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Full text of "A Biographical history of Darke County, Ohio : compendium of national biography"

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Biographical History 



OF 



DARKE COUNTY 



OHIO 



Compendium of National Biography 



ILLUSTRATED 



CHICAGO 

The Lewis Publishing Company 

1900 



\ 






Xi^ 




Biography is the only true History.— Emerson. 

A people that take no pride in the noble achievements of remote ancestors 

will never achieve anything worthy to be remembered with 

pride by remote generations. — Mac a ulay. 










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1 ^^W^^WW^"^ WW^i' 

GENERAL INDEX. 



Table of Contents, 3 

Introductory, 11 



Compendium of National Biography, - 13 
Compendium of Local Biography, - 223 



INDEX TO FART I, 



Compendium of National Biography. 



Biographical Sketches of National Celebrities. 



PAGE 

Abbott, Lyman 144 

Adams, Charles Kendall 143 

Adams, John. 25 

Adams, John Quincy 61 

Agassiz, Louis J. R 137 

Alger, Russell A 173 

Allison, William B..., 131 

Allston, Washington..'. 190 

Altgeld, John Peter 140 

Andrews, Elisha B 184 

Anthony, Susan B 62 

Armour, Philip D 62 

Arnold, Benedict 84 

Arthur, Chester Allen 168 

Astor, John Jacob 139 

Audubon, John James 166 

Bailey, James Montgomery. . . 177 

Bancroft, George 74 

Barnard, Frederick A. P 179 

Barnum, Phineas T 41 

Barrett, Lawrence 156 

Barton, Clara 209 

Bayard, Thomas Francis 200 

Beard, William H 196 

Beauregard, Pierre G. T 203 

Beecher, Henry Ward 26 

Bell, Alexander Graham 96 

Bennett, James Gordon 206 

Benton, Thomas Hart 53 

Bergh, Henry 160 

Bierstadt, Albert 197 

Billings, Josh 166 

Blaine, James Gillespie 22 

Bland, Richard Parks 106 



PAGE 

Boone, Daniel 36 

Booth, Edwin 51 

Booth, Junius Brutus 177 

Brice, Calvin S 181 

Brooks, Phillips 130 

Brown, John 51 

Brown, Charles Farrar 91 

Brush, Charles Francis 153 

Bryan, William Jennings 158 

Bryant, William Cullen 44 

Buchanan, Franklin 105 

Buchanan, James 128 

Buckner, Simon Bolivar 188 

Burdette, Robert J 103 

Burr, Aaron Ill 

Butler, Benjamin Franklin.. . . 24 

Calhoun, John Caldwell 23 

Cameron, James Donald 141 

Cameron, Simon 141 

Cammack, Addison 197 

Campbell, Alexander 180 

Carlisle, John G 133 

Carnegie, Andrew 73 

Carpenter, Matthew Hale 178 

Carson, Christopher (Kit) 86 

Cass, Lewis 110 

Chase, Salmon Portland 65 

Childs, George W 83 

Choate, Rufus 207 

Claflin, Horace Brigham 107 

Clay, Henry 21 

Clemens, Samuel Langhorne.. 86 

Cleveland, Grover 174 

Clews,* Henry 153 



PAGE 

Clinton, DeWitt 110 

Colfax, Schuyler 139 

Conkling, Alfred 32 

Conkhng, Roscoe 32 

Cooley, Thomas Mclntyre. . . . 140 

Cooper, James Fenimore 58 

Cooper, Peter 37 

Copely, John Singleton 191 

Corbin, Austin 205 

Corcoran, W.W 196 

Cornell, Ezra 161 

Cramp, William 189 

Crockett, David 76 

Cullom, Shelby Moore 116 

Curtis, George William 144 

Cushman, Charlotte 107 

Custer, George A 95 



Dana, Charles A 88 

" Danbury News Man " 177 

Davenport, Fanny 106 

Davis, Jefferson 24 

Debs, Eugene V 132 

Decatur, Stephen 101 

Deering, William 198 

Depew, Chauncey Mitchell.... 209 

Dickinson, Anna 103 

Dickinson, Don M 139 

Dingley, Nelson, Jr 215 

Donnelly, Ignatius 161 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold 53 

Douglass, Frederick 43 

Dow, Neal 108 

Draper, John William 184 



TABLE OF CONTENTS—PART I. 



PAGE 

Drexel, Anthony Joseph 124 

Dupont, Henry 198 

Edison, Thomas Alva 55 

Edmunds, George F 201 

Ellsworth, Oliver 168 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo 57 

Ericsson, John 127 

Evarts, William Maxwell 89 

Farragut, David Glascoe 80 

Field, Cyrus West 173 

Field, David Dudley 126 

Field, Marshall 59 

Field, Stephen Johnson 216 

Fillmore, Millard 113 

Foote, Andrew Hull 176 

Foraker, Joseph B 143 

Forrest, Edwin 92 

Franklin, Benjamin 18 

Fremont, John Charles 29 

Fuller, Melville Weston 168 

Fulton, Robert 62 

Gage, Lyman J 71 

Gallatin, Albert 112 

Garfield, James A 163 

Garrett, John Work 200 

Garrison, William Lloyd 50 

Gates, Horatio 70 

Gatling, Richard Jordan 116 

( Jeorge, Henry _ 203 

Gibbons, Cardinal James 209 

Gilmore, Patrick Sarsfield 77 

Girard, Stephen 137 

Gough, John B 131 

Goutd, Jay 52 

Gordon, John B 215 

Grant, Ulysses S 155 

Gray, Asa 88 

Gray, Elisha 149 

Greeley, Adolphus W 142 

Greeley, Horace 20 

Greene, Nathaniel 69 

Gresham, Walter Quintin 183 

Hale, Edward Everett 79 

Hall, Charles Francis 167 

Hamilton, Alexander 31 

Hamlin, Hannibal 214 

Hampton, Wade 192 

Hancock, Winfield Scott 146 

Hanna, Marcus Alonzo 169 

Harris, Isham G 214 

Harrison, William Henry 87 

Harrison, Benjamin 182 

Harvard, John 129 

Havemeyer, John Craig 182 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel 135 

Hayes, Rutherford Birchard. . . 157 
Hendricks, Thomas Andrew. . 212 

Henry, Joseph 105 

Henrv, Patrick 83 

Hill, David Bennett 90 

Hobart, Garrett A 213 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell 206 

Hooker, Joseph 52 

Howe, Elias 130 

Howells, William Dean 104 



PAGE 

Houston, Sam 120 

Hughes, Archbishop John 157 

Hughitt, Marvin 159 

Hull, Isaac 169 

Huntington, Collis Potter 94 

Ingalls, John James 114 

Ingersoll, Robert G 85 

Irving, Washington 33 

Jackson, Andrew 71 

Jackson, " Stonewall " 67 

Jackson, Thomas Jonathan 67 

Jay, John 39 

Jefferson, Joseph 47 

Jefferson, Thomas 34 

Johnson, Andrew 145 

Johnson, Eastman 202 

Johnston, Joseph Eccleston... . 85 

Jones, James K 171 

Jones, John Paul 97 

Jones, Samuel Porter 115 

Kane, Elisha Kent 125 

Kearney, Philip 210 

Kenton, Simon 188 

Knox, John Jay 134 

Lamar, Lucius Q. C 201 

Landon, Melville D 109 

Lee, Robert Edward 38 

Lewis, Charles B 193 

Lincoln, Abraham 135 

Livermore, Mary Ashton 131 

Locke, David Ross 172 

Logan, John A 26 

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth 37 

Longstreet, James 56 

Lowell, James Russell 104 

Mackay, John William 148 

Madison, lames 42 

Marshall, John 156 

Mather, Cotton 164 

Mather, Increase 163 

Maxim, Hiram S 194 

McClellan, George Brinton.. . . 47 

McCormick, Cyrus Hall 172 

McDonough, Com. Thomas.. . 167 

McKinley, William 217 

Meade, George Gordon 75 

Medill, Joseph 159 

Miles, Nelson A 176 

Miller, Cincinnatus Heine 218 

Miller, Joaquin 218 

Mills, Roger Quarles 211 

Monroe, James 54 

Moody, Dwight L 207 

Moran, Thomas 98 

Morgan, John Pierpont 208 

Morgan, John T 216 

Morris, Robert 165 

Morse, Samuel F. B 124 

Morton, Levi P 142 

Morton, Oliver Perry 215 

Motley, John Lathro'p 130 

"Nye, Bill" 59 

Nye, Edgar Wilson 59 



PAGE 

O'Conor, Charles 187 

Olney, Richard 133 

Paine, Thomas 147 

Palmer, John M 195 

Parkhurst, Charles Henry 160 

"Partington, Mrs." 202 

Peabody, George 170 

Peck, George W 187 

Peffer, William A 164 

Perkins, Eli 109 

Perry, Oliver Hazard 97 

Phillips, Wendell.. 30 

Pierce, Franklin 122 

Pingree, Hazen S 212 

Plant, Henry B 192 

Poe, Edgar Allen 69 

Polk, James Knox 102 

Porter, David Dixon 68 

Porter, Noah 93 

Prentice, George Denison.. . . 119 

Prescott, William Hickling.... 96 

Pullman, George Mortimer. . .. 121 

Quad, M 193 

Quay MatthewS 171 

Randolph, Edmund 136 

Read, Thomas Buchanan 132 

Reed, Thomas Brackett 208 

Reid, Whitelaw 149 

Roach, John 190 

Rockefeller, John Davison.... 195 

Root, George Frederick 218 

Rothermel, Peter F 113 

Rutledge, John 57 

Sage, Russell 211 

Schofield, John McAllister 199 

Schurz, Carl 201 

Scott, Thomas Alexander 204 

Scott, Winfield 79 

Seward, William Henry 44 

Sharon, William 165 

Shaw, Henry W 166 

Sheridan, Phillip Henry 40 

Sherman, Charles R 87 

Sherman, John 86 

Shillaber, Benjamin Penhallow 202 

Sherman, William Tecumseh.. 30 

Smith, Edmund Kirby 114 

Sousa, John Philip 60 

Spreckels, Claus 159 

Stanford, Leland 101 

Stanton, Edwin McMasters... 179 

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady 126 

Stephens, Alexander Hamilton 32 

Stephenson, Adlai Ewing. .. . 141 

Stewart, Alexander T 58 

Stewart, William Morris 213 

Stowe, Harriet Elizabeth 

Beecher 66 

Stuart, James E. B 122 

Sumner, Charles 34 

Talmage, Thomas DeWitt. ... 60 

Taney, Roger Brooke 129 

Taylor, Zachary 108 

Teller, Henrv M 127 



TABLE OF CONTENTS— PART I. 



PAGE 

Tesla, Nikola 193 

Thomas, George H 73 

Thomas, Theodore 1 72 

Thurman, Allen G 90 

Thurston, John M 166 

Tilden, Samuel J 48 

Tillman, Benjamin Ryan 119 

Toombs, Robert 205 

" Twain, Mark " 86 

Tyler, John 93 

Van Buren, Martin 78 

Yanderbilt, Cornelius 35 

Vail, Alfred 154 

Vest, George Graham 214 



PAGE 

Vilas, William Freeman 140 

Voorhees, Daniel Wolsey 95 

Waite, Morrison Remich 125 

Wallace, Lewis 199 

Wallack, Lester 121 

Wallack, John Lester. 121 

Wanamaker, John 89 

Ward, "Artemus " 91 

Washburne, Elihu Benjamin. . 189 

Washington, George 17 

Watson, Thomas E 178 

Watterson, Henry 76 

Weaver, James B 123 

Webster, Daniel 19 



PAGE 

Webster, Noah 49 

Weed, Thurlow 91 

West, Benjamin 115 

Whipple, Henry Benjamin. . . . 161 

White, Stephen V 162 

Whitefield, George 150 

Whitman, Walt 197 

Whitney, Eli 120 

Whitney, William Collins 92 

Whittier, John Greenleaf 67 

Willard, Frances E 133 

Wilson, William L 180 

Winchell, Alexander 175 

Wmdom, William 138 



PORTRAITS OF NATIONAL CELEBRITIES. 



PAGE 

Alsrer, Russell A 16 

Allison, William B 99 

Anthony, Susan B 63 

Armour, Philip D 151 

Arthur, Chester A 81 

Barnum, Phineas T 117 

Beecher, Henry Ward 27 

Blaine, James G 151 

Booth, Edwin 63 

Bryan, Wm. J 63 

Bryant, William Cullen 185 

Buchanan, James 81 

Buckner, Simon B 16 

Butler Benjamin F 151 

Carlisle, John G 151 

Chase, Salmon P 16 

Childs, George W 99 

Clay, Henry 81 

Cleveland, Grover 45 

Cooper, Peter 99 

Dana, Charles A 151 

Depew.Chauncey M 117 

Douglass, Fred 63 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo 27 

Evarts, William M 99 

Farragut, Com. D. G 185 

Field, Cyrus W 63 



PAGE 

Field, Marshall... 117 

Franklin, Benjamin 63 

Fremont, Gen. John C 16 

Gage, Lyman J 151 

Garfield, James A 45 

Garrison, William Lloyd 63 

George, Henry 117 

Gould, Jay 99 

Grant, Gen. U. S 185 

Greeley, Horace 81 

Hampton, Wade 16 

Hancock, Gen. Winfield S 185 

Hanna, Mark A 117 

Harrison, Benjamin 81 

Hayes, R. B 45 

Hendricks, Thomas A 81 

Holmes, Oliver W 151 

Hooker, Gen. Joseph 16 

Ingersoll, Robert G 117 

Irving, Washington 27 

Jackson, Andrew 45 

Jefferson, Thomas 45 

Johnston, Gen. J. E 16 

Lee, Gen. Robert E 185 

Lincoln, Abraham 81 

Logan, Gen. lohn A 16 

Longfellow, Henry W 185 



PAGE 

Longstreet, Gen. James 16 

Lowell, James Russell 27 

McKinley, William 45 

Morse, S. F. B 185 

Phillips, Wendell 27 

Porter, Com. D. D 185 

Pullman, George M 117 

Quay, M. S 99 

Reed, Thomas B 151 

Sage, Russell 117 

Scott, Gen. Winfield 185 

Seward, William H 45 

Sherman, John 99 

Sherman, Gen. W. T 151 

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady 27 

Stowe, Harriet Beecher 27 

Sumner, Charles 45 

Talmage, T. De Witt 63 

Teller, Henry M 99 

Thurman, Allen G 81 

Tilden, Samuel J 117 

Van Buren, Martin 81 

Vanderbilt, Commodore 99 

Webster, Daniel 27 

Whittier, John G 2^ 

Washington, George 45 

Watterson, Henry 63 



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COMPENDIUM 



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LOCAL BIOGRAPHY 



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FART II. 

Biographical Compendium of Darke County. 



PAGE 

Adams, George 225 

Albright, Daniel T 243 

Albright, Johnson K 4^1 

Albright, Peter 454 

Albright, Philip 242 

Alexandre, Joseph 434 

Allen, Benjamin M (554 

Allen, James 243 

Allen, William 245 

Allen, William 653 

Allread, James I 382 

Allread, S. William 730 

Alter, Henry 355 

Anderson, CM 28fi 

Anderson, Lewis C 702 

Armacost, Christopher M 620 

Armstrong, Hugh 501 

Armstrong, Hugh L 469 

Armstrong, Peter. 464 

Arnold, George 669 

Arnold, Henry 230 

Arnold, Isaac N 244 

Arnold, John C 414 

Arnold, Mrs. S. J 230 

Avery, James B 645 

Bailev, John L 262 

Bailey, Martin V 243 

Bailey, Mrs. Samuel 554 

Baker, Charles 731 

Baker, Thomas 280 

Beachler, Henry 583 

Beam, R. K 273 

Beem, Ralph U 736 

Beers, Charles 320 

Beers, David . nd Theodore.. . 245 

Bell, Hiram 245 

Benson, James M 700 

Bickel, Henry M 684 

Bickel, loseph M 473 

Biddle, John 484 

Bigler, Cyrus 261 

Bireley, Harvey H 659 

Bireley, William J 238 

Bish, Henry J 594 

Bishop, T. L 614 

Bolles, Charles H 595 

Booker, Isaac N 649 

Bowers, Wilson S 313 

Bowman, David P 245 

Bowman, David W 637 

Bowman, Jonathan 244 



PAGE 

Boyd, Samuel 229 

Brandon, Riley M 534 

Breaden, John E., Sr 462 

Breaden, John E., Jr 245, 467 

Bristly, Henry C 695 

Brown, Marshall A 348 

Brown, Noah W 662 

Brown, Reuben 305 

Browne, William A 668 

Bryson, Morris 619 

Bryson, Joseph 328 

Butcher; loseph J 697 

Burns, Daniel 292 

Byrd, Abraham 416 

Bvrd, George S 642 

Byrd.Japheth 538 

Calderwood, Andrew R..237, 243-5 

Calderwood, Elmer E 490 

Calderwood, George 237 

Calkins, Charles 245 

Carnahan, John 229 

Caupp, Daniel 459 

Chenoweth, Charles W 629 

Christopher, David 578 

Clark, Arthur L 728 

Clark, Hiram 567 

Clark, John C '350 

Clawson, Henry A 555 

Clear, David A 300 

Coblentz, Harrison 291 

Cole, Henry M 318 

Cole, Joseph 331 

Compton, John A 243 

Conover, Ezekiel S. 736 

Coppess, Adam S 712 

Coppess, Frederick 513 

Coppess, Harmon C 407 

Coppess. John S 517 

Corwin, Joseph W 401 

Cox, William 243 

Cranor, Jonathan 242 

Creviston, James B 248 

Culbertson, Edmund ....... 478 

Darke Co. Children's Home. . 362 

Davison, Oscar F 357 

Dean, Aaron 232 

Deardoff, Isaac F 549 

Denise Family, The 6<'8 

Detling, Mary E 365 

Devor, Elijah 232 



PAGE 

Devor, James 232 

Devor, John 229, 232 

Devor, William 227 

Downing, Andrew J 312 

Drill, Daniel L 388 

Dunkle, Charles E.... '.52 

Dunn, A. L 689 

Eidson, Francis M 276 

Eikenberry, A. L 548 

Emerson, William H 2> 6 

Emrick, George 288 

Erisman, Christian 251 

Erisman, Henry 621 

Eury, Sarah 744 

Ewry, William 283 

Farra, Eleanor 608 

Fischbach, John G 257 

Fisher, Eli A 424 

Folkerth, William 231 

Ford, Philip M 719 

Ford, Royston 673 

Foureman, David C 590 

Fowler, Hanson T 406 

Frampton, Adam C 506 

Frank, John G 303 

Frankmann, Adam 616 

Fritz, John H 749 

Frizell, J. W 242 

Frost, James 453 

Fry, Allen 661 

Fry, Phebe 723 

Garber, Harvey C 369 

George, William E 746 

Gibson, Samuel 700 

Glander, Edward 436 

Gordon, Frank S 432 

Grillot, Benjamin L 717 

Graff, Christian D 592 

Grusenmeyer, Valentine 633 

Guntrum, William E 591 

Halderman, Jacob 302 

Harlev, George W 360 

Harper, William M 640 

Hart, Solomon D 704 

Harter, Albert 298 

Harter, David F 405 

Harter, Elias 244 

Hartle, David 634 



TABLE OF CONTENTS— PART II. 



PAGE 

Hartle, Franklin P. 447 

Hartman, Samuel V 584 

Hartzell, Daniel 1 529 

Hartzell, Jonas W 437 

Hartzell, Philip 631 

Heeter, John F 397 

Henne, Daniel 676 

Hercules, Jacob L 322 

Hershey, Emanuel 753 

Hershey, John T 315 

Hickox, Fli 243 

Hill, George \V 513 

Hill. Harvey 409 

Hill, John R 505 

Himes, John T 611 

Hindsley, William W 675 

Hoi linger, Jacob 725 

Hoschouer, John 606 

Housholder, L. R 417 

Huddle, Levi 670 

Hufnagle, John 630 

Huhn, Morris 623 

Hyde, A. H 244 

Hyer, Jesse R 588 

Irelan, Aaron A 320 

Irwin, William J 576 

Jacobi, Henry C 445 

Jamison, Robert B 582 

Jefferis, William E. G 617 

Jobes, Allen L 243 

Jobes, U. H. R 239 245 

Jones, Alonzo L 698 

Judy, Alfred H 252 

Judy, Swan 246 

Karn, Henry 482 

Katzenberger, Charles L . . . . 457 

Katzenherger, Frances 1 562 

Katzenberger, Franziskus M. . 559 

Katzenberger, George A 527 

Kemble, Samuel R 326 

Keener, Harrison A 510 

Kerlin, John D 463 

Kerlin, Oscar C 589 

Kerlin, William K 460 

Kester, Philip 290 

Kiester, William H 720 

Kipp, Conrad 729 

Knoderer, Christian 479 

Knorr, Anthony T 665 

Knox, John R 246, 375 

Knox, R. A ' 243 

Kruckeberg, Herman F 385 

Lansdowne, James M 475 

Larimer, John W 507 

Layer, W. A 596 

Lephart, Henry 258 

Litten, Cyrus 718 

Livingston, William A 279 

Long, Barton W 299 

Longenecker, Frank 569 

Longenecker, Harvey 525 

Lot, L. B 245 

Loy, Michael 408 

Ludy, Samuel 854 

Ludy, William 352 



Maher, Thomas C 

Mansfield, Lewis 

Marker, George E 

Marker, Isaac 

Marker, Leonard 

Martin, 1). W. K 

Martin, Jacob B 

Martin, Luther 

Martin, Mrs. Robert 

Martz, George J 

Martz, Jacob T 

Matchett, C. G 243, 

Matchett, William H 243, 

Mayer, Charles H 

McAlpin, Alexander 

McCabe, lames 

McClure, George H 

McCool, James V 

McDonald, Joseph 

McDonald, Mark 

McEowen, Henry H 

McGriff, Jesse A 

McGnff, Price 

McGriff, William P 

McKay, John W 

McKibben. Hugh T 

McNutt, John 

Medford. Uriah 

Meeker, David L 245, 

Meeker, J. T 

Meier, Charles 

Meier, Frederick 

Menke, Bernhard 



iesse, Gabriel 

iller, Amos P 

iller, Daniel 

iller, John F 

iller, Lewis C 

iller, Thomas B. . . . 

iller, Thomas C . . . . 

ills, Catharine 

ills, Harrod 

ills, James 

innich, Samuel B.. . 

Mohler, John 

Monger, Thomas H . 
Morningstar, John H. 

Mote, Casville 

Mote, Irvin 

Mote, Joseph 

Mote, William C 



PAGE 

.. 435 
.. 532 
. . 573 

.. 752 

.. 622 

.. 533 

. . 884 

. 727 

.. 229 

.. 568 

.. 246 

245 

499 

346 

244 

255 

7o5 

:;;,s 

245 
678 
399 
681 

324 
285 
326 
624 
724 
Toe. 
626 
246 
7i is 
707 
581 
240 
267 
557 
430 
353 

751 
605 
564 
244 
545 
281 
757 
361 
657 
450 
679 
571 
477 



Netzley, Allen 427 

Net ley, Eli 427 

Netzley, Jesse. 431 

Newbauer, George D 438 



Newkirk, J. M 
Niswonger, George E. 

Noggle, George M 

Northrop, C. B 

Nysvvanger, Alex.... 



242 
710 
663 
244 
404 



Ortlepp, E 493 

Otwell, E. W 524 

Parent, John 307 

Paul in, Samuel 310 

Pearson, William 244 



PAGE 

Peters, Abdel 638 

Peters. John J 393 

Phillips, Monroe 709 

Pierson, Jacob S 243 

Pleasant, William C 665 

Plowman, Mary J 864 

Poe, Andrew 441 

Putnam, David 542 

Putnam, Edwin B 244 

Kahn, George W 603 

Rarick, Charles YV 308 

Reed, Finley R 540 

Reichard, William 389 

Reichard, William J 694 

Replogle, Francis iM 730 

Replogle, Jacob 726 

Reppeto, William H 282 

Requarth, William 294 

Rhoades, Abraham 602 

Richardson, Ephraim C 452 

Ries, John H 382 

Ries, Wilham L 379 

Riesley, Gotleap 449 

Rike, William H 485 

Roberts, D. Q 748 

Robertson, William L 341 

Koheson, Thomas J 440 

Robeson, William 446 

K ogers, Charles C 755 

Rogers, Elmer C 756 

Roland, Charles 691 

Roland, Charles W 613 

Royer, Henry J 343 

Ruh, Geortie 721 

Runkle, William 523 

Rush, Andrew 228 

Rush, Andrew W 363 

Ryan, Daniel H 323 

Ryan, Frank L 317 

Sater, J. W 245 

Schaefer, Christian 415 

Schlechty, George 579 

Scribner, Abraham and Azor. . 228 

Scribner, Rachel (Devor) 229 

Searl, Russell 370 

Seitz, Anna E 744 

Seitz, Enoch B 740 

Shafer, Job M 520 

Shelley, Thomas J 389 

Shepherd, Stephen 658 

Sherry, Elizabeth 269 

Sherry, William H 597 

Shields, Abraham 429 

Shields, George £98 

Shields, William 337 

Shives, Thomas A 600 

Shivly, Jacob W 243 

Shuff, Easam 426 

Sigafoos, George W 470 

Sigerfoos, George W 738 

Small, lohn H 492 

Smith, J. W 243 

Snodgrass, B. F 243 

Snodgrass, Clement 243 

Snyder, Daniel 344 

Snyder, Elias D 311 



TABLE OF CONTENTS— PART II. 



PAGE 

Snyder, James A 503 

Spencer, John F 297 

Stahl, Anna W 552 

Stentzel, John J...... 367 

Stephens, John 314 

Stevenson, Walter 244 

Stiles, Thomas D 235 

Stocker, Jacob R 446 

Stover, Daniel W 716 

Straker, Henry 455 

Stubbs, William V 751 

Studahaker, Abraham 230 

Studabaker, Uavid 231 

Suter, John R 693 

Swinger, David 423 

Swinger, John 732 

Taylor, Delia V 413 

Teaford, Jonathan 578 

Teaford, Norman 5S2 

Teegarden, Moses 554 

Teegarden, Moses S 380 

Teegarden, William W 585 

Thomas, Samuel S 488 

Thompson, Jeremiah 690 



PAGE 

Thompson, William S 667 

Tomlinson, H. A 243 

Townsend, Alfred 244 

Townsend, William 714 

Turner, Jacob K 641 

Turner, Larkin G 301 

Ullery, Leonard 243 

Vail, Aaron 715 

Van Mater, Cyrenius 243 

Vannoy, David J 489 

Walker, John 419 

Wallace, John A 709 

Walters, Lewis P 334 

Ware, Jacob F 480 

Warner, Henry 336 

Warvel, Daniel 682 

Warvel, Nathan S 266 

Weaver, David 568 

Weaver, Elihu 610 

Weaver, George 687 

Welbourn, George J 442 



PAGE 

Weston, W. A 233 

Wharry, John 238 

Whitacre, Frank M 411 

White, Elam 754 

Wiley, Francis G 487 

Williams, Henry 713 

Wilson Children, The 227 

Wilson, Mrs. Samuel 270 

Wilson, W.J 391 

Wilson, W. M 234 

Winbigler, George H 646 

Winbigler, John J 486 

Winger, John 688 

Winner, John L 233 

Winters, Job M 650 

Wise, Franklin 536 

Woods, Addison J 547 

Woods, Jesse 474 

Workman, T. H 243 

Young, Calvin M 494 

Young, Jacob B 470 

Yount, Henry L 584 

Zeller, Cyrus 654 



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COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



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Celebrated Americans 



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|EORGE WASHINGTON, 
% the first president of the Unit- 
|l ed States, called the "Father 
of his Country," was one of 
the most celebrated characters 
in history. He was born Feb- 
ruary 22, 1732, in Washing- 
ton Parish, Westmoreland county, Virginia. 
His father, Augustine Washington, first 
married Jane Butler, who bore him four 
children, and March (5, 1730, he -married 
Mary Ball. Of six children by his second 
marriage, George was the eldest. 

Little is known of the early years of 
Washington, beyond the fact that the house 
in which he was born was burned during his 
early childhood, and that his father there- 
upon moved to another farm, inherited from 
his paternal ancestors, situated in Stafford 
county, on the north bank of the Rappahan- 
nock, and died there in 1743. From earliest 
childhood George developed a noble charac- 
ter. His education was somewhat defective, 
being confined to the elementary branches 
taught him by his mother and at a neighbor- 
ing school. On leaving school he resided 
some time at Mount Vernon with his half 



brother, Lawrence, who acted as his guar. 
dian. George's inclinations were for a sea- 
faring career, and a midshipman's warrant 
was procured for him; but through the oppo- 
sition of his mother the project was aban- 
doned, and at the age of sixteen he was 
appointed surveyor to the immense estates 
of the eccentric Lord Fairfax. Three years 
were passed by Washington in a rough fron- 
tier life, gaining experience which afterwards 
proved very essential to him. In 175 1, 
when the Virginia militia were put under 
training with a view to active service against 
France, Washington, though only nineteen 
years of age, was appointed adjutant, with 
the rank of major. In 1752 Lawrence 
Washington died, leaving his large property 
to an infant daughter. In his will George 
was named one of the executors and as an 
eventual heir to Mount Vernon, and by the 
death of the infant niece, soon succeeded to 
that estate. In 1753 George was commis- 
sioned adjutant-general of the Virginia 
militia, and performed important work at 
the outbreak of the French and Indian 
war, was rapidly promoted, and at the close of 
that war we find him commander-in-chief of 



Oopjrisht 1S97, bj Geo. A. Ogle U Co. 



18 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



all the forces raised in Virginia. A cessation 
of Indian hostilities on the frontier having 
followed the expulsion of the French from 
the Ohio, he resigned his commission as 
commander-in-chief of the Virginia forces, 
and then proceeded to Williamsburg to take 
his seat in the Virginia Assembly, of which 
he had been elected a member. 

January 17, 1759, Washington married 
Mrs. Martha (Dandridge) Curtis, a young 
and beautiful widow of great wealth, and 
devoted himself for the ensuing fifteen years 
to the quiet pursuits of agriculture, inter- 
rupted only by the annual attendance in 
winter upon the colonial legislature at 
Williamsburg, until summoned by his coun- 
try to enter upon that other arena in which 
his fame was to become world-wide. The 
war for independence called Washington 
into service again, and he was made com- 
mander-in-chief of the colonial forces, and 
was the most gallant and conspicuous figure 
in that bloody struggle, serving until Eng- 
land acknowledged the independence of 
each of the thirteen States, and negotiated 
with them jointly, as separate sovereignties. 
December 4, 1783, the great commander 
took leave of his officers in most affection- 
ate and patriotic terms, and went to An- 
napolis, Maryland, where the congress of 
the States was in session, and to that body, 
when peace and order prevailed everywhere, 
resigned his commission and retired to 
Mount Vernon. 

It was in 1789 that Washington was 
called to the chief magistracy of the na- 
tion. The inauguration took place April 
30, in the presence of an immense multi- 
tude which had assembled to witness the new 
and imposing ceremony. In the manifold de- 
tails of his civil administration Washington 
proved himselffullyequal to the requirements 
of his position. In 1792, at the second presi- 



dential election, Washington was desirous 
to retire; but he yielded to the general wish 
of the country, and was again chosen presi- 
dent. At the third election, in 1796, he 
was again most urgently entreated to con- 
sent to remain in the executive chair. This 
he positively refused, and after March 4, 
1797, he again retired to Mount Vernon 
for peace, quiet, and repose. 

Of the call again made on this illustrious 
chief to quit his repose at Mount Ver- 
non and take command of all the United 
States forces, with rank of lieutenant-gen- 
eral, when war was threatened with France 
in 1798, nothing need here be stated, ex- 
cept to note the fact as an unmistakable 
testimonial of the high regard in which he 
was still held by his countrymen of all 
shades of political opinion. He patriotic- 
ally accepted this trust, but a treaty of 
peace put a stop to all action under it. He 
again retired to Mount Vernon, where he 
died December 14, 1799, in the sixty-eighth 
year of his age. His remains were depos- 
ited in a family vault on the banks of the 
Potomac, at Mount Vernon, where they still 
lie entombed. 

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, an eminent 
American statesman and scientist, was 
born of poor parentage, January 17, 1706, 
in Boston, Massachusetts. He was appren- 
ticed to his brother James to learn the print- 
er's trade to prevent his running away and 
going to sea, and also because of the numer- 
ous family his parents had to support (there 
being seventeen children, Benjamin being 
the fifteenth). He was a great reader, and 
soon developed a taste for writing, and pre- 
pared a number of articles and had them 
published in the paper without his brother's 
knowledge, and when the authorship be- 
came known it resulted in difficulty for the 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



n 



young apprentice, although his articles had 
been received with favor by the public. 
James was afterwards thrown into prison for 
political reasons, and young Benjamin con- 
ducted the paper alone during the time. In 
1823, however, he determined to endure his 
bonds no longer, and ran away, going to 
Philadelphia, where he arrived with only 
three pence as his store of wealth. With 
these he purchased three rolls, and ate them 
as he walked along the streets. He soon 
found employment as a journeyman printer. 
Two years later he was sent to England by 
the governor of Pennsylvania, and was 
promised the public printing, but did not get 
it. On hisTeturn to Philadelphia he estab- 
lished the "Pennsylvania Gazette," and 
soon found himself a person of great popu- 
larity in the province, his ability as a writer, 
philosopher, and politician having reached 
the neighboring colonies. He rapidly grew 
in prominence, founded the Philadelphia Li- 
brary in 1842, and two years later the 
American Philosophical Society and the 
University of Pennsylvania. He was made 
Fellow of the Royal Society in London in 
1775. His world-famous investigations in 
electricity and lightning began in 1746. He 
became postmaster-general of the colonies 
in 1753, having devised an inter-colonial 
postal system. He advocated the rights of 
the colonies at all times, and procured the 
repeal of the Stamp Act in 1766. He was 
elected to the Continental congress of 1775, 
and in 1776 was a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence, being one of the commit- 
tee appointed to draft that paper. He rep- 
resented the new nation in the courts of 
Europe, especially at Paris, where his simple 
dignity and homely wisdom won him the 
admiration of the court and the favor of the 
people. He was governor of Pennsylvania 
lour years; was also a member of the con- 



vention in 1787 that drafted the constitution 
of the United States. 

His writings upon political topics, anti- 
slavery, finance, and economics, stamp him 
as one of the greatest statesmen of his time, 
while his "Autobiography" and "Poor 
Richard's Almanac " give him precedence in 
the literary field. In early life he was an 
avowed skeptic in religious matters, but 
later in life his utterances on this subject 
were less extreme, though he never ex- 
pressed approval of any sect or creed. He 
died in Philadelphia April 17, 1790. 



DANIEL WEBSTER.— Of world wide 
reputation for statesmanship, diplo- 
macy, and oratory, there is perhaps no more 
prominent figure in the history of our coun- 
try in the interval between 181 5 and 1861, 
than Daniel Webster. He was born at 
Salisbury (now Franklin), New Hampshire, 
January 18, 1782, and was the second son 
of Ebenezer and Abigail (Eastman) Webster. 
He enjoyed but limited educational advan- 
tages in childhood, but spent a few months 
in 1797, at Phillip Exeter Academy. He 
completed his preparation for college in the 
family of Rev. Samuel Wood, at Boscawen, 
and entered Dartmouth College in the fall 
of 1797. He supported himself most of the 
time during these years by teaching school 
and graduated in 1801, having the credit of 
being the foremost scholar of his class. He 
entered the law office of Hon. Thomas W. 
Thompson, at Salisbury. In 1S02 he con- 
tinued his legal studies at Fryeburg, Maine, 
where he was principal of the academy and 
copyist in *the office of the register of 
deeds. In the office of Christopher Gore, 
at Boston, he completed his studies in 
1804-5, ar, d was admitted to the bar in the 
latter year, and at Boscawen and at Ports- 
mouth soon rose to eminence in his profes- 



20 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



sion. He became known as a federalist 
but did not court political honors; but, at- 
tracting attention by his eloquence in oppos- 
ing the war with England, he was elected 
to congress in 1812. During the special 
session of May, 18 13, he was appointed on 
the committee on foreign affairs and made 
his maiden speech June 10, 1S13. Through- 
out this session (as afterwards) he showed 
his mastery of the great economic questions 
of the day. He was re-elected in 1814. In 
1816 he removed to Boston and for seven 
years devoted himself to his profession, 
earning by his arguments in the celebrated 
"Dartmouth College Case" rank among 
the most distinguished jurists of the country. 
In 1820 Mr. Webster was chosen a member 
of the state convention of Massachusetts, to 
revise the constitution. The same year he 
delivered the famous discourse on the " Pil- 
grim fathers," which laid the foundation for 
his fame as an orator. Declining a nomi- 
nation for United States senator, in 1822 he 
was elected to the lower house of congress 
and was re-elected in 1824 and 1826, but in 
1827 was transferred to the senate. He 
retained his seat in the latter chamber until 
1 841. During this time his voice was ever 
lifted in defence of the national life and 
honor and although politically opposed to 
him he gave his support to the administra- 
tion of President Jackson in the latter's con- 
test with nullification. Through all these 
years he was ever found upon the side of 
right arid justice and his speeches upon all 
the great questions of the day have be- 
come household words in almost every 
family. In 1841 Mr. Webster was appointed 
secretary of state by President Harrison 
and was continued in the same office by 
President Tyler. While an incumbent of 
this office he showed consummate ability as 
a diplomat in the negotiation of the " Ash- 



burton treaty " of August 9, 1849, which 
settled many points of dispute between the 
United States and England. In May, 1843, 
he resigned his post and resumed his pro- 
fession, and in December, 1845, took his 
place again in the senate. He contributed 
in an unofficial way to the solution of the 
Oregon question with Great Britain in 1847. 
He was disappointed in 1848 in not receiv- 
ing the nomination for the presidency. He 
became secretary of state under President 
Fillmore in 1850 and in dealing with all the 
complicated questions of the day showed a 
wonderful mastery of the arts of diplomacy. 
Being hurt in an accident he retired to his 
home at Marshfield, where he died Octo- 
ber 24, 1S52. 

HORACE GREELEY. —As journalist, 
author, statesman and political leader, 
there is none more widely known than the 
man whose name heads this article. He 
was born in Amherst, New Hampshire, Feb- 
ruary 3, 181 1, and was reared upon a farm. 
At an early age he evinced a remarkable 
intelligence and love of learning, and at 
the age of ten had read every book he could 
borrow for miles around. About 1821 the 
family removed to Westhaven, Vermont, 
and for some years young Greeley assisted 
in carrying on the farm. In 1826 he entered 
the office of a weekly newspaper at East 
Poultney, Vermont, where he remained 
about four years. On the discontinuance 
of this paper he followed his father's 
family to Erie county, Pennsylvania, 
whither they had moved, and for a time 
worked at the printer's trade in that neigh- 
borhood. In 1 83 1 Horace went to New 
York City, and for a time found employ- 
ment as journeyman printer. January, 
1833, in partnership with Francis Story, he 
published the Morning Post, the first penny 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



21 



paper ever printed. This proved a failure 
and was discontinued after three weeks. 
The business of job printing was carried on, 
however, until the death of Mr. Story in 
July following. In company with Jonas 
Winchester, March 22, 1834, Mr. Greeley 
commenced the publication of the New 
Yorker, a weekly paper of a high character. 
For financial reasons, at the same time, 
Greeley wrote leaders for other papers, and, 
in 1838, took editorial charge of the Jeffer- 
sonian, a Whig paper published at Albany. 
In 1840, on the discontinuance of that sheet, 
he devoted his energies to the Log Cabin, a 
campaign paper in the interests of the Whig 
party. In the fall of 1841 the latter paper 
was consolidated with the New Yorker, un- 
der the name of the Tribune, the first num- 
ber of which was issued April 10, 184 1. At 
the head of this paper Mr. Greeley remained 
until the day of his death. 

In 1848 Horace Greeley was elected to 
the national house of representatives to 
fill a vacancy, and was a member of that 
body until March 4, 1849. In 1851 he went 
to Europe and served as a juror at the 
World's Fair at the Crystal Palace, Lon- 
don. In 1855, he made a second visit to 
the old world. In 1859 he crossed the 
plains and received a public reception at 
San Francisco and Sacramento. He was a 
member of the Republican national con- 
vention, at Chicago in i860, and assisted in 
the nomination of Abraham Lincoln for 
President. The same year he was a presi- 
dential elector for the state of New York, 
and a delegate to the Loyalist convention 
at Philadelphia. 

At the close of the war, in 1865, Mr. 
Greeley became a strong advocate of uni- 
versal amnesty and complete pacification, 
and in pursuance of this consented to be- 
come one of the bondsmen for Jefferson 



Davis, who was imprisoned for treason. In 
1867 he was a delegate to the New York 
state convention for the revision of the 
constitution. In 1870 he was defeated for 
congress in the Sixth New York district. 
At the Liberal convention, which met in 
Cincinnati, in May, 1872, on the fifth ballot 
Horace Greeley was nominated for presi- 
dent and July following was nominated for 
the same office by the Democratic conven- 
tion at Baltimore. He was defeated by a 
large majority. The large amount of work 
done by him during the campaign, together 
with the loss of his wife about the same 
time, undermined his strong constitution, 
and he was seized with inflammation of the 
brain, and died November 29, 1872. 

In addition to his journalistic work, Mr. 
Greeley was the author of several meritori- 
ous works, among which were: "Hints 
toward reform," "Glances at Europe," 
" History of the struggle for slavery exten 
sion," "Overland journey to San Francis- 
co," "The American conflict," and " Rec- 
ollections of a busy life." 



HENRY CLAY.— In writing of this em- 
inent American, Horace Greeley once 
said: "He was a matchless party chief, an 
admirable orator, a skillful legislator, wield- 
ing unequaled influence, not only over his 
friends, but even over those of his political 
antagonists who were subjected to the magic 
of his conversation and manners. " A law- 
yer, legislator, orator, and statesman, few 
men in history have wielded greater influ- 
ence, or occupied so prominent a place in 
the hearts of the generation in which they 
lived. 

Henry Clay was born near Richmond, 
in Hanover county, Virginia, April 12, 
1777, the son of a poor Baptist preacher 
who died when Henry was but five years 



22 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



old. The mother married again about ten 
years later and removed to Kentucky leav- 
ing Henry a clerk in a store at Richmond. 
Soon afterward Henry Clay secured a posi- 
tion as copyist in the office of the clerk of the 
high court of chancery, and four years later 
entered the law office of Robert Brooke, 
then attorney general and later governor of 
his native state. In 1797 Henry Clay was 
licensed as a lawyer and followed his mother 
to Kentucky, opening an office at Lexington 
and soon built up a profitable practice. 
Soon afterward Kentucky, in separating from 
Virginia, called a state convention for the 
purpose of framing a constitution, and Clay 
at that time took a prominent part, publicly 
urging the adoption of a clause providing 
for the abolition of slavery, but in this he 
was overruled, as he was fifty years later, 
when in the height of his fame he again ad- 
vised the same course when the state con- 
stitution was revised in 1850. Young Clay 
took a very active and conspicuous part in 
the presidential campaign in 1S00, favoring 
the election of Jefferson; and in 1803 was 
chosen to represent Fayette county in the 
state 'egislature. In 1806 General John 
Adair, then United States senator from 
Kentucky, resigned and Henry Clay was 
elected to fill the vacancy by the legislature 
and served through one session in which he 
at once assumed a prominent place. In 
1807 he was again a representative in the 
legislature and was elected speaker of the 
house. At this time originated his trouble 
with Humphrey Marshall. Clay proposed 
that each member clothe himself and family 
wholly in American fabrics, which Marshall 
characterized as the " language of a dema- 
gogue." This led to a duel in which both 
parties were slightly injured. In 1S09 
Henry Clay was again elected to fill a va- 
cancy in the United States senate, and two 



years later elected representative in the low- 
er house of congress, being chosen speaker 
of the house. About this time war was de- 
clared against Great Britain, and Clay took 
a prominent public place during this strug- 
gle and was later one of the commissioners 
sent to Europe by President Madison to ne- 
gotiate peace, returning in September, 1815, 
having been re-elected speaker of the 
house during his absence, and was re-elect- 
ed unanimously. He was afterward re- 
elected to congress and then became secre- 
tary of state under John Quincy Adams. 
In 1 83 1 he was again elected senator from 
Kentucky and remained in the senate most 
of the time until his death. 

Henry Clay was three times a candidate 
for the presidency, and once very nearly 
elected. He was the unanimous choice of 
the Whig party in 1844 for the presidency, 
and a great effort was made to elect him 
but without success, his opponent, James K. 
Polk, carrying both Pennsylvania and New 
York by a very slender margin, while either 
of them alone would have elected Clay. 
Henry Clay died at Washington June 29, 
1852. 

JAMES GILLESPIE BLAINE was one 
of the most distinguished of American 
statesmen and legislators. He was born 
January 31, 1830, in Washington county, 
Pennsylvania, and received a thorough edu- 
cation, graduating at Washington College in 
1847. In early life he removed to Maine 
and engaged in newspaper work, becoming 
editor of the Portland 'Advertiser." While 
yet a young man he gained distinction as a 
debater and became a conspicuous figure in 
political and public affairs. In 1862 he was 
elected to congress on the Republican ticket 
in Maine and was re-elected five times. In 
March, 1869, he was chosen speaker of the 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRATHT. 



23 



house of representatives and was re-elected 
in 1 87 1 and again in 1 873. In 1 S76 he was 
a representative in the lower house of con- 
gress and during that year was appointed 
United States senator by the Governor to 
fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of 
Senator Morrill, who had been appointed 
secretary of the treasury. Mr. Blaine 
served in the senate until March 5, 1881, 
when President Garfield appointed him sec- 
retary of state, which position he resigned 
in December, 1881. Mr. Blaine was nom- 
inated for the presidency by the Republic- 
ans, at Chicago in June, 1884, but was de- 
feated by Grover Cleveland after an exciting 
and spirited campaign. During the later 
years of his life Mr. Blaine devoted most of 
his time to the completion of his work 
"Twenty Years in Congress," which had a 
remarkably large sale throughout the United 
States. Blaine was a man of great mental 
ability and force of character and during the 
latter part of his life was one of the most 
noted men of his time. He was the origina- 
tor of what is termed the " reciprocity idea" 
in tariff matters, and outlined the plan of 
carrying it into practical effect. In 1876 
Robert G. Ingersoll in making a nominating 
speech placing Blaine's name as a candidate 
for president before the national Republican 
convention at Cincinnati, referred to Blaine 
as the " Plumed Knight " and this title clung 
to him during the remainder of his life. His 
death occurred at Washington, January 27, 
I893- 

JOHN CALDWELL CALHOUN, a dis- 
<J tinguished American statesman, was a 
native of South Carolina, born in Abbeville 
district, March 18, 17S2. He was given 
the advantages of a thorough education, 
graduating at Yale College in 1804, and 
adopted the calling of a lawyer. A Demo- 



crat politically, at that time, he took a fore- 
most part in the councils of his party and 
was elected to congress in 1S1 1, supporting 
the tariff of 18 16 and the establishing of 
the United States Bank. In 18 17 he be- 
came secretary of war in President Monroe's 
cabinet, and in 1 824 waselected vice-president 
of the United States, on the ticket with John 
Quincy Adams, and re-elected in 1 828, on the 
ticket with General Jackson. Shortly after 
this Mr. Calhoun became one of the strongest 
advocates of free trade and the principle of 
sovereignty of the states and was one of 
the originators of the doctrine that "any 
state could nullify unconstitutional laws of 
congress." Meanwhile Calhoun had be- 
come an aspirant for the presidency, and 
the fact that General Jackson advanced the 
interests of his opponent, Van Buren, led 
to a quarrel, and Calhoun resigned the vice- 
presidency in 1832 and was elected United 
Statessenator from South Carolina. It was 
during the same year that a convention was 
held in South Carolina at which the " Nul- 
lification ordinance " was adopted, the -ib- 
ject of which was to test the constitution- 
ality of the protective tariff measures, and 
to prevent if possible the collection of im- 
port duties in that state which had been 
levied more for the purpose of "protection" 
than revenue. This ordinance was to go 
into effect in February, 1833, and created a 
great deal of uneasiness throughout the 
country as it was feared there would be a 
clash between the state and federal authori- 
ties. It was in this serious condition of 
public affairs that Henry Clay came forward 
with the the famous "tariff compromise" 
of 1833, to which measure Calhoun and 
most of his followers gave their support and 
the crisis was averted. In 1S43 Mr. Cal- 
houn was appointed secretary of state in 
President Tyier's cabinet, and it was Under 



24 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



his administration that the treaty concern- 
ing the annexation of Texas was negotiated. 
In 1845 he was re-elected to the United 
States senate and continued in the senate 
until his death, which occurred in March, 
1850. He occupied a high rank as a scholar, 
student and orator, and it is conceded that 
he was one of the greatest debaters America 
has produced. The famous debate between 
Calhoun and Webster, in 1833, is regarded 
as the most noted for ability and eloquence 
in the history of the country. 



BENJAMIN FRANKLIN BUTLER, one 
of America's most brilliant and pro- 
found lawyers and noted public men, was 
a native of New England, born at Deer- 
field, New Hampshire, November 5, 1818. 
His father, Captain John Butler, was a 
prominent man in his day, commanded a 
company during the war of 181 2, and 
served under Jackson at New Orleans. 
Benjamin F. Butler was given an excellent 
education, graduated at Waterville College, 
Maine, studied law, was admitted to the 
bar in 1840, at Lowell, Massachusetts, 
where he commenced the practice of his 
profession and gained a wide reputation for 
his ability at the bar, acquiring an extensive 
practice and a fortune. Early in life he 
began taking an active interest in military 
affairs and served in the state militia through 
all grades from private to brigadier-general. 
In 1853 he was elected to the state legisla- 
ture on the Democratic ticket in Lowell, 
and took a prominent part in the passage of 
legislation in the interests of labor. Dur- 
ing the same year he was a member of the 
constitutional convention, and in 1859 rep- 
resented his district in the Massachusetts 
senate. When the Civil war broke out 
General Butler took the field and remained 
at the front most of the time during that 



bloody struggle. Part of the time he had 
charge of Fortress Monroe, and in Febru- 
ary, 1862, took command of troops forming 
part of the expedition against New Orleans, 
and later had charge of the department of 
the Gulf. He was a conspicuous figure dur- 
ing the continuance of the war. After the 
close of hostilities General Butler resumed 
his law practice in Massachusetts and in 
1866 was elected to congress from the Es- 
sex district. In 1882 he was elected gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts, and in 1884 was the 
nominee of the "Greenback" party for 
president of the United States. He con- 
tinued his legal practice, and maintained his 
place as one of the most prominent men in 
New England until the time of his death, 
which occurred January 10, 1893. 



JEFFERSON DAVIS, an officer, states- 
man and legislator of prominence in 
America, gained the greater part of his fame 
from the fact that he was president of the 
southern confederacy. Mr. Davis was born 
in Christian county, Kentucky, June 3, 
1808, and his early education and surround- 
ings were such that his sympathies and in- 
clinations were wholly with the southern 
people. He received a thorough education, 
graduated at West Point in 1828, and for a 
number of years served in the army at west- 
ern posts and in frontier service, first as 
lieutenant and later as adjutant. In 1835 
he resigned and became a cotton planter in 
Warren county, Mississippi, where he took 
an active interest in public affairs and be- 
came a conspicuous figure in politics. In 
1844 he was a presidential elector from 
Mississippi and during the two following 
years served as congressman from his d ; s-' 
trict. He then became colonel of a Missis- 
sippi regiment in the war with Mexico ana 
participated in some of the most severe pac- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHr 



25 



ties, being seriously wounded at Buena 
Vista. Upon his return to private life he 
again took a prominent part in political af- 
fairs and represented his state in the United 
States senate from 1847 to 1S51. He then 
entered President Pierce's cabinet as secre- 
tary of war, after which he again entered 
the United States senate, remaining until 
the outbreak of the Civil war. He then be- 
came president of the southern confederacy 
and served as such until captured in May, 
1865, at Irwinville, Georgia. He was held 
as prisoner of war at Fortress Monroe, until 
1867, when he was released on bail and 
finally set free in 1868. His death occurred 
December 6, 1889. 

Jefferson Davis was a man of excellent 
abilities and was recognized as one of the 
best organizers of his day. He was a 
forceful and fluent speaker and a ready 
writer. He wrote and published the " Rise 
and Fall of the Southern Confederacy," a 
work which is considered as authority by 
the southern peopl.- 

JOHN ADAMS, the second president of 
the United States, and one of the most 
conspicuous figures in the early struggles of 
his country for independence, was born in 
the present town of Quincy, then a portion 
of Braintree, Massachusetts, October 30, 
1735. He received a thorough education, 
graduating at Harvard College in 1755, 
studied law and was admitted to the bar in 
1758. He was well adapted for this profes- 
sion and after opening an office in his native 
town rapidly grew in prominence and public 
favor and soon was regarded as one of the 
leading lawyers of the country. His atten- 
tion was called to political affairs by the 
passage of the Stamp Act, in 1765, and he 
drew up a set of resolutions on the subject 
■which were very popular. In 1768 he re- 



moved to Boston and became one of the 
most courageous and prominent advocates 
of the popular cause and was chosen a 
member of the Colonial legislature from 
Boston. He was one of the delegates that 
represented Massachusetts in the first Con^ 
tinental congress, which met in September, 
1774. In a letter written at this crisis he 
uttered the famous words: "The die is now 
cast; I have passed the Rubicon. Sink or 
swim, live or die, survive or perish with my 
country, is my unalterable determination." 
He was a prominent figure in congress and 
advocated the movement for independence 
when a majority of the members were in- 
clined to temporize and to petition the King. 
In May, 1776, he presented a resolution in 
congress that the colonies should assume 
the duty of self-government, which was 
passed. In June, of the same year, a reso- 
lution that the United States "are, and oi 
right ought to be, free and independent," 
was moved by Richard H. Lee, seconded by 
Mr. Adams and adopted by a small majority. 
Mr. Adams was a member of the committee 
of five appointed June 1 1 to prepare a 
declaration of independence, in support of 
which he made an eloquent speech. He was 
chairman of the Board of War in 1776 and 
in 1 778 was sent as commissioner to France, 
but returned the following year. In 1780 
he went to Europe, having been appointed 
as minister to negotiate a treaty of peace 
and commerce with Great Britain. Con- 
jointly with Franklin and Jay he negotiated 
a treaty in 1782. He was employed as a 
minister to the Court of St. James from 
1785 to 1788, and during that period wrote 
his famous "Defence of the American Con- 
stitutions." In 1789 he became vice-presi- 
dent of the United States and was re-elected 
in 1792. 

In 1796 Mr. Adams was chosen presi- 



26 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



dent of the United States, his competitor 
being Thomas Jefferson, who became vice- 
president. In 1800 he was the Federal 
candidate for president, but he was not 
cordially supported by Gen. Hamilton, the 
favorite leader of his party, and was de- 
feated by Thomas Jefferson. 

Mr. Adams then retired from public life 
to his large estate at Quincy, Mass. , where 
he died July 4, 1826, on the same day that 
witnessed the death of Thomas Jefferson. 
Though his physical frame began to give way 
many years before his death, his mental 
powers retained their strength and vigor to 
the last. In his ninetieth year he was glad- 
dened by .the elevation of his son, John 
Quincy Adams, to the presidential office. 



HENRY WARD BEECHER, one of the 
most celebrated American preachers 
and authors, was born at Litchfield, Connec- 
ticut, June 24, 1 8 1 3. His father was Dr. Ly- 
man Beecher, also an eminent divine. At 
an early age Henry Ward Beecher had a 
strong predilection for a sea-faring life, and 
it was practically decided that he would fol- 
low this inclination, but about this time, in 
consequence of deep religious impressions 
which he experienced during a revival, he 
renounced his former intention and decided 
to enter the ministry. After having grad- 
uated at Amherst College, in 1834, he stud- 
ied theology at Lane Seminary under the 
tuition of his father, who was then president 
of that institution. In 1847 he became pas- 
tor of the Plymouth Congregational church 
in Brooklyn, where his oratorical ability and 
original eloquence attracted one of the larg- 
est congregations in the country. He con- 
tinued to served this church until the time 
of his death, March 8, 1S87. Mr. Beecher 
also found time for a great amount of liter- 
ary work- For a number of years he was 



editor of the "Independent" and also the 
' ' Christian Union. " He also produced many 
works which are widely known. Among his 
principal productions are "Lectures to Young 
Men," " Star Papers, " "Life of Christ," 
"Life Thoughts," "Royal Truths" (a 
novel), "Norwood," " Evolution and Rev- 
olution," and "Sermons on Evolution and 
Religion." Mr. Beecher was also long a 
prominent advocate of anti-slavery princi- 
ples and temperance reform, and, at a later 
period, of the rights of women. 



JOHN A. LOGAN, the illustrious states- 
man and general, was born in Jackson 
county, Illinois, February 9, 1824. In his 
boyhood days he received but a limited edu- 
cation in the schools of his native county. 
On the breaking out of the war with Mexico 
he enlisted in the First Illinois Volunteers 
and became its quartermaster. At the close 
of hostilities he returned home and was 
elected clerk of the courts of Jackson county 
in 1849. Determining to supplement his 
education Logan entered the Louisville Uni- 
versity, from which he graduated in 1852 
and taking up the study of law was admitted 
to the bar. He attained popularity and suc- 
cess in his chosen profession and was elected 
to the legislature in 1852, 1853, 1856 and 
1857. He was prosecuting attorney from 
1853 to 1857. He was elected to congress 
in 1858 to fill a vacancy and again in i860. 
At the outbreak of the Rebellion, Logan re- 
signed his office and entered the arm}', and 
in September, 1861, was appointed colonel 
of the Thirty-first Illinois Infantry, which he 
led in the battles of Belmont and Fort Don- 
elson. In the latter engagement he was 
wounded. In March, 1862, he was pro- 
moted to be brigadier-general and in the 
following month participated in the battles 
of Pittsburg Landing. In November, 1862, 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHi: 



29 



for gallant conduct he was made major-gen- 
eral. Throughout the Vicksburg campaign 
he was in command of a division of the Sev- 
enteenth Corps and was distinguished at 
Port Gibson, Champion Kills and in the 
siege and capture cf Vicksburg. In October, 
1863, he was placed in command of the 
Fifteenth Corps, which he led with great 
credit. During the terrible conflict before 
Atlanta, July 22, 1864, on the death of 
General McPherson, Logan, assuming com- 
mand of the Army of the Tennessee, led it 
on to victory, saving the day by his energy 
and ability. He was shortly after succeeded 
by General O. O. Howard and returned to 
the command of his corps. He remained 
in command until the presidential election, 
when, feeling that his influence was needed 
at home he returned thither and there re- 
mained until the arrival of Sherman at Sa- 
vannah, when General Logan rejoined his 
command. In May, 1865, he succeeded 
General Howard at the head of the Army of 
the Tennessee. He resigned from the army 
in August, the same year, and in November 
was appointed minister to Mexico, but de- 
clined the honor. He served in the lower 
house of the fortieth and forty-first con- 
gresses, and was elected United States sena- 
tor from his native state in 1870, 1878 and 
1885. He was nominated for the vice-presi- 
dency in 1884 on the ticket with Blaine, but 
was defeated. General Logan was the 
author of "The Great Conspiracy, its origin 
and history," published in 1885. He died 
at Washington, December 26, 1886. 



JOHN CHARLES FREMONT, the first 
Republican candidate for president, was 
born in Savannah, Georgia, January 2i 5 
18 1 3. He graduated trom Charleston Col- 
lege (South Carolina) in 1S30, and turned his 

attention to civil engineering. He was shortly 
2 



afterward employed in the department of 
government surveys on the Mississippi, and 
constructing maps of that region. He was 
made lieutenant of engineers, and laid be- 
fore the war department a plan for pi ne- 
trating the Rocky Mountain regions, which 
was accepted, and in 1842 he set out upon 
his first famous exploring expedition and ex- 
plored the South Pass. He also planned an 
expedition to Oregon by a new route further 
south, but afterward joined his expedition 
with that of Wilkes in the region of the 
Great Salt Lake. He made a later expedi- 
tion which penetrated the Sierra Nevadas, 
and the San Joaquin and Sacramento river 
valleys, making maps of all regions explored. 
In 1845 he conducted the great expedi- 
tion which resulted in the acquisition of 
California, which it was believed the Mexi- 
can government was about to dispose of to 
England. Learning that the Mexican gov- 
ernor was preparing to attack the American 
settlements in his dominion, Fremont deter- 
mined to forestall him. The settlers rallied 
to his camp, and in June, 1846, he defeated 
the Mexican forces at Sonoma Pass, and a 
month later completely routed the governor 
and his entire army. The Americans at 
once declared their independence of Mexico, 
and Fremont was elected governor of Cali- 
fornia. By this time Commodore Stockton 
had reached the coast with instructions from 
Washington to conquer California. Fre- 
mont at once joined him in that effort, which 
resulted in the annexation of California with 
its untold mineral wealth. Later Fremont 
became involved in a difficulty with fellow 
officers which resulted in a court martial, 
and the surrender of his commission. He 
declined to accept reinstatement. He af- 
terward laid out a great road from the Mis- 
sissippi river to San Francisco, and became 
the first United States senator from Califor- 



BO 



coMPE.xniuir of biograpi/p. 



nia, in 1849. In 1856 he was nominated 
by the new Republican party as its first can- 
didate for president against Buchanan, and 
received 114 electoral votes, out of 296. 

In 1 86 1 he was made major-general and 
placed in charge of the western department. 
He planned the reclaiming of the entire 
Mississippi valley, and gathered an army of 
thirty thousand men, with plenty of artil- 
lery, and was ready to move upon the con- 
federate General Price, when he was de- 
prived of his command. He was nominated 
for the presidency at Cincinnati in 1864, but 
withdrew. He was governor of Arizona in 
1878, holding the position four years. He 
was interested in an engineering enterprise 
looking toward a great southern trans-con- 
tinental railroad, and in his later years also 
practiced law in New York. He died July 1 3, 
1 890. 

WENDELL PHILLIPS, the orator and 
abolitionist, and a conspicuous figure 
in American history, was born November 
29, 1 S 1 1 , at Boston, Massachusetts. He 
received a good education at Harvard 
College, from which he graduated in 1831, 
and then entered the Cambridge Law School. 
After completing his course in that institu- 
tion, in 1833, he was admitted to the bar, 
in 1834, at Suffolk. He entered the arena 
of life at the time when the forces of lib- 
erty and slavery had already begun their 
struggle that was to culminate in the Civil 
war. William Lloyd Garrison, by his clear- 
headed, courageous declarations of the anti- 
slavery principles, had done much to bring 
about this struggle. Mr. Phillips was not a 
man that could stand aside and see a great 
struggle being carried on in the interest of 
humanity and look passively on. He first 
attracted attention as an orator in 1837, at 
a meeting that was called to protest against 



the murder of the Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy. 
The meeting would have ended in a few 
perfunctory resolutions had not Mr. Phillips 
by his manly eloquence taken the meeting 
out of the hands of the few that were in- 
clined to temporize and avoid radical utter- 
ances. Having once started out in this ca- 
reer as an abolitionist Phillips never swerved 
from what he deemed his duty, and never 
turned back. He gave up his legal practice 
and launched himself heart and soul in the 
movement for the liberation of the slaves. 
He was an orator of very great ability and 
by his earnest efforts and eloquence he did 
much in arousing public sentiment in behalf 
of the anti-slavery cause — possibly more 
than any one man of his time. After the 
abolition of slavery Mr. Phillips was, if pos- 
sible, even busier than before in the literary 
and lecture field. Besides temperance and 
women's rights, he lectured often and wrote 
much on finance, and the relations of labor 
and capital, and his utterances on whatever 
subject always bore the stamp of having 
emanated from a master mind. Eminent 
critics have stated that it might fairly be 
questioned whether there has ever spoken 
in America an orator superior to Phillips. 
The death of this great man occurred Feb- 
ruary 4, 1884. 



WILLIAM TECUMSEH SHERMAN 
was one of the greatest generals that 
the world has ever produced and won im- 
mortal fame by that strategic and famous 
" march to the sea," in the war of the Re- 
bellion. He was born February 8, 1820, at 
Lancaster, Ohio, and was reared in the 
family of the Hon. Thomas Ewing, as his 
father died when he was but nine years of 
age. He entered West Point in 1836, wa? 
graduated from the same in 1840, and ap- 
pointed a second lieutenant in the Third 



COMPEXDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



31 



Artillery. He passed through the various 
grades of the service and at the outbreak of 
the Civil war was appointed colonel of the 
Thirteenth Regular Infantry. A full history 
of General Sherman's conspicuous services 
would be to repeat a history of the army. 
He c 'inmanded a division at Shiloh, and 
was instrumental in the winning of that bat- 
tle, and was also present at the siege of Vicks- 
burg. On July 4, 1863, he was appointed 
brigadier-general of the regular army, and 
shared with Hooker the victory of Mission- 
ary Ridge. He was commander of the De- 
partment of the Tennessee from October 
27th until the appDiutment of General 
Grant as lieutenant-general, by whom he 
was appointed to the command of the De- 
partment of the Mississippi, which he as- 
sumed in March, 1864. He at once began 
organizing the army and enlarging his "com- 
munications preparatory to his march upon 
Atlanta, which he started the same time of 
the beginning of the Richmond campaign by 
Grant. He started on May 6, and was op- 
posed by Johnston, who had fifty thousand 
men, but by consummate generalship, he 
captured Atlanta, on September 2, after 
several months of hard fighting and a severe 
loss of men. General Sherman started on 
his famous march to the sea November 15, 
1864, and by December -10 he was before 
Savannah, which he took on December 23. 
This campaign is a monument to the genius 
of General Sherman as he only lost 567 
men from Atlanta to the sea. After rest- 
ing his army he moved northward and occu- 
pied the following places: Columbia, 
Cheraw, Fayetteville, Ayersboro, Benton- 
ville, Goldsboro, Raleigh, and April 18, he 
accepted the surrender of Johnston's army 
on a basis of agreement that was not re- 
ceived by the Government with favor, but 
finally accorded Johnston the same terms as 



Lee was given by General Grant. He was 
present at the grand review at Washington, 
and after the close of the war was appointed 
to the command of the military division of 
the Mississippi; later was appointed lieu- 
tenant-general, and assigned to the military 
division of the Missouri. When General 
Grant was elected president Sherman became 
general, March 4, 1869, and succeeded to 
the command of the army. His death oc- 
curred February 14, 1S91, at Washington. 



ALEXANDER HAMILTON, one of the 
most prominent of the early American 
statesmen and financiers, was born in Nevis, 
an island of the West Indies, January 11, 
1757, his father being a Scotchman and his 
mother of Huguenot descent. Owing to the 
death of his mother and business reverses 
which came to his father, young Hamilton 
was s;nt to his mother's relatives in Santa 
Cruz; a few years later was sent to a gram- 
mar school at Elizabethtown, New Jersey, 
and in 1773 entered what is now known as 
Columbia College. Even at that time he 
began taking an active part in public affairs 
and his speeches, pamphlets, and newspaper 
articles on political affairs of the day at- 
tracted considerable attention. In 1776 he 
received a captain's commission and served 
in Washington's army with credit, becoming 
aide-de-camp to Washington with rank of 
lieutenant-colonel. In 1 781 he resigned his 
commission because of a rebuke from Gen- 
eral Washington. He next received com- 
mand of a New York battalion and partici- 
pated in the battle of Yorktown. After 
this Hamilton studied law, served several 
terms in congress and was a member of the 
convention at which the Federal Constitu- 
tion was drawn up. His work connected 
with " The Federalist " at about this time 
attracted much attention. Mr. Hamilton. 



-32 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



was chosen as the first secretary of the 
United States treasury and as such was the 
author of the funding system and founder of 
the United States Bank. In 1798 he was 
made inspector-general of the army with the 
rank of major-general and was also for a 
short time commander-in-chief. In 1804 
Aaron Burr, then candidate for governor of 
New York, challenged Alexander Hamilton 
to fight a duel, Burr attributing his defeat 
to Hamilton's opposition, and Hamilton, 
though declaring the code as a relic of bar- 
barism, accepted the challenge. They met 
at Weehawken, New Jersey, July n, 1804. 
Hamilton declined to fire at his adversary, 
but at Burr's first fire was fatally wounded 
and died July 12, 1804. 



ALEXANDER HAMILTON STEPH- 
ENS, vice-president of the southern 
confederacy, a former United States senator 
and governor of Georgia, ranks among the 
great men of American history. He was born 
February 11, 1812, near Crawfordsville, 
Georgia. He was a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Georgia, and admitted to the bar 
in 1834. In 1837 he made his debut in 
political life as a member of the state house 
of representatives, and in 1 841 declined the 
nomination for the same office; but in 1842 
he was chosen by the same constituency as 
state senator. Mr. Stephens was one of 
the promoters of the Western and Atlantic 
Railroad. In 1843 he was sent by his dis- 
trict to the national house of representatives, 
which office he held for sixteen consec- 
utive years. He was a member of the 
house during the passing of the Compromise 
Bill, and was one of its ablest and most 
active supporters. The same year (1850) 
Mr. Stephens was a delegate to the state 
convention that framed the celebrated 
" Georgia Platform," and was also a dele- 



gate to the convention that passed the ordi- 
nance of secession, though he bitterly op- 
posed that bill by voice and vote, yet he 
readily acquiesced in their decision after 
it received the votes of the majority of the 
convention. He was chosen vice-president 
of the confederacy without opposition, and 
in 1865 he was the head of the commis- 
sion sent by the south to the Hampton 
Roads conference. He was arrested after 
the fall of the confederacy and was con- 
fined in Fort Warren as a prisoner of state 
but was released on his own parole. Mr. 
Stephens was elected to the forty-third, 
forty-fourth, forty-fifth, forty-sixth and for- 
ty-seventh congresses, with hardly more than 
nominal opposition. He was one of the 
Jeffersonian school of American politics. 
He wrote a number of works, principal 
among which are: "Constitutional View 
of the War between the States," and a 
" Compendium of the History of the United 
States." He was inaugurated as governor 
of Georgia November 4th, 1882, but died 
March 4, 1883, before the completion of 
his term. 

ROSCOE CONKLING was one of the 
most noted and famous of American 
statesmen. He was among the most fin- 
ished, fluent and eloquent orators that have 
ever graced the halls of the American con- 
gress; ever ready, witty and bitter in de- 
bate he was at once admired and feared by 
his political opponents and .revered by his 
followers. True to his friends, loyal to the 
last degree to those with whom his inter- 
ests were associated, he was unsparing to his 
foes and it is said "never forgot an injury." 
Roscoe Conkling was born at Albany, 
New York, on the 30th of October, 1829, 
being a son of Alfred Conkling. Alfred 
Conkling was also a native of New York, 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



33 



born at East Hampton, October 12, 1789, 
and became one of the most eminent law- 
yers in the Empire state; published several 
legal works; served a term in congress; aft- 
erward as United States district judge for 
Northern New York, and in 1852 was min- 
ister to Mexico. Alfred Conkling died in 

1874- 

Roscoe Conkling, whose name heads 
this article, at an early age took up the 
study of law and soon became successful and 
prominent at the bar. About 1846 he re- 
moved to Utica and in 1858 was elected 
mayor of that city. He was elected repre- 
sentative in congress from this district and 
was re-elected three times. In 1867 he was 
elected United States senator from the state 
of New York and was re-elected in 1873 
and 1879. In May, 1881, he resigned on 
account of differences with the president. 
In March, 1S82, he was appointed and con- 
firmed as associate justice of the United 
States supreme court but declined to serve. 
His death occurred April 18, 1888. 



WASHINGTON IRVING, one of the 
most eminent, talented and popu- 
lar of American authors, was born in New 
York City, April 3, 1783. His father was 
William Irving, a merchant and a native of 
Scotland, who had married an English lady 
and emigrated to America some twenty 
years prior to the birth of Washington. 
Two of the older sons, William and Peter, 
were partially occupied with newspaper 
work and literary pursuits, and this fact 
naturally inclined Washington to follow 
their example. Washington Irving was given 
the advantages afforded by the common 
schools until about sixteen years of age 
when he began studying law, but continued 
to acquire his literary training by diligent 
perusal at home of the older English writers. 



When nineteen he made his first literary 
venture by printing in the ' ' Morning Chroni- 
cle," then edited by his brother, Dr. Peter 
Irving, a series of local sketches under the 
nom-de-phune of " Jonathan Oldstyle." In 
1804 he began an extensive trip through 
Europe, returned in 1806, quickly com- 
pleted his legal studies and was admitted to 
the bar, but never practiced the profession. 
In 1807 he began the amusing serial "Sal- 
magundi," which had an immediate suc- 
cess, and not only decided his future 
career but long determined the charac- 
ter of his writings. In 1808, assisted by 
his brother Peter, he wrote "Knickerbock- 
er's History of New York," and in 1810 an 
excellent biography of Campbell, the poet. 
After this, for some time, Irving's attention 
was occupied by mercantile interests, but 
the commercial house in which he was a 
partner failed in 1S17. In 18 14 he was 
editor of the Philadelphia "Analectic Maga- 
zine." About 181 8 appeared his "Sketch- 
Book," over the nom-de-plume of ' 'Geoffrey 
Crayon," which laid the foundation of Ir- 
ving's fortune and permanent fame. This 
was soon followed by the legends of 
"Sleepy Hollow," and " Rip Van Winkle," 
which at once took high rank as literary 
productions, and Irving's reputation was 
firmly established in both the old and new 
worlds. After this the path of Irving was 
smooth, and his subsequent writings ap- 
peared with rapidity, including " Brace- 
bridge Hall," "The Tales of a Traveler," 
" History of the Life and Voyages of Chris- 
topher Columbus," "The Conquest of 
Granada," "The Alhambra," "Tour on 
the Prairies," "Astoria," "Adventures of 
Captain Bonneville," " Wolfert's Roost," 
" Mahomet and his Successors," and "Life 
of Washington," besides other works. 

Washington Irving was never married. 



34 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



He resided during the closing years of his 
life at Sunnyside (Tarrytown) on the Hud- 
son, where he died November 28, 1859. 



CHARLES SUMNER.— Boldly outlined 
on the pages of our history stands out 
the rugged figure of Charles Sumner, states- 
man, lawyer and writer. A man of unim- 
peachable integrity, indomitable will and 
with the power of tireless toil, he was a fit 
leader in troublous times. First in rank as 
an anti-slavery leader in the halls of con- 
gress, he has stamped his image upon the 
annals of his time. As an orator he took 
front rank and, in wealth of illustration, 
rhetoric and lofty tone his eloquence equals 
anything to be found in history. 

Charles Sumner was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, January 6, 181 1, and was 
the son of Charles P. and Relief J. Sumner. 
The family had long been prominent in that 
state. Charles was educated at the Boston 
Public Latin School; entered Harvard Col- 
lege in 1826, and graduated therefrom in 
1830. In 1 83 1 he joined the Harvard Law 
School, then under charge of Judge Story, 
and gave himself up to the study of law 
with enthusiasm. His leisure was devoted 
to contributing to the American Jurist. Ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1834 he was appointed 
reporter to the circuit court by Judge Story. 
He published several works about this time, 
and from 1835 to 1837 and again in 1843 
was lecturer in the law school. He had 
planned a lawyer's life, but in 1845 he gave 
his attention to politics, speakingand working 
against the admission of Texas to the Union 
and subsequently against the Mexican war. 
In 1848 he was defeated for congress on the 
Free Soil ticket. His stand on the anti- 
slavery question at that time alienated both 
friends and clients, but he never swerved 
from his convictions. In 185 1 he was elected 



to the United States senate and took his 
seat therein December 1 of that year. From 
this time his life became the history of the 
anti-slavery cause in congress. In August, 
1852, he began his attacks on slavery by a 
masterly argument for the repeal of the 
fugitive slave law. On May 22, 1856, Pres- 
ton Brooks, nephew of Senator Butler, of 
South Carolina, made an attack upon Mr. 
Sumner, at his desk in the senate, striking 
him over the head with a heavy cane. The 
attack was quite serious in its effects and 
kept Mr. Sumner absent from his seat in the 
senate for about four years. In 1857, 1863 
and 1869 he was re-elected to the office of 
senator, passing some twenty-three years in 
that position, always advocating the rights 
of freedom and equity. He died March II, 
1874- 

THOMAS JEFFERSON, the third pres- 
ident of the United States, was born 
near Charlottesville, Albemarle county, Vir- 
ginia, April 13, 1743, and was the son of 
Peter and Jane (Randolph) Jefferson. He 
received the elements of a good education, 
and in 1760 entered William and Mary Col- 
lege. After remaining in that institution for 
two years he took up the study of law with 
George Wythe, of Williamsburg, Virginia, 
one of the foremost lawyers of his day, and 
was admitted to practice in 1767. He ob- 
tained a large and profitable practice, which 
he held for eight years. The conflict be- 
tween Great Britain and the Colonies then 
drew him into public life, he having for 
some time given his attention to the study 
of the sources of law, the origin of liberty 
and equal rights. 

Mr. Jefferson was elected to the Virginia 
house of burgesses in 1769, and served in 
that body several years, a firm supporter of 
liberal measures, and, although a slave- 



•COMrEXMCM OF biography. 



35- 



holder himself, an opponent of slavery. 
With others, he was a leader among the op- 
position to the king. He took his place as 
a member of the Continental congress June 
21, 1775, and after serving on several com- 
mittees was appointed to draught a Declara- 
tion of Independence, which he did, some 
corrections being suggested by Dr. Franklin 
and John Adams. This document was pre- 
sented to congress June 28, 1776, and after 
six days' debate was passed and was signed. 
In the following September Mr. Jefferson 
resumed his seat in the Virginia legislature, 
and gave much time to the adapting of laws 
of that state to the new condition of things. 
He drew up the law, the first ever passed by 
a legislature or adopted by a government, 
which secured perfect religious freedom. 
June 1, 1779, he succeeded Patrick Henry 
as governor of Virginia, an office which, 
after cooperating with Washington in de- 
fending the country, he resigned two years 
later. One of his own estates was ravaged 
by the British, and his house at Monticello 
was held by Tarleton for several days, and 
Jefferson narrowly escaped capture. After 
the death of his wife, in 1782, he accepted 
the position of plenipotentiary to France, 
which he had declined in 1776. Before 
leaving he served a short time in congress 
at Annapolis, and succeeded in carrying a 
bill for establishing our present decimal sys- 
tem of currency, one of his most useful pub- 
lic services. He remained in an official ca- 
pacity until October, 1789, and was a most 
active and vigilant minister. Besides the 
onerous duties of his office, during this time, 
he published "Notes on Virginia," sent to 
the United States seeds, shrubs and plants, 
forwarded literary and scientific news and 
gave useful advice to some of the leaders of 
the French Revolution. 

Mr. Jefferson landed in Virginia Novem- 



ber 18, 1789, having obtained a leave of 
absence from his post, and shortly after ac- 
cepted Washington's offer of the portfolio" 
of the department of state in his cabinet. 
He entered upon the duties of his office in 
March, 1 79 1 , and held it until January 1, 
1794, when he tendered his resignation. 
About this time he and Alexander Hamilton; 
became decided and aggressive political op- 
ponents, Jefferson being in warm sympathy 
with the people in the French revolution 
and strongly democratic in his feelings, 
while Hamilton took the opposite side. In 
1796 Jefferson was elected vice-president of 
the United States. In 1S00 he was elected 
to the presidency and was inaugurated 
March 4, 1S01. During his administration, 
which lasted for eight years, he having been' 
re-elected in 1804, he waged a successful 
war against the Tripolitan pirates; purchased 
Louisiana of Napoleon; reduced the public 
debt, and was the originator of many wise 
measures. Declining a nomination for a 
third term he returned to Monticello, where 
he died July 4, 1826, but a few hours before, 
the death of his friend, John Adams. 

Mr. Jefferson was married January r, 
1772, to Mrs. Martha Skelton, a young, 
beautiful, and wealthy widow, who died 
September 6, 1782, leaving three children, 
three more having died previous to her 
demise. 

CORNELIUS VANDERBILT.known as 
"Commodore" Vanderbilt, was the 
founder of what constitutes the present im- 
mense fortune of the Vanderbilt family. He 
was born May 27, 1794, at Port Richmond, 
Staten Island, Richmond county, New- 
York, and we find him at sixteen years run- 
ning a small vessel between his home and 
New York City. The fortifications of Sta- 
ten and Long Islands were just in course of 



30 



COMPENDIUM OF BIO GRAPH T. 



construction, and he carried the laborers 
from New York to the fortifications in his 
" perianger, " as it was called, in the day, 
and at night carried supplies to the fort on 
the Hudson. Later he removed to New 
York, where he added to his little fleet. At 
the age of twenty-three he was free from 
debt and was worth $9,000, and in 1817, 
with a partner he built the first steamboat 
that was run between New York and New 
Brunswick, New Jersey, and became her 
captain at a salary of $1,000 a year. The 
next year he took command of a larger and 
better boat and by 1824 he was in complete 
control of the Gibbon's Line, as it was 
called, which he had brought up to a point 
where it paid $40,000 a year. Commodore 
Vanderbilt acquired the ferry between New 
York and Elizabethport, New Jersey, on a 
fourteen years' lease and conducted this on 
a paying basis. He severed his connections 
with Gibbons in 1829 and engaged in 
business alone and for twenty years he was 
the leading steamboat man in the country, 
building and operating steamboats on the 
Hudson River, Long Island Sound, on the 
Delaware River and the route to Boston, 
and he had the monopoly of trade on these 
routes. In 1850 he determined to broaden 
his field of operation and accordingly built 
the steamship Prometheus and sailed for 
the Isthmus of Darien, where he desired to 
make a personal investigation of the pros- 
pects of the American Atlantic and Pacific 
Ship Canal Company, in which he had pur- 
chased a controlling interest. Commodore 
Vanderbilt planned, as a result of this visit, 
a transit route from Greytown on the At- 
lantic coast to San Juan del Sud on the Pa- 
cific coast, which was a saving of 700 miles 
over the old route. In 1851 he placed three 
steamers on the Atlantic side and four on 
the Pacific side to accommodate the enor- 



mous traffic occasioned by the discovery of 
gold in California. The following year 
three more vessels were added to his fleet 
and a branch line established from New 
Orleans to Greytown. In 1853 the Com- 
modore sold out hisNicarauguaTransit Com- 
pany, which had netted him $1,000,000 
and built the renowned steam yacht, the 
"North Star." He continued in the ship- 
ping business nine years longer and accu- 
mulated some $10,000,000. In 1861 he 
presented to the government his magnifi- 
cent steamer " Vanderbilt, " which had cost 
him $800,000 and for which he received the 
thanks of congress. In 1844 he became 
interested in the railroad business which he 
followed in later years and became one of 
the greatest railroad magnates of his time. 
He founded the Vanderbilt University at a 
cost of $1,000,000. He died January 4, 
1877, leaving a fortune estimated at over 
$100,000,000 to his children. 



DANIEL BOONE was one of the most 
famous of the many Atnerican scouts, 
pioneers and hunters which the early settle- 
ment of the western states brought into 
prominence. Daniel Boone was born Feb- 
ruary 11, 1735, in Bucks county, Pennsyl- 
vania, but while yet a young man removed 
to North Carolina, where he was married. 
In 1769, with five companions, he pene- 
trated into the forests and wilds of Kentucky 
— then uninhabited by white men. He had 
frequent conflicts with the Indians and was 
captured by them but escaped and continued 
to hunt in and explore that region for over 
a year, when, in 1771, he returned to his 
home. In the summer of 1773, he removed 
with his own and five other families into 
what was then the wilderness of Kentucky, 
and to defend his colony against the savages, 
he built, in 1775, a fort at Boonesborough, 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



37 



on the Kentucky river. This fort was at- 
tacked by the Indians several times in 1777, 
but they were repulsed. The following 
year, however, Boone was surprised and 
captured by them. They took him to De- 
troit and treated him with leniency, but he 
soon escaped and returned to his fort which 
he defended with success against four hun- 
dred and fifty Indians in August, 1778. His 
son, Enoch Boone, was the first white male 
child born in the state of Kentucky. In 
1795 Daniel Boone removed with his family 
to Missouri, locating about forty-five miles 
west of the present site of St. Louis, where 
he found fresh fields for his favorite pursuits 
— adventure, hunting, and pioneer life. His 
death occurred September 20, 1820. 



HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFEL- 
LOW, said to have been America's 
greatest " poet of the people," was born at 
Portland, Maine, February 27, 1807. He 
entered Bowdoin College at the age of four- 
teen, and graduated in 1825. During his 
college days he distinguished himself in mod- 
ern languages, and wrote several short 
poems, one of the best known of which was 
the "Hymn of the Moravian Nuns." After 
his graduation he entered the law office of 
his father, but the following year was offered 
the professorship of modern languages at 
Bowdoin, with the privilege of three years 
study in Europe to perfect himself in French, 
Spanish, Italian and German. After the 
three years were passed he returned to the 
United States and entered upon his profes- 
sorship in 1829. His first volume was a 
small essay on the "Moral and Devotional 
Poetry of Spain" in 1833. In 1835 he pub- 
lished some prose sketches of travel under 
the title of "Outre Mer, a Pilgrimage be- 
yond the Sea." In 1835 he was elected to 
the chair of modern languages and literature 



at Harvard University and spent a year in 
Denmark, Sweden and Switzerland, culti- 
vating a knowledge of early Scandinavian 
literature and entered upon his professor- 
ship in 1836. Mr. Longfellow published in 
1839 " Hyperion, a Romance, " and ' ' Voices 
of the Night, " and his first volume of original 
verse comprising the selected poems of 
twenty years work, procured him immediate 
recognition as a poet. " Ballads and other 
poems" appeared in 1842, the "Spanish 
Student " a drama in three acts, in 1843, 
"The Belfry of Bruges " in 1846, "Evan- 
geline, a Tale of Acadia," in 1847, which 
was considered his master piece. In 1845 
he published a large volume of the "Poets 
and Poetry of Europe," 1849 " Kavanagh, 
a Tale," "The Seaside and Fireside" in 
1850, "The Golden Legend" in 1 85 1, "The 
Song of Hiawatha " in 1855, " The Court- 
ship of Miles Standish " in 1858, " Tales of 
a Wayside Inn " in 1863; " Flower de Luce" 
in 1866;" "New England Tragedies" in 
1869; "The Divine Tragedy" in 1871; 
"Three Books of Song" in 1872; "The 
Hanging of the Crane " in 1874. He also 
published a masterly translation of Dante 
in 1867-70 and the " Morituri Salutamus," 
a poem read at the fiftieth anniversary of 
his class at Bowdoin College. Prof. Long- 
fellow resigned his chair at Harvard Univer- 
sity in 1854, but continued to reside at Cam- 
bridge. Some of his poetical works have 
been translated into many languages, and 
their popularity rivals that of the best mod- 
ern English poetry. He died March 24, 
1882, but has left an imperishable fame as 
one of the foremost of American poets. 



PETER COOPER was in three partic- 
ulars — as a capitalist and manufacturer, 
as an inventor, and as a philanthropist — 
connected intimately with some of the most 



38 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



important and useful accessions to the in- 
dustrial arts of America, its progress in in- 
vention and the promotion of educational 
and benevolent institutions intended for the 
benefit of people at large. He was born 
in New York city, February 12, 1791. His 
life was one of labor and struggle, as it was 
with most of America's successful men. In 
early, boyhood he commenced to help his 
father as a manufacturer of hats. He at- 
tended school only for half of each day for 
a single year, and beyond this his acquisi- 
tions were all his own. When seventeen 
years old he was placed with John Wood- 
ward to learn the trade of coach-making and 
served his apprenticeship so satisfactorily 
that his master oPered to set him up in busi- 
ness, but this he declined because of the 
debt and obligation it would involve. 

The foundation of Mr. Cooper's fortune 
was laid in the invention of an improvement 
in machines for shearing cloth. This was 
largely called into use during the war of 
18 1 2 with England when all importations 
of cloth from that country were stopped. 
The machines lost their value, however, on 
the declaration of peace. Mr. Cooper then 
turned his shop into the manufacture of 
cabinet ware. He afterwards went into the 
grocery business in New York and finally he 
engaged in the manufacture of glue and isin- 
glass which he carried on for more than 
fifty years. In 1830 he erected iron works 
in Canton, near Baltimore. Subsequently 
he erected a rolling and a wire mill in the 
city of New York, in which he first success- 
fully applied anthracite to the puddling of 
iron. In these works, he was the first to 
roll wrought-iron beams for fire-proof build- 
ings. These works grew to be very exten- 
sive, including mines, blast furnaces, etc. 
While in Baltimore Mr. Cooper built in 
1830, after his own designs, the first loco- 



motive engine ever constructed on this con- 
tinent and it was successfully operated on 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. He also 
took a great interest and invested large cap- 
ital in the extension of the electric telegraph, 
also in the laying of the first Atlantic cable; 
besides interesting himself largely in the 
New York state canals. But the most 
cherished object of Mr. Cooper's life was 
the establishment of an institution for the 
instruction of the industrial classes, which 
he carried out on a magnificent scale in New 
York city, where the "Cooper Union" 
ranks among the most important institu- 
tions. 

In May, 1876, the Independent party 
nominated Mr. Cooper for president of the 
United States, and at the election following 
he received nearly 100,000 votes. His 
death occurred April 4, 1883. 



GENERAL ROBERT EDWARD LEE, 
one of the most conspicuous Confeder- 
ate generals during the Civil war, and one 
of the ablest military commanders of mod- 
ern times, was born at Stratford House, 
Westmoreland county, Virginia, January 19, 
1807. In 1825 he entered the West Point 
academy and was graduated second in his 
class in 1829, and attached to the army as 
second lieutenant of engineers. For a 
number of years he was thus engaged in en- 
gineering work, aiding in establishing the 
boundary line between Ohio and Michigan, 
and superintended various river and harbor 
improvements, becoming captain of engi- 
neers in 1838. He first saw field service in 
the Mexican war, and under General Scott 
performed valuable and efficient service. 
In that brilliant campaign he was conspicu- 
ous for professional ability as well as gallant 
and meritorious conduct, winning in quick 
succession the brevets of major, lieutenant- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



39 



colonel, and co'onel for his part in the bat- 
tles of Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Cherubusco, 
Chapultepec, and in the capture of the city 
Mexico. At the close of that war he re- 
sumed his engineering work in connection 
with defences along the Atlantic coast, and 
from 1S52 to 1855 was superintendent of 
the Military Academy, a position which he 
gave up to become lieutenant-colonel of the 
Second Cavalry. For several years there- 
after he served on the Texas border, but 
happening to be near Washington at the 
time of John Brown's raid, October 17 to 
25, 1859, Colonel Lee was placed in com- 
mand of the Federal forces employed in its 
repression. He soon returned to his regi- 
ment in Texas where he remained the 
greater part of i860, and March 16, 1861, 
became colonel of his regiment by regular 
promotion. Three weeks later, April 25, he 
resigned upon the secession of Virginia, 
went at once to Richmond and tendered his 
services to the governor of that state, being 
by acclamation appointed commander-in- 
chief of its military and naval forces, with 
the rank of major-general. 

He at once set to work to organize and 
develop the defensive resources of his state 
and within a month directed the occupation 
in force of Manassas Junction. Meanwhile 
Virginia having entered the confederacy and 
Richmond become the capitol, Lee became 
one of the foremost of its military officers 
and was closely connected with Jefferson 
Davis in planning the moves of that tragic 
time. Lee participated in many of the 
hardest fought battles of the war among 
which were Fair Oaks, White Lake Swamps, 
Cold Harbor, and the Chickahominy, Ma- 
nassas, Cedar Run, Antietam, Fredericks- 
burg, Chancellorsville, Malvern Hill, Get- 
tysburg, the battles of the Wilderness cam- 
paign, all the campaigns about Richmond, 



Petersburg, Five Forks, and others. Lee's 
surrender at Appomatox brought the war to 
a close. It is said of General Lee that but 
few commanders in history have been so 
quick to detect the purposes of an opponent 
or so quick to act upon it. Never surpassed, 
if ever equaled, in the art of winning the 
passionate, personal love and admiration of 
his troops, he acquired and held an influ- 
ence over his army to the very last, founded 
upon a supreme trust in his judgment, pre- 
science and skill, coupled with his cool, 
stable, equable courage. A great writer has 
said of him: "As regards the proper meas- 
ure of General Lee's rank among the sol- 
diers of history, seeing what he wrought 
with such resources as he had, under all the 
disadvantages that ever attended his oper- 
ations, it is impossible to measure what he 
might have achieved in campaigns and bat- 
tles with resources at his own disposition 
equal to those against which he invariably 
contended." 

Left at the close of the war without es- 
tate or profession, he accepted the presi- 
dency of Washington College at Lexington, 
Virginia, where he died October 12, 1870. 



JOHN JAY, first chief-justice of the 
United States, was born in New York, 
December 12, 1745. He took up the study 
of law, graduated from King's College 
(Columbia College), and was admitted to 
the bar in 1768. He was chosen a member 
of the committee of New York citizens to 
protest against the enforcement by the 
British government of the Boston Port Bill, 
was elected to the Continental congress 
which met in 1774, and was author of the 
addresses to the people of Great Britian and 
of Canada adopted by that and the suc- 
ceeding congress. He was chosen to the 
provincial assembly of his own state, and 



40 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



resigned from the Continental congress to 
serve in that body, wrote most of its public 
papers, including the constitution of the new 
state, and was then made chief-justice. He 
was again chosen as a member of the Con- 
tinental congress in 1778, and became presi- 
dent of that body. He was sent to Spain 
as minister in 1780, and his services there 
resulted in substantial and moral aid for the 
struggling colonists. Jay, Franklin, and 
Adams negotiated the treaty of peace with 
Great Britain in 1782, and Jay was ap- 
pointed secretary of foreign affairs in 1784, 
and held the position until the adoption of 
the Federal constitution. During this time 
he had contributed strong articles to the 
"Federalist" in favor of the adoption of 
the constitution, and was largely instru- 
mental in securing the ratification of that 
instrument by his state. He was appointed 
by Washington as first chief -justice of the 
United States in 1789. In this high capac- 
ity the great interstate and international 
questions that arose for immediate settle- 
ment came before him for treatment. 

In 1794, at a time when the people in 
gratitude for the aid that France had ex- 
tended to us, were clamoring for the privilege 
of going to the aid of that nation in her 
struggle with Great Britain and her own op- 
pressors, John Jay was sent to England as 
special envoy to negotiate a treaty with 
that power. The instrument known as 
"Jay's Treaty " was the result, and while 
in many of its features it favored our nation, 
yet the neutrality clause in it so angered the 
masses that it was denounced throughout 
the entire country, and John Jay was burned 
in effigy in the city of New York. The 
treaty was finally ratified by Washington, 
and approved, in August, 1795. Having 
been elected governor of his state for three 
consecutive terms, he then retired from 



active life, declining an appointment as 
chief-justice of the supreme court, made by 
John Adams and confirmed by the senate. 
He died in New York in 1829. 



PHILLIP HENRY SHERIDAN was 
one of the greatest American cavalry 
generals. He was born March 6, 1831, at 
Somerset, Perry county, Ohio, and was ap- 
pointed to the United States Military Acad- 
emy at West Point, from which he graduat- 
ed and was assigned to the First Infantry as 
brevet second lieutenant July 1, 1853. 
After serving in Texas, on the Pacific coast, 
in Washington and Oregon territories until 
the fall of 1 86 1, he was recalled to the 
states and assigned to the army of south- 
west Missouri as chief quartermaster from 
the duties of which he was soon relieved. 
After the battle of Pea Ridge, he was quar- 
termaster in the Corinth campaign, and on 
May 25 he was appointed colonel of the 
Second Michigan Cavalry. On July 1, in 
command of a cavalry brigade, he defeated 
a superior force of the enemy and was com- 
missioned brigadier-general of volunteers. 
General Sheridan was then transferred to 
the army of the Ohio, and commanded a 
division in the battle of Perrysville and also 
did good service at the battle of Murfrees- 
boro, where he was commissioned major- 
general of volunteers. He fought with 
great gallantry at Chickamauga, after which 
Rosecrans was succeeded by General Grant, 
under whom Sheridan fought the battle of 
Chattanooga and won additional renown. 
Upon the promotion of Grant to lieutenant- 
general, he applied for the transfer of Gen- 
eral Sheridan to the east, and appointed 
him chief of cavalry in the army of the 
Potomac. During the campaign of 1864 
the cavalry covered the front and flanks of 
the infantry until May 8, when it was wiuv 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



41 



drawn and General Sheridan started on a 
raid against the Confederate lines of com- 
munication with Richmond and on May 25 
he rejoined the army, having destroyed con- 
siderable of the confederate stores and de- 
feated their cavalry under General Stuart at 
Yellow Tavern. The outer line of defences 
around Richmond were taken, but the sec- 
ond line was too strong to be taken by as- 
sault, and accordingly Sheridan crossed the 
Chickahominy at Meadow Bridge, reaching 
James River May 14, and thence by White 
House and Hanover Court House back to 
the army. The cavalry occupied Cold 
Harbor May 31, which they held until the 
arrival of the infantry. On General Sheri- 
dan's next raid he routed Wade Hampton's 
cavalry, and August 7 was assigned to the 
command of the Middle Military division, 
and during the campaign of the Shenan- 
doah Valley he performed the unheard of 
feat of " destroying an entire army." He 
was appointed brigadier-general of the reg- 
ular army and for his victory at Cedar Creek 
he was promoted to the rank of major-gen- 
eral. General Sheridan started out Febru- 
ary 27, 1865, with ten thousand cavalry 
and destroyed the Virginia Central Railroad 
and the James River Canal and joined the 
army again at Petersburg March 27. He 
commanded at the battle of Five Forks, the 
decisive victory which compelled Lee to 
evacuate Petersburg. On April 9, Lee tried 
to break through Sheridan's dismounted 
command but when the General drew aside 
his cavalry and disclosed the deep lines of 
infantry the attempt was abandoned. Gen- 
eral Sheridan mounted his men and was about 
to charge when a white flag was flown at the 
head of Lee's column which betokened the 
surrender of the army. After the war Gen- 
eral Sheridan had command of the army of 
the southwest, of the gulf and the depart- 



ment of Missouri until he was appointed 
lieutenant-general and assigned to the di- 
vision of Missouri with headquarters at Chi- 
cago, and assumed supreme command of 
the army November 1, 1883, which post he 
held until his death, August 5, 1888. 



PH1NEAS T. BARNUM, the greatest 
showman the world has ever seen, was 
born at Danbury, Connecticut, July 5, 18 10. 
At the age of eighteen years he began busi- 
ness on his own account. He opened a re- 
tail fruit and confectionery house, including 
a barrel of ale, in one part of an old car- 
riage house. He spent fifty dollars in fitting 
up the store and the stock cost him seventy 
dollars. Three years later he put in a full 
stock, such as is generally carried in a 
country store, and the same year he started 
a Democratic newspaper, known as the 
"Herald of Freedom." He soon found 
himself in jail under a sixty days' sentence 
for libel. During the winter of 1834-5 ne 
went to New York and began soliciting busi- 
ness for several Chatham street houses. In 

1835 he embarked in the show business at 
Niblo's Garden, having purchased the cele- 
brated " Joice Heth" for one thousand dol- 
lars. He afterward engaged the celebrated 
athlete, Sig. Vivalia, and Barnum made his 
' ' first appearance on any stage, " acting as a 
"super" to Sig. Vivalia on his opening 
night. He became ticket seller, secretary 
and treasurer of Aaron Turner's circus in 

1836 and traveled with it about the country. 
His next venture was the purchase of a 
steamboat on the Mississippi, and engaged 
a theatrical company to show in the princi- 
pal towns along that river. In 1840 he 
opened Vaux Hall Garden, New York, with 
variety performances, and introduced the 
celebrated jig dancer, John Diamond, to the 
public. The next year he quit the show 



42 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



business and settled down in New York as 
agent of Sear's Pictorial Illustration of the 
Bible, but a few months later again leased 
Vaux Hall. In September of the same year 
he again left the business, and became 
' ' puff " writer for the Bowery Amphitheater. 
In December he bought the Scudder Museum, 
and a year later introduced the celebrated 
Tom Thumb to the world, taking him to 
England in 1844, and remaining there three 
years. He then returned to New York, and 
in 1849, through James Hall Wilson, he en- 
gaged the "Swedish Nightingale," Jenny 
Lind, to come to this country and make a 
tour under his management. He also had 
sent the Swiss Bell Ringers to America in 
1844. He became owner of the Baltimore 
Museum and the Lyceum and Museum at 
Philadelphia. In 1850 he brought a dozen 
elephants from Ceylon to make a tour of this 
country, and in 1851 sent the " Bateman 
•Children" to London. During 185 1 and 
1852 he traveled as a temperance lecturer, 
and became president of a bank at Pequon- 
nock, Connecticut. In 1852 he started a 
weekly pictorial paper known as the " Illus- 
trated News." In 1865 his Museum was 
destroyed by fire, and he immediately leased 
the Winter Garden Theatre, where he played 
his company until he opened his own 
Museum. This was destroyed by fire in 
1868, and he then purchased an interest in 
the George Wood Museum. 

After dipping into politics to some ex- 
tent, he began his career as a really great 
showman in 1871. Three years later he 
erected an immense circular building in New 
York, in which he produced his panoramas. 
He has frequently appeared as a lecturer, 
some times on temperance, and some times 
on other topics, among which were "Hum- 
bugs of the World," "Struggles and 
Triumphs," etc. He was owner of the im- 



mense menagerie and circus known as the 
"Greatest Show on Earth," and his fame 
extended throughout Europe and America. 
He died in 1891. 



JAMES MADISON, the fourth president 
of the United States, 1809-17, was 
born at Port Conway, Prince George coun- 
ty, Virginia, March 16, 1 75 1 . He was the 
son of a wealthy planter, who lived on a fine 
estate called " Montpelier," which was but 
twenty-five miles from Monticello, the home 
of Thomas Jefferson. Mr. Madison was the 
eldest of a family of seven children, all of 
whom attained maturity. He received his 
early education at home under a private 
tator, and consecrated himself with unusual 
vigor to study. At a very early age he was 
a proficient scholar in Latin, Greek, French 
and Spanish, and in 1769 he entered Prince- 
ton College, New Jersey. He graduated in 
1 77 1, but remained for several months after 
his graduation to pursue a course of study 
under the guidance of Dr. Witherspoon. 
He permanently injured his health at this 
time and returned to Virginia in 1772, and 
for two years he was immersed in the study 
of law, and at the same time made extend- 
ed researches in theology, general literature, 
and philosophical studies. He then directed 
his full attention to the impending struggle 
of the colonies for independence, and also 
took a prominent part in the religious con- 
troversy at that time regarding so called 
persecution of other religious denominations 
by the Church of England. Mr. Madison 
was elected to the Virginia assembly in 1776 
and in November, 1777, he was chosen 
a member of the council of state. He took 
his seat in the continental congress in 
March, 1780. He was made chairman of 
the committee on foreign relations, and 
drafted an able memoranda for the use of 



COMPENDIUM OF BJOGRAPHT. 



43 



the American ministers to the French and 
Spanish governments, that established the 
claims of the republic to the territories be- 
tween the Alleghany Mountains and the 
Mississippi River. He acted as chairman of 
the ways and means committee in 1783 and 
as a member of the Virginia legislature in 
1784-86 he rendered important services to 
the state. Mr. Madison represented Vir- 
giana in the national constitutional conven- 
tion at Philadelphia in 1787, and was one of 
the chief framers of the constitution. He 
was a member of the first four congresses, 
1789-97, and gradually became identified 
with the anti-federalist or republican party 
of which he eventually became the leader. 
He remained in private life during the ad- 
ministration of John Adams, and was secre- 
tary of state under President Jefferson. Mr. 
Madison administered the affairs of that 
post with such great ability that he was the 
natural successor of the chief magistrate 
and was chosen president by an electoral 
vote of 122 to 53. He was inaugurated 
March 4, 1809, at that critical period in our 
history when the feelings of the people were 
embittered with those of England, and his 
first term was passed in diplomatic quarrels, 
which finally resulted in the declaration of 
war, June 18, 1812. In the autumn of that 
year President Madison was re-elected by a 
vote of 128 to 89, and conducted the war 
for three years with varying success and 
defeat in Canada, by glorious victories at 
sea, and by the battle of New Orleans that 
was fought after the treaty of peace had 
been signed at Ghent, December 24, 18 14. 
During this war the national capitol at 
Washington was burned, and many valuable 
papers were destroyed, but the declaration 
of independence was saved to the country 
by the bravery and courage of Mr. Madi- 
son's illustrious wife. A commercial treaty 



was negotiated with Great Britain in 181 5, 
and in April, 1816, a national bank was in- 
corporated by congress. Mr. Madison was 
succeeded, March 4, 181 7, by James Monroe, 
and retired into private life on his estate at 
Montpelier, where he died June 28, 1836. 



FREDERICK DOUGLASS, a noted 
American character, was a protege of 
the great abolitionist, William Lloyd Garri- 
son, by whom he was aided in gaining his 
education. Mr. Douglass was born in Tuck- 
ahoe county, Maryland, in February, 18 17, 
his mother being a negro woman and his 
father a white man. He was born in slav- 
ery and belonged to a man by the name of 
Lloyd, under which name he went until he 
ran away from his master and changed it to 
Douglass. At the age of ten years he was 
sent to Baltimore where he learned to read 
and write, and later his owner allowed him 
to hire out his own time for three dollars a 
week in a shipyard. In September, 1838, 
he fled from Baltimore and made his way to 
New York, and from thence went to New 
Bedford, Massachusetts. Here he was mar- 
ried and supported himself and family by 
working at the wharves and in various work- 
shops. In the summer of 1841 he attended 
an anti-slavery convention at Nantucket, 
and made a speech which was so well re- 
ceived that he was offered the agency of the 
Massachusetts Anti-slavery Society. In this 
capacity he traveled through the New En- 
gland states, and about the same time he 
published his first book called "Narrative 
of my Experience in Slavery." Mr. Doug- 
lass went to England in 1845 and lectured 
on slavery to large and enthusiastic audi- 
ences in all the large towns of the country, 
and his friends made up a purse of seven 
hundred and fifty dollars and purchased his 
freedom in due form of law. 



44 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPIIV. 



Mr. Douglass applied himself to the de- 
livery of lyceum lectures after the abolition 
of slavery, and in 1870 he became the editor 
of the " New National Era " in Washington. 
In 1 87 1 he was appointed assistant secretary 
of the commission to San Domingo and on 
his return he was appointed one of the ter- 
ritorial council for the District of Colorado 
by President Grant. He was elected presi- 
dential elector-at-large for the state of New 
York and was appointed to carry the elect- 
oral vote to Washington. He was also 
United States marshal for the District of 
Columbia in 1876, and later was recorder 
of deeds for the same, from which position 
he was removed by President Cleveland in 
1886. In the fall of that year he visited 
England to inform the friends that he had 
made while there, of the progress of the 
colored race in America, and on his return 
he was appointed minister to Hayti, by 
President Harrison in 1889. His career as 
a benefactor of his race was closed by his 
death in February, 1895, near Washington. 



WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT.— The 
ear for rhythm and the talent for 
graceful expression are the gifts of nature, 
and they were plentifully endowed on the 
above named poet. The principal charac- 
teristic of his poetry is the thoughtfulness 
and intellectual process by which his ideas 
ripened in his mind, as all his poems are 
bright, clear and sweet. Mr. Bryant was 
born November 3, 1794, at Cummington, 
Hampshire county, Massachusetts, and was 
educated at Williams College, from which 
he graduated, having entered it in 18 10. 
He took up the study of law, and in 181 5 
was admitted to the bar, but after practicing 
successfully for ten years at Plainfield and 
Great Barrington, he removed to New York 
in 1825. The following year he became 



the editor of the "Evening Post," which 
he edited until his death, and under his di- 
rection this paper maintained, through a 
long series of years, a high standing by the 
boldness of its protests against slavery be- 
fore the war, by its vigorous support of the 
government during the war, and by the 
fidelity and ability of its advocacy of the 
Democratic freedom in trade. Mr. Bry- 
ant visited Europe in 1834, 1845, 1849 and 
1857, and presented to the literary world 
the fruit of his travels in the series of "Let- 
ters of a Traveler," and "Letters from 
Spain and Other Countries." In the world 
of literature he is known chiefly as a poet, 
and here Mr. Bryant's name is illustrious, 
both at home and abroad. He contributed 
verses to the "Country Gazette " before he 
was ten years of age, and at the age of nine- 
teen he wrote " Thanatopsis, " the most im- 
pressive and widely known of his poems. 
The later outgrowth of his genius was his 
translation of Homer's "Iliad" in 1870 
and the "Odyssey" in 1871. He also 
made several speeches and addresses which 
have been collected in a comprehensive vol- 
ume called " Orations and Addresses." He 
was honored in many ways by his fellow 
citizens, who delighted to pay tributes of 
respect to his literary eminence, the breadth 
of his public spirit, the faithfulness of his 
service, and the worth of his private char- 
acter. Mr. Bryant died in New York City 
June 12, 1878. 



WILLIAM HENRY SEWARD, the 
secretary of state during one of the 
most critical times in the history of our 
country, and the right hand man of Presi- 
dent Lincoln, ranks among the greatest 
statesmen America has produced. Mr. 
Seward was born May 16, 1 801, at Florida, 
Orange county, New York, and with such 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



facilities as the place afforded he fitted him- 
self for a college course. He attended 
Union College at Schenectady, New York, 
at the age of fifteen, and took his degree in 
the regular course, with signs of promise in 
1S20, after which he diligently addressed 
himself to the study of law under competent 
instructors, and started in the practice of 
his profession in 1823. 

Mr. Seward entered the political arena 
and in 1828 we find him presiding over a 
convention in New York, its purpose being 
the nomination of John Quincy Adams for a 
second term. He was married in 1824 and 
in 1830 was elected to the state senate. 
From 1838 to 1842 he was governor of the 
state of New York. Mr. Seward's next im- 
portant position was that of United States 
senator from New York. 

W. H. Seward was chosen by President 
Lincoln to fill the important office of the 
secretary of state, and by his firmness and 
diplomacy in the face of difficulties, he aided 
in piloting the Union through that period of 
strife, and won an everlasting fame. This 
great statesman died at Auburn, New York, 
October 10, 1872, in the seventy-second 
year of his eventful life. 



JOSEPH JEFFERSON, a name as dear 
as it is familiar to the theater-going 
world in America, suggests first of all a fun- 
loving, drink-ioving, mellow voiced, good- 
natured Dutchman, and the name of "Rip 
Van Winkie " suggests the pleasant features 
of Joe Jefferson, so intimately are play and 
player associated in the minds of those who 
have had the good fortune to shed tears of 
laughter and sympathy as a tribute to the 
greatness of his art. Joseph Jefferson was 
born in Philadelphia, February 20, 1829. 
His genius was an inheritance, if there be 

such, as his great-grandfather, Thomas 
3 



Jefferson, was a manager and actor in Eng- 
land. His grandfather, Joseph Jefferson, 
was the most popular comedian of the New 
York stage in his time, and his father, Jos- 
eph Jefferson, the second, was a good actor 
also, but the third Joseph Jefferson out- 
shone them all. 

At the age of three years Joseph Jeffer- 
son came on the stage as the child in "Pi- 
zarro," and his training was upon the stage 
from childhood. Later on he lived and 
acted in Chicago, Mobile, and Texas. After 
repeated misfortunes he returned to New 
Orleans from Texas, and his brother-in-law, 
Charles Burke, gave him money to reach 
Philadelphia, where he joined the Burton 
theater company. Here his genius soon as- 
serted itself, and his future became promis- 
ing and brilliant. His engagements through- 
out the United States and Australia were 
generally successful, and when he went to 
England in 1865 Mr. Boucicault consented 
to make some important changes in his 
dramatization of Irving's story of Rip Van 
Winkle, and Mr. Jefferson at once placed 
it in the front rank as a comedy. He made 
a fortune out of it, and played nothing else 
for many years. In later years, however, 
Mr. Jefferson acquitted himself of the charge 
of being a one-part actor, and the parts of 
"Bob Acres," "Caleb Plummer" and 
"Golightly " all testify to the versatility of 
his genius. 

GEORGE BRINTON McCLELLAN, 
a noted American general, was born 
in Philadelphia, December 3, 1826. He 
graduated from the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, and in 1846 from West Point, and 
was breveted second lieutenant of engineers. 
He was with Scott in the Mexican war, 
taking part in all the engagements from 
Vera Cruz to the final capture of the Mexi- 



48 



COMTEXDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



can capital, and was breveted first lieuten- 
ant and captain for gallantry displayed on 
various occasions. In 1857 he resigned his 
commission and accepted the position of 
chief engineer in the construction of the 
Illinois Central Railroad, and became presi- 
dent of the St. Louis & Cincinnati Railroad 
Company. He was commissioned major- 
general by the state of Ohio in 1861, 
placed in command of the department of 
the Ohio, and organized the first volunteers 
called for from that state. In May he was 
appointed major-general in the United 
States army, and ordered to disperse the 
confederates overrunning West Virginia. 
He accomplished this task promptly, and 
received the thanks of congress. After the 
first disaster at Bull Run he was placed 
in command of the department of Wash- 
ington, and a few weeks later of the 
Army of the Potomac. Upon retirement 
of General Scott the command of the en- 
tire United States army devolved upon Mc- 
Clellan, but he was relieved of it within a 
few months. In March, 1862, after elabor- 
ate preparation, he moved upon Manassas, 
only to find it deserted by the Confederate 
army, which had been withdrawn to im- 
pregnable defenses prepared nearer Rich- 
mond. He then embarked his armies for 
Fortress Monroe and after a long delay at 
Yorktown, began the disastrous Peninsular 
campaign, which resulted in the Army of the 
Potomac being cooped up on the James 
River below Richmond. His forces were 
then called to the support of General Pope, 
near Washington, and he was left without an 
army. After Pope's defeat McClelian was 
placed in command of the troops for the de- 
fense of the capital, and after a thorough or- 
ganization he followed Lee into Maryland 
and the battles of Antietam and South Moun- 
tain ensued. The delay which followed 



caused general dissatisfaction, and he was re- 
lieved of his command, and retired from active 
service. 

In 1S64 McClelian was nominated for 
the presidency by the Democrats, and over- 
whelmingly defeated by Lincoln, three 
states only casting their electoral votes for 
McClelian. On election day he resigned 
his commission and a few months later went 
to Europe where he spent several years. 
He wrote a number of military text- books 
and reports. His death occurred October 
29, 1885. 

SAMUEL J. TILDEN.— Among the great 
statesmen whose names adorn the pages 
of American history may be found that of 
the subject of this sketch. Known as a 
lawyer of highest ability, his greatest claim 
to immortality will ever lie in his successful 
battle against the corrupt rings of his native 
state and the elevation of the standard of 
official life. 

Samuel J. Tilden was born in New Leb- 
anon, New York, February 9, 1814. He 
pursued his academic studies at Yale Col- 
lege and the University of New York, tak- 
ing the course of law at the latter. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1841. His rare 
ability as a thinker and writer upon public 
topics attracted the attention of President 
Van Buren, of whose policy and adminis- 
tration he became an active and efficient 
champion. He made for himself a high 
place in his profession and amassed quite a 
fortune as the result of his industry and 
judgment. During the days of his greatest 
professional labor he was ever one of the 
leaders and trusted counsellors of the Demo- 
cratic party. He was a member of the 
conventions to revise the state constitution, 
both in 1846 and 1S67, and served two 
terms in the lower branch of the state leer- 



C OMTEXM ( M OF BIO GRA PII ) '. 



4<> 



islature. He was one of the controlling 
spirits in the overthrow of the notorious 
" Tweed ring " and the reformation of the 
government of the city of New York. In 
1874 he was elected governor of the state 
of New York. While in this position he 
assailed corruption in high places, success- 
fully battling with the iniquitous "canal 
ring " and crushed its sway over all depart- 
ments of the government. Recognizing his 
character and executive ability Mr. Tilden 
was nominated for president by the na- 
tional Democratic convention in 1876. At 
the election he received a much larger popu- 
lar vote than his opponent, and 184 uncon- 
tested electoral votes. There being some 
electoral votes contested, a commission ap- 
pointed by congress decided in favor of the 
Republican electors and Mr. Hayes, the can- 
didate of that party was declared elected. 
In 1S80, the Democratic party, feeling that 
Mr. Tilden had been lawfully elected to the 
presidency tendered the nomination for the 
same office to Mr. Tilden, but he declined, 
retiring from all public functions, owing to 
failing health. He died August 4, 1886. 
By will he bequeathed several millions of 
dollars toward the founding of public libra- 
ries in New York City, Yonkers, etc. 



NOAH WEBSTER.— As a scholar, law- 
yer, author and journalist, there is no 
one who stands on a higher plane, or whose 
reputation is better established than the 
honored gentleman whose name heads this 
sketch. He was a native of West Hartford, 
Connecticut, and was born October 17, 
1758. He came of an old New England 
family, his mother being a descendant of 
Governor William Bradford, of the Ply- 
mouth colony. After acquiring a solid edu- 
cation in early life Dr. Webster entered 
Yale College, from which he graduated in 



1778. For a while he taught school hn 
Hartford, at the same time studying law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 178 1. He 
taught a classical school at Goshen, Orange 
county, New York, in 1782-S3, and while 
there prepared his spelling book, grammar 
and reader, which was issued under the title- 
of "A Grammatical Institute of the English 
Language," in three parts, — so successful a 
work that up to 1876 something like forty 
million of the spelling books had been 
sold. In 1786 he delivered a course of lec- 
tures on the English language in the seaboard 
cities and the following year taught an 
academy at Philadelphia. From December 
17, 17S7, until November, 1788, he edited 
the "American Magazine, "a periodical that 
proved unsuccessful. In 1789-93 he prac- 
ticed law in Hartford having in the former 
year married the daughter of William Green- 
leaf, of Boston. He returned to New York 
and November, 1793, founded a daily paper, 
the "Minerva," to which was soon added a 
semi-weekly edition under the name of the 
" Herald." The former is still in existence 
under the name of the " Commercial Adver- 
tiser." In this paper, over the signature of 
"Curtius," he published a lengthy and schol- 
arly defense of "John Jay's treaty." 

In 1798, Dr. Webster moved to New 
Haven and in 1807 commenced the prepar- 
ation of his great work, the ' ' American Dic- 
tionary of the English Language," which 
was not completed and published until 1828. 
He made his home in Amherst, Massachu- 
setts, for the ten years succeeding 1812, and 
was instrumental in the establishment of 
Amherst College, of which institution he was 
the first president of the board of trustees. 
During 1824-5 he resided in Europe, pursu- 
ing his philological studies in Paris. He 
completed his dictionary from the libraries 
of Cambridge University in 1825, and de- 



50 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



voted his leisure for the remainder of his 
life to the revision of that and his school 
books. 

Dr. Webster was a member of the legis- 
latures of both Connecticut and Massachu- 
setts, was judge of one of the courts of the 
former state and was identified with nearly 
all the literary and scientific societies in the 
neighborhood of Amherst College. He died 
in New Haven, May 28, 1843. 

Among the more prominent works ema- 
nating from the fecund pen of Dr. Noah 
Webster besides those mentioned above are 
the following: "Sketches of American 
Policy," " Winthrop's Journal ," "A Brief 
History of Epidemics," " Rights of Neutral 
Nations in time of War," "A Philosophical 
and Practical Grammar of the English Lan- 
guage," "Dissertations on the English 
Language," "A Collection of Essays," 
"The Revolution in France," "Political 
Progress of Britain," "Origin, History, and 
Connection of the Languages of Western 
Asia and of Europe," and many others. 



WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON, the 
great anti-slavery pioneer and leader, 
was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, 
December 12, 1804. He was apprenticed 
to the printing business, and in 1828 was in- 
duced to take charge of the "Journal of the 
Times" at Bennington, Vermont. While 
supporting John Quincy Adams for the presi- 
dency he took occasion in that paper to give 
expression of his views on slavery. These 
articles attracted notice, and a Quaker 
named Lundy, editor of the "Genius of 
Emancipation," published in Baltimore, in- 
duced him to enter a partnership with him 
for the conduct of his paper. It soon 
transpired that the views of the partners 
were not in harmony, Lundy favoring grad- 
ual emancipation, while Garrison favored 



immediate freedom. In 1850 Mr. Garrison 
was thrown into prison for libel, not being 
able to pay a fine of fifty dollars and costs. 
In his cell he wrote a number of poems 
which stirred the entire north, and a mer- 
chant, Mr. Tappan, of New York, paid his 
fine and liberated him, after seven weeks of 
confinement. He at once began a lecture 
tour of the northern cities, denouncing 
slavery as a sin before God, and demanding 
its immediate abolition in the name of re- 
ligion and humanity. He opposed the col- 
onization scheme of President Monroe and 
other leaders, and declared the right of 
every slave to immediate freedom. 

In 1 S3 1 he formed a partnership with 
Isaac Knapp, and began the publication of 
the "Liberator" at Boston. The "imme- 
diate abolition " idea began to gather power 
in the north, while the south became 
alarmed at the bold utterance of this jour- 
nal. The mayor of Boston was besought 
by southern influence to interfere, and upon 
investigation, reported upon the insignifi- 
cance, obscurity, and poverty of the editor 
and his staff, which report was widely 
published throughout the country. Re- 
wards were offered by the southern states 
for his arrest and conviction. Later Garri- 
son brought from England, where an eman- 
cipation measure had just been passed, 
some of the great advocates to work for the 
cause in this country. In 1835 a mob 
broke into his office, broke up a meeting of 
women, dragged Garrison through the street 
with a rope around his body, and his life 
was saved only by the interference of the 
police, who lodged him in jail. Garrison 
declined to sit in the World's Anti-Slavery 
convention at London in 1840, because 
that body had refused women representa- 
tion. He opposed the formation of a po- 
litical party with emancipation as its basis. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



51 



He favored a dissolution of the union, and 
declared the constitution which bound the 
free states to the slave states " A covenant 
with death and an agreement with hell. " 
In 1843 he became president of the Amer- 
ican Anti-Slavery society, which position he 
held until 1865, when slavery was no more. 
During all this time the " Liberator " had 
continued to promulgate anti-slavery doc- 
trines, but in 1865 Garrison resigned his 
position, and declared his work was com- 
pleted. He died May 24, 1879. 



J 



mie"), a noted character in American 
history, wasbornatTorrington, Connecticut, 
May 9, 1800. In his childhood he removed 
to Ohio, where he learned the tanner's 
trade. He married there, and in 1855 set- 
tled in Kansas. He lived at the village of 
Ossawatomie in that state, and there began 
his fight against slavery. He advocated im- 
mediate emancipation, and held that the 
negroes of the slave states merely waited 
for a leader in an insurrection that would re- 
sult in their freedom. He attended the 
convention called at Chatham, Canada, in 
1S59, and was the leading spirit in organiz- 
ing a raid upon the United States arsenal at 
Harper's Ferry, Virginia. His plans were 
well laid, and carried out in great secrecy. 
He rented a farm house near Harper's Ferry 
in the summer of 1859, and on October 
1 6th of that year, with about twenty follow- 
ers, he surprised and captured the United 
States arsenal, with all its supplies and 
arms. To his surprise, the negroes did not 
come to his support, and the next day he 
was attacked by the Virginia state militia, 
wounded and captured. He was tried in 
the courts of the state, convicted, and was 
hanged at Charlestown, December 2, 1859. 
The raid and its results had a tremendous 



effect, and hastened the culmination of the 
troubles between the north and south. The 
south had the advantage in discussing this 
event, claiming that the sentiment which 
inspired this act of violence was shared by 
the anti-slavery element of the country. 



EDWIN BOOTH had no peer upon the 
American stage during his long career 
as a star actor. He was the son of a famous 
actor, Junius Brutus Booth, and was born 
in 1833 at his father's home at Belair, near 
Baltimore. At the age of sixteen he made his 
first appearance on the stage, at the Boston 
Museum, in a minor part in "Richard III." 
It was while playing in California in 1851 
that an eminent critic called general atten- 
tion to the young actor's unusual talent. 
However, it was not until 1863, at the great 
Shakspearian revival at the Winter Garden 
Theatre, New York, that the brilliancy of 
his career began. His Hamlet held the 
boards for 100 nights in succession, and 
from that time forth Booth's reputation was 
established. In 1S68 he opened his own 
theatre (Booth's Theater) in New York. 
Mr. Booth never succeeded as a manager, 
however, but as an actor he was undoubted- 
ly the most popular man on the American 
stage, and perhaps the most eminent one in 
the world. In England he also won the 
greatest applause. 

Mr. Booth's work was confined mostly 
to Shakspearean roles, and his art was 
characterized by intellectual acuteness, 
fervor, and poetic feeling. His Hamlet, 
Richard II, Richard III, and Richelieu gave 
play to his greatest powers. In 1865, 
when his brother, John Wilkes Booth, 
enacted his great crime, Edwin Booth re- 
solved to retire from the stage, but waspur- 
suaded to reconsider that decision. The 
odium did not in any way attach to the 



52 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



great actor, and his popularity was not 
affected. In all his work Mr. Booth clung 
closely to the legitimate and the traditional 
in drama, making no experiments, and offer- 
ing little encouragement to new dramatic 
authors. His death occurred in New York, 
June 7, 1894. 



JOSEPH HOOKER, a noted American 
officer, was born at Hadley, Massachu- 
setts, November 13, 18 14. He graduated 
from West Point Military Academy in 1837, 
and was appointed lieutenant of artillery. 
He served in Florida in the Seminole war, 
and in garrison until the outbreak of the 
Mexican war. During the latter he saw 
service as a staff officer and was breveted 
captain, major and lieutenant-colonel for 
gallantry at Monterey, National Bridge and 
Chapultepec. Resigning his commission in 
1833 he took up farming in California, which 
he followed until 1861. During this time 
he acted as superintendent of military roads 
in Oregon. At the outbreak of the Rebel- 
lion Hooker tendered his services to the 
government, and, May 17, 1861, was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general of volunteers. He 
served in the defence of Washington and on 
the lower Potomac until his appointment to 
the command of a division in the Third 
Corps, in March, 1862. For gallant con- 
duct at the siege of Yorktown and in the 
battles of Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, Fra- 
zier's Farm and Malvern Hill he was made 
major-general. At the head of his division 
he participated in the battles of Manassas 
and Chantilly. September 6, 1862, he was 
placed at the head of the First Corps, and 
in the battles of South Mountain and An- 
tietam acted with his usual gallantry, being 
wounded in the latter engagement. On re- 
joining the army in November he was made 
brigadier-general in the regular army. On 



General Burnside attaining the command of 
the Army of the Potomac General Hooker 
was placed in command of the center grand 
division, consisting of the Second and Fifth 
Corps. At the head of these gallant men 
he participated in the battle of Fred- 
ericksburg, December 13, 1862. In Janu- 
ary, 1863, General Hooker assumed com- 
mand of the Army of the Potomac, and in 
May following fought the battle of Chan- 
cellorsville. At the time of the invasion of 
Pennsylvania, owing to a dispute with Gen- 
eral Halleck, Hooker requested to be re- 
lieved of his command, and June 28 was 
succeeded by George G. Meade. In Sep- 
tember, 1863, General Hooker was given 
command of the Twentieth Corps and trans- 
ferred to the Army of the Cumberland, and 
distinguished himself at the battles of Look- 
out Mountain, Missionary Ridge, and Ring- 
gold. In the Atlanta campaign he saw 
almost daily service and merited his well- 
known nickname of " Fighting Joe." July 
30, 1S64, at his own request, he was re- 
lieved of his command. He subsequently 
was in command of several military depart- 
ments in the north, and in October, 1868, 
was retired with the full rank of major-gen- 
eral. He died October 31, 1879. 



JAY GQULD, one of the greatest finan- 
ciers that the world has ever produced, 
was born May 27, 1836, at Roxbury, Dela- 
ware county, New York. He spent his early 
years on his father's farm and at the age of 
fourteen entered Hobart Academy, New 
York, and kept books for the village black- 
smith. He acquired a taste for mathematics 
and surveying and on leaving school found 
employment in making the surveyor's map 
of Ulster county. He surveyed very exten- 
sively in the state and accumulated five thou- 
sand dollars as the fruits of his labor. He 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



was then stricken with typhoid fever but re- 
covered and made the acquaintance of one 
Zadock Pratt, who sent him into the west- 
ern part of the state to locate a site for a 
tannery. He chose a fine hemlock grove, 
built a sawmill and blacksmith shop and 
was soon doing a large lumber business with 
Mr. Pratt. Mr. Gould soon secured control 
of the entire plant, which he sold out just 
before the panic of 1857 and in this year he 
became the largest stockholderintheStrouds- 
burg, Pennsylvania, bank. Shortly after the 
crisis he bought the bonds of the Rutland 
& Washington Railroad at ten cents on the 
dollar, and put all his money into railroad 
securities. For a long time he conducted 
this road which he consolidated with the 
Rensselaer & Saratoga Railroad. In 1859 
he removed to New York and became a 
heavy investor in Erie Railroad stocks, en- 
tered that company and was president until 
its reorganization in 1872. In December, 
1880, Mr. Gould was in control of ten thou- 
sand miles of railroad. In 1887 he pur- 
chased the controlling interest in the St. 
Louis & San Francisco Railroad Co., and 
was a joint owner with the Atchison, Topeka 
& Santa Fe Railroad Co. of the western 
portion of the Southern Pacific line. Other 
lines soon came under his control, aggregat- 
ing thousand of miles, and he soon was rec- 
ognized as one of the world's greatest rail- 
road magnates. He continued to hold his 
place as one of the master financiers of the 
century until the time of his death which 
occurred December 2, 1892. 



THOMAS HART BENTON, a very 
prominent United States senator and 
statesman, was born at Hillsborough, North 
Carolina, March 14, 1782. He removed to 
Tennessee in early life, studied law, and be- 
gan to practice at Nashville about 18 10. 



During the war of 1812-1815 he served as 
colonel of a Tennessee regiment under Gen- 
eral Andrew Jackson. In 181 5 he removed 
to St. Louis, Missouri, and in 1820 was 
chosen United States senator for that state. 
Having been re-elected in 1826, he sup- 
ported President Jackson in his opposition 
to the United States bank and advocated a 
gold and silver currency, thus gaining the 
name of " Old Bullion," by which he was 
familiarly known. For many years he was 
the most prominent man in Missouri, and 
took rank among the greatest statesmen of 
his day. He was a member of the senate 
for thirty years and opposed the extreme 
states' rights policy of John C. Calhoun. 
In 1852 he was elected to the house of rep- 
resentatives in which he opposed the repeal 
of the Missouri compromise. He was op- 
posed by a powerful party of States' Rights 
Democrats in Missouri, who defeated him as a 
candidate for governor of that state in 1856. 
Colonel Benton published a considerable 
work in two volumes in 1854-56, entitled 
" Thirty Years' View, or a History of the 
Working of the American Government for 
Thirty Years, 1S20-50." He died April 10, 
1S58. 

STEPHEN ARNOLD DOUGLAS.— One 
of the most prominent figures in politic- 
al circles during the intensely exciting days 
that preceded the war, and a leader of the 
Union branch of the Democratic party was 
the gentleman whose name heads this 
sketch. 

He was born at Brandon, Rutland coun- 
ty, Vermont, April 23, 18 13, of poor but 
respectable parentage. His father, a prac- 
ticing physician, died while our subject was 
but an infant, and his mother, with two 
small children and but small means, could 
give him but the rudiments of an education. 



<34 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



At the age of fifteen young Douglas engaged 
at work in the cabinet making business to 
raise funds to carry him through college. 
After a few years of labor he was enabled to 
pursue an academical course, first at Bran- 
don, and later at Canandaigua, New York. 
In the latter place he remained until 1S33, 
taking up the study of law. Before he was 
twenty, however, his funds running low, he 
abandoned all further attempts at educa- 
tion, determining to enter at once the battle 
of life. After some wanderings through the 
western states he took up his residence at 
Jacksonville, Illinois, where, after teaching 
school for three months, he was admitted to 
the bar, and opened an office in 1834. 
Within a year from that time, so rapidly had 
he risen in his profession, he was chosen 
attorney general of the state, and warmly 
espoused the principles of the Democratic 
party. He soon became one of the most 
popular orators in Illinois. It was at this 
time he gained the name of the "Little 
Giant." In 1835 he resigned the position 
of attorney general having been elected to 
the legislature. In 1S41 he was chosen 
judge of the supreme court of Illinois which 
he resigned two years later to take a seat in 
congress. It was during this period of his 
life, while a member of the lower house, 
that he established his reputation and took 
the side of those who contended that con- 
gress had no constitutional right to restrict 
the extension of slavery further than the 
agreement between the states made in 1820. 
This, in spite of his being opposed to slav- 
ery, and only on grounds which he believed 
to be right, favored what was called the 
Missouri compromise. In 1847 Mr. Doug- 
las was chosen United States senator for 
six years, and greatly distinguished himself. 
In 1S52 he was re-elected to the same office. 
During this latter term, under his leader- 



ship, the " Kansas-Nebraska bill " was car- 
ried in the senate. In 185S, nothwith- 
standing the fierce contest made by his able 
competitor for the position, Abraham Lin- 
coln, and with the administration of Bu- 
chanan arrayed against him, Mr. Douglas 
was re-elected senator. After the trouble 
in the Charleston convention, when by the 
withdrawal of several state delegates with- 
out a nomination, the Union Democrats, 
in convention at Baltimore, in 1S60, nomi- 
nated Mr. Douglas as their candidate for 
presidency. The results of this election are 
well known and the great events of 1S61 
coming oh, Mr. Douglas was spared their 
full development, dying at Chicago, Illinois, 
June 3, 1 86 1, after a short illness. His 
last words to his children were, "to obey 
the laws and support the constitution of the 
United States." 



JAMES MONROE, fifth president of the 
United States, was born in Westmore- 
land county, Virginia, April 28, 1758. At 
the age of sixteen he entered William and 
Mary College, but two years later the 
Declaration of Independence having been 
adopted, he left college and hastened to New 
York where he joined Washington's army as 
a military cadet. 

At the battle of Trenton Monroe per- 
formed gallant service and received a wound 
in the shoulder, and was promoted to a 
captaincy. He acted as aide to Lord Ster- 
ling at the battles of Brandywine, German- 
town and Monmouth. Washington then 
sent him to Virginia to raise a new regiment 
of which he was to be colonel. The ex- 
hausted condition of Virginia made this im- 
possible, but he received his commission. 
He next entered the law office of Thomas 
Jefferson to study law. as there was no open- 
ing for him as an officer in the army. In 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



55 



1782 he was elected to the Virginia assem- 
bly, and the next year he was elected to the 
Continental congress. Realizing the inade- 
quacy of the old articles of confederation, 
he advocated the calling of a convention to 
consider their revision, and introduced in 
congress a resolution empowering congress 
to regulate trade, lay import duties, etc. 
This resolution was referred to a committee, 
of which he was chairman, and the report 
led to the Annapolis convention, which 
called a general convention to meet at Phila- 
delphia in 17S7, when the constitution was 
drafted. Mr. Monroe began the practice of 
law at Fredericksburg, Virginia, and was 
soon after elected to the legislature, and ap- 
pointed as one of the committee to pass 
upon the adoption of the constitution. He 
opposed it, as giving too much power to the 
central government. He was elected to the 
United States senate in 1789, where he 
allied himself with the Anti-Federalists or 
"Republicans," as they were sometimes 
called. Although his views as to neutrality 
between France and England were directly 
opposed to those of the president, yet Wash- 
ington appointed him minister to France. 
His popularity in France was so great that 
the antagonism of England and her friends 
in this country brought about his recall. He 
then became governor of Virginia. He was 
sent as envoy to France in 1802; minister 
to England in 1803; and envoy to Spain in 
1805. The next year he returned to his 
estate in Virginia, and with an ample in- 
heritance enjoyed a few years of repose. He 
was again called to be governor of Virginia, 
and was then appointed secretary of state 
by President Madison. The war with Eng- 
land soon resulted, and when the capital 
was burned by the British, Mr. Monroe be- 
came secretary of war also, and planned the 
measures for the defense of New Orleans. 



The treasury being exhausted and credit 
gone, he pledged his own estate, and thereby- 
made possible the victory of Jackson at New 
Orleans. 

In 1817 Mr. Monroe became president 
of the United States, having been a candi- 
date of the "Republican" part}', which at 
that time had begun to be called the ' ' Demo- 
cratic" party. In 1 S20 he was re-elected, 
having two hundred and thirty-one electoral 
votes out of two hundred and thirty-two. 
His administration is known as the "Era of 
good-feeling, " and party lines were almost 
wiped out. The slavery question began to 
assume importance at this time, and the 
Missouri Compromise was passed. The 
famous "Monroe Doctrine" originated in a 
great state paper of President Monroe upon 
the rumored interference of the Holy Alli- 
ance to prevent the formation of free repub- 
lics in South America. President Monroe 
acknowledged their independence, and pro- 
mulgated his great "Doctrine," which has 
been held in reverence since. Mr. Monroe's 
death occurred in New York on July 4, 1831. 



THOMAS ALVA EDISON, the master 
wizard of electrical science and whose 
name is synonymous with the subjugation 
of electricity to the service of man, was 
born in 1847 a t Milan, Ohio, and it was at 
Port Huron, Michigan, whither his parents 
had moved in 1854, that his self-education 
began — for he never attended school for 
more than two months. He eagerly de- 
voured every book he could lay his hands on 
and is said to have read through an encyclo- 
pedia without missing a word. At thirteen he 
began his working life as a trainboy upon the 
Grand Trunk Railway between Port Huron 
and Detroit. Much of his time was now 
spent in Detroit, where he found increased 
facilities for reading at the public libraries. 



56 



COMPENDIUM OP BIOGRAPHY. 



He was not content to be a newsboy, so he 
got together three hundred pounds of type 
and started the issue of the " Grand Trunk 
Herald." It was only a small amateur 
weekly, printed on one side, the impression 
being made from the type by hand. Chemi- 
cal research was his next undertaking and 
a laboratory was added to his movable pub- 
lishing house, which, by the way, was an 
old freight car. One day, however, as he 
Was experimenting with some phosphorus, 
it ignited and the irate conductor threw the 
young seeker after the truth, chemicals and 
all, from the train. His office and laboratory 
Were then removed to the cellar of his fa- 
ther's house. As he grew to manhood he 
decided to become an operator. He won 
his opportunity by saving the life of a child, 
Whose father was an old operator, and out of 
gratitude he gave Mr. Edison lessons in teleg- 
raphy. Five months later he was compe- 
tent to fill a position in the railroad office 
at Port Huron. Hence he peregrinated to 
Stratford, Ontario, and thence successively 
to Adrian, Fort Wayne, Indianapolis, Cin- 
cinnati, Memphis, Louisville and Boston, 
gradually becoming an expert operator and 
gaining experience that enabled him to 
evolve many ingenious ideas for the im- 
provement of telegraphic appliances. At 
Memphis he constructed an automatic re- 
peater, which enabled Louisville and New 
Orleans to communicate direct, and received 
nothing more than the thanks of his em- 
ployers. Mr. Edison came to New York in 
1870 in search of an opening more suitable 
to his capabilities and ambitions. He hap- 
pened to be in the office of the Laws Gold 
Reporting Company when one of the in- 
struments got out of order, and even the 
inventor of the system could not make it 
work. Edison requested to be allowed to 
attempt the task, and in a few minutes he 



had overcome the difficulty and secured an 
advantageous engagement. For several 
years he had a contract with the Western 
Union and the Gold Stock companies, 
whereby he received a large salary, besides 
a special price for all telegraphic improve- 
ments he could suggest. Later, as the 
head of the Edison General Electric com- 
pany, with its numerous subordinate organ- 
izations and connections all over the civil- 
ized world, he became several times a 
millionaire. Mr. Edison invented the pho- 
nograph and kinetograph which bear his 
name, the carbon telephone, the tasimeter, 
and the duplex and quadruplex systems of 
telegraphy. 

JAMES LONGSTREET, one of the most 
conspicuous of the Confederate generals 
during the Civil war, was born in 1820, in 
South Carolina, but was early taken by his 
parents to Alabama where he grew to man- 
hood and received his early education. He 
graduated at the United States military 
academy in 1842, entering the army as 
lieutenant and spent a few years in the fron- 
tier service. When the Mexican war broke 
out he was called to the front and partici- 
pated in all the principal battles of that war 
up to the storming of Chapultepec, where 
he received severe wounds. For gallant 
conduct at Contreras, Cherubusco, and Mo- 
lino del Rey he received the brevets of cap- 
tain and major. After the close of the 
Mexican war Longstreet served as adjutant 
and captain on frontier service in Texas un- 
til 1858 when he was transferred to the staff, 
as paymaster with rank of major. In June, 
1 86 1, he resigned to join the Confederacy 
and immediately went to the front, com- 
manding a brigade at Bull Run the follow- 
ing month. Promoted to be major-general 
in 1862 he thereafter bore a conspicuous 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHV. 



57 



part and rendered valuable service to the 
Confederate cause. He participated in 
many of the most severe battles of the Civil 
war including Bull Run (first and second), 
Seven Pines, Gainer' Mill, Fraziers Farm, 
Malvern Hill, Antietam, Frederickburg, 
Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, 
the Wilderness, Petersburg and most of the 
fighting about Richmond. 

When the war closed General Long- 
street accepted the result, renewed his alle- 
giance to the government, and thereafter 
labored earnestly to obliterate all traces of 
war and promote an era of good feeling be- 
tween all sections of the country. He took 
up his residence in New Orleans, and took 
an active interest and prominent part in 
public affairs, served as surveyor of that 
port for several years; was commissioner of 
engineers for Louisiana, served four years 
as school commissioner, etc. In 1875 he 
was appointed supervisor of internal revenue 
and settled in Georgia. After that time he 
served four years as United States minister 
to Turkey, and also for a number of years 
was United States marshal of Georgia, be- 
sides having held other important official 
positions. 

JOHN RUTLEDGE, the second chief- 
justice of the United States, was born 
at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1739. 
He was a son of John Rutledge, who had 
left Ireland for America about five years 
prior to the birth of our subject, and .a 
brother of Edward Rutledge, a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence. John Rut- 
ledge received his legal edocation at the 
Temple, London, after which he returned 
to Charleston and soon won distinction at 
the bar. He was elected to the old Colonial 
congress in 1765 to protest against the 
" Stamp Act," and was a member of the 



South Carolina convention of 1774, and of 
the Continental congress of that and the 
succeeding year. In 1776 he was chairman 
of the committee that draughted the con- 
stitution of his state, and was president of 
the congress of that state. He was not 
pleased with the state constitution, how- 
ever, and resigned. In 1779 he was again 
chosen governor of the state, and granted 
extraordinary powers, and he at once took 
the field to repel the British. He joined 
the army of General Gates in 1782, and the 
same year was elected to congress. He 
was a member of the constitutional con- 
vention which framed our present constitu- 
tion. In 1789 he was appointed an associate 
justice of the first supreme court of the 
United States. He resigned to accept the 
position of chief- justice of his own state. 
Upon the resignation of Judge Jay : he was 
appointed chief-justice of the United States 
in 1795. The appointment was never con- 
firmed, for, after presiding at one session, 
his mind became deranged, and he was suc- 
ceeded by Judge Ellsworth. He died at 
Charleston, July 23, 1800. 



RALPH WALDO EMERSON was one 
of the most noted literary men of his 
time. He was born in Boston, Massachu- 
setts, May 25, 1803. He had a minister for 
an ancestor, either on the paternal or ma- 
ternal side, in every generation for eight 
generations back. His father, Rev. Will- 
iam Emerson, was a native of Concord, 
Massachusetts, born May 6, 1769, graduated 
at Harvard, in 1789, became a Unitarian 
minister; was a fine writer and one of the 
best orators of his day; died in 181 1. 

Ralph Waldo Emerson was fitted for 
college at the public schools of Boston, and 
graduated at Harvard College in 1 82 1, win- 
ning about this time several prizes for es- 



58 



COMTEXDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



says. For five years he taught school in 
Boston; in 1826 was licensed to preach, and 
in 1829 was ordained as a colleague to Rev. 
Henry Ware of the Second Unitarian church 
in Boston. In 1832 he resigned, making 
the announcement in a sermon of his un- 
willingness longer to administer the rite of 
she Lord's Supper, after which he spent 
about a year in Europe. Upon his return 
he began his career as a lecturer before the 
Boston Mechanics Institute, his subject be- 
ing "Water." His early lectures on " Italy" 
and "Relation of Man to the Globe" also 
attracted considerable attention; as did also 
his biographical lectures on Michael Angelo, 
Milton, Luther, George Fox, and Edmund 
Burke. After that time he gave many 
courses of lectures in Boston and became 
one of the best known lecturers in America. 
But very few men have rendered such con- 
tinued service in this field. He lectured for 
forty successive seasons before the Salem, 
Massachusetts, Lyceum and also made re- 
peated lecturing tours in this country and in 
England. In 1835 Mr. Emerson took up 
his residence at Concord, Massachusetts, 
where he continued to make his home until 
his death which occurred April 27, 1882. 

Mr. Emerson's literary work covered a 
wide scope. He wrote and published many 
works, essays and poems, which rank high 
among the works of American literary men. 
A few of the many which he produced are 
the following: "Nature;" "The Method 
of Nature;" " Man Thinking;" "The Dial;" 
"Essays;" ."Poems;" "English Traits;" 
"The Conduct of Life;" "May-Day and 
other Poems " and " Society and Solitude;" 
besides many others. He was a prominent 
member of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, of the American Philosophical 
Society, the Massachusetts Historical Society 
and other kindred associations. 



ALEXANDER T. STEWART, one of 
the famous merchant princes of New 
York, was born near the city of Belfast, Ire- 
land, in 1803, and before he was eight years 
of age was left an orphan without any near 
relatives, save an aged grandfather. The 
grandfather being a pious Methodist wanted 
to make a minister of young Stewart, and 
accordingly put him in a school with that 
end in view and he graduated at Trinity Col- 
lege, in Dublin. When scarcely twenty 
years of age he came to New York. His 
first employment was that of a teacher, but 
accident soon made him a merchant. En- 
tering into business relations with an ex- 
perienced man of his acquaintance he soon 
found himself with the rent of a store on 
his hands and alone in a new enterprise. 
Mr. Stewart's business grew rapidly in all 
directions, but its founder had executive 
ability sufficient for any and all emergencies, 
and in time his house became one of the 
greatest mercantile establishments of mod- 
ern times, and the name of Stewart famous. 
Mr. Stewart's death occurred April 10, 
1S76. 

JAMES FENIMORE COOPER. — In 
speaking of this noted American nov- 
elist, William Cullen Bryant said: " He 
wrote for mankind at large, hence it is that 
he has earned a fame wider than any Amer- 
ican author of modern times. The crea- 
tions of his genius shall survive through 
centuries to come, and only perish with our 
language." Another eminent writer (Pres- 
cott) said of Cooper: " In his productions 
every American must take an honest pride; 
for surely no one has succeeded like Cooper 
in the portraiture of American character, or 
has given such glowing and eminently truth- 
ful pictures of American scenery." 

James Fenimore Cooper was born Sep- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAnil'. 



59 



tember 15, 1789, at Burlington, New Jer- 
sey, and was a son of Judge William Cooper. 
About a year after the birth of our subject 
the family removed to Otsego county, New 
York, and founded the town called " Coop- 
erstown." James Fenimore Cooper spent 
his childhood there and in 1802 entered 
Yale College, and four years later became a 
midshipman in the United States navy. In 
181 1 he was married, quit the seafaring life, 
and began devoting more or less time to lit- 
erary pursuits. His first work was " Pre- 
caution," a novel published in 1819, and 
three years later he produced "The Spy, a 
Tale of Neutral Ground," which met with 
great favor and was a universal success. 
This was followed by many other works, 
among which may be mentioned the follow- 
ing: " The Pioneers," "The Pilot," " Last 
of the Mohicans," "The Prairie," "The 
Red Rover," "The Manikins," "Home- 
ward Bound," " Home as Found," " History 
of the United States Navy," "The Path- 
finder," "Wing and Wing," "Afloat and 
Ashore," "The Chain-Bearer," "Oak- 
Openings," etc. J. Fenimore Cooper died 
at Cooperstown, New York, September 14, 
1851. 

MARSHALL FIELD, one of the mer- 
chant princes of America, ranks among 
the most successful business men of the cen- 
tury. He was born in 1835 at Conway, 
Massachusetts. He spent his early life on 
a farm and secured a fair education in the 
common schools, supplementing this with a 
course at the Conway Academy. His 
natural bent ran in the channels of commer- 
cial life, and at the age of seventeen he was 
given a position in a store at Pittsfield, 
Massachusetts. Mr. Field remained there 
four years and removed to Chicago in 1856. 
He began his career in Chicago as a clerk 



in the wholesale dry goods house of Cooley, 
Wadsworth & Company, which later be- 
came Cooley, Farwell & Company, and still 
later John V. Farwell & Company. He 
remained with them four years and exhibit- 
ed marked ability, in recognition of which 
he was given a partnership. In 1865 Mr. 
Field and L. Z. Leiter, who was also a 
member of the firm, withdrew and formed 
the firm of Field, Palmer & Leiter, the 
third partner being Potter Palmer, and they 
continued in business until 1867, when Mr. 
Palmer retired and the firm became Field, 
Leiter & Company. They ran under the 
latter name until 1881, when Mr. Leiter re- 
tired and the house has since continued un- 
der the name of Marshall Field & Company. 
The phenomenal success accredited to the 
house is largely due to the marked ability 
of Mr. Field, the house had become one of 
the foremost in the west, with an annual 
sale of $8,000,000 in 1870. The total loss 
of the firm during the Chicago fire was 
$3,500,000 of which $2,500,000 was re- 
covered through the insurance companies. 
It rapidly recovered from the effects of this 
and to-day the annual sales amount to over 
$40,000,000. Mr. Field's real estate hold- 
ings amounted to $10,000,000. He was 
one of the heaviest subscribers to the Bap- 
tist University fund although he is a Presby- 
terian, and gave $1,000,000 for the endow- 
ment of the Field Columbian Museum — 
one of the greatest institutions of the kind 
in the world. 

EDGAR WILSON NYE, who won an im- 
mense popularity under the pen name 
of " Bill Nye," was one of the most eccen- 
tric humorists of his day. He was born Au- 
gust 25, 1850, at Shirley, Piscataqua coun- 
ty, Maine, "at a very early age" as he ex- 
presses it. He took an academic course in 



GO 



COMTEXDIUM OF BIOGRAPI/V 



River Falls, Wisconsin, from whence, after 
his graduation, he removed to Wyoming 
Territory. He studied law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1876. He began when 
quite young to contribute humorous sketches 
to the newspapers, became connected with 
various western journals and achieved a 
brilliant success as a humorist. Mr. Nye 
settled later in New York City where he 
devoted his time to writing funny articles for 
the big newspaper syndicates. He wrote for 
publication in book form the following : 
"Bill Nye and the Boomerang," "The 
Forty Liars," "Baled Hay," " Bill Nye's 
Blossom Rock," "Remarks," etc. His 
death occurred February 21, 1896, at Ashe- 
ville, North Carolina. 



THOMAS DE WITT TALMAGE, one of 
the most celebrated American preach- 
ers, was born January 7, 1S32, and was the 
youngest of twelve children. He made his 
preliminary studies at the grammar school 
in New Brunswick, New Jersey. At the age 
of eighteen he joined the church and entered 
the University of the City of New York, and 
graduated in May, 1853. The exercises 
were held in Niblo's Garden and his speech 
aroused the audience to a high pitch of en- 
thusiasm. At the close of his college duties 
he imagined himself interested in the law 
and for three years studied law. Dr. Tal- 
mage then perceived his mistake and pre- 
pared himself for the ministry at the 
Reformed Dutch Church Theological Semi- 
nary at New Brunswick, New Jersey. Just 
after his ordination the young minister re- 
ceived two calls, one from Piermont, New 
York, and the other from Belleville, New 
Jersey. Dr. Talmage accepted the latter 
and for three years filled that charge, when 
he was called to Syracuse, New York. Here 
it was that his sermons first drew large 



crowds of people to his church, and from 
thence dates his popularity. Afterward he 
became the pastor of the Second Reformed 
Dutch church, of Philadelphia, remaining 
seven years, during which period he first 
entered upon the lecture platform and laid 
the foundation for his future reputation. At 
the end of this time he received three calls, 
one from Chicago, one from San Francisco, 
and one from the Central Presbyterian 
church of Brooklyn, which latter at that 
time consisted of only nineteen members 
with a congregation of about thirty-five. 
This church offered him a salary of seven 
thousand dollars and he accepted the call. 
He soon induced the trustees to sell the old 
church and build a new one. They did so 
and erected the Brooklyn Tabernacle, but 
it burned down shortly after it was finished. 
By prompt sympathy and general liberality 
a new church was built and formally opened 
in February, 1874. It contained seats for 
four thousand, six hundred and fifty, but if 
necessary seven thousand could be accom- 
modated. In October, 1878, his salary was 
raised from seven thousand dollars to twelve 
thousand dollars, and in the autumn of 18S9 
the second tabernacle was destroyed by fire. 
A third tabernacle was built and it was for- 
mally dedicated on Easter Sunday, 1891. 



JOHN PHILIP SOUSA, conceded as 
being one of the greatest band leaders 
in the world, won his fame while leader of 
the United States Marine Band at Washing- 
ton, District of Columbia. He was not 
originally a band player but was a violinist, 
and at the age of seventeen he was conduc- 
tor of an opera company, a profession which 
he followed for several years, until he was 
offered the leadership of the Marine Band 
at Washington. The proposition was re- 
pugnant to him at first but he accepted the 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHV. 



61 



offer and then ensued ten years of brilliant 
success with that organization. When he 
first took the Marine Band he began to 
gather the national airs of all the nations 
that have representatives in Washington, 
and compiled a comprehensive volume in- 
cluding nearly all the national songs of the 
different nations. He composed a number 
of marches, waltzes and two-steps, promi- 
nent among which are the "Washington 
Post," "Directorate," "King Cotton," 
"High School Cadets," "Belle of Chica- 
go," "Liberty Bell March," "Manhattan 
Beach," "On Parade March," "Thunderer 
March," "Gladiator March," " El Capitan 
March," etc. He became a very extensive 
composer of this class of music. 



JOHN QUINCY ADAMS, sixth president 
of the United States, was born in 
Braintree, Massachusetts, July II, 1767, 
the son of John Adams. At the age of 
eleven he was sent to school at Paris, and 
two years later to Leyden, where he entered 
that great university. He returned to the 
United States in 1785, and graduated from 
Harvard in 1788. He then studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1 791. His 
practice brought no income the first two 
years, but he won distinction in literary 
fields, and was appointed minister to The 
Hague in 1794. He married in 1797, and 
went as minister to Berlin the same year, 
serving until 1801, when Jefferson became 
president. He was elected to the senate in 
1803 by the Federalists, but was condemned 
by that party for advocating the Embargo 
Act and other Anti-Federalist measures. He 
was appointed as professor of rhetoric at 
Harvard in 1805, and in 1809 was sent as 
minister to Russia. He assisted in negotiat- 
ing the treaty of peace with England in 
.1814, and became minister to that power 



the next year. He served during Monroe's 
administration two terms as secretary of 
state, during which time party lines were 
obliterated, and in 1824 four candidates for 
president appeared, all of whom were iden- 
tified to some extent with the new " Demo- 
cratic" party. Mr. Adams received 84 elec- 
toral votes, Jackson 99, Crawford 41, and 
Clay 37. As no candidate had a majority 
of all votes, the election went to the house 
of representatives, which elected Mr. Adams. 
As Clay had thrown his influence to Mr. 
Adams, Clay became secretary of state, and 
this caused bitter feeling on the part of the 
Jackson Democrats, who were joined by 
Mr. Crawford and his following, and op- 
posed every measure of the administration. 
In the election of 1S28 Jackson was elected 
over Mr. Adams by a great majority. 

Mr. Adams entered the lower house of 
congress in 1830, elected from the district 
in which he was born and continued to rep- 
resent it for seventeen years. He was 
known as " the old man eloquent," and his 
work in congress was independent of party. 
He opposed slavery extension and insisted 
upon presenting to congress, one at a time, 
the hundreds of petitions against the slave 
power. One of these petitions, presented in 
1842, was signed by forty-five citizens of 
Massachusetts, and prayed congress for a 
peaceful dissolution of the Union. His 
enemies seized upon this as an opportunity 
to crush their powerful foe, and in a caucus 
meeting determined upon his expulsion from 
congress. Finding they would not be able 
to command enough votes for this, they de- 
cided upon a course that would bring equal 
disgrace. They formulated a resolution to 
the effect that while he merited expulsion, 
the house would, in great mercy, substitute 
its severest censure. When it was read in the 
house the old man, then in his seventy-fifth 



62 



COMPEXDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



year, arose and demanded that the first para- 
graph of the Declaration of Independence 
be read as his defense. It embraced the 
famous sentence, " that whenever any form 
of government becomes destructive to those 
ends, it is the right of the people to alter or 
abolish it, and to institute new government, 
etc., etc." After eleven days of hard fight- 
ing his opponents were defeated. On Febru- 
ary 21, 1S48, he rose to address the speaker 
on the Oregon question, when he suddenly 
fell from a stroke of paralysis. He died 
soon after in the rotunda of the capitol, 
where he had been conveyed by his col- 
leagues. 

SUSAN B. ANTHONY was one of the 
most famous women of America. She 
was born at South Adams, Massachusetts, 
February 15, 1820, the daughter of a 
Quaker. She received a good education 
and became a school teacher, following that 
profession for fifteen years in New York. 
Beginning with about 1852 she became the 
active leader of the woman's rights move- 
ment and won a wide reputation for her 
zeal and ability. She also distinguished 
herself for her zeal and eloquence in the 
temperance and anti-slavery causes, and 
became a conspicuous figure during the war. 
After the close of the war she gave most of 
her labors to the cause of woman's suffrage. 



PHILIP D. ARMOUR, one of the most 
conspicuous figures in the mercantile 
history of America, was born May 16, 1S32, 
on a farm at Stockbridge, Madison county, 
New York, and received his early education 
in the common schools of that county. He 
was apprenticed to a farmer and worked 
faithfully and well, being very ambitious and 
desiring to start out for himself. At the 
age of twenty he secured a release from his 



indentures and set out overland for the 
gold fields of California. After a great 
deal of hard work he accumulated a little 
money and then came east and settled 
in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He went into 
the grain receiving and warehouse busi- 
ness and was fairly successful, and later on 
he formed a partnership with John Plankin- 
ton in the pork packing line, the style of the 
firm being Plankinton & Armour. Mr. Ar- 
mour made his first great "deal" in selling 
pork "short" on the New York market in 
the anticipation of the fall of the Confed- 
eracy, and Mr. Armour is said to have made 
through this deal a million dollars. He then 
established packing houses in Chicago and 
Kansas City, and in 1875 he removed to 
Chicago. He increased his business by add- 
ing to it the shipment of dressed beef to 
the European markets, and many other lines 
of trade and manufacturing, and it rapidly 
assumed vast proportions, employing an 
army of men in different lines of the busi- 
ness. Mr. Armour successfully conducted a 
great many speculative deals in pork and 
grain of immense proportions and also erected 
many large warehouses for the storage of 
grain. He became one of the representative 
business men of Chicago, where he became 
closely identified with all enterprises of a 
public nature, but his fame as a great busi- 
ness man extended to all parts of the world. 
He founded the "Armour Institute " at Chi- 
cago and also contributed largely to benevo- 
lent and charitable institutions. 



ROBERT FULTON.— Although Fulton 
is best known as the inventor of the 
first successful steamboat, yet his claims to- 
distinction do not rest alone upon that, for 
he was an inventor along other lines, a 
painter and an author. He was born at 
Little Britain, Lancaster county, Pennsyl- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



65 



vania, in 1765, of Scotch-Irish ancestry. 
At the age of seventeen he removed to Phila- 
delphia, and there and in New York en- 
gaged in miniature painting with success 
both from a pecuniary and artistic point of 
view. With the results of his labors he pur- 
chased a farm for the support of his mother. 
He went to London and studied under the 
great painter, Benjamin West, and all 
through life retained his fondness for art 
and gave evidence of much ability in that 
line. While in England he was brought in 
contact with the Duke of Bridgewater, the 
father of the English canal system; Lord 
Stanhope, an eminent mechanician, and 
James Watt, the inventor of the steam en- 
gine. Their influence turned his mind to its 
true field of labor, that of mechanical in- 
vention. Machines for flax spinning, 
marble sawing, rope making, and for remov- 
ing earth from excavations, are among his 
earliest ventures. His "Treatise on the 
Improvement of Canal Navigation," issued 
in 1 796, and a series of essays on canals 
were soon followed by an English patent 
for canal improvements. In 1797 he went 
to Paris, where he resided until 1806, and 
there invented a submarine torpedo boat for 
maritime defense, but which was rejected 
by the governments of France, England and 
the United States. In 1 803 he offered to con- 
struct for the Emperor Napoleon a steam- 
boat that would assist in carrying out the 
plan of invading Great Britain then medi- 
tated by that great captain. In pursuance 
he constructed his first steamboat on the 
Seine, but it did not prove a full success 
and the idea was abandoned by the French 
government. By the aid of Livingston, 
then United States minister to France, 
Fulton purchased, in 1806, an engine which 
he brought to this country. After studying 
the defects of his own and other attempts in 



this line he built and launched in 1807 the 
Clermont, the first successful steamboat. 
This craft only attained a speed of five 
miles an hour while going up North river. 
His first patent not fully covering his in- 
vention, Fulton was engaged in many law 
suits for infringement. He constructed 
many steamboats, ferryboats, etc., among 
these being the United States steamer 
"Fulton the First," built in 1814, the first 
war steamer ever built. This craft never 
attained any great speed owing to some de- 
fects in construction and accidentally blew 
up in 1S29. Fulton died in New York, Feb- 
ruary 21, l8l 5. 



SALMON PORTLAND CHASE, sixth 
chief-justice of the United States, and 
one of the most eminent of American jurists, 
was born in Cornish, New Hampshire, Jan- 
uary 13, 1S08. At the age of nine he was 
left in poverty by the death of his father, 
but means were found to educate him. He 
was sent to his uncle, a bishop, who con- 
ducted an academy near Columbus, Ohio, 
and here young Chase worked on the farm 
and attended school. At the age of fifteen 
he returned to his native state and entered 
Dartmouth College, from which he gradu- 
ated in 1 S26. He then went to Washington, 
and engaged in teaching school, and study- 
ing law under the instruction of William 
Wirt. He was licensed to practice in 1S29, 
and went to Cincinnati, where he had a 
hard struggle for several years following. 
He had in the meantime prepared notes on 
the statutes of Ohio, which, when published, 
brought him into prominence locally. He 
was soon after appointed solicitor of the 
United States Bank. In 1837 he appeared 
as counsel for a fugitive slave woman, Ma- 
tilda, and sought by all the powers of his 
learning and eloquence to prevent her owner 



66 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



from reclaiming her. He acted in many 
other cases, and devolved the trite expres- 
sion, "Slavery is sectional, freedom is na- 
tional." He was employed to defend Van 
Zandt before the supreme court of the United 
States in 1846, which was one of the most 
noted cases connected with the great strug- 
gle against slavery. By this time Mr. Chase 
had become the recognized leader of that 
element known as " free-soilers." He was 
elected to the United States senate in 1849, 
and was chosen governor of Ohio in 1855 
and re-elected in 1857. He was chosen to 
the United States senate from Ohio in 1861, 
but was made secretary of the treasury by 
Lincoln and accepted. He inaugurated a 
financial system to replenish the exhausted 
treasury and meet the demands of the great- 
est war in history and at the same time to 
revive the industries of the country. One 
of the measures which afterward called for 
his judicial attention was the issuance of 
currency notes which were made a legal 
tender in payment of debts. When this 
question came before him as chief-justice 
of the United States he reversed his former 
action and declared the measure unconstitu- 
tional. The national banking system, by 
which all notes issued were to be based on 
funded government bonds of equal or greater 
amounts, had its direct origin with Mr. Chase. 
Mr. Chase resigned the treasury port- 
folio in 1864, and was appointed the same 
year as chief-justice of the United States 
supreme court. The great questions that 
came up before him at this crisis in the life 
of the nation were no less than those which 
confronted the first chief-justice at the for- 
mation of our government. Reconstruction, 
private, state and national interests, the 
constitutionality of the acts of congress 
passed in times of great excitement, the 
-construction and interpretation to be placed 



upon the several amendments to the national 
constitution, — these were among the vital 
questions requiring prompt decision. He 
received a paralytic stroke in 1870, which 
impaired his health, thcugh his mental 
powers were not affected. He continued to 
preside at the opening terms for two years 
following and died May 7, 1873. 



HARRIET ELIZABETH BEECHER 
STOWE, a celebrated American writ- 
er, was born June 14, 1812, at Litchfield, 
Connecticut. She was a daughter of Lyman 
Beecherand a sister of Henry Ward Beecher, 
two noted divines; was carefully educated, 
and taught school for several years at Hart- 
ford, Connecticut. In 1S32 Miss Beecher 
married Professor Stowe, then of Lane Semi- 
nary, Cincinnati, Ohio, and afterwards at 
Bowdoin College and Andover Seminary. 
Mrs. Stowe published in 1849 "The May- 
flower, or sketches of the descendants of the 
Pilgrims, " and in 185 1 commenced in the 
" National Era "of Washington, a serial story 
which was published separately in 1852 under 
the title of " Uncle Tom's Cabin." This 
book attained almost unparalleled success 
both at home and abroad, and within ten years 
it had been translated in almost every lan- 
guage of the civilized world. Mrs. Stowe pub- 
lished in 1S53 a "Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin" 
in which the data that she used was published 
and its truthfulness was corroborated. In 
1853 she accompanied her husband and 
brother to Europe, and on her return pub- 
lished "Sunny Memories of Foreign Lands" 
in 1854. Mrs. Stowe was for some time 
one of the editors of the ' ' Atlantic Monthly " 
and the " Hearth and Home," for which 
she had written a number of articles. 
Among these, also published separately, are 
" Dred, a tale of the Great Dismal Swamp " 
(later published under the title of "Nina 



C0MPEND1CM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



67 



Gordon"); " The Minister's Wooing;" "The 
Pearl of Orr's Island;" "Agnes of Sorrento;" 
"Oldtovvn Folks;" "My Wife and I;" "Bible 
Heroines," and "A Dog's Mission." Mrs. 
Stowe's death occurred July i, 1896, at 
Hartford, Connecticut. 



THOMAS JONATHAN JACKSON, bet- 
ter known as "Stonewall" Jackson, 
was one of the most noted of the Confeder- 
ate generals of the Civil war. He was a 
soldier by nature, an incomparable lieuten- 
ant, sure to execute any operation entrusted 
to him with marvellous precision, judgment 
and courage, and all his individual cam- 
paigns and combats bore the stamp of a 
masterly capacity for war. He was born 
January 21, 1S24, at Clarksburg, Harrison 
county, West Virginia. He was early in 
life imbued with the desire to be a soldier 
and it is said walked from the mountains of 
Virginia to Washington, secured the aid of 
his congressman, and was appointed cadet 
at the United States Military Academy at 
West Point from which he was graduated in 
1846. Attached to the army as brevet sec- 
ond lieutenant of the First Artillery, his first 
service was as a subaltern with Magruder's 
battery of light artillery in the Mexican war. 
He participated at the reduction of Vera 
Cruz, and was noticed for gallantry in the 
battles of Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Moline 
del Rey, Chapultepec, and the capture of 
the city of Mexico, receiving the brevets of 
captain for conduct at Contreras and Cher- 
ubusco and of major at Chapultepec. In 
the meantime he had been advanced by 
r< gular promotion to be first lieutenant in 
1S47. In 1852, the war having closed, he 
resigned and became professor of natural 
and experimental philosophy and artillery 
instructor at the Virginia State Military 
Institute at Lexington, Virginia, where he 



remained until Virginia declared for seces- 
sion, he becoming chiefly noted for intense 
religious sentiment coupled with personal 
eccentricities. Upon the breaking out of 
the war he was made colonel and placed in 
command of a force sent to sieze Harper's 
Ferry, which he accomplished May 3, 1861. 
Relieved by General J. E. Johnston, May 
23, he took command of the brigade of 
Valley Virginians, whom he moulded into 
that brave corps, baptized at the first 
Manassas, and ever after famous as the 
"Stonewall Brigade." After this "Stone- 
wall " Jackson was made a major-general, 
in 1 86 1, and participated until his death in 
all the famous campaigns about Richmond 
and in Virginia, and was a conspicuous fig- 
ure in the memorable battles of that time. 
May 2, 18G3, at Chancellorsville, he was 
wounded severely by his own troops, two 
balls shattering his left arm and another 
passing through the palm of his right hand. 
The left arm was amputated, but pneumonia 
intervened, and, weakened by the great loss 
of blood, he died May 10, 1863. The more 
his operations in the Shenandoah valley in 
1862 are studied the more striking must the 
merits of this great soldier appear.. 



JOHN GREENLEAF WHETHER.— 
<J Near to the heart of the people of the 
Anglo-Saxon race will ever lie the verses of 
this, the "Quaker Poet." The author of 
"Barclay of Ury," "Maud Muller" and 
"Barbara Frietchie, " always pure, fervid 
and direct, will be remembered when many 
a more ambitious writer has been forgotten. 
John G. Whittier was born at Haver- 
hill, Massachusetts, December 7, 1S07, of 
Quaker parentage. He had but a common- 
school education and passed his boyhood 
days upon a farm. In early life he learned 
the trade of shoemaker. At the age of 



G$ 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



■eighteen he began to write verses for the 
Haverhill '' Gazette." He spent two years 
after that at the Haverhill academy, after 
which, in 1829, he became editor of the 
"American Manufacturer, " at Boston. In 
1S30 he succeeded George D. Prentice as 
editor of the "New England Weekly Re- 
view," but the following year returned to 
Haverhill and engaged in farming. In 1832 
and in 1836 he edited the " Gazette." In 
1835 he was elected a member of the legis- 
lature, serving two years. In 1 836 he became 
secretary of the Anti-slavery Society of Phil- 
adelphia. In 1838 and 1839 he edited the 
" Pennsylvania Freeman," but in the latter 
year the office was sacked and burned by a 
mob. In 1840 Whittier settled at Ames- 
bury, Massachusetts. In 1847 he became 
corresponding editor of the "National Era," 
an anti-slavery paper published at Washing- 
ton, and contributed to its columns many of 
his anti-slavery and other favorite lyrics. 
Mr. Whittier lived for many years in retire- 
ment of Quaker simplicity, publishing several 
volumes of poetry which have raised him to 
a high place among American authors and 
brought to him the love and admiration of 
his countrymen. In the electoral colleges 
of i860 and 1864 Whittier was a member. 
Much' of his time after 1876 was spent at 
Oak Knoll, Danvers, Massachusetts, but 
still retained his residence at Amesbury. 
He never married. His death occurred Sep- 
tember 7, 1892. 

The more prominent prose writings of 
John G. Whittier are as follows: "Legends 
of New England," " Justice and Expediency, 
or Slavery Considered with a View to Its Abo- 
lition," " The Stranger in Lowell," "Super- 
naturalism in New England," " Leaves from 
Margaret Smith's Journal," "Old Portraits 
and Modern Sketches" and "Literary 
Sketches." 



DAVID DIXON PORTER, illustrious as 
admiral of the United States navy, and 
famous as one of the most able naval offi- 
cers of America, was born in Pennsylvania, 
June 8, 1814. His father was also a naval 
officer of distinction, who left the service of 
the United States to become commander of 
the naval forces of Mexico during the war 
between that country and Spain, and 
through this fact David Dixon Porter was 
appointed a midshipman in the Mexican 
navy. Two years later David D. Porter 
joined the United States navy as midship- 
man, rose in rank and eighteen years later 
as a lieutenant he is found actively engaged 
in all the operations of our navy along the 
east coast of Mexico. When the Civil war 
broke out Porter, then a commander, was 
dispatched in the Powhattan to the relief of 
Fort Pickens, Florida. This duty accom- 
plished, he fitted out a mortar flotilla for 
the reduction of the forts guarding the ap- 
proaches to New Orleans, which it was con- 
sidered of vital importance for the govern- 
ment to get possession of. After the fall of 
New Orleans the mortar flotilla was actively 
engaged at Vicksburg, and in the fall of 
1862 Porter was made a rear-admiral and 
placed in command of all the naval forces 
on the western rivers above New Orleans. 
The ability of the man was now con- 
spicuously manifested, not only in the bat- 
tles in which he was engaged, but also in 
the creation of a formidable fleet out of 
river steamboats, which he covered with 
such plating as they would bear. In 1864 
he was transferred to the Atlantic coast to 
command the naval forces destined to oper- 
ate against the defences of Wilmington, 
North Carolina, and on Jan. 15, 1865, the 
fall of Fort Fisher was hailed by the country 
as a glorious termination of his arduous war 
service. In 1866 he was made vice-admiral 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



69 



and appointed superintendent of the Naval 
Academy. On the death of Farragut, in 
1 870, .he succeeded that able man as ad- 
miral of the navy. His death occurred at 
Washington, February 13, 1891. 



NATHANIEL GREENE was one of the 
best known of the distinguished gen- 
erals who led the Continental soldiery 
against the hosts of Great Britain during 
the Revolutionary war. He was the son 
of Quaker parents, and was born at War- 
wick, Rhode Island, May 27, 1742. In 
youth he acquired a good education, chiefly 
by his own efforts, as he was a tireless 
reader. In 1770 he was elected a member 
of the Assembly of his native state. The 
news of the battle of Lexington stirred 
his blood, and he offered his services to 
the government of the colonies, receiving 
the rank of brigadier-general and the com- 
mand of the troops from Rhode Island. 
He led them to the camp at Cambridge, 
and for thus violating the tenets of their 
faith, he was cast out of the Society of 
Friends, or Quakers. He soon won the es- 
teem of General Washington. In August, 

1776, Congress promoted Greene to the 
rank of major-general, and in the battles of 
Trenton and Princeton he led a division. 
At the battle of Brandywine, September 1 1, 

1777, he greatly distinguished himself, pro- 
"tecting the retreat of the Continentals by 
his firm stand. At the battle of German- 
town, October 4, the same year, he com- 
manded the left wing of the army with 
credit. In March, 1778, he reluctantly ac- 
cepted the office of quartermaster-general, 
but only with the understanding that his 
rank in the army would not be affected and 
that in action he should retain his command. 
On the bloody field of Monmouth, June 28, 
J 778, he commanded the right wing, as he 



did at the battle of Tiverton Heights. He 
was in command of the army in 1780, dur- 
ing the absence of Washington, and was 
president of the court-martial that tried and 
condemned Major Andre. After General 
Gates' defeat at Camden, North Carolina, in 
the summer of 1 780, General Greene was ap- 
pointed to the command of the southern army. 
He sent out a force under General Morgan 
who defeated General Tarleton at Cowpens, 
January 17, 1781. On joining his lieuten- 
ant, in February, he found himself out num- 
bered by the British and retreated in good 
order to Virginia, but being reinforced re- 
turned to North Carolina where he fought 
the battle of Guilford, and a few days later 
compelled the retreat of Lord Cornwallis. 
The British were followed by Greene part 
of the way, when the American army 
marched into South Carolina. After vary- 
ing success he fought the battle of Eutaw 
Springs, September 8, 1781. For the latter 
battle and its glorious consequences, which 
virtually closed the war in the Carolinas, 
Greene received a medal from Congress and 
many valuable grants of land from the 
colonies of North and South Carolina and 
Georgia. On the return of peace, after a 
year spent in Rhode Island, General Greene 
took up his residence on his estate' near 
Savannah, Georgia, where he died June 19, 
1786. 



EDGAR ALLEN POE.— Among the 
many great literary men whom this 
country has produced, there is perhaps no 
name more widely known than that of Ed- 
gar Allen Poe. He was born at Boston, 
Massachusetts, February 19, 1S09. His 
parents were David and Elizabeth (Arnold) 
Poe, both actors, the mother said to have 
been the natural daughter of Benedict Ar- 
nold. The parents died while Edgar was 



70 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



still a child and he was adopted by John 
Allen, a wealthy and influential resident of 
Richmond, Virginia. Edgar was sent to 
school at Stoke, Newington, England, 
where he remained until he was thirteen 
years old; was prepared for college by pri- 
vate tutors, and in i 826 entered the Virginia 
University at Charlottesville. He made 
rapid progress in his studies, and was dis- 
tinguished for his scholarship, but was ex- 
pelled within a year for gambling, after 
which for several years he resided with his 
benefactor at Richmond. He then went to 
Baltimore, and in 1829 published a 71 -page 
pamphlet called " Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane 
and Minor Poems," which, however, at- 
tracted no attention and contained nothing 
of particular merit. In 1S30 he was ad- 
mitted as a cadet at West Point, but was 
expelled about a year later for irregulari- 
ties. Returning to the home of Mr. Allen 
he remained for some time, and finally 
quarrelled with his benefactor and enlisted 
as a private soldier in the U. S. army, but 
remained only a short time. Soon after 
this, in 1833, Poe won several prizes for 
literary work, and as a result secured the 
position of editor of the "Southern Liter- 
ary Messenger," at Richmond, Virginia. 
Here he married his cousin, Virginia 
Clemm, who clung to him with fond devo- 
tion through all the many trials that came 
to them until her death in January, 1S48. 
Poe remained with the "Messenger" for 
several years, writing meanwhile many 
tales, reviews, essays and poems. He aft- 
erward earned a precarious living by his 
pen in New York for a time; in 1S39 be- 
came editor of "Burton's Gentleman's 
Magazine" ; in 1840 to .1842 was editor of 
" Graham's Magazine," and drifted around 
from one place to another, returning to 
New York in 1S44. In 1S45 his best 



known production, "The Raven," appeared 
in the "Whig Review, " and gained him a 
reputation which is now almost world-wide. 
He then acted as editor and contributor on 
various magazines and periodicals until the 
death of his faithful wife in 1S48. In the 
summer of 1849 he was engaged to be mar- 
ried to a lady of fortune in Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, and the day set for the wedding. 
He started for New York to make prepara- 
tions for the event, but, it is said, began 
drinking, was attacked with dilirium tre- 
mens in Baltimore and was removed to a 
hospital, where he died, October 7, 1849. 
The works of Edgar Allen Poe have been 
repeatedly published since his death, both 
in Europe and America, and have attained 
an immense popularity. 



HORATIO GATES, one of the prom- 
inent figures in the American war for 
Independence, was not a native of the col- 
onies but was born in England in 1728. In 
early life he entered the British army and 
attained the rank of major. At the capture 
of Marti nico he was aide to General Monk- 
ton and after the peace of Aix la Chapelle, 
in 1748, he was among the first troops that 
landed at Halifax. He was with Braddock 
at his defeat in 1755, and was there severe- 
ly wounded. At the conclusion of the 
French and Indian war Gates purchased an 
estate in Virginia, and, resigning from the 
British army, settled down to life as a 
planter. On the breaking out of the Rev- 
olutionary war he entered the service of the 
colonies and was made adjutant-general of 
the Continental forces with the rank o! 
brigadier-general. He accompanied Wash- 
ington when he assumed the command oi 
the army. In June, 1776, he was appoint- 
ed to the command of the army of Canada, 
but was superseded in May of the following 



coMPi:x/>/rM or biographt 



71 



year by General Schuyler. In August, 
1777, however, the command of that army 
was restored to General Gates and Septem- 
ber 19 he fought the battle of Bemis 
Heights. October 7, the same year, he 
won the battle of Stillwater, or Saratoga, 
and October 17 received the surrender of 
General Burgoyne and his arm}', the pivotal 
point of the war. This gave him a brilliant 
reputation. June 13, 17S0, General Gates 
was appointed to the command of the 
southern military division, and August 16 of 
that year suffered defeat at the hands of 
Lord Cornwallis, at Camden, North Car- 
olina. In December following he was 
superseded in the command by General 
Nathaniel Greene. 

On the signing of the peace treaty Gen- 
eral Gates retired to his plantation in 
Berkeley county, Virginia, where he lived 
until 1790, when, emancipating all his 
slaves, he removed to New York City, where 
he resided until his death, April 10, 1806. 



LYMAN J. GAGE.— When President Mc- 
Kinley selected Lyman J. Gage as sec- 
retary of the treasury he chose one of the 
most eminent financiers of the century. Mr. 
Gage was born June 28, 1836, at De Ruy- 
ter, Madison county, New York, and was of 
English descent. He went to Rome, New 
York, with his parents when he was ten 
years old, and received his early education 
in the Rome Academy. Mr. Gage gradu- 
ated from the same, and his first position 
was that of a clerk in the post office. When 
he was fifteen years of age he was detailed 
as mail agent on the Rome & Watertown 
R. R. until the postmaster-general appointed 
regular agents for the route. In 1854, when 
he was in his eighteenth year, he entered 
the Oneida Central Bank at Rome as a 
junior clerk at a salary of one hundred dol- 



lars per year. Being unable at the end of 
one year and a half's service to obtain an 
increase in salary he determined to seek a 
wider field of labor. Mr. Gage set out in 
the fall of 1855 and arrived in Chicago, 
Illinois, on October 3, and soon obtained a 
situation in Nathan Cobb's lumber yard and 
planing mill. He remained there three years 
as a bookkeeper, teamster, etc., and left on 
account of change in the management. But 
not being able to find anything else to do he 
accepted the position of night watchman in 
the place for a period of six weeks. He 
then became a bookkeeper for the Mer- 
chants Saving, Loan and Trust Company at 
a salary of five hundred dollars per year. 
He rapidly advanced in the service of this 
company and in 1 868 he was made cashier. 
Mr. Gage was next offered the position of 
cashier of the First National Bank and ac- 
cepted the offer. He became the president 
of the First National Bank of Chicago Jan- 
uary 24, 1 89 1, and in 1897 he was appointed 
secretary of the treasury. His ability as a 
financier and the prominent part he took in 
the discussion of financial affairs while presi- 
dent of the great Chicago bank gave him a 
national reputation. 



ANDREW JACRSON, the seventh pres- 
ident of the United States, was born 
at the Waxhaw settlement, Union county, 
North Carolina, March 15, 1767. His 
parents were Scotch-Irish, natives of Carr- 
ickfergus, who came to this country in 1665 
and settled on Twelve-Mile creek, a trib- 
utary of the Catawba. His father, who 
was a poor farm laborer, died shortly be- 
fore Andrew's birth, when the mother re- 
moved to Waxhaw, where some relatives 
lived. Andrew's education was very limited, 
he showing no aptitude for study. In 1780 
when but thirteen years of age, he and his 



72 



C0MPEXD1UM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



brother Robert volunteered to serve in the 
American partisan troops under General 
Sumter, and witnessed the defeat at Hang- 
ing Rock. The following year the boys 
were both taken prisoners by the enemy 
and endured brutal treatment from the 
British officers while confined at Camden. 
They both took the small pox, when the 
mother procured their exchange but Robert 
died shortly after. The mother died in 
Charleston of ship fever, the same year. 

Young Jackson, now in destitute cir- 
cumstances, worked for about six months in 
a saddler's shop, and then turned school 
master, although but little fitted for the 
position. He now began to think of a pro- 
fession and at Salisbury, North Carolina, 
entered upon the study of law r , but from all 
accounts gave but little attention to his 
books, being one of the most roistering, 
rollicking fellows in that town, indulging in 
many of the vices of his time. In 1786 he 
was admitted to the bar and in 1788 re- 
moved to Nashville, then in North Carolina, 
with the appointment of public prosecutor, 
then an office of little honor or emolument, 
but requiring much nerve, for which young 
Jackson was already noted. Two years 
later, when Tennessee became a territory 
he was appointed by Washington to the 
position of United States attorney for that 
district. In 1791 he married Mrs. Rachel 
Robards, a daughter of Colonel John Bon- 
«lson, who was supposed at the time to 
have been divorced from her former hus- 
band that year by act of legislature of Vir- 
ginia, but two years later, on finding that 
this divorce was not legal, and a new bill of 
separation being granted by the courts of 
Kentucky, they were remarried in 1793. 
This was used as a handle by his oppo- 
nents in the political campaign afterwards. 
Jackson was untiring in his efforts as United 



States attorney and obtained much influence. 
He was chosen a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1796, when Tennessee 
became a state and was its first represent- 
ative in congress. In 1797 he was chosen 
United States senator, but resigned the fol- 
lowing year to accept a seat on the supreme 
court of Tennessee which he held until 
1S04. He was elected major-general of 
the militia of that state in 1801. In 1804, 
being unsuccessful in obtaining the govern- 
orship of Louisiana, the new territory, he 
retired from public life to the Hermitage, 
his plantation. On the outbreak of the 
war with Great Britain in 1812 he tendered 
his services to the government and went to 
New Orleans with the Tennessee troops in 
January, 181 3. In March of that year he 
was ordered to disband his troops, but later 
marched against the Cherokee Indians, de- 
feating them at Talladega, Emuckfaw 
and Tallapoosa. Having now a national 
reputation, he was appointed major-general 
in the United States army and was sent 
against the British in Florida. He con- 
ducted the defence of Mobile and seized 
Pensacola. He then went with his troops 
to New Orleans, Louisiana, where he gained 
the famous victory of January S, 1815. In 
18 17-18 he conducted a war against the 
Seminoles, and in 1821 was made governor 
of the new territory of Florida. In 1823 
he was elected United States senator, but 
in 1824 was the contestant with J. Q. Adams 
for the presidency. Four years later he 
was elected president, and served two terms. 
In 1832 he took vigorous action against the 
milliners of South Carolina, and the next 
year removed the public money from the 
United States bank. During his second 
term the national debt was extinguished. At 
the close of his administration he retired to 
the Hermitage, where he died June 8, 1845. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



73 



ANDREW CARNEGIE, the largest manu- 
facturer of pig-iron, steel rails and 
coke in the world, well deserves a place 
among America's celebrated men. He was 
born November 25, 1S35, at Dunfermline, 
Scotland, and emigrated to the United States 
with his father in 1845, settling in Pittsburg. 
Two years later Mr. Carnegie began his 
business career by attending a small station- 
' ary engine. This work did not suit him and 
he became a telegraph messenger with the 
Atlantic and Ohio Co., and later he became 
an operator, and was one of the first to read 
telegraphic signals by sound. Mr. Carnegie 
was afterward sent to the Pittsburg office 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad Co., as clerk 
to the superintendent and. manager of the 
telegraph lines. While in this position he 
made the acquaintance of Mr. Woodruff, the 
inventor of the sleeping-car. Mr. Carnegie 
immediately became interested and was one 
of the organizers of the company for its con- 
struction after the railroad had adopted it, 
and the success of this venture gave him the 
nucleus of his wealth. He was promoted 
to the superintendency of the Pittsburg 
division of the Pennsylvania Railroad and 
about this time was one of the syndicate 
that purchased the Storey farm on Oil Creek 
which cost forty thousand dollars and in one 
year it yielded over one million dollars in 
cash dividends. Mr. Carnegie later was as- 
sociated with others in establishing a rolling- 
mill, and from this has grown the most ex- 
tensive and complete system of iron and 
steel industries ever controlled by one indi- 
vidual, embracing the Edgar Thomson 
Steel Works; Pittsburg Bessemer Steel 
Works; Lucy Furnaces; Union Iron Mills; 
Union Mill; Keystone Bridge Works; Hart- 
man Steel Works; Frick Coke Co.; Scotia 
Ore Mines. Besides directing his immense 
iron industries he owned eighteen English 



newspapers which he ran in the interest of 
the Radicals. He has also devoted large 
sums of money to benevolent and educational 
purposes. In 1879 he erected commodious 
swimming baths for the people of Dunferm- 
line, Scotland, and in the following year 
gave forty thousand dollars for a free library. 
Mr. Carnegie gave fifty thousand dollars to 
Bellevue Hospital Medical College in 1884 
to found what is now called "Carnegie Lab- 
oratory, " and in 1885 gave five hundred 
thousand dollars to Pittsburg for a public 
library. He also gave two hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars for a music hall and library 
in Allegheny City in 18S6, and two hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars to Edinburgh, Scot- 
land, for a free library. He also established 
free libraries at Braddock, Pennsylvania, 
and other places for the benefit of his em- 
ployes. He also published the following 
works, "An American Four-in-hand in 
Britain;" " Round the World;" "Trium- 
phant Democracy; or Fifty Years' March of 
the Republic." 



GEORGE H. THOMAS, the " Rock of 
Chickamauga," one of the best known 
commanders during the late Civil war, was 
born in Southampton county, Virginia, July 
31, 1S16, his parents being of Welsh and 
French origin respectively. In 1836 young 
Thomas was appointed a cadet at the Mili- 
tary Academy, at W r est Point, from which 
he graduated in 1840, and was promoted to 
the office of second lieutenant in the Third 
Artillery. Shortly after, with his company, 
he went to Florida, where he served for two 
years against the Seminole Indians. In 
1 84 1 he was brevetted first lieutenant for 
gallant conduct. He remained in garrison 
in the south and southwest until 1845, at 
which date with the regiment he joined the 
army under General Taylor, and participat- 



74 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



ed in the defense of Fort Brown, the storm- 
ing of Monterey and the battle of Buena 
Vista. After the latter event he remained 
in garrison, now brevetted major, until the 
close of the Mexican war. After a year 
spent in Florida, Captain Thomas was or- 
dered to West Point, where he served as in- 
structor until 1854. He then was trans- 
ferred to California. In May, 1855, Thom- 
as was appointed major of the Second Cav- 
alry, with whom he spent five years in Texas. 
Although a southern man, and surrounded 
by brother officers who all were afterwards 
in the Confederate service, Major Thomas 
never swerved from his allegiance to the 
government. A. S. Johnston was the col- 
onel of the regiment, R. E. Lee the lieuten- 
ant-colonel, and W. J. Hardee, senior ma- 
jor, while among the younger officers were 
Hood, Fitz Hugh Lee, Van Dorn and Kirby 
Smith. When these officers left the regi- 
ment to take up arms for the Confederate 
cause he remained with it, and April 17th, 
i86t, crossed the Potomac into his native 
state, at its head. After taking an active part 
in the opening scenes of the war on the Poto- 
mac and Shenandoah, in August, 1861, he 
was promoted to be brigadier-general and 
transferred to the Army of the Cumberland. 
January 19-20, 1862, Thomas defeated 
Crittenden at Mill Springs, and this brought 
him into notice and laid the foundation of 
his fame. He continued in command of his 
division until September 20, 1862, except 
during the Corinth campaign when he com- 
manded the right wing of the Army of the 
Tennessee. He was in command of the 
latter at the battle of Perryville, also, Octo- 
ber 8, 1862. 

On the division of the Army of the Cum- 
berland into corps, January 9, 1863, Gen- 
eral Thomas was assigned to the command 
of the Fourteenth, and at the battle of Chick- 



amauga, after the retreat of Rosecrans, 
firmly held his own against the hosts of Gen- 
eral Bragg. A history of his services from 
that on would be a history of the war in the 
southwest. On September 27, 1S64, Gen- 
eral Thomas was given command in Ten- 
nessee, and after organizing his army, de- 
feated General Hood in the battle of Nash- 
ville, December 15 and 16, 1864. Much 
complaint was made before this on account 
of what they termed Thomas' slowness, and 
he was about to be superseded because he 
would not strike until he got ready, but 
when the blow was struck General Grant 
was the first to place on record this vindica- 
tion of Thomas judgment. He received a 
vote of thanks from Congress, and from the 
legislature of Tennessee a gold medal. Af- 
ter the close of the war General Thomas 
had command of several of the military di- 
visions, and died at San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, March 28, 1870. 



GEORGE BANCROFT, one of the most 
eminent American historians, was a 
native of Massachusetts, born at Worcester, 
October 3, 1800, and a son of Aaron 
Bancroft, D. D. The father, Aaron Ban- 
croft, was born at Reading, Massachusetts, 
November 10, 1755. He graduated at 
Harvard in 1778, became a minister, and for 
half a century was rated as one of the ablest 
preachers in New England. He was also a 
prolific writer and published a number of 
works among which was " Life of George 
Washington." Aaron Bancroft died August 
19, 1S39. 

The subject of our present biography, 
George Bancroft, graduated at Harvard in 
18 17, and the following year entered the 
University of Gottingen, svhere he studied 
history and philology under the most emi- 
nent teachers, and in 1820 received the de- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY, 



75 



gree of doctor of philosophy at Gottingen. 
Upon his return home he published a volume 
of poems, and later a translation of Heeren's 
" Reflections on the Politics of Ancient 
Greece." In 1834 he produced the first 
volume of his "History of the United 
States," this being followed by other vol- 
umes at different intervals later. This was 
his greatest work and ranks as the highest 
authority, taking its place among the great- 
est of American productions. 

George Bancroft was appointed secretary 
of the navy by President Polk in 1845, but 
resigned in 1846 and became minister pleni- 
potentiary to England. In 1849 he retired 
from public life and took up his residence at 
Washington, D. C. In 1S67 he was ap- 
pointed United States minister to the court of 
Berlin and negotiated the treaty by which Ger- 
mans coming to the United States were re- 
leased from their allegiance to the govern- 
ment of their native land. In 1871 he was 
minister plenipotentiary to the German em- 
pire and served until 1874. The death of 
George Bancroft occurred January 17, 1891. 



GEORGE GORDON MEADE, a fa- 
mous Union general, was born at 
Cadiz, Spain, December 30, 18 15, his father 
being United States naval agent at that 
port. After receiving a good education he 
entered the West Point Military Academy 
in 1 83 1. From here he was graduated 
June 30, 1835, and received the rank of 
second lieutenant of artillery. He par- 
ticipated in the Seminole war, but resigned 
from the army in October, 1836. He en- 
tered upon the profession of civil engineer, 
which he followed for several years, part of 
the time in the service of the government in 
making surveys of the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi river. His report and results of some 
experiments made by him in this service 



gained Meade much credit. He also was 
employed in surveying the boundary line of 
Texas and the northeastern boundary line 
between the United States and Canada. 
In 1842 he was reappointed in the army to 
the position of second lieutenant of engineers. 
During the Mexican war he served with dis- 
tinction on the staff of General Taylor in 
the battles of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma 
and the storming of Monterey. He received 
his brevet of first lieutenant for the latter 
action. In 1851 he was made full first 
lieutenant in his corps; a captain in 1856, 
and major soon after. At the close of the 
war with Mexico he was employed in light- 
house construction and in geodetic surveys 
until the breaking out of the Rebellion, in 
which he gained great reputation. In 
August, 1 86 1, he was made brigadier-general 
of volunteers and placed in command of the 
second brigade of the Pennsylvania Reserves, 
a division of the First Corps in the Army of 
the Potomac. In the campaign of 1862, 
under McClellan, Meade took an active 
part, being present at the battles of Mechan- 
icsville, Gaines' Mill and Glendale, in the 
latter of which he was severely wounded. 
On rejoining his command he was given a 
division and distinguished himself at its head 
in the battles of South Mountain and Antie- 
tam. During the latter, on the wounding 
of General Hooker, Meade was placed in 
command of the corps and was himself 
slightly wounded. For services he was 
promoted, November, 1862, to the rank 
of major-general of volunteers. On the 
recovery of General Hooker General Meade 
returned to his division and in December, 
1862, at Fredericksburg, led an attack 
which penetrated Lee's right line and swept 
to his rear. Being outnumbered and un- 
supported, he finally was driven back. The 
same month Meade was assigned to the 



76 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



command of the Fifth Corps, and at Chan- 
cellorsville in May, 1S63, his sagacity and 
ability so struck General Hooker that when 
the latter asked to be relieved of the com- 
mand, in June of the same year, he nomi- 
nated Meade as his successor. June 28, 
1863, President Lincoln commissioned Gen- 
eral Meade commander-in-chief of the Army 
of the Potomac, then scattered and moving 
hastily through Pennsylvania to the great 
and decisive battlefield at Gettysburg, at 
which he was in full command. With the 
victory on those July days the name of 
Meade will ever be associated. From that 
time until the close of the war he com- 
manded the Army of the Potomac. In 
1864 General Grant, being placed at the 
head of all the armies, took up his quarters 
with the Army of the Potomac. From that 
time until the surrender of Lee at Appo- 
matox Meade's ability shone conspicuously, 
and his tact in the delicate position in lead- 
ing his army under the eye of his superior 
officer commanded the respect and esteem 
of General Grant. Forservices Meade was 
promoted to the rank of major-general, and 
on the close of hostilities, in July, 1865, 
was assigned to the command of the military 
division of the Atlantic, with headquarters 
at Philadelphia. This post he held, with 
the exception of a short period on detached 
duty in Georgia, until his death, which took 
place November 6, 1872. 



DAVID CROCKETT was a noted hunter 
and scout, and also one of the earliest 
of American humorists. He was born Au- 
gust 17, 1786, in Tennessee, and was one 
of the most prominent men of his locality, 
serving as representative in congress from 
1827 until 1 S3 1. He attracted consider- 
able notice while a member of congress and 
was closely associated with General Jack- 



son, of whom he was a personal friend. He 
went to Texas and enlisted in the Texan 
army at the time of the revolt of Texas 
against Mexico and gained a wide reputa- 
tion as a scout. He was one of the famous 
one hundred and forty men under Colonel 
W. B. Travis who were besieged in Fort 
Alamo, near San Antonio, Texas, by Gen- 
eral Santa Anna with some five thousand 
Mexicans on February 23, 1S36. The fort 
was defended for ten days, frequent assaults 
being repelled with great slaughter, over 
one thousand Mexicans being killed or 
wounded, while not a man in the fort was 
injured. Finally, on March 6, three as- 
saults were made, and in the hand-to-hand 
fight that followed the last, the Texans were 
wofully outnumbered and overpowered. 
They fought desperately with clubbed mus- 
kets till only six were left alive, including 
W. B. Travis, David Crockett and James 
Bowie. These surrendered under promise 
of protection; but when they were brought 
before Santa Anna he ordered them all to 
be cut to pieces. 



HENRY WATTERSON, one of the most 
conspicuous figures in the history of 
American journalism, was born at Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia, February 16, 
1840. His boyhood days were mostly spent 
in the city of his birth, where his father, 
Harvey M. Watterson, was editor of the 
"Union," a well known journal. 

Owing to a weakness of the eyes, which 
interfered with a systematic course of study, 
young Watterson was educated almost en- 
tirely at home. A successful college career 
was out of the question, but he acquired a 
good knowledge of music, literature and art 
from private tutors, but the most valuable 
part of the training he received was by as- 
sociating with his father and the throng 01 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



n 



public men whom he met in Washington 
in the stirring days immediately preceding 
the Civil war. He began his journalistic 
career at an early age as dramatic and 
musical critic, and in 1858, became editor 
of the "Democratic Review" and at the 
same time contributed to the "States," 
a journal of liberal opinions published in 
Washington. In this he remained until 
the breaking out of the war, when the 
"States," opposing the administration, was 
suppressed, and young W'atterson removed 
to Tennessee. He next appears as editor 
of the Nashville "Republican Banner," the 
most influential paper in the state at that 
time. After the occupation of Nashville by 
the Federal troops, Watterson served as a 
volunteer staff officer in the Confederate 
service until the close of the war, with the 
exception of a year spent in editing the 
Chattanooga "Rebel." On the close of 
the war he returned to Nashville and re- 
sumed his connection with the "Banner." 
After a trip to Europe he assumed control 
of the Louisville "Journal," which he soon 
combined with the "Courier" and the 
"Democrat" of that place, founding the 
well-known "Courier-Journal," the first 
number of which appeared November 8, 
1868. Mr. Watterson also represented his 
district in congress for several years. 



PATRICK SARSFIELD GILMORE, 
one of the most successful and widely 
known bandmasters and musicians of the 
last half century in America, was born in 
Ballygar, Ireland, on Christmas day, 1829. 
He attended a public school until appren- 
ticed to a wholesale merchant at Athlone, 
of the brass band of which town he soon 
became a member. His passion for music 
conflicting with the duties of a mercantile 
life, his position as clerk was exchanged for 



that of musical instructor to the young sons 
of his employer. At the age of nineteen he 
sailed for America and two days after his 
arrival in Boston was put in charge of the 
band instrument department of a prominent 
music house. In the interests of the pub- 
lications of this house he organized a minstrel 
company known as " Ord way's Eolians," 
with which he first achieved success as a 
cornet soloist. Later on he was called the 
best E-flat cornetist in the United States. 
He became leader, successively, of the Suf- 
folk, Boston Brigade and Salem bands. 
During his connection with the latter he 
inaugurated the famous Fourth of July con- 
certs on Boston Common, since adopted as 
a regular programme for the celebration of 
Independence Day. In 1858 Mr. Gilmore 
founded the organization famous thereafter 
as Gilmore's Band. At the outbreak of the 
Civil war this band was attached to the 
Twenty-Fourth .Massachusetts Infantry. 
Later, when the economical policy of dis- 
pensing with music had proved a mistake, 
Gilmore was entrusted with the re-organiza- 
tion of state military bands, and upon his 
arrival at New Orleans with his own band 
was made bandmaster-general by General 
Banks. On the inauguration of Governor 
Hahn, later on, in Lafayette square, New 
Orleans, ten thousand children, mostly of 
Confederate parents, rose to the baton of 
Gilmore and, accompanied by six hundred 
instruments, thirty-six guns and the united 
fire of three regiments of infantry, sang the 
Star-Spangled Banner, America and other 
patriotic Union airs. In June, 1867, Mr. 
Gilmore conceived a national musical festi- 
val, which was denounced as a chimericsl 
undertaking, but he succeeded and June 15, 
1869, stepped upon the stage of the Boston 
Colosseum, a vast structure erected for the • 
occasion, and in the presence of over fifty 



78 



COMPEXDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



thousand people lifted his baton over an 
orchestra of one thousand and a chorus of 
ten thousand. On the 17th of June, 1872, 
he opened a still greater festival in Boston, 
when, in addition to an orchestra of two 
thousand and a chorus of twenty thousand, 
were present the Band of the Grenadier 
Guards, of London, of the Garde Repub- 
licaine, of Paris, of Kaiser Franz, of Berlin, 
and one from Dublin, Ireland, together with 
Johann Strauss, Franz Abt and many other 
soloists, vocal and instrumental. Gilmore's 
death occurred September 24, 1892. 



MARTIN VAN BUREN was the eighth 
president of the United States, 1837 
to 1 84 1. He was of Dutch extraction, and 
his ancestors were among the earliest set- 
tlers on the banks of the Hudson. He was 
born December 5, 1782, at Kinderhook, 
New York. Mr. Van Buren took up the 
study of law at the age of fourteen and took 
an active part in political matters before he 
had attained his majority. He commenced 
the practice of law in 1803 at his native 
town, and in 1809 he removed to Hudson, 
Columbia county, New York, where he 
spent seven years gaining strength and wis- 
dom from his contentions at the bar with 
some of the ablest men of the profession. 
Mr. Van Buren was elected to the state 
senate, and from 18 15 until 1S19 he was at- 
torney-general of the state. He was re- 
elected to the senate in 1 S 16, and in 18 18 
he was one of the famous clique of politi- 
cians known as the "Albany regency." 
Mr. Van Buren was a member of the con- 
vention for the revision of the state consti- 
tution, in 1821. In the same year he was 
elected to the United States senate and 
served his term in a manner that caused his 
ce-election to that body in 1827, but re- 
signed the following year as he had been 



elected governor of New York. Mr. Van 
Buren was appointed by President Jackson as 
secretary of state in March, 1829, but resigned 
in 1 83 1, and during the recess of congress 
he was appointed minister to England. 
The senate, however, when it convened in 
December refused to ratify the appointment. 
In Ma)', 1S32, he was nominated by the 
Democrats as their candidate for vice-presi- 
dent on the ticket with Andrew Jackson, 
and he was elected in the following Novem- 
ber. He received the nomination to suc- 
ceed President Jackson in 1836, as the 
Democratic candidate, and in the electoral 
college he received one hundred and seventy 
votes out of two hundred and eighty-three, 
and was inaugurated March 4, 1837. His 
administration was begun at a time of great 
business depression, and unparalled financial 
distress, which caused the suspension of 
specie payments by the banks. Nearly 
every bank in the country was forced to 
suspend specie payment, and no less than 
two hundred and fifty-four business houses 
failed in New York in one week. The 
President urged the adoption of the inde- 
pendent treasury idea, which passed through 
the senate twice but each time it was de- 
feated in the house. However the measure 
ultimately became a law near the close of 
President Van Buren's term of office. An- 
other important measure that was passed 
was the pre-emption law that gave the act- 
ual settlers preference in the purchase of 
public lands. The question of slavery had 
begun to assume great preponderance dur- 
ing this administration, and a great conflict 
was tided over by the passage of a resolu- 
tion that prohibited petitions or papers that 
in any way related to slavery to be acted 
upon. In the Democratic convention of 
1840 President Van Buren secured the 
nomination for re-election on that ticket 



COMPEXDIi'M OF BIOGRArilV. 



without opposition, but in the election he 
only received the votes of seven states, his 
opponent, W. H. Harrison, being elected 
president. In 1848 Mr. Van Buren was 
the candidate of the " Free-Soilers," but 
was unsuccessful. After this he retired 
from public life and spent the remainder of 
his life on his estate at Kinderhook, where 
he died July 24, 1862. 



W INFIELD SCOTT, a distinguished 
American general, was born June 13, 
1786, near Petersburg, Dinwiddie county, 
Virginia, and was educated at the William 
and Mary College. He studied law and was 
admitted to the bar, and in 1808 he accepted 
an appointment as captain of light artillery, 
and was ordered to New Orleans. In June, 

18 1 2, he was promoted to be lieutenant- 
colonel, and on application was sent to the 
frontier, and reported to General Smyth, 
near Buffalo. He was made adjutant-gen- 
eral with the rank of a colonel, in March, 

1 8 1 3, and the same month attained the colo- 
nelcy of his regiment. He participated in 
the principal battles of the war and was 
wounded many times, and at the close of 
the war he was voted a gold medal by con- 
gress for his services. He was a writer of 
considerable merit on military topics, and 
he gave to the military science, "General 
Regulations of the Army " and " System of 
Infantry and Rifle Practice." He took a 
prominent part in the Black Hawk war, 
and at the beginning of the Mexican war he 
was appointed to take the command of the 
army. Gen. Scott immediately assembled 
his troops at Lobos Island from which he 
moved by transports to Vera Cruz, which 
he took March 29, 1847, and rapidly fol- 
lowed up his first success. He fought the 
battles of Cerro Gordo and Jalapa, both of 
which he won, and proceeded to Pueblo 



where he was preceded by Worth's division 
which had taken the town and waited for the 
coming of Scott. The army was forced to 
wait here for supplies, and August 7th, 
General Scott started on his victorious 
march to the city of Mexico with ten thou- 
sand, seven hundred and thirty-eight men. 
The battles of Contreras, Cherubusco and 
San Antonio were fought August 19-20, 
and on the 24th an armistice was agreed 
upon, but as the commissioners could not 
agree on the terms of settlement, the fight- 
ing was renewed at Molino Del Rey, and 
the Heights of Chapultepec were carried 
by the victorious army of General Scott. 
He gave the enemy no respite, however, 
and vigorously followed up his advantages. 
On September 14, he entered the City of 
Mexico and dictated the terms of surrender 
in the very heart of the Mexican Republic. 
General Scott was offered the presidency of 
the Mexican Republic, but declined. Con- 
gress extended him a vote of thanks and 
ordered a gold medal be struck in honor of 
his generalship and bravery. He was can- 
didate for the presidency on the Whig plat 
form but was defeated. He was honored by 
having the title cf lieutenant-general con- 
ferred upon him in 1 85 5 . At the beginning of 
the Civil war he was too infirm to take charge 
of the army, but did signal service in be- 
half of the government. He retired from 
the service November 1, 1861, and in 1864. 
he published his "Autobiography." Gen- 
eral Scott died at West Point, May 29, 1866 



EDWARD EVERETT HALE for many 
years occupied a high place among the 
most honored of America's citizens. As 
a preacher he ranks among the foremost 
in the New England states, but to the gen- 
eral public he is best known through his 
writings. Born in Boston, Mass., April 3, 



so 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



{822, a descendant of one of the most 
prominent New England families, he enjoyed 
in his youth many of the advantages denied 
the majority of boys. He received his pre- 
paratory schooling at the Boston Latin 
School, after which he finished his studies at 
Harvard where he was graduated with high 
honors in 1839. Having studied theology 
at home, Mr. Hale embraced the ministry 
and in 1846 became pastor of a Unitarian 
church in Worcester, Massachusetts, a post 
which he occupied about ten years. He 
then, in 1856, became pastor of the South 
Congregational church in Boston, over which 
he presided many years. 

Mr. Hale also found time to write a 
great many literary works of a high class. 
Among many other well-known productions 
?f his are " The Rosary," " Margaret Per- 
:ival in America," "Sketches of Christian 
iistory," "Kansas and Nebraska," "Let- 
ters on Irish Emigration," " Ninety Days' 
Worth of Europe," " If, Yes, and Perhaps," 
; Tngham Papers," "Reformation," "Level 
Sest and Other Stories, " ' ' Ups and Downs, " 
"Christmas Eve and Christmas Day," " In 
His Name," "Our New Crusade," "Work- 
ingmen's Homes," " Boys' Heroes," etc., 
etc., besides many others which might be 
mentioned. One of his works, " In His 
Name," has earned itself enduring fame by 
the good deeds it has called forth. The 
numerous associations known as ' 'The King's 
Daughters," which has accomplished much 
good, owe their existence to the story men- 
tioned. 

DAVID GLASCOE FARRAGUT stands 
pre-eminent as one of the greatest na- 
val officers of the world. He was born at 
Campbell's Station, East Tennessee, July 
5, 1801, and entered the navy of the United 
States as a midshipman. He had the good 



fortune to serve under Captain David Por- 
ter, who commanded the " Essex," and by 
whom he was taught the ideas of devotion 
to duty from which he never swerved dur- 
ing all his career. In 1823 Mr. Farragut 
took part in a severe fight, the result of 
which was the suppression of piracy in the 
West Indies. He then entered upon the 
regular duties of his profession which was 
only broken into by a year's residence with 
Charles Folsom, our consul at Tunis, who 
was afterwards a distinguished professor at 
Harvard. Mr. Farragut was one of the best 
linguists in the navy. He had risen through 
the different grades of the service until the 
war of 1861-65 found him a captain resid- 
ing at Norfolk, Virginia. He removed with 
his family to Hastings, on the Hudson, and 
hastened to offer his services to the Federal 
government, and as the capture of New 
Orleans had been resolved upon, Farragut 
was chosen to command the expedition. 
His force consisted of the West Gulf block- 
ading squadron and Porter's mortar flotilla. 
In January, 1S62, he hoisted his pennant at 
the mizzen peak of the "Hartford" at 
Hampton roads, set sail from thence on the 
3rd of February and reached Ship Island on 
the 20th of the same month. A council of 
war was held on the 20th of April, in which 
it was decided that whatever was to be done 
must be done quickly. The signal was made 
from the flagship and accordingly the fleet 
weighed anchor at 1:55 on the morning of 
April 24th, and at 3 130 the whole force was 
under way. The history of this brilliant strug- 
gle is well known, and the glory ofit madeFar- 
ragut a hero and also made him rear admir- 
al. In the summer of 1 862 he ran the batteries 
at Vicksburg, and on March 14, 1863, he 
passed through the fearful and destructive 
fire from Port Hudson, and opened up com- 
munication with Flag-officer Porter, who 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



&n 



had control of the upper Mississippi. On 
May 24th he commenced active operations 
against that fort in conjunction with the army 
and it fell on July 9th. Mr. Farragut filled 
the measure of his fame on the 5th of Au- 
gust, 1864, by his great victory, the capture 
of Mobile Bay and the destruction of the 
Confederate fleet, including the formidable 
ram Tennessee. For this victory the rank 
of admiral was given to Mr. Farragut. He 
died at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Au- 
gust 4, 1870. 

GEORGE W. CHILDS, a philanthropist 
whose remarkable personality stood 
for the best and highest type of American 
citizenship, and whose whole life was an 
object lesson in noble living, was born in 
1829 at Baltimore, Maryland, of humble 
parents, and spent his early life in unremit- 
ting toil. He was a self-made man in the 
fullest sense of the word, and gained his 
great wealth by his own efforts. He was a 
man of very great influence, and this, in 
conjunction with his wealth, would have 
been, in the hands of other men, a means of 
getting them political preferment, but Mr. 
Childs steadily declined any suggestions that 
would bring him to figure prominently in 
public affairs. He did not choose to found 
a financial dynasty, but devoted all his 
powers to the helping of others, with the 
most enlightened beneficence and broadest 
sympathy. Mr. Childs once remarked that 
his greatest pleasure in life was in doing 
good to others. He always despised mean- 
ness, and one of his objects of life was to 
prove that a man could be liberal and suc- 
cessful at the same time. Upon these lines 
Mr. Childs made a name for himself as the 
director of one of the representative news- 
papers of America, "The Philadelphia Pub- 
lic Ledger," which was owned jointly by 
5 



himself and the Drexel estate, and which he 
edited for thirty years. He acquired con- 
trol of the paper at a time when it was be- 
ing published at a heavy loss, set it upon a 
firm basis of prosperity, and he made it 
more than a money- making machine — he 
made it respected as an exponent of the 
best side of journalism, and it stands as a 
monument to his sound judgment and up- 
right business principles. Mr. Childs' char- 
itable repute brought him many applications 
for assistance, and he never refused to help 
any one that was deserving of aid; and not 
only did he help those who asked, but he 
would by careful inquiry find those who 
needed aid but were too proud to solicit it. 
He was a considerable employer of labor 
and his liberality was almost unparalleled. 
The death of this great and good man oc- 
curred February 3d, 1894. 



PATRICK HENRY won his way to un 
dying fame in the annals of the early 
history of the United States by introducing 
into the house of burgesses his famous reso- 
lution against the Stamp Act, which he car- 
ried through, after a stormy debate, by a 
majority of one. At this time he exclaimed 
" Caesar had his Brutus, Charles I his Crom- 
well and George III " (here he was inter- 
rupted by cries of " treason ") " may profit 
by their example. If this be treason make 
the most of it." 

Patrick Henry was born at Studley, 
Hanover county, Virginia, May 29, 1736, 
and was a son of Colonel John Henry, a 
magistrate and school teacher of Aberdeen, 
Scotland, and a nephew of Robertson, the 
historian. He received his education from 
his father, and was married at the age of 
eighteen. He was twice bankrupted before 
he had reached his twenty-fourth year, when 
after six weeks of study he was admitted to 



8-4 



COMPEXDICM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



the bar. He worked for three years with- 
out a case and finally was applauded for his 
plea lor the people's rights and gained im- 
mense popularity. After his famous Stamp 
Act resolution he was the leader of the pa- 
triots in Virginia. In 1769 he was admitted 
to practice in the general courts and speed- 
ily won a fortune by his distinguished ability 
as a speaker. He was the first speaker of 
the General Congress at Philadelphia in 
1774. He was for a time a colonel of 
militia in 1775, and from 1776 to 1779 and 
1 78 1 to 1786 he was governor of Virginia. 
For a number of years he retired from pub- 
lic life and was tendered and declined a 
number of important political offices, and in 
March, 1789, he was elected state senator 
but aid not take his seat on account of his 
death which occurred at Red Hill, Charlotte 
county, Virginia, June 6, 1799. 



BENEDICT ARNOLD, an American 
general and traitor of the Revolution- 
ary war, is one of the noted characters in 
American history. He was born in Nor- 
wich, Connecticut, January 3, 1740. He 
ran away and enlisted in the army when 
young, but deserted in a short time. He 
then became a merchant at New Haven, 
Connecticut, but failed. In 1775 he was 
commissioned colonel in the Massachusetts 
militia, and in the autumn of that year was 
placed in command of one thousand men 
for the invasion of Canada. He marched 
his army through the forests of Maine and 
joined General Montgomery before Quebec. 
Their combined forces attacked that city on 
December 31, 1775, and Montgomery was 
killed, and Arnold, severely wounded, was 
compelled to retreat and endure a rigorous 
winter a few miles from the city, where they 
were at the mercy of the Canadian troops 
had they cared to attack them. On his re- 



turn he was raised to the rank of brigadier- 
general. He was given command of a small 
flotilla on Lake Champlain, with which he 
encountered an immense force, and though 
defeated, performed many deeds of valor. 
He resented the action of congress in pro- 
moting a number of his fellow officers and 
neglecting himself. In 1777 he was made 
major-general, and under General Gates at 
Bemis Heights fought valiantly. For some 
reason General Gates found fault with his 
conduct and ordered him under arrest, and 
he was kept in his tent until the battle of 
Stillwater was waxing hot, when Arnold 
mounted his horse and rode to the front of 
his old troop, gave command to charge, and 
rode like a mad man into the thickest of 
the fight and was not overtaken by Gates' 
courier until he had routed the enemy and 
fell wounded. Upon his recovery he was 
made general, and was placed in command 
at Philadelphia. Here he married, and his 
acts of rapacity soon resulted in a court- 
martial. He was sentenced to be repri- 
manded by the commander-in-chief, and 
though Washington performed this duty 
with utmost delicacy and consideration, it 
was never forgiven. Arnold obtained com- 
mand at West Point, the most important 
post held by the Americans, in 1780, and 
immediately offered to surrender it to Sir 
Henry Clinton, British commander at New 
York. Major Andre was sent to arrange 
details with Arnold, but on his return trip 
to New York he was captured by Americans, 
the plot was detected, and Andre suffered 
the death penalty as a spy. Arnold es- 
caped, and was paid about $40,000 by the 
British for his treason and was made briga- 
dier-general. He afterward commanded an 
expedition that plundered a portion of Vir- 
ginia, and another that burned New Lon- 
don, Connecticut, and captured Fort Trum- 



COMPEXniL'M OF BIOGRAPHY. 



B5 



bull, the commandant of which Arnold mur- 
dered with the sword he had just surren- 
dered. He passed the latter part of his life 
in England, universally despised, and died 
in London June 14, 1S01. 



ROBERT G. INGERSOLL, one of the 
most brilliant orators that America has 
produced, also a lawyer of considerable 
merit, won most of his fame as a lecturer. 
Mr. Ingersoll was born August 24, 1833, 
at Dryden, Gates county, New York, and 
received hiseducation in the common schools. 
He went west at the age of twelve, and for 
a short time he attended an academy in 
Tennessee, and also taught school in that 
state. He began the practice of law in the 
southern part of Illinois in 1854. Colonel 
Ingcrsoll's principal fame was made in 
the lecture room by his lectures in which he 
ridiculed religious faith and creeds and criti- 
cised the Bible and the Christian religion. 
He was the orator of the day in the Decora- 
tion Day celebration in the city of New York 
in 1 8S2 and his oration was widely com- 
mended. He first attracted political notice 
in the convention at Cincinnati in 1876 by 
his brilliant eulogy on James G. Blaine. He 
practiced law in Peoria, Illinois, for a num- 
ber of ) ears, but later located in the city of 
New York. He published the follow- 
ing: "The Gods and other Lectures;" "The 
Ghosts;" "Some Mistakes of Moses;" 
'•What Shall I Do To Be Saved;" "Inter- 
views on Talmage and Presbyterian Cate- 
chism ;" The " North American Review 
Controversy;" "Prose Poems;" "A Vision 
of War ;" etc. 



JOSEPH ECCLESTON JOHNSTON, 
a noted general in the Confederate army, 
was born in Prince Edward county, Virginia, 
in 1807. He graduated from West Point 



and entered the army in 1829. For a num- 
ber of years his chief service was garrison 
duty. He saw active service, however, in 
the Seminole war in Florida, part of the 
time as a staff officer of General Scott. He 
resigned his commission in 1837, but re- 
turned to the army a year later, and was 
brevetted captain for gallant services in 
Florida. He was made first lieutenant of 
topographical engineers, and was engaged 
in river and harbor improvements and also 
in the survey of the Texas boundary and 
the northern boundary of the United 
States until the beginning of the war 
with Mexico. He was at the siege of Vera 
Cruz, and at the battle of Cerro Gordo was 
wounded while reconnoitering the enemy's 
position, after which he was brevetted major 
and colonel. He was in all the battles about 
the city of Mexico, and was again wounded 
in the final assault upon that city. After 
the Mexican war closed he returned to duty 
as captain of topographical engineers, but 
in 1855 he was made lieutenant-colonel of 
cavalry and did frontier duty, and was ap- 
pointed inspector-general of the expedition 
to Utah. In i860 he was appointed quar- 
termaster-general with rank of brigadier- 
general. At the outbreak of hostilities in 
1 861 he resigned his commission and re- 
ceived the appointment of major-general of 
the Confederate army. He held Harper's 
Ferry, and later fought General Patterson 
about Winchester. At the battle of Bull 
Run he declined command in favor of Beau- 
regard, and acted under that general's direc- 
tions. He commanded the Confederates in 
the famous Peninsular campaign, and was 
severely wounded at Fair Oaks and was 
succeeded in command by General Lee. 
Upon his recovery he was made lieutenant- 
general and assigned to the command of the 
southwestern department. He attempted 



5fi 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY, 



to raise the siege of Vicksburg, and was 
finally defeated at Jackson, Mississippi. 
Having been made a general he succeeded 
General Bragg in command of the army of 
Tennessee and was ordered to check General 
Sherman's advance upon Atlanta. Not 
daring to risk a battle with the overwhelm- 
ing forces of Sherman, he slowly retreated 
toward Atlanta, and was relieved of com- 
mand by Fresident Davis and succeeded by 
General Hood. Hood utterly destroyed his 
own army by three furious attacks upon 
Sherman. Johnston was restored to com- 
mand in the Carolinas, and again faced 
Sherman, but was defeated in several en- 
gagements and continued a slow retreat 
toward Richmond. Hearing of Lee's sur- 
render, he communicated with General 
Sherman, and finally surrendered his army 
at Durham, North Carolina, April 26, 1865. 
General Johnston was elected a member 
of the forty-sixth congress and was ap- 
pointed United States railroad commis- 
sioner in 1885. His death occurred March 

21, 1891. 

SAMUEL LANGHORNE CLEMENS, 
known throughout the civilized world 
as "Mark Twain," is recognized as one of 
the greatest humorists America has pro- 
duced. He was born in Monroe county, 
Missouri, November 30, 1835. Hespenthis 
boyhood days in his native state and many 
of his earlier experiences are related in vari- 
ous forms in his later writings. One of his 
early acquaintances, Capt. Isaiah Sellers, 
at an early day furnished river news for the 
New Orleans " Picayune," using the noni- 
de-plume of "Mark Twain." Sellers died 
in 1863 and Clemens took up his nont-de- 
plume and made it famous throughout the 
world by his literary work. In 1862 Mr. 
Clemens became a journalist at Virginia, 



Nevada, and afterward followed the same pro- 
fession at San Francisco and Buffalo, New 
York. He accumulated a fortune from the 
sale of his many publications, but in later 
years engaged in business enterprises, partic- 
ularly the manufacture of a typesetting ma- 
chine, which dissipated his fortune and re- 
duced him almost to poverty, but with resolute 
heart he at once again took up his pen and 
engaged in literary work in the effort to 
regain his lost ground. Among the best 
known of his works may be mentioned the fol- 
lowing: ' ' The Jumping Frog, " ' ' Tom Saw- 
yer," " Roughingit," " Innocents Abroad," 
"Huckleberry Finn," "Gilded Age," 
"Prince and Pauper," "Million Pound 
Bank Note," "A Yankee in King Arthur's 
Court," etc. 

CHRISTOPHER CARSON, better 
known as "Kit Carson;" was an Amer- 
ican trapper and scout who gained a wide 
reputation for his frontier work. He was a 
native of Kentucky, born December 24th, 
1809. He grew to manhood there, devel- 
oping a natural inclination for adventure in 
the pioneer experiences in his native state. 
When yet a young man he became quite 
well known on the frontier. He served as 
a guide to Gen. Fremont in his Rocky 
Mountain explorations and enlisted in the 
army. He was an officer in the United 
States service in both the Mexican war and 
the great Civil war, and in the latter received 
a brevet of brigadier-general for meritorious 
service. His death occurred May 23, 
1868. 

JOHN SHERMAN.— Statesman, politi- 
cian, cabinet officer and senator, the name 
of the gentleman who heads this sketch is al- 
most a household word throughout this 
country. Identified with some of the most 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



87 



impoitant measures adopted by our Govern- 
ment since the close of the Civil war, he may 
well be called one of the leading men of his 
day. 

John Sherman was born at Lancaster, 
Fairfield county, Ohio, May ioth, 1823, 
the son of Charles R. Sherman, an emi- 
nent lawyer and judge of the supreme court 
of Ohio and who died in 1829. The subject 
of this article received an academic educa- 
tion and was admitted to the bar in 1844. 
In the Whig conventions of 1844 and 1848 
he sat as a delegate. He was a member of 
the National house of representatives, 
from 1S55 to 1 86 1. In 1 S60 he was re- 
elected to the same position but was chosen 
United States senator before he took his 
scat in the lower house. He was re-elected 
senator in 1S66 and 1872 and was long 
chairman of the committee on finance and 
on agriculture. He took a prominent part 
in debates on finance and on the conduct of 
the war, and was one of the authors of the 
reconstruction measures in 1866 and 1S67, 
and was appointed secretary of the treas- 
ury March 7th, 1877. 

Mr. Sherman was re-elected United States 
senator from Ohio January iSth, 1881, and 
again in 1S86 and 1892, during which time 
he was regarded as one of the most promi- 
nent leaders of the Republican party, both 
in the senate and in the country. He was 
several times the favorite of his state for the 
nomination for president. 

On the formation of his cabinet in March, 
1897, President McKinley tendered the posi- 
tion of secretary of state to Mr. Sherman, 
which was accepted. 



WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON, ninth 
president of the United States, was 
born in Charles county, Virginia, February 
9: J 773. Irie son of Governor Benjamin 



Harrison. He took a course in Hampden- 
Sidney College with a view to the practice 
of medicine, and then went to Philadelphia 
to study under Dr. Rush, but in 1 79 1 he 
entered the army, and obtained the commis- 
sion of ensign, was soon promoted to the 
lieutenancy, and was with General Wayne 
in his war against the Indians. For his 
valuable service he was promoted to the 
rank of captain and given command of Fort 
Washington, now Cincinnati. He was ap- 
pointed secretary of the Northwest Territory 
in 1797, and in 1799 became its representa- 
tive in congress. In 1801 he was appointed 
governor of Indiana Territory, and held the 
position for twelve years, during which time 
he negotiated important treaties with the In- 
dians, causing them to relinquish millions of 
acres of land, and also won the battle of 
Tippecanoe in 181 1. He succeeded in 
obtaining a 1 change in the law which did not 
permit purchase of public lands in less tracts 
than four thousand acres, reducing the limit 
to three hundred and twenty acres. He 
became major-general of Kentucky militia 
and brigadier-general in the United States 
army in 18 12, and won great renown in 
the defense of Fort Meigs, and his victory 
over the British and Indians under Proctor 
and Tecumseh at the Thames river, October 
5, 18 1 3. 

In 1 8 16 General Harrison was elected to 
congress from Ohio, and during the canvass 
was accused of corrupt methods in regard tc 
the commissariat of the army. He demanded 
an investigation after the election and was 
exonerated. In 1S19 he was elected to 
the Ohio state senate, and in 1824 he gave 
his vote as a presidential elector to Henry 
Clay. He became a member of the United 
States senate the same year. During the 
last year of Adams' administration he was 
sent as minister to Colombia, but was re- 



^ 



COMPEXniUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



called by President Jackson the following 
year. He then retired to his estate at North 
Bend, Ohio, a few miles below Cincinnati. In 
1836 he was a candidate for the presidency, 
but as there were three other candidates 
the votes were divided, he receiving seventy- 
three electoral votes, a majority going to 
Mr. Van Buren, the Democratic candidate. 
Four years later General Harrison was again 
nominated by the Whigs, and elected by a 
tremendous majority. The campaign was 
noted for its novel features, many of which 
have found a permanent place in subsequent 
campaigns. Those peculiar to that cam- 
paign, however, were the " log-cabin " and 
"hard cider" watchwords, which produced 
great enthusiasm among his followers. One 
month after his inauguration he died from 
an attack of pleurisy, April 4, 1841. 



CHARLES A. DANA, the well-known 
and widely-read journalist of New York 
City, a native of Hinsdale, New Hampshire, 
was born August 8, 18 19. He received 
the elements of a good education in his 
youth and studied for two years at Harvard 
University. Owing to some disease of the 
eyes he was unable to complete his course 
and graduate, but was granted the degree of 
A. M. notwithstanding. For some time he 
was editor of the " Harbinger," and was a 
regular contributor to the Boston " Chrono- 
type." In 1847 he became connected with 
the New York ' ' Tribune, " and continued on 
the staff of that journal until 1858. In the 
latter year he edited and compiled "The 
Household Book of Poetry," and later, in 
connection with George Ripley, edited the 
"New American Cyclopaedia." 

Mr. Dana, on severing his connection 
with the " Tribune " in 1867, became editor 
of the New York "Sun," a paper with 
which he was identified for many years, and 



which he made one of the leaders of thought 
in the eastern part of the United States. 
He wielded a forceful pen and fearlessly 
attacked whatever was corrupt and unworthy 
in politics, state or national. The same 
year, 1867, Mr. Dana organized the New 
York " Sun " Company. 

During the troublous days of the war, 
when the fate of the Nation depended upon 
the armies in the field, Mr. Dana accepted 
the arduous and responsible position of 
assistant secretary of war, and held the 
position during the greater part of 1863 
and 1864. He died October 17, 1897. 



ASA GRAY was recognized throughout the 
scientific world as one of the ablest 
and most eminent of botanists. He was 
born at Paris, Oneida county, New York, 
November 18, 18 10. He received his medi- 
cal degree at the Fairfield College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons, in Herkimer county, 
New York, and studied botany with the late 
Professor Torrey, of New York. He was 
appointed botanist to the Wilkes expedition 
in 1834, but declined the offer and became 
professor of natural history in Harvard Uni- 
versity in 1S42. He retired from the active 
duties of this post in 1S73, and in 1874 he 
was the regent of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion at Washington, District of Columbia. 
Dr. Gray wrote several books on the sub- 
ject of the many sciences of which he was 
master. In 1836 he published his "Ele- 
ments of Botany," "Manual of Botany" in 
1S48; the unfinished "Flora of North 
America," by himself and Dr. Torrey, the 
publication of which commenced in 1S3S. 
There is another of his unfinished works 
called "Genera Boreaii-x^mericana, " pub- 
lished in 184S, and the "Botany of the 
United States Pacific Exploring Expedition 
in 1S54." He wrote many elaborate papers 



COM!' li.Xni I'M OF lilOGRAPlir. 



89 



on the botany of the west and southwest 
that were published in the Smithsonian Con- 
tributions, Memoirs, etc., of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, of which in- 
stitution he was president for ten years. 
He was also the author of many of the 
government reports. ' ' How Plants Grow, " 
"Lessons in Botany," " Structural and Sys- 
tematic Botany," are also works from his 
ready pen. 

Dr. Gray published in 1861 his "Free 
Examination of Darwin's Treatise" and his 
" Darwiniana," in 1876. Mr. Gray was 
elected July 29, 1878, to a membership in 
the Instituteof France, Academy of Sciences. 
His death occurred at Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, January 30, 1889. 



WILLIAM MAXWELL EVARTS was 
one of the greatest leaders of the 
American bar. He was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, February 6, 1818, and grad- 
uated from Yale College in 1837. He took 
up the study of law, which he practiced in 
the city of New York and won great renown 
as an orator and advocate. He affiliated 
with the Republican party, which he joined 
soon after its organization. He was the 
leading counsel employed for the defense of 
President Johnson in his trial for impeach- 
ment before the senate in April and May of 
1868. 

In July, 1868, Mr. Evarts was appointed 
attorney-general of the United States, and 
served until March 4, 1869. He was one 
of the three lawyers who were selected by 
President Grant in 1871 to defend the inter- 
ests of the citizens of the United States be- 
fore the tribunal of arbitration which met 
at Geneva in Switzerland to settle the con- 
troversy over the " Alabama Claims." 

He was one of the most eloquent advo- 
cates in the United States, and many of his 



public addresses have been preserved and 
published. He was appointed secretary of 
state March 7, 1S77, by President Hayes, 
and served during the Hayes administration. 
He was elected senator from the state of 
New York January 21, 1885, and at once 
took rank among the ablest statesmen in 
Congress, and the prominent part he took 
in the discussion of public questions gave 
him a national reputation. 



I 



OHN WANAMAKER.— The life of this 
kJ great merchant demonstrates . the fact 
that the great secret of rising from the ranks 
is, to-day, as in the past ages, not so much the 
ability to make money, as to save it, or in 
other words, the ability to live well within 
one's income. Mr. Wanamaker was born in 
Philadelphia in 1838. He started out in 
life working in a brickyard for a mere pit- 
tance, and left that position to work in a 
book store as a clerk, where he earned 
the sum of $5.00 per month, and later on 
was in the employ of a clothier where he 
received twenty-five cents a week more. 
He was only fifteen years of age at that 
time, but was a " money-getter" by instinct, 
and laid by a small sum for a possible rainy 
day. By strict attention to business, com- 
bined with natural ability, he was promoted 
many times, and at the age of twenty he 
had saved $2,000. After several months 
vacation in the south, he returned to Phila- 
delphia and became a master brick mason, 
but this was too tiresome to the young man, 
and he opened up the " Oak Hall " clothing 
store in April, 1861, at Philadelphia. The 
capital of the firm was rather limited, but 
finally, after many discouragements, they 
laid the foundations of one of the largest 
business houses in the world. The estab- 
lishment covers at the present writing some 
fourteen acres of floor space, and furnishes 



«J0 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



employment for five thousand persons. Mr. 
Wanamaker was also a great church worker, 
and built a church that cost him $60,000, 
and he was superintendent of the Sunday- 
school, which had a membership of over 
three thousand children. He steadily re- 
fused to run for mayor or congress and the 
only public office that he ever held was that 
of postmaster-general, under the Harrison 
administration, and here he exhibited his 
extraordinary aptitude for comprehending 
the details of public business. 



DAVID BENNETT HILL, a Demo- 
cratic politician who gained a na- 
tional reputation, was born August 29, 
j 843, at Havana, New York. He was 
educated at the academy of his native town, 
and removed to Elmira, New York, in 1862, 
where he studied law. He was admitted to 
the bar in 1864, in which year he was ap- 
pointed city attorney. Mr. Hill soon gained 
a considerable practice, becoming prominent 
in his profession. He developed a taste for 
politics in which he began to take an active 
part in the different campaigns and became 
the recognized leader of the local Democ- 
racy. In 1S70 he was elected a member of 
the assembly and was re-elected in 1872. 
While a member of this assembly he formed 
the acquaintance of Samuel J. Tilden, after- 
ward governor of the state, who appointed 
Mr. Hill, W. M. Evarts and Judge Hand 
as a committee to provide a uniform charter 
for the different cities of the state. The 
pressure of professional engagements com- 
pelled him to decline to serve. In 1877 
Mr. Hill was made chairman of the Demo- 
cratic state convention at Albany, his elec- 
tion being due to the Tilden wing of the 
party, and he he'd the same position again 
in 1SS1. He served one term as alderman 
in Eimira, at the expiration of which term, 



in 1882, he was elected mayor of Elmira, 
and in September of the same year was 
nominated for lieutenant-governor on the 
Democratic state ticket. He was success- 
ful in the campaign and two years later, 
when Grover Cleveland was elected to the 
presidency, Mr. Hill succeeded to the gov- 
ernorship for the unexpired term. In 1885 
he was elected governor for a full term of 
three years, at the end of which he was re- 
elected, his term expiring in 1891, in which 
year he was elected United States senator. 
In the senate he became a conspicuous 
figure and gained a national reputation. 



ALLEN G. THURMAN. — " The noblest 
Roman of them all " was the title by 
which Mr. Thurman was called by his com- 
patriots of the Democracy. He was the 
greatest leader of the Democratic party in 
his day and held the esteem of all the 
people, regardless of their political creeds. 
Mr. Thurman was born November 13, 18 13, 
at Lynchburg, Virginia, where he remained 
until he had attained the age of six years, 
when he moved to Ohio. He received an 
academic education and after graduating, 
took up the study of law, was admitted to 
the bar in 1835, and achieved a brilliant 
success in that line. In political life he was 
very successful, and his first office was that 
of representative of the state of Ohio in the 
twenty-ninth congress. He was elected 
judge of the supreme court of Ohio in 1851, 
and was chief justice of the same from 1854 
to 1856. In 1867 he was the choice of the 
Democratic party of his state for governor, 
and was elected to the United States senate 
in 1869 to succeed Benjamin F. Wade, 
and was re-elected to the same position in 
1874. He was a prominent figure in the 
senate, until the expiration of his service in 
1 88 1. Mr. Thurman was also one of the 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPI1T. 



91 



principal presidental possibilities in the 
Democratic convention held at St. Louis in 
1876. In 1888 he was the Democratic 
nominee for vice-president on the ticket 
with Grover Cleveland, but was defeated. 
Allen Granberry Thurman died December 
12, 1895, a t Columbus, Ohio. 



CHARLES FARRAR BROWNE, better 
known as " Artemus Ward," was born 
April 26, 1834, in the village of Waterford, 
Maine. He was thirteen years old at the 
time of his father's death, and about a year 
later he was apprenticed to John M. Rix, 
who published the "Coos County Dem- 
ocrat " at Lancaster, New Hampshire. Mr. 
Browne remained with him one year, when, 
hearing that his brother Cyrus was starting 
a paper at Norway, Maine, he left Mr. Rix 
and determined to get work on the new 
paper. He worked for his brother until the 
failure of the newspaper, and then went to 
Augusta, Maine, where he remained a few 
weeks and then removed to Skowhegan, 
and secured a position on the "Clarion." 
But either the climate or the work was not 
satisfactory to him, for one night he silently 
left the town and astonished his good mother 
by appearing unexpectedly at home. Mr. 
Browne then received some letters of recom- 
mendation to Messrs. Snow and Wilder, of 
Boston, at whose office Mrs. Partington's 
(B. P. Shillaber) " Carpet Bag " was printed, 
and he was engaged and remained there for 
three years. He then traveled westward in 
search of employment and got as far as Tif- 
fin, Ohio, where he found employment in the 
office of the "Advertiser," and remained 
there some months when he proceeded to 
Toledo, Ohio, where he became one of the 
staff of the "Commercial," which position 
he held until 1S57. Mr. Browne next went 
co Cleveland, Ohio, and became the local 



editor of the "Plain Dealer," and it was in 
the columns of this paper that he published 
his first articles and signed them " Artemus 
Ward." In i860 he went to New York and 
became the editor of " Vanity Fair," but 
the idea of lecturing here seized him, and he 
was fully determined to make the trial. 
Mr. Browne brought out his lecture, "Babes 
in the Woods " at Clinton Hall, December 
23, 1 861, and in 1862 he published his first 
book entitled, " Artemus Ward; His Book." 
He attained great fame as a lecturer and his 
lectures were not confined to America, for. 
he went to England in 1866, and became 
exceedingly popular, both as a lecturer and 
a contributor to "Punch." Mr. Browne 
lectured for the last time January 23, 1867. 
He died in Southampton, England, March 
6, 1867. 

THURLOW WEED, a noted journalist 
and politician, was born in Cairo, New 
York, November 15, 1797. He learned the 
printer's trade at the age of twelve years, 
and worked at this calling for several years 
in various villages in central New York. He 
served as quartermaster-sergeant during the 
war of 18 12. In 1818 he established the 
"Agriculturist," at Norwich, New York, 
and became editor of the "Anti-Masonic 
Enquirer," at Rochester, in 1826. In the 
same year he was elected to the legislature 
and re-elected in 1830, when he located in 
Albany, New York, and there started the 
" Evening Journal," and conducted it in op- 
position to the Jackson administration and 
the nullification doctrines of Calhoun. He 
became an adroit party manager, and was 
instrumental in promoting the nominations 
of Harrison, Taylor and Scott for the pres- 
idency. In 1856 and in i860 he threw his 
support to W. H. Seward, but when defeat- 
ed in his object, he gave cordial support to 



92 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



Fremont and Lincoln. Mr. Lincoln pre- 
veiled upon him to visit the various capitals 
of Europe, where he proved a valuable aid 
tc the administration in moulding the opin- 
ions of the statesmen of that continent 
favorable to the cause of the Union. 

Mr. Weed's connection with the ' ' Even- 
ing Journal " was severed in 1862, when he 
settled in New York, and for a time edited 
the "Commercial Advertiser." In 1868 he 
retired from active life. His " Letters from 
Europe and the West Indies," published in 
1866, together with some interesting " Rem- 
iniscences," published in the "Atlantic 
Monthly," in 1870, an autobiography, and 
portions of an extensive correspondence will 
be of great value to writers of the political 
history of the United States. Mr. Weed 
died in New York, November 22, 1882. 



WILLIAM COLLINS WHITNEY, 
one of the prominent Democratic 
politicians of the country and ex-secretary of 
the navy, was born July 5th, 1841, at Con- 
way, Massachusetts, and received his edu- 
cation at Williston Seminary, East Hamp- 
ton, Massachusetts. Later he attended 
Yale College, where he graduated in 1863, 
and entered the Harvard Law School, which 
he left in 1864. Beginning practice in New 
York city, he soon gained a reputation as 
an able lawyer. He made his first appear- 
ance in public affairs in 1871, when he was 
active in organizing a young men's Demo- 
cratic club. In 1872 he was the recognized 
leader of the county Democracy and in 1875 
was appointed corporation counsel for the 
city of New York. He resigned the office, 
1882, to attend to personal interests and on 
March 5, 1885, he was appointed secretary 
of the navy by President Cleveland. Under 
his administration the navy of the United 
States rapidly rose in rank among the navies 



of the world. When he retired from office 
in 1889, the vessels of the United States 
navy designed and contracted for by him 
were five double-turreted monitors, two 
new armor-clads, the dynamite cruiser "Ve- 
suvius," and five unarmored steel and iron 
cruisers. 

Mr. Whitney was the leader of the 
Cleveland forces in the national Democratic 
convention of 1892. 



EDWIN FORREST, the first and great- 
est American tragedian, was born in 
Philadelphia in 1806. His father was a 
tradesman, and some accounts state that he 
had marked out a mercantile career for his 
son, Edwin, while others claim that he had 
intended him for the ministry. His wonder- 
ful memory, his powers of mimicry and his 
strong musical voice, however, attracted at- 
tention before he was eleven years old, and 
at that age he made his first appearance on 
the stage. The costume in which he appeared 
was so ridiculous that he left the stage in a 
fit of anger amid a roar of laughter from 
the audience. This did not discourage him, 
however, and at the age of fourteen, after 
some preliminary training in elocution, he 
appeared again, this time as Young Norvel, 
and gave indications of future greatness. 
Up to 1826 he played entirely with strolling 
companies through the south and west, but 
at that time he obtained an engagement at 
the Bowery Theater in New York. From 
that time his fortune was made. His man- 
ager paid him $40 per night, and it is stated 
that he loaned Forrest to other houses from 
time to time at $200 per night. His great 
successes were Virginius, Damon, Othello, 
Coriolanus, William Tell, Spartacus and 
Lear. He made his first appearance in 
London in 1836, and his success was un- 
questioned from the start. In 1845, on his 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



93 



second appearance in London, he became 
involved in a bitter rivalry with the great 
English actor, Macready, who had visited 
America two years before. The result was 
that Forrest was hissed from the stage, and 
it was charged that Macready had instigated 
the plot. Forrest's resentment was so bitter 
that he himself openly hissed Macready 
from his box a few nights later. In 1848 
Macready again visited America at a time 
when American admiration and enthusiasm 
for Forrest had reached its height. Macready 
undertook to play at Astor Place Opera 
House in May, 1849, but was hooted off the 
stage. A few nights later Macready made a 
second attempt to play at the same house, 
thistime under police protection. The house 
was filled with Macready 's friends, but the vio- 
olence of the mob outside stopped the play, 
and the actor barely escaped with his life. 
Upon reading the riot act the police and 
troops were assaulted with stones. The 
troops replied, first with blank cartridges, 
and then a volley of lead dispersed the 
mob, leaving thirty men dead or seriously 
wounded. 

After this incident Forrest's popularity 
waned, until in 1855 he retired from the 
stage. He re-appeared in i860, however, 
and probably the most remunerative period 
of his life was between that date and the 
close of the Civil war. His last appearance 
on the stage was at the Globe Theatre, 
Boston, in Richelieu, in April, 1872, his 
death occurring December 12 of that year. 



NOAH PORTER, D. D., LL. D., was 
one of the most noted educators, au- 
thors and scientific writers of the United 
States. He was born December 14, 181 1, 
at Farmington, Connecticut, graduated at 
Yale College in 1 83 1 , and was master of 
Hopkins Grammar School at New Haven in 



l8 3'-33- During 1833-35 he was a tutor 
at Yale, and at the same time was pursuing 
his theological studies, and became pastor 
of the Congregational church at New Mil- 
ford, Connecticut, in April, 1836. Dr. 
Porter removed to Springfield, Massachu- 
setts, in 1843, and was chosen professor of 
metaphysics and moral philosophy at Yale 
in 1846. He spent a year in Germany in 
the study of modern metaphysics in 1853— 
54, and in 1871 he was elected president of 
Yale College. He resigned the presidency 
in 1885, but still remained professor of met- 
aphysics and moral philosophy. He was 
the author of a number of works, among 
which are the following: " Historical Es- 
say," written in commemoration of the 200th 
aniversary of the settlement of the town of 
Farmington; " Educational System of the 
Jesuits Compared;" "The Human Intel- 
lect," with an introduction upon psychology 
and the soul; " Books and Reading;" 
'American Colleges and the American Pub- 
lic;" " Elementsof Intellectual Philosophy;" 
" The Science of Nature versus the Science 
of Man;" "Science and Sentiment;" "Ele- 
ments of Moral Science." Dr. Porter was 
the principal editor of the revised edition of 
Webster's Dictionary in 1864, and con- 
tributed largely to religious reviews and 
periodicals. Dr. Porter's death occurred 
March 4, 1892, at New Haven, Connecticut. 



JOHN TYLER, tenth president of the 
United States, was born in Charles City 
county, Virginia, March 29, 1790, and was 
the son of Judge John Tyler, one of the 
most distinguished men of his day. 

When but twelve years of age young 
John Tyler entered William and Mary Col- 
lege, graduating from there in 1806. He 
took up the study of law and was admitted 
to the bar in 1809, when but nineteen years 



94 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



of age. On attaining his majority in 1 8 1 1 
he was elected a member of the state legis- 
lature, and for five years held that position 
by the almost unanimous vote of his county. 
He was elected to congress in 1816, and 
served in that body for four years, after 
which for two years he represented his dis- 
trict again in the legislature of the state. 
While in congress, he opposed the United 
States bank, the protective policy and in- 
ternal improvements by the United States 
government. 1825 saw Mr. Tyler governor 
of Virginia, but in 1827 he was chosen 
member of the United States senate, and 
held that office for nine years. He therein 
opposed the administration of Adams and 
the tariff bill of 1828, sympathized with the 
nullifers of South Carolina and was the 
only senator who voted against the Force 
bill for the suppression of that state's insip- 
ient rebellion. He resigned his position as 
senator on account of a disagreement with 
the legislature of his state in relation to his 
censuring President Jackson. He retired to 
Williamsburg, Virginia, but being regarded 
as a martyr by the Whigs, whom, hereto- 
fore, he had always opposed, was supported 
by many of that party for the vice-presi- 
dency in 1836. He sat in the Virginia leg- 
islature as a Whig in 1839-40, and was a 
delegate to the convention of that party in 
i8.;9. This national convention nominated 
him for the second place on the ticket with 
General William H. H. Harrison, and he 
was elected vice-president in November, 
1840. President Harrison dying one month 
after his inauguration, he was succeeded by 
John Tyler. He retained the cabinet chosen 
by his predecessor, and for a time moved in 
harmony with the Whig party. He finally 
instructed the secretary of the treasury, 
Thomas Ewing, to submit to congress a bill 
for the incorporation of a fiscal bank of the 



United States, which was passed by con- 
gress, but vetoed by the president on ac- 
count of some amendments he considered 
unconstitutional. For this and other meas- 
ures he was accused of treachery to his 
party, and deserted by his whole cabinet, 
except Daniel Webster. Things grew worse 
until he was abandoned by the Whig party 
formally, when Mr. Webster resigned. He 
was nominated at Baltimore, in May, 1844, 
at the Democratic convention, as their pres- 
idential candidate, but withdrew from the 
canvass, as he saw he had not succeed- 
ed in gaining the confidence of his old 
party. He then retired from politics until 
February, 1861, when he was made presi- 
dent of the abortive peace congress, which 
met in Washington. He shortly after re- 
nounced his allegiance to the United States 
and was elected a member of the Confeder- 
ate congress. He died at Richmond, Janu- 
ary 17, 1862. 

Mr. Tyler married, in 18 13, Miss Letitia 
Christian, who died in 1842 at Washington. 
June 26, 1844, he contracted a second mar- 
riage, with Miss Julia Gardner, of New York. 



COLLIS POTTER HUNTINGTON, 
one of the great men of his time and 
who has left his impress upon the history of 
our national development, was born October 
22, 1 82 1, at Harwinton, Connecticut. 
He received a common-school education 
and at the age of fourteen his spirit of get- 
ting along in the world mastered his educa- 
tional propensities and his father's objec- 
tions and he left school. He went to Cali- 
fornia in the early days and had opportunities 
which he handled masterfully. Others had 
the same opportunities but they did not have 
his brains nor his energy, and it was he who 
overcame obstacles and reaped the reward 
of his genius. Transcontinental railways 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



95 



were inevitable, but the realization of this 
masterful achievement would have been de- 
layed to a much later day if there had been 
no Huntington. He associated himself with 
Messrs. Mark Hopkins, Leland Stanford, 
and Charles Crocker, and they furnished the 
money necessary for a survey across the 
Sierra Nevadas, secured a charter for the 
road, and raised, with thegovernment's aid, 
money enough to construct and equip that 
railway, which at the time of its completion 
was a marvel of engineering and one of the 
wonders of the world. Mr. Huntington be- 
came president of the Southern Pacific rail- 
road, vice-president of the Central Pacific; 
trustee of the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph 
Company, and a director of the Occidental 
and Oriental Steamship Company, besides 
being identified with many other business 
enterprises of vast importance. 



GEORGE A. CUSTER, a famous In- 
dian fighter, was born in Ohio in 1840. 
He graduated at West Point in 1 861 , an- 
served in the Civil war; was at Bull Run id 
1861, and was in the Peninsular campaign, 
being one of General McClellan's aides-de, 
camp. He fought in the battles of South 
Mountain and Antietam in 1863, and was 
with General Stoneman on his famous 
cavalry raid. He was engaged in the battle 
of Gettysburg, and was there made brevet- 
major. In 1S63 was appointed brigadier- 
general of volunteers. General Custer was 
in many skirmishes in central Virginia in 
1S63-64, and was present at the following 
battles of the Richmond campaign: Wil- 
derness, Todd's Tavern, Yellow Tavern, where 
he wasbrevetted lieutenant-colonel ; Meadow 
Bridge, Haw's Shop, Cold Harbor, Trevil- 
lian Station. In the Shenandoah Valley 
1 864-65 he was brevetted colonel at Opequan 
Creek, and at Cedar Creek he was made 



brevet major-general for gallant conduct 
during the engagement. General Custer 
was in command of a cavalry division in the 
pursuit of Lee's army in 1865, and fought 
at Dinwiddie Court House, Five Forks, 
where he was made brevet brigadier-general ; 
Sailors Creek and Appomattox, where he 
gained additional honors and was made 
brevet major-general, and was given the 
command of the cavalry in the military 
division of the southwest and Gulf, in 1865. 
After the establishment of peace he went 
west on frontier duty and performed gallant 
and valuable service in the troubles with the 
Indians. He was killed in the massacre on 
the Little Big Horn river, South Dakota, 
June 25, 1876. 



DANIEL WOLSEY VOORHEES, cel- 
brated as ' ' The Tall Sycamore of the 
Wabash," was born September 26, 1827, 
in Butler county, Ohio. When he was two- 
months old his parents removed to Fount- 
ain county, Indiana. He grew to manhood 
on a farm, engaged in all the arduous work 
pertaining to rural life. In 1845 he entered 
the Indiana Asbury University, now the De 
Pauw, from which he graduated in 1849. 
He took up the study of law at Crawfords- 
ville, and in 1851 began the practice of his 
profession at Covington, Fountain county, 
Indiana. He became a law partner of 
United States Senator Hannegan, of Indi- 
ana, in 1852, and in 1856 he was an unsuc- 
cessful candidate for congress. In the fol- 
lowing year he took up his residence in Terre 
Haute, Indiana. He was United States 
district attorney for Indiana from 1857 until 
1 86 1, and he had during this period been 
elected to congress, in i860. Mr. Voorhees 
was re-elected to congress in 1862 and 1S64, 
but he was unsuccessful in the election of 
1866. However, he was returned to con- 



96 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



gress in 1868, where he remained until 1874, 
having been re-elected twice. In 1877 he 
was appointed United States senator from 
Indiana to fill a vacancy caused by the death 
of O. P. Morton, and at the end of the term 
.was elected for the ensuing term, being re- 
elected in 1885 and in 1891 to the same of- 
fice. He served with distinction on many 
of the committees, and took a very prom- 
inent part in the discussion of all the im- 
portant legislation of his time. His death 
occurred in August, 189 . 



ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL, fa- 
mous as one of the inventors of the tele- 
phone, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, 
March 3rd, 1847. He received his early 
education in the high school and later he 
attended the university, and was specially 
trained to follow his grandfather's profes- 
sion, that of removing impediments of 
speech. He emigrated to the United States 
in 1872, and introduced into this country 
his father's invention of visible speech in the 
institutions for deaf-mutes. Later he was 
appointed professor of vocal physiology in 
the Boston University. He wcrked for 
many years during his leisure hours on his 
telephonic discovery, and finally perfected 
it and exhibited it publicly, before it had 
reached the high state of perfection to which 
he brought it. His first exhibition of it was 
at the Centennial Exhibition that was held 
in Philadelphia in 1876. Its success is now 
established throughout the civilized world. 
In 18S2 Prof. Bell received a diploma and 
the decoration of the Legion of Honor from 
the Academy of Sciences of France. 



WILLIAM HICKLING PRESCOTT, 
the justly celebrated historian and 
author, was a native of Salem, Massachu- 
setts, and was born May 4, 1796. He was 



the son of Judge William Prescott and the 
grandson of the hero of Bunker Hill, Colonel 
William Prescott. 

Our subject in 1808 removed with the 
family to Boston, in the schools of which 
city he received his early education. He 
entered Harvard College as a sophomore in 
181 1, having been prepared at the private 
classical college of Rev. Dr. J. S. J. Gardi- 
jner. The following year he received an in- 
ury in his left eye which made study 
through life a matter of difficulty. He 
graduated in 1814 with high "honors in the 
classics and belle lettres. He spent several 
months on the Azores Islands, and later 
visited England, France and Italy, return- 
ing home in 1817. In June, 181S, he 
founded a social and literary club at Boston 
for which he edited "The Club Room," a 
periodical doomed to but a short life. May 
4, 1820, he married Miss Susan Amory. 
He devoted several years after that event to 
a thorough study of ancient and modern 
history and literature. As the fruits of his 
labors he published several well written 
essays upon French and Italian poetry and 
romance in the " North American Review." 
January 19, 1826, he decided to take up his 
first great historical work, the " History of 
the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella." To 
this he gave the labor of ten years, publish- 
ing the same December 25, 1837. Although 
placed at the head of all American authors, 
so diffident was Prescott of his literary merit 
that although he had four copies of this 
work printed for his own convenience, he 
hesitated a long time before giving it to the 
public, and it was only by the solicitation of 
friends, especially of that talented Spanish 
scholar, George Ticknor, that he was in- 
duced to do so. Soon the volumes were 
translated into French, Italian, Dutch and 
German, and the work was recognized 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



97 



throughout the world as one of the most 
meritorious of historical compositions. In 
1843 he published the "Conquest of Mexi- 
co," and in 1847 the "Conquest of Peru." 
Two years later there came from his pen a 
volume of " Biographical and Critical Mis- 
cellanies." Going abroad in the summer of 
1850, he was received with great distinction 
in the literary circles of London, Edinburgh, 
Paris, Antwerp and Brussels. Oxford Uni- 
versity conferred the degree of D. C. L. 
upon him. In 1855 he issued two volumes 
of his "History of the Reign of Philip the 
Second," and a third in 1858. In the 
meantime he edited Robertson*s "Charles 
the Fifth," adding a history of the life of 
that monarch after his abdication. Death 
cut short his work on the remaining volumes 
of " Philip the Second," coming to him at 
Boston, Massachusetts, May 28, 1859. 



OLIVER HAZARD PERRY, a noted 
American commodore, was born in 
South Kingston, Rhode Island, August 23, 
1785. He saw his first service as a mid- 
shipman in the United States navy in April, 
1799. He cruised with his father, Captain 
Christopher Raymond Perry, in the West In- 
dies for about two years. In 1804. he was 
in the war against Tripoli, and was made 
lieutenant in 1 807. At the opening of hostili- 
ties with Great Britain in 1S12 he was given 
command of a fleet of gunboats on the At- 
lantic coast. At his request he was trans- 
ferred, a year later, to Lake Ontario, where 
he served under Commodore Chauncey, and 
took an active part in the attack on Fort 
George. He was ordered to fit out a squad- 
ron on Lake Erie, which he did, building 
most of his vessels from the forests along 
the shore, and by the summer of 1 8 1 3 he had 
a fleet of nine vessels at Presque Isle, now 
Erie, Pennsylvania September 10th he 



attacked and captured the British fleet near 
Put-in-Bay, thus clearing the lake of hostile 
ships. His famous dispatch is part of his 
fame, " We have met the enemy, and they 
are ours." He co-operated with Gen. Har- 
rison, and the success of the campaign in 
the northwest was largely due to his victory. 
The next year he was transferred to the Po- 
tomac, and assisted in the defense of Balti- 
more. After the war he was in constant 
service with the various squadrons in cruising 
in all parts of the world. He died of yellow 
fever on the Island of Trinidad, August 23, 
1 8 19. His remains were conveyed to New- 
port, and buried there, and an imposing 
obelisk was erected to his memory by the 
State of Rhode Island. A bronze statue 
was also erected in his honor, the unveiling 
taking place in 1885. 



JOHN PAUL JONES, though a native 
of Scotland, was one of America's most 
noted fighters during the Revolutionary war. 
He was born July 6, 1747. His father was 
a gardener, but the young man soon be- 
came interested in a seafaring life and at 
the age of twelve he was apprenticed to a 
sea captain engaged in the American trade. 
His first voyage landed him in Virginia, 
where he had a brother who had settled 
there several years prior. The failure of 
the captain released young Jones from his 
apprenticeship bonds, and he was engaged 
as third mate of a vessel engaged in the 
slave trade. He abandoned this trade after 
a few years, from his own sense of disgrace. 
He took passage from Jamaica for Scotland 
in 1768, and on the voyage both the captain 
and the mate died and he was compelled to 
take command of the vessel for the re- 
mainder of the voyage. He soon after 
became master of the vessel. He returned 
to Virginia about 1773 to settle up the estate 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



of his brother, and at this time added the 
name "Jones," having previously been 
known as John Paul. He settled down in 
Virginia, but when the war broke out in 
1775 he offered his services to congress and 
was appointed senior lieutenant of the flag- 
ship "Alfred," on which he hoisted the 
American flag with his own hands, the first 
vessel that had ever carried a flag of the 
new nation. He was afterward appointed 
to the command of the " Alfred," and later 
of the "Providence," in each of which ves- 
sels he did good service, as also in the 
"Ranger," to the command of which he 
was later appointed. The fight that made 
him famous, however, was that in which he 
captured the " Serapis," off the coast of 
Scotland. He was then in command of the 
"Bon Homme Richard," which had been 
fitted out for him by the French government 
and named by Jones in honor of Benjamin 
Franklin, or "Good Man Richard," Frank- 
lin being author of the publication known 
as " Poor Richard's Almanac." The fight 
between the " Richard" and the "Serapis" 
lasted three hours, all of which time the 
vessels were at close range, and most of the 
time in actual contact. Jones' vessel was 
on fire several times, and early in the en- 
gagement two of his guns bursted, rendering 
the battery useless. Also an envious officer 
of the Alliance, one of Jones' own fleet, 
opened fire upon the " Richard " at a crit- 
ical time, completely disabling the vessel. 
Jones continued the fight, in spite of coun- 
sels to surrender, and after dark the " Ser- 
apis " struck her colors, and was hastily 
boarded by Jones and his crew, while the 
"Richard" sank, bows first, after the 
wounded had been taken en board the 
"Serapis." Most of the other vessels of 
the fleet of which the " Serapis" was con- 
voy, surrendered, and were taken with the 



"Serapis" to France, where Jones was 
received with greatest honors, and the king 
presented him with an elegant sword and 
the cross of the Order of Military Merit. 
Congress gave him a vote of thanks and 
made him commander of a new ship, the 
"America," but the vessel was afterward 
given to France and Jones never saw active 
sea service again. He came to America again, 
in 1787, after the close of the war, and was 
voted a gold medal by congress. He went to 
Russia and was appointed rear-admiral and 
rendered service of value against the Turks, 
but on account of personal enmity of the fav- 
orites of the emperor he was retired on a pen- 
sion. Failing to collect this, he returned to 
France, where he died, July 18, 1792. 



THOMAS MORAN, the well-known 
painter of Rocky Mountain scenery, 
was born in Lancashire, England, in 1837. 
He came to America when a child, and 
showing artistic tastes, he was apprenticed 
to a wood engraver in Philadelphia. Three 
years later he began landscape painting, and 
his style soon began to exhibit signs of genius. 
His first works were water-colors, and 
though without an instructor he began the 
use of oils, he soon found it necessary to 
visit Europe, where he gave particular at- 
tention to the works of Turner. He joined 
the Yellowstone Park exploring expedition 
and visited the Rocky Mountains in 1871 
and again in 1873, making numerous 
sketches of the scenery. The most note- 
worthy results were his "Grand Canon of 
the Yellowstone," and " The Chasm of the 
Colorado," which were purchased by con- 
gress at $10,000 each, the first of which is 
undoubtedly the finest landscape painting 
produced in this country. Mr. Moran has 
subordinated art to nature, and the subjects 
he has chosen leave little ground for fault 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



101 



finding on that account. "The Mountain 
of the Holy Cross," "The Groves Were 
God's First Temples," " The Cliffs of Green 
River," " The Children of the Mountain," 
"The Ripening of the Leaf," and others 
have given him additional fame, and while 
they do not equal in grandeur the first 
mentioned, in many respects from an artis- 
tic standpoint they are superior. 



L ELAND STANFORD was one of the 
greatest men of the Pacific coast and 
also had a national reputation. He was 
born March 9, 1824, in Albany county, New 
York, and passed his early life on his 
father's farm. He attended the local 
schools of the county and at the age of 
twenty began the study of law. He 
entered the law office of Wheaton, Doolittle 
and Hadley, at Albany, in 1845, an( ^ a ^ ew 
years later he moved to Port Washington, 
Wisconsin, where he practiced law four 
years with moderate success. In 1852 Mr. 
Stanford determined to push further west, 
and, accordingly went to California, where 
three of his brothers were established in 
business in the mining towns. They took 
Leland into partnership, giving him charge 
of a branch stcre at Michigan Bluff, in 
Placer county. There he developed great 
business ability and four years later started 
a mercantile house of his own in San Fran- 
cisco, which soon became one of the most 
substantial houses on the coast. On the 
formation of the Republican party he inter- 
ested himself in politics, and in i860 was 
sent as a delegate to the convention that 
nominated Abraham Lincoln. In the 
autumn of 1861 he was elected, by an im- 
mense majority, governor of California. 
Prior to his election as governor he had 
been chosen president of the newly-orga- 
nized Central Pacific Railroad Company, 

6 



and after leaving the executive chair he de- 
voted all of his time to the construction of 
the Pacific end of the transcontinental rail- 
way. May 10, 1869, Mr. Stanford drove 
the last spike of the Central Pacific road, 
thus completing the route across the conti- 
nent. He was also president of the Occi- 
dental and Oriental Steamship Company. 
He had but one son, who died of typhoid 
fever, and as a monument to his child he 
founded 'the university which bears his son's 
name, Leland Stanford, Junior, University. 
Mr. Stanford gave to this university eighty- 
three thousand acres of land, the estimated 
value of which is $8,000,000, and the entire 
endowment is $20,000,000. In 18S5 Mr. 
Stanford was elected United Stales senator 
as a Republican, to succeed J. T. Farley, a 
Democrat, and was re-elected in 1S91. His 
death occurred June 20, 1894, at Palo Alto, 
California. 

STEPHEN DECATUR, a famous com- 
modore in the United States navy, was 
born in Maryland in 1779. He entered the 
naval service in 1798. In 1804, when the 
American vessel Philadelphia had been run 
aground and captured in the harbor of Trip- 
oli, Decatur, at the head of a few men, 
boarded her and burned her in the face of 
the guns from the city defenses. For this 
daring deed he was made captain. He was 
given command of the frigate United States 
at the breaking out of the war of 18 12, and 
in October of that year he captured the 
British frigate Macedonian, and was re- 
warded with a gold medal by congress. Af- 
ter the close of the war he was sent as com- 
mander of a fleet of ten vessels to chastise 
the dey of Algiers, who was preying upon 
American commerce with impunity and de- 
manding tribute and ransom for the release 
of American citizens captured. Decatur 



102 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



captured a number of Algerian vessels, and 
compelled the dey to sue for peace. He 
was noted for his daring and intrepidity, 
and his coolness in the face of danger, and 
helped to bring the United States navy into 
favor with the people and congress as a 
means of defense and offense in time of 
war. He was killed in a duel by Commo- 
dore Barron, March 12, 1820. 



TAMES KNOX POLK, the eleventh 
<J president of the United States, 1845 to 
1849, was born November 2, 1795, in Meck- 
lenburg county, North Carolina, and was 
the eldest child of a family of six sons. He 
removed with his father to the Valley of the 
Duck River, in Tennessee, in 1806. He 
attended the common schools and became 
very proficient in the lower branches of 
education, and supplemented this with 
a course in the Murfreesboro Academy, 
which he entered in 18 13 and in the autumn 
of 18 1 5 he became a student in the sopho- 
more class of the University of North Caro- 
lina, at Chapel Hill, and was graduated in 
181 8. He then spent a short time in re- 
cuperating his health and then proceeded to 
Nashville, Tennessee, where he took up the 
study of law in the office of Felix Grundy. 
After the completion of his law studies he 
was admitted to the bar and removed to 
Columbia, Maury county, Tennessee, and 
started in the active practice of his profes- 
sion. Mr. Polk was a Jeffersonian " Re- 
publican " and in 1823 he was elected to the 
legislature of Tennessee. He was a strict 
constructionist and did not believe that the 
general government had the power to carry 
on internal improvements in the states, but 
deemed it important that it should have that 
power, and wanted the constitution amended 
to that effect. But later on he became 
alarmed lest the general government might 



become strong enough to abolish slavery 
and therefore gave his whole support to the 
" State's Rights" movement, and endeavored 
to check the centralization of power in the 
general government. Mr. Polk was chosen 
a member of congress in 1825, and held that 
office until 1839. He then withdrew, as he 
was the successful gubernatorial candidate 
of his state. He had become a man of 
great influence in the house, and, as the 
leader of the Jackson party in that body, 
weilded great influence in the election of 
General Jackson to the presidency. He 
sustained the president in all his measures 
and still remained in the house after Gen- 
eral Jackson had been succeeded by Martin 
Van Buren. He was speaker of the house 
during five sessions of congress. He was 
elected governor of Tennessee by a large 
majority and took the oath of office at Nash- 
ville, October 4, 1839. He was a candidate 
for re-election but was defeated by Governor 
Jones, the Whig candidate. In 1844 the 
most prominent question in the election was 
the annexation of Texas, and as Mr. Polk 
was the avowed champion of this cause he 
was nominated for president by the pro- 
slavery wing of the democratic party, was 
elected by a large majority, and was inaug- 
urated March 4, 1845. President Polk 
formed a very able cabinet, consisting of 
James Buchanan, Robert J. Walker, Will- 
iam L. Marcy, George Bancroft, Cave John- 
son, and John Y. Mason. The dispute re- 
garding the Oregon boundary was settled 
during his term of office and a new depart- 
ment was added to the list of cabinet po- 
sitions, that of the Interior. The low tariff 
bill of 1846 was carried and the financial 
system of the country was reorganized. It 
was also during President Polk's term that 
the Mexican war was successfully conducted, 
which resulted in the acquisition of Califor- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



103 



nia and New Mexico. Mr. Polk retired from 
the presidency March 4, 1S49, after having 
declined a re-nomination, and was succeeded 
by General Zachary Taylor, the hero of the 
Mexican war. Mr. Polk retired to private 
life, to his home in Nashville, where he died 
at the age of fifty-four on June 9, 1849. 



ANNA DICKINSON (Anna Elizabeth 
Dickinson), a noted lecturer and pub- 
lic speaker, was born at Philadelphia, Oc- 
tober 28, 1842. Her parents were Quakers, 
and she was educated at the Friends' free 
schools in her native city. She early man- 
ifested an inclination toward elocution and 
public speaking, and when, at the age of 1 8, 
she found an opportunity to appear before 
a national assemblage for the discussion of 
woman's rights, she at once established her 
reputation as a public speaker. From i860 
to the close of the war and during the ex- 
citing period of reconstruction, she was one 
of the most noted and influential speakers 
before the American public, and her popu- 
larity was unequaled by that of any of her 
sex. A few weeks after the defeat and 
death of Colonel Baker at Ball's Bluff, Anna 
Dickinson, lecturing in New York, made 
the remarkable assertion, "Not the incom- 
petency of Colonel Baker, but the treachery 
of General McClellan caused the disaster at 
Ball's Bluff." She was hissed and hooted 
off the stage. A year later, at the same 
hall and with much the same class of audi- 
tors, she repeated the identical words, and 
the applause was so great and so long con- 
tinued that it was impossible to go on with 
her lecture for more than half an hour. The 
change of sentiment had been wrought by 
the reverses and dismissal of McClellan and 
his ambition to succeed Mr. Lincoln as presi- 
dent. 

Ten years after the close of the war, Anna 



Dickinson was not heard of on the lec- 
ture platform, and about that time she made 
an attempt to enter the dramatic profession, 
but after appearing a number of times in dif- 
ferent plays she was pronounced a failure. 



ROBERT J. BURDETTE.— Some per- 
sonal characteristics of Mr. Burdette 
were quaintly given by himself in the follow- 
ing words: "Politics? Republican after 
the strictest sect. Religion ? Baptist. Per- 
sonal appearance ? Below medium height, 
and weigh one hundred and thirty- five 
pounds, no shillings and no pence. Rich ? 
Not enough to own a yacht. Favorite read- 
ing? Poetry and history — know Longfellow 
by heart, almost. Write for magizines ? 
Have mo:e ' declined with thanks ' letters 
than would fill a trunk. Never able to get 
into a magazine with a line. Care about it? 
Mad as thunder. Think about starting a 
magazine and rejecting everbody's articles 
except my own." Mr. Burdette was born 
at Greensborough, Pennsylvania, in 1844. 
He served through the war of the rebellion 
under General Banks "on an excursion 
ticket" as he felicitously described it, "good 
both ways, conquering in one direction and 
running in the other, pay going on just the 
same." He entered into journalism by the 
gateway of New York correspondence for 
the "Peoria Transcript," and in 1S74 went 
on the "Burlington Hawkeye " of which he 
became the managing editor, and the work 
that he did on this paper made both him- 
self and the paper famous in the world of 
humor. Mr. Burdette married in 1870, 
and his wife, whom he called "Her Little 
Serene Highness," was to him a guiding 
light until the day of her death, and it was 
probably the unconscious pathos with which 
he described her in his work that broke the 
barriers that had kept him out of the maga- 



104 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



zines and secured him the acceptance of his 
"Confessions" by Lippincott some years 
ago, and brought him substantial fame and 
recognition in the literary world. 



WILLIAM DEAN HOWELLS, one 
of the leading novelists of the present 
century and author of a number of works 
that gained for him a place in the hearts of 
the people, was born March i, 1837, at 
Martinsville, Belmont county, Ohio. At 
the age of three years he accompanied his 
father, who was a printer, to Hamilton, 
Ohio, where he learned the printer's trade. 
Later he was engaged on the editorial staff 
of the ' ' Cincinnati Gazette " and the " Ohio 
State Journal." During 1861-65 ne was 
the United States consul at Venice, and 
from 1S71 to 1878 he was the editor-in- 
chief of the "Atlantic Monthly." As a 
writer he became one of the most fertile 
and readable of authors and a pleasing poet. 
In 1885 he became connected with "Har- 
per's Magazine." Mr. Howells was author 
of the list of books that we give below: 
"Venetian Life," " Italian Journeys," "No 
Love Lost," " Suburban Sketches," "Their 
Wedding Journey," "A Chance Acquaint- 
ance," "A Foregone Conclusion," "Dr. 
Breen's Practice," "A Modern Instance," 
"The Rise of Silas Lapham," "Tuscan 
Cities," "Indian Summer," besides many 
others. He also wrote the " Poem of Two 
Friends," with J. J. Piatt in i860, and 
some minor dramas: "The Drawing 
Room Car," "The Sleeping Car," etc., 
that are full of exqusite humor and elegant 
dialogue. 



TAMES RUSSELL LOWELL was a son 
<J of the Rev. Charles Lowell, and was born 
at Cambridge, Massachusetts, February 22, 
1 8 1 9. He graduated at Harvard College in 



1S38 as class poet, and went to Harvard 
Law School, from which he was graduated 
in 1840, and commenced the practice of his 
profession in Boston, but soon gave his un- 
divided attention to literary labors. Mr. 
Lowell printed, in 1841, a small volume of 
poems entitled " A Year's Life," edited with 
Robert Carter; in 1843, " The Pioneer," a 
literary and critical magazine (monthly), and 
in 1848 another book of poems, that con- 
tained several directed against slavery. He 
published in 1844 a volume of "Poems" 
and in 1S45 " Conversations on Some 
of the Old Poets," "The Vision of Sir 
Launfal," " A Fable for Critics," and "The 
Bigelow Papers," the latter satirical es- 
says in dialect poetry directed against 
slavery and the war with Mexico. In 
1851-52 he traveled in Europe and re- 
sided in Italy for a considerable time, and 
delivered in 1854-55 a course of lectures on 
the British poets, before the Lowell Insti- 
tute, Boston. Mr. Lowell succeeded Long- 
fellow in January, 1855, as professor of 
modern languages and literature at Harvard 
College, and spent another year in Emope 
qualifying himself for that post. He edited 
the " Atlantic Monthly " from 1857 to 1862, 
and the "North American Review" from 
1863 until 1872. From 1864 to 1870 he 
published the following works: "Fireside 
Travels," " Under the Willows," "The 
Commemoration Ode," in honor of the 
alumni of Harvard who had fallen in the 
Civil war; "The Cathedral," two volumes 
of essays; "Among My Books" and "My 
Study Windows," and in 1867 he published 
a new series of the " Bigelow Papers." He 
traveled extensively in Europe in 1872-74, 
and received in person the degree of D. C. 
L. at Oxford and that of LL. D. at the 
University of Cambridge, England. He 
was also interested in political life and held 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



105 



many important offices. He was United 
States minister to Spain in 1877 and was 
also minister to England in 1880-85. On 
January 2, 1884, he was elected lord rector 
of St. Andrew University in Glasgow, Scot- 
land, but soon after he resigned the same. 
Mr. Lowell's works enjoy great popularity 
in the United States and England. He 
died August 12, 1S91. 



JOSEPH HENRY, one of America's 
greatest scientists, was born at Albany, 
New York, December 17, 1797. He was 
educated in the common schools of the city 
and graduated from the Albany Academy, 
where he became a professor of mathemat- 
ics in 1826. In 1827 he commenced a 
course of investigation, which he continued 
for a number of years, and the results pro- 
duced had great effect on the scientific world. 
The first success was achieved by producing 
the electric magnet, and he next proved the 
possibility of exciting magnetic energy at a 
distance, and it was the invention of Pro- 
fessor Henry's intensity magnet that first 
made the invention of electric telegraph a 
possibility. He made a statement regarding 
the practicability of applying the intensity 
magnet to telegraphic uses, in his article to 
the "American Journal of Science " in 1831. 
During the same year he produced the first 
mechanical contrivance ever invented for 
maintaining continuous motion by means of 
electro-magnetism, and he also contrived a 
machine by which signals could be made at 
a distance by the use of his electro-magnet, 
the signals being produced by a lever strik- 
ing on a bell. Some of his electro-magnets 
were of great power, one carried over a ton 
and another not less than three thousand six 
hundred pounds. In 1832 he discovered 
that secondary currents could be produced 
in a long conductor by the induction of the 



primary current upon itself, and also in the 
same year he produced a spark by means of 
a purely magnetic induction. Professor 
Henry was elected, in 1832, professor of nat- 
ural philosophy in the College of New Jer- 
sey, and in his earliest lectures at Princeton, 
demonstrated the feasibility of the electric 
telegraph. He visited Europe in 1837, and 
while there he had an interview 'with Pro- 
fessor Wheatstone, the inventor of the 
needle magnetic telegraph. In 1846 he was 
elected secretary of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, being the first incumbent in that office, 
which he held until his death. Professor 
Henry was elected president of the Ameri- 
can Association for the Advancement of 
Science, in 1849, and of the National 
Academy of Sciences. He was made chair- 
man of the lighthouse board of the United 
States in 1871 and held that position up to 
the time of his death. He received the 
honorary degree of doctor of laws from 
Union College in 1829, and from Harvard 
University in 1851, and his death occurred 
May 13, 1878. Among his numerous works 
may be mentioned the following: "Contri- 
butions to- Electricity and Magnetism," 
"American Philosophic Trans," and many 
articles in the "American Journal of 
Science," the journal of the Franklin Insti- 
tute; the proceedings of the American As- 
sociation for the Advancement of Science, 
and in the annual reports of the Smith- 
sonian Institution from its foundation. 



FRANKLIN BUCHANAN, the famous 
rear-admiral of the Confederate navy 
during the rebellion, was born in Baltimore, 
Maryland. He became a United States 
midshipman in 181 5 and was promoted 
through the various grades of the service 
and became a captain in 1855. Mr. Buch- 
anan resigned his captaincy in order to join 



106 



COMPEXDILWr OF BIOGRAPHY. 



the Confederate service in 1 86 1 and later he 
asked to be reinstated, but his request was 
refused and he then entered into the service 
of the Confederate government. He was 
placed in command of the frigate " Merri- 
mac " after she had been fitted up as an iron- 
clad, and had command of her at the time 
of the battle of Hampton Roads. It was 
he who had command when the " Merri- 
mac" sunk the two wooden frigates, " Con- 
gress " and "Cumberland," and was also 
in command during part of the historical 
battle of the " Merrimac " and the "Moni- 
tor," where he was wounded and the com- 
mand devolved, upon Lieutenant Catesby 
Jones. He was created rear-admiral in the 
Confederate service and commanded the 
Confederate fleet in Mobile bay, which was 
defeated by Admiral Farragut, August 5, 
1864. Mr. Buchanan was in command of 
the "Tennessee," an ironclad, and during 
the engagement he lost one of his legs and 
was taken prisoner in the end by the Union 
fleet. After the war he settled in Talbot 
county, Maryland, where he died May 1 1 , 
1 874. 

RICHARD PARKS BLAND, a celebrated 
American statesman, frequently called 
"the father of the house," because of his 
many years of service in the lower house 
of congress, was born August 19, 1835, 
near Hartford, Kentucky, where he received 
a plain academic education. He moved, 
in 1855, to Missouri, from whence he went 
overland to California, afterward locating in 
Virginia City, now in the state of Nevada, 
but then part of the territory of Utah. 
While there he practiced law, dabbled in 
mines and mining in Nevada and California 
for several years, and served for a time as 
treasurer of Carson county, Nevada. Mr. 
Bland returned to Missouri in 1865, where 



he engaged in the practice of law at Rolla, 
Missouri, and in 1869 removed to Lebanon, 
Missouri. He began his congressional career 
in 1873, when he was elected as a Demo- 
crat to the forty-third congress, and he was 
regularly re-elected to every congress after 
that time up to the fifty-fourth, when he was 
defeated for re-election, but was returned 
to the fifty-fifth congress as a Silver Demo- 
crat. During all his protracted service, 
while Mr. Bland was always steadfast in his 
support of democratic measures, yet he won 
his special renown as the great advocate cf 
silver, being strongly in favor of the free 
and unlimited coinage of silver, and on ac- 
count of his pronounced views was one of 
the candidates for the presidential nomina- 
tion of the Democratic party at Chicago in 
1896. 

FANNY DAVENPORT (F. L. G. Daven- 
port) was of British birth, but she be- 
longs to the American stage. She was the 
daughter of the famous actor, E. L. Daven- 
port, and was born in London in 1850. 
She first went on the stage as a child at the 
Howard Athenaeum, Boston, and her entire 
life was spent upon the stage. She played 
children's parts at Burton's old theater in 
Chambers street, and then, in 1862, appeared 
as the King of Spain in " Faint Heart Never 
Won Fair Lady. " Here she attracted the 
notice of Augustin Daly, the noted mana- 
ger, then at the Fifth Avenue theater, who 
offered her a six weeks' engagement with 
her father in "London Assurance." She 
afterwards appeared at the same house in a 
variety of characters, and .her versatility 
was favorably noticed by the critics. After 
the burning of the old Fifth Avenue, the 
present theater of that name was built at 
Twenty-eighth street, and here Miss Daven- 
port appeared in a play written for her by 



COMPENDIUM OF HIOGRAPHT. 



107 



Mr. Daly. She scored a great success. 
She then starred in this play throughout the 
country, and was married to Mr. Edwin F. 
Price, an actor of her company, in 1SS0. 
In 1882 she went to Paris and purchased 
the right to produce in America Sardou's 
great emotional play, "Fedora." It was 
put on at the Fourteenth Street theater in 
New York, and in it she won popular favor 
and became one of the most famous actresses 
of her time. 



H 



ORACE BRIGHAM CLAFLIN, one 
of the greatest merchants America has 
produced, was born in Milford, Massachu- 
setts, a son of John Claflin, also a mer- 
chant. Young Claflin started his active life 
as a clerk in his father's store, after having 
been offered the opportunity of a college 
education, but with the characteristic 
promptness that was one of his virtues he 
exclaimed, "No law or medicine for me." 
He had set his heart on being a merchant, 
and when his father retired he and his 
brother Aaron, and his brother-in-law, Sam- 
uel Daniels, conducted the business. Mr. 
Claflin was not content, however, to run a 
store in a town like Milford, and accordingly 
opened a dry goods store at Worcester, with 
his brother as a partner, but the partnership 
was dissolved a year later and H. B. Claflin 
assumed complete control. The business 
in Worcester had been conducted on ortho- 
dox principles, and when Mr. Claflin came 
there and introduced advertising as a means 
of drawing trade, he created considerable 
animosity among the older merchants. Ten 
years later he was one of the most prosper- 
ous merchants. He disposed of his busi- 
ness in Worcester for $30,000, and went to 
New York to search for a wider field than 
that of a shopkeeper. Mr. Claflin and 
William M. Bulkley started in the dry goods 



business there under the firm name of Bulk- 
ley & Claflin, in 1843, ar >d Mr. Bulkley was 
connected with the firm until 1 851, when he 
retired. A new firm was then formed under 
the name of Claflin, Mcllin & Co. This 
firm succeeded in founding the largest dry 
goods house in the world, and after weather- 
ing the dangers of the civil war, during 
which the house came very near going un- 
der, and was saved only by the superior 
business abilities of Mr. Claflin, continued to 
grow. The sales of the firm amounted to 
over $72,000,000 a year after the close of 
the war. Mr. Claflin died November 14, 
18S5. 

CHARLOTTE CUSHMAN (Charlotte 
Saunders Cushman), one of the most 
celebrated American actresses, was born in 
Boston, July 23, 18 16. She was descended 
from one of the earliest Puritan families. 
Her first attempt at stage work was at the 
age of fourteen years in a charitable concert 
given by amateurs in Boston. From this, 
time her advance to the first place on the 
American lyric stage was steady, until, in 
1835, while singing in New Orleans, she 
suddenly lost control of her voice so far as 
relates to singing, and was compelled to re- 
tire. She then took up the study for the 
dramatic stage under the direction of Mr. 
Barton, the tragedian. She soon after 
made her debut as " Lady Macbeth." She 
appeared in New York in September, 1S36,, 
and her success was immediate. Her 
"Romeo" was almost perfect, and she is 
the only woman that has ever appeared in 
the part of "Cardinal Wolsey." She at 
different times acted as support of Forrest 
and Macready. Her London engagement, 
secured in 1845, after many and great dis- 
couragements, proved an unqualified suc- 
cess. 



108 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAJ'IIV. 



Her farewell appearance was at Booth's 
theater, New York, November 7, 1874, in 
the part of " Lady Macbeth," and after that 
performance an Ode by R. H. Stoddard 
was read, and a body of citizens went upon 
the stage, and in their name the venerable 
poet Longfellow presented her with a wreath 
of laurel with an inscription to the effect 
that "she who merits the palm should bear 
it." From the time of her appearance as a 
modest girl in a charitable entertainment 
down to the time of final triumph as a tragic 
queen, she bore herself with as much honor 
to womanhood as to the profession she rep- 
resented. Her death occurred in Boston, 
February 18, 1876. By her profession she 
acquired a fortune of $600,000. 



NEAL DOW, one of the most prominent 
temperance reformers our country has 
known, was born in Portland, Me., March 20, 
1804. He received his education in the 
Friends Seminary, at New Bedford, Massa- 
chusetts, his parents being members of that 
sect. After leaving school he pursued a 
mecrantile and manufacturing career for a 
number of years. He was active in the 
affairs of his native city, and in 1839 be- 
came chief of the fire department, and in 
1851 was elected mayor. He was re-elected 
to the latter office in 1854. Being opposed 
to the liquor traffic he was a champion of 
the project of prohibition, first brought for- 
ward in 1839 by James Appleton. While 
■serving his first term as mayor he drafted a 
bill for the "suppression of drinking houses 
and tippling shops," which he took to the 
legislature and which was passed without an 
alteration. In 185S Mr. Dow was elected 
to the legislature. On the outbreak of the 
Civil war he was appointed colonel of the 
Thirteenth Maine Infantry and accompanied 
General Butler's expedition to New Orleans. 



In 1S62 he was made brigadier-general. At 
the battle of Port Hudson May 27, 1863, he 
was twice wounded, and taken prisoner. He 
was confined at Libby prison and Mobile 
nearly a year, when, being exchanged, he 
resigned, his health having given way under 
the rigors of his captivity. He made sev- 
eral trips to England in the interests of 
temperance organization, where he addressed 
large audiences. He was the candidate of 
the National Prohibition party for the presi- 
dency in 1880, receiving about ten thousand 
votes. In 1884 he was largely instrumental 
in the amendment of the constitution of 
Maine, adopted by an overwhelming popular 
vote, which forever forbade the manufacture 
or sale of any intoxicating beverages, and 
commanding the legislature to enforce the 
prohibition. He died October 2, 1897. 



ZACHARY TAYLOR, twelfth president 
of the United States, was born in 
Orange county, Virginia, September 24, 
17S4. His boyhood was spent on his fath- 
er's plantation and his education was lim- 
ited. In 1808 he was made lieutenant of 
the Seventh Infantry, and joined his regi- 
ment at New Orleans. He was promoted 
to captain in 18 10, and commanded at Fort 
Harrison, near the present site of Terre 
Haute, in 18 12, where, for his gallant de- 
fense, he was brevetted major, attaining full 
rank in 18 14. In 1815 he retired to an es- 
tate near Louisville. In 18 16 here-entered 
the army as major, and was promoted to 
lieutenant-colonel and then to colonel. 
Having for many years been Indian agent 
over a large portion of the western country, 
he was often required in Washington to give 
advice and counsel in matters connected 
with the Indian b ireau. He served through 
the Black Hawk T ndian war of 1832, and in 
1837 was ordered to the command of the 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



109 



army in Florida, where he attacked the In- 
dians in the swamps and brakes, defeated 
them and ended the war. He wasbrevetted 
brigadier-general and made commander-in- 
chief of the army in Florida. He was as- 
signed to the command of the army of the 
southwest in 1840, but was soon after re- 
lieved of it at his request. He was then 
stationed at posts in Arkansas. In 1845 he 
was ordered to prepare to protect and de- 
fend Texas boundaries from invasion by 
Mexicans and Indians. On the annexation 
of Texas he proceeded with one thousand 
five hundred men to Corpus Christi, within 
the disputed territory. After reinforcement 
he was ordered by the Mexican General Am- 
pudia to retire beyond the Nueces river, 
with which order he declined to comply. 
The battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la 
Palma followed, and he crossed the Rio 
Grande and occupied Matamoras May iSth. 
He was commissioned major-general for this 
campaign, and in September he advanced 
upon the city of Monterey and captured it 
after a hard fight. Here he took up winter 
quarters, and when 'he was about to resume 
activity in the spring he was ordered to send 
the larger part of his army to reinforce 
General Scott at Vera Cruz. After leaving 
garrisons at various points his army was re- 
duced to about five thousand, mostly fresh 
recruits. He was attacked by the army of 
Santa Anna at Buena Vista, February 22, 
1847, an d after a severe fight completely 
routed the Mexicans. He received the 
thanks of congress and a gold medal for 
this victory. He remained in command of 
the " army of occupation " until winter, 
when he returned to the United States. 

In 1848 General Taylor was nominated 
by the Whigs for president. He was elected 
over his two opponents, Cass and Van 
Buren. Great bitterness was developing in 



the struggle for and against the extension of 
slavery, and the newly acquired territory in 
the west, and the fact that the states were 
now equally divided on that question, tended 
to increase the feeling. President Taylor 
favored immediate admission of California 
with her constitution prohibiting slavery, 
and the admission of other states to be 
formed out of the new territory as they 
might elect as they adopted constitutions 
from time to time. This policy resulted in 
the " Omnibus Bill," which afterward passed 
congress, though in separate bills; not, how- 
ever, until after the death of the soldier- 
statesman, which occurred July 9, 1S50. 
One of his daughters became the wife of 
Jefferson Davis. 



M' 



ELVILLE D. LANDON, better known 
as " Eli Perkins, " author, lecturer and 
humorist, was born in Eaton, New York, 
September 7, 1839. He was the son of 
John Landon and grandson of Rufus Lan- 
don, a revolutionary soldier from Litchfield 
county, Connecticut. Melville was edu- 
cated at the district school and neighboring 
academy, where he was prepared for the 
sophomore class at Madison University. He 
passed two years at the latter, when he was 
admitted to Union College, and graduated 
in the class of 1861, receiving the degree of 
A. M., in 1862. He was, at once, ap- 
pointed to a position in the treasury depart- 
ment at Washington. This being about the 
time of the breaking out of the war, and 
before the appearance of any Union troops 
at the capital, he assisted in the organiza- 
tion of the " Clay Battalion," of Washing- 
ton. Leaving his clerkship some time later, 
he took up duties on the staff of General A. 
L. Chetlain, who was in command at Mem- 
phis. In 1864 he resigned from the army 
and engaged in cotton planting in Arkansas 



110 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY, 



and Louisiana. In 1867 he went abroad, 
making the tour of Europe, traversing Rus- 
sia. While in the latter country his old 
commander of the " Clay Battalion," Gen- 
eral Cassius M. Clay, then United States 
minister at St. Petersburg, made him secre- 
tary of legation. In 1 87 1, on returning to 
America, he published a history of the 
Franco-Prussian war, and followed it with 
numerous humorous writings for the public 
press under the name of "Eli Perkins," 
which, with his regular contributions to the 
" Commercial Advertiser," brought him into 
notice, and spread his reputation as a hu- 
morist throughout the country. He also pub- 
lished "Saratoga in 1891," "Wit, Humor 
and Pathos," " Wit and Humor of the Age," 
•' Kings of Platform and Pulpit," " Thirty 
YearsofWit and Humor," " Fun and Fact," 
and " China and Japan." 



LEWIS CASS, one of the most prom- 
inent statesman and party leaders of his 
daj', was born at Exeter, New Hampshire, 
October 9, 1782. He studied law, and hav- 
ing removed toZanesville, Ohio, commenced 
the practice of that profession in 1802. He 
entered the service of the American govern- 
ment in 1812 and was made a colonel in 
the army under General William Hull, and 
on the surrender of Fort Maiden by that 
officer was held as a prisoner. Being re- 
leased in 18 13, he was promoted to the 
rank of brigadier-general and in 18 14 ap- 
pointed governor of Michigan Territory. 
After he had held that office for some 
sixteen years, negotiating, in the meantime, 
many treaties with the Indians, General 
Cass was made secretary of war in the cabi- 
net of President Jackson, in 1831. He was, 
in 1836, appointed minister to France, 
which office he held for six years. In 1844 
he -.as elected United States senator from 



Michigan. In 1846 General Cass opposed 
the Wilmot Proviso, which was an amend- 
ment to a bill for the purchase of land from 
Mexico, which provided that in any of the 
territory acquired from that power slavery 
should not exist. For this and other reasons 
he was nominated as Democratic candidate 
for the presidency of the United States in 
1848, but was defeated by General Zachary 
Taylor, the Whig candidate, having but 
one hundred and thirty-seven electoral votes 
to his opponent's one hundred and sixty- 
three. In 1849 General Cass was re-elected 
to the senate of the United States, and in 
1854 supported Douglas' Kansas-Nebraska 
bill. He became secretary of state in 
March, 1857, under President Buchanan, 
but resigned that office in December, i860. 
He died June 17, 1866. The published 
works of Lewis Cass, while not numerous, 
are well written and display much ability. 
He was one of the foremost men of his day 
in the political councils of the Democratic 
party, and left a reputation for high probity 
and honor behind him. 



DE WITT CLINTON.— Probably there 
were but few men who were so popular 
in their time, or who have had so much in- 
fluence in moulding events as the individual 
whose name honors the head of this article. 
De Witt Clinton was the son of General 
James Clinton, and a nephew of Governor 
George Clinton, who was the fourth vice- 
president of the United States. He was a 
native of Orange county, New York, born at 
Little Britain, March 2, 1769. He gradu- 
ated from Columbia College, in his native 
state, in 1796, and took up the study of law. 
In 1790 he became private secretary to his 
uncle, then governor of New York. He en- 
tered public life as a Republican or anti- 
Federalist, and was elected to the lower 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



Ill 



house of the state assembly in 1797, and the 
senate of that body in 179S. At that time 
he was looked on as " the most rising man 
in the Union." In 1S01 he was elected to 
the United States senate. In 1803 he was 
appointed by the governor and council 
mayor of the city of New York, then a 
very important and powerful office. Hav- 
ing been re-appointed, he held the office 
of mayor for nearly eleven years, and 
rendered great service to that city. Mr. 
Clinton served as lieutenant-governor of 
the state of New York, 1811-13, and 
was one of the commissioners appointed 
to examine and survey a route for a canal 
from the Hudson river to Lake Erie. Dif- 
fering with President Madison, in relation to 
the war, in 18 12, he was nominated for the 
presidency against that gentleman, by a 
coalition party called the Clintonians, many 
of whom were Federalists. Clinton received 
eight-nine electoral votes. His course at 
this time impaired his popularity for a time. 
He wis removed from the mayoralty in 
1814, and retired to private life. In 1815 
he wrote a powerful argument for the con- 
struction of the Erie canal, then a great and 
beneficent work of which he was the prin- 
cipal promoter. This was in the shape of 
a memorial to the legislature, which, in 
18 17, passed a bill authorizing the construc- 
tion of that canal. The same year he was 
elected governor of New York, almost unani- 
mously, notwithstanding the opposition of 
a few who pronounced the scheme of the 
canal visionary. He was re-elected governor 
in 1820. He was at this time, also, presi- 
dent of the canal commissioners. He de- 
clined a re-election to the gubernatorial 
chair in 1822 and was removed from his 
place on the canal board two years later. 
But he was triumphantly elected to the of- 
fice of governor that fall, and hi^ pet project, 



the Erie canal, was finished the next year. 
He was re-elected governor in 1826, but 
died while holding that office, February II, 
1828. 

AARON BURR, one of the many brilliant 
figures on the political stage in the early 
days of America, was born at Newark, New 
Jersey, February 6, 1756. He was the son 
of Aaron and Esther Burr, the former the 
president of the College of New Jersey, and 
the latter a daughter of Jonathan Edwards, 
who had been president of the same educa- 
tional institution. Young Burr graduated 
at Princeton in 1772. In 1775 he joined 
the provincial army at Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. For a time, he served as a private 
soldier, but later was made an aide on the 
staff of the unfortunate General Montgom- 
ery, in the Quebec expedition. Subse- 
quently he was on the staffs of Arnold, Put- 
nam and Washington, the latter of whom 
he disliked. He was promoted to the rank 
of lieutenant-colonel and commanded a 
brigade on Monmouth's bloody field. In 
x 779. on account of feeble health, Colonel 
Burr resigned from the army. He took up 
the practice of law in Albany, New York, 
but subsequently removed to New York City. 
In 1789 he became attorney-general of that 
state. In 1 791 he was chosen to represent 
the state of New York in the United States 
senate and held that position for six years. 
In 1800 he and Thomas Jefferson were both 
candidates for the presidency, and there 
being a tie in the electoral college, each 
having seventy-three votes, the choice was 
left to congress, who gave the first place to 
Jefferson and made Aaron Burr vice-presi- 
dent, as the method then was. In 1804 Mr. 
Burr and his great rival, Alexander Hamil- 
ton, met in a duel, which resulted in the 
death of the latter, Burr losing thereby con- 



112 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



siderable political and social influence. He 
soon embarked in a wild attempt upon 
Mexico, and as was asserted, upon the 
southwestern territories of the United 
States. He was tried for treason at 
Richmond, Virginia, in 1807, but acquitted, 
and to avoid importunate creditors, fled to 
Europe. After a time, in 1812, he returned 
to New York, where he practiced law, and 
where he died, September 14, 1836. A man 
of great ability, brilliant and popular talents, 
his influence was destroyed by his unscrupu- 
lous political actions and immoral private 
life. 

ALBERT GALLATIN, one of the most 
distinguished statesmen of the early 
days of the -republic, was born at Geneva, 
Switzerland, January 29, 1761. He was 
the son of Jean de Gallatin and Sophia A. 
Rolaz du Rosey Gallatin, representatives of 
an old patrician family. Albert Gallatin 
was left an orphan at an early age, and was 
educated under the care of friends of his 
parents. He graduated from the University 
of Geneva in 1779, and declining employ- 
ment under one of the sovereigns of Ger- 
many, came to the struggling colonies, land- 
ing in Boston July 14, 1780. Shortly after 
his arrival he proceeded to Maine, where he 
served as a volunteer under Colonel Allen. 
He made advances to the government for 
the support of the American troops, and in 
November, 17S0, was placed in command 
of a small fort at Passamaquoddy, defended 
by a force of militia, volunteers and Indians. 
In 1783 he was professor of the French 
language at Harvard University. A year 
later, having received his patrimony from 
Europe, he purchased large tracts of land 
in western Virginia, but was prevented by 
the Indians from forming the large settle- 
ment he proposed, and, in 1786, purchased 



a farm in Fayette county, Pennsylvania. 
In 1789 he was a member of the convention 
to amend the constitution of that state, and 
united himself with the Republican party, 
the head of which was Thomas Jefferson. 
The following year he was elected to the 
legislature of Pennsylvania, to which he was 
subsequently re-elected. In 1793 he was 
elected to the United States senate, but 
could not take his seat on account of not 
having been a citizen long enough. In 1794 
Mr. Gallatin was elected to the representa- 
tive branch of congress, in which he served 
three terms. He also took an important 
position in the suppression of the "whiskey 
insurrection." In 1801, on the accession of 
Jefferson to the presidency, Mr. Gallatin 
was appointed secretary of the treasury. 
In 1809 Mr. Madison offered him the posi- 
tion of secretary of state, but he declined, 
and continued at the head of the treasury 
until 18 12, a period of twelve years. He 
exercised a great influence on the other de- 
partments and in the general administration, 
especially in the matter of financial reform, 
and recommended measures for taxation, 
etc. , which were passed by congress, and be- 
came laws May 24, 18 1 3. The same year he 
was sent as an envoy extraordinary to Rus- 
sia, which had offered to mediate between 
this country and Great Britain, but the lat- 
ter country refusing the interposition of 
another power, and agreeing to treat di- 
rectly with the United States, in 18 14, at 
Ghent, Mr. Gallatin, in connection with his 
distinguished colleagues, negotiated and 
signed the treaty of peace. In 1S15, in 
conjunction with Messrs. Adams and Clay, 
he signed, at London, a commercial treaty 
between the two countries. In 18 16, de- 
clining his old post at the head of the treas- 
ury, Mr. Gallatin was sent as minister to 
France, where he remained until 



1823. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



118 



After a year spent in England as envoy ex- 
traordinary, he took up his residence in New 
York, and from that time held no public 
office. In 1830 he was chosen president of 
the council of the University of New York. 
He was, in 183 1, made president of the 
National bank, which position he resigned 
in 1839. He died August 12, 1849. 



M 



ILLARD FILLMORE, the thirteenth 
president of the United States, was 
born of New England parentage in Summer 
Hill, Cayuga county, New York, January J, 
1800. His school education was very lim- 
ited, but he occupied his leisure hours in 
study. He worked in youth upon his fa- 
ther's farm in his native county, and at the 
age of fifteen was apprenticed to a wool 
carder and cloth dresser. Four years later 
he was induced by Judge Wood to enter his 
office at Montviile, New York, and take up 
the study of law. This warm friend, find- 
ing young Fillmore destitute of means, 
loaned him money, but the latter, not wish- 
ing to incur a heavy debt, taught school 
during part of the time and in this and other 
ways helped maintain himself. In 1822 he 
removed to Buffalo, New York, and the year 
following, being admitted to the bar, he 
commenced the practice of his profession 
at East Aurora, in the same state. Here 
he remained until 1830, having, in the 
meantime, been admitted to practice in the 
supreme court, when he returned to Buffalo, 
where he became the partner of S. G. 
Haven and N. K. Hall. He entered poli- 
tics and served in the state legislature from 
1829 to 1832. He was in congress in 1 833— 
35 and in 1837-41, where he proved an 
active and useful member, favoring the 
views of John Quincy Adams, then battling 
almost alone the slave-holding party in na- 
tional politics, and in most of public ques- 



tions acted with the Whig party. While 
chairman of the committee of ways and 
means he took a leading part in draughting 
the tariff bill of 1842. In 1844 Mr. Fill- 
more was the Whig candidate for governor 
of New York. In 1S47 he was chosen 
comptroller of the state, and abandoning 
his practice and profession removed to Al- 
bany. In 1848 he was elected vice presi- 
dent on the ticket with General Zachary 
Taylor, and they were inaugurated the fol- 
lowing March. On the death of the presi- 
dent, July 9, 1850, Mr. Fillmore was in- 
ducted into that office. The great events 
of his administration were the passage of 
the famous compromise acts of 1850, and 
the sending out of the Japan expedition of 
1852. 

March 4-, 1853, having served one term, 
President Fillmore retired from office, and 
in 1855 went to Europe, where he received 
marked attention. On returning home, in 
1856, he was nominated for the presidency 
by the Native American or "Know-Noth- 
ing" party, but was defeated, James Buch- 
anan being the successful candidate. 

Mr. Fillmore ever afterward lived in re- 
tirement. During the conflict of Civil war 
he was mostly silent. It was generally sup- 
posed, however, that his sympathy was with 
the southern confederacy. He kept aloof 
from the conflict without any words of cheer 
to the one party or the other. For this rea- 
son he was forgotten by both. He died of 
paralysis, in Buffalo, New York, March 8, 
i874- 

PETER F. ROTHERMEL, one of Amer- 
ica's greatest and best-known historical 
painters, was born in Luzerne county, Penn- 
sylvania, July 8, 1817, and was of German 
ancestry. He received his earlier education 
in his native county, and in Philadelphia 



114 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



learned the profession of land surveying. 
But a strong bias toward art drew him away 
and he soon opened a studio where he did 
portrait painting. This soon gave place to 
historical painting, he having discovered the 
bent of his genius in that direction. Be- 
sides the two pictures in the Capitol at 
Washington — ' 'De Soto Discovering the Mis- 
sissippi" and "Patrick Henry Before the 
Virginia House of Burgesses" — Rothermel 
painted many others, chief among which 
are: "Columbus Before Queen Isabella," 
"Martyrs of the Colosseum," "Cromwell 
Breaking Up Service in an English Church, " 
and the famous picture of the "Battle 
of Gettysburg." The last named was 
painted for the state of Pennsylvania, for 
which Rothermel received the sum of $25,- 
000, and which it took him four years to 
plan and to paint. It represents the portion 
of that historic field held by the First corps, 
an exclusively Pennsylvania body of men, 
and was selected by Rothermel for that 
reason. For many years most of his time 
was spent in Italy, only returning for short 
periods. He died at Philadelphia, August 
16, 1895. 

EDMUND KIRBY SMITH, one of the 
distinguished leaders upon the side of the 
south in the late Civil war, was born at St. 
Augustine, Florida, in 1824. After receiv- 
ing the usual education he was appointed to 
the United States Military Academy at West 
Point, from which he graduated in 1845 and 
entered the army as second lieutenant of 
infantry. During the Mexican war he was 
made first lieutenant and captain for gallant 
conduct at Cerro Gordo and Contreras. 
From 1849 to '852 he was assistant pro- 
fessor of mathematics at West Point. He 
was transferred to the Second cavalry with 
the rank of captain in 1855, served on the 



frontier, and was wounded in a fight with 
Comanche Indians in Texas, May 13, 1859. 
In January, 1861, he became major of his 
regiment, but resigned April 9th to fol- 
low the fortunes of the southern cause. 
He was appointed brigadier-general in the 
Confederate army and served in Virginia. 
At the battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861, 
he arrived on the field late in the day, but 
was soon disabled by a wound. He was 
made major-general in 1S62, and being trans- 
ferred to East Tennessee, was given com- 
mand of that department. Under General 
Braxton Bragg he led the advance in the 
invasion of Kentucky and defeated the Union 
forces at Richmond, Kentucky, August 30, 

1862, and advanced to Frankfort. Pro- 
moted to the rank of lieutenant-general, he 
was engaged at the battle of Perryville, 
October 10, and in the battle of Murfrees- 
boro, December 31, 1862, and January 3, 

1863. He was soon made general, the 
highest rank in the service, and in com- 
mand of the trans-Mississippi department 
opposed General N. P. Banks in the famous 
Red River expedition, taking part in the 
battle of Jenkins Ferry, April 30, 1864, and 
other engagements of that eventful cam- 
paign. He was the last to surrender the 
forces under his command, which he did 
May 26, 1865. After the close of the war 
he located in Tennessee, where he died 
March 28, 1893. 



JOHN JAMES INGALLS, a famous 
<J American statesman, was born Decem- 
ber 29, 1833, at Middleton, Massachusetts, 
where he was reared and received his early 
education. He went to Kansas in 185S 
and joined the free-soil army, and a year 
after his arrival he was a member of the his- 
torical Wyandotte convention, which drafted 
a free-state constitution. In i860 he was 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



115 



made secretary of the territorial council, 
and in 1861 was secretary of the state sen- 
ate. The next year he was duly elected to 
the legitimate state senate from Atchison, 
where he had made his home. From that 
time he was the leader of the radical Re- 
publican element in the state. He became 
the editor of the " Atchison Champion " in 
1863, which was a "red-hot free-soil Re- 
publican organ." In 1862 he was the anti- 
Lane candidate for lieutenant-governor, but 
was defeated. He was elected to the Unit- 
ed States senate to succeed Senator Pom- 
eroy, and took his seat in the forty-third 
congress and served until the fiftieth. In 
the forty-ninth congress he succeeded Sen- 
ator Sherman as president pro tern., which 
position he held through the fiftieth con- 
gress. 

BENJAMIN WEST, the greatest of the 
early American painters, was of Eng- 
lish descent and Quaker parentage. He was 
born in Springfield, Pennsylvania, in 1738. 
From what source he inherited his genius it 
is hard to imagine, since the tenets and 
tendencies of the Quaker faith were not cal- 
culated to encourage the genius of art, but 
at the age of nine years, with no suggestion 
except that of inspiration, we find him choos- 
ing his model from lite, and laboring over 
his first work calculated to attract public 
notice. It was a representation of a sleep- 
ing child in its cradle. The brush with 
which he painted it was made of hairs 
which he plucked from the cat's tail, and 
the colors were obtained from the war paints 
of friendly Indians, his mother's indigo bag, 
and ground chalk and charcoal, and the juice 
of berries, but there were touches in the rude 
production that he declared in later days 
were a credit to his best works. The pic- 
ture attracted notice, for a council was 



called at once to pass upon the boy's con- 
duct in thus infringing the laws of the so- 
ciety. There were judges among them who 
saw in his genius a rare gift and their wis- 
dom prevailed, and the child was given per- 
mission to follow his inclination. He studied 
under a painter named Williams, and then 
spent some years as a portrait painter with 
advancing success. At the age of twenty- 
two he went to Italy, and not until he had 
perfected himself by twenty-three years of 
labor in that paradise of art was he satisfied 
to turn his face toward home. However, he 
stopped at London, and decided to settle 
there, sending to America for his intended 
bride to join him. Though the Revolution- 
ary war was raging, King George III showed 
the American artist the highest considera- 
tion and regard. His remuneration from 
works for royalty amounted to five thou- 
sand dollars per year for thirty years. 

West's best known work in America is, 
perhaps, "The Death of General Wolf." 
West was one of the thirty-six original mem- 
bers of the Royal academy and succeeded 
Joshua Reynolds as president, which posi- 
tion he held until his death. His early 
works were his best, as he ceased to display 
originality in his later life, conventionality 
having seriously affected his efforts. He 
died in 1820. 



SAMUEL PORTER JONES, the famous 
Georgia evangelist, was born October 
16, 1847, in Chambers county, Alabama. 
He did not attend school regularly during 
his boyhood, but worked on a farm, and 
went to school at intervals, on account of 
ill health. His father removed to Carters- 
ville, Georgia, when Mr. Jones was a small 
boy. He quit school at the age of nineteen 
and never attended college. The war inter- 
fered with his education, which was intended. 



116 



COMTEXDIl'M OF BIOGRAPHY. 



to prepare him for the legal profession. 
'After the war he renewed his preparation 
for college, but was compelled to desist from 
such a course, as his health failed him en- 
tirely. Later on, however, he still pursued 
his legal studies and was admitted to the 
bar. Soon after this event he went to Dal- 
las, Paulding county, Georgia, where he was 
engaged in the practice of his profession, 
and in a few months removed to Cherokee 
county, Alabama, where he taught school. 
In 1869 he returned to Cartersville, Georgia, 
and arrived in time to see his father die. 
Immediately after this event he applied for 
a license to preach, and went to Atlanta, 
Georgia, to the meeting of the North Geor- 
gia Conference of the M. E. church south, 
which received him on trial. He became 
an evangelist of great note, and traveled 
extensively, delivering his sermons in an 
inimitable style that made him very popular 
with the musses, his methods of conducting 
revivals being unique and original and his 
preaching practical and incisive. 



SHELBY MOORE CULLOM, a national 
character in political affairs and for 
many years United States senator from 
Illinois, was born November 22, 1829, at 
Monticello, Kentucky. He came with his 
parents to Illinois in 1 830 and spent his early 
yearson afarm, but havingformedthe purpose 
of devoting himself to the lawyer's profession 
he spent two years study at the Rock River 
seminary atMount Morris, Illinois. In 1853 
Mr. Cullom entered the law office of Stuart 
and Edwards at Springfield, Illinois, and two 
years later he began the independent prac- 
tice of law in that city. He took an active 
interest in politics and was soon elected city 
attorney of Springfield. In 1856 he was 
elected a member of the Illinois house of 
representatives. He identified himself with 



the newly formed Republican party and in 
i860 was re-elected to the legislature of his 
state, in which he was chosen speaker of the 
house. In 1862 President Lincoln appoint- 
ed a commission to pass upon and examine 
the accounts of the United States quarter- 
masters and disbursing officers, composed 
as. follows: Shelby M. Cullom, of Illinois; 
Charles A. Dana, of New York, and 
Gov. Boutwell, of Massachusetts. Mr. 
Cullom was nominated for congress in 
1864, and was elected by a majority of 
1,785. In the house of representatives he 
became an active and aggressive member, 
was chairman of the committee on territories 
and served in congress until 1868. Mr. 
Cullom was returned to the state legislature, 
of which he was chosen speaker in 1872, 
and was re-elected in 1874. In 1876 he 
was elected governor of Illinois and at the 
end of his term he was chosen for a second 
term. He was elected United States senator 
in 1883 and twice re-elected. 



RICHARD JORDAN GATLING, an 
American inventor of much note, was 
born in Hertford county, North Carolina, 
September 12, 1818. At an early age he 
gave promise of an inventive genius. The 
first emanation from his mind was the 
invention of a screw for the propulsion ot 
water craft, but on application for a 
patent, found that he was forestalled but 
a short time by John Ericsson. Subse- 
quently he invented a machine for sowing 
wheat in drills, which was used to a great 
extent throughout the west. He then stud- 
ied medicine, and in 1847-8 attended 
lectures at the Indiana Medical College 
at Laporte, and in 1848-9 at the Ohio 
Medical College at Cincinnati. He later 
discovered a method of transmitting power 
through the medium of compressed air. A 




HGEO.MPiJU.MANh 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT, 



119 



double-acting hemp break was also invented 
by him. The invention, however, by which 
Dr. Gatling became best known was the 
famous machine gun which bears his name. 
This he brought to light in 1861-62, and on 
the first trial of it, in the spring of the latter 
year, two hundred shots per minute were 
fired from it. After making some improve- 
ments which increased its efficiency, it was 
submitted to severe trials by our govern- 
ment at the arsenals at Frankfort, Wash- 
ington and Fortress Monroe, and at other 
points. The gun was finally adopted by 
our government, as well as by that of Great 
Britain, Russia and others. 



BENJAMIN RYAN TILLMAN, who won 
a national fame in politics, was born 
August 11, 1847, in Edgefield county, South 
Carolina. He received his education in the 
Oldfield school, where he acquired the 
rudiments of Latin and Greek, in addition 
to a good English education. He left school 
in 1864 to join the Confederate army, but 
was prevented from doing so by a severe 
illness, which resulted in the loss of an eye. 
In 1867 he removed to Florida, but returned 
in 1868, when he was married and devoted 
himself to farming. He was chairman of 
the Democratic organization of his county, 
but except a few occasional services he took 
no active part in politics then. Gradually, 
however, his attention was directed to the 
depressed condition of the farming interests 
of his state, and in August, 18S5, before a 
joint meeting of the agricultural society and 
state grange at Bennettsville, he made a 
speech in which he set forth the cause of 
agricultural depression and urged measures 
of relief. From his active interest in the 
farming class he was styled the " Agricult- 
ural Moses." He advocated an industrial 

school for women and for a separate agri- 
7 



cultural college, and in 1887 he secured a 
•modification in the final draft of the will of 
Thomas G. Clemson, which resulted in the 
erection of the Clemson Agricultural Col- 
lege at Fort Hill. In 1890 he was chosen 
governor on the Democratic ticket, and 
carried the election by a large majority. 
Governor Tillman was inaugurated Decem- 
ber 4, 1890. Mr. Tillman was next elected 
to the United States senate from South 
Carolina, and gained a national reputation 
by his fervid oratory. 



GEORGE DENISON PRENTICE. - 
No journalist of America was so cele- 
brated in his time for the wit, spice, and 
vigor of his writing, as the gentleman whose 
name heads this sketch. From Atlantic to 
Pacific he was well known by his witticism 
as well as by strength and force of his edi- 
torials. He was a native of Preston, Con- 
necticut, born December 18, 1802. After 
laying the foundation of a liberal education 
in his youth, he entered Brown University, 
from which he was graduated in 1823. Tak- 
ing up the study of law, he was admitted to 
the bar in 1829. During part of his time 
he was editor of the " New England Weekly 
Review," a position which he relinquished 
to go south and was succeeded by John 
Greenleaf Whittier, the Quaker poet. 

On arriving in Louisville, whither he 
had gone to gather items for his history of 
Henry Clay, Mr. Prentice became identified 
with the " Louisville Journal," which, under 
his hands, became one of the leading Whig 
newspapers of the country. At the head of 
this he remained until the day of his death. 
This latter event occurred January 22, 1870, 
and he was succeeded in the control of the 
"Journal" by Colonel Henry Watterson. 

Mr. Prentice was an author of consider- 
able celebrity, chief among his works being 



120 



COMPEXDIL'M OF BIOGRAPIir 



" The Life of Henry Clay," and " Prentice- 
ana," a collection of wit and humor, that 
passed through several large editions. 



SAM. HOUSTON, in the opinion of some 
critics one of the most remarkable men 
who ever figured in American history, was a 
native of Rockbridge county, Virginia, born 
March 2, 1793. Early in life he was left in 
destitute circumstances by the death of his 
father, and, with his mother, removed to 
Tennessee, then almost a boundless wilder- 
ness. He received but little education, 
spending the most of his time among the 
Cherokee Indians. Part of the time of his 
residence there Houston acted as clerk for a 
trader and also taught one of the primitive 
schools of the day. In 181 3 he enlisted as 
private in the United States army and was 
engaged under General Jackson in the war 
with the Creek Indians. When peace was 
made Houston was a lieutenant, but he re- 
signed his commission and commenced the 
study of law at Nashville. After holding 
some minor offices he was elected member 
of congress from Tennessee. This was in 
1823. He retained this office until 1827, 
when he was chosen governor of the state. 
In 1829, resigning that office before the ex- 
piration of his term, Sam Houston removed 
to Arkansas, and made his home among the 
Cherokees, becoming the agent of that 
tribe and representing their interests at 
Washington. On a visit to Texas, just 
prior to the election of delegates to a con- 
vention called for the purpose of drawing 
up a constitution previous to the admission 
of the state into the Mexican union, he was 
unanimously chosen a delegate. The con- 
vention framed the constitution, but, it be- 
ing rejected by the government of Mexico, 
and the petition for admission to the Con- 
federacy denied and the Texans told by the 



president of the Mexican union to give up 
their arms, bred trouble. It was determined 
to resist this demand. A military force was 
soon organized, with General Houston at 
the head of it. War was prosecuted with 
great vigor, and with varying success, but 
at the battle of San Jacinto, April 21, 1 836, 
the Mexicans were defeated and their leader 
and president, Santa Anna, captured. Texas 
was then proclaimed an independent repub- 
lic, and in October of the same year Hous- 
ton was inaugurated president. On the ad- 
mission of Texas to the Federal Union, in 
1845, Houston was elected senator, and 
held that position for twelve years. Oppos- 
ing the idea of secession, he retired from 
political life in 1861, and died at Hunts- 
ville, Texas, July 25, 1863. 



ELI WHITNEY, the inventor of the cot- 
ton-gin, was born in Westborough, Mas- 
sachusetts, December 8, 1765. After his 
graduation from Yale College, he went to 
Georgia, where he studied law, and lived 
with the family of the widow of General 
Nathaniel Greene. At that time the only 
way known to separate the cotton seed from 
the fiber was by hand, making it extremely 
slow and expensive, and for this reason cot- 
ton was little cultivated in this country. 
Mrs. Greene urged the inventive Whitney 
to devise some means for accomplishing 
this work by machinery. This he finally 
succeeded in doing, but he was harassed by 
attempts to defraud him by those who had 
stolen his ideas. He at last formed a part- 
nership with a man named Miller, and they 
began the manufacture of the machines at 
Washington, Georgia, in 1795. The suc- 
cess of his invention was immediate, and the 
legislature of South Carolina voted the sum 
of $50,000 for his idea. This sum he had 
great difficulty in collecting, after years of 



COMPEXDICM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



1*21 



litigation and delay. North Carolina al- 
lowed him a royalty, and the same was 
agreed to by Tennessee, but was never paid. 

While his fame rests upon the invention 
of the cotton-gin, his fortune came from his 
improvements in the manufacture and con- 
struction of firearms. In 1798 the United 
States government gave him a contract for 
this purpose, and he accumulated a fortune 
from it. The town of Whitneyville, Con- 
necticut, was founded by this fortune. 
Whitney died at New Haven, Connecticut, 
January 8, 1825. 

The cotton-gin made the cultivation of 
cotton profitable, and this led to rapid in- 
troduction of slavery in the south. His in- 
vention thus affected our national history in 
a manner little dreamed of by the inventor. 



LESTER WALLACK (John Lester Wal- 
lack), for many years the leading light 
comedian upon the American stage, was 
the son of James W. Wallack, the " Brum- 
mell of the Stage." Both father and son 
were noted for their comeliness of feature 
and form. Lester Wallack was born in 
New York, January 1, 18 19. He received 
his education in England, and made his first 
appearance on the stage in 1848 at the New 
Broadway theater, New York. He acted 
light comedy parts, and also occasion- 
ally in romantic plays like Monte Cristo, 
which play made him his fame. He went 
to England and played under management 
of such men as Hamblin and Burton, and then 
returned to New York with his father, who 
opened the first Wallack's theater, at the 
corner of Broome and Broadway, in 1852. 
The location was afterward changed to 
Thirteenth and Broadway, in 1861, and 
later to its present location, Broadway and 
Thirteenth, in 1882. The elder Wallack 
died in 1864, after which Lester assumed 



management, jointly with Theodore Moss. 
Lester Wallack was commissioned in the 
queen's service while in England, and there 
he also married a sister to the famous artist, 
the late John Everett Millais. While Les- 
ter Wallack never played in the interior 
cities, his name was as familiar to the public 
as that of our greatest stars. He died S :p- 
tember 6, 1888, at Stamford, Connecticut. 



GEORGE MORTIMER PULLMAN, 
the palace car magnate, inventor, 
multi-millionaire and manufacturer, may 
well be classed among the remarkable 
self-made men of the century. He was 
born March 3, 1831, in Chautauqua county, 
New York. His parents were poor, and 
his education was limited to what he could 
learn of the rudimentary branches in the 
district school. At the age of fourteen lie 
went to work as clerk for a country mer- 
chant. He kept this place three years, 
studying at night. When seventeen he 
went to Albion, New York, and worked I r 
his brother, who kept a cabinet shop there. 
Five years later he went into business for 
himself as contractor for moving buildings 
along the line of the Erie canal, which was 
then being widened by the state, and was 
successful in this. In 1S58 he removed to 
Chicago and engaged in the business of 
moving and raising houses. The work was 
novel there then and lie was quite success- 
ful. About this time the discomfort attend- 
ant on traveling at night attracted his at- 
tention. He reasoned that the public would 
gladly pay for comfortable sleeping accom- 
modations. A few sleeping cars were in 
use at that time, but they were wretchedly 
crude, uncomfortable affairs. In 1S59 he 
bought two old day coaches from the Chi- 
cago & Alton road and remodeled them s 
thing like the general plan of the slee] 



122 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



cars of the present day. They were put 
into service on the Chicago & Alton and 
became popular at once. In 1863 he built 
the first sleeping-car resembling the Pullman 
cars of to-day. It cost $18,000 and was 
the " Pioneer." After that the Pullman 
Palace Car Company prospered. It had 
shops at different cities. In 1880 the Town 
of Pullman was founded by Mr. Pullman 
and his company, and this model manufac- 
turing community is known all over the 
world. Mr. Pullman died October 19, 1897. 



JAMES E. B. STUART, the most famous 
cavalry leader of the Southern Confed- 
eracy during the Civil war, was born in 
Patrick county, Virginia, in 1833. On 
graduating from the United States Military 
Academy, West Point, in 1854, he was as- 
signed, as second lieutenant, to a regiment 
of mounted rifles, receiving his commission 
in October. In March, 1855, he was trans- 
ferred to the newly organized First cavalry, 
and was promoted to first lieutenant the 
following December, and to captain April 
22, 1 861 . Taking the side of the south, 
May 14, 1 86 1, he was made colonel of a 
Virginia cavalry regiment, and served as 
such at Bull Run. In September, 1861, he 
was promoted to the rank of brigadier-gen- 
eral, and major-general early in 1862. On 
the reorganization of the Army of Northern 
Virginia, in June of the latter year, when 
R. E. Lee assumed command, General Stu- 
art made a reconnoissance with one thou- 
sand five hundred cavalry and four guns, 
.and in two days made the circuit of McClel- 
lan's army, producing much confusion and 
gathering useful information, and losing but 
one man. August 25, 1S62, he captured 
part of Pope's headquarters' train, including 
that general's private baggage and official 
correspondence, and the next night, in a 



descent upon Manasses, capturing immense 
quantities of commissary and quartermaster 
store, eight guns, a number of locomotives 
and a few hundred prisoners. During the 
invasion of Maryland, in September, 1862, 
General Stuart acted as rearguard, resisting 
the advance of the Federal cavalry at South 
Mountain, and at Antietam commanded the 
Confederate left. Shortly after he crossed 
the Potomac, making a raid as far as Cham- 
bersburg, Pennsylvania. In the battle of 
Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, Gen- 
eral Stuart's command was on the extreme 
right of the Confederate line. At Chancel- 
lorsville, after "Stonewall " Jackson's death 
and the wounding of Gereral A. P. Hill, 
General Stuart assumed command of Jack- 
son's corps, which he led in the severe con- 
test of May 3, 1863. Early in June, the 
same year, a large force of cavalry was 
gathered under Stuart, at Culpepper, Vir- 
ginia, which, advancing to join General Lee 
in his invasion of Pennsylvania, was met at 
Brandy Station, by two divisions of cavalry 
and two brigades of infantry, under General 
John I. Gregg, and driven back. During the 
movements of the Gettysburg campaign he 
rendered important services. In May, 1864, 
General Stuart succeeded, by a detour, in 
placing himself between Richmond and 
Sheridan's advancing column, and at Yellow 
Tavern was attacked in force. During the 
fierce conflict that ensued General Stuart 
was mortally wounded, and died at Rich- 
mond, May 1 1, 1864. 



FRANKLIN PIERCE, the fourteenth 
president of the United States — from 
1853 until 1857 — was born November 23, 
1804, at Hillsboro, New Hampshire. He 
came of old revolutionary stock and his 
father was a governor of the state. Mr. 
Pierce entered Bowdoin College in 1820, 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPIir. 



123 



was graduated in 1824, and took up the 
study of law in the office of Judge Wood- 
bury, and later he was admitted to the bar. 
Mr. Pierce practiced his profession with 
varying successes in his native town and 
also in Concord. He was elected to the 
state legislature in 1833 and served in that 
body until 1837, the last two years of his 
term serving as speaker of the house. He 
was elected to the United States senate in 
1837, just as President Van Buren began 
his term of office. Mr. Pierce served until 
1842, and many times during Polk's term he 
declined important public offices. During 
the war with Mexico Mr. Pierce was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general, and he embarked 
with a portion of his troops at Newport, 
Rhode Island, May 27, 1847, and went with 
them to the field of battle. He served 
through the war and distinguished himself 
by his skill, bravery and excellent judg- 
ment. When he reached his home in his 
native state he was received coldly by the 
opponents of the war, but the advocates of 
the war made up for his cold reception by 
the enthusiastic welcome which they ac- 
corded him. Mr. Pierce resumed the prac- 
tice of his profession, and in the political 
strife that followed he gave his support to 
the pro-slavery wing of the Democratic 
party. The Democratic convention met in 
Baltimore, June 12, 1852, to nominate a 
candidate for the presidency, and they con- 
tinued in session four days, and in thirty- 
five ballotings no one had secured the re- 
quisite two-thirds vote. Mr. Pierce had not 
received a vote as yet, until the Virginia 
delegation brought his name forward, and 
finally on the forty-ninth ballot Mr. Pierce 
received 282 votes and all the other candi- 
dates eleven. His opponent on the Whig 
ticket was General Winfield Scott, who 
only received the electoral votes of four 



states. Mr. Pierce was inaugurated presi- 
dent of the United States March 4, 1853, 
with W. R. King as vice president, and the 
following named gentlemen were afterward 
chosen to fill the positions in the cabinet: 
William S. Marcy, James Guthrie, Jeffer- 
son Davis, James C. Dobbin, Robert Mc- 
Clelland, James Campbell and Caleb' Cush- 
ing. During the administration of President 
Pierce the Missouri compromise law was 
repealed, and all the territories of the Union 
were thrown open to -slavery, and the dis- 
turbances in Kansas occurred. In 1857 he 
was succeeded in the presidency by James 
Buchanan, and retired to his home in Con- 
cord, New Hampshire. He always cherished 
his principles of slavery, and at the out- 
break of the rebellion he was an adherent of 
the cause of the Confederacy. He died at 
Concord, New Hampshire, October 8, 1869. 



JAMES B. WEAVER, well known as a 
leader of the Greenback and later of the 
Populist party, was born at Dayton, Ohio, 
June 12, 1833. He received his earlier 
education in the schools of his native town, 
and entered the law department of the Ohio 
University, at Cincinnati, from which he 
graduated in 1854. Removing to the grow- 
ing state of Iowa, he became connected 
with "The Iowa Tribune," at the state 
capital, Des Moines, as one of its editors. 
He afterward practiced law and was elected 
district attorney for the second judicial dis- 
trict of Iowa, on the Republican ticket in 
1 866, which office he held for a short time. 
In 1867 Mr. Weaver was appointed assessor 
of internal revenue for the first district of 
Iowa, and filled that position until some- 
time in 1873. He was elected and served 
in the forty-sixth congress. In 1880 the 
National or Greenback party in convention 
at Chicago, nominated James B. Weaver as 



124 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



its candidate for the presidency. By a 
union of the Democratic and National 
parties in his district, he was elected to the 
forty-ninth congress, and re-elected to the 
same office in the fall of 1S86. Mr. Weaver 
was conceded to be a very fluent speaker, 
and quite active in all political work. On 
July 4, 1892, at the National convention 
of the People's party, General James B. 
Weaver was chosen as the candidate for 
president of that organization, and during 
the campaign that followed, gained a na- 
tional reputation. 



ANTHONY JOSEPH DREXEL, one 
of the leading bankers and financiers of 
the United States, was born in Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, in 1826, and was the son of 
Francis M. Drexel, who had established 
the large banking institution of Drexel & 
Co., so well known. The latter was a native 
of Dornbirn, in the Austrian Tyrol. He 
studied languages and fine arts at Turin, 
Italy. On returning to his mountain home, 
in 1809, and finding it in the hands of the 
French, he went to Switzerland and later 
to Paris. In 18 12, after a short visit home, 
he went to Berlin, where he studied paint- 
ing until 1 8 17, in which year he emigrated 
io America, and settled in Philadelphia. A 
few years later he went to Chili and Peru, 
where he executed some fine portraits of 
notable people, including General Simon 
Bolivar. After spending some time in Mex- 
ico, he returned to Philadelphia, and en- 
gaged in the banking business. In 1837 he 
founded the house of Drexel & Co. He 
died in 1837, and was succeeded by his two 
sons, Anthony J. and Francis A. His son, 
Anthony J. Drexel, Jr. , entered the bank 
when he was thirteen years of age, before he 
was through with his schooling, and after 
that the history of the banking business of 



which he was the head, was the history of his 
life. The New York house of Drexel, Mor- 
gan & Co. was established in 1S50; the 
Paris house, Drexel, Harjes & Co., in 1867. 
The Drexel banking houses have supplied 
iand placed hundreds of millions of dollars 
n government, corporation, railroad and 
other loans and securities. The reputation 
of the houses has always been held on the 
highest plane. Mr. Drexel founded and 
heavily endowed the Drexel Institute, in 
Philadelphia, an institution to furnish better 
and wider avenues of employment to young 
people of both sexes. It has departments 
of arts, science, mechanical arts and domes- 
tic economy. Mr. Drexel, Jr. , departed this 
life June 30, 1893. 



SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE, 
inventor of the recording telegraph in- 
strument, was born in Charlestown, Massa- 
chusetts, April 27, 1 791. He graduated 
from Yale College in 18 10, and took up art 
as his profession. He went to London with 
the great American painter, Washington 
Allston, and studied in the Royal Academy 
under Benjamin West. His " Dying Her- 
cules, " his first effort in sculpture, took the 
gold medal in 181 3. He returned to Amer- 
ica in 181 5 and continued to pursue his 
profession. He was greatly interested in 
scientific studies, which he carried on in 
connection with other labors. He founded 
the National Academy of Design and was 
many years its president. He returned to 
Europe and spent three years in study 
in the art centers, Rome, Florence, Venice 
and Paris. In 1S32 he returned to America 
and while on the return voyage the idea of 
a recording telegraph apparatus occurred to 
him, and he made a drawing to represent his 
conception. He was the first to occupy the 
chair of fine arts in the University of New 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



125 



York City, and in 1835 he set up his rude 
instrument in his room in the university. 
But it was not until after many years of 
discouragement and reverses of fortune that 
he finally was successful in placing his inven- 
tion before the public. In 1844, by aid of 
the United States government, he had con- 
structed a telegraph line forty miles in length 
from Washington to Baltimore. Over this 
line the test was made, and the first tele- 
graphic message was flashed May 24, 1844, 
from the United States supreme court rooms 
to Baltimore. It read, "What hath God 
wrought!" His fame and fortune were es- 
tablished in an instant. Wealth and honors 
poured in upon him from that day. The 
nations of Europe vied with each other 
in honoring the great inventor with medals, 
titles and decorations, and the learned 
societies of Europe hastened to enroll his 
name upon their membership lists and confer 
degrees. In 1 S58 he was the recipient of an 
honor never accorded to an inventor before. 
The ten leading nations of Europe, at the 
suggestion of the Emporer Napoleon, ap- 
pointed representatives to an international 
congress, which convened at Paris for the 
special purpose of expressing gratitude of the 
nations, and they voted him a present of 
400,000 francs. 

Professor Morse was present at the unveil- 
ing of a bronze statue erected in his honor in 
Central Park, New York, in 187 1 . His last 
appearance in public was at the unveiling 
of the statue of Benjamin Franklin in New 
York in 1872, when he made the dedica- 
tory speech and unveiled the statue. He 
died April 2, 1872, in the city of New York. 



M ( 



ORRISON REMICH WAITE, seventh 
chief justice of the United States, was 
born at Lyme, Connecticut, November 29, 
1 8 16. He was a graduate from Yale Col- 



lege in 1837, in the class with William M. 
Evarts. His father was judge of the su- 
preme court of errors of the state of Con- 
necticut, and in his office young Waite 
studied law. He subsequently removed to 
Ohio, and was elected to the legislature of 
that state in 1849. He removed from 
Haumee City to Toledo and became a prom- 
inent legal light in that state. He was 
nominated as a candidate for congress re- 
peatedly but declined to run, and also de- 
clined a place on the supreme bench of the 
state. He won great distinction for his able 
handling of the Alabama claims at Geneva, 
before the arbitration tribunal in 1S71, and 
was appointed chief justice of the supreme 
court of the United States in 1874 on the 
death of Judge Chase. When, in 1876, elec- 
toral commissioners were chosen to decide 
the presidential election controversy between 
Tilden and Hayes, Judge Waite refused to 
serve on that commission. 

His death occurred March 23, 1888:, 



ELISHA KENT KANE was one of the 
distinguished American explorers of the 
unknown regions of the frozen north, and 
gave to the world a more accurate knowl- 
edge of the Arctic zone. Dr. Kane was 
born February 3, 1820, at Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. He was a graduate of the 
universities of Virginia and Pennsylvania, 
and took his medical degree in 1843. He 
entered the service of the United States 
navy, and was physician to the Chinese 
embassy. Dr. Kane traveled extensively 
in the Levant, Asia and Western Africa, 
and also served in the Mexican war, in 
which he was severely wounded. His 
first Arctic expedition was under De Haven 
in the first Grinnell expedition in search 
of Sir John Franklin in 1850. He com- 
manded the second Grinnell expedition 



126 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



in 1853-55, and discovered an open polar 
sea. For this expedition he received a gold 
medal and other distinctions. He published 
a narrative of his first polar expedition in 
1853, and in 1856 published two volumes 
relating to his second polar expedition. He 
was a man of active, enterprising and cour- 
ageous spirit. His health, which was al- 
ways delicate, was impaired by the hard- 
ships of his Arctic expeditions, from which 
he never fully recovered and from which he 
died February 16, 1857, at Havana. 



ELIZABETH CADY STANTON was a 
daughter of Judge Daniel Cady and 
Margaret Livingston, and was born Novem- 
ber 12, 181 5, at Johnstown, New York. She 
was educated at the Johnstown Academy, 
where she studied with a class of boys, and 
was fitted for college at the age of fifteen, 
after which she pursued her studies at Mrs. 
Willard's Seminary, at Troy. Her atten- 
tion was called to the disabilities of her sex 
by her own educational experiences, and 
through a study of Blackstone, Story, and 
Kent. Miss Cady was married to Henry B. 
Stanton in 1840, and accompanied him to 
the world's anti-slavery convention in Lon- 
don. While there she made the acquain- 
tance of Lucretia Mott. Mrs. Stanton 
resided at Boston until 1847, when the 
family moved to Seneca Falls, New York, 
and she and Lucretia Mott signed the first 
call for a woman's rights convention. The 
meeting was held at her place of residence 
July 19-20, 1848. This was the first oc- 
casion of a formal claim of suffrage for 
women that was made. Mrs. Stanton ad- 
dressed the New York legislature, in 1854, 
on the rights of married women, and in 
i860, in advocacy of the granting of di- 
vorce for drunkenness. She also addressed 
the legislature and the constitutional con- 



vention, and maintained that during the 
revision of the constitution the state was 
resolved into its original elements, and that 
all citizens had, therefore, a right to vote 
for the members of that convention. After 
1869 Mrs. Stanton frequently addressed 
congressional committees and state consti- 
tutional conventions, and she canvassed 
Kansas, Michigan, and other states when 
the question of woman suffrage was sub- 
mitted in those states. Mrs. Stanton was 
one of the editors of the " Revolution," and 
most of the calls and resolutions for con- 
ventions have come from her pen. She 
was president of the national committee, 
also of the Woman's Loyal League, and 
of the National Association, for many years. 



DAVID DUDLEY FIELD, a great 
American jurist, was born in Connecti- 
cut in 1805. He entered Williams College 
when sixteen years old, and commenced the 
study of law in 1S25. In 1828 he was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and went to New York, 
where he soon came into prominence be- 
fore the bar of that state. He entered upon 
the labor of reforming the practice and 
procedure, which was then based upon the 
common law practice of England, and had 
become extremely complicated, difficult and 
uncertain in its application. His first paper 
on this subject was published in 1839, and 
after eight years of continuous efforts in this 
direction, he was appointed one of a com- 
mission by New York to reform the practice 
of that state. The resuit was embodied in 
the two codes of procedure, civil and crimi- 
nal, the first of which was adopted almost 
entire by the state of New York, and has 
since been adopted by more than half the 
states in the Union, and became the basis 
of the new practice and procedure in Eng- 
land, contained in the Judicature act. He 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



127 



was later appointed chairman cf a new com- 
mission to codify the entire body of laws. 
This great work employed many years in its 
completion, but when finished it embraced 
a civil, penal, and political code, covering 
the entire field of American laws, statutory 
and common. This great body of law was 
adopted by California and Dakota territory 
in its entirety, and many other states have 
since adopted its substance. In 1S67 the 
British Association for Social Science heard 
a proposition from Mr. Field to prepare an 
international code. This led to the prepara- 
tion of his " Draft Outlines of an Interna- 
tional Code," which was in fact a complete 
body of international laws, and introduced 
the principle of arbitration. Other of his 
codes of the state of New York have since 
been adopted by that state. 

In addition to his great works on law, 
Mr. Field indulged his literary tastes by fre- 
quent contributions to general literature, 
and his articles on travels, literature, and 
the political questions of the hour gave 
him rank with the best writers of his time. 
His father was the Rev. David Dudley Field, 
and his brothers were Cyrus W. Field, Rev. 
Henry Martin Field, and Justice Stephen 
J. Field of the United States supreme 
court. David Dudley Field died at New 
York, April 13, 1894. 



HENRY M. TELLER, a celebrated 
American politician, and secretary of 
the interior under President Arthur, was born 
May 23, 1830, in Allegany county, New 
York. He was of Hollandish ancestry and 
received an excellent education, after which 
he took up the study of law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in the state of New York. 
Mr. Teller removed to Illinois in January, 
1858, and practiced for three years in that 
state. From thence he moved to Colorado 



in 1 86 1 and located at Central City, which 
was then one of the principal mining towns 
in the state. His exceptional abilities as 
a lawyer soon brought him into prominence 
and gained for him a numerous and profit- 
able clientage. In politics he affiliated with 
the Republican party, but declined to become 
a candidate for office until the admission of 
Colorado into the Union as a state, when 
he was elected to the United States senate. 
Mr. Teller drew the term ending March 
4, 1877, but was re-elected December 11, 
1876, and served until April 17, 1882, when 
he was appointed by President Arthur as 
secretary of the interior. He accepted a 
cabinet position with reluctance, and on 
March 3, 1885, he retired from the cabinet, 
having been elected to the senate a short 
time before to succeed Nathaniel P. Hill. 
Mr. Teller took his seat on March 4, 18S5, 
in the senate, to which he was afterward 
re-elected. He served as chairman on the 
committee of pensions, patents, mines and 
mining, and was also a member of commit- 
tees on claims, railroads, privileges and 
elections and public lands. Mr. Teller came 
to be recognized as one of the ablest advo- 
cates of the silver cause. He was one of the 
delegates to the Republican National conven- 
tion at St. Louis in 1896, in which he took 
an active part and tried to have a silver 
plank inserted in the platform of the party. 
Failing in this he felt impelled to bolt the 
convention, which he did and joined forces 
with the great silver movement in the cam- 
paign which followed, being recognized in 
that campaign as one of the most able and 
eminent advocates of "silver" in America. 



JOHN ERICSSON, an eminent inven- 
tor and machinist, who won fame in 
America, was born in Sweden, July 31,1 803. 
In early childhood he evinced a decided in- 



128 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



clination to mechanical pursuits, and at the 
age of eleven he was appointed to a cadet- 
ship in the engineer corps, and at the age of 
seventeen was promoted to a lieutenancy. 
In 1826 he introduced a "flame engine," 
which he had invented, and offered it to 
English capitalists, but it was found that it 
could be operated only by the use of wood 
for fuel. Shortly after this he resigned his 
commission in the army of Sweden, and de- 
voted himself to mechanical pursuits. He 
discovered and introduced the principle of 
artificial draughts in steam boilers, and re- 
ceived a prize of two thousand five hundred 
dollars for his locomotive, the "Novelty," 
which attained a great speed, for that day. 
The artificial draught effected a great saving 
in fuel and made unnecessary the huge 
smoke-stacks formerly used, and the princi- 
ple is still applied, in modified form, in boil- 
ers. He also invented a steam fire-engine, 
and later a hot-air engine, which he at- 
tempted to apply in the operation of his 
ship, "Ericsson," but as it did not give the 
speed required, he abandoned it, but after- 
wards applied it to machinery for pumping, 
hoisting, etc. 

Ericsson was first to apply the screw 
propeller to navigation. The English peo- 
ple not receiving this new departure readily, 
Ericsson came to America in 1839, and 
built the United States steamer, ' ' Prince- 
ton," in which the screw-propeller was util- 
ized, the first steamer ever built in which 
the propeller was under water, out of range 
of the enemy's shots. The achievement 
which gave him greatest renown, however, 
was the ironclad vessel, the "Monitor," an 
entirely new type of vessel, which, in March, 
1862, attacked the Confederate monster 
ironclad ram, " Virginia," and after a fierce 
struggle, compelled her to withdraw from 
Hampton Roads for repairs. After the war 



one of his most noted inventions was his 
vessel, " Destroyer," with a submarine gun, 
which carried a projectile torpedo. In 1886 
the king of Spain conferred on him the 
grand cross of the Order of Naval Merit. 
He died in March, 1889, and his body was 
transferred, with naval honors, to the country 
of his birth. 



JAMES BUCHANAN, the fifteenth presi- 
dent of the United States, was a native 
of Pennsylvania, and was born in Franklin 
county, April 23, 1 79 1 . He was of Irish 
ancestry, his father having come to this 
country in 1783, in quite humble circum- 
stances, and settled in the western part of 
the Keystone state. 

James Buchanan remained in his se- 
cluded home for eight years, enjoying but 
few social or intellectual advantages. His 
parents were industrious and frugal, and 
prospered, and, in 1799, the family removed 
to Mercersbur Pennsylvania, where he 
was placed in school. His progress was 
rapid, and in 1801 he entered Dickinson 
College, at Carlisle, where he took his place 
among the best scholars in the institution. 
In 1809 he graduated with the highest hon- 
ors in his class. He was then eighteen, tall, 
graceful and in vigorous health. He com- 
menced the study of law at Lancaster, and 
was admitted to the bar in 18 12. He rose 
very rapidly in his profession and took a 
stand with the ablest of his fellow lawyers. 
When but twenty-six years old he success- 
fully defended, unaided by counsel, one of 
the judges of the state who was before the 
bar of the state senate under articles of im- 
peachment. 

During the war of 1812-15, Mr. Buch- 
anan sustained the government with all his 
power, eloquently urging the vigorous prose- 
cution of the war, and enlisted as a private 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



129 



volunteer to assist in repelling the British 
who had sacked and burned the public 
buildings of Washington and threatened 
Baltimore. At that time Buchanan was 
a Federalist, but the opposition of that 
party to the war with Great Britain and the 
alien and sedition laws of John Adams, 
brought that party into disrepute, and drove 
many, among them Buchanan, into the Re- 
publican, or anti-Federalist ranks. He was 
elected to congress in 1S28. In 1831 he 
was sent as minister to Russia, and upon 
his return to this country, in 1833, was ele- 
vated to the United States senate, and re- 
mained in that position for twelve years. 
Upon the accession of President Polk to 
office he made Mr. Buchanan secretary of 
state. Four years later he retired to pri- 
vate life, and in 1853 he was honored with 
the mission to England. In 1856 the na- 
tional Democratic convention nominated 
him for the presidency and he was elected. 
It was during his administration that the 
rising tide of the secession movement over- 
took the country. Mr. Buchanan declared 
that the national constitution gave him no 
power to do anything against the movement 
to break up the Union. After his succession 
by Abraham Lincoln in i860, Mr. Buchanan 
retired to his home at Wheatland, Pennsyl- 
vania, where he died June I, 1868. 



JOHN HARVARD, the founder of the 
Harvard University, was born in Eng- 
land about the year 1608. He received his 
education at Emanuel College, Cambridge, 
and came to America in 1637, settling in 
Massachusetts. He was a non-conformist 
minister, and a tract of land was set aside 
for him in Charlestown, near Boston He 
was at once appointed one of a committee to 
formulate a body of laws for the colony. 
One year before his arrival in the colony 



the general court had voted the sum of four 
hundred pounds toward the establishment of 
a school or college, half of which was to be 
paid the next year In 1637 preliminary 
plans were made for starting the school. In 
1638 John Harvard, who had shown great 
interest in the new institution of learning 
proposed, died, leaving his entire property, 
about twice the sum originally voted, to the 
school, together with three hundred volumes 
as a nucleus for a library. The institution 
was then given the name of Harvard, and 
established at Newton (now Cambridge), 
Massachusetts. It grew to be one of the two 
principal seats of learning in the new world, 
and has maintained its reputation since. It 
now consists of twenty-two separate build- 
ings, and its curriculum embraces over one 
hundred and seventy elective courses, and it 
ranks among the great universities of the 
world. 

ROGER BROOKE TANEY, a noted 
jurist and chief justice of the United 
States supreme court, was born in Calvert 
county, Maryland, March 17, 1777. He 
graduated fiom Dickinson College at the 
age of eighteen, took up the study of law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1799. He 
was chosen to the legislature from his county, 
and in 1801 removed to Frederick, Mary- 
land. He became United States senator 
from Maryland in 18 16, and took up his 
permanent residence in Baltimore a few 
years later. In 1824 he became an ardent 
admirer and supporter of Andrew Jackson, 
and upon Jackson's election to the presi- 
dency, was appointed attorney general of 
the United States. Two years later he was 
appointed secretary of the treasury, and 
after serving in that capacity for nearly one 
year, the senate refused to confirm the ap- 
pointment. In 1835, upon the death of 



130 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



Chief-justice Marshall, he was appointed to 
that place, and a political change having 
occurred in the make up of the senate, he 
was confirmed in 1336. He presided at 
his first session in January of the following 
year. 

The case which suggests itself first to 
the average reader in connection with this 
jurist is the celebrated " Dred Scott " case, 
which came before the supreme court for 
decision in 1856. In his opinion, delivered 
on behalf of a majority of the court, one 
remarkable statement occurs as a result of 
an exhaustive survey of the historical 
grounds, to the effect that ' ' for more than 
a century prior to the adoption of the con- 
stitution they (Africans) had been regarded 
so far inferior that they had no rights which 
a white man was bound to respect." Judge 
Taney retained the office of chief justice 
until his death, in 1864. 



JOHN LOTHROP MOTLEY.— This gen- 
tleman had a world-wide reputation as 
an historian, which placed him in the front 
rank of tiie great men of America. He was 
born April 15, 1814, at Dorchester, Massa- 
chusetts, was given a thorough preparatory 
education and then attended Harvard, from 
which he was graduated in 1831. He also 
studied at Gottingen and Berlin, read law 
and in 1836 was admitted to the bar. In 
1 84 1 he was appointed secretary of the 
legation at St. Petersburg, and in 1866-67 
served as United States minister to Austria, 
serving in the same capacity during 1S69 
and 1S70 to England. In 1856, after long 
and exhaustive research and preparation, he 
published in London "The Rise of the 
Dutch Republic." It embraced three vol- 
umes and immediately attracted great at- 
tention throughout Europe and America as 
a work of unusual merit. From 1S61 to 



1868 he produced "The History of the 
United Netherlands," in four volumes. 
Other works followed, with equal success, 
and his position as one of the foremost his- 
torians and writers of his day was firmly 
established. His death occured May 29, 
■877- 

ELIAS HOWE, the inventor of the sew- 
ing machine, well deserves to be classed 
among the great and noted men of Amer- 
ica. He was the son of a miller and farmer 
and was born at Spencer, Massachusetts, 
July 9, 1 8 19. In 1835 he went to Lowell 
and worked there, and later at Boston, in the 
machine shops. His first sewing machine 
was completed in 1 845 , and he patented it in 
1846, laboring with the greatest persistency 
in spite of poverty and hardships, working 
for a time as an engine driver on a railroad 
at pauper wages and with broken health. 
He then spent two years of unsuccessful ex- 
ertion in England, striving in vain to bring 
his invention into public notice and use. 
He returned to the United States in almost 
hopeless poverty, to find that his patent 
had been violated. At last, however, he 
found friends who assisted him financially, 
and after years of litigation he made good 
his claims in the courts in 1854. His inven- 
tion afterward brought him a large fortune. 
During the Civil war he volunteered as a 
private in the Seventeenth Connecticut Vol- 
unteers, and served for some time. During 
his life time he received the cross of the 
Legion of Honor and many other medals. 
His death occurred October 3, 1867, at 
Brooklyn, New York. 



PHILLIPS BROOKS, celebrated as an 
eloquent preacher and able pulpit ora- 
tor, was born in Boston on the 13th day of 
December, 1835. lie received excellent 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



181 



educational advantages, and graduated at 
Harvard in 1855. Early in life he decided 
upon the ministry as his life work and 
studied theology in the Episcopal Theolog- 
ical Seminary, at Alexandria, Virginia. In 
1859 he was ordained and the same year 
became pastor of the Church of the Advent, 
in Philadelphia. Three years later he as- 
sumed the pastorate of the Church of the 
Holy Trinity, where he remained until 1870. 
At the expiration of that time he accepted 
the pastoral charge of Trinity Church in 
Boston, where his eloquence and ability at- 
tracted much attention and built up a pow- 
erful church organization. Dr. Brooks also 
devoted considerable time to lecturing and 
literary work and attained prominence in 
these lines. 

WILLIAM B. ALLISON, a statesman 
of national reputation and one of the 
leaders of the Republican party, was born 
March 2,- 1829, at Perry, Ohio. He grew 
up on his father's farm, which he assisted 
in cultivating, and attended the district 
school. When sixteen years old he went 
to the academy at Wooster, and subse- 
quently spent a year at the Allegheny Col- 
lege, at Meadville, Pennsylvania. He next 
taught school and spent another year at the 
Western Reserve College, at Hudson, Ohio. 
Mr. Allison then took up the study of law 
at Wooster, where he was admitted to the 
bar in 1851, and soon obtained a position 
as deputy county clerk. His political lean- 
ings were toward the old line Whigs, who 
afterward laid the foundation of the Repub- 
lican party. Ha was a delegate to the state 
convention- in 1856. in the campaign of 
which he supported Fremont for president. 
Mr Allison removed to Dubuque, Iowa, 
in the following year. He rapidly rose to 
prominence at the bar an .1 i.i politics. In 



i860 he was chosen as a delegate to the 
Republican convention held in Chicago, of 
which he was elected one of the secretaries. 
At the outbreak of the civil war he was ap- 
pointed on the staff of the governor. His 
congressional career opened in 1862, when 
he was elected to the thirty-eighth congress; 
he was re-elected three times, serving from 
March 4, 1863, to March 3, 1871. He was 
a member of the ways and means committee 
a good part of his term. His career in the 
United States senate began in 1873, and he 
rapidly rose to eminence in national affairs, 
his service of a quarter of a century in that 
body being marked by close fealty to the 
Republican party. He twice declined the 
portfolio of the treasury tendered him by 
Garfield and Harrison, and his name was 
prominently mentioned for the presidency 
at several national Republican conventions. 



M 



ARY ASHTON LIVERMORE, lec- 
turer and writer, was born in Boston, 
December 19, 182 1. She was the daughter 
of Timothy Rice, and married D. P. Liver- 
more, a preacher of the Universalist church. 
She contributed able articles to many of the 
most noted periodicals of this country and 
England. During the Civil war she labored 
zealously and with success on behalf of the 
sanitary commission which played so impor- 
tant a part during that great struggle. She 
became editor of the " Woman's Journal," 
published at Boston in 1870. 

She held a prominent place as a public 
speaker and writer on woman's suffrage, 
temperance, social and religious questions, 
and her influence was great in every cause 
she advocated. 



JOHN B. GOUGH, a noted temperance 
lecturer, who won his fame in America, 
was born in the village of Sandgate, Kent, 



132 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



England, August 22, 18 17. He came to 
the United States at the age o{ twelve. 
He followed the trade of bookbinder, and 
lived in great poverty on account of the 
liquor habit. In 1843, however, he re- 
formed, and began his career as a temper- 
ance lecturer. He worked zealously in the 
cause of temperance, and his lectures and 
published articles revealed great earnestness. 
He formed temperance societies throughout 
the entire country, and labored with great 
success. He visited England in the same 
cause about the year 1853 and again in 
1878. He also lectured upon many other 
topics, in which he attained a wide reputa- 
tion. His death occurred February 18, 
1886. 

THOMAS BUCHANAN READ, author, 
sculptor and painter, was born in Ches- 
ter county, Pennsylvania, March 12, 1822. 
He early evinced a taste for art, and began 
the study of sculpture in Cincinnati. Later 
he found painting more to his liking. He 
went to New York, where he followed this 
profession, and later to Boston. In 1846 
he located in Philadelphia. He visited 
Italy in 1850, and studied at Florence, 
where he resided almost continuously for 
twenty-two years. He returned to America 
in 1872, and died in New York May 11 of 
the same year. 

He was the author of many heroic 
poems, but the one giving him the most re- 
nown is his famous "Sheridan's Ride," of 
which he has also left a representation in 
painting. 

EUGENE V. DEBS, the former famous 
president of the American Railway 
Union, and great labor leader, was born in 
the city of Terre Haute, Indiana, in 1855. 
Fie received his education in the public 



schools of that place and at the age of 
sixteen years began work as a painter in 
the Vandalia shops. After this, for some 
three years, he was employed as a loco- 
motive fireman on the same road. His 
first appearance in public life was in his 
canvass for the election to the office of city 
clerk of Terre Haute. In this capacity he 
served two terms, and when twenty six 
years of age was elected a member of the 
legislature of the state of Indiana. While 
a member of that body he secured the 
passage of several bills in the interest of 
organized labor, of which he was always 
a faithful champion. Mr. Debs' speech 
nominating Daniel Voorhees for the United 
States senate gave him a wide reputation for 
oratory. On the expiration of his term in 
the legislature, he was elected grand secre- 
tary and treasurer of the Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Fireman and filled that office 
for fourteen successive years. He was 
always an earnest advocate of confederation 
of railroad men and it was mainly through 
his efforts that the United Order of Railway 
Employes, composed of the Brotherhood 
of Railway Trainmen and Conductors, 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and 
the Switchmen's Mutual Aid Association was 
formed, and he became a member of its 
supreme council. The order was dissolved 
by disagreement between two of its leading 
orders, and then Mr. Debs conceived the 
idea of the American Railway Union. He 
worked on the details and the union came 
into existence in Chicago, June 20, 1 893. For 
a time it prospered and became one of the 
largest bodies of railway men in the world. 
It won in a contest with the Great Northern 
Railway. In the strike made by the union 
in sympathy with the Pullman employes 
inaugurated in Chicago June 25, 1S94, and 
the consequent rioting, the Railway Union 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



is. 3 



lost much prestige and Mr. Debs, in company 
with others of the officers, being held as in con- 
tempt of the United States courts, he suffered 
a sentence of six months in jail at Wood- 
stock, McHenry county, Illinois. In 1897 
Mr. Debs, on the demise of the American 
Railway Union, organized the Social 
Democracy, an institution founded on the 
best lines of the communistic idea, which 
was to provide homes and employment for 
its members. 



JOHN G. CARLISLE, famous as a law- 
yer, congressman, senator and cabinet 
officer, was born in Campbell (now Kenton) 
county, Kentucky, September 5, 1835, on a 
farm. He received the usual education oi 
the time and began at an early age to teach 
school and, at the same time, the study of 
law. Soon opportunity offered and he 
entered an office in Covington, Kentucky, 
and was admitted to practice at the bar in 
1858. Politics attracted his attention and 
in 1859 he was elected to the house of rep- 
resentatives in the legislature of his native 
state. On the outbreak of the war in 1861 , 
he embraced the cause of the Union and was 
largely instrumental in preserving Kentucky 
to the federal cause. He resumed his legal 
practice for a time and declined a nomina- 
tion as presidential elector in 1864. In 
1866 and again in 1869 Mr. Carlisle was 
elected to the senate of Kentucky. He re- 
signed this position in 1871 and was chosen 
lieutenant governor of the state, which office 
he held until 1875. He was one of the 
presidential electors-at-large for Ken- 
tucky in 1876. He first entered congress in 
1877, and soon became a prominent leader 
on the Democratic side of the house of rep- 
resentatives, and continued a member of 
that body through the forty-sixth, forty- 
seventh, forty-eighth and forty-ninth con- 



gresses, and was speaker of the house during 
the two latter. He was elected to the 
United States senate to succeed Senator 
Blackburn, and remained a member of that 
branch of congress until March, 1893, when 
he was appointed secretary of the treasury. 
He performed the duties of that high office 
until March 4, 1S97, throughout the en- 
tire second administration of President 
Cleveland. His ability and many years of 
public service gave him a national reputa- 
tion. 

FRANCES E. WILLARD, for many years 
president of the 'Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union, and a noted American 
lecturer and writer, was born in Rochester, 
New York, September 28, 1839. Graduating 
from the Northwestern Female College at the 
age of nineteen she began teaching and met 
with great success in many cities of the west. 
She was made directress of Genesee Wts- 
leyan Seminary at Lima, Ohio, in 1867, and 
four years later was elected president of the 
Evanston College for young ladies, a branch 
of the Northwestern University. 

During the two years succeeding 1869 
she traveled extensively in Europe and the 
east, visiting Egypt and Palestine, aad 
gathering materials for a valuable course of 
lectures, which she delivered at Chicago on 
her return. She became very popular, and 
won great influence in the temperance 
cause. Her work as president of the Wo- 
man's Christian Temperance Union greatly 
strengthened that society, and she made 
frequent trips to Europe in the interest of 
that cause. 

RICHARD OLNEY.— Among the promi- 
nent men who were members of the . 
cabinet of President Cleveland in his second 
administration, the gentleman whose name 



184 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



heads this sketch held a leading place, oc- 
cupying the positions of attorney general 
and secretary of state. 

Mr. Olney came from one of the oldest 
and most honored New England families; 
the first of his ancestors to come from Eng- 
land settled in Massachusetts in 1635. This 
was Thomas Olney. He was a friend and 
co-religionist of Roger Williams, and when 
the latter moved to what is now Rhode 
I'sland, went with him and became one of 
the founders of Providence Plantations. 

Richard Olney was born in Oxford, 
Massachusetts, in 1835, and received the 
elements of his earlier education in the com- 
mon schools which New England is so proud 
of. He entered Brown University, from 
which he graduated in 1856, and passed the 
Harvard law school two years later. He 
began the practice of his profession with 
Judge B. F. Thomas, a prominent man of 
that locality. For years Richard Olney was 
regarded as one of the ablest and most 
learned lawyers in Massachusetts. Twice 
he was offered a place on the bench of the 
suoreme court of the state, but both times 
he declined. He was always a Democrat 
in his political tenets, and for many years 
was a trusted counsellor of members of that 
party. In 1874 Mr. Olney was elected a 
member of the legislature. In 1876, during 
trie heated presidential campaign, to 
strengthen the cause of Mr. Tilden in the 
New England states, it was intimated that 
in the event of that gentleman's election to 
the presidency, Mr. Olney would be attor- 
ney General. 

When Grover Cleveland was elected presi- 
' ! ' s nt of the United States, on his inaugura- 
tion in March, 1893, he tendered the posi- 
tion of attorney general to Richard Olney. 
This was accepted, and that gentleman ful- 
fclled the duties of the office until the death 



of Walter Q. Gresham, in May, 1895, made 
vacant the position of secretary of state. 
This post was filled by the appointment of 
Mr. Olney. While occupying the later 
office, Mr. Olney brought himself into inter- 
national prominence by some very able state 
papers. 

JOHN JAY KNOX, for many years comp- 
troller of the currency, and an eminent 
financier, was born in Knoxboro, Oneida 
county, New York, May 19, 1828. He re- 
ceived a good education and graduated at 
Hamilton College in 1849. For about 
thirteen years he was engaged as a private 
banker, or in a position in a bank, where 
he laid the foundation of his knowledge of 
the laws of finance. In 1862, Salmon P. 
Chase, then secretary of the treasury, ap- 
pointed him to an office in that department 
of the government, and later he had charge 
of the mint coinage correspondence. In 1867 
Mr. Knox was made deputy comptroller 
of the currency, and in that capacity, in 
1870, he made two reports on the mint 
service, with a codification of the mint and 
coinage laws of the United States, and 
suggesting many important amendments 
These reports were ordered printed by reso- 
lution of congress. The bill which he pre- 
pared, with some slight changes, was sub- 
sequently passed, and has been known in 
history as the " Coinage Act of 1873." 

In 1872 Mr. Knox w?s appointed comp- 
troller of the currency, and held that re- 
sponsible position until 1884, when he re- 
signed. He then accepted the position of 
president of the National Bank of the Re- 
public, of New York City, which institution 
he served for many years. He was the 
author of " United States Notes," published 
in 1884. In the reports spoken of above, a 
history of the two United States ban'.: 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



185 



given, together with that of the state and 
national banking system, and much valuable 
statistical matter relating to kindred sub- 
jects. 

NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE.— In the 
opinion of many critics Hawthorne is 
pronounced the foremost American novelist, 
and in his peculiar vein of romance is said 
to be without a peer. His reputation is 
world-wide, and his ability as a writer is 
recognized abroad as well as at home. 
He was born July 4, 1804, at Salem, Massa- 
chusetts. On account of feeble health he 
spent some years of his boyhood on a farm 
near Raymond, Maine. He laid the foun- 
dation of a liberal education in his youth, 
and entered Bowdoin College, from which 
he graduated in 1825 in the same class with 
H W Longfellow and John S. C. Abbott. 
He then returned to Salem, where he gave 
his attention to literature, publishing several 
tales and other articles in various periodi- 
cals. His first venture in the field of ro- 
mance, " Fanshaw," proved a failure. In 
1836 he removed to Boston, and became 
editor of the "American Magazine," which 
soon passed out of existence. In 1837 ne 
published "Twice Told Tales," which were 
chiefly made up of his former contributions 
to magazines. In 1838-41 he held a posi- 
tion in the Boston custom house, but later 
took part in t!ie " Brook farm experiment," 
a socialistic idea after the plan of Fourier. 
In 1843 he was married and took up his 
residence at the old parsonage at Concord, 
Massachusetts, which he immortalized in 
his next work, "Mosses From an Old 
Manse," published in 1 S46. From the lat- 
ter date until 1850 he was surveyor of the 
port of Salem, and while thus employed 
wrote one of his strongest works, "The 
Scarlet Letter." For the succeeding two 

8 



years Lenox, Massachusetts, was his home, 
and the " House of the Seven Gables" was 
produced there, as well as the " Blithedale 
Romance." In 1852 he published a "Life 
of Franklin Pierce," a college friend whom 
he warmly regarded. In 1853 he was ap- 
pointed United States consul to Liverpool, 
England, where he remained some years, 
after which he spent some time in Italy. 
On returning to his native land he took up 
his residence at Concord, Massachusetts. 
While taking a trip for his health with ex- 
President Pierce, he died at Plymouth, New 
Hampshire, May 19, 1864. In addition to 
the works mentioned above Mr. Hawthorne 
gave to the world the following books: 
" True Stories from History," "The Won- 
der Book," " The Snow Image," "Tangle- 
wood Tales," "The Marble Faun," and 
' ' Our Old Home. " After his death appeared 
a series of "Notebooks," edited by his wife, 
Sophia P. Hawthorne; " Septimius Felton," 
edited by his daughter, Una, and " Dr. 
Grimshaw's Secret," put into shape by his 
talented son, Julian. He left an unfinished 
work called " Dolliver Romance," which has 
been published just as he left it. 



ABRAHAM LINCOLN, sixteenth presi- 
dent of the United States, was born 
February 12, 1809, in Larue county (Har- 
din county), Kentucky, in a log-cabin near 
Hudgensville. When he was eight years 
old he removed with his parents to Indiana, 
near the Ohio river, and a year later his 
mother died. His father then married Mrs. 
Elizabeth (Bush) Johnston, of Elizabeth- 
town, Kentucky, who proved a kind of fos- 
ter-mother to Abraham, and encouraged 
him to study. He worked as a farm hand 
and as a clerk in. a store at Gentry ville, and 
was noted for his athletic feats and strength, 
fondness for debate, a fund of humorous. 



136 



coirrEXDii'M of nioGRArnr 



anecdote, as well as the composition of rude 
verses. He made a trip at the age of nine- 
teen to New Orleans on a flat-boat, and set- 
tled in Illinois in 1S30. He assisted his 
father to build a log house and clear a farm 
on the Sangamon river near Decatur, Illinois, 
and split the rails with which to fence it. In 
1 85 1 he was employed in the building of a 
flat-boat on the Sangamon, and to run it to 
New Orleans. The voyage gave him a new 
insight into the horrors of slavery in the 
south. On his return he settled at New 
Salem and engaged, first as a clerk in a store, 
then as grocer, surveyor and postmaster, and 
he piloted the first steamboat that as- 
cended the Sangamon. He participated in 
the Black Hawk war as captain of volun- 
teers, and after his return he studied law, 
interested himself in politics, and became 
prominent locally as a public speaker. He 
was elected to the legislature in 1834 as a 
" Clay Whig, " and began at once to dis- 
play a command of language and forcible 
rhetoric that made him a match for his 
more cultured opponents. He was ad- 
mitted to the b^.r in 1837, and began prac- 
tice at Springfield. He married a lady of a 
prominent Kentucky family in 1842. He 
was active in the presidential campaigns of 
1840 and 1844 and was an elector on the 
Harrison and Clay tickets, and was elected 
to congress in 1846, over Peter Cartwright. 
He voted for the Wilmot proviso and the 
abolition of slavery in the District of Colum- 
bia, and opposed the war with Mexico, but 
gained little prominence during his two 
years' service. He then returned to Spring- 
field and devoted his attention to law, tak- 
ing little interest in politics, until the repeal 
of the Missouri compromise and the passage 
of the Kansas-Nebraska bill in 1S54. This 
awakened his interest in politics again and 
be attacked the champion of that measure, 



Stephen A. Douglas, in a speech at Spring- 
field that made him famous, and is said 
by those who heard it to be the greatest 
speech of his life. Lincoln was selected as 
candidate for the United States senate, but 
was defeated by Trumbull. Upon the pas- 
sage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill the Whig 
party suddenly went to pieces, and the Re- 
publican party gathered head. At the 
Bloomington Republican convention in 1856 
Lincoln made an effective address in which 
he first took a position antagonistic to the ex- 
istence of slavery. He was a Fremont elector 
and received a strong support for nomina- 
tion as vice-president in the Philadelphia 
convention. In 1858 he was the unanimous 
choice of the Republicans for the United 
States senate, and the great campaign of de- 
bate which followed resulted in the election 
of Douglas, but established Lincoln's repu- 
tation as the leading exponent of Republican 
doctrines. He began to be mentioned in 
Illinois as candidate for the presidency, and 
a course of addresses in the eastern states 
attracted favorable attention. When the 
national convention met at Chicago, his 
rivals, Chase, Seward, Bates and others, 
were compelled to retire before the western 
giant, and he was nominated, with Hannibal 
Hamlin as his running mate. The Demo- 
cratic party had now been disrupted, and 
Lincoln's election assured. He carried 
practically every northern state, and the 
secession of South Carolina, followed by a 
number of the gulf states, took place before 
his inauguration. Lincoln is the only presi- 
dent who was ever compelled to reach 
Washington in a secret manner. He es- 
caped assassination by avoiding Baltimore, 
and was quietly inaugurated March 4, 1S61. 
His inaugural address was firm but con- 
ciliatory, and he said to the secessionists: 
"You have no oath registered in heaven 



COMPHXDIUM OF biography. 



137 



to destroy the government, while I have the 
most solemn one to preserve, protect and 
defend it.' He made up his cabinet chiefly 
of those political rivals in his own part}' — 
Seward, Chase, Cameron, Bates — and se- 
cured the co-operation of the Douglas Dem- 
ocrats. His great deeds, amidst the heat 
and turmoil of war, were: His call for 
seventy-five thousand volunteers, and the 
blockading of southern ports; calling of con- 
gress in extra session, July 14, 1861, and 
obtaining four hundred thousand men and 
four hundred million dollars for the prosecu- 
tion of the war; appointing Stanton secre- 
tary of war; issuing the emancipation proc- 
lamation; calling three hundred thou- 
sand volunteers; address at Gettysburg 
cemetery; commissioned Grant as lieuten- 
ant-general and commander-in-chief of the 
armies of the United States; his second 
inaugural address; his visit to the army be- 
fore Richmond, and his entry into Rich- 
mond the day after its surrender. 

Abraham Lincoln was shot by John 
Wi'kes Booth in a box in Ford's theater 
at - Washington the night of April 14, 1865, 
and expired the following morning. His 
h>dy was buried at Oak Ridge cemetery, 
Springfield, Illinois, and a monument com- 
memorating his great work marks his resting 
place. 

STEPHEN GIRARD, the celebrated 
philanthropist, was born in Bordeaux, 
France, May 24, 1750. He became a sailor 
engaged in the American coast trade, and 
also made frequent trips to the West Indies. 
During the Revolutionary war he was a 
grocer and liquor seller in Philadelphia. 
He married in that city, and afterward 
separated from his wife. After the war he 
again engaged in the coast and West India 
trade, and his fortune began to accumulate 



from receiving goods from West Indian 
planters during the insurrection in Hayti, 
little of which was ever called for again. 
He became a private banker in Philadelphia 
in 18 1 2, and afterward was a director in the 
United States Bank. He made much money 
by leasing property in the city in times of 
depression, and upon the revival of industry 
sub-leasing at enormous profit. He became 
the wealthiest citizen of the United States 
of his time. 

He was eccentric, ungracious, and a 
freethinker. He had few, if any, friends in 
his lifetime. However, he was most chari- 
tably disposed, and gave to charitable in- 
stitutions and schools with a liberal hand. 
He did more than any one else to relieve 
the suffering and deprivations during the 
great yellow fever scourge in Philadelphia, 
devoting his personal attention to the sick. 
He endowed and made a free institution, 
the famous Will's Eye and Ear Infirmary 
of Phiiadelpha — one of the largest institu- 
tions of its kind in the world. At his death 
practically all his immense wealth was be- 
queathed to charitable institutions, more 
than two millions of dollars going to the 
founding of Girard College, which was to 
be devoted to the education and training of 
boys between the ages of six and ten years. 
Large donations were also made to institu- 
tions in Philadelphia and New Orleans. 
The principal building of Girard College is 
the most magnificent example of Greek 
architecture in America. Girard died De- 
cember 26, 1 83 1. 



LOUIS J. R. AGASSIZ, the eminent nat- 
uralist and geologist, was born in the 
parish of Motier, near Lake Neuchatel, Swit- 
zerland, May 28, 1807, but attained his 
greatest fame after becoming an American 
citizen. He studied the medical sciences at 



138 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



Zurich, Heidelberg and Munich. His first 
work was a Latin description of the fishes 
which Martius and Spix brought from Brazil. 
This was published in 1 829-3 1 . He devoted 
much time to the study of fossil fishes, and 
in 1832 was appointed professor of natural 
history at Neuchatel. He greatly increased 
his reputation by a great work in French, 
entitled " Researches on Fossil Fishes," in 
1832-42, in which he made many important 
improvements in the classification of fishes. 
Having passed, many summers among the 
Alps in researches on glaciers, he propounded 
some new and interesting ideas on geology, 
and the agency of glaciers in his "Studies 
by the Glaciers." This was published in 
1840. This latter work, with his " System 
of the Glaciers," published in 1847, are 
among his principal works. 

In 1S46, Professor Agassiz crossed the 
ocean on a scientific excursion to the United 
States, and soon determined to remain here. 
He accepted, about the beginning of 1848, 
the chair of zoology and geology at Harvard. 
He explored the natural history of the 
United States at different times and gave an 
impulse to the study of nature in this 
country. In 1S65 he conducted an expedi- 
tion to Brazil, and explored the lower Ama- 
zon and its tributaries. In 1868 he was 
made non-resident professor of natural his- 
tory at Cornell University. In December, 
1 87 1, he accompanied the Hassler expedi- 
tion, under Professor Pierce, to the South 
Atlantic and Pacific oceans. He died at 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, December 14, 

Among other of the important works of 
Professor Agassiz may be mentioned the fol- 
lowing: "Outlines of Comparative Physi- 
ology," "Journey to Brazil," and "Contri- 
butions to the Natural History of the United 
States." It is said of Professor Agassiz, 



that, perhaps, with the exception of Hugh 
Miller, no one had so popularized science in 
his day, or trained so many young natural- 
ists. Many of the theories held by Agassiz 
are not supported by many of the natural- 
ists of these later days, but upon many of 
the speculations into the origin of species and 
in physics he has left the marks of his own 
strongly marked individuality. 



WILLIAM WINDOM.— As a prominent 
and leading lawyer of the great north- 
west, as a member of both houses of con- 
gress, and as the secretary of the treasury, 
the gentleman whose name heads this sketch 
won for himself a prominent position in the 
history of our country. 

Mr. Windom was a native of Ohio, 
born in Belmont county, May 10, 1827. 
He received a good elementary education in 
the schools of his native state, and took up 
the study of law. He was admitted to the 
bar, and entered upon the practice of his 
profession in Ohio, where he remained until 
1855. In the latter year he made up his 
mind to move further west, and accordingly 
went to Minnesota, and opening an office, 
became identified with the interests of that 
state, and the northwest generally. In 
1858 he took his place in the Minnesota 
delegation in the national house of repre- 
sentatives, at Washington, and continued 
to represent his constituency in that body 
for ten years. In 1871 Mr. Windom was 
elected United States senator from Min- 
nesota, and was re-elected to the same office 
after fulfilling the duties of the position for 
a full term, in 1876. On the inauguration 
of President Garfield, in March, 1881, Mr. 
Windom became secretary of the treasury 
in his cabinet. He resigned this office Oc- 
tober 27, 1 88 1, and was elected senator 
from the North Star state to fill the va- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



139 



cancy caused by the resignation of A. J. 
Edgerton. Mr. Windom served in that 
chamber until March, 1S83. 

William Windom died in New York 
City January 29, 1891. 



DON M. DICKINSON, an American 
politician and lawyer, was born in 
Port Ontario, New York, January 17, 1846. 
He removed with his parents to Michigan 
when he was but two years old. He was 
educated in the public schools of Detroit 
and at the University of Michigan at Ann 
Arbor, and was admitted to the bar at the 
age of twenty-one. In 1872 he was made 
secretary of the Democratic state central 
committee of Michigan, and his able man- 
agement of the campaign gave him a prom- 
inent place in the councils of his party. In 
1876, during the Tilden campaign, he acted 
as chairman of the state central committee. 
He was afterward chosen to represent his 
state in the Democratic national committee, 
and in 1886 he was appointed postmaster- 
general by President Cleveland. After the 
expiration of his term of office he returned 
to Detroit and resumed the practice of law. 
In the presidential campaign of 1896, Mr. 
Dickinson adhered to the "gold wing "of 
the Democracy, and his influence was felt 
in the national canvass, and especially in 
his own state. 



JOHN JACOB ASTOR, the founder of 
the Astor family and fortunes, while not 
a native of this country, was one of the 
most noted men of his time, and as all his 
wealth and fame were acquired here, he 
may well be classed among America's great 
men. He v/as born near Heidelberg, Ger- 
many, July 17, 1763, and when twenty 
years old emigrated to the United States. 
Even at that age he exhibited remarkable 



business ability and foresight, and soon he 
was investing capital in furs which he took 
to London and sold at a great profit.. He 
next settled at New York, and engaged ex- 
tensively in the fur trade. He exported 
furs to Europe in his own vessels, which re- 
turned with cargoes of foreign commodities, 
and thus he rapidly amassed an immense 
fortune. In 181 1 he founded Astoria on 
the western coast of North America, near 
the mouth of the Columbia river, as a depot 
for the fur trade, for the promotion of 
which he sent a number of expeditions to 
the Pacific ocean. He also purchased a 
large amount of real estate in New York, 
the value of which increased enormously 
All through life his business ventures were 
a series of marvelous successes, and he 
ranked as one of the most sagacious and 
successful business men in the world. He 
i i: .3d March 29, 1S48, leaving a fortune es- 
timated at over twenty million dollars to 
his children, who have since increased it. 
John Jacob Astor left $400,000 to found a 
public library in New York City, and his son, 
William B. Astor, who died in 1875, left 
$300,000 to add to his father's bequest. 
This is known as the Astor Library, one of 
the largest in the United States. 



SCHUYLER COLFAX, an eminent 
American statesman, was born in New 
York City, March 23, 1S23, being a grand- 
son of General William Colfax, the com- 
mander of Washington's life-guards. In 
1836 he removed with his mother, who was 
then a widow, to Indiana, settling at South 
Bend. Young Schuyler studied law, and 
in 1845 became editor of the "St. Joseph 
Valley Register," a Whig paper published 
at South Bend. He was a member of the 
convention which formed a new constitu- 
tion for Indiana in 1S50, and he opposed 



140 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



the clause that prohibited colored men 
from settling in that state. In 1851 he was 
defeated as the Whig candidate for congress 
but was elected in 1854, and, being repeat- 
edly re-elected, continued to represent that 
district in congress until 1869. He became 
one of the most prominent and influential 
members of the house of representatives, 
and served three terms a3 speaker. During 
the Civil war he was an active participant 
in all public measures of importance, and 
was a confidential friend and adviser of 
President Lincoln. In May, 1868, Mr. 
Colfax was nominated for vice-president on 
the ticket with General Grant, and was 
elected. After the close of his term he re- 
tired from office, and for the remainder of 
his life devoted much of his time to lectur- 
ing and literary pursuits. His death oc- 
curred January 23, 18S5. He was one of 
the most prominent members of the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows in America, 
and that order erected a bronze statue to 
his memory in University Park. Indianapo- 
lis Indiana, which was unveiled in May, 
1887. 

WILLIAM FREEMAN VILAS, who at- 
tained a national reputation as an able 
lawyer, statesman, and cabinet officer, was 
born at Chelsea, Vermont, July 9, 1840. 
His parents removed to Wisconsin when 
our subject was but eleven years of age, 
and there with the early settlers endured all 
the hardships and trials incident to pioneer 
life. William F. Vilas was given all the 
advantages found in the common schools, 
and supplemented this by a course of study 
in the Wisconsin State University, after 
which he studied law, was admitted to the 
bar and began practicing at Madison. 
Shortly afterward the Civil war broke out 
and Mr. Vilas enlisted and became colonel 



of the Twenty-third regiment of Wisconsin 
Volunteers, serving throughout the war with 
distinction. At the close of the war he re- 
turned to Wisconsin, resumed his law prac- 
tice, and rapidly rose to eminence in this 
profession. In 1S85 he was selected by 
President Cleveland for postmaster-general 
and at the close of his term again returned 
to Madison, Wisconsin, to resume the prac- 
tice of law. 

THOMAS McINTYRE COOLEY, anem- 
inent American jurist and law writer, 
was born in Attica, New York, January G, 
1824. He was admitted to the bar in 1846, 
and four years later was appointed reporter 
of the supreme court of Michigan, which 
office he continued to hold for seven years. 
In the meantime, in 1859, he became pro- 
fessor of the law department of the Univer- 
sity of Michigan, and soon afterward was 
made dean of the faculty of that depart- 
ment. In 1864 he was elected justice of 
the supreme court of Michigan, in 1867 be- 
came chief justice of that court, and in 
1869 was re-elected for a term of eight 
years. In 1881 he again joined the faculty 
of the University of Michigan, assuming the 
professorship of constitutional and adminis- 
trative law. His works on these branches 
have become standard, and he is recog- 
nized as authority on this and related sub- 
jects. Upon the passage of the inter-state 
commerce law in 1887 he became chairman 
of the commission and served in that capac- 
ity four years. 



JOHN PETER ALTGELD, a noted 
American politician and writer on social 
questions, was born in Germany, December 
30, 1S47. He came to America with his 
parents and settled in Ohio when two years 
old. In 1 8C4 ho entered the Union army 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



in 



and served till the close of the war, after 
which he settled in Chicago, Illinois. He 
was elected judge of the superior court of 
Cook count)", Illinois, in 1886, in which 
capacity he served until elected governor of 
Illinois in 1892, as a Democrat. During 
the first year of his term as governor he at- 
tracted national attention by his pardon of 
the anarchists convicted of the Haymarket 
murder in Chicago, and again in 1894 by 
his denunciation of President Cleveland for 
calling out federal troops to suppress the 
rioting in connection with the great Pull- 
man strike in Chicago. At the national 
convention of the Democratic party in Chi- 
cago, in Jul)-, 1896, he is said to have in- 
spired the clause in the platform denuncia- 
tory of interference by federal authorities in 
local affairs, and "government by injunc- 
tion." He was gubernatorial candidate for 
re-election on the Democratic ticket in 1896, 
but was defeated by John R. Tanner, Re- 
publican. Mr. Altgeld published two vol- 
umes of essays on " Live Questions," evinc- 
ing radical views on social matters. 



ADLAI EWING STEVENSON, an Amer. 
ican statesman and politician, was born 
in Christian county, Kentucky, October 23, 
1835, and removed with the family to 
Bloomington, Illinois, in 1852. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1858, and set- 
tled in the practice of his profession 
in Metamora, Illinois. In 1861 he was 
made master in chancery of Woodford 
county, and in 1864 was elected state's at- 
torney. In 1868 he returned to Blooming- 
ton and formed a law partnership with 
James S. Ewing. He had served as a pres- 
idential elector in 1864, and in 1868 was 
elected to congress as a Democrat, receiv- 
ing a majority vote from every county in his 
district. He became prominent in his 



part)-, and was a delegate to the national 
convention in 1S84. On the election of 
Cleveland to the presidency Mr. Stevenson 
was appointed first assistant postmaster- 
general. Afte 1- the expiration of his term 
he continued to exert a controlling influence 
in the politics of his state, and in 1892 was 
elected vice-president of the United States 
on the ticket with Grover Cleveland. At 
the expiration of his term of office he re- 
sumed the practice of law at Bloomington, 
Illinois. 

SIMON CAMERON, whose name is 
prominently identified with the history 
of the United States as a political leader 
and statesman, was born in Lancaster coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania, March 8, 1799. He grew 
to manhood in his native county, receiving 
good educational advantages, and develop- 
ing a natural inclination for political life. 
He rapidly rose in prominence and became 
the most influential Democrat in Pennsyl- 
vania, and in 1845 waselected by that party 
to the United States senate. Upon the 
organization of the Republican party he was 
one of the first to declare his allegiance to 
it, and in 1856 was re-elected United States 
senator from Pennsylvania as a Republican. 
In March, 1861, he was appointed secretary 
of war by President Lincoln, and served 
until early in 1862, when he was sent as 
minister to Russia, returning in 1863. In 
1866 he was again elected United States 
senator and served until 1S77, when he re- 
signed and was succeeded by his son, James 
Donald Cameron. He continued to exert a 
powerful influence in political affairs up to 
the time of his death, June 26, 1889. 

James Donald Cameron was the eld- 
est son of Simon Cameron, and also 
attained a high rank among American 
statesmen. He was born at Harrisburg, 



1*2, 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



Pennsylvania, May 14, 1833, and received an 
excellent education, graduating at Princeton 
College in 1852. He rapidly developed into 
one of the most able and successful business 
men of the country and was largely inter- 
ested in and identified with the develop- 
ment of the coal, iron, lumber and manu- 
facturing interests of his native state. He 
served as cashier and afterward president of 
the Middletown bank, and in 1S61 was made 
vice-president, and in 1863 president of 
the Northern Central railroad, holding this 
position until 1874, when he resigned and 
was succeeded by Thomas A. Scott. This 
road was of great service to the government 
duiing the war as a means of communica- 
tion between Pennsylvania and the national 
capital, via Baltimore. Mr. Cameron also 
took an active part in political affairs, 
always as a Republican. In May, 1876, 
he was appointed secretary of war in Pres- 
ident Grant's cabinet, and in 1S77 suc ~ 
ceeded his father in the United States 
senate. He was re-elected in 1885, and 
again in 1891, serving until 1896, and was 
recognized as one of the most prominent and 
influential members of that bodv. 



ADOLPHUS W. GREELEY, a famous 
American arctic explorer, was born at 
Newburyport, Massachusetts, March 27, 
1844. He graduated from Brown High 
School at the age of sixteen, and a year 
later enlisted in Company B, Nineteenth 
Massachusetts Infantry, and was made first 
sergeant. In 18G3 he was promoted to 
second lieutenant. After the war he was 
assigned to the Filth United States Cavalry, 
and became first lieutenant in 1873. He 
was assigned to duly in the United States 
signal service shortly after the close of the 
war. An expedition was fitted out by the 
United States government in 1881, un- 



der auspices of the weather bureau, and 
Lieutenant Greeley placed in command. 
They set sail from St. Johns the first week 
in July, and after nine days landed in Green- 
land, where they secured the services of two 
natives, together with sledges, dogs, furs 
and equipment. They encountered an ice 
pack early in August, and on the 28th of 
that month freezing weather set in. Two 
of his party, Lieutenant Lockwood and Ser- 
geant Brainard, added to the known maps 
about forty miles of coast survey, and 
reached the highest point jet attained by 
man, eighty-three degrees and twenty-four 
minutes north, longitude, forty-four degrees 
and five minutes west. On their return to 
Fort Conger, Lieutenant Greeley set out 
for the south on August 9, 1S83. He 
reached Baird Inlet twenty days later with 
his entire party. Here they were compelled 
to abandon their boats, and drifted on an 
ice-floe for one month. They then went 
into camp at Cape Sabine, where they suf- 
fered untold hardships, and eighteen of the 
parly succumbed to cold and hunger, and 
had relief been delayed two days longer 
none would have been found alive. They 
were picked up by the relief expedition, 
under Captain Schley, June 22, 1884. The 
dead were taken to New York for burial. 
Many sensational stories were published 
concerning the expedition, and Lieutenant 
Greeley prepared an exhaustive account 
of his explorations and experiences. 



LEVI P. MORTON, the 
tician, was born in 
moat, May 16, 1824, and 
tion consisted of the rud 
obtained in the common 
age of fourteen, and after 
knowledge he gained was 
hard school of experience. 



; millionaire poii- 
Shoreham, Ver- 

his early educa- 
iments which he 
school up to the 

that time what 

wrested from the 

He removed to 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



143 



Hanover, Vermont, then Concord, Vermont, 
and afterwards to Boston. He had worked 
in a store at Shoreham, his native village, 
and on going to Hanover he established a 
store and went into business for himself. 
In Boston he clerked in a dry goods store, 
and then opened a business of his own in 
the same line in New York. After a short 
career he failed, and was compelled to set- 
tle with his creditors at only fifty cents on 
the dollar. He began the struggle anew, 
and when the war began he ^ established a 
banking house in New York, with Junius 
Morgan as a partner. Through his firm 
and connections the great government war 
loans were floated, and it resulted in im- 
mense profits to his house. When he was 
again thoroughly established he invited his 
former creditors to a banquet, and under 
each guest's plate was found a check cover- 
ing the amount of loss sustained respec- 
tively, with interest to date. 

President Garfield appointed Mr. Mor- 
ton as minister to France, after he had de- 
clined the secretaryship of the navy, and in 
1 888' he was nominated as candidate for 
vice-president, with Harrison, and elected. 
In 1894 he was elected governor of New 
York over David B. Hill, and served one 
term. 

CHARLES KENDALL ADAMS, one 
of the most talented and prominent 
educators this country has known, was born 
January 24, 1835, at Derby, Vermont. He 
received an elementary education in the 
common schools, and studied two terms in 
the Derby Academy. Mr. Adams moved 
with his parents to Iowa in 1856. He was 
very anxious to pursue a collegiate course, 
but this was impossible until he had attained 
the age of twenty-one. In the autumn of 
1856 he began the study of Latin and Greek 



at Denmark Academy, and in September, 
1857, he was admitted to the University of 
Michigan. Mr. Adams was wholly depend- 
ent upon himself for the means of his edu- 
cation. During his third and fourth year 
he became deeply interested in historical 
studies, was assistant librarian of the uni- 
versity, and determined to pursue a post- 
graduate course. In 1864 he was appointed 
instructor of history and Latin and was ad- 
vanced to an assistant professorship in 1865, 
and in 1867, on the resignation of Professoi 
White to accept the presidency of Cornell, 
he was appointed to fill the chair of profes- 
sor of history. This he accepted on con- 
dition of his being allowed to spend a year 
for special study in Germany, France and 
Italy. Mr. Adams returned in 1868, and 
assumed the duties of his professorship. 
He introduced the German system for the 
instruction of advanced history classes, and 
his lectures were largely attended. In 18S5, 
on the resignation of President White at 
Cornell, he was elected his successor and 
held the office for seven years, and on Jan- 
uary 17, 1893, he was inaugurated presi- 
dent of the University of Wisconsin. Pres- 
ident Adams was prominently connected 
with numerous scientific and literary organ- 
izations and a frequent contributor to the 
historical and educational data in the peri- 
odicals and journals of the country. He 
was the author of the following: " Dem- 
ocracy and Monarchy in France," " Manual 
of Historical Literature," " A Plea for Sci- 
entific Agriculture," " Higher Education in 
Germany." 

JOSEPH B. FORAKER, a prominent po- 
litical leader and ex-governor of Ohio, 
was born near Rainsboro, Highland county, 
Ohio, July 5, 1846. His parents operated 
a small farm, with a grist and sawmill, hav- 



144 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



ing emigrated hither from Virginia and 
Delaware on account of their distaste for 
slavery. 

Joseph was reared upon a farm until 
1862, when he enlisted in the Eighty-ninth 
Ohio Infantry. Later he was made ser- 
geant, and in 1864 commissioned first lieu- 
tenant. The next year he was brevetted 
captain. At the age of nineteen he was 
mustered out of the army after a brilliant 
service, part of the time being on the staff 
of General Slocum. He participated in the 
battles of Missionary Ridge, Lookout Mount- 
ain and Kenesaw Mountain and in Sher- 
man's march to the sea. 

For two years subsequent to the war 
young Foraker was studying at the Ohio 
Wesleyan University at Delaware, but later 
went to Cornell University, at Unity, New 
York, from which he graduated July 1, 
1869. He studied law and was admitted to 
the bar. In 1879 Mr. Foraker was elected 
judge of the superior court of Cincinnati 
and held the office for three years. In 1S83 
he was defeated in the contest for the gov- 
ernorship with Judge Hoadly. In 1885, 
however, being again nominated for the 
same office, he was elected and served two 
terms. In 1889, in running for governor 
again, this time against James E. Camp- 
bell, he was defeated. Two years later his 
career in the United States senate began. 
Mr. Foraker was always a prominent figure 
at all national meetings of the Republican 
party, and a strong power, politically, in his 
native state. 



LYMAN ABBOTT, an eminent American 
preacher and writer on religious sub- 
jects, came of a noted New England 
family. His father, Rev. Jacob Abbott, was 
a prolific and popular writer, and his uncle, 
Rev. John S. C. Abbott, was a noted 



preacher and author. Lyman Abbott was 
born December 18, 1835, m Roxbury, 
Massachusetts. He graduated at the New 
York University, in 1853, studied law, and 
practiced for a time at the bar, after which 
he studied theology with his uncle, Rev. 
John S. C. Abbott, and in i860 was settled 
in the ministry at Terre Haute, Indiana, re- 
maining there until after the close of the 
war. He then became connected with the 
Freedmen's Commission, continuing this 
until 1868, when he accepted the pastorate 
of the New England Congregational church, 
in New York City. A few years later he re- 
signed, to devote his time principally to lit- 
erary pursuits. For a number of years he 
edited for the American Tract Society, its 
"Illustrated Christian Weekly," also the 
New York "Christian Union." He pro- 
duced many works, which had a wide circu- 
lation, among which may be mentioned the 
following: "Jesus of Nazareth, His Life and 
Teachings," "Old Testament Shadows of 
New Testament Truths," "Morning and 
Evening Exercises, Selected from Writings 
of Henry Ward Beecher," "Laicus, or the 
Experiences of a Layman in a Country 
Parish," "Popular Religious Dictionary," 
and "Commentaries on Matthew, Mark, 
Luke, John and Acts." 



GEORGE WILLIAM CURTIS.— The 
well-known author, orator and journal- 
ist whose name heads this sketch, was born 
at Providence, Rhode Island, February 24, 
1824. Having laid the foundation of a 
most excellent education in his native land, 
he went to Europe and studied at the Uni- 
versity of Berlin. He made an extensive 
tour throughout the Levant, from which he 
returned home in 1850. At that early age 
literature became his field of labor, and in 
1851 he published his first important work, 



.^ 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



145 



" Nile Notes of a Howadji." In 1852 two 
works issued from his facile pen, "The 
Howadji in Syria," and "Lotus-Eating." 
Later on he was the author of the well- 
known " Potiphar Papers," " Prue and I," 
and "Trumps." He greatly distinguished 
himself throughout this land as a lecturer 
on many subjects, and as an orator had but 
few peers. He was also well known as one 
of the most fluent speakers on the stump, 
making many political speeches in favor of 
the Republican party. In recognition of 
his valuable services, Mr. Curtis was ap- 
pointed by President Grant, chairman of 
the advisory board of the civil service. Al- 
though a life-long Republican, Mr. Curtis 
refused to support Blaine for the presidency 
in 1884, because of his ideas on civil ser- 
vice and other reforms. For his memorable 
and magnificent eulogy on Wendell Phillips, 
delivered in Boston, in 1884, that city pre- 
sented Mr. Curtis with a gold medal. 

George W. Curtis, however, is best 
known to the reading public of the United 
States by his connection with the Harper 
Brothers, having been editor of the " Har- 
per's Weekly, " and of the "Easy Chair," 
in " Harper's Monthly Magazine, "for many 
years, in fact retaining that position until 
the day of his death, which occurred August 
31, i89 2 - 

ANDREW JOHNSON, the seventeenth 
president of the United States, served 
from 1865 to 1869. He was born Decem- 
ber 8, 1808, at Raleigh, North Carolina, 
and was left an orphan at the age of four 
years. He never attended school, and was 
apprenticed to a tailor. While serving his 
apprenticeship he suddenly acquired a pas- 
sion for knowledge, and learned to read. 
From that time on he spent all his spare 
time in reading, and after working for two 



years as a journeyman tailor at Lauren's 
Court House, South Carolina, he removed 
to Greenville, Tennessee, where he worked 
at his trade and was married. Under his 
wife's instruction he made rapid progress in 
his studies and manifested such an interest 
in local politics as to be elected as " work- 
ingmen's candidate " alderman in 1828, and 
in 1830 to the mayoralty, and was twice 
re-elected to each office. Mr. Johnson 
utilized this time in cultivating his talents 
as a public speaker, by taking part in a de- 
bating society. He was elected in 1835 to 
the lower house of the legislature, was re- 
elected in 1839 as a Democrat, and in 
1 841 was elected state senator. Mr. John- 
son was elected representative in congress 
in 1843 and was re-elected four times in 
succession until 1S53, when he was the suc- 
cessful candidate for the gubernatorial chair 
of Tennessee. He was re-elected in 1855 
and in 1857 he entered the United States 
senate. In i860 he was supported by the 
Tennessee delegation to the Democratic 
convention for the presidential nomination, 
and lent his influence to the Breckinridge 
wing of the party. At the election of Lin- 
coln, which brought about the first attempt 
at secession in December, i860, Mr. John- 
son took a firm attitude in the senate for 
the Union. He was the leader of the loy- 
alists in East Tennessee. By the course 
that Mr. Johnson pursued in this crisis he 
was brought prominently before the north- 
ern people, and when, in March, 1862, he 
was appointed military governor of Ten- 
nessee with the rank of brigadier-general, 
he increased his popularity by the vigorous 
manner in which he labored to restore 
order. In the campaign of 1S64 he was 
elected vice-president on the ticket with 
President Lincoln, and upon the assassi- 
nation of the latter he succeeded to the 



146 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



presidency, April 15, 1865. He retained 
the cabinet of President Lincoln, and at 
first exhibited considerable severity towards 
the former Confederates, but he soon inau- 
gurated a policy of reconstruction, pro- 
claimed a general amnesty to the late Con- 
federates, and established provisional gov- 
ernments in the southern states. These 
states claimed representation in congress in 
the following December, and then arose the 
momentous question as to what should be 
the policy of the victorious Union against 
their late enemies. The Republican ma- 
jority in congress had an apprehension that 
the President would undo the results of the 
war, and consequently passed two bills over 
the executive veto, and the two highest 
branches of the government were in open 
antagonism. The cabinet was reconstructed 
in July, and Messrs. Randall, Stanbury and 
Browning superseded Messrs. Denison, 
Speed and Harlan. In August, 1867, Pres- 
ident Johnson removed the secretary of war 
and replaced him with General Grant, but 
when congress met in December it refused 
to ratify the removal of Stanton, who re- 
sumed the functions of his office. In 1868 
the president again attempted to remove 
Stanton, who refused to vacate his post 
and was sustained by the senate. Presi- 
dent Johnson was accused by congress of 
high crimes and misdemeanors, but the trial 
resulted in his acquittal. Later he was Uni- 
ted States senator from Tennessee, and 
died July 31, 1875. 



EDMUND RANDOLPH, first attorney- 
general of the United States, was born 
in Virginia, August 10, 1753. His father, 
John Randolph, was attorney-general of 
Virginia, and lived and died a royalist. Ed- 
mund was educated in the law, but joined 
the army as aide-de-camp to Washington 



in 1775, at Cambridge, Massachusetts. He 
was elected to the Virginia convention in 
1776, and attorney-general of the state the 
same year. In 1779 he was elected to the 
Continental congress, and served four years 
in that body. He was a member of the con- 
vention in 1787 that framed the constitu- 
tion. In that convention he proposed what 
was known as the " Virginia plan" of con- 
federation, but it was rejected. He advo- 
cated the ratification of the constitution in 
the Virginia convention, although he had re- 
fused to sign it. He became governor of 
Virginia in 1788, and the next year Wash- 
ington appointed him to the office of at- 
torney-general of the United States upon 
the organization of the government under 
the constitution. He was appointed secre- 
tary of state to succeed Jefferson during 
Washington's second term, but resigned a 
year later on account of differences in the 
cabinet concerning the policy pursued to- 
ward the new French republic. He died 
September 12, 181 3. 



W INFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK was 
born in Montgomery county, Penn- 
sylvania, February 14, 1824. He received 
his early education at the Norristown 
Academy, in his native county, and, in 1840, 
was appointed a cadet in the United States 
Military Academy, at West Point. He was 
graduated from the latter in 1844, and brev- 
etted as second lieutenant of infantry. In 
1853 he was made first lieutenant, and two 
years later transferred to the quartermaster's 
department, with the rank of captain, and 
in 1863 promoted to the rank of major. He 
served on the frontier, and in the war with 
Mexico, displaying conspicuous gallantry dur- 
ing the latter. He also took a part in the 
Seminole war, and in the troubles in Kan- 
sas, in 1857, and in California, at the out- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



147 



break of the Civil war, as chief quarter- 
master of the Southern district, he exerted 
a powerful influence. In 1861 he applied 
for active duty in the field, and was assigned 
to the department of Kentucky as chief 
quartermaster, but before entering upon that 
duty, was appointed brigadier-general of 
volunteers. His subsequent history during 
the war was substantially that of the Army 
of the Potomac. He participated in the 
campaign, under McClellan, and led the 
gallant charge, which captured Fort Magru- 
der, won the day at the battle of Wil- 
liamsburg, and by services rendered at 
Savage's Station and other engagements, 
won several grades in the regular service, 
and was recommended by McClellan for 
major-general of volunteers. He was a con- 
spicuous figure at South Mountain and An- 
tietam. He was commissioned major-gen- 
eral of volunteers, November 29, 1862, and 
made commander of the First Division of 
the Second Corps, which he led at Fred- 
ricksburg and at Chancellorsville. He was 
appointed to the command of the Second 
Corps in June, 1863, and at the battle of 
Gettysburg, July I, 2 and 3, of that year, 
took an important part. On his arrival on 
the field he found part of the forces then 
in retreat, but stayed the retrograde 
movement, checked the enemy, and on the 
following day commanded the left center, 
repulsed, on the third, the grand assault of 
General Lee's army, and was severely 
wounded. For his services on that field 
General Hancock received the thanks of 
congress. On recovering from his wound, 
he was detailed to go north to stimulate re- 
cruiting and fill up the diminished corps, and 
was the recipient of many public receptions 
and ovations. In March, 1864, he returned 
to his command, and in the Wilderness and 
at Spottsylvania led large bodies of m< n 



successfully and conspicuously. From that 
on to the close of the campaign he was a 
prominent figure. In November, 1864, he 
was detailed to organize the First Veteran 
Reserve Corps, and at the close of hostilities 
was appointed to the command of the Mid- 
dle Military Division. In July, 1866, he 
was made major-general of the regular 
service. He was at the head of various 
military departments until 1872, when he 
wasassigned to the command of the Depart- 
ment of the Atlantic, which post he held 
until his death. In 1869 he declined the 
nomination for governor of Pennsylvania. 
He was the nominee of the Democratic 
party for president, in 1880, and was de- 
feated by General Garfield, who had a popu- 
lar majority of seven thousand and eighteen 
and an electoral majority'.of fifty-nine. Gen- 
eral Hancock died February 9, 1886. 



THOMAS PAINE, the most noted polit- 
ical and deistical writer of the Revolu- 
tionary period, was born in England, Jan- 
uary 29, 1737, of Quaker parents. His edu- 
cation was. obtained in the grammar schools 
of Thetford, his native town, and supple- 
mented by hard private study while working 
at his trade of stay-maker at London and 
other cities of England. He was for a time 
a dissenting preacher, although he did not 
relinquish his employment. He married a 
revenue official's daughter, and was employed 
in the revenue service for some time. He 
then became a grocer and during all this time 
he was reading and cultivating his literary 
tastes, and had developed a clear and forci- 
ble style of composition. He was chosen to 
represent the interests of the excisemen, 
and published a pamphlet that brought 
him considerable notice. He was soon after- 
ward introduced to Benjamin Franklin, and 
having been dismissed from the service on a 



148 



COMPEXDICM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



charge of smuggling, his resentment led him 
to accept the advice of that statesman to 
come to America, in 1774. He became 
editor of the ' ' Pennsylvania Magazine," and 
the next year published his "Serious 
Thoughts upon Slavery" in the "Penn- 
sylvania Journal." His greatest political 
work, however, was written at the sugges- 
tion of Dr. Rush, and entitled "Common 
Sense." It was the most popular pamphlet 
written during the period and he received 
two thousand five hundred dollars from the 
state of Pennsylvania in recognition of its 
value. His periodical, the "Crisis," began 
in 1776, and its distribution among the 
soldiers did a great deal to keep up the spirit 
of revolution. He was made secretary cf 
the committee of foreign affairs, but was dis- 
missed for revealing diplomatic secrets in 
one of his controversies with Silas Deane. 
He was originator and promoter of a sub- 
scription to relieve the distress of the soldiers 
near the close of the war, and was sent to 
France with Henry Laurens to negotiate the 
treaty with France, and was granted three 
thousand dollars by congress for his services 
there, and an estate at New Rochelle, by the 
state of New York. 

In 1787, after the close of the Revolu- 
tionary war, he went to France, and a few 
years later published his " Rights of Man," 
defending the French revolution, which 
gave him great popularity in France. He 
was made a citizen and elected to the na- 
tional convention at Calais. He favored 
banishment of the king to America, and 
opposed his execution. He was imprisoned 
for about ten months during 1794 by the 
Robespierre party, during which time he 
wrote the " Age of Reason," his great deis- 
tical work. He was in danger of the guillo- 
tine for several months. He took up his 
residence with the family of James Monroe, 



then minister to France and was chosen 
again to the convention. He returned 
to the United States in 1802, and was 
cordially received throughout the coun- 
try except at Trenton, where he was insulted 
by Federalists. He retired to his estate at 
New Rochelle, and his death occurred June 
8, 1809. 

JOHN WILLIAM MACKAY was one of 
America's noted men, both in the de- 
velopment of the western coast and the 
building of the Mackay and Bennett cable. 
He was born in 1831 at Dublin, Ireland; 
came to New York in 1840 and his boyhood 
days were spent in Park Row. He went 
to California some time after the argonauts 
of 1849 and took to the primitive methods 
of mining — lost and won and finally drifted 
into Nevada about i860. The bonanza dis- 
coveries which were to have such a potent 
influence on the finance and statesmanship 
of the day came in 1872. Mr. Mackay 
founded the Nevada Bank in 1878. He is 
said to have taken one hundred and 
fifty million dollars in bullion out of 
the Big Bonanza mine. There were as- 
sociated with him in this enterprise James 
G. Fair, senator from Nevada; William 
O'Brien and James C. Flood. When 
vast wealth came to Mr. Mackay he be- 
lieved it his duty to do his country some 
service, and he agitated in his mind the 
building of an American steamship line, 
and while brooding over this his attention 
was called to' the cable relations between 
America and Europe. The financial man- 
agement of the cable was selfish and ex- 
travagant, and the capital was heavy with 
accretions of financial " water" and to pay 
even an apparent dividend upon the sums 
which represented the nominal value of the 
cables, it was necessary to hold the rates 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



149 



at an exorbitant figure. And, moreover, 
the cables were foreign; in one the influence 
of France being paramount and in the other 
that of England; and in the matter of intel- 
ligence, so necessary in case of war, we 
would be at the mercy of our enemies. This 
train of thought brought Mr. Mackay into re- 
lation with James Gordon Bennett, the pro- 
prietor of the " New York Herald." The 
result of their intercourse was that Mr. Mac- 
kay so far entered into the enthusiasm of 
Mr. Bennett over an independent cable, 
that he offered to sssist the enterprise with 
five hundred thousand dollars. This was the 
inception of the Commercial Cable Com- 
pany, or of what has been known for years 
as the Mackav-Bennett cable. 



ELISHA GRAY, the great inventor and 
electrician, was born August 2, 1835- 
at Barnesville, Belmont county, Ohio. He 
was, as a child, greatly interested in the 
phenomena of nature, and read with avidity 
all the books he could obtain, relating to 
this subject. He was apprenticed to various 
trades during his boyhood, but his insatiable 
thirst for knowledge dominated his life and 
he found time to study at odd intervals. 
Supporting himself by working at his trade, 
he found time to pursue a course at Oberlin 
College, where he particularly devoted him- 
self to the study of physicial science. Mr. 
Gray secured his first patent for electrical 
or telegraph apparatus on October 1, 1867. 
His attention was first attracted to tele- 
phonic transmission during this year and he 
saw in it a way of transmitting signals for 
telegraph purposes, and conceived the idea 
of electro-tones, tuned to different tones in 
the scale. He did not then realize the im- 
portance of his invention, his thoughts being 
employed on the capacity of the apparatus 
for transmitting musical tones through an 



electric circuit, and it was not until 1874 
that he was again called to consider the re- 
production of electrically-transmitted vibra- 
tions through the medium of animal tissue. 
He continued experimenting with various 
results, which finally culminated in his 
taking out a patent for his speaking tele- 
phone on February 14, 1876. He took out 
fifty additional patents in the course of 
eleven years, among which were, telegraph 
switch, telegraph repeater, telegraph annun- 
ciator and typewriting telegraph. From 
1869 until 1873 he was employed in the 
manufacture of telegraph apparatus in Cleve- 
land and Chicago, and filled the office of 
electrician to the Western Electric Com- 
pany. He was awarded the degree of D. 
S. , and in 1874 he went abroad to perfect 
himself in acoustics. Mr. Gray's latest in- 
vention was known as the telautograph or 
long distance writing machine. Mr. Gray 
wrote and published several works on scien- 
tific subjects, among which were: "Tele- 
graphy and Teiephony," and " Experi- 
mental Research in Electro-Harmonic Tele- 
graphy and Telephony." 



\\ ^HITELAW REID.— Among the many 
V V men who have adorned the field of 
journalism in the United States, few stand 
out with more prominence than the scholar, 
author and editor whose name heads this ar- 
ticle. Born at Xenia, Greene county, Ohio, 
October 27, 1837, he graduated at Miami 
University in 1856. For about a year he 
was superintendent of the graded schools of 
South Charleston, Ohio, after which he pur- 
chased the "Xenia News," which he edited 
for about two years. This paper was the 
first one outside of Illinois to advocate the 
nomination of Abraham Lincoln, Mr. Reid 
having been a Republican since the birth of 
that party in 1856. After taking an active 



150 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY, 



part in the campaign, in the winter of 1860- 
61, he went to the state capital as corres- 
pondent of three daily papers. At the close 
of the session of the legislature he became 
city editor of the "Cincinnati Gazette," 
and at the breaking out of the war went to 
the front as a correspondent for that journal. 
For a time he served on the staff of General 
Morris in West Virginia, with the rank of 
captain. Shortly after he was on the staff 
of General Rosecrans, and, under the name 
of "Agate," wrote most graphic descrip- 
tions of the movements in the field, espe- 
cially that of the battle ol Pittsburg Land- 
ing. In the spring of 1862 Mr. Reid went 
to Washington and was appointed librarian 
to the house of representatives, and acted as 
correspondent of the " Cincinnati Gazette." 
His description of the battle of Gettysburg, 
written on the field, gained him added 
reputation. In 1865 he accompanied Chief 
Justice Chase on a southern tour, and pub- 
lished "After the War; a Southern Tour. " 
During the next two years he was engaged 
in cotton planting in Louisiana and Ala- 
bama, and published "Ohio in the War." 
In 1868 he returned to the " Cincinnati Ga- 
zette," becoming one of its leading editors. 
The same year he accepted the invitation of 
Horace Greeley and became one of the staff 
on the " New York Tribune." Upon the 
death of Mr. Greeley in 1872, Mr. Reid be- 
came editor and chief proprietor of that 
paper. In 1878 he was tendered the United 
States mission to Berlin, but declined. The 
offer was again made by the Garfield ad- 
ministration, but again he declined. In 
1878 he was elected by the New York legis- 
lature regent of the university, to succeed 
General John A. Dix. Under the Harrison 
administration he served as United States 
minister to France, and in 1S92 was the 
Republican nominee for the vice-presidency 



of the United States. Among other works 
published by him were the " Schools of 
Journalism," "The Scholar in Politics," 
''Some Newspaper Tendencies," and 
"Town-Hall Suggestions." 



GEORGE WHITEFIELD was one of 
the most powerful and effective preach- 
ers the world has ever produced, swaying 
his hearers and touching the hearts of im- 
mense audiences in a manner that has rarely 
been equalled and never surpassed. While 
not a native of America, yet much of his 
labor was spent in this country. He wielded 
a great influence in the United States in 
early days, and his death occurred here; so 
that he well deserves a place in this volume 
as one of the most celebrated men America 
has known. 

George Whitefield was born in the Bull 
Inn, at Gloucester, England, December 16, 
1 7 14. He acquired the rudiments of learn- 
ing in St. Mary's grammar school. Later 
he attended Oxford University for a time, 
where he became intimate with the Oxford 
Methodists, and resolved to devote himself 
to the ministry. He was ordained in the 
Gloucester Cathedral June 20, 1S36, and 
the following day preached his first sermon 
in the same church. On that day there 
commenced a new era in Whitefield's life. 
He went to London and began to preach at 
Bishopsgate church, his fame soon spread- 
ing over the city, and shortly he was en- 
gaged four times on a single Sunday in ad- 
dressing audiences of enormous magnitude, 
and he preached in various parts of his native 
country, the people crowding in multitudes 
to hear him and hanging upon the rails and 
rafters of the churches and approaches there- 
to. He finally sailed for America, landing 
in Georgia, where he stirred the people to 
great enthusiasm. During the balance cf 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



153 



his life he divided his time between Great 
Britain and America, and it is recorded that 
he crossed the Atlantic thirteen times. He 
came to America for the seventh time in 
1770. He preached every day at Boston 
from the 17th to the 20th of September, 
1770, then traveled to Newburyport, preach- 
ing at Exeter, New Hampshire, September 
-29, on the way. That evening he went to 
Newburyport, where he died the next day, 
Sunday, September 30, 1770. 

' ' Whitefield's dramatic power was amaz- 
ing, " says an eminent writer in describing 
him. " His voice was marvelously varied, 
and he ever had it at command — an organ, 
a flute, a harp, all in one. His intellectual 
powers were not of a high order, but he had 
an abundance of that ready talent and that 
wonderful magnetism which makes the pop- 
ular preacher; and beyond all natural en- 
dowments, there was in his ministry the 
power of evangelical truth, and, as his con- 
verts believed, the presence of the spirit of 
God." 



CHARLES FRANCIS BRUSH, one of 
America's prominent men in the devel- 
opment of electrical science, was born March 
17, 1849, near Cleveland, Ohio, and spent 
his early life on his father's farm. From 
the district school at Wickliffe, Ohio, he 
passed to the Shaw Academy at Collamer, 
and then entered the high school at Cleve- 
land. His interest in chemistry, physics 
and engineering was already marked, and 
during his senior year he was placed in 
charge of the chemical and physical appar- 
atus. During these years he devised a plan 
for lighting street lamps, constructed tele- 
scopes, and his first electric arc lamp, also 
an electric motor. In September, 1867, he 
entered the engineering department of the 

University of Michigan and graduated in 
9 



1869, which was a year in advance of his 
class, with the degree of M. E. He then 
returned to Cleveland, and for three years 
was engaged as an analytical chemist and 
for four years in the iron business. In 
1875 Mr. Brush became interested in elec- 
tric lighting, and in 1876, after four months' 
experimenting, he completed the dynamo- 
electric machine that has made his name 
famous, and in a shorter time produced the 
series arc lamps. These were both patent- 
ed in the United States in 1876, and he 
afterward obtained fifty patents on his later 
inventions, including the fundamental stor- 
age battery, the compound series, shunt- 
winding for dynamo-electric machines, and 
the automatic cut-out for arc lamps. His 
patents, two-thirds of which have already 
been profitable, are held by the Brush 
Electric Company, of Cleveland, while his 
foreign patents are controlled by the Anglo- 
American Brush Electric Light Company, 
of London. In 1S80 the Western Reserve 
University conferred upon Mr. Brush the 
degree of Ph. D., and in 1881 the French 
government decorated him as a chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. 



HENRY CLEWS, of Wall-street fame, 
was one of the noted old-time opera- 
tors on that famous street, and was also an 
author of some repute. Mr. Clews was 
born in Staffordshire, England, August 14, 
1840. His father had him educated with 
the intention of preparing him for the minis- 
try, but on a visit to the United States the 
young man became interested in a business 
life, and was allowed to engage as a clerk in 
the importing house of Wilson G. Hunt & 
Co., of New York. Here he learned the 
first principles of business, and when the war 
broke out in 1861 young Clews saw in the 
needs of the government an opportunity to 



1S4 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



reap a golden harvest. He identified him- 
self with the negotiating of loans for the 
government, and used his powers of pur- 
suasion upon the great money powers to 
convince them of the stability of the govern- 
ment and the value of its securities. By 
enthusiasm and patriotic arguments he in- 
duced capitalists to invest their money in 
government securities, often against their 
judgment, and his success was remarkable. 
His was one of the leading firms that aided 
the struggling treasury department in that 
critical hour, and his reward was great. In 
addition to the vast wealth it brought, 
President Lincoln and Secretary Chase 
both wrote important letters, acknowledging 
his valued service. In 1873, by the repu- 
diation of the bonded indebtedness of the 
state of Georgia, Mr. Clews lost six million 
dollars which he had invested in those se- 
curities. It is said that he is the only man, 
with one exception, in Wall street, who 
ever regained great wealth after utter dis- 
aster. His " Twenty-Eight Years in Wall 
Street " has been widely read. 



ALFRED VAIL was one of the men that 
gave to the world the electric telegraph 
and the names of Henry, Morse and Vail 
will forever remain linked as the prime fac- 
tors in that great achievement. Mr. Vail 
was born September 25, 1807, at Morris- 
town, New Jersey, and was a son of Stephen 
Vail, the proprietor of the Speedwell Iron 
Works, near Morristown. At the age of 
seventeen, after he had completed his stud- 
ies at the Morristown Academy, Alfred Vail 
went into the Speedwell Iron Works and 
contented himself with the duties of his 
position until he reached his majority. He 
then determined to prepare himself for the 
ministry, and at the age of twenty-five he 
entered the University of the City of New 



York, where he was graduated in 1836. His 
health becoming impaired he labored for a 
time under much uncertainty as to his future 
course. Professor S. F. B. Morse had come 
to the university in 1835 as professor of lit- 
erature and fine arts, and about this time, 
1S37, Professor Gale, occupying the chair 
of chemistry, invited Morse to exhibit his 
apparatus for the benefit of the students. 
On Saturday, September 2, 1837, the exhi- 
bition took place and Vail was asked to at- 
tend, and with his inherited taste for me- 
chanics and knowledge of their construction, 
he saw a great future for the crude mechan- 
ism used by Morse in giving and recording 
signals. Mr. Vail interested his father in 
the invention, and Morse was invited to 
Speedwell and the elder Vail promised to 
help him. It was stipulated that Alfred 
Vail should construct the required apparatus 
and exhibit before a committee of congress 
the telegraph instrument, and was to receive 
a quarter interest in the invention. Morse 
had devised a series of ten numbered leaden 
types, which were to be operated in giving 
the signal. This was not satisfactory to 
Vail, so he devised an entirely new instru- 
ment, involving a lever, or "point," on a 
radically different principle, which, when' 
tested, produced dots and dashes, and de- 
vised the famous dot-and-dash alphabet, 
misnamed the "Morse." At last the ma- 
chine was in working order, on January 6, 
1838. The machine was taken to Wash- 
ington, where it caused not only wonder, 
but excitement. Vail continued his experi- 
ments and devised the lever and roller. 
When the line between Baltimore and- 
Washington was completed, Vail was sta- 
tioned at the Baltimore end and received 
the famous first message. It is a remarka- 
ble fact that not a single feature of the 
original invention of Morse, as formulated 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



155 



by his caveat and repeated in his original 
patent, is to be found in Vail's apparatus. 
From 1S37 to 1844 it was a combination of 
the inventions of Morse, Henry and Vail, 
but the work of Morse fell gradually into 
desuetude, while Vail's conception of an 
alphabet has remained unchanged for half a 
century. Mr. Vail published but one work, 
"American Electro-Magnetic Telegraph," 
in 1845, and died at Morristown at the com- 
paratively early age of fifty-one, on January 
19. i859- 

ULYSSES S. GRANT, the eighteenth 
president of the United States, was 
born April 27, 1822, at Point Pleasant, Cler- 
mont county, Ohio. At the age of seven- 
teen he entered the United States Military 
Academy at West Point, from which he 
graduated in June, 1S43, and was given his 
brevet as second lieutenant and assigned to 
the Fourth Infantry. He remained in the 
service eleven years, in which time he 
was engaged in the Mexican war with gal- 
lantry, and was thrice brevetted for conduct 
in the field. In 1848 he married Miss Julia 
Dent, and in 1854, having reached the 
grade of captain, he resigned and engaged 
in farming near St. Louis. In i860 he en- 
tered the leather business with his father at 
Galena, Illinois. 

On the breaking out of the war, in 1861, 
he commenced to drill a company at Ga- 
lena, and at the same time offered his serv- 
ices to the adjutant-general of the army, 
but he had few influential friends, so re- 
ceived no answer. He was employed by 
the governor of Illinois in the organization 
of the various volunteer regiments, and at 
the end of a few weeks was given the 
colonelcy of the Twenty- first Infantry, from 
that state. His military training and knowl- 
edge soon attracted the attention of his su- 



perior officers, and on reporting to General 
Pope in Missouri, the latter put him in 
the way of advancement. August 7, 1S61, 
he was promoted to the rank of brigadier- 
general of volunteers, and for a few weeks 
was occupied in watching the movements of 
partisan forces in Missouri. September 1, 
the same year, he was placed in command 
of the Department of Southeast Missouri, 
with headquarters at Cairo, and on the 6th 
of the month, without orders, seized Padu- 
cah, which commanded the channel of the 
Ohio and Tennessee rivers, by which he se- 
cured Kentucky for the Union. He now 
received orders to make a demonstration on 
Belmont, which he did, and with about three 
thousand raw recruits held his own against 
the Confederates some seven thousand 
strong, bringing back about two hundred 
prisoners and two guns. In February,] 1 S62, 
he moved up the Tennessee river with 
the naval fleet under Commodore Foote. 
The latter soon silenced Fort Henry, and 
Grant advanced against Fort Donelson and 
took their fortress and its garrison. His 
prize here consisted of sixty-five cannon, 
seventeen thousand six hundred stand of 
arms, and fourteen thousand six hundred 
and twenty-three prisoners. This was the 
first important success won by the Union 
forces. Grant was immediately made a 
major-general and placed in command of 
the district of West Tennessee. In April, 
1 862, he fought the battle of Pittsburg Land- 
ing, and after the evacuation of Corinth by 
the enemy Grant became commander of the 
Department of the Tennessee. He now 
made his first demonstration toward Vicks- 
burg, but owing to the incapacity of subor- 
dinate officers, was unsuccessful. In Janu- 
ary, 1863, he took command of all the 
troops in the Mississippi Valley and devoted 
several months to the siege of Vicksburg, 



156 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



which was finally taken possession of by him 
July 4, with thirty-one thousand six hundred 
prisoners and one hundred and seventy-two 
cannon, thus throwing the Mississippi river 
open to the Federals. He was now raised 
to the rank of major-general in the regular 
army. October following, at the head of 
the Department of the Mississippi, General 
Grant went to Chattanooga, where he over- 
threw the enemy, and united with the Army 
of the Cumberland. The remarkable suc- 
cesses achieved by him pointed Grant out 
for an appropriate commander of all na- 
tional troops, and in February, 1864, the 
rank of lieutenant-general was made for- him 
by act of congress. Sending Sherman into 
Georgia, Sigel into the Valley of West Vir- 
ginia and Butler to attempt the capture of 
Richmond he fought his way through the 
Wilderness to the James and pressed the 
siege of the capital of the Confederacy. 
After the fall of the latter Grant pressed 
the Confederate army so hard that their 
commander surrendered at Appomattox 
Court House, April 9, 1865. This virtually 
ended the war. 

After the war the rank of general was 
conferred upon U. S. Grant, and in 1868 he 
was elected president of the United States, 
and re-elected his own successor in 1872. 
After the expiration of the latter term he 
made his famous tour of the world. He died 
at Mt. McGregor, near Saratoga, New York, 
July 23, 18S5, and was buried at Riverside 
Park, New York, where a magnificent tomb 
has been erected to hold the ashes of the 
nation's hero. 



JOHN MARSHALL, the fourth chief jus- 
<J tice of the United States supreme court, 
was born in Germantown, Virginia, Septem- 
ber 24, 1755. His father, Colonel Thomas 
Marshall, served with distinction in the Rev- 



olutionary war, while he also served from 
the beginning of the war until 1779, where 
he became noted in the field and courts 
martial. While on detached service he at- 
tended a course, of law lectures at William 
and Mary College, delivered by Mr. Wythe, 
and was admitted to the bar. The next year 
he resigned his commission and began his 
career as a lawyer. He was a distinguished 
member of the convention called in Virginia 
to ratify the Federal constitution. He was 
tendered the attorney-generalship of the 
United States, and also a place on the su- 
preme bench, besides other places of less 
honor, all of which he declined. He 
went to France as special envoy in 1798, 
and the next year was elected to congress. 
He served one year and was appointed, first, 
secretary of war, and then secretary of state, 
and in 1801 was made chief justice of the 
United States. He held this high office un- 
til his death, in 1835. 

Chief Justice Marshall's early education 
was neglected, and his opinions, the most 
valuable in existence, are noted for depth 
of wisdom, clear and comprehensive reason- 
ing, justice, and permanency, rather than for 
wide learning and scholarly construction. 
His decisions and rulings are resorted to 
constantly by our greatest lawyers, and his 
renown as a just judge and profound jurist 
was world wide. 



LAWRENCE BARRETT is perhaps 
known more widely as a producer of 
new plays than as a great actor. He was 
born in Paterson, New Jersey, in 1838, and 
educated himself as best he could, and at 
the age of sixteen years became salesman 
for a Detroit dry goods house. He after- 
wards began to go upon the stage as a 
supernumerary, and his ambition was soon 
rewarded by the notice of the management. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



157 



During the war of the Rebellion he was a 
soldier, and after valiant service for his 
country he returned to the stage. He went 
to Europe and appeared in Liverpool, and 
returning in 1869, he began playing at 
Booth's theater, with Mr. Booth. He was 
afterward associated with John McCullough 
in the management of the California 
theater. Probably the most noted period 
of his work was during his connection with 
Edwin Booth as manager of that great 
actor, and supporting him upon the stage. 
Mr. Barrett was possessed of the crea- 
tive instinct, and, unlike Mr. Booth, he 
sought new fields for the display of his 
genius, and only resorted to traditional 
drama in response to popular demand. He 
preferred new plays, and believed in the 
encouragement of modern dramatic writers, 
and was the only actor of prominence in his 
time that ventured to put upon the stage 
new American plays, which he did at his 
own expense, and the success of his experi- 
ments proved the quality of his judgment. 
He died March 21, 1891. 



A RCHBISHOP JOHN HUGHES, a cel- 
i\ ebrated Catholic clergyman, was born 
at Annaboghan, Tyrone county, Ireland, 
June 24, 1797, and emigrated to America 
when twenty years of age, engaging for 
some time as a gardener and nurseryman. 
In 1 8 19 he entered St. Mary's College, 
where he secured an education, paying his 
way by caring for the college garden. In 
1825 he was ordained a deacon of the Ro- 
man Catholic church, and in the same year, 
a priest. Until 1 838 he had pastoral charges 
in Philadelphia, where he founded St. John's 
Asylum in 1S29, and a few years later es- 
tablished the "Catholic Herald." In 1838 
he was made bishop of Basileopolis in parti- 
bus and coadjutor to Bishop Dubois, of 



New York, and in 1842 became bishop of 
New York. In 1839 he founded St. John's 
College, at Fordham. In 1850 he was 
made archbishop of New York. In 186 1-2 
he was a special agent of the United States 
in Europe, after which he returned to this 
country and remained until his death, Jan- 
uary 3, 1864. Archbishop Hughes early 
attracted much attention by his controver- 
sial correspondence with Rev. John Breck- 
inridge in 1833-35. He was a man of great 
ability, a fluent and forceful writer and an 
able preacher. 

RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES 
was the nineteenth president of the 
United States and served from 1877 to 1881. 
He was born October 4, 1822, at Delaware, 
Ohio, and his ancestry can be traced back 
as far as 12S0, when Hayes and Rutherford 
v.cre two Scottish chieftans fighting side by 
side with Baliol, William Wallace and 
Robert Bruce. The Hayes family had for 
a coat of arms, a shield, barred and sur- 
mounted by a flying eagle. There was a 
circle of stars about the eagle, while on a 
scroll underneath was their motto, "Recte. " 
Misfortune overtook the family and in 1680 
George Hayes, the progenitor of the Ameri- 
can family, came to Connecticut and settled 
at Windsor. Rutherford B. Hayes was 
a very delicate child at his birth and was 
not expected to live, but he lived in spite of 
all and remained at home until he was 
seven years old, when he was placed in 
school. He was a very tractablepupil, being 
always very studious, and in 1838 entered 
Kenyon College, graduating from the same 
in 1842. He then took up the study of law 
in the office of Thomas Sparrow at Colum- 
bus, but in a short time he decided to enter 
a law school at Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
where for two years he was immersed in the 



1 '■ 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY, 



study of law. Mr. Hayes was admitted to 
the bar in 1845 in Marietta, Ohio, and very 
soon entered upon the active practice of his 
profession with Ralph P. Buckland, of 
Fremont, Ohio. He remained there three 
years, and in 1849 removed to Cincinnati, 
Ohio, where his ambition found a new 
stimulus. Two events occurred at this 
period that had a powerful influence on his 
after life. One was his marriage to Miss 
Lucy Ware Webb, and the other was his 
introduction to a Cincinnati literary club, 
a body embracing such men as Salmon P. 
Chase, John Pope, and Edward F. Noyes. 
In 1856 he was nominated for judge of the 
court of common pleas, but declined, and 
two years later he was appointed city 
solicitor. At the outbreak of the Rebellion 
Mr. Hayes was appointed major of the 
Twenty-third Ohio Infantry, June 7, 1861, 
and in July the regiment was ordered to 
■Virginia, and October 15, 1861, saw him 
promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy of his 
regiment. He was made colonel of the 
Seventy-ninth Ohio Infantry, but refused to 
leave his old comrades; and in the battle of 
South Mountain he was wounded very 
severely and was unable to rejoin his regi- 
ment until November 30, 1862. He had 
been promoted to the colonelcy of the 
regiment on October 15, 1862. In the 
following December he was appointed to 
command the Kanawa division and was 
given the rank of brigadier-general for 
meritorious services in several battles, and 
in 1864 he was brevetted major-general for 
distinguished services in 1864, during 
which campaign he was wounded several 
times and five horses had been shot under 
him. Mr. Hayes' first venture in politics 
was as a Whig, and later he was one of the 
first to unite with the Republican party. In 
1864 he was elected from the Second Ohio 



district to congress, re-elected in 1866, 
and in 1867 was elected governor of Ohio 
over Allen G. Thurman, and was re-elected 
in 1869. Mr. Hayes was elected to the 
presidency in 1876, for the term of four 
years, and at its close retired to private life, 
and went to his home in Fremont, Ohio, 
where he died on January 17, 1893. 



WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN became 
a celebrated character as the nominee 
of the Democratic and Populist parties for 
president of the United States in 1896. He 
was born March 19, 1S60, at Salem, Illi- 
nois. He received his early education in 
the public schools of his native county, and 
later on he attended the Whipple Academy 
at Jacksonville. He also took a course in 
Illinois College, and after his graduation 
from the same went to Chicago to study 
law, and entered the Union College of Law 
as a student. He was associated with the 
late Lyman Trumbull, of Chicago, during 
his law studies, and devoted considerable 
time to the questions of government. He 
graduated from the college, was admitted to 
the bar, and went to Jacksonville, Illinois, 
where he was married to Miss Miry Eliza- 
beth Baird. In 1887 Mr. Bryan removed 
to Lincoln, Nebraska, and formed a law 
partnership with Adolphus R. Talbot. He 
entered the field of politics, and in 1S8S 
was sent as a delegate to the state con- 
vention, which was to choose delegates to 
the national convention, during which he 
made a speech which immediately won him 
a high rank in political affairs. He declined, 
in the next state convention, a nomination 
for lieutenant-governor, and in 1890 he was 
elected congressman from the First district 
of Nebraska, and was the youngest member 
of the fifty-seconj congress. He cham- 
oioned the Wilson tariff bill, and served 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPII1'. 



159 



three terms in the house of representatives. 
He next ran for senator, but was defeated 
by John M. Thurston, and in 1896 he was 
selected by the Democratic and Populist 
parties as their nominee for the presidency, 
being defeated by William McKinley. 



MARVIN HU' 
famous rail 



IUGHITT, one of America's 
ilroad men, was born in 
Genoa, New York, and entered the railway 
service in 1S56 as superintendent of tele- 
graph and trainmaster of the St. Louis, Al- 
ton & Chicago, now Chicago & Alton Rail- 
road. Mr. Hughitt was superintendent of 
the southern division of the Illinois Central 
Railroad from 1862 until 1864, and was, later 
on, the general superintendent of the road 
until 1870. He was then connected with 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Rail- 
road as assistant general manager, and re- 
tained this position until 1871, when he be- 
came the general manager of Pullman's 
Palace Car Company. In 1872 he was made 
general superintendent of the Chicago & 
Northwestern Railroad. He served during 
1876 and up to 18S0 as general manager, 
and from 1880 until 1887 as vice-presi- 
dent and general manager. He was elected 
president of the road in 1887, in recog- 
nition of his ability in conducting the 
affairs of the road. He was also chosen 
president of the Chicago, St. Paul, Minne- 
apolis & Omaha Railway; the Fremont, Elk- 
horn & Missouri Valley Railroad, and the 
Milwaukee, Lake Shore & Western Railroad, 
and his services in these capacities stamped 
him as one of the most able railroad mana- 
gers of his day. 



JOSEPH MEDILL, one of the most 
eminent of American journalists, was 
born in New Brunswick, Canada, April 6, 
1823. In 1831 his father moved to Stark 



count}', Ohio, and until 1841 Joseph Medill 
worked on his father's farm. Later he 
studied law, and began the practice of that 
profession in 1846 at New Philadelphia, 
Ohio. But the newspaper field was more 
attractive to Mr. Medill, and three years 
later he founded a free-soil Whig paper at 
Coshocton, Ohio, and after that time jour- 
nalism received all his abilities. "The 
Leader, " another free-soil Whig paper, was 
founded by Mr. Medill at Cleveland in 1852. 
In that city he also became one of the first 
organizers of the Republican party. Shortly 
after that event he removed to Chicago and 
in 1855, with two partners, he purchased 
the " Chicago .Tribune." In the contest for 
the nomination for the presidency in i860, 
Mr. Medill worked with unflagging zeal for 
Mr. Lincoln, his warm personal friend, and 
was one of the president's stanchest sup- 
porters during the war. Mr. Medill was a, 
member of the Illinois Constitutional con- 
vention in 1870. President Grant, in 1871, 
appointed the editor a member of the first 
United States civil service commission, and 
the following year, after the fire, he was 
elected mayor of Chicago by a great ma- 
jority. During 1873 and 1874 Mr. Medill 
spent a year in Europe. Upon his return 
he purchased a controlling interest in the 
" Chicago Tribune." 



CLAUSSPRECKELS, the great " sugar 
baron," and one of the most famous 
representatives of commercial life in Amer- 
ica, was born in Hanover, Germany, and 
emigrated to the United States in 1840, 
locating in New York. He very soon be- 
came the proprietor of a small retail gro- 
cery store on Church street, and embarked 
on a career that has since astonished the 
world. He sold out his business and went 
to California with the argonauts of 1849, 



100 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRATHl'. 



not as a prospector, but as a trader, and for 
years after his arrival on the coast he was 
still engaged as a grocer. At length, after a 
quarter of a century of fairly prosperous 
business life, he found himself in a position 
where an ordinary man would have retired, 
but Mr. Spreckles did not retire; he had 
merely been gathering capital for the real 
work of his life. His brothers had followed 
him to California, and in combination with 
them he purchased for forty thousand dollars 
an interest in the Albany Brewery in San 
Francisco. But the field was not extensive 
enough for the development of his business 
abilities, so Mr. Sprecklas branched out 
extensively in the sugar business. He suc- 
ceeded in securing the entire output of 
sugar that was produced on the Sand- 
wich Islands, and after 1885 was known as 
the "Sugar King of Sandwich Islands." 
He controlled absolutely the sugar trade of 
the Pacific coast which was known to be 
not less than ten million dollars a year. 



CHARLES HENRY PARKHURST, 
famous as a clergyman, and for many 
years president of the Society for the 
Prevention of Crime, was born April 17, 
1842, at Framingham, Massachusetts, of 
English descent. At the age of sixteen 
he was pupil in the grammar school at 
Clinton, Massachusetts, and for the ensu- 
ing two years was a clerk in a dry goods 
store, which position he gave up to prepare 
himself for college at Lancaster academy. 
Mr. Parkhurst went to Amherst in 1862, 
and after taking a thorough course he gradu- 
ated in 1866, and in 1867 became the prin- 
cipal of the Amherst High School. He re- 
tained this position until 1870, when he 
visited Germany with the intention of tak- 
ing a course in philosophy and theology, 
but was forced to abandon this intention on 



account of illness in the family causing his 
early return from Europe. He accepted the 
chair of Latin and Greek in Williston Semi- 
nary, Easthampton, Massachusetts, and re- 
mained there two years. He then accom- 
panied his wife to Europe, and devoted two 
years to study in Halle, Leipsic and Bonn. 
Upon his return home he spent considerable 
time in the study of Sanscrit, and in 1874 
he became the pastor of the First Congrega- 
tional church at Lenox, Massachusetts. He 
gained here his reputation as a pulpit ora- 
tor, and on March 9, 1880, he became the 
pastor of the Madison Square Presbyterian 
church of New York. He was, in 1890, 
made a member of the Society for the Pre- 
vention of Crime, and the same year be- 
came its president. He delivered a sermon 
in 1S92 on municipal corruption, for which 
he was brought before the grand jury, which 
body declared his charges to be without suffi- 
cient foundation. But the matter did not end 
here, for he immediately went to work on a 
second sermon in which he substantiated his 
former sermon and wound up by saying, 
"I know, for I have seen." He was again 
summoned before that august body, and as 
a result of his testimony and of the investi- 
gation of the jurors themselves, the police 
authorities were charged with incompetency 
and corruption. Dr. Parkhurst was the 
author of the following works: "The Forms 
of the Latin Verb, Illustrated by Sanscrit," 
"The Blind Man's Creed and Other Ser- 
mons," "The Pattern on the Mount," and 
" Three Gates on a Side." 



HENRY BERGH, although a writer, 
diplomatist and government official, 
was noted as a philanthropist — the founder 
of the American Society for the Prevention 
of Cruelty to Animals. On his labors for 
the dumb creation alone rests his fame. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



161 



Alone, in the face of indifference, opposition 
and ridicule, he began the reform which is 
now recognized as one of the beneficent 
movements of the age. Through his exer- 
tions as a speaker and lecturer, but above 
all as a bold worker, in the street, in the 
court room, before the legislature, the cause 
he adopted gained friends and rapidly in- 
creased in power until it has reached im- 
mense proportions and influence. The work 
of the society covers all cases of cruelty to 
all sorts of animals, employs every moral 
agency, social, legislative and personal, and 
touches points of vital concern to health as 
well as humanity. 

Henry Bergh was born in New York 
City in 1823, and was educated at Colum- 
bia College. In 1863 he was made secre- 
tary of the legation to Russia and also 
served as vice-consul there. He also de- 
voted some time to literary pursuits and was 
the author of "Love's Alternative," a 
drama; "Married Off," a poem; "'The 
Portentous Telegram," "The Ocean Para- 
gon;" "The Streets of New York," tales 
and sketches. 



HENRY BENJAMIN WHIPPLE, one 
of the most eminent of American di- 
vines, was born in Adams, Jefferson county, 
New York, February 15, 1822. He was 
brought up in the mercantile business, and 
early in life took an active interest in polit- 
ical affairs. In 1847 he became a candidate 
for holy orders and pursued theological 
studies with Rev. W. D. Wilson, D. D., 
afterward professor in Cornell University. 
He was ordained deacon in 1849, in Trinity 
church, Geneva, New York, by Rt. Rev. 
W. H. De Lancey, D. D., and took charge 
of Zion church, Rome, New York, Decem- 
ber 1, 1849. In 1850, our subject was or- 
dained priest by Bishop De Lancey. In 



1857 he became rector of the Church of the 
Holy Communion, Chicago. On the 30th 
of June, 1859, he was chosen bishop of 
Minnesota, and took charge of the interests 
of the Episcopal church in that state, being 
located at Faribault. In i860 Bishop 
Whipple, with Revs. I. L. Breck, S. W. 
Mauncey and E. S. Peake, organized the 
Bishop Seabury Mfission, out of which has 
grown the Cathedral of Our Merciful Savior, 
the Seabury Divinity School, Shattuck 
School and St. Mary's Hall, which have 
made Faribault City one of the greatest 
educational centers of the northwest. Bishop 
Whipple also became noted as the friend 
and defender of the North American In- 
dians and planted a number of successful 
missions among them. 



EZRA CORNELL was one of the greatest 
philanthropists and friends of education 
the country has known. He was born at 
Westchester Landing, New York, January 
1 1, 1807. He grew to manhood in his na- 
tive state and became a prominent figure in 
business circles as a successful and self-made 
man. Soon after the invention of the elec- 
tric telegraph, he devoted his attention to 
that enterprise, and accumulated an im- 
mense fortune. In 1865, by a gift of five 
hundred thousand dollars, he made possible 
the founding of Cornell University, which 
was named in his honor. He afterward 
made additional bequests amountingto many 
hundred thousand dollars. His death oc- 
curred at Ithaca, New York, December 9, 

1874- 

TGNATIUS DONNELLY, widely known 
I as an author and politician, was born in 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November 3, 
1 83 1. He was educated at the public 
schools of that city, and graduated from the 



162 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



Central High School in 1849. He studied 
law in the office of Judge B. H. Brewster, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1852. In 
the spring of 1856, Mr. Donnelly emigrated 
to Minnesota, then a new territory, and, at 
Hastings, resumed the practice of law in 
partnership with A. M. Hayes. In 1857, 
and again in 1858, he was defeated for state 
senator, but in 1859 he was elected by the 
Republicans as lieutenant-governor, and re- 
elected in 1 86 1. In 1862 he was elected to 
represent the Second district of Minnesota 
in congress. He was re-elected to the same 
office in 1864 and in 1866. He was an 
abolitionist and warmly supported President 
Lincoln's administration, but was strongly 
in favor of leniency toward the people of 
the south, after the war. In many ways he 
was identified with some of the best meas- 
ures brought before the house during his 
presence there. In the spring of 1868, at 
the request of the Republican national com- 
mittee, he canvassed New Hampshire and 
Connecticut in the interests of that party. 
E. B. Washburne about this time made an 
attack on Donnelly in one of the papers of 
Minnesota, which was replied to on the floor 
of the house by a fierce phillipic that will 
long be remembered. Through the inter- 
vention of the Washburne interests Mr. Don- 
nelly failed -of a re-election in 1870. In 
1873 he was elected to the state senate from 
Dakota county, and continuously re-elected 
until 1878. In 1886 he was elected mem- 
ber of the house for two years. In later 
years he identified himself with the Popu- 
list party. 

In 1882, Mr. Donnelly became known as 
an author, publishing his first literary work, 
"Atlantis, the Antediluvian World," which 
passed through over twenty-two editions in 
America, several in England, and was trans- 
lated into French. This was followed by 



" Ragnarok, the Age of Fire and Gravel," 
which attained nearly as much celebrity as 
the first, and these two, in the opinion of 
scientific critics, are sufficient to stamp the 
author as a most capable and painstaking 
student of the facts he has collated in them. 
The work by which he gained the greatest 
notoriety, however, was ' ' The Great Cryp- 
togram, or Francis Bacon's Cipher in the 
Shakespeare Plays." "Csesar's Colurnn," 
" Dr. Huguet," and other works were pub- 
lished subsequently. 



STEVEN V. WHITE, a speculator of 
Wall Street of national reputation, was 
born in Chatham county, North Carolina, 
August 1, 1 83 1, and soon afterward re- 
moved to Illinois. His home was a log 
cabin, and until his eighteenth year he 
worked on the farm. Then after several 
years of struggle with poverty he graduated 
from Knox College, and went to St. Louis, 
where he entered a wholesale boot and shoe 
house as bookkeeper. He then studied law 
and worked as a reporter for the "Missouri 
Democrat." After his admission to the bar 
he went to New York, in 1865, and became 
a member of the banking house of Marvin 
& White. Mr. White enjoyed the reputa- 
tion of having engineered the only corner 
in Wall Street since Commodore Vander- 
bilt's time. This was the famous Lacka- 
wanna deal in 1883, in which he made a 
profit of two million dollars. He was some- 
times called " Deacon" White, and, though 
a member for many years of the Plymouth 
church, he never held that office. Mr. 
White was one of the most noted characters 
of the street, and has been called an orator, 
poet, philanthropist, linguist, abolitionist, 
astronomer, schoolmaster, plowboy, and 
trapper. He was a lawyer, ex-congress- 
man, expert accountant, art critic and theo- 



COMPEXO/CM OF BIOGRAPI/r. 



163 



ldgian. He laid the foundation for a 
"Home for Colored People," in Chatham 
county, North Carolina, where the greater 
part of his father's life was spent, and in 
whose memory the work was undertaken. 

JAMES A. GARFIELD, the twentieth 
president of the United States, was born 
November 19, 1831, in Cuyahoga county, 
Ohio, and was the son of Abram and Eliza 
(Ballou) Garfield. In 1833 the father, an 
industrious pioneer farmer, died, and the 
care of the family devolved upon Thomas, 
to whom James became deeply indebted for 
educational and other advantages. As James 
grew up he was industrious and worked on 
the farm, at carpentering, at chopping wood, 
or anything else he found to do, and in the 
meantime made the most of his books. 

Until he was about sixteen, James' high- 
est ambition was to become a' sea captain. 
On attaining that age he walked to 
Cleveland, and, not being able to find work, 
he engaged as a driver on the Ohio & Penn- 
sylvania canal, but quit this after a short 
time. He attended the seminary at Ches- 
ter for about three years, after which he 
entered Hiram Institute, a school started by 
the Disciples of Christ in 1850. In order 
to pay his way he assumed the duties of 
janitor and at times taught school. After 
completing his course at the last named edu- 
cational institution he entered Williams Col- 
lege, from which he graduated in 1856. He 
afterward returned to Hiram College as its 
president. He studied law and was admitted 
to the bar in 1859. November 11, 1858, 
Mr. Garfield and Lucretia Rudolph were 
married. 

In 1859 Mr. Garfield made his first polit- 
ical speeches, at Hiram and in the neighbor- 
hood. The same year he was elected to the 
state senate. 



On the breaking out of the war, in 1861, 
he became lieutenant-colonel of the Forty- 
second Ohio Infantry, and, while but a new 
soldier, was given command of four regi- 
ments of infantry and eight companies of 
cavalry, with which he drove the Confeder- 
ates under Humphrey Marshall out of Ken- 
tucky. January 11, 1862, he was commis- 
sioned brigadier-general. He participated 
with General Buell in the battle of Shiloh 
and the operations around Corinth, and was 
then detailed as a member of the Fitz John 
Porter court-martial. Reporting to General 
Rosecrans, he was assigned to the position 
of chief of staff, and resigned his position, 
with the rank of major-general, when his 
immediate superior was superseded. In 
the fall of 1862 Mr. Garfield was elected to 
congress and remained in that body, either 
in the house or senate, until 1880. 

June 8, 1880, at the national Republican 
convention, held in Chicago, General Gar- 
field was nominated for the presidency, and 
was elected. He was inaugurated March 
4, 1 88 1, but, July 2, following, he was shot 
and fatally wounded by Charles Guiteau for 
some fancied political slight, and died Sep- 
tember 19, 1 88 1 . 



INCREASE MATHER was one of the 
1 most prominent preachers, educators and 
authors of early times in the New England 
states. He was born at Dorchester, Massa- 
chusetts, June 21, 1639, and was given an 
excellent education, graduating at Harvard 
in 1656, and at Trinity College, Dublin, 
two years later. He was ordained a min- 
ister, and preached in England and America, 
and in 1664 became pastor of the North 
church, in Boston. In 1685 he became 
president of Harvard University, serving 
until 1 701. In 1692 he received the first 
doctorate in divinity conferred in English 



164 



C0MPEXD1UM OF BIOGRAPfir. 



speaking America. The same year he pro- 
cured in England a new charter for Massa- 
chusetts, which conferred upon himself the 
power of naming the governor, lieutenant- 
governor and council. He opposed the 
severe punishment of witchcraft, and took 
a prominent part in all public affairs of his 
day. He was a prolific writer, and became 
the author of nearly one hundred publica- 
tions, large and small. His death occurred 
August 23, 1723, at Boston. 



COTTON MATHER, a celebrated minis- 
ter in the "Puritan times" of New 
England, was born at Boston, Massachu- 
setts, February 12, 1663, being a son of 
Rev. Increase Mather, and a grandson of 
John Cotton. A biography of his father 
will be found elsewhere in this volume. 
Cotton Mather received his early education 
in his native city, was trained by Ezekiel 
Cheever, and graduated at Harvard College 
in 1678; became a teacher, and in 1684 
was ordained as associate pastor of North 
church, Boston, with his father, having by 
persistent effort overcome an impediment in 
his speech. He labored with great zeal as 
a pastor, endeavoring also, to establish the 
ascendancy of the church and ministry in 
civil affairs, and in the putting down of 
witchcraft by legal sentences, a work in 
which he took an active part and through 
which he is best known in history. He re- 
ceived the degree of D. D. in 17 10, con- 
ferred by the University of Glasgow, and 
F. R. S. in 171 3. His death occurred at 
Boston, February 13, 1728. He was the 
author of many publications, among which 
were " Memorable Providences Relating to 
Witchcraft," "Wonders of the Invisible 
World," "Essays to Do Good," " Mag- 
nalia Christi Americana," and " Illustra- 
tions of the Sacred Scriptures." Some of 



these works are quaint and curious, full of 
learning, piety and prejudice. A well- 
known writer, in summing up the life and 
character of Cotton Mather, says: ' ' Mather, 
with all the faults of his early years, was a 
man of great excellence of character. He 
labored zealously for the benefit of the 
poor, for mariners, slaves, criminals and 
Indians. His cruelty and credulity were 
the faults of his age, while his philanthro- 
phy was far more rare in that age than in 
the present." 



WILLIAM A. PEFFER, who won a 
national reputation during the time 
he was in the United States senate, was 
born on a farm in Cumberland county, 
Pennsylvania, September 10, 1831. He 
drew his education from the public schools 
of his native state and at the age of fifteen 
taught school" in winter, working on a farm 
in the summer. In June, 1853, while yet a 
young man, he removed to Indiana, and 
opened up a farm in St. Joseph county. 
In 1859 he made his way to Missouri and 
settled on a farm in Morgan county, but on 
account of the war and the unsettled state 
of the country, he moved to Illinois in Feb- 
ruary, 1862, and enlisted as a private in 
Company F, Eighty-third Illinois Infantry, 
the following August. He was promoted 
to the rank of second lieutenant in 
March, 1863, and served successively as 
quartermaster, adjutant, post adjutant, 
judge advocate of a military commission, 
and depot quartermaster in the engineer 
department at Nashville. He was mustered 
out of the service June 26, 1865. He had, 
during his leisure hours while in the army, 
studied law, and in August, 1865, he com- 
menced the practice of that profession at 
Clarksville, Tennessee. He removed to 
Kansas in 1870 and practiced there until 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



165 



1878, in the meantime establishing and 
conducting two newspapers, the " Fredonia 
Journal " and " Coffey ville Journal." 

Mr. Peffer was elected to the state senate 
in 1874 and was a prominent and influential 
member of several important committees. 
He served as a presidential elector in 1880. 
The year following he became editor of the 
" Kansas Farmer," which he made a promi- 
nent and useful paper. In 1890 Mr. Peffer 
was elected to the United States senate as 
a member of the People's party and took 
his seat March 4, 1891. After six years of 
service Senator Peffer was succeeded in 
March, 1897, by William A. Harris. 



ROBERT MORRIS.— The name of this 
financier, statesman and patriot is 
closely connected with the early history of 
the United States. He was a native of 
England, born January 20, 1734, and came 
to America with his father when thirteen 
years old. Until 1754 he served in the 
counting house of Charles Willing, then 
formed a partnership with that gentleman's 
son, which continued with great success until 
1793. In 1776 Mr. Morris was a delegate 
to the Continental congress, and, although 
once voting against the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, signed that paper on its adop- 
tion, and was several times thereafter re- 
elected to congress. During the Revolu- 
tionary war the services of Robert Morris 
in aiding the government during its finan- 
cial difficulties were of incalculable value; he 
freely pledged his personal credit for sup- 
plies for the army, atone time to the amount 
of about one and a half million dollars, with- 
out which the campaign of 1781 would have 
been almost impossible. Mr. Morris was 
appointed superintendent of finance in 1781 
and served until 1784, continuing to employ 
his personal credit to facilitate the needs of 



his department. He also served as mem- 
ber of the Pennsylvania legislature, and 
from 1786 to 1795 was United States sena- 
tor, declining meanwhile the position of sec- 
retary of the treasury, and suggesting the 
name of Alexander Hamilton, who was ap- 
pointed to that post. During the latter 
part of his life Mr. Morris was engaged ex- 
tensively in the China trade, and later be- 
came involved in land speculations, which 
ruined him, so that the remaining days of 
this noble man and patriot were passed 
in confinement for debt. His death occurred 
at Philadelphia, May 8, 1806. 



WILLIAM SHARON, a senator and 
capitalist, and mine owner of na- 
tional reputation, was born at Smithfield, 
Ohio, January 9, 1821. He was reared 
upon a farm and in his boyhood given excel- 
lent educational advantages and in 1842 
entered Athens College. He remained in 
that institution about two years, after which 
he studied law with Edwin M. Stanton, and 
was admitted to the bar at St. Louis and 
commenced practice. His health failing, 
however, he abandoned his profession and 
engaged in mercantile pursuits at Carrollton, 
Greene county, Illinois. During the time 
of the gold excitement of 1849, Mr. Sharon 
went to California, whither so many went, 
and engaged in business at Sacramento. 
The next year he removed to San Francisco, 
where he operated in real estate. Being 
largely interested in its silver mines, he re- 
moved to Nevada, locating at Virginia City, 
and acquired an immense fortune. He be- 
came one of the trustees of the Bank of 
California, and during the troubles that 
arose on the death of William Ralston, the 
president of that institution, was largely in- 
strumental in bringing its affairs into a satis- 
factory shape. 



166 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



Mr. Sharon was elected to represent the 
state of Nevada in the United States senate 
in 1875, and remained a member of that 
body until 1881. He was always distin- 
guished for close application to business. 
Senator Sharon died November 13, 1885. 



HENRY W. SHAW, an American hu- 
morist who became celebrated unde r 
the non-de-plume of " Josh Billings," gained 
his fame from the witticism of his writing, 
and peculiar eccentricity of style and spell- 
ing. He was born at Lanesborough, Mas- 
sachusetts, in 18 1 8. For twenty-five years 
he lived in different parts of the western 
states, following various lines of business, 
including farming and auctioneering, and in 
the latter capacity settled at Poughkeepsie, 
New York, in 1858. In 1863 he began 
writing humorous sketches for the news- 
papers over the signature of "Josh Bill- 
ings," and became immediately 'popular 
both as a writer and lecturer. He pub- 
lished a number of volumes of comic 
sketches and edited an " Annual Allminax " 
for a number of years, which had a wide cir- 
culation. His death occurred October 14, 
1885, at Monterey, California. 



JOHN M. THURSTON, well known 
throughout this country as a senator 
and political leader, was born at Mont- 
pelier, Vermont, August 21, 1847, of an 
old Puritan family which dated back their 
ancestry in this country to 1636, and among 
whom were soldiers of the Revolution and 
of the war of 181 2-1 5. 

Young Thurston was brought west by 
the family in 1854, they settling at Madison, 
Wisconsin, and two years later at Beaver 
Dam, where John M. received his schooling 
in the public schools and at Wayland Uni- 
versity. His father enlisted as a private in 



the First Wisconsin Cavalry and died while 
in the service, in the spring of 1863. 

Young Thurston, thrown on his own 
resources while attaining an education, sup- 
ported himself by farm work, driving team 
and at other manual labor. He studied law 
and was admitted to the bar May 21, 1869, 
and in October of the same year located in 
Omaha, Nebraska. He was elected a 
member of the city council in 1872, city 
attorney in 1874 and a member of the Ne- 
braska legislature in 1874. He was a mem- 
ber of the Republican national convention 
of 1884 and temporary chairman of that of 
1888. Taking quite an interest in the 
younger members of his party he was instru- 
mental in forming the Republican League 
of the United States, of which he was presi- 
dent for two years. He was then elected a 
member of the United States senate, in 
1895, to represent the state of Nebraska. 

As an attorney John M. Thurston occu- 
pied a very prominent place, and for a num- 
ber of years held the position of general 
solicitor of the Union Pacific railroad sys- 
tem. 

JOHN JAMES AUDUBON, a celebrated 
American naturalist, was born in Louis- 
iana, May 4, 1780, and was the son of an 
opulent French naval officer who owned a 
plantation in the then French colony. In 
his childhood he became deeply interested 
in the study of birds and their habits. About 
1794 he was sent to Paris, France, where 
he was partially educated, and studied de- 
signing under the famous painter, Jacques 
Louis David. He returned to the Unit- 
ed States about 1798, and settled on a 
farm his father gave him, on the Perkiomen 
creek in eastern Pennsylvania. He mar- 
ried Lucy Bakewell in 1808, and, disposing 
of his property, removed to Louisville, Ken- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHr. 



1(57 



tucky, where he engaged in mercantile pur- 
suits. About two years later he began to 
make extensive excursions through the pri- 
meval forests of the southern and south- 
western states, in the exploration of which 
he passed many years. He made colored 
drawings of all the species of birds that he 
found. For several years he made his home 
with his wife and children at Henderson, on 
the Ohio river. It is said that about this 
time he had failed in business and was re- 
duced to poverty, but kept the wolf from the 
door by giving dancing lessons and in portrait 
painting. In 1824, at Philadelphia, he met 
Charles Lucien Bonaparte, who encouraged 
him to publish a work on ornithology. Two 
years later he went to England and com- 
menced the publication of his great work, 
"The Birds of America." He obtained a 
large number of subscribers at one thousand 
dollars a copy. This work, embracing five 
volumes of letterpress and five volumes of 
beautifully colored plates, was pronounced 
by Cuvier " the most magnificent monument 
that art ever raised to ornithology." 

Audubon returned to America in 1829, 
and explored the forests, lakes and coast 
from Canada to Florida, collecting material 
for another work. This was his "Ornitho- 
logical Biography; or, An Account of the 
Habits of the Birds of the United States, 
Etc." He revisited England in 1831, and 
returned in 1839, after which he resicied on 
the Hudson, near New York City, in which 
place he died January 27, 1S51. During 
his life he issued a cheaper edition of his 
great work, and was, in association with 
Dr. Bachman, preparing a work on the 
quadrupeds of North America. 



the superior British squadron, under Com- 
modore Dovvnie, September i 1, 18 14. Com- 
modore McDonough was born in Newcastle 
county, Delaware, December 23, 1783, and 
when -seventeen years old entered the 
United States navy as midshipman, serving 
in the expedition to Tripoli, under Decatur, 
in 1803-4. In !8o7 he was promoted to 
lieutenant, and in July, 1813, was made a 
commander. The following year, on Lake 
Champlain, he gained the celebrated victory 
above referred to, for which he was again 
promoted; also received a gold medal from 
congress, and from the state of Vermont an 
estate on Cumberland Head, in view of the 
scene of the engagement. His death oc- 
curred at sea, November 16, 1825, while he 
was returning from the command of the 
Mediterranean squadron. 



COMMODORE THOMAS McDON- 
OUGH gained his principal fame from 
he celebrated victory which he gained over 



CHARLES FRANCIS HALL, one of 
America's most celebrated arctie ex- 
plorers, was born in Rochester, New Hamp- 
shire, in 1 82 1. He was a blacksmith by 
trade, and located in Cincinnati, where later 
he became a journalist. For several years 
he devoted a great deal of attention to cal- 
orics. Becoming interested in the fate of the 
explorer, Sir John Franklin, he joined the 
expedition fitted out by Henry Grinnell and 
sailed in the ship "George Henry," under 
Captain Buddington, which left New Lon- 
don, Connecticut, in 1S60. He returned in 
1862, and two years later published his 
" Arctic Researches." He again joined the 
expedition fitted out by Mr. Grinnell, and 
sailed in the ship, " Monticello," under 
Captain Buddington, this time remaining in 
the arctic region over four years. On his 
return he brought back many evidences of 
having found trace of Franklin. 

In 1 87 1 the ' ' Polaris " was fitted out by 
the United States government, and Captain 



108 



COMPI£XDIL'M OF BIOGRAPHY 



Hall again sailed for the polar regions. He 
died in Greenland in October, 1871, and the 
"Polaris" was finally abandoned by the 
crew, a portion of which, under Captain 
Tyson, drifted with the icebergs for one 
hundred and ninety-five days, until picked 
up by the " Tigress," on the 30th of April, 
1873. The other portion of the crew built 
boats, and, after a perilous voyage, were 
picked up in June, 1873, by a whaling vessel. 



OLIVER ELLSWORTH, the third chief 
justice of the United States, was born 
at Windsor, Connecticut, April 29, 1745. 
After graduating from Princeton, he took 
up the study of law, and was licensed 
to practice in 177 1 . In 1777 he was elected 
as a delegate to the Continental congress. 
He was judge of the superior court of his 
state in 1784, and was chosen as a delegate 
\o the constitutional convention in 1787. 
He sided with the Federalists, was elected 
to the United States senate in 1789, and 
was a firm supporter of Washington's policy. 
He won great distinction in that body, and 
was appointed chief justice of the supreme 
court of the United States by Washington 
in 1796. The relations between this coun- 
try and France having become violently 
strained, he was sent to Paris as envoy ex- 
traordinary in 1799, and was instrumental 
in negotiating the treaty that averted war. 
He resigned the following year, and was suc- 
ceeded by Chief Justice Marshall. His 
death occurred November 26, 1807. 



MELLVILLE WESTON FULLER, an 
eminent American jurist and chief 
justice of the United States supreme court, 
was born in Augusta, Maine, in 1833. His 
education was looked after in boyhood, and 
at the age of sixteen he entered Bowdoin 
College, and on graduation entered the law 



department of Harvard University. He then 
entered the law office of his uncle at Ban- 
gor, Maine, and soon after opened an office 
for the practice of law at Augusta. He was 
an alderman from his ward, city attorney, 
and editor of the "Age," a rival newspaper 
of the "Journal," which was conducted by- 
James G. Blaine. He soon decided to re- 
move to Chicago, then springing into notice 
as a western metropolis. He at once iden- 
tified himself with the interests of the 
new city, and by this means acquired an 
experience that fitted him for his future 
work. He devoted himself assiduously to 
his profession, and had the good fortune to 
connect himself with the many suits grow- 
ing out of the prorogation of the Illinois 
legislature in 1863. It was not long before 
he became one of the foremost lawyers in 
Chicago. He made a three days' speech in 
the heresy trial of Dr. Cheney, which added 
to his fame. He was appointed chief jus- 
tice of the United States by President Cleve- 
land in 1888, the youngest man who ever 
held that exalted position. His income from 
his practice had for many years reached 
thirty thousand dollars annually. 



CHESTER ALLEN ARTHUR, twenty- 
first president of the United States, was 
born in Franklin county, Vermont, Octo- 
ber 5, 1830. He was educated at Union 
College, Schenectady, New York, from 
which he graduated with honor, and en- 
gaged in teaching school. After two years 
he entered the law office of Judge E. D. 
Culver, of New York, as a student. He was 
admitted to the bar, and formed a partner- 
ship with an old room-mate, Henry D. Gar- 
diner, with the intention of practicing law 
in the west, but after a few months' search 
for a location, they returned to New York 
and opened an office, and at once entered 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPI/r. 



1G9 



upon a profitable practice. He was shortly 
afterwards married to a daughter of Lieu- 
tenant Herndon, of the United States navy. 
Mrs. Arthur died shortly before his nomina- 
tion for the vice-presidency. In 1856 a 
colored woman in New York was ejected 
from a street car and retained Mr. Arthur 
in a suit against the company, and obtained 
a verdict of five hundred dollars. It result- 
ed in a general order by all superintendents 
of street railways in the city to admit col- 
ored people to the cars. 

Mr. Arthur was a delegate to the first 
Republican national convention, and was 
appointed judge-advocate for the Second 
Brigade of New York, and then chief engi- 
neer of Governor Morgan's staff. At the 
close of his term he resumed the practice of 
iaw in New York. In 1872 he was made 
collector of the port of New York, which 
position he held four years. At the Chi- 
cago convention in 1880 Mr. Arthur was 
nominated for the vice-presidency with 
Garfield, and after an exciting campaign 
was elected. Four months after the inau- 
guration President Garfield was assassinated, 
and Mr. Arthur was called to take the reins 
of government. His administration of 
affairs was generally satisfactory. At its 
close he resumed the practice of law in New 
York. His death occurred November 18, 
1886. 

ISAAC HULL was one of the most con- 
spicuous and prominent naval officers in 
the early history of America. He was born 
at Derby, Connecticut, March 9, 1775, be- 
ing the son of a Revolutionary officer. Isaac 
Hull early in life became a mariner, and 
when nineteen years of age became master 
of a merchant ship in the London trade. 
In 1798 he became a lieutenant in the United 

States navy, and three years later was made 
10 



first lieutenant of the frigate "Constitution." 
He distinguished himself by skill and valor 
against the French on the coast of Hayti, and 
served with distinction in the Barbary expe- 
ditions. July 12, 1812, he sailed from 
Annapolis, in command of the "Constitu- 
tion," and for three days was pursued by a 
British squadron of five ships, from which 
he escaped by bold and ingenious seaman- 
ship. In August of the same year he cap- 
tured the frigate " Guerriere," one of his 
late pursuers and for this, the first naval 
advantage of that war, he received a gold 
medal from congress. Isaac Hull was later 
made naval commissioner and had command 
of various navy yards. His death occurred 
February 13, 1843, at Philadelphia. 



M' 



ARCUS ALONZO HANNA, famous 
as a prominent business man, political 
manager and senator, was born in New Lis- 
bon, Columbiana county, Ohio, September 
24, 1837. He removed with his father's 
family to Cleveland, in the same state, in 
1852, and in the latter city, and in the 
Western Reserve College, at Hudson, Ohio, 
received his education. He became an em- 
ploye of the wholesale grocery house of 
Hanna, Garrettson & Co., his father being 
the senior member of the firm. The latter 
died in 1862, and Marcus represented his 
interest until 1867, when the business was 
closed up. 

Our subject then became a member of 
the firm of Rhodes & Co., engaged in the 
iron and coal business, but at the expira- 
tion of ten years this firm was changed to 
that of M. A. Hanna & Co. Mr. Hanna 
was long identified with the lake carrying 
business, being interested in vessels on the 
lakes and in the construction of them. As 
a director of the Globe Ship Manufacturing 
Company, of Cleveland, president of the 



170 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPIIV. 



Union National Bank, of Cleveland, president 
of the Cleveland City Railway Company, 
and president of the Chapin Mining Com- 
pany, of Lake Superior, he became promi- 
nently identified with the business world. 
He was one of the government directors of 
the Union Pacific Railroad, being appointed 
to that position in 1885 by President Cleve- 
land. 

Mr. Hanna was a delegate to the na- 
tional Republican convention of 1884, which 
was his first appearance in the political 
world. He was a delegate to the con- 
ventions of 1888 and 1896, and was elect- 
ed chairman of the Republican national 
committee the latter year, and practically 
managed the campaign of William McKin- 
ley for the presidency. In 1897 Mr. Hanna 
was appointed senator by Governor Bush- 
nell, of Ohio, to fill the vacancy caused by 
the resignation of John Sherman. 



GEORGE PEABODY was one of the 
best known and esteemed of all philan- 
thropists, whose munificent gifts to Ameri- 
can institutions have proven of so much 
benefit to the cause of humanity. He was 
born February 18, 1795, at South Danvers, 
Massachusetts, which is now called Pea- 
body in honor of him. He received but a 
meager education, and during his early life 
he was a mercantile clerk at Thetford, Ver- 
mont, and Newburyport, Massachusetts. In 
1 8 14 he became a partner with Elisha 
Riggs, at Georgetown, District of Columbia, 
and in 1 8 1 5 they moved to Baltimore, Mary- 
land. The business grew to great propor- 
tions, and they opened branch houses at 
New York and Philadelphia. Mr. Peabody 
made several voyages to Europe of com- 
mercial importance, and in 1829 became the 
head of the firm, which was then called 
Peabody, Riggs & Co., and in 1838 he re- 



moved to London, England. He retired 
from the firm, and established the cele- 
brated banking house, in which he accumu- 
lated a large fortune. He aided Mr. Grin- 
nell in fitting out Dr. Kane's Arctic expedi- 
tion, in 1852, and founded in the same yeaf 
the Peabody Institute, in his native town, 
which he afterwards endowed with two hun- 
dred thousand dollars. Mr. Peabody visited 
the United States in 1857, and gave three 
hundred thousand dollars for the establish- 
ment at Baltimore of an institute of science, 
literature and fine arts. In 1862 he gave 
two million five hundred thousand dollars 
for the erecting of lodging houses for the 
poor in London, and on another visit to the 
United States he gave one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars to establish at Harvard a 
museum and professorship of American 
archaeology and ethnology, an equal sum for 
the endowment of a department of physical 
science at Yale, and gave the "Southern 
Educational Fund " two million one hundred 
thousand dollars, besides devoting two hun- 
dred thousand dollars to various objects of 
public utility. Mr. Peabody made a final 
visit to the United States in 1869, and on 
this occasion he raised the endowment of 
the Baltimore Institute one million dollars, 
created the Peabody Museum, at Salem, 
Massachusetts, with a fund of one hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars, gave sixty thou- 
sand dollars to Washington College, Vir- 
ginia; fifty thousand dollars for a "Peabody 
Museum," at North Danvers, thirty thousand 
dollars to Phillips Academy, Andover; twen- 
ty-five thousand dollars to Kenyon College, 
Ohio, and twenty thousand dollars to the 
Maryland Historical Society. Mr. Peabody 
also endowed an art school at Rome, in 
1S68. He died in London, November 4, 
1869, less then a month after he had re- 
turned from the United States, and his 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPIIV. 



171 



remains were brought to the United States 
and interred in his native town. He made 
several other bequests in his will, and left 
his family about five million dollars. 



AC 



ATTHEW S. QUAY, a celebrated 
blic man and senator, was born at 
Dillsburgh, York county, Pennsylvania, 
September 30, 1S33, of an old Scotch-Irish 
family, some of whom had settled in the 
Keystone state in 1715. Matthew received 
a good education, graduating from the Jef- 
ferson College at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, 
at the age of seventeen. He then traveled, 
taught school, lectured, and studied law 
under Judge Sterrett. He was admitted to 
the bar in 1854, was appointed a prothon- 
otary in 1S55 and elected to the same 
office in 1856 and 1859. Later he was 
made lieutenant of the Pennsylvania Re 
serves, lieutenant-colonel and assistant com- 
missary-general of the state, private secre- 
tary of the famous war governor of Pennsyl- 
vania, Andrew G. Curtin, colonel of the 
One Hundred and Thirty-fourth Pennsylva- 
nia Infantry (nine months men), military 
state agent and held other offices at different 
times. 

Mr. Quay was a member of the house of 
representatives of the state of Pennsylvania 
from 1865 to 1S68. He filled the office of 
secretary of the commonwealth from 1872 
to 1878, and the position of delegate-at- 
large to the Republican national conventions 
of 1S72, 1876, 1880 and 1888. Hewasthe 
editor of the "Beaver Radical" and the 
" Philadelphia Record " for a time, and held 
many offices in the state conventions and on 
their committees. He was elected secre- 
tary of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 
1S69, and served three years, and in 18S5 
was chosen state treasurer. In 1886 his 
great abilities pointed him out as the 



natural candidate for United States senator, 
and he was accordingly elected to that posi- 
tion and re-elected thereto in 1892. He 
was always noted for a genius for organiza- 
tion, and as a political leader had but few 
peers. Cool, serene, far-seeing, resourceful, 
holding his impulses and forces in hand, he 
never quailed from any policy he adopted, 
and carried to success most, if not all, of 
the political campaigns in which he took 
part. 

JAMES K. JONES, a noted senator and 
political leader, attained national fame 
while chairman of the national executive 
committee of the Democratic party in the 
presidential campaign of 1S96. He was a 
native of Marshall county, Mississippi, and 
was born September 29, 1839. His father, 
a well-to-do planter, settled in Dallas count)', 
Arkansas, in 1848, and there the subject of 
this sketch received a careful education. 
During the Civil war he served as a private 
soldier in the Confederate army. From 
1866 to 1873 he passed a quiet life as a 
planter, but in the latter year was admitted 
to the bar and began the practice of law. 
About the same time he was elected to the 
Arkansas senate and re-elected in 1874. In 
1877 he was made president of the senate 
and the following year was unsuccessful in 
obtaining a nomination as member of con- 
gress. In 18S0 he was elected representa- 
tive and his ability at once placed him in a 
foremost position. He was re-elected to 
congress in 1882 and in 1884, and served as 
an influential member on the committee of 
ways and means. March 4, 1S85, Mr. Jones 
took his seat in the United States senate to 
succeed James D. Walker, and was after- 
ward re-elected to the same office. In this 
branch of the national legislature his capa- 
bilities had a wider scope, and he was rec- 



172 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



ognized as one of the ablest leaders of his 
party. 

On the nomination of William J. Bryan 
as its candidate for the presidency by the 
national convention of the Democratic 
party, held in Chicago in 1896, Mr. Jones 
was made chairman of the national com- 
mittee. 

THEODORE THOMAS, one of the most 
celebrated musical directors America 
has known, was born in the kingdom of Han- 
over in 1 835, and received his musical educa- 
tion from his father. He was avery apt scholar 
and played the violin at public concerts at 
the age of six years. He came with his 
parents to America in 1845, and joined the 
orchestra of the Italian Opera in New York 
City. He played the first violin in the 
orchestra which accompanied Jenny Lind 
in her first American concert. In 1861 Mr. 
Thomas established the orchestra that be- 
came famous under his management, and 
gave his first symphony concerts in New 
York in 1864. He began his first "summer 
night concerts" in the same city in 1868, 
and in 1869 he started on his first tour of 
the principal cities in the United States, 
which he made every year for many years. 
He was director of the College of Music in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, but resigned in 1880, after 
having held the position for three years. 

Later he organized one of the greatest 
and most successful orchestras ever brought 
together in the city of Chicago, and was 
very prominent in musical affairs during the 
World's Columbian Exposition, thereby add- 
ing greatly to his fame. 



CYRUS HALL McCORMICK, the fa- 
mous inventor and manufacturer, was 
born at Walnut Grove, Virginia, February 
15,1 809. When he was seven years old his 



father invented a reaping machine. It was 
a rude contrivance and not successful. In 
1 83 1 Cyrus made his invention of a reaping 
machine, and had it patented three years 
later. By successive improvements he was 
able to keep his machines at the head of 
its class during his life. In 1 845 he removed 
to Cincinnati, Ohio, and two years later 
located in Chicago, where he amassed a 
great fortune in manufacturing reapers and 
harvesting machinery. In 1859 he estab- 
lished the Theological Seminary of the 
Northwest at Chicago, an institution for pre- 
paring young men for the ministry in the 
Presbyterian church, and he afterward en- 
dowed a chair in the Washington and Lee 
College at Lexington, Virginia. He mani- 
fested great interest in educational and re- 
ligious matters, and by his great wealth he 
was able to extend aid and encouragement 
to many charitable causes. His death oc- 
curred May 13, 1884. 



DAVID ROSS LOCKE.— Under the 
pen name of Petroleum V. Nasby, this 
well-known humorist and writer made for 
himself a household reputation, and estab- 
lished a school that has many imitators. 

The subject of this article was born at 
Vestal, Broome county, New York, Sep- 
tember 30, 1833. After receiving his edu- 
cation in the county of his birth he en- 
tered the office of the ' ' Democrat, " at Cort- 
land, New York, where he learned the 
printer's trade. He was successively editor 
and publisher of the ' 'Plymouth Advertiser, " 
the "Mansfield Herald," the " Bucyrus 
Journal," and the "Findlay Jeffersonian." 
Later he became editor of the "Toledo 
Blade." In i860 he commenced his 
" Nasby" articles, several series of which 
have been given the world in book form. 
Under a mask of misspelling, and in a QuaiD*; 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPH1'. 



173 



and humorous style, a keen political satire 
is couched — a most effective weapon. 
Mr. Locke was the author of a num- 
ber of serious political pamphlets, and 
later on a more pretentious work, " The 
Morals of Abou Ben Adhem." As a news- 
paper writer he gained many laurels and his 
works are widely read. Abraham Lincoln 
is said to have been a warm admirer of P. 
V. Nasby, of " Confedrit X Roads" fame. 
Mr. Locke died at Toledo, Ohio, February 
15, 1888. 

RUSSELL A. ALGER, noted as a sol- 
dier, governor and secretary of war, 
was born in Medina county, Ohio, February 
27, 1836, and was the son of Russell and 
Caroline (Moulton) Alger. At the age of 
twelve years he was left an orphan and pen- 
niless. For about a year he worked for 
his board and clothing, and attended school 
part of the time. In 1850 he found a place 
which paid small wages, and out of his 
scanty earnings helped his brother and sister. 
While there working on a farm he found 
time to attend the Richfield Academy, and 
by hard work between times managed to get 
a fair education for that time. The last 
two years of his attendance at this institu- 
tion of learning he taught school during the 
winter months. In 1857 he commenced the 
study of law, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1S59. For a while he found employ- 
ment in Cleveland, Ohio, but impaired 
health induced him to remove to Grand 
Rapids, where he engaged in the lumber 
business. He was thus engaged when the 
Civil war broke out, and, his business suf- 
fering and his savings swept away, he en- 
listed as a private in the Second Michigan 
Cavalry. He was promoted to be captain 
the following month, and major for gallant 
conduct at Boonesville, Mississippi, July 1, 



1862. October 16, 1862, he was made 
lieutenant-colonel of the Sixth Michigan 
Cavalry, and in February, 1863, colonel of 
the Fifth Michigan Cavalry. He rendered 
excellent service in the Gettysburg cam- 
paign. He was wounded at Boonesboro, 
Maryland, and on returning to his command 
took part with Sherman in the campaign in 
the Shenandoah Valley. For services ren- 
dered, that famous soldier recommended 
him for promotion, and he was brevetted 
major-general of volunteers. In 1866 Gen- 
eral Alger took up his residence at Detroit, 
and prospered exceedingly in his business, 
which was that of lumbering, and grew 
quite wealthy. In 1884 he was a delegate 
to the Republican national convention, and 
the same year was elected governor of 
Michigan. He declined a nomination for 
re-election to the latter office, in 18S7, and 
was the following year a candidate for the 
nomination for president. In 1889 he was 
elected commander-in-chief of the Grand 
Army of the Republic, and at different 
times occupied many offices in other or- 
ganizations. 

In March, 1897, President McKinley 
appointed General Alger secretary of war. 



CYRUS WEST FIELD, the father of 
submarine telegraphy, was the son of 
the Rev. David D. Field, D.D., a Congre- 
gational minister, and was born at Stock- 
bridge, Massachusetts, November 30, 1819. 
He was educated in his native town, and at 
the age of fifteen years became a clerk in a 
store in New York City. Being gifted with 
excellent business ability Mr. Field pros- 
pered and became the head of a large mer- 
cantile house. In 1853 he spent about six 
months in travel in South America. On his 
return he became interested in ocean teleg- 
raphy. Being solicited to aid in the con- 



171 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



struction of a land telegraph across New 
Foundland to receive the news from a line 
of fast steamers it was proposed to run from 
from Ireland to St. Johns, the idea struck 
him to carry the line across the broad At- 
lantic. In 1350 Mr. Field obtained a con- 
cession from the legislature of Newfound- 
land, giving him the sole right for fifty years 
to land submarine cables on the shores of 
that island. In company with Peter Cooper, 
Moses Taylor, Marshall O. Roberts and 
Chandler White, he organized a company 
under the name of the New York, New- 
foundland & London Telegraph Company. 
In two years the line from New York across 
Newfoundland was built. The first cable 
connecting Cape Breton Island with New- 
foundland having been lost in a storm while 
being laid in 1855, another was put down in 
1856. In the latter year Mr. Field went to 
London and organized the Atlantic Tele- 
graph Company, furnishing one-fourth of the 
capital himself. Both governments loaned 
ships to carry out the enterprise. Mr. Field 
accompanied the expeditions- of 1857 and 
two in 1858. The first and second cables 
were failures, and the third worked but a 
short time and then ceased. The people of 
both continents became incredulous of the 
feasibility of laying a successful cable under 
so wide an expanse of sea, and the war 
breaking out shortly after, nothing was done 
until 1865-66. Mr. Field, in the former 
year, again made the attempt, and the Great 
Eastern laid some one thousand two hun- 
dred miles when the cable parted and was 
lost. The following year the same vessel 
succeeded in laying the entire cable, and 
picked up the one lost the year before, and 
both were carried to America's shore. After 
thirteen years of care and toil Mr. Field had 
his reward. He was the recipient of many 
medals and honors from both home and 



abroad. He gave his attention after this, 
to establishing telegraphic communication 
throughout the world and many other large 
enterprises, notably the construction of ele- 
vated railroads in New York. Mr. Field 
died July 1 1, 1S92. 



G ROVER CLEVELAND, the twenty- 
second president of the United States, 
was born in Caldwell, Essex county, New 
Jersey, March 18, 1837, and was the son 
of Rev. Richard and Annie (Neale) Cleve- 
land. The father, of distinguished New 
England ancestry, was a Presbyterian min- 
ister in charge of the church at Caldwell at 
the time. 

When Grover was about three years of 
age the family removed to Fayetteville, 
Onondaga county, New York, where he 
attended the district school, and was in the 
academy for a short time. His father be- 
lieving that boys should early learn to labor, 
Grover entered a village store and worked 
for the sum of fifty dollars for the first year. 
While he was thus engaged the family re- 
moved to Clinton, New York, and there 
young Cleveland took up Hs studies at the 
academy. The death of his father dashed 
all his hopes of a collegiate education, the 
family being left in straightened circum- 
stances, and Grover started out to battle 
for himself. After acting for a year (1853- 
54) as assistant teacher and bookkeeper in 
the Institution for the Blind at New York 
City, he went to Buffalo. A short time 
after he entered the law office of Rogers, 
Bowen & Rogers, of that city, and after a 
hard struggle with adverse circumstances, 
was admitted to the bar in 1859. He be- 
came confidential and managing clerk for 
the firm under whom he had studied, and 
remained with them until 1863. In the lat- 
ter year he was appointed district attorney 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



175 



of Erie county. It was during his incum- 
bency of this office that, on being nominated 
by the Democrats for supervisor, he came 
within thirteen votes of election, although 
the district was usually Republican by two 
hundred and fifty majority. In i866Grover 
Cleveland formed a partnership with Isaac 
V. Vanderpoel. The most of the work here 
fell upon the shoulders of our subject, and 
he soon won a good standing at the bar of 
the state. In 1869 Mr. Cleveland associated 
himself in business with A. P. Laning and 
Oscar Folsom, and under the firm name of 
Laning, Cleveland & Folsom soon built up a 
fair practice. In the fall of 1870 Mr. Cleve- 
land was elected sheriff of Erie county, an 
office which he filled for four years, after 
which he resumed his profession, with L. K. 
Bass and Wilson S. Bissell as partners. 
This firm was strong and popular and 
shortly was in possession of a lucrative 
practice. Mr. Bass retired from the firm 
in 1879, and George J. Secard was admit- 
ted a member in 1SS1. In the latter year 
Mr. Cleveland was elected mayor of Buffalo, 
and in 1882 he was chosen governor by 
the enormous majority of one hundred and 
ninety-two thousand votes. July 11, 1884, 
he was nominated for the presidency by the 
Democratic national convention, and in 
November following was elected. 

Mr. Cleveland, after serving one term as 
president of the United States, in 1888 was 
nominated by his party to succeed himself, 
but he failed of the election, being beaten 
by Benjamin Harrison. In 1892, however, 
being nominated again in opposition to the 
then incumbent of the presidency, Mr. Har- 
rison, Grover Cleveland was elected pres- 
ident for the second time and served for the 
usual term of four years. In 1897 Mr. 
Cleveland retired from the chair of the first 
magistrate of the nation, and in New York 



City resumed the practice of law, in which 
city he had established himself in 1889. 

June 2, 1886, Grover Cleveland was 
united in marriage with Miss Frances Fol- 
som, the daughter of his former partner. 



ALEXANDER WINCHELL, for many 
years one of the greatest of American 
scientists, and one of the most noted and 
prolific writers on scientific subjects, was 
born in Duchess county, New York, Decem- 
ber 31, 1824. He received a thorough col- 
legiate education, and graduated at the 
Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connect- 
icut, in 1847. His mind took a scientific- 
turn, which manifested itself while he was 
yet a boy, and in 1848 he became teacher 
of natural sciences at the Armenian Semi- 
nary, in his native state, a position which 
he filled for three years. In 185 1-3 he oc- 
cupied the same position in the Mesopo- 
tamia Female Seminary, in Alabama, after 
which he was president of the Masonic Fe- 
male Seminary, in Alabama. In 1853 he 
became connected with the University of 
Michigan, at Ann Arbor, at which institu- 
tion he performed the most important work 
of his life, and gained a wide reputation as 
a scientist. He held many important posi- 
tions, among which were the following: 
Professor of physics and civil engineering at 
the University of Michigan, also of geology, 
zoology and botany, and later professor of 
geology and palaeontology at the same insti- 
tution. He also, for a time, was president 
of the Michigan Teachers' Association, and 
state geologist of Michigan. Professor 
Winchell was a very prolific writer on scien- 
tific subjects, and published many standard 
works, his most important and widely known 
being those devoted to geology. He also 
contributed a large number of articles to 
scientific and popular journals. 



176 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRArJIT. 



ANDREW HULL FOOTE, of the 
United States navy, was a native of 
New England, born at New Haven, Con- 
necticut, May 4, 1S08. He entered the 
navy, as a midshipman, December 4, 1822. 
He slowly rose in his chosen profession, at- 
taining the rank of lieutenant in 1830, com- 
mander in 1852 and captain in 1861. 
Among the distinguished men in the break- 
ing out of the Civil war, but few stood higher 
in the estimation of his brother officers than 
Foote, and when, in the fall of 1861, he 
was appointed to the command of the flotilla 
then building on the Mississippi, the act 
gave great satisfaction to the service. 
Although embarrassed by want of navy 
yards and supplies, Foote threw himself into 
his new work with unusual energy. He 
overcame all obstacles and in the new, and, 
until that time, untried experiment, of creat- 
ing and maintaining a navy on a river, 
achieved a success beyond the expectations 
of the country. Great incredulity existed as 
to the possibility of carrying on hostilities 
on a river where batteries from the shore 
might bar the passage. But in spite of all, 
Foote soon had a navy on the great river, 
and by the heroic qualities of the crews en- 
trusted to him, demonstrated the utility of 
this new departure in naval architecture. 
All being prepared, February 6, 1862, Foote 
took Fort Henry after a hotly-contested 
action. On the 14th of the same month, 
for an hour and a half engaged the batteries 
■of Fort Donelson, with four ironclads and 
two wooden gunboats, thereby dishearten- 
ing the garrison and assisting in its capture. 
April 7th of the same year, after several 
-hotly-contested actions, Commodore Foote 
received the surrender of Island No. 10, one 
of the great strongholds of the Confederacy 
on the Mississippi river. Foote having been 
wounded at Fort Donelson, and. by neglect 



it having become so serious as to endanger 
his life, he was forced to resign his command 
and return home. June 16, 1862, he re- 
ceived the thanks of congress and was pro- 
moted to the rank of rear admiral. He was 
appointed chief of the bureau of equipment 
and recruiting. June 4, 1863, he was 
ordered to the fleet off Charleston, to super- 
cede Rear Admiral Dupont, but on his way 
to that destination was taken sick at New 
York, and died June 26, 1863. 



NELSON A. MILES, the well-known sol- 
dier, was born at Westminster, Massa- 
chusetts, August 8, 1 839. His ancestors set- 
tled in that state in 1643 among the early 
pioneers, and their descendants were, many 
of them, to be found among those battling 
against Great Britain during Revolutionary 
times and during the war of 1812. Nelson 
was reared on a farm, received an academic 
education, and in early manhood engaged in 
mercantile pursuits in Boston. Early in 
1 86 1 he raised a company and offered his 
services to the government, and although 
commissioned as captain, on account of his 
youth went out as first lieutenant in the 
Twenty-second Massachusetts Infantry. In 
1 862 he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel 
and colonel of the Sixty-first New York In- 
fantry. At the request of Generals Grant 
and Meade he was made a brigadier by 
President Lincoln. He participated in all 
but one of the battles of the Army of the 
Potomac until the close of the war. During 
the latter part of the time he commanded 
the first division of the Second Corps. 
General Miles was wounded at the battles 
of Fair Oaks, Fredericksburg and Chan- 
cellorsville, and received four brevets for 
distinguished service. During the recon- 
struction period he commanded in North 
Carolina, and on the reorganization of the 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



177 



regular army he was made colonel of in- 
fantry. In 1880 he was promoted to the 
rank of brigadier-general, and in 1890 to 
that of major-general. He successfully con- 
ducted several campaigns among the In- 
dians, and his name is known among the 
tribes as a friend when they are peacefully 
inclined. He many times averted war 
with the red men by judicious and humane 
settlement of difficulties without the military 
power. In 1892 General Miles was given 
command of the proceedings in dedicating 
the World's Fair at Chicago, and in the 
summer of 1894, during the great railroad 
strike at the same city, General Miles, then 
in command of the department, had the 
disposal of the troops sent to protect the 
United States mails. On the retirement of 
General J. M. Schofield, in 1895, General 
Miles became the ranking major-general of 
the United States army and the head of its 
forces. 

JUNIUS BRUTUS BOOTH, the great 
vj actor, though born in London (1796), is 
more intimately connected with the Amer- 
ican than wjth the English stage, and his 
popularity in America was almost un- 
bounded, while in England he was not a 
prime favorite. He presented ' ' Richard III. " 
in Richmond on his first appearance on the 
American stage in 1821. This was his 
greatest role, and in it he has never had an 
equal. In October of the same year he 
appeared in New York. After a long and 
successful career he gave his final perform- 
ance at New Orleans in 1852. He con- 
tracted a severe cold, and for lack of proper 
medical attention, if resulted in his death 
on November 30th of that year. He was, 
without question, one of the greatest tra- 
gedians that ever lived. In addition to his 
professional art and genius, he was skilled 



in languages, drawing, painting and sculp- 
ture. In his private life he was reserved, 
and even eccentric. Strange stories are 
related of his peculiarities, and on his farm 
near Baltimore he forbade the use of animal 
food, the taking of animal life, and even the 
felling of trees, and brought his butter and 
eggs to the Baltimore markets in person. 

Junius Brutus Booth, known as the elder 
Booth, gave to the world three sons of note: 
Junius Brutus Booth, Jr., the husband of 
Agnes Booth, the actress; John Wilkes 
Booth, the author of the greatest tragedy 
in the life of our nation; Edwin Booth, in 
his day the greatest actor of America, if not. 
of the world. 

TAMES MONTGOMERY BAILEY, fa- 
<J mous as the "Danbury News Man," 
was one of the best known American humor- 
ists, and was born September 25, 1841, at 
Albany, N. Y. He adopted journalism as a 
profession and started in his chosen work on 
the "Danbury Times," which paper he pur- 
chased on his return from the war. Mr. 
Bailey also purchased the "Jeffersonian," 
another paper of Danbury, and consolidated 
them, forming the "Danbury News," which 
paper soon acquired a celebrity throughout, 
the United States, from an incessant flow of 
rich, healthy, and original humor, which the 
pen of the editor imparted to its columns, 
and he succeeded in raising the circulation 
of the paper from a few hundred copies a. 
week to over forty thousand. The facilities 
of a country printing office were not so com- 
plete in those days as they are now, but Mr. 
Bailey was resourceful, and he put on re- 
lays'of help and ran his presses night and 
day, and always prepared his matter a week 
ahead of time. The "Danbury News Man" 
was a new figure in literature, as his humor 
was so different from that of the newspaper 



178 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHV 



wits — who had preceded him, and he maybe 
called the pioneer of that school now so 
familiar. Mr. Bailey published in book 
form "Life in Danbury" and "The Danbury 
News Man's Almanac. " One of his most 
admirable traits was philanthrophy, as he 
gave with unstinted generosity to all comers, 
and died comparatively poor, notwithstand- 
ing his ownership of a very profitable busi- 
ness which netted him an income of $40,000 
a year. He died March 4, 1894. 



MATTHEW HALE CARPENTER, a 
famous lawyer, orator and senator, 
was born in Moretown, Vermont, December 
22, 1824. After receiving a common-school 
education he entered the United States 
Military Academy at West Point, but only 
remained two years. On returning to his 
home he commenced the study of law with 
Paul Dillingham, afterwards governor of 
Vermont, and whose daughter he married. 
In 1847 he was admitted to practice at the 
bar in Vermont, but he went to Boston and 
for atimestudied withRufusChoate. In 1848 
he moved wes-t, settling at Beloit, Wisconsin, 
and commencing the practice of his profes- 
sion soon obtained a wide reputation for 
ability. In 1856 Mr. Carpenter removed to 
Milwaukee, where he found a wider field for 
his now increasing powers. During the 
Civil war, although a strong Democrat, he 
was loyal to the government and aided the 
Union cause to his utmost. In 1868 he 
was counsel for the government in a test 
case to settle the legality of the reconstruc- 
tion act before the United States supreme 
court, and won his case against Jeremiah S. 
Black. This gave him the election for sen- 
ator from Wisconsin in 1869, and he served 
until 1875, during part of which time he was 
president pro tempore of the senate. Failing 
of a re-election Mr. Carpenter resumed the 



practice of law, and when William W. 
Belknap, late secretary of war, was im- 
peached, entered the case for General 
Belknap, and secured an acquittal. During 
the sitting of the electoral commission of 
1877, Mr. Carpenter appeared for Samuel 
J. Tilden, although the Republican man- 
agers had intended to have him represent 
R. B. Hayes. Mr. Carpenter was elected' 
to the United States senate again in 1879, 
and remained a member of that body until 
the day of his death, which occurred at 
Washington, District of Columbia, Feb- 
ruary 24, 18S1. 

Senator Carpenter's real name was De- 
catur Merritt Hammond Carpenter but about 
1852 he changed it to the one by which he 
was universally known. 



THOMAS E. WATSON, lawyer and 
congressman, the well-known Geor- 
gian, whose name appears at the head of 
this sketch, made himself a place in the his- 
tory of our country by his ability, energy 
and fervid oratory. He was born in Col- 
umbia (now McDurfte) county, Georgia, 
September 5, 1856. He had a common- 
school education, and in 1872 entered Mer- 
cer University, at Macon, Georgia, as fresh- 
man, but for want of money left the college 
at the end of his sophomore year. He 
taught school, studying law at the same 
time, until 1875, when he was admitted to 
the bar. He opened an office and com- 
menced practice in Thomson, Georgia, in 
November, 1876. He carried on a success- 
ful business, and bought land and farmed on 
an extensive scale. 

Mr. Watson was a delegate to the Demo- 
cratic state convention of 1S80, and was a 
member of the house of representatives of 
the legislature of his native state in 1S82. 
In 1888 he was an elector-at-large on the 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



179 



Cleveland ticket, and in 1890 was elected 
to represent his district in the fifty-second 
congress. This latter election is said to have 
been due entirely to Mr. Watson's "dash- 
ing display of ability, eloquence and popular 
power." In his later years he championed 
the alliance principles and policies until he 
became a leader in the movement. In the 
heated campaign of 1896, Mr. Watson was 
nominated as the candidate for vice-presi- 
dent on the Bryan ticket by that part of the 
People's party that would not endorse the 
nominee for the same position made by the 
Democratic party. 



FREDERICK A. P. BARNARD, mathe- 
matician, physicist and educator, was 
born in Sheffield, Massachusetts, May 5, 1809. 
He graduated from Yale College in 1 828, and 
in 1830 became a tutor in the same. From 
1837 to 1848 he was professor of mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy in the Uni- 
versity of Alabama, and- from 1S48 to 1850, 
professor of chemistry and natural history 
in the same educational institution. In 
1854 he became connected with the Univer- 
sity of Mississippi, of which he became 
president in 1856, and chancellor in 1858. 
In 1854 he took orders in the Protestant 
Episcopal church. In 1861 Professor Barnard 
resigned his chancellorship and chair in the 
university, and in 1863 and 1864 was con- 
nected with the United States coast survey 
in charge of chart printing and lithography. 
In May, 1864, he was elected president of 
Columbia College, New York City, which 
he served for a number of years. 

Professor Barnard received + he honorary 
degree of LL. D. from Jefferson College, 
Mississippi, in 1855, and from Yale College 
in 1859; also the degree of S. T. D. from 
the University of Mississippi in 1861, and 
that of L. H. D. from the regents of the 



University of the State of New York in 1872. 
In 1S60 he was a member of the eclipse 
party sent by the United States coast sur- 
vey to Labrador, and during his absence 
was elected president of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science. In 
the act of congress establishing the National 
Academy of Sciences in 1863, he was named 
as one of the original corporators. In 1867 
he was one of the United States commis- 
sioners to the Paris Exposition. He was 
a member of the American Philosophical 
Society, associate member of the Amer- 
ican Academy of Arts and Sciences, and 
many other philosophical and scientific 
societies at home and abroad. Dr. Barnard 
was thoroughly identified with the progress 
of the age in those branches. His published 
works relate wholly to scientific or educa- 
tional subjects, chief among which are the 
following: Report on Collegiate Education; 
Art Culture; History of the American Coast 
Survey; University Education; Undulatory 
Theory of Light; Machinery and Processes 
of the Industrial Arts, and Apparatus of the 
Exact Sciences, Metric System of Weights 
and Measures, etc. 



EDWIN McMASTERS STANTON, the 
secretary of war during the great Civil 
war, was recognized as one of America's 
foremost public men. He was born Decem- 
ber 19, 1814, at Steubenville, Ohio, where 
he received his education and studied law. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1836, and 
was reporter of the supreme court of Ohio 
from 1842 until 1845. He removed to 
Washington in 1S56 to attend to his prac- 
tice before the United States supreme 
court, and in 1S5S he went to California as 
counsel for the government in certain land 
cases, which he carried to a successful 
conclusion. Mr. Stanton was appointed 



180 



Z^VMPENDIUM OF BIOGJRAFXJ, 



attorney-general of the United States in 
December, 1860, by President Buchanan. 
On March 4, 1S61, Mr. Stanton went with 
the outgoing administration and returned to 
the practice of his profession. He was 
appointed secretary of war by President 
Lincoln January 20, 1862, to succeed Simon 
Cameron. After the assassination of Presi- 
dent Lincoln and the accession of Johnson 
to the presidency, Mr. Stanton was still in 
the same office. He held it for three years, 
and by his strict adherence to the Repub- 
lican party, he antagonized President John- 
son, who endeavored to remove him. On 
August 5, 1867, the president requested him 
to resign, and appointed General Grant to 
succeed him, but when congress convened 
in December the senate refused to concur in 
the suspension. Mr. Stanton returned to 
his post until the president again removed 
him from office, but was again foiled by 
congress. Soon after, however, he retired 
voluntarily from office and took up the 
practice of law, in which he engaged until 
his death, on December 24, 1869. 



ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, the eminent 
theologian and founder of the church 
known as Disciples of Christ, was born in 
the country of Antrim, Ireland, in June, 
1788, and was the son of Rev. Thomas 
Campbell, a Scoth-Irish "Seceder. " After 
studying at the University of Glasgow, he, 
in company with his father, came to America 
in 1808, and both began labor in western 
Pennsylvania to restore Christianity to 
apostolic simplicity. They organized a 
church at Brush Run, Washington count}', 
Pennsylvania, in 181 1, which, however, the 
year following, adopted Baptist views, and 
in 181 3, with other congregations joined a 
Baptist association. Some of the under- 
lying principles and many practices of the 



Campbells and their disciples were repug- 
nant to the Baptist church and considerable 
friction was the result, and 1827 saw the 
separation of that church from the Church 
of Christ, as it is sometimes called. The 
latter, then reorganized themselves anew. 
They reject all creeds, professing to receive 
the Bible as their only guide. In most mat- 
ters of faith they are essentially in accord with 
the other Evangelical Christian churches, 
especially in regard to the person and work 
of Christ, the resurrection and judgment. 
They celebrate the Lord's Supper weekly, 
hold that repentance and faith should precede 
baptism, attaching much importance to the 
latter ordinance. On all other points they 
encourage individual liberty of thought. In 
1841, Alexander Campbell founded Bethany 
College, West Virginia, of which he was 
president for many years, and died March 4, 
1866. 

The denomination which they founded 
is quite a large and important church body 
in the United States. They support quite 
a number of institutions of learning, among 
which are: Bethany College, West Virginia; 
Hiram College, Hiram, Ohio; Northwestern 
Christian University, Indianapolis, Indiana; 
Eureka College, Illinois; Kentucky Univer- 
sity, Lexington, Kentucky; Oskaloosa 
College, Iowa; and a number of seminaries 
and schools. They also support several 
monthly and quarterly religious periodicals 
and many papers, both in the United States 
and Great Britain and her dependencies. 



WILLIAM L.WILSON, the noted West 
Virginian, who was postmaster-gener- 
al under President Cleveland's second ad- 
ministration, won distinction as the father 
of the famous " Wilson bill," which became 
a law under the same administration. Mr. 
Wiison was born May 3, 1843, in Jeffer- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



181 



son county, West Virginia, and received 
a good education at the Charlestown 
Academy, where he prepared himself for 
college. He attended the Columbian Col- 
lege in the District of Columbia, from 
which he graduated in i860, and then 
attended the University of Virginia. Mr. 
Wilson served in the Confederate army dur- 
ing the war, after which he was a professor 
in Columbian College. Later he entered 
into the practice of law at Charlestown. 
He attended the Democratic convention 
held at Cincinnati in 1880, as a delegate, 
and later was chosen as one of the electors 
for the state-at-large on the Hancock 
ticket. In the Democratic convention at 
Chicago in 1892, Mr. Wilson was its per- 
manent president. He was elected pres- 
ident of the West Virginia University in 
1882, entering upon the duties of his office 
on September 6, but having received the 
nomination for the forty-seventh congress 
on the Democratic ticket, he resigned the 
presidency of the university in June, 1883, 
to take his seat in congress. Mr. Wil- 
son was honored by the Columbian Uni- 
versity and the Hampden-Sidney College, 
both of which conferred upon him the de- 
gree of LL. D. In 18S4 he was appointed 
regent of the Smithsonian Institution at 
Washington for two years, and at the end 
of his term was re-appointed. He was 
elected to the forty-seventh, forty-ninth, 
fiftieth, fifty-first, fifty-second and fifty- 
third congresses, but was defeated for re- 
election to the fifty- fourth congress. Upon 
the resignation of Mr. Bissell from the office 
of postmaster- general, Mr. Wilson was ap- 
pointed to fill the vacancy by President 
Cleveland. His many years of public serv- 
ice and the prominent part he took in the 
discussion of public questions gave him a 
national reputation. 



CALVIN S. BRICE, a successful and 
noted financier and politician, was 
born at Denmark, Ohio, September 17, 
1845, of an old Maryland family, who trace 
their lineage from the Bryces, or Bruces, of 
Airth, Scotland. The father of our subject 
was a prominent Presbyterian clergyman, 
who removed to Ohio in 1812. Calvin S. 
Brice was educated in the common schools 
of his native town, and at the age of thir- 
teen entered the preparatory department of 
Miami University at Oxford, Ohio, and the 
following year entered the freshman class. 
On the breaking out of the Civil war, 
although but fifteen years old, he enlisted in 
a company of three-months men. He re- 
turned to complete his college course, but 
re-enlisted in Company A, Eighty-sixth 
Ohio Infantry, and served in the Virginia 
campaign. He then returned to college, 
from which he graduated in 1863. In 1864 
he organized Company E, One Hundred 
and Eightieth Ohio Infantry, and served 
until the close of hostilities, in the western, 
armies. 

On his return home Mr. Brice entered 
the law department of the University of 
Michigan, and in 1866 was admitted to the 
bar in Cincinnati. In the winter of 1870- 
71 he went to Europe in the interests of the 
Lake Erie & Louisville Railroad and pro- 
cured a foreign loan. This road became 
the Lake Erie & Western, of which, in 
1887, Mr. Brice became president. This 
was the first railroad in which he had a 
personal interest. The conception, build- 
ing and sale of the New York, Chicago & 
St. Louis Railroad, known as the "Nickel 
Plate," was largely due to him. He was 
connected with many other railroads, among 
which may be mentioned the following: 
Chicago & Atlantic; Ohio Central; Rich- 
mond & Danville; Richmond & West Point 



182 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



Terminal; East Tennessee, Virginia & 
Georgia; Memphis & Charleston; Mobile & 
Birmingham; Kentucky Central; Duluth, 
South Shore & Atlantic, and the Marquette, 
Houghton & Ontonagon. In 1890 he was 
elected United States senator from Ohio. 
Notwithstanding his extensive business inter- 
ests, Senator Brice gave a considerable 
time to political matters, becoming one of 
the leaders of the Democratic party and one 
of the most widely known men in the 
country. 

BENJAMIN HARRISON, twenty-third 
president of the United States, was 
born August 20, 1S33, at North Bend, 
Hamilton county, Ohio, in the house of his 
grandfather, General William Henry Har- 
rison, afterwards president of the United 
States. His great-grandfather, Benjamin 
Harrison, was a member of the Continental 
congress, signed the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and was three times elected gov- 
ernor of Virginia. 

The subject of this sketch entered Farm- 
ers College at an early age, and two years 
later entered Miami University, at Oxford, 
Ohio. Upon graduation he entered the 
office of Stover & Gwyne, of Cincinnati, as a 
law student. He was admitted to the bar 
two years later, and having inherited about 
eight hundred dollars worth of property, he 
married the daughter of Doctor Scott, pres- 
ident of a female school at Oxford, Ohio, 
and selected Indianapolis, Indiana, to begin 
practice. In i860 he was nominated by 
the Republicans as candidate for state 
supreme court reporter, and did his first 
political speaking in that campaign. He 
was elected, and after two years in that 
position he organized the Seventieth Indi- 
ana Infantry, of which he was made colonel, 
and with his regiment joined General Sher- 



man's army. For bravery displayed at Re- 
saca and Peach Tree Creek he was made a 
brigadier-general. In the meantime the 
office of supreme court reporter had been 
declared vacant, and another party elected 
to fill it. In the fall of 1864, having been 
nominated for that office, General Harrison 
obtained a thirty-day leave of absence, went 
to Indiana, canvassed the state and was 
elected. As he was about to rejoin his 
command he was stricken down by an attack 
of fever. After his recovery he joined 
General Sherman's army and participated in 
the closing events of the war. 

In 1868 General Harrison declined to 
be a candidate for the office of supreme 
court reporter, and returned to the practice 
of the law. His brilliant campaign for the 
office of governor of Indiana in 1876, 
brought him into public notice, although he 
was defeated. He took a prominent part 
in the presidential canvass of 1880, and was 
chosen United States senator from Indiana, 
serving six years. He then returned to the 
practice of his profession. In 1888 he was 
selected by the Republican convention at 
Chicago as candidate for the presidency, and 
after a heated campaign was elected over 
Cleveland. He was inaugurated March 4, 
18S9, and signed the McKinley bill October 
1, 1890, perhaps the most distinctive feature 
of his administration. In 1892 he was 
again the nominee of the Republican party 
for president, but was defeated by Grover 
Cleveland, the Democratic candidate, and 
again resumed the practice of law in Indian- 
apolis. 



J 



OHN CRAIG HAVEMEYER, the 
celebrated merchant and sugar refiner, 
was born in New York City in 1833. His 
father, William F. Havemeyer, and grand- 
father, William Havemeyer, weie both sugar 



COArPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



183 



refiners. The latter named came from 
Buckeburg, Germany, in 1799, and settled 
in New York, establishing one of the first 
refineries in that city. William F. succeeded 
his father, and at an early age retired from 
business with a competency. He was three 
times mayor of his native city, New York. 
John C. Havemeyer was educated in 
private schools, and was prepared for college 
at Columbia College grammar school. 
Owing to failing eyesight he was unable to 
finish his college course, and began his 
business career in a wholesale grocery store, 
where he remained two years. In 1854, 
after a year's travel abroad, he assumed the 
responsibility of the office work in the sugar 
refinery of Havemeyer & Molter, but two 
years later etablished a refinery of his own 
in Brooklyn. This afterwards developed into 
the immense business of Havemeyer & Elder. 
The capital was furnished by his father, 
and, chafing under the anxiety caused by the 
use of borrowed money, he sold out his 
interest and returned to Havemeyer & 
Molter. This firm dissolving the next year, 
John C. declined an offer of partnership 
from the successors, not wishing to use 
borrowed money. For two years he remain- 
ed with the house, receiving a share of the 
profits as compensation. For some years 
thereafter he was engaged in the commission 
business, until failing health caused his 
retirement. In 1871, he again engaged in 
the sugar refining business at Greenport, 
Long Island, with his brother and another 
partner, under the firm name of Havemeyer 
Brothers & Co. Here he remained until 
1880, when his health again declined. 
During the greater part of his life Mr. 
Havemeyer was identified with many benev- 
olent societies, including the New York 
Port Society, Missionary Society of the 
.Methodist Church, American Bible Society, 



New York Sabbath School Society and 
others. He was active in Young Men's 
Christian Association work in New York, 
and organized and was the first president of 
an affiliated society of the same at Yonkers. 
He was director of several railroad corpo- 
rations and a trustee of the Continental Trust 
Company of New York. 



WALTER QUINTIN GRESHAM, an 
eminent American statesman and 
jurist, was born March 17, 1833, near Cory- 
don, Harrison county, Indiana. He ac- 
quired his education in the local schools of 
the county and at Bloomington Academy, 
although he did not graduate. After leav- 
ing college he read law with Judge Porter 
at Corydon, and just before the war he be- 
gan to take an interest in politics. Mr. 
Gresham was elected to the legislature from 
Harrison county as a Republican; previous 
to this the district had been represented by 
a Democrat. At the commencement of 
hostilities he was made lieutenant-colonel of 
the Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry, but 
served in that regiment only a short time, 
when he was appointed colonel of the Fifty- 
third Indiana, and served under General 
Grant at the siege of Vicksburg as brigadier- 
general. Later he was under Sherman in 
the famous "March to the Sea," and com- 
manded a division of Blair's corps at the 
siege of Atlanta where he was so badly 
wounded in the leg that he was compelled 
to return home. On his way home he was 
forced to stop at New Albany, where he re- 
mained a year before he was able to leave. 
He was brevetted major-general at the close 
of the war. While at New Albany, Mr. 
Gresham was appointed state agent, his 
duty being to pay the interest on the state 
debt in New York, and he ran twice for 
congress against ex-Speaker Kerr, but was 



184 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRATHT. 



defeated in both cases, although he greatly 
reduced the Democratic majority. He was 
held in high esteem by President Grant, 
who offered him the portfolio of the interior 
but Mr. Gresham declined, but accepted 
the appointment of United States judge for 
Indiana to succeed David McDonald. 
Judge Gresham served on the United States 
district court bench until 1883, when he 
was appointed postmaster-general by Presi- 
dent Arthur, but held that office only a few 
months when he was made secretary of the 
treasury. Near the end of President 
Arthur's term. Judge Gresham was ap- 
pointed judge of the United States circuit 
court of the district composed of Indiana, 
Illinois and contiguous states, which he held 
until 1S93. Judge Gresham was one of the 
presidential possibilities in the National Re- 
publican convention in 1888, when General 
Harrison was nominated, and was also men- 
tioned for president in 1892. Later the 
People's party made a strenuous effort to 
induce him to become their candidate for 
president, he refusing the offer, however, 
and a few weeks before the election he an- 
nounced that he would support Mr. Cleve- 
land, the Democratic nominee for president. 
Upon the election of Mr. Cleveland in the 
fall of 1892, Judge Gresham was made the 
secretary of state, and filled that position 
until his death on May 28, 1895, at Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia. 



ELISHA B. ANDREWS, noted as an ed- 
ucator and college president, was born 
at Hinsdale, New Hampshire, January 10, 
1844, his father and mother being Erastus 
and Elmira (Bartlett) Andrews. In 1861, 
he entered the service of the general gov- 
ernment as private and non-commissioned 
officer in the First Connecticut Heavy Ar- 
tillery, and in 1863 was promoted to the 



rank of second lieutenant. Returning home 
he was prepared for college at Powers In- 
stitute and at the Wesleyan Academy, and 
entered Brown University. From here he 
was graduated in 1870. For the succeeding 
two years he was principal of the Connecti- 
cut Literary Institute at Suffield, Connecticut. 
Completing a course at the Newton Theo- 
logical Institute, he was ordained pastor of 
the First Baptist church at Beverly, Massa- 
chusetts, July 2, 1874. The following 
year he became president of the Denison 
University, at Granville, Ohio. In 1879 
he accepted the professorship of homiletics, 
pastoral duties and church polity at Newton 
Theological Institute. In 1882 he was 
elected to the chair of history and political 
economy at Brown University. The Uni- 
versity of Nebraska honored him with an 
LL. D. in 1884, and the same year Colby 
University conferred the degree of D. D. 
In 1888 he became professor of political 
economy and public economy at Cornell 
University, but the next year returned to 
Brown University as its president. From 
the time of his inauguration the college work 
broadened in many ways. Many timely 
and generous donations from friends and 
alumni of the college were influenced by 
him, and large additions made "to the same. 
Professor Andrews published, in 1887, 
"Institutes of General History," and in 
1888, " Institutes of Economics." 



JOHN WILLIAM DRAPER, the subject 
of the present biography, was, during his 
life, one of the most distinguished chemists 
and scientific writers in America. He was 
an Englishman by birth, born at Liverpool, 
May 5, 181 1, and was reared in his native 
land, receiving an excellent education, 
graduating at the University of London. In 
1833 he came to the United States, and 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPIIV. 



181 



settled first in Pennsylvania. He graduated 
in medicine at the University of Philadel- 
phia, in 1836, and for three years following 
was professor of chemistry and physiology 
at Hampden-Sidney College. He then be- 
came professor of chemistry in the New York 
University, with which institution he was 
prominently connected for many years. It 
is stated on excellent authority that Pro- 
fessor Draper, in 1839, took the first photo- 
graphic picture ever taken from life. He 
was a great student, and carried on many 
important and intricate experiments along 
scientific lines. He discovered many of the 
fundamental facts of spectrum analysis, 
which he published. He published a number 
of works of great merit, many of which are 
recognized as authority upon the subjects of 
which they treat. Among his work were: 
"Human Physiology, Statistical and Dyna- 
mical of the Conditions and Cause of Life 
in Man," "History of Intellectual Develop- 
ment of Europe," " History of the Ameri- 
can Civil War," besides a number of works 
on chemistry, optics and mathematics. Pro- 
fessor Draper continued to hold a high place 
among the scientific scholars of America 
until his death, which occurred in January, 
1882. 

GEORGE W. PECK, ex-governor of 
the state of Wisconsin and a famous 
journalist and humorist, was born in Jeffer- 
son county. New York, September 28, 1840. 
When he was about three years of age his 
parents removed to Wisconsin, settling near 
Whitewater, where young Peck received his 
education at the public schools. At fifteen 
he entered the office of the "Whitewater 
Register," where he learned the printer's 
art. He helped start the "Jefferson County 
Republican" later on, but sold out his 

interest therein and set type in the office of 
11 



the "State Journal," at Madison. At the 
outbreak of the war he enlisted in the 
Fourth Wisconsin Cavalry as a private, and 
after serving four years returned a second 
lieutenant. He then started the " Ripon 
Representative," which he sold not long 
after, and removing to New York, was on 
the staff of Mark Pomeroy's "Democrat." 
Going to La Crosse, later, he conducted the 
La Crosse branch paper, a half interest in 
which he bought in 1874. He next started 
"Peck's Sun," which four years later he 
removed to Milwaukee. While in La 
Crosse he was chief of police one year, and 
also chief clerk of the Democratic assembly 
in 1874. It was in 1878 that Mr. Peck 
took his paper to Milwaukee, and achieved 
his first permanent success, the circulation 
increasing to 80,000. For ten years he was 
regarded as one of the most original, versa- 
tile and entertaining writers in the country, 
and he has . delineated every phase of 
country newspaper life, army life, domestic 
experience, travel and city adventure. Up 
to 1890 Mr. Peck took but little part in 
politics, but in that year was elected mayor 
of Milwaukee on the Democratic ticket. 
The following August he was elected gov- 
ernor of Wisconsin by a large majority, 
the "Bennett School Bill" figuring to a 
large extent in his favor. 

Mr. Peck, besides many newspaper arti- 
cles in his peculiar vein and numerous lect- 
ures, bubbling over with fun, is known to 
fame by the following books: "Peck's Bad 
Boy and his Pa," and "The Grocery Man 
and Peck's Bad Boy." 



CHARLES O'CONOR, who was for 
many years the acknowledged leader 
of the legal profession of New York City, 
was also conceded to be one of the greatest 
lawyers America has produced. He was 



188 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



born in New York City in 1804, his father 
being an educated Irish gentleman. Charles 
received a. common-school education, and 
early took up the study of law, being ad- 
mitted to practice in 1824. His close ap- 
plication and untiring energy and industry 
soon placed him in the front rank of the 
profession, and within a few years he was 
handling many of the most important cases. 
One of the first great cases he had and which 
gained him a wide reputation, was that of 
"Jack, the Fugitive Slave," in 1835, in which 
his masterful argument before the supreme 
court attracted wide attention and com- 
ment. Charles O'Conor was a Democrat 
all his life. He did not aspire to office- 
holding, however, and never held any office 
except that of district attorney under Presi- 
dent Pierce's administration, which he only 
retained a short time. He took an active 
interest, however, in public questions, and 
was a member of the state (New York) con- 
stitutional convention in 1864. In 1868 he 
was nominated for the presidency by the 
" Extreme Democrats." His death occurred 
in May, 1884. 

SIMON BOLIVAR BU.CKNER, a noted 
American officer and major-general in 
the Confederate army, was born in Ken- 
tucky in 1823. He graduated from West 
Point Military Academy in 1844, served in 
the United States infantry and was later as- 
signed to commissary duty with the rank of 
captain. He served several years at fron- 
tier posts, and was assistant professor in the 
military academy in 1846. He was with 
General Scott in the Mexican war, and en- 
gaged in all the battles from Vera Cruz to 
the capture of the Mexican capital. He 
was wounded at Cherubusco and brevetted 
first lieutenant, and at Molino del Rey was 
brevetted captain. After the close of the 



Mexican war he returned to West Point as 
assistant instructor, and was then assigned 
to commissary duty at New York. He re- 
signed in 1855 and became superintendent 
of construction of the Chicago custom house. 
He was made adjutant-general, with the 
rank of colonel, of Illinois militia, and was 
colonel of Illinois volunteers raised for the 
Utah expedition, but was not mustered into 
service. In i860 he removed to Kentucky, 
where he settled on a farm near Louisville 
and became inspector-general in command 
of the Kentucky Home Guards. At the 
opening of the Civil war he joined the Con- 
federate army, and was given command at 
Bowling Green, Kentucky, which he was 
compelled to abandon after the capture of 
Fort Henry. He then retired tp Fort Don- 
elson, and was there captured with sixteen 
thousand men, and an immense store of pro- 
visions, by General Grant, in February, 
1862. He was held as a prisoner of war 
at Fort Warren until August of that year. 
He commanded a division of Hardee's corps 
in Bragg's Army of the Tennessee, and was 
afterward assigned to the third division and 
participated in the battles of Chickamauga, 
and Murfreesboro. He was with Kirby 
Smith when that general surrendered his 
army to General Canby in May, 1865. He 
was an unsuccessful candidate for the vice- 
presidency on the Gold Democratic ticket 
with Senator John M. Palmer in 1896. 



SIMON KENTON, one of the famous pio- 
neers and scouts whose names fill the 
pages of the early history of our country, 
was born in Fauquier county, Virginia, 
April 3, 1755. In consequence of an affray, 
at the age of eighteen, young Kenton went 
to Kentucky, then the "Dark and Bloody 
Ground," and became associated with Dan- 
iel Boone and other pioneers of that region. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY, 



L89 



For a short time he acted as a scout and 
spy for Lord Dunmore, the British governor 
of Virginia, but afterward taking the side 
of the struggling colonists, participated in 
the war for independence west of the Alle- 
ghanies. In 1784 he returned to Virginia, 
but did not remain there long, going back 
with his family to Kentucky. From 
that time until 1793 he participated in all 
the combats and battles of that time, and 
until "Mad Anthony" Wayne swept the 
Valley of the Ohio, and settled the suprem- 
acy of the whites in that region. Kenton 
laid claim to large tracts of land in the new 
country he had helped to open up, but 
through ignorance of law, and the growing 
value of the land, lost it all and was reduced 
to poverty. During the war with England 
in 1812-15, Kenton took part in the inva- 
sion of Canada with the Kentucky troops 
and participated in the battle of the Thames. 
He finally bad land granted him by the 
legislature of Kentucky, and received a pen- 
sion from the United States government. 
He died in Logan county, Ohio, April 29, 
1836. 

ELIHU BENJAMIN WASHBURNE, an 
American statesman of eminence, was 
born in Livermore, Maine, September 23, 
1 8 16. He learned the trade of printer, but 
abandoned that calling at the age of eight- 
een and entered the Kent's Hill Academy at 
Rending, Maine, and then took up the study 
of law, reading in Hallowell, Boston, and at 
the Harvard Law School. He began prac- 
tice at Galena, Illinois, in 1840. He was 
elected to congress in 1852, and represented 
his district in that body continuously until 
March, 1 S69, and at the time of his retire- 
ment he had served a greater number of 
consecutive terms than any other member 
of the house. In 1873 President Grant ap- 



pointed him secretary of state, which posi- 
tion he resigned to accept that of minister 
to France. During the Franco- Prussian 
war, including the siege of Paris and the 
reign of the Commune, Mr. Washburne re- 
mained at his post, protecting the lives and 
property of his countrymen, as well as that 
of other foreign residents in Paris, while the 
ministers of all other powers abandoned 
their posts at a time when they were most 
needed. As far as possible he extended 
protection to unfortunate German residents, 
who were the particular objects of hatred of 
the populace, and his firmness and the suc- 
cess which attended his efforts won the ad- 
miration of all Europe. Mr. Washburne 
died at Chicago, Illinois, October 22, 18S7. 



U HLLIAM CRAMP, one of the most 
V V extensive shipbuilders of this coun- 
try, was born in Kensington, then a suburb, 
now a part of Philadelphia, in 1806. He 
received a thorough English education, and 
when he left school was associated with 
Samuel Grice, one of the most eminent 
naval architects of his day. In 1S30, hav- 
ing mastered all the details of shipbuilding, 
Mr. Cramp engaged in business on his own 
account. By reason of ability and excel- 
lent work he prospered from the start, until 
now, in the hands of his sons, under the 
name of William Cramp & Sons' Ship and 
Engine Building Company, it has become the 
mpst complete shipbuilding plant and flaval 
arsenal in the western hemisphere, and fully 
equal to any in the world. As Mr. Cramp's 
sons attained manhood they learned their 
father's profession, and were admitted to a 
partnership. In 1872 the firm was incor- 
porated under the title given above. Until 
i860 wood was used in building vessels, al- 
though pace was kept with all advances in 
the art of shipbuilding. At the opening of 



190 



COMr/:XBICM of bjograpiiv 



the w^r came an unexpected demand for 
war vessels, which they promptly met. The 
sea-going ironclad "New Ironsides" was 
built by them in 1862, followed by a num- 
ber of formidable ironclads and the cruiser 
"Chattanooga." They subsequently built 
several war vessels for the Russian and 
other governments which added to their 
reputation. When the American steamship 
line was established in 1870, the Cramps 
were commissioned to build for it four first- 
class iron steamships, the " Pennsylvania," 
"Ohio," "Indiana" and "Illinois," which 
they turned out in rapid order, some of the 
finest specimens of the naval architecture of 
their day. William Cramp remained at the 
head of the great company he had founded 
until his death, which occurred January 6, 
1879. 

Charles H. Cramp, the successor of his 
father as head of the William Cramp & 
Sons' Ship and Engine Building Company, 
was born in Philadelphia May 9, 1829, and 
received an excellent education in his native 
city, which he sedulously sought to sup- 
plement by close study until he became 
an authority on general subjects and the 
best naval architect on the western hemis- 
phere. Many of the best vessels of our 
new navy were built by this immense con- 
cern. 

WASHINGTON ALLSTON, probably 
the greatest American painter, was 
born in South Carolina in 1779. He was 
sent to school at the age of seven years at 
Newport, Rhode Island, where he met Ed- 
ward Malbone, two years his senior, and 
who later became a painter of note. The 
friendship that sprang up between them un- 
doubtedly influenced young Allston in the 
choice of a profession. He graduated from 
Harvard in 1800, and went to England the 



following year, after pursuing his studies for 
a year under his friend Malbone at his home 
in South Carolina. He became a student 
at the Royal Academy where the great 
American, Benjamin West, presided, and 
who became his intimate friend. Allston 
later went to Paris, and then to Italy, where 
four years were spent, mostly at Rome. In 
1809 he returned to America, but soon after 
returned to London, having married in the 
meantime a sister of Dr. Channing. In 
a short time his first great work appeared, 
"The Dead Man Restored to Life by the 
Bones of Elisha," which took the British 
Association prize and firmly established his 
reputation. Other paintings followed in 
quick succession, the greatest among which 
were "Uriel in the Center of the Sun," 
"Saint Peter Liberated by the Angel," and 
"Jacob's Dream," supplemented by many 
smaller pieces. Hard work, and grief at the 
death of his wife began to tell upon his health, 
and he left London in 1818 for America. 
The same year he was elected an associate 
of the Royal Academy. During the next 
few years he painted "Jeremiah," "Witch 
ofEndor," and "Beatrice." In 1830 Alls- 
ton married a daughter of Judge Dana, and 
went to Cambridge, which was his home 
until his death. Here he produced the 
"Vision of the Bloody Hand," "Rosalie," 
and many less noted pieces, and had given 
one week of labor to his unfinished master- 
piece, "Belshazzar's Feast," when death 
ended his career July 9, 1843. 



JOHN ROACH, ship builder and manu- 
facturer, whose career was a marvel of. 
industrial labor, and who impressed his in- 
dividuality and genius upon the times in 
which he lived more, perhaps, than any 
other manufacturer in America. He was 
born at Mitchelstown, County Cork, Ire- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



191 



land, December 25, 181 5, the son of a 
wealthy merchant. He attended school 
until he was thirteen, when his father be- 
came financially embarrassed and failed 
and shortly after died; John determined to 
come to America and carve out a fortune 
for himself. He landed in New York at the 
age of sixteen, and soon obtained employ- 
ment at the Howell Iron Works in New Jer- 
sey, at twenty- five cents a day. He soon 
made himself a place in the world, and at 
the end of three years had saved some 
twelve hundred dollars, which he lost by 
the failure of his employer, in whose hands 
it was left. Returning to New York he 
began to learn how to make castings for 
marine engines and ship work. Having 
again accumulated one thousand dollars, in 
company with three fellow workmen, he 
purchased a small foundry in New York, 
but soon became sole proprietor. At the 
end of four years he had saved thirty thou- 
sand dollars, besides enlarging his works. 
In 1856 his works were destroyed by a 
boiler explosion, and being unable to collect 
ths insurance, was left, after paying his 
debts, without a dollar. However, his 
credit and reputation for integrity was good, 
and he built the Etna Iron Works, giving it 
capacity to construct larger marine engines 
than any previously built in this country. 
Here he turned out immense engines for 
the steam ram Dunderberg, for the war ves- 
sels Winooski and Neshaning, and other 
large vessels. To accommodate his increas- 
ing business, Mr. Roach, in 1869, pur- 
chased the Morgan Iron Works, one of the 
largest in New York, and shortly after sev- 
eral others. In 1871 he bought the Ches- 
ter ship yards, which he added to largely, 
erecting a rolling mill and blast furnace, and 
providing every facility for fcuilding a ship 
out of the ore and timber. This immense 



plant covered a large area, was valued at 
several millions of dollars, and was known 
as the Delaware River Iron Shipbuilding 
and Engine Works, of which Mr. Roach 
was the principal owner. He built a large 
percentage of the iron vessels now flying 
the American flag, the bulk of his business 
being for private parties. In 1875 ne built 
the sectional dry docks at Pensacola. He, 
about this time, drew the attention of the 
government to the use of compound marine 
engines, and thus was the means of im- 
proving the speed and economy of the ves- 
sels of our new navy. In 1883 Mr. Roach 
commenced work on the three cruisers for 
the government, the "Chicago," "Boston" 
and "Atlanta," and the dispatch boat 
" Dolphin." For some cause the secretary 
of the navy refused to receive the latter and 
decided that Mr. Roach's contract would 
r.3t hold. This embarrassed Mr. Roach, 
as a large amount of his capital was in- 
volved in these contracts, and for the pro- 
tection of bondsmen and creditors, July 18, 
1885, he made an assignment, but the 
financial trouble broke down his strong con- 
stitution, and January 10, 1887, he died. 
His son, John B. Roach, succeeded to the 
shipbuilding interests, while Stephen W. 
Roach inherited the Morgan Iron Works at 
New York. 

JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY, one of 
the two great painters who laid the 
foundation of true American art, was born 
in Boston in 1737, one year earlier than his 
great contemporary, Benjamin West. His 
education was limited to the common schools 
of that time, and his training in art he ob- 
tained by his own observation and experi- 
ments solely. When he was about seven- 
teen years old he had mapped out his future, 
however, by choosing painting as his pro- 



192 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPIIV. 



fession. If he ever studied under any 
teacher in his early efforts, we have no au- 
thentic account of it, and tradition credits 
the young artist's wonderful success en- 
tirely to his own talent and untiring effort. 
It is almost incredible that at the age of 
twenty-three years his income from his 
works aggregated fifteen hundred dollars 
per annum, a very great sum ki those days. 
In 1774 he went to Europe in search of ma- 
terial for study, which was so rare in his 
native land. After some time spent in Italy 
he finally took up his permanent residence 
in England. In 1783 he was made a mem- 
ber of the Royal Academy, and later his 
son had the high honor of becoming lord 
chancellor of England and Lord Lyndhurst. 
Many specimens of Copley's work are to 
be found in the Memorial Hall at Harvard 
and in the Boston Museum, as well as a few 
of the works upon which he modeled his 
style. Copley was essentially a portrait 
painter, though his historical paintings at- 
tained great celebrity, his masterpiece 
being his ' ' Death of Major Pierson, " though 
that distinction has by some been given to 
his "Death of Chatham." It is said that 
he never saw a good picture until he was 
thirty-five years old,- yet his portraits prior 
to that period are regarded as rare speci- 
mens. He died in 181 5. 



HENRY B. PLANT, one of the greatest 
railroad men of the country, became 
famous as president of the Plant system of 
railway and steamer lines, and also the 
Southern & Texas Express Co. He was 
born in October, 1S19, at Branford, 
Connecticut, and entered the railroad serv- 
ice in 1844, serving as express messenger 
on the Hartford & New Haven Railroad until 
1853, during which time he had entire 
charge of the expr^?? business of that road. 



He went south in 1853 and established ex- 
press lines on various southern railways, and 
in 1 86 1 organized the Southern Express 
Co., and became its president. In 1879 he 
purchased, with others, the Atlantic '& Gulf 
Railroad of Georgia, and later reorganized 
the Savannah, Florida & Western Railroad, 
of which he became president. He pur- 
chased and rebuilt, in 1880, the Savannah 
& Charleston Railroad, now Charleston & 
Savannah. Not long after this he organ- 
ized the Plant Investment Co., to control 
these railroads and advance their interests 
generally, and later established a steamboat 
line on the St. John's river, in Florida. 
From 1853 until i860 he was general 
superintendent of the southern division of 
the Adams Express Co., and in 1867 be- 
came president of the Texas Express Co. 
The "Plant system" of railway, steamer 
and steamship lines is one of the greatest 
business corporations of the southern states. 



WADE HAMPTON, a noted Confeder- 
ate officer, was born at Columbia, 
South Carolina, in 18 18. He graduated 
from the South Carolina College, took an 
active part in politics, and was twice elected 
to the legislature of his state. In 1861 he 
joined the Confederate army, and command- 
ed the " Hampton Legion" at the first bat- 
tle of Bull Run, in July, 1861. He did 
meritorious service, was wounded, and pro- 
moted to brigadier-general. He command- 
ed a brigade at Seven Pines, in 1862, and 
was again wounded. He was engaged in 
the battle of Antietam in September of the 
same year, and participated in the raid into 
Pennsylvania in October. In 1863 he was 
with Lee at Gettysburg, where he was 
wounded for the third time. He was pro- 
moted to the rank of lieutenant-general, and 
commanded a troop of cavalry in Lee's 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



193 



army during 1864, and was in numerous en- 
gagements. In 1865 he was in South Car- 
olina, and commanded the cavalry rear 
guard of the Confederate army in its stub- 
born retreat before General Sherman on his 
advance toward Richmond. 

After the war Hampton took an active 
part in politics, and was a prominent figure 
at the Democratic national convention in 
1868, which nominated Seymour and Blair 
for president and vice-president. He was 
governor of South Carolina, and took his 
seat in the United States senate in 1879, 
where he became a conspicuous figure in 
national affairs. 



NIKOLA TESLA, one of the most cele- 
brated electricians America has known, 
was born in 1857, at Smiljau, Lika, Servia. 
He descended from an old and representative 
family of that country. His father was a 
a minister of the Greek church, of high rank, 
while his mother was a woman of remarka- 
ble skill in the construction of looms, churns 
and the machinery required in a rural home. 
Nikola received early education in the 
public schools of Gospich, when he was 
sent to the higher "Real Schule " at Karl- 
stadt, where, after a three years' course, 
he graduated in 1873. He devoted him- 
self to experiments in electricity and 
magnetism, to the chagrin of his father, 
who had destined him for the ministry, 
but giving way to the boy's evident genius 
he was allowed to continue his studies in 
the polytechnic school at Gratz. He in- 
herited a wonderful intuition which enabled 
him to see through the intricacies of ma- 
chinery, and despite his instructor's demon- 
stration that a dynamo could not be oper- 
ated without commutators or brushes, 
began experiments which finally resulted in 
his rotating field motors. After the study 



of languages at Prague and Buda-Pesth, he 
became associated with M. Puskas, who 
had introduced the telephone into Hungary. 
He invented several improvements, but 
being unable to reap the necessary benefit 
from them, he, in search of a wider field, 
went to Paris, where he found employment 
with one of the electric lighting companies 
as electrical engineer. Soon he set his face 
westward, and coming to the United States 
for a time found congenial employment with 
Thomas A. Edison. Finding it impossible, 
overshadowed as he was, to carry out his 
own ideas he left the Edison works to join 
a company formed to place his own inven- 
tions on the market. He perfected his 
rotary field principle, adapting it to circuits 
then in operation. It is said of him that 
some of his proved theories will change the 
entire electrical science. It would, in an 
cLrticle of this length, be impossible to ex- 
plain all that Tesla accomplished for the 
practical side of electrical engineering. 
His discoveries formed the basis of the at- 
tempt to utilize the water power of Niagara 
Falls. His work ranges far beyond the 
vast department of polyphase currents and 
high potential lighting and includes many 
inventions in arc lighting, transformers, 
pyro and thermo-magnetic motors, new 
forms of incandescent lamps, unipolar dyna- 
mos and many others. 



CHARLES B. LEWIS won fame as arr 
American humorist under the name of 
" M. Quad." It is said he owes his 
celebrity originally to the fact that he was 
once mixed up in a boiler explosion on the 
Ohio river, and the impressions he received 
from the event he set up from his case when 
he was in the composing room of an ob- 
scure Michigan paper. His style possesses a 
peculiar quaintness, and there runs through 



194 



COMPEXDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



it a vein of philosophy. Mr. Lewis was 
born in 1844, near a town called Liverpool, 
Ohio. He was, however, raised in Lansing, 
Michigan, where he spent a year in an agri- 
cultural college, going from there to the 
composing room of the "Lansing Demo- 
crat." At the outbreak of the war he en- 
listed in the service, remained during the 
entire war, and then returned to Lansing. 
The explosion of the boiler that "blew him 
into fame, " took place two years later, while 
he was on his way south. When he re- 
covered physically, he brought suit for dam- 
ages against the steamboat company, which 
he gained, and was awarded a verdict of 
twelve thousand dollars for injuries re- 
ceived. It was while he was employed by 
the " Jacksonian " of Pontiac, Mich., that he 
set up his account of how he felt while being 
blown up. He says that he signed it "M 
Quad," because "a bourgeoise em quad is 
useless except in its own line — it won't 
justify with any other type." Soon after, 
because of the celebrity he attained by this 
screed, Mr. Lewis secured a place on the 
staff of the " Detroit Free Press," and made 
for that paper a wide reputation. His 
sketches of the "Lime Kiln Club" and 
" Brudder Gardner " are perhaps the best 
known of his humorous writings. 



HIRAM S. MAXIM, the famous inventor, 
was born in Sangersville, Maine, 
February 5, 1840, the son of Isaac W. 
and Harriet B. Maxim. The town of his 
birth was but a small place, in the 
woods, on the confines of civilization, 
and the family endured many hardships. 
They were without means and entirely 
-dependent on themselves to make out of 
raw materials all they needed. The mother 
was an expert spinner, weaver, dyer and 
seamstress and the father a trapper, tanner, 



miller, blacksmith, carpenter, mason and 
farmer. Amid such surroundings young 
Maxim gave early promise of remarkable 
aptitude. With the universal Yankee jack- 
knife the products of his skill excited the 
wonder and interest of the locality. His 
parents did not encourage his latent genius 
but apprenticed him to a coach builder. 
Four years he labored at this uncongenial 
trade but at the end of that time he forsook 
it and entered a machine shop at Fitchburg, 
Massachusetts. Soon mastering the details 
of that business and that of mechanical 
drawing, he went to Boston as the foreman 
of the philosophical instrument manufactory. 
From thence he went to New York and with 
the Novelty Iron Works Shipbuilding Co. 
he gained experience in these trades. His 
inventions up to this time consisted of 
improvements in steam engines, and an 
automatic gas machine, which came into 
general use. In 1877 he turned his attention 
to electricity, and in 187S produced an 
incandescent lamp, that would burn 1,000 
hours. He was the first to design a process 
for flashing electric carbons, and the first 
to "standardize" carbons for electric light- 
ing. In 1880 he visited Europe and exhibit- 
ing, at the Paris Exposition of 1S81, a self- 
regulating machine, was decorated with the 
Legion of Honor. In 1883 he returned to 
London as the European representative of the 
United States Electric Light Co. An incident 
of his boyhood, in which the recoil of a rifle 
was noticed by him, and the apparent loss 
of power shown, in 188 1-2 prompted the 
invention of a gun which utilizes the recoil to 
automatically load and fire seven hundred 
and seventy shots per minute. The Maxim- 
Nordenfelt Gun Co., with a capital of nine 
million dollars, grew from this. In 1883 he 
patented his electric training gear for large 
guns. And later turned his attention to fly- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPIlT 



195 



ing machines, which he claimed were not an 
impossibility. He took out over one hundred 
patents for smokeless gunpowder, and for pe- 
troleum and other motors and autocycles. 



JOHN DAVISON ROCKEFELLER, 
<J one of America's very greatest financiers 
and philanthropists, was born in Richford, 
Tioga county, New York, July 8, 1839. He 
received a common-school education in his 
native place, and in 1853, when his parents 
removed to Cleveland, Ohio, he entered the 
high school of that city. After a two-years' 
course of diligent work, he entered the com- 
mission and forwarding house of Hewitt & 
Tuttle, of Cleveland, remaining with the 
firm some years, and then began business 
for himself, forming a partnership with 
Morris B. Clark. Mr. Rockefeller was then 
but nineteen years of age, and during the 
year i860, in connection with others, they 
started the oil refining business, under the 
firm name of Andrews, Clark & Co. Mr. 
Rockefeller and Mr. Andrews purchased the 
interest of their associates, and, after taking 
William Rockefeller into the firm, established 
offices in Cleveland under the name of 
William Rockefeller & Co. Shortly after 
this the house of Rockefeller & Co. was es- 
tablished in New York for the purpose of 
finding a market for their products, -and two 
years later all the refining companies were 
consolidated under the firm name of Rocke- 
feller, Andrews & Flagler. This firm was 
succeeded in 1870 by the Standard Oil 
Company of Ohio, said to be the most 
gigantic business corporation of modern 
times. John D. Rockefeller's fortune has 
been variously estimated at from one hun- 
dred million to two hundred million dollars. 
Mr. Rockefeller's philanthropy mani- 
fested itself principally through the American 
Baptist Educational Society. He donated 



the building for the Spelman Institute at 
Atlanta, Georgia, a school for the instruction 
of negroes. His other gifts were to the 
University of Rochester, Cook Academy, 
Peddie Institute, and Vassar College, be- 
sides smaller gifts to many institutions 
throughout the country. His princely do- 
nations, however, were to the University of 
Chicago. His first gift to this institution 
was a conditional offer of six hundred thou- 
sand dollars in 1889, and when this amount 
was paid he added one million more. Dur- 
ing 1892 he made it two gifts of one million 
each, and all told, his donations to this one 
institution aggregated between seven and 
eight millions of dollars. 



JOHN M. PALMER.— For over a third 
of a century this gentleman occupied a 
prominent place in the political world, both 
in the state of Illinois and on the broader 
platform of national issues. 

Mr. Palmer was born at Eagle Creek, 
Scott county, Kentucky, September 13, 
18 17. The family subsequently removed 
to Christian county, in the same state, where 
he acquired a common-school education, and 
made his home until 183 1. His father was 
opposed to slavery, and in the latter year 
removed to Illinois and settled near Alton. 
In 1834 John entered Alton College, or- 
ganized on the manual-labor plan, but his 
funds failing, abandoned it and entered a 
cooper shop. He subsequently was en- 
gaged in peddling, and teaching a district 
school near Canton. In 1838 he began the 
study of law, and the following year re- 
moved to Carlinville, where, in December of 
that year, he was admitted to the bar. He 
was shortly after defeated for county clerk. 
In 1843 he was elected probate judge. In 
the constitutional convention of 1847, Mr. 
Palmer was a delegate, and from 1849 to 



106 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



1851 he was county judge. In 1852 he be- 
came a member of the state senate, but not 
being with his party on the slavery question 
he resigned that office in 1854. In 1856 
Mr. Palmer was chairman of the first Re- 
publican state convention held in Illinois, 
and the same year was a delegate to the 
national convention. In i860 he was an 
elector on the Lincoln ticket, and on the 
breaking out of the war entered the service 
as colonel of the Fourteenth Illinois Infan- 
try, but was shortly after brevetted brigadier- 
general. In August, 1862, he organized 
the One Hundred and Twenty-second Illi- 
nois Infantry, but in September he was 
placed in command of the first division of 
the Army of the Mississippi, afterward was 
promoted to the rank of major-general. In 
1865 he was assigned to the military ad- 
ministration in Kentucky. In 1867 General 
Palmer was elected governor of Illinois and 
served four years. In 1872 he went with 
the Liberal Republicans, who supported 
Horace Greeley, after which time he was 
identified with the Democratic party. In 
1890 he was elected United States senator 
from Illinois, and served as such for six 
years. In 1896, on the adoption of the sil- 
ver plank in the platform of the Democratic 
part)', General Palmer consented to lead, 
as presidential candidate, the National Dem- 
ocrats, or Gold Democracy. 



WILLIAM H. BEARD, the humorist 
among American painters, was born 
at Painesville, Ohio, in 1821. His father, 
James H. Beard, was also a painter of na- 
tional reputation. William H. Beard be- 
gan his career as a traveling portrait 
painter. He pursued his studies in New 
York, and later removed to Buffalo, where 
he achieved reputation. He then went to 



Italy and after a short stay returned to New 
York and opened a studio. One of his 
earliest paintings was a small picture called 
"Cat and Kittens," which was placed in 
the National Academy on exhibition. Among 
his best productions are "Raining Cats and 
Dogs," "The Dance of Silenus," "Bears 
on a Bender," "Bulls and Bears," " Whoo!" 
" Grimalkin's Dream," " Little Red Riding 
Hood," "The Guardian of the Flag." His 
animal pictures convey the most ludicrous 
and satirical ideas, and the intelligent, 
human expression in their faces is most 
comical. Some artists and critics have re- 
fused to give Mr. Beard a place among the 
first circles in art, solely on account of the 
class of subjects he has chosen. 



WW. CORCORAN, the noted philan- 
thropist, was born at Georgetown, 
District of Columbia ; December 27, 1798. 
At the age of twenty-five he entered the 
banking business in Washington, and in 
time became very wealthy. He was 
noted for his magnificent donations to char- 
ity. Oak Hill cemetery was donated to 
Georgetown in 1847, and ten years later the 
Corcoran Art Gallery, Temple of Art, was 
presented to the city of Washington. The 
uncompleted building was utilized by the 
government as quartermaster's headquar- 
ters during the war. The building was 
completed after the war at a cost of a mil- 
lion and a half dollars, all the gift of Mr. 
Corcoran. The Louise Home for Women 
is another noble charity to his credit. Its 
object is the care of women of gentle breed- 
ing who in declining years are without 
means of support. In addition to this he 
gave liberally to many worthy institutions 
of learning and charity. He died at Wash- 
ington February 24, 1888. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



197 



ALBERT BIERSTADT, the noted paint- 
er of American landscape, was born in 
Dusseldorf, Germany, in 1829, and was 
brought to America by his parents at the 
age of two years. He received his early 
education here, but returned to Dusseldorf 
to study painting, and also went to Rome. 
On his return to America he accompanied 
Lander's expedition across the continent, in 
1858, and soon after produced his most 
popular work, "The Rocky Mountains — 
Lander's Peak. " Its boldness and grandeur 
were so unusual that it made him famous. 
The picture sold for twenty-five thousand 
dollars. In 1867 Mr. Bierstadt went to 
Europe, with a government commission, 
and gathered materials for his great historic- 
al work, "Discovery of the North River 
by Hendrik Hudson." Others of his great 
works were "Storm in the Rocky Mount- 
ains," "Valley of the Yosemite," "North 
Fork of the Platte," "Diamond Pool," 
"Mount Hood," "Mount Rosalie," and 
"The Sierra Nevada Mountains." His 
"Estes Park" sold for fifteen thousand 
dollars, and "Mount Rosalie" brought 
thirty-five thousand dollars. His smaller 
Rocky mountain scenes, however, are vast- 
ly superior to his larger works in execution 
and coloring. 

ADDISON CAMMACK, a famous mill- 
ionaire Wall street speculator, was 
born in Kentucky. When sixteen years old 
he ran away from home and went to New 
Orleans, where he went to work in a ship- 
ping house. He outlived and outworked 
all the partners, and became the head of the 
firm before the opening of the war. At 
that time he fitted out small vessels and en- 
gaged in running the blockade of southern 
ports and carrying ammunition, merchan- 
dise, etc., to the southern people. This 



made him a fortune. At the close of the 
war he quit business and went to New 
York. For two years he did not enter any 
active business, but seemed to be simply an 
on-looker in the great speculative center of 
America. He was observing keenly the 
methods and financial machinery, however, 
and when, in 1867, he formed a partnership 
with the popular Charles J. Osborne, the 
firm began to prosper. He never had an 
office on the street, but wandered into the 
various brokers' offices and placed his orders 
as he saw fit. In 1873 he dissolved his 
partnership with Osborne and operated 
alone. He joined a band of speculative 
conspirators known as the "Twenty-third 
party," and was the ruling spirit in that or- 
ganization .for the control of the stock mar- 
ket. He was always on the ' ' bear " side and 
the only serious obstacle he ever encoun- 
tered was the persistent boom in industrial 
stocks, particularly sugar, engineered by 
James R. Keane. Mr. Cammack fought 
Keane for two years, and during the time is 
said to have lost no less than two million 
dollars before he abandoned the fight. 



WALT. WHITMAN.— Foremost among 
the lesser poets of the latter part of the 
nineteenth century, the gentleman whose 
name adorns the head of this article takes 
a conspicuous place. 

Whitman was born at West Hills, Long 
Island, New York, May 13, 1809. In the 
schools of Brooklyn he laid the foundation 
of his education, and early in life learned the 
printer's trade. For a time he taught coun- 
try schools in his native state. In 1846-7 
he was editor of the " Brooklyn Eagle, " 
but in 1848-9 was on the editorial staff of 
the "Crescent," of New Orleans. He 
made an extended tour throughout the 
United States and Canada, and returned to 



198 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



Brooklyn, where, in 1850, he published the 
"Freeman." For some years succeeding 
this he was engaged as carpenter and builder. 
During the Civil war, Whitman acted as 
a volunteer nurse in the hospitals at 
Washington and vicinity and from the close 
of hostilities until 1873 he was employed 
in various clerkships in the government 
offices in the nation's capital. In the latter 
year he was stricken with paralysis as a 
result of his labors in the hospital, it is 
said, and being partially disabled lived for 
many years at Camden, New Jersey. 

The first edition of the work which was 
to bring him fame, "Leaves of Grass," was 
published in 1855 and was but a small 
volume of about ninety-four pages. Seven 
or eight editions of "Leaves of Grass" have 
been issued, each enlarged and enriched with 
new poems. "Drum Taps," at first a 
separate publication, has been incorporated 
with the others. This volume and one 
prose writing entitled "Specimen Days and 
Collect," constituted his whole work. 

Walt. Whitman died at Camden, New 
Jersey, March 26, 1892. 



H 



EXRY DUPONT, who became cele- 
brated as America's greatest manufact- 
urer of gunpowder, was a native of Dela- 
ware, born August 8, 1812. He received 
his education in its higher branches at the 
United States Military Academy at West 
Point, from which he graduated and entered 
the army as second lieutenant of artillery in 
1833. In 1834 he resigned and became 
proprietor of the extensive gunpowder 
manufacturing plant that bears his name, 
near Wilmington, Delaware. His large 
business interests interfered with his tak- 
ing any active participation in political 
life, although for many years he served 
as adjutant-general of his native stat*' a A 



during the war as major-general command- 
ing the Home Guards. He died August 8, 
1889. His son, Henry A. Dupont, also was 
a native of Delaware, and was born July 30, 
1838. After graduating from West Point 
in 1 86 1, he entered the army as second 
lieutenant of engineers. Shortly after he 
was transferred to the Fifth Artillery as first 
lieutenant. He was promoted to the rank 
of captain in 1864, serving in camp and 
garrison most of the time. He was in com- 
mand of a battery in the campaign of 
1863-4. Aschief of artillery of the army of 
West Virginia, he figured until the close of 
the war, being in the battles of Opequan, 
Fisher's Hill and Cedar . Creek, besides 
many minor engagements. He afterward 
acted as instructor in the artillery school at 
Fortress Monroe, and on special duty at 
West Point. He resigned from the army 
March 1, 1875. 



w 



ILLIAM DEERING, one of the fa- 



also a philanthropist and patron of educa- 
tion, was born in Maine in 1826. His an- 
cestors were English, having settled in New 
England in 1634. Early in life it was Will- 
iam's intention to become a physician, and 
after completing his common-school educa- 
tion, when about eighteen years of age, he 
began an apprenticeship with a physician. 
A short time later, however, at the request 
of his father, he took charge of his father's 
business interests, which included a woolen 
mill, retail store and grist mill, after which 
he became agent for a dry goods commission 
house in Portland, where he was married. 
Later he became partner in the firm, and 
removed to New York. The business pros- 
pered, and after a number of years, on ac- 
count of failing health, Mr. Deering sold his 
interest to his partner, a Mr. Milner. The 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



199 



business has since made Mr. Milner a mill- 
ionaire many times over. A few years 
later Mr. Deering located in Chicago. His 
beginning in the manufacture of reapers, 
which has since made his name famous, 
was somewhat of an accident. He had 
loaned money to a man in that business, 
and in 1878 was compelled to buy out the 
business to protect his interests. The busi- 
ness developed rapidly and grew to immense 
proportions. The factories now cover sixty- 
two acres of ground and employ many thou- 
sands of men. 



John McAllister schofield, an 
American general, was born in Chautau- 
qua county, New York, September 29, 1831. 
He graduated at West Point in 1853, and 
was for five years assistant professor of nat- 
ural philosophy in that institution. In 1861 
he entered the volunteer service as major of 
the First Missouri Volunteers, and was ap- 
pointed chief of staff by General Lyon, under 
whom he fought at the battle of Wilson's 
Creek. In November, 1861, he was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general of volunteers, and 
was placed in command of the Missouri 
militia until November, 1862, and of the 
army of the frontier from that time until 
1863. In 1862 he was made major-general 
of volunteers, and was placed in command of 
the Department of the Missouri, and in 1864 
of the Department of the Ohio. During the 
campaign through Georgia General Scho- 
field was in command of the Twenty-third 
Army Corps, and was engaged in most of the 
fighting of that famous campaign. Novem- 
ber 30, 1S64, he defeated Hood's army at 
Franklin, Tennessee, and then joined Gen- 
eral Thomas at Nashville. He took part in 
the battle of Nashville, where Hood's army 
was destroyed. In January, 1865, he led 
his corps into North Carolina, captured 



Wilmington, fought the battle of Kingston, 
and joined General Sherman at Goldsboro 
March 22, 1865. He executed the details 
of the capitulation of General Johnston to 
Sherman, which practically closed the war. 
In June, 1868, General Schofield suc- 
ceeded Edwin M. Stanton as secretary of 
war, but was the next year appointed major- 
general of the United States army, and order- 
ed to the Department of the Missouri. From 
1870 to 1876 he was in command of the De- 
partment of the Pacific; from 1876 to 1881 
superintendent of the West Point Military 
Academy; in 18S3 he was in charge of the 
Department of the Missouri, and in 1886 of 
the division of the Atlantic. In 1888 he 
became general-in-chief of the United States 
army, and in February, 1895, was appoint- 
ed lieutenant-general by President Cleve- 
land, that rank having been revived by con- 
gress. In September, 1895, he was retired 
from active service. 



LEWIS WALLACE, an American gen- 
eral and famous author, was born in 
Brookville, Indiana, April 10, 1827. He 
served in the Mexican war as first lieutenant 
of a company of Indiana Volunteers. After 
his return from Mexico he was admitted to 
the bar, and practiced law in Covington and 
Crawfordsville, Indiana, until 1S61. At the 
opening of the war he was appointed ad- 
jutant-general of Indiana, and soon after be- 
came colonel of the Eleventh Indiana Vol- 
unteers. He defeated a force of Confeder- 
ates at Rotnney, West Virginia, and was 
made brigadier-general in September, 1861. 
At the capture of Fort Donelson in 1862 he 
commanded a division, and was engaged in 
the second day's fight at Shiloh. In 1863 
his defenses about Cincinnati saved that city 
from capture by Kirby Smith. At Monoc- 
acv in July, 1864, he was defeated, but 



200 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 






his resistance delayed the advance of Gen- 
eral Early and thus saved Washington from 
capture. 

General Wallace was a member of the 
court that tried the assassins of President 
Lincoln, and also of that before whom Cap- 
tain Henry Wirtz, who had charge of the 
Anderson ville prison, was tried. In iSSl 
General Wallace was sent as minister to 
Turkey. When not in official service he 
devoted much of his time to literature. 
Among his better known works are his 
"Fair God," "Ben Hur," "Prince of 
India," and a " Life of Benjamin Harrison." 



THOMAS FRANCIS BAYARD, aaAmeri- 
can statesman and diplomat, was born 
at Wilmington, Delaware, October 29, 1828. 
He obtained his education at an Episcopal 
academy at Flushing, Long Island, and 
after a short service in a mercantile house in 
New York, he returned to Wilmington and 
entered his father's law office to prepare 
himself for the practice of that profession. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1851. He 
was appointed to the office of United States 
district attorney for the state of Delaware, 
serving one year. In 1869 he was elected to 
the United States senate, and continuously 
represented his state in that body until 1885, 
and in 1881, when Chester A. Arthur entered 
the presidential chair, Mr. Bayard was 
chosen president pro tempore of the senate. 
He had also served on the famous electoral 
commission that decided the Hayes-Tilden 
contest in 1 876-7. In 1 885 President Cleve- 
land appointed Mr. Bayard secretary of 
state. At the beginning of Cleveland's sec- 
ond term, in 1893, Mr. Bayard was selected 
for the post of ambassador at the court of 
St. James, London, and was the first to hold 
that rank in American diplomacy, serving 
until the beginning of the McKinley admin- 



istration. The questions for adjustment at 
that time between the two governments 
were the Behring Sea controversy and the 
Venezuelan boundary question. He was 
very popular in England because of his 
tariff views, and because of his criticism of 
the protective policy of the United States 
in his public speeches delivered in London, 
Edinburgh and other places, he received, in 
March, 1896, a vote of censure in the lower 
house of congress. 



JOHN WORK GARRETT, for so many 
years at the head of the great Baltimore 
& Ohio railroad system, was born in Balti- 
more, Maryland, July 31, 1820. His father, 
Robert Garrett, an enterprising merchant, 
had amassed a large fortune from a small 
beginning. The son entered Lafayette Col- 
lege in 1834, but left the following year and 
entered his father's counting room, and in 
1839 became a partner. John W. Gar- 
rett took a great interest in the develop- 
ment of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. He 
was elected one of the directors in 1857, 
and was its president from 1858 until his 
death. When he took charge of the road 
it was in an embarrassed condition, but 
within a year, for the first time in its exist- 
ence, it paid a dividend, the increase in its 
net gains being $725,385. After the war, 
during which the road suffered much damage 
from the Confederates, numerous branches 
and connecting roads were built or acquired, 
until it reached colossal proportions. Mr. 
Garrett was also active in securing a regular 
line of steamers between Baltimore and 
Bremen, and between the same port and 
Liverpool. He was one of the most active 
trustees of Johns Hopkins University, and a 
liberal contributor to the Young Men's 
Christian Association of Baltimore. He 
died September 26, 1884. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



201 



Robert Garrett, the son of John W. 
Garrett, was born in Baltimore April 9, 
1847, and graduated from Princeton in 1867. 
He received a business education in the 
banking house of his father, and in 1871 
became president of the Valley Railroad of 
Virginia. He was made third vice-presi- 
dent of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad in 
1S79, and first vice T president in 18S1. He 
succeeded his father as president in 1884. 
Robert Garrett died July 29, 1896. 



CARL SCHURZ, a noted German-Ameri- 
can statesman, was born in Liblar, Prus- 
sia, March 2, 1S29. He studied at the Uni- 
versity of Bonn, and in 1849 was engaged in 
an attempt to excite an insurrection at that 
place. After the surrender of Rastadt by 
the revolutionists, in the defense of which 
Schurz took part, he decided to emigrate to 
America. He resided in Philadelphia three 
years, and then settled in Watertown, Wis- 
consin, and in 1859 removed to Milwaukee, 
where he practiced law. On the organiza- 
tion of the Republican party he became a 
leader of the German element and entered 
the campaign for Lincoln in 1S60. He was 
appointed minister to Spain in 1861, but re- 
signed in December of that year to enter 
the army. He was appointed brigadier- 
general in 1862, and participated in the 
second battle of Bull Run, and also at 
Chancellorsville. At Gettysburg he had 
temporary command of the Eleventh Army 
Corps, and also took part in the battle of 
Chattanooga. 

After the war he located at St. Louis, 
and in 1869 was elected United States sena- 
tor from Missouri. He supported Horace 
Greeley for the presidency in 1872, and in 
the campaign of 1876, having removed to 
New York, he supported Hayes and the Re- 
publican ticket, and was appointed secre- 



tary of the interior in 1877. In 1881 he 
became editor of the "New York Evening 
Post," and in 1884 was prominent in his 
opposition to James G. Blaine, and became 
a leader of the "Mugwumps," thus assist- 
ing in the election of Cleveland. In the 
presidential campaign of 1S96 his forcible 
speeches in the interest of sound money 
wielded an immense influence. Mr. Schurz 
wrote a "Life of Henry Clay," said to- be 
the best biography ever published of that 
eminent statesman. 



GEORGE F. EDMUNDS, an American 
statesman of national reputation, was 
born in Richmond, Vermont, February 1, 
1828. His education was obtained in the 
public schools and from the instructions of 
a private tutor. He was admitted to the 
bar, practiced law, and served in the state 
legislature from 1854 to 1859, during three 
years of that time being speaker of the lower 
house. He was elected to the state senate 
and acted as president pro tempore of that 
body in 1861 and 1S62. He became promi- 
nent for his activity in the impeachment 
proceedings against President Johnson, and 
was appointed to the United States senate 
to fill out the unexpired term of Solomon 
Foot, entering that body in 1866. He was 
re-elected to the senate four times, and 
served on the electoral commission in 1877. 
He became president pro tempore of the 
senate after the death of President Garfield, 
and was the author of the bill which put an 
end to the practice of polygamy in the ter- 
ritory of Utah. In November, 1891, owing 
to impaired health, he retired from the sen- 
ate and again resumed the practice of law. 



LUCIUS Q. C. LAMAR, a prominent 
political leader, statesman and jurist, 
was born in Putnam county, Georgia, Sep- 



202 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



temberi7, 1825. He graduated from Emory 
College in 1845, studied law at Macon under 
Hon. A. H. Chappell, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1847. He moved to Oxford, 
Mississippi, in 1849, and was elected to a 
professorship in the State University. He 
resigned the next year and returned to Cov- 
ington, Georgia, and resumed the practice 
of law. In 1853 he was elected to the 
Georgia Legislature, and in 1854 he removed 
to his plantation in Lafayette county, Mis- 
sissippi, and was elected to represent his 
district in the thirty-fifth and thirty-sixth 
congresses. He resigned in i860, and was 
sent as a delegate to the secession conven- 
tion of the state. He entered the Confed- 
erate service in 1861 as lieutenant-colonel 
of the Nineteenth Regiment, and was soon 
after made colonel. In 1863 President 
Davis appointed him to an important diplo- 
matic mission to Russia. In 1866 he was 
elected professor of political economy and 
social science in the State University, and 
was soon afterward transferred to the pro- 
fessorship of the law department. He rep- 
resented his district in the forty-third and 
forty-fourth congresses, and was elected 
United States senator from Mississippi in 
1877, and re-elected in 1882. In 1885, be- 
fore the expiration of his term, he was 
appointed by President Cleveland as secre- 
tary of the interior, which position he held 
until his appointment as associate justice of 
the United States supreme court, in 1S88, 
in which capacity he served until his death, 
January 23, 1894. 



BENJAMIN PENHALLOW SHILLA- 
BER won fame in the world of 
humorists under the name of "Mrs. Parting- 
ton. " He was born in 1S41 at Portsmouth, 
New Hampshire, and started out in life as a 
printer. Mr. Shillaber went to Dover, 



where he secured employment in a printing 
office, and from there he went to Demerara, 
Guiana, where he was employed as a com- 
positor in 1835-37. 1° 1840 he became 
connected with the "Boston Post," and 
acquired quite a reputation as a humorist 
by his "Sayings of Mrs. Partington." He 
remained as editor of the paper until 1850, 
when he printed and edited a paper of his 
own called the "Pathfinder," which he con- 
tinued until 1852. Mr. Shillaber be- 
came editor and proprietor of the "Carpet 
Bag," which he conducted during 1850-52, 
and then returned to the "Boston Post," 
with which he was connected until 1856. 
During the same time he was one of the 
editors of the "Saturday Evening Gazette," 
and continued in this line after he severed 
his connection with the "Post," for ten 
years. After 1S66 Mr. Shillaber wrote for 
various newspapers and periodicals, and 
during his life published the following 
books: ' 'Rhymes with Reason and Without, " 
"Poems," "Life and Sayings of Mrs. Part- 
ington," "Knitting Work," and others. 
His death occurred at Chelsea, Massachu- 
setts, November 25, 1890. 



EASTMAN JOHNSON stands first among 
painters of American country life. He 
was born in Lovell, Maine, in 1824, and be- 
gan his work in drawing at the age of eight- 
een years. His first works were portraits, 
and, as he took up his residence in Wash- 
ington, the most famous men of the nation 
were his subjects. In 1846 he went to Bos- 
ton, and there made crayon portraits of 
Longfellow, Emerson, Sumner, Hawthorne 
and other noted men. In 1849 he went to 
Europe. He studied at Dusseldorf, Ger- 
many; spent a year at the Royal Academy, 
and thence to The Hague, where he spent 
four years, producing there his first pictures 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



203 



of consequence, "The Card-Players " and 
"The Savoyard." He then went to Paris, 
but was called home, after an absence from 
America of six years. He lived some time 
in Washington, and then spent two years 
among the Indians of Lake Superior. In 
1858 he produced his famous picture, "The 
Old Kentucky Home." He took up his 
permanent residence at New York at that 
time. His " Sunday Morning in Virginia " 
is a work of equal merit. He was espe- 
cially successful in coloring, a master of 
drawing, and the expression conveys with 
precision the thought of the artist. His 
portrayal of family life and child life is un- 
equalled. Among his other great works are 
"The Confab," "Crossing a Stream,' 
"Chimney Sweep," "Old Stage Coach," 
" The New Bonnet," " The Drummer Boy," 
"Childhood of Lincoln," and a great vari- 
ety of equally familiar subjects. 



PIERCE GUSTAVE TOUTANT BEAU- 
REGARD, one of the most distin- 
guished generals in the Confederate army, 
was born near New Orleans, Louisiana, 
May 28, 1 8 1 8. He graduated from West 
Point Military Academy in 1838, and was 
made second lieutenant of engineers. He 
was with General Scott in Mexico, and dis- 
tinguished himself at Vera Cruz, Cerro 
Gordo, and the battles near the City of 
Mexico, for which he was twice brevetted. 
After the Mexican war closed he was placed 
in charge of defenses about New Orleans, 
and in i860 was appointed superintendent 
of the United States Military Academy at 
West Point. He held this position but a 
few months, when he resigned February 20, 
1 86 1, and accepted a commission of briga- 
dier-general in the Confederate army. He 
directed the attack on Fort Sumter, the 

first engagement of the Civil war. He was 
12 



in command of the Confederates at the first 
battle of Bull Run, and for this victory was 
made general. In 1862 he was placed in 
command of the Army of the Mississippi, 
and planned the attack upon General Grant 
at Shiloh, and upon the death of General 
Johnston he took command of the army 
and was only defeated by the timely arrival 
of General Buell with reinforcements. He 
commanded at Charleston and successfully 
defended that city against the combined at- 
tack by land and sea in 1863. In 1864 he 
was in command in Virginia, defeating Gen- 
eral Butler, and resisting Grant's attack 
upon Petersburg until reinforced from Rich- 
mond. During the long siege which fol- 
lowed he was sent to check General Sher- 
man's march to the sea, and was with Gen- 
eral Joseph E. Johnston when that general 
surrendered in 1865. After the close of the 
war he was largely interested in railroad 
management. In 1866 he was offered chief 
command of the Army of Roumania, and in 
1869, that of the Army of Egypt. He de- 
clined these offers. His death occurred 
February 20, 1893. 



HENRY GEORGE, one of America's 
most celebrated political economists, 
was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
September 2, 1839. He received a common- 
school education and entered the high 
school in 1853, and then went into a mer- 
cantile office. He made several voyages on 
the sea, and settled in California in 1858. 
He then worked at the printer's trade for a 
number of years, which he left to follow the 
editorial profession. He edited in succession 
several daily newspapers, and attracted at- 
tention by a number of strong essays and 
speeches on political and social questions. 
In 1 Sy 1 he edited a pamphlet, entitled ' ' Our 
Land and Policy, " in which he outlined a. 



204 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



theory, which has since made him so widely 
known. This was developed in " Progress 
and Poverty," a book which soon attained a 
large circulation on both sides of the Atlan- 
tic, which has been extensively translated. 
In 1880 Mr. George located in New York, 
where he made his home, though he fre- 
quently addressed audiences in Great Britain, 
Ireland, Australia, and throughout the 
United States. In 1886 he was nominated 
by the labor organizations for mayor of New 
York, and made a campaign notable for its 
development of unexpected power. In 18S7 he 
was candidate of the Union Labor party for 
secretary of state of New York. These cam- 
paigns served to formulate the idea of a single 
tax and popularize the Australian ballot sys- 
tem. Mr. George became a free trader in 
1 888, and in 1892 supported the election of 
Grover Cleveland. His political and eco- 
nomic ideas, known as the "single tax," 
have a large and growing support, but are 
not confined to this country alone. He 
wrote numerous miscellaneous articles in 
support of his principles, and also published: 
"The Land Question," "Social Problems," 
"Protection or Free Trade," "The Condi- 
tion of Labor, an Open Letter to Pope Leo 
XIII.," and " Perplexed Philosopher." 



THOMAS ALEXANDER SCOTT. —This 
name is indissolubly connected with 
the history and development of the railway 
systems of the United States. Mr. Scott 
was born December 28, 1823, at London, 
Franklin county, Pennsylvania. He was first 
regularly employed by Major James Patton, 
the collector of tolls on the state road be- 
tween Philadelphia and Columbia, Penn- 
sylvania. He entered into the employ of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company in 1850, 
and went through all the different branches 
of work until he had mastered all the details 



of the office work, and in 1858 he was ap- 
pointed general superintendent. Mr. Scott 
was the next year chosen vice-president of 
the road. This position at once brought 
him before the public, and the enterprise 
and ability displayed by him in its manage- 
ment marked him as a leader among the 
railroad men of the country. At the out- 
break of the rebellion in 1S61, Mr. Scott 
was selected by Governor Curtin as a mem- 
ber of his staff, and placed in charge of the 
equipment and forwarding of the state troops 
to the seat of war. On April 27, 1861, the 
secretary of war desired to establish a new 
line of road between the national capital 
and Philadelphia, for the more expeditious 
transportation of troops. He called upon 
Mr. Scott to direct this work, and the road 
by the way of Annapolis and Perry ville was 
completed in a marvelously short space of 
time. On May 3, 1861, he was commis- 
sioned colonel of volunteers, and on the 23d 
of the same month the government railroads 
and telegraph lines were placed in his charge. 
Mr. Scott was the first assistant secretary 
of war ever appointed, and he took charge 
of this new post August 1, 1861. In Janu- 
ary, 1862, he was directed to organize 
transportation in the northwest, and in 
March he performed the same service on 
the western rivers. He resigned June 1, 
1862, and resumed his direction of affairs on 
the Pennsylvania Railroad. Colonel Scott 
directed the policy that secured to his road 
the control of the western roads, and be- 
came the president of the new company to 
operate these lines in 1871. For one year, 
from March, 1S71, he was president of the 
Union Pacific Railroad, and in 1874 he suc- 
ceeded to the presidency of the Pennsyl- 
vania Company. He projected the Texas 
Pacific Railroad and was for many years its 
president. Colonel Scott's health failed 



COMPEND1 1 \M OF BIOGRA PHT. 



205 



him and he resigned the presidency of the 
road June I, 1880, and died at his home in 
D.irby, Pennsylvania, May 21, 1881. 



ROBERT TOOMBS, an American states- 
man of note, was born in Wilkes coun- 
ty, Georgia, July 2, 1810. He attended 
the University of Georgia, and graduated 
from Union College, Scherrectady, New 
York, and then took a law course at the 
University of Virginia. In 1830, before he 
had attained his majority, he was admitted 
to the bar by special act of the legislature, 
and rose rapidly in his profession, attracting 
the attention of the leading statesmen and 
judges of that time. He raised a volunteer 
company for the Creek war, and served as 
captain to the close. He was elected to the 
state legislature in 1837, re-elected in 1842, 
and in 1844 was elected to congress. He 
had been brought up as a Jeffersonian 
Democrat, but voted for Harrison in 1840 
and for Clay in 1844. He made his first 
speech in congress on the Oregon question, 
and immediately took rank with the greatest 
debaters of that body. In 1853 he was 
ekcted to the United States senate, and 
again in 1859, but when his native state 
seceded he resigned his seat in the senate 
and was elected to the Confederate con- 
gress. It is stated on the best authority 
that had it not been for a misunderstanding 
which could not be explained till too late he 
would have been elected president of the 
Confederacy. He was appointed secretary 
of state by President Davis, but resigned 
after a few months and was commissioned 
brigadier-general in the Confederate army. 
He won distinction at the second battle of 
Bull Run and at Sharpsburg, but resigned 
his commission soon after and returned to 
Georgia. He organized the militia of 
Georgia to resist Sherman, and was made 



brigadier-general of the state troops. He 
left the country at the close of the war and 
did not return until 1S67. He died Decem- 
ber 1 5, 1885. 

AUSTIN CORBIN, one of the greatest 
railway magnates of the United States, 
was born July 1 1 , 1S27, at Newport, New 
Hampshire. He studied law with Chief 
Justice Cushing and Governor Ralph Met- 
calf, and later took a course in the Harvard 
Law School, where he graduated in 1849. 
He was admitted to the bar, and practiced 
law, with Governor Metcalf as his partner, 
until October 12, 185 1. Mr. Corbin then 
removed to Davenport, Iowa, where he re- 
mained until 1865. In 1854 he was a part- 
ner in the banking firm of Macklot & Cor- 
bin, and later he organized the First Na- 
tional bank of Davenport, Iowa, which 
commenced business June 29, 1S63, and 
which was the first national bank op n for 
business in the United States. Mr. Corbin 
sold out his business in the Davenport bank, 
and removed to New York in 1865 and com- 
menced business with partners under the 
style of Corbin Banking Company. Soon 
after his removal to New York hj became 
interested in railroads, and became one of 
the leading railroad men of the country. 
The development of the west half of Coney 
Island as a summer resort first brought him 
into general prominence. He built a rail- 
road from New York to the island, and 
built great hotels on its ocean front. He 
next turned his attention to Long Island, 
and secured all the railroads and consoli- 
dated them under one management, became 
president of the system, and under hi.i con- 
trol Long Island became the great ocean 
suburb of New York. His latest public 
achievement was the rehabilitation of the 
Reading Railroad, of Pennsylvania, and 






COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



during the same time he and his friends 
purchased the controlling interest of the 
New Jersey Central Railroad. He took it 
out of the hands of the receiver, and in 
three years had it on a dividend-paying 
basis. Mr. Corbin's death occurred June 
4, 1896. 

TAMES GORDON BENNETT, Sr., 
J was one of the greatest journalists of 
America in his day. He was born Septem- 
ber 1, 1795, at New Mill, near Keith, Scot- 
land. At the age of fourteen he was sent 
to Aberdeen to study for the priesthood, 
but, convinced that he was mistaken in his 
vocation, he determined to emigrate. He 
landed at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 18 19, 
where he attempted to earn a living by 
teaching bookkeeping. Failing in this he 
went to Boston and found employment as a 
proof reader. Mr. Bennett went to New 
York about 1822 and wrote for the news- 
papers. Later on he became assistant 
editor in the office of the "Charleston 
Courier, "but returned to New York in 1824 
and endeavored to start a commercial 
school, but was unsuccessful in this, and 
again returned to newspaper work. He 
continued in newspaper work with varying 
success until, it his suggestion, the "En- 
quirer" was consolidated with another 
paper, and became the "Courier and En- 
quirer," with James Watson Webb as 
editor and Mr. Bennett for assistant. At 
this time this was the leading American 
newspaper. He, however, severed his con- 
nection with this newspaper and tried, 
without success, other ventures in the line 
of journalism until May 6, 1835, when he 
issued the first number of the "New York 
Herald." Mr. Bennett wrote the entire 
paper, and made up for lack of news by his 
own imagination. The paper became popu- 



lar, and in 1838 he engaged European jour- 
nalists as regular correspondents. In 1841 
the income derived from his paper was at 
least one hundred thousand dollars. Dur- 
ing the Civil war the " Herald " had on its 
staff sixty-three war correspondents and the 
circulation was doubled. Mr. Bennett was 
interested with John W. Mackay in that great 
enterprise which is' now known as the Mac- 
kay-Bennett Cable. He had collected for use 
in his paper over fifty thousand biographies, 
sketches and all manner of information re- 
garding every well-known man, which are 
still kept in the archives of the "Herald" 
office. He died in the city of New York in 
1872, and left to his son, James Gordon, 
Jr., one of the greatest and most profitable 
journals in the United States, or even in the 
world. 

OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES, a 
noted American, won distinction in the 
field of literature, in which he attained a 
world-wide reputation. He was born at 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, August 29, 1809. 
He received a collegiate education and grad- 
uated from Harvard in 1829, at the age of 
twenty, and took up the study of law and 
later studied medicine. Dr. Holmes at- 
tended several years in the hospitals of 
Europe and received his degree in 1836. 
He became professor of anatomy and phys- 
iology in Dartmouth in 1838, and re- 
mained there until 1847, when he was 
called to the Massachusetts Medical School 
at Boston to occupy the same chair, which 
position he resigned in 1882. The first 
collected edition of his poems appeared in 
1836, and his "Phi Beta Kappa Poems," 
"Poetry," in 1836; "Terpsichore," in 1843; 
"Urania," in 1S46, and "Astraea," won for 
him many fresh laurels. His series of 
papers in the "Atlantic Monthly." were: 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



207 



"Autocrat of the Breakfast Table," "Pro- 
fessor at the Breakfast Table," "Poet at 
the Breakfast Table," and are a series of 
masterly wit, humor and pathos. Among 
his medical papers and addresses, are: "Cur- 
rents and Counter-currents in the Medical 
Science," and "Borderland in Some Prov- 
inces of Medical Science." Mr. Holmes 
edited quite a number of works, of which 
we quote the following: "Else Venner," 
"Songs in Many Keys," "Soundings from 
ihe Atlantic," "Humorous Poems," "The 
Guardian Angel," "Mechanism in Thoughts 
and Morals," "Songs of Many Seasons," 
"John L. Motley" — a memoir, "The Iron 
Gate and Other Poems," "Ralph Waldo 
Emerson," "A Moral Antipathy." Dr. 
Holmes visited England for the second time, 
and while there the degree of LL. D. 
was conferred upon him by the University 
of Edinburgh. His death occurred October 
7- 1394- 

RUFUS CHOATE, one of the most em- 
inent of America's great lawyers, was 
born October 1, 1799, at Essex, Massachu- 
setts. He entered Dartmouth in 18 15, 
and after taking his degree he remained as 
a teacher in the college for one year. He 
took up the study of law in Cambridge, and 
subsequently studied under the distinguished 
lawyer, Mr. Wirt, who was then United 
States attorney-general at Washington. Mr. 
Choatcbegan the practice of law in Danvers, 
Massachusetts, and from there he went to 
Salem, and afterwards to Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. While living at Salem he was 
elected to congress in 1832, and later, in 
1 841, he was chosen United States senator 
to succeed Daniel Webster, Mr. Webster 
having been appointed secretary of state 
under William Henry Harrison. 

After the death of Webster, Mr. Choate 



was the acknowledged leader of the Massa- 
chusetts bar, and was looked upon by the 
younger members of the profession with an 
affection that almost amounted to a rever- 
ence. Mr. Choate's powers as an orator 
were of the rarest order, and his genius 
made it possible for him to enchant and in- 
terest his listeners, even while discussing the 
most ordinary theme. He was not merely 
eloquent on the subjects that were calculated 
to touch the feelings and stir the passions 
of his audience in themselves, but could at 
all times command their attention. He re- 
tired from active life in 1858, and was on 
his way to Europe, his physician having 
ordered a sea voyage for his health, but had 
only reached Halifax, Nova Scotia, when 
he died, July 13, 1858. 



D WIGHT L. MOODY, one of the most 
noted and effective pulpit orators and 
evangelists America has produced, was born 
in Northfield, Franklin county, Massachu- 
setts, February 5, 1837. He received but 
a meager education and worked on a farm 
until seventeen years of age, when he be- 
came clerk in a boot and shoe store in 
Boston. Soon after this he joined the Con- 
gregational church and went to Chicago, 
where he zealously engaged in missionary 
work among the poor classes. He met 
with great success, and in less than a year 
he built up a Sunday-school which numbered 
over one thousand children. When the 
war broke out he became connected with 
what was known as the "Christian Com- 
mission," and later became city missionary 
of the Young Men's Christian Association at 
Chicago. A church was built there for his 
converts and he became its unordained pas- 
tor. In the Chicago fire of 1871 the church 
and Mr. Moody's house and furniture, which 
had been given him, were destroyed. The 



208 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



church edifice was afterward replaced by a 
new church erected on the site of the old 
one. In 1873, accompanied by Ira D. 
Sankey, Mr. Moody went to Europe and 
excited great religious awakenings through- 
out England, Ireland and Scotland. In 
1S75 they returned to America and held 
large meetings in various cities. They 
afterward made another visit to Great 
Britain for the same purpose, meeting with 
great success, returning to the United States 
in 1 884. Mr. Moody afterward continued 
his evangelistic work, meeting everywhere 
with a warm reception and success. Mr. 
Moody produced a number of works, some 
of which had a wide circulation. 



JOHN PIERPOKT MORGAN, a financier 
of world-wide reputation, and famous 
as the head of one of the largest banking 
houses in the world, was born April 17, 
1837, at Hartford, Connecticut. He re- 
ceived his early education in the English 
high school, in Boston, and later supple- 
mented this with a course in the University 
of Gottingen, Germany. He returned to 
the United States, in 1857, and entered the 
banking firm of Duncan, Sherman & Co., 
of New York, and, in i860, he became 
agent and attorney, in the United States, for 
George Peabody & Co., of London. He 
became the junior partner in the banking 
firm of Dabney, Morgan. & Co., in 1864, 
and that of Drexel, Morgan & Co., in 1871. 
This house was among the chief negotiators 
of railroad bonds, and was active in the re- 
organization of the West Shore Railroad, 
and its absorption by the New York Central 
Railroad. It was conspicuous in the re- 
organization of the Philadelphia & Read- 
ing Railroad, in 1S87, which a syndicate of 
capitalists, formed by Mr. Morgan, placed 
on a sound financial basis. After that time 



many other lines of railroad and gigantic 
financial enterprises were brought under Mr. 
Morgan's control, and in some respects it 
may be said he became the foremost financier 
of the century. 



THOMAS BRACKETT REED, one of 
the most eminent of American states- 
men, was born October 18, 1839, at Port- 
land, Maine, where he received his early 
education in the common schools of the 
city, and prepared himself for college. Mr. 
Reed graduated from Bowdoin College in 
1860, and won one of the highest honors of 
the college, the prize for excellence in Eng- 
lish composition. The following four years 
were spent by him in teaching and in the 
study of law. Before his admission to the 
bar, however, he was acting assistant pay- 
master in the United States navy, and 
served on the " tin-clad" Sybil, which pa- 
trolled the Tennessee, Cumberland and 
Mississippi rivers. After his discharge in 
1865, he returned to Portland, was admit- 
ted to the bar, and began the practice of his 
profession. He entered into political life, 
and in 1 86S was elected to the legislature 
of Maine as a Republican, and in 1869 he 
was re-elected to the house, and in 1870 
was made state senator, from which he 
passed to attorney-general of the state. 
He retired from this office in 1873, and 
until 1877 he was solicitor for the city 
of Portland. In 1876 he was elected to 
the forty-fifth congress, which assembled 
in 1877. Mr. Reed sprung into prominence 
in that body by one of the first speeches 
which he delivered, and his long service in 
congress, coupled with his ability, gave l.im 
a national reputation. His influence each 
year became more strongly marked, and the 
leadership of his party was finally conceded 
to him, and in the forty-ninth and fiftieth 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHr. 



200 



congresses the complimentary nomination 
for the speakership was tendered him by the 
Republicans. That party having obtained 
the ascendency in the fifty-first congress he 
was elected speaker on the first ballot, and 
he was again chosen speaker of the fifty- 
fourth and fifth-fifth congresses. As a 
writer, Mr. Reed contributed largely to the 
magazines and periodicals, and his book 
upon parliamentary rules is generally rec- 
ognized as authority on that subject. 



rated with the golden cross by the grand 
duke of Baden, and with the iron cross by 
the emperor of Germany. She also served 
for many years as president of the famous 
Red Cross Society and attained a world- 
wide reputation. 



r^ LARA BARTON is a celebrated char- 
V> acter among what might be termed as 
the highest grade of philanthropists Amer- 
ica has produced. She was born on a farm 
at Oxford, Massachusetts, a daughter of 
Captain Stephen Barton, and was educated 
at Clinton, New York. She engaged in 
teaching early in life, and founded a free 
school at Bordentown, the first in New Jer- 
sey. She opened with six pupils, but the 
attendance had grown to six hundred up to 
1854, when she went to Washington. She 
was appointed clerk in the patent depart- 
ment, and remained there until the out- 
break of the Civil war, when she resigned 
her position and devoted herself to the al- 
leviation of the sufferings of the soldiers, 
serving, not in the hospitals, but on the bat- 
tle field. She was present at a number of 
battles, and after the war closed she origi- 
nated, and for some time carried on at her 
own expense, the search for missing soldiers. 
She then for several years devoted her time 
to lecturing on "Incidents of the War." 
About 1868 she went to Europe for her 
health, and settled in Switzerland, but on the 
outbreak of the Franco-German war she ac- 
cepted the invitation of the grand duchess 
of Baden to aid in the establishment of her 
hospitals, and Miss Barton afterward fol- 
lowed the German army She was deco- 



CARDINAL JAMES GIBBONS, one of 
the most eminent Catholic clergymen 
in America, was born in Baltimore, Mary- 
land, July 23, 1834. He was given a 
thorough education, graduated at St. Charles. 
College, Maryland, in 1857. and studied 
theology in St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, 
Maryland. In 1861 he became pastor of 
St. Bridget's church in Baltimore, and in 
1868 was consecrated vicar apostolic of 
North Carolina. In 1872 our subject be- 
came bishop of Richmond, Virginia, and 
five years later was made archbishop of Bal- 
timore. On the 30th of June, 1886, he 
was admitted to the full degree of cardinal 
and primate of the American Catholic 
church. He was a fluent writer, and his 
book, "Faith of Our Fathers," had a wide 
circulation. 



/^HAUNCEY MITCHELL DEPEW.— 
V-> This name is, without doubt, one of 
the most widely known in the United States. 
Mr. Depew was born April 23, 1834, at 
Peekskill, New York, the home of the Depew 
family for two hundred years. He attended 
the common schools of his native place, 
where he prepared himself to enter college.' 
He began his collegiate course at Yale at 
the age of eighteen and graduated in 1856. 
He early took an active interest in politics 
and joined the Republican party at its for- 
mation. He then took up the study of law 
and went into the office of the Hon. Will- 
iam Nelson, of Peekskill, for that purpose, 
and in 1858 he was admitted to the bar. 



210 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



He was sent as a delegate by the new party 
to the Republican state convention of that 
year. He began the practice of his profes- 
sion in 1.859, but though he was a good 
worker, his attention was detracted by the 
campaign of i860, in which he took an act- 
ive part. During this campaign he gained 
his first laurels as a public speaker. Mr. 
Depew was elected assemblyman in 1862 
from a Democratic district. In 1863 he se- 
cured the nomination for secretary of state, 
and gained that post by a majority of thirty 
thousand. In 1866 he left the field of pol- 
itics and entered into the active practice 
-of his law business as attorney for the 
New York & Harlem Railroad Company, 
and in 1869 when this road was consoli- 
dated with the New York Central, and 
called the New York Central & Hudson 
River Railroad, he was appointed the attor- 
ney for the new road. His rise in the rail- 
road business was rapid, and ten years after 
his entrance into the Vanderbilt system as 
attorney for a single line, he was the gen- 
eral counsel for one of the largest railroad 
systems in the world. He was also a 
director in the Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern, Michigan Central, Chicago & 
Northwestern, St. Paul & Omaha, West 
Shore, and Nickel Plate railroad companies. 
In 1874 Mr. Depew was made regent of 
the State University, and a member of the 
■commission appointed to superintend the 
•erection of the capitol at Albany. In 1882, 
■on the resignation of W. H. Vanderbilt 
from the presidency of the New York Cen- 
tral and the accession to that office by 
James H. Rutter, Mr. Depew was made 
^second vice-president, and held that posi- 
tion until the death of Mr. Rutter in 1885. 
In this year Mr. Depew became the execu- 
tive head of this great corporation. Mr. 
uDepew's greatest fame grew from his ability 



and eloquence as an orator and " after-din- 
ner speaker," and it has been said by emi- 
nent critics that this country has never pro- 
duced his equal in wit, fluency and eloquence. 



PHILIP KEARNEY.— Among the most 
dashing and brilliant commanders in 
the United States service, few have outshone 
the talented officer whose name heads this 
sketch. He was born in New York City, 
June 2, 1815, and was of Irish ancestry and 
imbued with all the dash and bravery of the 
Celtic race. He graduated from Columbia 
College and studied law, but in 1837 ac- 
cepted a commission as lieutenant in the 
First United States Dragoons, of which his 
uncle, Stephen W. Kearney, was then colo- 
nel. He was sent by the government, 
soon after, to Europe to examine and report 
upon the tactics of the French cavalry. 
There he attended the Polytechnic School, 
at Samur, and subsequently served as a vol- 
unteer in Algiers, winning the cross of the 
Legion of Honor. He returned to the 
United States in 1840, and on the staff of 
General Scott, in the Mexican war, served 
with great gallantry. He was made a cap- 
tain of dragoons in 1846 and made major 
for services at Contreras and Cherubusco. 
In the final assault on the City of Mexico 
at the San Antonio Gate, Kearney lost an 
arm. He subsequently served in California 
and the Pacific coast. In 185 1 he resigned 
his commission and went to Europe, where 
he resumed his military studies. In the 
Italian war, in 1859, he served as a volun- 
teer on the staff of General Maurier, of the 
French army, and took part in the battles 
of Solferino and Magenta, and for bravery 
was, for the second time, decorated with 
the cross of the Legion of Honor. On the 
opening of the Civil war he hastened home, 
and, offering his services to the general gov- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



211 



eminent, was made brigadier-general of 
volunteers and placed in command of a bri- 
gade of New Jersey troops. In the cam- 
paign under McClellan he commanded a di- 
vision, and at Williamsburg and Fair Oaks 
his services were valuable and brilliant, as 
well as in subsequent engagements. At 
Harrison's Landing he was made major-gen- 
eral of volunteers. In the second battle of 
Bull Run he was conspicuous, and at the 
battle of Chantilly, September I, 1862, 
while leading in advance of his troops, Gen- 
eral Kearney was shot and killed. 



RUSSELL SAGE, one of the financial 
giants of the present century and for 
more than an average generation one of the 
most conspicuous and celebrated of Ameri- 
cans, was born in a frontier hamlet in cen- 
tral New York in August, 1816. While Rus- 
sell was still a boy an elder brother, Henry 
Risley Sage, established a small grocery 
store at Troy, New York, and here Russell 
found his first employment, as errand boy. 
He served a five-years apprenticeship, and 
then joined another brother, Elisha M. Sage, 
in a new venture in the same line, which 
proved profitable, at least for Russell, who 
soon became its sole owner. Next he 
formed the partnership of Sage & Bates, 
and greatly extended his field of operations. 
At twenty-five he had, by his own exertions, 
amassed what was, in those days, a consid- 
erable fortune, being worth about seventy- 
five thousand dollars. He had acquired an 
influence in local politics, and four years 
later his party, the Whigs, elected him to 
the aldermanic board of Troy and to the 
treasuryship of Rensselaer county. In 1848 
he was a prominent member of the New 
York delegation to the Whig convention at 
Philadelphia, casting his first votes for Henry 
Clay, but joining the "stampede" which 



nominated Zachary Taylor. In 1850 the 
Whigs oi Troy nominated him for congress, 
but he was not elected— a failure which he 
retrieved two years later, and in 1854 he 
was re-elected by a sweeping majority. At 
Washington he ranked high in influence and 
ability. Fame as a speaker and as a polit- 
ical leader was within his grasp, when he 
gave up public life, declined a renomination 
to congress, and went back to Troy to de- 
vote himself to his private business. Six 
years later, in 1863, he removed to New 
York and plunged into the arena of Wall 
street. A man of boundless energy and 
tireless pertinacity, with wonderful judg- 
ment of men and things, he soon took his 
place as a king in finance, and, it is said, 
during the latter part of his life he con- 
trolled more ready money than any other 
single individual on this continent. 



ROGER QUARLES MILLS, a noted 
United States senator and famous as the 
father of the "Mills tariff bill, "was born 
in Todd county, Kentucky, March 30, 1832. 
He received a liberal education in the com- 
mon schools, and removed to Palestine, 
Texas, in 1849. He took up the study of 
law, and supported himself by serving as an 
assistant in the post-office, and in the offices 
of the court clerks. In 1850 he was elected 
engrossing clerk of the Texas house of rep- 
resentatives, and in 1852 was admitted to 
the bar, while still a minor, by special act 
of the legislature. He then settled at Cor- 
sicana, Texas, and began the active prac- 
tice of his profession. He was elected to 
the state legislature in 1859, and in 1872 he 
was elected to congress from the state at 
large, as a Democrat. After his first elec- 
tion he was continuously returned to con- 
gress until he resigned to accept the posi- 
tion of United States senator, to which he 



212 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



was elected March 23, 1892, to succeed 
Hon. Horace Chilton. He took his seat in 
the senate March 30, 1892; was afterward 
re-elected and ranked among the most use- 
ful and prominent members of that body. 
In 1S76 he opposed the creation of the elec- 
toral commission, and in 1887 canvassed 
the state of Texas against the adoption of 
a prohibition amendment to its constitution, 
which was defeated. He introduced into 
the house of representatives the bill that was 
known as the "Mills Bill," reducing duties 
on imports, and extending the free list. 
The bill passed the house on July 21, 1888, 
and made the name of "Mills" famous 
throughout the entire country. 



HAZEN S. PINGREE, the celebrated 
Michigan political leader, was born in 
Maine in 1842. Up to fourteen years of 
age he worked hard on the stony ground of 
his father's small farm. Attending school 
in the winter, he gained a fair education, 
and when not laboring on the farm, he 
found employment in the cotton mills in the 
vicinity. He resolved to find more steady 
work, and accordingly went to Hopkinton, 
Massachusetts, where he entered a shoe fac- 
tory, but on the outbreak of the war he en- 
listed at once and was enrolled in the First 
Massachusetts Heavy Artillery. He partici- 
pated in the battle of Bull Run, which was 
his initial fight, and served creditably his 
enrly term of service, at the expiration of 
which he re-enlisted. He fought in the 
battles of Fredricksburg, Harris Farm, 
Spottsylvania Court House and Cold Har- 
bor. In 1864 he was captured by Mosby, 
and spent five months at Andersonville, 
Georgia, as a prisoner, but escaped at the 
end of that time. He re-entered the service 
and participated in the battles of Fort 
Fisher, Boyden, and Sailor's Creek. He 



was honorably mustered out of service, and 
in 1866 went to Detroit, Michigan, where 
he made use of his former experience in a 
shoe factory, and found work. Later he 
formed a partnership with another workman 
and started a small factor)', which has since 
become a large establishment. Mr. Pin- 
gree made his entrance into politics in 1889, 
in which year he was elected by a surpris- 
ingly large majority as a Republican to the 
mayoralty of Detroit, in which office he was 
the incumbent during four consecutive terms. 
In November, 1S96, he was elected gov- 
ernor of the state of Michigan. While 
mayor of Detroit, Mr. Pingree originated 
and put into execution the idea of allowing 
the poor people of the city the use of va- 
cant city lands and lots for the purpose of 
raising potatoes. The idea was enthusiast- 
ically adopted by thousands of poor families, 
attracted wide attention, and gave its author 
a national reputation as "Potato-patch Pin- 
gree." 

THOMAS ANDREW HENDRICKS, an 
eminent American statesman and a 
Democratic politician of national fame, was 
born in Muskingum county, Ohio, Septem- 
ber 7, 1 8 19. In 1822 he removed, with his 
father, to Shelby county, . Indiana. He 
graduated from the South Hanover College 
in 1841, and two years later was admitted 
to the bar. In 1851 he was chosen a mem- 
ber of the state constitutional convention, 
and took a leading part in the deliberations 
of that body. He was elected to congress 
in 1 85 1, and after serving two terms was 
appointed commissioner of the United States 
general land-office. In 1863 he was elected 
to the United States senate, where his dis- 
tinguished services commanded the respect 
of all parties. He was elected governor of 
Indiana in 1872, serving four years, and in 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHV. 



213 



1876 was nominated by the Democrats as 
candidate for the vice-presidency with Til- 
den. The returns in a number of states 
were contested, and resulted in the appoint- 
ment of the famous electoral commission, 
which decided in favor of the Republican 
candidates. In 1884 Mr. Hendricks was 
again nominated as candidate for the vice- 
presidency, by the Democratic party, on the 
ticket with Grover Cleveland, was elected, 
and served about six months. He died at 
Indianapolis, November 25, 1885. He was 
regarded as one of the brainiest men in the 
party, and his integrity was never ques- 
tioned, even by his political opponents. 



GARRETT A. HOBART, one of the 
many able men who have held the 
high office of vice-president of the United 
States, was born June 3, 1844, in Mon- 
mouth county, New jersey, and in i860 en- 
tered the sophomore class at Rutgers Col- 
lege, from which he graduated in 1863 at 
the age of nineteen. He then taught 
school until he entered the law office of 
Socrates Tuttle, of Paterson, New Jersey, 
with whom he studied law. and in 1869 
was admitted to the bar. He immediately 
began the active practice of his profession 
i 1 the office of the above named gentleman. 
He became interested in political life, and 
espoused t e cause of the Republican party, 
and in 1865 held his first office, serving as 
clerk for the grind jury. He was also city 
counsel of Paterson in 1871, and in May, 
1872, was elected counsel for the board of 
chosen freeholders. He entered the state 
legislature in 1873, and was re-elected to 
the assembly in 1874. Mr. Hobart was 
made speaker of the assembly in 1876, and 
and in 1879 was elected to the state senate. 
After serving three years in the same, lie 
was elected president of that body in 1SS1, 



and the following year was re-slected to 
that office. He was a delegate-at large to 
the Republican national convention hi 1876 
and 1880, and was elected a member of the 
national committee in 1884, which pos'tion 
he occupied continuously until 1896. He 
was then nominated for vice-president by 
the Republican national convention, am' 
was elected to that office in the fall of 1896 
on the ticket with William McKinley. 



WILLIAM MORRIS STEWART, noted 
as a political leader and senator, was 
born in Lyons, Wayne county, New York, 
August 9, 1S27, and removed with his par- 
ents while still a small child to Mesopota- 
mia township, Trumbull county, Ohio. He 
attended the Lyons Union school and Farm- 
ington Academy, where he obtained his ed- 
ucation. Later he taught mathematics in 
the former school, while yet a pupil, and 
with the little money thus earned and the 
assistance of James C. Smith, one of the 
judges of the supreme court of New York, 
he entered Yale College. He remained 
there until the winter of 1849-50, when, at- 
tracted by the gold discoveries in California 
he wended his way thither. He arrived at 
San Francisco in May, 1850, and later en- 
gaged in mining with pick and shovel in Ne- 
vada county. In this way he accumulated 
some money, and in the spring of 1852 he 
took up the study of law under John R. 
McConnell. The following December he 
was appointed district attorney, to which 
office he was chosen at tha general election 
of the next year. In 1854 he was ap- 
pointed attorney-general of California, and 
in 1S60 he removed to Virginia City, Ne- 
vada, where he largely engaged in early 
mining litigation. Mr. Stewart was also in- 
terested in the development of the "Corn- 
stock lode," and in 1S61 was chosen a 



214 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



member of the territorial council. He was 
elected a member of the constitutional con- 
vention in 1863, and was elected United 
States senator in 1864, and re-elected in 
1869. At the expiration of his term in 
1875, he resumed the practice of law in 
Nevada, California, and the Pacific coast 
generally. He was thus engaged when he 
was elected again to the United States sen- 
ate as a Republican in 1887 to succeed the 
late James G. Fair, a Democrat, and took 
his seat March 4, 1887. On the expiration 
of his term he was again re-elected and be- 
came one of the leaders of his party in con- 
gress. His ability as an orator, and the 
prominent part he took in the discussion of 
public questions, gained him a national rep- 
utation. 

GEORGE GRAHAM VEST, for many 
years a prominent member of the 
United States senate, was born in Frank- 
fort, Kentucky, December 6, 1848. He 
graduated from Center College in 1868, and 
from the law department of the Transyl- 
vania University of Lexington, Kentucky, 
in 1853. In the same year he removed to 
Missouri and began the practice of his pro- 
fession. In 1 860 he was an elector on the 
Democratic ticket, and was a member of 
the lower house of the Missouri legislature 
in 1860-61. He was elected to the Con- 
federate congress, serving two years in the 
lower house and one in the senate. He 
then resumed the practice of law, and in 
1 879 was elected to the senate of the United 
States to succeed James Shields. He was 
re-elected in 18S5, and again in 1891 and 
1S97. His many years of service in the 
National congress, coupled with his ability 
as a speaker and the active part he took in 
the discussion of public questions, gave him 
a wide reputation. 



HANNIBAL HAMLIN, a noted American 
statesman, whose name is indissolubly 
connected with the history of this country, 
was born in Paris, Maine, August 27, 1809. 
He learned the printer's trade and followed 
that calling for several years. He then 
studied law, and was admitted to practice 
in 1833. He was elected to the legislature 
of the state of Maine, where he was several 
times chosen speaker of the lower house. 
He was elected to congress by the Demo- 
crats in 1843, and re-elected in 1845. I' 1 
1848 he was chosen to the United States 
senate and served in that body until 1861. 
He was elected governor of Maine in 1857 
on the Republican ticket, but resigned when 
re-elected to the United States senate 
the same year. He was elected vice-presi- 
dent of the United States on the ticket with 
Lincoln in i860, and inaugurated in March, 
1 861. In 1865 he was appointed collector 
of the port of Boston. Beginning with 
1869 he served two six-year terms in the 
United States senate, and was then ap- 
pointed by President Garfield as minister to 
Spain in 1881. His death occurred July 4, 
1891. 

TSHAM G. HARRIS, famous as Confed- 
1 erate war governor of Tennessee, and 
distinguished by his twenty years of service 
in the senate of the United States, was 
born in Franklin county, Tennessee, and 
educated at the Academy of Winchester. 
He then took up the study of law, was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and commenced practice 
at Paris, Tennessee, in 1841. He was 
elected to the state legislature in 1847, was 
a candidate for presidential elector on the 
Democratic ticket in 1848, and the next 
year was elected to congress from his dis- 
trict, and re-elected in 185 1. In 1853 he 
was renominated by the Democrats of his 



COMPENDIUM UF BIOGRAPHY. 



215 



district, but declined, and removed to Mem- 
phis, where he took up the practice of law. 
He was a presidential elector-at-large from 
Tennessee in 1856, and was elected gov- 
ernor of the state the next year, and again 
in 1859, and in 1861. He was driven from 
Nashville by the advance of the Union 
armies, and for the last three years of the 
war acted as aid upon the staff of the com- 
manding general of the Confederate army 
of Tennessee. After the war he went to 
Liverpool, England, where he became a 
merchant, but returned to Memphis in 1867, 
and resumed the practice of law. In 1877 
he was elected to the United States senate, 
to which position he was successively re- 
elected until his death in 1897. 



NELSON DINGLEY, Jr., for nearly a 
quarter of a century one of the leaders 
in congress and framer of the famous 
"Dingley tariff bill," was born in Durham, 
Maine, in 1832. His father as well as all 
his ancestors, were farmers, merchants and 
mechanics and of English descent. Young 
Dingley was given the advantages first of 
the common schools and in vacations helped 
his father in the store and on the farm. 
When twelve years of age he attended high 
school and at seventeen was teaching in a 
country school district and preparing him- 
self for college. The following year he en- 
tered Waterville Academy and in 185 1 en- 
tered Colby University. After a year and a 
half in this institution he entered Dart- 
mouth College and was graduated in 1855 
with high rank as a scholar, debater and 
-writer. He next studied law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1856. But instead of 
practicing his profession he purchased the 
" Lewistown (Me.) Journal," which be- 
came famous throughout the New England 
states as a leader in the advocacy of Repub- 



lican principles. About the same time Mr. 
Dingley began his political career, although 
ever after continuing at the head of the 
newspaper. He was soon elected to the 
state legislature and afterward to the lower 
house of congress, where he became a 
prominent national character. He also 
served two terms as governor of Maine. 



OLIVER PERRY MORTON, a distin- 
guished American statesman, was born 
in Wayne county, Indiana, August 4, 1823. 
His early education was by private teaching 
and a course at the Wayne County Seminary. 
At the age of twenty years he entered the 
Miami University at Oxford, Ohio, and at 
the end of two years quit the college, began 
the study of law in the office of John New- 
man, of Centerville, Indiana, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1847. 

Mr. Morton was elected judge on the 
Democratic ticket, in 1852, but on th*. 
passage of the " Kansas-Nebraska Bill " he 
severed his connection with that part}', and 
soon became a prominent leader of the Re- 
publicans. He was elected governor of In- 
diana in 1 86 1, and as war governor became 
well known throughout the country. He 
received a paralytic stroke in 1865, which 
partially deprived hiin of the use of his 
limbs. He was chosen to the United States 
senate from Indiana, in 1867, and wielded 
great influence in that body until the time 
of his death, November 1, 1877. 



JOHN B. GORDON, a brilliant Confeder- 
ate officer and noted senator of the United 
States, was born in Upson county, Georgia, 
February 6, 1832. He graduated from the 
State University, studied law, and took up 
the practice of his profession. At the be- 
ginningof the war he entered the Confederate 
service as captain of infantry, and rapidly 



216 



COMPEXDJUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



rose to the rank of lieutenant-general, 
commanding one wing of the Confederate 
army at the close of the war. In 1868 he 
was Democratic candidate for governor of 
Georgia, and it is said was elected by a large 
majority, but his opponent was given the 
office. He was a delegate to the national 
Democratic conventions in 1868 and 1872, 
and a presidential elector both years. In 
1873 he was elected to the United States 
senate. In 18S6 he was elected governor 
of Georgia, and re-elected in 1888. He 
was again elected to the United States 
senate in 1890, serving until 1897, when he 
was succeeded by A. S. Clay. He was 
regarded as a leader of the southern Democ- 
racy, and noted for his fiery eloquence. 



STEPHEN JOHNSON FIELD, an illus- 
trious associate justice of the supreme 
court of the United States, was born at 
Haddam, Connecticut, November 4, 1816, 
being one of the noted sons of Rev. D. 
D. Field. He graduated from Williams 
College in 1837. took up the study of law 
with his brother, David Dudley Field, be- 
coming his partner upon admission to the 
bar. He went to California in 1849, and at 
once began to take an active interest in the 
political affairs of that state. He was 
elected alcalde of Marysville, in 1850, and 
in the autumn of the same year was elected 
to the slate legislature. In 1857 he was 
elected judge of the supreme court of the 
state, and two years afterwards became its 
chief justice. In 1863 he was appointed by 
President Lincoln as associate justice of the 
supreme court of the United States. During 
his incumbency, in 1873, he was appointed 
by the governor of California one of a com- 
mission to examine the codes of the state 
and for the preparation of amendments to 
the same for submission to the legislature. 



In 1877 he was one of the famous electoral 
commission of fifteen members, and voted 
as one of the seven favoring the election of 
Tilden to the presidency. In 1880 a large 
portion of the Democratic party favored his 
nomination as candidate for the presidency. 
He retired in the fall of 1897, having 
served a greater number of years on the 
supreme bench than any of his associates or 
predecessors, Chief Justice Marshall coining 
next in length of service. 



JOHN T. MORGAN, whose services in 
the United States senate brought him 
into national prominence, was born in 
Athens, Tennessee, June 20, 1824. At the 
age of nine years he emigrated to Alabama, 
where he made his permanent home, and 
where he received an academic education. 
He then took up the study of law, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1845. He took a 
leading part in local politics, was a presi- 
dential elector in i860, casting his ballot 
for Breckenridge and Lane, and in 1 86 1 
was a delegate to the state convention which 
passed the ordinance of secession. In May, 
of the same year, he joined the Confederate 
army as a private in Company I, Cahawba 
Rifles, and was soon after made major and 
then lieutenant-colonel of the Fifth Regiment. 
In 1862 he was commissioned colonel, and 
soon after made brigadier-general and as- 
signed to the command of a brigade in Vir- 
ginia. He resigned to join his old regiment 
whose colonel had been killed. He was 
soon afterward again made brigadier-gen- 
eral and given command of the brigade that 
included his regiment. 

After the war he returned to the prac- 
tice of law, and continued it up to the time 
of his election to the United States senate, in 
1 877. He was a presidential elector in 1 876, 
and cast his vote for Tilden and Hendricks. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



217 



He was re-elected to the senate in 18S3, 
and again in 1889, and 1895. His speeches 
and the measures he introduced, marked 
as they were by an intense Americanism, 
brought him into national prominence. 



WILLIAM McKINLEY.the twenty-fifth 
president of the United States, was 
born at Niles, Trumbull county, Ohio, Jan- 
uary 29, 1844. He was of Scotch-Irish 
ancestry, and received his early education 
in a Methodist academy in the small village 
of Poland, Ohio. At the outbreak of the 
war Mr. McKinley was teaching school, 
earning twenty-five dollars per month. As 
soon as Fort Sumter was fired upon he en- 
listed in a company that was formed in 
Poland, which was inspected and mustered 
in by General John C. Fremont, who at 
first objected to Mr. McKinley, as being too 
young, but upon examination he was finally 
accepted. Mr. McKinley was seventeen 
when the war broke out but did not look his 
age. He served in the Twenty-third Ohio 
Infantry throughout the war, was promoted 
from sergeant to captain, for good conduct 
on the field, and at the close of the war, 
for meritorious services, he was brevetted 
major. After leaving the army Major Mc- 
Kinley took up the study of law, and was 
admitted to the bar, and in 1869 he took 
his initiation into politics, being elected pros- 
ecuting attorney of his county as a Republi- 
can, although thedistrict was usually Demo- 
cratic. In 1 876 he was elected to congress, 
and in a call upon the President-elect, Mr. 
Hayes, to whom he went for advice upon the 
way he should shape his career, he was 
told that to achieve fame and success he 
must take one special line and stick to it. 
Mr. McKinley chose tariff legislation and 
he became an authority in regard to import 
duties. He was a member of congress for 



many years, became chairman of the ways 
and means committee, and later he advo- 
cated the famous tariff bill that bore his 
name, which was passed in 1S90. In the 
next election the Republican party was 
overwhelmingly defeated through the coun- 
try, and the Democrats secured more than 
a two thirds majority in the lower house, 
and also had control of the senate, Mr. 
McKinley being defeated in his own district 
by a small majority. He was elected gov- 
ernor of Ohio in 1891 by a plurality of 
twenty-one thousand, five hundred and 
eleven, and two years later he was re-elected 
by the still greater plurality of eighty thou- 
sand, nine hundred and ninety-five. He was 
a delegate-at-large to the Minneapolis Re- 
publican convention in 1892, and was in- 
structed to support the nomination of Mr. 
Harrison. He was chairman of the con- 
vention, and was the only man from Ohio 
to vote for Mr. Harrison upon the roll call. 
In November, 1892, a number of prominent 
politicians gathered in New York to discuss 
the political situation, and decided that the 
result of the election had put an end to Mc- 
Kinley and McKinleyism. But in less than 
four years from that date Mr. McKinley was 
nominated for the presidency against the 
combined opposition of half a dozen rival 
candidates. Much of the credit for his suc- 
cess was due to Mark A. Hanna, of Cleve- 
land, afterward chairman of the Republican 
national committee. At the election which 
occurred in November, 1896, Mr. McKinley 
was elected president of the United States 
by an enormous majority, on a gold stand- 
ard and protective tariff platform. He was 
inaugurated on the 4th of March, 1S97, 
and called a special session of congress, to 
which was submitted a bill for tariff reform, 
which was passed in the latter part of July 
of that vear. 



218 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



(-MNCINNATUS HEINE MILLER, 
> known in the literary world as Joaquin 
Miller, "the poet of the Sierras," was born 
at Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1841. When only 
about thirteen years of age he ran away 
from home and went to the mining regions 
in California and along the Pacific coast. 
Some time afterward he was taken prisoner 
by the Modoc Indians and lived with them 
for five years. He learned their language 
and gained great influence with them, fight- 
ing in their wars, and in all modes of living 
became as one of them. In 1S58 he left 
the Indians and went to San Francisco, 
where he studied law, and in i860 was ad- 
mitted to the bar in Oregon. In 1866 he 
was elected a county judge in Oregon and 
served four years. Early in the seventies 
he began devoting a good deal of time to 
literary pursuits, and about 1874 he settled 
in Washington, D. C. He wrote many 
poems and dramas that attracted consider- 
able attention and won him an extended 
reputation. Among his productions may be 
mentioned " Pacific Poems," " Songs of the 
Sierras," "Songs of the Sun Lands," 
' ' Ships in the Desert, " ' ' Adrianne, a Dream 
of Italy," "Danites," "Unwritten History," 
" First Families of the Sierras " (a novel), 
" One Fair Woman " (a novel), " Songs of 
Italy," " Shadows of Shasta," "The Gold- 
Seekers of the Sierras," and a number of 
others. 

GEORGE FREDERICK ROOT, a 
noted music publisher and composer, 
was born in Sheffield, Berkshire county, 
Massachusetts, on August 30, 1820. While 
working on his father's farm he found time 
to learn, unaided, several musical instru- 
ments, and in his eighteenth year he went 
to Boston, where he soon found employ- 
ment as a teacher of music. From 1839 



until 184411c gave instructions in music in 
the public schools of that city, and was also 
director of music in two churches. Mr. 
Root then went to New York and taught 
music in the various educational institutions 
of the city. • He went to Paris in 1850 and 
spent one year there in study, and on his re- 
turn he published his first song, "Hazel 
Dell." It appeared as the work of " Wur- 
zel," which was the German equivalent of 
his name. He was the originator of the 
normal musical institutions, and when the 
first one was started in New York he 
was one of the faculty. He removed to 
Chicago, Illinois, in i860, and established 
the firm of Root & Cady, and engaged in 
the publication of music. He received, in 
[872, the degree of " Doctor of Music" 
from the University of Chicago. After the 
war the firm became George F. Root & Co., 
of Cincinnati and Chicago. Mr. Root did 
much to elevate the standard of music in this 
country by his compositions and work as a 
teacher. Besides his numerous songs he 
wrote a great deal of sacred music and pub- 
lished many collections of vocal and instru- 
mental music. For many years he was the 
most popular song writer in America, and 
was one of the greatest song writers of the 
war. He is also well-known as an author, 
and his work in that line comprises: " Meth- 
ods for the Piano and Organ," "Hand- 
book on Harmony Teaching, " and innumer- 
able articles for the musical press. Among 
his many and most popular songs of the 
war time are: " Rosalie, the Prairie-flower," 
" Battle Cry of Freedom," " Just Before the 
Battle," "Tramp, Tramp, Tramp, the Boys 
are Marching," " The Old Folks are Gone," 
"A Hundred Years Ago," "Old Potomac 
Shore, "and " There's Music in the Air." Mr. 
Root's cantatas include "The Flower Queen" 
and "The Haymakers." He died in 1896. 



PART II. 



A BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 



OF 



DARKE COUNTY, 



OHIO. 



DARKE COUNTY, 

OHIO. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF DECEASED CITIZENS 
OF DARKE COUNTY, OHIO. 



By Professor J. T. Martz. 



N preparing a biographical sketch of 
the prominent dead of Darke county 
the writer has been compelled to refer 
to such records books and newspaper 
reports as are within his reach ; also the per- 
sonal knowledge and statements of the 
friends of the deceased, and to depend upon 
his own recollections. These facts then have 
been gleaned from the most authentic sources 
which are associated with the early rise and 
progress of the county, and are continued 
down to the present time. 

But few who were contemporary with 
the settlement of the town or county in their 
earliest stages of history now live. From 
them might have been obtained, from per- 
sonal recollections, the trials and hardships, 
the personal suffering and endurance of the 
early pioneers and more recent settlers, but 
they have all passed to the other shore. To 
the writing and compilation of these events 
much labor has been given, and the critical 
reader will perhaps find many imperfections, 
but tedious and perplexing as the task has 
been in many of its details, on the whole it 
has proved a source of gratification to col- 
lect into one casket what were like "orient 
pearls at random strung;" and we would 
fain present this sketch b < its readers as a 

13 



variegated bouquet, culled from the many 
gardens that adorn and diversify the unwrit- 
ten pages of the history of this county, and 
its many absent citizens. 

The lives of many of our distinguished 
dead are intimately associated with the early 
history of the northwest, and particularly 
with the defeat of St. Clair and its mourn- 
ful results, which occurrence may be stated 
as follows : On the evening of November 
3. 1 791, his army encamped on the banks of 
the Wabash, which location was once a part 
of Darke county. Indian scouts in large 
numbers were seen skulking through the 
woods during the entire march to this place. 
St. Clair intended to fortify his camp the 
next day, but before four o'clock of Novem- 
ber 4th, the Indians attacked the American 
camp with a general discharge of firearms 
and the most horrid yells. Favored by the 
darkness, they broke into the camp and con- 
tinued their work of death. The troops 
were surprised and recoiled from the sud- 
den shock. The artillerists were so rapidly 
shot down that the guns were useless. Gal- 
lant charges were made by Colonel Darke. 
after whom this county was named, but not 
having sufficient riflemen to support him, 
his troops only exposed themselves t> 1 more 



224 



GENEALOGICAL AXD BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



certain destruction. General Butler was 
killed in the early part of the engagement, 
and as the only hope of saving the rem- 
nant of the army. St. Clair "resolved upon 
the desperate experiment" of charging upon 
the flank of the Indians and gaining the 
road, of which the Indians had possession. 
The charge was led by the General in per- 
son and was successful. The road was 
gained, but not until more than six hun- 
dred of his brave men lay dead Upon the field. 
The soldiers now abandoned the artillery, 
threw away their arms and equipments, and 
never paused in their headlong flight until 
they reached Fort Jefferson, twenty-nine 
miles distant from the location of the battle. 
Many were killed in this bloody retreat, and 
forty years afterward the farmers in the 
northwestern part of the county would fre- 
quently find the remains of soldiers who gal- 
lantly lost their lives in this unfortunate en- 
counter. 

History informs us that Adjutant-Gen- 
eral Sargeant wrote in his diary that the 
army had been defeated and at least half 
had been killed and wounded, making a loss 
of over nine hundred men. Following the 
army were about one hundred women, wives 
of officers and men, only a few of whom es- 
caped. General Wilkinson, who succeeded 
St. Clair in the command of the army, sent 
a detachment from Fort Washington to the 
battle ground in the following February for 
the purpose of burying the dead. The 
bodies were horribly mutilated, and those 
who had not been killed outright during the 
battle had been put to death with tortures 
too terrible and revolting for description. 
There being a deep snow upon the ground 
at this time they failed to find many of the 
bodies. 

In September. 1794. nearly three years 



after the battle, General Wayne sent a de- 
tachment to build a fort upon the scene of 
the disaster, which was done, and the struct- 
ure was very significantly called Fort Re- 
covery. It is said that in order to find all 
the remains there unburied rewards for 
finding skulls were offered. The ground in 
places was literally covered with bones ; the 
detachment found more than six hundred 
skulls. On some the marks of the scalping 
knife were plainly visible. Some were 
hacked or marked by the tomahawk, while 
others again were split open by a blow of 
that weapon. The remains were buried, and 
these facts prove the correctness of General 
Sargeant's statement, that more than nine 
hundred men lost their lives in this bloody 
affair. Two desperate attempts were made 
by the Indians to obtain possession of Fort 
Recovery, but in each attempt they were re- 
pulsed with severe loss. These transactions 
render Fort Recovery one of the most memo- 
rable in the history of our country. On the 
7th of July, 1851, many of the remains of 
these soldiers were found partly exposed, 
and on that and the two following days they 
were taken up by the citizens of Fort Re- 
covery, and on the 10th of the following 
September were reinterred at a mass meet- 
ing of citizens from Kentucky, Indiana, Vir- 
ginia and Ohio, the meeting being called ex- 
pressly for that purpose. Thirteen coffins 
were prepared, and it was intended to fill 
each one partly full, but the remains entire- 
ly filled these coffins, and also a large box 
prepared for this purpose. They were in- 
terred in the old cemetery at Fort Recovery, 
by the side of Samuel McDowell, one of 
their comrades who died and was buried 
there in 1842. where they now rest — a low 
circular mound of earth and stone marking 
the spot. 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



226 



These soldiers lost their lives in the de- 
fense of their country and while in the em- 
ployment of the United States government. 
A committee appointed by congress investi- 
gated the facts and details of this campaign 
and exonerated General St. Clair from all 
blame. It was the result of the fortunes of 
war, and we can only honor our noble dead 
by respecting their memory in the proper 
way. No other place in American history is 
more deserving of a suitable monument to 
commemorate our nation's loss and to mark 
the spot of her fallen heroes than is Fort 
Recovery. Five or six acres of ground 
within the limits of the fort should be pro- 
cured suitable for a park. 

Let this be done and a monument worthy 
to commemorate these sad events be erected 
there ; the remains of these soldiers should be 
transferred to this monument as a suitable 
location for their last resting place. This 
is a matter that concerns the states of Mary- 
land, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Kentucky and 
Indiana, as well as Ohio. But these soldiers 
did not sacrifice their lives for the protec- 
tion of the citizens of these states merely. 
It was to protect and defend a territory be- 
longing to the general government from 
the encroachments of a savage foe instigated 
by the emissaries of a government glad to 
seek an opportunity to continue a strife, that 
by treaty had been settled in the independ- 
ence of our country years before. It is 
earnestly hoped that congress will soon take 
such action, and that a suitable monument 
commemorating the events herein named 
will be erected at Fort Recovery. 

In June, 1794, General Wayne com- 
menced his campaign against the Indians of 
the northwest, marching from Greenville 
with a force of about three thousand men. 
When near the northeastern line of Darke 



county, the Indians held a council for the 
purpose of settling the question as to the ex- 
pediency of attacking Wayne's army at once. 
Some of General Wayne's scouts, disguised 
as Indians, with their faces painted with all 
the hideousness of the savage on the war- 
path, attended this savage council, listened 
to all the arguments there advanced, and re- 
ported the same to the General. Major 
George Adams, who had so far recovered 
from wounds received five years before as 
to be in the service of Wayne's army, was 
present at this council, disguised in full In- 
dian rig and paint. He reported that Lit- 
tle Turtle strongly urged that an onslaught 
be made before morning. This advice was 
withstood by the Crane, head chief of the 
Wvandots, and by the Shawnee and Potta- 
watomie chiefs, and the head men of other 
tribes who were in the Indian force. The 
reasons given by those who opposed the 
Turtle's council were that they desired 
Wayne to be farther away from his home, 
as they designated Fort Greenville, and that 
they could better engage him when they 
were near their friends, as they designated a 
British fort and garrison on the Maumee, 
which had been kept up in defiance of the 
stipulation of the treaty of 1783 ; but the true 
reason of their opposition to the Turtle's ad- 
vice was their distrust of him excited the 
previous autumn at Fort Recovery. Major 
Adams had previously been a soldier in Gen- 
eral Harmar's army, again in the service as 
a captain of scouts under Wayne, as above 
intimated, and nearly twenty years later 
commandant of the garrison at Greenville, 
during the negotiations preceding the exe- 
cution of the treaty of 1814, and later in life 
was judge of the court of common pleas of 
Darke county. Ohio. He was five times 
shot and severelv wounded in one of the 



226 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



three several defeats of Harmar. He sur- 
vived, and was carried on a litter between 
two horses to Cincinnati, although on the 
way a grave was dug for him three even- 
ings in succession. With his ashes in the 
Martin cemetery, three miles east of Green- 
ville, are two of the bullets of the five which 
he carried in his body from 1789 until his 
decease in 1832. 

On the 20th of August, 1794, the battle 
of Fallen Timbers was fought, which for a 
number of years subdued the Indians and 
caused them to sue for peace, which lasted 
until 181 2, when Tecumseh stirred up the 
Indians to such an extent as to bring on the 
war resulting in the battle of the Thames. 
This celebrated Shawnee chief was born at 
what was known as the ancient town of Piq- 
ua, located on the north side of Mad river, 
and about five miles west of Springfield. In 
1805 he and his brother, Lau-le-was'-i-ka, 
the prophet, took a large part of his tribe to 
Greenville, and built an Indian town on what 
ij known as the Wiliam F. Bishop farm on 
Mud creek. One writer says that Tecum- 
seh and the prophet resided from 1805 to 
1808 on the tongue of land between Mud 
creek and Greenville creek, which place is 
still known as Tecumseh's Point. This 
point was held sacred by the red men, and 
to such an extent did this feeling prevail 
among the Indians that when orders were 
issued in 1832 to remove them from the set- 
tlements at Wapakoneta to their reservation 
beyond the Mississippi river, the officer in 
charge designed taking them through Miami 
count}'' to Cincinnati, but they insisted on 
being taken through Greenville that they 
might once more visit the home of their chief 
and prophet, and their request being granted, 
they remained several days. The two loca- 



tions are about three miles apart, and there 
seems to be but little doubt of the brothers 
having resided at both places. Here they 
lived, and as the early settlers testify, they 
carried on their thieving propensities the 
same as they had done at "Old Piqua," from 
which place they had been driven because of 
these depredations. Nothing that the set- 
tlers owned was safe, and they lived in con- 
stant dread that they would not only lose 
their property, but they felt that their lives 
were not safe while surrounded by these 
savages. Shortly after coming to Green- 
ville the prophet announced an eclipse of the 
sun, and that, happening at the time he pre- 
dicted, increased the belief in his sacred char- 
acter. Hostile movements resulted in the 
expedition led by General Harrison, who, on 
the 7th day of November, 181 1, encountered 
the Indians at Tippecanoe, Indiana, and 
gained a decisive victory over them. Te- 
cumseh was not present at the battle, but 
the Indians were commanded by the prophet, 
who had promised them an easy victory. 
Not accomplishing what he as a prophet fore- 
told, he lost the confidence of the Indians and 
was never able to restore his influence over 
them. In 1812 Tecumseh was early in the 
field. He fought at Brownstown, was 
wounded at Magreaga and made a brigadier- 
general by the British. He took a part in 
the siege of Fort Meigs, and fell, bravely 
fighting, in the battle of the Thames, in the 
forty-fourth year of his age. His death shot 
is ascribed to a pistol in the hands of Colonel 
Richard M. Johnson, of Kentucky. We 
thus make brief mention of these renowned 
leaders of the aboriginal races to whose lands 
we have become heirs, and in whose biogra- 
phy Darke county has the honor of being so 
prominently connected. 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



227 



MURDER OF THE WILSON CHILDREX. 

The early settlers of Greenville suffered 
many hardships, and were exposed to many 
dangers from 1808 to 18 16. Indians were 
numerous, and while they were generally 
considered friendly, the settlers lived in con- 
stant alarm, and a ceaseless dread of treach- 
ery and violence hung like a threatening 
cioud over them. There were many In- 
dian tribes at that time friendly to the 
whites, and while scouts were constantly on 
the move and vigilant in their efforts to give 
the first alarm of danger, these friendly In- 
dians were supplied with white flags, prop- 
erly marked, which permitted them to pass 
the outposts of the whites in safety. This 
feeling of dread was not produced by the acts 
of the Indians alone, but the whites did 
much to increase the anxiety and danger. 
At one time a party of whites discharged a 
volley into a body of Indians carrying one 
of these flags, and approaching with the ut- 
most confidence. Two Indians were in- 
stantly killed, a third was wounded, and the 
rest were taken prisoners and robbed. One 
of the settlers, Andrew Rush, was killed by 
the Indians, and it was reported that a 
trader at Fort Recovery had been killed by 
his partner, but the Indians were accused 
of the crime. Greenville was then a stock- 
ade, and in the summer of 1812 many of the 
men were away rendering military service 
to the government, and but few men re- 
mained at the fort. It is said about this 
time a number of white men came upon a 
party of Indians with their women and chil- 
dren. The whites treated the Indian chil- 
dren with cruelty, taking them by the feet 
and swinging them around their heads, and 
when the Indians remonstrated and asked 
them to desist, one man dashed out the 



brains of one of the children. An attempt 
would have been made to punish the mur- 
derer immediately, but the whites were too 
strong, and the Indians awaited a future time 
in which to obtain their revenge. This time 
soon came. In July, 181 2, Patsy and Anna 
Wilson, daughters of "Old Billy Wilson," 
and aged respectively fourteen and eight 
years, accompanied by their brother older 
than they, left the stockade in the afternoon 
to gather berries. The brother took a gun 
with him for safety, as it is said that some 
time previous he had been chased by the In- 
dians, and being hard pressed he took shel- 
ter behind a tree, then placed his hat on the 
muzzle of his gun, exposed the same to the 
fire of the Indians, and while they stopped 
to load their guns he made his escape. The 
three crossed Greenville creek near N. 
Kuntz's saw-mill, and were picking berries 
under the trees when they were attacked by 
three Indians. The brother had left his gun 
near by, and the three were some distance 
apart at the time of the surprise. Not being 
able to secure his gun, the brother escaped 
by swimming the stream. His cries and the 
screams of the girls attracted the attention 
of Abraham Scribner and William Devor, 
who immediately ran to the spot, but the 
Indians had fled, after killing the girls by 
blows on the head with the poll or back of 
their tomahawks and scalping one of them, 
they not having time to scalp the other one. 
When the help came the girl that had been 
scalped was already dead, the other gasped a 
few times after they reached her. The dead 
bodies were carried into the fort and the 
alarm given, but the Indians escaped. Two 
innocent lives were thus sacrificed in retalia- 
tion for the death of the Indian child. The 
sisters were buried under the tree near where 



228 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



they were murdered, and this was the last 
tragedy of those perilous times. It was not 
safe for Indians to show themselves in this 
vicinity after that atrocious butchery, and 
the war being carried to the northwest, fol- 
lowed by the treaty of 1S14. left the inhab- 
itants of Greenville in comparative safety. 
About the 1st of July, 1871, the remains of 
these two sisters were taken up, and on the 
fourth of the same month, the "Nation's 
Birthday," they were deposited in the Green- 
ville cemetery with appropriate ceremonies, 
a large assembly of the people being in at- 
tendance to show their respect for the dead. 
On the same day a large granite boulder, 
weighing perhaps four tons, swung under a 
wagon drawn by six horses, was driven into 
the cemetery and placed over their grave. 
Here let them rest in peace, and may their 
monument be a constant reminder to us of 
the trials and dangers through which the 
early settlers of our peaceful city passed, and 
may it admonish us of the importance of 
properly appreciating the privileges and 
blessings we enjoy. 

ANDREW RUSH. 

About the 28th of April. 181 2. Andrew 
Rush started for a little mill which had been 
built on Greenville creek, a few rods above 
where the Beamsville road to Greenville 
marks a crossing. He got his grist and set 
out to return home. On his way home he 
stopped to make a call on Daniel Potter, who, 
with Isaac Vail, was occupying each his own 
end of a double log house, which stood be- 
tween the late residence of Moses Potter 
and the creek. The two settlers from some 
cause had become fearful of trouble, and had 
gone down the Miami for assistance to take 
back their families to their former homes. 
Mrs. Potter asked Mr. Rush if he were not 



afraid of the Indians, and he put his hand 
through his hair and replied jokingly, "No: 
I had my wife cut my hair this morning so 
>hort that they could not get my scalp." 
Some time about 4 p. m, he left for home, 
and had not proceeded half a mile when he 
was shot from his horse, tomahawked and 
his scalp taken. Uneasiness was felt because 
of his not returning home, but all the fore- 
noon next day rain fell steadily and it was 
thought he might have stayed with a settler ; 
but in the afternoon Mr. Hiller's oldest son 
and Mr. Rush's brother-in-law took a horse 
and set out to look for him. The boys fol- 
lowed the track made by Rush to Greenville 
creek, just above the place known as Spiece's 
Mill, and there found the body lying on the 
sack of meal, mutilated as described. The 
boys then visited the houses of the settlers, 
but found all the cabins silent and deserted. 
They then hastened to the cabin of Henry 
Rush, and it was abandoned. The truth was 
evident that a panic had seized upon all. and 
they had fled for their lives. Xext morning 
men from Preble county moved out on the 
road to the body of Andrew Rush and gave 
it burial. 

AZOR AND ABRAHAM SCRIBNER. 

Among the first settlers of Greenville was 
Azor Scribner. Late in 1806 or early in 
1807, he came to Greenville with a small 
] stock of Indian goods, including tobacco 
and whisky, and began business in a cabin 
built by a Frenchman who had deserted the 
same two years before because of the thiev- 
ing depredations of the Indians. He did not 
bring his family, consisting of a wife and 
two daughters, from Middletown until 1808, 
but what time of the year is not known. It 
is conceded that the first white man who, 
with a wife and children, emi°rated to the 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



229 



county and settled in Greenville township 
was Samuel Boyd, who came in 1807 and 
bulit himself a cabin about two and one-half 
miles north by east of the site of Fort Green- 
ville on the bank of a branch that yet goes by 
the name of Boyd's creek. Boyd was a native 
of Maryland, had lived in Kentucky, and 
was probably married there before he emi- 
grated to Ohio and had, as far as we are 
able to learn, stopped one or two years near 
the Miami in Butler county, before emigrat- 
ing to the wilderness, that, two years after- 
ward, created the county of Darke. Boyd 
lost his wife about 181 6. and she was the first 
person buried in the old graveyard below the 
railroad bridge ; the early settlers having pre- 
viously used as a cemetery the lot on which 
the Catholic church is erected, but during the 
occupancy of the fort by General Wayne's 
army his hospital was located on the lot now 
ocupied by Judge George A. Jobes, while his 
graveyard was located upon the lot now oc- 
cupied by the dwelling house of R. S. Fri- 
zell. Boyd died in 1829 or 1830; one of his 
daughters, the wife of John Carnahan, had 
died in 1821 or 1822; and another, the wife 
of Robert Martin, lived until about thirteen 
years ago. recognized as the oldest inhabitant 
of the county at that time. Soon after Boyd 
came, Azor Scribner removed his family 
and, abandoning the cabin on the west side 
of the creek, occupied one of the buildings 
of the fort that had escaped the fire which in 
a measure destroyed the fort inside of the 
pickets. Azor died in 1822 and his widow, 
in the early part of 1825, married a Yankee 
adventurer, who in less than a year deserted 
her, and the last ever heard of him was that 
he was in jail in Canada, on a charge of 
treason, having been involved in what was 
there known as McKenzie's rebellion. 



Abraham Scribner, brother of Azor, came to 
Greenville in the summer or early fall of 
181 1. He had previously been master of 1 • ne 
or more vessels engaged in the navigation of 
the Hudson river, from New York to Troy, 
or in the coasting trade from Passamma- 
quoddy bay to the capes of the Chesapeake, 
and, sometimes, as far south as Cape Hat- 
teras. When he came to Darke county he 
was about thirty years old. From exposure 
while commander of a vessel a year or two 
before he nearly lost the sense of hearing, 
and this infirmity in connection with some, 
other peculiarities made him a man singular 
and exceptional in character and deport- 
ment. Part of his time he spent in Green- 
ville, in the family of Mrs. Armstrong, until 
his death in January. 1812, and part of the 
time in Montgomery county in the family of 
John Devor, one of the proprietors of Green- 
ville, whose daughter Rachel he married in 
1814. What he did to make a living for him- 
self for a year or more after he came to this 
county none now living knows. He appeared 
tc be always busy, and yet no one could tell 
whether he was doing anything. Being at 
Day ton in the spring of 1813, he enlisted in 
Colonel Dick Johnson's mounted regiment, 
and with it went to upper Canada where, in 
the fall of that year, he participated in the 
battle of the Fallen Timber, where Proctor 
was defeated and Tecumseh was killed. 
After being discharged from the service he 
married Miss Rachel Devor, and having en- 
tered the prairie quarter-section of land above 
the mouth of Mud creek, now owned by the 
estate of J. W. Sater, deceased, he erected a 
log house upon it ; also brought his wife from 
Montgomery count}', and began housekeep- 
ing. In about two years Scribner sold his 
quarter-section, on which he had paid only 



230 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



his entrance money, eighty dollars, to John 
Compton, of Dayton, for sixteen hundred 
dollars, and took his pay in a stock of goods 
at retail price, and opened out a store. In 
the summer of 1821 Scribner lost his first 
wife, and, after an interval of a few weeks, 
married a second wife. Miss Jane Ireland, 
of the vicinity of Xew Paris, who also died 
in the summer of 1822. After the death of 
his second wife, he sold out his stock of 
goods, and having placed his children among 
friends, went to the Maumee, where he pur- 
chased land in Henry county, and squandered 
his money in half clearing some land, and 
having several thousand rails made, con- 
cerning which, five years afterward. Jacob 
DeLong wrote to him that "they were lying 
in the woods and getting no better very fast. ' 
In a few months he returned to Greenville 
and resumed the mercantile business, in 
which he continued the residue of his life. 
In January, 1825. lie married his third wife. 
He died in March, 1847. > n the sixty-sixth 
year of his age. Mr. Scribner was a pecu- 
liar character. During ten or twelve years 
of his life he was the power of the county. 
He was the autocrat and ruler of the Dem- 
ocratic party, and discharged all the func- 
tions of caucuses, primary elections and 
nominating conventions. Those he allowed 
to run for office ran and were elected, and 
those he forbade had to keep shady and hold 
their peace. But at last he switched off from 
Jackson Democracy, although he would be 
"right in line" now among Democrats, for 
he was an uncompromising adherent to the 
resolutions of 1798. His last wife died 
several years ago, as did Mrs. S. J. Arnold, 
who was the last of the children of his first 
wife, and was the wife of Henry Arnold, 
deceased, for many years a successful dry- 
goods merchant in Greenville. 



ABRAHAM STUDABAKER. 

A pioneer of Darke county, Ohio, Abra- 
ham Studabaker was born in Westmoreland 
county, Pennsylvania, about the year 1785, 
and died in Darke county. Ohio, March 16, 
1852. He was brought with his father's fam- 
ily to Ohio in the year 1793, and passed his 
youth in Clinton count}', where his parents 
died. In the spring of 1808 he became one of 
the first settlers of Darke county, which was 
then a wilderness, inhabited by wild beasts 
and Indians. At this time there were but two 
habitations in the territory that now corn- 
pries the county. He erected a third rude 
log cabin, having a chimney built of sticks 
cemented with mud. as a home for his fam- 
ily, a wife and one young child. Mr. Studa- 
baker's experience was a good illustration 
of some of the difficulties that disheartened 
the early settlers. He brought with him a 
horse and cow, and after awhile his little 
>t< ick of domestic animals was increased by 
the birth of a calf. During the first year he 
cleared an acre or two of ground, which he 
planted in corn. He had just gathered his 
little crop when his faithful horse died of 
milk-sickness, and shortly afterward the 
calf was killed by wolves. Hoping to catch 
some of these ravenous beasts, he baited a 
wolf trap with the mangled remains of the 
poor calf, and the cow. in hunting for her 
lost baby, put her head into the trap which 
fell and broke her neck. Soon after the 
breaking out of the war of 1812, he erected 
a block-house in the vicinity of Gettysburg, 
as a protection against the Indians. All other 
families fled the surrounding part of the 
country, but he remained through the dan- 
gers of the struggle. He used to remark 
that he was too poor to get away. For about 
two weeks after dangers began to thicken 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



231 



he was housed up in his wooden fort, himself, 
wife and one young child being the only oc- 
cupants, threatened with ail manner of bar- 
barities and outrages by the frenzied Indians, 
against which as a means of defense he had 
but two rifles and a small amount of ammu- 
nition. The second (or garret) story of this 
structure projected on all sides a few feet 
over the first or ground story, thus giving 
its inmates a fair chance to repel parties at- 
tempting to break in. or to fire the building 
from below. For protection against this lat- 
ter mode of attack on the part of the Indians, 
he kept constantly ready two hogsheads 
filled with water. After he had for about 
two weeks been in this isolated and danger- 
ous condition, the government, greatly to his 
relief, sent six soldiers with arms and ammu- 
nition for the protection of his little. family. 
This block-house, which Studabaker had 
charge of during the war. served as an inn. 
a port of refuge, official headquarters and 
other valuable purposes. Upon one occasion 
he captured five armed Indians and turned 
them over to the government officer. They, 
however, -subsequently escaped and killed 
two United States soldiers near Greenville, 
named Stoner and Elliott. While Abraham 
Studabaker and his family escaped the bar- 
barities of this savage conflict, his brother 
David was murdered by the Indians near the 
site of Fort Wayne, Indiana. After the war 
closed Mr. Studabaker was employed by the 
government to furnish cattle to feed the In- 
dians till the treaty of peace could be con- 
summated. Upon the organization of Darke 
county in 1817, he was placed on the first 
board of commissioners and served with it 
for thirteen years. He was also a captain in 



early day militia. He was reared and lived 
amid scenes of pioneer privation and hard- 
ships, and as a natural result his education 
was exceedingly meagre. He was. however, 
endowed with fine natural business abilities, 
and had a most successful financial career. 
He was largely instrumental in securing the 
first railroad through Darke county, for- 
merly the Greenville and Miami, now the 
Dayton and Union. He also advanced the 
money to build the first court house in the 
county. He was a man of excellent judg- 
ment, great sagacity, large hospitality, and 
of unquestionable integrity. He spoke his 
mind without reserve, and was very decided 
in his opinions, and in politics strongly 
Democratic. His first wife was Mary Town- 
send, daughter of William Townsend, of 
Clinton county, Ohio, and she bore W.ra 
seven children. His second wife was Eliza- 
beth Hardman.. of Butler county, Ohio, who 
bore him five children. She died in the fall 
of 1868. David Studabaker, .second son of 
his first wife, was born in the old block- 
house, September 17. 1814. On February 13, 
1835, he married Maria, daughter of Will- 
iam Folkerth of Darke county, who bore him 
five children. Mrs. Studabaker died in April, 
1846. On December 13, 1849. ne married 
Jane, daughter of Samuel Culbertson, of the 
same county. David Studabaker was one of 
the movers in the organization of the county 
agricultural society, also a prominent par- 
ticipant in securing the first railroad through 
the county, and for two years was president 
of the company. By occupation he was a 
farmer, and a very active, industrious and 
a good citizen. He also held the office of 
county commissioner, being elected on the 



232 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Democratic ticket. This office he filled with 
honor ; no better financier, and no one more 
honorable and trustworthy than he, has ever 
filled the responsible position; he died several 
years ago. 

JOHN DEVOR. 

John Devor was born in Pennsylvania 
and came to Darke county in 1808. He 
died in Greenville in the year 1828. He and 
one Rachel Armstrong entered the first 
half-section of land within the present limits 
of the county, being the west half of section 
35, township 12, range 2 east, and laid out 
the town of Greenville in 1810. The legis- 
lature of Ohio, in session at Zanesville, by 
their act of January 3, 1809. created the 
county of Darke out of the territory pre- 
viously forming a part of the county of 
Miami and, within a year afterward, a com- 
mission appointed by the legislature estab- 
lished the seat of justice of the newly formed 
county at Terry's, town of Greenville, north 
of Greenville creek ; but there being some 
dissatisfaction, it may be well to state that 
by the enactment of the legislature at its ses- 
sion of 1810-11 a new commission was cre- 
ated, to whom was confided the duty of re- 
locating the seat of justice of the county. 
This commission consisted of two members 
from Miami county and one from Preble, 
and after considering the proposition of 
Terry. Briggs. and that of Devor and Mrs. 
Armstrong, and looking to the material 
benefits to the county, as proffered by the 
parties, accepted the proposition of Devor 
and Mrs. Armstrong, and selected as the 
future county seat the town laid out at 
Wayne's old fort of Greenville. The ac- 
cepted proposition covenanted to donate to 
the county one-third of all the town lots then 
laid out, or that they or their heirs might 



thereafter lay out, on the adjoining lands in 
the west half of said section 35, in which 
their town plat was located. Some years 
after. Mrs. Armstrong having died in the 
meantime, Devor, for himself, and on behalf 
of the heirs of Mrs. Armstrong, pursuant to 
the order of the court of common pleas, exe- 
cuted their contract so far as the lots then 
laid off was concerned, by conveying to the 
commissioners of Miami county in trust for 
the county of Darke, when it should there- 
after be organized, thirty-two of the ninety- 
six lots then laid out. but, although addi- 
tional town lots on the adjacent land of the 
half-section have since been laid out by the 
heirs of Devor. and also by the heirs of Mrs. 
Armstrong, no further donation or convey- 
ance has ever been made, nor have the com- 
missioners of Darke county ever demanded 
or required any further performance of their 
covenant. John Devor's son, James, was 
born near Maysville, Kentucky, while their 
family were on their way from Pennsylvania, 
in 1795. He learned surveying from his 
father and for a number of years was county 
surveyor of Darke county. He was the first 
auditor of Darke county, from May, 1S44, 
to October, 1847, ne was county treasurer, 
and for a number of years was a justice of 
the peace; he died in October, 1855. His 
wife, Patience Dean, was a daughter of 
Aaron Dean, one of the early settlers of the 
county. They were married March 1, 1828, 
and ten children were born unto them, of 
whom five now survive, John and Elijah be- 
ing prominent attorneys of the Greenville 
bar, the latter being also a referee in bank- 
ruptcy, under the late United States bank- 
ruptcy law. John Devor is a prominent 
politician, an unswerving Republican ami a 
warm personal friend of Hon. John Sher- 
man. He was the Republican elector for the 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



283 



fourth congressional district in 1888 and had 
the honor of casting his vote for Hon. Ben- 
jamin Harrison for president of the United 
States. 

JOHN LEOPOLD WINNER. 

Merchant, banker and legislator of Green- 
ville, Ohio, J. P. Winner was born in Frank- 
lin, Warren county, Ohio, November 19, 
1816. His parents were Isaac and Mary 
(Powell) Winner, natives of New Jersey. 
They were married in Philadelphia and in 
18 1 6 came to Ohio, where they passed their 
lives. Mrs. Winner died in April, 1832, and 
her husband in October, following. For 
about four years subsequent to his father's 
death our subject worked at the cooper's 
trade. In April, 1836. he came to Darke 
county and located in Greenville, where he 
extensively identified himself with the busi- 
ness of the community and also held promi- 
nent places in the political councils of the 
county and state. In November, 1837, he 
married Miss Charlotte Clark, daughter of 
John Clark, Esq., of Warren county, Ohio. 
For some five years Mr. Winner was in the 
grocery business. Eight years he kept a 
hotel. Four years he kept a drug store. In 
1853 he engaged in banking in company with 
the late Colonel J. W. Frizell, and thus con- 
tinued till May, 1865, when he became a 
stockholder in the Farmers National Bank of 
Greenville, and in January, 1866, he was 
made cashier of that institution, which po- 
sition he held until January, 1872. In April, 
1873, ne opened the Exchange Bank of 
Greenville and conducted the business of 
that flourishing institution. His wife died 
August 12, 1863. She possessed in a high 
degree those noble qualities of mind and 
heart so essential to a true wife, and was 
revered in the community for her sweet- 



ness of disposition and sympathizing charity 
for the poor and unfortunate. She left an 
only daughter, Hattie, who inherited the 
sterling qualities of her mother, but the loss 
of her mother so affected her that she sur- 
vived her but a few weeks, dying at the age 
of fifteen years. On April 1, 1867, Mr. 
Winner married Mrs. Jane Crider, of Green- 
ville, daughter of John W. Porter, of the 
same place. In 1863 Mr. Winner became 
a member of the firm of Moore & Winner, 
which for a long time was one of the leading 
dry-goods firms of the county. In 1846 he 
was appointed auditor of Darke county, and 
from 1857 to 1861 he represented Darke 
county in the legislature of the state, and 
from 1867 to 1 87 1 he served in the state 
senate. In 1874 he was elected mayor of 
Greenville and served two years. In politics 
he was a Democrat. Although his school 
advantages were very meager, his active mind 
grasped a knowledge of men and things that 
fully compensated the loss. During the years 
1861-63 he was treasurer of the committee 
to secure a county fund to encourage enlist- 
ments in the Union army and gave the sub- 
ject much attention. He died several years 
ago. 

W. A. WESTOX. 

Washington .Mien Weston, deceased, 
of Greenville. Ohio, was born in Alexandria, 
Virginia, March 3. 18 14. and died at Green- 
ville, Ohio, April 24. 1876. His father, 
William Weston, was a sea captain and 
perished at sea. His mother, Rebecca Con- 
yers. was an English lady, and died soon 
after the death of her husband. When an 
orphan boy of fifteen he came to Ohio, and 
was six years a salesman in a mercantile 
house in Dayton, Ohio, where he made a 
record for fine business talent, industry and 



234 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



honesty. About 1835, w ' tn a small capital, 
he began business in Piqua, Ohio, but the 
financial crisis of 1836-37 swept away every 
dollar he possessed. Nothing daunted, how- 
ever, he soon began again in Covington, 
Miami county, where he prospered and be- 
came leader in the public affairs of the com- 
munity. In 1847 ne was elected on the Whig 
ticket to the general assembly of Ohio and 
acquitted himself with credit. In the fall of 
1848 he located in Greenville and opened 
the first hardware store of the place. In 
1856 he purchased the Dayton Paper Mills 
and for seven years conducted a thriving 
business in that city. In 1863 he returned 
to Greenville, resumed the hardware trade 
and in January, 1866, became one of the or- 
ganizers of the Farmers' National Bank of 
Greenville and president of the same, re- 
maining such until his decease. He was 
prominently active in the local enterprises 
of the community and his generosity was 
as universal as mankind, with a heart ever 
open and hand ever extended to relieve the 
necessities of the poor and unfortunate. He 
possessed a fine literary and scientific taste 
and had a very fair education; was a good 
conversationalist, excelled as a writer and 
contributed a number of timely articles to 
the public press of the day. The guiding 
principle of his life was the golden rule and 
he practiced its teachings in his daily busi- 
ness. Ever industrious and careful, he ac- 
cumulated a large competency, provided well 
for his family and was respected by all who 
knew him. In his death this community 
suffered the loss of a good financier and a 
worthy citizen. 

W. M. WILSON". 

William Martin Wilson, lawyer, judge 
and legislator, was born near Mifflin, luniata 



county, Pennsylvania, March 11. 1808, and 
died in Greenville, Ohio, June 15, 1S64. His 
parents were Thomas Wilson and Jane Mar- 
tin and in 181 1 they came to Ohio, passed 
about a year in Fairfield county, and in 1812 
settled in Butler county, where Mr. Wilson 
was raised. He was educated in Miami 
University, at Oxford, Ohio, studied law 
with the late Hon. Jesse Corwin, of Hamil- 
ton, Ohio, was admitted to the bar in 1832 
and then began practice in that place. In the 
fall of 1835 he located in Greenville and at 
once took a leading position as a lawyer. 
For a number of years he served as prosecut- 
ing attorney of Darke county. On Septem- 
ber 19, 1837, ne married Miss Louise Dosey, 
of Greenville, Ohio. She was born in But- 
ler county April 23. 181 5, and died August 
2, 1856. In December, 1837, he started the 
Darke County Advocate, which, with a 
change of name, is now the Greenville Jour- 
nal. In October, 1840, he was elected 
auditor of Darke county and was twice re- 
elected, thus serving six years. In the fall 
of 1846 he was elected to the Ohio senate, 
from the district composed of the counties 
of Darke, Miami and Shelby, and held the 
seat two years, during which time he rose 
to a very prominent position in that body, 
and came within one vote of being elected 
state auditor, having already gained the 
reputation of being one of the most efficient 
county auditors in the state. This one lack- 
ing vote he could have supplied by voting for 
himself, a thing which his manly modesty 
forbade. In the fall of 1856 he was ap- 
pointed by Governor Chase as common pleas 
judge of the first subdivision of the second 
judicial district of Ohio to fill a vacancy. 
His decisions were distinguished for great 
research and ability. Being too old to enter 
the service during the war for the Union, 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



235 



he was. nevertheless, as a member of the 
military committee of his district, an active 
and earnest supporter of the government. 
He stood for many years at the head of the 
Greenville bar and was regarded as one of 
the best jurists in Ohio, and by his moral 
worth gave a higher character to the profes- 
sion. He was a man of unusually quiet and 
retiring disposition ; his words were few, but 
well chosen, and his sarcasm and repartee 
were like a flash of lightning on an op- 
ponent. At the same time he bore a heart 
of the warmest and tenderest sympathies. 
For a number of years he held the office of 
elder in the Presbyterian church of Green- 
ville. He lived and died an honest, upright 
man, in whom, as friend, neighbor and citi- 
zen, the community had the fullest con- 
fidence. 

THOMAS DUNCAN STILES. 

This gentleman, physician, surgeon and 
legislator, at Fort Jefferson, Darke county, 
Ohio, was born near Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 
August 6, 1809. His father was Edward 
James Stiles, and his mother, Ann Stiles, 
was a daughter of Thomas Duncan, who 
for many years was one of the supreme 
judges of the state. In his early days our 
subject attended school at Carlisle and was 
then admitted to Mount St. Mary's College, 
near Emmitsburg, Maryland, where he spent 
nearly three years. During this time Rev. 
Eagan McGeary and Rev. John B. Purcell 
were presidents. He subsequently entered 
a military school at Mount Airy, German- 
town, Pennsylvania, taught by Colonel A. 
L. Roumfort, where he remained until he 
was appointed a cadet to the military acad- 
emy at West Point. Remaining there for 
over two years, he returned to Carlisle, com- 
menced the study of medicine under Dr. D. 



N. Mahon and attended medical lectures at 
the University of Pennsylvania. After com- 
pleting his medical studies he located at 
Nashville, Tennessee, where he remained 
about eighteen months, and then went as 
surgeon on the whale-ship North America, 
df Wilmington, Delaware, which vessel, 
after an eight-months cruise, was lost on the 
coast of Australia. After the wreck of this 
vessel he made his way to China and engaged 
in the opium trade about two years, when he 
returned to the United States. Finding his 
mother dead and his home broken up, he 
again went on a voyage to Montivideo, in 
South America. On the arrival of the vessel 
at that port he quarreled with his captain, 
left the vessel and went to Buenos Ayres. 
Finding that country engaged in war with 
Montivideo he entered the army as a cap- 
tain, but not having received the stipulated 
salary he resigned, and returning to Monti- 
video entered the naval service of that coun- 
try. Finding the prospects of payment no 
better than before, he withdrew and returned 
to the United States in the sloop of war De- 
catur, under command of Captain, after- 
ward Admiral, Farragut. After spending a 
few months with his friends in Philadelphia 
he went to the Rocky mountain country, 
and for more than a year was engaged in 
trading with the Indians. Returning to the 
United States he resumed the practice of 
medicine near the mouth of Red river, in the 
state of Louisiana, but finding the climate 
injurious to his health he remained but a 
short time, and in 1843 cam e to Ohio, set- 
tling at Fort Jefferson, Darke county, where 
he resided until his death, which occurred 
several years ago, with the exception of a 
few years passed in Lewisburg, Preble coun- 
ty. While in Lewisburg he served in the 
capacity of mayor, and upon his return to 



236 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Darke county he was elected to the Ohio as- 
sembly, in 1872, and served two years. Upon 
the opening of the civil war Dr. Stiles en- 
tered the three-months service in the 
Eleventh Ohio as a private, although his mil- 
itary qualifications would have secured for 
him a high official rank. In August, fol- 
lowing, he enlisted in the same capacity in 
the Fifth Ohio Cavalry and after one year's 
service was discharged on account of ill 
health. Upon the invasion of his native 
state by the rebels, in 1863, he enlisted in 
the heavy artillery service in the Eleventh 
Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, and 
served one year, when he was honorably dis- 
charged. In 1878 he was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Bishop one of the trustees of the Day- 
ton asylum for the insane and on the or- 
ganization of the board was elected president. 
He was twice married. His first wife was 
Sarah Jane DeCamp, whom he married in 
1846. She died in 1854, having been the 
mother of three children, all now deceased. 
In 1856 he married Mrs. Eliza, widow of 
Samuel Hannah, and daughter of Thomas 
and Mary Beatty. The result of this union 
were two children, a son, James Buchanan 
Stiles, a teacher by profession, and a daugh- 
ter. In politics Mr. Stiles had always been a 
firm and consistent Democrat. Dr. Stiles 
when advanced in years was remarkably hale 
and hearty, and buoyant and mirthful in 
spirit. He was a man of clear head, strong 
feelings, independent but conscientious in his 
opinion, which upon proper occasion he ex- 
pressed without reserve. 

WILLIAM HENRY EMERSON, 

general of militia and a banker, was born 
in Butler county, Ohio, May 8. 1808, and 
died in Greenville, Ohio, December 11, 1877. 
His parents were James and Eve Emerson ; 



the former born in Vermont, July 17, 1783, 
died January 31 1853; the latter born April 
3, 1788, died May 13, 1847. He was a 
distant connection of the American author 
and lecturer, Ralph Waldo Emerson. When 
our subject was eight years of age the fam- 
ily settled in Darke county, Ohio. His 
wife, Catharine Buckingham, was born near 
Baltimore, Maryland, November 6, 1807, 
and he married her in Fort Nesbit, Preble 
county, Ohio, November 2, 1826. From 
this marriage were born one son, Martin 
Van Buren, and four daughters, Malinda, 
Sarah Ann, Mary Jane and Elizabeth. Mrs. 
Emerson's father was Mash Buckingham, 
born in Maryland, June 31, 1785. At an 
early day Mr. Emerson held the position of 
brigadier-general in the militia, and was 
also for a number of years justice of the 
peace. For several years he conducted the 
business of a banker in Hollansburg, Darke 
county, and in' 1865 moved to Greenville, 
where he became a director in the Farmers' 
National Bank of that place, of which for 
nearly two years he was president, holding 
the position at the time of his decease. He 
was also for several years president of the 
Darke County Pioneer Society. He was a 
man of very decided traits of character, and 
was conceded to be a leader in all circles in 
which he moved. In natural ability he was 
far above the average, but his early oppor- 
tunities were such as to afford him nothing 
more than a very ordinary education. He 
possessed unusual good sense, and was a 
very superior counselor. All his business 
transactions were characterized by the great- 
est particularity and caution, as also by im- 
partial dealing. He was plain, prompt and 
positive in all he did. His social qualities 
were attractive, and his powers of imita- 
tion wonderful. He would have made a 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



287 



first-class comedian. His memory also was 
very remarkable. He is said to have been 
the shrewdest financier that Darke county 
ever had. He was exceedingly careful in his 
business and accumulated a handsome for- 
tune. 

ANDREW R. CALDERWOOD. 

Andrew Robeson Calderwood, attorney- 
at-law of Greenville, and one of the old 
settlers of Darke county, was born in Mont- 
gomery county, Ohio, September 14, 1818, 
and died at Greenville several years ago. 
He was a son of George and Margaret 
( Robeson) Calderwood, natives of Hunt- 
ingdon county, Pennsylvania. They were 
married September 14, 1811, and in the fall 
of 1 817 moved to near Dayton, Ohio, going 
thence in 1832 to Darke county, where 
George Calderwood died September 7, 1849. 
His wife survived him until August 12, 
1873, when her death occurred. George 
Calderwood was of Scotch parents and 
though uneducated was a man of sound judg- 
ment, great firmness and courage, of large 
stature and possessed of an iron constitu- 
tion. He was kind and generous to a fault. 
Margaret Robeson descended from Scotch, 
Welsh and Irish ancestry, and was a woman 
of remarkable good sense, fine natural tal- 
ent and great kindness. Our subject was 
employed in early life upon a farm, digging 
ditches, mauling rails, etc. His education 
was meager, but being called upon to serve 
as juror, he was so inspired by the eloquence 
of some of the attorneys in the case that 
he resolved to become a lawyer and at once 
commenced the study of law, being admitted 
to the bar and beginning practice in 185 1. 
He was elected probate judge in 1854 and 
after serving three years he entered the 



Union army as second lieutenant; was pro- 
moted to captain of Company I, Fortieth 
Ohio Volunteer Infantry; resigned his com- 
mission on account of injuries received from 
being thrown from a horse, and on regain- 
ing his health he was re-commissioned by 
Governor Tod, and by Colonel Cranor was 
assigned to the command of his old company. 
After six months' service in the above posi- 
tion, by loss of his voice and previous in- 
juries, he was again compelled to leave the 
active service of the army and acted in the 
capacity of recruiting officer until the close 
■of the war, after which he resumed the prac- 
tice of law. On December 3, 1876, he as- 
sumed the editorial control of the Sunday 
Courier, a leading organ of the Republican 
party of Darke county. He was three times 
elected mayor of Greenville, and in 1868 
the Republicans of Darke county presented 
his name in the fourth congressional district 
of Ohio for congress, his competitor, Mr. 
McClung, being nominated by a small, ma- 
jority over him. He always had a liberal 
share of the law practice in this county and 
enjoyed more than a local reputation as a 
criminal lawyer; at the forum his abilities 
were best known; he had an original faculty 
of developing a subject by a single glance 
of the mind, detecting as quickly the point 
upon which every controversy depended. 
There was a deep self-conviction and em- 
phatic earnestness in his manner, and a close 
logical connection in his thoughts. He 
wove no garlands of flowers to hang in fes- 
toons around a favorite argument, yet for 
impromptu appeals and eloquence he stood 
among the first of his profession, and, by his 
great knowledge of human nature he was 
acknowledged to be one of the best judges 
of a jury at the bar. 



23S 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



WILLIAM J. BIRELEY 

was born in Frederick county. Maryland., 
in 1812, and died suddenly in Adams town- 
ship, Darke county, Ohio, several years ago. 
He was the son of John and Barbara Bire- 
ley. John was born in the first county 
above named and Barbara was born in 
Hagerstown, Maryland. Her maiden name 
was Brindle. The grandfather, John Bire- 
ley, was born in Saxony and emigrated to 
this country before the Revolutionary war. 
The grandmother was from Wurtemberg, 
Germany, and also came to this country 
prior to the Revolutionary war. Mr. Bire- 
ley's father came to Lancaster, Ohio, in the 
spring of 1822 and in the fall following- 
went to Montgomery county, where he lived 
until his death, which occurred in 1827. 
Mr. Bireley, the subject of this sketch, came 
to Darke county, October 15, 1830, and lo- 
cated in Greenville. He carried on the 
boot and shoe business for William Martin. 
Sr., and continued with him about five 
months, when he returned to his mother, in 
Montgomery county, where he remained 
until 1833, when, on January 24th, of the 
same year, he was united in marriage with 
Elizabeth Martin, daughter of Christopher 
and Elizabeth Martin. Sr. They were born 
at Sewickley, Pennsylvania, came to Ohio 
in 1814, and located in Butler county in 
1815, settling about five miles east of Green- 
ville. After raising a large family of chil- 
dren they moved to Greenville, where they 
lived and died. Mr. Bireley. in May, 1833, 
came back to Greenville and entered upon the 
manufacture of earthenware, which occupa- 
tion he followed for twenty-eight years, do- 
ing an extensive business. He then bought a 
farm of one hundred and fifty acres, one 
mile out of the corporation of Greenville, 



and in 1851 he moved his family to this 
farm. In 1858 he sold this farm and bought 
another, five miles east of Greenville, upon 
which several quarries of limestone were lo- 
cated. He engaged in the manufacture of 
lime and continued at this business until 
January, 1880, when he rented the place 
to Martin Smith and Emanuel Hershey for 
five years, receiving four hundred dollars 
yearly, or two thousand dollars for the five 
years. In 1870 Mr. Bireley moved from the 
farm into Greenville, where he resided for 
a number of years, or until the expiration of 
the above lease, when he moved back on the 
farm, where he resided at the time of his 
death, and where his widow now resides with 
her daughter, Mary R. Mr. Bireley was 
the father of ten children, seven of whom 
are now living: Henry P., Elizabeth E., 
William W., Barbara C., Harry H, Wade 
G., all married and settled in life, and Mary 
R., the youngest, who remains at home with 
her mother. Mr. Bireley united with the 
Methodist Episcopal church in 1835, lived a 
consistent Christian life and the record he 
has left here upon the pages of time is surely 
a worthy example for all future generations 
to follow. 

JOHN WHARRV. 

John Wharry, surveyor, lawyer and 
judge, Greenville, Ohio, was born in what 
is now Juniata county, Pennsylvania, No- 
vember 27, 1809. His parents were James 
and Margaret ( Crorie ) Wharry, the former 
born in Juniata county, Pennsylvania, July 
30, 1780, the latter in Frederick county, 
Maryland, February 7, 1780. They came 
to Ohio in 1810. and after spending 
two years in Butler county, settled in 
Columbus, in December, 1812, at which 
time there were only three log cabins on 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



239 



the present site of that city. In the sum- 
mer of 1 812 he was a. member of General 
Findley's regiment that was sent to Detroit 
to assist General Hull, but he was taken sick 
on the march and was compelled to return 
home. His occupation was that of a car- 
penter, and he made the desks for the first 
state house in the city of Columbus. He 
died in that city March 19, 1820. His 
widow died in Richmond, Indiana, in May, 
1848. In 1824 our subject, then a lad of 
fifteen years of age, came to Greenville, 
Ohio, and for several years was engaged as 
a store clerk. He obtained a very fair math- 
ematical education, with some knowledge of 
Latin. By assisting at the work of survey- 
ing and by personal application he obtained 
sufficient knowledge to become a practical 
surveyor, and engaged in this business from 
1 83 1 to 185 1, for most of which time he 
filled the position of county surveyor. In 
the fall of 185 1 he was elected probate judge 
of Darke county and served three years. 
In the spring of 1855 he was admitted to the 
practice of law. having previously read un- 
der the late Judge John Beers, of Greenville, 
Ohio. April 21, 1838, he married Miss Eliza 
Duncan, of Warren county, Ohio, who bore 
him ten children. Mrs. Wharry died De- 
cember 6, 1868. Until the passage of the 
Kansas-Nebraska bill, in 1854, Judge Whar- 
ry was a Jacksonian Democrat, but from that 
time until his death he was a Republican. 
He was endowed with a remarkable memory 
and at the time of his death had, doubtless, 
the best recollection of early events of any 
man in Darke county. He was a member 
of the County Pioneer Association. For 
thirty years he had been connected with the 
Presbyterian denomination. He was one of 
the best draftsmen in the county, and an ex- 
cellent penman, his records in the depart- 

14 



ment of the interior, in Washington city, 
being pronounced unexcelled. He was a 
fine surveyor, a good legal counselor, a su- 
perior business man, and a much respected 
citizen. Two of his sons served through 
the late war — James Wharry as captain and 
Kenneth as assistant surgeon. 

D. H. R. JOBES. 

D. H. R. Jobes, lawyer, judge of pro- 
bate and teacher, was born in Montgomery 
county, Ohio, September 14, 1829, and died 
in Greenville, Ohio, January 13, 1877. He 
was a man of noble traits of character. His 
parents being poor he was early thrown 
upon his own resources, but by a faithful 
improvement of limited privileges obtained 
a good English education, and for a num- 
ber of years followed the occupation of a 
teacher. In October, 1857, he was elected 
probate judge of Darke county and served 
nine years, during which time he devoted 
his spare time to reading law under the di- 
rection of D. L. Meeker, of Greenville, Ohio, 
and was admitted to practice in January, 
1867. He formed a partnership with his 
preceptor and so continued until 1872. On 
January 1, 1875, ' le formed a law partner- 
ship with C. M. Anderson, of Greenville, 
which was dissolved by the death of Mr. 
Jobes. He was cut down in the meridian 
of life, and in the height of the practice of 
his profession. His death was the occasion 
of an unusually cordial action on the part 
of the members of the GreenVille bar, in 
resolutions and speeches expressive of deep 
regret at his demise, tender sympathy for 
his bereaved family, and exalted apprecia- 
tion of his moral worth. On this occasion, 
among other remarks, J. R. Knox, Esquire, 
said : "During the nine years of service as 
probate judge, I had frequent occasion to ap- 



240 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



pear before him and observe his conduct 
in that capacity, and I take pleasure in this 
solemn hour, as I have always done, to say 
that as by law recognized next friend of the 
widow and guardian of the orphan — the 
highest and most sacred trust which the law 
imposes upon that officer — and in the vari- 
ous duties of his position, he was a careful, 
impartial and vigilant accountant, and de- 
serving the honored name of a just and up- 
right judge. As a practitioner at the bar, 
none stood fairer than he. We had not 
among us a more diligent office lawyer, nor 
any safer or more thoughtful counselor or 
adviser than Judge Jobes; and when he ad- 
dressed himself to the court and jury the 
weight of his character for integrity and 
fairness made his appeals forcible and in- 
fluential, carrying conviction." C. M. An- 
derson, Esquire, a law partner of the de- 
ceased, as well as formerly his pupil, said : 
"His was a mind that did not require the 
light of precedents. He was a chancellor 
by nature, and only needed the advantages 
of an early education in the law to have 
marked him as one of the foremost and most 
powerful jurists of his time." Judge Will- 
iam Allen reverted to the fact that the in- 
tegrity, the honor, the moral worth and no- 
bility of heart which made him pre-eminent 
as a public officer and private citizen during 
his maturer years were the graces that 
adorned his life in his earlier years. Dur- 
ing the three consecutive terms he held the 
office of probate judge of this county no 
lawyer nor litigant ever called in question 
his integrity as an officer or doubted the 
honesty of his motives. David Beers, Es- 
quire, said : "In boyhood and manhood, he 
ever pursued a moral, upright, honorable 
course which gave him a deserved and en- 
viable position in society." C. G. Matchett 



said : "His many virtues and great worth 
are best expressed by the couplet, 

'None knew him but to love him. 
None named him but to praise.' ' 
He left a wife and two sons. Mrs. Jobes 
is a lady of talent, a leader in the Christian 
church of Greenville, and an active worker 
in moral and religious enterprises. She is 
a daughter of Isaac and Sarah Reed, of 
Darke county, Ohio, and was married to Mr. 
Jobes May 6, 1858. Her father died Jan- 
uary 18, 1871, aged sixty-two. He was 
one of the pioneers of Darke county, kind 
and obliging in disposition, a good neighbor 
and a Christian gentleman. He was re- 
spected by all who knew him. 

GABRIEL MIESSE. 

Gabriel Miesse, physician and surgeon, 
Greenville, Ohio, was born in Berks coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania, March 26, 1807, and died 
in Greenville some time ago. His parents, 
Jacob and Catherine (Dundor) Miesse, were 
both natives of the same county. Indica- 
tions of superior mental energy and prac- 
tical talents were developed in the person of 
our subject at an extremely early age. His 
education was begun when he was a mere 
child and was conducted chiefly under the 
direct superintendence of a private teacher, 
Dr. Charles Ouinedon, a finely cultured 
physician from Prussia. This instruction 
was supplemented by an attendance upon 
lectures at the medical college in Philadel- 
phia. His beginning in life was very hum- 
ble. He left Philadelphia on foot, with a 
few surgical instruments, a small stock of 
medicines and a few dollars in money, to 
seek a location. On a pleasant mid-summer 
day he found himself about one hundred 
miles west of the city, and weary and dis- 
heartened he sat down to examine the con- 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



241 



tents of his purse, when to his surprise and 
mortification he found it contained but sev- 
enty-five cents. Being an entire stranger, 
"in a strange land," and without any pros- 
pect of location, he was on the verge of de- 
spair, but having been religiously educated 
he resolved to appeal to the source of in- 
fiinite wisdom for direction, and falling 
upon his knees offered a fervent prayer for 
guidance. To his great astonishment, on 
rising from his position a voice responded, 
"All right, sir !" His eyes rested on the per- 
son of an old gentleman but a few steps dis- 
tant, who had providentially been passing 
by and whose attention had been arrested 
by the actions and prayer of the young 
stranger, and through the assistance of this 
"friend in need," he was introduced into 
the community and rapidly obtained an ex- 
tensive practice. In the spring of 183 1 he 
located near Lancaster, Fairfield county, 
Ohio, and on August 24, 1832, married 
Mary Wiest, whose father, Jacob Wiest, had 
moved there from Pennsylvania. In 1S4S 
Dr. Miesse settled in Greenville, Darke 
county, Ohio, and by application and per- 
severance in the years previous to his death 
he acquired an enviable reputation as a good 
citizen, an eminent practitioner of medicine 
and a distinguished surgeon. Notices of 
his remarkable cures and delicate experi- 
ments in surgery frequently appeared in the 
public prints and in medical journals of the 
west. The Doctor had always been a tem- 
perate man, "after the strictest sect," and 
never used ardent spirits or tobacco. He 
claimed a number of important discoveries 
in medical science. One, in search of which 
he had been more or less engaged for many 
years, was the cause of that fatal malady 
known as sick stomach, or milk-sickness, 
and which annually resulted in the loss of 



thousands of valuable animals and in great 
sacrifice of human life. The cause of and 
remedy for this disease he believed he had 
discovered, and said that a few days atten- 
tion to it, if known by farmers, would be 
sufficient to eradicate this poison from any 
ordinary-sized farm. He did not live long 
enough to bring this matter before the public, 
to have his discovery of the origin of the 
disease and the remedy thoroughly tested. 
Dr. Miesse possessed a highly cultivated, 
esthetic taste, and his cabinet of relics, 
curiosities, etc., would in its size and choice 
selection have done credit to a university. 
Among the finely executed works of art that 
at one time adorned the walls of his parlors 
were some that were the handiwork of his 
accomplished wife, and one in particular, an 
oil painting, would compare favorably with 
the finest specimens of professional artists. 
His family comprised eight children. His 
oldest son. Dr. Gabriel Miesse, Jr., of Lan- 
caster, Ohio, is distinguished as a physician 
and surgeon, and possesses rare musical 
qualifications. His third son, Dr. Americus 
Miesse, is a prominent physician of Lima, 
Ohio. His youngest son, Dr. Leon Miesse, 
is a noted physician and surgeon of Chicago, 
Illinois. Three of his daughters are now 
widows, Priscilla, widow of John Harper, 
a gifted photographer; Sophia, widow of 
A. F. Koop, a successful hardware mer- 
chant, and at the time of his death cashier 
of the Second National Bank, of Greenville, 
Ohio; and Mary, widow of the late Dr. 
Jacob L. Sorber, who at one time represented 
the Ross county district in the Ohio senate. 
Dr. Sorber was a thorough physician, a dis- 
tinguished surgeon, and was by Governor 
Tod commissioned to serve professional^ in 
the late war of the Rebellion. He designed 
and constructed a planetarium for illustrat- 



242 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



ing the movements of the various planets 
of the solar system, and including the peri- 
odical visits of certain comets. Lanassa is 
the wife of J. K. Turner, a dealer in real 
estate, and Hirondo has for a number of 
years been truant officer of Greenville. 

PHILIP ALBRIGHT. 

Philip Albright was born in North Caro- 
lina, in the year 1797, and emigrated to the 
state of Ohio in 1818, settling on Twin 
creek, in Harrison township, Preble count}'. 
He remained here until the year 1822, when 
lie removed to east Tennessee, settled in An- 
derson county, and cleared a farm. He 
remained there, following the occupation of 
a farmer, until the year 1835, when he re- 
turned to Ohio, ami settled in Twin town- 
ship in Darke county, in what is now known 
as the fertile "Painter Creek" valley, not 
far from the town of Arcanum. He was 
one of the early settlers in this locality, and 
having a large family of eight boys and 
four girls, soon had a fine farm in a good 
state of cultivation. Mr. Albright was a good 
mechanic and led all others as a builder of 
houses ami barns, both frame and stone. 
He was one of the leading stone masons of 
Darke and Preble counties, and lived to 
witness the wonderful change of the dense 
fi irests t< ' the fertile fields, and the mud roads 
to the finely graveled and macadamized 
pikes, and he saw the building of the rail- 
road, and the thriving village of Arcanum, 
Gordon and Pittsburg spring up in his lo- 
cality as if by magic. He was universally 
respected, and died in his eighty-fourth 
year. He was an extraordinary man, physi- 
cally large and strong, and strictly temperate 
in his habits, liberal to the needy, foremost 
in all public gatherings where physical 
strength and endurance were in requisition, 



ami by his influence and example he induced 
many to live sober and exemplary lives. 
Notwithstanding the fact that schools were 
poor and continued in session only a few 
months of the year, he had in his family 
among his sons three regularly ordained 
ministers of the gospel, and seven of his 
children followed, successfully, the occu- 
pation of teaching. One of his sons, men- 
tioned elsewdiere, was killed in the late Civil 
war. Mr. Albright was not only an advo- 
cate of temperance, but he lived a consistent 
Christian life, and died in the full hope of a 
blessed immortality. . 

MILITARY. 

We think it appropriate to introduce in 
this connection a few thoughts relative to 
Darke county's soldiers of the war of the 
Rebellion. On April 24, 1861, three volunteer 
companies, enlisted for three months, had 
left the county for the seat of war. Two of 
these were from Greenville, led by Captains 
J. W. Frizell and J. M. Newkirk, and one 
from Union City, led by Captain Jonathan 
Cranor. These were followed in quick suc- 
cession by many others, and all in any way 
familiar with Darke county know that she 
did her duty nobly. The enlistments in the 
fall of 1 86 1 were for three years. On Oc- 
tober 28, 1 861, the ladies of Greenville met at 
the court house and organized as "The La- 
dies' Association of Greenville for the Relief 
of the Darke County Volunteers." Public 
meetings were held at various points, and 
on November 6 it was reported that the coun- 
ty had turned out two hundred volunteers 
within twenty days. Letters came from men 
in the held, some containing the sad tidings 
of the death of a soldier, who fell nobly 
fighting for his country. Among these 
noble men we may mention Colonel J. W. 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



243 



Frizell, who led one of the first companies 
into the field as its captain. He was soon 
made lieutenant-colonel of the Eleventh 
Ohio, and when the colonel of this regiment, 
having incautiously exposed himself, was 
captured, the command devolved upon Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Frizell. Resigning this po- 
sition, he was afterward appointed colonel 
of the Ninety-fourth Ohio, and while gal- 
lantly leading his regiment in the battle of 
Stone river he was severely wounded and 
compelled to resign his position on account of 
his injuries. He died at his home in Green- 
ville, Ohio, a few years ago. 

Jonathan Cranor, who entered the ser- 
vice as captain of a company in the three- 
months service, afterward became colonel 
of the Fortieth Ohio, served in that capac- 
ity with distinction and died a few years 
ago. We note that R. A. Knox was cap- 
tain of a company of the Eleventh Ohio and 
Charles Calkins, first lieutenant in the same 
company, afterward captain in the Eighty- 
seventh Ohio, both of whom are now de- 
ceased. James B. Creviston served with 
honorable distinction as adjutant of the 
Fortieth Ohio. He followed the profession 
of teaching after the war and died a few 
years ago. William H. Matchett served as 
assistant surgeon of the Fortieth Ohio, and 
died at his home in Greenville, Ohio, in 
August, 1898. C. G. Matchett entered the 
service as sergeant in the three-months ser- 
vice ; was afterward captain of Company G, 
Fortieth Ohio, for awhile commanded the 
regiment, was honorably mustered out of 
service, followed the profession of law, .and 
died a few years ago. A. R. Calderwood 
entered the service as captain of Company 
I, Fortieth Ohio ; resigned on account of 
injuries received ; practiced law in Green- 



ville ; was a noted criminal lawyer and died 
at his home a few years ago. 

James Allen was promoted to captain 
while in the service, and is no longer among 
the living- here. Clement Snodgrass served 
as captain in the Fortieth, and was killed in 
battle July 21, 1864. B. F. Snodgrass, also 
a captain in the Fortieth, was killed in battle 
September 20, 1864. Cyrenius Van Mater, 
first lieutenant of Company G, Fortieth 
Regiment, was killed at Chickamauga. 
J. W. Smith, captain of Company I, For- 
tieth Ohio, served with honor through the 
campaigns of this regiment ; was honorably 
mustered out of service at the close of the 
war; carried on a livery business in Green- 
ville after his discharge, and died at his 
hi ■me a few years ago. Of the officers of 
the Sixty-ninth Ohio, we mention Eli Hick- 
ox, who went into the service with the 
regiment as captain. For bravery on the 
field of battle and meritorious conduct he 
was promoted to major of the regiment; 
was mustered out at the close of the war, 
and died a few years ago, universally re- 
spected. Color-Sergeant John A. Compton, 
Lieutenants Jacob S. Pierson and Martin V. 
Bailey, Corporal Daniel T. Albright, and 
privates Stopher and four others fell in the 
battle of Stone River. Color-Sergeant Allen 
L. Jobes. after whom Jobes Post, G. A. R., 
Greenville, Ohio, is named, and five men 
were killed at the battle of Jonesboro. Of the 
Ninty-fourth Regiment Captain T. H. Work- 
man and H. A. Tomlinson, second lieuten- 
ant of Company F. have died since the war, 
and Sergeant Leonard Ullery, of the Eighth 
Ohio Battery, was killed in the service. In 
addition to those already mentioned, we wish 
to refer to Jacob W. Shivley, second lieuten- 
ant of Company D, Sixty-ninth Regiment, 



244. 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



who served his company gallantly as a sol- 
dier, was honorably discharged and died 
at his home in this county not long ago. 
Jonathan Bowman, sergeant of Company D, 
same regiment, was honorably discharged 
and died in Greenville, Ohio, some years 
ago. Isaac N. Arnold, sergeant of Company 
E, same regiment, was honorably discharged ; 
was candidate for probate judge on the Re- 
publican ticket, and died at his father's home 
near Jaysville, Ohio. Alexander McAlpin, 
captain of Company G, Eighth Ohio Cavalry, 
served in the army with distinction, was 
honorably discharged and died shortly after 
returning home. Of the One Hundred and 
Fifty-second Regiment Ohio Volunteer In- 
fantry, we note in addition to those men- 
tioned elsewhere: Edwin B. Putnam, adju- 
tant, practiced law after his discharge from 
the army and died many years ago. Elias 
Harter, captain, and C. B. Northrop, first 
lieutenant of Company B, were honorably 
discharged and are now deceased. A. H. 
1 [yde, first lieutenant, and Harrod Mills, sec- 
ond lieutenant of Company H, were honor- 
ably discharged and are now dead. Walter 
Stevenson, second lieutenant, Alfred Town- 
send, first sergeant, and William Pearson, 
sergeant of Company L, were all honorably 
discharged and are now dead. Many others 
oi our noble dead deserve honorable men- 
tion here, but our knowledge of their per- 
sonal history is too limited and uncertain 
to enable us to do justice to their memory. 

We will close this chapter by inserting 
a paper read at the late banquet of the Green- 
ville bar on the subject of Our Deceased 
Members. 

"It has been said that every person de- 
parting this life leaves behind a record that 
exerts an influence upon the lives of the liv- 
ing to a greater or less extent, and as the 



subject presented to us in this 'toast' is Our 
Deceased Members outside of the influence 
of personal recollections, which you all may 
have, their records, if any, will be found in 
the epitaph or biography they have left, and 
to which we can refer and profit by the les- 
sons they teach. 

"A visit to our cemetery and the last 
resting place of many of our members dis- 
closed a dearth of information on this sub- 
ject that is remarkable. Examining twenty- 
six graves of our deceased members, while 
we found quite a number who had entered 
the military service of their country and had 
given the best days of their lives to its pro- 
tection and perpetuation, the company and 
regiment to which a few of these only be- 
longed are the only records engraved upon 
their tombstones. But is not that simple 
inscription as grand and enduring as any 
that was ever made? It tells that the mem- 
bers lying beneath that monument saw the 
tide of victory roll backward and forward, 
at times seeming to engulf all hopes for the 
preservation of the Union, yet finally sweep- 
ing onward in one grand, irresistible swell 
to victory and peace. They saw the Union 
preserved, the contending armies quietly re- 
turning to their homes and a new reign of 
peace and good will inaugurated. They 
were personal actors in that drama which was 
the most sublime and thrilling that human 
pen can relate, and which points to but one 
moral, that the institutions which -the}' knew 
were worth fighting for so nobly are worth 
preserving, that the Union which has cost 
us so much blood and treasure, which has 
brought us freedom and prosperity must be 
cherished as the most precious possession we 
can transmit to future generations. 

"On this list of our country's defenders 
we are proud to enroll the names of J. W. 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



245 



Frizell, A. R. Calderwood, David and Theo- 
dore Beers C. G. Matchett, Charles Calkins 
and J. W. Sater. Inscribed on the monu- 
ment of Hiram Bell is the following: 'Died 
December 21, 1855.' He was a lawyer by 
profession, represented this district in the 
legislature of Ohio and in the congress of 
the United States and his record is on high. 
On the monument of D. H. R. Jobes is in- 
scribed, 'Died January 13. 1877. To live in 
hearts we leave behind is not to die.' On 
that of Joseph McDonald, 'Died August 17, 
1885. Farewell, my companions." These 
are the only epitaphs we could find. Twelve 
graves are not marked by monument, and on 
twenty-three no epitaph. So sleep our de- 
ceased brethren. Their work on earth is 
done. With the labors and success of many 
of them in the legal profession many of you 
are familiar, and I could add but little to 
that knowledge were I to make the effort. 
Suffice it to say that we do not think any 
of them were of that peculiar class of law- 
yers of whom the great Master said. 'Woe 
also unto you lawyers for ye lade men with 
burdens grievious to be borne, and ye your- 
selves touch not the burden with one of your 
fingers.' From the epitaphs we pass to biog- 
raphy and history and note extracts only con- 
cerning those members who have left them 
on record, and first that concerning David P. 
Bowman, who died May 30, 1878. He was 
entirely devoted to his chosen profession. 
His knowledge of the law was both accurate 
and profound. His preparation was thorough. 
' He believed in the Bible and in the efficacy 
of the attonement made on Mount Calvary.' 
In the biography of William Allen we note : 
'Mr. Allen, although he had risen from 
poverty to affluence by his own unaided ex- 
ertions, is one of the most charitable of our 



citizens, and his integrity has never been 
questioned ; his positive character, while it 
wins friends true as steel, also makes bitter 
enemies, but even his enemies conceded to 
him great ability and unflinching honesty 
of purpose. He represented this district in 
the thirty-sixth and thirty-seventh congress- 
es of the United States, being elected in the 
fall of 1858 and again in i860. 

"Of the Hon. D. L. Meeker it is said : 
'He is one of the most highly respected citi- 
zens in Darke county and his repeated calls 
to the highest office in the gift of the people 
of this county is an index of the universal 
esteen in which Judge Meeker is held in this 
section of Ohio.' 

"Of J. W. Sater it is written : 'While 
on the bench he had the well deserved rep- 
utation of being one of the most able judges 
who ever held court in this district.' 

"Of A. R. Calderwood it is said: 'He 
is endowed with superior natural abilities, 
which have been developed by industrious 
personal application; he stands in the front 
ranks of his profession and is one of the 
best criminal and jury lawyers in the state.' 

"Of Charles Calkins we write: It was 
accorded to him unanimously by' the Green- 
ville liar that he was the most able, con- 
ceptive, decisive and successful lawyer in 
this section of Ohio. 

"Of J. E. Breaden, Jr. : He attended 
law school at Cincinnati and having read law 
was admitted in January, 1879. 

"L. B. Lot represented Darke county one 
term in the legislature. 

"C. G. Matchett : 'He entered the service 
immediately after the firing on Sumter and 
remained till the close of the war. In [865 
he resumed the practice of law in Greenville 
and stands prominent in the profession.' 



246 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



"J. T. Meeker, admitted to the bar in 
1873, was probate judge seven years; retir- 
ing, he entered upon the practice of law. 

"Of Swan Judy it is said: 'With the 
natural ability, high legal education, force 
of character, honest and pure determination 
that he possesses (health permitting) he is 
surely destined to reach the summit of his 
profession within the near future.' 

"In the action taken by this bar relative 
to the death of J. R. Knox occurs the fol- 
lowing: 'He despised a court or jury that 
was not unsullied. He left the world better 
for having lived therein and his upright life 
and noble virtues will survive him for the 
emulation of all who knew him.' 

"We note on our list twenty-six de 
ceased members, many of whom have left 
us no written biography or epitaph, and our 
knowledge of their qualifications and success 
in the profession is too limited to even ven- 
ture a statement. Their lives are before us 
and we are susceptible in a greater or less 
degree to their influence, and we believe th? 
influence never dies. No thought, no word, 
no act of man ever dies. They are as im- 
mortal as his own soul. Somewhere in this 
world he will meet their fruits. Somewhere 
in the future life he will meet their gathered 
harvest, it may be and it may not be a pleas- 
ant one to look upon. Take care of your in- 
fluence, consecrate it tn virtue, to humanity, 
and our lives will be like a star o-]Jtterin°- 
in its own mild lustre, undimmed by the 
radiance of another. Earth is not man'-. 
only abiding place. This life is not a bubble 
cast upon the ocean of eternity to float an- 
other moment upon its surface and then sink 
into nothingness and darkness forever. N< >. 
the rainbow and clouds come over us with 
beauty that is not of earth, and then pass and 
leave us to muse on their faded loveliness. 



The stars which hold their festival around 
the midnight throne, and are set above the 
grasp of our limited faculties, are forever 
mocking us with their unapproachable glory, 
and our departed brethren, we trust, are now 
enjoying those high and glorious aspirations 
that are born in the human heart, but are not 
satisfied in this life. 

"Brethren, we are born for a higher des- 
tiny than that of earth. There is a realm 
where the rainbow never fades, where the 
stars will spread out before us like the islands 
that slumber on the ocean, and where the 
beautiful impressions that here pass before 
us like visions will stay in our presence f< r- 
ever. This is that far-away home of the 
soul, where hill and dale are enriched by 
divine liberality, the inhabitants clothed in all 
the beauties of moral perfection, every so- 
ciety cemented by the bond of friendship and 
brotherhood, and displaying all the virtues 
of angelic natures. May we not trust that 
our departed members are now inhabitants 
of that home, where the storms of this life 
never beat." 



JACOB T. MARTZ. 

Jacob T. Martz, lawyer and educator, 
Greenville, Ohio, was born in Darke county, 
Ohio, September 14, 1833. He is the son 
of John Martz, who was born in Somerset 
county, Pennsylvania, June I, 1798, settled 
in Darke county in 1829, and died at the 
home of his son, January 5, 1883, aged 
eighty-four years, seven months and four 
days. His wife. Barbara Hardinger, the 
mother of our subject, and a native of Bed- 
ford count)-, Pennsylvania, died in 1841. 

Jacob T. Martz attended the Ohio Wes- 
leyan University, at Delaware, at which in- 
stitution he was graduated in June. 1856. 







J c7. % JLoaXi~ 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



247 



During the nine succeeding years he was en- 
gaged in teaching, and superintending the 
schools of Greenville. During part of this 
time, and while engaged in teaching, he also 
read law under Judge D. L. Meeker, and 
was admitted to the bar in June, i860. In 
March, 1865, he resigned the superintend- 
encv of the Greenville school and funned a 
law partnership with the Hon. J. R. Knox. 
In August, 1865, he was appointed receiver 
of the Cincinnati & Mackinaw Railroad 
Company, which work occupied his time for 
nearly five years. In 1871 the superintend- 
encv of the Greenville school was tendered 
to him without his solicitation. This he 
accepted, but at the end of that school year 
he asked to be relieved by the board of edu- 
cation from further supervision of the 
school, but his work had been done so well, 
having brought the schools out of a state of 
chaos, as it were, to one of order and effi- 
ciency, that the board prevailed upon him 
to continue his good work, which he did for 
seventeen consecutive years, and closed his 
labors as superintendent on the 1st of June, 
188S. In this year the enumeration in the 
district was twelve hundred and eleven, and 
the enrollment in the school for the year was 
ten hundred and ninety-eight, showing that 
ninety-one per cent of the entire enumera- 
tion was enrolled upon the school registers, 
while in efficiency the school stood second 
to none in the state. Under his supervision 
he saw the school grow so steadily that the 
corps of teachers was increased from four 
to twenty-two. When he took charge of 
the school there was no laboratory, no ap- 
paratus and no geological cabinet, except a 
few ordinary specimens, but, in June, 1888, 
over six hundred dollars had been expended 
for educational and philosophical apparatus 



of various kinds, and there was a large and 
convenient laboratory arranged with all the 
modern conveniences, geographical maps 
and globes, and physiological charts, en- 
abling the teacher to illustrate and explain 
all the modern methods of teaching, together 
with a human skeleton procured, prepared 
and mounted by Mr. Martz and the janitor 
of the old school building, and which they 
have kindly permitted to remain in the labor- 
atory, for the benefit of the students in phys- 
iology and hygiene. The cabinet containing 
various specimens of value, including the 
bones of the mastodon found in this county, 
and which are in a remarkable state of preser- 
vation, are the result of Mr. Martz's personal 
purchase and labor. During all these years, 
modern methods of teaching and govern- 
ment were introduced by the superintendent 
and adopted by the teachers, so that tardiness 
was measurably controlled by the teacher, 
and truancy, except in a few chronic cases, 
was almost a thing of the past. Order, sys- 
tem and good government prevailed in all 
the rooms and in the deportment of pupils, 
while improper language was seldom heard 
on the play-grounds, and so potent was the 
influence of the superintendent in maintain- 
ing order and decorum among the pupils on 
the play-ground that it became the pride of 
all, even the most combative element among 
the boys, the moment they reached the school- 
grounds to stand upon their good behavior. 
The high school course of study contained 
no more branches than could be mastered by 
every pupil of ordinary intelligence in the 
five years given to complete the same, while 
the elocutionary drill and composition writ- 
ing, in all the grades in which they were 
taught, strengthened the memory and exer- 
cised the reasoning faculties to the great 



248 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



benefit of the pupils. No partiality was 
shown in these exercises as all were expected 
to clo their part. 

The method of graduation from the high 
school was Mr. Martz's suggestion and it has 
been adopted by at least four union schools 
in this county, and the one hundred and four 
alumni, all graduated under his supervision, 
speak of good order, management and effi- 
ciency of the school. Superintendent Martz 
with two other teachers organized the Darke 
County Teachers' Association in 1859, and 
though for several years it struggled for ex- 
istence, yet by his untiring energy and en- 
thusiasm for its success it increased in num- 
bers and interest almost beyond expecta- 
tion. During the greater part of this time 
he presided over its deliberations. He was 
also a member of the board of county school 
examiners for about twenty-two years, and 
assisted greatly in advancing the qualifica- 
tions of the teachers in the county. 

He has also taken an active part in devel- 
oping the resources of the county, and was 
for six years secretary of the Darke County 
Agricultural Society, and was mainly in- 
strumental in selling the old grounds of the 
society and purchasing the large and com- 
modious grounds it now owns. For eight 
years he was secretary of the first building 
association organized in this county; having 
closed out the same, and he has been for 
more than eight years secretary of the larg- 
est company of the kind now doing business 
in the county. Mr. Martz has always mani- 
fested a deep interest in the moral and relig- 
ious influences in the county, has for a long 
time been identified with the Methodist Epis 
copal church, has been superintendent of the 
Sabbath school for a number of years, and 
for more than eight years has been record- 
ing steward of its official board. For the 



past years he has been associated with his 
law partner of 1865 and the mayor of the 
city of Greenville in the legal profession. 
Fie has also assisted in all the local enter- 
prises that were intended to advance the pub- 
lic good ; has been associated with the trus- 
tees of the Greenville cemetery as their sec- 
retary since 1865, and assisted in bringing 
about that order and system which has re- 
sulted in beautifying, adorning and enlarg- 
ing those grounds to meet the public wants. 
On September 19, i860, he married Miss 
Esther M., daughter of James H. Jamison, of 
Delaware, Ohio, with issue of four sons : 
John H., born November 8, 1861 ; Adel- 
bert, born September 28, 1868; James J., 
born May 8, 1872, and Benjamin F., born 
December 18, 1874. John H. is married 
and is engaged in farming and raising fine 
registered stock. Adelbert is also married 
and is "teller of the Greenville Bank. James 
J. is a teacher in the Greenville high school, 
and Benjamin F. is engaged in farming his 
father's place. 



WILLIAM COX. 

In the year 18 16 the Cox family was 
founded in Darke county, and through the 
intervening years the name has been insep- 
arably interwoven with the history of this 
locality on account of the prominent part 
its representatives have borne in the devel- 
opment and progress of this section of the 
state. It is therefore with pleasure that we 
present to our readers the record of William 
Cox, who is known as a successful and highly 
esteemed agriculturist of Washington town- 
ship. His grandparents, Jacob and Eve Cox, 
were the first of the name of whom we have 
authentic record. They had eight children, 
and in 1816 the entire family emigrated west- 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



249 



ward to Darke county, Ohio, from Fayette 
county, Pennsylvania. A settlement was 
first made in the northeast portion of German 
township, and they were among the first to 
take up their abode in what was then an al- 
most unbroken wilderness. The trip from 
Pennsylvania had been made with teams and 
wagons, and often they had to mark out a 
road for themselves or follow an old Indian 
trail. There in the midst of the woods Mr. 
Cox, assisted by his children, made a small 
clearing and erected a rude log cabin, in 
which they began life on the frontier in true 
pioneer style. Of sturdy and courageous 
spirit, they were well prepared to meet the 
hardships of such a life and in a short time 
they had a portion of their land under culti- 
vation. Year by year the cleared tracts were 
enlarged and improved, and when Mr. Cox 
passed to his final rest the home farm pre- 
sented every appearance of thrift and pros- 
perity and was regarded as one of the valu- 
able properties of this section of the state. 
The land was inherited by his son, Henry 
Co'x, who shortly afterward disposed of it 
and removed to Missouri, but when a few 
years had passed he returned to Ohio, taking 
up his abode in Miami county, near Pleasant 
Hill, where he spent his remaining days. 
The other two sons of the family, Jacob 
and Martin, came to Washington township, 
Darke county, after the death of their father, 
and were the first white men to enter claims 
in his locality. Jacob Cox, Jr.. the father 
of our subject, was born in Fayette count}', 
Pennsylvania, on the 14th of July. 1887, and, 
as before stated, came west with his people, 
living with them in German township until 
1 81 7, when he and his brother removed to 
Washington township. They took up ad- 
ji lining claims, and the first cabin was erected 
where the home of Samuel Cole now stands. 



In that little home both brothers with their 
families lived for some time, or until a cabin 
could be erected on the land owned by Jacob 
Cox, now the property of his son, William. 
The little pioneer home stood on the site of 
the present handsome residence, and in this 
rude domicile, the second one to be erected 
in Washington township, the sturdy pioneer 
family began life in the midst of the forest. 
With characteristic energy the father con- 
tinued to clear away the trees and trans- 
formed the tract into rich and fertile fields. 
He was a man of undaunted energy and per- 
severance, and soon a valuable farm indi- 
cated what may be accomplished by people 
of determined purpose who are not afraid 
to meet the obstacles and difficulties in their 
path. At the time of his death Jacob Cox 
owned four hundred and eighteen acres of 
valuable land, and was considered one of the 
most prominent and successful farmers and 
influential citizens of Darke county. In 
the early days the Indians often camped in 
a small ravine near his home, but they were 
friendly and occasioned no trouble to the 
settlers. Jacob Cox married Elizabeth 
Wise, who was a native of Hardy county, 
Virginia, and removed to Ohio with her par- 
ents, who afterward went to Indiana, where 
they spent their last days. Twelve children 
were born to Mr. ami Mrs. Cox: Jesse, 
who was born April 24, 1817, and died Sep- 
tember 28, 1873; Job. who was born Feb- 
ruary 8, 1819, and died September 28, 1834; 
Hannah, who was born May 20, 1821, and 
became the wife of Lorenzo Dixnn, their 
home beino- now in Greenville township, 
Darke county; Samuel, who was born Octo- 
ber 7. 1823, and died April 16, 1840: Mar- 
tin, who was born June 20, 1826. and died 
December 14, 1876; Jacob, who was born 
January 2, 1829, and died on the 22. 1 of Oc- 



250 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



tober of the same year ; Alary, who was born 
August 17, 1830, and is the wife of Philip 
Rodgers, of Washington township; John, 
born March 17, 1833; Eliza Jane, who was 
born February 26, 1835, and is the wife of 
Samuel Van Fleet, of Washington town- 
ship; a daughter who was born in 1S36 and 
died before being named: Israel, who was 
born June 22, 1838, and died in 1889: and 
William, the immedite subject of this review. 

Jacob Cox, the father of these children, 
was a stanch supporter of the Baptist church 
and a consistent Christian gentleman. He 
exercised his right of franchise in support of 
the men and measures of the Democracy and 
earnestly advocated its principles, but was 
never an aspirant for political honors. He 
died April 3, 1842, and his estimable wife, 
surviving him many years, passed away 
in 1877. Both were honored and respected 
1))' all who knew them, and when they were 
called to the home beyond their loss was 
mourned not only by many relatives but 
throughout the entire neighborhood, for all 
who knew them were their friends. Upon 
the farm on which he settled in 181 6 Mar- 
tin Cox, the brother of Jacob, lived up to 
the time of his death, in 1856. 

In taking up the personal history of Will- 
iam Cox we present to our readers the life 
record of one who is widely and favorably 
known in Darke county. He was the 
youngest child in his father's family, and was 
born in the hewed-log house which is still 
standing on the farm that is yet his home, 
his natal day being January 2j, 1841. The 
old log cabin is now used for storage pur- 
poses, and stands as a mute reminder of pio- 
neer days, and the habits of life at that time. 
His school advantages were somewhat lim- 
ited, but he mastered the elementary branches 
of the English language in the district 



schools of the neighborhood, and by expe- 
rience and observation has added greatly to 
his knowledge. His training at farm labor 
was not meager, for as soon as old enough 
to handle the plow he began work in the 
fields, and was thus largely engaged from 
the time of spring planting until crops were 
garnered in the autumn. Upon attaining 
his majority he came into possession of a 
portion of his father's estate. He has al- 
ways carried on general farming, and for 
years has made it a practice to manufacture 
maple syrup and sugar on an extensive scale, 
disposing of this product to regular cus- 
tomers in Greenville. He has a large sugar 
camp and the excellence of the product en- 
ables him to secure a ready market therefor. 
In 1892 he erected upon his farm a fine, 
modern residence, and near by stands good 
outbuildings. The place is neat and thrifty 
in appearance, and the owner is recognized 
as one of the practical and progressive agri- 
culturists of his community. 

' On the 22d of August, 1872, was cele- 
brated the marriage of Mr. Cox and Miss 
Margaret A. Van Fleet, daughter of John 
D. and Mary (Fradmore) Van Fleet. This 
family came from New Jersey to Ohio at an 
earl_\- day, locating in Washington township, 
Darke county. Mrs. Cox is now the only 
representative of the family living in the 
county. By her marriage she has become 
the mother of four children : Ory Newton, 
who was born January 22, 1873, was mar- 
ried December 20, 1898, to Miss Jennie, 
daughter of William Young, of Greenville, 
and they reside upon the old home farm ; 
Harriet A., born November 5, 1874, is with 
her parents; a son, born in 1876. died the 
same year unnamed; and John Jacob, born 
December 18, 1877, also resides at home. 
In his political views Mr. Cox was a sup- 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



251 



porter of Democratic principles for some 
time, but now votes the Socialist ticket. He 
holds membership in the Christian church. 
He has neither time nor inclination for po- 
litical office, but finds ample time to faith- 
fully discharge every duty of citizenship. 
He is a man of determined character, of 
sterling worth and of inflexible integrity, 
and among the residents of Darke county 
he has a host of warm friends. He resides 
upon one of the oldest developed farms in 
Washington township, and is a worthy rep- 
resentative of an honored pioneer family, 
whose connection with the history of Darke 
county has ever been creditable. 



CHRISTIAN ERISMAN. 

Among the pioneer familes of Darke 
county, Ohio, were the Erismans. Jacob Eris- 
man, the father, was a native of Pennsyl- 
vania, and at the time of his emigration from 
that state to Ohio, 1839, his family con- 
sisted of wife and fifteen children. At that 
time but little of the land in Adams township 
had been cleared and the only improvements 
on their claim consisted of a small clearing 
and a little log cabin containing one room. 
Not far distant was another log cabin and 
in these two cabins and the wagons the fam- 
ily slept at night. Another child was born 
to this pioneer couple shortly after they 
landed here, this being the eighteenth ; two 
had died in Pennsylvania. The mother died 
at the age of forty-six years, and the father 
at the age of sixty-eight, both passing away 
at the homestead. Of this large family only 
five sons and one daughter are now living. 

Christian Erisman, whose name heads 
this sketch, was the fourth child and second 
son, his birth occurring in Lancaster county, 
Pennsylvania, December 24, 1820. At the 



time of their removal to Ohio he was nine- 
teen years of age. Strong and energetic, 
he was his father's chief assistant in the work 
of clearing and improving the farm and al- 
ways resided upon it. This farm consists of 
one hundred and sixty acres and is well im- 
proved with good buildings and fences, all 
of which have been placed here by the sub- 
ject of our sketch. 

Among the other pioneer families who 
settled in this same locality was one that bore 
the name of Long. Jacob Long and his 
wife, whose maiden name was Catherine 
Rinacker, were natives of Pennsylvania, 
and were the parents of eleven children, the 
third of whom was Catherine, born in Adams 
county, Pennsylvania, near Gettysburg, Feb- 
ruary 16, 1827. Her mother died in Penn- 
sylvania, and when she was seventeen years 
of age she came with her father and other 
members of the family to Darke county, 
where on the 6th of February, 1845, *' ie 
became the wife of Christian Erisman. 
Their union has been blessed with eleven 
children, five of whom are living, namely: 
Lizzie, Frank, Lewis, Cora and Arthur. 

The youngest, Arthur, now has charge 
of the farming operations at the old home 
place. 

The subject of our sketch was long affil- 
iated with the Republican party and during 
his earlier years took an active part in local 
affairs, serving as township trustee, school 
director and in other positions. For a period 
of forty-five years he and his good wife 
were consistent and respected members of the 
Methodist Episcopal church, to which Mrs. 
Erisman still belongs. He departed this 
life August 23, 1900, and the funeral ser- 
vices were held at the residence on Sunday 
morning, August 26. by the Rev. Jesse Carr, 
of Bradford, Ohio. His body was placed 



252 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



in a most beautiful couch casket and laid 
to rest in the old family cemetery on the 
farm which he had owned and on which he 
had so long lived. 



CHARLES E. DUNKLE. 

Charles E. Dunkle, who is in the United 
States railway mail service, was born in the 
city of Dayton, Ohio, December 10, 1866, 
and is the eldest son of Simon P. and Mary 
E. (Troutrnan) Dunkle. The Dunkle fam- 
ily originated in Germany and the first 
American ancestor, Peter Dunkle, came to 
this country more than two hundred years 
ago, locating in Lancaster county, Pennsyl- 
vania, where he remained until his death. 
The father of our subject was born in Penn- 
sylvania, May 17, 1842. and was a son of 
David and Anna (Freilich) Dunkle, who 
also were born in the Keystone state. With 
their family they cam'e to Ohio when their 
son, Simon, was but eight years of age and 
in this section of the country he was reared 
to manhood. After obtaining his majority 
he married Miss Mary E. Troutrnan, who 
was born in Maryland, March 30, 1844, a 
daughter of Michael and Rebecca (Holler) 
Troutrnan, who were also natives of the same 
state and came to Ohio at an early period 
of its development. In 1867 the parents of 
our subject removed with their family to 
Gordon, Darke county, and later made a 
permanent settlement at Greenville. 

Charles E. Dunkle spent his boyhood 
clays in Gettysburg and Greenville, where he 
received the educational advantages afford- 
ed by the public schools. His preliminary 
course was supplemented by study in Gettys- 
burg, Ohio, and later he engaged in teach- 
ing school, for one term. He was appointed 
as railway postal clerk on the 12th of No- 



vember, 1887, his route being from Pitts- 
burg, Pennsylvania, to St. Louis, Missouri, 
over what is the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chica- 
go & St. Louis Railroad. Later he was trans- 
ferred to the Vandalia Road, which is his 
present run. He has a force of eight clerks 
under his control and is now occupying a 
very important position, to which he has 
steadily worked his way upward from a hum- 
ble capacity. 

On the 4th of May, 1893, Mr. Dunkle 
was married to Miss Emma Kraus, daughter 
of John G. and Anna C. (Gensley) Kraus, 
residents of Covington, Miami county. She 
was born May 30, 1875, and received her 
education in the Greenville and Covington 
schools and is a very cultured lady. They 
now have one son, a bright boy of six years. 
They occupy a fine residence on Washington 
avenue and their pleasant home is celebrated 
for its gracious hospitality. Mr. Dunkle is 
a member of Greenville Lodge, No. 195, 
I. O. O. F. His long connection with the 
railway mail service well indicates both his 
fidelity and his ability, and he is certainly one 
of the most trusted employes in the mail 
department. 



ALFRED H. JUDY. 

Alfred H. Judy, of Butler township, re- 
sides at his home farm on section 21, and has 
his office and store rooms at Castine. One 
of the successful agriculturists of Darke 
ci lunty, he annually does a thirty-thousand- 
dollar business in farm machinery, vehicles 
and harness. 

A. H. Judy was born at Enon, Clark 
county, Ohio, June 8, 1861. His father, 
Samuel H. Judy, of Greenville, Ohio, was 
born near Plattsburg, Clark county, Ohio, 
December 23, 1821. He is a son of Jesse 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



253 



and Nancy Judy, deceased, who were buried 
in the family graveyard on the old Judy es- 
tate near Plattsburg. Nancy Judy's maiden 
name was Johnson. She was of Irish de- 
scent ; small and beautiful, and famous as 
both a horsewoman and a weaver in her day. 
Jesse Judy, son of John Judy, was born in 
Germany, in 1753. He came to the United 
States landing in Virginia, and later went 
td Kentucky, where he met the famous Dan- 
iel Boone. Their friendship was lasting, but 
John Judy crossed the Ohio where Cincin- 
nati now stands and took up eighty acres of 
land, exchanging a horse for the settler's 
claim. Later he disposed of the land and 
settled near Plattsburg, acquiring the estate 
referred to. He married Phoebe Lamastrus. 
She was born in Scotland, in 1760, and they 
are buried in the grounds referred to above. 
Samuel H. Judy was married to Miss Lydia 
Wilson, May 21, 1847. She is the daughter 
of Isaac and Mary A. (Coffield) Wilson, 
who are deceased, their remains being in- 
terred in the cemetery at Fairfield, Ohio. 
Isaac Wilson was of English descent, came 
to Ohio from Kentucky and located on the 
farm east of Fairfield, Greene county. He 
was a clear-headed dealer, a fine judge of 
stock, and one of the successful fianciers of 
his day. At his death, in 1864, he was one 
of the wealthiest men in Greene county. 
J M. Wilson, a grandson of Isaac Wilson, 
and a fine type of the old Wilson stock, owns 
the old homestead. Mary A. Coffield was 
born in Ireland and emigrated to the United 
States about 18 16. She was famous as a 
weaver, and was one of the most charming 
conversationalists and entertaining hostesses 
of her day. 

The subject's parents resided in Clark 
county, Ohio, until 1867, when they pur- 
chased of James Knoff what is now known as 



the old Judy farm, east of Greenville, Ohio, 
and moved there the same year. This they 
improved from the forest to a snug home. 
Eleven children were born to Samuel H. and 
Lydia Judy. Three died in infancy, while 
eight grew to man and womanhood, and are 
known as follows : B. F. Judy, deceased, was 
a well-known educator of this county. He 
married Alice Meritt, of Miami county, who 
with her son, John H. Judy, a fine promis- 
ing young man, resides at Palestine, Ohio. 
Swan Judy, deceased, was a member of the 
Darke county bar, and a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, at Ann Arbor. He 
married Lillie May Birch, of Darke county, 
who with her son, Hawes Judy, resides in 
Dayton, Ohio. Martha C. Judy married 
Henry Worley, of this county, and they have 
four children : Kittie and Mattie, who are 
married; also a son, Luan Worley, who is 
married ; while Clyde, the youngest, lives 
with his parents. Rev. DeKalb Judy, a min- 
ister in the Christian church, married Miss 
Mollie Steele, of Camden, Indiana, and they 
have three sons and one daughter: B. H, 
A. H, Paul and Vera Judy. Ada Judy was 
married to Michael Dwyre, one of the most 
thorough master builders of Ohio and Indi- 
ana, and they reside at Anderson, in the lat- 
ter state. They have one child, Zola, a very 
charming young lady. Justine Judy mar- 
ried John Weimer, of the firm of A. Weimer 
& Sons, millers of Greenville, Ohio. He is 
one of the rising business men of this county. 
They have one son. Hattie Judy married 
Stephen Bard, of this county. 

The subject's early days were spent as a 
little spindle-shanked, white-headed boy, 
running the woods and prairies over, with 
a passionate fondness for the flowers and 
beautiful stones or odd specimens of nature. 
An early comprehensiveness of what he saw 



254 



GEXEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



and rend made gateways for pleasure on 
every hand in the study of things about him. 
so at his little duties, at fishing, trapping, 
bathing, and in all the boys' pastimes of his 
day, the mixture of acquiring knowledge and 
work and play has been the means of devel- 
oping in him a mind broad enough to grasp 
the great things of the world and complete 
enough to enter into the joys or sorrows of 
the smallest child. Ambitious to excel in 
evervthing he undertook, he was at the head 
of his class in the old log schoolhouse at No. 
9. Greenville township, and won the honors 
of graduation in 1880, at the union school, 
of Greenville, Ohio. After finishing his 
course in 1880 he secured a clerkship with 
Henry St. Clair in his retail house on Broad- 
way, in Greenville. The duties of clerk were 
not harmonious with his disposition and at 
the end of four weeks he resigned his posi- 
tion and engaged to teach the school at Con- 
cord, east of Greenville; afterward he ac- 
cepted the principalship of the schools at 
Hillgrove, Ohio, thence went to District No. 
5, in Butler township ; next he became prin- 
cipal of the school at Castine, Ohio. His 
schools were successes and many of his old 
pupils are holding positions of honor and re- 
sponsibility. For fifteen years he has held 
the office of magistrate, and so earnest has he 
been in promoting the ideas of arbitration 
and compromise that years go by without 
soiling a page in his docket. He has faith- 
fully represented his party, the Democratic, 
at county, district and state conventions. In 
1899 he made the canvass of the county for 
nomination to the office of representative. 
There were five candidates in the field and 
the best of good will abounded. The Hon. 
Clem Brumbaugh was the successful man, 
with Mr. Judy a close second. He is a bi- 
metalist and an anti-imperialist. 



While conducting the school in District 
Xo. 5 the subject met Miss Jeanetta E. Cob- 
lentz. she being one of his pupils at that 
school, and a daughter of Harrison and Car- 
oline Coblentz, whose biography will be 
found elsewhere in this volume. Their 
daughter, Jeanetta E., seems to have inher- 
ited from her parents an abundance of their 
many virtues and the sterling qualities of 
those old baronial ancestors at Coblentz on 
the Rhine. As a girl at home her bright and 
winning ways were the light and sunshine 
of the parental abode. As a scholar she was 
ever apt and perceptive; gifted with a talent 
for music, and richly endowed in language, 
she entertained charmingly those about her. 
Moreover, she has ever been a good counselor 
and a ready helper. A lady in the fullest 
sense of the term, it is not strange that she 
was loved by all who knew her, and quite 
natural that the teacher and pupil should 
have a kindly regard for each other and that 
the association should be kept up after 
"school was out." and as a result the subject 
and this charming lady were united in mar- 
riage at the home of the latter, by Rev. Ches- 
ter Briggs, February 16, 1884. The affairs 
of housekeeping were begun in the old log 
house in the center of the farm where they 
now live. Time has been very good to them. 
In 1892 they built one of the handsi imest res- 
idences in the county. The fire fiend con- 
sumed this in 1896, the family barely escap- 
ing unhurt. Immediately they rebuilt, but 
on a less pretentious scale, the home they 
now enjoy. Mr. and Mrs. Judy have had 
five children born to them: Eva. a sweet 
little child born September 14. 1888, died 
September 29. 1888. Edith Esther, born 
October 11. 1890, is one of the brightest pu- 
pils of her school, and although very young 
is an expert pianist. She is a lover of the 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



255 



beautiful and greatly resembles her mother; 
Kate Caroline, born February 17, 1894, 
reads all newspapers, plays the piano, and is 
a jolly little sprite and a type of her father ; 
Harrison Coblentz, born February 28, 1897, 
is a shrewd little man, can read his primer, 
and is a type of his father. These little 
folks are polite and entertaining and favor- 
ites with all they chance to meet. With the 
advantages of these times at their hands a 
bright future surely awaits them. Air. 
Judy divides all. honors with his worthy help- 
mate and their home is one of the most 
'pleasant to be found, both being well-in- 
formed people, although their lives have 
been crowded with cares and years of hard 
w ■( 'ik have been theirs, yet they have found 
time to keep pace with the events of the day 
and the developments that have gradually 
put f' irth, so that their stock of knowledge is 
such that the caller will find a very pleasing 
and entertaining host and hostess. They are 
members of the Otterbein class of the United 
Brethren in Christ; and to their manage- 
ment is due the fact that their class is able 
to ask to be set off from the circuit to a sta- 
tion. Many donations to different institu- 
tions for good have been made by this \v< >r- 
thy couple and their names will long be re- 
membered by the recipients of their gener- 
osity. The subject is a member of the order 
of Knights of Pythias and of the Masonic 
fraternity, and is in high standing with his 
fellows and brothers. He is quite a fluent 
speaker and his oratory has frequently been 
commented upon and complimented. Al- 
though reticent, when he does talk, as people 
say, "it is worth hearing." For several 
years he was a writer for the National Stock- 
man, of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. Many of 
his articles were copied by the leading ag- 
ricultural journals of the land. And now we 
15 



leave them in their cozy home, one of the 
happiest, brightest families of this great 
county. 



JAMES McCABE. 

For almost sixty years this gentleman 
has been a resident of Darke county, Ohio, 
and during this long period, which covers 
nearly the whole span of the county's devel- 
opment from a primitive state to its pres- 
ent flourishing condition, he has been active- 
ly interested in its progress. His upright 
course in life commands the respect and 
commendation of every one, and he is justly 
entitled to prominent mention in the his- 
tory of his adopted county. 

Mr. McCabe was born near Franklin, 
Warren county, Ohio, October 14, 1826, 
and is a son of John McCabe, born August 
31, 1798, a native of New Jersey and of 
Scotch-Irish descent. The father grew to 
manhood in his native state, and followed 
the occupations of a carpenter and farmer. 
About 181 7 he removed to Warren count}-, 
Ohio, making the journey on foot, and there 
he remained until 1842, when he came to 
Darke county, locating in Neave township, 
where he remained until his death, February 
8, 1887, at the ripe old age of eighty-nine 
years. He was three times married, his 
first wife being Anna Yantilburgh, the 
mother of our subject. She was a native of 
Warren county, of which her parents were 
pioneers, and it is supposed that they were 
of lowland Dutch descent. 

James McCabe is the second child and 
oldest son in a family of five children, three 
sons and two daughters, and is the only 
one now living. During his boyhood he 
pursued his studies in a primitive log school 
house; and remained in his native county 



256 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



until 1842. when he came with his parents to 
Darke county, locating on a farm in Neave 
township, which he helped his father to 
clear and improve. At the age of nine- 
teen he started out for himself, working by 
the month for nine dollars. Having ac- 
quired a good education he commenced 
teaching school, in 1845, receiving his first 
certificate from John Briggs, one of the 
pioneers of the county. As they had no 
printed forms at that time, the certificate was 
all written. At that time the school houses 
were all of logs, and most of them had 
greased-paper windows and very rude fur- 
nishings. His first school was in the Spring 
Hill district, but was then called the Ohler 
district. For eight years Mr. McCabe con- 
tinued teaching, with good success, and 
came to German township in 1852, having 
charge of the school in Palestine, where the 
Teaford twin boys were among his pupils. 

In 1854 he turned his attention to farm- 
ing on what is now known as the Armstrong 
farm, where he remained two years, and then 
bought the Weaver farm, now owned by Mr. 
Philipi, on section 11, German township. 
In 1863 he sold that place and moved to Pal- 
estine, where he bought a half interest in a 
mill, but sold out in 1871. He next formed 
a partnership with Mr. Kester and bought 
a saw-mill, which they conducted together 
until 1874, since which time Mr. McCabe 
has operated it alone and has met with good 
success in this venture. 

On the 10th of January, 1852, Mr. Mc- 
Cabe was united in marriage with Miss Eba- 
liah Wagoner, who was born October 26, 
1823, a native of Neave township, this 
county, and a daughter of George and Sa- 
rah (Stephens) Wagoner, who were among 
its pioneers. Mr. Wagoner was a pioneer, 
and was in the war of 1812, being in the 



surrender of Hull. By this union four chil- 
dren were born, namely : Flora Bell, who 
died in infancy ; Orlando, who married Anna, 
the daughter of Dr. Stiles, of Greenville, 
and now lives in Dayton, Ohio; Virgil, who 
married Jennie Starbuck, of Dayton, and 
they have five children : Roscoe, Hallie M., 
Bepo, Emma and Mary; and Ida May, who 
is the wife of Eli Overman, of Dayton, and 
they also have five children : Omer, Frank, 
Mary, and Harry and Terry, twins. Con- 
cerning Mrs. McCabe, we should add that 
she lived with her parents until 1852; com- 
ing to German township, she resided there 
until her death, which took place July 26, 
1899, when she had attained the age of 
seventy-five years and nine months. She 
died as she had lived, a member of the Uni- 
versalis! church, and a consistent Christian, 
believing in the fatherhood of God and the 
brotherhood of man. The funeral sermon 
on the occasion of her death was preached 
by one of her dearest friends in the blessed 
faith of her denomination, Rev. Thomas S. 
Guthrie, now of Muncie, Indiana. 

In early life Mr. McCabe was a Whig in 
politics, but he assisted in organizing the 
Republican party, in 1856, and has since 
been one of its stanch supporters. He has 
filled the office of township assessor and 
township clerk many terms, and has always 
taken an active and commendable interest in 
public affairs. In 1864, during the civil 
war, he enlisted in Company H, One Hun- 
dred and Fifty-second Ohio Volunteer In- 
fantry, and served one hundred days. He is 
now an honored member of Reed Post, No. 
572, G. A. R., in which he has served as 
commander and is now filling the office of 
chaplain, and he has also been a member of 
the Independent Order of Odd Fellows for 
some years, and the Universalist church. 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



257 



He is widely and favorably known through- 
out the county, and well, deserves the high 
regard in which he is uniformly held. 



JOHN G. FISCHBACH. 

John G. Fischbach is now living retired 
upon his farm of eighty acres on section 2J, 
Allen township, Darke county. He is num- 
bered among the valued residents of this lo- 
cality that the fatherland has furnished to 
the new world. He was born in Prussia, 
Germany, on the 17th of April, 1829, and is 
a son of Lawrence and Phillipina ( Metz- 
ker) Fischbach. The father was born in 
1778, and his wife was about twelve years 
his junior. They were married about 1808, 
and became the parents of nine children, all 
born in Germany. The eldest child, a 
daughter, was born about 18 12. There are 
now three living children of the family : 
Henry, who resides in Dayton, at the age 
of eighty-one years; John George, of this 
review; and Christina, the widow of Henry 
Hass, of Dayton. 

When but eighteen years of age the fa- 
ther volunteered for service in the German 
army in the Spanish war. He was a carpen- 
ter and builder, and followed that pursuit 
Loth in Germany and in the United States. 
In 1832 he sailed with his family from 
Bremen for America, but the vessel on which 
they took passage was shipwrecked on a 
sand bar by the captain, who wished to get 
a heavy insurance. This was a most dia- 
bolical act, which resulted in the death by 
freezing of some thirty-nine of the emigrant 
passengers. Our subject was at that time 
a little child of only about three years. He, 
too, was laid with the dead piled upon the 
deck, but his sister saw the pulsations of his 
neck and he was thus snatched from the 



grave. He had, however, been so severely 
burned that skin and flesh came off, but 
life came back to him and he yet lives to 
tell the wonderful tale. After enduring 
many hardships, the family finally reached 
America, and made their way to Dayton, 
Ohio, where the father followed contract- 
ing and building and became well-to-do. 
He died March 21, 1857, at the age of sev- 
enty-nine years, and his widow passed away 
May 26, 1858, at the age of sixty-seven 
years, their remains being interred in Wood- 
land cemetery. They were members of the 
Methodist church, and were respected Christ- 
ian people. 

John George Fischbach was reared in 
Dayton and learned the shoemaker's trade, 
which he followed to a greater or less ex- 
tent until 1862. He was drafted for service 
in the army in 1864, but was not accepted. 
On the 3d of April, 1850, he was united in 
marriage to Caroline Kimmel, who was born 
in Germany, and their union has been blessed 
with nine children : George, of Dayton, 
who is married and has two sons and one 
daughter ; Louisa, who died at the age of 
fifteen months; Emma, who became the wife 
of Lewis Sink and died at the age of thirty- 
two years ; Edward, a resident of Horatio, 
Darke county, who has a wife and seven 
children ; Frederick Lawrence, who owns 
and operates a farm near his father's ; Clara, 
the wife of M. H. Burnhart, a farmer of Al 
len township, by whom she has two chil- 
dren; Sarah M., who died at the age of 
three years ; William, who operates the home 
farm and has a wife and three sons ; and 
Arthur, who is still with his father. The 
mother of these children was called to her 
final rest January 19, 1892. She was a 
faithful companion and helpmeet on life's 
journey, was a loving wife and tender 



258 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



mother, and throughout the community her 
loss was deeply mourned. 

In his business Mr. Fischbach has been 
successful. He started out in life for him- 
self at the age of eighteen years, and all that 
he possesses has been acquired through his 
own efforts. His has been an energetic and 
industrious life, and these qualities have en- 
abled him to overcome all difficulties and 
work his way upward to a position of wealth, 
and he is living retired. 



HENRY LEPHART. 

Henry Lephart is one of the representa- 
tive German-American citizens of Darke 
county, and is classified among the prosper- 
ous farmers of Brown township. The name 
Lephart is of German origin, and was spelled 
Lepphardt or Liephardt. The father of our 
subject, Augustus Lephart, was born in the 
little duchy of Hesse-Cassel, on the 27th of 
December, 1818, and is now living a retired 
life in the city- of Greenville. He was edu- 
cated in his native land, where he spent the 
first eighteen years of his life, after which 
he determined to seek a home and fortune 
in the new world. He accordingly bade 
adieu to the fatherland and the friends and 
home of his youth and sailed for America in 
the year 1836, taking passage on the sailing 
vessel Henrietta, bound for Baltimore, 
Maryland. Eight weeks and four days 
passed ere they sighted land, for contrary 
winds detained the vessel, but ultimately 
they reached the Baltimore harbor in safety, 
and Mr. Lephart landed in America, a 
stranger among strange people, with whose 
language he was unfamiliar. He had a 
capital of only one dollar, but he possessed 
strong determination and resolute will, and 
with those essential qualifications of success 



he started out to make his own way. He 
soon secured work on a canal along the 
James river, and was there employed for 
four years. 

He is a thrifty and industrious man, 
qualities which have been inherited by his 
children. Establishing a home in Pennsyl- 
vania, he there resided for four years, and 
about 1849 came with his family to Darke 
county, Ohio, locating in German township, 
where he was employed as a wage worker. 
He remained for two years in German town- 
ship, then known as Washington township, 
after which he purchased eight}' acres of 
land, of which about twelve acres had been 
cleared and improved. His first home was 
a log cabin, and a log barn gave shelter to 
his stock. Mr. Lephart remained upon the 
old family homestead until 1 886, and then 
became a resident of Greenville. Through- 
out the intervening years he had carried on 
agricultural pursuits, and his untiring indus- 
try and enterprise enabled him to add to his 
possessions until he was the owner of a valu- 
able farm of one hundred and sixtv acres 
and a comfortable competence, which now 
supplies him with all the necessities and 
many of the luxuries of life. The thrift and 
frugality which are cardinal characteristics 
of the German race were ever manifest in 
his business career, and he is also known as 
a man of much resolution and decision of 
character. In politics he has always been a 
Democrat, save when in i860 he cast his 
vote for Abraham Lincoln. He has never 
held office, preferring to devote his time and 
attention to his business interests. In his 
religious views he is a Lutheran and has 
been very liberal in his contributions to 
church work, having aided in the erection of 
five different churches in Darke county. He 
gave material assistance to the church in 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



259 



Greenville, and has withheld his support 
from no benevolences worthy of considera- 
tion. His life, honorable and upright, has 
commanded the respect of all. 

In Pennsylvania he was united in mar- 
riage to Miss Katherine Estella Strukoff, 
who was born near Hanover, Germany. 
Her birth occurred in 1814, and her death in 
1886. Her life was one of spotless Christ- 
ian purity and her teachings have had 
marked influence upon the lives of her chil- 
dren, to whom her memory remains as a 
grateful benediction. In the family of this 
worthy couple were eight children, four sons 
and four daughters, but only three are now 
living, namely: Henry; Sarah, the wife of 
Peter Blizzard, a prosperous agriculturist 
of Champaign county, Illinois; and Will- 
iam, who is married and is a successful 
farmer of Washington township, Darke 
county. He resides near the old family 
homestead. 

Henry Lephart was born July 15, 1843, 
in Somerset county, Pennsylvania, and was 
the second child in his father's family. He 
was a little lad of six summers when he came 
with his parents to Darke county, where he 
was reared and educated. Throughout his 
life he has been identified with agricultural 
pursuits, and for nineteen years he also en- 
gaged in the manufacture of brick, the prod- 
ucts of its kilns being seen in many of 
the most beautiful homes in Brown town- 
ship. Several of the school-houses of the 
neighborhood have also been erected from 
brick manufactured by him, as was the 
Greenville Bank. He had no special advan- 
tages to fit him for life, receiving but a lim- 
ited education in the public schools. The 
first school he ever attended was held in a 
log building in Washington township, the 
dimensions of the structure being 16x20 



teet. 



The building" was covered with a 



board roof, and was furnished with a box 
stove, and slab benches formed of puncheons 
with the flat side up, placed upon wooden 
pins. The writing desk used by the big 
boys and girls was a wide board resting upon 
wooden pins driven into auger holes in the 
wall. The discipline of the school was 
maintained through fear of the rod and the 
dunce-cap, and the old adage, '"Spare the 
rod and spoil the child," found exemplifica- 
tion in those primitive institutions of learn- 
ing. Mr. Lephart remained with his par- 
ents until he had attained his majority and 
gave them his wages during the greater part 
of the time. He received eighteen dollars 
per month in compensation for his services, 
and as one-half of this was turned over to 
his father he had a small capital of his own 
when he attained his majority, comprising 
fifty dollars in money and a young horse. 
He was, however, industrious and energetic, 
qualities which form an important element 
in a prosperous career. 

On the 19th of November, 1863, Mr. 
Lephart was united in marriage to Miss 
Sarah J. Moyer. She was born in Darke 
county, November 2, 1S43, a "d ' s t' ie sixth 
in a family of ten children, three sons and 
seven daughters, the parents being Michael 
and Margaret (Etter) Moyer. Of their 
family four daughters are yet living, three 
being residents of Darke county, while one 
sister, Margaret, is the wife of Jackson 
Stump, an agriculturist of Oklahoma. The 
parents are both deceased. The father was 
born in Virginia, in 1812, and died in the 
fall of 1865. He was of German lineage 
and was reared as an agriculturist. His 
parents entered one hundred and twenty 
acres from the government during Martin 
Van Buren's administration. His family 



260 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



came to Ohio in an early day, when the In- 
dians were still very numerous in this sec- 
tion of the country, and deer and other kind 
of wild game could be had in abundance. 
Mr. Moyer was a typical Virginian, dis- 
playing old-time courtesy and hospitality so 
common in that state. He held member- 
ship in the German Lutheran church. His 
wife was born near Germantown, Ohio, 
about i 817, and died about 1874. She was 
e'ducated in the common schools, and was 
a consistent Christian woman, who reared 
her children in the faith of the church. Mrs. 
Lephart, a daughter of this worthy couple, 
has been to her husband a faithful counselor 
and helpmate. She has a kind disposition 
and affable manner, and is highly esteemed 
by a large circle of friends. 

Air. ami Airs. Lephart began their do- 
mestic life in Washington township upon a 
rented farm, for they had little of this 
world's goods to aid them in making a start. 
They removed to Brown township, where 
they again rented land, and after spending 
four years upon property belonging to others 
Mr. Lephart was able to purchase, in connec- 
tion with his sister, an eighty-acre tract that 
had formerly belonged to their father. Dur- 
ing the four years in which he rented he 
had saved four hundred dollars, but in order 
to make his purchase of land he had to in- 
cur an indebtedness of four hundred dol- 
lars. His first eighty-acre tract was forest 
land, upon which not a ditch had been dug 
nor an improvement made, save that there 
was a little log cabin and a log barn. With 
characteristic energy he began the further 
development of the property, and soon trans- 
formed the wild land into rich and fertile 
fields. As his financial resources have in- 
creased he has added to his property until 
he is now, in 1900, the owner of three hun- 



dred acres of valuable land in Brown town- 
ship. His farm is supplied with all mod- 
ern improvements and conveniences, includ- 
ing splendid buildings, high-class machin- 
ery and everything found upon a model 
farm. His property stands as a monument 
to his thrift and enterprise, and to the as- 
sistance of his e'stimable wife. There are 
two good residences upon the place, and the 
land is in a good state of cultivation. 

The home of Mr. and Mrs. Lephart has 
been blessed with thirteen children, eight 
sons and five daughters, and of this large 
family eleven are yet living: Margaret A., 
who was educated in the common schools 
and received instructions in music, is now 
the wife of Henry Foreman, a farmer of 
Allen township; Sarah Jane is the wife of 
Finley Riffle, an agriculturist of Brown 
township; William H. is married and lives 
in Greenville, Ohio; John W.. who possesses 
much natural mechanical ability and is a 
practical carpenter and joiner, is also a pros- 
perous farmer of Darke county; Charles A.' 
is married and is employed as a mechanic 
by the Panhandle Railroad Company; Peter 
I. is married and follows blacksmithing in 
Arcanum, Ohio ; Catherine Estella, who has 
been instructed in music, is now the wife of 
Hugh Westfall, the proprietor of a restau- 
rant in Ansonia, Ohio; Augustus C. is mar- 
ried, and follows farming in Brown town- 
ship; Elizabeth A., who has also been in- 
structed in music, has successfully passed 
the Boxwell examination and is now at home 
with her parents; Fred X., who possesses 
considerable musical talent, passed the 
Boxwell examination in 1900; and 
James M., the youngest living mem- 
ber of the family, is now a stu- 
dent in the eighth grade in the public schools. 
Mr. and Airs. Lephart have given their chil- 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



261 



I 



dren excellent educational privileges, realiz- 
ing the importance of learning in the prac- 
tical affairs of life. In his political senti- 
ments our subject is a Democrat, and has 
loyally supported the party of his choice 
since casting his first presidential vote for 
General George B. McClellan. He has fre- 
quently been chosen as a delegate to sena- 
torial and county conventions, and has ever 
been firm in support of his honest convic- 
tions. He is a public-spirited and progress- 
ive citizen, giving his aid and influence to 
all measures calculated to prove of public 
benefit. For six years he has served as 
school director, and his efforts in support 
of the cause of education have been very ef- 
fective. He and his family are all mem- 
bers of the Christian church — certainly a 
most creditable record and one well worthy 
of emulation. They have aided financially 
in the erection of seven different churches 
in this vicinity, which indicates their deep 
interest in all that pertains to the uplifting 
of the human race. Socially Mr. Lephart 
is connected with the Masonic order, Lodge 
No. 488. at Ansonia, and he is a worthy 
representative of the craft. He and his 
family enjoy the high regard of all who 
know them, and he is truly a self-made man 
whose advancement in life is creditable, 
showing what may be accomplished by de- 
termined purpose and unflagging industry. 



CYRUS BIGLER. 

This well-known and representative cit- 
izen of Darke county, Ohio, — Cyrus Bigler, 
whose home and farm are on section 36, 
Wayne township — is a native of the coun- 
ty and dates his birth in Adams township, 
August 13, 1844. 

Mr. Bigler traces his ancestry along the 



agnatic line for a hundred years back to Den-^trle^ 
mark. Three brothers of the name of Big- MW_- £"*s 
ler came together to America and here they "^ 
soon separated, one settling in New York, 
one in Pennsylvania and one in Virginia, and 
from these three have sprung all the Biglers 
in this country. Moses Bigler, the father of 
Cyrus, was a native of Maryland, born in 
1818, and his father, David Bigler, was also 
born in that state. The former came to 
Ohio at an early day, about 1828, and was 
one of the first settlers of Darke county. 
Through his mother Mr. Bigler is related to 
the Millers, one of the largest and a much- 
respected family of Darke county, they hav- 
ing removed here from Kentucky about the 
time it was admitted as a slave state. Mrs. 
Bigler. the mother of our subject, was form- 
erly Miss Mary Miller. She was born in 
Adams township, this count}-, a daughter of 
Jacob Miller, and is still living, at the age 
of seventy-four. To Moses and Mary Big- 
ler were born five children, two sons and 
three daughters, Cyrus being the eldest. The 
others are as follows : Jacob, who is mar- 
ried and living on a farm in Michigan; 
Nancy, wife of John Long, of Adams town- 
ship, Darke county; Mary, wife of David 
Martin, also of Adams township; and Lyd- 
ia, wife of Charles Jackson, of Pleasant Hill, 
Ohio. 

In his youth Mr. Bigler had good edu- 
cational advantages, attending school in his 
native township, later being a student in the 
Greenville schools, and still later entering 
what was then known as Whitewater Col- 
lege, at Centerville, Indiana. It was at the 
last named institution that Henry I'. John- 
son was educated, and they were in schoi >1 at 
the same time. At the age of seventeen 
years Mr. Bigler began teaching school, 
which occupation he followed in his native 



262 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



county during the winter season for several 
years, or up to the time of his marriage, af- 
ter which lie located on the farm where he 
in nv resides, and where he has since been 
engaged in agricultural pursuits. His 
home place comprises one hundred acres 
and he has seventy acres in another tract, 
all of which he operates. 

Mr. Bigler married Miss Lydia A. Lowe, 
a native of Palestine, German township, 
Darke county. Ohio, who died in 1887 leav- 
ing a family of eight children, namely: 
Lulu, who is now the wife of Noah Grove, 
and has four children — Mary, Estella. Mil- 
lard and Carl ; Charles, who married Man- 
Wade and has one child, Ivan; Earl, who 
married Ollie Brewer and has one daughter, 
Bernice ; Jacob, who married Ida Farmer ; 
Clyde, who married Carrie Robinson; Es- 
tella Mabel and Bessie, at home. For his 
second wife Mr. Bigler married Miss Ida 
Seifert, and by her has one son, Herman. 

Politically Mr. Bigler has always given 
his support to the Democratic party, and 
has at different times filled local office. In 
1880 he was assessor. At this writing he 
is a director in the German Baptist Mutual 
Fire Insurance Company, of Covington, 
Miami county, Ohio. He is a member of 
the German Baptist church. 



. JOHX L. BAILEY. 

While memory remains to the American 
citizens the "boys in blue" who fought for 
the defense of the Union will ever be held 
in grateful remembrance, and well do they 
deserve all the love that can lie bestowed 
upon them. A man does not lightly risk 
life, but when in the face of great danger 
he bravely stands for his country and his 
principles he awakens the highest admira- 



tion of all who know aught of his gallantry. 
With the splendid army that marched to 
the south to aid in crushing the rebellion 
went John L. Bailey, and today he is num- 
bered among the veterans of the civil war, 
and is also regarded as one of the leading 
and substantial citizens of Darke county, 
Ohio. 

It was in Brown township, this count) - , 
that he was born, August 26, 184 1. His 
father, Henry Bailey, was also a native of 
Ohio, his birth having occurred in Perry 
county, on the 19th of December, 181 1. He 
was reared as a farmer and obtained his edu- 
cation in the primitive subscription schools 
of the early part of the nineteenth century. 
During his boyhood he accompanied his par- 
ents on their removal to Preble county, 
Ohio, at which time that section of the state 
was an unbroken wilderness. He was mar- 
ried in that county to Miss Nancy Runyon, 
whose birth occurred in Kentucky, on the 
joth of February, 18 18. In 1833 he came 
to Darke county and located in Brown town- 
ship, upon a tract of one hundred and twen- 
ty acres of dense forest land. No house 
had as yet been builded, and his first home 
was a little log cabin. Bears, wolves and 
deer were still killed in the neighborhood, 
and venison was a dish often found upon the 
board of the early settlers. Everything was 
wild and gave little promise of the wonder- 
ful development and progress which was 
soon to work a splendid transformation 
here. Our subject can remember when 
deer traveled over his father's farm as a 
drove of sheep passes through a field. In 
the midst of the forest the father hewed out 
a homestead. 

He was a man of strong decision of char- 
acter, well known for his reliability and 
trustworthiness. His fellow townsmen, 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



2G3 



recognizing his ability, called him to office, 
and he served as trustee and in other local 
positions, discharging his duties with 
promptness and fidelity. He was a warm 
friend of the cause of education and of all 
measures calculated to contribute toward 
the general good.. In politics he was first 
an old-line Whig, supporting the party until 
the organization of the new Republican 
party, when he joined its ranks, becoming 
a warm advocate of the "rail-splitter" who 
was raised to the presidential chair. He 
aided in the first Christian church of the lo- 
cality, known as the Teegarden church, and 
also contributed toward the building of two 
other churches in this vicinity. He was a 
man of kind and benevolent purpose and 
made the Golden Rule the motto of his life. 
On the 6th of July, 1887, he was called to 
his final rest, and his remains were interred 
in the Teegarden cemetery. His wife still 
survives him. at the age of eighty-two years, 
and her mental faculties are still unimpaired. 
She makes her home with her children and is 
a consistent Christian woman, holding- 
membership in the Christian church. In 
the family were five sons and four daugh- 
ters, of whom seven are yet living, namely: 
Mary A.; John L., of this review; Samuel, 
a resident of Darke county ; Stephen, who is 
married and lives in Ansonia, from which 
place he travels as a commercial agent ; Re- 
becca, the wife of David Bennett, who is 
also a veteran of the civil war, and is now 
living in Woodington, Ohio ; Hannah, the 
wife of Wesley McKay, who served as a 
soldier in the Union arm}-, and is now an 
agriculturist of Brown township; and Adda, 
the wife of Oscar Strait, also a farmer of 
Brown township. She is the youngest 
member of the family. One son, William 
Bailev, served for three years in the civil 



war and was wounded at the battle of Look- 
out Mountain. 

John L. Bailey, the immediate subject of 
this sketch, was reared in Darke county and 
received such educational privileges as the 
common schools of the neighborhood af- 
lorded. His time, however, was largely oc- 
cupied with the work of clearing and devel- 
oping the home farm, and thus he early be- 
came familiar with the work of field and 
meadow. He was only twenty-one years of 
age when, at the president's call for troops, 
he enlisted, at Greenville, Ohio, on the 8th 
of August, 1862, as a member of Company 
G, Fortieth Ohio Infantry, under Captain 
Charles Gordon Matchett. They rendez- 
voused at Columbus, Ohio, and the regi- 
ment was ordered to report at Big Sandy 
river, but Mr. Bailey was taken ill with ty- 
phoid fever and forced to remain in the In >s- 
pital for three months. On the expiration 
of that period he rejoined his command at 
Big Sandy, the forces being there encamped 
under General James A. Garfield. From 
that place they went up the Ohio and Cum- 
berland rivers to Nashville, Tennessee, by 
steamer, and at the latter place the Fortieth 
Ohio was assigned to the Army of the Cum- 
berland. The Union troops proceeded to 
Franklin, Tennessee, and participated in the 
hotly-contested engagement against Gen- 
eral Hood. Mr. Bailey served as provost- 
guard in the city of Franklin, and was so 
close to the rebels that they could easily 
have shot him, but he managed to make his 
escape. The next battle in which he took 
part was the three days' engagement at 
Chickamauga. He was in the front of the 
action where the rebel lead fell thick and 
fast. Many of his companv were killed or 
wounded, and a pine tree near him was cut 
down by the shot and shell of the enemy 



2Qi 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



aid fell among the boys who were there 
fighting to preserve the Union. At that 
battle Mr. Bailey was struck by a piece of 
spent shell, but was not injured. The next 
engagement in which he participated was at 
Lookout mountain, known as "the battle 
above the clouds." and there it was that 
his brother William was wounded. It was 
one of the most picturesque engagements of 
the entire war, for the field lay upon the 
mountain crest, and commanded a magnifi- 
cent view of the surrounding country. Mr. 
Bailey also took part in the battle of Mis- 
sionary Ridge, where with his regiment he 
was on the extreme right of the Union army. 
The Confederates were there signally de- 
feated and the Union troops were jubilant 
over the splendid victory. They suffered 
many hardships, however, often having 
nothing to eat save the com which had been 
dropped by the mules and which they picked 
up and parched, eating it with relish. Mr. 
Bailey also followed the stars and stripes 
on the battlefields of Chickamauga, Jones- 
boro, Lovejoy Station and through the cele- 
brated Atlanta campaign from the 3d of 
May until the 9th of September, during 
which time the troops were almost daily 
under fire. So constant was the action that 
they had scarcely any rest, and on more than 
one occasion he sat leaning against a 
tree in order to get a few moments' sleep. 
At other times he and his comrades would 
lie down between two rails and in the morn- 
ing would find that their bed was sur- 
rounded by water, so constantly did it rain 
during that campaign. He was present at 
the battles of Peach Tree Creek, Kenesaw 
Mountain and Resaca. — all hotly contested 
engagements, — Buzzards' Roost and Ring- 
gold. At Kenesaw Mountain while his 
company was marching toward the rebel 



works, he narrowly escaped bding killed, 
and a ball struck his comrade next to him. 
During the first day's battle at Chickamau- 
ga he had a narrow - escape from capture. 
He endured all the hardships and trials of 
war save imprisonment, and loyally fol- 
lowed the old flag where it led. After the 
Atlanta campaign his division of the army 
was ordered to pursue General Hood, and 
at Franklin, Tennessee, they encountered the 
rebel commander and participated in one of 
the fiercest battles that raged during the 
four years of warfare. Later the battle of 
Nashville occurred, in which General Hood 
was hopelessly defeated. The Union troops 
then followed the rebel commander to 
Huntsville. Alabama, and thence returned 
to join Grant's army, making repairs on the 
railroad lines as they were on the march. 
When in the vicinity of Greenville, Tennes- 
see, the joyful news reached them of the 
surrender of Lee and his army. The F< iurth 
Corps, to which Mr. Bailey belonged, was 
sent back to Nashville, Tennessee, and 
thence to Texas, but as his time had almi >st 
expired, he received an honorable discharge 
on the 27th of June. 1865, and with a happy 
heart returned to home and friends, having 
for almost three years faithfully served his 
country upon the battlefields of the south. 

Mr. Bailey has been twice married. He 
first wedded Elizabeth E. Teegarden. a rep- 
resentative of one of the well known pioneer 
families of the county. Their marriage oc- 
curred September 2, 1869, and was blessed 
with three children, two sons and a daugh- 
ter, of whom two are living. Harvey, the 
elder, was educated in the common schools, 
wedded Miss Catherine Harp, and is a 
farmer of Greenville township, while Henry 
A. is a resident of Woodington, Ohio, where 
he is engaged in merchandising and grain 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



2G5 



dealing in partnership with Bert Teegarden. 
The firm are doing a large business and en- 
joy a creditable reputation in commercial 
circles. Henry A. Ba'iley married Miss 
Minnie Cox. One daughter, Nancy Laura, 
was born April 24, 1874, and was married 
December 24, 1892, to William H. Slick, 
and died of consumption May 31, 1896. 
She was an earnest Christian woman, great- 
ly beloved for her many excellencies of char- 
acter, and the memory of an upright life she 
left to her husband and her two motherless 
little children. The mother of these chil- 
dren was born on the old Teegarden farm 
in Brown township, in 1847, and died Au- 
gust 19, 1875. For his second wife Mr. 
Bailey chose Sarah M. Strader, the wedding 
taking place October 19, 1877. She was 
born in Darke county, December n, 1854, a 
daughter of John A. and Margaret L. 
(Weber) Strader. Her father was born 
in Knoxville, Tennessee, October n, 1818, 
and died October 12, 1899, at the age of 
eighty-one years and one day. He was a 
farmer and a devoted Christian man, es- 
teemed by all who knew him. His wife, 
who is a consistent member of the Christian 
church, was born October 11, 1823, and is 
still living. In their family were fifteen 
children, seven sons and eight daughters, 
eleven of whom yet survive. Unto Mr. and 
Mrs. Bailey have been born two sons and two 
daughters, but their son Howard died on 
the 1st of September. 1884, at the age of 
seven months. The following stanzas were 
written by a friend : 

"We loved him; yes, we loved him ; 

But angels loved him more. 
And they have sweetly called him 

To yonder shining shore. 



"The golden gates were opened, 

A gentle voice said Come, 
x\nd with farewells unspoken 

He calmly entered home." 

Ida, the eldest child, is now the wife of 
George Andrews, a farmer of Union City, 
Indiana, and they have one child living, a 
daughter. Their little son, John William, 
was born April 14, 1897, anc ' cne d August 
24, 1898. He was a sweet, lovable child, 
and his death was a great blow to the par- 
ents; but the Master said, "Suffer little chil- 
dren to come unto Me and forbid them not, 
for of such is the kingdom of heaven," and 
the little one passed to the home above. 
Lemuel H. is living at home with his par- 
ents, and assists in the work of the farm. 
Mattie completes the family and is a stu- 
dent in the public schools, and is also a stu- 
dent of music. 

At the time of his marriage Mr. Bailey 
had a capital of about one thousand dollars, 
which he had accumulated through hard 
work. Year by year he has added to his 
property, and is today the owner of one 
hundred acres of valuable land, which is in 
a good state of cultivation. He has a good 
residence, substantial outbuildings and all 
the modern accessories and conveniences of 
a model farm. He follows progressive and 
practical methods, and is widely known as a 
leading agriculturist of his community. He 
votes with the Republican part)', and has 
been a stanch advocate of its principles since 
casting his first presidential vote for Abra- 
ham Lincoln. He has served for a number 
of years as a school director, and his labors 
have been effective in promoting the cause 
of education. Otherwise, however, he has 
never held office, preferring to devote his 



266 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



time and energies to his business affairs, in 
which he has met with signal success. So- 
cially he is connected with Fifer Post, G. A. 
R., of Ansonia, and he and his family are 
consistent members of the Christian church 
in Woodington. He has contributed largely 
toward the erection of the house of worship, 
and has also given material assistance to 
other churches and to many benevolences 
worthy of consideration. He and his wife 
enjoy the warm regard of many friends and 
the hospitality of many of the best homes 
in this section of the state. Their lives 
have ever been upright and honorable, and 
their many excellencies of character have en- 
deared them to a large circle of acquaint- 
ances. 



NATHAN S. WARVEL. 

One of the gallant defenders of the Union 
during the dark days of the civil war and 
now a prominent farmer residing on section 
I, Greenville township, Darke count}-, is 
Nathan S. Warvel, who was burn in Rich- 
land township, the same county, April 18, 
1839, and is a son of John H. and Alary 
(Souders) Warvel, natives of Warren and 
Montgomery counties, Ohio, respectively, 
and the founders of the family in Darke 
county, their home being near Beamsville, 
where they located in 1838. In 1839 the 
paternal grandparents, Christopher and 
Charlotta (Lilly) Warvel, natives of Rock- 
ingham, Virginia, also came to Darke coun- 
ty and located on a farm near Beamsville, in 
Richland township. The)- were members of 
the United Brethren church, and the grand- 
father donated the logs to construct the first 
church erected in Beamsville. He also gave 
to the town the land comprising the original 
cemetery at that place. The first to be 



buried there was Enos Hathaway, a son of 
Thomas Hathaway, who died in 1847. The 
grandfather was a soldier in the war of 1812, 
under the command of Colonel Methias. He 
died March 15, 1851, aged fifty-five years, 
and his wife departed this life March 14, 
1855, aged fifty-six. Of their nine children 



five are still living, namely : 



George, a 



United Brethren preacher of Butler county, 
Ohio; Daniel, a resident of Richland town- 
ship, Darke county; Mrs. Elizabeth Beam, of 
Ansonia, Ohio; Mary, the widow of Daniel 
Hartzell, of Pikeville, Darke county ; and 
Mrs. Margaret Hathaway, of Washington, 
D. C. Those deceased were: John H., 
William, Sarah Ann and Adeline. 

After residing in this county for three 
years, John H. Warvel, the father of our sub- 
ject, returned to Montgomery county, owing 
to his wife's ill health, and there she 
died, May 15, 1842. He then located 
on his father's farm in Richland town- 
ship, Darke county, where he resided 
until 1847, when he removed to the 
farm now owned and occupied by our 
subject. He died here February 2/, 
1898, at the age of seventy-nine years, hon- 
ored and respected by all who knew him. 
He served as infirmary director of the coun- 
ty two terms. He was a man of good busi- 
ness ability and was particularly well quali- 
fied for the settlement of estates and as an 
executor he settled many during his life time. 
He was one of the original members of the 
United Brethren church at Beamsville, and 
later assisted in organizing the church at 
Pikeville, being a man of strong religious 
convictions and an active worker, whose life 
was in accordance with the teachings of the 
Golden Rule. In politics he was independ- 
ent, voting for the man rather than the party. 
He was four times married, his first wife 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



267 



being the mother of our subject, and to them 
two children were born : Nathan and Mary, 
the latter of whom died in infancy. His 
second wife was Barbara Ann Holloway, by 
whom he had two sons : Allen C, of 
Bradford, Miami county, Ohio; and Irvin, 
deceased. The third wife was Phcebe Hor- 
ney. and Phoebe, the only child of this union, 
died at the age of one year. For his fourth 
wife he married Elizabeth Beenblossom, who 
bore him five children : Charlotte, now the 
widow of Calvin Garver, of Greenville; Sa- 
rah Adaline, wife of Adam Johnson, of 
Darke county; Elizabeth, the wife of O. J. 
Hager, of Muncie, Indiana ; and Emeline, 
the wife of George Garbig, of Darke county. 

Our subject lived on the homestead farm 
in. Richland township until eight years of 
age, and then removed to the farm in Green- 
ville township, which he now owns and oc- 
cupies. During his youth he assisted his fa- 
ther in the laborious task of clearing and 
improving the farm, and attended the dis- 
trict schools when his services were not 
needed at home. He remained with his fa- 
ther until attaining his majority, and then 
began life upon his own responsibility. For 
a year after his marriage he lived near 
Beamsville, and then located upon his pres- 
ent farm, where he owns fifty acres of well 
improved and highly cultivated land. 

On the 23d of December, i860, Mr. 
Warvel led to the marriage altar Miss 
Nancy J. Royer, a daughter of David and 
Sarah (Grafford) Royer, of Logan county, 
Ohio. By this union five children were 
born, but two died in infancy unnamed, and 
Mary E., who became the wife of William H. 
Huber, is also now deceased. The living 
are : Martha L., now the widow of Riley 
Yonker; and Eva, the wife of G. H. Mills, 
of Beamsville. 



Mr. Warvel joined the "boys in blue" 
during the civil war, by enlisting on 
the 2d of May, 1864, in Company G, One 
Hundred and Fifty-second Ohio Volun- 
teer Infantry, and was mustered into the 
service as sergeant of his company. They 
were with Hunter on his raid through 
the Shenandoah valley, and for more than 
a month were kept constantly on the march. 
At Cumberland, Maryland, the company was 
detached from the regiment and stationed at 
what was called Fort Cumberland, where 
they performed garrison duty until their 
term of enlistment had expired. One en- 
gagement occurred between this force and 
a part of Colonel Mosby's regiment. Com- 
pany G supported the batteries while under 
fire, repelling the enemy. Twenty days af- 
ter his term of enlistment had expired Mr. 
Warvel was mustered out at Camp Denni- 
son, September 22, 1864. He had left the 
plow standing in the furrow when he en- 
tered the service, and upon his return home 
resumed farming. He is now a member 
of the Grand Army Post at Greenville, and 
politically is identified with the Democratic 
party, while he and his wife are active and 
consistent members of the Christian church 
at Beamsville. 



AMOS P. MILLER. 

The farming interests of Butler township 
are well represented by Amos P. Miller, who 
resides on section 33, where he has a fine 
farm under a high state of cultivation. He 
was born near Dayton, Ohio, September 9, 
1849. His father, David T. Miller, was a 
native of Rockingham county, Virginia, 
born February 15, 1812, and in 1S22, at the 
age of ten years, he removed to Montgomery 
county, Ohio, with his parents, David and 



20S 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Hannah ( Foutz) Miller, both of whom were 
natives of Virginia. The grandparents of 
our subject had five sons and one daugh- 
ter, all of whom reached mature years, were 
married and reared families of their own, 
namely: Michael, Joel, Solomon,David T., 
John and Barbara. All are now deceased. 
The mother of these children survived her 
husband about twenty years and died in 
1863, in her ninety-first year. Her remains 
were laid by his side in the Hull cemetery 
in Perry township, Montgomery county. 

David T. Miller spent the greater part 
of his youth in Ohio, being reared amid the 
wild scenes of the frontier. After he had 
attained to man's estate he chose as a com- 
panion and helpmate on life's journey Miss 
Eliza Souders, by whom two children were 
born, one of whom died in infancy, and 
one, Ephraim, lived until about thirty-five 
years of age, leaving three children. After 
the death of his first wife David T. Miller 
married Miss Anna Shock, who was born 
in Montgomery county, Ohio, in 1819. 
They were married about 1838 and ten chil- 
dren graced their union, of whom nine 
reached mature years, as follows : John, 
who died in 1866; Susannah, who became 
the wife of Noah Comer and died about 
1878, leaving five children; Hannah, who 
became the wife of David Grove and died 
in the fall of 1898, at the age of fifty-one 
years, leaving four sons; David I., who died 
in 1874, leaving two sons; Amos P. ; Rachel, 
who first married Noah Ulrey, by whom 
she had three children, and is now the wife 
of Cyrus Devilbiss, by whom she has four 
children ; Samuel, who is living on the home- 
stead farm west of Dayton and has seven 
daughters and one son; Aaron, who re- 
moved from Kansas to southern California 
in 1895 and is there living with his family 



of seven children; and Kate Ann, wife of 
Charles Millard, who resides near the 
home farm in Montgomery county with his 
wife and four children, three daughters and 
a son. Mrs. Miller was called to her final 
rest in December, 1872, and the father was 
afterward married again. His death oc- 
curred in August, 1886. He was a tanner 
by trade and carried on business along that 
line on his own account for about twenty 
years. He owned three hundred acres of 
land in Montgomery county, also land in 
Kansas, and liberaly aided all of his chil- 
dren. Both he and his wife were members 
of the German Baptist church, and their re- 
mains were interred in the Hull cemetery. 

Mr. Miller, of this review, received 
an ordinary common-school education and 
remained at home until his twenty-third 
year, when he was married, on the 26th 
of March, 1872, to Barbara E. Garber, 
whose birth occurred in Montgomery coun- 
ty, in 1 85 1, her parents being Jonathan and 
Catharine (Rife) Garber. Nine children 
have been born of this union : Elsie M., 
wife of Abram Wholsinger, of Preble coun- 
ty; Clement L., a farmer of Butler town- 
ship, who is married and has one son and 
one daughter; Catherine V., wife of Will- 
iam Petry, of Preble county, by whom she 
has one daughter; Olive I., wife of John 
Hapner, of Preble county, by whom she has 
one daughter; Rachel E., wife of Charles 
Slusher, of Preble county; David I., who 
aids his father in the operation of the home 
farm; Jonathan O., who died at the age 
of eight years ; and George E. and John D., 
who are yet under the parental roof. 

Mr. Miller located upon his present farm 
in the spring of 1882 and has here eighty 
acres of land. In addition to the raising 
of cereals he makes a specialty of the grow- 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



269 



ing of tobacco, and for several years has 
operated a threshing machine. His place is 
improved with fine buildings, and every- 
thing about the farm is neat and thrifty in 
appearance, indicating the careful supervis- 
ion of the owner. Mr. Miller is independent 
in politics and has not voted since casting 
his ballot for General Hancock, twenty 
years ago. His time and attention are 
largely given to his business affairs and in 
these he has met with creditable success. 
Activity in the affairs of life, guided by 
sound judgment, has brought to him a com- 
fortable competence and he is therefore clas- 
sified among the substantial farmers of his 
community. 



MRS. ELIZABETH SHERRY. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Sherry belongs to one of 
the pioneer families of Darke county, and 
within the borders of the Buckeye state she 
has spent her entire life. She was born in 
Versailles, August 26, 1840. and is the eld- 
est of a family of nine children, three sons 
and six daughters, whose parents were Da- 
vid and Mary (Conner) Grissom. Her fa- 
ther came to Darke county during his early 
boyhood, acquiring his education in the pub- 
lic schools and throughout his active busi- 
ness career carried on agricultural pursuits 
here. The greater part of his life was passed 
in York township and he has met with a fair 
degree of success in his undertakings. He 
died when about sixty-two years of age, 
in the faith of the United Brethren church, 
of which he had long been a consistent 
member. Of his children seven are yet liv- 
ing, namely: Mrs. Sherry; Alfred, a soldier 
in the civil war, who is now married and 
follows farming in Jay county, Indiana; 
Hiram, who also was one of the "boys in 



blue," and is now living with his family on 
the farm in Jay county ; Lucinda, the wife of 
Samuel Lehman, a farmer of York township; 
Louisa, who is a twin sister of Lucinda, and 
is the wife of Cornelius Bertram, of York 
township; Martha Ellen, the wife of Webster 
Ward, an agriculturist of Wayne township; 
and Squire Francis, who is an enterprising 
merchant of Miami county. 

Mrs. Sherry was a little girl of three 
summers when she removed with her parents 
to the farm, the home of the family being 
a log cabin situated in the midst of the wild 
country where the work of progress and 
improvement had as yet made little trans- 
formation. She has seen deer upon her fa- 
ther's premises and remembers the day when 
wild game furnished many a meal for the 
settles. The first schoolhouse in which she 
pursued her studies was built of round logs 
and the seats were made of split sapplings, 
without backs. Upon a broad board resting 
on wooden pins driven into the wall the larg- 
er boys and girls wrote their exercises, and 
the curriculum was hardly more than the 
three "R's." After she had reached wom- 
anhood she promised her hand in marriage 
to Lewis Sherry, and the marriage was cele- 
barted on the 4th of November, 1859. He 
was born in Montgomery county, Ohio, 
February 13, 1838, and was a lad of five 
summers when he came to Darke county, 
which was the place of his abode until he 
was called to his final rest. Diligence and 
enterprise were numbered among his chief 
characteristeics and in his various business 
pursuits he manifested untiring activity, 
supplemented by sound judgment. He car- 
ried on farming for a number of years and 
for some time conducted an agricultural im- 
plement store in Versailles and in Greenville. 
He carried forward to successful comple- 



270 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



tion whatever he undertook and his business 
methods were at all times above question. 
His advice and counsel were often sought by 
his friends and neighbors and his opinions 
were fair and impartial and based upon prac- 
tical sense. With his family he occupied a 
farm of one hundred and twenty acres in 
York township, and his father's old home- 
stead there is still owned by his brother. 
Such was his upright character that naught 
was said against his motives or his acts and 
thus he left to his family an untarnished 
name. 

Mr. and Mrs. Sherry became the par- 
ents of four children, but one daughter died 
in early life. Those still living are Samuel, 
a merchant of Versailles, who married Min- 
erva J. Wilson ; William, who is represented 
elsewhere in this volume; Ahvilda E., the 
wife of Frank Oliver, who was born in 
Darke county, March 1 1, i860, and by whom 
she has one son and one daughter, Ernest 
and Bertha B. 

Mr. Sherry exercised his right of fran- 
chise in support of the men and meas- 
ures of the Democratic party from the 
time he cast his first presidential vote for 
Stephen A. Douglas. He was repeatedly 
elected justice of the peace of York town- 
ship, a fact which indicates the confidence 
reposed in him, as well as his fidelity and 
impartiality in the discharge of his duty. 
He was also a member of the executive com- 
mittee of the Versailles Farmers' Institute 
and took great interest in its meetings. Of 
the Masonc fraternity he was a valued and 
exemplary member and was likewise a lead- 
ing representative of the Evangelical 
Lutheran church, with which he united May 
26, 1855. He died January 20, 1898, when 
almost sixty years of age, death coming 
very unexpectedly. In the early morning of 



that day he awakened and held some conver- 
sation with his wife. A little later it ap- 
peared that he had again fallen asleep, and, 
thinking it time to arise, Mrs. Sherry address- 
ed him. No answer came and noting his ir- 
regular breathing, she hastily summoned 
by telephone her son-in-law and his family. 
Before medical aid came, however, he had 
passed away and in his death the community 
mourned the loss of one of its valued and 
worthy citizens. 

Mrs. Sherry makes her home with her 
daughter, Mrs. Oliver, in one of the 
pretty frame residences of York township. 
She has been to her family a kind and faith- 
ful mother and has long been a consistent 
member of the Lutheran church, and in her 
life has exemplified its teachings. For al- 
most sixty years she has resided in Darke 
county and she has witnessed the greater 
part of its growth and improvement. She 
belongs to one of the representative pioneer 
families of the community, for both the 
Sherrys and Grissoms were long identified 
with the substantial growth and upbuilding 
of this section of the state. Her many ex- 
cellent qualities have gained her friends 
whose regard is tried and true and those 
who have known her longest hold her in 
highest esteem. 



MRS. SAMUEL WILSON. 

Mrs. Samuel Wilson has been a witness 
of almost the entire growth and develop- 
ment of Darke county. She was born in 
Ohio, August, 21, 1836. and is the second of 
a family of three daughters, whose parents 
were Jacob and Ann Rebecca (Staup) Eyler. 
Her father was born in Frederick county, 
Maryland, August 30, 18 14, and died Sep- 
tember 26, 1886. He was reared upon the 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



271 



farm and acquired a good education in the 
schools near his home, but at an early age he 
was left to care for his widowed mother, 
and his educational advantages were meager. 
He came with his family to Ohio in 1836. 
locating in Montgomery county, where he 
resided for seven years. He afterward spent 
three years in Greene county and in 1846 
came to Darke county, locating in Van 
Buren township, and in this county he re- 
mained until his death. His political sup- 
port was given to the Democracy, and in 
religious belief he was a Lutheran. His wife. 
who belonged to the same church, was born 
in Maryland, April 27, 181 2. and died on 
the 20th of November, 1897. She was an 
affectionate wife and mother and her teach- 
ings have had marked influence over her chil- 
dren, for she was an earnest Christian 
woman and reared her children in the fear 
and admonition of the Lord. 

Mrs. Wilson, of this review, was a little 
maiden of ten summers when her parents 
became residents of Darke county. She re- 
mained in Van Buren township until her 
seventeenth year and pursued her education 
in the common schools. She was then mar- 
ried, on the 20th of September, 1853, to 
Samuel Wilson. They had little capital with 
which to start out in life, but they possessed 
resolute spirits and determined purpose; and 
the labors of the wife supplemented the work 
of the husband, who devoted his energies to 
the tilling of the soil. The first piece of land 
which they owned was eighty acres in Van 
Buren township. Subsequently they sold 
it and purchased sixty-five acres in Wayne 
township. Their first home was a little log 
cabin and for six years they resided in 
Wayne township, Mr. Wilson being actively 
engaged in agricultural pursuits. He also 
possessed considerable natural mechanical 

16 



ability and was a practical carpenter and 
bridge-builder. Perhaps no better account of 
his life can be given than to copy the obit- 
uary which was published in the Versailles 
Policy, in June, 1897. five days after his 
death. It says : 

"Samuel Wilson was the son of Samuel 
and Mary Frances Wilson, and was born in 
Greenville township, February 21, 1829. 
His grandfather and two aunts were killed 
by the Indians near Greenville. The two 
aunts. Patsy and Anna Wilson, were mur- 
dered in July, 1812. They had left the stock- 
ade to gather berries in the afternoon when 
they were attacked by the Indians and killed 
by blows on the head with tomahawks. 

"The parents of the deceased died when 
lie was young, his father being drowned in 
Greenville creek and his mother died soon 
after the sad death of the father. After the 
death of his parents he was compelled to live 
among strangers until eighteen years of age 
when he apprenticed himself to Orrin Cul- 
bertson as a carpenter. He remaned with 
him until he was twenty-one, when he be- 
came a contractor for himself. He proved 
himself to be a good business man. By fru- 
gality he had become a well-to-do and pros- 
perous farmer. 

"In the year 1853 he was joined in holy 
wedlock with Mary C. Eyler, with whom he 
lived happily until death separated them. 
To them eleven children were born, eight of 
whom are now living, seven girls and one 
son. He was always kind and true to his 
wife and children. During his life the de- 
ceased proved himself a public-spirited man, 
serving as the treasurer of Yorktown town- 
ship for four years, a trustee for one 
and commissioner of Darke county for six 
years. Thus his life of usefulness in the 
home, in the community and the county is 



272 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



ended and he has gone the way of all the 
earth. In the last solemn obsequies we could 
but manifest our tender regard for him and 
tenderly lay the lifeless form to sleep in 
mother earth, committing his spirit into the 
hands of the Great Giver of life. May his 
rest be sweet ! To his companion is due an 
expression of our deepest sorrow, for she, 
most of all, feels this sad separation. She will 
be most lonely. May the infinite Father 
comfort and abundantly bless her ! May the 
children profit by the counsels of their father 
and emulate his virtues! Remember there is 
one above who has promised to be a friend 
to the orphan and the widow. May heaven 
smile upon you and bless you. To the dozen 
grandchildren we say, mourn not that a 
loved one is taken away. These experiences 
you will meet often along life's pathway. 

" We shall miss thee a thousand times 
along life's weary track; 
Not a sorrow or a joy but we shall long 

to call thee back, — 
Yearn for thy true and tender heart, long 

thy bright smile to see, 
For many dear and true are left, but 

none quite like thee. 
Not upon us or ours the solemn angel 

has wrought; 
The funeral anthem is a glad evangel: 

the good die not; 
God calls our loved ones, but we lose 

not wholly what he has given: 
They live in thought and deed as truly 
as in heaven." 

Such is the account of the life and char- 
acter of Samuel Wilson by one who knew 
him long and well. 

He was for many years identified with 
agricultural pursuits in Darke county. 
After residing on two different farms in 
Wayne township, he sold his poperty there 
and purchased eighty acres of land in Rich- 
land township. Two years later he disposed 



of that tract and bought one hundred and 
thirty acres in Wayne township, but lived 
there for only two years, after which he sold 
cut and bought a quarter-section of land in 
York township. This was partially covered 
by timber and brush and the improvements 
on the place were a little log cabin and log 
stable. In his business affairs, however, Mr. 
Wilson prospered and year by year added 
to his possessions. At one time he was the 
owner of six hundred acres in Darke county 
and in Indiana. In 1876 he erected on his 
home farm in this county a beautiful brick 
residence and the following year built a large 
and commodious barn. He also made other 
substantial improvements which added to 
the value and attractive appearance of this 
place. About 1S90 he erected on section 15 
a tasteful and pleasant house in which their 
daughter, Mrs. Gilbert, now resides. Mr. 
Wilson was a very successful farmer and 
stock-raiser, and his careful management 
of his business interests brought to. him a 
w ell deserved success. He was known far 
and wide as a benevolent gentleman, always 
just and fair in his dealings. To his family 
he not only left a handsome estate but also 
that priceless heritage which is rather to be 
chosen than great riches. 

In politics he was a Democrat and filled 
the office of township treasurer for four 
years. He was also a township trustee for 
two years and county commissioner for six 
years. In all these positions he discharged 
his duty with marked promptness and fidel- 
ity and won the high commendation of all 
concerned. The poor and needy ever found 
in Mr. and Mrs. Wilson warm friends who 
were willing to aid them, and to many pub- 
lic movements and measures which have 
contributed to the general good they were 
liberal supporters. 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



273 



This worthy couple became the parents 
of eleven children, two sons and nine daugh- 
ters, of whom eight are yet living, as fol- 
lows : Cynthia H., who resides with her 
mother on the old homestead; William J., 
who is represented elsewhere in this volume ; 
Minerva J., the wife of Samuel Sherry, a 
merchant of Versailles, by whom she had a 
son and daughter; Iola Belle, the wife of 
Charles Ewry, who was formerly a teacher 
but is now engaged in the hardware business 
in Portland, Indiana, as a member of the 
firm of Yount & Ewry ; Ida May, the wife 
of Harry A. Gilbert, formerly a teacher but 
now a prosperous farmer of York township, 
by whom she has one son and two daugh- 
ters; Mary Frances, the wife of William D. 
Yount, who is a partner of Mr. Ewry in 
the hardware business, and by whom she has 
two sons; Edith G., wife of S. A. Over- 
liolzer, who was formerly a successful teach- 
er and is now a prominent farmer in Rich- 
land township, by whom she has one son ; 
and Minnie, the wife of William C. Hile, 
an agriculturist of Wayne township. They 
too have one son. The children were all 
provided with good educational privileges 
to fit them for life's practical and responsible 
duties, and their life records are a credit to 
the family name. 

Mrs. Wilson is now residing in her 
beautiful home, surrounded by her children 
and a host of warm friends, among whom 
she has long resided. Her beautiful Chris- 
tian character and her upright life have 
gained to her the love and esteem of many. 
In the Versailles cemetery stands a beautiful 
Scotch granite monument sacred to the 
memory of her husband, who so long trav- 
eled life's journey, sharing with his family 
its joys and sorrows, its adversity and pros- 
perity. She bravely met the hardships and 



trials of pioneer life in the early days and 
now well deserves the enjoyment which 
comes to her through the comforts witli 
which she is surrounded. 



R. K. BEAM. 



The name Beam figures conspicuously 
on the pages of Darke county history. The 
ancestry can be traced back to the father- 
land, and many of his sterling qualities found 
their origin in the Teutonic race. He was 
born in Darke county, December 28, 185 1, 
and in a family of ten children, three sons 
and seven daughters, was the fourth in or- 
der of birth. His parents were Solomon 
and Elizabeth (Warvel) Beam, and the 
father was born in Richland township, 
Darke county, on the 26th of February, 
1823. He was one of the oldest native sons 
in this locality. In his early life he was a 
sawyer in Brown township, following that 
pursuit at a time when the county was large- 
ly covered with a heavy growth of timber. 
In later years he carried on agricultural pur- 
suits. 

At the time of the civil war, prompted 
by a spirit of patriotism, he responded to 
the call for aid and joined the "boys in blue" 
of Company G, One Hundred and Fifty- 
second Ohio Infantry. His regiment was 
assigned to the Army of the Cumberland, 
and he participated in a number of import- 
ant engagements and all of the trying ordeals 
which make up a soldier's life. He went 
with Sherman on the celebrated march to 
the sea, and on one occasion he had his leg 
broken, which necessitated his discharge. 
He entered the service as second lieutenant 
of the company, and was always known as a 
loyal soldier. 



274 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



A man firm in support of his honest con- 
victions and earnest in all things, he com- 
manded genuine regard from all those with 
whom he came in contact. As his guide 
through life he followed the precept of the 
Golden Rule, and it was exemplified in 
his daily conduct with men. In politics 
he was an old-line Whig, and in ante 
bellufn days advocated abolition princi- 
ples and became a great admirer of Abraham 
Lincoln, becoming one of the early support- 
ers of the Republican party, upholding by 
bis ballot its men and measures. He was 
regarded as one of the substantial farmers 
of the community, and on coming to Brown 
township he entered eighty acres of forest 
land on section 1 1, where he built a log cabin 
and made his home until his death, which 
occurred on the nth of January, 1866. He 
was progressive and public-spirited, and 
gave his support to many interests which he 
believed would prove of benefit to the com- 
munity. He was interested in the construc- 
tion of the old Mackinac Railroad, now 
known as the Cincinnati & Northern Rail- 
road, and his material assistance was given 
to many other measures. His father, 
George Beam, came to Ohio from the state 
of Pennsylvania, and was one of the pio- 
neers of Richland township. He staked out 
the first lot in Beamsville and the town was 
named in his honor. 

The mother of our subject was a daugh- 
ter of Christopher and Charlotte (Lilly) 
Warvel, who were early settlers of that coun- 
ty. She was born May 16, 1827, and is 
still living in the village of Ansonia. For 
many years she was a member of the United 
Brethren church, but now holds membership 
in the Methodist Episcopal church, and is 
an earnest Christian lady, whose belief finds 
exemplification in her upright life. Her 



influence has had marked effect on the char- 
acter of her children, who have every reason 
to be grateful' for the wise teachings of a 
tender and loving mother. Six of her chil- 
dren yet survive, namely : Daniel C, who 
was a soldier in the civil war, is married and 
is now following farming in Allen township; 
R. K., of this review; Paulina, the wife of 
John Ketrow, a commercial traveler resid- 
ing in YanWert, Ohio; Jane, wife of A. J. 
Lickel, a farmer of Mercer county, Ohio; 
Leroy S., a farmer who is married and lives 
in Brown township; and Mollie A., wife of 
Dr. De Ford, who is a graduate of the Cin- 
cinnati Medical College, and is now a suc- 
cessful practitioner in Rossville. 

R. K. Beam, whose name forms the cap- 
tion of this sketch, is a typical Ohioan. He 
was reared to farm life, and throughout his 
active business career has carried on general 
farming and stock raising. The common 
schools afforded him his educational privi- 
leges, but he is largely self-educated, for 
when he was fifteen years of age his father 
died, leaving him to support his widowed 
mother and the other children of the family, 
as he was the eldest. His life has been one 
of industry and earnest toil, but the difficul- 
ties which he has met have served to develop 
in him a strong character. Many obstacles 
were in his path, and at times his boyish 
heart almost failed him, but he would re- 
new his courage and press manfully up- 
ward. As the years passed he worked 
his way steadily upward, and today 
he is numbered among the substan- 
tial farmers and stock raisers of his 
native county. He remained with his 
mother until twenty-five years of age, and 
at that time he married Miss Sarah C. Rue, 
the marriage taking place on the 15th of 
March, 1877. She was born November 4, 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



275 



1856, a daughter of William and Lovina 
(Birman) Rue. In the family were ten 
children, of whom nine are yet living, all 
residents of Darke county. 

The father was born in Hanover, Ger- 
many, September 9, 183 1, and died April 
16, 1896. He was brought to America by 
his parents when only three years of age, the 
family locating in Germantown, Ohio. He 
became a well-to-do citizen of York town- 
ship, and lived an honorable life. His 
widow still survives him and is making her 
home on the old farmstead in York town- 
ship, at the age of sixty-four years. She 
has been a life-long member of the Luth- 
eran church. Unto Mr. and Mrs. Beam 
have been born nine children, eight yet liv- 
ing, as follows : Augustus, who was edu- 
cated in the common schools, is associated 
with his father in farming and stock raising 
in Brown township : he is married and 
in his political views is a Democrat; Myrtle, 
who is a most estimable young lady of ex- 
cellent character and a favorite with her 
many friends, died June 13, 1897; Willie, 
who assists his father in the operation of 
the home farm ; Daisy, who is attending 
school and is also studying music; Ivy, 
Thomas, Byrell, Virgie and Thelma com- 
plete the family circle. Mrs. Beam is of a 
genial and affectionate disposition, and thus 
makes a model wife and mother. She and 
her husband have traveled life's journey to- 
gether for a quarter of a century, sharing to- 
gether its joys and sorrows, its adversity and 
prosperity. 

At the time of their marriage they be- 
gan housekeeping in a little log cabin upon 
rented land, and Mr. Beam's possessions con- 
sisted of two old horses and just money 
enough to enable him to place his land under 
cultivation. He continued renting for 



about five or six years, and then purchased 
forty acres of land, constituting a part of 
his present farm. He was materially as- 
siste'd by James Tynan, who had formed a 
strong friendship for Mr. Beam, when he 
was a fatherless boy, endeavoring to sup- 
port his widowed mother and her children. 
As the years passed our subject was enabled 
to add to his property, and is today the 
owner of a valuable farm of three hundred 
and thirty-one acres in Brown township, 
supplied with the best modern improvements, 
including a beautiful brick residence which 
was erected in 1890. Near by are found 
commodious barns and outbuildings and 
well fenced fields which are highly culti- 
vated, giving evidence of the thrift, enter- 
prise and perseverance of the owner. For 
some time he has made a specialty of stock 
raising, and for a number of years has raised 
fine hogs, having a large drove of registered 
Poland China hogs. He also makes a spe- 
cialty of registered short horn cattle, and is 
well known throughout the entire country 
as a stock raiser who has done much to im- 
prove the grade of stock which is raised in 
this section of the state. He is well in- 
formed in all agricultural and stock raising 
subjects, and the methods which he follows 
are progressive. For nine years he was the 
vice-president and superintendent of the cat- 
tle and other departments of the Darke 
County Fair Association and is also official- 
ly connected with the Darke County Agri- 
cultural Association, his labors having been 
very effective in promoting the interests of 
the farmers of western Ohio. 

Mr. Beam cast his first presidential vote 
for Samuel J. Tilden and has since been a 
stanch Democrat, who has frequently been 
selected to serve as a delegate to the county, 
state and congressional conventions. His 



276 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



opinions always carry weight in the coun- 
cils of his party. He was elected as as- 
sessor of Brown township when twenty-two 
years of age, and has been a trustee of the 
township for two terms, discharging his 
duties in a most creditable manner. He is 
a stanch friend of the little red schoolhouse 
and his labors have greatly promoted the 
cause of education through twenty years' 
service as a member of the school board, of 
which organization he is now the president. 
In 1885 he was elected one of the commis- 
sioners of Darke county and filled the office 
with such marked ability that he was re- 
elected in 1888. Although but a young 
man, his fellow townsmen recognize the fact 
that the community was never better repre- 
sented on the board, for he gave his support 
to all progressive measures calculated to 
prove of public benefit and at the same time 
was practical in his advocacy of such. He 
has never failed of election when a candi- 
date for office, and in 1888 received thirty- 
seven votes in the county more than were 
given Grover Cleveland. He has always 
been fearless ami faithful in the discharge 
of his duty, standing by those principles 
and measures which he believed to be right. 
Prior to his election the Democrats of Darke 
county were divided into factions and even 
county commissioners were displaying 
marked dissimilarity of opinion concerning 
the erection of beautiful modern buildings 
which constituted the "Children's Home," 
but Mr. Beam's proposition to the commis- 
sioners and the public met the demands that 
were made by those officers and their con- 
stituents. A part <f tlic Manix estate was 
sold and about fifty-two acres were retained 
upon which was erected the beautiful home 
which certainly is highly creditable to Darke 
county, as well as to the men who were 



influential in its erection, prominent among 
whom was Mr. Beam. Although his duties 
were arduous and difficult to perform he 
discharged them fully and to the best of his 
ability — and that ability is of a high grade. 
He is now serving as one of the present pike 
board of commissioners. He lent his aid 
and influence toward the work of repairing 
and modernizing the county court house 
and has always been found in favor of prog- 
ress and advancement. The building was 
thoroughly overhauled, a complete plumbing 
system was put in and due regard was given 
its sanitary arrangements. 

Socially Mr. Beam is connected with 
the Masonic lodge of Ansonia and his life 
exemplifies its noble and benevolent teach- 
ings. He is also a member of the Darke 
County Horse Thief Association, one of the 
worthy organizations of the county, and 
acted as its president at one time. This is 
a chartered institution of the state of Ohio 
and has done creditable work in apprehend- 
ing criminals. He has contributed to the 
support of the churches and schools and has 
been active in promoting all measures for the 
general good. He and his wife are num- 
bered among the most respected citizens of 
Brown township and Darke county, and his 
close connection with its progress and ad- 
vancement would render any history of the 
count)- incomplete that did not contain the 
record of their lives. He is truly a self- 
made man, one who has worked his own 
way upward, and his example is indeed in 
many respects well worthy of emulation. 



FRANCIS MARION EIDSON. 

This gentleman, who is now successfully 
engaged in farming in Greenville township, 
has led a life of honest toil. Throughout 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



277 



his career of continued and far-reaching use- 
fulness lhs duties have heen performed with 
the greatest care, and business interests have 
been so managed as to win him the confi- 
dence of the public and the prosperity which 
should always attend honorable effort. 

A native of Ohio, Mr. Eidson was born 
in Preble county December 14, 1835, and is 
a son of Boyce and Rebecca (Griffin) Eid- 
son. natives of Virginia and Delaware, re- 
spectively, and a grandson of Henry and 
Nancy ( Bunch) Eidson. the former also a 
native of Virginia, the latter of Scotland. 
On the paternal side our subject is descended 
from an old colonial family of English 
origin, the first to cross the Atlantic being 



his great-grandfather. 



The grandfather, 



Henry Eidson, was a soldier of the con- 
tinental army during the Revolutionary war, 
and was a farmer by occupation. Oln leav- 
ing his native state in 1806 he removed to 
Preble county, Ohio, accompanied by his 
wife and three children — Boyce, Shelton 
and Nancy. In this state the family circle 
was increased by the birth of two other 
children, — Margaret and William. The 
grandfather took up land i.i the woods three 
miles southeast of West Alexandria, where 
he made his permanent home, devoting his 
time to the development and improvement of 
his farm. He and his wife were devout Chris- 
tians and active members of the Methodist 
church. Upon his farm lie built a log church, 
which took his name, and his home was al- 
ways the stopping place for the early itin- 
erant preachers. In politics he was a Whig. 
He died in 1846, aged seventy-five years, 
and his wife passed away in 1850 at che age 
of eighty-two. All of their children are in iw 
deceased and their descendants are widely 
scattered. 

The father of our subject was born in 



1802 and was only four years old when 
the family removed to Preble county, Ohio, 
where he grew to manhood. Although the 
educational privileges of this state were 
meager at that day, he and two brothers pre- 
pared themselves for teaching and success- 
fully taught in the schools of Preble county. 
One brother, William, became a physician ; 
the other, Harry, became somewhat noted 
as a local politician and also served his fel- 
low townsmen as a justice of the peace for 
over twelve years'. About 1839 Boyce Eid- 
son married Rebecca Griffin, a daughter of 
Jacob and Hannah Griffin, who removed 
from Smyrna, Delaware, to Preble county, 
Ohio, at a comparatively early day. The 
Griffin family was founded in America by 
three brothers, natives of Wales. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Eidson were born ten children, 
namely : Griffin. Henry and Charles, all 
deceased ; Nancy, the widow of Chester 
Rensman; Frank M.; Priscilla, the widow 
of James Gable ; Willard ; Lucy, the wife of 
H. H. Payne; Olevia, the wife of William 
Shuman; and Anna, the deceased wife of 
Benjamin Smith. After his marriage the 
father of our subject engaged in farming 
in Preble county for a few years and then 
removed to West Alexandria, where he con- 
ducted a hotel until 1884, when he returned 
to the farm for two years. He next moved 
to Johnsville, Montgomery county. Ohio, 
where he died in 1847. He was a man of 
good business ability and was highly re- 
spected by all who knew him. He served 
as assessor in Preble county, and fraternally 
was a Mason. His estimable wife died at 
her home in Preble county in [898, at the 
ripe old age of e'ghty-seven years. 

In the county of his nativity Francis M. 
Eids .n grew to manhood and obtained a 
good practical education in the public 



278 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



scln iols which he supplemented by a course of 
study in a commercial college in Eaton. He 
remained with his mother until eighteen years 
of age, and then began life upon his own re- 
sponsibility. For three years he was en- 
gaged in the tanning business with his eldest 
brother at Eaton, and in i860 came to Pal- 
estine, Darke county, buying the tannery 
from George Kester at that place and form- 
ing a partnership with Jonathan Hardin. 
The following spring, however, when Presi- 
dent Lincoln issued his call for seventy- 
five thousand men to assist in putting down 
the rebellion, he enlisted for three months 
in Company K, Eleventh Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry, and left his business in the hands 
of his partner. His term of service was 
principally spent at Camp Dennison, Ohio, 
doing picket duty. 

Upon receiving his discharge in July, 
1861, Mr. Eidson returned home and re- 
sumed the tanning business. Shortly after- 
ward he was appointed by the military 
authorities to take the poll of German town- 
ship, preparatory to a draft that was being 
contemplated and was afterward marie. On 
the 24th of June, 1862, he married Miss 
Lousetta A., a daughter of George and Eve 
(Frank) Kester. of Darke county. By this 
union have been born seven children, name- 
ly : Boyce : Clara, the wife of Jacob Schafer. 
who lias a position in the Merchants' Na- 
tional Bank, of Indianapolis; Virginia, the 
wife of Orla Harrison, an attorney of Green- 
ville; Harry and Frankie, both deceased; 
George Mclntyre and Frank Murray. 

In 1864 Mr. Eidson purchased his part- 
ner's interest in the tanning business, and 
putting all his energy into the same he was 
soon doing an extensive business. Employ- 
ing extra help, he accumulated a large stock 
of finished and unfinished stock, but on the 



night of February 14, 1865. his plant and 
the entire contents of the building were de- 
stroyed by tire, at a total loss of five thou- 
sand dollars, as there was no insurance upon 
the property. With characteristic energy, 
however, he rebuilt on the old site and about 
the same time entered into negotiations with 
Elisha Dawes, of Greenville, which resulted 
in selling Mr. Dawes a half interest in the 
Palestine tannery, and he himself buying a 
half interest in Mr. Dawes' tanning business 
in Greenville. Mr. Eidson then moved to 
Greenville to assume charge of the manu- 
facturing part of the business. They car- 
ried on business together to their mutual 
profit and satisfaction for three years, when 
our subject purchased his partner's interest. 
His next partner was D. M. Stephenson, 
who had a shoe finding and leather store, 
to which lie gave his personal attention, 
while Mr. Eidson conducted the tanner)'. 
This connection was dissolved in 1876, when 
the business was divided, Mr. Eidson taking 
the tannery as his portion, and Mr. Stephen- 
son the store and stock. Our subject was 
then alone in business until 1881, when, be- 
coming somewhat weary of that line of 
trade and the business outlook not being- 
particularly good, he sold out to T. B. War- 
ring, and subsequently purchased Mr. War- 
ring's Fruit Hill farm of two hundred and 
twenty acres on section 10, Greenville town- 
ship, upon which he has resided for the most 
part ever since, carrying- on farming and 
stock raising, and for fourteen years pre- 
vious to 1899 he conducted the Fruit Hill 
dairy with good success. 

As a Republican Mr. Eidson has been 
prominently identified with local politics for 
many years. His popularity is attested by 
his being elected township trustee in a town- 
ship that has an overwhelming Democratic 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



279 



majority, and he filled that office one term. 
He was a member of the city council of 
Greenville six years, the school board of 
that place four years and is no\v serving his 
sixth year as a member of the County Ag- 
ricultural Society, having been re-elected for 
a two-years term in 1S99. In 1890 he took 
the census in the west precinct of Green- 
ville township, and all of his official duties 
have been most faithfully and satisfactorily 
performed. For twenty-eight years he has 
been a member of Greenville Lodge. No. 
195, I. O. O. K, and he also belongs to 
Jobes Post. No. 157. G A. R. Mrs. Eid- 
snii is a member of Rebekah's Bee Hive 
Lodge, No. 266, of Greenville. She was 
the first noble grand of the lodge and de- 
livered the noble grand *s charge the first 
five years of the lodge's existence, since 
which time she has delivered the past grand's 
charge. She served as a special deputy of 
the grand master of Ohio for five years, 
has been sent as delegate to the state as- 
sembly nine years and served as state chap- 
lain one year. In all the public entertain- 
ments of the lodge she has always been ap- 
pointed to deliver the addresses of the Re- 
bekah branch of the order. Mrs. Eidson is 
a member of Jobes Post Corps, No. 223, 
W. R. C, and is the assistant patriotic in- 
structor. In religion she is one of the active 
and prominent members of the Universalist 
church of Greenville, and Mr. Eidson leans 
toward the doctrines enunciated by that de- 
nomination. He is one of Darke county's 
representative business men and is widely 
ami favorably known. 



WILLIAM ALLEN LIVINGSTON. 

This well-known farmer and stock raiser 
of Wabash township, Darke county, Ohio, 
was born in Preble county, Ohio, March 



16, 1856, and is a son of John Livingston, 
a retired farmer living near Greenville, who 
was born in West Virginia. The paternal 
grandfather, John Livingston, Sr., was a 
native of Virginia and a butcher by trade. 
He married and later emigrated to Preble 
county, Ohio, where both he and his wife 
died and were buried, though the grand- 
mother survived her husband several years. 
They had eight children, five sons and three 
diaughters, all of whom are still living, and 
with the exception of one son all have fam- 
ilies. 

Throughout his active business life the 
father of our subject followed farming but 
now, at the age of seventy years, he is living 
retired near Greenville. About 1850 he 
married Ann Rebecca Vance, a native of 
Preble comity and a daughter of Michael 
and Ann Rebecca (King) Vance, both de- 
ceased. Mrs. Livingston died on Christmas 
day, 1898. By this union were born the 
following children: John W.. who died in 
infancy; Elly. the wife of David Heckman; 
William A., our subject; Isabelle, who died 
at the age of fifteen years; Martha Jane, 
the wife of Dase Stults and a resident of 
Piqua; Lucy Ann, at home with her fa- 
ther; Mary Margaret, the wife of Irvin 
Earsman; and Charles Elmer, who lives 
near Greenville. 

Our subject was reared to farm life and 
acquired his education in the district schools. 
On the 23d of October, 1881, he led to the 
marriage altar Miss Rebecca Gipe. of Darke 
county, and to them were born seven chil- 
dren: Mary Jane, who died at the age of 
one year; Grade, John, Rosa, Murley, Clara 
and Emma A., the last named aged two 
years, all at home. 

In 1898 Mr. Livingston rented Uriah 
Medford's farm in Wabash township, a place 



280 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



of one hundred and fifty-nine acres, which 
lie is now successfully operating. He is en- 
gaged in mixed farming, raising mostly corn 
and wheat, and keeps all kinds of stock, 
horses, cattle, sheep and hogs. He is a 
thorough, up-to-date farmer and hard 
worker, and has made sometimes as much 
as fifteen hundred dollars per year. Po- 
litically he is identified with the Republican 
party, and religiously is an earnest member 
of All Saint's church. 



THOMAS BAKER. 

This well-known and prosperous farmer 
of Harrison township has an excellent and 
finely improved farm in the southwest corner 
of Darke county, the same being only one- 
half mile from his birthplace, which was in 
Preble county, where he was ushered into 
the world on the 30th of November, 1832. 
His father, Thomas Baker, Sr., was a na- 
tive of the state of Xew Jersey, where he 
was born November 19, 1795, and died in 
Preble county, Ohio, in 1879, on the place 
where the subject of this sketch was born. 
The great-grandfather of our subject also 
bore the name of Thomas and he was born 
in the Passaic river valley of New Jersey 
in 1762, his death occurring near Win- 
chester, Indiana, about 1841. The latter's 
father, Thomas Baker, of Long Island, New 
York, was a man of prominence in his day. 
The original ancestor, who bore the same 
Christian name, was an officer in the English 
army and at one time owned all of Long 
Island. His sword was owned by the grand- 
father of our subject and he had it manu- 
factured into butcher knives while he was 
living in Butler county, Ohio, where he set- 
tled in 1801. He married Lydia Hand, of 
New Jersey, where they were married, and 



they reared five sons and four daughters. 
One daughter. Sarah, the first born, joined 
the organization of the Shakers before she 
was of legal age, so her parents brought 
her home, but she eventually returned to the 
Shakers, with whom she passed her life, 
attaining the great age of ninety-one years. 
The youngest child. Abner, lived to be 
eighty-eight. 

The mother of our subject bore the 
maiden name of Elizabeth Wesley and she 
was born in Pennsylvania in 1806, John 
Wesley, the father of Methodism, having 
been her granduncle. Our subject is one of 
twelve children, and of this number four 
sons and six daughters were reared to ma- 
turity and all except one were married. 
Those living at the present time are: Ann, 
wife of Henry Hutton, of New Paris, Preble 
county; Martha, wife of Michael Reid, of 
the same locality ; Thomas, the immediate 
subject of this review; Elizabeth, widow of 
David Roberts, resides near Hollansburg, 
this county; Mary Ann, widow of John 
Benson, resides near New Paris, Treble 
county. The mother of this large family 
of children died at the age of about sixty- 
four years, and the father subsequently con- 
summated a second marriage, his death oc- 
curring in the spring o"f 1879, at the age of 
eighty-four years. He was an extensive 
and opulent farmer, owning about six hun- 
dred acres of land in this section of the state 
and in Indiana. 

The subject of this sketch is the owner 
of two hundred and seventy acres in three 
farms, all of which he received from his fa- 
ther's estate, and other tracts are still owned 
by members of the family. Thomas never 
left the parental home, but on the 13th of 
December, 1855, he was united in marriage 
to Margaret Todd, of Preble county, who 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



281 



bore him four children, three of whom grew 
to maturity: Elma E., widow of Wesley 
Clark, of Spartansburg, Indiana, has three 
sons. Thomas O. Baker is principal of the 
high school at Yonkers, New York; he is 
a college graduate, having taken the de- 
gree of Doctor of Pedagogy, and stands high 
in his profession; he is married. Lennis W. 
Baker, a resident of Dayton, Ohio, has one 
son and one daughter. Mr. Baker, of this 
sketch, consummated a second marriage 
October 23, 1870, being then united to Miss 
Sarah C. McClure, of Harrison township, 
the daughter of Samuel and Rebecca (Rob- 
erts) McClure. Of this union seven chil- 
dren were born, and of the number only two 
are deceased. We offer the following brief 
record of the children: Lucy L. is tlie wife 
of Alvah Hunt of Preble county, and they 
have one son and one daughter. Fanny 
May died at the age of six years. Will- 
iam Wesley Baker, who is engaged in the 
meat business at Hollansburg, has one son. 
George H. Baker is a farmer in Wayne coun- 
ty, Indiana, and has one daughter. Cora 
E. still remains at the parental home, as 
do also Lester E. and Naydean, who are 
interesting young folk, lending joy and 
brightness to the family circle. 

Mr. Baker gives his support to the Re- 
publican party and fraternally he is identi- 
fied with the Masonic order. He has served 
several terms as road supervisor and also as 
school director. He comes of a large and 
vigorous race, being' about five feet and 
eleven inches m height personally and weigh- 
ing two hundred ten pounds. He has given 
careful attention to general farming upon 
the most approved methods and has been 
successful in raising stock in which line he 
has carried on quite extensive operatiohs. 
He has bred many good horses, having 



owned twenty at one time and having foaled 
one hundred and ten colts. Mr. Baker's 
home is in the extreme southwest corner of 
Darke county, but he is known all over this 
section of the state and in the adjacent por- 
tions of Indiana, being recognized as one of 
our representatives and influential farmers 
and as a man of sterling character. 



SAMUEL B. MINNICH. 

For forty years Mr. Minnich has been 
the postmaster of Castine and is one of the 
well-known citizens of his locality, whose 
sterling worth and upright character have 
won him the respect and confidence of his 
fellow men. A native of Pennsylvania, his 
birth occurred in Dauphin county on the 
roth of December, 1824. His father, John 
Minnich, was born in the same locality Feb- 
ruary 18, 1790, and his wife, Susannah 
Minnich, was born February 6, 1793. The 
parents have both long since passed away, 
the former having died October 22 [865, 
at the age of seventy-five years, while the 
latter was called to the home beyond in 
1856, when sixty-three years of age. Our 
subject, the fourth son, when a little lad of 
seven summers came with his parents to 
Ohio, where he enjoyed the usual common- 
school advantages, pursuing his studies un- 
til seventeen years of age. Through the 
summer months he worked in the fields and 
assisted in the cultivation of the home farm 
until twenty-two years of age, when he left 
the parental roof and worked at the mill- 
wright's trade for three years. In 1858, 
more than half a century ago, he came to 
Castine and has since been a worthy and 
honored citizen of this place. 

On the 14th of December, 1850 Air. 
Minnich was married, by Squire Peter V. 



282 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Banta. to Miss Theressa St. Clair, and to 
them were born the following children: 
Joseph, born September 19. 1851, is now a 
resident of West Sonora and is engaged in 
grain dealing. He has a wife, and a daugh-„ 
ter, who is married. John W., born Octo- 
ber 31. 1856, is a traveling salesman, repre- 
senting a Cincinnati house. Bertha is the 
wife of H. C. Minnich, a resident of Hills- 
boro. Ohio, and unto them were born two 
children. Mrs. Theressa Minnich was called 
to her final rest in i860, at the age of thirty- 
nine and a half years, and Mr. Minnich was 
again married, February 9, 1862. his second 
imii m being with Evelina Law, the cere- 
mi my being performed by Peter Y. Banta. 
the same worthy justice of the peace who 
first married him. Her father, Thomas 
Law, was born in Allegheny county, Penn- 
sylvania, November 17, 181 5, and died in 
1858, at the age of forty-three years. His 
wife, Mrs. Catherine Law, passed away Oc- 
tober 27. 1870. at the age of fifty- four years 
and five months. By the second marriage 
there is one daughter. Bertha, born October 
26, 1870. 

When Mr. Minnich located in Castine, 
more than a half century ago, he engaged in 
the manufacture of hard-wood lumber, own- 
ing and operating a steam sawmill. About 
ten years later he exchanged that for the 
general merchantile store, and the firm of 
Minnich & Hamiel has always held the first 
place in the business interests of the village, 
their annual sales amounting to from fifteen 
to twenty thousand dollars. Mr. Minnich 
purchased his first bill of goods in Dayton, 
its value being three hundred dollars. He 
offered to pay cash if they would discount 
five per cent on the bill, but the wholesale 
merchant declined this, telling him to bring 
his money home and loan it. This he did, 



at six per cent per annum, and the goods 
were purchased on a year's credit without 
interest. The firm have had as high as forty 
thousand dollars on their books at one time, 
and the unpaid accounts due the house at 
this time are over thirty thousand dollars. 
During the intervening years the firm of 
Minnich & Hamiel have taken large con- 
tracts for the building of pikes, constructing 
twelve miles of pike which forms an im- 
portant part of the system in the county. 

Mr. Minnich has one of the largest and 
most pleasant homes in the village sur- 
rounded by spacious grounds and well kept 
gardens. All that he has he has acquired 
through his own efforts and his well directed 
labors have brought to him very desirable 
success. For thirty years he has been a 
Knight Templar Mason and, with a thor- 
ough understanding and appreciation of the 
benevolent principles of the order he has 
loyally exemplified its teachings. In poli- 
tics he is a Republican and for forty years 
has filled the office of postmaster in Castine, 
accepting the ofhce in i860 and filling it 
continuously since, with the exception of 
the period of President Cleveland's admin- 
istration. He has served as township trus- 
tee and also as township clerk. His life has 
been well spent and his useful, active and 
honorable career has gained him rank among 
the leading representative and esteemed 
citizens of his community. 



WILLIAM H. REPPETO. 

Among the public-spirited and progres- 
sive citizens of Greenville probably none 
have done more to advance the welfare and 
prosperity of the town than the gentleman 
who is now serving as the president of the 
city council. He has also been a prominent 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



283 



factor in business circles, and is a man whose 
worth and ability have gained him success. 
honor and public confidence. 

Mr. Reppeto was born near the city of 
Hamilton, Butler county, Ohio, in Decem- 
ber, 1845, an d is a son of Dabner and Char- 
lotte (McEowen) Reppeto, in whose family 
were two children, but the daughter, Mar- 
tha, died in infancy. His grandfather, Alex- 
ander McEowen, was one of the pioneers of 
Darke county and fought under General 
Wayne when he was making" his raid 
through this county. The father of our 
subject was a native of Virginia, but during 
his youth came to Ohio, where he grew to 
manhood and married. He and his wife be- 
gan their domestic life in Butler county, 
where he followed his trade, that of cooper, 
for a number of years, but at the time of 
his death, in i86r, was living in Davenport, 
Iowa. His wife had died in Miami county, 
Ohio, in 1848. 

William H. Reppeto received the greater 
part of his education in the schools of Daven- 
port, Iowa. Although only fifteen vears of 
age he joined the "boys in blue" at the 
opening of the civil war, enlisting in 1861 
in Company C, Eighth Indiana Volunteer 
Infantry, as a musician, under Colonel Will- 
iam P. Benton. After being mustered into 
the United States service he was ordered 
with his regiment to Missouri and Arkan- 
sas, and took part in the battles of Pea 
Ridge, Wilson's Creek and Duvall's Bluff, 
Arkansas. He served faithfully until Feb- 
ruary, 1863. when he was taken ill and sent 
to the hospital in St. Louis, Missouri, where 
he remained some months and was then 
sent to Belleville, Illinois. On recovering 
his health he re-enlisted in Company B, 
Twenty-ninth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, 
and served until the close of the war, tak- 



ing part in the siege of Mobile, the capture 
of that stronghold and Fort Blakelv. He 
was mustered out October 11, 1865. 

After the war Mr. Reppeto came to 
Greenville, Ohio, where he attended school 
for a time, and then learned the cabinet- 
maker's trade, which he has made his life 
work, having followed that occupation in 
several different states. On the nth of 
August, 1890, he married his second wife, 
Miss Amanda E. Cline, a daughter of F. 
M. Cline, and to them have been born two 
children, Virgil and Ester. The latter died 
at three years of age. 

Socially Mr. Reppeto is a member of 
Flora Lodge, No. 526, I. O. O. F., at Flora, 
and has been D. D. G. M. of that order. Po- 
litically he is a pronounced Democrat. He 
lias been a member of the city council of 
Greenville and has been the president of 
that body for the last year. He takes an 
active and influential part in public affairs, 
and was one of the first to agitate and rec- 
ommend the construction of sewers and the 
propriety of paving the streets of Green- 
ville. This was met by the most stubborn 
opposition on the part of many of the citi- 
zens, and they went so far as to get out an 
injunction against the enterprise, but he car- 
red his point, and the city now has great 
reason to be proud of its streets. 



WILLIAM EWRY. 
As the name indicates, the Ewry family 
is of German lineage and probably not many 
generations have been residents of this coun- 
try, for the grandfather, John Ewry, could 
fluently speak the German tongue. During 
the greater part of this- century representa- 
tives of the name have been identified with 
the agricultural interests of Ohio. Will- 
iam Ewry was born near the site of the 



284 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



of Dayton, in Montgomery county, Septem- 
ber 14. 1826, the second in a family of six 
children, three sons and three daughters, 
whose parents were David and Alice 
(Tyron) Ewry. Only two of the children 
are now living, the brother of our subject 
being Bazil, who is married and resides in 
Versailles, Ohio. The father was born in 
Maryland about 1803 and died in 1866. 
Throughout his life he followed farming 
and also possessed considerable mechanical 
ingenuity. During his early boyhood he 
came with his parents to Ohio, a settlement 
being made in Montgomery county in the 
midst of the heavy forest. The beautiful 
city of Dayton, now containing about one 
hundred thousand inhabitants, was then a 
mere hamlet. The family experienced the 
usual hardships and trials of pioneer life 
and David Ewry continued his residence in 
Montgomery county until 1838, when he 
came to Darke county, entering one hundred 
and sixty acres of land in York township. 
The land office was located in Cincinnati 
and thither he went to establish his claim to 
the property. The old parchment deed con- 
taining a description of the farm and signed 
by President Van Buren is now in the pos- 
session of our subject. The father met with 
a fair degree of success in his farming op- 
erations. 

Only in memory can one picture the pio- 
neer home in which he lived — a cabin built 
of round logs, the dimensions of the house 
being 16x20 feet. There was a mud-and- 
stick chimney, a clapboard roof and the 
second floor, or loft, was so small that noth- 
ing but a bed could be placed therein. Not 
a furrow had been turned or an improvement 
made upon the farm, and a road had to be 
cut through the brush and timber from 
the York farm to their home. The town of 



Ansonia was not known and Greenville was 
a mere hamlet, while the leading trading 
post was at Beamsville. Wolves frequently 
made the night hideous with their howling, 
bear was sometimes killed and stately deer 
stalked through the forests. The traveler 
of to-day can scarcely realize that such was 
the condition of the country only about a 
half century ago and that many who are 
still living in the community have seen this 
section of the state when it was in its prim- 
itive condition, unchanged by works of civ- 
ilization. 

David Ewry voted with the Whig party 
until the organization of the Republican 
party, when he joined its ranks. He held 
membership in the Methodist Episcopal 
church and aided in the erection of the house 
of worship which stood on his farm. Of 
kindly and helpful spirit, his sterling qual- 
ities were well worthy of emulation. His 
remains now rest in the Beamsville cem- 
etery, where a substantial monument has 
been erected sacred to his memory. His 
wife, who was born in Greene county, Ohio, 
died when her son, William, was six years 
of age. 

Mr. Ewry, of this review, was a lad of 
twelve summers when he became a citizen 
of Darke county, and for sixty-two years 
he has witnessed the wonderful progress and 
development of this section of the state. 
He was trained to habits of industry upon 
the home farm, giving his father the benefit 
of his services until he was eighteen years 
of age, when he started out to make his own 
way in the world. He began work in a 
brick yard for six dollars per month, and 
his father was to receive half of his salary. 
Going to Montgomery county he was there 
employed to cut wood for twenty-five cents 
per cord. The following year he secured 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



285 



work as a farm hand at nine dollars per 
month, and was thus employed for six 
months. At the end of that time he had 
drawn only ninety-five cents of his salary, 
so that he was the possessor of a capital of 
fifty-three dollars. It was such an indus- 
trious and economical spirit that enabled 
him to gain a good start in life and steadily 
work his way upward to a position of af- 
fluence. He has been employed at different 
times and at various kinds of labor in Mont- 
gomery, Shelby and Greene counties, hav- 
ing been absent from Darke county for 
twenty-three years. 

In Dayton, Montgomery county, Mr. 
Ewry was united in marriage to Miss Mary 
E. Prugh, the wedding taking place May 
25. 1 85 1. She was born in that county 
October 12, 1831, a daughter of Peter and 
Charlotte (Mitchell) Prugh. They have six 
children, three sons and three daughters, five 
yet living : Anna C. is the widow of W. 
D. Anderson and resides with her parents 
in the Anderson cottage in Ansonia ; Mar- 
garet Viola is the wife of D. J. Lyons, a 
prosperous resident of York township ; 
Charles S. is married and is engaged in the 
hardware business in Portland, Indiana ; 
David S., who graduated in the United 
Brethren College in Dayton, Ohio, is now a 
minister of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
living in Brown county, this state ; and Will- 
iam Franklin, a prosperous young farmer 
of York township, is serving as justice of 
the peace. For forty-nine years the parents 
have traveled life's journey together, their 
mutual love and confidence increasing as 
the years have passed by. They have reared 
a number of children, of which they have 
every reason to be proud, and have provided 
them with educational privileges, thus fitting 
them for life's practical duties. When Mr. 



and Mrs. Ewry began their domestic life 
their possessions were very limited, their 
cash capital being a five-dollar bill, and in 
addition they had a span of horses and a 
wagon and a few farm implements. The 
first real estate which Mr. Ewry ever owned 
was a house and lot in Beavertown, Mont- 
gomery county. 

About 1867 he returned to Darke coun- 
ty to the old home farm, becoming its owner 
by purchasing the interests of the other 
heirs. He has here erected an elegant brick 
residence, substantial barns and outbuild- 
ings, and now has a splendidly improved 
farm. He has paid off all indebtedness, has 
seventy-five acres of his land under cultiva- 
tion and is to-day one of the substantial 
and progressive farmers of his community. 
His life illustrates what may be accomplished 
through determined purpose, unfaltering 
energy and honorable business methods. 
He makes a specialty of the cultivation of 
tobacco, corn, wheat and oats, and the crops 
bring to him annually a good income. In 
politics he is a Republican and has served 
as township trustee for two different terms. 
Through the passing years he has been an 
eye witness of the upbuilding and improve- 
ment of the county, having located here 
when few of its roads were builded. Now 
there are over one thousand miles of pike 
road and the county is crossed and recrossed 
by a network of steel tracks. He has been 
the friend of progress and is regarded as a 
public spirited citizen who well deserves 
representation in this volume. 



WILLIAM P. iMcGRIFF. 

Through many decades the name of Mc- 
Griff has figured in connection with the agri- 
cultural annals of Darke county, and of this 



286 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



honorable calling William P. McGriff is a 
representative. He was born in Twin town- 
ship, August 3, 1850, and his father is 
Price McGriff, who is a native of Preble 
county and is now living retired in Darke 
county. The grandfather, Patrick McGriff, 
was also born in Preble county, and thus it 
will be seen that the family has long been 
connected with Ohio in its history. Mr. 
McGriff, of this review, was reared upon 
the old homestead, where he remained until 
he was eighteen years of age. He received 
a meager education, pursuing his studies 
through the winter season in the district 
schools of the neighborhood until about six- 
teen or seventeen years of age. During 
the summer months he worked in the fields, 
aiding in the cultivation of the crops. 

He remained at home until his marriage, 
which occurred on February 18, 1S75, the 
lady of his choice being Melzoni Braddock, 
who was born in Preble county, and is a 
daughter of James and Margaret (Shields) 
Braddock. Her father was born in Mont- 
gomery county in 1833 and her mother in 
Virginia in 1836. They were married about 
1852 and had six children, all of whom are 
yet living, with one exception, Jane, who 
became the wife of Charles Barnus and died 
soon after her marriage, leaving one child. 
The children of Mr. and Mrs. McGriff are 
Clayton, Flora, Dewitt and Gorman. The 
family reside in a pleasant home upon a 
farm of one hundred and twenty acres, which 
Mr. McGriff purchased in 1888, the purchase 
price being sixty-five dollars per acre. On 
the farm is a large barn and other substantial 
improvements. The owner is engaged in 
raising corn and hogs and also has eight 
head of horses. He raises about two thou- 
sand bushels of corn annually and feeds 
much of this to his stock, selling; about one 



hundred head of hogs each year. He is an 
enterprising farmer, whose diligence results 
largely in the acquirement of a comfortable 
competence. In politics he is a Democrat 
and for two terms has served as justice of 
the peace, discharging his duties in a prompt, 
faithful and impartial manner. 



GEXERAL C. M. AXDERSOX. 

Conspicuous among those who have 
conferred honor upon the legal profession 
of Ohio is Hon. Charles M. Anderson, of 
Greenville, who is conceded to be one of the 
most successful, eloquent and powerful ad- 
vocates of the Darke county bar. His splen- 
did command of the English language has 
made him an orator. Exactness and thor- 
oughness characterize all his attainments, 
and added to these is a broad and compre- 
hensive knowledge of the principles of juris- 
prudence in all its departments. Prominent 
in professional and political circles, he is 
and has been connected with the public af- 
fairs which have borne marked influence 
upon the progress of the state and nation. A 
man of scholarly attainments, accurate in his 
judgment of men and events, he is undoubt- 
edly not without that ambition which is so 
powerful and useful in public affairs, yet he 
regards the pursuits of private life as being 
in themselves abundantly worthy of his best 
efforts. He is one who subordinates per- 
sonal ambition to public good and seeks 
rather the benefit of others than the ag- 
grandizement of self. 

He was born in Juniata county, Penn- 
sylvania, January 5, 1845, an 'l > s a son of 
James and Ruth (McCahan) Anderson, the 
former born in Lancaster iunty, Pennsyl- 
vania, in April, 1792. the latter in January, 
1800. His paternal grandparents were Irish 




&-■&*. 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



287 



and lived about twenty miles from Dublin, 
where all of their children except James 
were born. They emigrated to the new 
world in 1 791. The maternal grandfather 
of our subject was Patrick McCahan, also 
a native of the Emerald Isle, and his wife, 
who bore the maiden name of Sarah Green, 
was a relative of General Greene, one of the 
brilliant commanders of the American forces 
in the war of the Revolution. The parents 
of our subject were married in November, 
1820, and lived on a farm throughout their 
lives. 

Charles M.. Anderson was a lad of ten 
years when, in April, 1855. he came with 
his parents to Ohio. Upon a farm he spent 
the days of his boyhood and youth and later 
he engaged in teaching school. During the 
war he served as a private soldier in Com- 
pany B, Seventy-first Regiment of Ohio 
Volunteers, and was honorably discharged 
January 6, 1866, the day after attaining his 
majority. For some months subsequent to 
his return from the army he attended the 
normal" school at Lebanon, Ohio, and also 
engaged in teaching. Having determined 
to make the practice of law his life work, he 
took up that study under the direction of 
judge D. L. Meeker, of Greenville, and was 
'admitted to the bar on the 21st of May, 
1868. At once he engaged in practice, open- 
ing an office in Greenville, where he has 
since risen to a position as a leader of the 
bar. His success has been enviable, grati- 
fying and creditable. He is noted for the 
wide research and provident care with which 
he prepares his cases. In no instance has 
his reading ever been confined to the limita- 
tions of the questions at issue; it has gone 
beyond and compassed every contingency 
and provided not alone for the expected, 
but for the unexpected. His logical grasp 

17 



of facts and principles and of the law ap- 
plicable to them has been another potent ele- 
ment in his success. 

Mr. Anderson has always been a close 
and discriminating student of political ques- 
tions, supporting his position by an intelli- 
gent understanding of the issues of the day, 
and yet for many years he refused all pro- 
motion in that line. In 1878, however, he 
made an effort to secure the nomination for 
congress. The convention met in Sidney, 
Ohio, and continued in constant session for 
three days and three nights, and Mr. An- 
derson was defeated for the nomination by 
only one-fourth of a vote. Again on the 
7th of August, 1884, he was a candidate for 
nomination for congress in the Dayton dis- 
trict, which resulted in his securing the nom- 
ination on the first ballot. He was elected 
in the following October, and while in con- 
gress served upon the military committee 
and the committee of expenditures of the war 
department. He was also appointed by the 
speaker of the house of representatives one 
of the board of visitors at West Point, and 
served with the board ten days under that 
appointment. 

In January, 1884, Mr. Anderson was 
commissioned judge advocate general of 
Ohio, by Governor Hoadley, which position 
he held during the term of that chief execu- 
tive. During the time of the great riot in 
Cincinnati, by virtue of his office of briga- 
dier general, Mr. Anderson was on duty 
most of the time, being second in command 
of the Ohio troops. He received special com- 
plimentary notice from the governor for his 
splendid service on that occasion. In 1890 he 
was appointed by Governor James E. Camp- 
bell one of Ohio's commissioners at the 
World's Fair, and was chairman of the com- 
mittee on entertainment at the Ohio building. 



288 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 






having charge of that service throughout the 
continuance of the Fair. In 1894 he was cho- 
sen by a joint resolution of the two branches 
of congress as one of the board of managers 
for the National Home for Disabled Volun- 
teer Soldiers, which office he filled for six 
years, with such credit as to secure a reap- 
pointment by coiagress, by a unanimous vote 
of both its branches, in April, 1900. 

His investments have always been in real 
estate. In this way he has not only ad- 
vanced his individual prosperity, but has 
done more to improve and upbuild the city 
than any other one man, having erected, 
up to this time, more business houses than 
any other resident of Greenville. He with- 
holds his support from no movement or 
measure which he believes will prove of 
public benefit, but heartily co-operates in all 
that he believes will secure advancement 
along material, social, intellectual or moral 
lines. 

Of many fraternal organizations Mr. 
Anderson is a valued representative. He 
was a charter member of the Improved Or- 
der of Red Men, also the Knights of Pythias 
fraternity, and the Masonic order, in which 
he has taken all the degrees of the York 
and the Scottish rites, with the exception of 
the thirty-third. He also takes an active 
part in the Grand Army post at Greenville. 
He is an officer and the largest stockholder 
i.i the Greenville Law Library. He has a 
fine private library of over two thousand 
volumes, containing many rare and choice 
works, including the celebrated writings of 
the most noted authors. With the contents 
of the library Mr. Anderson is widely fa- 
miliar. He possesses a very retentive 
memory and "is particularly well versed in 
history. He has traveled extensively in 
European countries and is a man of partic- 



ularly fine descriptive powers and a most 
entertaining talker, as well as an instructive 
lecturer. His acquaintance is very extended, 
embracing many men of prominence in all 
parts of the country, and wherever known 
he is highly esteemed for his social qualities, 
his intellectual activity, his professional 
qualifications and his upright character. 

On the 7th of June, 1870, was celebrated 
the marriage of Mr. Anderson and Miss 
Ella Hart, the only daughter of Moses Hart, 
a builder and contractor of this city. Their 
marriage has been blessed with two sons. 
The elder, William H., is a graduate of the 
West Point Military Academy, and Robert 
T., the younger, is now a student at law. 
Mr. Anderson and his family are widely 
and favorably known in this county. His 
life has been a success. His entire career 
is illustrative of the fact that certain ac- 
tions are followed by certain results. As a 
lawyer he has few peers in this section of 
the state; as a soldier he displayed bravery 
and true patriotism ; as a public official his 
actions have been above reproach or criti- 
cism; and as a citizen he is an illustration of 
our highest type of American manhood. 



GEORGE EMRICK. 

George Emrick is an octogenarian, and 
through the long years he has ever lived so 
to command the respect and confidence of his 
fellow men. He has put aside business cares 
and is now enjoying a well merited rest, 
while from those who know him he receives 
the veneration and respect which should 
ever be accorded one who has traveled thus 
far on life's journey. His home is on sec- 
tion 34, Butler township, Darke county, and 
he is numbered among the native sons of 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



289 



Montgomery county, Ohio, his birth having 
occurred in Germantown, on the 25th of 
November, 1818, and he is a son of Conrad 
Emrick, who was born in Bucks county, 
Pennsylvania, in 1786. At an early period, 
in the development of Ohio he came to this 
slate, establishing his home here in 18 10. 
The journey was made in the usual emi- 
grant style, the destination being reached 
after five weeks of travel. The parents of 
our subject were in limited circumstances 
and never owned a farm, but had a little 
home in Germantown, where the father en- 
gaged in blacksmithing. He married Eliza- 
beth Fie, of Schuylkill county, Pennsylvania, 
and they became the parents of ten children, 
two of whom were born in Pennsylvania, 
while eight were natives of Ohio. The fa- 
ther died in Germantown, in 1828, at the 
age of forty-two years and was survived 
by his widow for twenty-two years, her 
death occurring in 1842, when she had at- 
tained the age of sixty-two. 

Mr. Emrick, of this review, learned the 
blacksmith's trade under the direction of his 
elder brother, Daniel, who died about 1874, 
at the age of sixty-six years. He was sur- 
vived by his second wife and ten children. 
Our subject received very limited school 
privileges, but experience in the practical af- 
fairs of life has added greatly to his knowl- 
edge and made him a well informed man. 
He was married in his twenty-third year to 
Frances Arnold, of Montgomery county, 
where her birth occurred and their marriage 
was celebrated. Fourteen children blessed 
their union, of whom nine sons and three 
daughters reached mature years : Josiah, 
who reared two of his three children ; Cy- 
rus, who had ten children; Levi, who died 
at the age of seventeen years ; Barbara, who 
had six children; Uriah, who had eight chil- 



dren; Matilda, whose family numbered 
three children; Benjamin, who was the fa- 
ther of six children ; George, who had a 
family of four children : Solomon, who had 
one child, and Lizzie, who had two children. 
The mother died in 1885, at the age of sixty- 
four years, and fifteen months later Air. 
Emrick was again married, his second union 
being with Mrs. Coy, who was a widow and 
by her first marriage had seven children, as 
follows: William, a farmer of Preble coun- 
ty; Edward, who is living in Indiana and 
has one daughter ; Amila Bechtol, who has 
five children; Levi, of Cleveland, Ohio; 
Frederick and Ira, who are enterprising 
young men and manage the Emrick farm, 
making a specialty of tobacco ; and Emma 
Williams, who has one daughter. 

The farm which Mr. Emrick owns and 
occupies comprises one hundred and sixty 
acres of land, upon which he has made his 
home since 1865. He bought this property 
for nine thousand dollars, but at that time 
was enabled only to make a partial payment 
on it. He has carried on general farming, 
making a specialty of the raising of wheat 
and has harvested as high as fourteen hun- 
dred bushels in a season, for which crop he 
received one dollar and five cents per bushel. 
He has sold wheat as high as three dollars 
per bushel. In all his farming operations 
he has manifested a practical, progressive 
and enterprising spirit and has worked his 
way steadily upward, becoming the posses- 
sor of a handsome competence, which now 
enables him to live retired. In all his deal- 
ings he has been straightforward and hon- 
orable, enjoying the respect and confidence 
of his fellow men in an unusual degree. 
Duringf his Ions' residence in the county he 
has become widely known and his circle of 
friends is extensive. 



290 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



PHILIP KESTER. 

One of the most progressive and success- 
ful agriculturists of Greenville township, 
Darke county, is Philip Kester, who owns 
a valuable farm of one hundred and thir- 
teen acres pleasantly located a mile and a 
half west of the city of Greenville. His 
method of farm management show deep 
scientific knowledge combined with sound, 
practical judgment, and the results show that 
"high-class" farming as an occupation can 
be made quite profitable. 

A native of Darke county, Mr. Kester 
was born near Hill Grove, in Washington 
township, September I, 1844. and is a son 
of Christian and Catherine (Burgin) Kester, 
who were born in Germany, but became ac- 
quainted after their emigration to America 
and were married in this county, the cere- 
mony being performed by Judge Armstrong, 
in 1838. The father was left an orphan at 
an early age and had to depend upon his 
own efforts to secure a livelihood. During 
his boyhood he came to the United States 
and first located in Baltimore, Maryland, 
where he found employment for a time at 
railroad building. From that city he came 
to Darke county, Ohio, in October, 1838, 
and purchased a farm of forty acres in 
Washington township, only ten acres of 
which had been cleared, while a small cabin 
had been partially erected on the place. 
Here he and his wife began housekeepings 
and it continued to be their home for forty- 
five years, during which time they were 
reasonably prosperous, accumulating a hand- 
some competence by years of incessant toil. 
The father was a man of exceptional char- 
acter, fully enjoyed life, and was highly re- 
spected by all who knew him. He took an 
active interest in educational affairs, and 



was officially connected with the schools of 
his district. In politics he was a Republi- 
can. Both he and his wife held membership 
in the Reformed church, though she was 
reared a Lutheran. He died February 2, 
1882, aged seventy-five years, and she passed 
away December 13, 1886, aged sixty-six 
years. In their family were eight children, 
namely : Catherine, who is now the wife of 
George Wise, of Darke; Philip, our subject, 
the next in order of birth; Louisa, who is 
the wife of W. H. H. Martin, of Darke; 
Susanna, who is the wife of Eli Cook ; La- 
vina, who is the wife of S. S. Staudt ; ami 
Millie, the wife of Edward Oliver: all these 
are residents of Darke county; and Lewis 
and Henry. Lewis enlisted August 11, 
1862, in Company K. Ninety- fourth Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry, and was in active ser- 
vice until taken prisoner at Lexington, Ken- 
tucky, September 1, 1862, by General. Kirby 
Smith's forces. He was soon paroled and 
sent home, and after being exchanged re- 
joined his regiment at Christmas, 1862, but 
in April of the following year he was taken 
il! with measles and died in a hospital at 
Mufreesboro, Tennessee, May 10, 1863, at 
about the age of twenty-one years. Henry 
died in i860, at the age of six years. 

Philip Kester's educational advantages 
were such as the common schools of Wash- 
ington township afforded during his boy- 
hood. He remained under the parental roof 
until twenty-three years of age, and then be- 
gan life for himself as a farmer, purchas- 
ing forty-eight acres of land north of Green- 
ville in Greenville township, which he op- 
erated four years. On selling that place 
he bought eighty acres of land in Washing- 
ton township, where he carried on farming 
for seven years, and when he disposed of that 
property he moved to Greenville, where he 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



291 



lived four years. In 1887 he located upon 
his present farm in Greenville township, to 
the cultivation and further improvement of 
which he has since devoted his energies with 
most gratifying results. 

In 1871 Air. Kester married Miss Fannie 
E. Keefawver, daughter of George and 
Keziah (Rahn) Keefawver, and by this 
union were born three children : Lewis Ulys- 
ses, Elmer E. and Rolla G. The second son, 
Elmer E., married Effie Finard and has one 
child, Esther, anil they reside in Jackson 
township, this county. 

Politically, Mr. Kester is a Republican, 
and he gives his support to every enterprise 
which he believes will prove of public bene- 
fit, being one of the most progressive and 
public-spirited citizens of his community. 
In the summer of 1900 he made a trip to 
Europe, visiting all the principal cities and 
points of interest, including the Paris Ex- 
position. 



HARRISON COBLENTZ. 

One of the native sons of Butler town- 
ship. Mr. Coblentz is still residing within 
its borders, his home being on section 21. 
where he is actively engaged in agricult- 
ural pursuits. He was born June 2, 1840. 
and is a representative of an old Maryland 
family. His grandfather, George Coblentz, 
was a farmer of that state and became one 
of the early settlers of Montgomery county, 
Ohio, where he took up his abode in 1829. 
He married Catherine Hemp, and they have 
fourteen children, of whom five sons and 
seven daughters reached mature years, while 
three are yet living. The grandfather died 
about a year previous to the death of his 
wife. They had both reached the prime of 
life when called to the home bevond and 



their remains were interred in the German- 
town cemetery. George Coblentz, the father 
of our subject, was born in Frederick county, 
Maryland, in November, 181 2. and married 
Eve Foutz, whose birth occurred in Mont- 
gomery county. Ohio, in December, 18 13. 
She was a daughter of Frederick Foutz. 
The 'marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Coblentz oc- 
curred in March, 1834, and for two years 
they resided near Germantown, Ohio, but 
in 1836 came to Butler township, Darke 
county, locating on eighty acres of timber 
land. After a year, however, they removed 
to another farm of fifty-five acres, on which 
some improvements had been made, and at 
other times the father added to his posses- 
sions until he was at one time the possessor 
of six hundred acres of choice land. His 
success was very creditable, as it came to 
him in return for his earnest toil, guided by 
sound judgment. In his family were ten chil- 
dren, of whom three sons and six daughters 
reached mature years, and one son and five 
daughters still living. The mother died in 
February, 1882, at the age of sixty-eight 
years, and the father passed away in May, 
1896, in his eighty-second year. 

Harrison Coblentz, of this review, was 
reared to farm life, early becoming familiar 
with the labors of field and meadow. He 
was thus engaged through the summer 
months and in the winter season pursued 
his studies in the district schools. The fa- 
ther gave to each of his children a farm and 
Mr. Coblentz thus secured eighty acres of 
land, valued at two thousand dollars. He 
was married, September 18. i860, to Caro- 
line Hittle. of Butler township, who was 
born in 1843, a daughter of Nicholas and 
Elizabeth (Frishman) Hittle. The mother 
was twice married, her first husband having 
been a Mr. Smith. Four children have 






292 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



been born to Mr. Coblentz, as follows : John 
C, who resides in New Madison and has 
two sons and a daughter; Elizabeth, who is 
the wife of A. H. Judy, and has three chil- 
dren; Kate, the wife of C. C. Brawley, of 
New Madison, by whom she has three chil- 
dren ; and Frank, a farmer, residing on land 
adjoining our subject's home. He married 
Delia Crawford. 

Mr. Coblentz was formerly the owner 
of three hundred and fifty acres of valuable 
land, and now has one hundred and two 
acres, which yields to him a golden tribute 
in return for the care and labor he bestows 
upon them. He has carried on general 
farming on an extensive scale and has also 
engaged very largely in the purchase and 
shipment of live stock for many years. He 
has made the most money through dealing 
in corn and hogs. In i860 he moved on the 
farm he now occupies. He enlarged his 
home in 1875. making it a very attractive 
country residence. His business affairs 
have been care full}- directed and his efforts 
have been crowned with a greatly merited 
degree of success. In politics he is a Demo- 
crat and for twenty years served as the 
township treasurer — a fact which well in- 
dictates his fidelity toduty and the confidence 
reposed in him by his fellow townsmen. 
He was also a justice of the peace for six 
years and has been a member of the board 
of education for fifteen years. He, his wife 
and some of their children are members of 
the United Brethren church, and the family 
is one of prominence and influence in the 
community. 

Mr. Coblentz inherited a strong consti- 
tution, and his strength and endurance have 
been very great, but during the past three 
years his health has failed him and he leaves 
the active care of his farm to others, simply 



giving it his supervision. His wife is a 
highly cultivated lady, hospitable and kind- 
]v and generous, and few. if any, residents 
of Butler township are more generally or 
more highly esteemed than the subject of this 
review and his wife. They are broad- 
minded people, generous and benevolent, and 
their many estimable characteristics have 
gained for them the warm friendship of 
manv. 



DANIEL BURNS. 

Daniel Burns is a member of the manu- 
facturing firm of Daniel Burns & Company, 
of Rossville, and is a progressive, wide- 
awake business man, whose efforts have con- 
tributed in a large measure to the upbuilding 
and progress of the community with which 
he is connected. Mr. Burns was born in 
Mercer county, Pennsylvania, August 26, 
1846, and is of Scotch lineage on his fa- 
ther's side, his grandparents having come 
from Scotland to America. He was a 
farmer by occupation and reared a family 
of two sons, one of whom, C. Burns, died 
soon after the death of our subject's father. 
The latter, Thomas Burns, was also a native 
of Mercer county, Pennsylvania, and was 
living there when called to his final rest, in 
18^0. His wife bore the maiden name of 
Sarah Fry. and was burn in Pennsylvania, 
in 18 1 7. She came of old "Pennsylvania- 
Dutch" stock. She is still living, at the ad- 
vanced age of eighty-three years, and makes 
her home with her children. She was mar- 
ried in 1835 and for a half century has been 
a willow. Her family numbered five sons 
and two daughters, but she lost her young- 
est son, James, who died at the age of two 
years. The other children reached adult 
age. Lewis, the eldest, was a farmer, born 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



293 



in 1840, and died in Crawford county, Penn- 
sylvania, in 1869, leaving a son and a 
daughter. Catherine became the wife of 
Alvah Long, in Erie county, Pennsyl- 
vania, and died leaving one son. Abi- 
gail is a resident of Jamestown, Pennsyl- 
vania. Daniel is the next of the family. 
Curtis was born in 1848 and IS now a farmer 
in Ashtabula county, Ohio, and has five 
children, three sons and two daughters. 
Thomas died at the age of twenty-two years. 

In taking up the personal history of 
Daniel Burns we present to our readers the 
life record of one who is widely and favor- 
ably known in Darke count}'. He was reared 
to farm life amidst the forest. His father 
was celebrated as a woodsman and cleared 
several farms, one of which he owned at the 
time of his death. His widow, however, 
was left with seven children the eldest being 
but twelve years of age and the youngest 
a babe. She carefully reared them, instil- 
ling into their minds lessons of industry, 
honesty and perseverance. She gave them 
the best educational advantages she could 
afford and her daughter, Catherine, became 
a school teacher. Daniel Burns pursued his 
education through the winter months, be- 
tween the ages of twelve and eighteen years, 
but in the summer time his services were 
needed on the farm and he worked in the 
fields from early morning until late at night. 
Be remained with his mother until he was 
twenty-six vears of age, and during that time 
followed the carpenter's trade to a consider- 
able extent. 

When a young man of nineteen he began 
making staves, which he split by hand. He 
purchased timber on the stump and prepared 
it entirely alone. Possessed of considerable 
mechanical ingenuity he did his work well 
and his patronage steadilv increased. The 



first mill which he owned was located in 
Warren county Pennsylvania. He became 
interested in the enterprise in icX8_\ as a 
member of the firm of Clark, Allen & Com- 
pany. In April, 1885, the business was 
established in Rossville under the firm name 
of Daniel Burns & Company, the firm own- 
ing the mill at this place and one at Cold- 
water until 1893, when the latter was sold 
out. The business has been a success and 
is constantly growing, its sales amounting 
annually to from twenty-five to forty thou- 
sand dollars. Employment is furnished to 
about fifteen workmen in the mill at lv iss- 
ville, and the carefully conducted enterprise 
has secured to its owners a good financial re- 
turn. They manufacture tight barrels, 
wagon spokes and other cooperage manu- 
factures. He is also engaged in the grain 
business, embarking in this line in 1894. 
He owns an elevator, of which his son-in- 
law has charge, and his business in this di- 
rection is extensive and constantly increas- 
ing. Some days he takes in as high as two 
thousand bushels of grain, embracing ci >rn, 
wheat and oats. 

In April, 1872, occurred the marriage of 
Mr. Burns and Miss Mary C. Covey, who was 
born in Allegany county, New York, in 1855, 
a daughter of Wilson and Lydia ( Sissem) 
Covey, both of whom were natives of the 
Empire state and are now deceased. They 
were the parents of five children, of whom 
three are now living, namely: Mrs. Burns; 
William, a resident of Michigan; and Mrs. 
Elizabeth Tappan, also of the Wolverine 
state. Their mother died at the age of 
thirty-two years, and by the second mar- 
riage the father had two children: Arietta, 
the wife of Dayton Johnson, and Frank, who 
is living in Michigan. Mrs. Burns and the 
other children of the first marriage were 



294 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



born in New York, and she became the 
mother of three daughters and one son. 
Sarah Lottie, the eldest, was formerly a 
school teacher and is now the wife of 
Charles Haber, of Rossville, by whom she 
has one son. Nellie Abigail possesses con- 
siderable musical talent. The remaining 
are Olive May and Lewis Edmund. 

Air. Burns is a Master Mason and for 
the past twenty-seven years he has been a 
member of the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows. I lis political support is unswerv- 
ingly given to the Democracy and through 
the past six years he has served as township 
treasurer and as a member of the city coun- 
cil, discharging his duties in a most ac- 
ceptable manner. His wife holds member- 
ship in the United Brethren church and he 
has contributed to the building fund for the 
erection of two churches and two parsonages 
in Rossville. As a citizen he is public 
spirited, and his co-operation is withheld 
from no movement or measure that he be- 
lieves calculated to prove of bublic benefit. 
In business he is most energetic, carefully 
forms his plans and is determined in their 
execution, and his capable management and 
sound judgment have brought to him a 
creditable and desirable property. 



WILLIAM REQUARTH. 

Prominent among the leading farmers 
of Darke county, Ohio, is found the subject 
of this sketch, William Requarth, who re- 
sides on his farm on section 29. Greenville 
township. 

Mr. Requarth was born in Hesse. Ger- 
many, in the village of Exten, September 22, 
1833, a son of John Henry and Catherine 
(Rochmeier) Requarth. natives of north- 
ern Germany. There is a legend that the 



Requarths are of French origin, but so far 
back as the family history can be traced, 
which is for many generations, they were 
residents of Germany. Both the father and 
grandfather of William Requarth were 
named John Henry. The younger John 
Henry Requarth was born January 9, 1796; 
grew to manhood on his father's farm in 
Germany and was married in his native land, 
living there until 1847. In 1847, with his 
eight children, he emigrated to America, his 
wife having died in 1842. Their voyage 
across the Atlantic was made in a small 
sailing vessel, the Anne, and occupied nine 
weeks, during which time there was much 
suffering on account of the heat, as the ves- 
sel drifted into the tropics. 

Landing in safety in New York, January 
S. 1848, Mr. Requarth and his family im- 
mediately set out for Dayton, Ohio, their 
objective point, traveling across the moun- 
tains of Pennsylvania by stage, via Phila- 
delphia and Pittsburg, and arriving at their 
destination that same month. The follow- 
ing March he bought one hundred and sixtv- 
nine acres of land in Clay township, Mont- 
gomery county, and into the cabin already 
erected thereon he moved his family. On 
that farm he was engaged in agricultural 
pursuits the rest of his life and there he 
died, January 2j, 1880, at the age of eighty- 
four years and eighteen days. He married 
his second wife in Dayton a few days after 
their arrival at that place. The second Mrs. 
Requarth was a Miss Fredericka Stock, a 
native of Hesse, who accompanied the Re- 
quarths and other families from Germany 
to this country. She died in 1899. Mr. 
Requarth's children by his first wife were 
named as follows : Gustena, Charlotte, 
Henry, Mena, William, August. Mollie and 
Frederick. Bv his second wife he had seven 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



295 



children, one of whom died in infancy, the 
others being, Charles, Caroline, Henry, 
Sophia, John and Harmon. 

The senior Mr. Requarth was a man who 
possessed the sterling characteristics of the 
successful pioneer. He brought witli him 
to this country about eighteen hundred dol- 
lars in cash, and with this for a foundation 
he accumulated considerable property and at 
the same time provided for a large family. 
A member of the Lutheran church, he was 
an earnest Christian man and made it the 
aim of his life to follow the Golden Rule. 
When a young man in the old country he 
served for a time in the army, but was re- 
leased from further service on account of his 
being the only son of his parents. In this 
country he affiliated with the Democratic 
party. 

Having thus briefly referred to the life 
history of his worthy father, we turn now 
to a personal mention of the son, "William Re- 
quarth. 

At the time the Requarth family emi- 
grated to America, as above stated, William 
Requarth was fourteen years old, their de- 
parture from Germany being made on his 
birthday. He had attended school from 
the time he was six years until he was four- 
teen, according to the custom in Germany, 
ami had acquired a practical education in his 
native language. His confirmation took 
place at St. John's Lutheran church, Dayti >n. 
Ohio, under Pastor A. Hordorf, soon after 
their arrival in this state. He attended 
school in Montgomery county, where he 
quickly acquired the English language, and 
he was soon able to adapt himself to the 
conditions in this country. 

He remained on the farm with his father 
until reaching the age of twenty-three years. 
Then he went to Dayton and entered the em- 



ploy of Henry Kimes, a plow manufacturer, 
with whom he remained eleven months. At 
the end of this time he bought an ax and 
started out on his own account as a wood- 
chopper, in Greene county, Ohio. Subse- 
quently he engaged with Daniel Beckel, of 
Dayton, as a hostler, and was with him eight 
months in that capacity, after which he 
farmed on one of Mr. Beckel's farms. 
While thus occupied he was married, in 
Dayton, May 5, 1859, to Miss Wilhemena 
Ostermier, of Greenville, but who was a 
native of the same place where he was born, 
she being a daughter of August and Carolina 
Ostermier, who came to Darke county in 
1854. Mr. Requarth remained on the 
Eeckel farm four years, until Mr. Beckel's 
death, after which he rented an adjoining 
farm, known as the Abraham Nichols place. 
He had saved up a little money meantime, 
which he invested in stock and farming im- 
plements, and on this latter farm he lived 
three years. 

In 1864 he bought one hundred and six- 
ty-three acres of the farm on which he now 
lives, which was then uncleared and mostly 
under water, and was known as the "wet 
quarter." For this land he paid twenty-six 
dollars an acre. His purchase was made 
in the fall. The following spring he settled 
on his land, in a small cabin built of logs 
and containing only one room. Also on the 
place was a log stable. The work of drain- 
ing and improving- this farm was no small 
undertaking, and few would have under- 
taken it. Mr. Requarth. however, set to 
work with a will. Through rain or shine, 
heat or cold, he could be found at his task, 
and he seemed never to tire. People often 
remarked that " Requarth was working 
himself to death." He cut down the forest 
and hauled his cord-wood to market, receiv- 



296 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



ing three dollars per cord for soft wood and 
four dollars for hard wood, this for some 
time being his only source of income. Soon 
he got a piece of land cleared and a crop 
planted, which he increased each year. He 
spent much time and means in ditching and 
draining his land, and was the first man 
in this locality to plan and carry out a sys- 
tem of drainage. For a time his neighbors 
were not in sympathy with his plans. Fin- 
ally, however,' he secured the co-operation 
of the township trustees and the matter of 
drainage was made a public enterprise. In 
1866 Mr. Requarth sold forty acres of his 
land, receiving thirty-seven dollars and fifty 
cents an acre. He made his home in the 
original log cabin already referred to until 
1879. when he built his present brick resi- 
dence, a handsome two-story house, with an 
L, attractive and home-like and giving every 
evidence of comfort and refinement. He also 
from time to time erected other buildings, 
his barn in 1870, tobacco sheds in 187 J. 

In 1881 Mr. Requarth was bereaved by 
the death of his devoted wife, her death oc- 
curing on the 9th of January. For more than 
twenty years she had shared the joys and 
toils of life with him, doing nobly her part 
toward the making of their new home. She 
bore him ten children, eight of whom reached 
adult age, and of that number seven are now 
living, namely: Henry William, who died 
August 21, 1897; Henry F. A.; John II . 
F. ; Henry F. ; Louisa W. ; Wilhemena J. C ;. 
Caroline W. C. ; Mollie A. ; Carl H. W., who 
died December 17, 1880, at the age of six 
years, and Frederick W. A., who died Janu- 
ary 22, 1878 ,at the age of ten months. The 
members of the family now living are all well 
to do financially. Three are in Springfield, 
Illinois, — John H. F., Henry F. and Louisa 
W., wife of Henry Miller. Wilhemena is 



now Mrs. Mohr and resides in Lima, Ohio. 
Mollie A. makes her home with her sister in 
Lima. Henry F. A. and Caroline reside in 
Greenville, the former engaged in the gro- 
cery business; the latter is the wife of James 
Moore. 

January 20, 1882, Mr. Requarth married 
Mrs. Wilhemena Koester, whom he has 
known from girlhood. By her first husband, 
Ferdinand F. Koester, she had four chil- 
dren, all of whom are living: William, of 
Springfield, Illinois; Sophia, now Mrs. 
Charles Friark, also of Springfield, Illinois; 
Mena. the wife of Henry, the second son 
of Mr. Requarth, Greenville. Ohio; and 
Charlotte, the wife of Frank Stauffer. of 
Darke county. By her marriage to Mr. 
Requarth she also has four children, namely: 
Frederick H., Catherine A., Carl H. F. and 
Maria R. C. 

Mr. Requarth has long been known as 
one of the most enterprising men of the 
county. Whatever he has taken hold of he 
has pushed with vim and energy. He is 
progressive in every line of thought and ac- 
tion ; and that he is appreciated by his fellow 
citizens is evidenced by the fact that they 
have frequently called him to places of re- 
sponsibility. In this connection it may be 
mentioned that he has held the office of town- 
ship trustee five terms, and he has been a 
school director a number of years. He was 
the nominee of the Democrats of his county 
for the office of county commissioner in 
1887, but was defeated through party de- 
fections arising from strife between warring 
factions in the party, the majority against 
him, however, being less than any other man 
on the ticket. He is one of the directors 
of the Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Com- 
pany of Darke county. For years he has 
been active in church and Sundav-school 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



297 



work, having been prominently identified 
with St. John's Lutheran church since 1865, 
all this time serving in some official ca- 
pacity, at present being a trustee and the 
treasurer. For many years he was secretary 
of the Sunday school, recently having re- 
linquished this work on account of failing 
eyesight and loss of hearing. He is, how- 
ever, a well preserved man. He is five feet 
seven inches in height, weighs one hundred 
and thirty-five pounds, stands perfectly 
erect and possesses, so far as the eye can 
see, all the vitality of men in middle life. 



JOHN F. SPENCER. 

Upon a farm on section 16, Harrison 
township, John Francis Spencer resides. 
He is numbered among the native sons of 
the Barnhart farm February 6, 183 1. His 
father was Anderson Spencer, who was born 
in Greene county, Ohio, January 29. 1806, 
Ins parents being Francis and Sarah Spen- 
cer. The grandfather was born in England, 
about 1778, and died in Harrison township, 
Darke county, in 1870, at the age of ninety- 
two years. His wife prior to her marriage 
bore the family name of Spencer and was 
a distant relative of her husband. Both lived 
to an advanced age and when called to the 
home beyond their remains were interred, on 
a farm in this township, where they settled 
at an early pioneer day. The}' had ten chil- 
dren, namely: Anderson; Ludlow: William; 
Clark; Jackson; Mark; Elizabeth, the wife 
of Henry Watson; Delilah; Eliza Ann, who 
became the wife of David Polly and resides 
in Indiana, and Sarah, who is a widow liv- 
ing in Iowa. 

Anderson Spencer was reared to man- 
hood in the Buckeye state and married Emily 



Hi]], of Harrison township, Darke county, 
a sister of Milton Hill. Their marriage 
took place in 1830 and was blessed with the 
following children : John Francis ; Hugh, 
who died at the age of sixteen years; Saul, 
who resides in Rock Island county, Illinois; 
Sarah Keziah, the wife of William Alex- 
ander, of Harrison township: William, who 
served in the civil war and died soon after 
his return home : Lemuel of La Platte, Mis- 
souri ; Anderson, who died in middle life; 
and George W., a manufacturer of Ander- 
son. Indiana; and there were also two chil- 
dren who died in infancy. The mother of 
this family passed away in 1880. at the age 
of seventy-three years, and the father's death 
occurred in 1892, at the age of eighty-six 
years. His life was one of industry and 
honest toil and he was actively connected 
with business affairs until well advanced in 
years. He held a number of township of- 
fices, including that of township clerk. He 
possessed more than ordinary ability and had 
considerable mechanical genius. 

Mr. Spencer began work when very 
young, being employed in the fields when 
he was so small that he could scarcely reach 
the plow handles. His educational privileges 
were very limited, but he pursued his studies 
as opportunity offered in a log school house 
adorned with a mud and stick chimney. 
Through the greater part of his youth he re- 
mained at home and in 1855 he went to 
Kansas. He was married on the 26th of 
February, 1857. to Miss Alar}', a daughter 
of Lewis and Elizabeth (Brower) Ouker- 
man. the former a native of Preble county, 
Ohio, and the latter of Virginia. Her par- 
ents were farming people, who reared thir- 
teen children, seven sons and six daughters, 
Mrs. Spencer being the second in order of 
birth. The father died at the a ■ of fifty- 



298 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



two years and the mother when eighty-three 
years of age. their remains being interred 
in the Palestine cemetery. Mrs. Spencer 
was born in Palestine, in 1832, and by her 
marriage has become the mother of eight 
children, as follows: Lewis, who is living 
in Anderson, Indiana; Laura Alice, the wife 
of Calvin Young, of Washington township, 
by whom she has two children and three 
children by her former marriage to David 
O. Baker, who died in February. 1887; 
Oliver, of Indiana, who has one son and one 
daughter; Minerva Jane, wife of Robert 
Simpson by whom she has one son ; Settie 
Ann. who married Newton Clapp. and has 
one son; Minnie, who was born and died in 
1 87 1 ; Charles, who married Miss Effie 
White and operates the home farm ; and 
Phenie Elizabeth, who died at the age of 
six years. Mr. Spencer located upon his 
present farm of eighty acres in 1867 and 
has led a busy, useful and active life, but 
is now living retired. He has relegated to 
others the care of his land and is enjoying 
a rest which he has truly earned and 
abundantly deserves. He holds membership 
in Snodgrass Post, G. A. R., of Xew Madi- 
son, is a stanch Republican in politics and 
has served as school director. Both Mr. and 
Mrs. Spencer are members of the Univer- 
salist church and are people whose well spent 
lives make them worthy of the veneration 
and esteem which should ever be accorded 
to those who have accomplished the greater 
part of life's pilgrimage. 



ALBERT HARTER. 

Albert Harter is the senior member of 
the firm of Harter & Coblentz, dealers in 
farm machinery, buggies, etc., and also lead- 



ing shippers of stock of Xew Madison. Mr. 
Harter is but a recent acquisition to the 
goodly array of progressive business men 
of this thriving town, but his ability, enter- 
prise and upright methods have already 
established for him an enviable reputation. 

He was born in Butler township, this 
county, October 5, 1857, and is a son of 
Lewis Harter, a farmer of that township, 
who was born near Xew Madison about 
1825, and is a son of Samuel Harter, a na- 
tive of Pennsylvania. Our subject was 
reared on his father's farm near Savona. and 
was given a liberal common-school educa- 
tion. He remained at home until he was 
married, April 19, 1879, to Samantha B. 
Crawford, of Butler township, a daughter 
of A. J. and Catherine (Lewis) Crawford, 
now residents of Greenville township. Of 
the seven children born of this union, the 
first and third, both daughters, died in in- 
fancy, and the second, Earl, also died in in- 
fancy. Ivy May died July 20, 1896, when 
nearly sixteen years of age. being taken in 
the bloom of youth. She was a most prom- 
ising young lady, of lovely character and be- 
loved by all who knew her. Erta D. has 
finished school and is now at home. Edna 
May and Virgil, aged respectively twelve and 
eleven years, are still in school and are very 
bright and studious. 

In July, 1899, Mr. Harter purchased 
a farm of eighty acres just outside the cor- 
poration limits of X T ew Madison, and he lo- 
cated thereon in the spring of 1900. He 
embarked in his present business on the 
19th of January, 1899, and has already suc- 
ceeded in building up a good trade. The 
firm deals in all kinds of agricultural im- 
plements, carriages, etc., and ships cattle, 
sheep and hogs to different markets, averag- 
ing about seventy-five carloads per year. 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



299 



Thev are wide-awake, progressive business 
men of known reliability, and have the con- 
fidence and respect of their fellow citizens in 



a marked degree. 



BARTON W. LONG. 

Among the representative farmers of 
Darke county distinctive recognition must 
needs be given to Mr. Long, whose fine 
homestead is located on section 16, Harrison 
township, his postoffice address being New 
Madison. Barton Webster Long was born 
in Hamilton county, Ohio, six miles distant 
from the city of Cincinnati, August 21, 1862. 
His father, Joseph Long, was a native of 
bonnie Scotland, where he was born in the 
year 1830, coming of stanch old Scotch- 
Irish stock. The latter's father was James 
Christopher Long, who emigrated from 
Scotland to the United States about the year 
1840, sending for his family to join him 
about two years later. After a few years' 
residence in the east the family came to 
Cincinnati, where he did effective service as 
a clergyman of the Methodist church. He 
was a victim of the memorable epidemic of 
cholera in 1849, his wife and one son also 
succumbing to the dread disease within 
twenty-four hours. The father of our sub- 
ject fled from the plague-stricken city, going 
to Bartholomew county, Indiana, where he 
remained for some time. He was married 
in the year 1855, at the age of twenty-five 
years to Nancy Jessup, who was born near 
Cincinnati, in 183 1, the daughter of Daniel 
and Nancy (Stewart) Jessup, the former 
of whom emigrated to Ohio from New Jer- 
sey in the early pioneer days, being an in- 
spector of the Indians, many of whom were 
installed upon the reservation here. He was 
of a studious nature and through his own ef- 



forts acquired a good education for his day. 
The parents of Mr. Long owned a small farm 
near Cincinnati, and to brighten the little 
home there came to them six children, name- 
ly: Virginia, who died in infancy: Zendora, 
who is unmarried and who resides at the 
home of her brother; Barton \Y.. the im- 
mediate subject of this review ; Madallia, 
who is the wife of the Rev. T. J. Halstead, 
an itinerant clergyman of the United Breth- 
ren church; Genevra, wife of J. W. Miller, 
cf Newcastle, Indiana; and Douglass E., 
who died at the age of six months. The 
mother of our subject died in May, 1884, 
the father surviving her four years, and their 
mortal remains were laid to rest in Otter- 
bein cemetery, Butler township, this count}-. 
Barton W. Long received excellent edu- 
cational advantages and prepared himself 
for pedagogic work, having pursued his 
studies in New Madison and in the New 
Parison high school, after which he entered 
the normal school at Danville, Indiana, and 
thereafter supplemented his already thorough 
discipline bv a course in a commercial col- 
lege. Circumstances, however, led to his 
adopting the life of an agriculturist, and his 
success has been such as to leave him no re- 
gret that he chose this field of endeavor. 
The place which Mr. Long owns and culti- 
vates was secured by his father about twen- 
tv years before his death, the latter having 
been for many years an itinerant preacher, 
and the original place comprised one hun- 
dred and sixty acres. At his death the fa- 
ther left a good estate, including a life in- 
surance of six thousand dollars, and it be- 
came the duty of his son, Barton W., to 
finally assume the management of the prop- 
erty, which was somewhat encumbered. By 
careful management and well directed efforts 
lie eventually cleared the estate of indebted- 



300 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



ness and put the farm into excellent condi- 
tion. In 1895 he sold one-half of the place, 
retaining his present farm of eighty acres, 
which is under a high state of cultivation, 
with permanent improvements of the best 
order, indicating the progressive spirit and 
wise methods brought to bear by Mr. Long. 
Though there are more pretentious homes to 
be found in the county, there is none which 
is more pleasant and attractive that that of 
our subject, for the home idea is evident 
and neatness and good taste characterize all 
the improvements that have been made. 
The buildings are most eligibly located on 
a natural building site, the knoll command- 
ing a fine view of the surrounding country 
and affording excellent drainage facilities. 
The residence grounds are rendered attract- 
ive by fine shade trees and shrubbery and an 
air of refinement and cultured taste per- 
vades the home, both in its exterior and in- 
terior appointments. Climbing about the 
porch at the rear of the house is a fine speci- 
men of the sweet-briar rose, the dainty blos- 
soms and fragrant leaves perfuming the 
house and bearing a perpetual tribute to the 
memory of the gentle mother of Mr. Long, 
v. In 1 with her own hands planted the shrub 
and trained it during many years. It is thus 
doubly dear to the family, being hallowed 
by the associations of the past and breathing 
the fragrance of the gentle life which it so 
happily typifies. 

On November 1, 1890, Mr. Long was 
united in marriage to Miss Dora M. Thomas, 
a native of this township and the daughter 
of J. V. Thomas, a well, known citizen of 
the county. Of this union one child was 
born, but did not long survive to brighten 
the home. 

Mr. Long's natural predilection is not 
for farming and though his success has been 



gratifying he feels that he has done his 
share in the line, and he contemplates turn- 
ing his attention to some commercial or me- 
chanical pursuit when favorable opportunity 
shall offer, and as he is in the vigor of his 
young manhood, is fortified with excellent 
education and has shown marked executive 
ability and business acumen, a continued 
success may be predicted for him in what- 
soever field he sees fit to turn his effort. He 
has carried on general farming, having made 
somewhat of a specialty of raising swine, 
and his place is one which is a credit to him 
and to the county. Mr. and Mrs. Long have 
a wide circle of acquaintances and are highly 
honored in the community. 



DAVID A. CLEAR. 

This well-known blacksmith of Green- 
ville township, is a native of Darke county, 
his birth occurring in German township, 
August 30, 1856. His father, David Clear, 
was born April 1, 1823, in German town- 
ship, but he now lives in Washington town- 
ship, this county, where he owns a good farm 
of sixty acres. He married Esther Ann 
Ross, born in German township, April 13, 
1823, and both are now well advanced in 
life. They have five children, namely : 
Reuben ; Sophia, the wife of Abraham Haw- 
kins; Maggie, the wife of John Burch, who 
lives in Randolph county, Indiana, near the 
Ohio state line; David A. and Jeremiah S. 
With the exception of Maggie al.l make their 
home in Darke county. 

On the home farm David A. Clear grew 
to manhood receiving a common-school edu- 
cation and remaining with his parents until 
attaining his majority. At the age of twen- 
ty-two years he commenced learning the 
blacksmith's trade, serving an apprentice- 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



301 



ship of three and a half years with B. M. 
Bright and J. F. Lane, and mastering the 
trade in all its details during that time. 
Eighteen months of this time were spent in 
Coletown, Darke county, and in 1882 he em- 
barked in business at his present stand. He 
does a general blacksmithing business, and 
being a good mechanic and reliable man he 
has built up an excellent trade. 

September 26, 1880, Mr. Clear was 
united marriage with Miss Lila, a daughter 
of Mrs. Mary Ann Arnold, of Darke county, 
and to them have been born two children that 
are now living, Dessie and Frank, besides 
Bessie, deceased. For ten years Mr. and 
Mrs. Clear have been members of the Chris- 
tian church of Coletown, and take an active 
interest in religious work. In his political 
affairs he is a stanch Republican. He is a 
well informed man who keeps abreast of the 
times, and is highly respected and esteemed 
by all who know him. Fraternally he is a 
member of Greenville Lodge, K. of P. 



LARKIN G. TURNER. 

Prominent among those who have con- 
tributed to the agricultural advancement 
of this section of the Buckeye state is he 
whose name initiates this paragraph. He is 
now a valued resident of Hollandsburg, Har- 
rison township, Darke county, where he is 
living practically retired from the active 
duties which so long claimed his attention. 

Mr. Turner is a native of Wayne county, 
Indiana, where he was born July 19, 1831, 
his father, Jeptha Turner, having been the 
first white child born in Wayne county, the 
date of his nativity having been October 29, 
1806. His father, John Turner, had the 
distinction of being the first sheriff of 
Wayne county. He was a native of Henry 



county, Kentucky, was born about the year 
1785, and his death occurred in 1835. The 
latter married a Miss Holman, daughter of 
George Holman, who was one of the earliest 
settlers in Wayne county, Indiana, having 
located there in 1803. The mother of the 
immediate subject of this sketch bore the 
maiden name of Martha Gaar, and she was 
born in Wayne county, Indiana, on the 25th 
of September, 1810. Her marriage to Jep- 
tha Turner was solemnized January 14, 1830 
and they became the parents of nine chil- 
dren, namely: Larkin Gaar, subject of this 
sketch; Levi P., a resident of Abington, 
Wayne county, Indiana; Abraham W., of 
Brazil, Clay county, Indiana, where he is a 
prominent merchant; Sarah Jane, wife of 
John Endsley, of the same county; Eliza 
Ann Turner, who still remains at the old 
home; Martin Van Buren, a resident of 
Lincoln, Nebraska; John Milton, of Brazil, 
Indiana; Martha Ellen, who died, unmar- 
ried, at the age of twenty-eight; and Jesse 
D., who remains upon the old homestead, 
which he operates successfully. Al.l of the 
married children are well established in life 
and have small families. The father died 
April 16, 1885, and his venerable widow sur- 
vived him until September 15, 1890, their 
remains being laid to rest in the cemetery 
at Elkhorn, Indiana. 

Larkin G. Turner, with whom this re- 
view has more specifically to do, remained 
on the old homestead until he had attained 
his majority, when he entered a machine 
shop at Connersville, Indiana, where he 
served a careful apprenticeship of four years, 
after which he farmed on rented land for a 
time, being successful in his efforts. In 
he made his first purchase of land, the 



same -comprising one hundred acres, located 
in Harrison township, which has ever since 



802 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



been his home. He moved on to his farm 
within the succeeding year and there con- 
tinued to live and labor for the long term 
of eighteen years, when he removed to his 
present place, where his tenure has now con- 
tinued for twelve years, so that he is known 
and honored as one of the old representative 
farmers of this township, being held in the 
highest esteem for his integrity and ability. 

On the 15th of February, 1855, Mr. 
Turner was united in marriage to Miss Sarah 
Endsley, whose brother married a sister of 
our subject, as has already been noted. Mrs 
Turner was born March 3, 1835, and of her 
marriage four children have been born: 
Clara, wife of X. T. Irelan, of Hollansburg, 
is the mother of seven children; John Perry 
Turner, also of this township, is married and 
has one son and one daughter; Rose Emma, 
wife of Henry Wolfal, who operates the 
homestead farm of our subject, and has two 
daughters, and Charles F. Turner, who died 
at the age of two years. 

Fraternally Mr. Turner is a Master 
Mason, having been prominently identi- 
fied with this time honored order for 
the long period of thirty-five years, hav- 
ing been initiated into its mysteries July 
21. 1865, an< i having served as master of 
Bethel Lodge, No. 250. F. & A. M., of 
Wayne county, Indiana, for two terms. In 
his political adherency he is a Democrat, 
and in 1859 was elected on that ticket a jus- 
tice of the peace of Abington township, 
'Wayne county, Indiana, where he served two 
terms. After his removal to Darke county 
he was five times elected to this honorable 
office, in which he served with marked abil- 
ity and discretion, and in 1891 he was ac- 
corded the honor of being elected as a di- 
rector of the county infirmary, in which ca- 
pacity he served two terms. He has several 



times been called upon to preside over the 
destinies of Hollansburg, as president of its 
board of trustees, is at the present time the 
incumbent of that position and at this writing 
is just entering upon his third term as justice 
of the peace. 

Mr. and Mrs. Turner inherited the farm 
owned by her father. Her grandfather, 
John Endsley, came from North Carolina to 
Wayne county, Indiana, in 1805, the latter's 
father having been a native of Ireland. Our 
subject has a well denned genealogical record 
of his mother's family, the Gaar line, the 
same running back two hundred and seven- 
ty-five years. The family has been one of 
marked prominence in the history of Wayne 
county, Indiana, and in the annals of the 
nation, as is evident when the fact is recalled 
that the family had three representatives in 
the war of the Revolution ; fifteen in the war 
of 1812; sixteen in the Mexican war; while 
in the war of the Rebellion over one hun- 
dred members were enlisted in the Union 
armies and a practically equal number in the 
Confederate forces. 



JACOB HALDERMAN. 

For many years this gentleman has re- 
sided in Darke county and his name is in- 
separably connected with the agricultural 
and building interests of this region. Hi 
thoroughly American spirit and his great 
energy have enabled him to mount from a 
lowly position to one of affluence. One of 
his leading characteristics in business affairs 
is his fine sense of order and complete sys- 
tem and the habit of giving careful atten- 
tion to details, without which success in any 
undertaking is never assured. 

Mr. Halderman was born in Dayton, 
Ohio, October 25, 1835, and is a son of 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



303 



John Halderman, a native of Pennsylvania, 
who settled in Dayton the year of our sub- 
ject's birth, and died there when his son 
was only three years old. At that tender 
age Mr. Halderman passed to the care of 
strang'ers and relatives, and when twelve 
years old went to Indiana, where he spent 
two years. At the end of that time he came 
to Darke county, Ohio, where he worked 
as a farm hand one year, and then served 
an apprenticeship to Reuben Heffner, a con- 
tractor, at the carpenter's trade, and re- 
mained with him as a journeyman after his 
apprenticeship was complete, being in his 
emplo\ r nine years. In the meantime he had 
attained man's estate, and at the end of that 
period commenced contracting and build- 
ing on his own account, at the same time 
carrying on farming on rented land. In 
1861 he rented a farm of one hundred and 
twenty acres in Greenville township, which 
he subsequently purchased, and to which he 
has since added until he now has a valuable 
and well improved farm of two hundred and 
sixty acres. Upon his place he has erected 
commodious barns of the best construction, 
a fine residence, tobacco sheds, granaries, 
etc. His principal crops are wheat, corn 
and tobacco, and he also gives considerable 
attention to the raising of hogs. He is one 
of the most intelligent and successful farm- 
ers of the county. 

December 27, i860, Mr. Halderman was 
united in marriage with Miss Mary Baker, 
by whom he had seven children, but one 
died in infancy unnamed. The others are 
Lenta, the wife of S. E. Bishop, of Hamil- 
ton. Ohio; Alice, the wife of William Mc- 
Neil, of Columbus, this state; Ida Bird, the 
wife of \Y. J. Wagner, a farmer and school 
teacher of Darke county; Herschel V., a 
resident of El Paso, Texas ; Elnora, at 

18 



home ; and Pearl, the wife of William G. 
Bishop, of Greenville. The mother of these 
children died in 1875, aged thirty-six years. 
For his second wife Mr. Halderman mar- 
ried Miss Frances E. Helm, a native of 
Darke county and a daughter of Eli and 
Catherine (Zimmerman) Helm, and to them 
was born a son. Roll H. 

In Mr. Halderman we have a perfect 
illustration of a self-made man. Being left 
an orphan at the age of three years, he be- 
gan the battle of life much younger than 
most men, and his success has been phenom- 
enal, though of a steady, healthful growth. 
For twenty-eight years he has been con- 
nected with Greenville Lodge, I. O. 
O. F.. and is also a member of the En- 
campment and Patriarchs Militant. He has 
filled all the chairs in the subordinate lodge 
and encampment. He has also served as 
ensign and lieutenant in the Patriarchs Mil- 
itant. Politically he is a supporter of the 
Democratic party and has served as town- 
ship trustee and in other minor offices. To 
strangers he is always most cordial and enter- 
taining and is widely and favorably known 
throughout his adopted county. 



JOHN G. FRANK. 

On sections 17 and 18, Harrison town- 
ship, is located the fine farmstead of one 
hundred and twenty-six acres which is 
owned and cultivated by the gentleman 
whose name introduces this review, and we 
are pleased to give a resume of his career in 
this connection, for he stands forth as one 
of the leading German-American citizens of 
Darke county and as a representative of our 
best yeoman that has gained to this section 
its reputation as one of the most attractive 



804 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



farming communities in the favored state, 
noted for its agricultural pre-eminence. 

John George Frank was born in Wur- 
temberg. Germany, the 26th of May, 1834, 
and when a young man of twenty, in 1854, 
emigrated to America for the purpose of 
trying his fortunes in the new world, where 
he felt better opportunities were offered to 
the energetic and industrious young men. 
He made the eventful voyage on a sailing 
vessel, and after leaving Bremen fifty-three 
days elapsed ere the boat dropped anchor 
in the port of New York. A stranger in a 
strange land. Mr. Frank at once set about 
making his way, being determined to suc- 
ceed, if success could be gained by honest 
and earnest endeavor. He stopped for a 
time on the Delaware river, fifteen miles 
north of Philadelphia, where he secured 
work as a farm hand at eight dollars per 
month. He had but a small amount of cash 
when he left home and fatherland, and when 
he reached America his financial reinforce- 
ment amounted to only ten dollars. After 
remaining in Pennsylvania for four and 
one-half months he came on to the west, 
being employed for about the same length 
of time in a wagon shop at Richmond, In- 
diana, after which he identified himself with 
the interests of Darke county, coming to 
Harrison township, hiring out by the month 
until the winter of 1857. On the 5th of 
December of that year Mr. Frank showed 
his confidence in himself and his ability to 
succeed by assuming a definite responsibil- 
ity, being then united in marriage to Miss 
Jemima Brown, who was born in this town- 
ship on the 17th of December, 1833, the 
daughter of Edward Brown, who is still liv- 
ing at the venerable age of ninety-two years, 
being one of the wealthy and honored farm- 
ers of the county. He was born in Penn- 



sylvania and his marriage to Miss Mary M. 
Blocher, who was born near York, that state, 
was solemnized in Harrison township, Darke 
county. Mrs. Brown died in Madison in 
1888, at the age of seventy-eight years, hav- 
ing become the mother of three sons and 
six daughters, of whom the three sons are 
living and only one of the daughters, — 
Mrs. Frank, the estimable wife of our sub- 
ject. Her brothers are farmers in this town- 
ship and in contiguous sections of Indiana, 
and the venerable father now makes his 
home with his children, being cared for with 
the deepest filial solicitude and being now 
feeble and broken in health by reason of 
great age. 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank have become the 
parents of four sons and four daughters, 
of whom we offer the following brief rec- 
ord : Mary is the wife of Philip Rogers, 
a successful farmer of Washington town- 
ship, this county, and they have six children ; 
Sarah Jane is the wife of Newton Rogers 
and is the mother of seven children ; Fred- 
erick W. resides on the old homestead, which 
he operates for his father; he married Alice 
Miller and they have four sons and two 
daughters : Jonas A., who is a successful fruit 
grower, residing north of Greenville, this 
county, is married and has seven children ; 
Rebecca is the wife of Charles Albright and 
has one child; Charles Edward,' a meat 
dealer in Hollansburg, is married and has 
one daughter; John G. is a tenant fanner in 
an adjoining county in Indiana, and of his 
marriage two children were born, but both 
are deceased; Emma is the wife of Leonard 
Moore, who resides in this immediate vi- 
cinity, and they have one son ; and the other 
child of our subject and wife was a son who 
died at the age of seven months. 

In the year 1859 Mr. Frank purchased 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



805 



fifty-two acres of land, the same being a 
portion of his present farm, and for this 
original tract he paid thirty dollars per acre, 
no permanent improvements having been 
made on the place, and the young man hav- 
ing to assume an indebtedness for a por- 
tion of the purchase price. He erected a 
small frame house, one story in height and 
16x24 feet in dimensions, and also put up 
a log barn. The original house is now a 
part of his present attractive and com- 
modious residence and is occupied by his 
son. Improvements were made as rapidly 
as circumstances would permit, — he erected 
a small frame barn eventually, and in 1879 
built his large and well equipped barn, 42X 
52 feet in dimensions, and in 1885 the new- 
residence of two stories was erected. Mr. 
Frank has made three additions to the 
acreage of his farm since his original pur- 
chase, and he now has one hundred and 
twenty-six. acres under a fine state of culti- 
vation and devoted to mixed farming - . He 
makes it a point to rotate crops every three 
years, thus keeping up the vitality of the 
land. He also raises swine somewhat ex- 
tensively and keeps a dairy of from sixteen 
to twenty high-grade Jersey cows, all 
eligible for registration. He operates his 
own creamery, the products of which find 
ready demand in the direct family trade con- 
trolled in Richmond. 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank are members of the 
German Baptist church, in whose direct and 
collateral work they have an abiding inter- 
est, our subject being a deacon in the church. 
In politics he gives his support to the Dem- 
ocratic party, but he has invariably declined 
to accept official preferment. He and his 
wife continue to be actively concerned in the 
affairs of the homestead, though the opera- 
tion of the farm has been consigned to their 



son, who is a practical and capable young 
agriculturist and business man. They en- 
joy a marked popularity in the community 
and the high estimation in which they are 
held stands in unmistakable evidence of their 
sterling worth of character. The farm is 
one of the most attractive in this section and 
everything about the place gives indication 
of the care and attention bestowed. On the 
place Mr. Frank has a sorghum mill, which 
has brought a good revenue and has yielded 
much valuable fertilizing material. 



REUBEN BROYYX. 

Among the reliable and progressive citi- 
zens who have given their attention to the 
basic art of husbandry and have aided ma- 
terially in advancing the interests and sub- 
stantial development of Darke county is 
Reuben Brown, whose finely improved and 
well cultivated farm is located on section 20, 
Harrison township, his postoffice address be- 
ing Whitewater, Indiana. Mr. Brown was 
born on a farm one mile northeast of his 
present place, on the 20th day of May, 1840, 
his father being Edward Brown, who was 
born in the vicinity of Baltimore, Maryland, 
on the 28th of March, 1809. The latter's 
father, John Brown, was likewise a native 
of Maryland, whence he emigrated to Ohio 
as early as 18 17. He was twice married, his 
first union being with Mina Stochsiel, whom 
he wedded in the year 1802, and who bore 
him seven sons and one daughter. Her 
death occurred in February, 1834. Of the 
second marriage no children were born. 
Grandfather John Brown died at about the 
age of sixty years. He was an extensive 
land-owner in this section of Ohio, having 
entered a half-section here, and his first 
abiding place in the frontier wilds was a 



306 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



sort of a tent, made by setting up a series 
of poles in conical shape and covering them 
with blankets. He finally erected a more 
substantial dwelling, of hewed logs, and also 
put up a large barn of the same character. 
He was a sturdy and energetic pioneer and 
cleared up his farm, making the large tract 
one of the most valuable in this section. 

Edward Brown, father of our subject, 
chose for his companion on life's journey 
Miss Mary Magdalene Blocher, who was 
burn in Pennsylvania, the daughter of Joseph 
Blocher, who was one of the early pioneers 
of Darke county. Edward and Mary M. 
Brown became the parents of nine children, 
of whom six lived to attain maturity, name- 
ly : Jemima, who is the wife of John G. 
Frank, to whom specific attention is di- 
rected on another page of this work; Mary, 
who became the wife of Andrew Wind- 
miller, was born in 1838 and died in 1884, 
leaving four sons and four daughters ; 
Reuben is the immediate subject of this 
sketch ; Jonas is an extensive farmer in 
Huntington county, Indiana; Frederick is 
engaged in agricultural pursuits in Wayne 
ci unity, Indiana ; and Malinda, the wife of 
Uriah Dowler, died in 1892, at the age of 
forty years, leaving three children. The 
mother of our subject entered into eternal 
rest October 10, 1878, but the father is still 
living, having attained the patriarchal age 
of ninety-two years, and having made his 
home with his children since 1892. 

Reuben Brown became inured to the 
duties of the farm at a very early age, and 
his educational advantages were of limited 
scope, but the fundamental training which 
he received in the primitive schools has 
been most effectively supplemented by that 
valuable learning which is the result of per- 
sonal application and participation in the 



practical activities of life. He remained on 
the old homestead until he had attained his 
majority, when he assumed connubial re- 
sponsibilities, being united in marriage on 
the 25th of April, 1861, to Miss Esther 
Bausman, who was born in Miami county, 
Ohio, the daughter of John and Esther 
(Weneich) Bailsman, who became the par- 
ents of four sons and five daughters, all of 
whom are living except one daughter, a 
brief record concerning them being here in- 
corporated: David, a resident of Harper 
county, Kansas, has eight children; Thom- 
as, of Wabash county, Indiana, has twelve 
children ; Eli, a resident of Henry county, 
Missouri, has five children; Daniel, a pros- 
perous farmer of Neave township, Darke 
county, has two children; Harriet, widow 
of Solomon Bollinger, is a resident of Wa- 
bash county, Indiana, and has two children : 
Esther, who is the wife of Mr. Brown, of 
this review ; Fannie, wife of Jacob Root, 
died in Kansas, leaving no issue ; Susanna, 
the wife of William Fry, has one son; and 
Elizabeth, wife of Elias Rogers, has four 
children. 

Mr. and Mrs. Brown lost one son ami 
one daughter in infancy, and of the chil- 
dren who attained maturity we make more 
detailed mention, as follows: Frances I., 
wife of Jacob Hollinger, has two children; 
Harriet Rebecca is the wife of John Hol- 
linger, and has five children; Lydia is the 
wife of Thomas Jordan; Amanda Victoria 
is at the parental home ; Elva L. is at home ;, 
John Edward, who is now a student at 
Dayton, Ohio, is a successful teacher; Eli 
Roscoe died September 27, 1889, at the 
age of fifteen years; Jennie Leola, Cyrus 
Oscar, Alpheus,, Efne Melinda and Esther 
Magdalene are at home. 

In national affairs Mr. Brown gives his 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



C07 



support to the Democratic party, but in 
local elections he supports the man whom 
he considers most eligible for office, being 
liberal in his views. He served one term as 
road supervisor, but has no desire for offi- 
cial preferment. He farms upon an ex- 
tensive scale, and brings to bear a practical 
knowledge and a wise discrimination which 
have conserved his success in this import- 
ant field of endeavor. He owns two farms, 
having an aggregate area of two hundred 
and five acres, and by the careful rotation 
of crops he keeps his land in excellent pro- 
ductive condition, giving also considerable 
attention to the raising of a high grade of 
live stock. He has an annual product of 
from two to three thousand bushels of corn 
and ten to twelve hundred of wheat. From 
a fine herd of twelve Jersey cows he obtains 
the best of butter, for which a ready demand 
is always found. He purchased his fine 
farms in 1871, and is known as one of the 
representative agriculturists and able busi- 
ness men of the county. Mrs. Brown is a 
zealous member of the Dunkard church, and 
is a woman of many graces of character, and 
she is highly esteemed in the social circles 
of the community. 



JOHN PARENT. 

■ The career of him whose name heads 
this review illustrates most forcibly the pos- 
sibilities that are open to a young man who 
possesses sterling business qualifications. It 
proves that ambition, perseverance, steadfast 
purpose and indefatigable industry, com- 
bined with sound business principles, will be 
rewarded, and that true success follows in- 
dividual effort only. 

Mr. Parent was born near New Madison, 
Ohio, February 17, 1830, a son of William 



and Hannah (Ellston) Parent, both natives 
of New Jersey. The father was born near 
Monmouth, in 1804, and at an early day 
came to Darke county, Ohio. In 1835 he 
purchased one hundred and sixty acres of 
land in Washington township, only three 
acres of which had been cleared, the other 
being covered with a heavy growth of tim- 
ber. Wild animals, such as bears and wolves, 
were plentiful, and Indians still roamed 
through the forests. While Mr. Parent and 
his wife were clearing their land and encoun- 
tering dangers incident to such a life, their 
family of children were increased to eight 
five of whom are still living, namely : George, 
a resident of Union City, Indiana ; Mrs. Eliz- 
abeth Barr, of Washington township, Darke 
county; Mrs. Amy J. Roe, of Jackson town- 
ship; William Henry Harrison, of Ander- 
son, Indiana; and John, our subject. As was 
the case with all early settlers, their educa- 
tional advantages were very limited. The 
old log schoolhouse was reached after 
tramping through miles of almost impene- 
trable undergrowth and the rod was strongly 
in evidence. The father died Monday, No- 
vember 28, 1887, on the farm where he first 
settled, but the place had been enlarged until 
it contained one hundred and ninety acres. 
John Parent grew to manhood on the 
home farm, and was married, October 6, 
1852, to Miss Ann Arnold, the ceremony 
being performed by Aaron Hiiler, at his 
home near Sharpeye. The young couple be- 
gan their domestic life on his father's farm, 
but two years later Mr. Parent purchased 
eighty acres of wooded land five miles dis- 
tant, which was school property, and for 
which he paid four hundred and eighty dol- 
lars, buying it on twelve years' time. He used 
to walk five miles twice each day while clear- 
ing a space and erecting a cabin thereon. In 



308 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



that primitive abode the family lived for ten 
years. At the end of six years Mr. Parent 
had succeeded in paying off the debt on his 
place, which was chiefly done by fattening 
calves for market. He would buy them in 
the spring at a nominal price, and allow them 
to run in the wild pasture until fall, when 
they were sold at a good profit. For seven 
years he operated a sawmill in connection 
with his farming, and at the opening of the 
civil war he sold his eighty-acre farm for 
two thousand dollars, his sawmill for the 
same amount, which, together with his two 
thousand dollars he had saved from the 
profis of both made six thousand dol- 
lars, that had been accumulated in ten 
years. On starting out in life for 
himself his father had given him a colt 
which he sold for seventy-five dollars, which 
was the capital that he had to embark in 
business with. Prosperity has attended his 
well-directed efforts, and he has been able to 
give his children ten thousand dollars, at 
different times. He still owns two hundred 
and fifteen acres of fine farming land, and 
is at the head of an extensive grain business 
in Union City, where he owns two elevators. 
While Mr. Parent and his wife were 
laboring and prospering six children came to 
biess their union, four of whom are now 
living: Mrs. Alice Cramer, who is the wife 
of a lumber dealer of New Orleans, Louis- 
iana, and they have two daughters; Dora, 
who is the wife of George A. Lambert, the 
latter being at the head of the extensive 
Buckeye Factory of Anderson, Indiana, 
whose products are chiefly gas engines, and 
they have one son and two daughters ; Addie, 
who is the wife of Thomas G. Warren, a 
machinist of Cleveland , Ohio, and they also 
have one son and two daughters; and W. G., 
who has charge of his father's grain busi- 



ness in Union City. One son, John, died 
August 1 6, 1895, aged twenty-six years, 
and a daughter, Mrs. Luella Edgar, died 
September 22, 1891, at Colorado Springs, 
Colorado, where she had been taken with the 
hopes of prolonging her life. Miss Acha 
Roe, a daughter of Mr. Parent's sister, has 
made her home with our subject and his wife 
since she was only four days old. 

In looking into the clear eye and strong 
countenance of Mr. Parent one would be 
led to suppose that every educational advan- 
tage had been his portion instead of early 
struggles and privations and a continuous 
life of hard labor. His estimable wife has 
been to him a true helpmeet and the prosper- 
ity that has come to them is certainly well- 
merited. They are both well-preserved and 
in good health and are now enjoying the 
fruits of their labors in a beautiful home 
near Union City, where they are surrounded 
by every comfort and many luxuries. 



CHARLES W. RARICK, A. M., M. D. 

Dr. Charles Wesley Rarick is numbered 
among the native sons of Darke county, his 
birth having occurred in Washington town- 
ship, on the 9th of December, 1843. His 
great-great-grandfather was born at Erbach, 
Wittenberg, Germany, in 1722, and in 1749 
crossed the Atlantic to America arriving in 
Philadelphia on the 2d of September. There 
he spent his remaining days, passing away in 
1799. He was the father of seven children, 
including Henry Rarick, the great-grand- 
father of our subject. He was born in the 
city which his father had chosen for his 
home on arriving in the new world. His 
birth occurred in 1755, and he died at his 
home west of Dayton in 1819. He had a 
family of seven children, one of whom was 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



309 



Philip Rarick, who was born in Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1774, and died near Sharpeye, 
Darke county, Ohio, on the William Ellston 
farm, in 1844. Philip Rarick, Jr., the Doc- 
tor's father, was born in 1808, and was four 
times married, becoming the father of fif- 
teen children. He first wedded Miss Sarah 
Chenoweth, who was born October 2, 181 1, 
and by their union they became the parents 
of ten children. By his third wife the father 
had five children. Those of the first mar- 
riage were: Abraham C, who was born 
April 12, 1833. and served in the Civil 
war for two years with the rank of second 
lieutenant, is now a farmer and cattle-raiser 
in Clark county, Iowa; Isaac N., born April 
19, 1835, is a practicing physician of Red- 
key, Indiana; Jacob J., born May 2, 1837, 
was for four years a soldier in the Civil war, 
rose to the rank of major, and is now a 
teacher and farmer in Lawrence, Kansas; 
David H., born February 28, 1839, died six 
months later; Adam C, born Juiy 5, 1841, 
is a stock-raiser in Clark county, Iowa, where 
he owns one thousand acres of land, all of 
which except forty-seven acres, he has ac- 
cumulated since the close of the Civil war, 
in which he served for four years in the 
Iowa Volunteer Infantry; Charles W. is the 
next of the family; Ira O., born December 
23, 1845, ^ s a farmer and dairyman in Har- 
nsonville, Missouri ; Susanna B., born June 
30, 1848, .is the wife of Charles A. More- 
house, a farmer of Jay county, Indiana, 
living near Hector ; Caroline, born July 20, 
1850, is the wife of Samuel L. Roberts, and 
in the spring of 1900 they traded a horse 
ranch in western Nebraska for a farm near 
Dunnville. Indiana, upon which they now 
reside; and Catherine, born March 25, 1853, 
died at the age of sixteen years. The chil- 
dren of the third marriaire were Mrs. Elsie 



Green, Mrs. Rosie Tharp, Mrs. Clara Wall, 
Mrs. Cora Carbaugh and John, and all are 
living near Deerfield, Indiana. The father of 
these children died September 1, 1886, and 
the Doctor's mother passed away on the 6th 
of March, 1863. 

Dr. Rarick began his education in the 
country schools, which he attended about 
thirteen weeks during the winter season. 
Throughout the remainder of the year he as- 
sisted his father in the operation of the farm, 
aiding in clearing and developing two hun- 
dred and eighty acres of land. He was thus 
engaged at the time of the Civil war, when, 
prompted by a spirit of patriotism, he put 
aside all personal considerations and on the 
28th of August, 1862, joined the volunteer 
service of the country, in Company H, One 
Hundredth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, re- 
maining at the front until peace was de- 
clared. He participated in thirty battles and 
escaped uninjured. His was a very honorable 
record, one of which he may well be proud. 

After the close of the war the Doctor en- 
tered Liber College, near Portland, Indiana, 
and there pursued his studies for fourteen 
months. After teaching and attending school 
until March 11, 1869, he matriculated in Ma- 
rietta College and was graduated in 1874, 
with the degree of bachelor of arts. Three 
years later his alma mater conferred upon 
him the degree of master of arts. Subse- 
quently the Doctor studied medicine and was 
engaged in teaching school for several years. 
He was the superintendent of the Ridgeville 
school for one year and was known as a suc- 
cessful educator, having the ability to im- 
part clearly and concisely to others the 
knowledge he had acquired. In 1S83 he re- 
ceived his diploma as a medical practitioner 
and has since been successfully engaged in 
practice, having for more than seventeen 



310 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



years occupied a suite of rooms over the 
Farmers' National Bank in Greenville. He 
has been a close student of his profession, 
has kept abreast of the times in his work, and 
his knowledge of the medical science is com- 
prehensive and accurate. ■ 

On the ioth of March, 1880. was cele- 
brated the marriage of Dr. Rarick and Miss 
Ella J. Griffin, who was born in Montgomery- 
county Ohio, March 17, 1852. One son, 
Harry G, was born to them December 12, 
1880. and was graduated in the public 
scln I' ils of Greenville, in May, 1899. The 
family occupy an enviable position in social 
circles and enjoy the hospitality of many of 
the best homes in the city. The Doctor has 
gained enviable prestige in his chosen call- 
ing and to-day ranks among the leading rep- 
resentatives of one of the most noble and 
humane professions to which man can devote 
his energies. 



SAMUEL PAULIN. 

Samuel Paulin, deceased, was born in 
Mahoning county, Ohio, May 15, 1822, a 
son of Peter Paulin, a native of Pennsylva- 
nia and of German origin. In Peter Pau- 
lin's family were eleven children, eight sons 
and three daughters, of whom Samuel was 
the fourth son. He was reared on his fa- 
ther's farm and was more or less interested 
in farming the greater part of his life. 
When a young man lie served an apprentice- 
ship to the trade of carpenter. After his 
marriage, which event occurred in 1844, he 
settled in his native county, where he con- 
tinued to reside for five years, coming thence 
in 1849 to Darke county and settling at 
the "Beach," which was his home six years, 
his time during this period being devoted 
to contracting and building-. He did as 



much work perhaps as any other contractor 
in the county, if not more. Country 
life then becoming rather monotonous for 
him, he moved to Greenville, where, how- 
ever, he resided but a year. Then purchasing 
a farm in Adams township, he removed with 
his family to it, in the year 1861, and here 
he passed the rest of his life in agricultural 
pursuits. He died October 7, 1895. 

Mr. Paulin was a man of many excellent 
traits of character. Honorable and upright 
in all his dealings, his word was always re- 
garded as good as his bond. He was inter- 
ested in everything he believed was for the 
good of the community in which he lived and 
he could he counted upon to support any 
worthy enterprise. He was a strong tem- 
perance advocate. Formerly a Republican, 
he left that party in order to cast his vote 
with the Prohibition party, with which he 
affiliated up to the time of his death. He 
was for fifty-one years a member of the 
Evangelical church, in which he was an act- 
ive and efficient worker, and for a period of 
forty-one years was a reader of the Evangeli- 
cal Messenger. Mrs. Paulin is also a devot- 
ed member of this church and continues to 
take and read the Messenger. 

Before her marriage Mrs. Paulin was 
Miss Lucinda Martin. She was born in Ma- 
honing county, Ohio, May 3, 1826. a daugh- 
ter of George and Susan ( Smich ) Martin, 
both natives of Maryland, her father by oc- 
cupation a farmer. She was the third born 
in a family of six children, the other mem- 
bers of the family being as follows : Aptill, 
who resides on the old homestead in Mahon- 
ing county: Neazer, deceased; Harriet, wife 
of Solomon Martin, of New Middleton, Ma- 
honing county: Lena, deceased; and Lucy, 
deceased. Mrs. Paulin is the only one of 
the family in Darke county, and she still re 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



311 



sides on the farm above referred to in Adams 
township, a tract of ninety-two acres, which 
is operated by her son. She is the mother of 
seven children and her grandchildren and 
great-grandchildren now constitute a large 
number. Of her children six are still living, 
namely : Sarah, who is the wife of Benjamin 
Gower, a hotel man of Arcanum, Ohio, and 
has three children — James, Edward and 
Nannie ; Lucy, who is the wife of Clay Fork- 
ertz, of Indianapolis, and has five children — 
Bert, John, Harry, Samuel and Walter; 
Amos, who married Mary Sentman and lives 
in Gettysburg, Ohio, and has one son, Lew- 
is, who is married and has one child, Amos 
H. ; Nancy, deceased, was twice married, 
first, to John Dunn, and after his death to 
Phillip Albright, the children by both mar- 
riages being deceased ; Calvin, who married 
Martha Shuetce and is the father of six 
children, two of whom — Lula and Nettie — 
are living; and Tobias, who married Molly 
"Willis and has had five children, four of 
whom are living — Dora, Elsworth, James 
and William. 

Tobias Paulin resides on the home place 
with his mother and conducts the farming 
operations. 



ELIAS D. SNYDER, M. D. 

Among those who devote their time and 
energies to the practice of medicine and have 
gained a leading place in the ranks of the 
profession is Dr. Snyder, of Arcanum, Ohio. 
He is a native of Maryland, born on the old 
homestead in the beautiful Antietam valley 
August 20. 1837, and is of German descent. 
His grandfather, Jacob Snyder, was born 
near Hagerstown. Washington county, 
Maryland, and lived to the age of ninety- 



four years, while his wife reached the age of 
ninety-two, and her mother, who was a Miss 
Wyand before marriage, lived to the ad- 
vanced age of one hundred and two years. 
He was blind the last thirty years of his 
life. 

John A. Snyder, the Doctor's father, 
was born on the old homestead in Wash- 
ington county, Maryland, in 1807, and 
married Elizabeth Ann Benner. In 1838 
they came to Ohio by wagon with several 
other families and stopped for a short time 
near Winchester. Preble county. Mr. Sny- 
der then purchased a farm of sixty-one 
acres west of Dayton in Montgomery coun- 
ty and subsequently removed to West Alex- 
andria, Preble county, where he lived retired 
until his death in 1892. During his long 
and useful career he was honored and highly 
esteemed by all with whom he came in con- 
tact, and was called upon to fill several local 
offices. His wife, who was born in 1810, 
died in 1890. Both were consistent mem- 
bers of the United Brethren church. Their 
children were Aaron \V., a resident of Preble 
county; Elias D., our subject; Jacob S.. who 
served four months in Company F, One 
Hundred and Thirty-first Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry, during the civil war, and is now 
a resident of Preble county ; and Marietta, 
who married Elias Mumma and died in West 
Alexandria. Ohio. 

It was during his infancy that Dr. Sny- 
der was brought by his parents to this state, 
and during his early life, spent in Preble 
ci >unty, he saw much of the pioneer life of 
this section. He attended the country 
schools until twenty years of age, and dur- 
ing the following ten years successfully en- 
gaged in teaching school. Having deter- 
mined to enter the medical profession, he 
studied under Drs. Huggins & Campbell, of 



312 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



West Alexandria, for three years, and then 
entered the Ohio Medical College, where he 
was graduated with the class of 1872. The 
same year he opened an office in Arcanum, 
where he has since actively engaged in prac- 
tice and has met with marked success. For 
four years he was in partnership with Dr. 
Donavan Robeson, but with that exception 
has been alone. 

In 1865 Dr. Snyder was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Elizabeth Myers, a native 
of Preble county and a daughter of John 
and Mary (Russell) Myers, and by this 
union was born one child, John Arthur, 
who married Emma Gerder and has one 
child. 

During the dark days of the civil war 
Dr. Snyder enlisted as a private in Com- 
pany C, One Hundred and Thirty-first Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry, for one hundred days' 
service, and with his regiment was located 
in and about Baltimore. Maryland, until dis- 
charged. Religiously he is an active mem- 
ber of the United Brethren church. The 
Doctor is one of the oldest practitioners in 
Darke county. On first coming to Arcanum 
he visited many of his country patients on 
horseback and sometimes in a light sulky, 
as the roads were bad, and he often had to 
tie his horse at some point along the road 
and walk the rest of the way. His skill and 
thorough knowledge of medicine soon won 
him the confidence and esteem of the people 
and he was not long in building up an ex- 
tensive and lucrative practice. A man of 
prudent foresight and good business capacity. 
he has invested in farming property, and 
now has a fine farm of seventy-two acres 
in Van Buren township, especially adapted 
to tobacco culture. His crop off eight acres 
has brought him one thousand dollars in one 
season, and in three years he has made three 



thousand dollars from the same tract. He 
also owns an interest in a farm in West 
Alexandria. 



ANDREW JACKSON DOWNING. 

For a quarter of a century this well- 
known and popular druggist has been promi- 
nently identified with the business interests 
of Hollansburg, and his affairs have been so 
managed as to win him the confidence of the 
public and the prosperity which should al- 
ways attend honorable effort. 

A native of Darke county, Mr. Downing 
was born in Harrison township, February 
9, 1840, and is a son of Robert Jay and In- 
diana (BairdJ Downing. He traces his an- 
cestry back to Sergeant John Downing, a 
native of Ireland, who came to America in 
Colonial days and served for eight years in 
the colonial war, taking part with Francis 
Marion in the battle of Cowpens. He was 
born in 1726, anil died in South Carolina 
when about seventy years of age. being laid 
to rest three miles from the town of Ches- 
ter. His son, John, our subject's grandfa- 
ther, was born in Chester county, South Car- 
olina, December 7, 1776, and died in Harri- 
son township, Darke county, Ohio, May 17, 
1870. He was a remarkable man physically 
and possessed his strength up to the last, 
dying of an acute disease of the bladder at 
the age of ninety-four years. From South 
Carolina he removed to Lexington, Ken- 
tucky, and in 181 7 came to New Paris. Ohio. 
At one time he owned about a section of 
land in this county, having entered the same 
at the land office, and paying for it one dollar 
and a quarter per acre. Some three hundred 
acres of the original tract is still in posses- 
sion of the family. He married Margaret 
Faris, a native of Ireland, and to them were 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



313 



born seven children, five sons and two 
daughters, who reached adult age. 

Robert J. Downing, the father of our 
subject, was born in Bourbon county, Ken- 
tucky, and was only two years old when 
brought by his parents to Darke county, 
Ohio, locating on a tract of government land 
in Harrison township. About 1836 he mar- 
ried Indiana Baird, of Butler township, this 
county, a daughter of John Baird, and to 
them were born eleven children, of whom 
three sons and five daughters reached man 
and womanhood, and five are still fixing, 
namely: Andrew J., our subject; Margaret, 
wife of Henry Sells, of Hollansburg; Jason; 
Ella A., wife of Mark T. Mills, of Ennis, 
Ellis county, Texas ; and Amanda E., wife of 
A. A. Loudenslager, of Harrison township, 
this county. The mother died at the age of 
sixty-five years and was buried in New Mad- 
ison, and the father died at the age of 
seventy-three and was buried in Hollans- 
burg. 

The boyhood and youth of Andrew J. 
Downing was passed upon his father's farm 
and he was educated in the district schools 
of the neighborhood. On leaving the par- 
ental roof at the age of twenty-three years, 
he commenced teaching and followed that oc~ 
cupation for five years. In June, 1875. he 
opened a drug store in Hollansburg, and has 
since devoted his entire time and attention 
to that business, having built up a good trade. 
Besides his business property he owns a 
pleasant residence in the village which he 
has rebuilt. 

May 31, 1863, Mr. Downing was unit- 
ed in marriage with Miss Rebecca A. Gib- 
son, of this county, a daughter of Nathan 
Gibson, and to them were born three chil- 
dren,namely : Orville A., a farmer of German 
township, who is married and has five chil- 



dren, four sons and one daughter, Eleanora, 
who married George W. Skinner, of Arba, 
Indiana, and they have three children; and 
Harry H., who died at the age of two years. 
Mr. and Mrs. Downing are both active 
and faithful members of the Christian 
church, of which he is a trustee, and are 
held in high regard by all who know them. 
He affiliates with the Democratic party, and 
has most efficiently served as township 
clerk four years, village trustee two years, 
and councilman four years. In all the rela- 
tions of life he has been found true to every 
trust reposed in him, whether public or pri- 
vate, and is justly numbered among the 
useful and valued citizens of his commu- 
nitv. 



WILSON S. BOWERS. 

Wilson S. Bowers, a prominent contrac- 
tor and carpenter residing on the old home- 
stead farm in Mississinawa township, Darke 
county, Ohio, was born in Twin township, 
Preble county, this state, July 14, 1848. His 
father, John Bowers, was born in Montgom- 
ery county, Ohio, May 6, 18 14, a son of 
Samuel and Elizabeth (Emerick) Bowers, 
pioneers of this state. Samuel Bowers was 
born in Berks county, Pennsylvania, about 
1785^ and died near West Alexandria, Preble 
county, this state, in 1869. In his fam- 
ily were nine children, five sons and four 
daughters, all of whom married and with 
one exception all reared families of their 
own. Only one is now living, George, a 
resident of Tippecanoe a unity, Indiana. The 
grandfather was a cooper by trade, and was 
one of the soldiers who fought against the 
Indians at Fort Defiance. 

In 1837 John Bowers, the father of our 
subject, married Catherine Judy, who was 



314 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



born in Rockingham county, Virginia, Jan- 
uary 5, 1813, a daughter of Frederick and 
Polly (Hoover) Judy, who moved to Preble 
county, Ohio, in 1817. Both her parents 
died of milk-sickness, and were buried in 
one grave at Lewisburg, Ohio. She is the 
only one of their seven children now living. 
Her sister, Sarah, who was born March 13, 
1807, died in November, 1898. After their 
marriage Mr. and Mrs. Bowers lived on 
rented farms in Preble county until Septem- 
ber 24, 1857, when they moved to the farm 
on section 14, Mississinawa township, Darke 
county, now owned by their sons, Cornelius 
and Wilson S. In the midst of the forest 
they made their home. Wild game was still 
plentiful, and Cornelius has a fine pair of 
antlers from a noble buck that he and his 
father killed in the winter of 1866, it being 
the last one killed in this region. For his 
farm of one hundred and fifteen acres the 
father paid twelve hundred dollars in cash, 
which he made by honest toil and strict 
economy. Here he died October 25, 1872, 
honored and respected by all who knew him, 
but the mother is still living and retains her 
faculties unimpaired. They had five chil- 
dren, namely: Lovey, the wife of John 
Briner, a farmer living near the old home- 
stead, by whom she has six children : Will- 
iam, who died at the age of twenty-seven 
years, leaving a wife and one son, Ronert; 
Elizabeth, who died at the age of twenty- 
four years; Cornelius, who lives on the old 
homestead with his mother; and Wilson S., 
our subject. 

Wilson S. Bowers was reared in the usual 
manner of farmer boys, and received a good 
common school education. He remained 
a^ his parental home, working much of the 
time with his father at the cooper's trade un- 
til twenty-six years of age, when he em- 



barked in business for himself as a carpenter 
and contractor. He has met with success 
in this venture, and is today quite well-to-do. 
He and his brother have a good farm of 
eighty acres, and he also owns an adjoin- 
ing" tract of six acres. 

On the 25th of May, 1873, Mr. Bowers 
was united in marriage with Miss Mary A. 
Condon, of Warren county, Ohio, and they 
have eight children: John H., who is mar- 
ried and lives in Union City, Ohio; William 
C, who is working at the carpenter's trade, 
with his father; James A., a young widower, 
who is learning the carpenter's trade; 
and Wilson, Sylvia J., Mary O., Ernest and 
Addie. all at home, the youngest being nine 
years of age. Like the other members of his 
family, Mr. Bowers is a Democrat in poli- 
tics, and for seven years he most creditably 
and satisfactorily served as trustee of his 
township. He is one of the representative 
and prominent citizens of his community, 
and is highly respected and esteemed by all 
who know him. 



JOHN STEPHENS. 

The subject of this sketch, who through- 
out life has been identified with the indus- 
trial and agricultural interests of Darke 
county, and is now the owner of one of the 
best and most desirable farms of its size in 
Greenville township, was born in German 
township, Darke county, November 11, 
1825, a son of David and Lydia (Wagner) 
Stephens, early settlers of this county. The 
father was a native of Berks county, Penn- 
sylvania, and a soldier of the war of 181 2. 
The paternal grandfather came to Ohio 
about 1818, and settled in Preble county. 
John Wagner, the maternal grandfather, 
was also a native of Pennsvlvania and an 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



315 



early settler of Darke county. Our subject 
is the third child and second son in a family 
of nine children, the others being : Anna, 
widow of Jesse Woods, of German town- 
ship, Darke county; Joseph, a resident of 
Indiana ; Mary, the widow of John McClure, 
of Indiana; Catherine M., the deceased wife 
of Eli Armacost, of Washington township ; 
Noah and Levi, both deceased ; and Allen 
and Isaac, who died during their youth. 

John Stephens was reared in his native 
township when most of that region was 
still wild and unimproved, and his early rec- 
ollections are of seeing deer, wolves and 
other wild animals of the forest. lie at- 
tended the" subscription schools conducted in 
a log school-house with a puncheon floor, 
and at the age of nineteen commenced serv- 
ing an apprenticeship to the blacksmith's 
trade at Palestine, Ohio, faithfully putting 
in three years at the forge. Subsequently 
he spent a short time in Indiana, and on 
his return to Darke county located in Neave 
township, where he engaged in blacksmith- 
ing on his own account for three years. In 
1853 he located on the farm in Greenville 
township, where he now resides, and opened 
a shop upon his place, which he conducted 
while his farm was mainly cleared and im- 
proved by hired help. It consists of one 
hundred and thirty-nine acres, now under a 
high state of cultivation and improved with 
good and substantial buildings. 

Mr. Stephens has been twice married. 
February 13, 1851, in Greenville township, 
he wedded Miss Maria Dininger, of Darke 
county, who died August 15, 1865. Of 
the seven children born of this union two 
died in infancy, and only four are now liv- 
ing, namely: William, who married Miss 
Sarah Johnson; Margaret, the wife of II. 
S. Bookwalter ; Lewis C, and Lydia, the 



wife of John Sando. For his second wife 
Mr. Stephens married, October 4, 1868, Ma- 
tilda Finfrock, widow of Jacob Risser, and 
to them have been born three children : 
Alva A., who married Hattie Gurlin; John 
C, who married Malinda Johnson; and 
Clara, who married Stephen Rose. 

Though nominally a Democrat, Mr. 
Stephens may be said to be independent in 
politics, voting for men and principles rather 
than party. Both he and his estimable wife 
are members of the Lutheran church, and 
have a wide circle of friends and acquaint- 
ances in the community where they reside. 



CAPTAIN JOHN T. HERSHEY. 

John T. Hershey, deceased, was born in 
Gettysburg, Darke county, Ohio, August. 16, 
1844, and in this little town passed his life, 
for many years occupying a leading place 
among its representative citizens. 

He was a son of Jacob Hershey, who 
came with his father from Pennsylvania to 
Ohio at an early day and selected a location 
in Darke county, where they laid out the 
town of Gettysburg, with which they were 
identified during the rest of their lives. 
Jacob Hershey married Mary McCune, in 
Darke county, and John T. was the first 
born and only son in their family of three 
children. He was reared at Gettysburg. 
At the time the civil war broke out he was 
yet in his 'teens, but, young as he was, he 
was among those who were first to enlist. 
He enlisted from Darke county, state of 
Ohio, on September 10, 1861, and was mus- 
tered into the United States service at Camp 
Clark, state of Ohio, on September 12, 1861, 
as a private of Company B, Forty-fourth 
Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry, under 
Captain J. C. Langston and Colonel S. A. 



310 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Gilbert, to serve three years, or during the 
Avar. He took part in the battle of Lewis- 
burg, West Virginia, May 23, 1862, where 
he was severely wounded through the ex- 
plosion of a shell; Dutton's Hill, Kentuckv, 
and others. He was honorably discharged 
January 5, 1864, at Strawberry Plains, 
Tennessee, on account of re-enlisting as a 
veteran in Company B, Eighth Regiment, 
Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, under Captain An- 
son N. Thompson and Colonel A. S. Moore, 
to serve three years or during the war. The 
Eighth Cavalry was assigned to the Second 
Brigade, Third Division, Cavalry Corps, 
Army of the Potomac, and he participated in 
the following engagements, viz : Coving- 
ton and Otter Creek, Virginia; Lynchburg, 
Liberty, Maryland Heights, Winchester and 
Martinsburg, West Virginia; Fisher's Hill, 
Winchester, and North Shenandoah valley, 
or Lurayj Virginia; Cedar Creek, and Bev- 
erly, West Virginia, October 29, 1864, where 
he was captured and confined in Libby prison 
for about three months and a half, when he 
joined his regiment. He was appointed 
sergeant February 19, 1865, and commissary 
sergeant June 1, 1865. He received his 
final discharge July 30, 1865, at Clarksburg, 
West Virginia, on account of the close of 
the war. Afterward he recruited Company 
B, Third Ohio National Guards, and was 
made its captain, a position he filled for a 
period of eight years, and throughout his 
life he took a deep interest in military af- 
fairs. For a number of years he was a mem- 
ber of the G. A. R. 

In many ways he was identified with the 
business interests of Gettysburg. He was 
at one time the postmaster of the town, also 
at various times filled numerous other offices, 
and for a number of years previous to his 
death was engaged in general merchandis- 



ing, conducting a successful business. He 
died March 13, 1900. A man of many laud- 
able traits of character, generous and unsel- 
fish, he had man)- warm friends, and was 
respected by all who knew him or in any 
way had dealings with him. For many years 
he was prominently connected with the 
Methodist Episcopal church of Gettysburg, 
active in both church and Sunday school, 
serving as the superintendent of the latter. 
His political affiliations were with the Re- 
publican party. 

Mr. Hershev's widow, Mrs. Celia Jane 
(Hoover) Hershey, resides at the home- 
stead in Gettysburg, she being, like her hus- 
band, a native of this place. Her father, 
Absalom Hoover, was born, reared and mar- 
ried in Miami county, Ohio, and from that 
place came to Darke county in pioneer days 
and established his home in the woods, in 
Franklin county, southeast of Gettysburg, 
where he acquired the title to one hundred 
and sixty acres of land. Shortly after his 
settlement here he was killed by a falling 
tree. He was a member of the Christian 
church, and was an active and efficient 
worker in both the church and the Sunday 
school, having served as superintendent of 
the latter. Politically he was first a Whig 
and afterward a Republican. The Hoovers, 
originally Quakers, came to Ohio from 
North Carolina in the early history 
of the Western Reserve. Mrs. Her- 
shey's mother, before marriage Sarah 
Fatty, was born and reared in Miami 
county, Ohio, and her father, David 
Patty, like the Hoovers, came to this 
state from North Carolina. The Pattys 
also were Quakers. Absalom and Sarah 
Hoover were the parents of six children, 
three sons and three daughters, namely : 
Noah, a resident of Adams township, Darke 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



317 



county; Bell, deceased; Celia Jane, now 
Mrs. Hershey; Charles; Albert, a teacher in 
the Union City schools; and Mary, who 
died in early life. Mrs. Hershey was reared 
in Gettysburg, where she received her edu- 
cation in the common schools, and in 1865, 
at the close of the civil war, she was united 
in marriage to John T. Hershey. Their 
union was blessed in the birth of three chil- 
dren, as follows: Mabel, the wife of J. L. 
Selby, who is the principal of the Green- 
ville schools; Wilbur, who died in early life; 
and Gertrude, a teacher, residing with her 
mother. Mrs. Hershey is a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. 



FRANK L. RYAN. 

The subject of this sketch, a well-to-do 
agriculturist of Greenville township, is a 
typical self-made man, and in the following 
record of his career there is much to arouse 
respect and esteem. He has placed his reli- 
ance on industry and perseverance rather 
than "luck," and by making the most of cir- 
cumstances, however discouraging, he has 
made his way to a substantial success. 

Mr. Ryan was born March 3, 1840, in the 
township where he still makes his home, and 
is a son of Rudolph and Ellen (Hamilton) 
Ryan. The father was a native of Virginia, 
but his early life was passed in Maryland, 
and in the early '30s he came to Darke coun- 
ty, Ohio, where he died in 1847, at the age 
of forty-five years. By trade he was a shoe- 
maker and followed his occupation here. His 
widow was left with nine children, and with 
true motherly devotion she reared them in re- 
spectability and inculcated in them the ways 
of industry and usefulness. She died in May, 
1886. at the age of seventy-five years. The 
children of the family still living are : Emily 



Gilliam, Mrs. Mary Thorn, Daniel and 
Frank L., all residents of Darke county; G. 
\V., of Miami county, Ohio; Mrs. Eliza J. 
Potter, of Reno county, Kansas; and Mrs. 
Amelia Griffin, of Nebraska. William en- 
listed during the civil war for three months' 
service in the One Hundred and Fifty-sec- 
ond Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and died in 
the hospital at New Creek, West Virginia; 
and John, who enlisted for three years in 
the Ninety-fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 
was seriously wounded and captured at 
Chattanooga, and it is supposed he died in 
Libby prison, although nothing was heard 
of him after being captured. 

During his boyhood Frank L. Ryan ob- 
tained a very limited education, as his mother 
needed his assistance in caring for the fam- 
ily. He, too, was one of the "boys in blue" 
during the Rebellion, enlisting September 
6, 1 86 1, at the age of twenty-one years, in 
Company K, Thirty-fourth Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry, for three years. He first went to 
Camp Piatt on the Ohio river, and soon af- 
terward crossed the river into Virginia, 
where his regiment saw much service. He 
participated in all of the engagements in 
which the regiment took part, numbering 
thirty-two in all, including the battles of 
Witheville, Virginia, Cloud Mountain, Stras- 
burg, and the two engagements at Cedar 
Creek and Winchester. At the last men- 
tioned place, July 24, 1864, he was captured 
just before his term of service expired, and 
lor five days he was held within the rebel 
lines. One morning he saw his opportunity 
to escape, of which he took advantage, creep- 
ing away in a ditch full of briars and lying 
all day in seclusion near the rebel camp. 
That night he walked twenty-one miles, and 
fell in with a negro who cared for him 
eighteen days, all the time being within gun- 



318 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



shot of rebel soldiers on North mountain. 
He struck the Union lines at Martinsburg, 
Virginia. In the meantime his regiment 
had returned to Ohio to be mustered out, 
and he followed in time to be mustered out 
with them, being discharged at Columbus, 
September 13, 1864. 

Returning to his home in Darke county, 
Mr. Ryan engaged in farming on rented 
land for a time, but in 1870 purchased sixty- 
two and a half acres in Greenville township, 
which he has converted into one of the best 
improved farms of that locality. He was 
married, January 26, 1865, to Miss Mary 
Potter, a daughter of Daniel and Catherine 
(Cumerine) Potter, early settlers of Darke 
county, their home being the farm on which 
our subject now resides. By this union 
were born four children, namely : Mary C, 
the wife of Owen Curtner, of Hamilton, 
Ohio; John D., a prominent salesman of 
Dayton, whose wife died leaving two chil- 
dren, Agnes and Frankie; Cora, at home 
witli her parents; and Minnie, the wife of 
William Appenceller, of Greenville. For 
many years Mr. and Mrs. Ryan have been 
active members of the Coleville Christian 
church, and they are held in high regard by 
all who know them on account of their ster- 
ling worth. Politically he affiliates with 
the Republican party, and socially is an hon- 
ored member of Jobes Post, G. A. R., of 
Greenville, and the Horse Thief Protective 
Association, of Darke county. 

Daniel Potter, the father of Mrs. Ryan, 
was born January 26, 1809, and died Sep- 
tember 20, 1862, while his wife was born 
December 15, 181 7. and died April 7, 1861. 
The)' came to Darke county in early life and 
were married there. The}- took an active 
part in church work, and were among the 
oreanizers of the Christian church in this 



county. In their family were the follow- 
ing children : William, a resident of Reno 
county, Kansas, enlisted as a private in 1861, 
i:: Company G, Fortieth Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry, and passed the grades of promo- 
tion to a first lieutenancy. He participated 
in many hard-fought battles, and was hon- 
orably discharged in 1865. Mrs. Phoebe 
Vail is a resident of Oklahoma. ■ John en- 
listed in 1862 in Company K, Ninety-fourth 
Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and was killed in 
the battle of Resaca, Georgia, May 14, 1863. 
Jonas died when small. Charlotte and Mrs. 
Ryan complete the family. 



HENRY M. COLE. 

While the disposition to do honor to 
those who have served well their race or 
their nation is prevalent among all enlight- 
ened people and is of great value everywhere 
and under all forms of government, it is 
particularly appropriate to and to be fostered 
in this country, where no man is born to 
public office or to public honor, or comes to 
either by inheritance, but where all men 
are equal before the law. where the race 
for distinction is over the road of public 
usefulness and is open to every one who 
chooses to enter, however humble and ob- 
scure he may be, and where the advantageous 
circumstances of family or wealth count, 
in the vast majority of cases, for but little or 
nothing. One who is now occupying an im- 
portant position in the system of government 
in Darke county, having attained thereto as 
the result of individual merit is Henry M. 
Cole, who is now serving as common pleas 
judge. 

He was born upon a farm in this county 
on the 17th of March, 1845, a son nf Samuel 
Cole, who was born in Washington town- 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



319 



ship, Darke county, on the old family home- 
stead, in 1 82 1. He represented one of the 
pioneer families of the locality. The Coles 
originally lived in Amsterdam, Holland, but 
in what year the family was founded in 
America is not definitely known. Samuel 
Cole, Sr., the grandfather of the Judge, was 
a native of New Jersey and emigrated west- 
ward to Darke county, Ohio, at a pioneer 
period in its development. He was a man of 
broad general information, was popular with 
his neighbors and was generous and kind, 
being always ready and willing to assist in 
securing a location for a new comer, while 
his generous hospitality was known far and 
wide. He wedded Mary Elston, a native of 
Orange county. New York, and upon their 
farm in Washington township their son, 
Samuel Cole, was reared, Having attained 
man's estate he married Miss Nancy C. Cox, 
who was born in 'Washington township in 
[822, a daughter of Martin Cox, a native 
of Pennsylvania. 

Henry M. Cole was also reared upon a 
farm, his time being largely occupied with 
the duties of field and meadow through the 
summer months. Throughout the remainder 
of the year he pursued his education in the 
district schools of the neighborhood, and 
under the parental roof he remained until 
twenty-one years of age, teaching, however, 
in the district schools near his home during 
the winter. Not content to follow the plow, 
his preference being for professional life, 
he read law under the direction of the law 
firm of Knox & Sater, of Greenville, and 
later attended the law school in Cincinnati, 
Ohio, in which he was graduated in the class 
of 1869. The same year he was admitted 
to the bar and at once entered upon the prac- 
tice of his profession. During the first eleven 

years of his connection with the legal fra- 
19 & 



ternity he practiced in partnership with 
Judge A. R. Calderwood, of Greenville, now 
deceased. He rose steadily, step by step, 
as he demonstrated his ability to success- 
fully cope with the intricate problems of 
jurisprudence and soon won a large and dis- 
tinctively representative clientage. 

In 1879 J u dge Cole married Miss Eliza- 
beth Porter, of Greenville, a daughter of 
John W. Porter, a native of Montgomery 
county, Ohio, and they have always main- 
tained their residence in this city, where 
they have a large circle of friends. So- 
cially the Judge is connected with Greenville 
Lodge, No. 195, I. O. O. F. During the 
war of the Rebellion he manifested his 
loyalty to his country by enlisting in an 
Ohio regiment, in which he served his c< mn- 
try faithfully and well until the close of hos- 
tilities, when he was honorably discharged. 
He is now a member of Jobes Post, G. A. R., 
of Greenville. Politically he cast in his lot 
with the Republican party and has labored 
effectively in its interests. In 1897 he was 
nominated on that ticket as the candidate for 
judge of the common pleas court and was 
elected by a handsome majority for a term of 
five years, over J. C. Elliott, the Democratic 
candidate, the district being composed of the 
counties of Preble, Darke, Miami, Clark and 
Champaign. He possesses good legal talent, 
is a close student and is devoted to his pro- 
fession. While practicing at the bar he ap- 
plied himself diligently to the preparation 
and trial of cases and to the handling of the 
legal matters entrusted to his care. His 
industry and integrity brought him the con- 
fidence of the community and a large prac- 
tice made his professional career a success. 
Endowed with these qualifications, which are 
combined with an agreeable address and 
methodical and regular habit.-, promotion to 



3:20 



GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



his present position of honor and confidence 
became a matter of course. Judge Cole at- 
tends to his judicial duties with careful at- 
tention to detail and a total disregard of 
self, seeming to be animated only by a de- 
sire to discharge his duty with fairness and 
impartiality. He is also well versed in gen- 
eral literature and is a polished, conscientious 
gentleman. 



CHARLES BEERS, M. D. 

Among the prominent and successful 
physicians of Darke county, Ohio, is Dr. 
Charles Beers, of Painter Creek! who has 
spent his entire life in this county, his birth 
occurring in Greenville, May 11. 1S72. 
There he grew to manhood and acquired his 
literary education in its public schools, which 
he attended until eighteen years of age. He 
then commenced the study of medicine, un- 
der Dr. J. H. Spitter, of Greenville, with 
whi im he remained eighteen months, and 
then entered the Ohio Medical College at 
Cincinnati, at which he was graduated with 
the class of 1896. Immediately after his 
graduation he opened an office at Painter 
Creek, and has met with marked success in 
the prosecution of his chosen profession, it 
being said that he has as large a practice as 
any physician in Darke county. He is 
strictly self-made as to his attainments, as he 
borrowed the money to pay for his tuition 
at college, and is deserving of the highest 
commendation for the success that he has 
achieved. He was reared in the Methodist 
faith and as a Democrat, but is liberal in his 
political views. 

On the 24th of November, 1898, Dr. 
Beers Mas united in marriage with Miss 
Alma, a daughter of Harvey H. and Henri- 
etta V. Bireley, of Painter Creek. 



AARON A. IRELAN. 

It is now our privilege to enter a brief re- 
view of the career of one of the venerable and 
honored pioneer citizens of Darke county, 
and the province of a compilation of this 
nature is most perfectly realized in offering 
a resume of such character. Aaron Abel 
Irelan. who is a resident of Hollansburg, 
Harrison township, is a native son of the 
Buckeye state, having been born in Monroe 
township, Preble county, on the 12th of 
September, 1818, the son of Moses Irelan, 
who removed from Cincinnati to Preble 
county about 18 16. He was born in Pennsyl- 
vania, September 15, 1790, and his death oc- 
curred November 22, 1872. His father was 
Aaron Irelan, of an old and long-lived 
Pennsylvania family. Ail of his brothers 
and sisters except one lived to advanced age, 
his death being the result of an accident, as 
he was killed by a horse, when about fifty 
years of age. Grandfather Irelan removed 
from New Jersey to Pennsylvania and thence 
to Cincinnati, and he died in Coleraine town- 
ship. His widow subsequently married a 
man named Robinson