XXI., pp. 725-728). 

Martin was a representative in the North Carolina Assembly 
from Sullivan County in 1782 (April session), in 1783 (April), 
in 1786, 1787 and 1788. He served on the committees on the 
Transylvania treaty, laying off lands for Continental officers, on 
Indian affairs and on Franklin State. He does not seem to have 
been an active member, and seldom appeared as a speaker. He was 
also a member from Sullivan County in the Hillsboro convention of 

1788, which considered the Federal Constitution, and in that of 

1789, which adopted that instrument. In both conventions he 
advocated its adoption. The latter seems to have been his last 
service in or for North Carolina. About this time he removed to 
(jeorgia, built a fort, took part in suppressing an Indian outbreak 
and was elected to the (Georgia Assembly. He also traded with the 
Cherokees, and on December 11, 1793, was commissioned by (jov- 
emor Lee as brigadier-general of the Twelfth Regiment of Vir- 
ginia militia raised for suppression of the Whiskey Insurrection. 
In 1799 he was a Virginia commissioner to settle the Virginia- 
Kentucky boundary. In 1802 he served Virginia in a similar 
capacity for the Tennessee boundary. He was in the Virginia 
Assembly 1791-99, and Martinsville, in Henry County, is named 
in his honor. He died in Henry County, Virginia, Decem- 
ber 18, 1808. 

He was twice married. His first wife was Sarah Lucas and 
his second Susannah Graves. He had a large family, and a num- 
ber of his descendants have become well known. The list includes 
his sons, Colonel William Martin of Tennessee and Colonel Joseph 
Martin of Virginia ; other descendants are the late Rev. Joseph B. 
Martin and the late Rev. Lafayette W. Martin of North Carolina, 
Rev. Carr W. Pritchett, astronomer of the Morrison Observatory 



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JOSEPH MARTIN 249 



of Glasgow, Missouri; Dr. Henry S. Pritchett, president of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and ex-Senator John 
Martin of Kansas. 

A detailed study of General Martin's career will be found in my 
monog^phy in the report of the American Historical Association 
for 1893 entitled "General Joseph Martin and the War of the 
Revolution in the West." The sources for his public career arc 
to be found in the American State Papers, Calendar of Virginia 
State Papers, Colonial and State Records of North Carolina, pub- 
lications Southern History Association and Virginia Magazine of 
Biography. 

Stephen B. Weeks. 




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JOHN MOTLEY MOREHEAD 

[T is often remarked of the dead, especially in this 
busy, changing age, that if they could revisit 
the scenes of their labors they would walk as 
in a world not realized. The general truth of 
the remark cannot be denied. But a study of 
the character and achievements of Governor 
Morehead convinces me that he would be more at home in North 
Carolina to-day than would any other of our ante-bellum gov- 
ernors. He has been dead forty years, and they have been years 
of constant change and of unceasing development. But so wide 
were his sympathies, so vital were his aims, so far-sighted were 
his public policies, and so clearly did he foresee the larger North 
Carolina of schools, railroads and cotton mills, that he would be 
as truly a contemporary in the twentieth century as he was a leader 
in the nineteenth. 

John Motley Morehead, governor of North Carolina for two 
successive terms, 1841 to 1845, was born in Pittsylvania County, 
Virginia, July 4, 1796. He was the son of John Morehead and 
Obedience Motley, both natives of Virginia. In 1798 his parents 
moved to Rockingham County, North Carolina, where he lived 
until his marriage in 182 1 to Miss Ann Eliza Lindsay, eldest 
daughter of Colonel Robert Lindsay of Guilford County. Though 
three counties claim him, his home was for the rest of his life 
in Greensboro, the county seat of Guilford ; it was from Guilford 
as a center that his influence and that of his family radiated ; it 



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JOHN MOTLEY MOREHEAD 251 

was in Guilford that his remains and those of his wife were 
interred ; and it is Guilford that still jealously guards his memory 
as that of her greatest citizen. 

Though there were no classical schools in Rockingham County 
during Governor Morehead's boyhood, his parents were deter- 
mined that their gifted son should have a college education. At 
the age of fourteen he began the study of Latin in the home of 
his father's friend and neighbor, the Hon. Thomas Settle, father 
of the late Judge Thomas Settle. From here he went to the 
famous school near Greensboro taught by Dr. David Caldwell. 
Though Dr. Caldwell was at this time ninety years of age, 
Governor Morehead never wearied of praising his skill as a 
teacher and his range and acumen as a scholar. From Dr. 
Caldwell's school he entered the University of North Carolina 
as a junior half advanced, joined the Dialectic Society, was made 
a tutor, graduated in 181 7,* and became one of the most efficient 
trustees the University has ever had. He was the sixth alumnus 
of the University to occupy the governor's chair and the first 
to occupy it for two terms. 

It should be said in this connection that the differences of opin- 
ion in regard to Governor Morehead's academic attainments rest 
on a misconception of the man and of the times. Books were 
never to him an end in themselves : he used them only as a means 
to a knowledge of men and of things. He could quote readily 
from Shakespeare, Milton, Bums and the later poets;* but he 
laid no claims to being a literary critic, nor was he interested in 
the niceties of literary art except in so far as they gave cogency 
to his reasoning or sparkle to his illustrations. I have searched his 
pages in vain, however, to find any ground for the charge that 
his English was defective. In his stump speeches, none of which 
survive, he doubtless followed the vogue of the times and accom- 

"Thc Morehead room is still pointed out in the South Building. The 
statement, however, in the Kerr Memorial, that John Y. Mason of Virginia 
and James K Polk, the future President, were classmates of Governor 
Morehead, is a mistake. 

•See Kerr Memorial, p. 47. 



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252 NORTH CAROLINA 

modated his grammar to local demands;* but in his published 
addresses his language is invariably clear, correct, flexible and 
eminently representative of the power and personality of the man 
behind it. 

After graduation Governor Morehead studied law under Archi- 
bald D. Murphy, who was twenty years his senior, and a graduate 
also of Doctor Caldwell's school and of the University of North 
Carolina. The influence of Murphy upon young Morehead was 
far-reaching and profound. The two men were alike and yet 
unlike. In the combination of native brilliancy, range and ac- 
curacy of information, wealth of literary attainment and con- 
structive statesmanship North Carolina has never produced the 
superior of Murphy. But in their unvarying insistence upon the 
need of internal improvements and of broader educational policies 
for the State the two men stood upon the same platform; and 
Governor Morehead, by his greater power over the people at 
large, was enabled to accomplish far more than Murphy. 

Obtaining his license in 1819, he began the practice of law in 
Wentworth, the county seat of Rockingham. As a representative 
from Rockingham, and later from Guilford, in the House of 
Commons, his fame as an eloquent tribune of the people and as 
an uncompromising advocate of internal improvements and of 
better educational facilities drew the attention of all classes to 
him and made him the most talked of man in the State. In 1840 
he founded Edgeworth Female Seminary* in Greensboro, and 
was chosen the same year as the Whig candidate for governor. 

His appearance at this time, as he stood at the threshold of his 

*An illustration may be found in an incident reported to me by Dr. Kemp 
P. Battle. During Governor Morehead's campaign with Judge Saunders, 
the judge challenged a statement of his opponent in these words: "Whar, 
sir, does the gentleman git his authority for that thar statement? I ask 
him whar." Slapping his hand upon certain volumes, Governor Morehead 
replied: "In them thar dokiments, sir. That's whar." 

'For the unique position held by this institution in the education of 
Southern women, sec "The History of Education in North Carolina'* by- 
Charles Lee Smith, "The History of Guilford County" by Miss Sallie W. 
Stockard, and "The Church and Private Schools of North Carolina" by 



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JOHN MOTLEY MOREHEAD 253 

larger career, was singularly winning and impressive. His 
shoulders were broad, his forehead was massive, his face clean 
shaven, his hair touched with gray, his carriage erect but not 
stiff, his dress elegant but never ostentatious, and his expression 
a blending of kindliness, sagacity and unalterable determination. 

His Democratic opponent for the governorship was Hon. Romu- 
lus M. Saunders, and their five months' campaign was the most 
memorable the State had yet witnessed. Though Judge Saunders 
was at the outset better versed than his opponent in the history 
of politics and political parties, Governor Morehead's easy mastery 
of a popular audience, his candor and sincerity, together with his 
power of absorbing just the information that he needed, gave him 
an increasing advantage over the Democratic candidate. His 
majority on election day was more than 8000 votes. In his 
inaugural, the first delivered in the new Capitol, he "spoke without 
notes and without the slightest appearance of faltering."* He 
dwelt chiefly upon commerce, agriculture, methods of internal 
improvements, and the needs of the University and of the common 
schools. "It is to our common schools, in which every child can 
receive the rudiments of an education, that our attention should be 
mainly directed." 

His opponent for his second term was Louis D. Henry. Owing 
to the untimely death of President Harrison and the alleged de- 
fection of Mr. Tyler, the Whig Party in North Carolina was 
apathetic and almost disorganized; but Governor Morehead's 
majority, though reduced, was about 5000. In his last official 
message, delivered in 1845, he made the following impassioned 
and successful appeal, honorable alike to his heart and to his 
head, for the better treatment of the deaf and dumb and blind : 

"It is more than probable that this is the last official communi- 
cation I shall have to make to your honorable body; to-morrow 
severs the political tie that now unites us. In retiring from the 

Dr. Charles Lee Raper. While there were, of course, a great many female 
schools in the State supported by denominational and municipal subscrip- 
tions, this was the only one that was founded and owned by an individual. 
"Greensboro Patriot, January 12, 1841, 



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254 NORTH CAROLINA 

distinguished position I now occupy, I leave it pleading in behalf of 
these unfortunate and helpless creatures who are unable to plead 
for themselves, and whose happiness or misery awaits your action. 

**I conjure you, then, by your duties as wise legislators, by all 
the feelings of humanity and of philanthropy, by the precepts of 
our holy religion, to resolve never to abandon the seats which 
you now occupy, nor to behold your own beloved offspring, until 
you have done your duty toward these afflicted children of Provi- 
dence by the adoption of some measure for the improvement and 
amelioration of their condition."^ 

Governor Morehead's reputation had already become national, 
and in 1848 he was unanimously chosen to preside over the 
National Whig Convention, which met in Philadelphia, June 7-9, 
to nominate a candidate for the Presidency. His speeches at the 
opening and at the close of the convention were admirable, both 
in form and spirit, almost every sentiment receiving the united 
applause of the vast audience.* He had gone to the convention 
in the hope of helping to nominate Henry Clay, but Zachary 
Taylor was the popular choice. "I have voted for Henry Clay," 
he said in his concluding speech, "because no man is more largely 
identified with the glory of our country than he is. No administra- 
tion could add a particle to his undying fame ; no honors could add 
to his treasure heap. But I yield him to this convention, yield him 
cheerfully, and for the future no man can go more heartily than 
I will for the hero of Buena Vista." 

*Sce "The Early History of the North Carolina Institution for the Edu- 
cation of the Deaf and Dumb and Blind" in "Our Living and Our Dead," 
Vol. I., pp. 257-261, 1874-75. In 1843 Governor Morehead had offered to 
W. D. Cooke of the Virginia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and 
Blind "a large tavern house and outhouses" in Leaksville for the estab- 
lishment of a similar institution in North Carolina. "This establishment 
you can have the first year gratis, and afterward at a very moderate cost" 
The Synod of North Carolina warmly commended this offer. 

•The first speech is published in the National Intelligencer of Wash- 
ington, D. C. in the issue of June 10. 1848; the second, in the issue of 
June 13th. For access to the ante-bellum files of this paper and of the 
Greensboro Patriot, I am indebted to the kindness of the authorities 
of Trinity College, North Carolina. 



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JOHN MOTLEY MOREHEAD 255 

But Governor Morehead's greatest speech was doubtless that 
delivered as the representative of Guilford in defense of his rail- 
road policies. It was during the session of 1858-59. For five 
days he had listened in silence to the attacks of his opponents; 
but when he finished his reply, **We could scarcely realize," says 
the Hon. Thomas Settle, "the fact that any man possessed such 
powers of argument and eloquence." Says the Hon. John Kerr* : 
"The House was enraptured with the display of power on the 
part of Governor Morehead, and no further charges were heard 
against him, no other attacks upon him made during the session, 
but all other feelings and sentiments were merged in unbounded 
admiration of *the old man eloquent.' " 

It is in connection with the railroad system of North Carolina 
that Governor Morehead's influence is most widely felt to-day. 
He is as truly the father of the North Carolina Railroad as he 
was its first president. For his part in this great work his tastes 
and talents eminently fitted him. He was not only versed in civil 
engineering, mechanics and architecture, but was at the same 
time a successful farmer, miner, miller and manufacturer. To 
the day of his death the project of a great railroad that should 
unite the eastern and western sections of the State absorbed his 
heart and brain. Such a road would not only confer economic 
advantages by permitting a ready exchange of products between 
the east and the west, but would at the same time harmonize long 
divided counsels, and thus create a solidarity of sentiment and 
a community of interest that the State had hitherto sorely lacked. 
The idea was not new, but no one man contributed so much to 
its practical realization as did Governor Morehead. 

The author of the bill to charter the North Carolina Railroad 
Company was Hon. W. S. Ashe, an eastern Democrat, but a friend 
of the west.* The bill was passed during the session of 1848-49, 
the vote of Calvin Graves, the Democratic speaker from Caswell 
County, having broken the tie in the Senate. In Governor More- 

*Kcrr Memorial, p. 30. 

"Sec Charles Clinton Weaver's "Internal Improvements in North Caro- 
lina Previous to i860" (Johns Hopkins Dissertation, 1903, p. 91). 



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256 NORTH CAROLINA 

head's first report to the General Assembly as president of the 
road he characterizes the bill as follows: *'The passage of the 
act under which this company is organized was the dawning of 
hope to North Carolina ; the securing of its charter was the rising 
sun of that hope ; the completion of the road will be the meridian 
glory of that hope, pregnant with results that none living can 
divine."^ In his last report to the stockholders in 1866, a month 
and a half before his death, he thus summarizes what had been 
accomplished : **On January 29, 1856, trains could run from Char- 
lotte to Goldsboro, a distance of two hundred and thirty-eight 
miles. June 7, 1858, found the roadbed of the Atlantic and North 
Carolina Railroad ready for trains from Goldsboro to Beaufort 
Harbor, and a few months thereafter found the trains running to 
within a few miles of Morganton on the western extension. . . . 
In seven years we have built of this great line three hundred and 
fifty-two miles in one continuous line."* 

Governor Morehead's undisputed primacy in all the afiFairs 
of the road is thus gratefully acknowledged by the stockholders 
in their first meeting in Greensboro after his death : **By none can 
his merits be longer and better remembered than by us who had 
been accustomed to lean on his direction and be guided by his 
wisdom in the services of this company, in his earnest industry 
in securing its charter, in his manly and untiring efforts to induce 
the doubting citizens along its line to shoulder the enterprise, in 
his sleepless energy and zeal through all its dark days and early 
beginnings, as its first president and chief builder, from which 
no factious opposition or false clamor could for an instant divert 
him from his great purpose to imbed in the soil of his native 
State, in his own day and under his own direction, *a great 
central trunk railway,' as the best deliverance of her citizens from 
commercial and agricultural bondage."* 

As to the significance of the road in the history of the State 

*See "North Carolina Railroad Reports," Raleigh, 1850, Executive 
Doc. IX., p. 5. 
•See "Proceedings," July 12, 1866, pp. 42-47. 
•See "Proceedings," July 11, 1867. p. 6; also the Kerr Memorial, pp. 79. 80. 



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JOHN MOTLEY MOREHEAD 257 

there can be no question. The granting of the charter was, says 
Hon. Rufus Barringer/ **the basis and the beginning of our entire 
present system of internal improvement, now reaching and inter- 
secting every part of the State." "The construction of this work," 
says Captain S. A. Ashe,* "has been of incalculable benefit to the 
State and people. It has largely obliterated the intense section- 
alism that previously divided the east and the west It has afforded 
to the center and west commercial facilities that were absolutely 
necessary for material and social development. During the war 
it was of the greatest advantage. It was built without costing 
the people of the State anything in the way of taxes; and for 
forty years it has yielded the State some revenue without any 
expenditure by the people. The State owes about $2,750,000 of 
bonds for its stock; and its stock can be sold at present quota- 
tions for $5,250,000." 

In 1861 Governor Morehead was selected, with Chief Justice 
Ruffin, Ex-Governor Reid, Hon. George Davis and Hon. Daniel 
M. Barringer, to represent North Carolina in the famous peace 
convention which met in Washington on February 4th of that year 
to devise some compromise by which collision between North and 
South might be averted. Governor Morehead had always been 
a strong Union man, but he returned from the peace convention 
fully convinced that secession was unavoidable. He became a 
member of the Provisional Congress of the Confederate States, 
and devoted his means and energies unstintedly to the Confed* 
erate cause. 

The close of the war found him reduced in fortune* and broken 

*Scc his "History of the North Carolina Railroad," p. 3 (a paper read 
May 10, 1894, before the North Carolina Historical Society at the Univcr- 
flity of North Carolina). 

'See his extracts from and comments upon General Barringer's paper 
in The Daily News and Observer, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 5, 1905. 

•Governor Morehead's estate, however, was less involved than that of 
many others, because he owned comparatively few slaves. His wife had 
been reared near the New Garden Church, which was abolitionist in senti- 
ment, and had always opposed her husband's investing largely in slaves. 
(Letter from Mrs. L. H. Walker.) 



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2S8 NORTH CAROLINA 

in health. One year later, August 27, 1866, he died peacefully 
and resignedly at the Rockbridge Alum Springs in Virginia. He 
retained his mental faculties to the last, and only a few days 
before his death discussed the industrial needs of the South so 
ably that a friend exclaimed on leaving the room, "Is it possible 
he can be in a dying condition ? He has laid out fifty years' work 
for us in this conversation alone !" 

At his death, which preceded that of his wife only one year. 
Governor Morehead left the following family, of which only 
Mrs. L. H. Walker and Major J. Turner Morehead survive: 
Mrs. L. H. Walker, Mrs. Waightstill Avery, Mrs. Colonel Peter 
Evans, Mrs. R. L. Patterson, Mrs. Julius A. Gray, John L. More- 
head, Major J. Turner Morehead and Eugene L. Morehead. 

Governor Morehead's life spanned a period of the nineteenth 
century marked by unparalleled economic change and industrial 
enterprise. Between the years 1830 and 1845 railroads were first 
built, telegraph lines were first stretched and the ocean was crossed 
for the first time by steam-propelled vessels. He was in a sense the 
child of his age, for he felt the thrill of the new life and saw 
clearly the promise of material and commercial greatness that the 
new forces prophesied. But never for a moment did he lose sight 
of those finer viftufes without which material progress becomes 
gross and sordid. In his character there was the blend of gentle- 
ness and strength, of generosity and business sagacity, of social 
charm and rugged principle. Wealth was to him the means of 
doing good, and high station the opportunity of public service. 
Though he was the pioneer manufacturer in the South, he trans- 
mits to this age not merely the lesson of industrial enterprise and 
material progress, but of these wrought into the finer forces of 
character and used only for high social and civic ends. 

C. Alphofiso Smith. 



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JAMES TURNER MOREHEAD 

^HE subject of this sketch has served this State 
on the battlefield, in legislative councils and 
not only as a manufacturer, but in the depart- 
ment of applied science, in which, indeed, he 
has not only gained high distinction, but 
has been of service to the world in producing 
economic results. 

James Turner Morehead was one of the younger sons of Gov- 
ernor John M. Morehead and his wife, Ann Eliza Lindsay, a 
daughter of Colonel Robert Lindsay of Guilford County, and he 
was bom at Greensboro in August, 1840, on the day his father 
was elected governor of the State. 

His early surroundings were in every respect admirable. The 
associations of his youth were calculated to develop the finer 
qualities of head and heart which he had inherited from his 
parents, while he was naturally gifted with an affectionate dis- 
position and a courtesy that distinguished him among his fellows. 
Early trained in the best preparatory schools, he entered the 
University in 1857, and graduated at that institution in June, 1861, 
with a class which had enrolled among its members 124 names. 
His conduct had been excellent, and he had applied himself 
with such diligence to his studies that he shared with four 
others the first honors of his class throughout the entire term 
of four years. 



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26o NORTH CAROLINA 

The State was in the throes of war when he emerged from 
the groves of Chapel Hill, and 'animated by, the patriotic spirit 
which distinguished his family, he quickly connected himself with 
the cavalry service of the Confederate States, and continued in 
the field until incapacitated by wounds that were at first thought 
mortal. 

On the organization of the Fifth Cavalry, which is borne on 
the roll as the Sixty-third Regiment, he became adjutant of that 
fine regiment, and shared in all of its varied experiences. He was 
always in the thickest of the fray. "At Upperville, on the 21st of 
June, 1863, the Federal cavalry began to advance, and Colonel 
Evans wished to charge. General Stuart thought best not to 
charge, but finally yielded to Colonel Evans's wishes. This charge 
stopped the Federal advance, but," says Major John M. Galloway, 
in his account of that regiment, "at quite a loss to us. Colonel 
Evans was mortally wounded and captured and quite a number 
wounded. Adjutant Morehead had many holes in his clothing and 
several skin wounds, but nothing serious. 

"In the Bristoe Station campaign the regiment did its full share 
of fighting and bore its full share of the losses, and here it suffered 
a severe loss, for Adjutant Morehead was desperately wounded. 
A bullet struck him full in the mouth, breaking nearly all of his 
front teeth and passing out at the back of his neck, narrowly 
missing his spinal column. The wound was first thought to be 
mortal, but youthful hope and a good constitution saved him. 
It was long before he recovered, and the regiment after that was 
deprived of his efficient services." His wounds incapacitated him 
for service in the field, and when he left the hospital he was 
assigned to post duty, and so continued until the end of the war. 
He was parolled by General Johnston at the final surrender. 

In December, 1864, he was married to Mary Lily Connally, a 
niece of Nicholas Lanier Williams of Yadkin County; and im- 
mediately after the cessation of hostilities he was employed in 
the manufacture of cotton and wool at Spray, in Rockingham 
County, where he made his home. 

In the devastation following the Civil War, the establishing of 



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JAMES TURNER MOREHEAD 261 

manufacturing industries in North Carolina was practically evolu- 
tion from very scant beginnings. 

Before the Civil War each farmer had a flock of sheep and 
a flax patch. He bought cotton yam for warp and used flax 
filling for summer and wool filling for winter clothes for the 
slaves and to a large extent for his family. The wool was carded 
and made into loose rolls an inch in diameter and about thirty 
inches long. These rolls were spun into threads on the old spin- 
ning wheels, and was carded and spun where grown, and the 
threads were dyed principally with bark dyes, and cloth was pro- 
duced on the hand looms. Such were the old methods ; under the 
new conditions of manufacturing, the operators had to be taught 
and trained, and the bulk of the consumers had to be educated up 
to the use of machine-made fabrics. When the farmer brought his 
wool to be carded, he was invited to exchange it for manufactured 
products, from art squares, blankets and linseys to bright-dyed 
wool )rams. 

With the energy and intelligence that have characterized Mr. 
Morehead throughout life, and which made him so efficient as a 
Confederate soldier, he now applied himself to the various duties 
necessary in these new operations. And he soon became master 
of the details of his business, overcoming all obstacles and meeting 
with gratifying success. He became a forceful man in those 
uncertain times in his community, and was a leader in thought as 
well as in the activities of business. 

In 1867 the negroes were invested with the right of suffrage 
by Congress ; and this change in the fundamental law of the com- 
monwealth ushered in a period of great excitement and turmoil. 
In 1870 political and social matters in that section of the State 
assumed an alarming aspect. Governor Holden declared Caswell, 
the neighboring county, in insurrection, and it was occupied by 
Colonel Kirk and his soldiers, and martial law supplanted civil 
law. Hundreds of the best citizens were arrested by Colonel Kirk, 
and a military court was appointed to try them, it being under- 
stood that the people were to be terrorized by wholesale military 
executions. There was great indignation at these proceedings, 



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262 NORTH CAROLINA 

and every man felt the immanency of the crisis. Under these con- 
ditions Major Morehead turned from his business and entered 
actively into politics, and in the midst of these occurrences, in 
August, 1870, he was elected to represent the county of Rocking- 
ham in the State Senate. In several respects this was the most 
important Assembly that ever convened in North Carolina. It 
was controlled by the Conservatives, who came into power after 
the disorders and riotous proceedings of the Republican Party 
during the preceding two years. The laws of the State had to 
be modified, the finances rescued from bankruptcy and a school 
system established, and the people demanded the punishment of 
those who had subverted the constitution of the State. Governor 
Holden was impeached by the House and was tried by the Senate, 
the chief justice presiding. On this trial Major Morehead voted 
guilty, and the governor was deprived of his office and rendered 
incapable of holding office again in North Carolina. Major More- 
head was an active member of the Senate, and participated in 
perfecting the legislation then adopted, which has proved so bene- 
ficial to the people of the State. His conduct was so acceptable 
to his constituents that two years later he was returned again 
to the Senate, and he continued to exert a strong influence in 
public affairs; and a constitutional convention being called in 
1875, he was elected a member of that body, and was one of the 
most important of the members, because of his intelligence, his 
firmness and his purpose to remedy the ills that afflicted the people. 
The period from 1870 to the end of the constitutional conven- 
tion of 1875 covered the crucial days of reform subsequent to the 
ills of Reconstruction. It was a period of constant struggle, and 
called forth the best action of the patriotic citizens of the State. 
During those five years Major Morehead, associated with many 
other young men who had endured the experiences of the war, 
diligently applied himself to rescuing the State from the evils 
that had overtaken our people and to establishing the Anglo- 
Saxons in control of public affairs. In this work he played an 
important part and exerted a strong influence. He was ever 
conservative, but was resolute, fearless and determined. What- 



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JAMES TURNER MOREHEAD 263 

ever measure he advocated had the more favorable consideration 
because of the fact that he approved it, and whatever measure he 
disapproved was generally therefore regarded as inexpedient. 
Following the convention of 1875, Governor Vance was elected 
governor of the State, and the great work of reform was ac- 
complished. Those active, energetic men who had applied their 
shoulders to the wheel to rescue the State from her troubles and 
difficulties, but who had no purpose to seek a political career, now 
felt that the burden was removed and that they could leave public 
affairs in other hands and devote themselves to their private busi- 
ness; and Major Morehead now became engrossed in manu- 
facturing and other enterprises in which he was engaged. Spray, 
where he had established himself, became an important industrial 
center. From a village of 300 inhabitants in 1867, it has now 
over 6000 inhabitants, all engaged in manufacturing, the result 
of Major Morehead's operations there. 

Addition followed addition in the development of Major More- 
head's business interests. To manufacturing woollen and cotton 
goods he united mining and the development of the resources of 
that section where he had his home. He was an important factor 
in the inception and building of the North Carolina Midland Rail- 
road, and was one of the ten men who purchased from the State 
the old Western Railroad and undertook to build the Cape Fear 
and Yadkin Valley Road. This was one of the most important 
enterprises of that period undertaken by citizens of the State. The 
gentlemen interested performed a great work, but it was at a 
heavy expense ; and unhappily for them and for the State, a great 
panic occurred most unexpectedly, which overturned their plans, 
entailing personal loss and requiring the sacrifice of their property. 
But the road was built and has been a great factor in the develop- 
ment of that part of the. State which it traverses. 

North Carolina was the first State to have a Geological Survey. 
Governor Morehead was its early and lifelong friend, and, fol- 
lowing in the footsteps of his illustrious father, Major Morehead 
threw all of his influence to maintain that department, and even 
assisted the Survey with his private means. While in the legis- 



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264 NORTH CAROLINA 

lature, he sought to foster the Survey, and, indeed, manifested 
more interest in its welfare than any other member of that body, 
and when the Survey was re-established, in 1891, he was appointed 
one of the Board of Control, and continued in the performance 
of that duty for fourteen years. During that period he was more 
influential in connection with the work of this Survey than any 
other citizen, except alone Professor Holmes, who was at its head. 
By this work he contributed much to the welfare of the State, and 
earned another title to the gratitude of the people for his intelligent 
action in their behalf. 

At Spray he established a laboratory, which did most important 
work. "Two hundred and forty thousand electrical horse-power 
in Europe and 40,000 in America are now employed in the pro- 
duction of carbide of calcium, from which acetylene gas is made. 
This electro-chemical product was first commercially produced 
by Major Morehead at Spray. His plants in Virginia and West 
Virginia have since 1898 supplied all tjie chromium that has gone 
into the armor plate used by the United States, and large quantities 
are exported to Sheffield to the leading English manufacturers of 
armor plate." 

In the course of his business he* became interested in smelting 
refractory ores,* and after long-continued effort and large ex- 
penditures he demonstrated the commercial and practical possi- 
bilities of the electric arc in that work. This was first demon- 
strated at Spray, North Carolina. The outcome astonished the 
scientific world, and the result was commended by such men as Lord 
Kelvin ; and it was declared by Professor Vivian B. Lewes, F.I.C., 
professor of chemistry, Royal Naval College, Greenwich, before 
an assembly of learned experts, to be epoch making; and since 
then the results obtained have had a world-wide influence, and 
have been accompanied by important economic benefits. 

Deeply interested in electro-chemical and metallurgical aflPairs, 
Major Morehead found it interesting to be in closer touch with 
those engaged in similar works, and was led by that consideration 
to make his home in New York, where he now resides. 

S. A, Ashe. 



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EUGENE LINDSAY MOREHEAD 

[he youngest son of Governor JohnM.Morehead 
and his wife, Ann Eliza Lindsay, was Eugene 
Lindsay Morehead, who was bom at his father's 
home in Greensboro on the i6th of September, 
^ ' V^'^ fefi? ^^45' ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ father was returning to private 
jj^J^^X^)^^^ life after four years' service as governor of the 
State. During the period of his youth his father was among the 
most important and busiest men in North Carolina. He had built 
the North Carolina Railroad, of which he was the president, and 
in 1858 completed the construction of the Atlantic and North 
Carolina Railroad, in which he was much interested, and had 
founded the city of Morehead, which was expected to become 
a mercantile emporium of the State. As great as had been 
Governor Morehead's service in political capacities and in other 
fields of public work, the chief and most important benefit he con- 
ferred on the people of the State was the construction of the 
three hundred and fifty miles of railway built through his en- 
deavors, the work being accomplished in seven years after he began 
it. Those were busy years for him, taxing his unsurpassed energy 
and fine capacity and withdrawing him much from his domestic 
circle; but they made still more apparent his great worth as a 
public man, and he constantly ranked higher and higher among the 
illustrious citizens of the State. 

In his early youth the subject of this sketch enjoyed all the 



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i 



266 NORTH CAROLINA 

advantages of a happy home and of associations with refined and 
cultivated friends, and he had the best educational advantages the 
State afforded. After an excellent preparatory training, at the 
age of sixteen he entered the University of North Carolina in 
1862, and for two years applied himself closely to his studies. But 
the need for soldiers in the field became great, and the young as 
well as the old were required to fill the depleted ranks of the 
battalions defending the beleaguered Southland. At college with 
Mr. Morehead were Julian S. Carr, F. H. Busbee and others who, 
like him, were animated by patriotic spirit and could not remain 
in the quiet pursuit of an education when they had attained 
sufficient age and size to serve their country in the field. Lee was 
hard pressed in Virginia, Charleston besieged and New-Bern, 
Washington and Plymouth were in possession of the Federal 
forces, while Wilmington was threatened. As the Federal coil 
tightened on the exhausted South, even the young students sprang 
with alacrity to supply the vacancies made by fallen veterans, and 
nowhere was there more patriotic spirit manifested than at the 
University of North Carolina. Eugene Morehead and others of 
his class entered the Junior Reserves, and it fell to his lot to be 
ordered to Smith's Island, at the mouth of the Cape Fear, to aid 
in the defense of Wilmington. The battalion of which he was 
a member was thrown with others into a temporary brigade under 
the command of Colonel John M. Connally, one of the bravest of 
the brave. Colonel Connally had been educated at the Naval 
Academy, and by his courage, dash and intrepidity he reflected 
credit on that nursery of gallant officers. He had fallen at Gettys- 
burg desperately wounded, and had lost his arm by amputation ; 
but his spirit still flamed with patriotic fire. A man of fine dis- 
cernment and judgment, on the organization of his brigade he 
selected Eugene Morehead as a member of his staff, and obtained 
for him an appointment as lieutenant, and had him assigned to 
duty at brigade headquarters. The organization served on the 
Cape Fear until the end of the year, and took part in the defense 
of Fort Fisher in the attack of December 24 and 25, 1864, when 
the Federal forces were so successfully repulsed as to give hope 



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EUGENE LINDSAY MOREHEAD 267 

that the fortress was impregnable. Somewhat later the brigade 
was assigned to the command of Colonel George Jackson, with 
whom it continued until after the battle of Bentonville. The dis- 
asters then hastening the war to its close prevented commanding 
officers from making regular reports and perpetuating the record 
of the gallant spirits who participated in the last scenes of the 
struggle. The curtain fell when all was in confusion, and the 
particular acts of even the most conspicuous and meritorious 
officers are rendered obscure in the absence of the official reports. 

As soon as practicable after the close of the war. Lieutenant 
Morehead returned to the University and resumed his studies in 
the class of Fabius H. Busbee, W. H. S. Burgwyn, Paul B. Means 
and others who, like himself, had been in the Confederate service 
and who also were destined in civil life to achieve distinction ; and 
he received his degree of A.B. at that institution at the com- 
mencement of 1868. 

At the University he endeared himself to all of his associates, 
not merely because of his manly characteristics, but because of his 
courtesy, refinement and gentleness of deportment. One of his 
college companions, speaking of him afterward, said: "With a 
heart as tender as a woman, and with manners as polished as a 
Chesterfield, he was a most enjoyable companion." 

Mr. Fabius H. Busbee says: 

"I first knew Eugene Morehead as a lad on a visit to Greensboro, our 
families having been intimate since his father's term as governor, but my 
recollection of that period is indistinct, as I was very young. When I 
entered college, in 1863, he was in the Sophomore class, and was unusually 
considerate at a time when a Freshman appreciated kindness. After the 
war we were in the same class, he having been absent two years from the 
University in the army, and I losing one year, and we were graduated 
together in 1868. While we were members of different fraternities and 
different societies, I was thrown a great deal with him, and our friend- 
ship was close and unvarying. He was a good student and graduated 
in his class, being awarded one of the first distinctions. He was not dem- 
onstrative, but had the very warm friendship of the leading men at the 
University and was a great favorite in the village.'' 

Indeed, he entwined himself in the aflFections of his associates, 



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268 NORTH CAROLINA 

and was the best beloved of all the students who were at the 
University at that time. 

After graduating, Mr. Morehead returned to his home at 
Greensboro and entered the bank over which his uncle, the 
estimable Jesse Lindsay, presided, where he became proficient in 
the banking business ; and at the same time he engaged in the leaf 
tobacco business with one of his relatives. He continued to reside 
in Greensboro about six years and to the time of his marriage. 
Among the people of that town he was no less popular and beloved 
than he was in college. Friendly toward every one, he himself 
enjoyed the friendship of the entire community. He was indeed 
different from many young men of his social standing and ample 
means, for he was neither ostentatious nor difficult of approach. 
Gentleness and kindliness were among his characteristics from the 
cradle to the grave. To these traits of character were due 
largely the friendship and love he inspired among all who knew 
him. 

On January 7, 1874, Mr. Morehead was happily married to 
Miss Lucy Lathrop, daughter of James W. Lalhrop of Savannah, 
Georgia, which union was blessed with two lovely daughters, 
who are now Mrs. R. L. Patterson of New York and Mrs, John F. 
Wily of Durham, North Carolina, and one son, Lathrop Morehead. 
For a time he made his residence in Savannah, but in 1879 he 
returned to North Carolina and located at Durham, and at once 
became one of the leading citizens of that comparatively new town, 
then fast becoming an industrial center of the State. The tobacco 
business was still in its infancy, and he was of the greatest benefit 
in promoting that trade. Opening the first bank in Durham, with 
ample means, he became the prop and support of those business 
men who were then seeking to expand that business; and thus 
he did more than any other citizen in the way of contributing to 
the growth of Durham and in establishing her industries on a firm 
foundation. Indeed, no man ever took more pride and interest 
in the growth and prosperity of his home town, native or adopted, 
than he did in the growth and prosperity of Durham. He would 
often say : "I am in favor of anything for the good of Durham." 



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EUGENE LINDSAY MOREHEAD 269 

In truth, he never failed to do his part, and more than his part, 
along that line. He imparted to others his own enthusiasm in 
behalf of Durham. 

Courtly in his bearing, polite to all men and always considerate 
of the opinions of others, he soon became a leader in all enterprises 
that were to the advantage of the community. His public spirit 
led him to serve several terms upon the Board of Town Com- 
missioners, and he inaugurated movements that tended to the 
advancement and progress of the city. He was an active member 
of the Commonwealth Qub, an organization that was formed for 
the very purpose of concentrating the energies of the business 
men on enterprises of improvement, and he was foremost in every 
movement that promised a benefit to the community. In par- 
ticular, his best efforts were early enlisted for the establishment 
of the graded school, and he was a member of the first Board of 
Education, and served as president of that body for several years, 
and until the graded school became so successful in its operations 
that all opposition to it ceased and it was cherished by all classes 
of society. 

As a citizen he thus entered not merely into the business and 
industrial life of the community, but he exerted a great influence, 
that was felt even in the homes of the inhabitants. One who knew 
him well says : "He had a well-rounded character — one of nature's 
noblemen — ^whose soul conveyed his qualities to other men, by 
which they were influenced and benefited. Some men are bom 
great; they are great in youth as well as in mature age; they 
are g^eat in society, in the home circle and business; in short, 
they are great everywhere and at all times. Such was the char- 
acter of Mr. Morehead. Such was the beauty of Mr. Morehead's 
character that our friendship for him was fraternal in feeling. 
His broad humanity transcended all sectional and social lines, and 
the whole community felt as if they had a right and title in him 
and to his friendship." 

When stricken with the malady that later proved to be fatal, 
he went to New Orleans to place himself under the care of a 
physician. After spending the winter there, he returned to Dur- 



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270 NORTH CAROLINA 

ham much enfeebled in health. The citizens of Durham, as a 
manifestation of their love and esteem for him, turned out en 
masse and met him at the depot on his arrival with a band of music 
and addresses of welcome, and escorted him to his home. No higher 
honor than this demonstration could have been bestowed on any 
man. The expression of regard and esteem of the people was 
spontaneous and entirely sincere. Mr. Morehead was much 
affected by it, and remarked to his wife that never before did he 
realize his unworthiness of honors, and he was powerless to 
express his gratitude to his fellow-citizens. 

At the head of the only banking institution at Durham, and 
liberally and generously sustaining all the nascent industries of 
that busy mart, fostering the interests that were dear to all the 
inhabitants, a man of fine culture and admirable characteristics, 
one sees how he became the chief factor in the life of his com- 
munity, and naturally he attained the commanding influence that 
the community accorded him. He always pressed for progress in 
education and in those other lines that tended to make the homes 
more comfortable, more enjoyable and more happy. He was a 
stockholder in the Faucett Durham Tobacco Company, in the 
Electric Light Company, in the Street Railway, in the Durham 
Water Works, in the Durham Land and Security Company and 
in the Durham Fertilizer Company, and engaged in many other 
enterprises. Although at the head of the Morehead Banking Com- 
pany, he also became interested in the Fidelity Bank ; and, indeed, 
whatever promised to be of advantage to the community always 
received his warm co-operation. He was first in everything that 
tended to the improvement of the town, and was devotedly loyal 
to the best interests of the whole community. 

Mr. Morehead was an elder in the Presbyterian Church, and 
his record was blameless, and his daily walk and conversation were 
altogether admirable. As a teacher of the Bible class, he was ever 
prompt and earnest, magnetic in influence and winning in man- 
ners; his example was always good and his views thoroughly 
orthodox. His successor in his Bible class said to his pupHs: 
"You can in no way show your appreciation of his labors and 



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EUGENE LINDSAY MOREHEAD 271 

advice so much as by emulating his noble life and by more earnest 
devotion to duty and good deeds." 

Making his home in Durham, Mr. Morehead and his accom- 
plished wife became the center of a social circle appreciated for 
its excellence and esteemed for its culture and virtues, and from 
it there radiated a beneficent influence. 

While still in the midst of his useful career, in the forty-fourth 
year of his age, Mr. Morehead passed away at Savannah on the 
27th of February, 1889. His remains were brought to Durham, 
and the occasion of his funeral moved the inhabitants of the town 
to such a demonstration of affection and mourning as had never 
been evoked by any similar sorrow. The Durham Board of Trade 
and the Durham Light Infantry and other organizations and a 
large concourse of citizens repaired to the residence and escorted 
the remains to the Presbyterian Church, where the obsequies were 
conducted with great solemnity. Indeed, when the end came, 
the whole town was stricken with grief. Upon the lips of every 
citizen was heard the expressions, "A good man has gone," "A 
man without an enemy," "I have lost my best friend." 

S. A. Ashe. 




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JAMES TURNER MOREHEAD 

{T is a truism that blood tells. The sturdy 
virtues for which the name of Morehead stands 
were not fashioned in a day. His ancestry, 
paternal and maternal, comes from stuff of 
which heroes and heroines were made. There 
is something in a name. Character is neither 
molded by environment nor built by chance. It is the work, the 
growth of generations. The stately form, the erect bearing, the 
courtly manner, the fine poise, the superb figure and the engaging 
personality of this well-rounded gentleman are but the harvest 
garnered from soil in which a noble ancestry had planted and 
cultivated the seeds of wisdom, truth and virtue. The pride of 
the name he bore was a shield from the vices that debase. His 
strong character is rooted in ancestral cleanness of life and steadi- 
ness of purpose. His birth was in an atmosphere of lofty ideals. 
His rearing was amid surroundings which appealed to the best 
that was in him. And it was withal a simple life from which 
came the serenity of his temperament, the knightliness of his nerve, 
the bigness of his heart, the charm of his character and the 
strength of his manhood. Character molded in ancestral furnace 
and fashioned after the ways of a simple life, as was his, has a 
flavor and a strength of its own, and towers above the sordid, the 
sensual and the impure. It is the product of more than one 
generation of right living, high thinking and noble acting. 



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JAMES TURNER MOREHEAD 273 

This ancestral line runs back three hundred years into the fine 
blood of Scotland. Virginia claims the first record of this family 
in this country in 1620. In value and extent of public service 
the writer recalls no family of more distinguished record in the 
history of this country. The limits of this sketch forbid citations 
from the records of Virginia and Kentucky. His grandfather, 
John Morehead, who was a valiant and intrepid soldier in the 
Revolutionary War, married Miss Motley, a daughter of Captain 
Joseph Motley, who fought at Braddock's defeat imder Colonel 
George Washington. This grandmother had seven brothers in 
the Revolutionary War under Green and Washington. It will 
be recalled that Captain Jatnes Morehead, who was, on March 23, 
1779, appointed an officer in the Tenth North Carolina Continental 
Regiment, served with conspicuous valor under General Sumner. 
One of the most beautiful memorial stones which adorns the 
Battle Park of the Guilford Battle Ground Association is that 
erected in honor of the Revolutionary heroine; Mrs. Kerenhappuch 
Turner, whose daughter Elizabeth was the wife of Captain Joseph 
Morehead. Another daughter, Mary, married his brother, Charles 
Morehead. John Morehead was a brother of Captain James 
Morehead, who had also "commanded the nine months' men sent 
to the South," and who, with Brown, Waddell and Owen, fought 
the battle of Elizabethtown and won a memorable victory over 
those Highland Scotchmen, the flower of his Majesty's soldiery. 
John Morehead was one of the special detail ordered to convey 
the prisoners taken at the battle of Cowpens to the mountains of 
Virginia, and was engaged in the execution of this order at the 
time of the battle of Guilford Court House. Later, John More- 
head was a member of the Special Court of Rockingham County, 
where he was always a leader. It is a matter of history that he 
and the elder Ruffin were pillars of the Methodist Church in their 
day. John Morehead built old Mount Carmel Church, which yet 
stands in the county of Rockingham. 

The maternal side of our subject's family is scarcely less dis- 
tinguished. His great-grandfather was Jeduthan Harper, who 
was one of the delegates from Chatham County at Hillsboro on the 



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274 NORTH CAROLINA 

2 1 St day of August, 1775, and among the first officers for Chatham 
County appointed at that time by that body, he was named as 
lieutenant-colonel. Chatham County also sent him as a member of 
the Congress held at Halifax, North Carolina, on November 12, 
1776, which framed our first State constitution. Four years later 
he appears as the first representative in the House of Commons 
from the county of Randolph, where he spent the remainder of 
his life. 

An interesting coincidence is the fact that Colonel James T. 
Morehead, the subject of this sketch, was a member of the last 
House of Commons under the old constitution from Guilford and 
his great-grandfather, Robert Lindsay, was a member of the first 
House of Commons in 1776. The Harpers in Randolph and the 
Lindsays in Guilford were the substantial leaders in the early years 
of the last century, and their descendants are yet among the influ- 
ential and respected of the best element of our people. The 
branch of the Morehead family in Kentucky was honored with 
the highest positions within the gift of the people of that State. 
Charles and James T. Morehead were each governor of that State, 
and later each represented Kentucky in the United States Senate. 
One of North Carolina's greatest governors was John Motley 
Morehead, whose scheme of internal improvements will perpetu- 
ate his name for all time. His brother, James Turner Morehead, 
one of the ablest lawyers of his generation, and a member of the 
United States Congress, 1851-53, was the father of our subject. 
His wife was Mary Lindsay. Another son. Major Joseph M. 
Morehead, president of the Guilford Battle Ground Company, is 
still living. 

Colonel James Turner Morehead, who bears the name of his 
father, was born on the 28th day of May, 1838, and was prepared 
for college at the great school of Dr. Alexander Wilson, at Mel- 
ville, Alamance County, North Carolina. Twenty years later, in 
1858, he graduated with first distinction at the University of North 
Carolina. His law course was pursued at Richmond Hill under 
Chief Justice Pearson, which he completed in i860. The war 
followed. True to the traditions of his noble lineage, he enlisted 



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JAMES TURNER MOREHEAD 275 

in the cause reluctantly espoused by the people of North Carolina. 
His service in the field was what might have been expected from 
the scion of a line of heroes and heroines. From second lieutenant, 
his promotion was won to the position of colonel of the Fifty-third 
North Carolina Regiment, which he held at the time of his capture 
on the 25th day of March, 1865, at Hare's Hill, in front of Peters- 
burg. He was in the last charge in which the Confederates broke 
for the last time the lines of the enemy, and was taken a prisoner 
inside of the ranks of the enemy. He was wounded three times, 
and gave ungrudgingly of his blood and four of the choicest years 
of his life to his country. In war as in peace he measured always 
up to the full share of duty, and wore the white flower of a flawless 
record. He never forgot his proud heritage, and added new luster 
to the honored name he bore to the front. 

At the end of the war he returned to the stricken home, and 
again touched elbows with comrades in the stupendous task of 
rebuilding that which had been swept and torn down by the ruth- 
less tread of a victorious army. Like his distinguished father, he 
preferred the practice of the law, and since 1865, with rare inter- 
ruption, he has pursued his profession with diligence, with pride 
and with success. While the most flattering political honors have 
been within his reach, he has seldom yielded to the entreaties of 
his friends, who have been ever ready to honor him with their 
support and confidence. In 1866 he served in the House of Com- 
mons from Guilford. Again in 1872, 1873, ^874 and 1875 he was 
the senator from Guilford, and when Lieutenant-Governor Cald- 
well became governor, he was elected president of the Senate, and 
discharged the duties of lieutenant-governor. He was one time, 
in 1888, induced to accept the nomination for Congress, but after 
a most brilliant canvass was defeated, owing to peculiar conditions 
existing in his district, for which he was not accountable. In 
1882 the Democratic convention of this senatorial district, believ- 
ing him to be the strongest and most available, if not the only man, 
tendered him the nomination against his wishes, and the result 
vindicated its wisdom. Time and again he has been importuned 
without success to accept the standard of his party in other con- 



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276 NORTH CAROLINA 

tests. Whilst loyal always to the Democratic Party and a stead- 
fast adherent of its faith, he has never overlooked the jealousy 
of his mistress, the law. Nor has he ever failed to accord to his 
fellow-citizens the fullest liberty of speech and action in all things. 

He is of the Presbyterian faith, and for long years has been a 
"high private in the rear ranks" of the old First Presbyterian 
Church of Greensboro, North Carolina. His consistency, his 
simple faith, his sterling integrity, his quiet alms, his charity, his 
generous deeds, his kindly words, his steady gait at all times and 
his fine poise of character are read in the daily walk of his daily 
life. The simple life is his. Without frills, or Bounces, or 
furbelows, he pursues the even tenor of his way, and never allows 
friend or foe to disturb the calm of his honest soul. It is as a 
lawyer that he is best known and best appreciated. He is in love 
with his profession, and so clean and straight has been his career, 
that he has given his profession added prestige in the confidence 
of the people. He is not a book lawyer, but he knows what is 
in the books. His skill in the management of the trial of a case 
before a jury is not surpassed by any lawyer of his day in this 
State. His skill in the cross-examination of a witness is un- 
matched. He is a unique character in the court-house. His quaint 
style and manner of speech and action captivate the audience. He 
is the most entertaining lawyer in the trial of a case the writer 
ever saw. He never fails to evoke laughter from the judge, the 
jury and the crowd. Every juror prefers to be in his case. He 
knows there is fun ahead. The judges do not hesitate to express 
their pleasure in listening to his unique, homespun and humorous 
arguments. It is a dull case out of which the unique colonel 
cannot bring some humor. 

He is the only lawyer in Piedmont, North Carolina, who keeps 
up the old custom of riding his circuit. The people of Randolph, 
Rockingham, Alamance and Stokes do not count it a court without 
the presence of Colonel Morehead. His name will live longer in 
the traditions of the people of his circuit than that of any other 
living man of his day. He has enjoyed an extensive practice, and 
has appeared in nearly all the important litigation of his circuit 



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JAMES TURNER MOREHEAD 



277 



for more than thirty years. He grasps the saUent points in his 
case and drives them home with unerring effect. The most note- 
worthy thing in his forensic battles is that he never loses his head 
under any provocation, and is always cool. His professional life 
is a success. He has never married. He is still in the enjoyment 
of his matured strength and unimpaired powers. His place in the 
esteem of his profession and the people is permanent and exalted. 
North Carolina owns no finer gentleman. His character is as 
white as the untouched face of a summer's rose. Without excep- 
tion, he is the discreetest and the manliest man the writer knows 
on earth to-day. 

G. S. Bradshaw. 




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JOSEPH MOTLEY MOREHEAD 

[OSEPH MOTLEY MOREHEAD of Greens- 
boro is a member of the distinguished family 
of that name, and has himself been associated 
from the beginning with the highly patriotic 
work of establishing, maintaining and adorning 
the Guilford Battle Grounds. 
The Moreheads are of Scotch descent, Charles Morehead, their 
ancestor, coming from Scotland to Virginia in 1620, but earlier 
than the Revolution they had located in North Carolina. Captain 
James Morehead was, on March 23, 1779. appointed a lieutenant 
in Captain Lytle's company of the Tenth North Carolina Con- 
tinentals, and served with General Sumner at the battle of Stono, 
and was also in the battle of Elizabethtown in 1781. Joseph 
Morehead, father of Captain James Morehead, married Elizabeth 
Turner, a daughter of the heroine, Mrs. Kerenhappuch Turner, 
who rode on horseback from her home in Maryland to nurse one 
of her sons who was desperately wounded at the battle of Guilford 
Court House ; while another daughter, Mary Turner, married his 
brother, Charles Morehead, from their union springing Governor 
Charles and Governor James T. Morehead of Kentucky, who, in 
addition, were United States senators. From Joseph Morehead's 
marriage sprang five brothers, James, Charles, Joseph, Turner 
and John. John married Miss Obedience Motley of Virginia, and 
from this union sprang John Motley Morehead, who became one 



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JOSEPH MOTLEY MOREHEAD 279 

of the most useful governors of the State, a man of great power 
and capacity, an ardent advocate of internal improvements, who 
made the construction of the North Carolina Railroad possible 
by securing the private subscription of $1,000,000 required by the 
act incorporating that company, and who largely promoted the 
building of the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad. 

The other brother, Hon. James Turner Morehead, one of the 
greatest lawyers of his day, represented Guilford County in the 
legislature, and also was a representative in Congress in the 
stormy times of 185 1 to 1853, ^^^ he preferred his professional 
career to political life. He married Miss Mary Leas Lindsay, and 
his surviving sons are Colonel James T. Morehead, a distinguished 
lawyer of Greensboro, and Major Joseph M. Morehead, the subject 
of this sketch, who was bom in Greensboro on the 9th of 
July, 1840. 

While in his sixth year Major Morehead had the misfortune 
to lose his mother, and being rather feeble arid not of a robust 
constitution, while fond of hunting, his tastes led him to books. 
He was taught at the celebrated school of Dr. Alexander Wilson, 
in Alamance County, and there was prepared for college ; but 
after entering the Universify, he was forced by ill Jjealth, in 1858, 
to abandon his studies without graduating. Later, however, 
having a disposition to follow the professional career of his father, 
he attended the law school of Chief Justice Pearson of Richmond 
Hill, and was admitted to the bar. 

The war coming on, he enlisted as a private in the Guilford 
Grays, and was soon appointed a first lieutenant in the Second 
North Carolina State troops, but because of ill health he was dis- 
charged by the surgeons, and had to abandon the service. He 
began active life in 1865 at Greensboro, uniting the business of 
farming with his professional work. 

Fond of country life with its pastimes, to which he was ac- 
customed from youth, and familiar with the woods and fields of 
his vicinity. Major Morehead has naturally taken a great interest 
in his farming operations, and he devotes much of his attention 
to that work. But outside of his profession and business interests 



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28o NORTH CAROLINA 

he is particularly noted for his endeavors to establish and maintain 
the Guilford Battle Grounds. In this work of high patriotism he 
has been tireless since the inception of the purpose, and not only 
liberal in his pecuniary donations, and freely giving his time, but 
also manifesting his interest by personal labor and supervision 
of the operations on the grounds. Originally a mere dedication of 
the field on which the battle was fought to public uses, through 
the services of Judge David Schenck, Major Morehead and their 
associates, the undertaking has been enlarged until the park has 
become a mausoleum redolent with patriotic memories. These 
monuments have been erected in commemoration of great events 
in the revolutionary history of the State, and to preserve to pos- 
terity the story of lofty patriotism exemplified in the lives and 
services of fallen sons. For many years Major Morehead has been 
the acting president of the association, and while he has con- 
tributed largely to the other monuments that adorn the grounds, 
to him chiefly is to be ascribed the credit of erecting the beautiful 
one unveiled on July 4, 1902, in honor of Mrs. Turner, the first 
ever erected in America to commemorate a heroine of the Revo- 
lution. 

Through his active and long-continued exertions, appropriations 
have been made by Congress for the erection of monuments to 
General Davidson and General Nash, who fell on the field of battle 
gallantly performing their duties ; and also as a result of his per- 
sistent endeavors a monument to General Greene is to be erected 
on the field where, by crippling Comwallis's army, that hero of 
the Revolution rendered niost valuable service to the cause of his 
country's independence. Indeed, Major Morehead's unremitting 
exertions in connection with this battlefield have been so zealous, 
and are so highly esteemed by his community and the public, that 
his presence at the recurring ceremonies on the grounds always 
evokes popular applause in grateful recognition of his unceasing 
labor and public spirit ; and when, in the centuries to come, patri- 
otic Carolinians will repair to the sacred shrine of the Guilford 
Battle Ground, they will recall with gratitude this great work 
of Judge Schenck, Major Morehead and their co-laborers, who 



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JOSEPH MOTLEY MOREHEAD 281 

conceived the plan and have so admirably executed the design of 
setting apart the old field of battle and converting it into a park 
adorned by monuments telling posterity of the services of their 
Revolutionary fathers. 

Nor have Major Morehead's labors in the field of patriotism 
been limited to his services in connection with the battlegrounds. 
He has been an investigator into the obscure annals of State 
history, and has made valuable contributions to historical liter- 
ature. Chief among his publications is his interesting and ad- 
mirable pamphlet on "J^^^^^s Hunter, General of the Regulators," 
which does full justice to the men engaged in the Regulation move- 
ment, and presents that subject in an aspect that appeals to the 
sympathies of patriotic people. 

Major Morehead has ever been a zealous Democrat, and has 
taken an active interest in political matters, though he has never 
sought political preferment, but has contented himself with wield- 
ing the influence that is naturally accorded in public affairs to a 
prominent citizen who is controlled by unselfish motives and lofty 
purposes. 

In his religious affiliations Major Morehead is a consistent 
Presbyterian, and his walk in life has won for him the high regard 
and esteem of his associates. A cultured gentleman, his reading 
has been varied, embracing a large variety of subjects, but outside 
of his professional studies he has devoted himself chiefly to works 
of theology, agriculture and history, while the pleasures of his 
home circle and his domestic tastes usually engage his leisure 
hours. The kejmote of his life is well illustrated by the words of 
advice he would offer to the young with a view of promoting high 
ideals: "Fear God, maintain self-respect at every hazard. Never 
be idle. Have a purpose and pursue it energetically, and never 
depart from it." 

On the 8th day of November, ,1883, Major Morehead was 
happily married to Miss Mary Christian Jones, who has borne hun 
four children, of whom, however, only one survives. 

S. A. Ashe. 



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J 




MARK MORGAN 




I^ARK MORGAN, manufacturer, banker, legis- 
lator and agriculturist, of Scotland County, was 
born near Lillington, in Harnett County, North 
Carolina, on the 22d day of October, 1837. 

Through the long sickness of his father, 
forced into the factory to work at the age of 
seven, bereft of his father at ten, the youngest of eight children 
of a widowed mother ; to-day the president of three cotton mills, 
vice-president of a bank and interested in various business enter- 
prises, to the success of which his mind and means have contrib- 
uted ; denied for himself the privileges of school, to-day a patron 
of learning, Mark Morgan presents an illustration of that energy 
and purpose that does things in spite of circumstances, and shows 
that the same spirit that made North Carolina soldiers glorious 
in war leads to merited success in the paths of peace. The native 
sons of North Carolina have been among the chief workers in her 
industries, and among them stands the name of Mark Morgan, 
written high among the rest. 

On his father's side Mr. Morgan is descended from Welsh and 
Scotch ancestors, while his maternal line is of English descent. 
His grandfather, John Morgan, emigrated from Pennsylvania 
after the Revolutionary War and settled on the Cape Fear River, 
his relative, Mark Morgan, having settled in Orange County on 
a creek bearing his name near the present village of Chapel Hill, 



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MARK MORGAN 283 



part of the site of the State University being donated by a Mr. 
Morgan of this family. The mother of John Morgan was a 
Miss Reese, a member of a prominent Welsh family which located 
in Mecklenburg County. All of his sons emigrated to Alabama 
and other States in the Southwest with the exception of Reese 
Morgan, who remained in his native county until about the year 
1845, when he was employed by the Rockfish Manufacturing Com- 
pany, and moved his family to the village of Rockfish, now Hope 
Mills, in Cumberland County, where that company operated one 
of the first cotton mills established in the South. 

Here the father was soon stricken with disease that lingered 
for a long time, resulting in his death in 1847, leaving a wife and 
eight children. The heavy demands of sickness in the family 
forced even the youngest boy into the factory at the age of seven, 
where he worked as bobbin boy for twelve and more hours per 
day for fifty cents per week at first, a princely wage of eight and 
one-third cents per day! Gradually working hii^ way up from 
one line to another, he mastered every detail of the work of the 
cotton mill of that date, besides learning the mechanical operation 
of the business, being able to make all the repairs needed to be 
done outside of the factory, often forging for himself such tools 
as upon sudden emergency he found use for. . Denied opportunity 
to attend school, having attended in all less than eight weeks, 
when he arrived at his majority he was not only recognized as 
one of the foremost and most capable machinists of the State, 
perfectly familiar with every detail of cotton manufacture, but 
had made such progress in his studies by the light of a pine-knot 
fire, after the day's work was over, that he possessed a good 
business training, had a fair English education, and was a ready 
and accurate calculator, even to the intricacies of the science of 
mechanics as applied to his business. 

At the call to arms for the Civil War, Mr. Morgan was an officer 
of the Rockfish Liberty Guards, being first lieutenant. He with 
his company tendered his services to the State for the war, but 
Governor Ellis refused to send the company to the front, because 
the men were for the most part employed in the manufacture of 



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284 NORTH CAROLINA 

cotton, holding that they could serve better by giving their efforts 
to the production of thread and cloth. The fact that North Caro- 
lina soldiers were better clothed than those of any other Con- 
federate State was due in no small part to such foresight as was 
exercised in this act of the governor. The company was enlisted, 
however, and placed under the command of Major Childs, with 
headquarters at Fayetteville, being directed to proceed with their 
daily work as far as possible, but subject to be called out for^ 
military duty at any time. 

It is a matter of history that the company was ordered into active 
service several times. It participated in the capture of the arsenal 
at Fayetteville in April, 1861, closing its service in 1865, being 
on the 8th and 9th of March, 1865, under orders, engaged in 
destroying cotton and other stores, and commanded to protect 
and finally bum bridges in front of Sherman's army, and fall back 
to Fayetteville in face of the advancing enemy. After a very 
hard day and night's work on the 8th and 9th of March, 1865, 
the company, having no commissary, dispersed for food and a 
little rest early on the morning of the 9th, being ordered to report 
for further duty a few hours later. The physical endurance of 
the men had been tested to the utmost, the work being most 
laborious. So nearly prostrated was the whole company that the 
captain was met at the appointed time for assembling by only four 
of his men, being Mark Morgan, first lieutenant ; his two brothers, 
John Morgan, sergeant, and Matthew Morgan, private, together 
with Henry Hall, lieutenant. The Federal army had invested 
the village, and upon assembling, these five were discovered and 
were set upon by a superior force. The captain escaped by gallop- 
ing his horse away with several of the enemy in hot pursuit shoot- 
ing at him. The others dispersed, each for himself attempting 
to evade the Federal soldiery through the day, and, by superior 
knowledge of his surroundings, to reach the Confederate forces 
under cover of darkness the following night. A sick wife and 
infant son, his first bom and only son, at home, drew Mr. Morgan 
there to say what might be forever "good-by," and while at his 
home on March 9th he was discovered and captured by Sherman's 



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MARK MORGAN 285 



forces, taken before the officer in command and paroled. His home 
was invaded by his captors, and every piece and parcel of his 
household property and other effects there was broken up, torn, 
shattered and utterly ruined or destroyed save the bed on which 
his sick wife lay and the clothing on his own person. 

The Federal army passed on, leaving Mr. Morgan to attend 
to his distressed family. He found himself and family with no 
morsel of food and none to be had in the village or community, 
and he with no property whatever save $50 in gold which he had 
saved with some Confederate currency. His first food was pro- 
cured by his walking seven miles to Fayetteville, where he got 
nineteen pounds of com meal (all he could get at any price) for 
$19 in Confederate currency. Hastening home with this for his 
sick wife, he found Rev. Angelo Benton, learning of their dis- 
tressed circumstances, had given his wife some bacon, which Mr. 
Benton saved by securing in some way a g^ard for hfs own home. 
With this food life was sustained. 

The Southern soldier returned to his office, store, farm or shop, 
as was his avocation, to find varying conditions of destruction and 
decay, there to fight a battle scarce less heroic than had been his 
clash of arms. To Mr. Morgan the factory where he wrought 
was office, store, farm and shop ; it was now marked by a mass of 
ruins, tangled and twisted at the touch of the invader's torch, 
lighting the heavens as it wafted away in smoke, the end of every- 
thing material on which he had builded his hopes. 

Life had to be begun over. But in the providence of God a 
little com mill in the neighborhood had saved a small, dilapidated 
factory, Beaver Creek Factory by name, the two being so near 
together that the vandal soldier could not bum the factory with- 
out destroying the mill, and he needed the mill to grind his meal. 
When the mill was no longer needed, the factory seemed to be 
forgotten, and in some strange way it stood out among the 
devastation around, saved. Here Mr. Morgan found employment 
at once, almost, and for a year he repaired, refitted and rebuilt 
the machines in this factory, and even with his own hands built 
new machines for it. 



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286 NORTH CAROLINA 

In 1867 Colonel Thomas M. Holt of Haw River tendered 
Mr. Morgan the superintendency of Granite Mills on Haw River, 
which position Mr. Morgan held for several years. While here 
he invented the first successful appliance of its kind and manu- 
factured in a blacksmith shop, with only the common outfit of 
such shops, a governor for heavy water-wheel gates to turbines, 
which governor gave perfect satisfaction, a thing not theretofore 
accomplished. One of exactly the same pattern is at this day 
in service at Richmond Cotton Mill in Scotland County. The 
capacity of this factory, Granite Mills, was greatly enlarged and 
the production or per cent, of manufactured product from raw 
material, was greatly increased while Mr. Morgan managed it; 
but the work was very heavy, and Mr. Morgan's health failed to 
such an extent that he felt compelled to give it up and rest, and 
so tendered his resignation. 

After a period of rest and recuperation, he beg^an to look about 
for a place of healthfulness and remunerative work not too heavy 
for his then condition. Investigating what was then the Laurel 
Hill Mill, in what was Richmond County (now Scotland), with 
an unfailing water-power, located in a most healthful section of 
the long-leaf pine and in the edge of the sand region of North 
Carolina, since become renowned for healthfulness, he found the 
old mill had stopped its wheels because its machinery was in 
such poor condition that its products were no longer salable. 
Observing the never-failing water-power, and relying upon his 
capacity as machinist, his fine judgment told him that here was 
an opportunity. He leased the property from Colonel Charles 
Malloy, the sole owner, in 1872, and began repairing the four hun- 
dred spindles he found here, discarding the six looms that com- 
prised the weaving department. To avoid the odium of the 
inferior goods so recently offered under the name of "Laurel Hill 
Cotton Mill," the newly-made goods were offered under the name 
of the "Beaver Dam Cotton Mill." Such was the quality that, 
though his name was soon superseded, occasionally now there 
come inquiries for the old Beaver Dam Cotton Mill thread. 

Notwithstanding the high standard to which Mr. Morgan soon 



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MARK MORGAN 287 



raised this mill, he saw that success such as he aimed at was not 
to be attained without thoroughly modem machinery. Colonel 
Malloy saw that in Mr. Morgan he had found one whose capacity 
and practical experience insured success, and to make it more 
certain he sold Mr. Morgan an interest in the factory, taking him 
into partnership under the firm name of Malloy & Morgan. New 
machinery replaced the old, and a new era opened for the mill, 
the name of which was now changed to its present corporate name, 
Richmond G>tton Mill, though it was not incorporated until after 
Colonel Malloy 's death. The name was taken from the county — 
Richmond — in which the property was situated, though now it is 
Scotland County. During the years the mill was operated by 
Malloy & Morgan, partners, many were the difficulties encoun- 
tered. The surrounding country is very productive in cotton, 
which was bringing a high price at that time. The work in cotton 
fields was more attractive to most laboring people, who were hard 
to get into cotton mills. Mr. Morgan walked through the sur- 
rounding country personally soliciting the services of such laborers 
as were properly open to such proposals, and by his personal 
contact with prospective laborers protecting the character of the 
mill settlement by not taking people whose appearance seemed 
to indicate criminal tendencies. In truth, while such personal 
solicitation has long since passed, he has always endeavored to 
protect the character of his people by excluding the vicious, so 
much so that it is a matter of pride often referred to by his more 
experienced hands that they were with Mr. Morgan so long. Nor 
is this confined to his mill operatives, but applies to his farm 
laborers and tenants as well. Often they state that they intend 
to remain with Mr. Morgan so long as they live, if he will keep 
them so long. 

The product of the factory was sold in these days in five-pound 
hanks or bunches to small merchants and even to the consumers 
in some cases, making the problem of disposing of the thread quite 
a difficult one. So his traveling through the surrounding com- 
munity took the form of seeker after laborers and also customers. 
On one occasion, approaching on foot a substantial farmhouse 



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288 NORTH CAROLINA 

near night, he sought lodging for the night, which was refused, 
contrary to the usual Scotch custom. As Mr. Morgan turned 
to go the good housewife asked her husband who was the traveler 
and his business. To her great surprise she heard the name of 
one of her intimate friends of childhood and youth, and it dawned 
upon her that he had been turned from her door. Imagine the 
pleasure and surprise when he was recalled to stand face to face 
with his friend of other days, one with whom he had often sung 
from the same book in the village choir, for they were both 
musical in youth. It is needless to say he received a royal Scotch 
welcome. 

Malloy & Morgan lost heavily by a failure of a business house 
with which they did a large business, but this misfortune, instead 
of depressing the spirits of Mr. Morgan, seemed to renew his 
purpose to succeed. In a few years he had the satisfaction of 
seeing the mill out of debt and a surplus sufficient for the com- 
fortable conduct of its operations without embarrassment at any 
time. 

So well did this enterprise pay, and so hopeful was the outlook, 
in 1887 Mr. Morgan's only son was admitted into the business, 
and Ida Yam Mill built. This mill was named in honor of a little 
deceased daughter of Mr. Morgan. 

Cdonel Malloy having died, Mr. Morgan joined with his son, 
M. Lauder Morgan, his son-in-law, Mr. W. H. Morrison, and 
Messrs. J. H. Mcllwinen and Daniel Blue, in 1892, and built 
another cotton mill, the Springfield Cotton Mill. About this time 
each of the cotton mills was incorporated under its individual 
name, each being a separate organization. Mr. Morgan is presi- 
dent of each, Mr. W. H. Morrison is treasurer of each. The 
three mills manufacture yarns exclusively. 

In whatever engaged, it has been the ambition of Mr. Morgan 
to reach the foremost position possible based upon merit. Long 
experience in cotton milling caused him to note all improvements 
in machinery, and his progressive spirit led him to adopt them 
as rapidly as possible, so that the products of his mills have erer 
ranked among the highest grades and realized the highest prices. 



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MARK MORGAN 289 



From the time of his first connection with the Laurel Hill Mill 
to the present, not once has he failed to realize a comfortable divi- 
dend from his investments. Succeeding so admirably in these 
enterprises, Mr. Morgan continued to enlarge his manufacturing 
interests, and early became identified with the cotton mill at 
McColl, South Carolina, and contributed to the erection of the 
Cotton Seed Oil Mill at Gibson, North Carolina. Needing addi- 
tional facilities for handling his large financial interests, he joined 
in the establishment of a bank, and became one of the stockholders 
and a director of the First National Bank of Laurinburg, North 
Carolina, and is vice-president of the Scotland County Savings 
Bank. His enterprising spirit has led him into other operations 
which have been helpful to his community. He is the largest 
stockholder and is president of the Red Springs Cotton Seed Oil 
and Fertilizer Company. He has also engaged largely in agri- 
culture, and has achieved success in this as well as in his other 
pursuits. But for his greater reputation as a manufacturer he 
would be widely and favorably known as a prominent farmer of 
the State. The same thoroughness that he has displayed in his 
favorite vocation has marked his operations in every other field 
of endeavor. His eminently practical mind, correct in judgment 
and unflagging in attention to details, united to a superior intelli- 
gence, makes him a master in every line of work that he takes 
up, while the example of his success and the inspiring result of 
his business operations have been of great and permanent benefit 
in developing confidence in these industrial enterprises and pro- 
moting the establishment of more factories in his section of the 
State. 

A factor that enters largely into his success is his genial humor, 
droll and quiet, often hitting off a subject with an incident aptly 
illustrating the case, provoking laughter and good humor without 
in any degree letting down the high tone of his conversation. In 
his dealings with his employees the kindliness of his nature is 
ever assertive. Those of his employees whose lives and characters 
are worthy look upon him as a true friend and benefactor after 
they get to know him and thoroughly understand him. 



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290 NORTH CAROLINA 

Having to struggle for his own education, practically without 
instruction save such as his sainted mother gave him after their 
day's cares had drawn upon their strength, tired, with no trained 
teacher to guide him, he learned well the value of an education, 
and to this day deplores the fact that the door of the school-room 
was closed to him almost before it had opened. This feeling of 
distrust as to his own acquirements attained under such difficulties 
had helped to give his always modest nature a diffidence which has 
made him slow to assert himself in public, and has often deprived 
those who would hear him gladly of his fine insight into matters 
when in deliberative assemblies. He has always had a lively inter- 
est in schools, and has aided annually in giving educational ad- 
vantages to his community. His children he educated liberally, 
and is now educating grandchildren. It is incidentally a matter 
of pride that his daughter, Mrs. Margaret Morgan Blue, was the 
first graduate of Red Springs Seminary at Red Springs, North 
Carolina. 

Hardly ever a year passes that his means do not open the door 
for some poor youth to enter school of some g^ade, having assisted 
to every grade of instruction, from the most elementary to the 
finishing schools of Europe. True, they promise to pay back, and 
generally do, but that some do not does not keep him from the 
enjoyment of having helped some who are most worthy indeed. 

It is not strange, then, that Mr. Morgan should be placed upon 
the Board of Trustees of Red Springs Seminary, a school under 
the care of the Fayetteville Presbytery, while he is an Episcopalian. 
His services on that board, as usual, have proven most valuable. 
The president of that institution, now the Southern Presb)rterian 
College and Conservatory of Music, says in a letter to the writer : 
"Mr. Morgan has been of great service to us in our work. He 
has not talked much, but his counsel has been not only safe, but 
progressive. I believe I have failed but once to take his advice, 
and then I found I made a mistake.'' 

In 1904 educational circles were surprised to learn that he, an 
Episcopalian, had given to this institution the money with which 
to erect a much-needed building, costing $7000. This is recog- 



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MARK MORGAN 291 



nized as the largest single gift by any native resident of the State 
to female education. It was given in a manner characteristic of the 
donor, without any announcement on his part beforehand or wait- 
ing for a theatrical moment to bestow the gift. He had considered 
the situation, and as he stated to one some time later who spoke 
of the unusual gift by one of one denomination to a school imder 
the care of another denomination : "They told me they gave train- 
ing at this institution at actual cost, the equipment being given 
free, the tuition and charges simply paying the necessary bills for 
teaching and expenses of maintaining the students. I thought 
I would help them to larger accommodations and greater useful- 
ness, and so I gave them the money for the building." 

The building is known as "Morgan Hall." On May 18, 1904, 
the Grand Lodge of Masons laid the cornerstone, on which is the 
following inscription : "Morgan Hall. Erected by Mark Morgan 
in Honor of his Wife, Margaret, and as a Gift to the Women 
of North Carolina." 

Let no one consider that this gift indicates lack of fine church 
pride in Mr. Morgan, for such is not the case. He is broad enough 
to look beyond and above all church lines, but is well known to 
those about him to be faithful and true to his own church, the 
church of his fathers. 

Mr. Morgan has never held public office until the present. He 
is the honored representative of Scotland County in the General 
Assembly of North Carolina, being chairman of the Committee 
on Manufacture and Labor, besides holding other important 
assignments. He had cast against him only sixty-five votes out 
of a total population of nearly 20,000. Mr. Morgan is a Master 
Mason, affiliating with Laurinburg Lodge, No. 305. 

Mr. Morgan's home life has been that of beautiful devotion to 
his wife and children. He was most happily married on Sep- 
tember 3, 1863, to Miss Margaret L. Cameron, daughter of Mr. 
Ang^s Cameron of Johnsonville, Harnett County, North Carolina. 
Between them there has been a blending of taste, a molding of 
soul, that has made the twain one in hope, heart, aspiration, pur- 
pose; the one strengthening the other, sharing and lightening 



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292 NORTH CAROLINA 

the burdens, bowing together over the bier of the little daughter, 
able to say, **It is well with the child;" later staggering under 
the sorrow of loss of first bom, their only son, M. Lauder, but 
able to look up into the great beyond and behold his glorified 
spirit beckoning them to their eternal home. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Morgan were bom four children : M. Lauder, 
who married Miss Eugenia Morrison. She died in February, 
1898, to be followed by him May 18, 1899, leaving five children — 
Bessie, Marcus Morrison, Edwin, William Lauder and Eugene 
Arrowood. 

A daughter. Miss Lena, married Mr. William H. Morrison 
(brother of Mrs. M. L. Morgan). Mr. and Mrs. "Morrison have 
two children living — ^Esther McLean and Genia. 

A daughter, Ida, died in infancy. 

The youngest child, a daughter, Miss Margaret, married 
Dr. K. A. Blue, a prominent physician of Laurinburg, North Caro- 
lina, and they have one son, Mark Morgan Blue. 

It would be improper to close this sketch without sa3ring of 
the lamented M. Lauder Morgan that truly did he wear the pure 
flower of a blameless life, strong of purpose, steady and true in 
every relation, given to thought, but of little speaking, gentle and 
tender and pure as a woman, diligent, thoughtful of his parents, 
considerate above everything of his mother from boyhood up, in 
whom he confided always, he presented a true type of the strong 
man, successful in every undertaking, whose manliness was only 
equaled by his gentleness. His death fell as a blow, sudden, 
almost, and unexpected up to a few hours before it, laying upon 
his parents a sorrow almost above that which they were able to 
bear. 

Mr. Morgan has this year built and given in fee simple to the 
diocese of North Carolina an Episcopal Church in the town of 
Laurinburg, in memory of his son, M. L. Morgan, his son's wife, 
Mrs. Eugenia Morgan, and his daughter, Ida Malloy Morgan, 
deceased. 

Maxcy L. John, 



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MAURICE MOORE 




[bout the year 1685 James Moore, a grandson 
of Roger Moore, who was one of the leaders in 
the Irish Rebellion of 1641, removed from the 
Barbadoes to South Carolina, where he married 
Elizabeth, the only child of Sir John Yeamans, 
the first governor of Carolina, and who made 
the settlement of South Carolina. He was a bold, adventurous 
man, of high spirit, unflinching courage and strong mind. He 
himself became governor of South Carolina in 1700, and while 
governor, conducted an expedition against Florida and against 
the Appalachian Indians, who, from their connection with the 
Spaniards, had become troublesome. He marched into their terri- 
tory, carrying fire and sword, and struck terror among those tribes. 
All the towns between the Altamaha and the Savannah he laid 
in ashes, capturing many savages, and obliging those Indians to 
submit to the English Government. He received the thanks of 
the Proprietors for his patriotism and courage, and his success 
gained great reputation for him and the province. Indeed, he was 
a bold fighter, capable, efficient and thorough. Already possessed 
of large wealth, the captured Indians whom he enslaved made 
him perhaps the wealthiest of South Carolinians. He left a large 
family, and his descendants, both in North and South Carolina, 
have ever been among the most prominent and forceful citizens 
of those States, among them being Washington Alston, George 
Davis and Judge Alfred Moore. 



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294 NORTH CAROLINA 

When the Indian War broke out in North Carolina, in Septem- 
ber, 171 1, aid being asked of South Carolina, Colonel Barnwell 
was sent with some 1500 friendly Indians to assist the North 
Carolinians. Colonel BarnweH's route lay up the Wateree River, 
and he gathered detachments of Indians from the tribes in that 
vicinity and the Catawbas and Waxhaws; and then he struck 
across the wilderness to the upper Cape Fear, and finally reached 
an Indian town called Torhunte, about the site of Greenville. But 
his expedition not ending the war, a year later, on renewed appeal 
for aid, South Carolina sent another force under the command 
of Colonel James Moore, the eldest son of Governor Moore, who 
pursued the same route as Barnwell until the Catawbas were 
reached ; but from there he proceeded by the upper trading path 
through Salisbury and the Oconeechees to Torhunte ; and a little 
later reinforcements were sent him under his brother. Major 
Maurice Moore, the subject of this sketch, who on reaching the 
Catawbas proceeded through the wilderness by an intermediate 
route, also arriving at Torhunte. The two Moores soon brought 
the Tuscaroras to terms, and after one of the greatest Indian 
battles of that period, took their chief fort and virtually ended 
the war. Colonel Moore then returned to South Carolina, where, 
in 1 7 19, he led the revolution that overthrew the rule of the Pro- 
prietors, he being elected governor by the people and holding the 
province for the Crown. 

Major Maurice Moore remained in North Carolina. In 171 3 
he bought a lot in the present town of Beaufort, in the deed for 
which, however, he is described as "of South Carolina." Shortly 
after that he married the widow of Colonel Sam Swann, a 
daughter of Major Alexander Lillington, and thus he became 
connected with Edward Moseley, John Porter, the Swanns and 
other leading citizens of North Carolina. 

Hardly had the Indians been suppressed on the Pamlico when 
the Creeks, Yamassees and Cherokees, as well as the Catawbas 
and other South Carolina Indians, began a murderous war on the 
whites of South Carolina, and that colony was threatened with 
extermination. Its peril was far greater than that of North 



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MAURICE MOORE 295 

Carolina the year before. In this emergency North Carolina sent 
two detachments to the aid of the southern settkment, one by 
water, the other, under Major Maurice Moore, by land. 

Proceeding from New-Bern along the coast, Major Moore 
reached Sugar Loaf, on the Cape Fear, and crossing that river, 
he made his way to South Carolina, where, being joined by rein- 
forcements, he pressed on to Augusta, on the Savannah. In the 
meantime, by unparalleled exertions, the South Carolinians had 
driven off and conquered the Yamassees on the coast ; and Major 
Moore, inheriting the boldness, energy and decision of his father, 
rapidly proceeded to Fort Moore, some seventy-five miles further 
up the Savannah, and from there crossed Rabun Gap and pene- 
trated into the heart of the Cherokee country, a part of his force 
reaching Echota, on the Tennessee, beyond the Smokies, near 
where Fort Loudoun was subsequently built. He reduced that 
powerful tribe to entire submission, and made a treaty with them 
that for many years brought peace to South Carolina. On his 
return, so highly were his services esteemed, that the South Caro- 
lina Assembly invited him to their floor and tendered to him the 
thanks of that province in person. 

During this expedition Colonel Moore viewed the lands on the 
Cape Fear, where there had been an unsuccessful effort at settle- 
ment in 1663, and also another attempt from South Carolina in 
1692, and he determined to lead a colony to the Cape Fear, 
although the Lords Proprietors had forbidden any lands to be 
g^ranted or taken up within twenty miles of that river. 

On his return to North Carolina Colonel Moore actively par- 
ticipated in the public affairs of that settlement. In 171 8, when 
there was suspicion that Governor Eden and Tobias Knight, the 
chief justice, and John Lovick, the secretary, were implicated in 
the piracies of the pirate Teach, Moore and Moseley and Vail 
possessed themselves of the secretary's office and of the journals 
of the Council and other papers relating to the Government in 
the secretary's office, and barred the secretary out until they had 
made a thorough examination of the records ; and for this Moore 
and Moseley were punished by a court. They, however, by their 



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296 NORTH CAROLINA 

action, obtained a force from Virginia that captured Teach's ship 
after a battle in which the pirate himself was killed, and secured 
the execution of the pirate crew, and effectually put an end to 
the entertainment of pirates in the waters of North Carolina. 

When Burrington came over as governor, in January, 1724, he 
was persuaded to ignore the directions of the Lords Proprietors 
forbidding lands to be granted on the Cape Fear, and Moore made 
a settlement on that river, in which he was joined by his brothers, 
Roger and Nathaniel, from South Carolina, and by his family 
connections both in South Carolina and from the Albemarle and 
Pamlico. He laid off and established in 1725 the town of Bruns- 
wick, about fifteen miles from the mouth of the Cape Fear, all 
that region being then embraced within the territory of Carteret 
Precinct, which extended to the southern limits of the province. 
Governor Burrington fostered this new settlement, and himself 
took up lands on the Cape Fear, where he established two planta- 
tions. The new colony prospered greatly from the first ; but when 
Burrington came in as a royal governor, in 1731, his political 
disputes led to personal antagonisms, and becoming opposed to 
Moore, he sought to establish another town higher up the river 
in opposition to Brunswick, but without avail. However, his suc- 
cessor, Governor Johnston, purchased lands and became interested 
in the new settlement, then called Newton, which he later named 
Wilmington, and which he proposed to foster by every means at 
the expense of Brunswick. Within six months after his arrival 
he appointed courts to be held at Newton on the 13th of May, 
1 735, and designated Newton as a place for receiving quit-rents, 
and otherwise sought to make that place the seat of govern- 
ment for that part of the province. This antagonism of the inter- 
ests centered in Brunswick led to much animosity, and Moore and 
his connections, who, because of their great wealth and powerful 
influence, gave the governor in his administration much trouble, 
were referred to by the governor's friends as "the family." The 
controversies raised on either side embroiled the entire province, 
until at length the governor made a compromise in 1740, and about 
that time Roger Moore, Edward Moseley and Eleazar Allen, who 



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MAURICE MOORE 297 

were friends and connections of Colonel Moore, became members 
of the Council. 

Colonel Moore was a strong man, and being a brother-in-law 
of Edward Moseley and stepfather of Sam Swann and of John 
Baptista Ashe, he was a directing influence in the affairs of the 
province. He was speaker of the Assembly of 1725, and was 
always a member of that body, and was in entire co-operation with 
those who controlled popular action among the people and gave 
direction to public affairs, and in all the controversies, from the 
purchase of the province by the Crown until his death in 1743, 
he was a moving spirit in securing the constitutional rights of the 
people. 

While Colonel Moore was largely interested on the lower Cape 
Fear, his principal plantation was at Rocky Point, where he re- 
sided toward the close of his life and was buried. 

On the death of his first wife Colonel Moore married Miss 
Porter, by whom he had three children, Judge Maurice Moore, 
General James Moore of the Revolution, and Rebecca, who became 
the wife of General John Ashe; and by his first wife he had a 
daughter, Elizabeth, who married Colonel Jones, and many of 
the prominent citizens of the Cape Fear are descended from him. 

S. A. Ashe. 




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JAMES MOORE 

fS distinguished and illustrious as were the states- 
men of North Carolina during the Revolution- 
ary period, her sons also excelled in the field 
of military operations ; and among her contribu- 
tions to the cause of independence, none was 
more brilliant than James Moore, whose career, 
however, was unhappily brought to an early close by disease 
in 1777. 

His grandfather, Governor James Moore of South Carolina, 
was distinguished as a military officer, and his father, Colonel 
Maurice Moore, was esteemed for his military capacity all through 
life, even in 1743 being selected to command a force of a thousand 
men then raised for the assistance of South Carolina. By Miss 
Porter, his second wife. Colonel Moore had three children, Judge 
Maurice Moore, Rebecca, who became the wife of General John 
Ashe, and the subject of this sketch, who was bom in 1737. 

In his later years Colonel Moore resided on his Rocky Point 
plantation, and there these children were reared among their 
kindred, by whom they were surrounded. During the French and 
Indian War young James Moore was appointed captain of a com- 
pany, and was assigned to the command of Fort Johnston. Gov- 
ernor Dobbs mentions that he gave a company to "Captain James 
Moore, who was a young gentleman of one of the best families 
of the province, and who for one year commanded in Fort 



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JAMES MOORE 299 



Johnston, who was expert in military discipline and well beloved 
in the province." At one time troops were needed for the defense 
of South Carolina, and Captain James Moore was directed to lead 
that expedition. His service at that early period of his life doubt- 
less fitted him for command when the Revolution came on. He 
was a member of the legislature of 1764 and of subsequent 
Assemblies, representing New Hanover in that of 1769 and 177D. 
In 1768, when Governor Tryon organized his military force to 
put down the Regulators, he appointed Captain Moore a colonel 
of artillery, and put him in command of all the artillery used on 
that expedition. Fortunately, that episode ended without blood- 
shed. In 1 77 1, when Governor Tryon was organizing another 
force to operate against the Regulators, he again appointed Colonel 
Moore to conunand the artillery, and in that capacity he accom- 
panied Governor Tryon's army and participated in the battle of 
Alamance. His conduct on that occasion must have been entirely 
satisfactory and his efficiency was proved. When the crisis came 
in American affairs, Moore was a bold and intrepid leader. Of 
close kin to Howe, the Ashes, the Swanns, all substantially mem- 
bers of one household, he was animated by the common spirit of 
high resolve and resolute purpose. When the news was received 
on the Cape Fear that the port of Boston had been closed, there 
was a general meeting of the inhabitants of the district held at 
Wilmington on July 21st. William Hooper presided. A com- 
mittee composed of Colonel James Moore, John Ancrum, Fred- 
crick Jones, Samuel Ashe, Robert Howe, Francis Qayton and 
Archibald Maclaine was appointed to prepare an address to the 
people of all the counties of the province, urging them to elect 
deputies to attend a general meeting to be held on the 20th of 
August. James Moore's name appears first to this circular letter, 
in response to which deputies were elected to the first Provincial 
Congress, which met at New-Bern, August 25, 1774. 

This was the first recognition of the sovereign power of the 
people; the first appeal to them in their sovereign capacity, as 
the source of all political power. Colonel Harvey conceived the 
idea ; James Moore and his associates acted upon it and made it 



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300 NORTH CAROLINA 

a reality. When the Committee of Safety was formed, he was 
one of the original members chosen by the inhabitants of New 
Hanover County. At the third Provincial Congress, held in 
August, 1775, of which he was a member, two Continental 
regiments were directed to be raised, and James Moore and his 
brother-in-law, John Ashe, were competitors for the post of 
honor as colonel of the First Continental Regiment. Colonel 
Moore was successful by a single vote, and at once began the 
organization of his regiment, which later assembled at Wilming- 
ton. At that time Governor Martin was on board his ship, Fort 
Johnston having been burned, and there perfected a plan for the 
subjugation of North Carolina and the Southern colonies. A large 
British force was ordered to co-operate with him, Stuart, the 
Indian agent, was to cause the Indians to fall on the outskirts of 
the provinces, and while the people were engaged in driving them 
back, the Loyalists of the interior, Highlanders and Regulators 
chiefly, were to embody under appointed officers and were to 
march to the coast and unite with the British forces. This plan, 
well devised, was in process of being carried into effect. On the 
loth of January, 1776, Governor Martin, conceiving that the time 
had arrived, ordered "Brigadier-General Donald McDonald of 
his Majesty's forces, for the time being in North Carolina," to 
erect the King's standard and embody his forces. By the time 
General McDonald and his Tories were ready to march down and 
join Sir Henry Clinton, Colonel James Moore had beg^ to concen- 
trate his troops below Cross Creek. A very brilliant campaign under 
Colonel Moore of near a month's duration ensued, that culminated 
in the battle of Moore's creek on the 27th of February, 1776. The 
troops that took part in the campaign were drawn from above 
Greensboro to the westward and from below New-Bern to the 
east, points that were some 200 miles apart. There were mounted 
men, infantry and artillery engaged in the campaign. The first 
order issued bore date the 3d of February, and the campaign 
closed victoriously on the 27th. 

There were at least 6000 men actually on duty at various points, 
in consequence of the attempted junction between General Qinton 



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JAMES MOORE 301 



and the Highlanders. It was a very brilliant campaign, and 
reflected the highest credit on Colonel Moore, and he received the 
thanks of the Council and Provincial Congress, and immediately 
afterward, on the ist of March, 1776, he was promoted by the 
Continental Congress to be brigadier-general, and with his brigade 
he hurried to Charleston, which became the object of British attack 
when their plans in North Carolina were defeated by 'the results 
of the victory at Moore's Creek. General Charles Lee had hurried 
to Charleston to meet Sir Henry Clinton's force, and Moore con- 
tinued with him until General Lee went South to invade Florida, 
General Moore being then left in command of Charleston. In 
September, 1776, Lee returned to the North, and the Depart- 
ment of the South was entrusted to the care of General Moore. 

General Moore was a man of delicate organization and a frail 
constitution, in striking contrast with his heroic soul and fine 
intellectual capacity. The exposure to which he was subjected 
that summer and fall on the malarious coast of South Carolina 
proved fatal to him. His health gave way, and in January, 1777, 
he returned to the Cape Fear, and died on the 15th of that month, 
lamented by all the patriots of North Carolina. It is related that 
he and his brother. Judge Maurice Moore, expired in the same 
house on the same day and were buried together. Of General 
Moore it has been said "that he was perhaps the most masterful 
military man furnished by North Carolina in the war of Inde- 
pendence, and that probably he had no superior in military 
genius on the Continent." 

General Moore was a brother-in-law of Mayor De Rossett of 
Stamp Act fame, having married Miss Ann Ivie, the sister of 
Mrs. De Rossett. He left two sons, Duncan and James, and two 
daughters, Sarah, who married Mr. John Swann, and Mary, who 
married Mr. William Watters. One of his descendants, Colonel 
Alexander Duncan Moore, who fell in the war of 1861, ranked 
high for his military attainments. 

5*. A, Ashe. 



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ALFRED MOORE 

'WO North Carolinians have adorned the bench 
of the Supreme Court of the United States, 
James Iredell, and upon his death, Alfred 
Moore. 

Alfred Moore was a member of the dis- 
tinguished family of that name whose services 
have for generations been so important to the people of North 
Carolina. He was a grandson of Colonel Maurice Moore and his 
wife, Mary Porter, and the son of Judge Maurice Moore and his 
wife, Anne Grange. General James Moore of the Revolution was 
his uncle. His father was bred to the law, had been educated in New 
England, was a judge in 1765, and because of his patriotic action 
in the Stamp Act proceedings, was removed by Governor Tryon, 
but under directions from the home government, was after some 
years restored to his office, and he continued to be one of the 
judges of the province until the expiration of the Court Law in 
1773. He was particularly prominent in connection with the pro- 
ceedings of the Regulators, with whom, in their early efforts to 
secure a redress of grievances, it is said that he sympathized ; but 
upon their excesses at Hillsboro, he marched as a colonel in 
Tyron's force, in 1768, to suppress them. It has been said of 
him that he was "a learned jurist, an astute advocate, and a keen- 
sighted statesman." He was a forceful and accomplished writer, 
and the celebrated letter signed '*Atticus," addressed to Governor 



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ALFRED MOORE 303 



Tryon upon his departure from North Carolina, has been at- 
tributed to his pen. By his first wife, Miss Grange, he had the 
subject of this sketch, bom the 21st of May, 1755, and a daughter, 
Sarah, who became the wife of General Francis Nash. Becoming 
a widower. Judge Moore married again, and possibly on that ac- 
count his son Alfred, at the early age of nine, was sent, in 1764, 
to Boston to receive his education. While there, young Alfred 
became a favorite of a Captain Fordyce of the British army, from 
whom he learnt the elements of military science. Having re- 
turned home, on September i, 1775, while not yet of age, he was 
appointed a captain in the First North Carolina Regiment of 
Continentals, commanded by his uncle, James Moore, and he 
served in the brilliant campaign that ended in the disastrous de- 
feat of the Highlanders at Moore's Creek Bridge. Immediately 
thereafter the British army took possession of the lower Cape 
Fear, and his younger brother, Maurice, was killed at Brunswick. 
On the departure of Sir Peter Parker's fleet for Charleston, 
Colonel Moore's command and some of the North Carolina 
militia hurried to that point to meet them, and Captain Moore's 
company took part in the engagement at Charleston, where the 
North Carolinians behaved with such gallantry as to draw from 
General Charles Lee a high eulogium on their conduct. For 
nearly a year the command was on duty at the South, and Cap- 
tain Moore rendered efficient service to his country. 

On the 15th of January, 1777, General James Moore, whose 
health had failed, died at the home of his brother. Judge Maurice 
Moore, and it is said that both died in the same house on the 
same day, and were buried together. Captain Moore's brother- 
in-law. General Nash, succeeded to the command of the brigade, 
which was then ordered to join Washington at the North. 

Not yet twenty-two years of age, bereft of his father and 
brother, and with the care of his father's family thrown upon 
him, Captain Moore felt compelled to retire from the army and 
resign his commission, which he did on the 8th of March, 1777. 
He had studied law and had been admitted to practice at the 
April term of 1775, and now he again took up professional work. 



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304 NORTH CAROLINA 

Although for three years there was no invasion of the State, yet 
there was much disaffection on the lower Cape Fear as well as 
in the interior of the State, and there was always need for vigi- 
lance and activity on the part of the patriots. Captain Moore, while 
no longer in the Continental Line, enrolled himself in the militia, 
and was ever a zealous partisan. Toward the close of January, 
1781, Major Craig took possession of Wilmington, and his coming 
was the signal for the Tories to embody, and a vigorous partizan 
warfare was waged in all that region. A detachment sent by Major 
Craig plundered Captain Moore's house, burnt all the buildings, 
carried away his stock and negroes, and utterly destroyed his 
property ; but his ardent patriotism was not shaken by these mis- 
fortunes, and he lost no opportunity to harass the enemy when- 
ever an occasion presented. Judge Taylor is authority for the 
statement that Major Craig made every effort to kill or capture 
him, and failing, sent him an offer to restore his property and 
give him amnesty if he would return to his plantation and take 
no further active part in the war; but Captain Moore spumed 
these offers and never relaxed his efforts in the cause of Indepen- 
dence until the final triumph. 

With the rank of colonel, probably in command of the militia 
of Brunswick County, Colonel Moore joined General Lillington 
and participated in the efforts to hedge Craig's forces within the 
territory adjacent to Wilmington. 

On the 24th of March, 1781, he was judge advocate of a court 
martial held in Lillington's camp, near Beauford's Bridge, of 
which Colonel Kenan was president. He continued an active 
soldier until the British evacuated the Cape Fear. 

Toward the close of the war he was in full practice, and at 
the June term, 1782, of the court for the Hillsboro District, the 
attorney-general being absent, "the court got the favor of 
Colonel Alfred Moore to officiate as attorney for the State, and 
without his assistance, which the court experienced in a very 
essential manner, they could not have carried on the business.'^ 
At that term there were seven capital convictions, among them 
being some for high treason. Speedily afterward the General 



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ALFRED MOORE 305 



Assembly appointed him attorney-general of the State to suc- 
ceed Iredell, who had just resigned. He retained that position 
for eight years, when he resigned it and retired to his plantation. 
So popular was he that when a new county was cut off from 
Cumberland, in 1784, it was named Moore in his honor. In 1792 
he represented Brunswick County in the Assembly, and in 1794 
he was urged as a candidate for the Senate of the United States 
to succeed Hawkins, but he was defeated by Timothy Blood- 
worth by a single vote. His political sentiments were those of 
Washington and Hamilton rather than of Jefferson, but he doubt- 
less agreed in his Constitutional views with Judge Iredell, whose 
dissenting opinion in the case of Chisholm v. State of Georgia 
became the comer-stone of the Democratic-Republican Party. 
In 1798, the Legislature being thoroughly Republican, he was 
elected one of the judges of the State; and his reputation was so 
high that on the death of Judge Iredell in October, 1799, he was 
appointed a member of the Supreme Court of the United States to 
succeed him. He remained on the bench until 1804, when failing 
health led to his retirement, and he died on the 15th of October, 
1810, at the home of Major Waddell. Early in life Judge Moore 
was married to Miss Eagles, and by her had several children, 
one of whom, Anne, married Major Waddell. 

Judge Moore was a warm friend of the University of North 
Carolina, of which he was a trustee from the date of its incorpo- 
ration to 1807, and he ever sought to promote its prosperity. 

Judge Murphey in an address before the literary societies of the 
University of North Carolina has said : "Two individuals who re- 
ceived their education during the war were destined to keep alive 
a remnant of our literature and prepare the public mind for the 
establishment of this University. They were William R. Davie 
and Alfred Moore. Each of them had endeared himself to his 
country by taking an active part in the latter scenes of the war, 
and when public order was restored and the courts of justice were 
opened, they appeared at the bar, where they quickly rose to 
eminence, and for many years shone like meteors in North Caro- 
lina. Publfc opinion was divided upon the question as to whether 



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3o6 NORTH CAROLINA 

Moore or Davie excelled at the Bar. Davie is certainly to be 
ranked among the first orators, and his rival, Moore, among the 
first advocates which the American nation has produced." 

Chief Justice Taylor says that Judge Moore "discharged for a 
series of years the arduous duties of the office of attorney-gen- 
eral in a manner which commanded the admiration and gratitude 
of his contemporaries." And he speaks particularly of "his pro- 
found knowledge of the criminal law." 

Taking him all in all, he was one of the most masterful men 
who have adorned the annals of North Carolina, 

S. A Ashe. 




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HARDY MURFREE 

JN the Tennessee county of Rutherford is a town 
called Murfreesborough as a compliment to 
Hardy Murfree, an officer of the North Caro- 
lina Line in the Continental army during the 
war of the Revolution, who entered the service 
as a captain and came out with the rank of 
Ueutenant-colonei. This gentleman was a native of Hertford 
County, North Carolina, where there is also a town of Murfrees- 
borough ; but the latter was named in honor of his father, William 
Murfree, not for Hardy Murfree himself, as is generally supposed. 
William Murfree, father of our subject, was long a citizen of 
Hertford County, which was erected out of the counties of 
Chowan, Bertie and Northampton. In 1764 a change was made 
in the boundary of Hertford, and William Murfree was one of 
the commissioners who ran the line. About the year 1768 William 
Murfree became high sheriff of the county of Hertford, and held 
that post for several years. In the war of the Revolution he was 
an unswerving Whig, representing Hertford County in the Pro- 
vincial Congress of North Carolina at Hillsboro, in August, 1775, 
and in the Provincial Congress at Halifax, in November, 1776. 

The home of William Murfree was originally called Murfree's 
Landing, but in 1786 a town was laid out on his plantation and 
called Murfreesboro. 

The date of William Murfree's birth was 1730. He married 



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308 NORTH CAROLINA 

Mary Moore, and left quite a number of children in addition to 
Colonel Hardy Murfree, of whose career we shall now speak. 

Hardy Murfree was bom on the 5th of June, 1752. He early 
showed a military inclination. As far back as May 28, 1772, we 
find on a roster of the Hertford Regiment of militia, made up by 
Colonel Benjamin Wynns, that Hardy Murfree had been serving 
as ensign, and was recommended for promotion to the rank of 
lieutenant. Soon there came a time when his services were needed 
for more serious purposes. The Revolution having commenced, 
he was commissioned on September i, 1775, a captain in the 
Second North Carolina Continental Regiment, commanded by 
Colonel Robert Howe, afterward major-general. The Second 
Regiment was ordered to Virginia in December, 1775, and aided 
in the operations against Lord Dunmore. It did not, however, 
arrive in time to participate in the battle of Great Bridge, which 
was fought on December 9th, and it returned to North Carolina 
early in 1776. Votes of thanks to Colonel Howe and his men 
were passed both by the Virginia House of Burgesses and the 
North Carolina Assembly. Howe was made a brigadier-general 
in the Continental Army on March i, 1776; and, on the loth of 
April, Alexander Martin, afterward governor, became colonel of 
the Second. The esteem in which Hardy Murfree was held by 
General Howe may be gathered from a letter dated Savannah, 
Georgia, March 15, 1777, and addressed to Governor Caswell, in 
which Howe said: "Captain Murfree, the bearer of this letter, 
has through the whole service, since he commenced as an officer, 
every part of which has been very fatiguing, and some of it 
dangerous, behaved with spirit and in every way worthily, I 
wish to recommend him to the notice of his country, which he 
truly deserves." 

On November 22, 1777, Lieutenant-Colonel John Patten suc- 
ceeded to the command of the Second Regiment upon the resig- 
nation of Colonel Alexander Martin, and Patten was the last 
colonel under whom Major Murfree served while he remained in 
the Second. 

In a letter from Major Murfree dated October 25, 1777, from 



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HARDY MURFREE 309 



Hertford County (where he was on recruiting duty), he speaks 
of preparing to go to the main army, so he no doubt reached it 
in time to have a share in the terrible winter experiences of 
1777-78 at Valley Forge, as well as in the battles fought by Wash- 
ington about that time. He was at the battle of Monmouth, in 
New Jersey, on the 28th of June, 1778. 

Murfree's most daring exploit during the Revolution, and the 
one which gained for him the greatest renown, was the part he 
bore in the capture of Stony Point under General Wayne, before 
dawn on the 16th of July, 1779. Washington himself prepared 
the plans for this attack, and the men who carried them out were 
much of the same make-up as Wayne himself, who, when asked 
by the commander-in-chief if he was willing to storm the fort, 
answered: "I will storm Hell if you plan it." In his "Story of 
the Revolution" Henry Cabot Lodge describes the assault on Stony 
Point in these words : "Major Murfree and his North Carolinians 
in the center were delayed by the tide in crossing the morass, and 
as they came through they met an outpost. A heavy fire of 
grapeshot and musketry opened upon them. On they went with- 
out a pause as if they were the only troops on the field, and every 
other column and division did the same. Wayne himself led the 
right wing. As he crossed the abatis a musket ball struck him 
on the head, bringing him down and wounding him slightly. 
Dazed as he was by the blow, he called out that if he was mortally 
hurt he wanted to die in the fort, and his aides picked him up 
and bore him forward. The rush of the well-directed columns was 
irresistible. So swift and steady was the movement that they 
passed the abatis and went up and over the breastworks without 
check or hesitation. All was finished in a few minutes. Some 
heavy firing from the works, a short, sharp rush, a clash and push 
of bayonets in the darkness, and the Americans poured into the 
fort." In Wayne's first despatch to General Washington he did 
not properly credit Major Murfree and some of the other officers 
who had contributed to the success of the enterprise, and he 
hastened to make amends for this neglect. Writing under date 
of August 10, 1779, to President John Jay, who had transmitted 



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3IO NORTH CAROLINA 

to him some resolutions (relative to his exploit) which the Con- 
tinental Congress had passed, Wayne said : "Whilst I experience 
every sensation arising from a consciousness of having used my 
best endeavors to carry the orders of my general into execution, I 
feel much hurt that I did not, in my letter to him of the 17th of 
July, mention (among other brave and worthy officers) the names 
of Lieutenant-Colonel Sherman and Majors Hull, Murfree and 
Posey, whose good conduct and intrepidity entitled them to that 
attention. Permit me, therefore, through your Excellency, to do 
them that justice now which the state of my wound diverted mc 
from in the first instance." 

On February 17, 1780, about seven months after the affair at 
Stony Point, the marriage of Major Murfree took place in Hert- 
ford County. Of this marriage we shall speak later on. He was, 
during that year, on recruiting duty in his native county, also 
finding occasion in the fall to march into Virginia in pursuit of 
the enemy. Hertford County and its vicinity were invaded by 
plundering bands of Tories on several occasions. Speaking of 
one of these in a letter to General Sumner, dated Murfree's Land- 
ing, July 22, 1781, Murfree said: "A party of the enemy came 
from Suffolk to South Key on the i6th instant and destroyed 
the warehouses, rum, tobacco, etc., at that place. The next day 
they marched to Wine Oak and Maney's Ferry, which is within 
twelve miles of this place, and burned Mr. Maney's dwelling house, 
with upward of one hundred barrels of sugar, a large quantity of 
rum, rigging, coffee, etc. They also destroyed a large quantity of 
rum, sugar, coffee, wine, etc., at Wine Oak, took all the horses, 
and plundered the inhabitants in a cruel manner. They were 
expected at the Pitch Landing, which is four miles above this 
and a place of considerable trade. I turned out and raised between 
sixty and seventy men and took post at Skinner's Bridge, on the 
Meherin River, an advantageous post, which is generally supposed 
to have prevented their coming this far. ... I should be much 
obliged to you, if I am not greatly wanted in camp, to let me stay 
in this part of the country while the enemy continues so near.*' 

A letter written to the governor by Murfree on the 7th of Sep- 



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HARDY MURFREE 3" 

tember, 1781, shows that he was restive on account of the inac- 
tivity which was then his lot. He says: "I have no command, 
and would wish to be doing something. If I had permission, I 
could raise a party of horsemen. . . . After completing the party, 
with your Excellency's permission, I will march to Virginia." 

Murfree's commission as lieutenant-colonel in the Continental 
Line of North Carolina bore date from April i, 1778, but it was 
not issued until a year or more thereafter. In the time inter- 
vening he continued to act as major. Owing to the re-arrange- 
ment of the regiments early in 1778, there was confusion as to 
the ranks of officers, and some of these cases were not settled 
until 1782, though the commissions then made out were to date 
from 1778. During the summer of 1782 Colonel Murfree was 
part of the time in camp at Bacon's Bridge, near the Virginia 
boundary, and part of the time on recruiting duty at his home 
in Hertford County. In March, 1782, he was president of a board 
of officers to settle ranks of the different officers and designate 
regiments to which they should be attached. In the following 
month (April, 1782) he was brigade commander in the absence 
of General Sumner. 

Though determined to remain in the field as long as he was 
needed. Colonel Murfree was anxious about the condition of his 
family, and wished to retire in the fall of 1782, when the war 
was about over, Comwallis having surrendered a year before. 
From Halifax, on November 22, 1782, Murfree wrote General 
Sumner: "It will suit me to retire, agreeable to the resolve of 
Congress, having a family that cannot do well without my pres- 
ence." It was not until the ist of January, 1783, however, that 
Colonel Murfree was regularly discharged, or "deranged," as the 
rosters call mustering out. 

Both during and after the Revolution Colonel Murfree was 
commissioner of confiscated properly for the district of Edenton, 
being one of those charged with the duty of carrying into effect 
the acts which the Assembly passed providing for the confiscation 
of the property of those who sided with the King. When the 
North Carolina Society of the Cincinnati was established in 1783, 



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312 NORTH CAROLINA 

Murfree was a member, and is now represented therein by one 
of his descendants, William Law Murfree, son of the late Professor 
William Law Murfree of the Law Department of the University 
of Colorado. 

A few years after the war Colonel Murfree was summoned, with 
other Continental officers, to appear before a legislative committee 
and testify against persons charged with frauds in connection 
with public lands. After these witnesses had testified the Assembly 
passed a resolution, December 26, 1787, expressing its '*high and 
proper sense of the laudable conduct, ready attendance and former 
as well as present public-spirited exertions of those gentlemen." 

On January 5, 1787, Murfree was elected lieutenant-colonel 
commandant of North Carolina militia for the district of Edenton. 

Prior to the breaking out of the war young Hardy Murfree be- 
came engaged to Sally Brickell, daughter of the Hertford County 
Revolutionary patriot, Lieutenant-Colonel Matthias Brickell, and 
his first wife, Rachel Noailles. The first of the name of Brickell 
who came to North Carolina were two brothers, John 
Brickell, M.D., a naturalist and one of the earliest historians of the 
colony, and the Rev. Matthias Brickell, a clergyman of the Church 
of England. Both of these gentlemen came to North Carolina 
under the patronage of Governor George Burrington. Colonel 
Brickell, above mentioned, was a son of the parson. His wife, 
nee Noailles, was of Huguenot ancestry. While the fierce battles 
of Washington's northern campaigns were being fought, Sally 
Brickell was more than once shocked by reports of the death of 
Murfree, but he safely came back with his well-won honors, and 
they were married on February 17, 1780, before hostilities closed. 
To this union were born seven children, two sons, William Hardy 
and Matthias Brickell, and five daughters. 

Colonel Murfree's wife, mother of the above children, died 
March 29, 1802, prior to her husband's removal to Tennessee. 

While a young man Hardy Murfree became a Mason, and took 
an active interest in the order up to the time of his death. Prior 
to the Revolution, Provincial Grand Master Joseph Montfort had 
chartered Royal William Lodge, No. 8, at Winton, in Hertford 



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HARDY MURFREE 313 

County. It was numbered 6 after the war. When the Grand 
Lodge of North Carolina was reorganized at Tarborough on the 
27th of December, 1787, the delegates from this lodge were Hardy 
Murfree, Patrick Garvey and William Person Little. Anything 
"Royal" could not enjoy much popularity in the patriotic county 
of Hertford after independence had been won, so, in 1799, Royal 
William Lodge surrendered its charter, and Colonel Murfree be- 
came connected with a new lodge named for that illustrious Mason 
who had been his commander-in-chief in the war for independence. 
This was American George Lodge, No. 17, at Murfreesboro. No 
sooner had Colonel Murfree gone to Tennessee than he also began 
to labor for the upbuilding of Masonry in that State. In the 
archives of the old Grand Lodge of North Carolina and Tennes- 
see, now deposited at Raleigh, we find a letter from him, dated 
"near Franklin," October 25, 1808, enclosing a petition, dated 
October 13th, from nine Masons, asking for a dispensation to 
establish Franklin Lodge, which was later chartered (Decem- 
ber II, 1809) as Hiram Lodge, No. 55, of North Carolina, and 
No. 7 of Tennessee. 

It was about the year 1807 that Colonel Murfree left North 
Carolina and made his home in Williamson County, Tennessee, not 
many miles from Franklin, at a place known as Murfree's Fork 
of West Harpeth River. In the adjoining county of Rutherford 
was the town of Cannonsburgh, and the name of this was changed 
to Murfreesborough, as a compliment to Colonel Murfree, in 181 1, 
after his death. Murfreesborough was the capital of Tennessee 
from 1819 till 1826, and many fierce battles of the war between 
the States were fought in its vicinity. 

Colonel Murfree died in Williamson County, Tennessee, on 
the 6th of April, 1809, but it was not until the 9th of the follow- 
ing July that the Masonic and other public ceremonies were con- 
ducted over his grave. Describing the latter occasion, the Demo- 
cratic Clarion, a Nashville newspaper, in its issue of July 21st, 
said in part : "On the procession arriving at the gate of the garden, 
the Philanthropic Lodge stopped, and the Franklin Lodge ad- 
vanced first to the g^ve. At the conclusion of the Masonic 



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314 NORTH CAROLINA 

funeral rites, the subjoined oration was delivered by Felix 
Grundy, Esq., after which the military advanced and fired three 
volleys over the grave. The surrounding hills were covered with 
vast numbers of people, and the awful silence which pervaded 
such an immense crowd evinced the feelings of the spectators 
for the memory and virtues of the deceased." 

The above-mentioned oration by Judge Grundy is reprinted in 
the Raleigh Register of September 14, 1809. Further interesting 
data as to Colonel Murfree will be found in a pamphlet entitled 
"Proceedings of the Tennessee Historical Society at Murfrees- 
borough, December 8, 1885." This work contains an account 
of the presentation of the sword of Colonel Murfree to the Ten- 
nessee Historical Society on behalf of his descendants, the address 
of presentation being made by one of that number, Major David D. 
Maney, who, in conclusion, said : "In the name of all his descend- 
ants, this sword is now committed to the guardianship of the 
Historical Society as a most interesting relic and memorial of one 
who, if he may not be considered ope of the founders of the 
Republic, was the friend, the companion and the ever faithful co- 
laborer of those who were its founders. The Revolutionary 
worthies have all passed away, but their work remains, stupendous 
and magnificent, surpassing their most sanguine conceptions or 
wildest dreams. It is that of a great Republic, founded on the 
inalienable rights of man, existing under a benign Constitution 
and equal laws, upon a theatre so vast, and presenting an aggre- 
gate of happiness, prosperity and enlightenment, as was never 
before attained in any age or country." 

In addition to the address by Major Maney just quoted, the 
above pamphlet contains the speech of acceptance by President 
John M. Lea of the Historical Society, and a biographical sketch 
of Hardy Murfree by his grandson, the late Colonel William Law 
Murfree, whose father was William Hardy Murfree, heretofore 
mentioned. A daughter of Colonel William Law Murfree is the 
novelist Miss Mary Noailles Murfree, better known (by her 
pseudonym) as Charles Egbert Craddock. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 



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JOHN MILTON ODELL 

'HE career of Captain John Milton Odell, whose 
name is so closely associated with the develop- 
ment of the milling interests of North Caro- 
lina, and particularly with the growth and 
prosperity of Concord, presents a remarkable 
illustration of the capabilities of former Con- 
federate soldiers to achieve distinction in the paths of peace. It 
is a reflection that must be gratifying to every patriotic North 
Carolinian that, great as has been the development of the indus- 
trial interests of our people, many of the leaders and most suc- 
cessful men in these new enterprises are North Carolinians by 
birth, and in their earlier days were among the brave and gallant 
followers of Lee and Jackson, and showed their manhood by their 
endurance and courageous daring during those days of Southern 
heroism. Magnificent soldiers they were in war, and now they 
have become great captains of industry in peace. 

Captain Odell sprang from a parentage whose traditions were 
well calculated to nourish a bold and active spirit among the men 
of that family. His great-grandfather, Nehemiah O'Dell, emi- 
grated from Ireland, landing at Halifax, Nova Scotia, but event- 
ually located in Pennsylvania, near the city of Philadelphia. He 
was fond of sport, and often in the winter's evenings around a 
blazing log fire at the North Carolina home of his son Isaac he 
would tell of his adventures and of the fine deer he had killed at 



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3i6 NORTH CAROLINA 

the very spot where a century later the first Centennial Ex- 
hibition was held in the United States. His son, Isaac O'Dell, 
married Mary Bowden and settled in Randolph County. Of 
Mary Bowden it is related that while a little girl she gave an 
exhibition of the bravery and spirit which characterized alike the 
men and women of the Revolutionary period. 

One day a party of Redcoats rode up to her father's house, and 
taking possession, demanded food for themselves and for their 
horses. After seeing the animals fed, they returned to the house 
to regale themselves. Mary seeing her opportunity, opened the 
barnyard gate and turned the horses loose, so that when the 
troopers were ready to remount and start on their journey in 
pursuit of some enterprise, they found themselves delayed and 
lost the opportunity to accomplish the purpose they had in view. 

A son of this union, James O'Dell, married Anna Trogdon, 
who was a daughter of Solomon Trogdon and his wife, Tabitha 
Yorke. Her father, Solomon Trogdon, was a soldier in the 
American Revolution, and during one of his encounters with the 
British was captured by Tarleton, but fortunately effected his 
escape and was able to join General Greene, and fought at the 
battle of Guilford Court House. Their son, John Milton Odell, 
the subject of this sketch, was bom January 20, 1831, on his 
father's farm near Cedar Falls in Randolph County, and grew 
to manhood under the guiding care of his parents, studying in 
winter and helping on the farm in the summer. He made such 
good use of his opportunities that after completing his education 
he himself was prepared to teach, and he taught school for sev- 
eral years, doubtless receiving benefit from this employment not 
only in the way of intellectual training, but in the self-discipline 
imposed by this occupation. In April, 1856, he became interested 
as a stockholder in the Cedar Falls Manufacturing Company, and 
he was engaged until the spring of 1861 as a salesman in the 
store of that company, being there closely associated with Mr. 
John B. Troy, whose character, founded on the bedrock of 
truth and honor, was an inspiration and confirmed him in his 
adherence to high ideals in business life. The war breaking out. 



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JOHN MILTON ODELL 317 

he gave up this position, and with his brother Laban raised a 
company of which he became the captain, his brother being first 
lieutenant. The company was known as the Randolph Hornets, 
and was organized in June, 1861, as Company M of the Twelth 
Regiment of North Carolina Volunteers, Colonel J. Johnston Pet- 
tigrew being the colonel; but later, when the ten regiments of 
State troops were organized, taking precedence in number over 
the volunteer regfiments, this became the Twenty-Second Regi- 
ment Carefully trained and disciplined by that admirable officer, 
Colonel Pettigrew, the career of this regiment during the entire 
war reflected the highest credit on the State. Immediately on its 
organization it was ordered to the banks of the Potomac, and 
then to the Peninsula. Captain Odell, who possessed every char- 
acteristic that could fit him for a conspicuous military career, was 
identified with its fine record on the Potomac and in the Peninsula, 
until after the battle of Seven Pines ; when the period of his en- 
listment having expired, and the regiment being reorganized, 
because of feeble health he retired from the service, being suc- 
ceeded in command of his company by his brother. Of his 
brother it may be said that he was a magnificent soldier ; that his 
daring and courageous action at Marye's Heights brought him 
merited promotion as major of the regiment, and that after pass- 
ing through many perils, he fell mortally wounded on May 3, 
1863, during that famous movement of Stonewall Jackson, when 
he led the North Carolina brigades across Hooker's front, and 
striking the Federal army in rear and in flank, gained the great 
victory of Chancellorsville. 

Captain Odell, on returning home, resumed his connection with 
the Cedar Falls Manufacturing Company, becoming a stock- 
holder in it, and acting as its business agent. Thus for more than 
forty years he has been engaged in manufacturing in North Caro- 
lina, having had a longer connection with that business than any 
other manufacturer now living in the State, and standing among 
the first in successful achievement and in the importance of his 
various enterprises. 

In 1877 he bought the old McDonald Mill at Concord, one of 



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3i8 NORTH CAROLINA 

the oldest mills in the State, built in 1839, having then but two 
thousand spindles and fifty looms. Under his splendiH manage- 
ment this mill has since become the parent of a system composed 
of five mills, running 43,000 spindles and 1800 looms, with a cash 
capital of $600,000. 

In this field of work Captain Odell has no superior in the 
State ; and as an organizer and manager he has been particularly 
successful. No strike has ever occurred at any of his factories, 
and he has been able to maintain at all times the most pleasant re- 
lations with his employees. The erection of his mills has been 
accompanied by the establishment of schoolhouses and of churches, 
and he promotes every influence that tends to the advantage of 
those in his employment, so that they regard him as a friend and 
not merely as the head of the corporation. 

So successful has he been in his cotton manufacturing that he 
has advanced step by step in increasing his interests in that line 
of industry. He was largely instrumental in organizing the Odell 
Manufacturing Company, the Cannon Manufacturing Company, 
and the Kerr Bag Manufacturing Company, all at Concord; the 
J. M. Odell Manufacturing Company at Bynums, Chatham 
County, North Carolina ; the Durham Cotton Manufacturing Com- 
pany and the Pearl Cotton Mills at Durham ; the Salisbury Cotton 
Mills at Salisbury, and the Southern Cotton Mills at Bessemer City. 

On organizing each of these companies he became the president 
and retained the management until a few years ago, when he pre- 
ferred to devote his attention more exclusively to the business of 
the Odell Manufacturing Company and the Kerr Bag Manufactur- 
ing Company, the factory at Bynums, the Southern Cotton Mills, 
and his individual enterprise, the Magnolia Mills, Concord, North 
Carolina. 

Besides being interested in cotton manufacturing, Captain Odell 
has organized many other enterprises that have given life and 
growth and prosperity to Concord. Possessing fine executive 
abilities and gifted with business talents of a high order, he has 
devised improvements and carried them into operation with a 
success that commands admiration. He is a charter member of 



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JOHN MILTON ODELL 319 

the Greensboro National Bank, and has been a director since its 
organization ; he is president of the Concord National Bank, and 
until recently he directed the affairs of the Concord Electric 
Light Company; indeed he has been the greatest factor in the 
improvement of Concord, 

A sagacious financier, he has year by year made handsome addi- 
tions to his fortune, and has increased his great business until 
he has attained an eminent position in financial as well as in indus- 
trial circles, and he takes rank among the foremost men of the 
State for high capacity as well as for integrity, prudence and 
successful management. 

Prior to the war Captain Odell affiliated with the Whig Party, 
but since the war and reconstruction times, he has been a Demo- 
crat ; and while not seeking public office or political preferment, 
he has exerted a large influence among his Democratic associates. 
The members of his family on both the maternal and paternal 
sides have for generations been Methodists, and he has ever been 
loyal to the interest and welfare of his church; and throughout 
life he has always been a strict observer of high moral principles, 
while in social life he is a fine type of the Christian gentleman. 

Captain Odell has been twice married. His first wife was Re- 
becca Kirkman, a daughter of Robert Kirkman, Esq., of Randolph 
County, to whom he was married on March 9th, 1854, and who 
bore him two sons, William R. Odell and James T. Odell, and one 
daughter, Ollie Makepeace Durham, wife of S. J. Durham, 
Bessemer city. Mrs. Odell died June 13th, 1889, and on August 
4th, 1891, he married Mrs. Addie A. White, daughter of R. W. 
Allison and Sarah Anne Phifer Allison of Concord, North Caro- 
lina. 

S. A. Ashe. 




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JAMES ALEXANDER ODELL 




MID the hills and mountains of the old North 
State has grown up a vigorous type of men 
representing the flower of true yeomanry. 
Randolph County, famous for fertile fields and 
picturesque hills and river valleys, has given to 
our commonwealth a valuable portion of such 
citizens. 

On November 4, 1841, James Alexander Odell was bom at 
Cedar Falls, in this county. His father, James Odell, was a sturdy, 
successful farmer. Like so many of the prominent men of this 
nation, Mr. J. A. Odell was reared in the country home, on the 
farm. Here he learned from youth the essential lessons of self- 
reliance and industry. Having a good ancestry, he inherited from 
childhood a sound mind in a sound body. Under good parental 
influence, he was trained in habits of early rising and active work. 
Having had the advantages only of a common-school education, 
Mr. Odell, by contact with active men, and by dint of well-directed 
thought and energy, has developed that practical education essen- 
tial to the eminent success which he has worthily achieved in his 
life work. 

By his own personal preference, he began merchandising in 
Randolph County, among his own people, in 1865. Having defi- 
nitely chosen his vocation, he was fortunate, during the same 



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JAMKS ALKXANIM k uDI.LL 




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JAMES ALF.XANDl'U OI)i:i L 

MID u:(* '.'.lis .111(1 niouniair^s of tlic oM N 
"A Si.nr lias j;r)An up a v'-^cnjiis t\^»e rf • 
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p'ct'iro?fji;e 1 i'U and ri\i*' xriilf^v^, has t:'-f 
our anninonwoal'h a vah: Me portion k i > 

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n :i'ii Mr. J. A. i )'!cll was rc.irtM in ti'.c r- »: :tr\ r- r'*. < '• ' 
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JAMES ALEXANDER ODELL 321 

year, in marrying Miss Mary J. Prescott, who, eminent in the 
superior qualities of Christian womanhood, has proven a uniformly 
excellent helpmeet. 

In 1868 he moved to High Point, North Carolina, where he 
enlarged his mercantile business by adding a wholesale depart- 
ment to the retail. 

From High Point he moved to Greensboro, North Carolina, 
in 1872, where he engaged in the same business. Later, a hard- 
ware department was added, and in 1884 ^^^ dry-goods business 
was discontinued, and the entire energies of the business were 
concentrated on hardware and kindred lines, being incorporated 
under its present title. The Odell Hardware Company, of which 
he is still president. This firm now occupies handsome and 
commodious quarters, and, it is claimed, transacts the largest 
business of its kind not only in the State, but throughout the entire 
Southern section of the country, maintaining the reputation for 
reliability and standard goocjs. Mr. Odell, the founder of the 
business, is regarded as the pioneer of the wholesale business in 
Greensboro. 

Besides his long, successful career in the mercantile business, 
Mr. Odell is identified with, a number of other enterprises that 
contribute to the prosperity tt the toiiimunity. He built the first 
cotton mill that was started in Dtlrham, North^Carolina, in 1884, 
with which he is still connected. He is also interested in the 
cotton mills at Concord and Bynum, North Carolina, being vice- 
president of the Odell Manufacturing Company and a director in 
the Kerr Bag Manufacturing Company and the J. M. Odell 
Manufacturing Company. He is also a stockholder in the Morgan 
and Hamilton Company at Nashville, Tennessee, a director in the 
Greensboro Loan and Trust Company and the Greensboro Life 
Insurance Company. Throughout his business career he has 
steadily won success on solid, honest methods and principles with- 
out attempting nigh-cut methods of getting something for 
nothing. 

While noted as a busy man, giving strict attention to his private 
affairs, he is also noted for his public spirit, manifested in civic. 



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322 NORTH CAROLINA 

moral, educational and religious interests. As a citizen he is 
loyal to the principles of civic righteousness. While a staunch 
Democrat, he is not a blinded partizan. Being wise enough to 
see an error, he is brave enough to rebuke it, whether in an ally 
or opponent. Always standing firmly on the right side of any 
moral issue, he has contributed much to the formation of munici- 
pal reform, of temperance and other causes that make for the 
betterment of a community. When serving on a jury, good 
citizens feel that in him the law will be honored through a just 
verdict. In the last municipal election (1905), when factions 
threatened to increase amid complex conditions, Mr. Oddl was 
worthily honored in being elected alderman by an overwhelming 
majority. In arranging for the meeting of non-resident citizens 
of North Carolina, Mr. Odell is found active in work and liberal 
in contribution. 

Besides contributing of his means to the education of worthy 
young people, he has rendered a valuable service to the cause of 
liberal education in his contribution to institutions of learning, 
especially in behalf of Greensboro Female College. When this 
time-honored institution was threatened to be sold, about 1882, 
Mr. J. A. Odell, with a few other liberal-spirited men, came 
forward and assumed financial responsibility, and established 
the college on a stronger basis than ever before, making it the 
leading college for Methodism in the State. For over twenty 
years his best thought and effort were devoted to this college, 
which he loved. And when at last conditions arose that broug^ht 
another crisis in the history of the college, and when the few 
men that had been running the institution upon their own re- 
sponsibility felt that they could assume such obligations no longer, 
Mr. Odell was not found wanting in liberal response to the 
appeals from Greensboro Female College Alumnae in behalf of 
saving their beloved alma mater, being one of the most liberal 
contributors to this cause. 

In the direct interests of the church his labors have also been 
abundant. For more than twenty-five years he has been a member 
of the Board of Stewards of Greensboro West Market Street 



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JAMES ALEXANDER ODELL 323 

Methodist Church, a large part of the time serving as chairman. 
For nearly a quarter of a century he has been treasurer of the 
joint Board of Finance of the North Carolina and Western North 
Carolina Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 
He was elected a delegate to the General Conference of this 
church which met in St. Louis in 1890, to the General Con- 
ference in Memphis, 1894, and in Dallas, Texas, 1902. For twelve 
years he was a member of the Book Conunittee of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South. 

He has devoted his characteristic business wisdom and energy 
in behalf of his own local church. To him much is due in the 
building and equipment of Greensboro West Market Street 
Church, costing about $50,000. 

As the minister's friend, he advocates a liberal salary and com- 
fortable home, in due provision for which he is ever ready to 
lead with liberal contribution. 

Reverent for the sacred, he deprecates frivolity without being 
austere ; loyal to truth, he repudiates shams without being fogy- 
ish; and loyal to duty, he rebukes unfaithfulness without being 
unkind. 

In his home are blended substantial comfort and plenty without 
luxuriousness and extravagance, welcoming the friendly visitor 
with a genuine Southern hospitality. Whether in private or pub- 
lic, he is the same uniform character, esteemed the more by rich 
and poor the better he is known. Temperate and regular in 
habits, he enjoys vigorous health; systematic and punctual in 
work, he "drives his business" instead of letting his business drive 
him. With a heroic spirit, he has not been afraid to attempt the 
difficult work or the solution of complex problems of life. With 
an honest, industrious spirit, he has effectually attained unto 
eminence by using simple means when better could not be had. 
He has thus adapted himself to the growing, complex obligations 
without a compromise of principle, and has done plain, hard work 
without a compromise of honor. 

To the thoughtful youth an invaluable principle is illustrated in 
the subject of this sketch. Back of the substantial elements of 



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324 



NORTH CAROLINA 



such character and of the achievements of such conduct is traced 
a life begun aright when young. To all thoughtful minds the 
corresponding principle is manifested that, being obedient to duty, 
he has won that mastery of privilege, ever crowning a life with 
the victory called success. 

S. B. Turrentine. 




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WILLIAM ROBERT ODELL 




[JLLIAM ROBERT ODELL was born on the 
3d day of March, 1855, in the county of Ran- 
dolph, North Carolina. The name of his father 
is John M. Odell, and the name of his mother, 
now dead, was Rebecca C. Odell. She was 
Miss Kirkman of Randolph County. His 
father's marked characteristics were common sense, integrity and 
energy, and by the exercise of these he became and is now one of 
the largest and most successful cotton manufacturers of the South. 
His earlier ancestry is given in the sketch of his father in this vol- 
ume. His physical conditions in childhood and youth were good, 
and doubtless were much due to fifteen years of country life and 
invigorating, health-giving farm work, which engaged the efforts 
of his early years. His mother, like his father, was a person of 
high Christian character, and her influence was particularly strong 
on the moral and spiritual life of her son. His father was fully 
able to give him a generous education, and therefore in this great 
matter of life he had no financial difficulties to overcome. He 
was prepared for college at the Concord High School, and gradu- 
ated with distinction from Trinity College, North Carolina, in 
1875, with the degree of A.B., and he is now and has been for 
years a most efficient trustee of this great institution of learning. , 

Five years after graduation, on the 2Sth of May, 1880, he mar- 
ried Miss Elizabeth Sergeant of Greensboro, North Carolina, a 



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326 NORTH CAROLINA 

cultured, Christian woman. They have in Concord, North Caro- 
lina, one of the handsomest and costliest homes in this State, and 
they have been blessed with three sons, all of whom are now liv- 
ing and one of them is married. His children's names accord- 
ing to age are Fred C, Ralph M., and Arthur G. Fred C. 
was married to Miss Merrimon of Greensboro, North Carolina, 
on the first day of June, 1904 ; she was a granddaughter of Chief 
Justice Merrimon. 

After merchandising for some years in Concord, he began with 
his father the manufacture of cotton in Concord and elsewhere, 
in which he has been eminently successful. He is now secretary 
and treasurer of the Odell Manufacturing Company at Bynvan^ 
North Carolina ; secretary and treasurer of the Kerr Bag Manu- 
facturing Company at Concord, and director of the Concord 
National Bank, in all of which great business institutions he is an 
influential and efficient factor for their prosperity and success, and 
thus he is one of the South's "great captains of industry." 

And with all of these great works engaging his attention and[ 
honest care, he has found time to be for years an active school 
committeeman for the graded schools of Concord, which arc 
among the very best in all respects in North Carolina; to be a 
commissioner for the city of Concord, and is prominent in the 
administration of our city government, and is now also State 
senator from Cabarrus and Mecklenburg counties, one of the 
most important senatorial districts in North Carolina, and one 
without a superior in its moral, intellectual and financial force in 
this State. Thus verifying the old saying: "If you want any- 
thing well done, ask a busy man to do it.*' 

He was a prominent and influential Senator in the Senate 
Chamber and committee work of the General Assembly of 1905, 
and he was a forceful factor in the passage of the law for increas- 
ing the pensions of Confederate soldiers, chapters 358 and 408 of 
the Public Laws of 1905, of which two acts he was the author, 
and in the passage of the law "To prevent the dealing in futures" 
in this State, chapter 358 of Public Laws of 1905. And I think 
it can be safely said that this latter act would not have passed the 



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WILLIAM ROBERT ODELL 327 

Senate but for his influence and his speech in its favor in the 
Senate Chamber. And this is much to his credit in view of the 
fact that this act was fiercely fought by many large cotton manu- 
facturers in Mecklenburg and other counties of this section of 
North Carolina. 

Its enactment was greatly needed and is very beneficial in this 
State, where the "Bucket Shops" as local places for selling futures 
are called were working havoc with the morals and money of 
young North Carolinians. 

Senator Odell also introduced a bill to reduce the poll tax in 
North Carolina, but it failed to become a law for want of time 
more than any other cause. 

From early life Mr. Odell has been a pious member of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, South. He is now and has been for six- 
teen years a member of the Forest Hill Church in Concord, and for 
some length of time has been superintendent of its Sunday-school, 
and in all his relations of life he is a worthy member of this 
great branch of the Church of Christ on earth. 

For the strengthening of sound ideals and to help young people 
to attain true success in life, he earnestly commends faithfulness 
to every duty, great or small, integrity, energy and perseverance. 

Paul B. Means. 




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SAMUEL FIN LEY PATTERSON 

[EW families have held so high a place in the 
respect of the people of North Carolina as the 
Patterson connection. The first member of this 
family to come to America emigrated from the 
north of Ireland early in the eighteenth century, 
and after a sojourn in Pennsylvania made a 
home for himseff in Virginia, where many of his descendants are 
still found. There, in Rockbridge County, on March ii, 1799, 
the subject of this sketch was bom. At the age of fifteen he was 
induced by his uncle, Major John Finley, to remove to Wilkes- 
boro, North Carolina, where he was employed as a clerk in the 
store of Waugh & Finley until he attained his majority in 1821. 
He was a young man of superior intelligence and fine address, 
and being inclined to mingle more with the men of the State, the 
next year, when but twenty-two years of age, he sought the 
position of engrossing clerk of the House of Commons, and for 
fourteen years he was annually elected to some clerkship in the 
legislature, filling each in turn until at length, in 1835, he became 
chief clerk of the Senate. In the meantime, in May, 1824, he was 
happily married to Phebe Caroline, a daughter of General Edmond 
Jones, and a granddaughter of General William Lenoir; and by 
this connection he became closely associated with some of the 
leading men of the State. 

In 1828 and 1829 he was Junior Grand Warden of the Grand 



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THE NEW YORK 
PUBLIC UBRARY 

A?^OR, LENOX A.ND 
TILULN P0*JMX>ATtONa 



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SAMUEL FINLEY PATTERSON 329 

Lodge of Masons of the State, and in 1830 and 1831 Deputy 
Grand Master; in 1833 and 1834 he was Grand Master, and no 
one in the State was more highly esteemed by his fellow-Masons. 
His career had been one of unvaried success and good fortune. 
His association with the public men who during the fifteen years 
of his connection with the legislature had been members of the 
General Assembly had won for him their confidence and esteem, 
and his promptness, fidelity and integrity had made a most favor- 
able impression throughout the State. Having begun business 
on his own account upon leaving the employment of his uncle, 
he had so successfully managed his affairs that he enjoyed the 
reputation of being an excellent financier and business man. At 
the General Assembly of 1835, although he was a strong opponent 
of the policies of General Jackson, and the legislature was largely 
composed of the friends of General Jackson, he was eletted public 
treasurer of the State, succeeding WiUidm S. Mhoon. He held 
this position for two years, a' part* 'of the same timie likewise 
discharging the duties of president 6! Ihje .Bank, of -the •State, and 
adding to his reputation as one of the best financiers of North 
Carolina. But in 1837 he retired from office and returned to his 
business in Wilkesboro. 

In 1840, three days in June had been devoted to festivities 
celebrating the completion of the Capitol and of the Raleigh and 
Gaston Railroad, and in that year Mr. Patterson, who was an 
early promoter of internal improvements and an able financier, 
was elected president of that, the first railroad completed in the 
State, and he moved to Raleigh so as to discharge the duties of 
that office. In 1845, however, his father-in-law, General Jones, 
died, and Mr. Patterson resigned his position as president of the 
Railroad Company and returned to the Yadkin Valley, intending 
to devote the remainder of his life to his farming interests. 
Largely through his influence, in 1841, Caldwell County had been 
erected out of portions of Burke and Wilkes, and Mr. Patterson's 
home, known as "Palmyra," was in the new county. Immedi- 
ately on his return to Caldwell County he was elected chairman 
of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, having the manage- 



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330 NORTH CAROLINA 

ment of all the internal affairs of the county, and he held this 
office until the old system of county courts was abolished by the 
constitution of 1868. 

The next year, 1846, he was chosen to represent his county 
in the Senate, and was again elected in 1848. 

At that time the affairs of the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad 
had become hopelessly embarrassed. There was not business 
enough or sufficient earnings to pay the running expenses. Gov- 
ernor Graham, Mr. Patterson and the other friends of internal 
improvements were greatly discouraged, and recognized that some 
great effort should be made to sustain the Raleigh and Gaston 
Railroad by constructing an interior line that would serve as a 
feeder to it and give it a greater volume of business, while at the 
same time affording needed facilities to other parts of the State. 
Mr. Patterson, who was among the foremost of those who advo- 
cated internal improvements, was chairman of the Committee on 
Internal Improvements, and drew a bill proposing to charter a 
road from Raleigh to Salisbury, and giving some State aid to it. 
This measure, however, did not receive sufficient favor to secure 
its passage. The friends of internal improvements, then the most 
important matter in the public mind, were almost in despair. 
Mr. William S. Ashe, senator from New Hanover, and a Democrat 
who differed with his party friends on this particular subject, was 
appealed to to prepare another bill. He did so, proposing to in- 
corporate a road from Goldsboro to Charlotte, and appropriating 
$2,000,000 as State aid. At first the magnitude of this work and 
the great amount of money appropriated staggered even the most 
ardent of the advocates of internal improvements ; but eventually 
that bill was substituted for the one proposed by the Committee 
on Internal Improvements and was passed by the casting vote of 
the speaker of the Senate. As Mr. Dudley was the leader of 
internal improvements in the east, so in like manner is the west 
indebted to Mr. Patterson for his efforts to promote the inter- 
ests of the western part of the State in that respect. 

In 1854 he again served his people in the legislature, being a 
member of the House of Commons, and during the war, in 1864, 



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SAMUEL FINLEY PATTERSON 331 

he was for a third time elected to the Senate. After the restora- 
tion of peace, a convention was elected in October, 1865, and in 
1866, there being a vacancy in that body from Caldwell County, 
he was elected a delegate to that convention. In the same year 
he attended what was known as the Philadelphia Peace Conven- 
tion as one of the delegates from North Carolina, the object in 
view being to establish fraternal relations between the sections 
of the Union and to restore harmony and good will among the 
people. This convention was presided over by Reverdy Johnson 
of Maryland, and was largely attended by delegates from the New 
England States ; and while it had some effect in staying the hands 
of the irreconcilables in Congress for a time, it did not entirely 
defeat their will and purposes, and the next year the Reconstruc- 
tion Acts, destroying the .State governments at the South and 
establishing new State governments on the fundamental basis o£ 
negro suffrage, were passed. 

In 1868 General Patterson was nominated on the State ticket 
by the Conservative Party for the office of superintendent of 
public works, a new position established by the constitution o£ 
1868. But he and his party at that election went down in hope- 
less defeat, the only defeat, such as it was, that he ever met before 
the people. Among the less important places that Mr. Patterson 
held during his long career of public activity was that of clerk 
of the Superior Court and clerk and master in equity; in 1839 he 
was Indian commissioner ; he was also elected by the legislature 
brigadier-general and afterward major-general of the State militia, 
and he thus became entitled to be known as General Patterson. 

For many years he was a justice of the peace, and a trustee of 
the State University for a third of a century. 

General Patterson was a member of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, and for many years was vestryman, warden and lay 
reader of his parish church; and in 1871 he was one of the lay 
delegates from the diocesan convention of this State to the gen- 
eral convention held in Baltimore. 

Such is the succinct record of his public life. 

Beginning as a clerk in the legislature of 1821, there was not 



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332 NORTH CAROLINA 

a year for half a century in which he was not honored by the 
State of his adoption until, after fifty years of continuous service^ 
he fitly closed his career by representing her in the grand council 
of the church he loved. What man in the State has ever lived 
a busier, more useful, purer life? Who, having so many and great 
trusts confided in him, has fulfilled them more worthily ? He never 
sought any civil office which would withdraw him from North 
Carolina. His history, together with the history of a few of his 
peers and associates, was for many years the history of the State. 
Such men, so strong in mind and body, so pure in heart and hand, 
so steady, so resolute and so wise, during half a century of use- 
fulness, influenced insensibly to themselves thousands whom they 
met and thousands more who honored them because of their acts. 
The study of his character and the character of men like him, 
who controlled the destiny of North Carolina in times past, will 
show something of the reason why the State has been so little 
known abroad, so loved and reverenced at home. 

They were like those Romans, spoken of by Sallust, who lived 
in the nobler days of the Republic, who would rather do great 
deeds than write about them — a people among whom the wisest 
were also the busiest citizens, and who, disdaining to cultivate 
their minds at the expense of their bodies, so used both as to 
accomplish the greatest good to the commonwealth. General 
Patterson, although he held so many and various offices, and gave 
so much time and attention to public affairs, was for the last thirty 
years of his life properly a farmer. By this pursuit he supported 
himself while he served the people. His farm was a model of 
neatness and thrift ; he was zealous in introducing new seeds, im- 
proved implements and better methods of cultivation; he was a 
constant reader and frequent contributor to the columns of agri- 
cultural journals, and was justly regarded as an authority in 
matters pertaining to husbandry. His domestic life was as even, 
as useful and as pure as his public life. 

His home was attractive, and in the company of his wife and 
two sons, Rufus L, Patterson and Samuel L. Patterson, he was 
entirely happy ; but being given to hospitality, he rejoiced at the 



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SAMUEL FINLEY PATTERSON 



333 



presence of many guests. No one who was ever a guest at "Pal- 
myra" can forget the stately figure which welcomed him or bade 
good-by with such kindly, heartfelt courtesy. Nor was his gen- 
erosity confined to his own premises ; many a poor neighbor, both 
white and black, lamented the death of the dear friend who never 
forgot either their necessity or their self-respect, and gave as 
delicately as wisely. 

He died at his home, January 20, 1874, as peacefully as he had 
lived. 

S. A. Ashe. 




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RUFUS LENOIR PATTERSON 

[he subject of this sketch was of a lineage emi- 
ment not only for services to their State, but for 
their talents and virtues. His father, General 
Samuel Finley Patterson, had a peculiar, com- 
manding dignity, self-poise and sound sense. 
No man excelled him in good influences amid 
all his surroundings. We find him representing his county in 
both branches of the General Assembly, in charge of the State 
treasury. President of the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad in its in- 
fancy, a trustee of the State University for a third of a century, 
serving for much of his term as a member of the Executive Com- 
mittee, which is the real governing power of the institution. He 
was descended from sturdy Scotch-Irish settlers, who came from 
Pennsylvania through Virginia, and who gave to the South such 
warriors and statesmen as Stonewall Jackson, John C. Calhoun, 
President Jackson, William A. Graham, William R. Davie and 
others like them. 

The mother of Rufus Patterson possessed the virtues and 
graces of forebears distinguished in our annals. Her father was 
Edmond Jones, a leading spirit in Wilkes County, then of great 
extent, for years a member as senator or representative in the 
State Legislature. After his death, his son, Edmund W., took 
his place in the public regard and was similarly trusted and hon- 
ored, one of the most knightly men of his day. Mrs. Patterson's 



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t^j'^^y^ir^^il i H- ^I'.i'j'H^t of tlvis sketch \v;is of a linen., • • • - 
nicit not only ior scrvi^xs I" tlWr State, Uifl'fnf 
tluir talents and virtnei. lli.s father, CcoersJ 
Dannie! Finlev Patterson, ha<l a pfmitiATt 
jT - ^' r*' CL | ^ >^ "^J/ n'in<ii:i.^^ (l'i,nit>. self-[)oi>e ;tit*] fou^d 
ij^J>'c><S^4[ X(» man cxeelled Irni in t^ooj iftrlu&iceft ABSid 
aj! his siirr'^ n iLivjs. \W find him rejiresentin^; hiji county in 
h '.h hrar.il. c- of tl^; (jem.ral A-«;enihly, in charge rvf llie StAle 
tre.i^ r\, I'... >i.lent of the T\ ileii;h and Gavr^n Kailr'^d in Jti in* 
f' ':- \. a r !-;t«e of th'^ State Univcrs-ty fur a tl^-r 1 ui A ceattiry^ 
sii .51 .- ; • n:Uv.di of h\> term as a meniher 'M th- xrruuve Coin- 
Ti.i.i i h is the real ;;o\err 'nL,*- jM-wer « -f tliL m3>littitkm. He 

wa-^ •''•"••' -I'-d from sturdy Scotcli-Irish ^etller^ who cinie fnws 
T' r.i ; >:"ii.« Oiror^.h X'i^-^^^'nia, and '\ho ^a\c t )ie S<}tith ffodb. 
\varr».'r> an 1 sta'e^men as S:<")riv\v.Jl Jack-'m. J.-hn Q OJhottn. 
I'reMdmt J lol ^^u. William A. Giah:.m, Will.:-- It Davie and 
olh.rs like th."m. 

T\ nvtluT r-i K'lfns Patters.'n f^os^tcvf-i tVo vi:*i-e> :.- i 
LTac'-s of f .rehe^'.rs (h^t:T]':::n^lv .1 \i\ • nr anna!.-. I! -r f '/l.-T . 
ii'! i^'iid Jones, a I'M iini^ spirit in Will e> C'- 'r>t>, th« :. (-^ 
r-t.Mt, fr»r \ea*s a t:^cm'» -r as ^e'Ult«^'■ i'»r i : t^-m n' / •' r 
''• *.' I.' I'M.tM'.-e \i\ir his (h ith.. Ir.s s mi. h''h''m'.d \V.. t 
: ' I ' i«'e in tl'< \>r.] lie reL::.rd <tnd v. t- si^'iil irly tni-i*! a'- 1 • - 
' .--.e ■ ' t'a. m. ^t knxl-.i'y n-en of h.is d ly. Mrs. I'.:..- -^ 



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^^^o^« o^i 



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all his siirrr)aii; 



Rl rUS LENOIR PATTl-RSON 

ill-. .snl.i'Tt of tlvis sketch \v;i> i a liAOgr rmi- 
nioMt not only for scrviois Ic lliinr StAtf*^ haf fof 
ihc'w talents and virtn«'>. Mi^ fatJief., C^kCJ^l 
Samuel Finlev Tatlerson, liaO a peCtiltor, com- 
nMiKhnir (liu^nity. self-[)<'ise anc! Kmnd tettte. 
Xu man excelled Iiim in ^(«#«l ifilttjetK€S amid 
:^L^s. We Inul liiin representing hi* countJT in 
b"th hranehes of tin! General A-srniMy, in cliafRC of ibc Stale 
tiea^r V. rre^i-lent of the K ile'i;h and (lasion |{ailrmtl in il» m^ 
f.'i'.y. a tni-t^e of tli^ State l/nivcrsity for a t'linl of a oeilllliy* 
<k\\u>'j \ »! nuioh of l;is term as a m<-!:dHT of the Kxetulite Cofn- 
Ti.iit •. wi.iih is the real i^cAerrin^:^ jM«uer . -f t|iL- irulittrtion. He 
wa> 'le-en-l'-d f r- »ni sturdy Scotch-Iri.^1- >'*riierji, v^hct cain^ from 
T'lii^ y vai'ia Uu-oul;1i \'ir;:;'nia, and 'aIio i;a\c lo the ScK^th nich 
\varr»\>rs and sta!es'nen as Slon-.w.dl Javk^'/u, Juhn C* CillldciD. 
TresidtTU ]\c\ ^m, \\ i'.hain A. (iiaham, \\'illi^*ij! I<. Davie 
othjrs like th'Mn. 

The in^aher oi Rufus ratters«»n [»o>^e>ved t^ c \i'*rc^ 
iTac'-s r)f f .re!>ears di^tin^^^uislu .1 \n our anna!^. F -i f i'h'T 
L'! n -rid J'>nes. a l"a Ww.x spirit in \'v'ill e^ C- ".Mf, , t'^ i c t 
t'xttnt, for \wi:s a n^« mlvr a-^ seu.dor or i i T'. -(••;' it* . »» 
St-te L' -isl itu-e. MUT his «K ith. his s >n. hM- vT'i \V.. t 
Ills I ! lee in ire j/^iMic reLT.'.rd and \\'"= >i^'iikirly t'r.-tel .^" ! 
o:ed. ( :.c <■' tl.c uk -t kn'i;l:t!\ nnn of h.;.. d ly. Mrs P.'.-' 



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RUia\S LENOIR PATTl^RSON 

ill-. snl)joct of this skcicli w .ai A lineage etni- 
UK'ui not only ft)r services t- Uirir Stale, bdffcr 
tb.tir talents an<l virMio. \h% father, Cctienl 
Sanuu'l rinlcy Patterson, K;iJ a pecuUar. 
nMn(li:i,;j: (l!i;7iit\. self-[M»isf sinrl icmrtJ 
Xi' man exoeilcd \vm in j^tio4 influaicf^ amid 
all his siirrnjniliPL'^. W^^ lind liini reproscfinng hi* COitllfY in 
l>i»ih hranciic*; of thi: (loniral Ays^.uihly, in d\,irg^ of ihc Stmtc 
tKMs.i!). rrc-i'Icnt of the T\aie'L;h and Ciaston Hajiniad in ill lo* 
f: !/>%. a :r'!^tie of th^ State University fur <t ^liird of m ccnitiry. 
^<\.\].'j !• 1 nuich of his term as a mernlHT .tf the Kicetnittve Com* 
n.irt .■. ui.iih is the real ;:o\<Tr in^^ jM-uer . -f tIu' institUtJCm, He 
v\a> 'lew-n.l''(l fr»:n sturdy S.^otcli-Iri^l S'tiicr**, who Cime Irom 
T' nn y va?'i-« ^h.roiv^h \'ir;:,^"nia, and 'sho [;a\*J !u ihc Sotlth Mch 
\varr'\-rs an 1 sta'esuien as Stonewall JaeV>M>i, JijHo C* CltboOfl« 
I're.^idKnt J irl -on, William A. Giaham, W' 'L|»tn H. Davic MSA 
oiluTS like th'Ti. 

T\ m. ther oi Knfiis Patters. >n [>o>..(.'Cs. 1 |he virtno so4 



*s of f 'rehears d:*>t:n'::^'^iNh' »i ni « i:r anna' 



Ihr fi''.T 



Ld*n<'nd J'-nes. a Km Hr/.:^ hj>int in Will es C' ii'tt;. , t!^* i « ♦ 
extent, for \ea:s a t ^en^h.T a^ sen.itor i»r r T^'t^tn-.t • 
Sf^.t'. P« prsi iti'.-e. Aftir h.is dt it'\ his s ni. h'.!".''.'id W'.. 
h.is \\wc in ir.e {;::hhc regard and \s.*> >i':iil.iriy fi.-l • I .'-. 1 
o' {.•.!. c'liC . * t'a. m« >t kn-'i-l Ov n'ui of his di»'. Mr.s. P.\. 



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4L,O^X 



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THE NEW YORf 
^^BLIC LIBRARY 

^"■•' " LENOX AND 



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RUFUS LENOIR PATTERSON 33S 

mother was a daughter of General William Lenoir, one of the 
great men of our State, eminent in war and in peace, in public 
service and in neighborhood circles. He was in the arduous ex- 
pedition of Rutherford, which crushed the hostile power of the 
Cherokees. He was wounded in the daring assault up Kink's 
Mountain when Ferguson's force was captured. After the war 
for many years he was major-general of the militia, when efficient 
organization and discipline were maintained ; an active member of 
the Constitutional Conventions of 1788 and 1789, opposing the 
Federal Constitution unless with amendments clearly safe-guard- 
ing the rights of the States; long a trusted commoner and sen- 
ator in our State legislatures ; elevated to the office of president of 
the Senate, then second only in honor to that of governor ; one of 
the exalted men named as charter members of the University. 
He had the distinction of being the first president -of the Board 
of Trustees, and went to his grave in 1838 the. l^ist survivor of 
his colleagues. The appreciation of his merits by Ihe public is 
shown by his name being given to an eastern county and a western 
town. His family was Huguenot, settling first in Edgecombe and 
thence moving to the fair valley of the upper Yadkin, 

There is a theory that poor lands pull dowji the character of 
its cultivators, and that rich lands produce not only abundant 
crops of well-filled grain, but strong, handsome and intelligent 
men and women. Not stopping to deny or acquiesce in this, I state 
as a fact that the lovely and fertile country through which flows 
the upper Yadkin and its tributaries has been for years the home 
of a prosperous, high-toned and harmonious people. In that part 
of it designated by admiring visitors as the Happy Valley, on a 
farm called Palmyra, the valley containing the ancient homes of 
his Lenoir and Jones ancestors, in a refined and cultivated neigh- 
borhood, to be nurtured by parents who had good principles in 
their hearts and a sufficiency of worldly goods to give their son 
the best advantages, on the 22d of June, 1830, was bom Rufus 
Lenoir Patterson. His life began with the modern railroad sys- 
tem in America. 

The boy was not destined to grow up amid his beautiful, rustic 



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336 NORTH CAROLINA 

surroundings. When he was five years old his father, elected 
State treasurer, made Raleigh his home, as required by law, 
spending much of his summers, however, in the Happy Valley. 
After leaving this office he was for several years president of the 
Raleigh and Gaston Railroad Company, and continued his dual 
residence. But while the boy thus gained in knowledge of the 
world, he lost in advancement in scholarship, missing the last days 
of the spring terms and the early days of the fall terms of his 
Raleigh schools. By his attention to duties, nevertheless, he was 
a favorite with his teachers, John Y. Hicks and Silas Bigelow, of 
the Raleigh Academy. 

About 1845 his father gave up his Raleigh residence and lived 
permanently on his farm on the Yadkin. Rufus entered the 
school of Rev. T. S. W. Mott, a scholarly Episcopal minister, who 
taught near the county seat of Caldwell, by whom he was pre- 
pared for the State University. 

He entered the State University in 1847, ^ y^r notable in its 
annals for the visit of President Polk, a graduate of 1818. His 
inclination led him to seek superiority in the hall of his societ>% 
the Dialectic, and among the students at large, rather than in the 
study of text books. The most treasured prize in his day was 
the marshalship. This officer was elected by universal suffrage 
out of the junior class. In order to aid him in the discharge of 
his duties he was privileged to select six sub-marshals, or "subs," 
equally divided between the two societies. Arrayed in costly 
regalia of blue ribbon and white, bespangled with gold and silver, 
meeting on spirited horses, the band when it reached the east- 
em boundary of the village escorted it in grand procession 
through the streets, while the brazen-throated instruments dis- 
coursed martial music; on another day heading a column com- 
posed of the governor and other distinguished visitors, faculty 
and students, as they marched through the campus, he was a 
great man of a great occasion, the general-in-chief of the com- 
mencement. The duties required knowledge of men, graceful man- 
ners, a commanding person, sound judgment, presence of mind. 
It is an evidence of the inborn capacity of our people for self- 



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RUFUS LENOIR PATTERSON 337 

government that our students, the members of the lower classes 
being in the majority, never failed to select a well-fitted man. 

In 1850 Rufus Patterson was elected to this highest office in 
the microcosm of the University with no serious opposition. Well 
did he redeem the confidence of the students, who so enthusiasti- 
cally nominated him, and of the faculty and trustees who approved 
the nomination. He performed his functions with signal ability. 

While at the University he was surprised by a family incident 
of surprising interest. For twenty years he had been an only 
child, whom his father and mother, howbeit wiser than is usual 
with parents in like condition, could not help petting, though not 
spoiling. So it happened that another son was bom to gladden 
their hearts and to divide their interest. The friends of Rufus 
looked curiously for any evidence of disappointment. So far from 
it he rejoiced heartily at the arrival of the little stranger, and was 
especially loving to his new brother. The boy grew up to possess 
the virtues of his race, and is now the trusted and sagacious com- 
missioner of agriculture, Samuel Legerwood Patterson. 

In 1851 Rufus Patterson took his degree of Bachelor of Arts. 
The demands on his time consequent on his popularity did not 
allow him to obtain a class honor in his studies, and under the 
rule of the Faculty he was not a speaker on the stage, but there 
was no senior who surpassed him in the regard of Faculty and 
students as a high-toned, large-hearted and intelligent young man. 

As a finishing to his education, he studied law under the very 
able John A. Gilmer, the elder. He did not, however, attend the 
courts, as his father possessed a handsome fortune and his tastes 
inclined him to a business life. 

In the intervals of his professional studies he experienced the 
usual fate of well-bred Americans — he fell in love. The lady was 
handsome and attractive, Marie L., daughter of ex-Governor John 
M. Morehead, and it was soon evident that they were congenial 
spirits. They were married in 1852, and for a few months lived 
at Palmyra, the family homestead, but not being enamored of 
farming, Patterson removed to Greensboro and took a practical 
course in banking under his wife's tmcle, Jesse H. Lindsay. It 



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338 NORTH CAROLINA 

was not long, however, before a combined cotton, flour and paper 
mill in Salem came on the market, and aided by his father-in-law, 
he became the owner and manager of the three manufacturing 
enterprises and removed his residence to Salem. 

Here he lived a busy but most happy life, four children glad- 
dening his home, a fifth dying in childhood. Of those who sur- 
vived, Jesse Lindsay is a prominent lawyer of Winston, Carrie F. 
is the wife of ex- Judge A. L. Coble, Lettie W. became the wife 
of Colonel Frank H. Fries and died early, Louis Morehead did 
not long outlive an honored course at the State University. His 
excellent wife was removed to the realms above in May, 1862, in 
the midst of the harassing anxieties and excitement of the Civil 
War. 

It was his rule rather to avoid than to seek public office. An 
important and influential position, however, he consented to hold 
for five years, the position which was held at times in their re- 
spective counties by ex-Chief Justice Ruflin, ex-Senator George 
E. Badger, Thomas P. Devereux, William Plummer, Richard H. 
Smith and other strong retired lawyers, that of chairman of the 
Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, or County Courts of For- 
syth County. This court had very extensive powers. It had juris- 
diction, with a few exceptions, of all civil cases, and of all crim- 
inal offenses where the punishment did not extend to loss of limb 
or member. While all the justices of the peace had right to sit, 
they had the power, and always exercised it, to appoint three of 
their number, designated as the Special Court, the chairman of 
which, if possessed of force of character and knowledge of the law, 
had in many respects the functions of a judge. Indeed in some of 
the States he is dignified with the title of county judge. 

For five years, 1855-60, "Esquire" Patterson held this respon- 
sible post, and his county had the blessing of intelligent, firm and 
impartial administration of justice. Moreover, it had perfect in- 
tegrity, economy and wisdom in the management of its affairs 
and in the collection and expenditure of its funds. 

The resignation of the chairman was accepted with reluctance, 
but his fellow-citizens of Salem bestowed upon him the oflfice of 



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RUFUS LENOIR PATTERSON 339 

mayor, not, however, onerous in a town distinguished for its 
orderly conduct. His administration, which continued several 
years, met with the universal approval pi his townsmen. 

On the great questions the discussion of which preceded the dis- 
astrous Civil War, his position was that held by a majority, if not 
two-thirds, of the people of North Carolina. His blood boiled at 
the unconstitutional acts of many of those of high authority at the 
North, and the evident intention of the majority to deprive the 
Southern States of certain of their rights under the Constitution, 
but in his judgment the disproportion in resources was too greatly 
in favor of the United States Government to give the seceding 
States a fair chance of success in a war. When the war came, 
with a heavy heart and fear of impending ruin, rather than have 
civil war at home, he gave in his adhesion to the Southern Con- 
federacy. 

Together with Mr. T. J. Wilson, afterward judge, he was 
elected to the convention of February, 1861, which was voted 
down at the polls, and again to the Secession Convention which 
met May 20, 1861. They both signed the ordinance of Seces- 
sion, as did every other delegate. 

Although the convention passed the ordinance of Secession 
unanimously, a division among its members sprang up at once. 
Most of those knoWn as "Old Union" men thought that Governor 
Ellis in filling up the ranks of the ten regiments of State troops 
discriminated in favor of "Original Secessionists," i.e., those who 
advocated secession as the right and duty of the South. They 
felt that, in view of the authorities at Raleigh and Montgomery, 
they and their friends were regarded with coldness if not with 
suspicion. They determined to organize into a party. Colonel 
Patterson did not think this movement wise, and refused to join. 
He thought it best to have a united front and for awhile at least 
to support the constituted authorities without criticism. A sufficient 
number of "Old Union" men agreed with him to give their oppo- 
nents for some weeks the control of the convention. Ultimately, 
however, the control shifted to the other side. 

While the convention was in this ferment the election for dele- 



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340 NORTH CAROLINA 

gates to the Provisional Congress came on. The "Old Union" 
men held a caucus under the Presidency of William A. Graham 
and nominated Bedford Brown and H. W. Miller for the State 
at large, and W. N. H. Smith, Green, Leak, Arrington, More- 
head, Puryear, Myers and Davidson for the districts. The orig- 
inal secessionists nominated Avery and George Davis for the 
State at large, and R. H. Smith, Ruffin of Wayne, McDowell, 
Venable, Cunningham, Patterson, Craige and Woodfin for the 
districts. The result was six to four, as the following were chosen : 
Avery, Davis, W. N. H. Smith, Ruffin of Wayne, McDowell, Ven- 
able, Morehead, Puryear, Craige, Davidson. Under these circum- 
stances it was no reflection on the popularity of Patterson to be 
beaten by Puryear, so much older and more widely known, en- 
dorsed by a caucus of members pledged to his support. 

After the death of his wife Colonel Patterson resolved on a 
change of scene. He sold his Salem property and returned to his 
native county, Caldwell. He became the manager of the cotton 
factory at Patterson on the Yadkin. In this business he con- 
tinued until the spring of 1865, when the soldiers engaged in 
Stoneman's raid burned it to the ground. 

The Confederate Congress determined that the managers of 
factories engaged in manufacturing the material of clothing for 
the army and people were of more benefit to the Southern cause 
than soldiers in the field, and therefore exempted them from army 
service. Colonel Patterson's military title was only honorary, 
given by his associates because of his martial bearing. He was 
never an enlisted soldier, but on one occasion participated in a 
movement which had a tragic ending. A company of bush- 
whackers threatened a raid on Morganton. A hastily raised vol- 
unteer company, under the distinguished Colonel Waightstill W. 
Avery, a brother-in-law of Colonel Patterson, late a Confederate 
State senator, overawed the enemy and they rapidly retreated. 
In the pursuit Avery, who led the van, was mortally wounded 
by a Parthian shot, and Patterson, who was near to the stricken 
man, bore him home to his afflicted family. 

In 1864 he married another handsome and attractive lady, Mary 



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RUFUS LENOIR PATTERSON 34i 

E. Fries, daughter of Francis Fries of Salem, a prominent manu- 
facturer and merchant. They had six children, all living and 
prospering. Frank F., the oldest, is on the staff of the Baltimore 
Sun; Samuel F. is a cotton manufacturer of Baltimore; Andrew 
H. is Professor of Physics in the University of Georgia ; Rufus L. 
is third vice-president of the American Tobacco Company; John 
L. is a cotton manufacturer at Roanoke Rapids, and Edmond V. 
is in the cotton commission business in New York City. 

After the burning of his factory on the Yadkin, Patterson con- 
cluded to change his residence back to Salem. He engaged in 
• merchandising with Mr. H. W. Fries and continued in this busi- 
ness until his death, in 1879. 

As the Southern cause became clearly hopeless he sympathized 
with those who believed that utterly needless destruction of life 
and property should be averted by securing terms of peace before 
the military power of the Confederacy should be destroyed. In 
their opinion it was more dignified and more sensible, as the mili- 
tary and civil authorities knew they were beaten in January, not to 
wait until they were routed and under the victor's heel in April. 
And when finally at the mercy of the United States, he was 
among those who thought that opposition to the measures of re- 
construction of the Union were useless and undignified, per- 
haps mischievous. With these views he acted with the Republi- 
can Party, but not only was never accused, but not even suspected, 
of participating in the corrupt legislation of 1868-69. On the 
contrary he openly denounced it, and when solicited by his friends 
to allow his name to go before the Republican Convention of 1872 
for the nomination to the governorship, he peremptorily declined. 
He was a delegate to the Convention of 1865, called by order 
of President Johnson to inaugurate the resumption by the State 
of its relations with the United States, elected from his native 
county of Caldwell, where he was then living. He supported in 
this body of able men the measures, some of them unpalatable, 
deemed necessary for effecting the objects for which they were 
called. In addition to this they adopted a new constitution, em- 
bodying excellent provisions, but the people voted it down mainly 



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342 NORTH CAROLINA 

because the body which proposed it was called by the President 
of the United States. 

He was always a warm personal friend of Governor Vance, 
and voted for him in 1876. 

He was a strong advocate of internal improvements, especially 
of the Western North Carolina Railroad from Salisbury to Paint 
Rock and Murphy, and of the Northwestern North Carolina Road 
from Greensboro to Winston. He was a director in both and the 
treasurer of the latter, and was also a director of the North Caro- 
lina Railroad Company. He denounced the lavish issue of special 
tax bonds, and those authorized for the Northwestern North* 
Carolina Railroad were, with his approval, refused acceptance by 
President Belo and his directors. They saw that the reckless ac- 
cumulation of debt was in excess of the public resources, and dis- 
honest repudiation was inevitable. 

Colonel Patterson was a warm friend of education generally, 
but especially of his alma mater, the University of North Caro- 
lina. He was made a trustee in 1874, and was active in participa- 
tion in the measures necessary for reopening its doors. He con- 
tributed handsomely to the funds needed for repairing the build- 
ings and used his powerful influence in procuring tHe passage 
through the General Assembly of the bill for paying interest on 
the Land Grant Fund, which enabled the trustees to promise 
salaries to the professors. When the vote was about to be taken 
in the House of Representatives, which it passed by only one vote, 
the member from Forsyth, Dr. Wheeler, stated publicly that he 
favored the measure because of a request he had just received 
from his friend Colonel Patterson, in whose judgment he had en- 
tire confidence. Again, when some trustees proposed to elect a 
president because of the glamour of his services in the war of 
Secession, he urged upon his desk-mate at school, and warm 
friend ever since, Kemp P. Battle, to allow his name to go before 
the board. He said : "If a president is elected on the war idea we 
Republicans cannot support him. We have confidence in you as 
a fair man, although you do not belong to our party. If you will 
take the office we will stand by you." The prediction proved true. 



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RUFUS LENOIR PATTERSON 343 

Not only did his party make no opposition to the revival of the 
institution, but as a rule its members gave it their active sup- 
port. 

Colonel Patterson's parents were members of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, but after long residence at Salem and associa- 
tion with the Moravians, he joined their church. At the funeral 
the preacher, Rev. L. B. Wurreschke, spoke particularly of the 
bereavement which had fallen upon the young men of the town — 
members of literary societies and debating clubs, who had lost 
their guide, philosopher and friend. He spoke of the deceased 
as a "Saul amongst men physically as well as intellectually." He 
was, in truth, in public and private life generous, sympathetic, 
kindly, charitable, courteous, a gentleman of the old school, just, 
honorable and truthful. If he had felt called to the stormy life 
of the politician his gifts would probably have raised him to high 
places. Though sometimes induced to serve in public stations of 
honor and trust, he preferred the quiet but equally useful pur- 
suits of the manufacturer and merchant. His happiness was 
chiefly in his home, aiding in training up his children to be orna- 
ments and blessings to the society in which they move. 

Kemp P. Battle. 




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SAMUEL LEGERWOOD PATTERSON 

[S much as the State is indebted for her prosperity 
in these later years to the enterprise of her 
manufacturers and of those engaged in de- 
veloping her industrial resources, she is equally 
indebted to the efforts of her intelligent ag^- 
culturists for the great advance she has made 
in material progress during this period. 

In this work the Board of Agriculture has played the chief 
part, and the name of S. L. Patterson is more prominent than that 
of any other citizen, and his labors have been more efficacious in 
this connection than those of any of his patriotic coadjutors. 

Mr. Patterson is sprung from a distinguished ancestry. On 
his mother's side he is a grandson of General William Lenoir, 
one of the most illustrious characters in the annals of the State, 
and one whose virtues are embalmed in the hearts of posterity. 

His father, Samuel Finley Patterson, was famous as a financier 
and business man of unusual capacity. He was treasurer of the 
State, and was for five years president of the Raleigh and Gaston 
Railroad, being particularly distinguished for his spirit of prog- 
ress and as a warm and intelligent promoter of internal improve- 
ments and of public education at the inception of the State's policy 
in those matters. 

The subject of this sketch, born the 6th of March, 1850, was 
the younger son of the marriage of S. F. Patterson with Phoebe 



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SAMUEL LEGERWOOD PATTERSON 345 

Caroline Jones, a daughter of General Edmund Jones and his wife, 
Miss Lenoir. 

Eleven years of age at the time of the breaking out of the Civil 
War, he still had the benefit of a substantial preliminary educa- 
tion at Faucette's School, Bingham's, and Wilson's Academy. At 
the age of seventeen, in 1867, he entered the University of North 
Carolina and remained there until that institution was closed in 
1868, incident to a change of administration, and then took one 
year at the University of Virginia. Returning from school, he 
found employment as clerk and bookkeeper in Salem, North Caro- 
lina, where his elder brother, Rufus L. Patterson, had connec- 
tions, he having married after the death of his first wife, Miss 
Morehead, Miss Mary E. Fries of Salem, North Carolina. His 
residence in that community brought him in close contact with 
business men of fine character and capacity, and tended to 
strengthen him in those convictions of duty which he had inherited 
and which had been instilled by his association with the members 
of his father's household. 

On the 17th of April, 1873, Mr. Patterson was happily united 
in marriage to Miss Mary S. Senseman of Salem, a daughter 
of the Rt. Rev. E. T. Senseman, a Moravian minister of Indiana, 
and being drawn by his inclination for agricultural pursuits and 
by his fondness for home life on a farm, he adopted agriculture 
as his vocation in life. He brought to that business a fine intelli- 
gence, cultivated in the school of experience no less than in the 
institutions of learning where he had been trained. His character- 
istics well fitted him for ample success; careful and prudent, 
thoughtful and energetic in his work, conservative in his purposes 
and moderate in all the lines of his thought. 

Descended from those who had so long been fine farmers, he 
naturally occupied a vantage ground for the study of all questions 
that looked to the betterment of the agricultural classes of the 
State, and he soon became known as one of the most thoughtful 
and intelligent farmers of his region. 

In early life Mr. Patterson was led to espouse the Republican 
Party, but was so highly esteemed that he was appointed a justice 



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346 NORTH CAROLINA 

of the peace by a Democratic legislature, and later was elected 
county commissioner in a Democratic county. Subsequently, in 
1880, he was appointed, through Democratic influences, a super- 
visor of the census. He supported Cleveland for the Presidency, 
being led to embrace the Democratic policy in regard to the tariff 
from a conviction that that was the better policy for the agri- 
cultural people of the South, and that the interest of the whole 
country would be best subserved by a change in the Federal ad- 
ministration. In 1 89 1, when there was great unrest among the 
farming people of the State, and the Farmers' Alliance, by its 
close and powerful organization, dominated the Democratic Party, 
Mr. Patterson was brought forward by his friends as the Demo- 
cratic nominee for the House of Representatives from Caldwell 
County, and was elected to that body. He displayed marked 
ability as a legislator, and exercised a fine influence among his 
fellow-members. That General Assembly had to choose a senator. 
Senator Vance's term being about to expire. The Democratic 
people of the State desired that Vance should be elected to succeed 
himself, but at that time the Farmers' Alliance had a large ma- 
jority in the legislature, and, under the influence of its leaders, 
had prescribed a test for office requiring a pledge to support what 
was called the Sub-Treasury Bill, a scheme of finance that lawyers 
and conservative Democrats thought unconstitutional as well as 
very unwise. The Assembly proposed to exact from Senator 
Vance a pledge to support this measure, and if he declined he was 
to be defeated. It was a great crisis. Senator Vance felt that all 
the honors he had enjoyed in public life had been due to the sup- 
port of the agricultural community, and he would have given his 
life to serve the farmers of the State. But he felt that this exac- 
tion, if he submitted to it, would mean dishonor, and while he 
was careful not to disclose his purpose, yet he realized that circum- 
stances might force him to decline an election at the hands of the 
very element of the population who had until then been his most 
unwavering and devoted friends and supporters. He was greatly 
moved by the embarrassments of the situation, and was a prey to 
conflicting emotions. At the critical moment, Mr. Patterson cut 



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SAMUEL LEGERWOOD PATTERSON 347 

the Gordian knot and relieved the situation of all embarrassment 
by proposing a modification of the resolutions of instructions, 
which rendered them acceptable both to the Alliance and to Senator 
Vance, who was committed to observe the doctrine of instructions 
which had prevailed in North Carolina during the States Rights 
period before the war. The original resolution which had been 
adopted by the Alliance required the senators to vote for and use 
all honorable means to secure the financial reform demanded in 
the platform adopted by the Ocala meeting; as amended by Mr. 
Patterson, the senators were instructed to vote for and use all 
honorable means to secure the object of the financial reform as 
contemplated in that platform. 

Mr. Patterson, in a letter which is printed in Dowd's "Life 
of Vance," says: "In the afternoon a rumor reached me that 
Governor Vance was bitterly disappointed at the action of the 
House and would decline the election. I had felt that the amend- 
ment gave such elasticity to the resolution as to relieve its ob- 
jectionable feature, and hence was so chagrined at the supposed 
failure that I absented myself during the afternoon, and it was 
only on Charlie Vance's invitation at night that I went to the room. 
The first sight of the face so beloved by North Carolinians was 
sufficient to convince me of the error. Lit up with an expression 
very different from the evident depression of the morning, in his 
inimitable manner he rose and came forward, greeting me with the 
remark, 'I want to give my hand to the man who offered that 
amendment ; that was the best day's work you ever did ; at least, 
the best for me.' His whole appearance had changed, and his 
usual buoyant spirits had returned. Continuing to discuss the 
amendment, and turning to the lamented Buck Jones, who was 
present, he remarked in that familiar, drawling tone of voice: 
'You know what a long-headed old coon Jarvis is? When I 
showed him the resolution as passed, he said, "Is that all?" I 
replied, "This is the copy sent me by Bob Furman." "Why," he 
says, "that's just what you have been working for all the time." 
"Yes," said I; "there's nothing in this resolution that I cannot 
cheerfully endorse." ' " 



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348 NORTH CAROLINA 

And Senator Vance continued to serve the people in that high 
position at Washington City which he had for so many years 
adorned. 

At the next session Mr. Patterson represented his constituents 
in the State Senate. His record in that body was one that received 
unstinted encomiums. His worth as a public man became fully 
realized^ and his excellence of character and fine business capa- 
bilities were appreciated by all who came within the sphere of his 
influence. He had been appointed a member of the Board of 
Agriculture while a member of the House ; on being elected to the 
Senate he resigned, but after the Senate adjourned he was chosen 
by the Board of Agriculture to the important position of com- 
missioner of agriculture, and held that place until 1897, when, 
because of the fusion between the Republicans and Populists, the 
Democratic Party fell into the minority, and the incumbents of 
all the higher State offices were changed. In 1898 he was again 
elected a member of the House, and by that body he was re-elected 
commissioner of agriculture. At that legislature the law was 
altered so as to require that the commissioner of agriculture 
should be elected by the people in general election with other State 
officers for a term of four years; and at the general election in 
1900 he was nominated by the Democratic Party, and was elected 
along with Governor Aycock, and on the expiration of that term 
in 1904 he was again nominated and chosen for a second term 
along with Governor Glenn. Thus Mr. Patterson has been four 
times elected commissioner of agriculture. That fact tells its 
own story. It carries with it evidence of remarkable efficiency and 
great administrative capacity. It is to be said of Mr. Patterson 
that no gentleman of the State is freer from demagogical arts 
and political wire-working than he is. Quietly he has pursued 
his proper line of work, and his popularity is to be ascribed only 
to his personal qualities of head and heart and to the thorough 
efficiency which has characterized the management of his g^eat 
department while under his supervision. 

Indeed, his work to improve conditions in North Carolina has 
been so successful and so important that it constitutes a just basis 



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SAMUEL LEGERWOOD PATTERSON 349 

for enduring fame. While others have led in the struggle for 
political victories, Mr. Patterson has exerted himself to ameliorate 
the circumstances of the people. 

When in the Assembly of 1899 a Pure Food Law was proposed, 
being an innovation, it was in imminent danger of defeat when 
Mr. Patterson redoubled his efforts, and by his urgent personal 
appeals secured its passage ; and that law has been the basis of all 
the subsequent enactments of a similar character in this State. 
He was largely responsible for the passage of the law relative to 
foodstuffs, and this subject has received a great deal of his atten- 
tion ; before that law was passed there was no protection to con- 
sumers in the purchase of foodstuffs, and the analysis of many 
of them showed that they were virtually wprthless, being a mere 
fraud on the public. 

As commissioner Mr. Patterson has been active in the pro- 
motion of the live-stock industry, especially cattle, and was instru- 
mental in the employment of a State veterinarian and in the estab- 
lishment of quarantine lines. Acting on the belief that ticks caused 
or carried the cattle fever, as it has since been demonstrated that 
the mosquito carried the yellow fever, Mr. Patterson directed 
attention to the elimination of those cattle pests, and his work has 
met with admirable success. Very beneficial results have been 
achieved in this branch of the department's work. The quaran- 
tine line has been considerably extended to the eastward, so that 
twenty-two counties of the State are now free from the infection, 
with the effect that every county so benefited realizes about a cent 
per pound advance in the value of its beef. 

While from the inception of the department the law has con- 
tained reference to ravages from insects, nothing practical was 
accomplished until, through the influence of the commissioner, a 
competent entomologist was employed, and the work of this 
branch of the department has now become of great benefit. It 
includes work to arrest the destruction of both field and horti- 
cultural crops, fruits as well as vegetables. There had never been 
a spray pump used in North Carolina until the department took 
up that matter and made a strenuous campaign to secure the intro- 



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3SO NORTH CAROLINA 

duction and use of these admirable appliances, and there is now 
abundant evidence of the most beneficial results. 

As an outgrowth of efforts in this direction, the department 
has undertaken for the first time practical horticultural instruc- 
tion, and a competent man has been employed to give instruction 
in the growing of vegetables and of fruits. Incident to this work 
there has been a very large development of the trucking interests, 
which yearly has expanded and become more profitable, largely 
through the efforts of the department to promote its growth. 
Indeed, the expansion of this horticultural business has been in 
these latter years marvellous, and it now constitutes one of the 
most important industries of the State. 

In addition to the \york of the specialists in the department who 
have been introduced through the influence of the commissioner, 
there have also been sent out specialists to teach the people through 
farmers' institutes, which have constantly grown in importance 
and efficiency during the period in which Mr. Patterson has been 
commissioner. 

As further illustrating the purpose of the commissioner and of 
the Board of Agriculture to be of assistance in a practical way, 
the department has established four test farms, one in the county 
of Edgecombe, in Pender, Iredell and Transylvania; and they 
have in view an extension of this beneficent work, which has 
met with great approbation on the part of the farmers. Indeed, 
the value of these test farms is so thoroughly recognized and 
appreciated- that the farmers in the sections where they have been 
established have offered donations to secure them, and very 
material assistance in money and lands is tendered the board when- 
ever it is proposed to establish a new one. 

The Board of Agriculture is ex-oMcio the Board of Trustees 
of the Agricultural and Mechanical College, and since that insti- 
tution has been committed to their charge it has really become 
what its name implies, not merely an institution for instruction 
in mechanics, but one having an admirable course in ag^culture 
and in all its adjuncts and allied subjects. While the work of 
that institution is so important in the field of manufacturing, it is 



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SAMUEL LEGERWOOD PATTERSON 351 

now still more interesting and important to the agricultural people 
of the State. Mr. Patterson, as commissioner of agriculture, is 
chairman of the Board of Agriculture, is chairman of the Board 
of Trustees of the college, chairman of the Executive and Finance 
committees of both institutions; and his personal responsibilities 
under the Act of 1901 have been so vastly increased that in the 
performance of his several duties he exerts a potent influence in 
many channels upon the agricultural interests of the people of the 
State. 

How thoroughly he performed his duties, and how satisfactorily, 
is evidenced by the fact that at each recurring election by the 
people he has received an increased vote, and at the last election 
he received the largest vote given to any person on the State ticket 
The people accord to him the plaudit of "Well done, good and 
faithful servant." 

In the summer of 1905 Mr. Patterson, accompanied by Mrs, 
Patterson, made a short tour in Europe. While circumstances did 
not permit of extended observations of agricultural conditions 
abroad, yet Mr. Patterson made such investigations as were con- 
venient, and entertains the opinion that while there is much thrift 
and attention to details and carefulness to prevent waste, par- 
ticularly in the matter of manures and fertilizers, in the com- 
munities he visited, yet the European agriculturist is behind the 
American in many important particulars. That with us there 
is a far more general use of improved machinery on the farms than 
in Europe ; and he is strengthened in the conviction that American 
ways are superior to those of the older communities abroad. 

5. A. Ashe. 



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LINDSAY PATTERSON 

^HE founder of the Patterson family in North 
Carolina, Samuel F. Patterson, was a native of 
Virginia, but when still a boy he came to North 
Carolina and attained such eminence that in 
1835 he was elected State treasurer, and 1840 
he became president of the Raleigh and Gaston 
Railroad Company ; and he was the first man in the State on whom 
was conferred the office of Grand Master of the Masonic order. 
His descendants have maintained a position of the highest social 
distinction in North Carolina, uniting intelligence and attain- 
ments to fine character and successful careers as business men. A 
son of Samuel Patterson, Rufus Lenoir Patterson, married first 
Louise M. Morehead, a daughter of Governor John M. Morehead ; 
but this lady dying in May, 1862, Mr. Patterson married, in 1864, 
Miss Mary E. Fries, a daughter of Francis Fries of Salem, North 
Carolina. Both unions were blessed with issue. Of the children 
by the daughter of Governor Morehead, two attained maturity — 
Caroline, who became the wife of A. L. Coble of Statesville, North 
Carolina, and the subject of this sketch. 

Lindsay Patterson was born on May 16, 1858, at Bland wood, 
the residence of Governor Morehead in Greensboro. At that time 
his father was engaged in the manufacture of cotton goods at 
Salem, North Carolina, and the early years of the subject of this 
sketch were passed in Salem. On the death of his mother, in 1862, 



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LINDSAY PATTERSON 353 

his father, however, moved to Caldwell County and there likewise 
engaged in cotton manufacturing, his mill being located at Patter- 
son. 

In April, 1865, when the drama of the war was coming to its 
close. General Stoneman, with a heavy force of Federal cavalry, 
burst through the mountains from Elast Tennessee and scoured 
Western Carolina, destroying property and carrying consternation 
among the defenseless people. At Patterson the Federal force 
burned the factory operated by Mr. R. L. Patterson, who, early in 
1867, returned to Salem and conducted his business there until 
his death in 1879. 

The subject of this sketch had the advantage of the excellent 
primary schools at Salem, and in 1872, at the age of fourteen, 
he entered the Finley High School at Lenoir, conducted by 
Captain E. W. Faucette, a gentleman of high reputation as a 
preceptor. After two years under his guidance, the young student 
entered Davidson College, where he passed four years, graduating 
in 1878, second in his class. To attain this distinction he had 
applied himself with assiduity to his studies, and his merit and 
attainments are amply indicated when it is considered that among 
his classmates and competitors were James W. Osborne, Dr. W. W. 
Moore, Charles M. Hepburn, Henry E. Fries and F. M. Williams, 
who at the law, in theology, at scholastic learning, in business and 
in the editorial sanctum have each illustrated the fine training of 
their alma mater and given evidence of particular excellence. 

After graduating at Davidson, Lindsay Patterson, having de- 
cided to seek a professional career, attended the law lectures of 
Judge W.H. Battle at Chapel Hill, and then studied law in Greens- 
boro under Judges Dick and Dillard. Being admirably prepared, 
he passed his examination in 1881, and located at Winston-Salem, 
where he has since resided. So well esteemed was he as a young 
man of fine parts and unusual merit, that hardly had he entered 
upon the practice before the justices of Forsyth County elected 
him solicitor of the County Criminal Court, which at once brought 
him into professional contact with the people of the county. That 
position was indeed the stepping stone to the favor of the best 



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354 NORTH CAROLINA 

inhabitants of both town and country, and for the two years he 
held it he performed its duties so admirably as to gain the entire 
approbation of all classes of citizens. His attainments as a lawyer 
were recognized, and strength of his character, justifying the 
highest confidence in his integrity, was evident. 

Among the pupils of Salem Academy had been Miss Lucy 
Bramlette Patterson, a daughter of Colonel William Houston 
Patterson, a man of brilliant intellect and unusual attainments 
and learning, a resident of Philadelphia, where for half a century 
his father had been one of the foremost citizens, venerated for 
his patriotic services as a soldier in the War of 1812 and as a 
major-general in both the Mexican and the Civil Wars. Reared 
amid wealth, culture and refinement, her natural graces led Mr. 
Patterson captive, and he was fortunately married to her in 1888, 
and their home has ever since been a social center from which has 
radiated a most beneficent influence. But not merely do Mr. and 
Mrs. Patterson enjoy the elegancies of life ; they have the purpose 
to be of service in stimulating literary eflEorts among North Caro- 
linians. Mrs. Patterson, like her cultured father, is singularly 
gifted with fine literary taste, and she conceived the design of 
promoting literature in North Carolina by offering some reward 
for meritorious achievements. Her father had an abiding faith 
that the South would rise from the ashes of destruction and in 
time produce some of the brightest lights in literature and art, 
reflecting glory on the American name ; and sharing in his belief, 
Mrs. Patterson was inspired to offer an incentive to literary 
endeavors. She was led, as a memorial to her father, to offer a 
massive and costly cup to be presented to the North Carolina 
writer who shall have achieved the greatest literary success during 
the year, for a period of ten years, when it is to become the prop- 
erty of the person who shall have won the trophy the greatest 
number of times. This cup is of gold, and of massive construc- 
tion, being 16 inches high and 7 inches in diameter. The coats-of- 
arms of North Carolina, of Pennsylvania and of the Patterson 
family are borne on the bases of its three handles, and it is studded 
with forty-nine gems selected by Mrs. Patterson from a large 



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LINDSAY PATTERSON 355 

number of precious stones found in North Carolina. The Patter- 
son Memorial Cup was awarded the first year to Mr. John Charles 
McNeil, whose beautiful poetry had won the plaudits of North 
Carolinians, and the cup was graciously presented to him by Presi- 
dent Roosevelt on his visit to Raleigh during his tour through the 
South in October, 1905. 

Politically Mr. Patterson is a Democrat of the old school, be- 
lieving in the fundamental, historic principles of that party and 
disdaining the radicalism of those leaders who seek to incorporate 
socialistic ideas. He acts independent of party organization, and 
consequently has not been in line for the receipt of political honors, 
which otherwise would naturally have fallen upon one of his 
talents had he contested for them. His high ideas of political 
integrity are none the less appreciated, and he counts as friends 
the leading men of all parties in the State. Being a faithful slave 
to his profession, it has been only when he considered that duty 
called him that he has ever laid away his pleadings for politics. 
This he did on two occasions, once in the eventful year of 1896, 
when he took part in the Sound Money Democratic Convention 
at Indianapolis, which nominated Palmer and Buckner for Presi- 
dent and Vice-President, and, as elector-at-large for that ticket, 
canvassed North Carolina, making able and exhaustive addresses 
upon the money question; and again in 1902, when, upon the 
insistence of friends, he led a forlorn hope as an independent 
Democratic candidate for Congress against Hon. W. W. Kitchin, 
the sitting member from the Fifth District. 

But while Mr. Patterson has always been a student of politics, 
it is upon his ability as a lawyer and his devotion to the law that 
his reputation will rest. Finding his chief pleasure in the con- 
stant pursuit of his professional duties, he has for over twenty 
years applied himself with that zeal and industry that naturally 
finds its reward in a large and lucrative practice, which he now 
enjoys. Mr. Patterson loves the science of the law, and, unlike 
so many who love it as a science, he loves the active practice, and 
IS never so well pleased as when measuring legal lances with the 
ablest of the profession. There are few who equal him in the 



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356 NORTH CAROLINA 

careful and thorough preparation of cases, and none who surpass 
him as a bold and fearless advocate of his client's cause. These 
qualities were brought to the knowledge of the entire State in 
the famous impeachment trial of Chief Justice Furches and Justice 
Robert M. Douglass of the Supreme Court bench, in 1901, when 
Mr. Patterson appeared as one of counsel for the judges. The 
proceeding partook somewhat of a partizan nature, the two Houses 
of the legislature being Democratic and the judges of the Republi- 
can faith, and the charges made against them being in some degree 
connected with political measures. But so skillful was the defense 
made by Mr. Patterson and his associates, that notwithstanding 
the Senate was hostile politically to the arraigned judges, they 
were acquitted. That result of the trial was regarded as a great 
triumph for the attorneys conducting it on behalf of the judges, 
and it reflected high credit on Mr. Patterson and those engaged 
with him in the defense. Since the . days of this famous trial 
Mr. Patterson has taken rank among the ablest lawyers of the 
State, and being yet in his prime, no doubt the future will be one 
of distinguished successes in his profession and of usefulness to his 
people. r 

George P. Pell. 




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RUFUS LENOIR PATTERSON, Jr. 




JFUS LENOIR PATTERSON, a native of 
North Carolina and now a resident of New 
York City, has achieved a very considerable 
measure of success at an early age. He was 
bom at Salem, North Carolina, on July ii, 
1872, the son of Rufus L. Patterson, who has 
been the subject of a sketch already written for this series, and 
Mary F. Patterson. From both parents he inherited good sense, 
good character, good looks and the ability to make friends easily 
and retain them for all time. His mother was of the Fries family 
of Salem, North Carolina. From that family he inherited a 
taste for and ability in mechanics, machinery and the conversion 
of raw material into manufactured product, which taste and talent 
have constituted the basis of his success. 

Mr. Patterson began his education at the Moravian Boys' 
School in Salem, and graduated from the Winston graded school 
when only fifteen years of age ; he spent a year in field work in 
the location of the Roanoke and Southern Railroad, and went 
from there to the University of North Carolina, where he spent 
one year, devoting himself to the scientific course. His education 
was completed, so far as schools or colleges go, when he was less 
than eighteen years of age, and in 1890 he became the assistant at 
Concord, North Carolina, of William H. Kerr. Mr. Kerr was a 



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359 























• to Miss Margaret 
id of Durham, and 
(ead. This marriage 
.-suhs of Mr. Patter- 
ranee of all the events 
irly happy one. They 
ij! in a genuine Soulh- 

nrham resulted in his 

of the American To- 

1 by lliat company at 

. the packing machine 

inery. He came with 

ready the high regard 

ed in their esteem and 

^i the company and one 

•anu factoring. It is to 

3 in the United States 

ihc world) any other 

Hreclor and one of the 

of the great industrial 

ritance and to no large 

111 efficiency. 

rhargc of the manafac- 

r, his duties always re- 

ntlgmift ^nd the organ- 

ith tht enlarj^^emcnt of 

^*lh and 

*i- de* 

t ex- 

and 

mri- 

•and 

wny, 

tcco 



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358 NORTH CAROLINA 

man of ability, the inventor of machines for the economical manu- 
facture of bags of all sorts, and his death, in 1895, before he had 
reached the maturity of his powers, was a distinct loss to the 
State. Mr. Patterson remained with Mr. Kerr in his work of in- 
vention and development of machinery until 1892, when he went 
to London for the double purpose of exploiting in the European 
markets the bag-making machinery, in whose development he had 
assisted, and of pursuing, in a practical way, studies and prepa- 
ration for the work that he had already selected as his life-work, 
to wit, mechanical engineering. 

In 1894 he had returned from London, had spent some while 
in Baltimore and located in Durham, North Carolina, where he 
became associated with the Golden Belt Manufacturing Company 
of that town, a company formed for the production and operation 
of the Kerr bag machines. There are certainly more bags used in 
packing smoking tobacco than in any other one industry — if not in 
all industries combined. It was therefore altogether natural that 
the machines invented by Mr. Kerr and Mr. Patterson for the 
economical production of bags found their greatest utilization 
in connection with the manufacture of smoking tobacco. 

This removal to Durham, where more smoking tobacco is manu- 
factured than at any other place in the world, was a most fortu- 
nate one for Mr. Patterson from every point of view. 

In the first place, chronologically, he became acquainted with all 
of the processes in the manufacture and preparation for the market 
of smoking tobacco, and in the face of discouragement — prover- 
bially the lot of an inventor — achieved, before he was twenty-five 
years of age, his first single-handed victory over such discourage- 
ments. It was a machine for automatically weighing, packing, 
stamping and labelling smoking tobacco. It did not revolutionize 
the business, but it introduced a new method into the manufacture 
of tobacco which, upon the basis of the present production, means 
an economy of several hundred thousand dollars per year. The 
machine itself is a model of engineering skill and mechanical ac- 
curacy. 

In the first place, in point of importance, Mr. Patterson's resi- 



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RUFUS LENOIR PATTERSON, Jr. 359 

dence in Durham resulted in his marriage to Miss Margaret 
Morehead, a daughter of Eugene Morehead of Durham, and 
granddaughter of Governor John M. Morehead. This marriage 
is not only first in importance among the results of Mr. Patter- 
son's life in Durham, but it is first in importance of all the events 
in his life. The marriage has been a singularly happy one. They 
have two children and their home is delightful in a genuine South- 
ern way. 

Finally, Mr. Patterson's residence in Durham resulted in his 
becoming known to the controlling spirits of the American To- 
bacco Company. In 1898 he was employed by that company at 
its New York office, in charge not only of the packing machine 
he had himself invented, but of all its machinery. He came with 
the American Tobacco Company, having already the high regard 
of its officers, and he has constantly advanced in their esteem and 
respect. In 1900 he became the secretary of the company and one 
of its directors and was in charge of its manufacturing. It is to 
be doubted whether at that time there was in the United States 
(and certainly there was nowhere else in the world) any other 
man under thirty years of age who was a director and one of the 
real and working executive officers of any of the great industrial 
corporations, owing his position to no inheritance and to no large 
investment, but solely to his own ability and efficiency. 

While Mr. Patterson was for a time in charge of the manufac- 
turing of the American Tobacco Company, his duties always re- 
lated peculiarly to the machinery of the company, and the organ- 
ization and equipment of its factories. With the enlargement of 
the business of the company consequent upon its own growth and 
upon its consolidation with other companies, he has left other de- 
partments of manufacturing and devotes his time and energy ex- 
clusively to the matter of machinery and the organization and 
equipment of factories. 

Besides being a director and one of the workers of the Ameri- 
can Tobacco Company, he is the president of and the moving and 
controlling force in the International Cigar Machinery Company, 
a corporation of $10,000,000 capital stock; Standard Tobacco 



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36o NORTH CAROLINA 

Stemmer Company, the American Machine and Foundry Com- 
pany and the Automatic Packing and Labelling Company. 

Mr. Patterson has shown marked ability as an inventor. His 
name is a familiar one in the United States Patent Office, and 
much of the machinery now in use by the American Tobacco Com- 
pany and other tobacco manufacturing establishments is the re- 
sult of his initiative. He has, however, none of the qualities that 
are popularly assumed to characterize an inventor. He is no un- 
practical, unprosperous dreamer of dreams, but an intensely prac- 
tical and prosperous doer of deeds. He has a well-developed 
sense of the relative importance of things. His relations to 
matters of mechanics and machinery have given him an ac- 
quaintance with mechanical engineers all over the country, and 
when there arises a problem whose solution is important from a 
practical standpoint, and whose solution his own practical and 
trained mind tells him is a possible thing, he recognizes and calls 
to his aid the man best fitted to work out the details of the solu- 
tion. His duties have developed a talent for the mechanical part 
of machinery, and they have also developed a great capacity in 
business life. He has no pride of invention, and is quite willing to 
discard a machine of his own contrivance when shown another 
that will do the work better. In the negotiation of contracts, and 
in outlining a business policy, he is microscopic and telescopic — 
no detail is too small to escape his consideration, and he builds 
for the future as well as for the present, 

Junius Parker, 



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WILLIAM POLK 

JO generals of North Carolina troops in the 
army of the Revolution were wounded unto 
death in battle — Francis Nash at Germantown, 
Pennsylvania, on the 4th of October, 1777, and 
William Lee Davidson at Cowan's Ford, North 
Carolina, on the ist of February, 1781. Far 
apart as these battles were, both in time and place, William Polk 
served with marked bravery in each, being major of the Ninth 
North Carolina Continentals under Nash and an officer of State 
volunteers under Davidson. 

Colonel Polk was born near Charlotte, in the county of Mecklen- 
burg, on July 9, 1758. He was a son of the noted Revolutionary 
patriot, Colonel Thomas Polk (Fourth North Carolina Continental 
Regiment) and his wife, Susan Spratt. 

William Polk was reared in the county of his birth. He was 
educated first in preparatory schools and then at Queen's College, 
at Charlotte. He was seventeen years of age when the Revolu- 
tion began, and was a personal witness of the Mecklenburg con- 
vention proceedings in May, 1775. His first military service was 
in April, 1775, when he became second lieutenant in Captain 
Ezekiel Polk's company, attached to the Fourth South Carolina 
State Regiment of mounted infantry, commanded by Colonel 
William Thompson. This body rendezvoused at York, South 
Carolina, and marched to Ninety Six, a meeting place of the 



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362 NORTH CAROLINA 

Tories. From there the detachment first proceeded to Dorchester 
and then to Granby. At the battle of Canebrake, South Carolina, 
December 22, 1775, young Polk received so severe a wound in the 
left shoulder that it necessitated his temporary retirement from 
the service. He never fully recovered from its effects, though he 
re-entered the army in less than a year. During his service as 
lieutenant in South Carolina, William Polk had won for himself so 
high a reputation for courage and good conduct that his native 
State soon called him to a more important command in the regu- 
lars, his election as major of the Ninth Regiment of North Caro- 
lina troops in the Continental Line taking place on the 27th of 
November, 1776. The Provincial Congress of North Carolina 
at Halifax, by which he was elected to this post, had previously 
elected John Williams of Caswell County as colonel and John 
Luttrell as lieutenant-colonel. When Polk joined his regiment 
at Halifax, Colonel Williams and Lieutenant-Colonel Luttrell were 
absent, and the chief command of the Ninth Continentals devolved 
upon its youthful major. Polk, however, fully measured up to the 
responsibilities of his station. At the time he reached the North 
Carolina Brigade it was on the march northward, but at Halifax 
was stopped by a countermanding order directing its course south- 
ward to prevent the British from entering Georgia, by way of 
St. Augustine. By the time Charleston, in South Carolina, was 
reached, another order stopped their march, and they remained 
near that place opposing Sir Henry Clinton's forces until the 
spring of the following year. In March, 1777, the North Caro- 
linians again marched northward, and that summer effected a 
junction with the main body of American troops, or "grand army," 
under Washington in New Jersey. In the early fall, September 11, 
1777, the battle of Brandy wine took place, and Major Polk was in 
that action. He was also present at the battle of Germantown 
on October 4, 1777, being there severely wounded in the face and 
temporarily deprived of the power of speech. There, too, his 
brigade commander. General Nash, was mortally stricken, while 
many more of the best and bravest soldiers sent to the field by 
North Carolina were either killed or wounded. In the greater 



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WILLIAM POLK 363 



part of the fearful winter experiences of Valley Forge, 1777-78, 
Major Polk was also a participant. 

Having been thinned out by the fierce battles and terrible priva- 
tions through which they had passed, the North Carolina regi- 
ments were consolidated and reduced in number at Valley Forge 
in January, 1778, and many Continental officers, including Major 
Polk, were thereby thrown out of the service, or "omitted," as the 
record has it. Polk, however, determined to remain in the service 
of his country, and returned to North Carolina on recruiting duty 
early in 1778. On the 15th of August, 1778, not long after Major 
Polk's return to North Carolina, the State Senate passed the 
following resolution relative to him : 

"Resolved, That Major William Polk be appointed to the first vacancy 
of a major that shall happen in any of the Continental battalions of this 
State, with the same rank he heretofore held when in the service of this 
State." 

In this resolution the House of Commons refused to concur, 
possibly thinking it unwise to interfere with the regular course of 
promotions. 

On August 16, 1780, Major Polk served as an aide-de-camp to 
General Richard Caswell in the disastrous battle of Camden. 
When the troops with whom he was there serving began to give 
ground, Polk made his way to the North Carolina militia brigade 
of General Isaac Gregory and aided that officer and his brave 
men in their unequal fight. When De Kalb was killed and the 
rout had become general, Polk's knowledge of the country enabled 
him to guide a considerable number of troops on their retreat to 
North Carolina. Later he sought employment under Genera! 
William Lee Davidson, and was present on the ist of February 
when that officer was slain while resisting the passage of Com- 
wallis across the Catawba River at Cowan's Ford. Robert Henry, 
who was present, in his narrative says that when Major Polk 
returned from the Ford and reported the death of General David- 
son, some of the American forces had left and the others were in 
gjeat confusion; so Polk prudently marched off the remainder. 



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364 NORTH CAROLINA 

not deeming it wise to renew the attack at that time. Some months 
later, while he was still without a command, Polk fought as a 
volunteer officer at the battle of Guilford Court House on 
March 15, 1781. 

Shortly afterward Major Polk was commissioned lieutenant- 
colonel commandant of the Fourth South Carolina Regiment of 
horse by Governor John Rutledge of that State, and later had 
command of the Third Regiment of South Carolina cavalry. He 
first reported for duty to General Thomas Sumter, later serving 
under General William Henderson. In conjunction with the 
regiment of Colonel Wade Hampton, grandfather of General 
Wade Hampton of the Confederate army, Polk's regiment, the 
Fourth, made a forced march and captured the outlying garrison 
of Tories on the Congaree, killing twenty-seven and burning their 
block-house. Returning to General Sumter, he was next in the 
assault on Orangeburg (May 11,. 1781), which resulted in its 
capture. In the successful attack on Fort Motte, May 12th, his 
regiment probably participated also, and likewise contributed to 
the taking of Fort Granby on the 15th, three days later. 

At the battle of Eutaw Springs, on September 8, 1781, Colonel 
Polk's horse was killed under him, and there his younger brother, 
Lieutenant Thomas Polk, was slain. Samuel Chappelle, a soldier 
who returned to Wake County after the Revolution, witnessed 
the fall of Lieutenant Polk. When Colonel Polk saw his brother's 
corpse, said Chappelle, he first gave way to an outburst of g^ef , 
but almost immediately regained self-control and detailed two 
men to bury the remains, after which he rode off in hot pursuit of 
the enemy. In speaking of the affair of Eutaw, Chappelle said it 
was the most fiercely contested field he had ever witnessed, though 
he had fought at Brandywine, Stony Point and Guilford Court 
House, as well as in other g^eat battles. Polk himself, in speaking 
of one volley directed at the Americans, said he thought at first 
that every man had been killed but himself. The bravery of 
Colonel Polk at Eutaw won special mention from General Greene, 
who wrote : "Lieutenant-Colonels Polk and Middleton were no less 
conspicuous for their good conduct than their intrepidity, and the 



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WILLIAM POLK 365 



troops under their command gave a specimen of what may be 
expected from men naturally brave when improved by proper 
discipline." 

After the battle of Eutaw, Colonel Polk figured conspicuously 
in the partizan warfare of South Carolina, and returned to his 
native State after the cessation of hostilities. In 1783 he aided in 
founding the North Carolina Society of the Cincinnati, and is now 
represented therein by one of his descendants. 

On October 15, 1789, Colonel Polk married his first wife, 
Grizelle Gilchrist, daughter of Thomas Gilchrist and grand- 
daughter of Robert Jones, Jr. (or '*Robin'' Jones), colonial 
attorney-general under Governors Dobbs and Tryon. This first 
wife was bom in Suffolk, Virginia, October 24, 1768, and died 
in 1799, leaving two sons, as follows: Thomas Gilchrist Polk, 
general of militia, bom at Charlotte, February 21, 1791, who 
married Mary Trotter of Salisbury, and left descendants. He 
died in Holly Springs, Mississippi, in 1869. The other son was 
William Julius Polk, M.D., bom at Charlotte, March 21, 1793, 
who married his cousin, Mary Long, daughter of Lunsford Long 
and granddaughter of General Allen Jones. Dr. W. J. Polk has 
many descendants now living. One of his sons was the late 
Brigadier-General Lucius Eugene Polk, C.S.A. 

About the year 1800 Colonel William Polk became a resident of 
the city of Raleigh. In Warren County, on the ist of January, 
1801, he was married to his second wife, Sarah Hawkins, daughter 
of Colonel Philemon Hawkins, Jr., and granddaughter of Colonel 
Philemon Hawkins, Sr., both of the two last named having been 
Revolutionary patriots. Among the children of this latter 
marriage were Lucius Junius Polk, who married Mary Ann 
Easton in the White House during President Jackson's admin- 
istration ; Leonidas Polk, bishop of Louisiana and lieutenant-gen- 
eral in the Confederate army, bom at Raleigh, April 10, 1806, 
killed at the battle of Pine Mountain, June 14, 1864. He married 
Frances Devereux and left descendants : Mary Brown Polk, who 
became the second wife of George E. Badger ; Rufus King Polk, 
who married Sarah Jackson; George Washington Polk, who 



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366 NORTH CAROLINA 

married SalUe HilHard ; Susan Spratt Polk, who married Kenneth 
Rayner; and Andrew Jackson Polk, who married Rebecca 
Van Leer. All of these children left descendants. 

We now recur to our sketch of the life of Colonel William 
Polk of the Revolution. After the war he was often in public life. 
Being elected surveyor-general of that part of North Carolina 
which is now the State of Tennessee, he lived for a while at 
Nashville; and in 1786, prior to the erection of Tennessee into a 
separate State, he represented Davidson County (in which Nash- 
ville is situated) in the General Assembly of North Carolina. 
Colonel Polk also represented his native county of Mecklenburg 
in the North Carolina House of Commons in 1787, 1790 and 1791. 
In 1 79 1 he was a candidate for speaker, but was defeated by 
Stephen Cabarrus. Having been appointed supervisor or col- 
lector of internal revenue for the district of North Carolina 
on March 4, 1791, Colonel Polk held that post for seventeen 
years. 

Colonel Polk was an active promoter of education. While in 
Tennessee he was a trustee of Davidson Academy at Nashville, 
and on his removal from that place his position on the board was 
filled by the election thereto of his friend, Andrew Jackson, after- 
ward President. Colonel Polk was also one of the trustees of 
the academy at Raleigh after his settlement in that city. From 
1792 till his death he was a member of the Board of Trustees of 
the University of North Carolina, and was president of that board 
from 1802 to 1805. There is a tablet to his memory in Memorial 
Hall at the University. From December 4, 1799, till December 12, 
1802, he was Grand Master of the "Grand Lodge of North Caro- 
lina and Tennessee" when these two States formed one Masonic 
jurisdiction. In the hall of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina 
now hangs an oil portrait of him. For a number of years, 181 1 to 
1819, he was president of the State Bank at Raleigh. When the 
second war with Great Britain came on. President Madison offered 
Colonel Polk a commission as brigadier-general in the United 
States army on March 25, 181 2. Being a Federalist, and having* 
opposed the declaration of war, Polk declined. Later, when de- 



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WILLIAM POLK 367 



grading conditions were demanded by Great Britain as a price of 
peace, the colonel wrote a letter to his brother-in-law, Governor 
William Hawkins, tendering his services to the State of North 
Carolina in any station which the governor might designate. A 
copy of this letter will be found in Niles's Weekly Register for 
October 29, 1814, page 125. 

When Canova's statue of Washington (afterward destroyed by 
fire with the old Capitol) reached Raleigh on the 24th of Decem- 
ber, 1 82 1, Colonel Polk delivered an address on the character of 
Washington, which is reprinted in the South Atlantic Quarterly 
(Durham, North Carolina) for July, 1902, pages 281-283. 

Colonel Polk also took a prominent part in the reception of 
General Lalfayette, when the latter came on his visit to North 
Carolina in 1825. An illustrated account of this visit, containing 
a picture of the old Polk residence in Raleigh, is given in the 
American Historical Register (Boston) for May, 1897, page 177. 
Some other illustrations concerning the Polk family will be found 
in Munseys Magazine, Vol. XVI., page 397 et seq. 

The death of Colonel Polk occurred in Raleigh on the 14th of 
January, 1834, and he is buried in the old cemetery which forms 
the eastern terminus of Morgan Street. A heavy granite monu- 
ment marks his resting place. In 1855, niany years after his death, 
the legislature of North Carolina named a county in honor of 
Colonel Polk. There are also towns of Polk, Polkton and Polk- 
ville in North Carolina, while in Tennessee is likewise the town 
of Polk as well as Polk County. Most of the numerous counties, 
towns, townships, etc., of Polk which are scattered throughout 
the United States are named in honor of President James K. Polk, 
the colonel's kinsman. 

The Raleigh Register of January 21, 1834, gives an account 
of the imposing funeral ceremonies over the remains of Colonel 
Polk, and in its obituary column contains a sketch of his life, from 
which we extract the following: "Colonel Polk was at his death 
the sole surviving field officer of the North Carolina Line; and 
it will be no disparagement to the illustrious dead to say that no 
one of his compatriots manifested a deeper or more ardent devo- 



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368 



NORTH CAROLINA 



tion to the cause of his country ; that in her service no oflficcr more 
gallantly exposed his life or more cheerfully endured privatioa 
and suffering, and that no one of his rank in the army contributed 
more by his personal services to bring that glorious contest to a 
successful termination." 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 




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JOHN PORTER 

fR. WEEKS, in his interesting "History of the 
Quakers of Albemarle," mentions John 
Porter, Sr., as living in Norfolk County, Vir- 
ginia, in 1647, and as being expelled from the 
House of Burgesses on September 12, 1663. 
This expulsion was because Porter refused to 
take the oath as tendered, but he was also declared an Anabaptist, 
not holding to infant baptism, and as in sympathy with the 
Quakers. In 1672 he was one of the justices of the Quorum for 
Norfolk County, and served as such, presiding over the court until 
his death in 1675. I" his will he left property "to my brother, 
John Porter, Jr." This John Porter, Jr., was a justice of the 
County Court in March, 1655, at the same time as John Porter, Sr. 
He was high sheriff in 1656. He married a daughter of Colonel 
John Sidney, the most considerable gentleman of that county. He 
died in Prince Anne County, Virginia. 

This John Porter, Jr., had a son, John Porter, who was both 
a planter and a merchant, and who, in 1688, bought 400 acres 
of land near the Currituck line, and from there he removed to 
North Carolina between 1690 and 1693. In 1694 he appears as 
attorney-general of North Carolina; and Dr. Weeks mentions 
him as speaker of the Assembly in 1697, and from that time 
onward he exerted a considerable influence on the affairs of the 
province. 



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370 NORTH CAROLINA 

In 1703 he was one of the Council of which William Glover was 
the president. It was about that time that Lord Granville, the 
most important of the Lords Proprietors, undertook to enforce 
in the two Carolinas the act of the British Parliament requiring all 
officers to take certain oaths of office, which operated to deprive 
the Quakers of their right to hold oflSce. While originally no 
Quakers had settled in Albemarle, yet the freedom of conscience 
allowed by the concessions to the settlers, which formed the basis 
of their constitutional rights, attracted the Friends to that region, 
and the preaching of Fox and Edmundson some ten years after 
the settlement had well introduced their tenets, and that sect had 
grown until it numbered a considerable part of the population, 
especially in Perquimans and Pasquotank precincts. 

The year 1700 was a year of jubilee, and was marked by a great 
religious revival among the English-speaking people, and in Albe- 
marle an act was passed providing for the erection of church 
buildings, the collection of tithes and the payment of public 
moneys to support a ministry, which met with strong opposition 
from the Quakers and others not in conformity with the Elstab- 
Hshed Church ; but that act fell because it was not confirmed by 
the Lords Proprietors. King William died in 1702, and at the 
succeeding meeting of the General Assembly oaths of allegiance 
to Queen Anne were tendered, and all officers who would not take 
them were displaced. A majority of the Assembly were Quakers, 
and by this means their places were declared vacant, and Governor 
Daniel obtained full control in the colony. He caused a law to 
be enacted establishing the Church of England and another pre- 
scribing an oath to be taken by way of qualifying members of the 
General Assembly. This subversion of the constitutional rights 
of the Quakers to hold office, which they had enjoyed unquestioned 
for a generation, resulted in a great civil commotion. Similar pro- 
ceedings in South Carolina had led to the sending of John Ashe as 
an agent of the Dissenters to England to seek a redress of g^ev- 
ances ; and John Porter sent his son Edmund along with Ashe to 
represent the affairs of the Albemarle colony, and an order was 
obtained suspending Governor Daniel. Governor Johnson, in 



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JOHN PORTER 371 



South Carolina, now appointed Thomas Cary as deputy governor 
of North Carolina, but Cary followed in the footsteps of Daniel 
and again purged the Assembly of its Quaker members, and caused 
an act to be passed imposing a fine on any person who should enter 
into an office before taking the oath prescribed, and another de- 
claring void the election of any person who should promote his 
own candidacy. John Porter himself now went to England, and 
returned with a commission for settling the government, by which 
the laws imposing the oaths were suspended ; and he also brought 
an order suspending Cary as governor, and vesting the powers of 
governor in the president of the Council ; and he had new deputa- 
tions from the Lords Proprietors appointing other deputies, the 
majority of whom, it is stated, were Quakers. 

His mission was entirely successful. On his return he found 
that Cary had gone to South Carolina and William Glover was 
acting as president of the Council. There were some commotions, 
and in July, 1708, the new Council met and, notwithstanding the 
order removing Cary, as he now sided with Porter, he was elected 
president of the Council, although Glover claimed to exercise the 
functions of governor; and there were two governments, each 
claiming to be regular and lawful, and each proclaiming their 
opponents to be rebels and traitors. Under these circumstances 
an agreement was reached by the Glover faction and the Cary and 
Porter faction to submit the matter to the Assembly, and each 
government issued its separate writ for an election to be held on 
the 3d of October, 1708. The Porter faction carried the day, and 
although Glover and Pollock protested that the members should 
take the oaths, which would purge the body of the Quakers, that 
was not done by the Assembly, which was under Quaker control. 
Glover and Pollock thereupon fled to Virginia, and Cary, Porter 
and Edward Moseley, the speaker of the Assembly, and their 
adherents administered the government for two years, the affairs 
of Albemarle being orderly transacted, the courts held and the 
laws enforced; and during that period there was a considerable 
addition to the population, especially in Bath County. In August, 
1710, Edward Hyde, a cousin to the Queen, reached Virginia, 



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372 NORTH CAROLINA 

expecting to receive there his commission as deputy governor of 
North Carolina, but Governor Tinte, at Charleston, who was to 
send him his commission, died without doing so. Both parties in 
Albemarle, however, invited Colonel Hyde to take the administra- 
tion as president of the Council. An Assembly was called, which, 
under Hyde's influence, would not permit the Quakers to sit in the 
body, and strong ground was taken against the Porter and Cary 
faction, which now withdrew their adherence and declared that 
Hyde, having no commission, was not a legal governor. The new 
Assembly, on the other hand, charged Cary and Porter with being 
gitilty of sedition, and impeached them for high crimes and mis- 
demeanors. They escaped, however, and raised a revolt, and 
having a large force that was armed with munitions brought in 
by Captain Roach, an agent of Danson, one of the Lords Pro- 
prietors, who, like Cary, was closely connected with Governor 
Archdale, proceeded to make war on Hyde and his faction. On 
the morning of June 30, 171 1, the Cary forces approached Colonel 
Pollock's house, and a conflict was imminent. But some uniforms 
were discerned among Hyde's forces that led to the belief that he 
had secured a reinforcement of British soldiers from Virginia, and 
Cary thought it a serious matter to make war on British troops, 
so his forces were at once dispersed. Shortly afterward Cary 
and Porter and several of their most active supporters proceeded 
to Virginia to take shipping for England, but were there seized 
by Governor Spottswood and were sent to England on board a 
man-of-war under charges of rebellion and sedition. They arrived 
in London on September 25th, but there being no evidence pro- 
duced against them, were discharged from arrest. John Porter 
died a few months later at Bridgewater, in England. 

Thus ended, after a period of ten years of constant struggle, the 
effort to perpetuate the constitutional right of the Quakers to hold 
office in North Carolina by subscribing an affirmation in lieu of 
taking oaths of office in common form. During the few days that 
intervened after the dispersal of Gary's forces and Porter's appear- 
ance in Virginia to take shipping for England, it was said by some 
of his opponents that he went among the Tuscaroras near the Vir- 



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JOHN PORTER 373 



ginia line and sought to incite them to hostilities against the Hyde 
faction, and some historians have ascribed the massacre of the 
I ith of September, 171 1, to this action on his part. It is to be said, 
however, that those Tuscaroras, according to the contemporaneous 
accounts, rejected his overtures, and did not participate in the 
massacre and subsequent Indian War ; and G>lonel Pollock, in his 
accoimt of that horrible affair, gives substantial and natural 
reasons for the Indian outbreak, that do not implicate Porter 
in it. Porter had been absent from the colony more than a month 
before the massacre occurred, and it seems to have been caused by 
the encroachment on the Indian territories along the Neuse and 
Pamlico rivers. Porter's youngest son, John Porter, who had 
married Miss Lillington, and his daughter Sarah, who had married 
John Lillington, and Dr. Maule, who had married one of his 
daughters, all lived in the region where the massacre occurred, 
and he could not have contemplated involving his own family in 
such a terrible destruction. In the succeeding generations Porter's 
descendants have been among the foremost men of North Caro- 
lina. He was a successful business man, among the wealthiest of 
his community, a man of force and power, of energy and influ- 
ence. While sympathizing with the Quakers, and, like Edward 
Moseley, espousing their cause against the attempt to deprive 
them of the rights they had enjoyed in the colony for thirty or 
forty years, he was apparently not opposed to the establishment 
of the Church of England, for he took the contract for the erection 
of the first church that was built in the colony. His action in 
behalf of the Quakers seems to have been founded on his deter- 
mination to uphold justice and to maintain the rights of the 
citizens. 

S. A. Ashe. 



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ROBERT PAYNE RICHARDSON. Jr. 

fOBERT PAYNE RICHARDSON, Jr., the 
subject of this sketch, was bom near Reids- 
ville, Rockingham County, North Carolina, 
March 28, 1855, and is descended from a long 
line of ancestors, who were conspicuous for 
their splendid virtues, sterling qualities and sue* 
cessful business enterprises. 

Mr. Richardson is the oldest son of Robert Payne Richard- 
son, Sr., and Mary Elizabeth Watlington, both of whom were 
bom in Caswell County, North Carolina. His father, Robert P. 
Richardson, Sr., was born December 2, 1820, and is still vigorous 
and active in his old age, and displays that same wonderful 
energy, industry and will-power which characterized him as a 
young man of marked ability and great business success and enter- 
prise. His mother, Mary E. Watlington, was born February 4, 
1827, and died M^rch 18, 1903. She was a woman of strong and 
decided Christian traits of character. She was as gentle and as 
modest as a lamb, and yet she was as strong and as firm as a rock 
in her convictions of duty and principles of righteousness. She 
adomed in a high degree all the beautiful graces of Christianity 
and of noble womanhood, and she did it in a manner peculiar to 
herself, which was at once both winning and convincing as to the 
lofty aims and noble purposes for which she lived. She was the 
daughter of James Watlington and Jane Scott of Caswell County, 



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TK2 NEW YORK 
PlibUC LIBRARY 



A^Mf H, LENOX AND 

lli-ULN FOUNDATIONS 



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ROBERT PAYNE RICHARDSON, Jr. 375 

North Carolina, who traced their respective lineage to prominent 
English and Scotch origin. The Richardson family are of English 
descent, and they trace their ancestry in this country back to the 
early settlements on the James River in Virginia. The parents of 
Robert P. Richardson, Sr., and therefore the grandparents of 
Robert P. Richardson, Jr., were James Richardson and Anne 
Payne Ware. This lady, the grandmother of Robert P. Richard- 
son, Jr., was the daughter of William Ware and Susan Payne, 
and the name "Payne" has been perpetuated in this branch of the 
Richardson family from her day until the present time. A sister 
of Susan Payne, whose name was Agnes, married Marmaduke 
Williams of Caswell County, North Carolina, a man of prominence 
and great influence in North Carolina from 1802 to 1810, when 
he removed to Alabama, where he continued his career of useful- 
ness until his death. 

The paternal great-grandparents of Robert P. Richardson, Jr., 
were James Richardson and Francis Harrison, who resided at 
Red Walnut, in Halifax County, Virginia, the latter a daughter 
of William Harrison of Halifax County, Virginia, who is said 
to have been of the same blood of Benjamin Harrison, one of the 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. 

Anne Payne Ware, the grandmother of Robert P. Richard- 
son, Jr., was a second cousin to Dorothy Payne Todd-Madison, 
known to fame as "Dolly Madison," and is said to have been a 
most remarkable woman. She was noted for her great strength 
of character, her untiring energy, indomitable will and persistent 
industry. She died, at an advanced age, on a railroad car while 
going to Mississippi to visit her son. She was twice married: 
first to James Richardson, by whom she had seven children — 
William, James, Edmund, Robert P., Susan, Mary and Elizabeth ; 
and again to Stephen Sergeant, by whom she had two daughters — 
Margaret and Agnes — ^who married, respectively. General James 
K. hoz and Dr. Joseph Stanfield. Her son Edmund Richardson, a 
brother of Robert P. Richardson, Sr., accumulated a large fortune 
in Mississippi and Louisiana, and at one time he was reputed to be 
the very largest cotton planter in the world. Her son Robert P. 



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376 NORTH CAROLINA 

Richardson, Sr., was also twice married: first to Elizabeth N. 
Wright, by whom he had three daughters, two of whom, Sallie 
and Belle, married Colonel A. J. Boyd, and the third, Bettie, 
married Captain A. E. Walters of Virginia; and by the second 
marriage, to Miss Watlington, there were four children — Robert 
Payne, subject of this sketch; Edmund E., Anna J., who married 
E. M. Redd, and Marion Scott, who married W. P. Watt. 

Robert P. Richardson, Jr., like his father and his grandmother, 
has also been twice married : first to Miss Bettie Watt, by whom 
he has one son, Pinkney Watt Richardson; and again, to Miss 
Margaret M. Watt, by whom he has two living children — Robert 
Payne, the third, and Margaret Elizabeth, and one dead, the eldest, 
Sarah Dillard. He was married to his first wife October 30, 1877, 
and she died August 30, 1882. He was married to his second 
wife December 20, 1892, and she still lives to bless his household. 
Both these ladies have been noted for their personal beauty, 
culture and refined womanly qualities. The childhood of Mr. 
Richardson was spent at the quiet old homestead, under the watch- 
ful eyes of devoted parents, and in attending the best schools the 
neighborhood and Reidsville then afforded. In after years he 
attended the high schools at Wentworth, North Carolina, the 
Rock House Academy, and at Melville, North Carolina, under 
the renowned teacher of his day, Dr. Alexander Wilson; and 
in 1872 he was student in the famous Bingham School at Mebane- 
ville. North Carolina. In 1873 Mr. Richardson began his business 
career as a clerk in his father's store and as a partner in the 
business. His father at that time was a manufacturer, a merchant 
and a farmer, and it was characteristic of him to be very strict 
in his requirements of his son, and in a large degree to dominate 
the entire business. He required all who were about him to con- 
form in a large measure to his own personal ideas and rules, and 
this characteristic applied to Sunday as well as Monday, for on 
Sunday he was always found promptly at the Presbyterian 
Church, and he strictly required his family to be there, "rain or 
shine," and tliis rule is still adhered to by him personally in his 
old age. 



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ROBERT PAYNE RICHARDSON, Jr. 377 

But the son inherited the same independent spirit and desire 
to be his own master, and rebelled against the confinement and 
limitations on his business freedom which were necessary in con- 
nection with his father's store, consequently he withdrew from 
this mercantile association, and spent a short time in the South 
in connection with his father's tobacco business. Returning in 
1877, he engaged in the manufacture of smoking tobacco, adopt- 
ing as the nucleus of his business the "Old North State" brand, 
which his father had originated and put upon the market in the 
year 1873, but at this time had decided to abandon. This busi- 
ness has continued, under the style of "R. P. Richardson, Jr., & 
Co.," with, from time to time, slight changes in the personnel 
of the firm, but at all times dominated in its policy and manage- 
ment by Mr. Richardson, with a constant growth in volume, 
until at the present time it has assumed large proportions, and 
has made the "Old North State" brand of smoking tobacco famous 
throughout the South. 

Mr. Richardson began his career as a smoking tobacco manu- 
facturer under conditions difficult to overcome, and such as were 
calculated to discourage a man lacking in patient perseverance and 
persistent determination to win success. While Reidsville's 
tobacco manufacturers had won more or less popularity for the 
town as a source of the various manufactured forms of chewing 
tobacco, he was its pioneer in the line of smoking tobacco. It 
was a very difficult matter to attract the attention of a smoker 
to any brand of smoking tobacco which did not emanate from 
Durham, North Carolina, which then, as now, was perhaps the 
most widely advertised town in existence in relation to any one 
article of commerce. This advertisement had its origin largely at 
the close of the Civil War, when and where two armies were dis- 
banded, and, returning to their homes, they sang the praises of 
the tobacco manufactured at Durham throughout the whole 
country. Afterward the very name "Durham" became practically 
a synonym for smoking tobacco. The consequent prejudice which 
had to be met and overcome is difficult to conceive or believe. 

Mr. Richardson was a young man scarcely past his majority. 



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378 NORTH CAROLINA 

with but little and imperfect business training and less personal 
acquaintance with the commercial world. 

He possessed very limited means of his own, and his father, hav- 
ing suffered heavily in the panic of 1873 and the succeeding years 
of business depression, was so embarrassed financially as precluded 
his rendering him such assistance as he would otherwise have 
willingly given. 

At this time, and for some years later, there was no bank in 
Reidsville, nor in his county, and it was necessary for Mr. Rich- 
ardson to accommodate himself and his business to such banking 
facilities as he could command in towns more or less remote* 
The factory and equipment employed in manufacturing his 
product were necessarily of the rudest and cheapest construction. 
Undaunted by these conditions, Mr. Richardson put his hands 
to the plow, with confidence in the principles declared by him in 
response to the question, "From your own experience and observa- 
tion, will you offer any suggestions to young Americans as to the 
principles, methods and habits which you believe will contribute 
most to the strengthening of sound ideals in our American life, 
and will most help young people to attain true success in life?" 

He answered, "I cannot offer better advice to young men than 
to quote from the Great Counsellor's Sermon on the Mount, 'Seek 
ye first the kingdom of God and His righteousness, and all these 
things shall be added unto you.' I know of no safer rule, either 
from experience or from observation, for the guidance of men to 
really successful achievement than that of strict adherence to those 
fundamental principles of conduct evolved from a proper realiza- 
tion, appreciation and acknowledgment of one's personal obliga- 
tion to God. The blush of diffidence with which this advice is 
submitted arises not from a doubt of the wisdom or efficacy of 
the precept, but from a consciousness of my own grievous short- 
comings in its exemplification." By the daily and persistent 
application of these principles in business method and purpose, he 
slowly but steadily overcame the prejudice which decreed that 
Reidsville could not offer as good smoking tobacco as Durham 
or any other market to such extent that now every tobacco 



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ROBERT PAYNE RICHARDSON, Jr. 379 

manufacturing establishment in Reidsville not only has one or 
more brands of smoking tobacco, but regards it as of so much 
importance as to make this branch a leading specialty in its busi- 
ness, and Reidsville now claims to rank second only to Durham 
in the quantity of its output of high-grade smoking tobacco. He 
has, by his strict business integrity and careful promptness in 
meeting his business' obligations, created, aside from the compe- 
tence he has accumulated, a financial credit ample to meet the 
requirements of any reasonable enterprise he might undertake. 

The factory in which he began his career has long since given 
place to a beautiful structure, massive and symmetrical, equipped 
throughout with the most modem and approved machinery. Mr. 
Richardson is a gentleman endowed with splendid physique and 
mental powers. He is quiet, modest and temperate in his manner 
and habits, and makes no pretensions to public speaking, but he 
understands and knows men. He has justly won the reputation of 
a "man of mark" in North Carolina, not only because he has 
built up a large business from a small beginning, but because of 
the means and principles through which he did it, which means 
and principles must ever be recognized as the true secret of suc- 
cess, and which are well worthy of imitation. 

There are at least two classes of men of mark in North 
Carolina. The one class are those who are known throughout 
the State by their public utterances and by the high positions 
they occupy, and also by their splendid achievements and noble 
examples. The other class are those who are not generally known, 
except in the circumscribed districts in which they live. They arc 
men who shrink from publicity, and are modest and unassuming 
in all their ways, and yet they exercise a wonderful influence by 
their sound judgment, wholesome advice and noble lives in build- 
ing up the State in every department of its welfare and in foster- 
ing and maintaining its noble institutions. This class, perhaps 
more than any other, mold public opinion on all great moral and 
political questions, and sustain by their influence and liberal 
means the g^eat educational and charitable institutions of the 
State. Mr. Richardson belongs to this class of North Carolina's 



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38o NORTH CAROLINA 

noble sons. His strong personality and good judgment, together 
with his integrity of character, make him no small factor in the 
conventions and councils of his fellow-men, looking to the welfare 
and guidance of both church and State. In politics Mr. Richard- 
son is a Democrat of the "Cleveland" type, and he exerts a quiet 
but a large political influence in the community and county in which 
he lives. He was deeply interested in the great money question which 
agitated the country a few years ago, and, being an ardent advocate 
for the "Gold Standard," he voted the "Palmer and Buckner" 
ticket in the Presidential election of 1896. In religion Mr. Rich- 
ardson is a staunch Presbyterian, and is a ruling elder in the 
Reidsville Presbyterian Church. His kind deeds and liberal g^fts 
to all causes of charity and benevolence are well known, and he 
enjoys the confidence and esteem of all who know him. His fine 
intellectual gifts, his high ideals of true manhood, his strict in- 
tegrity and purity of life, his constant attention to his business, 
his persistent and patient industry, his generous and forgiving 
nature, his liberal gifts to causes of benevolence and charity, and 
above all, his devotion to duty and unswerving faith in God, mark 
him not only as a successful business man, but as a "man among 
men," and as one who has learned the true secret of success. 

D, /. Craig. 




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GRIFFITH RUTHERFORD 

[XCEPT some of the most distinguished Conti- 
nental officers, by far the most important mili- 
tary man evolved during our Revolutionary 
struggle in North Carolina was General Griffith 
Rutherford of Rowan County. The Ruther- 
fords were originally Scotch. One of the most 
distinguished of the name was Rev. Samuel Rutherford, who, in 
1644, published his "Lex Rex," which gives him a prominent place 
among the early writers on constitutional law. On the Restora- 
tion this work was ordered to be burned, and he was charged with 
high treason, but died in 1661 before he was brought to trial. Later 
some members of his family removed from Scotland to Ireland, • 
where John Rutherford married a Miss Griffith, a lady from Wales. 
Their son, Griffith Rutherford, sailed from Ireland to America in 
1739, accompanied by his wife and their only son, Griffith, then 
about eight years of age. The parents died either on the voyage 
or soon after their arrival, and young Griffith Rutherford, the 
subject of this sketch, fell to the care of an old German couple. 

When about twenty-two years of age, probably about 1753, he 
came to Rowan County along with the early settlers of that region. 
In 1756 he purchased from James Lynn two tracts of land on the 
south fork of Grant's Creek, about seven miles southwest of the 
little settlement of Salisbury, and adjoining the land of James 
Graham, whose sister Elizabeth he married about that time. Their 



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382 NORTH CAROLINA 

son, James Rutherford, killed at the battle of Eutaw, was a major 
in 1780 and was bom probably in 1757. 

Although General Rutherford's education was not a finished 
one, it was not so deficient as to be a hindrance to him in public 
life. His residence was in the center of the Locke settlement, and 
his association was with the best people of his section. 

A man of strong character, resolute and of unusual capacity 
and sterling worth, he early attained a position of prominence 
He was a member of the Assembly as early as 1766, and about 
1769 he was sheriff of Rowan County. He was in the Assembly 
of 1770 and 1 77 1, and was then captain of his militia company 
in his section of Rowan. 

As the Regulators of Rowan County questioned the legality of 
the fees taken by the officers of that county, Rutherford and 
Frohawk and Alexander Martin and other officers of whom they 
complained agreed that the matters in dispute should be referred 
to a committee of citizens, some being chosen from among the 
leaders of the Regulation and others having the confidence of the 
people, such as Matthew Locke and Thomas Person. This agree- 
ment was entered into at Salisbury on March 7, 1771, and was 
satisfactory to both officers and the people, and if it had not been 
interfered with, but had been carried into effect, it probably would 
have been the entire solution of the question then ag^ting the 
western counties. But Governor Tryon disapproved of it as being 
uncon^itutional, and pressed forward his military movement, that 
resulted in the battle of Alamance two months later. 

Rutherford, being captain of a militia company, was active in 
restraining excesses of the Regulators, and he led his company 
into General Waddell's camp, and it was by his advice that 
Waddell retired before the Regulation forces and avoided a battle 
with the people. Immediately after the battle of Alamance he. 
along with Waddell's other troops, joined Tr>on's army, and he 
continued on that service until the forces of the province were 
disbanded. But while an active force in sustaining law, order and 
government, yet Rutherford was not arbitrary in his intercourse 
with the people, and if the prudent and patriotic course agreed 



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GRIFFITH RUTHERFORD 383 

on by him and the other officers of Rowan County had not been 
disapproved of by Governor Tryon, the Regulators would probably 
have been entirely satisfied and the country pacified without any 
resort to arms. 

The people of Rowan continued to elect Rutherford to repre- 
sent them in the Assembly, and he was a member continuously 
until 1774, and he was a member of the Provincial Congress of 
1775. Under the influence of Rutherford and his associates, the 
inhabitants of Rowan County were very forward in their Revo- 
lutionary proceedings. On June i, 1775, the committee laid a tax 
to meet expenses, and offered an association paper for the military 
companies to sign, agreeing to sacrifice their lives before sur- 
rendering their constitutional rights. On the same day they ad- 
dressed a letter to the committee of Mecklenburg asking them 
to interchange communication of their respective proceedings, and 
besought their co-operation. They did not know then of the still 
greater action taken by the committee of Mecklenburg the day 
before declaring null and void all royal commissions, overthrowing 
the government of the Crown and establishing a free and inde- 
pendent system of government, the officers being chosen by the 
people themselves — being actual independence. 

At the Provincial Congress of September, 1775, Rutherford 
was appointed colonel of Rowan County, and also appointed on 
the Committee of Safety for the Salisbury district. In December 
the Provincial Council organized a battalion of minute men in 
Rowan and appointed him colonel of the same. Rutherford was 
in all the subsequent Provincial Congresses, and assisted in fram- 
ing the constitution of the State. 

As colonel of the Rowan regiment, he led his command into 
South Carolina against the Scovelite Tories in the "Snow cam- 
paign" in December, 1775, and his conduct was so satisfactory that 
when brigadier-generals were provided for in April, 1776, he was 
appointed brigadier-general of the western district. A few months 
later the invasion by the Indians planned by Governor Martin 
threw Rowan County into a wil.d state of excitement. In the first 
week in July bands of warriors crossed the mountains and fell on 



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384 NORTH CAROLINA 

the settlers on Crooked Creek (near Rutherfordton), and a large 
force, establishing headquarters on the Nollichunky, came up the 
Toe and, passing the Blue Ridge, carried murder and desolation 
into that part of Rowan County. "Thirty-seven persons were 
killed last Wednesday and Thursday on the Catawba River," and 
"Colonel McDowell and ten men more and one hundred and twenty 
women and children are besieged in some kind of a fort and the 
Indians around them." "Three of our captains were killed and 
one wounded. This day I set out with what men I can raise 
for the relief of the district." Such was the hurried report of 
General Rutherford to the Council of Safety. By the 19th of 
July Rutherford had marched with 2500 men to protect the 
frontier, and on the 29th, with a detachment of 500, he crossed 
the mountains and dislodged the Indians, who had established 
themselves on the Nollichunky. A month later, the Council of 
State being then in session at Colonel Lane's at Wake Court 
House, President Samuel Ashe directed General Rutherford to 
proceed against the Indians in their stronghold. He crossed 
through Swannanoa Gap and over the mountains to the Tuck- 
aseegee and down Valley River and the Hiwassee, entirely destroy- 
ing every Indian town and driving the Indians across the Smokies. 
This expedition through the unbroken wilderness was most suc- 
cessful, and must have largely enhanced Rutherford's reputation. 
He returned in time to attend the Provincial Congress of Novem- 
ber, 1776, and he represented Rowan County in the Senate from 
1777 to 1786, with the exception of two years, 1781 and 1782. 
Quiet reigned in Western North Carolina in the early years of 
the war, but in 1779 General Rutherford marched his brigade to 
the Savannah to the aid of General Lincoln, and in June, 1780, 
he suppressed the Tories at Ramseur's Mills, and threatened Lord 
Rawdon in South Carolina, and dispersed the Tories on the 
Yadkin. He marched with Gates to Camden, where, on the i6th 
of August, 1780, while bravely fighting, he was wounded and 
taken prisoner. He was confined at St. Augustine until, in the 
summer of 1781, he was exchanged and again reached his home. 
Major Craig, with his British troopers and Tory bands, was then 



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GRIFFITH RUTHERFORD 385 

dominating the whole Cape Fear region. As quickly as possible 
General Rutherford assembled his brigade and marched upon these 
British forces. On his way he drove the Tories before him, and 
about the middle of November approached the town; but just 
then Major Craig received information of the surrender of Corn- 
wallis, and hurriedly evacuated Wilmingtbn and escaped in his 
shipping. Thus from December, 1775, until the last British soldier 
was expelled from the limits of the State, in November, 1781, he 
was one of the most important actors during the Revolution, and 
while not so distinguished as Howe, Sumner or the lamented 
General Nash, he rendered immediately to the people of North 
Carolina more signal service than any other North Carolinian 
during the war. 

After peace he continued an influential public man and State 
senator until 1786, when he removed to Tennessee; and in 1794, 
upon the organization of the "Territory south of the Ohio," Presi- 
dent Washington appointed him a member of the legislative Coun- 
cil of that Territory, and he was chosen president of that body, 
and conducted its affairs. Six years later, in 1800, he died at his 
home in Sumner County much lamented, and his fame and 
services have been perpetuated both in North Carolina and in 
Tennessee by naming a county in his honor. His son, John 
Rutherford, married a daughter of Matthew Locke, the founder 
of the Locke family of Rowan County, and his descendants still 
reside in Tennessee. 

5*. A. Ashe. 



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LEVI M. SCOTT 

[N the history of every community will be found 
the name of some one man who is the type of 
its people. He has been connected with the 
events, memorable in their annals, which have 
contributed to their advancement and renown 
or have led to their degradation and ruin. He 
rejoiced with them in the days of their prosperity and happiness, 
he shared their sorrows and misfortunes. If history has failed 
to preserve his memory, tradition has handed it down from genera- 
tion to generation, and he represents to the children of later days 
the same ideas, the same traits, the same characteristics which 
were recognized by their ancestors. 

In the personality of Mr. Levi M. Scott is distinctly portrayed 
the character of the citizens of Guilford County. Bom among 
them more than three-quarters of a century ago and living among 
them all the years which have since passed, he has been a part 
and parcel of their very life. He symbolizes their thoughts, their 
aspirations, their impulses, their memories of the past, their am- 
bition for the future. Mr. Scott is intensely North Carolinian, 
and peculiarly of Guilford County, a type of citizen of which 
Guilford County has boasted, and may well write in her annals 
as worthy to grace the pages of history and gild with an ever- 
lasting luster her name and fame. 
For over one hundred years Mr. Scott and his ancestors have 



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1 I.\l M. SCOTT 



Y 'ff . * '^ ; -T^M*^ N '*•*■ •"'* •r\ c»f t'vcr\ C'>n'iininitv will 1 ♦• i 
• *'* I /^- "^ J'* u'" i.U\ He I.av Inon Lonn'^ctc' \\v\\ 

-r^r 1 Ms:^ / _.t. :^.K ... ., :. 



,,••^'^1 






■!!*». n.ciiK^ral'l'' in t^'"ir anTrtl.'%, n- rl '• 



^: ^\^yCyI^~\ c- iiiril'iite 1 t«j t!:<ir a-lvanroinciil aiul r» 
>/j(' ■''<^'i>'.*^'^'^-..^ "' *^i^*^'^-' '*''^ ^'^ tb»'ir <K L^ra'laticn an-*, r* r 
.'•; .••• \\"'\ •'.i.T. iti tlic <!.i\s cf t'l' ir f)ro'«i).nty and hi';-' 
' .• *■' : '-'TO'.^i aiiil nii.-f< I r ji't >. If hi^' iry lia<: t. 

*• ; •• • • . ' ' rnoTiM ry. ir,.»i.t'. n h is iK.n^lo'l il «l'>\vn I'l m ^ • 
" •! ' ' •!' r iM'.n, an*! he rc:'rc>'*r'- i( thr i-'-ilircn of l.'v*- - 
: .«* v..:.c i !' i>, ti.i! <,i'iie lia.ts. t*- sanv vhar.iv-tcri>»:' ^ " 

In t'f |>« :s. 'tiai'l) •>! Mr. L' \ i M ^i 'tl i> i!itlnr!ly ;»• "f . 
ilio cl:ar.i -tvT •t' the riti/cim ct ('."'. -r 1 ^'o''nty I* t ." 
thrni more tii.^n tlir';i--(;/.art"rs of a •*''ntnr\ aLr«> aril livr ." . :• 

tlicin :J! tlie \car< which hav* vincc pa-^cil, \\c h:\< I a ' 

'ip^! ]K -.»' (-»f tlu'ir Vfiy hfc. \lr <\nih. li/''S th.^-ir t};'»i!-:*.t. •* 
a^i,; at't n>, til- .r inunii.>''>, t^'rir niMi.»r't:s (»f t^<. [> ^t. t't" 
i-'.ti-.n for ihe liitrro. Mr. Srott is urcn^i'v >.' rih *"•' 
ai^'l |>''rn'iarly nf (iuilf.-jrcl ("or.r.ty. a t^ ;i' 1 r't'/on •: %• 
('•'lilfor.l ('.•iiiitv I'as Iw.a-tc'l. aivl may wvW \\r\:o in h» r " 
as n')iMi\ In ^Ta'X- th.c pi.t^o 'f I i<l<rN an 1 ^ !•! \\\:h :r *.'. 
l.i t::«t^ Inttr lu r ii?*''x* and f.ni*^ 
r<T 'tNcr 'MH! h''n«':c ' v.ir^i Mr. So itt ati'! I'.is nn..'>* '- ! 



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FT ' • 

1 * f'r • 




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I r.VI M. SCOTT 



.>,.•;/' ' y^r ' -^ * '-' ''^"r) oi c\ cr\ C'»Tr.nuinity wi.l h* ! 
."•'^' '*"^* — r'^^2 '■''- ''^**''''' "^ -''H'c CM- niciri wIk^ i' lh«' :\' 

'v. KjN^ • ^t'!-r^. n.tiporalilf in tl-'-ir ann:ii>, vnI'.c- 

^;-^i»J4Tj$9 fe-- C' !.!ril'iui^ 1 t«) tl.cir a-lvaMoeniciit atul r« 



ra-latit'Ti aii'l r' t 



^-•V '■'''• '^'"-^V-^i "T- h:i\e Io<! to tlivir <K'.L;r 
.' : • .<•' \\**'i '.l.i'T' in {].c <'..;vn (^f l':« ir [)r()>[»vrify an^l h.r ;■ : 
I , .' <*...- ^.-Tows aiul iTii-t' rriiii-^. If hist irv ba^ t 

*• ; :v • .« !'.- iTie'p'Tv. iic..Lt'. n lia> :u.!it!c«l il .1 )\vn fi'.-m .. ; 
r.'»n 'v • 'M'TiMMi, .in.l lie ri'iTotM^*-; t« • tlic r}.il'ir''n of lu'-' 
:..«' ^:u^jc i 1 ' IS. tic .same traits, t-/ >anu c!iaractc'':>t:<« •.. 
v\t-' rt'•^ -c;!!!/* tl l»y tlu'T aiu «■-•. )rs 

1:1 t 'c \u rs(.:ial'ty of Mr. L-". 1 M Si- -tl i> v!i tinrtiy ;• 'tr 
tlio cl:ara/tor '^^ tl:c <'iti/cn- «.f ('•••'. '.'r-! ^'^iMity 1* m' ..^ 
th'jifi ni'irc th.'.n tliroc--(|Liarivrs of a «''Mitr.ry airo an-l livr ;: i.: 
tlxm all tlic \ears whu'ii have «!r^c(* pa-^,.!, \\c V:\< !.'•»•! a 
ittI p..-..^ of thc'r vciy life. 1!.- fyrnlM li/.'s tb'*ir tl-.-Mii:';*- * 
a<p;/ati« n>, th' .r ini;>i:!>"s. t^uir iii«n.'.»r:cs -.a' tin [)/.st, !'<" 
i''*i"n for the tutrrc. ^lr. Sr(^4t i> nrtii-iJy X -rl:. « .r 
ar^i ]>'"t^n'iarly ui ^ aiilf''>rv! Coiiiity. a t' ;>c f r!t*/o:: •;' ^* 
('»'iilfor<l (oiK.ty has lw<a^tc«l. and n^.ay well \n r:t * ifi her • •* 
as \vor'!;\ l<' j^ra^x- ih.e pai^es ..f I.ist(^r\ ap. 1 <: '•! \\\:\\ :•.'. 
l.i t::iL^ Iw-'ti r h* r t^i'th* am! fame 
r<T O'er one h^'»i«'r<- ! vear*; Mr. Scott aii-l I'ls nnv« * '^ 



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,.._,,, -lor.K 



J.;.: c'uBR»R"' 









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LEVI M. SCOTT 387 



gone in and out among this people, have walked the ways of men 
in this county, and have become a part of its life and history. 
Mr. Scott is of Scotch-Irish descent, a people noted for their 
courage, conservatism and love of freedom. Of Irish descent was 
Thomas Scott, a Pennsylvanian, who some time before the Revo- 
lutionary War emigrated to North Carolina and settled in Guil- 
ford County. He was the father of Adam Scott, who was a native 
of Guilford County, where he was born in 1772. He died in 1837, 
having lived his life in Guilford County. John D. Scott was a 
son of Adam Scott and the father of Levi M. Scott, and was 
born in Guilford County in the year 1800. He devoted his entire 
life to agriculture in Guilford County. He was a patriotic, public- 
spirited citizen, and very fond of military life, and was for many 
years Colonel in the North Carolina Cavalry. In 1824 he married 
Miss Jane McLean, daughter of Marshall McLean of Guilford 
County, a family whose name had been connected with the history 
of the county for over a century, and whose ancestors came from 
the bonnie hills of Scotland. Their home was blessed with three 
children, Allen H. Scott, who became a farmer and spent his life 
in the county ; Levi M. Scott, and William L. Scott, who became 
a lawyer, and in 1856 moved to Georgia and formed a partnership 
with Hon. Benjamin H. Hill. In 1856, however, he returned to 
North Carolina and formed a partnership with his brother, Levi M. 
Scott, imder the firm name of "Scott & Scott." 

During a sojourn of his father and mother in Rockingham 
County, June 8, 1827, Levi M. ^ott was bom. While yet an 
infant he was brought back to Guilford County. Living in the 
country, he attended the schools most convenient and read the 
papers of the day. It was while reading in the newspapers, at 
his father's home in the country, the debates participated in by 
great lawyers of that day, and the speeches of statesmen in Con- 
gress and our State legislature, that he first conceived the idea 
of becoming a lawyer himself. This was before he had ever seen 
a Latin grammar or attended any other than a public school. At 
the age of eighteen he entered the Greensboro High School. This 
was in 1845. At that time the faculty consisted of Rev. Dr. Eli W. 



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388 NORTH CAROLINA 

Caruthers, President and professor of Greek; Professor Silas C. 
Lindsley, who taught Latin, and Professor Joseph A. McLean, 
M.D., an uncle of Mr. Scott's, who was professor of mathematics, 
ypon entrance into student life at the high school he joined the 
Hermean Literary Society, where he at once became distinguished 
for his powers of debate. During the year he was elected its 
President, and at the end of the term was chosen by the Faculty 
to deliver an original address at the commencement. In the 
Society he formed close friendships with Hon. Victor C. Barringer 
of this State and Hon. Benjamin H. Epperson of Texas, his 
fellow-students, who were afterward renowned for their eloquence 
and statesmanship. The years 1847 and 1848 he spent at Ala- 
mance Academy as a pupil of Dr. Caruthers, one of the most 
eminent educators of his day, who had then severed his con- 
nection with Greensboro High School, and had opened a Classical 
School in his Alamance congregation, where he had preached 
since the death of Dr. David Caldwell in 1824, and where he con- 
tinued to preach for many years afterward. 

It was while teaching the high school in Greensboro, in the years 
1849 and 1850, that Mr. Scott began the study of law, having for 
his instructor Hon. John A. Gilmer, the elder. In 185 1, however, 
he received the appointment as postmaster at Greensboro under 
President Fillmore, which he held until 1853, when he resigned his 
position on account of his election to the office of clerk of the 
Superior Court of Guilford County. While postmaster, in August, 
1851, he received his license to practice law in the county courts 
from the Judges of the Supreme Court, Thomas Ruffin, Frederick 
Nash and Richmond Pearson. He stood his examination at Mor- 
ganton, where the Supreme Court had met for the convenience of 
the lawyers in the western part of the State. There being at that 
time no railroads in that part of North Carolina, all the lawyers 
came to court by stage or on horseback. On December 30, 1852, 
he received his license to practice in the Superior Courts of the 
State. 

He visited Washington for the first time while postmaster. 
During this visit of about a week he visited the Houses of Con- 



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LEVI M. SCOTT 389 



g^ess daily and listened to the speeches of Senators Cass of Michi- 
gan, Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois and William H. Seward of 
New York and many other senators and representatives. A part 
of the time he spent with Hon. William A. Graham of North 
Carolina, who was then Secretary of the Navy, and while here also 
he made the acquaintance of General Winfield Scott, the hero 
of the Mexican War, who was then filling temporarily the office 
of Secretary of War, in the absence of the Secretary from the city. 
Here also he heard Louis Kossuth, the great Hungarian, deliver 
an address at the Smithsonian Institute, and saw the celebrated 
Catherine Cushman, as Lady Macbeth, at the theatre, who after- 
ward played before Queen Victoria. 

In the summer of 1856 he became a candidate for the House 
of Commons, now called the House of Representatives, and upon 
being elected resigned his office as clerk of the court. In politics 
he was of the faith of his father before him, a Whig, and opposed 
to free suffrage, which was then proposed as an amendment to 
our Constitution, and which was promulgated by Governor Reid 
in his campaign for governor and finally ratified by the legislature 
of 1856-57. Believing that property should be represented in one 
branch of the legislature as established by our fathers, Mr. Scott 
voted against the measure, and had his vote so recorded. In the 
year 1858 he was elected solicitor for Guilford County for a term 
of four years, and at the expiration of the same was re-elected for 
another term of four years, filling the office with honor to him- 
self and satisfaction to the public. 

Mr. Scott was married in 1861 to Miss Mary E. Weatherly of 
Guilford County, a woman of surpassing beauty, of splendid 
attainments and for many years a leader in the social life of 
Greensboro. She was a daughter of Mr. Andrew Weatherly. 
Two children were born to this union, the surviving one being 
Mrs. Lily Scott Reynolds of East Orange, New Jersey. 

The State convention, commonly known as the Secession con- 
vention, in its third session in Raleigh, on the 8th day of Feb- 
ruary, 1862, chartered the "Piedmont Railroad Company," with 
authorized capital of $1,500,000, for the purpose of connecting the 



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390 NORTH CAROLINA 

North Carolina Railroad at Greensboro with the Richmond and 
Danville Railroad at Danville. It was a war measure, and author- 
ity was given to the Commissioners named in the act to confer with 
the proper authorities of the Confederate States Government and, 
if possible, interest them in the building of the road. The policy 
had been for many years that no internal improvements, such as 
railroads, should lead out of the State, the purpose being to build 
up a seaport city at Beaufort, Morehead City or some other point 
on our coast, and that all railroads should connect with lines feed- 
ing these points. This policy was strongly urged by President 
Joseph Caldwell of the University, Judge A. D. Murphey, Gov- 
ernor John M. Morehead and others, that our commerce, as far 
as possible, might be kept within the borders of our own State, 
and thus build up for North Carolina a port for the shipment 
of all our products instead of allowing them to go out through 
the ports of Charleston, South Carolina, and Richmond and Nor- 
folk, Virginia. But for the war probably the building of a road 
from Greensboro to Danville would have been deferred for many 
years ; however, it was felt to be a military necessity, for Greens- 
boro had become the headquarters for large commissary and quar- 
termaster stores for the purpose of supplying the armies in and 
around Richmond, and the inconvenience of hauling them with 
wagons from Greensboro to Danville was greatly felt. It was 
'also necessary in order to transport soldiers between the two 
points, thus establishing railway connection between the Southern 
States and Richmond. Among the commissioners named in the 
charter was Levi M. Scott, Jesse H. Lindsay and Ralph Gorrell 
of Guilford County. A portion of the commissioners, including 
Mr. Scott, Mr. Lindsay and Mr. Gorrell, in pursuance of the power 
vested in them, visited Richmond and held frequent consultations 
with the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Treasury of the 
Southern Confederacy, and after much effort secured the consent 
of the Government to undertake the building of the road, and in a 
remarkably short time the road was constructed, and was con- 
tinuously operated during the remainder of the war. 

As a lawyer, Mr. Scott has been signally successful. For many 



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LEVI M. SCOTT 391 



years he had the largest clientage in this section of the State, and 
his practice yielded large returns. During the fifty-three years 
he has been in the practice he has had only two law offices, one 
just across North Elm Street from the court-house, in the square, 
one-story brick building still standing, and the other in his build- 
ing on Court Square, where he has been for over thirty years. 
In his first office the post-office of Greensboro was kept by him 
when appointed in 185 1 ; it was in this office also that he kept the 
office of the clerk of the Superior Court, and it was in this office 
that Governor Z. B. Vance, when forced to leave the State Capitol 
on account of the approach of the enemy, made his headquarters 
for about a week. The proclamation of April 28, 1865, was 
written by Governor Vance in this office while making it his head- 
quarters during the war. Mr. Scott practiced for the most part 
in the old Fifth Judicial District, in the counties of Guilford, 
Alamance, Davidson and Randolph, with occasional attendance 
upon the courts of other counties, generally Forsyth, Rockingham, 
Caswell, Orange, Wake, Rowan and Iredell. Since the war he 
practiced in the United States courts at Raleigh and New-Bern for 
many years until the Federal Court was established at Greens- 
boro. 

His first appearance in the Supreme Court of the State was at 
the December term, i860, in the case of Wiseman v, Cornish, 
which is reported in 53 North Carolina Supreme Court Reports, 
and he has continually practiced in this court until the present 
time, having tried a very large number of important cases, in 
which he has been remarkably successful, and in which are settled 
and established many important principles of law. 

The only fraternal order to which Mr. Scott belonged before 
the war was the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He joined 
the Buena Vista Lodge, No. 21, in Greensboro, in 1850. At the 
beginning of the war there were about fifty subordinate lodges 
in the State. The Grand Lodge had met at Statesville in July, 
i860, at which time the membership was about 1300. At the 
close of the war every subordinate lodge in the State suspended 
and ceased to work excepting the Neuse Lodge, No. 6, at Golds- 



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392 NORTH CAROLINA 

boro, and the Buena Vista Lodge, No. 21, at Greensboro. In 
the eastern part of the State nearly every lodge had been ransacked 
and their property and effects destroyed while their members were 
in the army fighting for their country. A call was issued for 
a meeting of the lodges in grand session at Greensboro on the 
13th of December, 1865 ; but only two lodges were present; there- 
fore, an adjournment was had to meet at the same place on 
July 26, 1866, when the Grand Lodge was opened by Deputy 
Grand Master W. R. Edwards, and representatives of nine lodges 
only appeared. At this meeting Levi M. Scott was elected Grand 
Master of the Grand Lodge of the State. He filled this office 
with signal success and marked ability. At the next meeting 
his address to the body was a magnificent effort, and the rehab- 
ilitation of the lodges throughout the State was in great d^ree 
through the zealous, constant and unremitting labor and zeal on 
his part. With their property destroyed, and battling against the 
extreme poverty following upon the heels of war, it took much 
effort to revive them again. 

Mr. Scott was appointed Receiver of Sequestered property by 
the Confederate Government in 1862, which position he held until 
the close of the war. His duties were to collect all debts owing 
Northern creditors from Southern debtors for the benefit of the 
Confederate States. In 1885 he was appointed a member of the 
Board of Directors of the State Penitentiary, and held this 
position until 1889. 

The personality of Mr. Scott is most attractive. As a lawyer 
he is persevering, accurate, methodical, prompt. He is courteous 
and respectful to his brethren of the bar and to the officers of the 
court, but never lavishly so. He is obsequious to no man, but is 
firm, independent and reserved, and of calm, dignified bearing. 
I doubt that any man ever saw him lose his self-possession even 
in the most heated argument or the most closely contested case. 
He has an equanimity and well-balanced mental state which is 
seldom found. When he once undertakes a cause, he spares no 
labor in its preparation, and at the trial he is careful, cautious, 
deliberate, a master of his case, courageous and bold without being 



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LEVI M. SCOTT 393 



overly aggressive. He never gives up, but holds on with a 
tenacity unsurpassed and peculiar to himself. He relies entirely 
upon the law and facts and is entirely devoid of trick or artifice. 
He is learned in the deep underlying principles of the law and 
familiar with the decisions of our courts. He takes no mean 
advantage, but is a foe to be dreaded in the court-house. He 
spares no labor ; he never gives up. 

In personal appearance Mr. Scott is tall, straight and his hair 
and beard are white as the driven snow. He is always cleanly in 
his appearance, modest and elegant in his dress and in manner un- 
assuming. He is warm-hearted, unselfish and kindly in manner, 
and charitable in his deeds and estimates of men, and has always 
had that gift of reasonableness and caution which has ever kept 
him dear of factions and conflicts. To his friends he has always 
been attractive, for he has ever been faithful, kind, gentle, courte- 
ous, patient and enduring, and sensitive to every obligation to keep 
it. He has always been, and is to-day, truthful, honorable and an 
example of ethics in the practice of his profession and in his life. 
He has a fraternal feeling for the profession to which he belongs 
and a pride in its glory and the maintenance of its standards. He 
has retained the confidence of all who have trusted him through 
life, and nearing four-score, he is fond of a joke, laughs heartily, 
loves the conversation of friends and has preserved through the 
years a sweetness of spirit which makes him esteemed by all who 
know him. 

A. Wayland Cooke. 



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HENRY SEAWELL 

[N 1797 one lawyer constituted the entire bar of 
North Carolina's capital city, and that lawyer 
was Henry Seawell, who was bom in the 
whilom county of Bute (the part afterward 
Franklin County) on the 23d of December, 
1774. He was the son of Joseph Seawell and 
his wife, Martha Macon, daughter of Gideon Macon and a sister 
of the eminent statesman, Nathaniel Macon. Joseph Seawell was 
a son of Benjamin Seawell of Bute County and a brother of 
Colonel Benjamin Seawell of the Revolution. 

Though Joseph Seawell spent the greater part of his life in his 
native community, his last days were passed in Moore County, 
where he owned extensive landed possessions. His grave is in 
Moore County, and the monumental inscription over it tells us 
that he was bom March 9, 1745, and died July 4, 1826. This was 
the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence and the 
same day on which Thomas Jefferson and John Adams died. 

Though the educational advantages of his section were not 
many in his youth, Henry Seawell was a well-read man and a 
master of forceful English. His license to practice law is dated 
April 10, 1797, and signed by John Haywood and David Stone, 
judges of the Superior Court. About this time Mr. Seawell re- 
moved to Raleigh, and in 1799 was elected a member of the North 
Carolina House of Commons. At three succeeding sessions, from 



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HENRY SEA WELL 395 

1800 to 1802, inclusive, he was again Wake's representative in 
the Commons, and also in 1810 and 1812. At eight sessions of the 
Assembly, from 1821 to 1826, inclusive, and in 1831 and 1832, 
he was State senator from Wake County. In 1803 he was elected 
attorney-general of North Carolina, and held that post until 1808. 
In July, 181 1, he was appointed a judge of the Superior Court, 
and served until the end of the year. However, he was again 
appointed to the same office in April, 181 3. At this period there 
were no distinctive Supreme Court judges, and appeals lay to the 
Superior Court judges in conference. In the fall of 1818 a 
Supreme Court of three justices was provided for, and Judge Sea- 
well, who was unsurpassed in ability by any of his competitors, 
was a candidate for this higher office, and not being elected, in the 
succeeding February he retired from the bench. For a third term 
he went on the bench, being elected in 1832, and this time he served 
until his death. 

In the constitutional convention of 1835 Judge Sea well was a 
delegate from Wake County, and wielded a strong influence in 
that body. He was largely instrumental in abolishing borough 
representation in the legislature, and voted against the enactment 
providing that the Assembly should meet biennially instead of 
annually. He opposed the action of the convention in depriving 
all free negroes of the right of suffrage, but was in favor of placing 
as a qualification upon their right the requirement of at least five 
years' residence and the regular payment of taxes during that 
period. Along the same line, when a later vote was taken on 
vesting the right of suffrage in free negroes who were property- 
holders, he favored giving them that right, but the proposition 
was voted down, and negroes were disfranchised in toto. 

The greatest debt of gratitude was due Judge Seawell from 
the city of Raleigh on account of his vigorous and successful 
action in preventing the removal of the seat of government there- 
from after the old Capitol was burned, on the 21st of June, 1831. 
After that fire strong and well-nigh successful efforts were inaugu- 
rated by Fayetteville to take the capital from Raleigh, and the 
fight in favor of Raleigh was led by Judge Seawell. 



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396 NORTH CAROLINA 

In his centennial address on the city of Raleigh in 1892 Hon. 
Kemp P. Battle says: '']udge Henry Sea well, then senator from 
Wake, is credited with saving our city from the threatened ruin. 
He procured the passage of a bill appropriating $50,000 for the 
erection of the Capitol on the old site, many members being per- 
suaded by the over-sanguine promises, it is said, that this amount 
would finish the work. The commissioners, who had the nerve 
to expend the whole appropriation in laying the foundation of a 
structure worthy to be called the official house of a million people, 
deserve to have their names handed down. They were eminent 
for business talent and integrity. They were William Boylan, 
Duncan Cameron, William S. Mhoon, Henry Seawell and Romu- 
lus M. Saunders. All were Raleigh men except William S. 
Mhoon of Bertie, who was a temporary resident, then and until 
1835 treasurer of the State." 

While it is generally conceded that Judge Seawell was one of 
the strongest criminal lawyers who ever appeared at the bar in 
North Carolina, his knowledge and ability extended to other 
branches of the law as well. In 1823 he became one of the com- 
missioners and arbitrators on behalf of the United States to carry 
out some provisions of the Treaty of Ghent, involving complex 
questions of international law. His American colleague was the 
Hon. Langdon Cheves, former speaker of the House of Repre- 
sentatives of the United States, while the British members of 
the commission were George Jackson (whose later diplomatic 
achievements won for him the honor of knighthood) and John 
McTavish. Of this commission young Charles Manly (afterward 
governor of North Carolina) was the secretary, and later declared 
that it was a matter most flattering to his State pride to see how 
strong an influence Judge Seawell exerted over the deliberations 
of this tribunal, composed, as it was, of men who had made 
diplomacy and international law a life study. 

The death of Judge Seawell occurred in Raleigh on the 6th of 
October, 1835. The Raleigh Register of the 13th of October said : 

"Died: In the immediate vicinity of this city on Tuesday night last of 
congestive fever, in the sixty-third year of his age, the Hon. Henry Sem- 



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HENRY SEAWELL 397 

well, a judge of the Superior Courts of Law and Equity in this State. 
Judge Seawell was attacked with the disease which terminated his earthly 
career in Nash County, while discharging the functions of his judicial 
oflke. He was enabled, however, to reach home, and died in the bosom 
of his a£9icted family ; and on Thursday his mortal remains were attended 
to the grave by an unusually large number of S3rmpathizing relatives and 
friends. ..." 

Judge Seawell's wife was Grizelle Hinton, daughter of Major 
John Hinton, Jr., and a granddaughter of Colonel John Hinton. 
An account of Colonel Hinton will be found elsewhere in this 
work. At the time of Judge Seawell's marriage, April 17, 1800, 
the scarcity of clergymen in Wake County rendered it necessary 
to engage magistrates to perform such ceremonies. The Raleigh 
Register of April 22, 1800, contains the following notice : 

"Married : At Major John Hinton's, in this neighborhood, on Thursday 
last, by Cargill Massenburg, Esq., Henry Seawell, Esq., of this city, one 
of the representatives of this county in the General Assembly of the State, 
to Miss Gracy [sic] Hinton, daughter of the major." 

By this marriage Judge Seawell had seven sons and two 
daughters. One of his sons, the late Richard B. Seawell of 
Raleigh, was father of Joseph L. Seawell, Esq., now deputy clerk 
of the Supreme Court of North Carolina. 

Judge Seawell is interred in his family burial ground near 
Raleigh, on the Tarboro Road, about half a mile eastward of 
Oakwood Cemetery. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood, 



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JOHN SITGREAVES 

TN the army, at the bar, on the bench and as a 
member of Congress John Sitgreaves of New- 
Bern, North Carolina, occupied an honorable 
station. An account of the family of Sitgreaves, 
of English origin, which stayed for a while in 
Pennsylvania, and some of whose members are 
mentioned as living in New-Bern, will be found in the Pennsyl- 
vania Magazine of History and Biography for 1889, Vol. XIIL, 
page 254. 

Thomas Sitgreaves was born in Philadelphia in 1731, and was 
a resident of New-Bern, North Carolina, where he was a supporter 
of the American cause during the Revolution, and was marshal 
for the Court of Admiralty for the port of Beaufort, etc. 

John Sitgreaves was born in 1757. His military career in the 
army of the Revolution probably began on the i6th of April, 1776. 
That is the earliest date of his services of which we have any 
record, being the time when he received his commission as second 
lieutenant in Captain William Caswell's company of the Fifth 
North Carolina Continental Regiment, commanded by Colonel 
Edward Buncombe. How long Sitgreaves remained in the service 
or what ranks he held after his first appointment we are not 
informed further than the fact that he was an aide-de-camp to 
General Richard Caswell when the forces of that officer were 
routed at the battle of Camden, on the i6th of August, 1780. After 



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JOHN SITGREAVES 399 

the return of peace Mr. Sitg^eaves was elected to represent the 
State in the Continental Congress of the United States, serving 
during the years 1784-85. 

After his return home he represented the borough of New-Bern 
in the North Carolina House of Commons for a number of terms, 
the' first session being that of 1786. Being also a member in 1787, 
he was then elected speaker of that body. He was also a member 
at the sessions of 1788 and 1789. In the convention at Hillsboro, 
which met on the 21st of July, 1788, and rejected the Constitu- 
tion of the United States, he was one of the minority members 
who favored the ratification of that instrument. 

To fill the vacancy caused by the death of the Hon. John Stokes, 
President Washington appointed Mr. Sitgreaves judge of the 
United States Court for the district of North Carolina, and this 
office he held up to the time of his death, in 1802, when he was 
succeeded by Judge Potter, whose term of service continued until 
December, 1857. 

Judge Sitgreaves married Mrs. Martha Jones Green, daughter 
of the noted Revolutionary statesman. General Allen Jones, and 
widow of James W. Green. In addition to one or more who 
died young, two children were bom to this marriage — ^John 
Sitgreaves, bom May i, 1799; married Anne Love, was a citizen 
of York County, South Carolina, and died in November, 1868, 
leaving five children. His other child was Amaryllis. She married 
Frederick Lafayette Jones Pride; this gentleman was a son of 
Major Cadwallader Jones, and assumed the additional name of 
Pride (as did also his brother, Halcott Jones) at the request of 
a maternal uncle, Halcott Briggs Pride. 

The genealogical data just given we gather from a history of 
the Jones family, which was written by the late Colonel Cad- 
wallader Jones of South Carolina. In that work we also find an 
anecdote of Judge Sitgreaves which might lead one to think that he 
found little difficulty in ruling his house. It seems that on one 
occasion he was entertaining a party of friends, including General 
Davie. When the company had been there a short time, Sitgreaves 
turned to his children and told them it was bedtime, whereupon 



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400 NORTH CAROLINA 

they promptly retired. "You see we have them well trained," 
said Mrs. Sitg^eaves to General Davie. '*Yes/' answered the 
general, "and if he had said, *Mrs. Sitgreaves, it is time to retire/ 
you would have marched also." 

Judge Sitgreaves died at Halifax, North Carolina, on the 4th 
of March, 1802. His death is noted in the Raleigh Register of 
March i6th as follows : 

"Died: At Halifax on the 4th inst., John Sitgreaves, Esq., judge of 
the Court of the United States for the North Carolina District He served 
for a time as an officer in the Revolutionary War. After peace, he was 
chosen a member of Congress under the Confederation. He was repeat- 
edly elected a member of the legislature of this State for his native town, 
New-Bern, and for several years past he held the office of which he died 
possessed." 

The monument over the grave of Judge Sitgreaves at Halifax 
records the fact that "After spending a life of honor and integrity 
in the service of his country, he ended his days on the 4th of 
March, 1802, aged forty-five years." 

By an etched likeness, which is the work of Albert Rosenthal 
of Philadelphia, and taken from an original painting, we learn 
that Judge Sitgreaves was a man of elegant appearance and de- 
cidedly patrician cast of countenance. 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 



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BENJAMIN SMITH 

N the settlement of Brunswick, Roger Moore 
came from South Carolina and built at Orton 
his plantation about two miles from the new 
town, where as early as 1734 he kept open 
house. An English gentleman who visited the 
Cape Fear in that year along with thirteen other 
lellow-travelers, having arrived at Brunswick, says : "Mr. Roger 
Moore, hearing we had come, was so kind as to send fresh horses 
for us to come up to his house, which we did, and were kindly 
received by him, he being the chief gentleman in all Cape Fear. 
His home is built of brick, and exceedingly pleasantly situated. 
He has a pleasant prospect of Brunswick and of another beautiful 
brick house, belonging to Eleazar Allen, Esq., late speaker to the 
Commons in the province of South Carolina." Roger Moore 
married first Catherine Rhett, whose sister was the wife of Allen. 
Moore and Allen were of the Council, and remained so under 
Governor Johnston. Because of his great wealth and very large 
number of slaves, Roger Moore was familiarly known as "King 
Roger." By Miss Rhett he had a daughter, Sarah, who married 
Thomas Smith of South Carolina, who was the son of Colonel 
Thomas Smith and Sabina Smith, one of the daughters of Thomas, 
the second Landgrave Smith of Carolina. 

In 1690 a grant of 20,000 acres had been located by Landgrave 
Smith on the Cape Fear, near Brunswick, and the deeds of 1725 



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402 NORTH CAROLINA 

called for and recognized that line. There had thus apparently 
been an abortive attempt at settling the Cape Fear at that early 
period by the grandfather of Thomas Smith, who married Sarah 
Moore. Sabina Smith's granddaughter, Caroline, married Lucien 
Murat, a son of Marshall Murat, who married the sister of 
Napoleon ; while from the marriage of Sarah Moore and Thomas 
Smith are sprung the Bees and Grimkes of South Carolina, and 
the Rhetts, who changed their name from Smith to that of their 
grandmother, Catherine Rhett, whose family in South Carolina 
had become extinct; and Benjamin Smith, the subject of this 
sketch. 

Benjamin Smith inherited not merely wealth, but fine talents 
and high social station. 

That he was well educated is quite certain. While still young, 
just twenty-one years of age, he served as aide-de-camp of Gen- 
eral Washington in the dangerous but masterly retreat from Long 
Island after the defeat of the American army in August, 1776. He 
behaved with conspicuous gallantry in the brilliant action in which 
Moultrie, in 1779, drove the British from Port Royal Island and 
checked for a time the invasion of South Carolina. A Charleston 
paper says : **He gave on many occasions such various proof of 
activity and distinguished bravery as to merit the approbation 
of his impartial country." 

In 1783 he first appeared in the General Assembly of North 
Carolina, representing Brunswick County in the Senate. He was 
a member of the constitutional convention of 1788, that declined 
to accept the Federal Constitution, and in that body co-operated 
with Iredell and others to secure its adoption. He was a member 
of the convention that adopted the Constitution, and was on the 
committee that prepared the amendments which North Carolina 
proposed to the Constitution. He was supported for senator in 
1789, but Hawkins, a western man, was elected. 

When the act incorporating the University of North Carolina 
was passed in 1789, he was named among the other eminent men 
who composed the Board of Trustees, and at the first meeting 
of the board, on the i8th of December, 1789, he donated to the 



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BENJAMIN SMITH 403 

University land warrants for 20,000 acres of land, and set an 
example for others to follow who had at heart the cause of edu- 
cation. He remained a trustee of the University until 1824, and 
was president of the board during his administration as governor 
of the State. In 1791 he again became a member of the Assembly, 
and except the three years of 1801, 1802 and 1803, he continued 
in the State Senate until his election as governor in the fall of 
1810, and he was again in the Senate in 1816. He was speaker 
of the Senate from 1795 to 1799. In 1800, although a member 
of the Senate, he was defeated for speaker of that body by Joseph 
Riddick, and at the next election he was defeated for senator by 
William Wingate. About that time partizan politics ran so high, 
and the overthrow of the Federalists by the Jeffersonian Democ- 
racy was so hard to bear, that many personal conflicts ensued. 
There is a tradition of a duel that Smith fought with Thomas 
Leonard, a political opponent, arising from politics, in which the 
General was seriously wounded. The ball could not be extracted, 
and he carried it in his thigh to the end of his days. Indeed, 
General Smith was quick to resent an affront, and before that 
had been engaged in several duels. When there was danger of 
war with France in 1797, he was appointed general of the militia, 
and tlie entire militia of Brunswick County, officers and men, 
roused to enthusiasm by an address he made, full of energy and 
fire, volunteered to follow his lead in a leponary corps for service 
against the enemy. 

Up to 1792 there were no residences in the vicinity of Fort 
Johnston, near the mouth of the Cape Fear. About that time 
Mr. Joshua Potts of Wilmington and some other gentlemen de- 
termined to lay off a town there. At first General Smith, who was 
in the legislature, was. not favorable to its incorporation, but in 
that year he gave his assent, and succeeded in having the act 
passed, and the town was called Smithville in his honor. But 
a century later the name was changed to Southport. 

General Smith married Miss Sarah Dry, daughter and heiress of 
Colonel William Dry, the collector of the port in colonial times, 
and a gentleman of fine education and accomplishments. She was 



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404 NORTH CAROLINA 

a direct descendant from Cromwell's admiral, Robert Blake, and. 
like General Smith, had a large estate. 

General Smith had become security for Colonel Reed, the col- 
lector of the port of Wilmington, who was a defaulter to the 
Government; and to discharge his liability General Smith con- 
tracted to build the Tapia work at the fort, and in 1804 was 
engaged in doing that. It was a very large undertaking, the 
Tapia being made from raw shells, sand and water, together with 
lime, that was burned by General Smith on the ground, and it 
entailed great expense, which, together with some other mis- 
fortunes, impaired his resources. On the 28th of June, 1805, 
General Smith fought a duel with Captain Maurice Moore, the 
meeting taking place in South Carolina, where stands the boundary* 
house of the two States, the line running through the center of 
the hall of entrance. At the second fire General Smith received 
his antagonist's ball in his side and fell, but after a few weeks' 
confinement he recovered from the effects of this wound. 

In social accomplishments, in high character and in the esteem 
of the gentlemen on the Cape Fear, General Smith had no 
superior. It was from his garden in Smithville that Mrs. Gibbs 
obtained the cutting of a grape vine, which, transplanted to New 
York in 1824, was named for her the "Isabella grape." 

General Smith was a statesman of pronounced views. He was 
in advance of his generation. On his election as governor in 1810, 
he recommended the adoption of a penitentiary system, and ap- 
pealed for a reform of the too sanguinary criminal code of the 
State; recommended domestic manufactures, and urged "that 
too much attention could not be paid to the all-important subject 
of education. A certain degree of education should be placed 
within the reach of every child in the State. I am persuaded that 
a plan may be formed upon economical principles which will ex- 
tend this boon to the poor of every neighborhood, . and at an 
expense trifling beyond expectation when compared with the in- 
calculable benefits from such a philanthropic system;" and he 
continued to urge the establishment of these public schools, sub- 
ject to proper superintendence, from public considerations. Thus 



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BENJAMIN SMITH 405 

by precept and example he sought to interest the men of his gen- 
eration in the subject of general and popular education; and a 
man of large benevolence, he promoted enterprises that tended 
to the amelioration of the condition of the people. He was a 
zealous Mason, and for three years, from 1808 to 181 1, he was 
Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina. 

At the time of his death, January, 1826, he was involved in 
pecuniary difficulties, and some of his creditors resorted to un- 
usual measures to procure the payment of their debts, and in his 
last days he was greatly harrassed ; but on the close of his eventful 
life he found a quiet resting place in the graveyard of the Episco- 
pal Church at Wilmington. 

In 1853 General Joseph Gardner Swift of New York, who had 
in his younger days enjoyed intimate association with General 
Smith, caused to be erected over the grave of Mrs. Smith in the 
old Brunswick Cemetery a marble slab with this inscription: 
"In Memory of that Excellent Lady, Sarah Rhett Dry Smith, 
who died the 21st of November, 1821, aged 59 years. Also of 
her Husband, Benjamin Smith of Belvedere, once Governor of 
North Carolina, who died January, 1826, aged 70." 

S, A. Ashe. 




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SETH SOTHEL 

[Y the fundamental constitution of the colony of 
Carolina it was provided that when one of the 
Lords Proprietors came in person to their do- 
main, he should be the palatine's deputy, which 
was virtually governor, as palatine was the title 
borne by the principal member of the company 
of Lords Proprietors. One of the Proprietors, the Earl of Qaren- 
don, sold his share in the colony to a person whose surname we 
find variously recorded as Sothel, Sothell and Southwell. The 
orthography first given seems to be the one used by the new Pro- 
prietor himself, who came to Carolina and claimed (with indiffer- 
ent success) the right to govern. 

Seth Sothel, for such was the full name of the above dignitary, 
spent about fifteen years of his life in enterprises connected with 
the colony of Carolina. In an extract from the Shaftesbury 
Papers, published in the Calendar of State Papers, we find a letter, 
dated 1675, from the Earl of Shaftesbury, also one of the Lords 
Proprietors, recommending Sothel to the governor and Council 
at Ashley River, in Carolina, as a person of large estate in Eng- 
land who had undertaken to make a settlement in the colony. The 
same letter contained an order that a manorial estate of 12,000 
acres should be granted to Sothel on condition that within five 
years he should build thereon a town of at least thirty houses 
and settle six score people therein. "Pray treat this gentleman 
as my friend" is Shaftesbury's concluding remark. 



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SETH SOTHEL 407 



The above order from Lord Shaftesbury was prior to the time 
when Sothel himself became one of the Proprietors. Though in 
after years Sothel became governor by right of his being one of 
the Proprietors, his first appointment was as governor of the 
"County Albemarle," and was some time before 1679. The office 
was then conferred on him by the Proprietors. He did not take 
possession of the office on this first occasion, however, owing to 
the fact that the ship on which he sailed was captured by pirates 
and carried to Algiers. While he was a prisoner the Proprietors 
appointed John Harvey governor of the county of Albemarle, 
which afterward was known as North Carolina. Escaping, or 
having been ransomed from the pirates, Sothel a year or two later 
purchased Lord Clarendon's rights, and thereby himself became 
one of the "True and Absolute Lords Proprietors." He then set 
out for America with a commission, issued in September, 1681, 
which showed his right to assume the government of the colony, 
being signed by the Earl of Craven, the Earl of Shaftesbury and 
Sir Peter Colleton. 

Sothel came from South Carolina to North Carolina about 1683. 
After remaining a few years, he was charged with all manner of 
crimes and misdemeanors. Some of the specifications against him 
in a complaint sent to the Lords Proprietors were as follows: 
That he seized and imprisoned two persons coming from Bar- 
badoes on the pretense that they were pirates, though they pro- 
duced dockets from the governor of Barbadoes showing that they 
were lawful traders; that one of these sea captains, Richard 
Humphrey, died in captivity of grief and ill usage, leaving a will, 
with Thomas Pollock as executor; that Sothel would not let 
Pollock qualify as executor, but seized Humphrey's goods and 
converted them to his own use ; that he imprisoned Pollock when 
that gentleman started to England with complaints against the 
governor; that he accepted bribes for quashing indictments for 
felony and treason ; that he unlawfully imprisoned Robert Cannon ; 
that he unlawfully withheld from John Stewart one negro and 
seven pewter dishes, which were his property ; that he imprisoned 
George Durant and appropriated his property ; that he seized the 



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4o8 NORTH CAROLINA 

plantations of John Tomlin, John Harris and one Mowberry, and 
committed other acts of like character. The colonists could stand 
a good deal ; but when one of their governors endeavored to get 
possession of nearly everything in the colony, from plantations 
down to negroes and pewter dishes, they rebelled. They finally 
proceeded to seize the governor, and were about to send him a 
prisoner to England, when he begged them not to do so, but to 
submit the whole matter to the Colonial Assembly, whose decision 
he promised to abide by. The Assembly adjudged that he should 
leave the colony for one year and renounce the governorship 
forever. The Lords Proprietors also sent an order about the same 
time, December 2, 1689, removing him from office and appointing 
Phillip Ludwell in his stead. 

Being banished from North Carolina for one year, Sothel went 
to South Carolina, and there also claimed the office of governor 
as his proprietary right. From a recent history of that State by 
McCrady, entitled "South Carolina under the Proprietary Govern- 
ment, 1670-1719," we are inclined to think that Sothel there en- 
joyed a good reputation. At least, McCrady says : "Sothel was a 
man of remarkable, if not good, character and of great ability. 
He had been sent in 1680 to regelate the distracted affairs in the 
colony at Albemarle, and on his voyage out had been captured by 
Algerine pirates, three years thus elapsing before his arrival in 
America. . . . Whatever may have been Sothel's private character, 
however avaricious and disreputable, however tyrannical and 
oppressive his conduct for personal gain, yet the wisdom and 
liberality of the laws he enacted, the legislative activity displayed 
in restoring stability to the colony, and his judicious conduct in 
promoting the just wishes of the people, throw a doubt, observes 
Rivers, as to the malignant character that has been ascribed to 
him as a public officer." 

When Governor Sothel had left North Carolina, and Ludwell 
had been appointed his successor, there appeared another claim- 
ant to the office of governor of Albemarle in the person of Colonel 
John Gibbs, who was a cousin of the Duke of Albemarle, one of 
the Lords Proprietors. Whether Gibbs claimed under a deputa- 



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SETH SOTHEL 409 



tion from the Duke, or whether the deposed Sothel claimed the 
right to make a deputy and appointed him governor, is not known. 
At any rate, Gibbs meant to give notice that he was not a man 
to be trifled with, for one of his first acts was to deliver himself 
of a proclamation and general challenge beginning as follows: 
"Colonel John Gibbs doth Publish and declare, that Phillip Ludwel 
is a Rascal, impostor and Usurper, all of which shall be justified 
in England. And if any of the boldest Heroes living in this 
or the next County will undertake to Justifie the said Ludwel's 
Illegal irregular proceeding, let him call upon me with his sword, 
and I will single out and goe with him into any part of the King's 
Dominions and there fight him in this cause as long as my eye- 
lidds shall wagg." Gibbs had about eighty armed men under his 
command, and with this force seized two magistrates who were 
holding a precinct court without his commission therefor, and 
held them as prisoners. A force of colonists was soon raised 
against him, and he then fled to Virginia. 

After Sothel's term of banishment from North Carolina had 
expired, he returned to the colony, and died in the year 1694. In 
the North Carolina Historical and Genealogical Register for Janu- 
ary, 1900, it is said of the governor's wife: ''Madam Ann 
Sothel married for her fourth husband Colonel John Lear of 
Nansemond County, Virginia. She at first appears as Ann Willis 
of Ipswich, Massachusetts." 

Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 




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JAMES HAYWOOD SOUTHGATE 




HE gentleman whose name stands at the head 
of this sketch represents in a striking manner 
the rise of a class of young and influential busi- 
ness men in the South since the Civil War who 
are to-day more an indication of what Southern 
society is coming to be than any other class of 
people in it. These men are broad in their business ideals, free 
from local or social prejudices, active in seizing opportunities 
of personal and community progress, and can be relied on to give 
a turn to the development of the future which is both fortunate 
and essential. They are going to be, as it seems, the representa- 
tive men of the new South as truly as the old planters were the 
exponents of the old South. Among these men are many of those 
whose biographies are recorded in these volumes; but of all of 
them none is more truly a representative man than James Hay- 
wood Southgate. 

This gentleman unites in his family the best characteristics of 
the people of the States of North Carolina and Virginia. His 
father, James Southgate, of King and Queen County, Virginia, 
left the famous university at Charlottesville in 1832. From that 
time till 1862 he conducted a prosperous military academy at 
Norfolk, Virginia. In 1858 he married Miss Delia Wynne of 
Louisburg, North Carolina. She was a woman of extraordinary 
mind, and she had received excellent instruction from Professor 



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JAMES HAYWOOD SOUTHGATE 411 

A. H. Ray of Louisburg, North Carolina, whose reputation for 
skill in pedagogy has survived till this day. In 1862 Norfolk was 
occupied by the Northern amiy, and the school over which Mr. 
Southgate presided was broken up. He volunteered for the Con- 
federate service, joining the Norfolk Artillery Blues. His wife 
took her children with her and "refugeed" to Louisburg, North 
Carolina, where she opened a school for girls. She was so suc- 
cessful that in 1864 her husband left the army and came to assist 
her. Together they had charge of the Louisburg Female College, 
and had remarkable success, considering the disturbed state of 
society, until the end of the war so prostrated all people of means 
that it was necessary to discontinue the enterprise. 

Soon after the war ended he was given charge of OHn College, 
in Iredell County, North Carolina. Here he had a successful 
career till the winter of 1871-72, when he removed to Hillsboro, 
North Carolina, to engage in a general commission business. The 
neighboring town of Durham was then in its infancy. He had a 
presentment of what it was going to be, and in 1876 he removed 
thither and opened a general fire and life insurance business. By 
upright business methods, and by careful attention to business, he 
won the confidence of the people of the town, and from that day 
till this he has been one of the leading business factors in the place. 

Three daughters and one son were born to Mr. Southgate and 
his wife, Delia Wynne. The latter is the subject of this sketch. 
He was bom in Norfolk, July 12, 1859. His earliest recollections 
are those of the war. In the first days of the bitterness of Recon- 
struction he received his first impressions of the problems of life. 
It is a tribute to his largeness of heart that they were not those 
of hatred and despair. 

When his father removed to Hillsboro the boy was twelve years 
old. He had already acquired the first steps in an educa'tion from 
his mother's instruction. Now he was sent to the academy of 
Major D. H. Hamilton in Hillsboro. Here he came under a man 
who was bom a teacher. To this day Mr. Southgate speaks in 
the terms of the highest praise of his methods. Later he attended 
the military academy of Homer & Graves in the same place, and 



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412 NORTH CAROLINA 

from there, in 1876, entered the State University at Chapel Hill. 
Here he had a short stay. In 1878 he conceived that it was his 
duty to help his father in the latter's office. He had determined 
to be a physician, and he was led to believe that the graduation 
was not entirely necessary for that profession. The opinion was 
erroneous, but he was never to have a chance to prove it in his 
own career, for the charm of business life took hold of him 
so deeply that he could not shake it off. He is a man who loves 
whatever he is engaged in, and who puts into it a pride of achieve- 
ment which makes it a part of his life. He desired to make the 
insurance business of J. Southgate & Son the most successful 
enterprise of the kind in the State. It is probable that his desire 
has been gained. Certainly, there are not many centers of the 
underwriting interests in the Union in which the firm name is 
not well and favorably known. 

But Mr. Southgate's greatest success is not as a business man, 
although in that sphere he is pre-eminent. He is one of the 
very greatest citizens in the State, not because he has been most 
successful in the pursuit of office, but because he has always and 
with the very highest type of success sought to serve the public 
in the capacity of a mere citizen. There are few issues of public 
concern in which he has not set a standard to every voter in the 
independence of judgment which is the very essence of a workable 
democracy. He has never been a servant of passion. He has 
never held the public service in the light of an opportunity for 
selfish promotion. He has been the best type of the business man 
who is also a conscientious servant of the public in its political 
capacity. Had he chosen to enter politics in a selfish way— one 
hears a hundred people say it — ^he might long since have reached 
the goal of any politician's ambition in North Carolina. A man 
of striking appearance, tall, forceful, magnetic and commanding, 
he towers over any other speaker in the ordinary political assembly. 
His deep, far-reaching and musical voice, his breadth of mind, his 
balanced judgment, and his effective imagery give him the mastery 
over his hearers. In whatever cause and in whatever section of 
the country he has spoken, he made a profound impression. That 



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JAMES HAYWOOD SOUTHGATE 413 

a man whose best efforts are given to the conduct of a large busi- 
ness should still have it in him to take so prominent a part in public 
affairs is not less than remarkable. 

In 1885, when he was twenty-six years old, he left the Demo- 
cratic Party, where he had been up to that time a loyal voter. His 
reasons were not selfish, for he had never appeared before that 
party in the light of a candidate for any favor whatever. There 
were certain ideas in which he believed, and he sought an organi- 
zation in which he might find them expressed. He concluded that 
these were most likely to be advanced by the Prohibition Party, 
and with that body of citizens he threw in his fortunes. He was 
not, and has never been, a fanatic. But he made a very practical 
thing of his theories, and did not hesitate to risk his exercise of 
citizenship upon them. From 1885 till to-day he has been a 
constant defender of his party. He has believed that as a great 
moral organization it was bound to triumph. Through defeat, 
through ridicule, through hopelessness, and while a hundred 
friends have urged him to come into one or the other of the larger 
parties, he has not wavered an iota. 

Among Prohibitionists Mr. Southgate has been a favorite 
speaker. On several occasions he has been a delegate to the 
National Prohibition conventions. In 1896 the party divided into 
two camps, one of which contended for prohibition as a sole issue 
and the other for a general economic programme, only one feature 
of which was the restriction of the sale of liquor. Mr. Southgate 
took sides with the latter group, which called itself the National 
Party. In the convention of this party he was placed on the 
ticket as a candidate for the Vice-Presidency, his running mate 
being Charles E. Bentley of Nebraska. In conducting his cam- 
paign he made many speeches in other parts of the Union, par- 
ticularly in the Northwest. Everywhere he was received with 
marked favor, even by those who did not support his ticket. 

Mr. Southgate is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South. For twenty-five years he has held official position in it. 
Besides being a Stewart in his local congregation, he has been for 
many years on the educational and Sunday-school committees of 



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414 NORTH CAROLINA 

the North Carolina Conference. In 1902 he was a lay delegate 
from this body to the General Conference, which met in Dallas, 
Texas. He has also been prominently connected with the Young 
Men's Christian Association of the State and the North Carolina 
State Sunday-school Association. In 1877 he was secretary of 
the first Young Men's Christian Association convention held in 
North Carolina. It is characteristic of him that while loyal and 
active in his service toward his own church, he should be also 
deeply interested in these other interdenominational bodies. No 
man could be less sectarian than he. 

Mr. Southgate is deeply interested in education. From the time 
that it was decided to remove Trinity College to Durham he has 
been its earnest supporter. This was true notwithstanding he had 
attended another institution himself. To Dr. Crowell, whose 
presidency of the college extended from 1887 till 1894, he gave 
a warm support. In the many dark hours of the college's history 
during the first years at Durham his advice was freely given and 
gladly received. When Dr. Kilgo became president, he found in 
Mr. Southgate the same disinterested and valuable ally. In 1897 
he was elected president of the Board of Trustees of the college 
to succeed Colonel J. W. Alspaugh of Winston-Salem, whose in- 
cumbency of the presidency had lasted nearly a quarter of a 
century. In this important position he has rendered valuable 
service. He has presided over board meetings in some crises out 
of which very much criticism has grown; but in none of them 
has his rulings been called into question by either side. In the 
matter which grew out of the resignation of Professor Bassett his 
stand for academic freedom was recognized by all as fair, able and 
very influential. One of the strongest qualities of his nature is 
the faculty of keeping his head. He is possessed of immense calm 
and well-poised judgment. Although a man of positive con- 
victions, he is able to see both sides of a question. 

December 5, 1882, Mr. Southgate was married to Miss Kate 
Shepard Fuller, a daughter of Mr. B. Fuller of Durham. She was 
a woman of marked force of character. Four children were bom 
to them, two of whom died in infancy. In February, 1893, Mrs. 



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JAMES HAYWOOD SOUTHGATE 415 

Southgate was called away from her earthly home* Around the 
two children who were left to him the husband built all his 
affections and hopes. But again death struck at these hopes. In 
1898 one of these sole remaining comforts, a beautiful daughter 
on the verge of maidenhood, was taken. These blows made a 
deep impression on his life. But his massive shoulders have never 
staggered under their weight. He is firm, strong and self-centered 
as ever, and he lives, although widowed and alone, without the 
gloom of despair or the bitterness of isolation. 

Mr. Southgate has great powers of friendship. He is a loyal 
member of several fraternal orders, among them the Masons and 
the Knights of Pythias. He is warm-hearted, companionable and 
hospitable. He is fond of music. In fact, he comes of a musical 
family; and his sister, Mrs. Lessie Southgate Simmons, is one 
of the most talented musicians ever bom in the State. He has 
taken much interest in the development of music in Durham, 
especially in the establishment of the Durham Conservatory of 
Music. 

Thus he is pre-eminent as a man of business, as a citizen, as a 
political speaker, as a leader of religious life, as a promoter of the 
cause of education, as a patron of the most important branch of the 
fine arts patronized in the State, and as a man of influence among 
his fdlow-men. How many other North Carolinians can show 
such well-rounded development in so many of the best qualities 
of a faithful servant of men? 

John Spencer Bassett, 



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FRANK SHEPHERD SPRUILL 

JRANK SHEPHERD SPRUILL, one of the 
strong public men residing in the central part of 
the State, was bom in Martin County, North 
Carolina, December 9, 1862. He is the third 
child of William E. Spruill and Harriet Arring- 
ton, blending Scotch-Irish on the paternal side 
with English on the maternal. 

During the Civil War his father, who was in the Confederate 
service, removed his family from their home in the exposed terri- 
tory of Martin County, frequently the scene of Federal raiding 
parties, to a more secure location in Halifax County; and here 
the subject of this sketch grew into manhood under influences 
belonging to life on a typical Southern plantation. Reared amid 
affluence, he was fond of country life, sports and scenes, and 
developed under their training a vigorous and alert intellect in a 
sound and robust body. His education, begun at the celebrated 
Bingham School, was completed at the University of North Caro- 
lina. He was an apt pupil, fond of his books, and with an ardent 
purpose to excel in whatever he undertook. Gifted with a strong 
and logical mind, and endowed in a high degree with oratorical 
powers, he naturally selected the law as his profession, and ad- 
dressed himself to its study at the University. Obtaining his 
license in February, 1884, he first located at Henderson, where 
he was associated with William H. Young, Esq. ; but after a year 



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FRANKLIN SHEPHERD SPRUILL 417 

he removed to Louisburg, where he fortunately formed a partner- 
ship with Hon. Joseph J. Davis, one of the most distinguished 
and most esteemed citizens of Franklin County. Mr, Davis had 
the entire confidence and respect not only of his own community, 
but of the entire Congressional district which he represented in 
Congress, and the association was not only agreeable in itself, but 
was of advantage in at once establishing Mr. Spruill on a high 
plane and securing him the favor of the best people in the coimties 
where they practiced ; and this partnership continued until Judge 
Davis was appointed to the Supreme Court bench. 

Having a large and extensive practice from the beginning, Mr. 
Spruill soon attained an important position at the bar, and became 
a man of influence in politics. He took an active interest in all 
political matters, and entered zealously and with great vigor into 
all campaigns. As his reputation extended, his services became 
in constant demand by the Stat^ Executive Committee to make 
canvasses in other parts of the State; In the year 1888 he was 
a delegate to the national convention at St. Louis which nom- 
inated Grover Cleveland for President, and he made a brilliant 
campaign for his election. In 1893 he represented Franklin 
County in the legislature,, and he was an active and influential 
member. He rendered conspicuous service on the Judiciary Com- 
mittee and on the floor of the House, but in particular did he dis- 
tinguish himself as chairman of the Committee on Railroads and 
Railroad Commissioners, and he took a leading part in the con- 
troversy with the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad on the sub- 
ject of requiring that company to pay appropriate and just taxes. 

Governor Carr, in recognition of his fine service, appointed him 
a director of the State Prison, but that particular public work 
was not agreeable to Mr. Spruill, and he resigned the appointment. 
He was at once appointed a director of the North Carolina Rail- 
road. It was during his term as a director that the proposition 
was made by the Southern Railroad Company to lease the North 
Carolina Railroad Company for a period of ninety-nine years. 
Governor Carr was much in favor of the proposition, but Mr. 
Spruill objected to it; in the first place, the old lease had not 



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4i8 NORTH CAROLINA 

expired, and public notice had not been given to lease the road 
at that time, so there were no competitive bids, and the period 
for which the lease was proposed was so long that it amounted 
almost to a sale of the property. For these and other reasons 
Mr. Spruill was constrained to differ from the policy of Governor 
Carr, who had appointed him, and he spoke and voted against the 
measure. During Mr. Cleveland's second term, in 1897, Mr. 
Spruill was appointed assistant United States district attorney 
for the eastern district of North Carolina, a position which he 
filled with admirable acumen and with great ability. 

In 1904 the Democrats of Franklin County, in order to extri- 
cate themselves from an impending political complication, pre- 
vailed on Mr. Spruill again to accept the nomination to represent 
them in the House, and on yielding to their request he made a 
speech that is memorable in the annals of the county. Later, how- 
ever, when the Democratic State Convention met at Greensboro, 
he was nominated by acclamation as one of the two candidates 
for Presidential elector for the State at large, and he felt that the 
party had a right to his services in that extended field. This 
necessarily led to his resignation of his candidacy for the House, 
and he at once entered upon an extensive compaign of the State, 
which was remarkable for its brilliancy. Indeed, as a popular 
speaker Mr. Spruill ranks among the foremost of the public 
men in North Carolina. His addresses in the campaign to secure 
the adoption of the constitutional amendment and in the Presi- 
dential campaign of 1904 have been pronounced by competent 
judges to be among the very best types of forensic eloquence ever 
heard in the State. He speaks with clearness and cogency, with 
eloquence and pathos, and he sways his audience with rare power, 
combining the art of an orator with the skill of the practiced 
campaigner. What has been declared by competent judges to be 
the best piece of campaign oratory ever delivered by Mr. Spruill 
was a speech delivered by him at Louisburg, in 1902, in reply to 
an address made there by Senator Pritchard. There had been 
organized at Louisburg and launched with much noise and pub- 
licity a "Young Men's Republican Business League." From it 



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FRANKLIN SHEPHERD SPRUILL 419 

the Republicans in the State expected great results, and Senator 
Pritchard had been brought from Washington to deliver to its 
members an address, which it was hoped would make the league 
a factor in the politics of the State to be reckoned with. Con- 
ditions in the county were favorable for such a result. The 
electorate of the county was greatly unsettled. Hundreds of men 
who had been Democrats were wavering in their political beliefs, 
and were in a frame of mind so receptive to Republican teachings 
that the ascendancy of the Democracy was trembling in the 
balance. An immense crowd was present to hear Senator 
Pritchard, and his speech was adroit and eloquent. Mr. Spruill 
heard the speech, saw the great peril in which his party was placed, 
and knew that Senator Pritchard's speech unanswered meant 
possibly its overthrow. When the senator had concluded, in re- 
sponse to a call from a few stalwart Democrats, he took the stand. 
With a logic that was pitiless, and an eloquence that was almost 
inspired, he swept down one after another Senator Pritchard's 
positions, until the great crowd, that had just a short half hour 
before been ready to ally itself with the league, shouted itself 
hoarse with Democratic huzzas. In some respects it was the most 
striking instance of the power of eloquent oratory ever seen in 
the State. From the moment he closed the "Young Men's Re- 
publican Business League" was a thing of the past. The club 
never met again. 

Nevertheless, it is in his chosen profession as a lawyer that he 
has won his most enduring fame. Careful and painstaking in the 
preparation of his cases, tireless in energy and thoroughly in 
sympathy with his client's cause, he unites to legal learning the 
address of the polished advocate, and has attained an enviable 
position in the first class of nisi prius lawyers in North Carolina. 

A graduate of the University, for twelve years he has been a 
trustee of that institution, and has been greatly interested in pro- 
moting the advancement of his alma mater. He has contributed 
with others to secure that growth and progress which has been 
so remarkable in the career of the University within the past 
decade, and which now more than ever renders that institution 



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420 NORTH CAROLINA 

an honor to the State and a credit to the people of North 
Carolina. 

In 1886 Mr. Spruill was happily married to Miss Alice Cape- 
hart Winston, a lovely and beautiful daughter of Hon. Patrick 
Henry Winston and Martha Elizabeth Byrd, and a sister of four 
of the State's most distinguished sons. To this union three 
children have been bom. Mr. Spruill has felt that it is to his wife's 
intelligence and sympathetic assistance that he owes in large 
measure the success he has attained in his profession and in his 
life. 

Mr. Spruill is a member of the Episcopal Church, and for fifteen 
years he has been a vestryman in St. Paul's parish, Louisburg. 

At the University he was a member of the A. T. O. fraternity 
and of the Philanthropic Society. 

W. H, Macon. 




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JAMES J. THOMAS 

[APTAIN JAMES J. THOMAS, president of 
the Commercial and Farmers' Bank, and one 
of the leading business men of Raleigh, was 
bom in Franklin County, July 19, 183 1. He 
is a descendant of Isaac Hunter, one of the 
leading inhabitants of Wake County just after 
the Revolutionary War, and a kinsman of Theophilus Hunter, 
chairman of the first County Court and lieutenant-colonel of the 
militia of Wake County, whose plantation, called "Hunter's 
Lodge," to the south of the site of Raleigh, was occupied by 
Governor Tryon on his march against the Regulators. But Isaac 
Hunter, while he owned a great deal of land in the county, resided 
at the forks of the Louisburg and Forestville road, his chief plan- 
tation being on the north side of Crabtree, on the great road be- 
tween the north and the interior of South Carolina and Georgia. 
It was so well known that when the State convention in 1788 
determined to locate the seat of government for the State, there 
never having been any fixed capital, there were placed in nomina- 
tion the towns of Smithfield, Tarboro, Fayetteville, New-Bern and 
Hillsboro, and Isaac Hunter's plantation in Wake County. On 
the first ballot there was no choice, but on the second ballot Isaac 
Hunter's plantation was chosen, and a bill was passed to estab- 
lish the seat of government at some point within twenty miles 
of his residence, and the commissioners, among whom were Joel 



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422 NORTH CAROLINA 

Lane and his brother Joseph and Theophilus Hunter, finally 
selected Wake Court House, or Bloomsbury, as it was sometimes 
called, buying looo acres of land from Colonel Joel Lane for that 
purpose, on which the city of Raleigh was afterward built. Isaac 
Hunter, being a man of considerable wealth, and with large landed 
interests, exerted a wide influence in his day, and doubtless con- 
tributed to the selection of the site for the capital. His daughter 
Louisa married Mr. James Howze, who represented Franklin 
County in either the House or the Senate almost continuously 
from 1818 to 1827, being greatly esteemed as a man of high 
character and fine intelligence, and influential in public affairs. 
Among his associates as a representative from Franklin were 
Benjamin F. Hawkins, Charles A. Hill and Guilford Lewis, and 
he was considered the equal of these distinguished citizens in all 
respects. His daughter Charlotte married Major J. J. Thomas 
of Alabama, who removed to North Carolina in 1825 and settled 
in Franklin County, where the subject of this sketch was bom. 

In childhood Captain Thomas was robust, and entered with 
spirit into the sports of his young companions, and his parents 
being well-to-do, he was admirably trained, both at home and in 
the excellent schools of Oxford and Louisburg. He was an apt 
pupil, fond of his books, and pursued his studies with such zeal and 
intelligence that at the age of nineteen it was thought that he 
was competent to enter mercantile life. That was the vocation 
to which he was led by his own inclinations, and in 1850 he entered 
the store of Messrs. R. & R. H. Kingsbury, in Oxford, as a clerk, 
and under their direction he became very proficient both as a 
salesman and as a bookkeeper. Two years later he was employed 
by Captain Overby, and was entrusted with the charge of his large 
tobacco and banking business at Clarksville, Virginia, and was 
also required to keep the books at his store at White House. After 
four years of faithful service with Captain Overby, desiring to 
remove to Richmond and profit by a wider experience in a larger 
field, he secured a position with Willingham & EUett, wholesale 
dealers in dry goods and notions. After two years spent at Rich- 
mond becoming conversant with ramifications of business, he 



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JAMES. J. THOMAS 423 

obtained a position with W. H. & R. S. Tucker, the leading dry 
goods merchants not only of Raleigh, but in the State of North 
Carolina. At first employed as bookkeeper, he soon became their 
confidential clerk, and as long as he remained with them he en- 
joyed their confidence and personal regard ; but after several years 
had elapsed he found himself in a position to embark in business 
on his own account, and opened a store at Franklinton, which he 
successfully conducted until hostilities broke out between the sec- 
tions. Shortly after the war began he closed his business and 
enlisted in Company F of the Forty-seventh Regiment, raised in 
Franklin County, of which he was appointed first lieutenant. 
Upon the organization of the regiment with Sion H. Rogers as 
colonel, he was appointed regimental quartermaster, and continued 
in that position until that office was abolished by the War Depart- 
ment. He accompanied his regiment when it joined the army 
of Northern Virginia, and was in the engagement at Drury's Bluff. 
In December of that year the regiment was rushed to Kinston, 
North Carolina, to resist the threatened attack of General Foster, 
and it served that winter in Eastern Carolina and Virginia; but 
early in 1863 it was brigaded with four of the North Carolina 
regiments under General J. Johnston Pettigrew, and in May it 
became a part of Heth's Division of A. P. Hill's Corps. It was 
about that time that Captain Thomas, on the recommendation of 
General Lee, was appointed by the secretary of war assistant 
division quartermaster under Major Vick, of Heth's Division, and 
in that capacity he accompanied Heth's Division through all the 
vicissitudes of the war, often acting himself as the division quarter- 
master because of the continued absence of his chief. He accom- 
panied the army in its march into Pennsylvania, and on the 30th of 
June, 1863, according to orders, having collected all the available 
transportation with a view of obtaining supplies for the army, 
he proceeded to enter Gettysburg, having a small detail of infantry 
and cavalry as a guard against any sudden attack of Federal 
troops. But before reaching the city he was advised that the 
enemy were near at hand, and he parked his train in the vicinity 
for the night. The engagement the next day took place in his 



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424 NORTH CAROLINA 

immediate front, and as soon as it was over, the enemy having 
been driven off, Captain Thomas was ordered to use all the trans- 
portation he had to collect and carry off from the battlefield every 
gim and all other material that would in any way be of service 
to the army. He gleaned the field, and secured a large number of 
guns and quantities of valuable supplies. The next day, under 
similar circumstances, the same valuable service was rendered, 
notwithstanding the proximity of the enemy and being subjected 
to their fire. On the third day Captain Thomas was close up with 
his division on the left of Longstreet's Corps, and during the 
retreat of General Lee from Gettysburg he was, with many other 
Confederate soldiers, captured at Greencastle, Pennsylvania, by a 
body of Federal cavalry, who broke the line of the Confederate 
march to that place. Before the day was past General Imboden 
with his cavalry and light artillery routed the Federal cavalry 
and dispersed them and rescued the prisoners and the wagon 
trains they had taken. 

He continued to perform his duties with Heth's Division with 
efficiency and promptness, but some months later, before the war 
closed, he was detailed by the War Department on special duty in 
Mecklenburg County, Virginia, and in the adjoining counties of 
North Carolina, and before this service was completed General Lee 
had been compelled to evacuate Petersburg and had surrendered at 
Appomattox. In the performance of every duty Captain Thomas 
had been prompt, intelligent and efficient. He had acted with zeal, 
discretion and energy during the four years of war under trying 
and difficult circumstances, and upon the cessation of hostilities 
he returned home, and animated by the same indomitable spirit 
that had actuated him in his army life, he began once more his 
vocation in the mercantile business. Not content with the limited 
opportunities which the circumstances of his home people pre- 
sented, he, in conjunction with Dr. William J. Hawkins, B. P. 
Williamson and Colin M. Hawkins, began a commission business 
in Baltimore, which they successfully operated until 1872, when 
he returned to Raleigh along with Captain Williamson. And 
later, Mr. W. G. Upchurch being associated with them, they 



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JAMES J. THOMAS 425 

formed the firm of Williamson. Upchurch & Thomas, to con- 
duct a wholesale grocery and commission business, and entered 
upon a career of great prosperity. 

Four years afterward, however, Captain Thomas withdrew from 
the firm and established a new business house, doing a large cotton 
business, which he has since maintained in connection with the 
People's Storage and Mercantile Company, of which he is presi- 
dent; and he was the first president of the Raleigh Cotton and 
Grocery Exchange, and he contributed largely by his energy and 
skill in attracting to Raleigh a cotton business from an extended 
area, which at one time approximated 75,000 bales a year. He 
was one of the promoters of the Oak City Mill, established in 
1875, *"^ w^s its president; he assisted in the organization of the 
Raleigh Savings Bank, and was its first president, and he laid the 
basis for its business on foundations so sure and deep, that under 
the continued wise administration of his successor it has become 
one of the most useful and beneficial financial institutions of the 
State. He was one of the organizers and at one time was the 
president of the Raleigh Cotton Mills, and was president of the 
Caraleigh Phosphate and Fertilizer Works, whose career of pros- 
perity has been phenomenal. He also aided in organizing the 
Caraleigh Cotton Mills, and was president for many years of that 
company. Indeed, no other citizen of Raleigh has been more 
progressive and more useful to the community in organizing and 
aiding financially the various enterprises that have contributed 
to promote her industries and develop her trade than Captain 
Thomas. As president of the Commercial and Farmers' Bank, 
whose success has been very great, he has exhibited a fine capacity 
as a financier and bank officer, and as one of those in influential 
control over the operations of the various mills in which he is 
interested he has manifested skill and enterprise and a conserva- 
tive judgment which reflects the highest credit on him. 

Captain Thomas has always taken an active interest in the suc- 
cess of the Democratic Party, which he deems is the only party 
that should be intrusted with the administration of public affairs 
at the South. But while he has ever been liberal in making dona- 



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426 NORTH CAROLINA 

tions for campaign purposes, being entirely engaged in his finan- 
cial affairs, he has never sought political station, being content to 
work as a private in the ranks, and being engrossed with the 
management of his large business interests. His religious afiilia- 
tions are with the Baptist denomination, and he has ever been 
esteemed as one of the leading Baptists in the city of Raleigh. 

In i860 Captain Thomas married Victoria, a daughter of 
Xenophon Halbert of South Carolina. She dying in 1872, three 
years later, he married Miss Evelyn Briggs, a daughter of Mr. 
Thomas H. Briggs, Sr., one of the most highly esteemed citizens 
of Raleigh, and after her death he was married the third time, 
in September, 1880, to Miss Lula O. Felt of Warrenton, and he 
has four children now living. 

Strictly a business man, whose success in the various lines of 
business activity^ well fit him to g^ve a word of advice to the 
younger generation. Captain Thomas says : "I have, since arriving 
at years of early manhood, made it an invariable rule to always 
be prompt at my business, keeping every engagement and faith- 
fully executing every command of my employers. My associates 
were always chosen among those whose moral character was above 
reproach." And this he thinks is a safeguard to young men from 
falling into evil ways and being led into a course of improper 
action. He also recommends "politeness, especially to one's 
seniors, to live within one's means, be that what it may, and, if 
necessary even by making sacrifices, to lay up something for a 
rainy day." 

S. A. Ashe. 



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RSON WILEY 

SON WILEY, son of David 
Jie Woodburn, was bom in 
North Carolina, February 3, 

of the Wiley family in North 
tarn Wiley, who moved into 
nsylvania in 1754. He pur- 
n the Alamance section of 

grandfather of Calvin H. 

ttle of Alamance, and later 

larked out for him a career 
ection, she bestowed upon 
inisters — that of |he great 

Rev. Dr. Henderson. In 
^ was sent toCaldwell Insti- 
le auspices of the Orange 

^ most celebrated prepara- 

/as prepared for college. 

'olina, he was graduated 

z planned for him by his 
/-as admitted to the law in 
'-ere few in number, and 
cases on his hands. Most 



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CALVIN HENDERSON WILEY 

PaLVIN HENDERSON WILEY, son of David 
L. Wiley and Anne Woodburn, was bom in 
Guilford County, North Carolina, February 3, 
1 8 19. The founder of the Wiley family in North 
Carolina was William Wiley, who moved into 
the State from Pennsylvania in 1754. He pur- 
chased lands from Lord Granville in the Alamance section of 
Guilford County. His son David, grandfather of Calvin H. 
Wiley, was present as a boy at the battle of Alamance, and later 
became a soldier of the Revolution. 

Mrs. Wiley's ambition for her son marked out for him a career 
in the pulpit, and as a step in this direction, she bestowed upon 
him the names of two Presbyterian ministers — that of |hc great 
John Calvin and that of her old pastor, Rev. Dr. Henderson. In 
furtherance of these wishes, young Wiley was sent to Caldwell Insti- 
tute in Greensboro, conducted under the auspices of the Orange 
Presbytery, and at that time perhaps the most celebrated prepara- 
tory school in the State. Here he was prepared for college. 
Entering the University of North Carolina, he was graduated 
in 1840 with highest honors. 

Not feeling called to the sacred work planned for him by his 
mother, he chose law as his profession, was admitted to the law in 
1841 and settled at Oxford. Clients were few in number, and 
the young lawyer found more time than cases on his hands. Most 



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428 NORTH CAROLINA 

of this spare time was devoted to literary pursuits, in which he 
delighted throughout his life. From 1841 to 1843 he edited the 
Oxford Mercury, In 1847 he published his first considerable 
work, a novel entitled "Alamance ; or, the Great and Final Experi- 
ment." Two years later a second novel appeared, "Roanoke; or. 
Where is Utopia?" 

But the author found graver work awaiting him than the writ- 
ing of romances. A close observer of the educational and indus- 
trial conditions in North Carolina^ he wrote feelingly and elo- 
quently of what he saw. Among other things, he noticed with 
great solicitude that the people of North Carolina, unaware of 
the immense resources of their own State, were deserting her 
by the thousands, seeking in other regions fields for imagined 
advantages. He wrote that the State had "long been regarded 
by its own citizens as a mere nursery to grow up in ;" that it had 
become a great camping-ground, the inhabitants considering 
themselves as merely tenanted here for a while; that thousands 
sought homes elsewhere, whose sacrifices in moving would have 
paid for twenty years their share of taxation, sufficient to give to 
North Carolina all the fancied advantages of those regions 
whither they went to be taxed with disease and suffering; that 
the melancholy sign, "For sale," seemed plowed in deep, black 
characters over the whole State; and that even the State flag 
which waved over the capitol, indicating the sessions of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, was jestingly called by our neighbors of Virginia 
and of South Carolina an auctioneer's sig^. The "ruinous 
effects," he wrote, "are eloquently recorded in deserted farms, in 
wide wastes of guttered sedgefields, in neglected resources, in the 
absence of imprdvements, and in the hardships, sacrifices and sor- 
rows of constant immigration." 

In addition to this deplorable condition. Dr. Wiley observed 
that North Carolina was regarded by Northern publishers as 
the "best mart in the world for the sale of trashy and uncurrent 
productions, and the very refuse of literary quackery was 
sent out and circulated amcMig our people. They were thus 
drugged with foreign narcotics and heavily taxed for the 



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CALVIN HENDERSON WILEY 429 

benefit of fabrics that could not be sold where they were 
published." 

These two evils caused him no little anxiety about the future of 
the State. Careful study of the situation revealed to him but one 
remedy — universal education. The children must be taught to 
know and appreciate the opportunities offered at home, and must 
be pven the training necessary for intelligent use of those oppor- 
tunities. Year by year the conviction grew steadily upon him 
that he could render no greater service to North Carolina than by 
revealing the State to herself through a complete system of public 
schools. Abandoning personal ambition, he threw himself into 
this new work with all the energy of his nature. 

The first step taken toward the establishment of a public school 
system in North Carolina was Judge Murphey's famous report of 
1816, in which the organization of such a system was recom- 
mended to the General Assembly. It ended, however, with the 
recommendation, and nothing further was done until 1825. In 
this year, certain funds in the State Treasury and the revenues 
derived from certain sources were set aside as a fund for the 
establishment of a system of public schools. In 1836 the surplus 
revenue of the Federal Government was distributed to the sev- 
eral States ; and of her share North Carolina devoted $i» 133,757-39 
to the Literary Fund. Soon after this an act was passed by the 
legislature providing for a system of public education. The plan 
was crude and imperfect and was not put into general operation. 
By November i, 1840, the Literary Board's resources amounted 
to $2,241480.05. With this considerable fund on hand, it be- 
came necessary to have a better organization of the school system. 
In 1840, therefore, an act was passed, entitled "An Act for the 
establishment and better regulation of the common schools." 
The Literary Board was made the executive of the system. But 
this was an inadequate arrangement, the board from the very 
nature of its composition not being able to attend properly to the 
various duties incumbent upon the executive of such a system. 
A single executive head was needed. Recommendations for the 
appointment of a general superintendent of common schools were 



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430 NORTH CAROLINA 

continuously urged upon the legislature, during a period of twelve 
years, but to no purpose. The system thus floundered about 
without a pilot, and in this situation was on the point of going to 
wreck when Calvin H. Wiley took hold of the helm. 

In order to introduce the necessary reforms, he desired a scat 
in the General Assembly. As he realized that there was no chance 
of his obtaining this in Granville County, he returned to his native 
Guilford, and was at once elected a member of the General As- 
sembly of 1850-51. During this session he introduced a bill pro- 
viding for the appointment of a superintendent of the common 
schools. He supported his bill with a speech of great power and 
eloquence, but failed to secure its passage. Disappointed, but not 
disheartened, he again stood for election and was returned. 
Through his influence a similar bill was introduced by Mr. J. B. 
Cherry of Bertie and passed both Houses. This act provided for 
the election of a superintendent by the General Assembly. He 
was to hold office for a term of two years, or until his successor 
should be duly appointed and qualified. His duties, as outlined 
by the act, consisted of the usual ones, such as collecting informa- 
tion, making proper reports, seeing to the enforcement of the 
school laws, etc. But in the words of Dr. Wiley: "His duties 
cannot be expressed by law, and if he does not possess the spirit 
of his station, a conformity of the mere letter of legal require- 
ments . . . will not be a discharge of his duties to the public 
He is the chief executive head of the system ; ... he ought to 
be the chief thinking mind; the organ of intercommunication 
among its parts; the recording memory also of the system. He 
has also to be the heart as well as the head of the system, infus- 
ing into it life, animation and hope, encouraging the desponding 
and stimulating the energies of the enthusiastic." 

This law once passed, it became necessary to find a man of suf- 
ficient ability to undertake the arduous and responsible duties of 
the office. All voices called on one man. Though he was a NNTiig. 
and the legislature was Democratic, yet State patriotism prevailed 
over party allegiance, and without solicitation on his part, Wiley 
was elected in December, 1852. On January I, 1853, in the 



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CALVIN HENDERSON WILEY 431 

thirty-fourth year of his age, he entered upon the duties of his 
office. Surely no man ever undertook an arduous task with a 
greater sense of the vast personal responsibility that lay upon 
him. He realized that upon his conduct of the duties of his office 
depended the life of the common schools. He had ever> thing to 
do and everybody to instruct. The compass of experience by 
which he might steer his course, seeking the channels of safety 
and avoiding the shoals and whirlpools of danger, was lacking to 
him. But he did not flinch from his duty. His steady hand 
grasped the helm, guided by a penetrating insight into the murky 
conditions surrounding him and supported by a heart strong 
through faith in his cause, in his people and in divine guidance. 

The attempt to establish a system of public schools in North 
Carolina, owing to the lack of proper organization and the ab- 
sence of an efficient executive head, had proved worse than a 
failure. Teachers were scarce and inefficient, schoolhouses were 
worthless, uncomfortable, unhealthy, and inadequate for their pur- 
poses, money was squandered, results were meagre, and the con- 
fidence of the people in the schools absolutely destroyed. 

As a consequence of these conditions, Dr. Wiley found himself 
faced at the outset by six difficulties : First, the diversified char- 
acter of the people, resulting in a lack of sympathetic harmony 
fatal to a systematic conduct of the schools ; second, the novelty 
of the common-school idea, from which grew misconceptions of the 
purposes of the schools and an impatience at their necessarily slow 
work; third, the illiteracy of the population, which gave birth to 
a mistrust of the ability of the people to conduct successfully a 
system of schools; fourth, the erroneous idea that the common 
schools were mere charity schools for the poor, from which grew a 
distaste among many people to accept their benefits; fifth, the 
lack of a feeling of responsibility for the schools among the citi- 
zens of the State, causing difficulty in getting efficient men to 
fill the official positions in the counties; finally, the scarcity of 
teachers, which, of course, struck at the very roots of the sys- 
tem. To meet and overcome these obstacles, there were, as 
Dr. Wiley wrote, "a thousand little springs invisible to the casual 



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432 NORTH CAROLINA 

observer to be delicately touched, a thousand nameless duties to 
be performed, a thousand crosses and difficulties unknown to the 
world at large." 

He went about his work with determination, energy and 
patience, having at the beginning six objects in view. They were! 
To gain information for his own guidance ; to let teachers, officers 
and pupils know and feel that the State as a State was really 
interested in their welfare ; to diffuse information on public scfiool 
systems in general and the North Carolina system in particular; 
to enforce the laws; to initiate himself all needful reforms; and 
finally, to make the schools supply themselves with teachers. 

The work was slow, discouraging and tedious, and the superin- 
tendent was often compelled to draw heavily on his fund of 
patience. The results were far beyond his calculations. Old 
friends were discovered, new ones made and enlisted in the 
work ; enemies were met and routed ; tardy officers were spurred 
on to more diligent and efficient work, incompetent ones found 
out and removed ; many misconceptions were corrected ; colleges, 
high schools and academies were awakened to a sense of their 
vital interest in the common schools; unity was gradually intro- 
duced into the system; and school men in all parts of the State 
and in all phases of educational work were taught to see that the 
interests of all were bound together in one great and ever-widen- 
ing circle. 

One of the most apparent evils which it was necessary for the 
superintendent to reform was the multiplicity and frequent 
changes of text-books. Dr. Wiley was often called upon to in- 
terfere in this matter, and he felt justified in using all his authority 
to suppress the evil. Where suitable text-books could not be 
found, he set to work with characteristic energy to prepare them 
himself, always bearing in mind his original desire to awaken 
North Carolinians to a sense of the great resources of their 
State. For instance, he notified publishers that he would not 
approve of any geography unless he was allowed to correct the 
text so far as it related to North Carolina. Several publishers 
consented to this, and he selected "MitcheH's Intermediate Geog- 



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CALVIN HENDERSON WILEY 433 

raphy." To this book he added an appendix giving a condensed 
but accurate account of the State. He directed the preparation 
of a new map, showing all the railroads, plank roads, and intended 
routes of travel ; and in other ways emphasized the resources and 
opportunities of the State. He proudly asserts that such a con- 
cession was never before made in any work to any State. 

Nothing in Dr. Wiley's long career of usefulness to the State 
better illustrates his unselfish devotion to her interests than his 
action in regard to a series of North Carolina readers prepared 
by himself for use in the schools. The purpose of the work was 
the same as that of his supplement of Mitchell's geography. He 
had b^^n the readers before his elevation to the superintendency 
of the common schools, but upon assiuning the duties of his office 
he felt that he ought not to have any investment in school-books. 
He therefore made arrangements for Dr. F. M. Hubbard, Pro- 
fessor of English Literature in the State University, to complete 
the work, and sold the stereotype plates of his readers and all 
the copies on hand to A. S. Barnes & Company of New York at 
original cost. By this arrangement Dr. Wiley received nothing 
for his valuable copyright, no profit on his books and no pay 
for his work and expense, besides losing three years' interest and 
the original investment. There was nothing ostentatious about 
this ; it was done quietly, and solely that the books might be more 
useful. The readers were received with every mark of approval. 

By far the most important problem the superintendent was 
called upon to solve was the problem of supplying teachers. 
Dr. Wiley went about this matter with his usual energy and wis- 
dom. He aimed ultimately at normal schools, but in the begin- 
ning these were out of the question. For the present the common 
schools must supply themselves. He considered that their ability 
to do that would be the best test by which to judge of their char- 
acter and success. He devised a plan, simple but effective, by 
which teachers not only could be supplied, but also aroused to 
study and continuous self-improvement. In order to test the 
results of his plan, he sent to each chairman in the State a cir- 
cular asking what had been his observation of it. Fifty-five an- 



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434 NORTH CAROLINA 

swers were received. One said, "bad;" one said, "no change;" 
four were "in doubt, but hopeful;" forty-nine thought the plan 
"good." In this way pupils leaving the common schools could 
enter the ranks of the teachers and gradually work to the top. 
As a result of his plan, Dr. Wiley asserted with some pride that 
those who now became teachers, sought places in the public schools 
in preference to conducting private schools, though formerly the 
reverse had been true. 

But it was not enough simply to supply the demand for 
teachers; it was equally essential that a constant pressure be 
brought to bear on them for improvement. Besides the annual 
examinations. Dr. Wiley conceived and put into execution three 
other schemes : the establishment of a Teachers' Library Associa- 
tion in each school district ; the publication of the North Carolina 
School Journal; and the organization of the Educational Asso- 
ciation of North Carolina. 

Through the Teachers' Library Association, the teachers of the 
common schools were supplied with professional literature, for 
Dr. Wiley constantly urged upon them the necessity of studying 
their profession. He himself set the example. His words are 
as true now as they were then, when he said : "Scatter judiciously 
over the State good copies of any good work on education and 
it will create a revolution." 

The superintendent constantly felt the need of an organ of 
communication between the various educational forces of the 
State. To serve this purpose, he turned over in his mind plans 
for the establishment of an educational journal. The first num- 
ber appeared in 1856, under the name North Carolina Common 
School Journal. It was to be issued quarterly from Greensboro. 
After an existence of two years, during which time it was kept 
alive only by Dr. Wiley's unlimited zeal and energy, it was 
adopted as the official organ of the North Carolina Teachers* 
Association; its name was changed to the North Carolina 
Journal of Education, and Dr. Wiley was elected editor- 
in-chief, assisted by fourteen associate-editors. The list of sub- 
scribers was small and the financial difficulties great, yet the 



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CALVIN HENDERSON WILEY 435 

journal took and kept a high place among its contemporaries. 
Though the war soon forced half of its exchanges to suspend pub- 
lication and though the difficulty in getting paper increased daily, 
the journal held its own until 1864. In March of that year, the 
printing establishment of Campbell & Albright, from which the 
journal was issued, was destroyed, and along with it the journal 
fell. Its influence for good in North Carolina was beyond calcu- 
lation. 

The same year in which the journal was established witnessed 
another of Dr. Wiley's triumphs. Numerous efforts had previ- 
ously been made in the State to organize a teachers' association, 
but all had failed ignominiously. On one occasion the meeting 
had been widely advertised, and on the appointed day one teacher 
appeared. However, Dr. Wiley was a courageous man and was 
not to be daunted by the failures of others. In October, 1856, at 
Salisbury, he succeeded, after strenuous efforts in organizing the 
educational forces of the State into a Teachers' Association. Six 
other meetings followed, all of them well attended, not only by 
men prominent in educational work, but also by many prominent 
in the other professions and in business life. The association was 
on the high road to greater usefulness when it fell to pieces amid 
the thunders of war. Dr. Wiley considered the Journal of Edu- 
cation and the Teachers' Association his two chief aids in pro- 
moting the common school system. 

He labored long and faithfully ; he met and overcame almost in- 
superable difficulties ; and he placed his State foremost among the 
States of the South in the education of her children. During the 
decade from 1850 to i860, covering the period of Dr. Wiley's 
work, although the population of the State increased less than 
14 per cent., the number of children in the common schools 
increased more than 36 per cent. In 1850 the percentage of 
illiteracy in the State among the voting population was 29.2 ; by 
i860 this had been reduced to 23.1. In 1850 Dr. Wiley had been 
alarmed at the neglect of our wealth-producing resources. At 
the close of the decade he had ample grounds for declaring that 
a great revolution was silently going on in North Carolina. 



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436 NORTH CAROLINA 

Dr. Wiley's fears for the future of the State had been aroused 
by the constant stream of emigration from her borders. By i860 
the outward current had been greatly checked and an inflowing 
current started. The spirit of education was revealing itself in 
the industrial progress of the State; in the generally awakened 
confidence in her resources; and in a growing attachment for 
home. The blight which had fallen on North Carolina was about 
to vanish under the touch of his strong hand. 

Whatever of success has been attained was admitted by all to 
be due to the genius of Calvin H. Wiley. So universal was the 
confidence felt in his ability and integrity, that he numbered his 
supporters in all ranks and conditions of life, in all religious de* 
nominations and in all political parties, and received hearty sup- 
port from all. A Whig when elected by a Democratic legis- 
lature, he retained his party affiliations and voted according to 
his political convictions, and yet was continuously re-elected by 
a legislature generally Democratic at a time when party feeling 
ran high. On one occasion the Democrats in the legislature moved 
his election at the beginning of the session, in order to forestall 
the rise of party passion and the possibility of a Democratic 
opponent. 

This confidence reflected no little credit on the Democratic Party, 
and the results showed that it was not misplaced. Dr. Wiley was 
met at the beginning of his work by six obstacles. He had found 
the people separated by their diversified characters and aspira- 
tions; he gave them a common interest and united them in a 
common effort to promote a common cause; he found them ig- 
norant of the common school idea, he taught them by unanswer- 
able example and filled their minds and hearts with knowledge 
of and pride in their educational system ; he found them diffident 
of their ability to manage ; he put them to the test and compelled 
their confidence in themselves and in their schools ; he found their 
minds filled with errors, he turned on them the light of knowl- 
edge and they vanished like mist before the sun ; he found them 
indifferent, he roused their enthusiastic support ; he found a vine- 
yard without laborers, he created an army of devoted workers. 



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CALVIN HENDERSON WILEY 437 

But with the outbreak of war came the supreme test. North 
Carolina seceded from the Union May 20, 1861. It became ap- 
parent from the first that an attack would be made upon the school 
fund for the purpose of converting it into revenue for the support 
of the war. Dr. Wiley was filled with great anxiety and began 
at once to prepare for the attack. He first sought the support of 
the county officials by issuing to them a very able circular, giving 
the arguments in favor of preserving the school fund intact for 
school purposes. His next step was to win the governor and his 
council. Previous to the meeting of the first war legislature, he 
appeared before them to present his case. His statement was 
able and his appeal eloquent. "No people," he exclaimed, "could 
or would be free who were unable or unwilling to educate their 
children;" and the fact that the State was waging a war for 
inde|>endence was an additional reason why the schools should 
be kept 0|>en. He cried out with indignation against those who 
were so short-sighted as to "think that a war for political, social, 
commercial and intellectual independence could be waged with 
better results by arresting or destroying all those springs of life 
on which national wealth and greatness are founded." The gov- 
ernor and the members of his council were completely won over, 
and entered into a solemn, though informal, covenant to support 
the superintendent in resisting any attack on the school fund. 
This agreement, be it said to Governor Ellis's credit, was faith- 
fully kept, and the precedent thus set was followed by his 
successors. 

Dr. Wiley was ably assisted in this work by the North Caro- 
lina Teachers' Association. In November, 1861, the association 
presented a memorial to the constitutional convention, then in 
session, praying that "by an amendment to the constitution the 
proceeds of the common school fund be sacredly and permanently 
secured to their original purposes." 

It was well that the superintendent and the friends of educa- 
tion prepared their forces for the attack. It came soon after the 
assembling of the legislature. Both sides received able support. 
In the Senate, Governor John M. Morehead led the defense. Out- 



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438 NORTH CAROLINA 

side the work of Dr. Wiley was arduous, skilful and effective. 
Nothing shows better than this fight the strength of the system 
built up by Dr. Wiley. Its powerful aid was invoked and the 
bill providing for the use of the school fund for war purposes 
was defeated. When the legislature adjourned, the battle was 
won, for succeeding legislatures followed the example thus set 
and the school fund was unmolested. 

And so the schools were kept open, but, of course, they felt 
the strain of war. From this time onward their existence was a 
struggle heroically maintained by the superintendent. The re- 
markable feature is not that the system became impaired, but 
that it did not fail altogether. That it did not do so was due to 
the energy and zeal of Calvin H. Wiley ; he refused to yield to dis- 
couragements, but labored incessantly for the betterment of the 
system. While the country lay bleeding in the iron grip of war 
we find him planning a system of graded schools and actually get- 
ting a bill for their establishment through the House of Commons. 
It was also reported favorably by the Senate Committee, but had 
to be tabled, because of the pressure of more urgent business. 
The task before Dr. Wiley was more than human ability could 
cope with successfully. Difficulties increased daily. The atten- 
tion of the people was attracted from the ordinary affairs of life 
by the novelty and the sufTering of war. Many thought it best 
to suspend the schools altogether. It was hard to get text-books. 
It was hard to get capable officials. It was hard to get teachers. 
In spite of all the difficulties, the report of 1863 shows 50,000 chil- 
dren in the common schools. Dr. Wiley truly says that "the 
future historian of this stirring age will not fail to find evidences 
of the moral energy that this fact implies." 

But the end was drawing near. The distressing condition of 
the people and the depreciation of the currency made it almost 
impossible to continue the schools. Dr. Wiley never for an instant 
relaxed his energy, but the task was beyond the power of man, 
and with the close of the war the schools went down for lack 
of funds. The superintendent was in his office in the capitol when 
the surrender of General Joseph E. Johnston was announced to 



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CALVIN HENDERSON WILEY 439 

him, April 26, 1865. Even then he did not cease from his labors. 
He retained his office until October 19th, when by an ordinance 
of the constitutional convention all offices held on April 26, 1865, 
were declared vacant. And in 1866 the office of superintendent 
was abolished for the want of funds to meet the expenses. 

With his going out of office Dr. Wiley closed his official con- 
nection with the common school system, though he never lost 
active interest in educational matters. He had given the best 
years of his life to the cause, and surely no man ever laid down 
his work with a better right to the gratitude of contemporaries 
and of posterity. 

At the beginning of this sketch mention was made of his 
mother's wish that he become a minister of the Gospel. At that 
time he did not feel called to the ministry, but later the matter 
presented itself in a different light. He studied theology privately, 
and in 1855 was licensed to preach, though he was not fully or- 
dained until 1866. He never had a regular charge. In 1881 he 
received the degree of doctor of divinity from his Alma Mater. 
In later life he was engaged in many useful works, nearly all of 
which were inspired by patriotic or religious motives. In June of 
1869 Dr. Wiley was appointed the general agent of the American 
Bible Society for Eastern and Middle Tennessee, and moved to 
Jonesboro in that State. In 1874 he was transferred to a similar 
position in North Carolina and removed to Winston. Two years 
later, South Carolina was added to his field. The same energy 
and ability which characterized his work as superintendent of 
common schools was shown by him in his new work. 

In 1862, February 25th, he was married to Miss Mittie Towles 
of Raleigh. She and five of her children still survive him. 

After the close of the war a new system of public schools was 
built up in North Carolina upon the old foundation laid by 
Dr. Wiley. In 1876 he was asked to become the candidate for 
the superintendency of public instruction, but declined on the 
ground that his sacred calling prevented. 

After his removal to Winston, Dr. Wiley interested himself in 
the establishment of the public school system of that city. His 



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440 NORTH CAROLINA 

voice and pen were given to the cause, and when established he 
was called to the chairmanship of the first Board of Commission- 
ers. This place he held till his death, January ii, 1887. 

The fame of his services is limited neither by State boundaries 
nor by the lapse of years. His reputation was national, and his 
school system was recognized as one of the best in the Union* 
At the National Convention of Educators held in Cincinnati in 
August, 1858, Dr. Wiley was on the program as "one of the dis- 
tinguished educators who would address the convention" along^ 
with Horace Mann. He received an invitation to visit the legis- 
lature of Georgia to aid in preparing a system of schools similar 
to those he had established in North Carolina. He could not go, 
and he was then urged to prepare an essay on the subject, to be 
read to the legislature. The Boston (Massachusetts) Post of 
May I, 1856, says that Dr. Wiley's report for 1855 is "written 
with ability and shows that Mr. Wiley has largeness of views 
and a zeal and energy in the duties of his office which eminently 
fit him to fill the responsible position which he now occupies/' 
Since his death, one of the school buildings in the city of Raleigh 
has been given his name. In the city of Winston the school chil- 
dren have erected a handsome monument to his memory. 

No man better deserves such recognition from his people. I do 
not know how a man's character and ability are to be measured 
if it be not by the work he does in the world. I do not know how 
his work is to be measured if it be not by the results it has upon 
civilization. If these results be for the permanent upbuilding 
of the State, the work deserves to be called a great work, and the 
man who does it a* great man. Measured by these standards, 
Calvin H, Wiley must be ranked among the greatest statesmen of 
his day. 

R. D. W. Connor. 



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PATRICK HENRY WINSTON, Sr. 




PATRICK HENRY WINSTON, Sr., son of 
George Winston and Anne Fuller, was bom in 
Franklin County, May 9, 1820, and died in 
Windsor, Bertie County, June 14, 1886. 

The Winstons are an old English family, 
tracing their line as far back as 960 A.D., to 
^' \V yn Stan of Wales. The female branches of the 
family have been as distinguished as the male, including in Eng- 
land the Churchills (Duke of Marlborough) and in America the 
Henrys, Wirts, Seatons and Maurys. "Early in the seventeenth 
century three brothers, Winston, Isaac, John and William, all 
men of large stature and uncommonly handsome, so tradition and 
family portraits assert, left Winston Hall, Yorkshire, England, 
and migrated to the New World, settling in Hanover County, 
Virginia, in search of fame and fortune." By Isaac, the emigrant, 
was begotten Sarah, the mother of the Revolutionary orator, 
Patrick Henry. "She possessed in an eminent degree," says Wirt, 
"the mild and benevolent disposition, the undeviating probity, the 
correct understanding and easy elocution by which that ancient 
family has been so long distinguished." Her brother, William 
Winston, was said by contemporaries to have surpassed even 
Patrick Henry in the fervor and magic of his eloquence. 

Isaac Winston, son of John, the emigrant, moved from Virginia 
to North Carolina, begetting John, who begot George, the father 



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442 NORTH CAROLINA 

of Patrick Henry Winston. Four generations of sturdy land- 
owners, slaveholders and soil tillers, men of large frame, of quaint 
humor, of rugged honesty, of strong physical and mental powers 
and of commanding influence in local affairs, culminated in the 
person of Patrick Henry Winston. His father, George, was 
famous for wit and humor, for hatred of shams and pretensions, 
for curious vocabulary of homespun words and illustrations, with 
which he bombarded the entire community. His mother, Anne 
Fuller, "the belle of the county," was daughter of Bartholomew 
Fuller apd Sarah Cooke, whose mother, Amy Belle Conyers, bom 
on the island of Bermuda, sent seven brothers, all gallant soldiers, 
to the Revolutionary War. It was long a tradition in Franklin 
County that no handsomer couple ever stood before the altar than 
George Winston and Anne Fuller. He was massive, rugged, racy 
of the soil, masculine and handsome ; she a model of gentleness, 
grace, culture and womanly beauty. 

Patrick Henry Winston, the second son and third child of this 
union, combined to a remarkable degree and in wonderfully good 
balance the strong and striking qualities of both parents. From 
his mother came that gentle, tender and refined nature which would 
not suffer him needlessly to set foot upon a worm; from his 
father strength, majesty, authority ; from both sides honesty and 
efficiency. He was raised on his father's farm, spending his boy- 
hood and youth in manual labor with scant opportunities of edu- 
cation, except what he received from his mother, whose early 
death left him without a teacher and sent him to the field, a plough- 
boy among his father's slaves. But something stirred within him 
that called for higher work, so at the age of eighteen he left home 
and entered Wake Forest College, where in one year he accom- 
plished the work of three, passing up rapidly from one class into 
another. At the age of nineteen he took charge of the Oak Grove 
Academy near Windsor, in Bertie County, teaching there three 
years, and continuing his own education by private study. He 
was now resolved to secure the best education obtainable and to 
enter the profession of law. For this purpose, and attracted by 
the presence of Webster and Clay, whom he greatly admired, he 



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PATRICK HENRY WINSTON, Sr. 443 

went to Washington City and entered the Columbian University, 
where after three years of study he was graduated with the high- 
est honors as valedictorian of his class. Returning to North Caro- 
line, he entered the University Law School at Chapel Hill, com- 
pleting the course there, and afterward studying under Judge 
Robert B. Gilliam at Oxford. 

While at the University he was surpassed by no man in dili- 
gence. The late Samuel F. Phillips, at that time a student in the 
University, told the writer that the night of the grand commence- 
ment ball, going to his room between midnight and day, he passed 
the open door of Winston's room and found him intently reading 
'*Coke on Littleton." He had not left his room during the festivi- 
ties of the evening, but had studied all night long as eagerly as the 
other boys had danced and frolicked. He was as fond of 
pleasures as any man, but he was their master and not their 
servant. 

Obtaining license to practice law, he settled in Windsor, Bertie 
County, in response to urgent solicitation of friends and former 
patrons ; and for one year taught school and practiced law. His 
practice grew very rapidly. He took rank almost at once at the 
head of his profession, maintaining it for forty years in a bar 
that has rarely been surpassed in the annals of the State, including 
such lawyers as Cherry, Outlaw, Biggs, Smith, Gilliam, Carter 
and Barnes. For nearly half a century he was retained in every 
important case in the courts of Northeast North Carolina. As a 
land lawyer he had no superior. He knew all the foundations 
of law. As an advocate he was singularly clear, forcible and 
strong. The jury was bound to understand him, as he turned 
to view every side of a difficult question, exposing fallacies, strip- 
ping off veneering, getting at the heart of it, illustrating every 
phase of it with homely illustrations drawn from every-day life, 
enriching and flavoring the driest legal points with quaint, irre- 
sistible humor or broad, side-splitting fun. People came from 
far and wide to hear him speak, and his original sayings passed 
through several counties as current coin of thought. Negroes 
and illiterate laborers no less than scholars treasured his sayings, 



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444 NORTH CAROLINA 

loved his humor and even imitated his droll and charming 
mannerisms. 

In 1850, and again in 1854, the people of Bertie County sent 
him as their representative to the House of Commons. .His popu- 
larity was unbounded, and political honors were awaiting him, 
not for the asking, but for acceptance. His career in the legis- 
lature made him a State reputation and hosts of friends. No man 
was fonder of social life and the joys of public life ; but he delib- 
erately put aside a public career for the sake of wife and children, 
whom he loved with a great heart full of tenderness and inspired 
by a noble sense of duty. He resolved to live at home, and to 
supervise the education of his children. Nothing but great public 
emergencies ever afterward made him swerve, even temporarily, 
from this purpose. 

In 1861 the legislature elected him a member of the State Board 
of Claims, one of the most important executive- judicial bodies in 
the State. Its duties were to pass upon financial claims against the 
State arising out of the Civil War. The other members of the 
Board were Bartholomew F. Moore and Samuel F, Phillips. 
Winston characterized the board as follows: **To Mr. Moore a 
dollar looks as big as a cart wheel; to Phillips as small as a 
sixpence; to Winston just the right size. He settles the claims." 
Mr. Winston displayed such marked ability and excellent judg- 
ment as a member of this board that he was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Vance, on the expiration of the existence of the Board of 
Claims, to be financial agent between the State of North Carolina 
and the Confederate Government. In this office he settled 
millions of dollars of claims arising from the furnishing of arms, 
clothing and supplies to the Confederate army by the State of 
North Carolina, and protected the financial interests of the State 
with conspicuous fidelity, ability and integrity. 

Through all the dark and perplexing period of the Civil War he 
was the invaluable friend and counsellor of Governor Vance. 
They were both Whigs, both lovers of the Union, both full of 
fun and humor, both children of the soil and men of the people, 
both scholars well versed in Shakespeare and the Bible, both men 



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PATRICK HENRY WINSTON, Sr. 445 

of rare personal charm and marked individualism. Few days 
passed from 1862 to 1865 without their meeting in counsel. Mr. 
Winston was never in favor of the Civil War, but when it came, 
he bore a conspicuous and honorable part in the State and Con- 
federate councils. He moved his family from Eastern North 
Carolina, owing to the disorders and dangers prevailing there 
during the war, and took up his residence in his native county 
of Franklin. Although residing there only temporarily, this 
county selected him as its sole representative in the constitutional 
convention of 1865, a body of men chosen for wisdom, patriotism 
and sagacity to deal with the most momentous problems that 
ever confronted the State. In this convention Mr. Winston was 
conspicuous as a leader and a wise, conservative statesman. His 
record shows with what sagacity, fortitude and dignity he met the 
disasters of defeat. While many who had urged secession were 
now cowering and submissive, he, with others who had resisted 
secession, were determined not to yield their own self-respect nor 
the rights and liberties of the people. They formed a new party, 
called "Conservative," and inspired by the spirit of its name. Mr. 
Winston could have been nominated for governor, but recog- 
nizing the unwisdom of his own nomination because of active 
service in behalf of the Confederacy, he brought forward the name 
of Jonathan Worth, a Quaker of Randolph County, who was 
nominated and triumphantly elected. Mr. Winston was president 
of the Council of State during Governor Worth's administration. 
In 1868 he was offered the nomination for Congress in the First 
Congressional District, having moved back to Bertie County, but 
declined the offer, and for the remainder of his life devoted him- 
self exclusively to the practice of law, the repairing of fortunes 
shattered by war and the education of his children. 

His work as a lawyer kept him busy. He was employed in 
every case of importance in his section of the State. In the cele- 
brated Johnston will case, in which were engaged sixteen of the 
State's foremost lawyers, Mr, Winston was selected to make the 
leading argument in behalf of the will on appeal before the 
Supreme Court. His speech exhibits every resource of a strong 



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446 NORTH CAROLINA 

and fertile mind, well trained in law and skilled in lucid exposition* 
The will was sustained. 

As a man of business he was unusually gifted, managing with 
rare skill and success large fishing and farming properties, giving 
personal attention to all details. He knew the personal character- 
istics of each laborer in his employment, and even of each animal. 
His weekly visits to his plantations were a source of delight to the 
humblest laborer. All enjoyed his love of fun, his sunny humor, 
his shrewd wisdom, as well as his generosity and sympathy. 

On January i, 1846, Mr. Winston was married to Martha 
Elizabeth Byrd, a lady of rare beauty, sweet disposition and most 
lovable character. In her veins mingled the blood of Scotch, 
German, English and French ancestors — Byrds, Watsons, Cape- 
harts, Masons and Razeurs, all families of wealth, culture and 
refinement. She was a model woman, loving with her whole heart 
her husband and children, devoting her life* to the making of a 
happy home, receiving and giving hospitality, visiting the poor 
and afflicted, nursing the sick and aged, avoiding scandal and 
gossip, loyal to friends and kindred, and busy every hour of the 
day, indoors or out, with the duties of a housewife. "There was 
a rectitude and a consistency of character in her that I could 
depend on," wrote Mrs. Cornelia Phillips Spencer at her death, 
"and a self-respect and dignity of carriage and a personal dainti- 
ness that I was never tired of observing. How she loved her 
children, and how justly proud in her quiet, undemonstrative way 
she was of you all ! How you will miss her — the thought of her — 
that upright, firm, neat little figure, always carefully well dressed, 
always employed, always polite, attentive, well bred, the model 
of a lady of the generation of sixty years ago." She lived with 
her husband, without ever a quarrel or a harsh word on either 
side, for forty-two years. No wonder that Patrick Henry 
Winston, virile, masculine, great in body and mind, tender and 
loving in heart, put aside a public career for the joys of domestic 
life with a wife so richly and charmingly endowed. Their home, 
"Windsor Castle," proudly overlooking the town of Windsor, rich 
in good literature and good living, abounding in genuine and in- 



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PATRICK HENRY WINSTON, Sr. 447 

formal hospitality, sweet in the confidence and communion of 
father, mother and children, was a model North Carolina home, a 
noble illustration of the great truth that the home is the basis of 
civilization, the foundation of all virtues, the strength of every 
State. 

In the midst of professional work that few lawyers could per- 
form and of business cares and labors that would have crushed 
an ordinary man, Mr. Winston found time for daily culture, in- 
struction and entertainment in study, reading and composition. 
His mind was never idle. His large and select library was 
increased each year by additions of the most valuable publications 
in literature and the sciences. His old playmate, now his book- 
seller in New York, Edward J. Hale, Sr., himself a scholar and 
student, would ship him regularly twice a year select consign- 
ments of literature. His own orders for books and magazines 
kept pace with the progress of thought and discovery throughout 
the world. His mind took in everything. Its chief quality was 
thoroughness, getting to the bottom of things. He studied astron- 
omy for thirty years. His knowledge of political economy was vast 
and profound. He knew Shakespeare as intimately, as lovingly, as 
completely as he knew Badger, Webster and Clay. For twenty 
years during the summer months he would read a play of Shake- 
speare's each day after dinner or supper. The long winter evenings 
were usually spent in study or composition. He was a charming 
letter writer ; style crisp, clear, virile and strongly individual ; sub- 
ject-matter ranging from roe-herrings to lunar eclipses, from town 
gossip to Emerson, from backyard events to the downfall of em- 
pires; spelling, punctuation, rhetoric as correct as Addison; 
chirography equal to copper-plate engraving. No person ever 
received a letter from him without being specially attracted by 
some striking peculiarity in it. His correspondence with friends, 
relatives, children and men of business would have consumed all 
the time of an average man. To one of his children he wrote 
three times a week, and often daily, for twenty-five years. To 
his wife, when away from home, he wrote always daily and some- 
times twice or thrice in the same mail. His letters were often 



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448 NORTH CAROLINA 

only two words long, occasionally six or eight pages. He could 
compress into one page a volume of information or instruction. 
The late Thomas D. Hogg used to say that a letter received by 
him in Strasbourg from Mr. Winston in Windsor told more about 
the cathedral and the clock than he could find out in Strasbourg. 
His mind was Shakespearian. The joy of creation pervaded all 
his thoughts and utterances, and underneath his fancies and 
pleasantries lay the indestructible foundation of hard common 
sense. 

Mr. Winston took great delight in the education of his children. 
He had been a teacher early in life, and possessed rare talents for 
imparting instruction and developing the faculties of young minds. 
As each son returned home from school or college he was put 
through the most rigid examination in spelling or reading, Latin 
or geometry, astronomy or political economy. A misspelled word 
hurt him, a grammatical error almost put him to bed. Every son 
was required to study Blackstone at home, and made to learn it 
accurately, word for word. One slovenly definition and shut 
would go the book! Silently and quietly he would pass you by 
for full forty-eight hours. He was never so happy as when he 
would come home from his law office and find his sons reading 
Shakespeare or Scott. Great \vas his disgust when he learned 
that one of his sons at college in New York was studying political 
economy, the science of Adam Smith, of Leon Say, of Francis 
W^ayland and of John Stuart Mill, in a 200-page text-book whose 
author's name on the title-page read "E. Peshine Smith," and 
whose title was *Tolitical Economy for American Readers." 
"Peshine Smith !" he exclaimed. '* Political-Economy- for- Ameri- 
can-Readers? I suppose your college has also a multiplication- 
table-for-American-calculators." 

Under the widespreading trees of Windsor Castle with its 10- 
acre lawn and its 200 acres of forest and field, father and sons 
would gather, each recurring vacation, twice a year, as they 
returned from Horner's, or Chapel Hill, or Cornell, or the Naval 
Academy, and hold such communion of wit and humor, fun and 
frolic, thought and fancy as only loving hearts and sympathetic 



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PATRICK HENRY WINSTON, Sr. 449 

souls can share. The father was always the central figure, inspiring, 
instructing, admonishing and guiding, ever with gentle touch and 
rather by example than precept. His four sons, one as lawyer, 
orator, wit and humorist; one as scholar, educator and college 
president; one as lawyer, legislator, judge and lieutenant-gov- 
ernor ; one as legislator, lawyer, judge and man of affairs, brought 
credit and honor to the good home and the goodly heritage of such 
a father and mother. An only daughter, educated at St. Mary's 
School, blessed with health, intellect and all womanly graces, 
brought joy and gladness to both father and mother as the loving 
wife of a splendid North Carolina lawyer, orator and statesman. 
To have given North Carolina such a contribution of citizenship 
would well repay the labors and cares of his long and busy life. 
But he himself was superior to any of his children in the g^eat 
sum total of human faculties and accomplishments, in wit and 
humor, in learning and scholarship, in wisdom and judgment, in 
breadth and depth of intellect. He was a massive, powerful, self- 
made man; vigorous, virile and strong in mind, body and soul; 
as tender as a woman, loving flowers, children, girls, clouds and 
forests ; as brave as a lion, loving every hero in life and literature ; 
as human as ordinary folks, feeling to the full and realizing in 
his life the beautiful sentiment of Terence, **Homo sum, nil 
humani ante alienum puto," 

George T. Winston. 




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PATRICK HENRY WINSTON, Jr. 

TATRICK HENRY WINSTON, Jr., lawyer, 
journalist, orator, wit and humorist, was bom 
in Windsor, North Carolina, August 22, 1847, 
and died in Spokane, Washington, April 3, 1904, 
at the age of fifty-seven. He was the first child 
of Patrick Henry Winston, Sr., and Martha 
Elizabeth Byrd, inheriting to a degree which approached genius 
the brilliant mental qualities of the Winston family. From child- 
hood to death he was the wonder, the delight or the terror of all 
who knew him. Wherever he went crowds gathered around, 
charmed by his speech. His powers of description, his brilliant 
imagination, his infinite fancy, his sparkling and flashing wit, his 
droll, irresistible humor, his unbounded sympathy, his intellectual 
power and audacity, furnished to all beholders an endless display 
of mental gymnastics and pyrotechnics, leaving impressions that 
lasted a lifetime. He was a close observer of men and things, re- 
membering all that he saw. He was an omnivorous reader of 
books and journals, forgetting nothing that he read. He was a 
ceaseless, original and daring thinker. His mind swept from 
Mother Goose to Shakespeare, from the ends of the earth to space, 
from creation to doomsday. He was full of reverence, and yet 
he would have joked with Moses or Methuselah. He worshiped 
great men and ridiculed authority. He wept with the sorrowful 
and made them laugh. He was a mighty democrat, and despised 



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PATRICK HENRY WINSTON, Jr. 451 

the common herd. He was a perfect aristocrat, and laughed at 
aristocracy. A hundred times a day, in joke, witticism, metaphor 
or anecdote, he squandered enough mental and nervous power 
to last an ordinary man six months. But the drudgery of per- 
sistent and systematic labor he never endured, even for one hour. 
He left no visible memorial of his greatness ; but he was one of 
the most brilliant, eloquent, versatile and captivating of all the 
sons of the old North State. He was famous throughout the 
Union, and probably was better known, and more widely known, 
than any North Carolinian of his generation. 

It is difficult to describe such a man or to give a satisfactory 
account of his career. His personality always outshone and 
dazzled his achievement. Of thousands who knew him, none can 
forget him ; and yet few recall his achievements. But his achieve- 
ments, if performed by other men of lesser genius, would have 
brought them fame. The public offices that he held, the honors 
that he achieved, the services that he rendered, added nothing to 
his fame, but seemed rather to detract from his greatness, so im- 
mense was his personality. 

Mr. Winston's greatest public service was in 1874. The people 
of the State were rallyirtg from the shock of Civil War and the 
humiliation of Reconstruction. Restless under the dominion of 
carpet-bagger and scalawag, they were ready to resume the reins 
of self-government, of which they had been deprived by Federal 
bayonets. They had carried the State elections in August. When 
the General Assembly met in the fall, the foremost question in the 
public mind was, ** Shall we call a convention to adopt a new con- 
stitution or shall we submit longer to the Canby constitution, a 
bastard usurpation, begotten of bayonets and negroes?" The 
political leaders were opposed to calling a convention. They 
feared the Federal Government, remembering how Jonathan 
Worth, the people's governor, had been driven by Federal power 
from the State Capitol and supplanted by William W. Holden. 
"Let well enough alone," they said. "It is too great a risk to 
call a convention of the people. There is no telling what the 
convention will do, nor what the Federal Government will do." 



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452 NORTH CAROLINA 

Popular sentiment favored a convention, but lacked a leader. It 
needed an orator to give it voice, a thinker to formulate its reasons, 
a dreamer to tell and interpret its visions, a patriot to deny and 
defy all authority but that of the people. It needed all these, and 
forth they came, orator, thinker, dreamer, patriot, united in the 
person of Patrick Winston, at that time twenty-eight years of 
age, and reading clerk of the State Senate. A petition was circu- 
lated among the members asking him to address the legislature and 
the public in Tucker Hall. Those who knew him well knew what 
was coming. Some feared the consequences and begged him not 
to speak; others cheered, urged, demanded that he speak and 
redeem his State; still others, who knew him only as wit and 
humorist, considered it a splendid joke, and went "to see the fun." 
The occasion and the man had met. He was in the prime of all 
his powers. He had studied under Swain at the University the 
fundamental principles of liberty and government; had fought 
with the barons at Runnymede ; had defied tyranny with Hampden 
and Pym; had lived with the great orators of the people in all 
ages and countries; had felt the horrors of Civil War and the 
degradation of Reconstruction. He spoke for two hours. When 
he finished, not a man in the hall was free from the spell of his 
eloquence. The convention v^as called, the constitution was 
changed, and from that day till now the Old North State has been 
governed by her own sons. 

Mr. Winston was educated at the Homer School, Oxford, North 
Carolina, and at the University of North Carolina, where he was 
graduated June, 1867, with the highest honors in scholarship as 
valedictorian of his class. His graduating oration commanded 
wide attention throughout the State ; the occasion was memorable. 
President Andrew Johnson, Secretary of State William H. 
Seward, Postmaster-General Randall, with the leading officials and 
citizens of North Carolina, were seated on the platform with the 
graduating class. Winston's father, who was detained in Raleigh 
by business before the Supreme Court, had sent him a gold watch 
by Secretary Seward. At the end of his brilliant speech, Secre- 
tary Seward arose, congratulated him on his eloquence and grace- 



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PATRICK HENRY WINSTON, Jr. 453 

fully presented the watch, at the same time most graciously adding 
to it a handsome gold chain, which he himself had worn for thirty 
years. 

At the age of sixteen young Winston entered the Confederate 
army as aide-de-camp to Governor Vance, and at the age of seven- 
teen, in March, 1865, he was on his way to join the Fourth North 
Carolina Cavalry when the news came of Lee's surrender. 

He was licensed to practice law in 1868, and moved to Balti- 
more, Maryland, where he practiced two years. In 1870 he 
married Miss Virginia B. Miller of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, and 
moved to that city. In 1873 he returned to North Carolina, and 
in 1884 moved to the Pacific coast, locating first in Lewiston, 
Idaho, and afterward in Spokane, Washington. 

He was a trustee of the University of North Carolina under 
election by the General Assembly and a director of the Albemarle 
and Chesapeake Canal under appointment by Governor Vance. 
He was a delegate to two National Democratic and two National 
Republican conventions ; was a Presidential elector ; was register of 
the land office in Lewiston, Idaho, by appointment of President 
Arthur; district attorney of the Territory of Washington by ap- 
pointment of President Harrison, and the first attorney-general of 
the State of Washington by popular election. 

He was the owner and editor of three newspapers — the Albe- 
marle Times, published in Windsor, North Carolina ; the Spokane 
Reznew and Winston's Weekly, both published in Spokane, Wash- 
ington. His writings sparkled with wit, humor and brilliant 
thought, set forth in original style. 

Mr. Winston was a splendid specimen of physical manhood, 
strong, handsome and commanding. He was a first-class animal, 
enjoying all the pleasures of life ; his head was large and Napole- 
onic, brow high and broad, nose large and aquiline, eyes bright, 
clear and sunny. Every feature was perfect, all nicely and har- 
moniously blending into a face that was noble and handsome. The 
portrait accompanying this sketch expresses but faintly the 
gracious dignity of his presence. His most striking qualities were 
humor and reverence. His reverence was profound, including in 



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454 NORTH CAROLINA 

its sweep not only things divine, but all humanity and all nature. 
The following verses, written in his twentieth year, contain some 
fine touches of poetic feeling and breathe a deep spirit of reverence : 

*'0h, God, thou speakest to me 
Through great Nature's minstrelsy, 

That hymns thy glory and thy works proclaim; 
The clouds that float and fly 
In the azure-tinted sky. 

Put the scoffer to confusion and to shame. 

"The bow that bends on high, 

And the winds that breathe and sigh, 

Tell the story of thy wisdom and thy love. 
While the waves that toss and roar 
On the purple pink-shell shore, 

Are but echoes from the throne that is above. 

"The mountain grand and tall, 
From whose heights the shadows fall. 

Are but sentinels to guard the human race; 
While the rivers and the streams 
And the moon that brightly beams, 

Borrow splendor from thy sweet and holy face. 

"The flowers that fragrance lend 
While their colors softly blend, 

Breathe a sweetness that alone Your works possess, 
And the rain drops and the dew 
Are the dear gifts sent by You, 

To the world they wet and cool and bless. 

"But the graves of grassy green. 
On which fall the silvery sheen 

From the stars that glow so brightly up on high. 
Are the links that firmly bind 
My heart and soul and mind 

To the God who rules the earth from out the sky." 

Thirty-seven years later, just before his death, the following 
editorial by him in Winston's Weekly expressed almost the same 



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PATRICK HENRY WINSTON, Jr. 455 

ideas; a beautiful prose poem, showing the depth and the wide 
sweep of his love, sympathy and reverence : 

"There is something for all to love, both in nature and in life. The 
mountains in the gloom of their lofty glory, the ocean in the ample 
majesty of its solitude, the clouds— eternal palaces of shade and shadow 
— ^the ordered music of the marching orbs, the blossomed flowers, the* 
freshness of morning, the green of grassy slopes and forest glades, the 
songs of birds, the gathering twilight, the fields of waving grain, the 
running rivers, the sweet strains of melody and of music, the stillness 
of night, the setting sun as it doubles the lengthening shadows — these are 
some of the things that nature has provided us that we can love. And 
the things of life? Our homes that ought to be palaces of peace and rest, 
our books the only monuments that are proof against death. And the 
living things? Little children, ourselves in miniature, recalling all that 
is sweetest in our past. There is plenty to love." 

Few men surpassed him in repartee. He was quick, brilliant 
and overpowering. His reply to the Populist at Spokane went over 
the continent. He was addressing a mixed convention of Demo- 
crats, Silver Republicans and Populists, and pouring the oil of 
eloquence over the troubled waters of political discord. Every- 
thing seemed smooth and harmonious, when suddenly a wild, 
bushy-haired and long-whiskered Populist rushed forward to the 
platform, shook his fist at the speaker and shouted, "I am tired 
of your glittering generalities ; I wish you to discuss living ques- 
tions." "Well, my friend," replied Winston, lowering his bald 
head and smooth-shaven face to a few feet from the haystack 
of hair in front of him, "what do you wish me to discuss?" "Ex- 
plain to this audience," shouted the Populist, "the unequal dis- 
tribution of wealth." "I will do so with pleasure," said Winston 
in his blandest tones, "but first, my friend, will you explain to this 
audience the unequal distribution of hairf" 

In 1894 the Populist convention of Washington refused to en- 
dorse Colonel Winston for Congress on the ground that he was 
a lawyer. On the journey home he was talking politics with a 
chance acquaintance, who during the conversation desired to know 
the Populist sentiment on some public question. "Colonel," said 
he, "what do the Populists think—?" "Think!" broke in the 



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456 NORTH CAROLINA 

colonel. "Good Lx)rd, man, what has a Populist got to think 
with?" 

On another occasion he was speaking at a banquet in Tacoma, 
Washington. A delegation of Eastern capitalists were being 
feted in expectation of heavy investments in Tacoma waterfronts. 
"Winston had spoken several minutes in solemn style, when some 
zealous Tacoman, longing for pyrotechnics, pulled his coat-tail 
and suggested in a stage whisper, *'Colonel, tell them about the 
whales in the harbor," referring to a species of small fish that 
spouted water and were called whales in derision. '*Yes, gentle- 
men," said Winston, without a moment's hesitation, "there is no 
place on earth like Tacoma, for we have whales in the harbor, 
sharks on the avenue and suckers everywhere!" 

The colonel gave a Spokane crowd the following explanation 
of how he earned his title. "Down in North Carolina," said he, 
"a shrewd old gentleman used to keep a hotel in Raleigh called 
the Yarborough House, and it was his custom to confer titles on 
all his guests. One day he would address each newcomer as 
'judge,' the next day as 'major,' the next as *colonel,' and so on. 
The day I arrived he was dealing in 'colonels.' If I had come a 
day later, I would have been a 'general.' " 

Political harness rested lightly upon him. He belonged to all 
parties and ridiculed all. On returning from his first North 
Carolina State Republican Convention, a crowd of Democratic 
friends greeted him at the station and asked the news. **Boys,** 
said he, "you know I left the Democratic Party because I could 
not stand old Blank and old Blank and some of the other leaders. 
Well, you just ought to see what a h — ^11 of a crowd I've got in 
with now." 

"Colonel," said a friend, "how do you like Jefferson Davis's 
book, "The Rise and Fall of the Confederate States"? "Fine," 
said he, "all but the last page. There are two volumes, 2000 pages ; 
I read 1999 pages with the greatest pleasure. On every page the 
Yankees were running like turkeys and we right after them ; but 
when I turned over the last page, to my perfect amazement, with- 
out the least explanation, our-army-had-surrendered I" 



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PATRICK HENRY WINSTON, Jr. 457 

A friend from North Carolina, desiring to locate in Spokane, 
wrote to Colonel Winston asking him for information about that 
city, and especially about its leading industries. His reply was 
characteristic : 

"Dear Sir: There are only two industries in Spokane — grand and 
petit larceny. Unless you are very proficient in one or both of these, 
don't come!" 

During his absence from home his law office in Spokane was 
burned. The crowd gathered on his return to tell the news and 
hear his comments. "Colonel," shouted one of the boys, "your 
law office is burned I" "Well," he replied, "I hope the mortgage 
on it is burned too." He was never taken by surprise ; never at 
a loss for words, ideas, arguments, jokes, witticisms or anecdotes. 
His arrival was an event in the life of any town; his departure 
left a dead calm, or a vacuum. He worshiped genius and spent 
much of his life reading, talking and writing about the world's 
geniuses. He had little respect for mere authority. "Colonel 
Winston," said President Arthur, pulling out his watch with some 
impatience, "I have now given you thirty minutes of my time." 
"Yes, and by God ! sir, I gave you three months of my time last 
summer as a Garfield and Arthur elector." "Sit down. Colonel 
Winston, sit down, sir ; you shall have all the time you wish." 

Even when there was nothing to say, he said it and made an 
argument of it. Perhaps the shortest legal speech on record was 
that made by him in prosecuting a negro in North Carolina for 
stealing a pig. The solicitor was called away, and asked Winston 
to appear for him. Not a witness nor a fact was available. 
Rising with great dignity, he said, "Gentlemen of the jury, this 
is a case of larceny — a nigger charged with stealing a pig. There 
are three elements in cases of this sort : the bill of indictment, the 
nigger and the pig. Here is the bill of indictment (waving the 
paper), yonder's the nigger and (after a solemn pause) where-is- 
the-pig?" The jury brought in a verdict without leaving the 
room. 

Mr. Winston was deeply loved and highly honored by the people 



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458 NORTH CAROLINA 

of Washington. His genius, his boldness, his originality, his love 
of justice, his intense honesty and unselfishness, no less than his 
eloquence, his learning, his wit, humor, pathos and love of fun 
made him one of the most conspicuous, picturesque and popular 
figures on the Pacific coast. But his great success did not satisfy 
his heart. He longed for the old times and the old friends of the 
State of his birth. How touching is this description of an old-time 
North Carolina Christmas, which appeared in Winston's Weekly 
a few weeks before his death 1 

CHRISTMAS. 

"Next Friday will be Christmas. 

"No otfier day recalls so many sweet memories. As I think of it the 
past comes back to me like a happy dream. I am once more a child, I see 
the face of my father, I feel his arms around me. I hear his voice. I 
see mother, her face is aglow with the light of love. 

"The well-filled stocking hangs by the chimney corner. The first light 
of a soft Southern Christmas morning is creeping through the window 
blinds. I hear the stealthy footsteps of the house servants as they creep 
to the door to catch old master's Christmas gift. 

" 'Christmas gift, master — Christmas gift, master.' I hear them now. 

"I see the village church, above whose simple altar were inscribed in 
letters made of Southern foliage the words: 

" 'Glory to God in the Highest and on Earth Peace.' 

"I behold the faces of the little congregation, radiant with the spirit of 
Christmas, so many of them bound to me by ties of blood and love. I 
hear the voices of the choir chanting the Christmas carol, and the peal of 
the organ reverberating within walls decorated with glossy holly and 
redolent cedar. 

"Once more I take my place at the table and partake of the Christmas 
cheer. Around that hospitable board are gathered father, mother, brothers 
and sister. The old black mammy, arrayed in all the glory of Christmas 
gifts, the ebony butler beaming with pride, the good old housekeeper 
bustling and nervous lest something be wanting to complete the feast, 
the eager and expectant faces of the little darkies peeping in at the door, 
the table loaded with everything good to cat, cooked as only 'old Aunt 
Charlotte' could cook it, the Christmas tree, ready to be lighted, in the 
center of the table 1 I can see it all, and I hear my father's voice saying: 
'Bless, O Lord, these mercies to our use and us to thy service.* 



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PATRICK HENRY WINSTON, Jr. 459 

"When all is over — the happy greetings, the bountiful feast, the gifts of 
loving hearts, the day consecrated by the faith of centuries — and night has 
come once more, I feel upon my lips my mother's good-night kiss." 

At his death the bar of Spokane, through a committee of its 
leading jurists and lawyers, placed on his grave "An Open Book" 
of immortelles, and on the record of the court inscribed the fol- 
lowing estimate of his life, character and talents, formed after 
reading for twenty years the open book of his life : 

"It is our deliberate judgement that for wit and humor, for logic, for 
eloquence, for learning, for love of justice, for kindness of heart, for sym- 
pathy with the unfortunate, for lofty and noble Americanism, he had no 
superior in this or any other age of our country. His ready and pointed 
wit, his inimitable expression, his forceful and unanswerable logic, were 
weapons of great power, which he used only to promote the cause of 
humanity and the purpose of justice." 

George T. Winston. 




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GEORGE TAYLOE WINSTON 




lORGE TAYLOE WINSTON, B.Litt., A.M., 
LL.D., educator, was born October 12, 1852, in 
Windsor, Bertie County, North Carolina, the 
fourth child and second son of Patrick Henry 
Winston, Sr., and Martha Elizabeth Byrd. An 
account of the Winston and Byrd families is 
given in the sketch of Patrick Henry Winston, Sr. 

George Tayloe Winston inherited the qualities of both parents, 
resembling his father, however, both physically and mentally, 
more closely than his mother. His life has been spent in study, 
either as pupil or as teacher, excepting about two years, which 
were devoted to. the practical management of his father's fishing 
and farming properties, where he showed business talent of a 
very high order. 

After graduation with highest honors from the Homer School, 
Oxford, North Carolina, he entered the University of North Caro- 
lina at the age of thirteen, where he ranked among the best 
scholars in a large class, conspicuous for bright men. On the 
suspension of the University in 1868, he entered the United States 
Naval Academy as a cadet midshipman, by appointment of Presi- 
dent Andrew Johnson. At the Naval Academy he ranked num- 
ber one in scholarship in a class of seventy members. Among his 
teachers were Admiral David D. Porter, Captain (afterward 
Admiral) George Dewey, Commander (afterward Admiral) W. T. 



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Gi:OR(xi: TAVLOE WINSTON 

rA>K(.il-: 'lAYLCiE vVIXSTmN, D.Litt . A 
V'Kf J^I-i^-. c/iuoaiv-r, was b«.rn ( 'ci.»i ^r u. i"^. 
(*) \\'iii'l>.)r, I^crtie Cuunty, X'.'rtli '^i- .:. • 
r J ) fourth child and scccairi s. 'n ».»f Talfi ► i: 
7//'^^^*-^^?^-^^ ' '•^ W'ms'.Dn, Sr., an<l Manila rii/al><t'i 1* ' * 
KSCijfek'^ aa-wiint of the \\ii,^t.,:i an-! I'.yrd l..r.i 
^;vcii in ihf skt^U'h of Palnck licnry \\'in.st« n, Sr. 

G^..^^^e Taslwc W'insl'.-n inhcriud the (piahuis l! i- th [ : 




hiS father, however, h<^th phy^ictlly and iiv 
• Ulan his inotluT. Il!v life has hecn ^i^:r>^ :n 
i|)d or a> leach'T. ^^x^eplin;^ ahoni tW'» ve.i' . 



n • '■: . '". t'"' 

C:\r.'.y .- ;> 

\\«'« !' .,: d to th*c [^raf^iicjil n;an'.^' inent of hi> fallie:'- 

3Tr' :.. nn'r^j. prc^j.erties, where he slu.'we«! hnsii.e^s ' •".' 

very i.,-!i (.rder. 

AfUT trta'hiaiii n wi'ii h!i^''irvt h.«'!i..r^ froin t* e ll- :: ' r 
Oxf«jrd, North Cai'-hna. hv cnler'^d the I ni\« '•-^it^ » f ."* :* 
hna at tlie aizr oi tlii-^e-n, v ii-T*- he rani .1 a .i i : ' 
bchohirs in a har;;^* cla><, c- iK'|.ien«r:s t .r h'-j/t : '« n. 
sii-i.'en>i n (-f tl^e I'niver:rit\ i-i iS'»<^. ]u cntf^red :! '' ^ 't :*i 



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her one in sch.^lar.s". ip in a el.\s> of v« v .\\\ fnt-n;' vr<. 
te.i<:hers wr:e A'hiiwJ I).i\id l> i''.rr.r. t'ap^ain 
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Gi:(;R(ii: tavlok winston 

^^>--^;*— <"|j^''j^ L.L.I)., cdiioaiT, u.'iv l)Min i ^cI'>1"T i-. i^'- 
" r^ \ily \^inf^'>r, ]!.Tlic Comity, N'ortii '^-r '...• 
VJ /rT) fourth chii<l wwA i-caui .s .n nf TairiCh W 
**]jh.^^~^<;^f-^i'~^^ W'uistun, Sr., an«l MrwJ.a i ii^al'i'i 1'. ' '. 
^'^^IzjQ/^^^^c^ acv.Hint of tlu' Vvii.^l.ii au<! I'^ni lai...!. 
t^ivcu HI lijf .^kfU^h of l^a'.nck llriirv W in>tf n. Sr. 

liK.r^^/' Tayloc \\'iiist<'n inheiit^.^! tlic ([ualiii' s •. t I 0\ ] : 
r<,-i .!.'.'[ rr^ Ins failicr, however, l>'^t!i ph\<ic-i!l\ an«i m -r 
r:-.-:' .'•<• «•' iImi. lii.s nir-tlicr. lliv life h::s l.t-cn -;•• iif in ' 
C:\rr'i ..• ;. i;m1 or a> teaclv-r. '»\ccptin;^ al)oin tvv.« vca- . \ 
v\« « ! . ■' -1 to ti;e [>ra^iioiiI ii\nr.^« iiu*m vi hi> fail':'- '. 
air! 1. ^:'''\.[. \}:(r^,i:rrvs, wl.erc he sIimwc-I I i.Mne-- * i.' .*. 
very J.i>;'i orti«T. 

After 'jrra'iuaii. n with li!.;' c^l h< 'vt< fruiu t'-" K* :r' r ^ 
Oxford, Xorlii C'ar'.l'.:ri. hv c:u'.T'.'<1 :hc I 'iii\ ••'■•^iiy s t . :*' 
liiia at tlie atrr ul t'-.i-'cn. v ii'-r.* ;>'' rani •! :. .• ' 
S'.b''iars in a lar^f cla-v. r- .ii.-[ icii<":> t .r Ij-:;'! ! • n 
si:-;."'n-i 11 <.f tb»' I'liive ^iiy m iS'.-^. !u- ent«*r(.<: ! f ' ''.i'. 
^Nav 1 A':i;KM>n as a ca !« t i.i' ■-•::;»''. .in. hy a}.|>'-i:\ ^ : : * 
(lent Aii'Iifw J' i.n>.n. A.l \hc Nava' Aj.i !• niy 1 :.'r 
I'CT 0!.c III sci^ ilar './.|> in a ola^-. ui b«'v..itv fTtcn.' ("•«-- .'.. 
t'.,'.:her5 \\-:e .\'l:-iir;.l l)..\'l !> t'-aivf, rap\. n , .:* 
Adriir.i!) V i-.'irL:' I Vucv. C'cniiiiaii''c.r .''a^t'Twar.! \ ". . '.. 



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T!!^ NEW YOFK 
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GEORGE TAYLOE WINSTON 461 

Sampson. On account of seasickness and disinclination to naval 
life he resigned his commission as a cadet midshipman in 1870, 
and in 1871 entered the Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 
where, in 1874, at the age of twenty-two, he was graduated with 
highest honors as Bachelor of Letters and as a member of the 
Phi Beta Kappa Society. During his junior year at Cornell he won 
the gold medal for Latin scholarship, and during his senior year, in 
recognition of his character and his mathematical attainments, he 
was selected to fill temporarily the chair of an assistant professor of 
mathematics, who was on leave of absence from the University. 
By his labors as tutor in Latin, English and mathematics young 
Winston supported himself and met all his college bills during 
his senior year, requiring for that purpose nearly a thousand dol- 
lars. Almost immediately on graduation, and at the age of twenty- 
three, he was elected assistant professor of literature in the faculty 
chosen to revive the University of North Carolina, his former 
classmate, Ralph H. Graves, being chosen professor of mathe- 
matics. These two were the youngest members of the faculty, 
and represented in it the modem ideas of education. They were 
graduated with highest honors from two of the foremost American 
Universities. To them was largely entrusted the reorganization of 
the old University upon modem lines — the arrangement of its 
courses of instruction, schedules of work, methods of teaching and 
research and system of discipline. The University was reorganized 
on lines that they laid down, with elective courses of study and 
high standards of scholarship. They both were recognized at once 
as thorough scholars and great teachers. In the reorganization. 
Dr. Charles Phillips was made chairman of the faculty and 
Winston was elected secretary of the faculty, which position at 
that time was one of large executive duties and responsibilities. 
At the end of the first year his skill as a teacher and his devotion 
to all of the interests of the University were rewarded by his 
promotion to a full professorship, while the position of chairman 
of the faculty was eliminated, and Dr. Kemp P. Battle elected 
president of the University. During the fifteen years of Dr. 
Battle's presidency Dr. Winston was ever active and strong, by 



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462 NORTH CAROLINA 

counsel and otherwise, in support of his management of the Uni- 
versity ; and when, in 1891, Dr. Battle retired from the presidency 
to the chair of history and Dr. Winston was elected president, 
then in turn Dr. Battle gave most loyal support to Winston's 
brilliant administration, a fact in our educational history as beauti- 
ful and significant of the spirit and work of both men as it is rare 
to see such instances in the educational world. As a teacher he was 
exacting and accurate, requiring diligence of his pupils, setting 
high standards of scholarship, spurring up the indolent and re- 
jecting the incompetent. He was not mechanical nor narrow, but 
broad and inspiring, giving his pupils large views of life and lofty 
ideals of manhood. His wit and humor and his original and 
striking illustrations, as well as his scholarship and learning, ren- 
dered his lectures and recitations inspiring and attractive. No 
pupil was with him long without receiving deep and lasting 
impressions of his character, talents, scholarship and strong com- 
mon sense. In 1 891, at the age of thirty-nine, after sixteen years 
of work as professor of Latin and German, his varied and bril- 
liant services and his talents for management as well as for 
teaching were fittingly recognized and rewarded when, by unani- 
mous vote of the Board of Trustees, he was elected president of 
the University of North Carolina. He was the first professional 
teacher ever elected to that office. To the duties of the presidency 
he devoted himself with energy, enthusiasm and conspicuous 
ability, throwing his whole soul into the work. In five years of 
his administration the income of the University was more than 
doubled and the number of students almost trebled; the alumni 
in North Carolina and other States were organized into active 
associations for promoting the interests of the University, the 
public high schools and academies of the State were linked with 
the University in a "system of affiliated schools," the State was 
canvassed from one end to the other, speeches for education were 
made before schools, colleges, political conventions and social 
clubs, as well as before teachers' institutes and other educational 
gatherings. 

At the beginning of his presidency the University ranked second 



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GEORGE TAYLOE WINSTON 463 

among the colleges of the State in point of numbers ; at its close 
the number of students was larger than in any other two colleges. 
The great fight against State aid to higher education came to a 
crisis at this time. President Winston met it with boldness and 
unflinching determination, throwing into the conflict all his talents 
and resources, and filling with courage and enthusiasm all the 
friends of the University throughout the State. The real question 
was whether or not the State should be driven from the field of 
higher education by the gradual withdrawal of legislative appro- 
priations to the University and other State colleges, whether the 
State public school system should include only elementary schools 
or also high schools, colleges and the University. After much 
discussion, instead of decreasing appropriations, the legislature 
increased them. Under President Winston's untiring leadership 
the fight was won, establishing forever the great principle of State 
aid to higher education, and placing the University at the apex 
of the State's school system. 

Among his other services to the University were the consolida- 
tion of the Dialectic and Philanthropic libraries with the Uni- 
versity library, the appointment of a professional librarian and the 
providing of a permanent library endowment fund ; the organiza- 
tion of a summer school for teachers, the establishing of a chair 
of pedagogy in the University and the laying of foundations for a 
permanent Normal Department; the administration of the Uni- 
versity free from political, sectarian, local or social control; the 
equipment and inauguration of Commons Hall to furnish students 
with board at cost ; the large increase of free scholarships ; aiding 
largely the endowment of the chair of history, and the initiation of 
movements for the Alumni and Y. M. C. A. buildings. 

During the fourth year of his presidency, in 1895, was celebrated 
the one hundredth anniversary of the opening of the University. 
On thi