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Full text of "Biographical and historical memoirs of Adams, Clay, Webster and Nuckolls counties, Nebraska, comprising a condensed history of the state, a number of biographies of distinguished citizens of the same, a descriptive history of each of the counties mentioned, and numerous biographical sketches of the citizens of such counties .."

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A Condensed History of the State, a number of Biographies of Distiqguisl^ed Citizens of 

the same, a Descriptive History of eacf^ of the Counties mentioned, and 

numerous Biographical Sketches of the Citizens of such Counties. 

^f ^^^8 ILLUSTRATED.^^ 

The Goodspeed Publishing Co. 








HE method by which this book was prepared is the only successful plau 
yet devised for the preservation of local history and biography throughout 
the United States, and the number of volumes distributed seems fabulous. 
Over one million copies have been sold in the United States in the last 
fifteen years at prices ranging from $10 to $25 per copy, aggregating a 
total valuation of fully $15,000,000. Many of these works are purely bi- 
ographical, containing no history whatever; others are genealogical, extending 
back to the origin of the family on this continent. Whatever may be the objection 
to the method of preparation, whatever fault may exist in the celerity of compil- 
ation and publication, the enormous circulation and the wonderful popularity 
of the works, as shown in their sale at high prices, prove that the end justifies 
the means. No one but an enemy of society and progress will undertake to dis- 
pute a proposition so manifestly true. 

The Publishers have few if any excuses to offer in handing this fine volume 
to their patrons, for whom alone it was prepared. It is a work of permanent worth, carefully 
compiled from the most valuable material to be found, critically read and revised, and in mechan- 
ical make-up will challenge comparison with the most improved products of the art of book- 
making. Every biography was submitted by mail, and nearly all were promptly corrected and 
returned by the subjects. Much of the history was prepared by home talent and is substantially 
accurate. The promises contained in the prospectus used by our agents on the canvass, have been 
exceeded in almost every detail ; a candid comparison is solicited. 

The condensed State history was prepared mainly by Mr. C. F. Eoyce, editor of the Gazette- 
Journal, Hastings; while several important chapters were written by Col. Isaiah Piatt, of the 
historical staff. The latter also compiled the histories of Webster and Nuckolls Counties. 
The remainder of the history, save many small contributions from numerous residents, was 
compiled by Prof. M. A. Leeson, who has had over fifteen consecutive years' experience in 
local historical work. Thanking our patrons and friends for their liberal assistance, we 
respectfully tender them this beautiful volume. 

Chicago, June, 1890. THE PUBLISHERS, 





The Territory of Louisiana — Nebraska Originally a Part 
of Louisiana — Ferdinand De Soto and His Expedition 
— The Exploration of the Mississippi Valley — Discov- 
ery of the Mississippi River — Death of De Soto — Ex- 
plorations of the Jesuits — Joliet and Marquette — La 
Salle's Exploration— France Claims the Territory- 
Governors of Louisiana- France Compelled to Relin- 
quish Louisiana— President Jefferson buys Louisiana. 9-14 


Indian History of Nebra.slca— The Principal Tribes— Tlie 
Poucas and Tlieir Melancholy History— Their Treaties 
With the United States— Outrages by United States 
Soldiers— Their Forcible Removal to the Indian Ter- 
ritory — Standing Bear's Escape — Arrest and Subse- 
quent Release by Judge Dundy — The Pawnees, Otoes 
and Omahas — Great Battle Between the Sioux and 
Pawnees— The Great Uprising of August, 1864^The 
Massacre at Plum Creek — Stampede of the Settlers 
—Peace Restored 15-ia 


The Settlement of the Tcritory — Population of Nebraska 
at the Formation of the Territory- The Earliest Visits 
of the White Mcn-Th.> 'l rndiim Post and Settlement 
at Bellevue— t'nl. I'.ln- A. Surpy— The Mormon Set- 
tlement at Florciir, — l'ii>i .\tl.-mpts to Found the 
City of Omaha— •I'lic Sell I.iimiiI of nmmin- County 
— Col..Ic.lin F...uhvaiT-Tlir .v,! ilrnin SI l),T.,in 


in Rid 


The Formation of the Territory- Other Territories Ad- 
mitted—Calls for the Formation of tlie " Platte Coiui- 
try" — First Attempt to Erect tlie Territory of Ne- 
braska — A Resume of Political Events Leading to the 
Opposition to the Erection of Nebraska — The Mis- 
souri Compromise — Second Attempt to Form the Ter- 
ritory of Nebraska— Opposition of Southern Sena- 
tors — The Slavery Issue — Senator Douglas Introduces 
the Kansas-Nebraska Bill — Its Opposition and Final 
Passage 34 


Geological Formation — I'riniilivc Ages — Mineral Deposits 
— Topography and Physical Features — Extent and Area 
— Rivers, Lakes, etc. — Navigable Streams — Timber — 
Before the Time of White Men— Natural Produc- 
tions 3» 


The Exploration of Nebraska— Early Vi>itor^— Govern- 
ment Expeditions— Valuable Extract )n .lud;;.- Sav- 
age — Nebraska as a Territory — First Olli(i:il,— Iic:itli 


Admitted Into the Union — Formation of State Govern- 
nient^Historical Record by Hon. C. H. Gere- Condi- 
tion as a State Proper — First Officials — Lincoln, the 
Scat of Government — Early Elections — First Legisla- 
tive Sessions — Gov. Butler's Regime — The Governor 
Impeached — A Famous Trial — The James Administra- 
tion — Stirring Events — Blizzard and Grasshopper 
Scourge — State Officers Since Organization 4t)-.56 


Nebraska's Part in the U 
Furnished — Sentiment 
ganized — Sketches of 
ments Participated In- 
Indian Encounters— SI. 
and Congressmen- Si 
W. Hitchcock— Thoin; 
—Algernon S. Padd... 
Mandersou— Charles 11 


Counties in the State— Brief Historical Sketches— De- 
scriptive Account of their Origin — Location, County 
Seats, etc. — First Settlements — General Development — 
Advent of Railways — A Commercial Necessity — Sur- 
veys of 1853-54— Building of the Pacific Railroad- 
History of the Enterprise — Central Pacific Railroad — 
The Consolidation 0.5-T 





Nebraska's Important Cities— Sketch of Their Progress 
and Development— Material Advancement Noted- 
Character of Improvements— Present Interests— At- 
tractions Oflercd— Lincoln, the Judicial Center— 
Omaha,the Commercial Metropolis— Public Prosperity 
-Educational Facilities— The Public School System- 
Early Enumeration — School Funds — Statistics — De- 
nominational Institutions of Learnine; — Local Col- 
leges 78 


State Institutions — Architectural Beauty of Buildings — 
Convenience of Construction— The Capitol Edifice- 
History of Erection— Axipropriations — University- 
Blind Institute — Normal School — Insane Asylums — 
Deaf and Dumb Institutions — State Penitentiary — 
Nebraska an Agricultural State — Productions — Valua- 
tion — Climatic Features— Manufacturing Interests- 
Official Directory — Abstract of Votes — Ecclesiastical 
History 90-104 

An Historic! 
ural (ias 
els— Kit 
neers— C 



1 Sketch — Location and Area — Population — 
lity to Agriculture— Physical Features— Nat- 
-Cliiiiatic Features — Game — Fremont's Trav- 
Carsou — The Government Well — Indian 
-"Bill" Kress— Some First Things— Pio- 
rigiual Tax Roll— Settlers' Associations .. 107-117 


Establishment of County— Boundaries — Transactions of 
Commissioners and Supervisors^County Seat War — 
Court Affairs— Terms from May, 1873, to January, 
1890— Important Criminal Cases— Numerous Murders, 
Hangings, etc.— Defalcation 118-135 


Record of Elections— Various Othcials Chosen— Consider- 
ation of Questions of Local Importance — Under Town- 
ship Organization Laws-Proposition for Funding 
Bonds — .lournalists and Journalism-The Newspaper 
as a Powerful Moral Agent — Sketches of Press Enter- 
prises — First Issues of Sundry Publications — Their 
Development and Intluence 136-148 


Military History— Survivors of the Civil War— Roster of 
Soldiers— Strickland Post^-Juniata Post— Hansen Post 
— Kenesaw Post — Company F — Associations and So- 
cieties—Reunions, etc 149-153 


Societies, Associations, etc., of Local Importance— Agri- 
cultural Society — Hastings Fair Ground Association — 
District and Central Agricultural Societies — Patrons 
of Husbandry, Grange, etc. — Aid Society — Farmers' 
Alliance — Medical Associations — Associations of 
Teachers- Temperance Societies and Movements— 
Sunday-School Conventions — Woman's Suffrage Asso- 
ciation-Railroad History— Education— School Sys- 
tem, etc 154-163 


Hastings City— Location and Additions— Town Company 
—Judicial History— Kinn^n Claim— First Settlement 
-Beginnings of Religious and Business Enterprises- 
Building the City— Fires— Storms— Imjirovements— 
Transactions of City Council— Financial— Officials, 
etc.— Board of Trade— Business Men's Association— 
Post-office— Banks and Loan Associations— Wholesale 
Houses — Commercial Institutions — Manufactories — 
Churches— Schools and Colleges— Secret and Benevo- 
lent Societies— Y. M. C. A.— Home for the Friendless 
—Insane Asylum— Sundry Societies 16.3-193 


Towns Outside of Hastings— Juniata's History— As the 
Old County Seat— Development— Present Interests- 
Representative Citizens— Sketch of Kenesaw and Vi- 
cinity— Its Founding and Subsequent Growth— Some 
First Things — Ayr Village — Hansen — Millington— 
Roseland—Maytlower—Holstein— Other Centers of 
Commercial Note— Inland— Ludlow 194-306 



Introduction— Population— Elevations— Area— Rivers and 
Streams— Physical Formation— Grasshopper Plagues 
—Effects of Same— Storms and Blizzards— Destroying 
Elements— Exploration— Pioneers— An Old Settler's 
Reminiscences — Indian Warfare — Evacuation of 
Spring Ranehe — Female Captives — Organization of 
Old Settlers' Association 


e Newspaper Press— The Pioneer Champion— Har- 
vard Journals— Sutton Journalists— Fairfield Jour- 
nals and Periodicals— Clay Center Journals— The 
DeWeese Recorder— Educational Interests— Public 
Schools, Teachers, etc.— Statistics— County Societies 
and Associations — Professional Roll, etc. — Memoirs 
of War— Militia Companies— Roster of Volunteers .364-371 




Clay Center and Sutton — Location of the Seat of Justice 
— Pioneer Days of tlie Villages — Early Business 
Houses and Dwellings — Incorporation — Schools — 
Churches — Secret and Benevolent Associations — 
Opening of Railroad Connections — Telephone — 
Banks— Post-offices— French and Gray Settlements- 
General Development and Progress— Present Inter- 
ests—Modern Condition 373-^ 


Harvard and Fairfield — Beginning — Pru-Eniption of Town 
Sites — Original Surveys — Incorporations — Early Mer- 
chants—Pioneer Business Men— First Buildings- 
Mayors, Trustees, Aldermen, etc.— Official Directory 
—Voters of 1836-401— Commercial Interests— Finan- 
cial — Fires — Water System — Educational and Eelig- 
ious Matters — Secret and Benevolent Organizations — 
General History 387-411 



Location and Boundary — .\rea and Surveys — Surface 
Formation — Physical Features — Beginning of Settle- 
ment — Names of Pioneers — Privations of Early Tears 
— Storms and Plagues— Men vs. Grasshoppers — A 
Pioneer Roll— First Tax List— A Decade of Progress- 
Indian Scares — Inhabitants of Long Ago — Calamities, 
etc.— Some First Thiijgs— " Sod-House Aristocracy " 
—Independence Day Celehrations .531-.542 


County Organization — Formation from .Jefferson County 
Proclamation— Election and Result— First OfflciaLs 
Chosen — Tlie Earliest Session of Commissioners — 
Subsequent Transactions — Public Buildings — Sub- 
Division and Precincts — Railroads — Taxation, Bonds, 
etc. — Township Organization — Rules of Business of 
Board of Supervisors— County Officials— Financial 
Presentation— Assessment and Valuation— Agricult- 
ure and Horticulture — Productive Qualities of Soil — 
Agricultural Society — Judicial History — Present Le- 
gal Bar— Homicides 543-553 


Red Cloud, the County Seat — Historical Review — Loca- 
tion and Name — Existence in 1870 — Commercial and 
Professional Interests — Development — Additions — 
Cyclone — Permanent Improvements — Incorporation 
-Present Business— Evidences of the City's Spirits 
Newspaper Press — Secret and Benevolent Associa- 
tions-Firemen's Tournament ■ 551^560 


Sketches of Guide Rock, Blue Hill, Cowles and Bladen— 
Other Villages— Situation— Origin of Names— Physic- 
al Characteristics — Population— Early Residents- 
First Business Enterprises— Present Interests— Jour- 
nalism— Incorporation— Officials— Benevolent Frater- 
nities — History of the Development of These 
Towns 5ai-5(i(; 



ly Districts and 
-tem— Teachers' 
port — Religious 

Interest.- — Early .Mim^Lers Hereabouts — Pioneer 
Church— The Methodist— The Various Denominations 
Represented— Miscellaneous Subiects—Storms— Sol- 
diers of Our Wars— Mexican Survivors— Heroes of 
1861-6^— Republican Valley Union Soldiers' and Sail- 
ors Association — Agricultural Societies — Granges, 
etc.— County Buildings— Population .567-57 



ituation and Boundary — Area — Government Survey — 
Pliysical Features— Geological Formation— Timber, 
Streams and Draijiagc — Nature of Soil— Climatic At- 
tractions—Period of Settlement— Extract— Numerous 
First Things— "Great Trail "—The Earliest Inhabitant 
—List of Later Settlers— An Amusing Anecdote— In- 
dian Troubles— Wild Animals 683-1 


st steps Toward r( 
dered — Early (Mil 
Pioneer Execute • 



f)rganizalion— Election Or- 
M>-ii.ii- — ('(.luity Division — 
I-- \i t- mI Ciimmissioners — 
i:il 1 iiivrl,„y— Public Build- 
•lail- l.tV.iii to Remove the 

Imiii t-lh,us( — Poor Farm — 
— tiriiwth and Development 
iiaiirial I oiulition — Railroads 

—Taxable Wraltli and Fiiia 
—Precinct Railroad Bonds— Agricultural Interests- 
Stock Raising — Agricultural Society — Court Transac- 
tions—Trials—Roll of Attorneys 693-704 


Towns and Villages of Nuckolls County— Nelson — Its 
Choice as the County Seat — Beginning — Original 
Business Men — Improvement — Incorporation — Com- 
mercial Directory — Newspapers — Social Features — 
Sketch of Superior— Plat and Survey— Location- 
First Settlers — Early Mercantile Establishment — 
Growth and Development — Present Officials — General 
Interests— Board of Trade — Parks — Journals — Secret 


and Other Societies — Conservatory — Attractiveness — 
Otlier Centers of Local Importance — Angus — Bost- 
wick— Hardy— Lawrence— Mount Clare— Nora— Oak 
—Ruskin— Smyrna 705-719 


liolastic Matters — Appraisement of Si-liool Lands — 
Formation of Districts — State Superintendent's Re- 
port — Average Attendance — Present Condition of 
Nuckolls County's Educational Affairs— Church Items 
— Various Denominations Represented — Methodists — 
Presliyteriaus— United Presbyterians— Baptists— Re- 

formed Presbyterians — Christians — Evangelical and 
Evangelical Lutlieran — Catholics — Miscellaneous 
Facts— Disturbing Elements— Population, etc 720-7'2<i 


Adams County 30G-aiO 

Clay County 411-530 

Webster County 578-681 

Nuckolls County 


M. L. Elsemore Between 113 and 113 

E. C. Webster Between 168 and 169 

Hon. James Laird (deceased) Between 233 and 2.33 

W. W. Philleo Between 296 and 397 

D. ^I. Nottleton Between 360 and 361 

George P. Scliwab Between 408 and 409 

Tliomas H. Matters Between 484 and 485 

Edward C. Focke Between 690 and 691 

Capt. Henry W. Short Between 790 [ind 791 







The Territory of Louisiana— Nebraska Originally a Part of Louisiana — Ferdinand de Soto and Hi 

Expedition— The Exploration op the Mississippi Valley— Discovery of the Mississippi Eiver— 

Death of De Soto — Explorations of the Jesuits — Joliet and Marquette — La Salle's 

Exploration — France Claims the Territory — Governors of Louisiana — France 

Compelled to Relinquish Louisiana — President Jefferson buys Louisiana. 

Justly Csesar scorns the poet's lays; 

It is to history he trusts for praise. — Poj)c. 

EBEASKA was originally a 
part of the great Territory 
of Louisiana, which com- 
prised very nearly one-third 
of the present area of the 
i-^ United States. A history 
jjfo '^^'^S of the State would be in- 
complete without at least a brief 
reference to the earliest explorations 

jC) of the region which to-day forms 
so important a part of our great 
Nation. The story of the earliest ex- 
plorations of Louisiana by the 
Spaniards in 1539-44 reads more 
like some mediaeval romance than 
an authentic historical record. 
Singularly enough, the first explo- 
ration of the great vallej- watered 
the "Father of Waters" was more the 
result of a love of adventure on the part of a few 
Spanish cavaliers, lured by visions of suddenly- 
acquired riches, than of a desire to enlarge the boun- 
daries of science or to increase the wealth of a 

The discovery of the 3Iississippi River, and the 
first exploration of the great valley bearing its name, 
are commonly attributed to Ferdinand de Soto, a 
Spanish captain and explorer, and one of the most 
famous of the Eldorado adventurers of the sixteenth 
century. 'He was the contemporary of Cortez and 
Pizarro, the cruel conquerors of Mexico and Peru, 
and was a companion of the latter in the famous 
campaign which resulted in the overthrow and spoli- 
ation of the Incas. 

The adventurous spirit of the times had impelled 
Columbus to brave the dangers and imaginary terrors 
of unknown seas, and the discovery of a new world, 
peopled with a new and unknown race of beings, was 
the result of his daring. De Soto, with others of a 
like ventursome disposition, was attracted to the 
newly-discovered continent, and in 1518 he is found 
a member of an expedition to Darien. In 1828 he 
made an exploration of the coasts of Guatemala and 
Yucatan, and again, in 1532, he led 300 volunteers 
to the assistance of Pizarro, who was at that time 
engaged in the conquest of Peru. De Soto signal- 
ized his campaign in Peru by many brilliant achiev- 
ments; and he returned to Spain with an added 


luster to his fame, and his pockets lined with riches 
ignobly wrested from a weak and confiding people. 

In the year 1538 De Soto organized the memor- 
able expedition that was forever to make his name 
famous in the annals of history. His was no com- 
mon band. It was composed of the flower of Span- 
ish chivalry, and in its ranks many a scion of noble 
blood acknowledged the leadership of the renowned 
explorer. All were actuated bj- the same motives — 
the love of adventure and the hope of gain. The 
conquests of Mexican and Peru led them to believe 
that still other semi-barbarous nations were hidden 
in the unexplored recesses of the strange, new con- 
tinent. In equipment and accoutrements the expe- 
dition rivaled the most gorgeous descriptions of 
oriental splendor. The glittering armor and mag- 
nificent paraphernalia of the soldiers, the silken ban- 
ners and the resplendent trappings of the fiery war 
horses, together with the mysterious and picturesque 
rites of the priests of the Spanish church who ac- 
companied the expedition, were well calculated to 
inspire a barbarous foe with respect and awe. 

The expedition landed in safety at Espirato 
Santo Bay, on the coast of Florida, in May, 1539. 
Following the example of the intrepid Cortez, De- 
Soto burned his ships and fearlesslj' turned into the 
trackless wilds of the unexplored peninsula. For 
foui- years the little band wandered through the al- 
most impenetrable forests of the lower Mississippi 
Valley. History gives us but the meager details of 
those four j-ears of wearj' wandering; but the un- 
told privations and sufferings of the hapless explo- 
ers can in a measure be conceived. 

At first the Indians looked upon De Soto and his 
followers as gods descended from the heavens, and 
feared them accordingly; but when they saw that 
the white men were, like themselves, subject to 
disease and death, and possessed no supernatural 
power, their enforced friendship turned into deadly- 
hate and open hostilit}-. Their ill-will increased with 
the brutalitj- with which thej' were treated whenever 
they incun-ed the displeasure of the cruel and 
haughty Spaniards. D^ Soto and his men were 
compelled to fight many pitched battles with the 
Indians, who were invariably defeated. 

The captive Indians, who were compelled to 

serve as guides, led the greed3' Spaniards farther and 
father into the interior by repeating tales of fabu- 
lous wealth of the temples and palaces of great 
cities. Lured bj' the ever fleeting ignis fatuus of 
wealth, De Soto's band, now rapidlj' decreasing in 
numbers, plunged still deeper into the wilderness, 
their march being constantly retarded by conflicts 
with the Indians, and their pathway marked by the 
graves of those who had died by the poisoned arrow 
of the Indian warrior, or from effects of the fetid 
breath of the fever-breeding swamps. They strug- 
gled on and onward, until in the spring of 1541, 
the glorious sight of the bi'oad Mississippi — the 
mighty Father of Waters, burst upon their wondering 
vision. There it rolled in all its majesty, a river 
broad enough to float on its bosom the combined 
navies of the then civilized world. De Soto crossed 
the mighty river in hastily constructed boats, and 
pursued his wanderings on the western side. It is 
more than probable that his ej-es rested on the broad 
prairies of the now fertile State of Nebraska. Cer- 
tain it is that Nebraska was Ansited by Spanish ex- 
plorers long before the advent of the French or Eng- 
lish, for portions of their armor and equipment have 
been discovered in this State within the past decade; 
but whether or not these relics belonged to De Soto's 
band is a secret forever locked in the breast of un- 
written history. 

But all wanderings must have an end; and, weary 
of their long journeying, and discouraged bj- their 
failure to find the coveted riches, De Soto's dis- 
heartened band tui-ned to retrace their steps to the 
sea. On the homeward march De Soto was stricken 
with a malignant fever, from the effects of which he 
died. Mournfully the little band consigned- the re- 
mains of their daring leader to the depths of the 
mighty river which he had discovered. Electing 
another leader, they pushed on in an attempt to 
reach the east coast of Florida. Failing in this, 
they constructed boats and launched out into the 
Mississippi, reaching the mouth of the river after a 
precarious voyage of nineteen days. They followed 
the coast until thej- came to a Spanish settlement, 
where they found means to return to Spain. 

Thus ended one of the most remarkable explor- 
ing expeditions ever known to history. Three pub- 


lished narratives of the expedition were given to the 
world; but the Spaniards formed no conception of 
the magnitude of De Soto's discovery, nor of the 
^•ast possibilities of empire that laj- within the track- 
less forests of the dark continent. It is useless to 
indulge in idle speculation as to what the history of 
the great territory of which Nebraska is a part, 
might have been had the indolent Spaniards com- 
prehended the extent and fertility of the vast regions 
drained by the mt:it ii\ci- ami its tributaries. Had 
the}' so comprehendc'il it. tliry might have founded 
an empire, beside which the mighty empire of Rome 
would have dwindled into insignificance ; but, beyond 
planting a few weak and struggling colonies in 
Florida, Spain did nothing to establish her claims 
to the Mississippi A'alley, and a hundred }-ears 
elapsed before civilized man again visited that re- 

For nearly a crntnry and a half after the ill- 
fated De Soto slept Ixaicath tlie waters of the great 
river which he liad disci ivcrcd, the Mississslppi Val- 
ley remained undisturbed in the possession of the 
Indians. Spain had made no effort to civilize the 
vast region she had claimed by right of discovery, 
and in the meantime the course of events had 
brought about many changes in the Old World. 
France and England had become the two great rival 
powers of Europe, and both had turned eagerly to 
the new continent for new fields of conquest. Eng- 
land had established herself along the coasts of the 
Atlantic and was gradually extending her domains 
to the westward. France had obtained a foothold 
at Quebec and was slowly pushing her colonies up 
the St. Lawrence River. Both nations saw the al- 
most limitless possibilities of empire in the great 
valley of the Mississippi, and both took steps to- 
ward its occupation. France assumed the initiative 
and eventually acquired the coveted temtory. 

It is a matter of history that the complete ex- 
ploration and final settlement of the territory which 
afterwards became known as Louisiana, was due 
more to the efforts of Christian missionaries than to 
commercial enterprise or national spirit. The first 
men to enter upon a systematic exploration of the 
vast region of which Xc'lnaska is a part, were the 
Jesuits, or memliers of the Scicietv of Jesus, a 

famous religious societ}' founded Ity Ignatius Lo}^- 
ola, a Spanish Knight of the sixteenth century. 
The Jesuits, unlike the other religious orders of the 
Catholic Church, mingled in the affairs of men, and 
did not indulge in those habits of seclusion and self- 
mortification which characterized the life of the 
monks. Actuated by a fervor and zeal before un- 
known in the history of the church, the Jesuits 
turned their attention to the new world and were 
among the first to explore its trackless wilds, and 
certainly the first to teach the savage the ways of 
Christian and civilized life. The Banner of the 
Cross was planted far in advance of the steadily 
encroaching colonies of the Europeans, and thou- 
sands of savages listened to the story of the new 
religion long before thej^ heard the voice of the 
trader and the settler. 

The St. Lawrence River, with the great chain of 
lakes, entering the continent from the east, and the 
Mississippi River, entering from the south, were the 
two great avenues through which the Europeans en- 
tered the heart of the American continent. The 
work of the Jesuit missionaries had led to the dis- 
covery of the Ohio River and the partial exploration 
of two routes to the Mississippi ; but as yet the eyes 
of the Europeans had not rested upon the northern 
portion of that great river. It remained for two 
young men, Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette, 
the former a fnr trader and the latter a Jesuit mis- 
sionary, to make tlic final discovery. Joliet was 
born in Quebec, (if humlile parentage. Educated 
by the Jesuits for the priesthood, he early aban- 
doned his religious oflSces for the more sordid pur- 
suits of fur trading. The hardihood and experi- 
ence of this life gave him the enterprise, boldness 
and detei-mination to push the expedition to a suc- 
cessful issue. His companion, Jacques Marquette, 
presented a striking contrast He was born in 
France, and, inheriting from his parents a strong 
religious suseeptiliiiity. lie was early in life imbued 
with the prevailing religious enthusiasm. He be- 
came a Jesuit, and in 1666 crossed the Atlantic to 
labor among the savages of the American forests. 
He was eminently qualified for this noble work. 
Possessing an indomitable will and courage, great 
purit}' and humilit_y of character, and an affection- 


ate manner in dealing with the Indians, he met with 
far greater success than anj- of his fellow mis- 

Having completed the necessary arrangements, 
these two daring explorers, with five hardy com- 
panions, set out on their perilous undertaking on 
Blay 17, 1673. For a month thej' pushed steadily 
forward, now paddling in canoes along the swift 
current of unknown streams, again threading their 
way through dense forests. On June 17, just one 
month from the day they started, they reached the 
mouth of the Wisconsin, pushed their frail canoes 
out into the broad, rolling Mississippi, and drifted 
rapidly down the current. Down the river they 
glided, the scenerj' on either side presenting an 
ever-changing panoramic view of wild and rugged 
l)eauty. They passed the mouth of the Missouri, 
its muddy waters retaining their identity for miles be- 
fore mingling with the clearer waters of the Missis- 
sippi. Fui-ther on they reached tlie mouth of the 
Ohio, and still fiu-ther down tliey came to the mouth 
of the Arkansas. 

It was now the middle of July, and, warned by 
their rapidly diminishing stores of supplies, the 
explorers decided to follow the course of the river 
no farther. Slowly retracing their way up the 
strong current the party reached the mission at the 
head of Green Bay in the latter part of September, 
having traveled a distance of nearlj- three thousand 
miles in less than six months. 

Marquette remained at the mission to recuperate 
his health, which had become impaired bj- the ardu- 
ous journej-, while Joliet pushed on to Monti-eal to re- 
port the results of the expedition. He was received 
with open arms by the projectors of the enterprise, 
and when he related the success of the undertaking, 
their joy was unbounded. The shrewd Frenchmen 
were quick to see the possibilities of large acces- 
sions to their territorj-, and immediately took steps 
to complete the explorations so auspiciouslj- begun 
by Marquette and Joliet. 

It remained for another intrepid Frenchman to 
complete the work left unfinished by Marquette and 
Joliet, and to take formal possession of Louisiana in 
the name of the King of France. Sieur de La Salle 
was a firm believer in the theory that the Mississippi 

River afforded a short and direct route to the Indies, 
a dream eagerlj- cherished by a long line of explor- 
ers, beginning with the renowned Christopher Colum- 
bus himself. Compelled by the result of ^Marquette 
and Joliet's expedition to abandon the theory, La 
Salle conceived the idea of finishing the exploration 
of the Mississippi to its mouth and claiming the 
entire region for the King of France. He accord- 
ingly obtained a royal commission, with all the 
necessary authority to take possession of the region 
he expected to explore, and money to erect forts to 
hold it with. With ample authority and plenty of 
means, he sailed from France in 1678 with thirty 
men. After aniving at Quebec he reinforced his 
party by the addition of several experienced explor- 
ers, whose names afterwards became famous. 

From the time he left France, La Salle labored 
incessantly in the prosecution of his cherished enter- 
prise. Two 3'ears were spent in exploring the upper 
vallej-, and it was not until December 21, 1681, that 
he set out from the mouth of the St. Joseph River 
on the final expedition to the Mississippi. The 
streams were covered with ice and his men were 
compelled to build sledges upon which to ha id tlieir 
canoes and supplies to the Illinois River. Arri\ing 
at the Illinois, thej' travelled down that river on the 
ice until they reached Peoria Lake, where the open 
water permitted the use of their canoes. Again 
embarking, they reached the mouth of the Illinois 
where it empties into the Mississippi, on February 
6, 1682. Then for a second time a French expedi- 
tion was swept southward by the hurrying current 
of the mighty river. The swift-flowing cuirent soon 
carried them from the rigor of a Northern winter 
into the balmy spring time of the sunnj- South. La 
Salle made many landings in order to greet the 
natives with friendly assurances and to set up the 
arms of France. The resistless current of the majes- 
tic river carried the party nearer and nearer the sea 
until, on the 6th of April, 1682, the broad bosom 
of the gulf opened on their sight, tossing its restless 
billows, as limitless, as voiceless, as lonel}-, as 
when born of chaos, without a sign of life. 

At the mouth of the Mississippi, La Salle 
erected a column, bearing the inscription: "Louis 
le Grand, Roi de France et de Navan-e; Regne; La 


Neuvieme. Avril, 1GS2. " In honor of his beloved 
kinjx. T>a Salle uuhumI the eountiy through which he 
had [la— I'd la mi-iaiia, and took formal possession 
liy a liiiUiant display, and the imposing rites of the 
Catholic Church. Thus, after some four years of un- 
told privation, and after overcoming obstacles which 
would have daunted a less intrepid spirit, La Salle 
had accomplished his mission and actiuired a fame 
which will last as long as the might3- Father of 
Waters pursues his restless course from the lake 
regions of the north to the sea. 

The government of France at once took the nec- 
essary steps to hold the vast territory claimed by 
La Salle. That distinguished soldier and explorer 
remained bj- virtue of his royal commission, mili- 
tary governor of the Territory until 1689, when a 
civil government was set up with the Marquis de 
San\ille as royal viceroj'. De Sanville governed 
a countrj- immensely superior to France in extent of 
territory, but his subjects numbered onlj' 300, not 
including the Indians. By regular appointment of 
viceroys the succession was maintained until, by the 
treaty of Fontainlileau, concluded on November 3, 
1862, France relinquished her claims to the Terri- 
tory. The following is a list of the viceroys, to- 
gether with the years of their service: 

Maniuis .Ir Saiivillr 1«89-1700 

Hii'uvillr 1701-1712 

Lain.jila- Caililhn- 1713-1715 

Do L'Epiiiav 1716-1717 

liienvilk' 1718-1723 

Boisbriant '. 1724 

Bienville 1732-1741 

Baron de Kelerec 1753-1762 

D'Abbadie 1763-1766 

In 1762, France was compelled by force of mili- 
tary necessity, to relinquish her title to Louisiana to 
Spain. That government combined the semi-mili- 
tary government until 1803, when the Territory 
passed under the flag of the United States. The 
following is a list of the Spanish governors: 

Antonio de Ulloa 1767-1768 

Alexander O'Reilly 1768-1769 

Louis de Unzago 1770-1776 

Bernardo de Galvez 1777-1784 

Estevar Mi ro 1785-1787 

Francisco Luis Hortn. Baron of Caron- 

delet 1789-1792 

Gayoso de Lemos 1793-1798 

Sebastian de Casa, Calvo y O'Farrel. .1798-1799 
Jean Manual de Salcedo 1800-1803 

Although France regained possession of Louisi- 
ana on October 1, 1800, Jean Manual de Salcedo 
remained as governor until the United States took 
formal possession. 

The immense territory attaching to the crown of 
France by reason of La Salle's enterprise, comprised 
aljout one-third of the present area of the United 
States, and was by far the most extensive colonial 
possession of that nation. But in time the glory of 
France began to lose some of the luster imparted to 
it bj' the brilliant genius of Louis XIV. In the 
treaty which, in 1763, concluded the "Seven Years 
War," which had shaken the monarchies of Europe 
to their very foundations, France, torn, bleeding 
and humiliated by the dread disasters of war, was 
compelled to acknowledge the sovereignty of Eng- 
land in America as extending westward to the Mis- 
sissippi River, and to cede to that nation all her rich 
possessions in Canada. As if this great loss of 
territory was not sufficiently humiliating, France 
was compelled by another treaty, to relinquish to 
Spain all claims to the immiMise Territory of Louisi- 
ana. Thus, as a result of a single war, France was 
dispossessed of every foot of her territory in Amer- 

With the acquisition of Louisiana in 1762, Spain 
controlled over one-half of the North American con- 
tinent; but her soA-ereignty over Louisiana was but 
of brief duration. Mighty events were following 
each other in rapid succession. The thirteen Eng- 
lish colonies in America had rebelled against the 
mother country and had become free and independ- 
ent States. Napoleon Bonaparte had raised himself 
from Corsican obscurity to the throne of France, 
with all Europe trembling at his feet. In 1800 his 
mighty genius wrested Louisiana from the hands 
of Spain; but the dreams of a French empire in 
America were soon shattered bj- the dire necessities 
of Napoleon, who by force of circumstances was 
compelled to relinquish Louisiana to the United 
States for a monetary consideration. 

The account of the negotiations which led to the 
peaceful acquisition of Louisiana by the Govern- 
ment of the United States forms one of the most 
interesting chapters of our National history; but as 
it is more pertinent to National than to State his- 


toiy, a brief reference must sufHee in these pages. 
During the years in which Spain had controlled 
Louisiana the question of the free navigation of the 
Mississippi River stirred up no little contention be- 
tween the United States and the Spanish govern- 
ment. The Mississippi River at that time formed 
the only outlet for the products of the settlers west 
of the Alleghany Mountains; and the obstructive 
regulations of the Spanish authorities at New Or- 
leans had caused no little ill-feeling between the two 
nations. In all probability the distrust and ill-feel- 
ing would have led to an ope^j rupture, had not the 
retrocession of Louisiana to France, in 1800, put an 
entirely new aspect upon affairs. If the regulations 
of the Spanish authorities at New Orleans had 
proven distasteful to the people of America, the 
change to French authority was likely to prove even 
more so. Napoleon full}' appreciated the immense 
value of Louisiana and at once began the work of 
fortifying the entrance to the Mississippi. Thomas 
Jefferson, then president of the United States, was 
quick to perceive the danger of allowing so formid- 
able a rival to establish herself in such close prox- 
imity. The "Monroe Doctrine" had not 3-et been 
promulgated, and Jefferson, with the wisdom which 
had conceived the Declaration of Independence, 
formed the plan of purchasing the Territory of Lou- 
siana from France. 

The condition of affairs in Prance was exceed- 
ingly favorable to the plans of President Jefferson 
on behalf of the United States. Napoleon was on 
the eve of a mighty struggle with England, which 
would call for all his energies, all his resources. While 
keenly feeling the disgi-ace of surrendering Louisiana 
to England, he foresaw that England's superior 
naval force would quickly wrest that important 
colonial possession from him. Moreover, he was 
greatly in need of funds with which to prosecute 
the war. In addition to all this, he perceived 
the splendid opportunity for foiling England's in- 
tention of securing Louisiana by ceding that Ter- 
ritory to the United States. So when Messrs. Mon- 
roe and Livingston, the commissioners appointed 
to conduct the negotiatiations on the part of the 
United States, arrived in Paris they found all pre- 
liminary negotiations unnecessary, the only thing 

to be agreed upon being the price and the terms 
of sale. 

In meeting some of the objections made bj' some 
of his ministers to the sale of Louisiana, Napoleon 
used the singularly prophetic words: "Perhaps it 
will be objected that the Amei-icans will be found 
too powerful for Europe in two or three centuries ; 
but my foresight does not embrace such remote 
fears. Besides, we may hereafter expect rivalries 
among the members of the Union. The confedera- 
cies which are called perpetual only last till one of 
the contracting parties finds it to his interest to 
break them. " The secession of the Southern States 
was thus clearly predicted by Napoleon sixty years 
before it was attempted ; but even Napoleon's mar- 
velous foresight did not permit him to look for- 
ward still another decade and see a united countiy, 
stronger and more powerful than before the rup- 

After carrying on the negotiations for some 
days, the treaty ceding Louisiana to the United 
States was concluded on April 30, 1803. The price 
agreed upon was eighty million francs, or about 
fifteen million dollars of good American money. 
The instructions given the American commissioners 
by the government of the United States did not 
authorize them to make an outi-ight purchase of 
Louisiana ; but Monroe and Livingston were so 
surely possessed of the views of President Jefferson 
in regard to the matter that they felt that they 
could safely transcend their authority, and rely 
upon the patriotism and good sense of the Ameri- 
can people for approbation. They were not de- 
ceived, and Congress ratified the ti-eaty of purchase, 
and on March 9, 1804, the stars and stripes were 
unfurled at St. Louis in token of formal possession. 
Louisiana thus became a Territory of the United 

The history of the exploration and formation 
of the Territory of Louisiana has thus been 
briefly traced up to the time it passed under the 
authority of the United States. With a more in- 
timate knowledge of the subject, the reader may 
now turn to the succeeding chapters, which will 
contain a brief sketch of the history of Nebraska 

-® V 




I>T)iAN History of Nebraska— The Principal Tribes— The Poncas and Their Melancholy History— Their 
Treaties With the United States — Outrages by United States Soldiers — Their Forcible Re- 
moval TO THE Indian Territory — Standing Bear's Escape — Arrest and Subsequent Re- 
lease BY Judge Dundy — The Pawnees, Otoes and Omahas — Great Battle Between 
the Sioux and Pawnees — The Great Uprising of August, 1864 — The Mas- 
sacre at Pluji Creek — Stajipede of the Settlers — Peace Restored. 

If justice will take all and nothing give. 
Justice, methinks, is not distributive. — Dryden. 

L^^REVIOUS to the advent 
of the white man, the In- 
dians dominated the entire 
region west of the Missouri 
River. The country lying 
between that river and the 
Rocky Mountains was di- 
A \ ided among some fort}- or fift}- tribes, 
some fiiendly to each other, others ex- 
tiemelj hostile. The plains abounded in 
game, the climate was not severe, and 
altogether, the life of the western In- 
dians was more than ordinarily a happy 
and contented one. The principal 
tribes which made their homes within 
the present limits of Nebraska were 
the Poncas, the Omahas, the Otoes 
and Pawnees. Of these the Pawnees were the 
most warlike, and the history of the Poncas is 
probably the most interesting. In their report of 
their famous exploration of the Missouri River, 
Lewis and Clarke refer to Poncas or Poncars as ' ' the 
remnant of a nation once respectable in point of 
numbers. They formerly resided on a branch of 
the Red River of Lake Winnipeg. Being oppressed 
by the Sioux, thej- removed to the west side of the 
on Poncar River, where they built and 

fortified a village, and remained for some years; but 
being pursued by their ancient enemy, the Sioux, 
they have joined and now live with the Mahas 
(Omahas), whose language they speak." Their 
numbers were estimated by Lewis and Clarke as being 
only about 200, all told; but this small estimate is 
probably to be explained by the fact that at the time 
of the visit of the famous explorers, the tribe was 
away on its annual buffalo hunt, and their village 
had been so long empty and quiet that a buffalo 
was found grazing there. A few years after the 
visit of Lewis and Clarke, the population of the 
tribe was estimated at 400, and in a census of the 
Indian tribes, taken by Gen. Parters in 1829, their 
number was set down at 600. The great artist Cat- 
lin, who visited them a few years later, rated them 
a little less. He gives an interesting account of the 
chief of the tribe, named Shoo-de-ga-cha (smoke), 
and his young and pretty wife, Hee-la'h-dee (the 
pure fountain), whose portraits he painted. He 
saj^s: "The chief, who was wrapped in a buffalo- 
robe, is a noble specimen of native dignity and 
philosophy'. I conversed much with him, and from 
his dignified manners, as well as from the sound- 
ness of his reasoning, I became fully convinced that 
he desei-ves to be the sachem of a more numerous 
and prosperous tribe. He related to me with great 


coolness and frankness the poverty and distress of 
his nation — and with the method of a philosopher 
predicted the certain and rapid extinction of his 
tribe which he had not the power to avert." The 
day before Catlin arrived at the village this old 
chief's son, the young Hongs-kay-de, had created a 
great sensation among the members of the tribe b}- 
accomplishing a most startling amount of bigamj' ,in 
a single day. Being the chief's son, and having 
been presented by his father with a handsome wig- 
wam and nine horses, he had no difficulty whatever 
in ingratiating himself into the good gi-aces of the 
fathers of the most eligible marriageable daughters, 
and he had, therefore, offered himself to and been 
accepted by four successive fathers-in-law, promis- 
ing to each of them two horses, and enjoining ujjon 
them profound secrecy until a certain hour, when he 
would announcee to the whole tribe that he Was to 
be married. At the time appointed he appeared, 
followed by some of his young friends leading eight 
horses. Addressing the prospective father-in-law 
who stood nearest him, with his daughter by his side, 
he said: "You promised me your daughter; here 
are the two horses. " A great hubbub immediatelj' 
arose, the three others all springing forward, angrj' 
and perplexed, claiming his promises made to them. 
The triumphant young savage exclaimed: "You 
have all now acknowledged your engagements to me, 
and must fulfill them. Here are j'our horses." 
There was nothing more to be said. The horses 
were delivered, and Hongs-kay-de, leading two 
brides in each hand, walked off with great dignity 
to his wigwam. This was an affair totallj- unprece- 
dented in the annals of the tribe, and it produced 
an impression as profound as it could have done in 
a civilized community, though of a different char- 
acter — redounding to the young man's credit rather 
than to his shame — marking him out as one daring 
and original enough to be a " Big Medicine. " Mr. 
Catlin saj's that he visited the bridal wigwam soon 
afterward, and saw the ' ' four modest little wives 
seated around the fire, seeming to harmonize very 
well. " 

The treaty relations between the government and 
the Ponca Indians during the past seventy-five j-ears 
have been anj-thing but creditable to the former. 

The first treaty made bj- the United States with this 
small tribe of gentle and p.eacea.ble Indians was in 
1817, and was simply an expression of peace and 
friendship. In 1825 another treaty was made in 
which the Poncas admit that ' ' they reside within 
the teiTitorial limits of the United States, acknowl- 
edge their supremacy, and claim their protection. ' 
They also admit ' ' the right of the United States to 
regulate all trade and intercourse with them.". The 
United States, on their part, ' ' agree to receive the 
Poncas tribe of Indians into their friendship and 
under then- protection, and to extend, from time to 
time, such benefits and acts of kindness as may be 
convenient, and seem just and proper to the Presi- 
dent of the United States." After this there is lit- 
tle mention, in the official records of the goverment, 
of the Poncas for thirty j'ears. Other tribes in the 
upper Missouri region were so troublesome and 
aggressive that the peaceable Poncas were left to 
shift for themselves as best they might. In 1856, 
the agent of the Upper Platte mentions incidentalh" 
that the lands of the Poncas were fast being intruded 
upon by squatters; and in 1857 another agent 
reports having met a band of Poncas who made 
complaint that all the Indians on the river were 
receiving presents while they were overlooked ; that 
the men from the steamboats cut their trees down ; 
and that the white settlers were taking all their 
lands. In 1858, another treaty was signed b\- the 
Poncas, in which they jelinquished all the lands 
occupied and claimed by them except small portions 
on which the government proposed to colonize and 
domesticate them. This proceeding was deemed 
necessary in order to obtain such control over these 
Indians as to prevent their interference with white 
settlements, which were extending rapidly. From 
the day the Poncas signed away their lands, in 1858, 
their real troubles began, and fx'om that jear, the 
history of the tribe is almost an unbroken record of 
miserj' and suffering. The government failed to 
keep faith with them, the money appropriated for 
them was stolen by dishonest agents and contractors, 
and their old enemies, the Sioux, robbed them of 
what little the white men left them, stole their 
ponies and killed many of their young men. A 
single instance will serve to illustrate the long story 


of outrage upon this unoffending tribe. In Decem- 
ber of 1863 a party of Poncas, consisting of four 
men, six women, three boys and two girls, return- 
ing from a visit to the Omahas, had encamped for 
the night about twelve miles from their own reserva- 
tion. In the night a party of soldiers from a mili- 
tary post on the Niobrara River came to their camp, 
and began to insult the squaws, offering money with 
one hand and presenting a revolver with the other. 
The Indians, alarmed, pulled up their lodge and 
escaped to a copse of willows near by. The sol- 
diers fired at them as they ran away, and then 
proceeded to destroj- all tlieir effects. They cut the 
lodge cover to pieces, burnt the saddles and blankets, 
cut open sacks of beans, corn and dried pumpkins, 
and strewed their contents on the ground, and then 
went away, taking with them a skin lodge-covering, 
beaver-skins, buffalo-robes, blankets, guns, and all 
the small effects. Earlj- in the morning the Indians 
returned with their ponies, which had been hidden 
in the willows, picked up what few things they 
could find and started for home. After going but a 
comparatively short distance they were again discov- 
ered and attacked by the soldiers who fired upon them, 
wounding one woman bj- a ball in her thigh ; an- 
other, with a child on her back, bj' two balls through 
the child's thighs, one of which passed through the 
mother's side. These women were fired upon as 
they were crossing the river on the ice. The sol- 
diers then took possession of the six ponies and all 
the articles at the camp and left. The squaws and 
children, who were looking for beans, were half a 
mile below. A little dog belonging to them barked 
and revealed their hiding place. The soldiers imme- 
diately turned on them, dismounted, made up to 
them and deliberately shot them dead as thej' hud- 
dled helplessly together — three women and a little 
girl. One of the boys ran for the river, pursued by 
the soldiers. On reaching the river he dived into 
the water through a hole in the ice. As often as he 
lifted his head the soldiers fired at him, but he 
finally escaped. One of the murdered women had 
three balls in her head and cheek, her throat cut, 
and her head half severed by a sabre thrust ; another, 
the j-oungest woman, had her cloth shirt taken off 
and carried awaj', and all her other clothes torn 

from her bod}', leaving it naked. The men wlio 
perpetrated this outrage belonged to Company B, of 
tlie Seventh Iowa Cavalry, and it is quite needless 
to remark that they were never brought to justice. 
In 1876-, the government decided to remove the 
Poncas to the Indian Territory. By this time the 
Poncas had acquired many of the arts of civiliza- 
tion. The}' had comfortable homes, well-tilled 
farms and supported a school. It was hard for 
them to leave the homes where they had lived for so 
many years, especially as thej' could not understand 
why the}' should lie compelled to go. A number 
of chiefs visited the lands in the Indian Territory 
and found them so cheerless and so sterile that they 
protested vigorously against the proposed removal, 
but all in vain. They were forcibly removed from 
their homes by the soldiers, and compelled to march 
to the Indian Territory, where they lived most un- 
happil}-. Finally Standing Bear and thirty of his 
people ran away fi-om the Indian Territory, and after 
a long weary foot joui-ney of three months reached 
their old friends on the Omaha reservation. They 
were again arrested. Standing Bear, in his nan-a- 
tive of the sufferings of his tribe, says: "Half of us 
were sick. We would rather have died than have 
lieen carried back; but we could not help ourselves. " 
But help did reach them from an unexpected source. 
The news of their arrest roused no little excitement 
in Omaha. At the request of an Omaha editor, Mr. 
T. H. Tibbies, two prominent attorneys, A. J. Pop- 
pleton and John L. Webster, applied for a wi-it of 
habeas corpus. Standing Bear and his people were 
brought before Judge Elmer S. Dundy, of the Uni- 
ted States District Court. The case attracted 
National attention. It was argued eloquently and 
ably by G-. M. Lambertson, United States District 
Attorney, on the one side and by Messrs. Poppleton 
and Webster on the other. Judge Dundy decided 
that the Indian is a "person" within the intent and 
purpose of the constitution, and released the pris- 
oners. The result of the ti-ial attracted general 
attention through the East and much sympathy was 
manifested for the unfortunate Poncas. They were 
finally restored to their reservation, where they still 
reside in peace and contentment. 

The Pawnees were probably the largest and most 


powerful Indian nation tliat lived in Nebraska pre- 
vious to the advent of the white men. When Louis 
and Clarke visited the Platte country thej- found the 
Pawnees living on the south side of the Platte River, 
forty-five miles above its mouth. There were four 
branches of the tribe at that time — the Pawnees 
proper, consisting of five hundred men with their 
families, the Republican Pawnees, so named from 
their having lived on the Republican branch of the 
Kansas River, whence they emigrated to join the 
principal band on the Platte. They numbered about 
250, exclusive of women and chikb-en. The third 
was the Pawnee Loups, or Wolf Pawnees, who re- 
sided on the Wolf Fork of the Platte River nearlj' a 
hundred miles from the main branch of the tribe. 
These numbered 280 men. The fourth band for- 
merly resided far south of Nebraska, but in their 
wars with their enemies they were so often defeated 
that they were compelled to move northward to a 
land where they could be at peace. The four tribes 
soon after the visit of Lewis and Clarke in 1804, 
formed a confederation and became practically one 
ti-ibe. In 1834 they ceded to the United States all 
their lands south of the Platte River. By another 
treaty, in 1848, they relinquished still another part 
of their lands, and by a subsequent treaty made in 
1857, after the organization of Nebraska Territory, 
they gave up all their lands and settled upon a 
reservation of 288,000 acres of land in the Loup 
Valley. . Here they resided until 1874, when they 
consented to a removal to the Indian Territory, 
where they still reside. 

The Otoes, another small tribe found iu Ne- 
braska by Lewis and Clarke, were spoken of as the 
remnant of .a once powerful nation. Their home 
was originally on the west bank of the Missouri, 
about thirty miles above the mouth of the Platte 
River. They were of a wandering disposition, in 
frequently moving from point to point. At one 
time their village was located upon the present site 
of the city of Omaha and at another time near the 
present site of Nebraska City. Their first treaty 
with the government was made in 1834, by which 
they ceded to the United States a large portion of 
the lands they had hitherto claimed as their own. 
Again, in 1854, they ceded to the United States all 

their lands, taking in lieu thereof a reservation in 
the southeastern part of the State, a portion of 
which they still occupy. 

The Omaha Indians formerly resided north of 
the Missouri River, in Dakota; but being constantly 
harrassed by the Sioux they moved into Nebraska in 
the earl}' part of the present century. When the 
Territory of Nebraska was organized the Omahas 
claimed as their territory the lands west and south 
of the Missouri and adjoining it, and north of the 
Platte River. In 1854 this land was ceded to the 
United States, the Omahas removing to a reserva- 
tion of 345,000 acres in the northeastern part of 
the State. 

The Sioux tribes more properly belonged to 
Iowa and Dakota; but in the early part of the pres- 
ent century they overran the Nebraska counti-y, and 
for many years claimed all that part of the State 
lying south of the Platte River as their hunting 
grounds. They were the most warlike of all the 
western Indians and were constantly at war with 
their neighboring tribes. The Pawnees were their 
deadliest enemies, and the two tribes were almost 
constantly at war. The supremacy of the Pawnees 
was finally settled in 1832 b}' one of the most des- 
perate encounters ever recorded in the annals of In- 
dian warfare. The battle was fought near the junc- 
tion of the Big Sandy and Little Blue River, within 
the present limits of Jeflferson County. According 
to the best accounts, 16,000 savages participated in 
the conflict. The Pawnees were under the command 
of the chief Tac-po-ha-na, while the Sioux were led 
by Oco-no-me-woe, of whom it is claimed the cele- 
brated Sioux chief. Sitting Bull, is a lineal descen- 
dant. The struggle for supremacy lasted for three 
days and the Sioux were completely worsted, losing 
over 3, 000 men. The Pawnees sustained a loss of 
2,000 men. The stor}- of this most remai'kable con- 
flict was told in 1870 by an aged French trader 
named Mont Crevie, one of the numerous agents of 
the American Fur Company, who were scattered all 
over the western plains. 

From the time Nebraska was formally thrown 
open to settlement until the white settlers became so 
numerous as to be formidable, the Indians, and 
especiall}' the Pawnees, were exceedingly trouble- 



some. Their depredations, however, consisted mostl}- 
of petty thiever}', with an occasional murder and 
outraoe. The only serious uprising of Indians in 
Nebraslva, since the organization of the Territorj-, 
occurred in 1864. A number of causes have been 
assigned for this uprising; but it is probable that 
the Indians liad been nursing the accumulated griev- 
ances (if years, until their auger had been fully 
arousi'd to a formidable outbreak. Their plans in- 
cluded nothing less than the complete extermination 
of the white settlers along the trails from the 
western to the eastern part of the State. The up- 
rising was planned with a skill and cunning known 
only to the savage breast. For two years the prep- 
arations went on. Every Sioux and Pawnee Indian 
was well armed with the most approved modern 
weapon, and for a time it was believed that these 
arms were secretly supplied by the agents of the 
Confederate government, and that the great out- 
break was instigated by these emissaries of seces- 
sion. But, whether this was the case or not, it is 
needless to say that but little credence has ever been 
paid to the story. A party of Indians had been de- 
tailed to attack every settlement along the Fremont 
trails for a distance of two hundred miles. The 
morning of Sunday, August 7, 1864, had been 
selected as the day for the assault along the entire 
line, and on that day the assault was made simul- 
taneously according to program. The first mas- 
sacre reported was at Plumb Creek, in Dawson 

County, where eleven settlers were murdered in 
cold blood. Plum Creek was a telegraph station, 
and the operator, divining at once that the threats 
ened outbreak had come, immediately flashed the 
news along the line, giving warning of the danger. 
The existence of the telegraph line, together with 
the fact that the Plum Creek massacre occurred 
earlier in the day than any of the others contem- 
plated, saved the lives of many settlers who took 
measures to protect themselves upon receipt of the 
warning. A stampede of settlers to the eastern 
part of the State at once commenced. Nearlj' every 
settlement in the valley was abandoned, the settlers 
pushing for the Missouri River in order to escape 
destruction. The government threw all available 
troops in the west into the Platte Valley and after 
three weeks of arduous work, in which many In- 
dians as well as soldiers lost their lives, the upris- 
ing was quelled. The majority of the settlers ven- 
tured back to the homes they had abandoned with 
so much precipitation, and peace once more reigned 
along the Platte. 

The uprising of 1864 was the last serious dis- 
turbance raised by the Indians in Nebraska. Since 
that time a number of " scares " have occun-ed; but 
these instances are hardly of suflBcient importance 
to be worthy of especial mention. They will be 
ti'eated of fully in the history of the counties, where 
they are chiefly interesting by reason of their local 



The Settlement of the Territory — Population op Nebraska at the Formation op the Territory — The 
Earliest Visits of the Wihte Men — The Trading Post and Settlement at Bellevtje — Col. 
Peter A. Sarpy — The Mormon Settlement at Florence — First Attempts to found the 
City of Omaha — The Settlement of Douglas County^ — Col. John Boulwabe — 
The Settlement at St. Deroin — The Founding op Brownville — Early- 
History' of Douglas County — Stephen Story and His Settle- 
ment IN Richardson County. 

Hail, memory, hail ! In thy exhaustless mine 
From age to age unnumbered treasures shine! 
Thought and her shadowy brood thy call obey. 
And place and time are subject to thy sway. — Rorjers. 

.N the SOth of May, 1854, 
when President Pierce affixed 
his signature to the Kansas- 
Nebraska bill, the Territory 
of Nebraska gave but little 
promise of the great State of 
to-day. The white popula- 
tion of the Territory at that time was 
less than 3,000 souls, scattered among 
the little settlements at Bellevue, 
Omaha, Brownville and other places 
along the Missouri bottoms. 

The oldest settlements in Nebraska 
were made within the present bound- 
aries of Sarpy county. Lewis and 
Clarke, in their famous expedition in search of 
the headwaters of the Missouri River, explored 
that part of Nebraska lying immediately adjacent 
to the mouth of the Platte River, in July 1804, 
and camped for some time near the present site 
of Bellevue. In 1805, the same spot was visited 
by Manuel Lisa, a Spanish adventurer, who had 
doubtless been attracted to the region more from 
curiosity than from any more practical incentive. 
It was not, however, until 1810, that a permanent 

settlement was attempted in Nebraska. In that 
year the American Fur Company, organized and 
controlled by the genius of John Jacob Astor, estab- 
lished a trading-post at Bellevue, and placed a 
French-Canadian by the name of Francis Deroin in 
charge. Deroin was soon aftei-wards succeeded by 
a fellow-countryman named Joseph Roubidoux, who 
held the position until 1816, when he was in turn 
succeeded bj- John Carbanne. The latter agent 
remained until 1823, when he was relieved by Peter 
Sarpy, a man whose name is inseparably linked 
with the early histoiy of the Territory of Nebraska. 
He was a splendid specimen of the hardy race of 
pioneers who have at the present day almost entirely 
disappeared. He possessed all the hardihood, all 
the braveiy, all the endurance, necessary for a life 
on the ragged edge of civilization. At the time of 
the formation of the Territory, Peter Sarpy was 
described as being about fifty-five years of age, 
rather below the medium in height, with black hair, 
dark complexion, well-knit and compact features 
and a heavy beard that had scorned the razor's edge 
for many years. His manner was commanding, his 
address fluent, and, in the presence of the opposite 
sex, he was polished and refined. He preferred the 


freedom of the western plains to the gaiety and 
refinement of the more civilized life of the East, and 
was never happier than when visiting the rude wig- 
wams of the Indians encamped around the old trad- 
ing-post. Such was the appearance and character- 
istics of one of the oldest settlers of Nebraska. In 
the same year that Peter Sarpy arrived at Brllcvue 
the Indian agency, which had previously licin li.rnlfd 
at Fort Calhoun, within the present limits nf Wash- 
ington County, was also removed to Bellevue, mak- 
ing the place the most important settlement in the 
Territory. The trading post drew all the fur trap- 
pers, traders and Indians for hundreds of miles 
around, and in certain seasons of the year Bellevue 
presented an exceedinglj' lively and animated appear- 
ance. The affairs of the little settlement pursued 
the even tenor of their ways until 18-16, when it 
received new accessions. A representative of the 
Presbyterian Board of ^Missions, in the person of 
Rev. Edward McKinnej', visited Bellevue in that 
year, and decided to establish a mission at that 
point. The mission was duly established, a school 
house ei-ected, and D. E. Reed placed in charge. 
Mr. Reed was another early pioneer who was proni- 
inentlj- associated with the settlement of Nebraska. 
He was the first school teacher, the first regularly- 
appointed postmaster, and the first editor in the 
new TeiTitory. 

Up to the year 1852 the settlement at Bellevue 
had alwaj-s been known as Council Bluffs. Tliis 
name was not, however, entirely satisfactory to the 
settlers, and in that year steps were taken to form a 
company and lay out a town. It was not until 
February- 9, 1854, however, that the town companj' 
was foi-mally organized and the settlement given the 
name of Bellevue. The original incorporators of 
the town of Bellevue were Peter Sarpy. Stc|ilicn 
Decatur, Hiram Bennett, George NciJiici-. Willi^nn 
R. English, James M. Galeswood, Georg<' P. Fuiiicr, 
P. J. McMahon, A. W. HoUlster and C. A. Ford. 
The first postoflice in Nebraska Territory was estab- 
lished at Bellevue in 1849, but it was not until 1855, 
nearly a year after the Territory had been formally 
erected and thrown open to settlement, that a regu- 
lar postmaster, Mr. D. E. Reed, was officially 

At the time of the organization of Nebraska, 
Bellevue was the ludst iinpoiiaiit settlement in the 
Territory, and would liavc uihlnnliicdly lieen selected 
as the capital but for tiic strange perversity of one 
man. In October, 1853, Gov. Burt and Secretary 
Cuming, the Territorial officers appointed bj' Presi- 
dent Pierce, arrived at Bellevue for the ijuipusc of 
setting up the Territorial goveruiiieni. i'.y an in- 
scrutable dispensation of all-wise i'mvideuee (iov. 
Burt died after having resided in Nebraska but ten 
days. Secretary Cuming, who assumed the duties 
of governor until a successor to Mr. Burt could be 
regularly appointed, proposed to locate the capital 
of the new Territory at Bellevue, providing 100 
acres of land were donated to the future State. 
Rev. Mr. Hamilton, superintendent of the Presby- 
terian mission, which controlled the town site of 
Bellevue, as well as the lands immediately surround- 
ing the town, declined to donate the land asked for, 
and in consequence Omaha became the first capital 
of the Territory of Nebraska. 

In 1819 the government located a military post 
within the present limits of Washington County. 
The post was then called Fort Atkinson, but after- 
ward this name was changed to Fort Calhoun. It 
stood on the spot where Lewis and Clarke held their 
famous council with the chiefs of the Otoe and 
Missouri Indians. 

Next to Peter Sarpj", John Boulware is believed 
to be the first white man to attempt a settlement in 
the yet unorganized Territory of Nebraska. He 
established himself at Fort Calhoun in 1826 and 
resided there for many years. In 1846 he estab- 
lished, or rather, was placed In charge of a govern- 
ment ferry, at Fort Kearney, at the present site of 
Nebraska City. The fort was used as a military 
post by the government until 1848, when it was 
abandoned and the garrison removed to new Fort 
Kearney. The American Fur Company also estab- 
lished a trading post at old Fort Kearney in 184G or 
1847, and continued it until 1854. 

A trading post was esiaMished at St. Deroin, in 
the southern part of Nemaha ('. unity, in 1853, and 
a town laid out. Rcilieit llawke, afterward a prom- 
inent merchant of Nebraska City, opened a small 
store at this point in that year. In 1854 Richard 


Browu came to Nemaha County, and located on the 
spot where Brownville now stands. 

Next to the settlement at Bellevue, the most im- 
portant settlement made in Nebraska, previous to 
the formation of the Ten-itory, was made within the 
present confines of Douglas County. The first set^ 
tlement at Omaha was not made until 1852 or 1854; 
but previous to this time the Mormons in large num- 
bers had found a temporary residing place near that 
city. In 1844 the Mormons were driven from Illi- 
nois. The higher civilization of the East declined 
to tolerate their peculiar religious beliefs, and they 
pushed westward toward the setting sun in hopes of 
finding some place where they could live up to the 
tenets of their religion without fear of molestation. 
Thej' crossed the Mississippi, wended their way 
through the broad State of Iowa, and crossed the 
Missouri. Here, on the extreme western limit of 
civilization, they believed they might rest in peace. 
A colony was located upon or very near the present 
site of Florence. Here the Mormons built quite a 
city, with residences, stores, and a place of worship. 
The land surrounding the settlement was cultivated, 
and within a short time fully 10,000 disciples of 
Joseph Smith were settled in and around Florence. 
The Mormons, however, were not destined to become 
important factors in the developement of the new 
Ten-itory. In 1850 Brigham Young had taken a 
band of pioneers across the plains, over the Rockies, 
to the valley of the Great Salt Lake, where he 
founded the citj^ that has become known throughout 
the civilized world as the one plague spot upon the 
map of the United States. As soon as it was deter- 
mined to make Salt Lake City the metropolis of a 
new Territory, where the disciples of Smith could 
practice their peculiar teachings, the Mormons all 
over the East prepared to emigrate to the modern 
Zion. In 1851 the Mormons at Florence abandoned 
their homes and farms, took up their journey west- 
ward, and the place that had known them for six or 
seven years knew them no longer. 

After the Mormon hegira thei-e is no definite 
record of anj- permanent settlements in Douglas 
County for several years. The city of Council 
Bluffs, on the opposite side of the river, had, in 
1853, become quite a city, with 2,000 inhabitants. 

In June, 1853, William D. Brown established a 
ferry between Council Bluffs and the Nebraska side, 
and made several explorations along the river bot- 
toms. In the same month a company was organ- 
ized for the purpose of locating a town opposite 
Council Bluffs and operating a steam ferry-boat be- 
tween the two points. The company was composed 
of William D. Brown, Joseph Street, Jesse Wil- 
liams and Enos Lowe. These gentlemen visited the 
site of the proposed city of Omaha several times, 
made friends with the Indians and "squatted" on 
several claims. Owing to the fact that the Indian 
title to the land had not yet been extinguished, no 
attempt was made to make a complete settlement. 
In the meantime, A. D. Jones, a surveyor living in 
Council Bluffs, had crossed the river to Nebraska 
and, with the consent of the Indians, settled upon a 
claim which he proposed to occupy as soon as the 
Territory was thrown open to settlement. Nothing 
further was done in the way of settling Douglas 
Countj^ until the following year. 

Early in the spring of 1854, as soon as it be- 
came apparent that the Territory would be formally 
organized and thrown open to settlement, a number 
of men crossed the river from Council Bluffs and 
took up claims. Among these the names of the 
following have been preserved: A. D. Jones, J. E. 
Johnson, Robert B. Whitted, William Clancy, Jef- 
fiy Brothers, J. C. Reeves, James Hlckey, Benja- 
min Leonard, A. R. Gilmore, C. H. Downs, W. P. 
Snowden, 0. B. Seldon, J. W. Paddock, William 
Gray, John Withnell, George L. Miller, A. J. Pop- 
pleton, Loran Miller, J. G. Megeath, A. B. Moore, 
O. D. Richardson. There were others who came 
about the same time, and these, with the ones named 
above, were the first hona-fide settlers of Douglas 
County. They were typical specimens of the pio- 
neers who laid the foundation for the magnificent 
city of Omaha and State of Nebraska. They went 
about the work of building a town with commend- 
able zeal and earnestness. Dwelling houses, stores 
and shops were commenced and places of business 
opened. The first building was completed by A. D. 
Jones on May 28, 1854, just two days before Presi- 
dent Pierce signed the Kansas-Nebraska bill. A 
town site was selected, surveyed and platted, and 


the new city named ''Omaha." The histon- of 
Omaha and Douglas County would of itself fill a 
large volume; but as it is the purpose in these pages, 
and especiallj- in this chapter, to give merelj' a brief 
sketch of the history of the State of Nebraska, no 
effort will be made to follow up the history of sin- 
gle counties not included in the scope of the main 
body of the work. 

Still another early settlement in Nebraska, pre- 
vious to the organization of the Territory, was made 
at the mouth of the Platte River, within the present 
limits of Cass County. In the spring of 1853, Sam- 
uel Martin, having first obtained the necessary per- 
mission from the government to establish a trading 
post in the Platte country, crossed the river fi-om 
Iowa and erected a two-story building at a point on 
the south branch of the Platte River, near its mouth, 
where the city of Plattsmouth now stands. This 
was the first building erected b3' a white man in 
Cass County, previous to the organization of the 
TeiTitory. In June, 1854, as soon as the news of 
the final opening of the Territor}* had been received, 
a large number of settlers crossed the Missouri 
River from Iowa and staked out claims. The 
largest settlement was made at Plattsmouth, and 
in 1856, two years after the Territory had been 
organized, Cass Coanty contained a population of 

Another Nebraska pioneer, whose name is worthy 
of especial prominence in the pre-Territorial history 
of Nebraska, was Stephen Story, who settled in 
Richardson County in 1844. Although born in 
Vermont, Story was taken to Canada by his parents 

when but two years of age, where he lived until he 
was twenty-one. In Canada he fell in with a class 
of j'oung men whose adventurous spirit led them to 
adopt the lives of lumbermen, traders and trappers. 
Young Story joined a party of kindred spirits and 
all came to the West. He wandered up and down 
the Missouri Valley and finally settled in Richard- 
son County, in 1844. But the Indians made mat^ 
ters decidedly unpleasant for him and he was com- 
pelled to leave. He joined the army and served in 
the Mexican War, after which he drifted to Califor- 
nia. In 1850, after working in the gold mines of 
the Golden State for a year, he turned his face to 
the plains and again settled down in Richardson 
County, this time permanently. He lived upon a 
farm for a number of years and started the town of 
St. Stephen. He was a prominent figure in Rich- 
ardson County until the day of his death, which 
occurred on January 27, 1882. 

Two other well-known pioneers were Charles 
Martin and F. X. Dupuis, both of whom settled in 
Richardson County previous to the formation of the 
Territory. Both had been trappers and hunters, 
and both had passed through all the sti-ange vicissi- 
tudes of a life on the plains. 

In the foregoing pages of this chapter has been 
given a brief sketch of the settlement of the Tem- 
tory previous to its formation. When Gov. Burt 
arrived in Nebraska to assume the duties of gov- 
ernor of the new Territorj-, he found well-established 
settlements at Omaha, Bellevue and Plattsmouth, 
with a number of smaller communities scattered 
along the Missouri River bottoms. 




The Fokjiatiox of the Terkitory— Othek Tekkitories Admitted— Calls for the Formation op the 
"Platte Country" — First Attempt to Erect the Territory- of Nebraska — A Kesume of Polit- 
ical Events Leading to the Opposition to the Erection of Nebraska — The Mis- 
souri Comprojiise — Second Attempt to Form the Territory- of Nebraska — 
Opposition of Southern Senators— The Slavery Issue— Senator 
Douglas Introduces the Kansas-Nebraska Bill — Its Oppo- 
sition AND Final Passage. 


'Set all things In their 
And know that order 

T has been shown in the 
preceding chapter how 
Louisiana became a part of 
the domain of the United 
States. When the United 
States tooli formal posses- 
sion, Louisiana contained 
than 500 white inhabitants; but 

tide of immigration was already 
s\M"eping westward, and in 1810 the 
(onsus showed a total population of 
] 0(j2 The influx of English-speaking 
inhabitants steadily continued, and be- 
foie main years the struggling settle- 
ments enlarged into Ten-itories, and the 
Territories were soon clamoring for the 
dignity of Statehood. Previous to the 
year 1850, the States of Louisiana, Arkansas, Mis- 
souri and Iowa had been carved out of the original 
Territory of Louisiana. West and northwest of 
these States lay a vast, unorganized territory, with 
no form of government whatever. ' It was pre-emin- 
ently the home of the Indian. Immense herds of 
buffalo grazed undisturbed on the prairies, and the 
entire region was as free from the civilizing restraints 
of the white man as when Columbus first sighted 

own pecuhar place, 
is tlio greatest grace." 

the palmetto trees of the West Indies. But a terri- 
toiy so vast, so fertile, and so well adapted to the 
wants of man, was not to be left unoccupied. The 
gold excitement in California in 1849 had impelled 
an immense throng of adventurers to cross the 
plains in search of the treasure fields beyond the 
Rockies. The route of the emigrants lay along the 
Platte River, across the entire length of the present 
State of Nebraska. The whole region was then 
known as the "Platte Country," and it soon became 
known that it embraced lands of the greatest value 
to the settler. 

There had been calls for a Territorial organ- 
ization for the " Platte country" as early as 1850, 
and in the first session of the XXXIId Congress, 
which assembled at Washington in the winter of 
1851-52, petitions were presented asking for the 
formation of a new Territory west of the Missouri 
River. No action was taken in regard to the mat- 
ter in that session; but in the next session, Mr. 
Willard P. Hall, a representative from the State of 
Missouri, offered a bill which had for its object the 
organization of the ' ' Territory of Platte. " This 
bill was introduced on December 13, 1852, and 
was refen-ed to the committee on Ten-itories. On 
February 2, 1853, Representative William A. Rich- 



ardson, from that committee, reported a bill provid- 
ing for the organization of the ' • Territorj- of 
Nebraska." This bi!U it will be understood, in- 
cluded all the territory now comprised in the States 
of Nebraska and Kansas. When the l>ill came up 
for consideration in the committee of the whole, it 
was the signal for a bitter and formidable opposi- 
tion from the Southern members. After a violent 
discussion, the committee rose with a recommend;i- 
tion that the liill be rejected; but the House passed 
the bill on February 10. 1853. by a vote of 08 
to 43. 

From the H(.)use the bill went to the Senate, 
where its opponents were already organized for its 
defeat. Reaching the Senate on February 11, it 
was referred to the committee on Territories. 
Stephen A. Douglas, whose name is inseparably 
linked with the history of Nebraska, was chairman 
of this committee. On March 2 (being the last 
day but one of the session), a motion to take up the 
Nel)raska liill for consideration was defeated, by a 
vdtc <>t I'.'t to 'H*. Another attempt to get the bill 
lii'l'dic the Si'iiatc mi the last day of the session was 
defeated and the bill itself laid upon the table. 
Thus, the first attempt to erect the Territory of Ne- 
braska was unsuccessful. 

It will not be out of place here to give a l)rief 
resume of the political events which combined to 
cause so determined an opposition to the formation 
of the Territory of Nebraska. That opposition had 
been forming in the minds of the people of the South 
for fort}- years, and the implacable hostility of the 
Southern people to the formation of the Territories 
of Nebraska and Kansas, form one of the most 
prominent of the causes of the War of the Re- 

The first ojjposition to the admission of a slave 
State occurreil in 1811, when Louisiana knocked 
at the doors of Congress and demanded admission 
into the Union. The opposition to the admission 
of Louisiana was not grounded so much upon 
the fact that it would increase the power of the 
sla\-e holders, as upon the alleged violation of the 
constitution in forming a State out of a Territory 
not included in the original government of the 
Union. The opposition centered in the person of 

Joseph Quincj, and in the light of subsequent 
events, his threats of dissolving the Union read 
strangely enough. He declared that if Louisiana 
were admitted, ' ' the bonds of the Union were vir- 
tually dissolved; that the States which compose it are 
free from their moral obligations; and that as it will 
the right of all, so it will be the dutj- of some to 
prepare definitely for a separation, amicably if they 
can, violently if they must. " He maintained that 
' ' there was no authority to throw the rights and lib- 
erties of this people into ' hotchpotch ' with the wild 
men of Missouri, nor with the mixed but more 
respectable race of Auglo-Hispania-Gallo- Americans 
who bask in the sands at the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi. " Although the people of the North did not go 
as far as Josiah Quincy in their objections, there was 
a strong opposition to the admissimi nf Louisiana. 
Many people of the North had always ivunrdrd the 
purchase of Louisiana as unconstiliitidnal, and 
always looked upon that Territory as foreign soil; 
liut the agitation did not extend beyond the walls of 
Congress, and the bill admitting Louisiana was 
passed by the necessarj- majority. 

But the rapidly-increasing hatred of slavery soon 
liegau to crystallize into organized opposition. Ben- 
jamin Lundy had organized his '-Union Humane 
Society" in 1815, and soon afterwanls had written 
his famous appeal to the pliilantlini]iists on the 
subject of slavery. Charles Osborne had also 
started the Philanthropist, a journal devoted to the 
abolition of slavery. The influence of other pio- 
neers in the anti-slavery moxcinent 1k'u;iu to make 
itself felt, and when, six vi-mis filter Louisiana had 
become a State of the Union, ^lissouii asked for 
admission on an equal footing with the other States, 
the agitation at once became so violent that for a 
time it seemed as if the Union would be disrupted. 
The agitation continued for a period of two years 
and was finally ended by the adoption of the famous 
' ' Missouri Compromise. " By the provisions of this 
compromise, Missouri was admitted as a slave State ; 
but it was further enacted that slavery should for- 
ever be prohibited in all that pait of the Louisiana 
purchase lying north of 30 degrees, 30 minutes, 
north latitude.. This compromise, which alone stood 
between the nation and civil war, allaj^ed to a large 



extent the bitter feeling between the Xorth and the 
South. The North had secured the blessing of 
freedom for a large part of the then organized Terri- 
tory, and, as it thought, checked the advance of 
the slave power. The South felt satisfied that gen- 
erations would pass before the development of the 
country would call for the formation of new States 
out of the unorganized territory. Both were con- 
tent; though, in the light of suljsequent events, 
liotli were mistaken. 

However, the Missouri compromise, much as it 
allayed sectional feeling at the time, could not check 
the sweeping tide of immigration which was surging 
westward. The population of the United States in- 
creased so rapidly that the formation of new States 
became an imperative necessity. The bill for the 
formation of the Territorj- of Nebraska was a result 
of this demand, and the determined opposition of 
the slave power was conclusive evidence that the 
famous compromise would be trampled under foot 
as soon as it should prove a barrier to the further 
extension of the slave territory. 

The friends of the Nebraska bill did not remain 
inactive. The XXXIIId Congress assembled on 
December 5, 1853, and on December 14 of the same 
year Senator Augustus C. Dodge, of Iowa, submit- 
ted a bill "To organize the Territorj' of Nebraska." 
The bill was very similar to the one introduced in 
the previous Congress by Representative Hall, of 
Missouri, and contained no intimation that the 
binding force of the Missouri compromise was to be 
disputed, or that the compromise itself would be 
naeddled with. After being referred to the proper 
committee, the bill was, on Januar3- 4, 1854, re- 
ported back to the Senate by Senator Stephen A. 
Douglas, chairman of the committee on TeiTitories. 
In his report Senator Douglas alluded to the fact 
that a question had arisen regarding the right to 
hold slaves in the new Temtory of Nebraska, after 
it should have been thrown open to settlement and 
the Indian laws withdrawn. The Missouri compro- 
mise clearl}' prohiljited slaverj- in the new Territory ; 
l)ut a question had arisen concerning the constitu- 
tional power of Congress to pass laws prescribing 
and regulating the domestic institutions of the vari- 
ous Territories of the Union. One class of states- 

men, notably those of Northern birth and education, 
contended that Congress had no constitutional 
authority to regulate the domestic institutions of the 
Territories, but, rather, that such matters should lie 
left exclusivelj- to the people residing therein. An- 
other class of statesmen, who probablj' represented 
a much larger number of people, especially those of 
the South, insisted strenuously upon the doctrine 
that the constitution secured to every citizen the in- 
alienable right to move into any of the Territories 
with his property, of whatever kind or description, 
and to hold and enjoy the same under sanction of 
law. The committee on Territories, foreseeing the 
storm of agitation that was certain to follow the re- 
opening of this much-disputed question, very \nu- 
dentlj' declined to enter into a discussion of the 
relative merits of the conflicting opinions. 

Soon after the new bill had been reported to the 
Senate, Mr. Archibald Dixon, a Senator from Ken- 
tucky, gave formal notice that when the bill erect- 
ing the TeiTitory of Nebraska came up for consider- 
ation, he should offer the following amendment : 

Section 32. And be it further enacted: That so 
much of the eighth section of an act approved March (1, 
1820, entitled "au act to authorize the people of Mis- 
souri Territory to form a constitution and State gov- 
ernment, and for the admission of such State into the 
union on an equal footing with the original States, and 
to prohibit slavery in certain Territories," and declares 
••that, in all that territory ceded by France to the 
United States under the name of Louisiana, which lies 
north of 36 degrees, 30 minutes, north latitude, slavery 
and involuntary servitude, otlierwise than in the punish- 
ment of crime whereof the party shall have been duly 
convicted, shall be forever prohibited," shall not lie s,i 
construed as to apply to the Territory contemplated by tlie 
net, or to any other Territory of the United States; but that 
the citizens of the several States and Territories slaall be 
at liberty to take and hold their slaves within any of the 
Territories or States so to be formed therefrom, as if 
said act, entitled as aforesaid, had never been passed. 

This proposition to vii-tuallj- repeal the Mis- 
souri compromise was received by the Senate with 
no little surprise. Senator Douglas, whose presi- 
dential aspirations were well known, had hoped to 
concentrate Southern prejudice l\y his jjroposal to 
organize the new Territor}' of Nebraska without 
reference to the question of slavery ; but the belliger- 
ent attitude assumed by the Senator from Kentuck\- 


showed him that the South would be satisfied with 
no doulitful or implied concession. He saw at once 
that if he was to gain anj^ prestige by fathering the 
Xebraslva bill he must include in that bill the total 
repeal of the Missouii compromise. Accordingly, 
upon his own motion, he withdrew the bill, and, on 
January 23. 1854, reported from his committee a 
new bill so dissimilar in its provisions that the pro- 
moters of the original bill were hardly able to recog- 
nize it. Instead of one Territory, to be called 
Nebraska, sti'etching from the parallel of 36 degrees, 
30 minutes on the north, and westward from the 
boundary of Iowa and Missouri to the Rocky Jlount- 
ains, Mr. Douglas proposed to erect two Terri- 
tories, one to be composed of so much of the terri- 
tory lying west of the State of Missouri, to be 
known as Kansas, and the other to compose that 
region Ij'ing west of the State of Iowa. With refer- 
ence to slavery the new bill contained the following 

Section 31. Aiid be it furtlier mulcted: Tliat in 
order to avoid all misconstruction, it is hereby declared 
to be the true intent and meaning of this act, so far as 
the question of slavery is concerned, to carry into jjrac- 
tical operation the following propositions and principles, 
established by the compromise measures of 1858, to-wit: 

First, That questions pertaining to slavery in the 
Territories, and in the new States to be formed there- 
from, are to be left to the decisions of the people resid- 
ing therein, through their appropriate representatives. 

Second, That "all cases involving title to slaves," 
and "questions of personal freedom," are referred to the 
adjudication of the local tribunals, with the right of 
appeal to the Supreme Court of tln^ t'liiti-d States. 

Third, That the provisions of tlic cimi^i itution and 
laws of the United States, in rrs|irri to fiii,'itives from 
service, are to be carried into faiililiil I'Miiition in all 
"organized Territories," the same ;i~ id ili.- Siutes. 

The original Nebraska bill, iiitriiduecd lij- Senator 
Dodge, stipulated that ' ' the constitution and all 
laws which are not locally inapplicable, shall have 
the same force and effect within the said Ten'itory as 
elsewhere in the United States. " Mr. Douglas, 
having once committed himself, threw himself tiodily 
into the arms of the most radical of the pro-slavery 

leaders, and to the above stipulation of Mr. Dodge, 
added the following: 

Except the section of the act preparatory to the 
admission of Missouri into the Union, approved JIarch 
6, 1820, which was superceded by the principles of the 
legislation of 1850, commonly called the compromise 
measures, and is declared inoperative. 

At the present time it is difficult to realize the 
storm of indignation and protest that swept up from 
the North at Mr. Douglas' blunt proposal to repeal 
the Missouri compromise — a measure which had 
come to be regarded almost as a part of the con- 
stitution. There had been, it is true, talk of the 
repeal of the measure; Ijut the people of the North 
alwajs looked upon such talk as the mere idle 
In-avado of the slaveholders. Consequently, Mr. 
Douglas' proposition was the signal for combat. 
The "Nebraska question " took the precedent of all 
others, and was almost the sole topic of discussion 
in public and private circles. The sentiment in the 
East, North and West seemed to he almost unan- 
imous in opposition to the bill, while even in tlie 
South, the section most to be benefitted I)y the 
repeal of the Missouri compi'omise, the proposal 
was looked upon with some disfavor. 

In spite of sentiment against it, however, the 
Kansas-Nebraska bill became a law and was ap- 
proved by President Pierce on May 30, 1854, after 
having been almost the sole subject of an excited 
debate for a period of four months. ' ' No previous 
anti-slavery excitement," says J. G. Blaine in his 
"Twenty Years of Congress," "bore any compari- 
son with that which spread over the North as the dis- 
cussion progressed, and especially after the bill be- 
came a law. It did not merely call forth opposition; 
it produced almost a frenzy of wrath on the part of 
thousands in lioth the old parties, who had never 
before taken auj- part whatever in the anti-slavery 
agitation. In the North, conservative men felt that 
no compromise could acquire weight or sanction or 
sacredness, if one that stood for a whole generation 
could be brushed aside by partisan caprice or In* the 
demands of sectional necessity. " 



)i,of;icAL FoiJMATiiix — Pkimitive Ages — ilixEHAL Deposits — Topogiiaphy and PirYsifAT. Features — Exte> 

Axi) AiiEA — Rivers, Lakes, Etc. ^Navigable Streams — Timber — Before the Time 

OF White Men —, Productions. 

O'ci-stdcki'il iiuinkiml rnjoy 

> part of tliL' bistoiy of 
\i'l)iaska is of more gen- 
eral interest than an ac- 
count of its geological 
formation and character. 
^,__-^_^- The record following the 
' *-^ 3i5 ad\ent of man covers but 
a tompanitivelv short period of 
time. The history of the State for 
the thousands of years previous to 
mans appearance — a history re- 
vealed liy geological research alone, 
is of more entrancing interest than 
the wildest dream of fiction. A 
large volume might be filled with 
the geological history of Nebraska 
i without exhausting the subject ; the 

brief scope afforded us in this 
sketch compells a condensation of the stor}- of ages 
within the limits of a few sentences ; but even a 
bare outline cannot be uninteresting to the readers 
of this work. 

It was not until the Carboniferous .\ge followed 
a long succession of periods of growth that dry 
land appeared in Nebraska. Previous to this age the 
State laj' man}- fathoms beneath a restless, illimita- 
l)le, nameless ocean. It was during the Carbonifer- 
ous Age that the vast deposits of coal underlying 
nearly every section of the country were formed. 
Nebraska, emerging from the waters at a later period 

ill this age, reaped a smaller share of its benefits. 
The carboniferous deposits are onh' found in the 
southeastern part of the State. They commence 
as far north as Fort Calhoun, in Washington County. 
and extend across the southern boundary of the 
State. The principal characteristics of this age. 
which covers a period of thousands, perhaps mil- 
lions of years, were a remarkablj- luxuriant vegeta- 
tion, abundant animal life, and a constantly cloudy. 
murky atmosphere. Had man existed in Nebraslva 
at this remote period of its geological history, he 
would, of necessity, have lieen a semi-amphiliious 
creature, roaming through interminable, almost im- 
penetrable jungles of vegetation. He would ha^•e 
found hundreds of fonns of vegetable life long 
since extinct. He would have noted the presence of 
ferns as large as our tallest trees, huge lepidoden- 
driads with tough bark and pithy wood, tall sigilla- 
rias with fluted trunks and long, tapering, needle- 
like leaves. He would have subsisted principally 
on fishes and the lower forms of animal life. The 
sun would have been obscured from his vision liy 
dense clouds of fogs and vapors, and he would uii- 
doubtedl}' have found life a burden which he would 
gladly have dispensed with. Coal, the sole valuable 
product of the Carboniferous Age, has been discox - 
ered in many places in Nebraska, but not in siitfi- 
cientlj- large quantities to make the work of mining 
remunerative. The most valuable deposit as yet 
discovered is in Richardson County, where a vein 



from eighteen to thirty- inches in thickness has been 
worlced to a limited extent. A fifteen-inch yein lias 
been discovered near Nebraska City at a depth of 
180 feet. At Lincoln, at a depth of 909 feet, a 
thirtv-ineh vein has been discovered. At Ponca, a 
vein four and a half feet thick has been discovered 
at a depth of 574 feet. 

Passing out of the Carboniferous Age, Nebraska 
emerged into the Permian Age, in whicli tiie State 
was marvelouslv changed in appearance. The murky 
atmosphere gave way to clear skies, and the sun's 
warm rays exerted their influence on the soil. Tlie 
continent had been upheaved and ranges of high 
mountains appeared on Nature's map of the State. 
The climate lieeaine iiioi'e eliaiiLicalilc, and the old 
forms of animal and vegetaMe bfe disappeared. It 
was a period of transition. Then dawned the Meso- 
zoie Era. In this period the surface of Nebraska 
underwent many more startling ilianges. The land 
surface was measnraMy iiiereaseil , and was more 
thoroughly drained. A'egetalile and animal life again 
appeared. The surface of the State again became 
covered with thickets and forests, the vegetable tj'pes 
being those now found in tropical and semi-tropical 
latitudes. It was the Reptilian Age, and the huge 
animals that ranged the forests were of a kind 
that would have stricken terror to the heart of our 
friend of the Carboniferous period. Among these 
annnals was the Atlantosanrtis immanis, or giant 
lizard. It had a femur eight feet, fqur inches long, 
which would indicate an animal, when standing on 
all fours, thirty feet in height and one hundred feet 
in length. Other animals of this age were the rep- 
tilian birds, crocodiles, and a mammal resembling 
an opossum. This age was brought to a close by 
still further changes brought about in the earth's 
surface. Tile cooling globe was gradually contracts 
ing. The mountains, among them the Sierras, the 
Wasatcli and the Rockies, were emerging from the 
sea. The waters whiih coNereil llie western jiart of 
the continent were still further diained away. Then 
came the Cretaceous period, divided into the Dakota, 
Fort Beaton, Niobrara, Fort Pierre and Fox Mills 
groups. During this period the land was gradually 
subsiding, and the climate beeoniiiiL: (older. In 
the times covered by the Fort Hentou grouii deeper 

waters and quieter seas had taken the place of shal- 
low seas, extended sea beaches and flats and low 
islands. The Niobrara group epoch was marked by 
a still further subsidenee of the continent. All but 
the soiitlieastern p.nt o|' Nehraska w^as covered by 
deep seas, wliieh swarmed ^^ith lishes and mollusks. 
On the land the reptiles flourished in large numbers, 
over forty species being discovered. They ranged 
in size from twelve to seventy-five and one liun<lred 
feet in length. One tortoise diseovia'ed a sjuvad 
of fifteen feet. The flying reptiles also ll.anishcd 
in this age, and disputed the empire of the air with 
the birds, of which manj- species existed. Toward the 
close of the era represented b\- the Niobrara group 
a reverse movement of the continent commenced. 
Instead of subsiding, the land began a slow process 
of elevation. Animal life again became nearly 
extinct, not to appear again in Nebraska until the 
era represented by the Fort Pierre group bad jiassed 
a waj-, and a new era, represented l.y ilie I'ox .Mills 
group, appeared. In this era Xelnaska was eo\ered 
with huge forests and savannas. The land again 
swarmed with animal life. Then followed the Lara- 
mie epoch, during which the seas again covered the 
greater part of Neliraska. and the eiiiire plain region 

of Colorado. The Laramie epoch was Immght to a 
close by one of the greatest convulsions in the geo- 
logical history of the globe. From the eastern base 
of the Rockj- Mountains to the Wasatch range, the 
entire region was thrown np into a series of folds 
and undulations. The whole region of the plains 
sympathized in this movement. The elevation in 
the mountains became snflScient to give free drain- 
age to the sea, and e.xclud,' the oceanic waters. The 
great interior sea wliicli had tossed its restless bil- 
lows over Xeliraska for so many countless ages, was 
flnallv exterminated, never again to appear. The 
culmination of these stupendous changes inaugu- 
rated the Cenozoic Age, or the age of mammals, 
comprising two divisions, the Tertiary' and the 
Quaternary. The Tei-tiary period is again divided 
into three epochs, the Eocene, the Miocene and the 
Pliocene, the two latter being represented in Ne- 
braska. Passing over the Eocene epoch, which is 
of little interest to Nebraskans. we come to the 
JMiocene epoch. In this epoch the physical eondi- 


tions first began to assume a modern air. Vegetable 
and animal life flourished in their higher forms. 
The forests of the Miocene epoch were composed of 
oaks, cottonwoods, willows, magnolias, cypress, sas- 
safras, lindens, maples and pines. Geologists are 
of the opinion that the fig and palm trees also 
flourished here. The conditions of mammalian life 
were also extremely favorable. The horse family 
was represented by a number of species, elephants 
and mastodons roamed the forests, the camel made 
its appearance for the first time, and several species 
of monkej-s chattered in the trees. Passing into the 
Pliocene epoch we find the conditions of animal and 
vegetable life much similar. Prof. Aughey, until 
recently the State geologist, has drawn a vivid pic- 
ture of life in Nebraska during the Pliocene epoch. 
"Had we been in existence then," said he, "and 
started westward on a journey from some point near 
where the Missouri now flows, much of the peculiar 
life of the times would have been observed. The 
climate was congenial to an eminent degree. The 
gi-eat Pliocene lake caused a much moister atmos- 
phere than exists at the present time. Groves of 
sequoias, like the present gigantic trees of Califor- 
nia, the glj'ptastrobus of China and Japan, the 
cypress, the date and the palm, were interspersed 
with magnificent savannas. The songs of ten thou- 
sand birds, many of them of the most beautiful 
plumage, would have greeted our ears. At some 
places, herds of thousands of oveodons would have 
been encountered. Bisons, similar in form to our 
bufl'aloes, would have been seen cropping the grass. 
At other points might have been seen herds of ele- 
phants and mastodons quietly proceeding toward 
some streamlet, or lakelet, to indulge in a bath. 
Vast numbers of many species of camel would have 
been seen reposing at midday on a gentle hillside 
under the shade of sequoias or c^'press. More curi- 
ous than all, thousands of h3-perions, those wonder- 
ful three-toed horses, along with many kinds of 
one-toed horses, of all sizes, would sometimes 
have made the earth tremble under their tread. 
When, at last, in such a westward journey, the 
shores of the great Pliocene lake would be reached, 
its borders would have been a marvel for the life 
represented there. A rhinoceros might have been 

seen wallowing in the mud near the shore. Thou- 
sands of water-fowl would have been riding the gen- 
tle waves. Elephants, camels, oveodons and horses 
would have been seen there slaking their thirst in 
the streamlets flowing into the lake. Life would 
have been observed ever3'where — the hum of insects 
and the song of birds in the air — life in the trees, in 
forest and glade, on land and lake. Most of it, too, 
was happ3' life. It is true, some unfortunate rumi- 
nants would fall victims to the gigantic wolves and 
cats of the time, but the carnivora were not the 
rulers of the land. Grass and leaf and seed and 
fruit eating animals were the rulers of the Pliocene 
world in Central North America. It was a physical 
paradise, for violence, rapine and murder were the 
exception, not the rule. Violence, indeed, has ex- 
isted in eveiy geological epoch, but in Pliocene 
America, herbivorous life was so dominant that it 
could successfully defend itself against the carniv- 
ora, and the latter evidentlj' obtained the most of 
his prey bj' stealth, and by picking off the aged and 
infirm. Animal life is generallj- happy when left 
alone, and this was especiallj- the case during Ameri- 
can Pliocene times. 

The Pliocene epoch, in which a happy state of 
affairs existed in the animal kingdom, continued for 
countless ages; but ever restless Nature was again 
at work. In the closing centuries of this epoch 
the great Pliocene lake was drained and its bed 
became drj- land. The climate gradually became 
colder and the snows of winter accumulated too 
rapidlj' to be removed by the summer's warmth. 
This finally resulted in the glaciation of the plains 
of Nebraska. A thick mantle of ice covered the 
State and the glacial epoch was inaugurated. A 
vast sheet of ice, 3,000 feet in thickness, covered 
this entire region, moving southward at the rate of 
but a few inches a day and crushing out all ani- 
mal and vegetable life in its irresistible progress. 
This vast sea of ice left in its path enoi-mous beds 
of blue clay and other drift materials. Following 
the ice came the floods, bringing with them huge 
icebergs with loads of sand, gravel and boulders. 
Then followed a period of slow elevation, during 
which the waters were drained off and a new forest 
bed formed. Again the ice sheet advanced, crush- 

"a) ^ 


iny; out the magnificent forest growth. The retreat 
of the sccniid ice sheet was followed by another 
siilisiilciicr. the land was again flooded and a lake 
(iccupiiMl the i>lains. Then dawned the Loessepoch, 
the epoch in which Nebraska was prepared for the 
advent of man. 

When the Loess era was inaugurated, the greater 
part of Nebraska was covered bj- a vast inland sea 
of fresh water. The waters of the lake were loaded 
with loess, a sediment left b}* the reti-eating glaciers. 
As the great lakes became filled up with this sedi- 
ment they were gradually transformed into bogs 
and marshes. Isolated portions would first become 
dry land. After the first low islands appeared, they 
gradually increased in size and numbers until dry 
land conditions prevailed. The ponds and sloughs, 
some of which are almost lakes, still in existence, 
are probably the lastr remains of these great lakes. 
The rising of the land continuing, the rivers began 
to cut new channels thi-ough the middle of the old 
lake beds. This drained the marshes and formed 
the bottom lands, as the rivers of that period cov- 
ered the whole of the present flood plains from 
Ijluft' to bluff. It was then, when the bluffs were 
new and plastic, that they were first sculptured by 
rains into their present unique forms. The Blis- 
sonri. during the closing centuries of the Loess 
epoch, nuist have been from five to thirty miles in 
lircailth. The Platte, Niobrara and Republican Riv- 
ers covered their respective flood plains in the same 
way. In the smaller streams of the State, those 
that originated within or near the Loess deposits, 
such as the Elkhorn, Loup, Bow, Blue and Nema- 
has, we see the same general form of flood plains 
as on the larger rivers, and no doubt their waters 
were also covered with water during this period. 

It was during the Loess epoch in the history of 
the continent that man made his first appearance. 
Stone arrow heads and other human relics have l.ieeu 
discovered in undisturbed loess deposits. Animal 
life also flourished in this epoch. The remains of 
rabbits, gophers, otters, beavers, squirrels, deer, 
elk and buffalo are freciuently discovered. The 
remains of elephants and mastodons are also abund- 
ant. According to the most reasonable estimates, 
the Loess epoch covered a period of 19,200 years 

before it was merged into the Terrace epoch. When 
the rivers covered the whole of the existing bottoms, 
and had the old Loess lake bed for a flood plain, the 
land still lay far below its present level, and was in 
the tj-ansition stage between the Loess and Terrace 
epochs. When the elevation became a little greater, 
and the drainage better, and the volume of water 
less, it cut a new channel amid its old bed, which 
now constitutes its flood plain. This formed the 
first terrace and inaugurated this epoch. Here the 
land and the river must have stood for ages. Again 
there was an upward movement, the drainage be- 
came still better, the volume of water lesserred and 
another channel formed. Thus terrace after ter- 
race formed, each representing a stage of quiet in 
the upward movement of the land. 

In the foregoing pages the reader has had a 
rapid sketch of the several geological eras that 
elapsed before Nebraska was considered by an all- 
wise Creator inhabitable for man. A subject whieli 
should fill volumes is merely glanced at in order to 
round out tlic slcctili of Nebraska's history. The 
student who would iv:i(l the story of the rocks will 
find the records at(essil)le, and he will find it, in- 
deed, a most interesting branch of study. 

Nebraska is one of the largest States of the 
Union. It contains an area of 70,895 square miles, 
or 49,212,000 acres. The extreme length of the 
State is 413 miles, and the extreme width, 208. The 
general surface of the State has been compared to a 
recently drained lake bed. The greater part of the 
State is a plateau, with an average elevation of 2,312 
feet above the level of the sea. Along the south 
line of the State, the elevation of the eastern half 
averages 1,200 feet; the western half 2,072 feet. 
Along the northern line of the State the elevation of 
the eastern half is 1,353 feet; the western half 
3,525. West from Omaha the ascent is at the rate 
of five and one-half feet to the mile for 100 miles. 
The second hundred miles increases the ascent to 
seven feet ; the third hundred, seven and a half feet 
to the mile ; and the fourth hundred to ten and a 
half feet to the mile. The ascent on the last fifty 
miles at the west end of the State is eighteen feet to 
the mile. ' ' To gain a clear conception of Nebraska 
topograph}-," writes Prof. Samuel Aughey, in his 



treatise ou the Physical and Natural Features of 
Nebraska, '-one must cross the valleys and divides 
nearly at right angles. In doing this it will be ob- 
served that the most rolling lands generally border 
the valleys or bottoms. Advancing, the rolling and 
sometimes broken character graduallj- disappears, 
when, the divide is reached which separates the last 
from the next drainage system. Here the land 
swells out into a gently undulating plain that varies 
extremely in extent. The extent of such a divide 
may be limited to a half-mile, or may extend for 
thirty or more miles. These swells or long tongues 
of undulating lands are found on the divides between 
nearly all the rivers of the State. Occasionally, be- 
tween the lesser streams, a single low bluff, a few 
hundred feet wide, and only slightly raised above 
the general level, marks the divide. Among the 
most conspicuous of these <livides are the beautiful 
uplands between the Republican and the Platte, be- 
tween the Platte and the Blue Rivers, and between 
the forks of the Blue Rivers. Between the Blues and 
the Nemahas and between the forks of the latter 
similar divides exist North of the Platte, con- 
spicuous for their beautj-. are the divides between 
the forks of the Elkhorn and the headwaters, and 
between the forks of the Logan, and lietween the 
Elkhorn and the Loups. In fact, they are met with 
between most of the streams of the State. Some of 
these high uplands have great uuml)ers of shallow, 
basin-shaped depressions, whose soil and grasses 
greatly resemble those of the bottom lands. They 
are evidently the remains of lakes that until recentlj- 
occupied their sites. Indeed, some of them still 
retain this character, being filled with water the 
whole j'ear round, varj'ing from one to ten feet in 
depth. Between these last and swamps and bogs 
every kind of transition form is found. Fillmore, 
Clay, York, Hamilton, Franklin, Phillips and 
Wayne Counties have a notable number of these old 
lake beds. 

Nothing is more surprising than the amazing 
numljer of vallej- or bottom lands. They must be 
numbered by the thousand. Take the Republican 
as an example. On an average a triiiutar}- valley 
comes into the Ijottom from the north side every two 
miles. Now. as this river flows for 200 miles 

through the State, it would give KM) iov this section 
alone. Counting, however, the streams that come 
in from the south side, and those flowing into its 
larger tributaries, this number should be multiplied 
by four, giving 400 valleys, great and small, for this 
region alone. Now, add to these valleys those that 
are tributary to the Platte, the Blues, the Nemahas, 
the Elkhorns, the Logan, the Bows, the Missouri, 
between its larger tributaries, the Niobrara and the 
Loups, and it will increase the number to thousands. 
It is true that many of them are narrow, ranging 
from one-fourth to a mile in width, but still they are 
valleys, with living or extinct stream beds in the 
middle or towards one side of them, and having all 
the physical features of the larger river bottoms. 
As already intimated there are a few minor valleys • 
among the smaller tributaries of the Upper Elk- 
horns, Bazile. Loups, Niobrara and Republican, in 
the stream beds of which water no longer flows; 
but, as will be shown further on. man}- of them are 
regaining — and all of them will in time — their former 
supply of water. Thus can be seen why, over the 
larger part of Nebraska, the settler can have his 
choice between bottom and upland. The great 
body of these bottom lands, though composed of the 
richest mold and modified alluvium and loess mater- 
ials, are perfectly diy. It is true that swamps are 
occasionally met with, but they occur at long inter- 
vals and are the exception. 

There are no large lakes in Nebraska, but there 
are, however, a large number of small bodies of 
water, the largest one. northwest of Dakota City, 
being about five miles in length. Water beneath 
the surface is abundant, and is reached at depths 
ranging from twelve to 125 feet. Up to the present 
writing artesian water has been reached in but two 
localities, although a number of deep wells have been 
bored in various parts of the State. At Omaha an 
artesian well 750 feet deep furnishes a fine supply 
of good water. At Lincoln another well 1.050 feet 
deep furnishes a constant flow of saline and mineral 
water. At the present writing (January, 1800) a 
company is sinking a deep well at Hastings, in the 
hopes of discovering coal, salt, natural gas. oil, or 
artesian water. At a depth of 250 feet a thick 
deposit of yellow ochre was reached. At a depth of 


045 feet a heavy deposit of salt was discovered. 
The operations at Hastings are still in progress, it 
being the intention to bore to a depth of 4,000 feet 
if possible. 

The rivers of Nebraska are numerous, and are 
distinguished for their width, shallowness, and the 
rapid flow of their currents. The Missouri River is 
a deep stream with a rapid current, navigable for 
barge boats for many hundred miles north of Omaha. 
It performed a vast service to the State in the days 
before the advent of the railroads, as it was the 
highway of travel and traffic for all coming to the 
Territorj-. Next to the Missouri comes the Platte 
River, one of the most erratic streams in the countrj-. 
It flows through the entire length of the State from 
west to east, dividing it into two unequal portions. 
Its length from its source in the Rocky Mountains to 
its confluence with the Missouri River is about 1 ,200 
miles. In some places the Platte is nearly a mile 
wide, and in other places it separates into five or 
more separate channels. In some portions of the 
year the river Js almost entirely dry ; not because 
the supply of water is undiminished, but because the 
water disappears in the sandy bed of the stream, 
from whence it is drained (according to the theory of 
Prof. Aughey) to the Republican River. 

The Republican River, next in importance in 
Nebraska to the Platte, has its source in Colorado. 
In general characteristics the Republican is veiy 
similar to its big sister, the Platte, in that it is shal- 
low, sandy and has a rapid current. Of an entirely 
difl'erent character is the Niobrara River. From its 
source in Wyoming to its mouth, the Niobrara is 
460 miles long. For a distance of 189 miles it 
flows, a deep and rapid stream, through a canon, 
the walls of which are high" and steep. After 
emerging from the canon the Niobrara more nearly 
resembles the Platte, its bed being l)road and 
sandy, and full of quicksands. 

The Elkhorn River is one of the most beautiful 
and picturesque streams in the State. It rises in 
the northwestern part of the State iu a region dotted 
by a large number of small, fresh-water lakes. 
From its source to its mouth the main river is about 
250 miles in length, and for the most part of this 
distance it is a rapid, clear and deep stream. It 

empties into the Platte in Sarpy County, and for a 
large part of its course flows over a rock bottom. 
One of the principal tributaries of the Elkhorn is 
the Logan River, which has its source in Cedar 
County. Of the several branches of the Logan it is 
difficult to tell which is the longest, or which 
deserves the distinction of being the principal stream. 
They all originate in bogs or old filled-up lake beds. 
The general direction of these Logan Rivers is 
southeast until Burt County is reached, after which 
it is south until it unites with the Elkhorn in Dodge 

The Nemaha Rivers consist of the main stream. 
the North Branch and the Little Nemaha. The 
North Branch runs in a southeasterly direction 
diagonally through Johnson and Richardson Coun- 
ties until it unites with the main river in the latter 
county. Its length is about sixty miles, and in- 
creases regularly in size from its source to its 
mouth, b}- the addition 'of numerous tributaries. 
The main Nemaha has its source in Pawnee County, 
takes a southerly direction into Kansas, then turns 
northeast into Richardson County, and then flows a 
little southeast until it empties into the Missouri, in 
the southeast portion of the State. Its length is 
l)ut sixty miles, but it receives so man}- compara- 
tively large tributaries that its magnitude at the end 
of its course is much greater than many longer 
rivers. The bottom lands are broad, beautifully ter- 
raced, and the bordering bluffs are beautifully round- 
ed off. The Little Nemaha is a smaller edition of the 
Big Nemaha, and has also numerous tributaries. 

The Blue Rivers are among the most important 
as well as among the best known in the South Platte 
portion of the State. The Big Blue is 132 miles in 
length, and drains eight of the richest, most fertile 
counties of the State. The Middle Fork rises in 
Hamilton County, and unites with the North Blue 
at Seward. It is about sixty miles in length. The 
West Fork unites with the Big Blue in Saline 
County. x\ll of the Blue Rivers are remarkable for 
the amount of water they carry off, and the great 
lieauty of the bottom lands thi-ough which they pass. 
Still another Blue River rises in Adams County, and 
passes out of the State in Jefferson Count}-, and 
finally, in Kansas, unites with the Big Blue. It 


is a handsome stream, ami in addition to numerous 
small streams is furnished with large supplies of 
water by the numerous springs which line its banks. 

Other important sj-stems of water courses are 
the Loup Rivers, in the northern half of the State. 
The Middle Loup River rises within fifty miles of 
the north line of the State and flows a distance of 
about 250 miles before emptying into the Platte near 
Columlius. The North Loup rises within forty -five 
miles of the north line of the State, is 150 miles 
long and empties into the Middle Loup in the east^ 
ern part of Howard County. The South Loup 
rises near the western boundary of Custer County 
and empties into the iMiddle Loup in the southwest- 
ern part of Howard County. 

There are numerous smaller rivers and streams 
in Nebraska not enumerated in the foregoing pages. 
Among the most important of these are the Bow 
Rivei-s, in Northeastern Nebraska, the Weeping 
Water, in Cass County, Salt Creek, in Lancaster 
Count}-, theWahoo, in Saunders County, Elk Creek, 
ni Dakota County, and South and West Iowa Creeks, 
in Dixon Countj^ All possess more or less the 
characteristics of Nebraska streams. A studj- of 
a complete topographical map of Nebraska demon- 
sti'ates the fact that the State is plentifully supplied 
with streams of pure running water. Every count}' 
in the State has a bountiful supply of water, a fact 
which sufficiently accounts for the magnitude of its 
auricultural interests. 

Geological research has demonstrated the fact 
that at one time Nebraska was heavily timbered 
with a varied forest vegetation. But the operations 
of time have caused the disappearance of the beau- 
tiful forests, until now Nebraska is a prairie State, 
the forest area comprising but a comparatively 
small portion of the State. Seventy-one species of 
trees and ninet}'-one species of shrubs exist in their 
native state to-day. Among the trees are the lin- 
wood, maple, locusts, wild cherry, ash of four 
species, four species of elms, walnuts, hickories, 
twelve species and varieties of oaks, many species 
of willows, four of cottonwood, and a number of 
pines and cedars. The native wild fruits Icuown to 
exist are the plum, cherry, strawberry, raspberry, 
blackberry, currants, gooseberry and others. Wal- 
nuts, hickory and hazel nuts are common. 

Previous to the advent of the white man. Ne- 
braska was a paradise for wild animals. Count- 
less herds of buffalo roamed the plains, and elk and 
deer were abundant. But the buffalo has become 
entirely extinct, while the elk and deer have almost 
entirely disappeared. Altogether, eighty-two species 
of mammals are native to Nebraska. The bird 
fauna is much more remarkably developed, there 
being not less than 249 distinct species. Of fishes, 
onl}- thirty-four species have been recognized. Of 
the insects, nearly 9,000 different species are known 
to exist, the injurious species being few, and not 
unusually destructive. 



The Exploration of Nebraska— Early Visitors— Government Expeditions— Valuable Extract by Judge 
Savage— Nebraska as a Territory— First Officials— Death of Gov. Burt— Formation Into 
Counties— Early Legislative Sessions— Population in ISS.")- The "Florence Seces- 
sions'—The Slavery Question Considered— The Territory in 1861— Numer- 
ous Acts and Measures of Interest— Anxiety to Become a State. 

About me round I saw 
Hill, dale and shady woods, and sunny plains. 
And liquid lapse of murra"ring streams. — 3[ilton. 


EBKASKA was visited 
many times by var'ous ex- 
IJeditions and individuals 
during tlie time tliat inter- 
vened between tlie cession 
^^^5:^ of Louisiana to tlie United 
i^^^ States and the formal erec- 
tion of the Territorj- in 1854. Lewis 
and Clarke headed a government ex- 
pedition in 1804-45, and made a 
thorough exploration of the Missouri 
River. They spent some days on 
Nebraska soil, at the mouth of the 
Platte and in the vicinity of Omaha 
and Bellevue. Their journal con- 
tains many references to the Indian 
tribes inhabiting this region, which 
will be found in the chapter of this 
work devoted to the Indian history of the Territory. 
In 1805 Manuel Lisa, a member of the Missouri 
Fur Company, visited Nebraska, making an ex- 
tended tour of the northern part of the State along 
the iMissouri, cultivating the friendship of the na- 
tives and making arrangements for the establish- 
ment of trading expeditions. In 1808 an expe- 
dition sent out by the Missouri Fur Companj-, under 
the command of Major Henry, visited the same 
country. In 1811 a party of men belonging to 

Hunt's expedition to the mouth of the Columbia 
Ri\er, on their return from the Pacific, crossed the 
Rocky Mountains, and descended the Platte River 
to its mouth. In the following year, three men 
named Stewart, McClellen and Crooks made a simi- 
lar trip on their way from the Pacific coast to New 

In 1819 the War Department of the United 
States fitted out an expedition and placed it under 
the command of Maj. S. A. Long, of the regular 
army. The principal object of the expedition was 
to prepare a topographical description of the coun- 
try west of the Missouri River. Maj. Long and his 
party reached the mouth of the Big Nemaha early 
in September, 1819, and the mouth of the Platte 
the 1 5th of that mouth. Near the mouth of the Platte 
was found a trading post named Fort Lisa. A short 
distance from this fort, the expedition went into 
winter quarters. During the winter the adjacent 
country was examined and many friendh' confer- 
ences held with the Indian tribes in the vicinity. 
On June 6, 1820, the expedition started up the 
Platte Valley. The excursion to the headwaters of 
the Platte lasted until the latter part of July. In 
the year 1835, Col. Henry Dodge, of the United 
States army, traced the Platte River from its moutli 
to its source, in a search for data for a topographical 
description of the country. In 1842 John C. Fre- 


mont made his first exploration of Nebraska. His 
exploration was confined largely to the South Platte 
country, and was much more elaborate than any pre- 
viously undertaken. He made a similar exploration 
in the following year. 

An extract from an interesting and valualde 
article read l)efore the Nebraska Stiite Historical 
Society on January 14. 1890, by Judge James W. 
Savage, is worthy of mention in this poi-tion of the 
present volume. The extract is as follows : 

• • In the sixth volume of his collections of 
manuscript documents relating to America, by M. 
Pierre Margey, the distinguished historical investi- 
gator of France, is given a brief synopsis of an 
account of a visit in the year 1739 to the territory 
now included in the State of Nebraska, which seems 
worthy of a translation or paraphrase, and a place 
in the records of the historical society of our State. 
It is entitled ■ The Journey of the Mallet Brothers 
with Six Other Frenchmen from the Kiver of the 
Panimahas in the Missouri Country to Santa Fe.' 
To comprehend the full significance of the expedi- 
tion it will Ije useful to recall to our minds the 
jealousies, the rivalries, the contests, the treacheries, 
the massacres, the assassinations, the crimes of all 
sorts which the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 
witnessed as the result of the disco\eries by Colum- 

'•Spain, reasonably secure in her possession of 
the country west of the deserts bej'ond the Missis- 
sippi which the valor and pi-owess of Cortez had 
given her, laid claim also by virtue of the revela- 
tions of the Genoese navigator to the whole of 
Florida, under which attractive name was compre- 
hended the entire region from the Atlantic to the 
Mississippi, and from the gulf to the north pole, 
France, grudging the glory and the wealth with 
which the new world had adorned the crown of 
Charles the Fifth, entrusted to A'errazzaao the task 
of finding the opulent kingdom of Cathay, and as 
a result of his discoveries laid claim to the same 
extensive country. Tlie hostility thus begun lasteil 
for more than two centuries. 

■ ' The French complained with indignation that 
the Spaniards thought that the new world was created 
expressly for them, and that no other man living 

had a right to move or breathe therein. The bitter- 
ness engendered by these rival interests led to the 
atrocities of 3Ienendez and Gourgues, the butcheries 
of Fort Caroline and St. Augustine, at the narrati\c 
of which the blood still runs cold. That the slaughter 
was committed in the name of the founder of the 
religion of peace, adds darker shadows to the sombre 
stories of those days. One mild and gentle apostle 
addressed the king in these words: ' It is lawful 
that your majesty, like a good shepherd appointed liy 
the hand of the Eternal Father, should tend and lead 
out your sheep, since the Holy Spirit has shown 
spreading pastures whereon are feeding lost sheep 
which have been snatched awaj- bj- the dragon , tlie 
demon. These pastures are the new world, wherein 
is comprised Florida, now in possession of the 
demon, and he makes himself adored and revealed. 
This is the land of promise possessed by idolaters, 
the Amorite, the Amalekite, Moabite, Canaanite. 
This is the land promised by the Eternal Father to 
the faithful, since we are commanded by God in the 
holy scriptures to take it from them, being idolaters, 
and by reason of their idolatry and sin to put them 
to the knife, leaving no living thing except maidens 
and children, their cities robbed and sacked, their 
walls and houses levelled to the earth, ' 

' • For many long years the struggle lietween 
I'' ranee and Spain for this fairest portion of the new 
world continued. Neither was destined to succeed. 
The pompous expeditions of both nations, their blas- 
phemous proclamations, their costlj- settlements — all 
gave waj- in time to the simple beginnings on the 
banks of the James and the coast of New England. 
Still, for a long time after the Spaniards were con- 
fined to Mexico, and the French to Canada and the 
Mississippi Valley, the same suspicions, jealousies, 
rivalries and antagonisms continued. If the French 
made a move in one quarter the Spaniards endea\- 
ored to meet it bj- a counter stroke in another. If 
one nation established a trading post in the wilder- 
ness, the other sought to seduce its servants and to 
render the enterprise abortive. Spies and other 
emissaries abounded everywhere. With an austen- 
tatious display of peace on both sides there were con- 
stant suspicion and constant watclrfulness. In a 
letter from Bienville, governor of Louisiana, dated 


April 25, 1752, he says that he learns from the sav- 
ages of the Missouri that the Spaniards meditated an 
establishment on the Kansas River, and that he had 
ordered Sieur de Boisbriant to prevent this by send- 
ing a detachment of twent}' soldiers to build a little 
fort and to remain in garrison on that river. 

'•Such was the situation in the years 1739-40, 
when the expedition, to which I invite a few minutes' 
attention, started from what is now Nebraska to 
Santa Fe. What we know of this journey is meagre 
and fragmentary in a most provoking degree, con- 
sisting solely of an abridgment or synopsis of a 
joui-nal kept by one of the travelers for the perusal 
of Gov. de Bienville at New Orleans. The sum- 
mary' or table of its contents is as follows : ' The 
brothers JIallet, with six other Frenchmen, leaving 
the river of the Fanimahas discover the river Platte, 
visit the villages of the Salitane nation, and reach 
Santa Fe. ' The names of those who composed this 
venturous band were Peter and Paul Mallet, Philip 
Robitaille, Louis Moriu (or as the name is some- 
times written, Moreau), Michael Beslot, Joseph Belle- 
court, Manuel Gallien and Jean David. All except 
the last, who was from the mother-country, were 
Canadians of French parentage. The ostensible ob- 
ject of their trip was to establish trade with the mer- 
chants of New Mexico. What secret instructions, if 
any, they had, or what their real purpose was, is no 
where involved in their memorial, and will probably 
never be more than conjectured, but that the Span- 
iards were at least doubtful as to their character 
seems clear. About 100 years later, and long after 
Louisiana had become the property of the United 
States, an expedition starting from Texas with the 
same pretense of amity and social intercourse re- 
ceived but scant courtesy from the Mexicans, and 
it is not probable that the latter were less on 
their guard against their hereilitary enemies, the 

'•The little band, at the time when the journal 
was introduced to them, had reached the nation of 
the Panimahas, with whom the French were on 
friendly terms, living on a river of the same name. 
It may be considered as a fact, established bj- papers 
already published in the collections of this societ}', 
that the Panimahas were the tribe since known as 

the Pawnees, and the Panimaha River was the 
stream now called the Loup Fork. 

" From a point on the Loup, not far from where 
Genoa is now situated, the JLillet brothers took 
their departure on the 29th of May, 1739. Those 
who, prior to that time, had essayed to make the 
same hazardous journey, had supposed that New 
Mexico was situated on the headwaters of the 3Iis- 
souri, and had therefore attempted to reach that 
counti-y by following up the course of the last men- 
tioned stream. But the Mallet brothers, upon the 
advice of some of their savage allies, determined to 
seek New Mexico by taking a southwesterly direc- 
tion across the country. Accordingly, pursuing this 
course, they came on the third day to a wide and 
shallow river which (and here I follow the exact lan- 
guage of -the original) they named the Platte. So 
far as I know, or can ascertain, this was the first 
time our wandering stream had received an appella- 
tion in a Christian tongue. Other adventurous bush- 
rangers thereafter ti-anslated other titles, and L'Eau- 
qui-court, L'Eau-qui-pleure, the Papillion, the 
Chadron, the Loup and others will long retain, it is 
to be hoped, the soft and musical nomenclature of 
the Gallic race. But who named them, and when, 
are as yet as difficult to answer as the question 
Achilles assumed when he hid himself among women. 
This one fact alone has survived this century and a 
half that has elapsed since the daring enterprise of 
these Canadian French. 

"They struck the Platte probably in the vicinity 
of Kearney — at any rate at some point where the 
general course of the stream was toward the north- 
east or east, for we read that the explorers, finding 
that it did not deviate materially from the route they 
had chosen, followed it up for the distance of twent}"- 
eight leagues, where they found that the river of the 
Padoncas emptied into it. This river of the Padon- 
eas was unquestionably the South Fork of the Platte, 
and it is noteworthy that on one of Colton's maps of 
the United States, published in 1862, the stream is 
still called the Padonca. For three days afterward 
the brothers JIallet ascended the North Fork of the 
Platte, until on the 13th of June, finding that its 
course was leading them to the northwest instead of 
the direction they had determined upon, they turned 


lij. ®_ 


to the left, crossed the North Fork, traversed the 
tongue of land made b}- the two branches, and en- 
camped on the shores of a river which must have 
been the South Fork. 

"It is not easy to identify with absolute cer- 
tainty* the water courses which in the next few days 
thej^ seem to have crossed. From their journal has 
been eliminated all matter except such as would 
enable an engineer officer to direct the march of an 
army over the same course. It is manifest, how- 
ever, that they crossed several affluents and the 
main current of the Republican, marching over a 
treeless countr}', which supplied barely wood enough 
for cooking purposes, and recording that these bare 
plains extended as far as the mountains in the 
vieinitj' of Santa Fe. On the 20th they reached 
and crossed a deep and rapid river, losing in the 
operation seven horses laden with merchandise. 
This stream they saj' was the Kansas. Again they 
entered upon the- prairies bare of trees, dependent 
upon buffalo chips for their fuel, encamping nearly 
every night bj- a water-course, until on the 30th of 
June, they pitched their tents upon the banks of 
the Arkansas River, where for the first time they 
came upon traces of Spanish occupation." 

Although the act creating the Territory of Ne- 
oraska became a law on May 30, 1854, it was not 
until October of that year that the officers appointed 
by President Pierce reached Bellevue, then the only 
pretentious village in the Territory. These offlcei-s 
were: Secretary, Thomas B. Cuming, of Iowa; 
chief justice, Fenner Ferguson, of Michigan ; asso- 
ciate justices, James Bradley, of Indiana, and 
Edward R. Hardin, of Georgia; marshall, Mark W. 
Izard, of Arkansas; attorney. Experience Esta- 
brook, of Wisconsin. Gov. Burt was a Southern 
gentleman of birth and education, and was a man 
of sterling integrity and unblemished reputation. 
Before receiving his appointment as governor of the 
Territory of Nebraska he had held important pub- 
lic positions, both in his own State and in Wash- 
ington. He was a man who would undoubtedlj' 
have left his impress upon the history of Nebraska 
had his life been spared ; but his visit was destined 
to be of brief duration, for he died within a few 
days after his an-ival. The governor and his party 

arrived at Bellevue on October 7. 1854. The jour- 
ney from the east had been a severe one for Go\'. 
Burt, and he was taken sick at St. Louis. In 
spite of his illness, however, he pursued his journey, 
arriving at Bellevue in bad condition. He was made 
as comfortable as possible at the Presbyterian Mis- 
sion, then in charge of Rev. William Hamilton, and 
medical aid summoned from Omaha and Council 
Bluffs ; but all the efforts in his behalf were unavail- 
ing, and he died on October 18, just eleven days 
after his arrival at Bellevue, and twenty-one days 
after being taken ill at St. Louis. By virtue of his 
office. Secretary Thomas B. Cuming became acting 
governor. Mr. Cuming assumed the duties of the 
office at once, and on October 18, issued the first 
proclamation promulgated in the new TerritoiT. It 
contained the official announcement of the death of 
Gov. Burt. In the proclamation Acting Governor 
Cuming referred to the efforts made to save the life 
of Gov. Burt, and directed that the National colors 
within the Territorj- be draped in mourning. 

The news of the death of Gov. Burt cast a gloom 
over the Territor}'. Resolutions of regret and con- 
dolence were adopted and published in the only two 
papers published in the Territoiy, and the President 
of the United States notified. The funeral services 
were held at Bellevue on October 19, after which 
the remains were taken to South Carolina by Barton 
Green, Ward B. Howard, James Dojle and W. R. 
Jones. Thus closed the first tragedy in the official 
life of the new Territory. 

No sooner had the proper respects been paid 
to the memory of the Territory's distinguished dead , 
than the affairs of the living pushed themselves into 
prominence. A capital for the new Territory was 
to be selected, and the wheels of government put in 
motion. The ambitious citizens of Bellevue, Flor- 
ence, Omaha, Nebraska City and Plattsmouth 
entered into a fierce competition for the seat of 
government. After due consideration of the claims 
of the rival towns. Acting Governor Cuming decided 
to locate the capital at Omaha, although Bellevue 
was retained as the official place of residence until 
January, 1855, in which month the first session of 
the Territorial Legislature met at Omaha. In a 
proclamation issued December 20, 1854, the acting 


goveruor designated Omaha as the capital, and 
called the first session of the Legislature to meet at 
that city on the 16th day of January-, 1855. Pre- 
viously to this, however, a census of the Territorj' 
had been taken h\ order of the acting governor, 
and an election called for. The census revealed a 
population of 2,732. The Territor3- was divided 
into eight counties, which were designated as Burt, 
A\'ashington, Douglas, Dodge, Cass, Pierce, Forney 
and Richardson. The membership of the first 
Legislature was divided as follows: 

Burt County — One Councihnan. two Representu- 

Washington County — One Councilman, two Rep- 

Douglas County — Four Couneilmen. eight Re|)- 

Dodge County — One Councilman, two Repre- 

Cass County — One Councilman, two Representa- 

Pierce County — Three Councilman, five Repre- 

Forne}' County — One Councilman, two Repre- 

Richardson Count3' — One Councilman, two Rep- 

On December 12, 1854, the first general election 
in the new Territory was held. It resulted in the 
selection of Napoleon B. Giddings as the Territorial 
delegate to Congress. 

The first session of the Territorial Legislature 
convened in a two-story brick building erected at 
Omaha for its reception, at 10 o'clock A. M., Jan- 
uary 16, 1855. A temporar}' organization of the 
Council was effected bj' the election of Hiram P. 
Bennett, of Pierce County, president, jjro tern. A 
committee on credentials, consisting of Joseph L. 
Shai-p, James C. Mitchell and Lafayette Nuckolls, 
was appointed and an adjournment taken until two 
o'clock P. M. The Representatives also efl^ected a 
similar organization by electing John M. Latham, of 
Cass County, speaker, and J. W. Paddock, chief 
clerk, jH-o tern. At 2 o'clock P. M. , of the same 
day, both Houses of the Legislature convened in 
joint session to listen to the first gubernatorial mes- 

sage. Acting Governor Cuming alluded feelingly 
to the untimely death of Gov. Burt. The principal 
part of the message was devoted to a discussion of 
the Pacific Railway. Its importance to the welfare 
of the new Territorj- was debated upon and a strong 
argument made in favor of the Platte Vallej^ route — 
an argument which has been fully vindicated by the 
completion of the great railway system along the 
route indicated. 

The first Nebraska Legislature was not, in all 
respects, a model one. But, considering the some- 
what chaotic condition of affairs in the Territoiy, it 
made a fair beginning, and there was much accom- 
plished in the way of legislation that was worthy of 

The local machinery of go\'ernment was pro- 
vided for and county officers created. The criminal 
code of Iowa, with some slight, necessary altera- 
tions, was adopted for the regulation of the new 
Territory. The capital was fomialh- and officially 
located at Omaha. Nor were the educational inter- 
ests of the j'oung commonwealth lost sight of. 
Three institutions of learning, viz. : The Simpson 
University, at Omaha ; the Nebraska University, at 
Fontanelle, and the Collegiate and Preparatory In- 
stitute, at Nebraska City, were incorporated. 
Among the notable transactions of this, the first 
session of Nebraska's Legislature, was the favor- 
able report, by M. H. Clark, chaii-man of the Coun- 
cil committee on corporation, on the bill chartering 
the Platte Vallej- and Pacific Railroad Companj-, a 
proposed line which has since become one of the 
greatest commercial highwajs of the world. 

In the meantime, President Pierce had appointetl 
Mark 31. Izard, of Arkansas, to succeed Gov. Burt. 
Gov. Izard arrived at Omaha on Februarj- 20, 1855, 
and took the oath of office three daj-s later. 

There was much to be done, even after the ad- 
journment of the Legislature. Gov. Izard at once 
took steps looking to the establisment of the affairs 
of the Territorj' on a firmer and more substantial 
basis. In the year 1855 a formal census of all the 
white persons in the Territory was taken, which dis- 
closed the fact that 4,491 people had taken up their 
permanent residence in Nebraska. In that year the 
several towns in the Territorv besan to assume bet^ 


ter proportions. Society became settled, and mat- 
ters assumed a less transient aspect. The second 
session of the Legislature assembled on December 
18, 1855. In his annual message, Gov. Izard 
alluded to the progress of the work on the capitol, 
which was rapidly approaching completion. The 
progress of the Territorial survej-s, under the direc-. 
tion of Surveyor General Calhoun, was spoken of, and 
many other matters pertaining to the needs of the 
Territory referred to. The Territory made consider- 
able progress during the year 1856. The boundary 
lines of the counties were established by the Legis- 
lature. A road from Omaha to Fort Kearney was 
sui-veyed and its construction commenced. The 
second session of the Legislature also provided for 
the common school system of the State. The real 
and personal property of the Territory was assessed , 
and another census taken, which revealed the pres- 
ence of 10,716 inhabitants. 

The third session of the Legislature assembled 
on January 5, 1857. The Territorial machinery had 
now been in operation two entire years, and matters 
seemed to be passing along smoothly. In his an- 
nual message. Gov. Izard congratulated the citizens 
of the Territory upon their prosperitj-. The follow- 
ing excerpt from his message is quoted as being a 
fair idea of the condition of the Territory at that 
time. Gov. Izard says: --Wecan boast of a pop- 
ulation of more than 15,000 intelligent, orderly and 
energetic citizens, who can challenge comparison 
with those of any State or Territory of the Union ; 
of flourishing towns and prosperous cities, with their 
handsome church edifices, well-regulated schools 
and busy streets ; of our broad and beautiful prai- 
ries, being thickly dotted with comfortable farm 
houses and well-cultivated fields, yielding their rich 
treasures to the hand of peaceful industry. The 
appreciation of property far exceeds the expectation 
of the most sanguine. Business lots upon the streets 
where the wild grass still flourishes are readily com- 
manding from $500 to $3,000 each; lands adjacent 
to our most prosperous towns sell readily at from 
$50 to $400 per acre ; credit is almost unknown in 
our business circles ; no citizen oppressed by debt 
or eriiipled in his energies by tlje hand of jjenury 
and want ; Imt all. encoura<red bv the success of the 

past, look forward to the future with eager hope and 
bright anticipations. " 

It was during this, the third session of the Leg- 
islature, that the first attempt to remove the capital 
from Omaha occurred. A bill was passed locating 
the capital at " Douglas," a proposed town in a pro- 
posed county. Gov. Izard promptly vetoed the bill 
and thus killed the first attempt at removal. 

The most striking piece of legislation accom- 
plished by the third session was the passage of the 
bill repealing the criminal code, leaving the Terri- 
tory without a law against crime or misdemeanor of 
any character. As a piece of ill-advised legislation 
it stands unparalleled in the history of Nebraska 
Territory. It may be said, to the personal credit of 
Gov. Izard, that he vetoed the bill; but that the 
Legislature passed it over his veto. 

The fourth session of the Legislature, which 
convened on Decembers, 1857, was destined to lie 
a memorable one in the history of the young Terri- 
tory, for it was during this session that a majority 
of the members withdrew and attempted to set up a 
new government at Florence. The division in the 
Legislature resulted from the renewal of the attempts 
to remove the capital from Omaha. The followinu 
brief extract from the official report <jf the •Flor- 
ence secession" will give the reader a clear view of 
the facts concerning that somewhat extraordinary 
affair: ''On the morning of January 7, 1858, the 
House went into committee of the whole to ostensi- 
bly consider a joint resolution, making it obligatory 
on the Legislature to award the printing of the Ter- 
ritory to some one established in the business within 
the limits of Nebraska, but really, as claimed by the 
friends of the removal scheme, to flllibuster to pre- 
vent the consideration of the capital l)ill. The 
speaker, James H. Decker, withdrew from the 
House, with his friends. Thirteen members re- 
mained in session, and when the committee rose, J. 
S. Morton was chosen speaker, ^jco tern. Asking 
leave to sit again, the committee reported their work 
unfinished, and the session was declared adjourned. 
The following morning, the 8tli, the House met. 
and, on motion of Mr. Donelan, to adjourn to meet 
at Florence, the session was declared adjourned I'y 
Speaker Decker. Thereupon all luit thirteen mem- 


hers quitted the chamber. Mr. 3Iortoii then nom- 
inated Mr. Poppleton as speaker ^j/-o tern. The 
minority- then adjourned to meet at the regular place 
of holding session, on the next day at 9 o'clock A. 
M. The infection spread to the Council, where, on 
the 8th, Mr. Reeves moved that the Council adjourn 
to meet at Florence on the succeeding morning. 
President George L. Miller declined to entertain the 
motion upon the ground that, under the organic 
act, no such adjournment could take place without 
the concurrent action of both Houses and the official 
sanction of the governor. Mr. Reeves appealed from 
this ruling, and, b}- a vote of 8 to 4, the ruling was 
not sustained. The president still refused to enter- 
tain the motion, and Mr. Reeves, standing in his 
place, put the motion, and it was can-ied h\ a vote 
of 8 to 4. The eight members thereupon left the 

The Florence secession, as a matter of course, 
effectually l^locked all further legislation in that 
session. The seceding branch went through the 
formality of holding daily sessions at Florence; 
but thej' accomplished nothing in the way of legis- 
lation. The minority branch met at Omaha from 
daj' to day until the session expired, on January 16, 
by limitation. 

Thomas B. Cuming, who for a second time was 
serving the people of the Territory as acting gov- 
ernor — Gov. Izard having resigned — declined to 
issue an order requested by the seceding branch, 
compelling the "minority Legislature," to deliver 
to the majority the books and documents necessary 
for the proper transaction of business. Thus mat- 
ters stood until January 12, when Gov. Richardson, 
Izard's successor, arrived at Omaha and assumed 
the duties of the office. Although waited upon by 
a delegation from the Sfccdinu, Imiuch of the licu- 
islature. Gov. Richardson ili'dim-il lo i:i\c iluit lioily 
anj- satisfaction. He ad\isc(l thr siM/ediiig inciiilicrs 
to return to Omaha, and assured them that their 
interests as well as themselves would be full}' pro- 
tected. The Legislature adjourned on January 16. 
before Gov. Richardson's invitation was accepted. 
A few months later, on August 14, Gov. Richard- 
son issued a proclamation calling the Legislature to 
meet in special session on September 21. In his 

proclamation, the Governor alluded to the fact that 
the disagreement between the waring- factions, in 
the preceding session, had left the Territory without 
a criminal code, and to other matters of importance 
to the inhabitants of the Territory. 

The special session, which is known as the fifth 
session of the Territorial Legislature, assembled at 
Omaha on September 21, 1858, and was organized 
by the election of the following officers : House : 
H. P. Bennett, speaker; E. G. McNeely, chief 
clerk. Council: H. L. Bowen, president; S. M. 
Curran, chief clerk. One of the first acts of the 
session was the adoption of resolutions upon the 
death of Thomas B. Cuming, secretary of the Ter- 
ritory, which occurred on March 12, 1858. His life, 
character and distinguished services to the Territory 
wei-e fittingly referred to in the following words : 
'■Thomas B. Cuming was appointed secretary of 
the Territorj- of Nebraska, by Franklin Pierce, 
President of the United States, and entered at once 
upon the discharge of the duties of the office, arriv- 
ing here in tlie month of September, 1854. By the 
untimely decease of Gov. Burt, he succeeded to 
the supreme executive, and became acting governor 
of the Territory. How ably he filled that office 
those living can testify. In the organization of the 
first Legislature, surrounded as he was by conflict- 
ing elements, threatened by fierce and contending 
factions, standing in imminent danger of even per- 
sonal violence, he wavered not once in his fealty to 
the general government, nor in his fidelity to the 
trust imposed in him. Throughout the duration of 
those troublesome times he pursued a policy, the 
sagacity of which was proved by its success, and 
the wisdom of which is evidenced by the present 
prosperous condition of the Territory which he 

Upon the death of Secretary Cuming, John B. 
Motley performed the duties of the office until July 
12, when J. Sterling Morton, who had been ap- 
pointed, assumed the office. 

The most Interesting feature of the fifth session 
of the Legislature was the first contest over the 
aliolition of slavery in the Territory. On Novem- 
ber 1, Representative S. G. Dailj' introduced a bill 
"to abolish slavery in the Temtory of Nebraska. ' 


It was referred to a special committee, consisting of 
S. G. Daily, James Stewart, John Taffe, D. P. Ran- 
Icin and William C. Fleming. Two reports were 
submitted b_y the committee, the majority i-eport 
Ijeing favorable and the minority unfavorable. Af- 
ter a very brief discussion the bill was laid upon 
the table and not taken up again during the session. 
But the friends of abolition were not to be deterred 
from their purpose of making Nebraska a free State 
in name as well as in fact. 

The sixth session of the Territorial Legislature 
convened on December 5, 1859. In the interim be- 
tween the fifth and sixth sessions. Gov. Richardson 
had resigned his office. Secretary J. Sterling Mor- 
ton assumed the executive functions until Maj^ 2, 
1859, when Gov. Samuel "W. Black arrived to take the 
office. Gov. Black delivered his first message to 
the sixth session on the day following its opening. 
The following facts gleaned from his first message 
will be of interest as showing the growth and 
progress of the Territory : " This Territory was 
organized on May 30, 1854, and the first Legislature 
met at Omaha on January 16, 1855. In that body 
eight counties were represented. Now, at the expira- 
tion of less than five years, twenty-three counties 
have theu- Representatives in the Legislature, and 
thirty-five counties have been fully organized or 
their boundaries defined by law. The lands in Ne- 
braska actually surveyed amount to 8,851,758 acres. 
The surveys have been extended from the dividing 
line between Kansas and Nebraska, on the fortieth 
parallel, to the latitude of 42 degi-ees, 51 minutes, 
while the average depth of the Missouri Ri^er is 
about 140 miles." 

The sixth Legislature was noted by the renewal 
of the contest over the slavery question, and by the 
first attempt to form a State government. Strictly 
speaking, Nebraska was not a slave Territorj'. 
The bill erecting the Territories of Kansas and Ne- 
braska left the slavery question to the decision of 
the citizens of those Territories. The contest over 
the question of slavery was a bitter one in Kansas ; 
but, owing to her geographical location, Nebraska 
did not offer a promising field for the extension of 
slavery. The first official census, taken in 1854, 
revealed the presence of thirteen slaves. 3Iost of 

them were brought to the Territory bj' the officials 
coming from slave States, and it is probably the fact 
that their servitude was almost voluntary. We 
have already noted the failure of the first attempt to 
abolish slavery in Nebraska. The friends of the. 
movement did not long remain idle. On Wednes- 
daj-, December 7, 1859, the third day of the sixth 
session of the Territorial Legislature, William H. 
Taylor introduced in the Council a bill ' ' to abolish 
and prohibit slavery or involuntary servitude. " It 
was referred to a special committee consisting of 
William H. Taylor, George W. Doane and George 
L. Miller. On December 12, two reports were sub- 
mitted from the committee, one by Mr. Taylor and 
one by Mr. Miller. In his report, Mr. Taylor cited 
the fact that slavery did actually exist in the Terri- 
toiy, and gave the names of the men who held 
slaves. He recommended the passage of the liill 
for the following reasons: 

1. Because no human being should be held in 
slaverj' in this Territory now and hereafter. 

2. Because slavery does practically exist in 
Nebraska, and should be prohibited. 

3. Because the people of the Territory, in their 
Territorial capacity, have the power to prohibit 
slavery or involuntary servitude, and are responsible 
for its continuance. 

4. Because the administration and a large party 
in this country maintain that ueither the people of 
the Ten'itories nor the Congress of the United States 
have the power to legislate upon the subject of 
slaverj' ; and it is time this monstrous proposition 
was settled and forever put at rest by the judicial 
tribunals of the land. 

5. Because the passage of the bill will forever 
rid us of the excitement created in a neighborhood 
by the slavery propagandist, upon the escape of a 
slave from bondage. 

6. Because now is the most propitious time to 
rid ourselves of slavery if there is anything in popu- 
lar sovereignty. 

7. Because if we permit people to hold slaves, 
and slavery to exist in Nebraska, when we can get 
rid of it, we will be justly censured by the present 
and succeeding generations. 


In his report Mr. Miller asserted that it was 
injudicious for the Legislature to lend itself to the 
agitation of a suliject which, to the people of Ne- 
braska at least, was conceded to be really of no 
practical importance. He denied the necessity of 
the bill, and claimed that "no sane person for a 
moment supposes that Nebraska is in the slightest 
possible danger of being either a slave Territory or 
a slave State. " " Popular sentiment in Nebraska, " 
said Mr. Miller, ' ' is universally against the institu- 
tion of slavery, and even if it were not, and the 
public voice was to pronounce to-day in favor of its 
establishment here, the controlling laws of nature, 
peculiar to the latitude, would utterly preclude the 
possibility' of its obtaining a pei-manent place among 
us. Suppose it true — which it is not — that the Ter- 
ritory does furnish a pi-ofitable field for slave labor, 
who is there so infatuated as to believe for an 
instant that this Territory, peopled almost entirely 
by men whose associations from infancy, and whose 
education in the midst of free institutions have con- 
ducted them into manhood, not only with all their 
prejudice, liut with all the convictions of their judg- 
ment against the institution — who so foolish as to 
say that legislation is required or ought to be granted 
on this subject?" Mr. Miller made light of the 
claims of the friends of the bill that its passage was 
a necessity, and concluded his report as follows: 
' ■ In view of all the circumstances of the case, the 
admitted absence of any necessity either for the 
bill under consideration or the report which is made 
upon it, it may be justly presumed that both were 
designed for the single and sole purpose of agitating 
a subject which may be thought calculated to 
advance the political interests of restless and am- 
bitious men, at the expense of the peace, harmony 
and good will that ought to unite in the bonds of 
common hopes and common aims of the people of 
the Territorj", which certainlj- requires the combined 
efforts and energies of all to secure to it that posi- 
tion to which, by its inexhaustible resources, geo- 
graphical situation and other advantages, it is so 
very justlj' entitled. Nor can your committee per- 
mit the occasion to pass without expressing the 
opinion that the effort to introduce to Nebraska the 
popular excitements which have agitated and dis- 

tracted other communities, in our neighborhood, will 
be a miserable failure. The people understand the 
motives which move men to engage in these political 
games, and they will meet them in the proper way 
and by the proper means, regarding onlj' those 
things that shall best redound to the political peace 
and permanent prosperitj' of the entire Territory." 
Mr. Doane concurred, in the main, with the views 
expressed in the report submitted bj- Jlr. Miller. 

The bill also made its appearance in the House 
on December 7, being presented by T. M. Marquette. 
On the following day an attempt made to lay the 
bill on the table was unsuccessful. Then a mo- 
tion to reject the bill was defeated by a vote of 
24 to 11. On December 16, the measure was 
taken up by the committee of the whole House 
and amended so as to prohibit the further exten- 
sion of slavery in the Territory, without effecting 
the status of the slaves already held. After an un- 
successful attempt to strike out the enacting clause, 
the bill was engrossed and passed to a third reading. 
The bill came up for its final passage in the House 
on December 17. The opponents of the measure 
resorted to every form of parliamentary strategy to 
avoid a vote, but their efforts were unavailing. The 
bill passed by a vote of 21 to 17. 

In the Council, on December 20, consideration 
of the bill was indefinitely postponed, and for a time 
the friends of the measure believed that their efforts 
to make Nebraska a free Territory were to be unsuc- 
cessful. On December 29, Mr. Little offered "a 
joint resolution for the prohibition of slavery in Ne- 
braska." It was objected to on the ground that the 
whole matter had been disposed of by indefinite 
postponement. The chair decided the pomt of order 
not well taken. The resolution was then put in the 
form of a bill and passed. In its new form it was 
returned to the House, where it was again amended 
and passed. On the 3d of January, the Council 
concurred in the amendments, and the bill was 
finally sent to the governor. Ou January 9, Gov. 
Black returned the bill with his veto. In his mes- 
sage, which was an elaborate document, the governor 
discussed the subject in all its legal and constitu- 
tional aspects. He believed that the constitution, 
" while not can-ying slavery into the Territories, did 


guarantee the propert}" right of masters in shives. 
and permitted the owners to carry them where\-er 
they desired. " Discussing the power of the Legis- 
lature to pass the bill, Gov. Black said: '^The 
Territorial Legislature was deemed but a temporary 
department, having no right or power to pass a law 
which was regarded as conflicting with the individual 
rights of citizens — rights protected b}' the constitu- 
tion of the United States. " Thus the second attempt 
to abolish and prohibit slavery in Nebraska proved 
a failure; but a sentiment iu favor of making Ne- 
braska Territory free soil had been created, and it 
soon became powerful enough to place the desired 
law upon the statute books, as will be seen further 
on in this volume. 

Another notable feature of the sixth session was 
the first attempt to raise Nebraska to the dignity of 
Statehood. In his message Gov. Black had dis- 
cussed the question of Statehood, but stated that 
Nebraska was hardly j'et in a position to claim ad- 
mission, for the reason that the population of the 
Territory was not large enough. In spite of the 
governor's views, however, the Legislature at this 
session passed a bill entitled ' ' an act to frame a 
constitution and State government for the State of 
Nebraska." The proposition embodied in the bill 
was submitted to a vote of the people on March 5, 
ISGO. It was rejected by a vote of 2,372 to 2,094. 

The seventh session of the Legislature convened 
on Mondaj', December 3, 1860. Gov. Black's an- 
nual message indicated that at that time the Ter- 
ritorial debt amounted to §50,000. Various matters 
of importance to the development of the Territory 
were discussed in the message. It was dui-ing this 
session that the slavery question received its final 
quietus in Nebraska. On December 7, John M. 
Thayer introduced a bill in the Council ' ' to abolish 
slavery and involuntary servitude in the Territory." 
The same bill had been inti-oduced in the House on 
December 6, by Representative Mathias. Both 
Houses passed the bill, but for a second time Gov. 
Black interposed a veto. His veto message was 
very similar to the one penned by him in the pre- 
vious session. It was, as may be expected, severely 
censured by the friends of abolition. Councilman 
T. W. Tipton, afterward United States Senator from 

Nebraska, commented on the \eto message as fol- 
lows: '• In my humble opinion this veto message 
is a most remarkable production — ^remarkable on 
account of the pertinacity with which His Excellency 
follows up this question of human freedom with 
ponderous documents, earnest protests and unavail- 
ing entreaties. In its component parts, it is equally 
remarkable, whether you consider it a system of 
dove-tailed fallacies, special pleadings or sublimated 
foolishness. If His Excellency had a mint of gold 
with which to bribe this Legislature, and we 
possessed all the logical acumen and captivating 
eloquence of our race ; were we willing to receive 
the one and exert the other, we could neither give 
dignity to this document nor force to its conclusions. 
The honest hearts of our constituents would consign 
us, for our efforts, to everlasting political infamy." 
The sentiment in favor of abolition had grown rap- 
idly in the short time which had elapsed between 
the sixth and seventh sessions. Consequently the 
friends of the measure had no difficulty in securing 
its passage over the governor's veto. Thus closed 
the contest over slavery in Nebraska. Gov. Black 
was the last of the succession of Democratic gov- 
ernors that had presided over the destinies of the 
young Territory since its organization in 1854. His 
political and social education had placed him in the 
ranks of those who believed that the constitution 
guaranteed the right of a master to own slaves in any 
State or TeiTitory of the Union. He was a man of 
sterling integrity, an able jurist and a fine executive 
officer. He died on the field of battle in defense of 
the Union, in the second year of the war. He was 
one of the ablest men connected with the Territorial 
government of Nebraska. 

The year 1861 inaugurated a new era in the his- 
tory of Nebraska. The Territory had passed through 
the critical period of its existence, and was now on 
the highway of prosperitj'. The National govern- 
ment had passed under the administi-ation of the 
Republican party, and the change also resulted in a 
change in the politics of the Territorial government 
of Nebraska. Alvin Saunders, of Iowa, was ap- 
pointed governor of the Territory bj' President Lin- 
coln, while Algernon S. Paddock received the 
appointment of Territorial secretary. Gov. Saunders 


held his position until Nebraska assumed the mantle 
of Statehood, and won many high econiums for the 
able manner in which he wielded the executive 

Although appointed soon after President Lincoln 
took his seat, Gov. Saunders did not assume the 
office until Maj', 1861. In the meantime the War of 
the Reljellion had been inaugurated by the firing 
upon Fort Sumter. President Lincoln immediately 
issued his call for 75,000 volunteers. On Ma3' 18, 
1861, Gov. Saunders issued a proclamation asking 
for the formation of companies in Nebraska, a call 
which was speedily responded to. The proclama- 
tion is of interest to readers of this sketch, and it 
will be found in its appropriate place, in the chap- 
ter devoted to Nebraska's part in the Rebellion. 

The eighth session of the Territorial Legislatui-e 
added its endorsement to the cause of the Union by 
the adoption of resolutions to the following effect : 

' ' That this body deems it its first duty to renew 
its vows of allegiance to the federal govei-nment, and 
to reaffirm its devotion to the Constitution ; that we 
regard secession and nullification as treason against 
the general government ; that we indorse the decla^ 
ration of Congi-ess that the war is not waged in any 
spirit of oppression or purpose of interfering with 
the rights of established institutions, but to defend 
and maintain the supremacy of the Constitution; 
that whenever an American citizen unsheaths his 
sword or shoulders his musket he shall leave the 
spoilsman, the partisan and the politician in a name- 
less grave behind him." To these resolutions suj> 

plementary resolutions were adopted declaring; 
' ' That we approve of the war ; that we hold rebels 
against oui' government to be outside the pale of its 
protection ; that we recommend the amendment of 
the act of confiscation of certain property so as to 
embrace all kinds of property." 

The adoption of the above resolutions left no 
doubt as to Nebraska's position in the great strug- 
gle over the preservation of the Union. Nor did 
Nebraska stop here. She raised ti'oops, not only for 
the defense of the frontier, but for service against 
the armies of the Confederacj-. The historj' of Ne- 
braska's part in the war is reserved for a special 

In his message to the ninth Legislature, which 
convened on January 7, 1864, Gov. Saunders re- 
ferred at length to the prosperous condition of the 
Territory. He also paid a deserved tribute to the 
courage and high patriotism of the Nebraska volun- 
teers, and recommended legislation to relieve the 
necessities of the widows and orphans of those who 
died in defense of the flag. A resolution indorsing 
and upholding President Lincoln's Emancipation 
Proclamation and the Amnesty Proclamation was 

The tenth and eleventh sessions, the last two iu 
the histor}' of the Territory, furnished but little of 
interest to the reader of these pages. The last ses- 
sion authorized the people of the Territor}' to vote 
upon the question of Statehood. As the proposition 
was adopted, that period will be discussed in a chap- 
ter devoted to the historv of Nebraska as a State. 




Admitted Ixto the Union — Formation of State Government — Historical Record by Hon. C. H. Gere- 
Condition AS A State Proper — First Officials — Lincoln, the Seat of Government — Early Elec- 
tions — First Legislative Sessions — Gov. Butler's Regime — The Governor Impeached — A 
Famous Trial — The Jajies Administration — Stirring Events — Blizzard antd 
Grasshopper Scourge — State Officers Sincf- Organization. 


Could any but a knowing, prude 
Begin such motions, and assign 

;ueli laws ''—Blackn 

}, isc;4, neaHy ten 
years after the formation 
of the TeiTitory, Congress 
passed a law authorizing 
the people of Nebraska to 
^ adopt a constitution and 
^ s \^ form a State government ; 
ut it was not until February 9, 1866, 
\t tlie Territorial Legislature made 
nisioii for caiTying the law into 
ect On June 2, 1866, an election 
\\ as held to decide the question. The 
ciuestion was made a political one by 
circumstances which will be subse- 
quently related, and the vote was a very 
close one ; but the opponents to Statehood were de- 
feated, the vote standing 3,938 for, and 3,838 
against. The best record of the contest over the 
foi-mation of a State government is found in the 
archives of the State Historical Society at Lincoln. 
A poi-tion of the record relating to this part of 
Nebraska's history is inserted here for the reason 
that it is of unquestioned reliability, being prepared 
by Hon. C. H. Gere, who was an active participant 
in the struggle: 

'■In 186-t Congress passed an act to enable the 
people of Nebraska to form a constitution and State 
government, and for the admission of such State in- 

to the Union on an equal footing with the original 
States, in which the usual amount of lands were set 
apart for school purposes, embracing the sixteenth 
and thirtj--secoud sections of each township; also 
twentj- sections to be appropriated for each of the 
public buildings for legislative and judicial purposes, 
fifty sections for the erection of a penitentiary, 
seventy-two sections for the erection of a State uni- 
versity, twelve salt springs, with six sections to each, 
adjoining them or contiguous as may be, for the use 
of the State, and 5 per centum of the proceeds of 
all sales of lands within the boundaries of the Terri- 
tory previous to its admission as a State, for a com- 
mon school fund. By other acts 90,000 acres of 
land were granted to the State upon admission for 
the endowment of an agricultural college, and 500,- 
000 acres for internal improvements. No action 
was taken under this act until the meeting of the 
Legislature of 1865 and 1866. During its session 
a committee was appointed to draft a constitution 
for submission to the people. The committee drew 
up the document. The Legislature by resolution 
appro^'ed it, and passed an act calling an election 
on June 21, at which election not only the question 
of rejection or adoption of the instrument he voted 
upon, but candidates for the executive, judicial 
and legislative offices authorized by the instrument. 
should be elected. 



'•The question of adopting the constitution was 
immediately made a political one. Under the ad- 
ministration of President Johnson, a considerable 
change was likely to be made in the boundary lines 
between the two great parties. The Republican 
part}- was more or less divided, and the Democrats 
were affiliating with the Johnson or liberal wing. 
The President was exercising the powers of patron- 
age for the success of the coalition, and the liveliest 
hope pervaded the ranks of the Democracy and the 
Johnson Republicans that another election or two 
would put Congress and the government in their 
hands. Hence the Republicans in Nebraska were 
exceedingly anxious to forestall such a change and 
assist in holding the National Legislature for that 
partj- by the immediate admisgion of Nebraska, in 
which they seemed to have a good working majorit}-, 
and sending two Senators and one Congressman of 
their faith to reinforce the party in the National 
councils. With equal foresight, the Democratic 
leaders saw that it was against their interests to 
permit this to be done ; that by delaying the matter 
until their expected accession of strength would 
give them control of the nation, and eventually of 
Nebraska, where the majority against them was 
comparatively small, they would assist their friends 
in Washington, and at the same time keep the 
coveted Senatorship for themselves, to take posses- 
sion of as soon as they acquired the expected pre- 
dominance at the polls. For this reason, the can- 
vass became exceedingly lively, and was, in fact, 
the most thorough and bitterly contested of any that 
had previously occurred. Each partj-, of course, 
nominated a full State and Legislative ticket. The 
Republican orators labored for the adoption of the 
constitution, and the Democratic stumpers worked 
as hard to defeat that instrument as they did to 
secure votes for their own candidates for governor, 
or judge, or a member of the Legislature. But, as 
is not seldom the case in these disputes of slates- 
men, the real motives of the patriots on each side 
were not publicly proclaimed, and the debates were 
ingeniouslj- engineered so as to make it appear that 
purely economical and financial principles were at 
I stake. The Republicans drew rose-colored pictures 
of the future of the embryo State. They dotted the 

lone prairies of the Platte, the Salt, the Blue, the 
Republican, the Elkhorn, the Loup and the Niobrara 
Vallej's with cities and towns, and drew a complex 
web of railroads on the school-house maps, and 
said: 'AH these shall we have in the next ten or 
fifteen years, and a population of hundreds of thou- 
sands, if we show to the people of the East arid 
Europe our capacity of self-government, and securt' 
the privilege of chartering and encouraging rail- 
roads. ' They pointed to the Rocky Mountains, and 
said: 'Here is the great mining region; at our 
back door is a great market, that we need rail- 
roads to Colorado, to New Mexico, to Montana and 
Idaho to develop, and when these are built we can 
sell a great portion of our surplus corn, wheat, pork 
and beef at a price that will rival the markets of 
Illinois and Ohio. ' They pointed to Galveston and 
said: 'There, only 700 miles from our border, is a 
seaport, and if we attain our sovereignty we shall 
have a line to the Gulf of Mexico, and need no 
longer to ship our grain to Europe, to Chicago and 
New York at rates of transportation that eat up all the 
profits. ' Some of the most fervent of these orators 
— among whom was, notably, a comparatively new 
man in politics, though an old settler, David Butler, 
of Pawnee, the Republican candidate for governor — 
were so carried away with these prophetic views of 
the future that they would cut the prairies in every 
direction with their paper railroads, and in their 
highest flights of oratory predicted a line to every 
county seat on the map. 

' ' The Democratic orators shook their heads and 
threw cold water upon these ardent prophesies. 
They took the chalk and figured upon the black- 
boards the enormous cost of railroad building, and 
called upon the honest farmers and mechanics to 
pause before they cast a ballot that would impose on 
the new and sparsel}- settled communitj- a horde of 
office-holders, with unlimited power to rate taxes 
upon the people for their own aggrandizement. The 
Republicans pointed to the low salaries fixed by the 
proposed constitution for executive and judicial offi. 
cers, and the limitations bj' which the Legislative 
power to bleed the people were hedged and con- 
fined. The Democrats contended that these were 
illusions and traps, that the irresistible inclination 




of the radicals for the loaves aud fishes of office, 
and their well-known ability as public plunderers, 
would make these constitutional limitations mere 
ropes of sand, and figured up the expenses of a 
State so they amounted to sums far above those set 
by the Republicans as the utmost limit of exper.- 

'•The event has shown that both sides had 
really a strong case. Even the sanguine soul of that 
red-hot optimist, Butler, fell short in its conception 
of the immense strides of the first decade of Ne- 
braska's Statehood in the building of railroads, the 
development of wealth and resources of the country, 
and the influx of immigration; and the sarcastic 
tongue of the eloquent pessimist, J. Sterling Morton, 
his opponent in the race for the gubernatorial chair, 
failed to state quite high enough the figures of 
the annual appropriations of the State Legislature 
for the canying-on of the machinery of the new 
commonwealth. Because neither of the contestants 
dreamed of the mighty impulse of humanit3- that was ' 
about to beat across the western banks of the Mis- 
souri, the one could not mark high enough the 
future tide of wealth and improvements, and the 
other failed to estimate the necessities of large ex- 
penditures of money to meet the rapid growth and 
development of Nebraska. 

'• It was a stoutly fought campaign and an ex- 
ceedingly close election. The majoritj-forthe adop- 
tion of the constitution was barely 200, and Butler 
was elected governor by a vote of 4,093 to 3,948 
for Morton. So close was the election that the 
majority of Judge Crounse, one of the Republican 
candidates for the Supreme Court, was only six, while 
William A. Little, one of the Democratic candidates 
for chief justice, was elected. 

' ' But the battle at the polls was merely a pre- 
liminary skirmish. The advocates of the State had 
captured the outr works, but the citadel was j-et to 
be stormed. The Republicans had secured a major- 
ity of certificates of memliership in each House, but 
there was a large number of contested seats. Cass 
County had given a large majoritj' against the con- 
stitution, and, though the Republican candidates for 
the Senate and House from that county were declared 
elected, a bitter contest for their seats was opened 

up by their opponents, and it was considered doubt- 
ful if some Republican delegate, if an issue was 
made squarel}- for or against an application to Con- 
gress for admission, would not vote with the ac- 
knowledged sentiment of a majority of tlieir con- 
stituents, against Statehood. 

' ' In consequence of this critical condition of 
affairs, when the Legislature met at Omaha in the 
old Capitol, on the 4th day of July, 1866, excite- 
ment was exceedingly high. The partj- leaders were 
marshaled on both sides in full array, much bad 
blood was manifested, and it was even predicted 
that the session might be enlivened, after the old 
stj-le, by a row in which physical force should be 
more potent than oratory for the settlement of dis- 
puted points of parliamentary practice. * * * * 
In law, possession is nine points; in a Legislature, 
experience has never j'et demonstrated that there 
are any other points, and the contested seats were a 
foi'egone conclusion when it was ocularly demon- 
strated that the Republicans had the organization in 
both Houses, and could not keep it without counting 
in the Cass delegation. Rock Bluffs or no Rock 
Bluffs to the contrary notwithstanding. But the 
Democrats had an arrow in their quiver that seemed 
likely to do fatal execution. It was an adjourn- 
ment sine die immediately upon the organization of 
the Legislature, which would leave the new State 
suspended between the heavens and the earth, like 
Mahomet's coffin, and overthrow the labor of months 
in the time it should take to call the roll of the two 
Houses. The Cass County delegation was believed 
to be ready to unite with them in the expedient, 
and that would give them one majority in the Senate 
and two in the House. The Cass County delegation 
had a secret meeting late at night on the evening of 
the 5th, the organization of the two Houses having 
Ijeen completed, and, it was understood, agreed to 
be liound by a vote thus taken, which resulted in a 
motion to adjourn sine die. 

' ' In the Senate the next morning a motion was 
made immediately after roll-call, that the Senate do 
adjourn sine die; and it was carried by a majority- of 
one. The news spread like wild-fire, and in the 
midst of the reading of the journal in the House, 
Paddock arose, aud, amid much turmoil, moved to 




dispense with its f urtlaer reading. This was declared 
out of order In* the Speaker, and the journal was 
finished. JMr. Paddock iramediatelj- moved that the 
House do now adjourn sine die, and declared that no 
further business could be done in any event, since 
the Senate had formall}' ended its existence. The 
Speaker properly ruled the motion out of order, be- 
cause an adjournment sine die, according to Legisla- 
tive law, could only be had by a joint resolution. 
His decision was immediatelj' appealed from, and 
was reversed by a vote of 21 to 15. The motion 
was then put, and in the midst of the most intense 
excitement, and activity of party leaders running to 
and fro, the ayes and nays were slowly called. The 
votes, when the list had been completed, were 19 for 
adjournment to 18 against. The Speaker took the 
tall}' of the clerk and paused, as if to collect his 
thoughts. Maxwell, of the Cass delegation, who 
was not in sympathy with the adjournment, had 
voted ' no. ' The Speaker paused just long enough 
for Hathaway, of the same delegation, whose sym- 
patiiies were in the same direction, to conclude that, 
as the delegation was not a unit, as he had supposed, 
he would vote to suit himself, and he changed his 
aye to no. The vote was announced, and the anti- 
State arrow missed the bulls-eye by a hair's breadth. 

' • As soon as this break in the programme was 
made, the Senators opposed to adjournment collected 
again in the hall, and, on motion of Cadman, took a 
recess till 3 o'clock P. M. At that hour a quorum 
presented itself and quietly and unostentatiously pro- 
ceeded to business as if nothing- IkkI happened, and 
the secretary as unobtrusively scdivd out with his 
ready pen all record of the niatuUiial hari-kari. 

' ' The next day Gov. Butler read his message to 
the joint convention and the machinery of the quasi 
State was fairly under motion. * * * * Jq ^jjg 
meantime the Senatorial candidates had been waging 
their individual warfare, and there were more of 
them ostensibly in the field than have been since 
noticed on a similar occasion. The military won the 
fight. 3Iaj. General Thayer and Chaplain Tipton, 
who both won their spurs in the First Nebraska, 
came out ahead, and the joint convention that cast 
the ballot show that Tipton was elected ' the Senator 
from the South Platte,' and Thayer 'the Senator 

from the North Platte' — a proceeding somewhat ex- 
traordinary, the State of Nebraska being nominated 
nowhere in the bond. 

" The seat of war was now transferred to Wash- 
ington. Senators Thayer and Tipton, armed with the 
proper credentials as the Representatives of the 
State organization, departed for the capitol, and 
Hon. T. M. Blarquette, who had been elected l)y 
the people as their first Congressman, knocked 
at the door of the House. On July 18, one week 
after the adjournment of the Legislature, on the 
eve of the close of the long session, a bill was 
passed admitting Nebraska to the Union. President 
Johnson put it in his pocket, and Congress ad- 
journed, leaving the embryo State out in the cold. 
Upon the reassembling of Congress in December, 
representatives were on hand pressing their claims 
and urging the National Legislature to perform 
its part of the implied contract in the enabling act 
of 1864. But the Republicans had, in the progress 
of their political struggles, reassured themselves of 
their solidity with the people, and were no longer 
for accessions to their strength on the floor of the 
Senate. There was also a growth of the stalwart 
feeling in favor of a franchise unlimited by a color 
line. The fifteenth amendment had not yet been 
proposed to the Federal constitution, but strong 
efforts were being made to accomplish its object 
through the action of the States in severalty. The 
conservative gentlemen who had framed the constitu- 
tion of Nebraska had inserted the word ' white. 
This the licpiililicaii Congress now objected to. 
The Represi'iitaii\rs ,,| the old States were nowmore 
solicitous of picsciviug their sectional and individual 
weight in Congress against the swift encroachments 
of the growing Northwest than in reaching out after 
party accessions. It was exceedingly plain that no ' 
majority less than two-thirds in each House would 
avail, as the President was bitterlj- hostile to the 
proposition. A bill was introduced in the Senate, 
howe\'er, and passed that body, admitting the State 
in accordance with the provisions of the act of 1864, 
upon the following conditions : 

".Section .3. And lie it fiirthi-r nmn,,]. Thiit thi.-iact 
shall not takr ,'lTrri r\rr|,i MiMlrMli.' Iiiii.l.iiiirniiil .■Miidi- 
tions. that \s-iiliiii 111.' Siiiir (,r N,'i,i-a>ka tlinv shall be 


no denial of the elective franchise, or of any other right 
to any other person, by reason of race and color, except- 
ing Indians not taxed, and upon the further fundamental 
principle, that the Legislature of said State, by a solemn 
public act, shall declare the assent of said State to these 
fundamental conditions, and shall transmit to the Presi- 
dent of the United States an authentic copy of said act, 
upon receipt whereof the President, by proclamation, 
shall forthwith announce the fact, whereupon said funda- 
mental conditions shall be held as part of the organic 
law of the State, and thereupon and without any further 
proceeding on the part of Congress, the admission" of 
said State into the Union shall be considered as com- 

' ■ In the House for a time the fate of the bill 
seemed uncertain. ]Mr. Marquette enlisted the assis- 
tance of his old law instructor, Mr. Shellabarger, of 
Ohio, one of the most prominent gentlemen and 
eloquent speakers on the floor of the Representative 
chamber, and he took the lead in championing the 
bill, and made a speech in its favor, of great force 
and brilliancy, which was probably decisive. The 
1)111 passed the House on February 8, 1867, was 
vetoed by the President next day, and immediately 
passed over his head liy the constitutional majority 
in both Houses. 

' ' A new State Legislature had been chosen by 
the people of the Territory, at the Territorial elec- 
tion in October previous, consisting for the most 
part of the same gentlemen elected to the Territorial 
Council and House. On the 14th of February, Gov. 
Saunders issued his proclamation, calling the mem- 
bers of the Legislature to meet at the capital on the 
20th inst. , to take action upon the conditions pro- 
posed by Congress. The Legislature assembled and 
passed the bill, accepting the fundamental conditions 
on February 21. * * * * On March 1, 
the President issued his proclamation announcing 
the admission of Nebraska into the Union, and on 
the 2d inst. Hon. T. M. Marquette presented his 
credentials in the House of Representatives and con- 
summated the bond. Mr. Marquette's promptness 
was not imitated by the two Senators. The 
XXXYIIIth Congress was about to expire two days 
later, and by waiting that length of time, the com- 
mencement of their terms of office would be dated a 
couple of years later, it being the custom to fix March 
4th. upon which Congress commenced its oflScial life, 

as the initial point of Senatorial terms. By waiting 
two days, the first Congressman's actual term of 
office would have been multiplied bj- 365, but he 
said he was tired of Washington, and, as John Tulle 
had been elected his successor, though at a time un- 
authorized by the enabling act, he preferred to cast 
his lot with the expiring Congress and return to pri- 
vate life. He sat two daj-s and nights, cast the 
decisive vote against the appropriation of $50,000 to 
fix up the White House according to the taste of the 
President, recorded his ' aye ' on the famous recon- 
struction act, and was honorably mustered out of 

"On April 4, Gov. Butler issued his call for an 
extra session, and on May 18, the Legislature came 
together and set in motion the machinery of the 

From the stormy period of Territorial history, it 
is interesting to turn to the pleasanter and more in- 
viting periods of State development. In the part of 
this sketch devoted to State history, the subject 
matter will be grouped under the several guberna- 
torial administrations. 

The first governor of Nebraska was Da^id But- 
ler, of Pawnee County. Associated with him in the 
management of the alfairs of the young State were 
the following officers: Thomas P. Kennard, secre- 
tary of State; John Gillespie, auditor; Augustus 
Kountze, treasurer; Champion S. Chase, attorney- 
general. Gov. Butler was a native of Indiana, and 
moved into the Territory of Nebraska in 1858. In 

1861 he served in the Territorial Legislature, in 

1862 was elected to the Council for two years. He 
took an active part in Territorial politics and headed 
the Republican ticket in the ever to be remembered 
struggle over the question of Statehood. Gov. But- 
ler's first official act was the issuing of a proclama- 
tion, dated April 4, calling the Legislatui-e together 
in special session, on May 18, for the purpose of 
enacting needed legislation and amending existing 
laws to harmonize with the new form of government. 
Shortly after this session of the Legislature, the cap- 
ital was formally moved from Omaha to Lincoln, in 
accordance with an act of the Legislature passed the 
year previous. Gov. Butler, Auditor Gillespie and 
Secretary of State Kennard had lieen empowered to 

H^ " ^ 


select a site for a capital of the new State, and, 
after visiting the several locations which offered 
themselves, they had selected Lincoln. The con- 
tract for the erection of the State house was let on 
January 11, 1868, to Joseph Ward, of Chicago, for 
the .sum of $49, 000. The walls of the building were 
constructed of magnesian limestone from the Bea- 
trice quarries in Gage County. The building was 
sufficiently completed liy Decemlier for occupancy, 
and on the 3d of that month Gov. Butler issued 
his proclamation announcing the removal of the seat 
of government to Lincoln, and ordering the transfer 
of the archives of the State to the new capital. 

The first State and National election in which 
the people of Nebraska were permitted to participate 
occurred on November 3, 1868. An extra session 
of the Legislature convened at Omaha on October 
27, to make the necessary provisions I'd' the election 
of presidential electors, the existing laws liciiig de- 
fective in this respect. The Republican State ticket 
was as follows: Presidential electors, T. M. Mar- 
quette, Lewis Allgewahr and J. F. Warner; Con- 
gressman, John Taffe ; governor, David Butler; 
secretary of State, T. P. Kennard; auditor, John 
GiUespie; treasurer, James Sweet. S. A. Strick- 
land, Alvin Saunders, L. Gerard, T. B. Stevenson, 
R. W. Furnas and S. Maxwell were selected as dele- 
gates to the National Republican convention which 
assembled at Chicago on Maj' 21, at which Gen. U. 
S. Grant was nominated for President, and Hon. 
Schuyler Colfax for Vice President. 

The first session to meet at the new capital con- 
vened on January 7, 1869. The session was un- 
eventful. The most notable event in the year 1869 
was the completion of the Union Pacific Railroad 
through the State, a full account of which will be 
found in a chapter especially devoted to that sub- 
ject. The sixth session of the Legislature, which 
assembled on February 17, 1870, ratified the fif- 
teenth amendment to the constitution of the United 
States, and provided for the erection of a peniten- 
tiary. The sixth session adjourned on March 4, 
lint Gov, Butler reassembled the members in extra 
session on the same day. In his message calling 
the extra session, the governor called attention to 
the necessity of passing a herd law and the ratifica- 

tion of a certain contract made by him for the con- 
veyance of certain lands to Isaac Cahn and John M. 
Evans, to aid in the development of the saline lands 
of the State. In the fall of 1870 occurred the biennial 
election. Both political parties were in the field with 
full tickets, and the Republicans were successful. 
The following is a list of officers elected: Governor, 
David Butler; secretaiy of State, W. H. James; 
treasurer, Henry Koenig; superintendent of pub- 
lic instruction, J. M. McKenzie ; attorney-general, 
George H. Roberts. The years of Gov. Butler's 
administration were not prolific of great events. 
The population of the State grew rapidly and, in 
1870, had reached over 120,000. The Union Pa- 
cific had been built through the State, and several 
other railway enterprises inaugurated. With the 
advent of the railroads, new sections of the State 
were opened up for settlement, new towns sprang 
into existence, and the State grew in wealth and 
political power. 

In spite of the rapid strides being made by the 
young State of Nebraska, everything pertaining to 
her State government was not as serene as a sum- 
mer day. Although honored with a re-election to 
the highest post of honor in the State, Gov. Butler 
did not entirely escape criticism for some of his 
official actions. The charge that he had appro- 
priated State funds for his own personal use and 
benefit was frequently made, and the charge be- 
came so emphatic that the Legislature was finally 
compelled to take official cognizance of it. On 
March ]. Is71. tiic ciuiilh session of the Legislature 

beiiiu then ill session. ;i ( iiittee from the House 

of ]!eiireseiit:itives iippe^iicd 1 lefore the Senate and 
announced that articles had been prepared impeach- 
ing David Butler, governor of Nebraska, of mis- 
demeanor in office. Secretary of State James was 
immediately notified to assume the executive func- 
tions, and preparations for the impeachment trial 
made. The Senate convened as a High Court of 
Impeachment on March 6, and upon the following- 
day Gov. Butler appeared in answer to summons. 
With him appeared his counsel, Clinton Briggs, T. 
M. Marquette and John I. Redick. Hon. J. C. 
Myers, J. E. Doom and De Forest Porter acted as 
managers of impeachment, with Experience Ester- 



brook as counsel. The articles of impeachment, 
abridged and stripped of their legal phraseolog}', 
were as follows: 

First. That David Butler, governor of the 
State of Nebraska, lieing authorized and directed by 
joint memorial and resolution of the Legislature of 
the State of Nebraska, to secure the payment over to 
the treasurer of the State the 5 per cent of the pro- 
ceeds of public lands lying within the State of Ne- 
braska, did, in the spring of 1869, procure to be 
audited and allowed to the State of Nebraska afore- 
said, the sum of $1(3,881. 26, for which sum a warrant 
was issued bj- the proper department at Washington, 
payable to the order of David Butler, as governor 
of said State ; and that while said money was sub- 
ject to his order and control, he, the said David 
Butler, governor as aforesaid, was guilty of unlaw- 
fully and coiTuptly neglecting to discharge his duty 
in regard to said money, and of appropriating the 
same to his own use and benefit, whereby he became 
and was guilty of misdemeanor in his said office. 

Second. That the said David Butler, being by 
virtue of his office one of the commissioners author- 
ized by an act of the Legislature to expend moneys 
belonging to the State of Nebraska, in and about the 
erection of a State University, Agricultural College, 
and State Lunatic Asjlum; and one M. J. McBu'd, 
having a claim against the State for services per- 
formed bj- him as architect, in and about furnishing 
plans and specifications for said buildings, he did, 
in the month of August, 1869, present his said 
claim to David Butler for allowance and approval, 
who proposed in substance and to the effect follow- 
ing: That he, David Butler, would procure to be 
issued a warrant upon the treasurer of the State for 
the sum of $3,750, provided that said McBird 
should retain the sum of $2,000 only out of the pro- 
ceeds of said warrant, and should paj' to him, the 
said David Butler, the sum of $1,750 of such pro- 
ceeds ; and thereupon the said McBird did agree to 
said proposition ; that the warrant was issued to the 
said McBird in the sum of $3,750, and that the said 
McBird paid to David Butler part of said money, 
to-wit: $1,750, whereby the said David Butler did 
commit and was guilty of a misdemeanor in office. 

That the said David Butler did allow a claim 

of M. J. McBird in the sum of $1,828.26 for addi- 
tional services, and did procure and cause to be 
issued two wan'ants, each for the sum of $914.13; 
and that in accordance with a scandalous and cor- 
rupt agreement, the said McBird indorsed and 
delivered one of the warrants to David Butler, who 
received and kept the same ; whereby the said David 
Butler did commit and was guilty of a misdemeanor 
in office. 

That David Butler, governor of Nebraska, en- 
deavored to induce D. J. Silver & Son, contractors 
for the erection of the State Uuiversit3', to paj- him 
the sum of $10,000, and that he refused to settle the 
accounts of the said D. J. Silver & Son, until they 
acquiesced in such demand ; whereby the said David 
Butler did commit and was guilty' of a misdemeanor 
in office. 

That on the 15th day of July, 1869, the said 
David Butler, governor of Nebraska, did willfully 
and corruptlj' propose to lease to one Thomas F. 
Hall, certain saline lands belonging to the State, 
providing the said Thomas F. Hall would pay him 
the sum of $5,000, for his own use and benefit ; and 
upon the refusal of said Thomas F. Hall to pay 
the sum demanded, the said David Butler did de- 
cline to lease said lauds, contrary to his duty and 
his oath of office ; whereliv the said David Butler 
did commit and was guilty of a misdemeanor in 

That on the 1st day of January, 1871, the said 
David Butler did wilLfuUj" aud coiTuptlj' agree to 
procure the appointment of oue Nelson C. Brock, as 
treasurer of the board of regents of the University 
of Nebraska, in consideration of the sum of $750 ; 
whereby said David Butler was guilty of a misde- 
meanor in office. 

That on the first day of July, 1869, the said 
David Butler received a conveyance of certain 
lands to himself as an inducement and bribe to 
influence the location of the State Insane Asjdum, 
by which he was improperly and corruptly influenced 
to locate said asylum in the immediate vicinity- of the 
land so conveyed ; whereby the said David Butler 
did commit and was guilty of a misdemeanor in 

Third. That the said David Butler, on the 



ISth d;\v of February, 18(10, did imkiwfuUy induce 
John Gillespie, auditor of the Stiite of Nebraska, 
to issue two warrants in the sum of $1,000 each 
under the pretense that they were issued for the 
purpose of paying one Champion S. Chase, for ser- 
'\'ices rendered the State as an attoruej-, and that on 
the 22d day of February, 1869, the said David 
Butler did willfully and corruptly appropriate to his 
own use one of said warrants, whereby he did com- 
mit and was guilty of a misdemeanor in office. 

Fourth. That the said David Butler did un- 
hiwfuUy and corruptly enter into contract with 
one Joseph Ward for the completion of the State 
Lunatic Asylum at a contract price, {. e. $88,000, 
greatlj- in access of the sum appropriated for said 
building; that by the terms of said contract the 
foundation of said asylum was to be completed for 
$18,500, and that in the spring of 1870 said foun- 
dation was not finished, and there was due to said 
Ward less than that sum on contract, yet the gov- 
ernor approved the estimates of said Ward and 
caused the same to be allowed and paid to the 
amount of $45,000 ; whereby the said David Butler 
did commit and was guilty of a misdemeanor in 

Fifth. That David Butler, being a m^piber of 
the board of regents and ex-officio president of 
said board, did willfully and recklessly assent and 
Itecome a party to a contract with D. J. Silver & 
Son for the erection of the State University and 
Agricultural College at a price greatly in excess of 
the appropriations therefor, whereby the said David 
Butler did commit and was guilty of a misdemeanor 
in office. 

Sixth. That in response to a resolution passed 
by the present session of the Legislature, the said 
David Butler transmitted to the Legislature a com- 
munication in which he stated that he had collected 
from the National Treasury, the sum of $16,881.26, 
and deposited that amount in the State treasury. 
tliat in the communication the said David Butler did 
falsely declare that he deposited the amount of 
money in the State Treasuiy, whereby the said 
David Butler did commit and was guilty of a mis- 
demeanor in office. 

Seventh. That on the 30th day of July, 1870. 

the said David Butler instructed James Sweet, State 
treasurer, to let Anson C. Tichenor have $10,000 
of the school money of the State; that said sum 
was loaned Tichenor without the assent of either 
State auditor or treasurer; and that the security 
was known to be wholly inadequate and insufficient ; 
whereby the said David Butler did commit and was 
guilty of a misdemeanor in office. 

Eighth. That the said David Butler did in 
the 3-ear of 1869 receive the sum of $648.43, a 
balance of money in the hands of the Treasurer of 
the Board of Immigration, which he has paid into 
the treasury of the State, but wrongfullj^ appro- 
priated it to his own use, whereby he did commit and 
.was guilty of a misdemeanor in office. 

Ninth. That during the year 1870, the said 
David Butler did improperly execute and cause to 
be issued to the Sioux City and Pacific Railroad 
Companies a patent or patents to seventy-five sec- 
tions of land belonging to the State, and granted by 
the Legislature to the Northern Nebraska Air Line 
Railroad Company; whereby the said David Butler 
did commit and was guilty of a misdemeanor in 

Tenth. That in the month of December, 1869, 
the said David Butler sold to one James Gerrens, a 
piece of land belonging to the State, for the sum of 
$1,920, of which sum he appropriated to his own 
use the sum of $1,120, wliereby he committed and 
was guilty of a misdemeanor in office. 

Eleventh. That in the month of April. 1869, 
the said David Butler sold to one Andrew J. Cropsey, 
certain lots in Lincoln, Neb. , the title to which was 
in the State of Nebraska, for the sum of $2,400, 
a portion of which he appropriated for his own use 
and benefit, whereby he committed and was guilty of 
a misdemeanor in office." 

To the above articles and specifications Gov. 
Butler made an elaborate answer. He denied in 
toto the allegations made in each and every article 
and specification, with the exception of the first. 
To that article he made, in effect, the following an- 
swer : 

That it is true the government of the United States 
had donated to the State of Nebraska the five per cent 
ou proceeds of the public lands, and the amount thereof 




was due the State of Nebraska, and that this respondent 
was authorized to procure the same to be paid over to 
the treasurer of said State; and that in the spring of 
1869, this respondent procured to be audited and allowed 
for the State of Nebraska the sum of §16,881.26, for 
which amount a warrant was duly issued by the proper 
department at Washington, payable to the order of the 
respondent, as governor of said State; and that said 
warrant was brought to Nebraska and deposited in the 
First National Bank, at Omaha, to the credit of the re- 
spondent, as governor aforesaid; that it is untrue that 
he unlawfully and corruptly neglected to discharge his 
duties in regard to said money, and denies that he appro- 
priated the same, or any part thereof, to his own use; 
but this respondent alleges that some time after said 
money was deposited as above set forth, he did, at the 
suggestion and with the consent of the treasurer of the 
State, borrow said sum of money of the State, and that 
at the time the respondent agreed to and did give to the 
State the bonds hereinafter mentioned, and agreed to 
secure the same by mortgages on real estate situated in 
the State, and the said treasurer at the same time prom- 
ised to draw the mortgages, and present them to this re- 
spondent without delay, but the treasurer, having neg- 
lected to prepare the same, after the lapse of considerable 
time, the I'espondent caused said mortgages to be pre- 
pared, and did execute to said State, in due form of law, 
nineteen mortgages, on as many distinct tracts of land, 
amounting in the aggregate to about three thousand acres 
of land, which mortgages, bearing date May 25, 1869, 
were duly executed and acknowledged by this respondent 
and his wife, and were, about the 1st of January, 1871, 
delivered to said State, duly recorded in the offices of the 
county clerks in the counties respectively where said 
lands are situated. 

That at the time said mortgages were executed and 
recorded this respondent was seized of the same in fee 
simple; that they were free from incumbrances and 
were then and still are worth at least 830,000 in cash, 
and that each particular tract of land included in said 
mortgages is worth, in cash, at least double the 
amount secured thereby ; that at the date of said 
mortgage the respondent executed to said State nineteen 
bonds for the aggregate sum of 816,881.26, payable to 
said State five years from date, with interest from date 
at the rate of ten per cent per annum, the interest pay- 
able annually; and that the respondent has paid the in- 
terest due on said bonds and mortgages for one year. 

Space forbids a detailed account of tlie trial. 
Suffice it to say that Gov. Butler was acquitted of 
every charge except the first, upon which he was 
found guilty. He was removed from his office, the 
duties of the executive devolving upou William H. 

James, secretary of State. Gov. Butler remained 
under this cloud until the Legislature of 187G-77, 
when all record of the famous impeachment trial was 
expunged from the records. 

The elevation of Secretaiy of State James to 
the executive chair was followed by stirring events. 
An attempt was made to impeach Auditor Gillespie, 
but after allowing the matter to rest for some time 
the House withdrew its charges, and the matter was 
dropped for all time. On September 19, 1871, a 
uew constitution was submitted to the people of the 
State, but it was rejected by a vote of 8,627 to 
7, 986. The necessity for the adoption of a new and 
revised constitution was generally admitted ; but a 
number of distasteful amendments were attached 
which brought the instrument in disfavor. 

The leading issues of the eighth session oi the 
Legislature, which convened on January 9, 1872, 
were the reconsideration of the question of a new 
constitution, and the adoption of a measure looking 
to the development of the saline resources of the 
State. The relations between the members of this 
bodj-and Acting Governor James were not of the most 
cordial character. A joint resolution providing for 
the submission of the constitution, stripped of its 
objectionable features, was defeated in the House on 
January 19. A dead-lock ensued, whereupon the 
House adopted a resolution to adjourn on January 
24. In the meantime the Senate had adopted a 
resolution to adjoiu-n until December 31. Acting 
Governor James then assumed a questionable preroga- 
tive of issuing a proclamation, declaring that inasmuch 
as "no reasonable hope is entertained that the longer 
continuance in session of the Legislature will result 
in the adoption of anj' measures which have for their 
object the public good," the Legislature adjourned 
without daj-. But the Legislature refused to recog- 
nize the right of the acting governor to regulate its 
movements. The Senate assembled on the 21st, 
took up the concuiTent resolution of the House to 
adjourn on the 2-tth, and agreed to it. An unsuc- 
cessful attempt was made to have the office of gov- 
ernor declared vacant, and the Legislature adjourned 
on the 24th. 

But the end was not yet. Acting Governor 
James was called to Washington, D. C. , on business. 



His enemies seized the opportunity to make trouble 
for him. Isaac S. Hascall, president of the Senate, 
issued a proclamation, declaring that the absence of 
the acting governor from the State created a vacancy- 
in the ofHce, and calling the Legislature to convene 
in a special session on February 15, for the purpose 
of enacting laws, as he alleged, for the jinmidtiou 
of the State. A friend immediately tclr-nii)hcd the 
news to Acting Governor James, who at once re- 
turned to the State. He issued a counter proclama- 
tion annulling the call for a special session of the 
Legislature issued by Mr. Hascall. A few of the 
members came together and attempted to organize, 
but a test case was decided against them by the 
supreme court, and the matter passed into historj-. 

At the general election in the fall of 1872 the 
following State officers were elected : Governor, 
Robert W. Furnas ; secretary of State, J. J. Gasper ; 
auditor, J. B. Weston; treasurer, H. A. Koenig; 
attomej'-general, J. R. Webster; chief justice, 
George B. Lake. The name of Robert W. Furnas 
has been prominently identified with the State of 
Nebraska from its earliest daj-s. He removed to 
Nebraska from Ohio in 1856, and located at Brown- 
ville, where he commenced the publication of the 
Nebraska Advertiser, one of the oldest newspapers 
in the State. At an early period in' the Civil War 
he received a colonel's commission and organized the 
Indian brigade of three regiments, which he com- 
manded during its service in Kansas, Missouri, Ar- 
kansas and the Indian Territory. He afterward 
recruited the Second Nebraska Cavalry, and com- 
manded them in a notalile expedition against the 
Sioux. For four years he had the appointment as 
agent of the Omaha and Winnebago Indians, a po- 
sition he held until a short time before his election 
as governor of Nebraska. He has always taken an 
active interest in everj'thing pertaining to the agri- 
cultural and horticultm-al interests of the State. 

The ninth session of the Legislature convened 
on January 9, 1873. This session was made mem- 
orable b}' the first contest over the submission of a 
prohibitory amendment to the constitution. The 
friends of prohibition introduced a measure to regu- 
late the sale of intoxicating liquors, but after some 
consideration it was indefinitely postponed. The 

tenth session of the Legislature was a special one, 
convening on March 27, 1873. ami icuiainino- in 
session only two days. It was (mIIciI lor the pur- 
pose of taking needed action on matters relating to 
the boundaries of certain counties. On April 23, 
1873, occurred one of the most terrible storms ever 
experienced in the history of the State. The storm 
began with a heavy rain, which before nightfall 
changed to snow, and for forty-eight hours the fall 
of snow, driven by a fierce, northwest wind, was so 
heavy that most of the time a person could not see 
ten feet from him. Many persons were lost and 
narrowly escaped death in trying to pass from their 
houses to the barns. Much stock perished, even in 
barns, the snow peneti-ating and filling them entirely, 
while herds were driven miles before the storm. The 
snow packed so firmlj- and drifted to such an extent 
that ravines and even streams were effectually 
bridged by it, and loaded teams were driven over 
them on the drifted snow. 

The year of 1873 was also a memorable one in 
the history of the State, as it was in that year that 
the grasshoppers first devastated the State. In July 
and August of that year mj-riads of these insects 
settled down over the State, destroying the crops and 
leaving the farmers utterlj' destitute. Their coming 
was forestalled at times by a dark, cloud-like haze, 
caused l)y the swarms as the}' passed through the 
air, obscuring the sunlight of the brightest daj'. 
Dropping from their fiight to the earth, they became 
a thick, seething mass of devouring insects. All 
green vegetation, except grasses, was rapidly con- 
sumed. The damage done bj- the grasshoppers had 
an exceedingly depressing effect upon all the busi- 
ness interests of the State. The troublesome insects 
visited the State a second time in 1874, doing almost 
as much damage. Since that year, however, they 
have done no Injmy and it is not likely that they 
will ever again make their appearance. 

At the general election in 1874 the following 
State officers were elected : Governor, Silas Garber; 
secretary of State, Bruno Tzschuck ; treasurer, J. 
C. 3IcBride ; attorney-general, George H. Rogers ; 
superintendent of public instruction, J. M. Me- 

Gov. Garber came to Nebraska from Call- 


fornia in 1870, and settled in Webster County. 
Before removing to California he had served in the 
war with distinction, holding a captain's commission 
in an Iowa regiment. He laid out the city of 
Red Cloud in 1872, and was the first probate judge 
of Webster County. Before his election as gov- 
ernor, he served the people of Webster, Nuckolls 
and Jefferson Counties in the Legislature. 

The eleventh session of the Legislature, which 
convened in January, 1875, performed a notable 
service for the State, bj- providing for a new consti- 
tution better suited for the needs of the rapidh-- 
growing young commonwealth. A constitutional 
convention was held in Lincoln in June, 1875, at 
which the present constitution was devised. It was 
submitted to a popular vote on October 10, and was 
adopted by an overwhelming majority, the vote for 
adoption being 30,202, and against adoption 5,474. 

The eleventh session of the Legislature also wit- 
nessed tln' iiifiiK liable contest over the election of a 
United Sintis SciKitor, to succeed Senator Tipton. 
Algernon S. raildoek was elected. In 1876 Gov. 
Silas Garber was honored b}' a re-election. His 
associates during the second term of his admin- 
istration were : Lieuteuaut-go\-eruor, O. A. Abbott ; 

secretary of State, Bruno Tzschuck ; auditor, J. B. 
Weston; treasui-er, J. C. McBride; superintendent 
of public instruction, S. R. Thompson; attorney- 
general, George H. Roberts ; land commissioner, 
F. M. Davis. The twelfth, thirteenth and four- 
teenth sessions of the Legislature were uneventful. 
At the general election in 1878 the following State 
officers were chosen : Governor, Albinus Nance ; 
lieutenant-governor, E. C. Cams; secretary of 
State, S. J. Alexander; auditor, F. W. Leidtke; 
treasurer, G. M. Bartlett ; superintendent of pulilic 
instruction, S. M. Thompson; attorney-general, 
C. J. Dillworth ; commissioner of lands and build- 
ings, F. M. Davis. Gov. Nance came to Nebraska 
from Illinois in 1871, and located in Polk County. 
He enlisted in the Ninth Illinois Cavalry when but 
sixteen years of age, and served until the close of 
the war. After the war he became a student at 
Knox College, in Galesburg, 111., and afterwards 
studied law. After coming to Nebraska he en- 
joj'ed a successful professional and political career. 
He was twice a member of the Legislature, speaker 
of the House, delegate to the National Republican 
convention in 1876, and was re-elected governor of 
Nebraska in 1880. 



Nebraska's Part in the Rebellion— Number of Soldiers Furnished— Sentiment of the People— Com- 
panies Organized— Sketches op Infantry Regiments— Engagements Pakticipated In— Home Pro- 
tection Considered— Indian Encounters— Sketches of Nebraska's Senators and Con- 
gressmen — Senatorial Succession — Phineas W. Hitchcock — Thomas \V. Tipton — 
John M. Thayer— Algernon S. Paddock— Alvin Saunders— Ch^^jles F. 
Manderson — Charles H. Van Wyck, and Others. 

The cannon's hushed ! nor drum nor clarion sound; 
Helmet and hauberk gleam upon the ground; 
Horsemen and horse lie weltering in their gore; 
Patriots are dead and heroes dare no more. — Montgomery. 

T the breaking out of the 
Reliellion Nebraska c o u - 
tained a population of less 
30,000; but notwith- 
standing this fact the State 
sent 3,307 men to fight for 
the preservation of the 
Union These soldiers comprised at 
least one-third of the able-bodied men 
of the State, consequently Nebraska 
furnished more troops in proportion 
to her population than many of the 
loyal States of the North. The news 
of the fall of Fort Sumter aroused 
all the patriotism of the people of 
the young States, and the work of raising troops 
to quell the Rebellion commenced on the very 
day the news was received. Under the proclama- 
tion of President Lincoln calling for three years' 
volunteers, the Secretary of War assigned one 
regiment to Nebraska. Gov. Alvin Saunders im- 
mediately called for volunteers to fill the Nebraska 
contingent, and the patriotic citizens readily re- 
sponded. The first company was formed June 3, 
1861, and the regiment was filled by the organiza- 

tion of the tenth company July 22, less than fifty 
days being required. The companies were as fol- 
lows : Omaha furnished two companies, the Omaha 
Guards, Thomas Watson, captain, John Horbach, 
lieutenant, and the Union Rifle Company, William 
Baumer, captain, and P. Walter and H. Koenig, 
lieutenants. Cass County furnished a company of 
dragoons, with R. G. Dooms as captain, and Isaac 
Chivington and G. D. Conley as lieutenants. Platts- 
mouth furnished a company under the command of 
Capt. R. R. Livingston, with A. F. McKinney and 
N. F. Sharp, lieutenants. Burt Countj- furnished a 
company commanded by Capt. Stephen Decatur. 
Florence, Nebraska City and Brownville each raised 
companies, and two more were furnished by Omaha 
and Douglas County. The regiment being full, Gov. 
Saunders appointed the following oflScers : John 
Thayer, colonel ; Henry P. Downs, lieutenant^colonel; 
William H. McCord, major; Enos Lowe, surgeon. 
On July 30, the First Nebraska Infantry em- 
barked on a Missouri River steamer for St. Joseph, 
Mo. , where the men were to receive their equipments. 
After being fully equipped the regiment was taken 
to St. Louis and employed in service within the 
boundaries of the State of Missouri until February, 


18G2. They encountered many Ijodios of rebels 
belonging to Price's command and several hot 
skirmishes ensued. On Februarj- 2, 1862, the regi- 
ment started for Tennessee where it was to partici- 
pate in the first campaign in which the Union aimies 
won a decided advantage. The regiment arrived at 
Fort Henry, Tenn. , on February- 11, but was imme- 
diately sent to Fort Donelson, where it participated 
in the sti-uggle which resulted in the capture of that 
rebel stronghold. The First Nebraska then remained 
comparatively inactive until April C, when it marched 
for Pittsburg Landing, reaching there too late, how- 
ever, to participate in the first daj-'s fighting. On 
the morning of the 7th they were placed in Gen. 
Lew "Wallace's division. Col. John M. Thayer being 
in command of the brigade. The fighting com- 
menced at daj-break, the First Nebraska troops 
bieng placed so as to receive the brunt of the ene- 
my's charges. The fighting, as is well known, was 
furious, but the enemy were repulsed, the First 
Nebraska having the honor of leading the final 
charge that drove the rebels from the field. In his 
official report Gen. Thayer spoke of the First Ne- 
braska ti'oops as follows : ' ' The action now became 
general. I again gave the order to 'forward,' and 
the line advanced as regularly, and with a front as 
unbroken, as upon a parade gi'ound, the First Ne- 
braska, Lieut. -Col. McCord, moving up directly in 
front of the enemy's battery. " And again: "Nobly 
did the First Nebraska sustain its reputation, well 
earned on the field of Donelson. Its progi-ess was 
onward dm-ing the whole daj-, in face of a galling 
fire of the enemy, moving on without flinching, at 
one time being an hour and a half in fi-ont of their 
battery, receiving and retm-ning its fire ; its con- 
duct was most excellent." At Pittsburg Landing 
the First Nebraska sustained a loss of between 
twenty and thirty men. At Corinth and other bat^ 
ties of the summer of 1862, the regiment did its 
full duty. From October, 1862, till the following 
August, the regiment was stationed at various points 
in Missouri and Arkansas, doing camp and picket 
duty. They had several skinnishes with the enemj-, 
notably at Cape Girardeau and Chalk Blufl's, on both 
occasions the enemy being repulsed with great loss. 
August 28, 1863, they were removed to St. Louis. 

In Novemlier their regiment having been mounted 
were thereafter known as the First Nebraska Cav- 
alry. From this time until June 18, 1864, the First 
Nebraska was stationed at difi'erent points in Arkan- 
sas, engaged in scouting and doing picket duty. 
The}' skirmished with the enemy at the towns of 
Jacksonport and Sj'camore, killing a few of the 
enemy and capturing a great many prisoners. 

The regiment returned to Omaha in June, 1864, 
and were furloughed until the following August, 
when they were detailed for dutj- against the Indians, 
and were ordered to Fort Kearney'. Here the regi- 
ment remained until they were mustered out of ser- 
vice July 1, 1866. During this time thej' were 
engaged in scouting and escort duty, protecting 
telegi-aph lines and guarding the lives and proj)- 
erty of the settlers from the depredations of the In- 
dians. It was a constant warfare between the 
Indians and the soldiers. Raid succeeded raid, and 
the punishment which the Indians received did not 
seem to deter them, but they were ready for new 
depredations and outrages whenever the opportunity 
presented itself. The regiment served faithf nil}- in 
defense of the Union. Their bravery is attested on 
the fields of Donelson, Pittsburg Landing, Corinth, 
Sycamore, Chalk Bluffs, Red Banks, Cape Girardeau, 
Jacksonport and others. And after they were no 
longer needed in crushing the Rebellion, they rushed 
to the protection of frontiers from the ravages of 
hostile Indians. 

In the summer of 1SG2, while the First regiment 
was in the South fighting the Confederates, it be- 
came necessary to devise some means by which 
home interests could be protected. The Indians 
were plundering, killing and capturing the settlers, 
and an organized efl'ort to repel their attacks must 
be made. The result was the organization of the 
Second Nebraska Cavalry, as a nine months regi- 
ment. R. W. Furaas, Brownville, was their col- 
onel. In April, 1863, the Second Nebraska were 
ordered to report for duty at Sioux City, preparatory 
to joining the expedition up the Missouri under 
Gen. Sully. Under Sully the Nebraska troops took 
part in various skirmishes with the Sioux Indians. 
On September 3, 200 miles above Fort Pierre, the 
great battle of Whitestone Hills was fought, with 


the Brule, Yaukton and Blackfeet Sioux, numbering 
nearly 2,000 strong. In this fight the Indians were 
completely defeated, abandoning all their camp 
property and animals, losing 150 men, 300 wounded 
and 200 prisoners. The Nebraska troops lost 7 men 
killed, li wounded and 10 missing. In the latter 
part of September, 1863, the regiment returned to 
Omaha and were mustered out of service, having 
served most acceptably against the Indians. 

In August, 1861, a call was issued for two com- 
panies of cavalry to join the First regiment. Under 
this call two companies were formed under Capts. 
Patrick and Croft. These companies, however, did 
not join the First regiment as first intended, but 
with two other companies, one from Nebraska City, 
the other from St. Louis, were merged into the 
Fifth Iowa Cavahy, under which name they went 
through the war. They were also known as the 
"Curtis Horse. " These four companies , designated 
the Nebraska Battalion, were lettered respectively 
A, B, C and D, and composed the First battalion. 
These troops sei"ved their time in the army of the 
Southwest, where they participated in some of the 
hardest fought battles of the war. 

As a matter of no slight interest, the following 
brief personal sketches are given prominent mention 
as indicating the character of those who have beexi 
called upon to occupy honored official positions. 

Phineas W. Hitchcock, deceased, was born No- 
vember 30, 1831. His father was a farmer near 
New Lebanon, Columbia County, N. Y. , where the 
subject of our sketch was born. He spent two years 
at school in Barrington, Mass. , and when twentj' 
years of age he entered "Williams College. Four 
\'ears later Mr. Hitchcock graduated from that insti- 
tution, and after several years of combined law 
study and journalistic work in the State of New 
York, he came to the Territory of Nebraska in the 
spring of 1857. He at once opened a law office at 
Omaha, combining with the practice of his profes- 
sion an agency for several insurance companies, and 
a general real estate business. He was elected to 
the Republican convention in Chicago, which, in 
1860, nominated Abraham Lincoln, andfi-om the fii-st 
voted for Lincoln. In the winter of 18G0-61 he 
went to Washington to secure from ]\Ir. Lincoln the 

appointment of secretary of the Territory of Ne- 
braska. Meeting with J. Sterling Morton, the occu- 
pant of that position, he visited with him at the hit- 
ter's old home at Detroit, Mich. , where he became 
acquainted with Zach. Chander and other prominent 
Republicans, who supported him in his application. 
He received the appointment of marshal instead of 
secretary of Nebraska, which office he held imtil 
1864. He was then nominated for Territorial dele- 
gate to the XXXIXth Congress. On the admis- 
sion of Nebraska as a State he was elected surveyor- 
general. He was elected to the United States 
Senate for the term commencing March 4, 1871. 
He was remai-kably successful in the passage of a 
large number of bills of gi-eat importance to the 
undeveloped West. He originated a number of 
laws relative to timber culture, of Indian legislation, 
and of the acts admitting Colorado as a State. He 
belonged to the stalwart wing of the Republican 
pai-ty. His death occurred at Omaha . Neb. . July 
10, 1881. 

Thomas W. Tipton was born August 5, 1817, 
near Cadiz, Ohio. He was a student in Alleghany 
College, Meadville, Penn. , and graduated from Mad- 
ison College, Pennsylvania, in 1840. In 1849 he 
was appointed to a position in the United States 
Land Office, resigning in 1852. He was admitted 
to the bar in 1844, and began practicing law in 
McConnellsville, Ohio, in 1853. In 1856 he re- 
ceived authority to preach in the Methodist Episcopal 
Chui-ch, but preferring the Congregational Church, 
changed his church relation. In Brownville, Neb. , 
he served a small Congregational Church organiza- 
tion, for one year, as pastor, and was elected chap- 
lain of the First Nebraska Infantry in July, 1861, 
in which capacity he served until the end of the war. 
In 1845 he was a member of the Legislature in 
Ohio; in 1859 was elected to a constitutional con- 
vention in Nebraska, and in 1860 was a member of 
the Territorial Senate. In 1865, in July, he was 
appointed assessor of internal revenue for Nebraska. 
He entered Congress on March 4, 1867, drawing a 
term as United States Senator. In 1869 he was re- 
elected for a full term of six years. In 1872 he left 
the dominant political pai-ty and supported Horace 
Greeley for president. Since that time he has sup- 


ported the principles of the Democratic party, bj' 
which he was nominated, in 1880, as a candidate 
for governor of Nebraska. In reply to an interro- 
gation as to the reason of his acceptance of the 
nomination : "I did it in order to try and keep the 
Republican majority down to 25,000." 

John M. Thayer located in Omaha in the fall of 
1854, being one of the first settlers of that place. 
In 1855 he went to Fontanelle to fight and subdue 
troublesome Indians. He was at the head of 150 
men called the Territorial Militia. In the spring of 
1859 he again led a force of 194 men against the 
Indians. He was elected a member of the Upper 
House of the Nebraska Legislature from 1859 to 

1860, and was elected a member of the constitutional 
convention in the fall of 1860. When the Rebellion 
broke out he wrote to the Secretary of War, propos- 
ing that Nebraska should furnish one regiment. 
He was instrumental in organizing the First Regi- 
ment, Nebraska Infantrj', and was appointed colonel 
of the same, organized in the spring and summer of 

1861, and went to St. Louis, then to Pilot Knob and 
Sedalia, Mo. They then came to St. Louis, and 
were sent by steamer to Fort Henry, and partici- 
pated in the battles of Fort Donelson and Shiloh. 
He was then promoted to brigadier-general, having 
been in command of the Second Brigade of Wal- 
lace's division at the two latter battles. Was in the 
Ijattles of Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post (where 
4,000 to 5,000 prisoners were captured), siege of 
Vicksburg, and was appointed brigadier and major- 
general of volunteers for gallant services. He par- 
ticipated in the capture of Jackson, Miss., under 
Sherman. He was in the army of Arkansas, and 
participated in the battles of Prairie de Ann, Mos- 
cow, Jenkins' Ferrj- and Saline River. Subsequently 
he was placed in command of the Army of the 
Frontier. His military service closed in July, 1865, 
and he was brevetted a major-general. On the ad- 
mission of the State he was elected to the United 
States Senate, drawing the four years ballot. In 
1875 he was appointed governor of Wyoming Terri- 
tory, and served one term. In the fall of 1886 he 
was elected governor of the State of Nebraska, and 
in 1888 was re-elected to that high office, being the 
present incumbent. 

Algernon Sidney Paddock was bom at Glens 
Falls, N. Y. , November 5, 1830. He entered Glens 
Falls Academj- in his thirteenth year, remaining 
until his eighteenth year, when he entered Union 
College. Here he remained up to his senior year, 
when he left and went to Detroit, Mich. , but re- 
turned to New York after an absence of three mouths, 
and began teaching school and studying law mean- 
while. In May, 1857, he came to Fort Calhoun. 
Neb. , where he pre-empted a farm and settled. lu 
1872 he removed to Beatrice, Gage Countj-, where 
he has since resided. During 1858-59 he was en- 
gaged on editorial work on the Omaha Repuljlican. 
In 1860 he was a delegate to the National Republi- 
can convention in Chicago that nominated Lincoln, 
and the same fall stumped New Y'^ork for that ticket. 
He assumed the position of secretary for Nebraska 
April 1, 1861. In 1864 Mr. Paddock was delegate 
to the National convention at Baltimore. Was de- 
feated for the United States Senate in 1867. In 
1868 he was nominated governor of Wyoming, but 
declined. In 1874 was elected to the United States 
Senate, serving in that capacity six years. ]Mr. 
Paddock was again a candidate for that office in 
1880-81, but was defeated by C. H. Van Wyek. 
In 1886 he was again re-elected to the Senate, and 
is the present incumbent. 

Alvin Saunders was born in Fleming County. 
Ky., on July 12, 1817. At the age of twelve his 
parents removed to Springfield, 111., where thej' re- 
mained until he was nineteen. In 1836 he went to 
Mount Pleasant, Iowa, to engage in mercantile busi- 
ness. He was appointed first postmaster at Mount 
Pleasant. In 1846 he was elected to the State con- 
stitutional convention, which formed the constitu- 
tion under which Iowa was admitted into the Union 
as a State. He was elected to the State Senate in 
1854, and re-elected ' in 1858. He served as dele- 
gate to the first Iowa Republican State convention, 
and also to the Chicago convention in 1860, where 
he voted for Lincoln. He was appointed governor 
of Nebraska in 1861, and served in that capacity 
until Nebraska was admitted into the Union as a 
State, six years later. He was an earnest advocate 
of the Union Pacific Railroad. In 1868 he went as 
delegate to the Republican National convention at 



Chicago. In 1876-77 he was elected United States 
Senator. He has, for many years, been identified 
with the banking interests of Omaha. 

Charles F. Manderson was born in Philadelphia, 
Februarj' 9, 1838, where he lived until nineteen 
years of age, when he removed to Canton, Ohio. 
Here he studied law and was admitted to the bar in 
1860. In April, 1861, he raised Company A, 
Nineteenth Ohio Infantry Volunteers, and subse- 
quently became major of that regiment, and lieuten- 
antcolonel after the battle of Shiloh, and colonel 
after the battle of Stone River, in January, 1863. 
He was made brevet brigadier-general in February, 
1865, but resigned from the service, on account of 
wounds, in April, 18G5. Gen. Manderson removed 
to Omaha, in 1867, continuing his law practice. 
He was a member of the constitutional convention 
of 1871 and 1875. In 1882 he was elected to the 
United States Senate to succeed Charles H. Van 
Wj-ck. He was re-elected in 1888 and is still serv- 
ing the people of the State in the Senate. 

Charles H. Van Wyck was born and grew to 
manhood in the State of New York. He represented 
the State in Congress for several terms, after which 
he moved to Nebraska, locating in Otoe Countj^ 
He has represented the people of Otoe County in the 
Legislature several terms, and in 1880 was elected 
to the United States Senate to succeed Algernon S. 
Paddock. He championed the anti-monopol}' cause 
during his term of office. In 1886 he was a 
candidate for re-election, but was defeated b}' his 
former opponent, A. S. Paddock, after one of the 
hottest political contests ever witnessed in the 

James Laird, for six years member of Congress 
from the Second Congressional district of Nebraska, 
was born at Fowlerville, N. Y., on June 20, 1849. 
While he was yet a child his parents removed to 
Michigan. He had received a good academic edu- 
cation before the breaking out of the war, and on 
Julj- 24, 1862, entered the service as a private in 
Company G, Sixteenth Michigan Infantry, in which 
regiment he served during the war. After serving 
in the ranks two years, he was several times pro- 
moted and reached the rank of brevet-major before 
he was seventeen years of age. Two of his older 

lirothers entered the service at the same time, and 
both were killed in action. Mr. Laird was engaged 
in all the battles of the Potomac except when dis- 
abled by wounds received in action. He received 
several severe wounds at Gaines Blill, was shot 
thi-ough the body and left for dead. He was twice 
wounded at Gettysburg, and at Laurel Hill received 
a sabre thrust through the right shoulder ; had his 
horse shot from under him at Hatch's Run, and was 
wounded in the ankle. All his promotions were 
received for service. He was, upon several occa- 
sions, mentioned in general orders for bravery and 

After the war he received a good education at 
Adrian College and the University of Michigan, 
graduating from the law school of that institution as 
a law student in 1871. In 1872 he emigrated to 
this county and commenced the practice of law. 
His first public service in this State was in 1875, 
when he was elected a member of the constitutional 
convention. In 1880, after the taking of the census, 
the State of Nebraska was re-districted and three 
Congressional districts organized. In 1882 Mr. 
Laird was elected to the XLVIIIth Congress and re- 
elected in 1884-86-88. This district embraces 
twenty-five counties. The demands of so large a 
district impose an arduous dutj- upon its memlier. 
but Mr. Laird has been able to meet all demands 
made upon him. 

It has been noticed of late years that many of 
the younger members of the House have shown more 
good sense in the framing of laws than some of their 
older colleagues are willing to give them credit for. 
Among this class of young statesmen was Hon. 
James Lauxl. In the XLVIIIth Congress, as mem- 
ber of the committee on military affairs, he displayed 
great zeal in the interest of ex-Union soldiers in his 
efforts to secure them back pay and bounty. He 
championed the rights of settlers on the public lands 
in the West, and more especially in Nebraska, Kan- 
sas and Colorado. 

In the season of 1885-86 he was active in behalf 
of the working men throughout the country, and as 
a member of the military committee of the House, 
rendered valuable service in behalf of his comrades. 
The debate over the bill for the relief of certain 


ofHcers and soldiers of the volunteer armj- was led 
b}' himself, and was considered remarkable in the 
House. The bill caiTied relief to veteran soldiers 
who were jDromoted from the ranks after re-enlist- 
ment, and also bounty to the privates who were dis- 
charged prior to two years" ser\ice and not on 
account of wounds. 

The Southern members, after fiUibustering over 
this measure until nearly morning, offered to allow 
the bill to pass, giving relief to the officers, if Mr. 
Laird would permit them to strike out that portion 
of caiTying the benefits to the private soldiers. This 
Mr. Laird emphatically refused to do and the bill 
was defeated. Mr. Laird was always regarded as a 
good parliamentary debater, and a hard worker. 
During the hours of session he was always found in 
his seat unless occupied with committee work. His 
course in Congi-ess was most creditable to him- 
self and the State of N.-l,rask:L At each re-eJection 
he was returned to Congress witli a large and in- 
creased majority. He was becoming strong and in- 
fluential with his party in the House, and would 
soon have become one of the foremost men in Con- 
gress had not death ended his career while he was 
in the prime of life. During his last term in Con- 
gress his arduous labors undermined his health. 
Ever}- effort was made by his friends to restore his 
health, and the best medical talent in the United 
States was called into service ; but his usuallj- robust 
constitution had received too great a shock, and on 
Saturday morning, August 17, 1889, the breath of 
life left his long suffering fi-ame, and James Laird 
was at rest. He was buried in Parkview cemetery 
at Hastings, Neb., on August 19, 1889, with the 
most imposing funeral rites ever witnessed in Ne- 

Hon. T. M. Marquette. Neljraska's first Congress- 
man, came to Nebraska in 1856 and located at 
Plattsmouth. He commenced the practice of law 
in 1857, and took an active interest in politics. He 
represented Cass County in the Territorial Legisla- 
ture in 1857, 1858 and 1859. In 1860 he was 
elected to the Council, and held that position four 
years, declining a fifth nomination. Upon the 
admission of the State he was elected to represent 
Nebraska in Congress. His term of office expired 

two days after he had taken his seat, and he declined 
re-election. He has been the general attornej- for 
the Burlington & Missouri River Railroad ever since 
that road was built into the State. His home is at 

Hon. Lorenzo Crounse represented Nebraska in 
Congress from 1872 to 1876. He was born in New 
York State on January 27, 183-t. He received his 
education in that State, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1856. He continued in the practice of his pro- 
fession until 1865, when he removed to Nebraska, 
settling in Richardson Count}-. He was elected 
from the latter county to the Territorial Legislature 
in the fall of 1856, and served one term. He helped 
frame the first constitution of the State, and 
advocated its adoption. In May, ' 1866, he was 
unanimously nominated for associate justice of the 
Supreme Court, and was elected in June of the same 
year. He held the office for the full term of six 
years, and at the expiration of his term was elected 
to represent his State in Congress. At the comple- 
tion of his service of four j-ears in Congress he was 
appointed internal revenue collector for the State, 
holding the position for a number of years. 

Hon. John A. McShane, who represented Ne- 
braska in Congress from 1887 to 1889, was bom in 
New Lexington, Perry County, Ohio, August 25, 
1850. He lived in that State until 1874, when he 
removed to Nebraska. He engaged extensively in 
the cattle industry, and amassed a comfortable 
competency. He was elected to Congress on the Dem- 
ocratic ticket in 1887, and held his seat for one 

Hon. William J. Council was Ijorn at Cowans- 
ville, Canada, July 6, 1840, and removed to New 
York in 1857, where he received an academic educa- 
tion. In 1867 he came to Omaha, Neb., where. he 
has since resided. He was admitted to the practice 
of law in 1869, and has been engaged in his profes- 
sion since that date. In 1872 he was elected dis- 
trict attorney of the Third judicial district, and re- 
elected in 1874. Was appointed city attornej- of 
Omaha in 1883, and held that position until 1887. 
In 1889 he was elected to the List Congress as a 

Hon. Gilbert Lafavette Laws was born in Rich- 



land County, 111., on March 11, 1S3S; removed 
with his parents to Wisconsin in 1S4G, where he re- 
ceived his schooling, completing his education at 
Haskell University and Milton College. Leaving 
college, he taught school until the breaking out of 
the Rebellion, when he enlisted in the Fifth Infantry, 
Wisconsin Volunteers. At the battle of Williams- 
burg, Va., on May 5, 1862, he received wounds 
which incapacitated him from active service. He 
returned to Wisconsin, where he resided until 1876, 
when he removed to Orleans, Neb., and assumed 
editorial management of the Republican Valley- 
Sentinel. In 1881 he was appointed register of the 
United States land office at McCoolv, and served in 
that capacity until 1886, when he was elected secre- 
tary of State. He was re-elected in 1888, but re- 
signed in 1889 to accept a seat in Congress. 

Hon. George W. E. Dorse v, of Fremont, was 
born in Loudoun County, Va. , January 25, 1842. 
He received his education in Preston County, W. 
Va. , and entered the Union army in 1861, as firsts 
lieutenant of the Sixth West Virginia Infantrj' ; was 
promoted to the rank of captain and of major, and 
was mustered out of service with the Army of the 
Shenandoah, in August, 1865. He removed to 
Nebraska in 1866, studied law and was admitted to 
practice in 1869 ; has engaged in the banking busi- 
ness for the past ten years ; was elected to the 
XLIXth, Lth and List Congresses, and still occu- 
pies his position. 

John M. Thurston, general solicitor of the Un- 
ion Pacific Railroad Company-, and one of the lead- 
ing members of Nebraska's legal profession, was 
born at Montpelier, Vt, August 21, 1847. He 
moved to Wisconsin in 1854 and received his educa- 
tion and was admitted to the bar in that State. Re- 
moved to Omaha in 1869. Being a close student, a 
|)r()fi)und thinker and a brilliant orator, he rose 
rapidly in his profession. Held the position of city 
attorney of Omaha from 1874 to 1877, serving one 
term in the State Legislature in the meantime. In 
1877 he resigned his city attorneyship to accept the 
position of assistant general solicitor of the Union 
Pacific Railway Company. In 1888 he succeeded 
A. J. Poppleton as general solicitor, a position 
which he still holds. He was elected a presidential 

elector in 1880. In 18SS he was a delegate to the 
National Rrpiil.licau eoiivfiUicm aii<l was elected 
tempi Jiarv rhaiiinaii. in tlir yr-AV Iss'.l he was 
eleetiMl president.. f the National Kcpiihlican League. 
Hon. 0. P. Mason, the first chief justice of Ne- 
braska after the admission of the State, was born in 
May, 1829, in Madison Coiaaty, N. Y., and made 
that State his home until 1852. He was admitted 
to the bar in the State of Ohio in 1854, and came to 
Nebraska the following j'ear, making his residence 
at Nebraska Citj-. He served in the Territorial 
Legislature for eight j-ears, and in 1868 was elected 
chief justice, an office which he held until 1872. 
Since his retirement from the bench Judge Mason 
has practiced his profession and holds a high rank 
among the lawyers in the State. He is at present 
one of the secretaries of the State railroad com- 

J. Sterling Morton, at one time Territorial secre- 
tary and acting governor of Nebraska, was born in 
Jeflferson County, N. Y., April 22, 1832. He 
moved to Michigan where he graduated at the State 
University, at Ann Arljor. He subsequent!}- took a 
post-graduate course at Union College of New York. 
He came to Nebraska in November, 1854, and as- 
sumed editorial management of the Nebraska City 
News. In 1855 he was elected to the Territorial 
Legislature. In 1858 he was appointed Territorial 
secretary- and became acting governor within a few 
months by the resignation of Gov. Richardson. He 
was the first democratic candidate for governor of 
the State and was defeated by but a few votes. He 
has been prominently identified with State and 
National politics, and is a member of the famous 
Cobden Club, of London. 

Hon. Amasa Cobb, ex-justice of the Supreme 
Court of Nebraska, was born in Crawford Count}-, 
III, September 27, 1823, and resided in that State 
until 1841, when he removed to Wisconsin. In 1847 
he enlisted for the Mexican War. At the close of 
the war he returned to Wisconsin and continued the 
practice of law until the opening of the Civil War. 
when he recruited a regiment and was its colonel. 
In the fall of 1862 he was elected a member of 
Congress, but remained with his regiment a greater 
portion of the time. He was re-elected to Congress 


in 1864, and again in 1866 and 1868. In 1869 he 
removed to Nebraska and continued in his profes- 
sion. He was elected to the supreme bench in 1878 
and served two tenns. 

George B. Lake, the second chief justice of Ne- 
braska, was born in Greenfield, Saratoga County, N. 
Y. , September 15, 1826. His only schooling during 
his minority was in the district schools of Ohio; but 
after he reached his majority he took a two years' 

course at Oberlin College. He commenced the study 
of law in 1849, and was admitted to the bar in 1851. 
He came to Omaha in 1857 and at once assumed a 
high place in the ranks of the attorneys of the Ter- 
ritory. He served in the Territorial Legislature and 
was speaker of the House in 1865. In 1867 he took 
his place on the supreme bench, to which he had 
been elected the year previously. He became chief 
justice in 1873, and held the position until 1878. 



Counties in the State— Brief Historical Sketches— Descriptive Account op Their Origin— Location, 

County Seats, Etc.— First Settlements— General Development— Advent of Railways— A Com 

MEBCIAL Necessity— Surveys of 18.53-54— Building of the Pacific Railroad— History of 

THE Enterprise- Central Pacific Railroad— The Consolidation. 

Not chaos-like, together crush'd and bruised. 
But as the world, harmoniously confused ; 
Where order in variety we see, 
And where, though all things differ, they agree. 


N the following pages will be 
found a very brief descrip- 
tion and historical sketch of 
a number of the counties of 

Adams County is named 
in the State records for the 
first time February 16, 1807, when the 
south bank of the Platte was fixed as 
its northern boundary. There were no 
iiihiiliitants there at the time, although 
Miutiiiicr N. Kress, Joe Fonts, James 
^4ji^iJ^ Baiiitor and others united or made tem- 

fporary camps here. In 1871 it was de- 
clared a county by executive proclama- 
tion and the first elections were held 
that year. During the days of Indian 
warfare there were no residents to injure, but the 
county is not without evidence of war. In August, 
1864, numbers of immigrants were given up to 
slaughter at the hands of the Sioux and their prop- 
erty, which could not be easily removed, given to 
the flames. In 1870 the pioneers of progress began 
to pour in — the earlier adventurers locating on the 
Blue, at Juniata, and at the point now known as 
Hastings City. Within a few jears the county took 
a leading place among the political divisions of the 

State, and after the county seat wars were ended, 
Hastings bloomed into the Queen City of the State. 

Antelope County is situated in the northeastern 
part of the State. It contains 864 square miles, or 
552,960 acres of land. The first recorded settle- 
ment was made by a French Canadian named 
' • Ponca George, " April 25, 1868. Other settlers fol- 
lowed in the same year. The county was raided by 
Indians in 1870 and 1871, but no serious depreda- 
tions were committed. The county was organized 
by the Legislature in 1871. Its county seat is Ne- 
ligh, and its principal towns are Oakdale, Neligh, 
Burnett, St. Clair and Clearwater. 

Boone County is in the fifth tier west of the Mis- 
souri River and the third north of the Platte. It 
has an area of 634 square miles. The first settle- 
ments were made in April, 1871, by a party consist 
ing of S. D. Avery, Albert Dresser, N. G. Myers, 
W. H. Stout, W. H. Prescott and others. Albion, 
the county seat, was platted in October, 1872, by 
Loran Clark. The other towns are St. Edwards, 
Petersburg and Cedar Rapids. 

Burt County is located in the eastern part of Ne- 
braska and contains 512 square miles. It was 
named in honor of Francis Burt, and was organized 
in 1854 by Gov. Cuming, it being one of the eight 
original counties. Tekamah, the county seat, was 




founded in 1855 by A. B. Folsom, Z. B. Wilder. 
John B. Folsom and others. The other towns of 
the eountv are Arizona. Decatur, Oakland and 

Buflfalo County is located in nearly the central 
portion of tlie State and has an area of 900 square 
miles. It was first settled in 1858 by the Mormons 
who located at Wood River. In 1864 the county 
was overrun by the Indians who did a great deal of 
damage and frightened most of the settlers from 
their homes. The county was organized in 1870, 
with the city of Kearney as county seat. The Un- 
ion Pacific Railroad was completed through the 
county in 1866, and the Burlington & Missouri River 
Railroad in 1872. In common with the other coun- 
ties of the State Buffalo County was devastated by 
the grasshoppers in 1873 and 1874. Kearney, the 
count}' seat, was settled in 1870 and is to-day a city 
of nearly 10,000 inhabitants. By the enterprise of 
its citizens it has secured a fine water power by the 
construction of a canal from the Platte River. The 
prospects for Kearney becoming an important manu- 
facturing center are bright. The other important 
towns of the count}' are Gibson, Shelton, both on 
the line of the Union Pacific, and Ravenna. 

Butler County is located in the eastern part of 
the State, fifty-one miles west of the Jlissouri River, 
and contains an area of 377,600 acres. It is well 
watered by the Platte, Blue and other streams. The 
count}' was first visited by the Fremont exploring 
expedition in 1842, and the first permanent settle- 
ment was made in 1857. The countj- was not organ- 
ized until 1868. Savannah was the county seat, 
but after a bitter struggle lasting four years that 
distinction was conferred upon David City. The 
first railroad built through the county was completed 
in 1880 by the Burlington & Missouri Company. 
The principal towns of Butler County are David City, 
Ulysses, Rising Citj', Brainard, Bellwood and Oc- 

The boundaries of a count}' named Clay were 
fixed by the act of March 2, 1855, and the county 
seat established at an imaginary town called Clayton. 
The act of 1856 transferred the name to the present 
county and defined its boundaries. By an act of 
February 15, 1864, an old county in the eastern part 

of the State was abandoned, when the northern half 
was attached to Lancaster and the southern half to 
Gage, and by the act of February 16, 1867, the name 
was confirmed to the present county. The procla- 
mation to organize was issued September 11, 1871, 
while the population was 356. The county seat wars 
were can-ied on up to 1879, when the center of the 
county was selected as the seat of justice. During 
the pioneer days (1857-66) the Indians infiicted many 
injuries on the whites, and during the raid on the 
California trail carried murder and rapine into the 
homes of the settlers. The county seat, oiitside the 
courtrhouse, is a primitive village, but throughout 
the county are several towns — Sutton, Harvard. 
Fairfield and Edgar being the principal business 

Cass County, one of the original counties of the 
State, is located on the Missouri River. It was 
visited by white men as early as in 1804. The first 
attempt at a permanent settlement was made in 
1853 by, Samuel Martin. In 1856 Cass County had 
a population of 1,251. The county was proclaimed 
in 1854 by Acting Governor Cuming. Plattsmouth 
was selected as the county seat in 1861. The first 
company of Nebraska volunteers in the War of the 
Rebellion was organized at Plattsmouth on the same 
day that the news of the breaking out of the war 
was received. The Burlington & Missouri Railroad 
was built through the county in 1869, the principal 
shops of that company being located in Plattsmouth. 
The Missouri Pacific Railroad was completed through 
the county in 1882. Plattsmouth was founded in 
1853, and contains a population of from 8,000 to 
10,000. The other towns of the county are Weei)- 
ingWater, Louisville, Greenwood, Rock Bluff and 

Cedar County is located in the northeast corner 
of the State, and has an area of 730 square miles. 
It was organized in 1857. In the years 1858, 1862 
and 1863 the Indians committed many depredations 
in Cedar County, burning homes, stealing stock and 
murdering a few settlers. St. Helena is the county 
seat, and the other principal towns are St. James 
and Hartington. 

Cheyenne County is located in the extreme 
western part of the State. Previous to the construe- 


tion of the Union Pacilic Railway tlie settlements in 
the county were few and far Ijetweeu. The couutj' 
was organized in 1870- Sidney, the principal town, 
was laid out in 1867, a United States military post 
being established there in that year. When the 
Black Hills excitement was at its height Sidne}- be- 
came a j'oung city, doing an immense business. 
But other routes to the Hills have been opened, and 
Sidney has lost much of the trafHc that once thronged 
her streets. 

Custer County is one of the largest counties of 
Nebraska, and is located in the geographical center 
of the State. It contains 2,590 square miles. It 
was not settled by the whites until 1877 and 1878. 
In the early days of its history Custer County was 
the scene of much lawlessness, but to-day is one of 
the most prosperous and orderlj' counties in the 
State. Its county seat is Broken Bow, a city but a 
few years old, but giving evidence of remarkable 
prosperity. The Burlington & Missouri Railroad 
was built through the county in 1887. 

Colfax County is one of the eastern counties of 
Nebraska, and contains 276,480 acres of land. It 
was settled in 1856, but the early settlements did 
not flourish until the completion of the Union Pacific 
Railwaj- through the county in 1868. With the 
advent of that road, however, the county grew 
rapidlj- in population. Schuyler, the county seat, 
was founded in 1869. It is a thriving little city. 
The only other town of importance is Benton. 

Cuming County is in the northeastern part of 
the State, and contains 504 square miles. It was 
originally settled in 1856, although its boundaries 
were defined by a Territorial act in 1853. West 
Point, the county seat, was platted in 1869, and is 
one of the best known towns in the northeastern 
part of the State. Bancroft is the only other town 
of importance in the county. 

Dakota County is situated in the northeastern 
part of the State, and was one of the original coun- 
ties of the State. It was settled previous to 1855, 
and was organized on March 7 of that year. The 
county seat is Dakota City, founded in 1856. The 
other principal towns of the count}' are St. John's, 
Jackson, Homer, Hubbard and Covington. 

Dawson Countv is situated 215 miles west of the 

Mis.souri River, and contains 1,008 square miles. 
In the times of the old overland freight and emi- 
grant traffic, Dawson County presented many lively 
aspects. Ranches were established every few miles 
along the route. The county was settled in 1861-63. 
On August 7, 1864, the Indians made a general 
attack upon all white settlements along the Fremont 
trail, the first attack being made in Dawson County 
on eleven emigrants in one party. Troops were sent 
to the scene of the outljreak, and the Indians were 
finally driven back. Plum Creek, the county seat, 
was established in 1871. In 1889 the name of this 
town was changed to Lexington. The other towns 
of Dawson County are Overton and Cozad. The 
latter place from its location was formerly known as 
Hundredth Meridian. 

Dixon County is in the northwestern part of the 
State, and was organized in 1858. Previous to the 
advent of the whites Dixon County was the abiding 
place of several tribes of Indians, chief among which 
were the Poncas. The settlement of the county was 
considerably retarded in 1862, b}- fears of a general 
Indian massacre, and in pursuance to a call of the 
general government a militarj' company was raised 
in the county for the protection of the inhabitants. 
Ponca, the county seat, was platted in 1856, but the 
growth of the town was slow until 1876, at which 
time the Covington, Columbus & Black Hills Rail- 
road was completed to the place. Wakefield and 
Martinsburg are also thriving towns in Dixon 

Dodge County is located in the second tier of 
counties from the Missouri River, and has an area of 
540 square miles. The first settlement was made in 
1856. On September 3, of that j'ear, a town com- 
pany was formed and the future city named Fre- 
mont, in honor of the distinguished explorer. The 
citizens of Fremont led a troubled existence for a 
time, as the Pawnee Indians had their principal vil- 
lage on the opposite side of the Platte River, and 
looked upon the advent of the pale face with consid- 
erable disfavor. A militar}- company was stationed 
there until all fears of an outbreak were allayed. 
The financial panic of 1857 retarded the growth of 
Fremont and Dodge County considerably, some of the 
settlers being compelled to bon'ow money at 60 per 


cent to tide them over their difflculties. The Union 
Pacific Railroad was built through the county in 
1866, and from that time the population rapidly in- 
creased. In 1869 the Sioux City & Pacific Railroad 
was built into Fremont, and the same year the con- 
struction of the Elkhorn Valley branch of that line 
was commenced. To-day Fremont has a population 
of 10,000, and is gi-owing rapidly. The other towns 
of Dodge County are North Bend. Scribner,' Pebble 
and Hooper. 

Douglas County, in the eastern part of the State, 
was one of the original counties proclaimed by Act^ 
ing Governor Cuming. The first important settle- 
ments were made at Florence by the Mormons in 
1844; but after the exodus to Salt Lake City the 
county was uninhabited for a number of years. The 
particulars of the permanent settlement of Douglas 
County are given in another chapter of this volume. 
Omaha, the county seat of Douglas County, and the 
metropolis of the State, was founded in 1854 by 
Jesse and Enos Lowe, A. D. Jones and others. In 
that same year the Ten-itorial capital was located at 
Omaha, and the city at once became the principal 
town of the Territoiy. In 1856 the young city 
began to grow rapidlj'. Early in that year a num- 
ber of brick blocks were put up. Banks and news- 
papers were established, and schools and churches 
erected. The panic of 1857, of course, had its 
depressing effect on Omaha's prosperity, but the 
tide which had set in was not checked long. In 
1859 business of all kinds revived to a wonderful 
extent. In 1860 it was estimated that the city had 
1,500 buildings, and 4,000 inhabitants. Duriug the 
war the growth of the city was slow. On December 
3, 1863, ground was broken for the Union Pacific 
Railroad, and from that time onward Omaha grew 
more rapidly. In 1867 the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railroad was completed to the city. In 1870 the 
city had a population of 16,000. In the decade 
that elapsed from 1870 to 1880 the growth of the 
place was but little short of wonderful. In the latter 
year the population had increased to 36,000. To- 
day Omaha is a city of 150,000 people, and is 
growing at an unprecedented rate. 

Dundy County is situated in the extreme south- 
western part of the state. It is one of the newer 

counties, having been settled and organized since 
1883. Its county seat is Benkleman. The Burling- 
ton & Missouri Railroad was completed through 
the county in 1882. 

Fillmore County is located about twenty-four 
miles north of the southern boundary of the State, 
and has a superficial area of 576 square miles. The 
first settlements in the county were made in June, 
1866, by William Bussard and William Whitaker. 
These two men were the only settlers of the county 
until 1868, when a few more settlers came to the 
locality. It was not until 1870, however, that the 
rush of immigration commenced. The county was 
organized in 1871. In that year Geneva and Fair- 
mount were laid out, Geneva being made the county 
seat. The other towns of the county are Grafton, 
founded in 1874, and Exeter, founded in 1871. 
The Burlington & Missouri River Railroad was built 
through the county in 1871. In 1888 the Fremont, 
p]lkhorn & Missouri Valley line was extended 
through the county. 

Franklin County is in the southern tier of coun- 
ties of the State, 175 miles west of the Missouri 
River, and has an area of 576 square miles. It was 
settled in 1870 by a colony from Omaha, and in the 
following year a military company, including every 
man in the colony, was formed for protection against 
the Indians. The county was foi-mally organized in 
September, 1871. Bloomingtou, the county seat, 
was laid out in 1872. The Burlington & 3Iissouri 
Railroad was extended through the county in 1879. 
The United States land office is located at Bloom- 
ingtou, but at the present writing nearly all of the 
public lands have been taken up. The principal 
towns of the county are Franklin, Riverton and 

Frontier County is situateci well toward the 
southwestern part of the State, and has an area of 
576 square miles. It was organized in 1872, at that 
time there being but a few settlers in the county. 
Stockville is the county seat and Curtis the princi- 
pal town. The Burlington & Missouri River Rail- 
road was built through the county in 1888. 

Furnas County lies in the southern tier of coun- 
ties, and contains 720 square miles. The first set- 
tler of the county was Benjamin Burton, who located 


there in 1870. Other settlers followed iu the same 
year. In the following j-ear fully 150 settlers with 
their families came to the county. The countj' was 
formallj- organized in 1873, and the name was given 
it in honor of Robert W. Furnas, then governor of 
Nebraska. For several years the location of the 
county seat caused considerable strife between the 
citizens of Arapahoe and Beaver Citj-, the contest 
being finally decided in favor of the latter. The 
principal towns are Arapahoe, Oxford, Beaver City 
and Hendley, the latter place being established b}- a 
Hastings town site company in 1888. 

Gage Count}' is in the third tier of counties west 
of the Missouri River, and contains 864 square miles. 
Its location, wealth and population make it one of 
the most important counties of the State. The fii-st 
settler was David Palmer, who came to the county 
in 1854 or 1855. In 1857 a colony of thirty-five 
men, a number of them with families, formed a setr 
tlement which was named Beatrice, in honor of a 
daughter of Judge McKinney, a member of the 
colony. In the same year another settlement was 
made seven miles north of Beatrice, and still an- 
other at Blue Springs, ten miles southeast of Be- 
atrice. The Indians caused some trouble in the 
early history of these settlements, but the treaties 
made by the government soon brought peace to the 
county. To a citizen of Gage County belongs the 
honor of having secured the first homestead entered 
in the United States. The homestead law went into 
effect on Januarj- — ,1863, and on that daj- Daniel 
Freeman took his claim. His patent is numbered 1, 
and is recorded in volume 1 , page 1 , of the records 
of the general land office at Washington. Beatrice, 
the county seat, is one of the principal cities of 
Nebraska, and has a population of about 12,000. 
The other towns of the county are Blue Springs, 
Wymore, Libertj', Odell, Holmesville, Adams and 

Greeley County is situated a little northeast of 
the center of the State, and contains 576 square 
miles. Its original settlement dates back to 1871. 
The county was organized on October 8, 1872. The 
county seat was located at Scotia. The other towns 
of the count}- are O'Connor and Spaulding. 

Gosper County is in the western part of the 

State, and contains an area of 448 square miles. It 
was settled iu 1872 and was organized in 1873. 
Owing to the lack of railroad facilities, the county's 
population increased slowly until after the year of 
1882, since which time it has enjoyed a rapid and 
steady gi'owth. Homerville is the county seat. 

Hall County boundaries were established by the 
act of November 4, 1858, with the Platte River 
forming the southern boundary. The act of Febru- 
ary 1, 1864, re-defined such boundaries. This act 
was repealed on February 15, and not until March 
1, 1871, were the present Congressional boundaries 
fixed. The settlement dates back to July 2, 1857, 
when a party of Germans and a few Americans 
arrived here. During the first decade of pioneer life 
the Indians committed some depredations and mur- 
ders here, and would have extended the work of 
rapine had the people not erected Fort Indepentl- 
ence and O. K. Fort. The county forms one of the 
richest agricultural districts west of the Missouri , 
and here, in 1889, the headquarters of the beet 
sugar industr}- were established. In early years the 
Spaniards are said to have explored this section, but 
not until 1739 are there records of actual explo- 
ration. In that year the French party, referred to 
in other pages, traversed the valley of the river and 
named the broad stream La riviere Platte. 

Hamilton County is located nearly in the cen- 
tral portion of the State, and contains an area of 
over 500 square miles. Its first permanent settle- 
ment was made in 1866. The county was organ- 
ized in 1870, the county seat then being located at 
Orville, but after a bitter contest lasting for several 
years it was moved to Aurora, in 1876. To-day 
Aurora is a thriving town of 2,000 inhabitants, and 
the junction of two branch lines of the Burlington & 
Missouri River Railroad. 

Harlau County is located in the southwest part 
of the State, and contains an area of 576 square 
miles. Its first settlement dates back to 1870. 
The county was organized in 1871. Alma, the 
county seat, was founded in 1872. The other towns 
of the county are Orleans, Republican Cit}- and 

Hitchcock County is located in the southwestern 
part of the State and contains 720 square miles. 



It was first permanently settled iu 1869 by ranch- 
men. It was not until 1872 that the farmers settled 
in any numbers. The count}' was organized iu 1873. 
In the fall of that year the memorable fight between 
the Sioux and the Pawnee Indians tools place, in 
which the latter were defeated with terrible loss. 
Culbertson is the county seat and principal town. 

Howard County is situated in the fertile Loup 
^' alley and contains an area of 576 square miles. 
It was settled in 1870 and formally organized in the 
following year. St. Paul is the county seat and 
the principal city. The other towns are Dannebrog 
and St. Libory. 

Hayes County is in Southwestern Nebraska and 
contains 576 square miles. It has been settled and 
developed since 1882. Hayes Centre is the county 
seat and principal town. 

Holt Count}- is one of the largest counties in the 
State, containing 2,412 square miles. It was set- 
tled in 1872 and formally organized in 1876. 
O'Niell is the county seat, and the other towns of 
the county are Stuart, Paddock, Ford and Atkinson. 

Jefferson County was first known as Jones 
County in the early history of Nebraska, but in 
1871 the boundaries of the present county were de- 
fined bj' an act of the Legislature. The count}- con- 
tains 576 square miles and was originally settled in 
1855 or 1856. The Indians were extremely trouble- 
some in the early history of the county. Fairbury, 
the county seat, was laid out in 1869. It is a thriv- 
ing young city of about 5,000 inhabitants and quite 
a railroad center. The other towns of the county 
are Steele City and Endicott. 

Johnson County is situated in the southeastern 
part of the State and contains 378 square miles. 
It was first settled in 1856 and formally organized 
in 1857. Its county seat is Tecumseh and its other 
towns, Sterling, Elk Creek, Helena. Vesta and 
Spring Creek. 

Keith County is situated in Western Nebraska 
and contains an area of 2.016 square miles. It was 
organized iu 1873. Ogalalla is its county seat and 
principal town. 

Knox County was organized by the Territorial 
Legislature in 1857, and named LEan Qui Court, 
that being the French name for the River Nebraska. 

The name was changed to Knox in lS7o. Iu its 
early history the white settlers disputed with the 
Ponca Indians for the possession of their lands, 
but happily no bloodshed occurred. The Santee 
Sioux reservation is situated in the northern part of 
the county. Niobrara is the county seat, while 
Creighton and Bazile Mills are thriving towns. 

Lancaster County is situated fifty miles west of 
the Missouri River and contains 86-4 square miles. 
It was first settled in 1857 and foi-mally organized 
in 1859. Lincoln was chosen as the State capital in 
1867. It is the second city of Nebraska and is 
growing rapidly. The State house was completed in 
1889, and is one of the handsomest buildings of the 
kind in the West. The State University, State Pen- 
itentiary and State Insane Hospital are located at 
Lincoln. The Wesleyan and Advent Colleges are 
also located in the city. Lincoln is also the most 
important railway center in the State, the Burlington 
& Missouri River Railroad and numerous branch 
lines, the Union Pacific, Fremont, Elkhorn & Mis- 
souri Valley and 3Iissouri Pacific roads centering 
here. The United States court house was erected 
in 1889, at a cost of $200,000. The other towns of 
Lancaster County are Bennet, Waverly, Firth and 

Lincoln County is located iu the western central 
pai-t of the State and contains an area of 2,592 
square miles. It was originally settled in 1858, 
although the county had been repeatedly visited by- 
fur traders and explorers, as far back as the year 
1762. The great overland trail passed through this 
county, over which from 1,000 to 2,000 emigrant 
and freight wagons traveled daily. Fort McPherson 
was established in the county by the government iu 
1863. The county was organized in 1860. North 
Platte, the county seat, was laid out in 1866, and is 
the leading city of Western Nebraska. It is the 
home of William F. Cody, or " Buffalo Bill." 

Madison County is east of the central part of the 
State and contains 576 square miles. It was settled 
in 1S65 and formally organized in 1868. Norfolk 
is the principal town of the county, as well as of 
Northern Nebraska. The other towns of the county 
are Madison, which is the county seat, and Battle 


Merrick County is situated iu tlie Platte Valley 
and contains 468 square miles. It Was first settled in 
1859, but formallj' organized in 1858. Central City 
is the county seat and principal town and was laid 
out in 1866. The other towns of the county are 
Clark's, Silver Creek and Chapman. 

Nance County lies near the central part of the 
State and contains an area of 450 square miles. It 
was first settled in 1857 and was formally organized 
in 1879. FuUerton is the county seat. Genoa, one 
of the principal towns, was first settled in 1860. 
One of the principal Indian schools of the country 
is located at this point. 

Nemaha County- was known during the early years 
of the Territorial organization as Forney County, 
but its present name was given it at the first session 
of the Territorial Legislature. The particulars of the 
settlement of the countj' are given in the main body 
of this sketch. The principal towns of Nehama 
County are Brownville, Carson, London and Peru 
(the State Normal school being located at the latter 
place), Auburn, Brock, Aspinwall, Johnson, Clif- 
ton, St. Deroin, Febing and Bedford. 

Nuckolls County is situated in the southern 
tier of counties, 100 miles west of the Missouri 
River. Its settlement dates back to 1858. It was 
formally organized in 1871. The earlier settlers 
had considerable trouble with the Indians, and iu 
1866 ever}- settler was driven from the county. 
Many settlers were killed during the Indian troubles, 
and it was not until 1869 that hostilities entirely 
ceased. Nelson is the county seat, although Supe- 
rior is the principal town of the count}-. Hardy is 
also a thriving town. 

Otoe County is centrally located on the Missouri 
River in Southwestern Nebraska. It has a river 
frontage of eighteen miles and contains about 390 ,- 
000 acres. The first settlement was made in 1846, 
when the United States government established , on 
the present site of Nebraska City, a military post, 
called Fort Kearney. In the fall of 1848, the post 
was abandoned for new Fort-Kearnej- on the Platte 
River. Nebraska Cit}- is the county seat of Otoe 
and also its principal town. Other towns of Otoe 
County worthy of notice are Syracuse, Palmyra and 

Pawnee County is in the southeastern part of the 
State and contains 276,480 acres of well watered 
and tillable land. It was first settled in 1854, at a 
little village called Cincinnati, about fourteen miles 
from the present site of Pawnee City. The county 
seat is Pa:wnee City. Table Rock and Cincinnati 
are thriving towns. 

Pierce Count}' was created in 1859, by the Terri- 
torial Legislature. It contains 368,640 acres of 
land. The first settlement was made in 1866. 
Pierce, the present county seat, was founded in 1870. 
Plainview and Colbergen are post otHces in this 

Phelps County is situated on the divide between 
the Platte and Republican Rivers. The early set- 
tlers were much troubled with the Indians, and little 
was done toward the settlement till 1872-73, when a 
heavy immigration commenced, and the country is 
now nearly all occupied. Holdrege is the county 

Platte County is the fourth in the tier of eastern 
counties. It comprises 684 square miles or 437,- 
760 acres of land. Its settlement dates back to 
1856. In the summer of 1863, the Sioux made 
numerous raids, murdering settlers and burning 
property. The Union Pacific Railway reached Col- 
umbus, the county seat, in June, 1866, and from 
that time the growth of the county has been rapid. 
Columbus is the county seat and a thriving cit}-. 
Other points of business importance in the county 
are Humphrey and Platte Center. 

Polk County is the fourth county west of the 3Iis- 
souri River, in the fourth tier of counties from the 
south. It contains 450 square miles or 288,000 
acres of land all susceptible of cultivation. It was 
originally part of Butler County, but. by act of 
Legislature, was included in its present boundaries, 
and the county seat was located in August, 1870, at 
Osceola. In 1887 Osceola furnished Nebraska with 
a speaker of the House of Representatives in the 
person of Hon. Albinus Nance, who later filled the 
j gubernatorial chair. Stromsburgh, a large, thriving 
town, was organized in 1872. 

Red Willow County is in the southern tier of 
counties, and lies in the Republican Valley. In ex- 
tent it is twenty-four miles from north to south and 


thirty miles from east to west. It was first settled 
in 1871, and organized as a countj' in 1873. In- 
dianola is the county seat of Red Willow County. 
McCook being the end of the division, midway be- 
tween the Missouri River and Denver, on the Bur- 
lington & jMissouri River Railroad in Nebraska, is a 
prosperous town, with machine shops and large 
round house. 

Richardson County occupies the southeastern 
corner of the State, and comprises 550 square miles. 
The county was settled in 1854. The first election 
was held in the fall of 185-t, ten votes being cast. 
Falls City, the county seat of Richardson Countj% 
was incorporated in 1858. Other towns worthy of 
mention are Humboldt, Rulo, Salem, Dawson and 

Saline County lies in the third tier of counties 
from the Missouri River, and in the second from the 
south line of the State. The first permanent settle- 
ment began in 1858, but the country was not organ- 
ized until February 18, 1867. The early settlers 
suffered somewhat from the depredations of the In- 
dians. Saline County in its early days was greatly 
agitated over the location of the county seat, and 
several contests were the result. The seat of gov- 
ernment was first located at Swanton, where it re- 
mained until 1871, when, after a spirited contest in 
which the city of Crete was a competitor, it was 
removed to Pleasant Hill. In 1877 another election 
was held and Wilber and Crete contested for the 
honor. Wilber was the choice and is now the 
county seat. Crete is a large and growing town, 
with unrivaled water facilities. It is a railroad cen- 
ter and has important educational interests. Here 
is located Doane College, which was opened in 1872, 
under the auspices of the Congregational Church. 
Other places of business importance in the county 
are De Witt, Dorchester, Friend, Pleasant Hill, 
Swanton and Western. 

Sarpy County was named in honor of one of 
Nebraska's pioneers, Col. Peter A. Sarpy, who came 
to Bellevue in 1823 as agent for the American Fur 
Company. This company had had a trading post 
at this point since 1810, and there are also accounts 
of the exploration and settlement of Sarpy earlier 
than that date. Although it was among the earliest 

to be settled, it was not until 1S57 that it was or- 
ganized as a county, being until that time a part of 
Douglas County. The first Nebraska postofflce was 
established at Bellevue in 1848. It was at Bellevue 
that the first Territorial governor died, having only 
been in the Territorj' ten days. Bellevue expected 
to secure the capital, but owing to the death of 
Gov. Burt was disappointed, as Gov. Cuming lo- 
cated it at Omaha. Sarpj- indulged in a county 
seat contest, and the county seat was located at 
Papillion, where it now remains. Springfield is a 
thi-iving town. 

Saunders County is in the second tier of counties 
west of the Missouri River. It embraces 483,840 
acres of rich, loamy soil. The first settlers arrived 
in March, 1857. The county was organized by a 
general election held October 8, 1867, and the 
county seat located at Ashland. The county seat 
was removed to Wahoo in 1873, and that place is 
the present county seat of Saunders County. Other 
towns worthy of mention are Weston, Valparaiso. 
Clear Creek and Mead. 

Seward County is located about sixty miles west 
of the Missouri River. It includes an area of 576 
square miles, rich in agricultural resources, being 
watered bj' the Big Blue River with its numerous 
tributaries. The first settlement made in the county 
was by Daniel Morgan and his three sons, who lo- 
cated a preemption claim in the fall of 1858. Sew- 
ard is the county seat of Seward County. Milford 
and Utica are also located in this county. 

Sherman County lies nearly in the center of the 
State, and is twenty-four miles square. The county 
was first settled by a party of men from Grand 
Island, who had received authority from the State 
government to form a countj- organization. The 
da}- appointed for the election was April 1, 1873. 
and resulted in the organization of Shei-man County , 
and the county seat at Loup City, where it still re- 

Stanton County has an area of 432 square miles, 
or 253,303 acres. Its date of settlement is 1865. 
Stanton is the county seat. 

Thayer County is about one hundred miles west 
of the Missouri River. It is twenty-lour miles 
square, and contains 368.640 acres of land well 


watered with numerous streams. The Indians gave 
a great deal of trouble in the early history of the 
county. The first settlers came in 1858, but the 
county was very little settled until after the close of 
the Civil War, when the United States government 
could protect the frontier from the depredations of 
the Indians. The first election held in Thayer 
County proper was in October, 1871. The county 
seat is Hebron. Alexandria, Hubbell, Carleton, 
Belvidere, Davenport, Chester, Friedensau and Har- 
bine are the other towns in Thayer County. 

Valle}- Count}' is located not far from the center 
of the State, and is in extent twent3--four miles 
square. It is one of the best watered counties in 
Central Nebraska, the North Loup River with its 
numerous creeks crossing the county. The first 
actual settlement in the county was in April and 
Maj-, 1872, by a party of Danes. The countj^ was 
organized in 1873, and the countj- seat was located 
on the site of the present town of Ord. North Loup 
is also a prosperous town in Valley Count}-. 

Washington County is situated on the eastern 
border of the State, midway from north to south. 
It contains 400 square miles, or 256,000 acres. In 
1859 the settlers and Indians engaged in what is 
known as the "Pawnee War," after which the set> 
tiers were unmolested. Blair is the county seat of 
Washington County. 

Wayne County lies in the northeastern portion of 
Nebraska. It embraces 322,560 acres of land. Its 
date of settlement is the summer of 1868. Wayne 
is the county seat. 

Webster County is situated in the southern tier 
of counties, about 150 miles west of the Missouri 
River. It is in extent twenty-four miles square, and 
consists of land well watered by the Republican 
River which flows across its entire breadth. The 
first settlement made in the county was in the spring 
of 1870 by the members of the Rankin Colony. 
They located at Guide Rock. The same season, Silas 
Garber, afterward the governor of the State of Ne- 
braska, pushed on up the river to where Red Cloud 
now is, and made a settlement. Webster County 
was organized in 1871. Red Cloud is the county seat 
and largest town. Guide Rock, Blue Hill, Cowles 
and Amboy are located in Webster County. 

York County is about ninety miles west of the 
Missouri River, and about sixty from the south line 
of the State. The first settlement of Y^ork County 
was the establishment of five posts for purpose of 
furnishing supplies to travelers on what was known 
as the "Old Government" or "California Trail," 
which led through the region now known as Yorlv 
County. The first permanent settlement was made 
in February, 1865, by John Anderson who, with his 
son William, took up homestead claims, and are 
honored as the pioneer settlers. The county was 
organized in 1870, before that being a part of 
Seward County. At the same election the county 
seat was located at Y'ork, where it still remains. 
Bradshaw and Waco are other towns worthy of men- 
tion in York County. 

Within the past four years a number of new 
counties have been organized in the westei-n and 
northwestern parts of the State. In 1880 Sioux 
County comprised within its limits about one-fifth of 
the entire superficial area of the State. The rail- 
roads had not as yet been built through that part of 
Nebraska, settlements were few and far between, 
and there was really but little need of county or- 
ganization. But the rapid development of the north 
and western portions of the State, brought about by 
the construction of many lines of railroad, has 
entirely changed the map of Nebraska. Out of 
Sioux County have been formed the counties of 
Sioux, Grant, Arthur, Hooker, McPherson, Key a 
Paha, Brown, Cherry, Sheridan, Dawes, Box Butte, 
Scott's Bluflf, Deuel, Rock, Banner, Kimball and 
Logan. That part of Keith County lying south of 
the Platte River has also been erected into a separate 
county, known as Perkins County, and the northern 
half of Dundy County given a separate organization, 
and called Chase County. The settlement an'l or- 
ganization of these counties has been of too recent a 
date to admit of anything like a historical sketch. 
They are developing rapidly, and will soon be as 
populous and wealthy as many of their older sister 
counties of Nebraska. 

Kearney County is situated in Southern Ne- 
braska, and has an area of 576 square miles. The 
history of the county dates back to 1848, when 
Fort Kearney was established by the government- 


but the settlements made in and around this militaiy 
post were of a temporary character. Permanent 
settlers began to 'arrive in 1867, and their numbers 
increased so rapidlj- that in 1872 a permanent 
count}' organization was formed. Lowell was at 
that time the most important town and the count}- 
seat. In 1878, however, Minden was selected as 
the county seat. The other towns of Kearney 
County are Lowell and Newark. 

Thui-ston County is one of the newest counties 
of Nebraska. It was organized by the Legislature 
of 1888-89, and was formed of the territory em- 
braced in the Omaha Indian Reservation. It is 
situated on the Missouri River, between Burt and 
Dakota Counties. 

Under the different treaties with Great Britain 
and France, America's right to the country north of 
the forty-second parallel — now the States of Oregon 
and Washington — was conceded. Texas was ad- 
mitted in 1845 and in 1848 California and the Ter- 
ritories of New Mexico and L^tah had become a part 
of the Union. In this way the government acquired 
a vast territory, rich in agricultural and mining 
resources which would very materially increase the 
wealth and influence of the Nation if it could once 
be utilized. Commercially, it was rapidly becoming 
necessary that some means for communication be- 
tween the East and the West should be provided. 
In all ages, mankind has sought the shortest, most 
expeditious and economical route to market. The 
Panama route superseded the route to California by 
the way of the Cape of Good Hope. The freighters 
across the American Desert shortened the route 
again, but the time came when, not shorter, but 
more expeditious means were essential. 

Politically, also, it was seen to be necessary, as 
the breaking out of the late war demonstrated the 
fact that the isolation of California involved a peril 
to the Union. 

The necessity of building a railway connecting 
the East and the West had been recognized before 
this, however, and many plans had been proposed 
and rejected. In all the plans offered, Congressional 
aid was contemplated and suggested, the only point 
of difference being the manner in which this aid 
should be given. 

In 1853-54 nine routes were sur\'eyed across the 
continent on various parallels between British 
America and Mexico, under the supervision of Jeffer- 
son Davis, then Secretary of War. The results 
were submerged in the interests of the extreme 
southern line. It was thought impracticable to 
build a road through the central portion of the con- 
tinent because of the barriers in the way in the 
shape of the Rocky Mountains. There were engi- 
neers , however, who urged that the geography of the 
country and other features of excellence demon- 
strated, incontestibly, that the old Mormon trail up 
the north side of the Platte Ri^er was the most 

In June, 1857, a number of distinguished gentle- 
men from various portions of the LTnited States 
visited Omaha, and confeiTed with interests and cor- 
porations having in view the construction of the 
Pacific road by way of the Platte River and South 
Pass. They examined the city and vicinity, visited 
the Platte River, and united in recommending that 
an appeal to Congress be made for such reasonaljle 
grant of land and other aid as would give an impul.'^e 
to the building of the road. 

From the earliest days of the Territory, the 
people and official representatives of Nebraska 
favored the speedy completion of a line through the 
Valley of the Platte. By referring to the proceed- 
ings of the Legislature, it will be seen that this was 
one of the first and most cherished hopes of the new 
country. Every governor from Cuming to Saun- 
ders advocated the measure, and most urgent spirit 
was manifested throughout the decade from 1855 to 

On January 20, 1858, the committee, which had 
been appointed to inquire into the subject, reported 
through Senator Gwin, of California, a bill which 
proposed to locate the road at some point between 
the Big Sioux and Kansas Rivers to San Francisco. 
The bill provided for the donation of alternate sec- 
tions of land on each side of the route, and $12,500 
per mile, the same to be advanced upon the comple- 
tion of every twenty-five miles of road, until 
$25,000,000 were reached; the amounts thus ad- 
vanced to be returned in mail service and transpor- 
tation of men and munition of war ; 5 per cent of 


the stock to be issued, the President of the United 
States to recei\'e bids and locate tlie road. Tlie bill, 
however, was killed in the Senate. At the session 
in 1859-60, another effort was made and a bill intro- 
duced into the house by Mr. Curtis, of Iowa. It 
provided for the construction of a road across the 
continent, with branches from two points on the 
navigable waters of the Missouri, to converge and 
unite within 200 miles of that stream, thence on to 
the navigable waters of the Sacramento. 

In Januar}-, 1859, a memorial was adopted l)y 
the citizens of Omaha, and addressed to Congress, 
for a Pacific railroad up Platte Valley. This docu- 
ment set forth the advantages of the central route 
very clearly. This was circulated throughout the 
Territor}' of Nebraska and being heartily approved, 
was forwarded to Washington. 

After a month's discussion of the Curtis bill 
and its amendments by Congress, a motion to strike 
out all after the enacting clause, and authorizing 
the President of the United States to receive liids to 
contract for the construction of three routes to the 
Pacific, same to be submitted to the XXXVIIth 
Congi'ess, prevailed. 

Early in 1862 the question was again agitated 
and plans began to take definite shape. On Feb- 
ruary 5, 1862, Mr. Rollins, of Missouri, by unani- 
mous consent introduced a bill to aid in construct> 
ing a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri 
River to the Pacific Ocean, and to secure to the 
government the use of same for postal, military and 
other purposes. It was substantially the same bill 
that Gen. Curtis had submitted the previous session. 
A number of amendments were offered and accepted, 
and the final vote in the House resulted in its adop- 
tion, and the bill was sent to the Senate for con- 
currence. After numerons amendments made by 
the Senate and accepted by the House, the bill was 
finally approved, and became a law July 1, 1862. 

Among other things for which this bill provided 
was that certain men, their names being given, to- 
gether with five commissioners, to be appointed by 
the Seeretarj' of the Interior, were hereby created and 
erected into a bodj' corporate and politic in law and 
deed, by the name, style and title of "The Union 
Pacific Railroad Company." 

The bill further provided for the laying out and 
construction of a continuous railroad and telegraph 
line, with the appurtenances, from a point on the 
one hundredth meridian of longitude west of Green- 
wich, between the south margin of the Republican 
River and the north margin of the valley of the 
Platte River, in the Territory of Nebraska, to the 
western boundary of Nevada Territory; for the 
amount of capital stock ; the appointment of com- 
missioners and other officers ; the election of direct- 
ors; the right of way through public lands; the 
extinguishment of Indian titles; the donation of 
alternate sections, except mineral lands ; the con- 
veyance of lands upon completion of forty consecu- 
tive miles of road, and the issue and paj-ment of 
bonds therefor ; the designation of the route of the 
road ; time of completion ; for the completion of the 
main line in 1876 ; the company to make annual 
reports containing names of stockholders and direct- 
ors, amount of stock subscribed, description of lines 
of road surveyed, and cost, receipts and expenses ; 
also of general indebtedness. 

Subsequently an act amendatory of this act cre- 
ating the corporation was introduced into Congress, 
directing that the first meeting be held in Br3'an 
Hall, in the city of Chicago, on the first Tuesday of 
SeptemV)er, 1862. The objects of the meeting were 
the completion of the organization and the opening 
of subscription to the capital stock. The meeting 
was held as provided. Gen. A. R. Curtis presiding, 
with an attendance of twenty-three commissioners. 
The convention was permanently organized by the 
election of W. B. Ogden, of Illinois, as president, 
and H. V. Poor, of New York, as secretary. A 
committee of thirteen was appointed to advise and 
co-operate with the officers, and the meeting ad- 
journed subject to call of the president and secretary. 

On October 29, 1863, this great enterprise was 
formally organized at a meeting held in New Y'ork 
City, by the election of a board of thirteen directors, 
on the part of the stockholders, and the appointment 
of two directors on the part of the government, as 
follows, pursuant to the charter : George Opdyke, 
John A. Dix, T. C. Duvant, E. W. Dunham, P. 
Clark, E. T. M. Gibson, J. F. D. Louier, G. T. M. 
Davis, A. G. Jerome, August Belmont, L. C. Clark, 


Charles Tuttle, Henry Y. Poor, and George Gris- 
wold, New York City; J. Y. L. Priiyu, Albany; 
E. H. Rosekrans, Glens Falls; A. A. Lowe, San 
Francisco; W. B. Ogden and J. F. Tracy, Chicago; 
Nathaniel Thayer and C. A. Lombard, Boston; C. 
S. Bushnell, New Haven; J. H. Scranton, Scranton ; 
J. Edgar Thompson, Philadelphia; Ebenezer Cook 
and John E. Henry, Davenport; H. T. McComb, 
Wilmington, Del. ; Augustus Kontze. Omaha; John 
J. Blair, Belvidere, N. J. ; and S. C. Pomeroy, 
Atchison, Kan. 

The question now arose as to what place the 
president would select as the initial point of the 
road, and from the beginning it was asserted by 
many that Omaha or Council Bluffs offered superior 
advantages and inducements. In support of this 
conclusion, the advocates of these places argued that 
at that time four lines of railroads had been pro- 
jected and were in process of construction across the 
State of Iowa to points on the Missouri River — one 
with the avowed purpose of making Council Bluffs 
its western terminus. Another had abandoned its 
original plans and seemed to be making for the same 
point. Further, that there were many evidences 
that the Burlington & Missouri road, which was 
built for a distance of 100 miles west of Burlington, 
would be diverged to a point as near as practicable 
to, but south of the Platte River. 

These arguments and considerations undoubtedly 
weighed the balance in favor of Omaha, for on 
December 2, 1863, the engineer of the road received 
a telegram announcing that the President of the 
United States had fixed the initial point of the road 
on "the western boundary of the State of Iowa" 
opposite Omaha, and directing him finally to "break 
ground" and inaugurate the great work of that 

At 2 o'clock, on the date indicated, impressive 
ceremonies were held at the grounds donated to the 
railway company by the citj'. The ' ' first shovelful 
of earth" was removed by Gov. Saunders, Major 
Kennedy, of Omaha, and Mayor Palmer, of Council 
Bluffs, amid the roar of artillery from either shore 
of the Missouri. These proceedings were followed 
by addresses by Gov. Saunders, Mayor Kennedy, A. 
J. Poppleton, and George Francis Train, of New 

York, the festivities conclu(lin<i' with a grand ban- 
quet and ball, and a general illumination of the city. 

Work was commenced at once, and progressed 
expeditiously and satisfactorilj^ through 1864. To 
aid in the construction of the great National High- 
way, the United States government conferred upon 
the Union Pacific a magnificant land grant amount- 
ing to 12,000,000 of acres, or 19,000 square miles. 
These lands are contained in alternate sections of 
one square mile each, within a breadth of twenty 
miles on either side of the railroad, and extend 
along its entire line. 

The road had been located and placed under 
contract from the west bank of the Missouri River, 
a distance of 100 miles westerly, in the great valley 
of the Platte River, and surveys continued from that 
point to the one hundredth meridian of longitude. 
But in the fall of 1864 Jesse L. Williams, one of the 
government directors, and Silas Seymour, consult- 
ing engineer of the road, visited this portion of the 
line entering the Great Platte Yalley at the crossing 
of the Elkhorn River, and on their return to New 
York united in a recommendation that the company 
change the location of the line between the Missouri 
River and the Platte Yalley for the purpose of 
avoiding the heavy grades of eighty feet per mile. 

The matter was laid before the board of directors 
at their meeting in January, 1865, when a resolu- 
tion was adopted approving of the change, provided 
the facts assumed in the arguments of the govern- 
ment director and consulting engineer, in relation to 
the topography of the country and feasibility of the 
proposed line, should be borne out by actual surveys. 
A survej' of the proposed route was accordingly 
made, which showed results much more favorable 
than had been assured, and the work of grading 
was therefore suspended upon the old line, and 
commenced upon the new. 

This change was strongly protested against both 
by Omaha and by the Burlington & Missouri Rail- 
road Company; the former, because it would in- 
jure their city by the proposed change of route, as 
rapid improvements had been made and a large 
amount of capital invested about that city and 
Council Bluffs with full faith that the location was 
permanent. Tlie Burlington & Missouri protested 


because the proposed change would encroach some- 
what ou the territory and grants which had been 
appropriated to tliem to aid in the extension of their 
road. Howe^■er, the proposed change of route was 
approved of by President Andrew Johnson on Sep- 
tember 23, 1865. While this action was severely 
condemned hj the citizens of Omaha and Council 
Bluffs, the benefits to be derived l)y the former city 
and the couiitrj- around soon niaiiifcstt'il themselves. 

During the winter of ISO.") tlir track was laid as 
far west as Columbus. On Tui'sila\-, 3Fareh 13, 
1866, it was announced that sixty miles of the road 
had been completed, and awaited examination by 
the commissioners of the i;overnment. This exam- 
ination took place April IC, Istw;. In July, 1866, 
135 miles were annoum-eil as ready for the "cars" 
west of Omaha. 

While the Union Pacific had nearly crossed the 
plains of Nebraska, and was rapidly approaching 
the Rocky Mountain raii-v. tlir Central Pacific from 
the west was making eijiially gratifying headway. 
During the fall of 1867, the last and greatest of the 
tunnels of the western link was opened, and the 
erossini;- of the Sierra Nevada Mountains into the 
i^reat Salt Lal<e Hasin was effected. Early in 1868 
tlie rniou J'aeitie pierced the rich mineral regions 
of the mountains, and continued its movement 
toward the Pacific. 

The race between the Union and Central Pacific 
to build the greatest number of miles caused much 
rivalry and dissension, and proved very vexatious, 
if not damaging. The difficulties between the Union 
and Central Pacific were settled on April 9, 1869. 
under the following circumstances: It seems that 
the railroad committee of the House of Representa- 
tives on that date, after a stormy discussion, agreed 
to ask the passage of joint resolution, declaring that 
no bonds be issued to either corporation for the 
eight}--mile section between Ogden and Monument 

Point until Congress arrange for the junction of the 
two roads. 

In the meantime, and prior to the introduction 
of the resolution, the representatives of the two 
companies had met and arranged for the consolida- 
tion of the two lines. The junction was mutually 
agreed upon, and located at Promontory Point, Ije- 
tween Ogden and Monument Point, 

The completion of the road occurred on Monday, 
:\Iay 10, 1869. This event was celebrated with 
impressive ceremonies, amidst the rejoicings of a 

In 1888 there were 4,902. 67 miles of railroad in 
Nebraska, valued at $25,574,431.00. From 1881 
to 1886 the increase in railroad building was grad- 
ual; but by 1887, 845.72 miles were constructed, and 
1,072.58 miles the following year. That nearl3' 
5,000 miles of railways should have been built with- 
in the State in twent3--two years from the commence- 
ment of the first road in 1864, and that, in 1888, 
the State, once a part of the ' ' Great American 
Desert," as mapped out by our early geographers, 
should have railroads assessed for taxation at over 
$25,000,000, is a matter of wonder and astonish- 
ment. The names of the railroads within the State, 
as reported by the State Board of Equalization 
in 1888, are the Union Pacific, Burlington & Mis- 
souri River, Omaha & Southwestern, Nebraska, Re- 
publican Valley, Atchison & Nebraska, Lincoln & 
Northwestern, Nebraska & Colorado, Chicago, Ne- 
braska & Kansas, Omaha & Republican Valle}', St. 
Joseph & Grand Island, Sioux City & Pacific, Fre- 
mont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley, Chicago, St Paul, 
Minneapolis & Omaha, Chicago, Kansas & Nebraska, 
Republican Valley, Kansas & Southwestern, Grand 
Island & Wyoming Central, Omaha & North Platte, 
Lincoln & Black Hills, (Lincoln & Black Hills uu- 
operated), Kansas City & Omaha, Missouri Pacific, 
Oxford & Kansas aud Pacific, 





Nebraska's Important Cities — Sketch of Tueir Progress and Development — Material Advancement 
Noted— CuARACTER op Improvements— Present Interests— Attractions Offered— Lincoln, the 
Judicial Center — Omaha, the Commercial Metropolis — Public Prosperity — Edu- 
cational Facilities — The Public School System — Early- Enumera- 
tion — School Funds — Statistics — Denominational Insti- 
tutions of Learning — Local Colleges. 

Many things impossible to 
Have been by need to full 

"^j \ MONG the most interesting 

facts in tlie histoiy of any 

- f Stite are tliose relating to 

*■' its principal commercial 

centers. The following con- 

^ ise reference to a number 

V ~ ^1°^ ^^ important towns of Ne- 

Vf'3, '" '-'^' '•tr\es to indicate the rapid pro- 

^a*5j giobS made m the development of this 

'''^^r section of country. 

Beitnce tiie county seat of Gage 
rount\ IS pl( isantly situated on rolling 
ground on tne Big Blue River, about 
three miles west of the geographical cen- 
tre of the county. It was founded by a 
colony of emigrants in 1857, and named in honor 
of the daughter of Judge Kinney, a member of the 
colony. With the organization of the county that 
year it was made the seat of justice thereof, and as 
such it still continues. In 1871 the first railroad, 
th(! Omaha & Southwestern, was completed to Beat- 
rice, and since then several other lines have been 
constructed, so that at this writing seven railroads 
lead out from the city. Prior to the completion of 
the first road the growth of the place was slow, but 

perfection brought. — Dnjclen. 

has since been rapid. Its first school house was 
built in 1862, and Mrs. Frances Butler was its first 
teacher. The first church organized in the place 
was the Methodist Episcopal, organized in 1857 or 
1858. The school and church privileges of the city 
are now extensive. The city contains many fine 
business blocks, several banks and many mercantile 
houses, and a population bordering near to 10,000. 

Blair, the seat of justice of Washington County, 
is situated on a beautiful plateau about two and a 
half miles west of the Missouri River, at the cross- 
ing of the St. Paul, Minnesota & Omaha, and the 
Sioux City & Pacific Railroads. The plateau was 
settled in 1855 by three brothers, Jacob, Alexander 
and T. M. Carter. The town was founded and be- 
came the seat of justice in 1869, and in 1872 it was 
chartered as a cit}* of the second class. Its first 
school was taught, and its first church (M. E. ) estab- 
lished the year it was founded. It is now a pros- 
perous little city with several schools and churches 
and many mercantile houses, also banks and weekly 
newspapers. Its population reaches into the thou- 

Columbus, Platte County's judicial center, is on 
Loup River, and on the Union Pacific, Lincoln & 



s> >• 


Northwestern, and Omaha & Black Hills Railroads. 
It was founded in 1856, by the Pawnee City Com- 
pany and the Columbus Town Company consoli- 
dated, and was incorporated as a town in 1865, and 
became a city of the second class in 1873. It has 
flourishing schools, prosperous churches, good so- 
cietj', many mercantile houses, banks, fine public 
buildings and public works, newspapers, and every- 
thing constituting a growing young city. 

Crete, situated on Blue River in the north- 
eastern part of Saline County, at the crossing of 
two lines of the Burlington & Missouri River Rail- 
road, was laid out and established in the summer 
of 1870, by J. C. Bickle and the town company 
of a railroad company. There were three or four 
buildings on the site when the town was laid out, 
and in the fall of 1870, there were seventeen. The 
railroad was completed to Crete in 1871, and then 
came a mighty impetus to the growth of the town. 
It was incorjDorated that year as a second class city, 
and it is now a prosperous place containing several 
thousand inhabitants, Doane College, a noted insti- 
tution of learning, good public schools, numerous 
churches, banks, newspapers, many mercantile 
houses, and several manufacturing establishments. 

Falls City, the county seat of Richardson County, 
in the southeast corner of the State, situated at the 
crossing of the Missouri Pacific and the Burlington 
& Missouri River Railroads, was settled and founded 
in 1857. It was incorporated as a city in 1860, 
and re-incorporated in 1867, having lost its first 
charter in 1863. It is now a prosperous little city 
of about 3,000 inhabitants, with good schools, a 
complement of churches, newspapers, banks, a few 
manufacturing establishments, numerous commercial 
houses, benevolent, religious and literarj- societies, 
etc! , etc. 

Fremont is the county seat of Dodge County. 
It is on the Platte River, and on the Union Pacific, 
at the western terminus of the Sioux City & Pacific, 
and also at the terminus or crossing of several other 
lines of railway, and was founded in 1856 by Pin- 
ney, Barnard & Co. In 1860 it became the seat 
of justice for the county. It is distant from Omaha 
forty-seven miles, and from Lincoln fifty-two miles. 
The first court house, a two-story brick building. 

costing about $12,000, was erected in the winter of 
1867-68. The jail, costing about $15,000, was 
erected in 1875. The present court house, costing 
$60,000, was erected in 1S89. The town was incor- 
porated as a city of the second class in 1871. It is 
the outlet or market place for the products of the 
rich valleys of the Platte and Elkhorn. The first 
church at Fremont — the Congregational — was organ- 
ized in 1857 by Rev. I. B. Heaton, and the first 
school was taught, in 1858, by Miss Charity Colson. i 
3Iany denominations have since organized churches 
and erected comfortable and magnificent edifices, 
and the city contains two colleges, a large central 
and several other school buildings. It has the met- 
ropolitan features of a city, having street cars, gas 
and electric lights, water works, granite paved 
streets, three daily, four weekly and two monthly 
newspapers, a most extensive creamery, six rail- 
roads, twenty-two passenger trains daily, fine public 
buildings, eleven churches, eight school houses, free 
post delivery, five banks, a board of trade, numerous 
mercantile houses, and a large number of manufac- 

Its public improvements alone for the year 1889 
were as follows: Court house, $60,000; city hall, 
$13,000; granite paving, $35,000; water works ex- 
tension, $35,000; high school building, $27,000; 
ward school building, $11,000; street railway im- 
provements, $5,000; streets and sidewalks, $2,500; 
parks, $3,000; railroad improvements, $8,000; elec. 
trie fire alarm system, $2,000; total, $201,500. 
Fremont's population in 1880 was 3,031; in 1885 it 
was 5,600; on January 1, 1890, it was estimated at 

Grand Island, located on the north side of the 
Platte River (and only a short distance from it), and 
at the crossing of the Union Pacific and the Bur- 
lington & Missouri River Railroads, in Hall County. 
was founded in 1857 by a colony which started out 
from Davenport, Iowa, in May of that year. But 
little improvement, however, was made until the 
Union Pacific Railroad was completed to that point 
in 1866. The town then began to grow, a postoffice 
was established, and other improvements immedi- 
ately followed. In 1869 a United States Land Office 
was established at Grand Island. In the spring of 


1873 the town was incorporated as a citj-, The first 
church built therein was a German Roman Catholic, 
which was erected soon after the railroad survey of 
the town in 1866. Many other denominations have 
since organized societies and erected edifices for 
worship. Good schools were established early in 
the historj^ of the city, and its educational facilities 
are now of the first class. The city contains fine 
public buildings and public works, newspapers, 
banks, many mercantile houses, and all things nec- 
essary to constitute a flourishing place. 

Hastings, the county seat of Adams County, lo- 
cated on the Burlington & Missouri River Railroad, 
at the junction and crossing of several other railway 
lines, was laid out and established in 1872, by the 
" Hastings Town Site Companj'," on lands owned by- 
Walter Micklin, a member of the company, who 
made the first improvement bj- erecting a sod house. 
The same year Samuel Alexander opened the first 
business house in the town. The postofBce was es- 
tablished in the fall of that year. The city had a 
continuous and rapid growth from its inception, on 
account of which it became the seat of justice for 
the county in 1877. In April, 1874, it was declared 
an incorporated town, and before the year closed it 
became a city of the second class. With the begin- 
ning of the town, church societies were organized, 
and the first school was taught by Miss Phoebe Den- 
stoe in the spring of 1873. Space will not admit of 
specific mention of the phenomenal growth of the 
city. Suffice it to say that it has become a great 
railroad center, having the '■ Burlington " and its 
branches, the Hastings & Oberlin line, the Hast^ 
ings & Aurora line, the Chicago & Northwestern, St. 
Joseph & Grand Island and the Missouri Pacific; also 
an educational center, having the Hastings (Presby- 
terian) College, the Sistei'S of Visitation Academy 
(Catholic), a fine high school, and several ward 
school buildings. There are eight churches, viz. : 
Congregational, Presbj-terian, Methodist, Baptist, 
Episcopal, Catholic, Evangelical Asssociation and 
German Evangelical. The city has five banks, a 
number of loan and trust companies, water works, 
street railways, gas and electric lights, free postal 
delivery, many business houses, a hospital, public 
library, newspapers, and all other requisites of a 

substantial city. The improvements in Hastings 
for the single year of 1887 amounted to $1,450,595. 
The site of the citj' is a level plain, and the streets 
are wide and well paved, and cross at right angles. 
It contains many handsome business blocks, and the 
residences — from the palaces to the cottages — all 
have a neat and stylish appearance. The population 
is estimated at 12,000 or more. 

Kearney Junction, an important point in the 
Platte River Valley in Buffalo County, on the 
Union Pacific Railroad, at the junction therewith of 
the Burlington & Missouri River Railroad, was set- 
tled in 1871, and the same j-ear the postoffice was 
established there. The town was survej-ed in 1872, 
and both railroads were completed to it that year. 
In the spring of 1873 it contained about twenty 
buildings, and in the fall of 1874, upon a vote of 
the people of the county, it became the county seat. 
In Januarj', 1873, it was incorporated as a town, 
and in April, 1874, it was incorporated as a city. 
The first church in Kearney Junction was the 
Methodist Episcopal, organized in 1871 by Presid- 
ing Elder A. G. White and Rev. A. Collins, at the 
residence of the latter. The Presbyterian and Con- 
gregational Churches were organized the following 
3'ear, and since that time several other churches 
have been organized. The first school was taught 
in 1872 by Miss Fanny Nevins. The city has now 
a large central and other school houses, banking 
institutions, public works, and all the requisites of a 
growing city of several thousand inhabitants. 

Lincoln, the capital of the State and county- 
seat of Lancaster County, is situated on high rollmg 
lands in the southeast part of the State about fifty 
miles west of the Missouri, and thirtj- miles south- 
west of the Platte River at its nearest point. The 
first settlement on the site of the city was made in 
1863 by Elder J. M. Young and others composing 
a colony. Soon aiter a town was founded and 
named Lancaster, which name it retained until 1867, 
when it was chosen as the capital of the State, and 
the name changed to " Lincoln." At this time the 
town contained two country stores and four or five 
dwelling houses; and the county numbered about 
500 inhabitants. The State capitol was erected in 
1868, and has since been enlarged. In October, 


1867, the survey- of the city was completed. The 
streets running east and west were named from the 
letters of the alphabet commencing with "A" on 
the south and extending to " U" on the north, not 
including the letter I. The streets running north 
and south were numbered from First on the west to 
Seventeenth on the east, making thirt3'-seven streets, 
with an average length of one and a quarter miles, 
or an aggregate of about forty-six miles. The site, 
however, was cut into by a reservation on the north- 
west corner of about twenty acres, and another pene- 
trating from the northeast as far as street to the 
south and Fourteenth to the east. The four blocks 
bounded bj- H and K and Fifteenth and Sixteenth 
Streets were reserved for the capitol, another tract 
of the same size bounded by R and T and Tenth and 
Twelfth Stivcts was rcscrvrd for the State University , 
and the M..rks iMiiinil.'d by D and F and Sixth and 
Kightii Strci'ts were itsitvcmI for a park. Reserva- 
tions of one block each were made for a court house. 
State Historical Society and a market square. All 
cliuiihes apph'ing had a reservation of three lots 
set a|iart to them. The blocks were 300 feet square 
and laid out into twenty-four business, or twelve 
resident lots, with a frontage of twenty-five and 
fifty feet. The streets were 100 feet wide with the 
exception of D, J. 0, S, Seventh, Eleventh and 
Fifteenth, which were 120 feet wide and called 

The first church in Lincoln, the Congregational, 
was organized in August, 1866; and the first school 
was taught in 1867, by G. W. Peck. In April, 

1868. the town was incorporated, and in 1871 it was 
chartered as a city. At this writing, 1890, it is 
only twenty-seven years since the site of the city 
was first settled by white men, and only twenty- 
three years since it was surveyed for a town. Not- 
withstanding this short period of time, it is now the 
railroad, political and educational centre of the 
State. Among the industries, religious and educa- 
tional institutions of the city are the following: 
Eleven banks, the State fair, seventy factories, 
twenty-six schools, three great universities, three 
public libraries, thirty-eight churches, sixty-eight 
wholesale houses, thirteen temperance unions, seven 
building brick works, twelve miles of paved 

the best paper mill in the west, twenty miles of san- 
itary sewer, ten miles of storm water sewers, thirty- 
one miles of street railwa}-, three immense paving 
brick works, doubled in population in three years, 
strong gas and electric light companies, eighteen 
newspapers and periodicals, the finest residences in 
the State of Nebraska, a government building cost- 
ing a quarter of a million, five street car companies, 
one with a capital of $1,000,000, six hundred tele- 
phones, connected with fifty-seven towns in Ne- 
braska and sixty-six in Iowa, stock j^ards and two 
large beef and pnik packing houses, the only con- 
servatory of limbic \N.-t of Chicago, the finest pot- 
tery on the gliibe. tlic products of which go to either 
ocean, the finest soap factory in the West, the largest 
tannery in Nebraska. 

Lincoln is rapidly taking a foremost position in 
the great Northwest as a manufacturing centre. 
Its wonderful shipping facilities, with twelve di- 
\erging lines of railway radiating in every direction, 
connect it with the railway systems of the entire 
country. Its population is estimated by the local 
press at 60,000, but this is probably too high at this 

Nebraska Cit}-, the seat of justice of Otoe 
Count}', lies on the west bank of the Missouri River, 
about sixty miles south of Omaha, Neb., and 110 
miles north of St. Joseph, Mo. Its site was first 
occupied about the year 1844, by a company of 
United States Dragoons who afterward erected there- 
upon a block house, a log cabin for the officers, and 
a hospital. The place was subsequently occupied 
l)y the United States Fur Company. It was per- 
manently settled about 1852 by the Boulwares and 
Hiram P. Downs, the original proprietors of the 
site. The town was surveyed and laid out in 1854, 
and the following j-ear it was incorporated. In 
1856 the second land office in the State was estab- 
lished at Nebraska Cit}'. The first regular preach- 
ing in the place was by Rev. W. D. Gage, a Metho- 
dist missionarj', in the spring of 1854, and the first 
school was taught in the spring of 1855. On the 
organization of Otoe Count}-, in 1855, Nebraska 
City was made the county seat thereof. This city is 
now one among a number of cities each of which 
claims to bo the third in size in the State. For 


transportation it has the advantages of the river and 
five diverging lines of railway. It has all the requi- 
sites of a modern city. 

North Platte, in Lincoln County, is situated )ie- 
tween the North and South Platte Rivers, just above 
their junction, and on the Union Pacific Railroad. 
The town was laid out in 1866, about the time of 
the completion of the railroad to this point. A post- 
office was established, and a newspaper, The Pioneer 
on Wheels, was published, and the town began at 
once to grow. In 1867 it became the seat of justice 
for the county. The same year the Union Pacific 
began the erection of their machine shops and round 
houses, which gave the place an impetus for growth. 
North Platte is now a flourishing little city of several 
thousand inhabitants, well supplied with churches, 
schools and business of all kinds. 

Omaha, the commercial metropolis of Nebraska, 
and the county seat of Douglas County, is situated 
on the west bank of the Missouri River, opposite to 
Council Bluffs, Iowa. Its site was first settled in 
1854, and the same j-ear it was surveyed and laid 
out into 320 blocks, each being 264 feet square, in- 
tersected by streets 100 feet wide, except Capitol 
Avenue and Nebraska Avenue, now called Twenty- 
first Street, which were made 120 feet wide, but 
which were given no alley in the blocks on each side 
of them. The lots were staked out 66x132 feet, ex- 
cept the business lots, which were made 22 feet wide. 
Three squares were reserved— Capitol Square, 600 
feet; Jefferson Square, 264x280 feet, and Washing- 
ton Square, 264 feet square. A park of seven 
blocks, bounded by Eighth and Ninth and Jackson 
and Davenport Streets, was laid out, but afterward 
given up to business purposes. 

During the j'ear 1855 Rev. Mr. Koulmer and 
others preached at stated periods at Omaha, and 
soon thereafter church societies began to be organ- 
ized. The first public school was opened in Novem- 
ber, 1859, and A. D. Jones, J. H. Kellum and Dr. 
G. C. Monell, composed the first school board. 
They emplojed Howard Kenned}-, who taught the 
first school in the old Capitol building. The year 
1860 found Omaha with one high and three subor- 
dinate schools. At this time the city was estimated 
to contain about 1,500 buildings and 4.000 inhab- 

itants — a marvelous growth for its short existence. 
Of church organizations there were then about a 
dozen. During this year the city debt was reduced 
to $46,000, and business was prosperous. From 
the beginning of the Civil War of 1861-65 until 
December, 1863, when the first ground was broken 
on the site of the citj^ by a pick in the hands of 
George Francis Train, for the Union Pacific Rail- 
way, which event gave it a new impetus and insured 
its future great success, Omaha's growth was not 
very marked. 

Immediately following the close of the war a 
" boom " took place in the building up of Omaha. 
The restoration of peace and the construction of its 
coming railroads induced many immigrants to settle 
there. In Januar}-, 1867, the Northwestern Rail- 
i-oad was completed to the city, being the first line 
to give it an eastern outlet. The growth of the city 
was so rapid that in 1870 its population reached 
16,000. During the next decade its growth was 
somewhat retarded by the financial panic of 1873, 
but notwithstanding this fact its population was 
more than doubled. Its most rapid growth, however, 
has been during the decade closing with 1890. To 
show the extent and wonderful growth, the following 
is taken from the Omaha Daily Bee, of January, 

"Omaha, with a population of 120,000, covers 
an area of twenty-four and two-thirds square miles. 
It has 103 miles of graded streets, of which fifty- 
two miles are covered with pavement. The sewer- 
age system of Omaha has a mileage of seventy-two 
and two-thirds miles. The total cost of these im- 
provements up to December 31, 1889, aggregates 
$5,619,954.14. Its street railways, water works, 
gas works and electric light works are owned and 
operated by chartered corporations. Its street 
railways have a trackage of eighty-six miles. The 
waterworks company has laid 120 miles of mains, 
and 1,113 fire hj-drants are now in use. The gas 
company has laid forty miles of gas mains, and 
lights the public thoroughfares with 820 lamps. 
One hundred and twenty electric arc lamps have 
been contracted for by the city, and 560 gasoline 
lamps are in use in the outskirts. 

•• The lioanl of jnililic works reports public im- 


provements during 1889 aggregating $846,665.95. 
These expenditures represent nineteen miles of curb- 
ing, costing $77,415.25; six and seven-tenths miles 
of sewers, costing $103,668.61; eleven miles of pav- 
ing, costing $483,482.09; twenty-two and three- 
tenths miles of grading, costing $182,000. The 
cost of sidewalks laid during the year approximates 
$112,000. The amount expended on park improve- 
ments was $55,000. 

"The franchised corporations, including rail- 
wa3-s, street railway company, waterworks, gas and 
electric lighting companies, have expended $2,010,- 
666 in 1889 in improvements within the city. The 
public improvements in South Omaha for the same 
period are computed at $140,000, making an aggre- 
gate of expenditure for public improvements during 
the year of $3,160,325.75. 

" The building record of the year includes 1,918 
buildings of all grades, costing in the aggregate 
$7,064,556. Of these structures ninety-six were 
business blocks, mills and factories costing in excess 
of $2,500 each, 336 were residences costing in ex- 
cess of $2,500, 1,434 were stores, dwelling and mis- 
cellaneous buildings, ranging in cost below $2,500 
each, and twenty- two were churches and school- 
houses, ranging in cost from $10,000 to $100,000, 
There were also 106 buildings erected in South 
Omaha, aggregating in cost $412,106, and fifty- 
eight residences were erected in Dundee place, 
which, including other improvements, represent an 
outlay of $383, 000. The expenditures for the com- 
pletion of business blocks under way at the com- 
mencement of the year was $750,000. This swells 
the aggi-egate expenditures for building improve- 
ments made during 1889 to a grand total of $8,609,- 
662. In other words, Omaha has expended $11,- 
802,957. 75 for public improvements, packing houses, 
factories, banking and business houses, school 
buildings, churches and dwellings, and erected 
2,082 new buildings of every description during the 

"Omaha's cduimcivial urowth is exhibited by 
its wholesale trailc liaiilv ilrariugs and industrial 
statistics. The capital of the Omaha banking houses 
aggregates $5,100,000, and their deposits amount 
to $18,343,734. The clearing house record pre- 

sents a fair index of the volume of business trans- 
acted in Omaha, and affords conclusive proof of its 
commercial supremacy. The clearings of 1 889 ag- 
gregate $208,681,000, as against $174,700,761 the 
preceding year. 

' ' Omaha maintains its rank as the third largest 
pork market in America, and its beef packing in- , 
dustry has more than trebled within the last two 
years. The number of hogs packed during the past 
year was 931 ,478 , the number of beeves slaughtered 
was 113,307, and the total of all kinds of stock 
killed and packed foots up 1,303,765, as against 
1,078,785 in 1888. 

' ' The manufacturers of Omaha have turned out 
products to the value of $23,515,000, an increase of 
over two millions over the preceding year. This is 
exclusive of the products of the packing industries 
of South Omaha, which exceed $13,000,000, and 
which will swell the grand total of Omaha's indus- 
trial products in round figures to over $37,000,000. 

" The wholesale trade of Omaha has materiallv 
increased in volume, and the jobbers have extended 
their territory considerably during the past year. 
The sales of the wholesale dealers, exclusive of 
products manufactured iu Omaha, amount to 

The banking capital of the city amounts to 
$6,000,000. There are fifty-two public school- 
houses, four colleges, three Catholic academies, 
nine parochial, and a number of other schools with- 
in the city. There are also ninety-four church or- 
ganizations divided among various denominations. 
The city is a metropolis of the great Northwest. 

Plattsmouth, the county seat of Cass County, is 
situated on the west bank of the Missouri River, a 
short distance below the mouth of the Platte River. 
Iu 1819. Long's exploring expedition, with the 
" Western Engineer," the first steamer on the Mis- 
souri, was sent by the government to explore the 
great river and the regions between it and the Rocky 
Mountains, leaving St. Louis, Mo., in Jul}', reach- 
ing the mouth of the Platte Si'ptrinluT 17. 

The traders and trapin-is pri'^miiaMy crossed the 
Platte at various times during the iwriity years fol- 
lowing, but the next visit to that section of which 
there is historic record is that of Fremont, iu 1842, 


his expedition camping for one night on the project 
ing bluff just below the present site of Plattsmouth , 
the place still retaining the name of Fremont's Point. 

About the year of 18-18, a Mormon by the name 
of Liljeas T. Coon established a ferry — a flat-boat 
propelled by sweeps — across the Missouri, landing 
in the vicinitj- of this point, on the Neljraska side, 
for the convenience of the Saints, whose exodus to 
the far West was in full progress. In this manner 
a highway became established along the south bank 
of the Platte, but no settlements were made below 
that river and along the Missouri for some j-ears,the 
territory being occupied hj the Pawnees and Otoes, 
and the Indians protected in their rights by the 
Government, forts flanking the Missouri and no one 
being allowed to remain on Nebraska soil without a 
special permit from the Secretary of War. 

Tlie first permit of this kind as regards Cass 
County was obtained bj"^ Samuel Martin, who had 
been living on the east bank of the Missouri, to 
establish a trading post at or near the confluence 
of the two rivers. Accordingh', verj' early in the 
spi-ing of 1853, he brought over on the ice the logs 
of his house in Iowa, and, with the assistance of 
James O'Neil and Col. J. L. Sharp, erected a sub- 
stantial two-story building, afterward known as the 
" Old BaiTacks," for a trading house, and, shortly 
subsequent, a smaller one for a council house. The 
following year the Plattsmouth Town Company, 
consisting of Martin, O'Neil, Sharp and others, 
was organized, and by them the town was laid out. 
An act of the Legislature of the Territory, approved 
March 14, 1855, deflned the boundaries of Cass 
Count}-, made Plattsmouth the county seat thereof, 
and provided for its incorporation. The postofflce 
at Plattsmouth was established in the fall of this 
year. The first merchant was Samuel Martin, with 
his "trading post." The first school here was 
taught in 1856, by Miss Mary Stocking, and the 
first church. Baptist, was organized the same j'ear; 
the next, Methodist, was organized the following 
year. The city is now well supplied with schools 
and churches, also with several newspapers, socie- 
ties, extensive and substantial buildings, manufac- 
tories, etc. Its population in 1880 was 4,180; it is 
now probably double that amount or moi-e. It is a 

prosperous city and l)ids fair to maintain its promi- 
nence. It is twenty-one miles below Omaha and 
thirty miles north of Nebraska City. For transpor- 
tation it has the advantages of the river and the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy and the Missouri 
River Railroads. 

Among other young and ambitious cities of Ne- 
braska, each of which numbers its inhabitants by 
the thousands, and strives to take front rank in the 
great march of progress, mention may be made of 
the following: Seward, the seat of justice of the 
county of the same name, is quite a railroad centi-e, 
having six lines of railway diverging from it. 
York, the county seat of York County, also has six 
lines of railway diverging from it, and so has 
Wahoo, the county seat of Saunders County. Ash- 
land, Auburn, Aurora, Brownville, Central Citj-, 
David City, Fairbury, Fairfield, Friend, Norfolk, 
North Bend, Pawnee City, Ponca, Red Cloud, 
Schuyler, Sidney, St. P^iul. Sutton, Tecumseh, Teka- 
mah, West Point, Willni. Wyiuore, and some other 
places also deserve miiilidii as prosperous little cities. 

Nebraska may well be proud of her educational 
facilities. An act entitled "Common schools," 
passed by the Territorial Legislature, and approved 
January 26, 1855, was the origin of the public 
school sj'stem of the State. The first State .report 
of the schools was made January 5, 1857, by the 
State auditor, ex-offi.cio commissioner of education; 
but as the S3'stem was yet in its infancj', the report 
contains nothing worthy of note here. The next 
report was made bj' State Auditor W. E. Harvej' in 
January, 1861, showing nineteen counties returned, 
in which there were eighty-four precincts and 139 
sub-districts. There were 3,763 males and 3.272 
females enumerated, making a total of 7,041 chil- 
dren of school age. These were attendant upon 
four high and 104 primary schools, of the public 
system, and twenty-three private institutions, giving 
a total of 131 schools of all classes. The higli 
schools contained 376 pupils, of whom 227 were 
males; the primary schools held an enrollment of 
2,554, of whom 1,377 were males. This showed an 
enrollment of 2,930 out of an enumeration of 7,041. 
There were two male and two female teachers in 
the high schools, and thirtv-six males and seven- 


ty-four females in the primaries, besides eight males 
and seventeen females in the select schools, or 139 
teachers all told. The school-houses numbered thir- 
ty-four, with a total value of all property of $9,748. 
The aggregate of wages paid was $4,772, and the 
aggregate of expenditures reached $8,214. 

Under the act of January 13, 1860, an appor- 
tionment was made and an enumeration taken of 
'■the unmarried white youth" of the Territory. The 
result of this for the year 1860, and the apportion- 
ment of money for the year of 1861, were: 




.... §153 68 









... 1,106 




... 300 

77 . 

. . . . 1,000 00 
38 10 

156 30 

30 43 



80 64 



47 13 


1 491 35 


... :-'49 

. . . . 106 65 


Washington. . 

... 393 

. . . . 500 00 

... 153 


55 35 


....$6,352 33 

The enabling act of Congress, approved April 
19, 1864, under which Nebraska afterwards became 
a State, provided that Sections 16 and 36 in every 
Congressional township should be donated to the 
State for the support of common schools, and that 
if any portion or portions of these sections had pre- 
viously been conveyed, other lands equivalent 
thereto should be donated in their stead. It further 
provided that seventy-two other sections of land 
should be set apart and reserved for the use and 
support of a State University, to be appropriated 
and applied as the Legislature of the State might 
prescribe for the purpose. It also provided that 
five per centum of the proceeds of the sales of all 
public lands lying withiii the State, which had been 
or should be sold by the United States prior or sub- 
sequent to the admission of the State into the Union, 
after deducting all expenses incident to the same, 
should be paid to the State for the support of the 
common schools. These were the provisions of the 

general government made for the education of the 
people of the State, and were far more liberal than 
the donations made for the same purpose to Indiana, 
Illinois, Missouri and other States, to which Section 
16 only, in each township, was donated. 

The sources from whence come the perpetual 
funds for common school purposes, of which the 
annual interest or income only can be appropriated, 
are: 1. Such per centum as has been or may be 
granted by Congress on the sale of lands within the 
State. 2. Moneys arising from the sale or leasing 
of Sections 16 and 36 in each township. 3. The 
proceeds of all lands granted to the State, not other- 
wise appropriated by the terms of the grant. 4. 
The net proceeds of escheats, forfeitures, or from 
unclaimed dividends or distributive shares of the 
estates of deceased persons. 5. All moneys, stocks, 
bonds, lands and other property already belong- 
ing to the common school fund. 6. All the rents 
on unsold school lands, and the interest on deferred 
payments on school lands sold. All fines, penal- 
ties and license moneys arising under the general 
laws of the State, shall belong to the counties where 
the same is levied. All such moneys arising under 
the ordinances of cities, villages or towns, shall be- 
long to the same respectively. 

All of these funds are principals of a jierpetual 
fund which can never legally be diminished, but 
which will continue to increase. That arising from 
the sale of lands will increase until the last acre 
shall have been sold, and the last dollar of the pro- 
ceeds belonging to the fund paid into the treasury; 
then it will become a fixed and permanent amount, 
to be diminished only by insufficient securities. 
That arising from escheats, forfeitures, fines, penal- 
ties, etc. , will contine to increase as long as men 
continue to die and leave estates, or forfeit bonds. 
or commit crimes. 

The amount of the perpetual school fund deri\'ed 
from the foregoing sources, and belonging to the 
State, November 30, 1888, as shown by the last pub- 
lished report of the State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, was $5,947,724.30, being an increase 
over the amount belonging to the State two j'ears 
prior thereto of $1,043,605.09. The increase from 
1884 to 1886 was $92,602.40. Thus it is seen that 



this fund is rapidly increasing. There are about 
two and one-half millions of acres of the common 
school lands in the State j'et unsold. From the sale 
of these lands, all of which will eventually be sold, 
and from the other sources of income, the perpetual 
fund is destined to reach an enormous sum, perhaps 
larger than that of the school fund of any other 
State in the Union. The interest of the perpetual 
school funds, and the rents and profits of the unsold 
school lands, are collected annually and appropriated 
to the support of the common schools. 

The school law of the State provides for the free 
instruction in the common schools of all persons be- 
tween the ages of five and twenty-one years, and 
that no sectarian instruction shall be allowed in any 
school or institution supported wholly, or partially, 
by the public funds set apart for educational pur- 
poses. Every organized county is divided into 
school districts, and each corporate city of 1,500 or 
more inhabitants constitutes one school district. 
Unless otherwise specified, twentj- days constitutes 
a school month, and the minimum length of the 
school year is three months. In all schools under 
State control, instruction must be given, in addition 
to the other branches taught, in physiology and hy- 
giene, with special reference to the effects of alcoholic 
drinks and other stimulants and narcotics upon the 
human system. For the support of the free schools, 
in addition to the income from the permanent school 
fund, an annual tax is levied, not to exceed one and 
one-half mills upon the dollar valuation of all the 
taxable property of the State. The income thus de- 
rived is apportioned semi-annually by the State su- 
perintendent to the several counties in the State, in 
proportion to the last enumeration of school children. 

The law also provides that the voters of any 
school district may annually level a local tax for 
school purposes, not exceeding 25 mills on the dol- 
lar, 10 mills of which may be used for the building, 
purchase, or lease of school houses. For the bene- 
fit of persons desiring to teach in the common 
schools, a State Normal School, and State and 
county normal institutes, are maintained. The law 
also provides for a county superintendent of schools 
and district- school boards. The State Normal 
School and State University, both of which belong 

to the common school system, are treated of else- 
where in this work under the head of State Institu- 

To show the condition of the schools, and the 
workings of Nebraska's educational system since the 
State was organized, the following statistical facts 
are inserted, giving the figures for 1870, 1880 and 
1888, the latter date being the last for which an 
official report has been published. It will be inter- 
esting also to compare the figures for 1870, with 
those giving the condition of the schools in 1861 , as 
stated on a former page: 

Number of counties organized in 1870, 31; in 
1880, 64; in 1888, 80. Number of school districts 
in 1870, 797; in 1880, 3,132; in 1888, 5,664. 
Number of school houses in 1870, 298; in 1880, 
2,701; in 1888, 5,187. Children of school age in 
1870, 32,789; in 1880, 142,348; in 1888, 298.006. 
Average number in each- district in 1870, 41; in 
1880, 44; in 1888,52. Number of children attend- 
ing school in 1870, 12,791; in 1880, 92,549; in 
1888, 215,889. Per cent of attendance in 1870, 
39; in 1880, 65; in 1888, 73. Number of male 
teachers in 1870, 267; in ISSO, 1,670; in 1888, 
2,752. Number of female teachers in 1870, 269; 
in 1880, 2,430; in 1888, 7,134. Number of graded 
schools in 1870, — ; in 1880, 70; in 1888, 343. 
Total wages paid male teachers in 1870, $26,650; 
in 1880, $242,334; in 1888, $557,113.87. Total 
wages paid female teachers in 1870, $31,088; in 
1880, $306,805; in 1888, $1,142,670.74. Average 
wages per month, males, in 1870, $28.10; in 1880, 
$36.12. Average wages per month, females, in 
1870, $33.72; in 1880, $31. 92. Value of all school 
property in 1870, $178,604.34; in 1880, $2,064,- 
768; in 1888, $5,123,179.81. Total receipts in 
1870, $167,597.95; in 1880, $1,294,137; in 1888, 
$3,550,488.78. Total expenditures in 1870, $163,- 
931.84; in 1880, $1,249,793; in 1888, $3,238,- 
241.89. Total indebtedness in 1870, $31,657.09; 
in 1880, $l,(i()s,7:t'.»; in 1888, $2,069,598.92. 

These faetrs, in addition to the information per- 
taining to the common schools, serve to show how 
the State has developed; how the counties, school 
districts and school children have increased. A 
notable feature is the increase in the per. cent of 




sfhool children that attended the free schools, it be- 
ing seventy-three in the 3-ear 1888, which is higher 
than that found in several of the older States. An- 
other interesting feature is that showing the increase 
of female over male teachers employed. The table 
is especially valuable to persons interested in educa- 
tional matters. It shows the gigantic achievements 
of the young and enterprising State in regard to 

The statutes of Nebraska designate the twenty- 
second day of April as Arbor Day. This day was 
originated in Nebraska in 1872, and since that date 
there has been planted within the State, as shown 
by statistics, the enormous number of 355,560,000 
forest, shade and fruit trees. In no part of the 
country is it of more importance than in this prairie 
State to plant trees. By inducing the children to 
observe Arbor Day, they can be taught to observe 
and study the growth and habits of trees. Many of 
our native American trees, in twenty jears after be- 
ing transplanted, will attain a diameter of twenty 
inches. In consequence of the observance of Arbor 
Day, many a citizen of the State, when he shall 
have grown old, will point with satisfactorj' pride to 
the majestic tree that his hands set out when he 
was a school boy. 

Brownell Hall was begun as a school for girls 
l)y the Rt. Rev. Joseph Talbot, missionary bishop 
of the Northwest, in 1865, at a place called Saratoga, 
a couple of miles north of the city of Omaha. In 
the year 1868 it was moved into the city to a site 
on the corner of Sixteenth and Jones Streets, and 
incorporated as a seminar}' by the Rt. Rev. Robert 
H. Clarkson, bishop of Nebraska, and others under 
the title of the Board of Trustees of Brownell 
Hall. It was named in honor of Bishop Brownell, 
who was then the bishop of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in the United States. Bishop Clarkson was 
rector of the school from 1868 until 1876, when the 
present rector, Rt. Rev. Robert Doherty, S. J. D. , 
was elected. The first site chosen in the citj^ was 
contracted and unsuitable, consisting of only one 
hundred feet frontage, and on a hillside so steep as 
to be of unsafe approach b}' carriage. The liuild- 
ing was of wood, old and dilapidated, and the whole 
value of the property was less than the debt. 

The present buildings were erected in the year 
1886, on a site donated Ijy Mr. Herman Kountze, 
mainly b}' contributions from citizens of Omaha. 
Their cost thus far, including furniture — the south 
wing yet unfinished — is about $100,000. The 
chapel, St. Matthias Church, was completed this 
year, 1890, at an additional cust of S41,000. The 
buildings are of stone. Inicl; :iiiil inm; the inside <.f 
wood polished. Tlie site is a beautiful eminence on 
Tenth Street, overlooking the whole city and com- 
manding a view of the river and wooded terraces of 
Iowa and Nebraska for several miles. The faculty 
is large and able, and the course of instruction is 
thorough. The school is prosperous in numerical 
attendance, is out of debt, and is paying its run- 
ning expenses. It maintains a reputation generally 
for doing good, thorough, honest educational work. 

The Bellevue College, at Bellevue, Neb., nine 
miles south of Omaha, on the Burlington & Missouri 
River Railroad, has a location of historic interest, 
of delightful view, and of commanding advantage. 
It is controlled by the Presbyterian Synod of Ne- 
braska, with its property rights vested in an incor- 
porated board of trustees. It was established bj' 
the generosity of the Hon. H. J. Clarke, now of 
Omaha. His gifts were 264 acres of land, the ele- 
gant three-story brick college building, Clarke Hall, 
and large donations to the salaries of the professors 
and other necessities during the first year of the in- 
stitution. The college opened with fourteen stu- 
dents on September 10, 1883; it has now a large 
attendance, and its outlook for the future brightens 
more and more. 

Creightbn College. — It was the dying request of 
Edward Creighton, one of Omaha's early settlers, 
that his wife, the late Mrs. Mary Creighton, should 
endow a free college in Omaha for the education of 
youth without regard to creed or color. His wish 
was complied with, and Creighton College was the 
result. It was erected in 1877, and was incorpo- 
rated by an act of the Legislature February 27, 
1879, with power to " confer such degrees as are 
usually conferred b}' colleges and universities in the 
United States," and in the same year it was en- 
trusted, by the Rt. Rev. Bishop James O'Connor, 
D. D., to the fathers of the Society of Jesus, by 



whom it is conducted. lu religious training tlie 
Catholic religion alone is taught; but non-Catholic 
students are welcome, and their religious opinions 
are studiously respected. No students are admitted 
under twelve years of age, and none for a less term 
than ten months. The tuition is entirely free. The 
attendance for the last year was 195, an increase of 
twenty over the previous year. The college campus 
is extensive. The library contains 6,500 volumes. 
The scientific laboratory is the most complete in 
the West. 

The college building is large and commodious. 
Its left wing was erected in 1889, at a cost of about 
$25,000, largely owing to Mr. John A. Creighton, 
brother of the founder. In connection with the col- 
lege, as its chapel, is St. John's Collegiate Church, 
a beautiful stone building, not fully completed at this 
writing. The college faculty consists of eleven pro- 
fessors and instructors, with Rev. Thomas S. Fitz- 
gerald, S. J. , as president. The course of study is 
complete and the instruction exhaustive. 

Doane College, located at Crete, in Saline County, 
was established by the Congregational Churches of 
Nebraska in June, 1872, and is therefore the oldest 
existing college in the State. " Its growth has been 
steady and healthful. From a dozen students and 
one teacher the first year, it has advanced to an 
annual attendance of 200 students and a corps of 
ten teachers. There are two full college courses, 
classical and scientific, each of four years. The 
preparatory course is for three years. There is a 
normal department for those wishing to prepare 
themselves for the teacher's profession." A con- 
servatory of music is connected with the college. 
Boswell observatory, built in 1883, is the central 
station of the Nebraska weather service. The col- 
lege cabinet contains about fourteen hundred species 
of animals from all parts of the world; an 
herbarium of between two and three thousand 
species of plants, mostly from the United States and 
Europe, and good collections of minerals, rocks and 
fossils. There are also zoological and anatomical 

Fairfield College, located at Fairfield, in Clay 
Countj% was founded in 1884 as the result of an 
action of the State Missionary Society of the Chris- 

tian Church, the object being to furnish opportuni- 
ties to both sexes for higher education. The officers 
of the board of trustees were J. P. Nixon, president; 
Ira Titus, treasurer, and W. J. Newcomb, financial 
agent and secretary. The presidents of the institu- 
tion have been C. W. Henry from 1884 to 1887, 
W. P. Aylsworth from 1887 to 1889, O. C. Hubble 
from 1889 to the present (1890). In 1889 the in- 
stitution was re-incorporated as Fairfield College, 
the original name failing longer to indicate the scope 
of the work, while the management was placed in 
the hands of a board more local in its nature. The 
propertj' of the institution consists of several hun- 
dred acres of fine land adjoining the city, much of 
which lies within the corporate limits. 

In 1886 a fine brick structure was erected at a 
cost of upwai'd of $100,000. It stands on a com- 
manding site east of the city in the College addi- 
tion. The courses of studj- are the classical, philo- 
sophical, biblical, normal and business, with an ex- 
cellent musical department under the management 
of Prof. E. R. Gaylord. The last catalogue shows 
an enrollment of 112 pupils, with eight professors 
and instructors. The high moral atmosphere of the 
city, the absence of saloons and other places of vice, 
and its favorable location at the junction of the 
St. Joseph & Grand Island and the Kansas City & 
Omaha Railroads, all conspire to a suitable place 
for such an institution. 

The Hastings College was founded in 1879, un- 
der the care and control of the Kearney Presbytery, 
Hastings being then in that district. The citizens 
of Hastings contributed $50, 000 in money and lands, 
to aid the enterprise. J. H. Hanson donated the 
twenty- acres known as the College Campus, and the 
citizens purchased and donated seventj'-five acres 
more. The whole amount, ninety-five acres, com- 
prises the college addition to the citj-; thirty-five 
acres are reserved in the campus, and the balance is 
laid out into city lots. The first building — MeCor- 
mick Hall — was built in 1883, at a cost of $14,700, 
and named in honor of the late Cyrus H. JMcCor- 
mick, who made the first donation, $5,000, to aid 
the college. The second building was erected in 
1884, at a cost of about $20,000, which was sub- 
scribed bv the citizens of Hastings, Mr. James B. 


Hartwell alone contributing $11,000. Tlie site of 
the college is in the eastern part of the city. Thou- 
sands of trees have been set out on the grounds, and 
the buildings and the campus constitute a scene of 
beauty. The college is open to both sexes, has a 
large pati-onage, and is well sustained. The faculty 
is able and thorough work is being done. Board 
and rooms are furnished in the institution. There 
is no better location for a college than Hastings. 

The Nebraska Wesle^-an University was founded 
by tlie Methodists of the State, under a plan of uni- 
fication, by which it is the only university possible 
to the Methodist Episcopal Church in Nebraska. 
All schools or colleges which are now or may here- 
after become the property of the church are incor- 
porated as departments of the university, and none 
are permitted to teach beyond the sophomore year 
of the university courses. This institution of learn- 
ing is situated in University Place, originally platted 
as a suburb of the city of Lincoln, and which has 
been incorporated as a village, thus avoiding en- 
croachments of saloons and limiting local taxation. 
It is about three miles from, and overlooks the capi- 
tal city. Street cars and telephone lines connect it 
with all parts of the city. The property of the 

university consists of the campus, a beautiful 
pleateau containing forty-four acres. The build- 
ing, 168x72 feet in size, and four stories in height, 
costing $75,000, is one of the most substan- 
tial and. beautiful structures in the West; 500 lots 
adjacent are estimated worth $150,000. An en- 
dowment fund has been secured. The first year of 
school in the university began September 11, 1889, 
and the first commencement will be held June 25, 
1890. Being supported by ^11 the Methodists of the 
State, its future great success is assured. 

The institutions mentioned are the leading de- 
nominational colleges of the State. The University 
of Nebraska, the State Normal School and the State 
Industrial School, are mentioned in this work with 
the State Institutions. There are man}' other col- 
leges of less note throughout the State, among which 
may be mentioned dates College, at Neligh, on the 
main line of the Elkhorn & Missouri Valley Rail- 
road, a Congregational School, first opened in Sep- 
tember, 1882; the Sisters of Visitation Academy at 
Hastings, founded in 1889, and others. There are 
also good commercial colleges and schools of music 
at Omaha, Lincoln and other leading cities of the 





State Institutiojjs — Architecturai. Beauty of Buildings — Convenience of Construction — The Capitol 
Edifice — History of Erection — Appropriations — University- — Blind Institute — Normal School — 
Insane Asylums — Deaf and Dumb Institutions — State Penitentiary' — Nebraska an Agricul- 
tural State — Productions — Valuation — Climatic Features — Manufacturing Inter- 
ests — Official Directory- — Abstract of Votes — Ecclesiastical History. 

Heaven forming each on other to depend. 
Bids each on other for assistance call. — Pope. 

1)1 iska is one of the young- 
est States of the Union, it 
IS justly entitled to the 
piirte it shows in its State 
"^ institutions. Its State 
[ '/ii)^^^ ,%^ House has but few equals 
i'-'*' 111 till, t ounti y, its asylums for those 
'" ^^ uufoitunate wards of the State, the 
I '',7, in-line the blind, the deaf and dumb, 
' t _j and the ftcble-minded, are models 
J , -) in then w i\ , its penal institutions 
I "* ^* will constiucted and managed, and 
,1^ "^ Hstlj Its magnificent State Univer- 
'oo sitj towtis ibove all similar institu- 
^% tions in the West, as the crowning 
W) a( hie\ ement of nearly a quarter of 

1 ttntun of Statehood. It is emi- 
nently proper that a few pages of this work be de- 
voted to a history of these institutions. All of them 
have a history intimately associated with the history 
of the State, and doubtless, if their walls of stone 
could be made to speak, the store of material for a 
State history would be measurably increased. 

Nebraska's first State House was not an impos- 
ing structure, and yet when it was finished it was 
regarded by the pioneer settlers of the new Territory 
as a marvel of architectural grandeur. It was 

erected in the city of Omaha, on Ninth Street, be- 
tween Farnham and Douglass Streets, by the Ne- 
braska Ferry Company, and by that organization 
leased to the Territorial officers. It was a two-story 
brick structure and. cost about $3,000. In this 
humble edifice assembled the first Territorial Legis- 
lature. Later, Congress appropriated $30,000 for 
the erection of a capitol building, to which sum the 
citizens of Omaha added $60,000. The new edifice 
was much more in keeping with the dignity and 
growing importance of the Territory. But even this 
more imposing and modern structure was soon to be 
outgrown. Nebraska was admitted into the LTnion 
of States on March 1, 1867, and the Legislature at 
a special session soon after that date decided to 
move the State capital from Omaha to some point 
in the interior of the State. A commission was 
appointed, consisting of Gov. Butler, Secretary of 
State Kennard and State Auditor Gillespie, to select 
a site for the new capital city. Lincoln was selected 
and the work of building a State House at once 
commenced. The first contract for the State House 
was let to Joseph Ward, of Chicago, on January 11, 
1868, for the sum of $49,000. The building was 
constructed from magnesian limestone obtained from 
extensive quaiTies in Gage County. It was finished 
in December of the same j^ear. On the third of that 
month Gov. Butler ordered the arehi\es of State 


transferred from Omaha to the new building. This 
was the original State capitol. It stood upon the 
site now occupied by the present edifice, but not a 
stone is left of the old building. It served its pur- 
pose for ten years, at the end of which time work 
was commenced upon the present structure. 

There were a number of causes which contributed 
to the sentiment in favor of a new capitol. Chief 
among these was the very evident unfitness of the 
building for the permanent home of the offices of 
the State. The walls were badly constructed, and 
soon gave signs of disintegration. The outer courses 
of stone were effected by the weather, and began 
flaking off. The State officers soon began to be 
afraid to stay in the building during high winds, 
and each succeeding Legislature met under the 
shak}- roof with an increased trepidation. Then the 
advocates of removing the capitol commenced an 
agitation which struck terror and dismay to the 
hearts of the citizens of Lincoln. That city, at that 
time, depended almost entirely upon the capitol for 
its future, and the agitation for removal had a de- 
pressing effect upon values and the growth of the 
place. In October, 1878, the north wall of the 
building was condemned. The board of public lands 
and buildings had it rebuilt, and in January, 1879, 
Gov. Garber, in his message to the Legislature, re- 
commended that a new State House be erected, and 
suggested that a levy be made for a capitol building 
fund. After a bitter strugle, $100,000 was appro- 
priated for the erection of the west wing of the new 
capitol. Work was commenced upon the new build- 
ing as soon as possible, but it was not until Novem- 
ber, 1881, that the wing was ready for occupancy. 
It was built b}- W. H. B. Stout, of Lincoln, who 
undertook the contract for the sum of $63,400. In 
1881 the Legislature appropriated $100,000 for 
the erection of the east wing. The contract for the 
erection of this wing was let to W. H. B. Stout 
for the sum of $96,800. In February, 1883, the 
Legislature provided for the demolition of the old 
building, and the erection of the main or central 
part of the present capitol, and on July 9, of the 
same year, the contract was let to W. H. B. Stout 
for $439,187.25. The foundation walls were laid in 
the fall of 1883, and on July 15, 1884, the corner- 

stone was laid with appropriate ceremonies. From 
that date the work progressed rapidly, and liy Janu- 
ary 1, 1889, had been completed. 

The capitol is a credit to the State. The follow- 
ing description of the noble building, written by a 
visitor on the day it was formally turned over to the 
State, will give the reader a clear idea of the edi- 

The style is the Italian renaissance. There is 
no superfluous ornamentation, either on exterior or 
interior. Quiet elegance and dignity are the charac- 
teristics of the design. The main elevations of the 
structure face the north and the south. The fronts 
are uniform in appearance. The main building, 
without the wings, is 85 feet in width and 168 feet 
in depth, exclusive of the two porticoes, which are 
each 12 feet wide. The wings are 85 feet wide and 
114 feet long. The structure would lie cruciform if 
the main building had been extended about 50 feet 
farther north and south. The extreme length east 
and west is 313 feet, and the breadth is 192 feet. 
The basement is 10 feet in height, the first story 14 
feet, the second 15 feet, and the third 14 feet. The 
dome is 45 feet square at the base, and the lantern 
is 200 feet from the grade line. 

The west wing for the past nine years has housed 
the treasurer, the State auditor, the commissioner of 
public lands and buildings, and the secretary of 
State on the first floor. All have had large and well 
furnished suites of rooms, with all the conveniences 
usually found around buildings of this class. At 
the west end of the second floor is the Senate cham- 
ber, 85 feet long, 55 feet wide, and with a ceiling 
40 feet above the floor. The chamber is handsomely 
carpeted, and the walls are decorated with I'incrusta 
Walton and heavy papers. On the second floor near 
the entrance to the Senate chamber, the governor 
and attorne3'-general have had their offices. On the 
third floor are the offices of the adjutant-general and 
the board of live stock agents. The east wing has 
been the temporary home of the State library and 
the supreme court. The superintendent of public 
instruction also has a pleasant suite of offices on the 
second floor. The second and third floors are taken 
up mostly with representative hall and cloak and 
committee rooms. The board of transportation has 



been sheltered here since its organization, and tlie 
State oil inspector has occupied the room of the 
speaker and chief clerk of the house, pending the 
completion of the main building. 

The new portion of the capitol will be occupied 
immediatel}-. This is the main building, and is 
nearl}' as large as both of the wings combined. The 
visitor may enter from Fifteenth Street, either from 
the north or the sou th. Passing between the massive 
piers of the portico he enters a vestibule tiled and 
wainscoated in marble. From that open apartment 
he steps into the main corridor, running north and 
south through this part of the building, and inter- 
secting in the rotunda the long corridor running the 
extreme length of the building from east to west. 
These corridors are tiled with 'N'ermont marble and 
partiallj- wainscoted inscagliola, or artificial marble. 
The heavy doors and frames are of oak. In each of 
the four corners of this floor is a suite of offices. 
The commissioner of public lands and buildings will 
have the northwest corner, the secretary of State 
the southeast, and the board of transportation the 
southwest. The offices are large, well ventilated, 
furnished with fire places and equipped with the 
latest plumbing conveniences. There are immense 
fireproof vaults for storing State papers, both in the 
basement and on the first floor. 

The rotunda is octagonal, with an inside dimen- 
sion of about thirty feet. An opening in the second 
floor admits light to the first story, and gives a view 
of the upper portion. A section of the first floor is 
of heavy glass, admitting light to the basement also. 

A better view of the upper rotunda may be had 
from the second story. We will therefore climb one 
of the iron stairway's. The second corridor will be 
found to be floored in hard wood instead of marble, 
but there is an abundance of the scagliola here, 
and it has a beautiful effect. It is particularly 
striking around the interior of the rotunda. From 
the second floor upward the whole interior of the 
dome is open. When the frescoing is completed, 
the clusters of incandescent lamps are in place, and 
a plate glass polish has been given the marble, this 
rotunda will indeed be a beautiful sight. 

The south half of the second floor is to be occu- 
pied by the State librar}'. The main room lies 

across the front, and extends up through the third 
floor. The size of the room is 83x31 feet. A wide 
gallery around the whole apartment gives a large 
amount of additional shelf space. The library rooms 
are finished in hard wood and are very conveniently 

The north half of this floor contains the finest 
suite of rooms in the entire building. There are five 
of the apartments, and IJiej' are to be occupied by 
the executive department. In the middle of the 
front is the main reception room. It is 30x36 feet 
in size. On each side are two apartments used as 
private rooms and the ofHces of the private secretary 
and executive clerks. The finishings and furnish- 
ings when complete will be worthy of the office of 
the governor of the great State of Nebraska. 

The third fioor is not finished in hard woods, but 
this fact will not be detected by the casual visitor. 
The north half is devoted to the uses of the supreme 
court, five rooms being set apart for the judiciary 
department. The south half is taken up by the up- 
per portion of the library and two committee rooms. 

If the visitor wishes to continue his investigation 
still further, he may climb a succession of stairs and 
a long spiral stairway, and at last stand out at the 
top of the dome, 200 feet above the ground, and 
overlooking the entire city and country for ten or 
fifteen miles in every direction. On a pleasant day 
visitors often remain there for hours enjoying the 
scene. There is nothing striking in the landscape 
that is unfolded, but it is always a pleasure to be 
able to get a bird's eye view of the busy city, and to 
mark the great advances it is making upon the sur- 
rounding country. In the summer season especially 
there is a great amount of tranquil beauty in that 
broad circle of green whose outer edge forms the 

Next to the State capitol the State University is 
the most notable State institution of Nebraska. The 
men who drafted Nebraska's enabling act displayed 
admirable wisdom and forethought in directing that 
a large portion of the public lands within the new 
State be set apart for the erection and maintenance 
of a State University. By leasing and selling these 
public lands Nebraska secured an endowment for 
its principal educational institution that at once 


placed it upon a solid financial foundation. On 
February 15, 18G9, the Legislature passed an act 
establishing the Uni-^-ersity and creating a board 
of regents, in whom was vested the management of 
the institution. The act further ordered the sale of 
all lots in the city of Lincoln belonging to the State, 
and directed that the proceeds be devoted to the 
erection of a university building. In accordance 
with this act the commission, consisting of the gov- 
ernor, secretary of State and auditor, accepted the 
plans and specifications prepared by M. J. McBird, 
of Logansport, Ind. , and awarded the contract for 
the building to D. J. Silver & Son, also of Logans- 
port. The contractors commenced work upon the 
proposed structure in July, 1869, and pushed it 
rapidly toward completion in the face of almost in- 
surmountable obstacles. It must be remembered 
that at that time Nebraska was untraversed by rail- 
roads, and Lincoln was a new town sixtj'-five miles 
from the Missouri River. The lumber had to be 
ferried across the Missouri from Iowa, and trans- 
ported to Lincoln by wagon over poorly constructed 
prairie roads. The brick for the walls had to be 
manufactured, and the contractors were compelled 
to pay $10 per cord for the wood used in burning 
them, and this wood had to be hauled thirty' miles. 
Yet, in spite of these difficulties the work progressed 
with surprising rapidity. The excavation, founda- 
tion and basement story were completed in April, 
1870, and the work of building the walls commenced 
in that month. The walls were completed, and the 
roof finished by the middle of August, 1870. 

The board of regents at once began prepara- 
tion for the formal opening of the University. The 
building was finished; but the more important work 
of selecting a chancellor and corps of instructors, 
preparing a course of study and enlisting the in- 
terest of prospective students , was yet to be accomp- 
lished. Through the influence of mutual personal 
friends the regents induced Dr. A. li. Benton, presi- 
dent of the Northwestern Christian University, of 
Indianapolis, Ind., to accept the chancellorship. 
Dr. Benton paid his first visit to Nebraska in 1871, 
and made a most favorable impression upon the 
board of regents. At a meeting of the board of 
in that month it was decided to formally in- 

augurate the work of the University on September 
7, 1871. Chancellor Benton removed to Nebraska 
in May of that year, and at once began his work. 
Under his direction courses of study were prepared 
and the rooms in the University building arranged 
and furnished. The chancellor also visited the dif- 
ferent cities and towns in the State, delivering lec- 
tures in the interests of the new insdtution, and 
securing the attendance of pupile. 

In 1871, it must be remembered, Nebraska con- 
tained a population of barely 100,000. These peo- 
ple were for the most part people of small means. 
The school system of the State was in its infancy, 
and but few pupils were prepared to enter even the 
lowest classes of the University. Yet, in spite of 
the discouraging outlook, Chancellor Benton and his 
associates on the original faculty set about their 
work with a zeal and confidence that angered well 
for the success of the new institution. The doors 
of the University were formally thrown open for the 
reception of students on the morning of September 
7, 1871. The following named gentlemen com- 
posed the original faculty: Prof. A. R. Benton, 
chancellor and professor of mental, moral and polit- 
ical philosophy; 0. C. Dake, professor of English 
literature; S. H. Manley, professor of Greek lan- 
guage and literature; G. E. Church, professor of 
Latin language and literature; Samuel Aughey, 
professor of natural sciences. Seventy students 
appeared on the opening daj'. 

By an act of the Legislature approved February 
15, 1869, and an act amendatory thereto, approved 
February 19, 1877, the regents are authorized to 
establish five departments or colleges as follows: 
(1) A college of literature, science and art. (2) An 
industrial college, embracing agriculture, practical 
science, civil engineering, and the mechanic arts. 
(3) A college of law. (4) A college of medicine. 
(5) A college of fine arts. 

Of the first department organized, that of litera- 
ture, science and art, there are four courses of 
study, of four years each, namely: A classical, a 
scientific, a Latin scientific and a Greek scientific. 
In the department of agriculture, there are two 
courses, one of three years and a course of one year, 
therefore the following degrees are granted, namely: 



(1 ) The degree of Bachelor of Arts is conferred on 
students who complete the classical course. (2) 
That of Bachelor of Science, on students who com- 
plete the regular scientific course. (3) That of 
Bachelor of Philosophy, on students who complete 
the Latin scientific course. (4) That of Bachelor 
of Letters, on students who complete the literary 
course. (5) The degree of Master of Arts, Master 
of Science, Master of Philosophy, or Master of Let> 
ters, is conferred respectively on Bachelor of Arts, 
Science, Philosophy or Letters, who shall have pur- 
sued a post-graduate course of study for one year, 
under the direction of the faculty, or upon gradu- 
ates of three years' standing, who shall have been 
engaged during that time in literary, scientific or 
professional studies. 

In November, 1873, Samuel Bacon, who had 
served as superintendent of the Institution for the 
Blind, in the State of Iowa, arrived in Nebraska 
City, and immediately broached the project of the 
establishment of a school for the education of the 
blind. The proposition was favorably received, 
and in the autumn of 187-4 he became a resident of 
Nebraska City. At a public meeting a committee 
was chosen to wait on the Legislature and ask for 
the appropriation. The committee consisted of 
George Sroat, H. K. Raymond, Dr. John Blue, 
Rev. J. H. McNamara, William Bisehof, Dr. Bowen 
and Samuel Bacon. 

Their mission was successful, and on the 19th 
day of Februarj', 1875, the act was passed. The 
first section of this act read as follows: "That there 
shall be maintained at Nebraska City, county of 
Otoe, an institution for the blind, and there is 
hereby appropriated for that purpose the sum of 
$10,000, for the erection of a building and furnish- 
ing of the same; provided, that the citizens of Ne- 
braska City shall raise the sum of $3,000, and when 
the said sum is raised and paid over to the board of 
trustees, either in money or in propert3-, to the sat> 
isf action of such board, then the board of trustees 
of said institution for the blind shall proceed to 
locate said institution on not less than ten acres of 
land, and not to exceed one mile in distance from 
the court house of said Nebraska City." The suc- 
ceeding sections, to the seventeenth, provide for the 

mode of governing the institution by the board of 
trustees, composed of the governor, secretary of 
State, attorney general. State treasurer and com- 
missioner of public lands and buildings, and sec- 
tion seventeen provides that ' ' All blind persons 
residents of this State, of suitable age and capacity, 
shall be entitled to an education in this institution 
at the expense of the State. Each county superin- 
tendent of common schools shall report to the Insti- 
tution for the Blind on the first days of April each 
year, the name, age, residence, and postoffice ad- 
dress of every blind person, and every person blind 
to such an extent as to be unable to acquire an edu- 
cation in the common schools, and who reside in the 
county where he is superintendent." 

For $2,400 a ten-acre tract lying about three- 
fourths of a mile north of the city was purchased, 
and preparations for the construction of a suitable 
edifice were begun. In the meantime temporary 
rooms were rented, and the institution formally 
opened on March 10, 1875, with three pupils. The 
new building was completed as rapidly as possible, 
and on January 13, 1876, was formally occupied by 
the school. The main building, a substantial brick, 
is three stories and basement, 49x65 feet, and con- 
tains thirty large rooms. In 1877 a two-story brick 
work-shop was added at a cost of $3,000. 

The spot occupied by the institution is one of the 
most beautiful in the West. The government of tlie 
school is paternal, and the law of kindness the gov- 
erning principle.. Corporal punishment is unknown 
in the institution. A regular course of study is 
marked out, running from eight to ten years. Tlie 
course includes geometrj', ph3-siology, ancient and 
modern philosophy, astronomy, natural history- and 
natural philosophy. Two of the most interesting de- 
partments of the institution are the musical and in- 
dustrial. In the matter of securing self support, 
experience proves that the musical branches are the 
most efficient, while they also contribute to relie\e 
the monotony which falls to the lot of those unfor- 

In the industrial departments the boys and 
young men are required to spend a certain number 
of hours at the occupation of cane-seating and broom- 
making. The girls are instructed in hand and ma- 


chine sewing, knitting, croclieting, bead and fancy 
work. Tlie reports show that both shop and fancy 
work departments are sources of profit, after paying 
all expenses for stock. 

The Normal School is located adjoining the town 
of Peru. In 1863 John M. McKenzie, a practical 
educator, settled in Peru, and with the assistance of 
zealous friends of education, measures were started 
for the organization of Mount Vernon College, a 
school under the auspices of the Methodist* denomi- 
nation. Soon the building, now used as dormitorj-, 
three stories high and 40x80 feet in size, was erected 
at a cost of $10,000. John :\I. McKenzie was 
chosen first principal of the new college. In the 
early spring of 1866 the new building was occupied, 
although it was unfinished, and school continued 
until June. Messrs. William Daily and T. J. Ma- 
jors, members of the State Council and House of 
Representatives for Nemaha County, in the winter 
of 1866-67 tendered the property, valued at $10,000, 
to the State for a Normal School. The proposition 
was promptly accepted, and the Legislature appro- 
priated the sum of $3,000 to finish the building, and 
also gave an endowment of twenty sections of saline 
land lyinu in Lancaster County. 

Tlu' art \n I oratr. establish and endow a State 
Normal Si-Ik ii>l was passed June 21, 1867. Section 
1 provides that the school shall be established at 
Peru, in Nemaha County, "the exclusive purpose 
of which shall be the instruction of persons, both 
male and female, in the art of teaching and in all 
the various branches that pertain to a good common 
school education; also to give instruction in the 
mechanical arts, and in the arts of husbandr3- and 
agricultural chemistrj-; in the fundamental laws of 
the United States, and what regards the rights and 
duties of citizens." 

Prior to the location and building of the Hospi- 
tal for the Insane at Lincoln, this class of unfortu- 
nates were sent to the Iowa Asylum. The bill 
locating and appropriating funds for the hospital 
building was passed by the Legislature in 1808. In 
1869 the contract was let to Joseph Ward, of Lin- 
coln, for $137,000, and on November 29, 1870, was 
formally accepted by the State. It was opened on 
December 22, 1870, with Dr. Lane as superinten- 

dent. In April, 1871, five months after the institu- 
tion had been opened for the reception of patients, 
it liurned to the ground. After the conflagration 
three patients were missing, and it has always been 
supposed that they lost their lives. A special ses- 
sion of the Legislature convened in June, 1871 , and 
made an appropriation for a new building. The 
buildings as they stand at. present cost $165,000. 
They are built of light gray sandstone, the ground 
dimensions being 54x328 feet, and the main build- 
ing four stories in height. In addition to the hospi- 
tal at Lincoln, a second hospital has been established 
by the State at Norfolk, while the Asylum for the 
Incurable Insane is located at Hastings. 

The Twelfth Territorial Legislature, by an act 
approved February 7, 1867, provided in due form 
for the establishment of an institute for the deaf 
and dumb, to be located in Omaha; all of the class 
specified of a suitable age and capacity, to receive 
instruction, to be adniittcil into and enjoy the bene- 
fits of said institutiiin wilhoui charge. The act fur- 
ther constituted a bnanl of directors a body politic 
and corporate with perpetual existence, consisting of 
Aurelius Bowen, Able L. Childs, E. H. Rogers, 
John S. Bowen, Gilbert C. Jlonell and John Mc- 

A building was rented in Omaha, and the school 
opened April 1, 1869, with W. M. French, principal, 
and Mrs. Jennie Wilson, matron. Twelve pupils 
were enrolled during the first eight months of the 
school's existence, and the amount expended for the 
same time was $2,179.03. 

The Thirteenth General Assembly, foreseeing 
that more suitable and commodious accommodations 
would have to be provided, made an appropriation of 
$15,000 for building purposes. Grounds located 
about three miles northwest of the city were donated 
b}' the city of Omaha, and a fine brick edifice erected 
in a suitable form to receive additions as they might 
be needed. The new building was occupied for the 
first time in Jauuarj-, 1872. Four teachers were 
employed during the second year and twenty-nine 
pupils were enrolled. 

In 1873 a printing office was established in con- 
nection with the institution, for the instruction of 
pupils desirous of learning that trade. Mr. S. F. 




Buckley, one of these pupils, shortly- after assumed 
the position of foreman. 

In 1879 a brick work-shop was erected at a cost 
of $3,000, carpenter work being introduced under 
charge of F. E. Ma3-nard. Both the printing office 
and carpenter shops are self supporting, beyond the 
salaries of their formen. The shops are supplied 
with suitable machinery for the various kinds of 
work. In 1874 a semi-monthly paper, entitled the 
Nebraska Mute Journal, was established. The 
mechanical work of this paper is done entirelj- by 
the pupils. 

A new building, similar in many respects to the 
first, was erected in 1876 at a cost of $15,000. In 
1879 the brick work-shop, above mentioned, was 
built, and in 1881 a third building was erected, con- 
necting the two built in 1871 and 1876, the combi- 
nation being in perfect harmony, and constituting 
one of the finest public buildings in the State. The 
cost of this improvement was $16,000. In addition 
to this $4,000 was expended in heating apparatus, 
whereby the entire institution is warmed by steam; 
$1,000 for gas apparatus, $1,000 for engine and 
machinery for the shops, $500 for hose for use in 
case of fire, and $500 for telephonic communication 
with the city of Omaha. The institution is under 
the charge of the board of public lands and build- 
ings, and directly under the control of a corps of 
competent instructors. The boys are learning good 
trades and the girls are taught general housework, 
plain sewing and dressmaking. The same general 
methods of instructing the deaf which are practiced 
in similar first-class institutions, are in use in this 
one, articulation being made a specialtj' with good 
success. A regular course of instruction is followed , 
in which it is aimed to prepare the pupil for active 
life and self support, the institution being in no 
sense an asj'lum, but in every sense a school. 

The act providing for the building of the State 
penitentiary on the site south of Lincoln, donated for 
that purpose by W. T. Donovan and Mr. Hilton, was 
passed by the Legislature on March 4, 1870. The 
national government had set apart 34,000 acres of 
land for prison purposes. Three commissioners 
were appointed to dispose of these lands. In the 
meantime the Legislature appropriated $5,000 for 

the erection of a temporary prison. In the same 
year plans and specifications offered by William H. 
Foster, of Des Moines, Iowa, were adopted, and the 
contract let to W. H. B. Stout and J. M. Jamison 
for $312,000. The quarries of Saltello, located 
about twelve miles south of Lincoln, furnished the 
material for the walls, a hard, magnesian limestone. 
The external appearance of the building is very im- 
posing, at once suggesting to the observer the use 
for which it is intended. It is a most substantia! 
structure, well heated and ventilated, considered 
perfectly secure, and has a capacity for 800 
prisoners. The cells are in rows of forty each, and 
by means of a lever at one end the keeper is enabled 
to lock at once the whole row. This greatly dimin- 
ishes the chances for escape, and the danger to the 
keeper of being attacked while on the round locking 
each door. A wall twenty-five feet in height, sur- 
mounted at intervals by watch towers, encloses nearly 
three acres at the rear of the building. Within the 
enclosure are the work-shops of the institution. The 
discipline of the prison is good. It is lenient, j^et 
severe enough to produce good order, and not so 
severe as to cause dissatisfaction and breed revolt. 
But once in the history of the institution has a seri- 
ous revolt taken place. On the afternoon of Janu- 
ary 11, 1875, seven convicts under the leadership 
of a convict named Mc Waters, overpowered the 
guards in the work-shop. Deputy Warden Nohes 
entered the shops at this moment. He was also 
overpowered, bound and stripped. Mc Waters, who 
had the audacity to attempt anjiihing that might 
lead to escape, donned the deputy's clothes and 
marched his convicts past the door guards into the 
building where more guards were overpowered, and 
the armory broken into. It was the plan to secure 
guns and ammunition, dress themselves in citizens 
clothing, kill the guards and effect their escape. 
Their plans might have succeeded had not the for- 
tunate escape of Deputy Warden Nohes given the 
alarm. The mutinous convicts soon found them- 
selves besieged in the main building. So completely 
were they hemmed in that every attempt to leave 
the building proved ineffectual. A detachment of 
United States troops arrived early the next morning, 
and the appearance of the soldiers caused them to 


weaken. They surrendered during the forenoon. 
The story of the revolt would be incomplete without 
at least a brief reference to the heroism displayed 
upon the occasion by Mrs. Woodhurst, wife of the 
warden. Her husband was absent when the mutiny 
occurred, and his wife was almost alone in the 
main building. As soon as she discovered the revolt 
she rushed to a window and alarmed the guards in 
spite of the threats of the convicts. She defied 
them to harm her, and fearlessly placed herself be- 
fore their guns when they were about to Are at citi- 
zens who had come from Lincoln to quell the mu- 
tiny. During the night she succeeded in getting 
possession of their guns and hiding them. When 
the hopelessness of their attempt to escape finally 
dawned upon the minds of the mutineers, they sur- 
rendered to her, and were turned over to the officers. 

McWaters and the seven convicts made a second 
attempt to escape on May 26, 1875. The attempt 
was a failure, McWaters being shot dead by the 
guard at the outset of the demonstration. 

The management of the penitentiary is neces- 
sarily strict, but not more so than necessit}' demands. 
Among the theories entertained for the amelioration 
of the condition of the inmates of the institution, is 
the introduction of a well-devised S3"stem of educa- 
tion. The maintenance of a well-selected library', 
and the employment of instructors, are features of 
prison reform which deserve the commendation of 
every humane citizen of the State. 

Nebraska, with her broad and rich prairies and 
fertile valleys, is pre-eminently an agricultural State. 
According to the official report of the State Board 
of Agriculture, for the year 1888, there were within 
the State 9,521,966 acres of improved land, valued 
at $40,144,780, and 13,353,171 acres of unimproved 
land valued at $30,307,241; thus making the aver- 
age value per acre of the improved lands $4. 07, and 
of the unimproved lands $2. 80. These values were 
obtained from the assessments for taxation, and as 
can readily be seen, were far below the actual 
values, the latter being double, or more than double, 
the assessed values. The number of acres reported, 
both improved and unimproved, equals 22,875,137, 
the amount then owned and subject to taxation. 
The total number of acres within the State as re- 

ported by the census of 1885, was 47,869,978. 
This shows that less than one-half of the real prop- 
erty of the State was then subject to taxation. In 
the agricultural report pertaining to cereals and veg- 
etables many counties are left out, consequently the 
aggregate amounts raised in the State in 1888 can- 
not be given. 

The following statement will show the kinds of 
products raised, total yield and average yield per 
acre in four counties, representing different localities 
of the State, indicating the crops raised therein: 

Adams— Corn, 3,096,380 bushels, average, 35 
bushels; wheat 298,104, bushels, average 12; oats 
1,512,600 bushels, average 30; barley, 222,728 
bushels, average 12; rye, 5,544 bushels, average 11; 
flax, 9,600 bushels, average 6; millet, 1,100 tons, 
average 2; potatoes not reported; fruit trees, 9,845; 
forest trees, 2,561,183; grapevines, 15,479. 

Lancaster — Corn, 8,004,900 bushels, average 
50; wheat, 170,496 bushels, average 18; oats, 1,930,- 
980 bushels, average 60; barley, 23,184 bushels, 
average 20; rye, 5,400 bushels, average 15; flax, 
3,276 bushels, average 12; millet, 2,100 tons, av- 
erage 3; potatoes, 34,500 bushels, average 172.5; 
fruit trees, 71,283; forest trees, 2,777.314; grape 
vines, 1,283. 

Lincoln — Corn, 400,000 bushels, average 40; 
wheat, 15,000 bushels, average 15; oats, 35,000 
bushels, average 35; barley, 6,250 bushels, average 
25; rye, 8,000 bushels, average 40; millet, 1,000 
tons, average 2; potatoes, 80,000 bushels, average 
40; trees not reported. 

Platte — Corn, 2,672,540 bushels, average 41; 
wheat, 214,600 bushels, average 10; oats, 1,081,- 
850 bushels, average 35; barley, 16,632 bushels, 
average 12; flax, 17,210 bushels, average, 10; mil- 
let, 6,480 tons, average 3; potatoes, 121,950 
bushels, average 150; fruit trees, 29,145; forest 
trees, 1,776,000; grape vines 12,125, 

The yield per acre of the several products in 
these counties can be taken as a fair average yield 
per acre throughout the State. The trees and vines 
represent the total number planted, and should not 
be construed as the number planted in 1888. 

The total number of animals in the State, and 
their assessed values in 1888, were as follows: 


Horses, 372,829, $9,425,542, average $20.21; 
cattle, 1,505,634, $8,436,940, average $6.08; mules 
and asses, 43,191, $993,208, average $24. 36; sheep, 
195,105, $105,830, average $0.50; hogs, 1,238,731, 
$1,318,975, average $1.17. The average value of 
each animal is the average throughout the State, but 
not uniform in the several counties. The assessed 
values are ver\^ unequal throughout the State. Land 
in some counties is assessed for taxation at nearly 
twice the price it is in other counties where the soil 
and shipping facilities are equally as good, and the 
same is ti'ue with regard to animals; for instance, 
in 1888, horses were assessed in Lancaster County 
at $17.11, and in Loup County at $29.29. Are 
they so much more valuable in Loup than in Lan- 
caster County? At the same time cattle were 
assessed per head at from $2.66 up to $13.06; mules 
and asses at from $11.80 up to $46.75; sheep at 
from ten cents up to $1.42. This shows that strin- 
gent legislation is needed in order to secure greater 
uniformity in the assessment of property. 

TTie value of the taxable property of the State, as 
assessed for taxation from 1881 to 1888 inclusive, 
has been as follows: In 1881, $93,142,456.99; in 
1882, $98,537,475.11; in 1883, $110,543,644.58; in 
1884, $123,615,886.95; in 1885, $133,418,699.83; 
in 1886, $143,932,570.51; in 1887, $160,506,- 
266.25; in 1888, $176,012,820.45. 

No official report for 1889 has been published. 
The increase in the values from year to year, also 
for the whole eight years — the latter being $82,870,- 
363.47, is noticeable. It is seen that in the short 
time of eight j-ears the entire taxable wealth of the 
State nearly doubled. The next biennial report, in- 
cluding 1889 and 1890, will show that in the ten 
years the property considerably more than doubled 
in value. 

Winter wheat is grown in Nebraska to a limited 
extent by drilling it between corn rows, with a five- 
hoed, one horse wheat^corn drill, and leaving the 
corn stalks stand until spring, when they are cut 
down. The stalks are left to hold the snow, and 
thus prevent the ground from freezing dry and kill- 
ing the wheat. On account of the difficulty to raise 
winter wheat, spring wheat is generally' raised, and 
it is claimed that it is superior to the former for 

bread. Corn is the great staple product, but the 
soil is well adapted to the raising of all kinds of 
grains and vegetables. The cultivation of the sugar 
beet, for the purpose of sugar making, has been in- 
troduced, and in all probability the day is not far 
distant when our sugar will be manufactured at 
home instead of being imported from foreign coun- 

The conditions for successful agriculture are a 
rich soil, temperate climate and sufficient moisture. 
Time and experience have removed all doubt as to 
the existence of the first two in Nebraska, and will 
soon remove all doubt as to the third. 

In 1880, Samuel Aughey. Ph. D. , LL. D. , profes- 
sor of natural sciences in the University of Nebraska, 
published his ' ' Sketches of the Physical Geography 
and Geology of Nebraska," in which he says '■ Eastern 
Nebraska has an abundance of moisture. This may 
appear like an exaggeration to those who were edu- 
cated to believe that Nebraska was an arid region. 
And yet there is nothing in the natural history of the 
State better established than that there is here an 
abundance of rainfall. When the snows of winter 
disappear, the ground is in good condition to be 
worked. Sufficient showers come during early spring 
to excite the crops of cereal grains, grasses and 
corn to an active growth. Sometimes it is compar- 
atively dry between the spring showers and the June 
rains. These come sometimes earlier than June, in 
the last? of Maj-, and sometimes not till the last of 
June, and constitute the rainy season for the State. 
It begins whenever the ' big rise ' of the Missouri 
and the Platte occur. This rainy season lasts fi-om 
four to eight weeks. In fifteen j'ears I have not 
known it to fail. During its continuance it does not 
indeed rain every day, except occasionally for a 
short period. Generally during this time it rains 
from two to three times a week. It is more apt to 
rain everj' night than everj- day. In fact during the 
whole of this season three-fourths of the rain falls 
at nighf. It is not an unusual occurrence for the 
rain to fall every night for weeks, followed by cloud- 
less days. This rainy season of June occurs at a 
period when crops most need rain, and owing to the 
regularitj' of its occurrence, drouths sufficiently 
severe to destroy the crops in Eastern Nebraska, 


where there is proper cultivation, have not yet 
Ijeen known. * * * After the wet season of 
June, which sometimes extends into July, is over, 
there are rains and showers at longer intervals until 
and during autumn. During winter it rarely rains. 
Snow falls in winter, but seldom to a great depth. 
* * * West of the one hundredth meridian the 
auKiunt of rainfall gradually decreases from the 
yearly average of thirty inches, at or near Kearney 
Junction, to twenty inches at North Platte. If the 
last two years only were taken into account, even 
there and almost to the west line of the State the 
rainfall would be estimated at thirty inches." 

The professor goes on to prove that the amount 
of rainfall and moisture was on the increase, and it 
certainly has been on the increase ever since. Many 
springs have broken out of late years where no water 
had ever before been observed, and water has ap- 
peared in old creek beds, where it apparently had 
not been flowing for ages. The streams have also 
been observed to increase in size. Much specula- 
tion has been indulged in as to the cause of the in- 
crease of the rainfall, but it is believed that the 
principal cause is ' ' the great increase in the absorp- 
tive power of the soil, wrought by cultivation. 
Observe now the change which cultivation makes. 
After the soil is broken, the rain as it falls is ab- 
sorbed by the soil like a hugh sponge. The soil 
gives this absorbed moisture back to the atmosphere 
by evaporation. Thus year by year as cultivation 
of the soil is extended, more of the rain that falls is 
absorbed and retained to be given ofl' by evapora- 
tion, or to produce springs. This, of course, must 
give increasing moisture and rainfall. " The plant- 
ing of trees is also believed to be a helping cause 
for the increase of moisture. 

Nebraska, on account of its elevation and the 
non-existence of swamps and stagnant waters, which 
produce malaria, is decidedly healthful. The atmos- 
phere is pure and invigorating. The elevation in 
feet above sea level, at various points throughout 
the State, as shown in Prof. Aughey's sketches 
above referred to, is as follows: 

Southeast corner of the State on the bottoms at 
the mouth of the Nemaha River, 878; Nebraska 
City, 964; Plattsmouth, 984; Omaha, Union Pacific 

Depot, 1,056; Blair, 1,111; Fremont, 1,220; Schuy- 
ler, 1,372; Columbus, 1,469; Grand Island, 1,887; 
Kearney, 2,143; North Platte, 2,825; Sidney, 4,108; 
Pine Bluffs, 5,061; Norfolk, 1,428; Beatrice, 1,278; 
Orleans, 2,150; head of the Republican in Colorado, 
4,050; Lincoln, 1,164; Fairmount, 1,657; Harvard, 
1,815; Juniata, 1,985; Kenesaw, 2,064; Lowell, 
2,086; Camp Sheridan, Old Spotted Tail Agency, 
3,490; Indian Creek, northwest corner of State, 
4,013; Scott's Bluflfs, thirty miles north of Pine 
Bluffs, 6,051; White Man's Fork, on State line, 
south of Union Pacific Railroad, 3,188. It is esti- 
mated that the eastern half of the State along the 
line of the Union Pacific has an average elevation of 
1,700 feet; the western half, 3,525 feet. The aver- 
age elevation along the whole line would be 2,612 
feet. The average elevation of the whole State is 
estimated at 2,312 feet. 

While Nebraska does not claim to be a manufac- 
turing State, some of its leading cities are making 
gigantic strides in that direction. The Omaha Daily 
Bee of January 1, 1890, speaks of the manufactur- 
ing interests of that progressive city as follows: 

' ' Omaha is making great progress as an indus- 
trial center. Its silver refining and smelting works, 
machine shops, foundries, white lead works, chair 
factory, wire mills, linseed oil works, distillery, 
boot and shoe factory and a score of other industrial 
concerns that have been established in this city 
within the past two years, give employment to an 
army of wage workers numbering full}' 11,000. 

Omaha now contains several of the most exten- 
sive manufactuiiiiu' establishments in all America. 
Its silver snu'llinti works are the largest works of 
this class in the world; its linseed oil works rival 
in magnitude with the largest oil mills in America, 
and its distillery ranks as the fourth largest in the 
United States. Its beef and hog product packing 
houses are only second in capacity to those of Chi- 

The Paxton & Vierling Iron Works is one of the 
leading manufacturing enterprises of Omaha. In 
1889 $300,000 worth of goods were manufactured, 
employing 200 men with a weekly pay roll of 

The Omaha Barb Wire Company, owing to eon- 


stantly increasing business, were compelled to erect, 
a few years ago, more commodious works. The 
product is sold all over the West and they have a 
capacity for turning out four car loads of barbed 
wire and 100 kegs of nails each day. They keep 
sixty men constantly employed, and have a weekly 
pay roll of $750. Of the other iron works the Acme 
Iron and Wire Works has 5 employes; Wilson & 
Beemer Iron Works, 40; Carter & Son Boiler Works, 
15; Wearne Bros'. Foundry, 10; Western Cornice 
Works, 53; Acme Iron Works, 7; Omaha Cornice 
Works, 25; McBreen & Carter, 6; Eagle Cornice 
Works, 40; Davis & Cowgill, 30; Champion Iron and 
Wire Works, 12; Eureka Iron Foundry, 14; McLearie 
& Oehlrie Foundry, 15. Total number employes, 
including Barb Wire Works and Paxton & Vierling, 
593; total weekly pay rolls, $6,495. 

The Omaha & Grant Smelting and Refining 
Works handle a large proportion of the ore produced 
in the mines of Montana, Idaho, Colorado, Dakota 
and Arizona. The plant covers over twenty-two 
acres of ground and represents an investment of 
$3,500,000. It is the largest silver smelting and 
refining institution in the world. During the year 
50,107 tons of ore were smelted. The average 
number of employes is 600, who are paid $30,000 
monthly, or about $380,000 annually. The immen- 
sity of the annual business of this great industry is 
clearlj- shown by the following statement for the 
eleven months of 1889, ending November 30: 


Lead, ft 74,743,713 $ 3,721,145.50 

Silver, oz 11, 9.57,977 10,840,059.87 

Gold, oz 113,531 3,389,370.03 

Sulphate ol copper 5,886,500 394,000.00 

Mention is made on a previous page of the ex- 
tent of the Union Pacific Shops, employing the larg- 
est number of men in Omaha. 

The Willow Springs Distillery is the third largest 
in America. The buildings are substantially erected 
and cover an area of eight acres. The distillery did 
a business in 1889 of $3,300,000, and paid in sal- 
aries $93,360. Taxes were paid the government on 
the product amounting to $2,880,000. Four thous- 
and cattle were fed, 700,512 bushels of grain 
mashed and 4,000 tons of hay used. The coal con- 
sumption was 144,000 tons and 45,600 barrels were 

used. One hundred and twenty-five men are em- 
ployed at the distillery. The rectif3-ing firm of 
Her & Co., which is connected with the Willow 
Springs Distillery Company, has $500,000 invested 
in the enterprise, and occupies extensive premises 
on Harney Sti-eet, where a large wholesale liquor 
establishment is also carried on. 

Next in importance to Omaha in the line of man- 
ufacturing is the city of Lincoln, where a great 
many establishments have been erected and put into 
operation. All the other leading cities of the State 
and many of the smaller ones have their local man- 
ufactories, some mechanical interests being j'et in 
their infancy. The number of manufactories in the 
State, in 1880, was 1,403, with an invested capital 
of $4,881,150, increased in 1885 to 2,861, with an 
invested capital of $12,722,334. In the five years 
the number and invested capital more than doubled. 

From the report of the secretary of State there 
has been obtained an official director}' of Nebraska's 
public servants, which is here presented, with begin- 
ning of term of service: 

Governors: Francis Burt, October 16, 1854; 
Mark W. Izard, February 20, 1855; William A. 
Richardson, Januaiy 12, 1858; Samuel W. Black, 
May 2, 1858; Alvin Saunders, May 15, 1861; 
David Butler, February 21, 1867; Robert W. Furnas, 
January 13, 1873; Silas Garber, January 11, 1875; 
Albinus Nance, January 9, 1879; James W. Dawes, 
January 4, 1883; John M. Thayer, January 6, 

Lieutenant governors: Othman A. Abbot, Janu- 
ary 4, 1877; Edmund C. Cams, January 9, 1879; 
A. W. Agee, January 4, 1883; H. H. Shedd, Janu- 
ary 8, 1885; George D. Meiklejohn, January 3, 

Secretaries: Thomas B. Cuming, August 3, 
1854; John B. Motley, March 23, 1858; J. Sterling 
Morton, July 12, 1858; Algernon S. Paddock, May 
6, 1861; Thomas P. Kennard, February 21, 1867; 
William H. James, January 10, 1871; John J. 
Gosper, January 13, 1873; Bruno Tzschuck, Janu- 
ary 11, 1875; S. J. Alexander, January 7, 1879; 
Edward P. Roggen, January 4, 1883; Gilbert L. 
Laws, January 6, 1887. 

Auditors: Charles B. Smith, March 16, 1855; 


Samuel L. Campbell, August 3, 1857; William E. 
Moore, June 1, 1858; Robert C. Jordan, August 2, 
1858; William E. Hai-vey, October 8, 1861; John 
Gillespie, October 10, 1865; Jeflferson B. Weston, 
January 13, 1873; F. W. Liedtke, January 9, 1879; 
John Wallichs, November 12, 1880; H. A. Bab- 
cock, January 8, 1885; T. H. Benton, January 3, 

Treasurers: B. P. Rankin, March 16, 1855; 
William W. Wyman, November 6, 1855; Augustus 
Kountze, October 8, 1861; James Sweet, January 
11, 1869; Henry A. Koeuig, January 10, 1871; J. 
C. McBride, January 11, 1875; George M. Bar(> 
lett, January 9, 1879; Phelps D. Sturtevant, Janu 
ary4, 1883; Charles H. Willard, January 8, 1885 
J. E. Hill, January 3, 1889. 

Librarians: James S. Izard, March 16, 1855 
H. C. Anderson, November 6, 1855; John H 
Kellum, August 3, 1857; Alonzo D. Luce, Novem 
ber 7, 1859; Robert S. Knox, 1861; Thomas P. 
Kennard, June 22, 1867; William H. James, Janu- 
ary 10, 1871; Guy A. Brown, March 3, 1871. 

Attorney generals: Champion S. Case, 1867 
Seth Robinson, 1869; George H. Roberts, January 
10, 1871; J. R. Webster, January 13, 1873; George 
H. Roberts, January 11, 1875; C. J. Dilworth, Jan- 
uary 9, 1879; Isaac Powers, Jr., January 4, 1883; 
William Leese, January 8, 1885. 

Superintendents of public instruction; Seth W. 
Reals, 1869; J. M. McKenzie, January 10, 1871; S. 
R. Thompson, January 4, 1877; W. W. W. Jones, 
January 6, 1881; George B. Lane, January 6, 1887. 

Commissioners of public lands and buildings: F. 
M. Davis, January 4, 1877; A. G. Kendall, Janu- 
ary 6, 1881; Joseph Scott, January 8, 1885; John 
Steen, January 3, 1889. 

Judges of supreme court — chief justices: Fen- 
ner Ferguson, October 12, 1854; Augustus Hall, 
March 15, 1858; William Pitt Kellogg, May 27, 
1861; William Kellogg, May 8, 1865; William A. 
Little, 1866; Oliver P. Mason, 1866; George B. 
Lake, January 16, 1873; Daniel Gantt, January 3, 
1878; Samuel Maxwell, May 29, 1878; George B. 
Lake, January 1, 1882; Amasa Cobb, January 1, 
1884; Samuel Maxwell, January 1, 1886; M. B. 
Reese, January 1, 1888. 

Associate justices and judges: Edward R. Har- 
den, December 4, 1854; James Bradley, October 
25, 1854; Samuel W. Black; Eleazer Wakeley, 
April 22, 1857; Joseph Miller, April 9, 1859; Wil- 
liam F. Lockwood, May 16, 1861; Joseph E. 
Streeter, November IS, 1861; Palmer S. Dundy, 
June 22, 1863; George B. Lake, February 21, 1867; 
Lorenzo Crounse, Februar3' 21, 1867; Daniel Gantt, 
January 16, 1873; Samuel Maxwell, January 16, 
1873; Amasa Cobb, May 29, 1878; M. B. Reese, 
January 1, 1884. 

Clerks of supreme court; H. C. Anderson, 1856; 
Charles L. Salisbury, 1858; E. B. Chandler, 1859; 
John H. Kel'lom, 1861; William Kellogg, Jr., 1865; 
George Armstrong, 1867; Guy A. Brown, August 
8, 1868. 

Reporters of supreme court; J. BI. Woolworth, 
1870; Lorenzo Crounse, 1873; Guy A. Brown, 1875. 

Delegates and members of Congress: Napoleon 
B. Giddings, December 12, 1854; Bird B. Chapman, 
November 6, 1855; Fenner Ferguson, August 3, 
1857; Experience Estabrook, October 11, 1859; 
Samuel G. Daily, October 9, 1860; Phineas W. 
Hitchcock, October 11, 1864; T. M. Marquette, 
March 2, 1866; John Taffe, October 9, 1867; Lor- 
enzo Crounse, October 8, 1872; Frank Welch, No- 
vember 7, 1876; Thomas J. Majors, December, 
1877; E. K. Valentine, November 5, 1878; A. J. 
Weaver, March 4, 1883; James Laird, March 4, 
1883; George W. E. Dorsey, March 4, 1885; John 
A. McShaue, March 4, 1887. 

United States Senators: John M. Thayer, 1867- 
71; Thomas W. Tipton, 1867-75; Phineas W. Hitch- 
cock, 1871-77; Algernon S. Paddock, 1875-81; 
Alvin Saunders, 1877-83; C. H. VanWyck, 1881-87; 
Charles F. Manderson, 1883-89; Algernon S. Pad- 
dock, 1887-93. 

United States marshals: Mark W. Izard, Octo- 
ber 28, 1854: Eli R. Doyle, April 7, 1855; Ben- 
jamin P. Rankin, March 29, 1856; Phineas W. 
Hitchcock, September 19, 1861; Casper E. Yost, 
April 1, 1865; J. T. Hoile, July 1, 1869; William 
Daily, 1871; Ellis Bierbower, 1880. 

The following abstract of votes cast for presi- 
dential candidates since Nebraska's admission into 
the Union will be of interest: 1868, Ulj'sses S. 


■Grant (R), 9,782; Horatio D. Sej-mour (D), 5,519 
1872, Ulysses S. Grant (R), 17,702; Horace Greeley 
(D), 7,548; 1876, Rutherford B. Hayes (R), 31,833; 
Samuel J. Tilden (D), 17,554; 1880, James A. Gar 
field (R), 54,979; Winfield S. Hancock (D), 28,523 
Gen. Weaver (Nat), 3,950; 1884, James G. Blaine 
(R), 70,912; Butler and Cleveland (Fusion-D), 
54,391; John P. St. John (P), 2,899; 1888, Ben- 
jamin Harrison (R), 108,425; Grover Cleveland (D), 
80,552; Fiske (P), 9,429; Streeter (U. L), 4,226. 

The popular vote for governor has been: 1866, 
David Butler, 4,093; J. Sterling Morton, 3,948; 
1868, David Butler, 8,576; J. R. Porter, 6,349; 
1870, David Butler, 11,126; John H. Croxton, 
8,648; 1872, Robert W. Furnas, 16,543; Henry C. 
Lett, 11,227; 1874, Silas Garber, 21,568; Albert 
Tuxbury, 8,025; J. F. Gardner, 4,059; J. S. Church, 
1,346; 1876, Silas Garber, 31,947; Paren England, 
17,219; J. F.Gardner, 3,022; scattering, 36; 1878, 
Albinus Nance, 29,469; W. H. Webster, 13,473; 
Levi G. Todd, 9,475; 1880, Albinus Nance, 55,237; 
T. W. Tipton, 28,167; 0. T. B. Williams, 3,898; 
scattering, 43; 1882, James W. Daws, 43,495; J. 
Sterling Morton, 28,562; E. P. Ingersoll, 16,991; 
scattering, 30; 1884, James W. Daws, 72,835; J. 
S. Morton, 57,634; J. G. Miller, 3,075; scattering, 
11; 1886, John M. Thayer, 75,956; James E. 
North, 52,656; H. H. Hardy, 8,175; J. Burrows, 
1,422; scattering, 30; 1888, John M. Thayer, 
103,983; John A. McShane, 85,420; George E. 
Bigelow, 9,511; David Butler, 3,941; scattering, 10. 

Congressional candidates in the several Congres- 
sional districts at the general elections in November, 
1882, 1884, 1886 and 1888, received the following 
votes. In the First district, composed of the coun- 
ties of Cass, Douglas, Gage, Johnson, Lancaster, 
Nemaha, Otoe, Pawnee, Richardson, Sarpy and 
Saunders: 1882, A. J. Weaver (R), 17,022; John 
I. Redick (D), 12,690; W. S. Gilbert (P), 3,707; 
1884, A. J. Weaver (R), 22,644; Charles H. Brown 
(D), 21,669; E. J. O'Neil (P), 1,024; 1886, Church 
Howe (R), 16,373; John A. McShane (D), 23,396; 
George Bigelow (P), 2,876; 1888, W. J. Connell 
(R), 32,926; J. S. Morton (D), 29,519; Edwin B. 
Graham (P), 2,962; J. W. Edgerton (U. L), G50. 

In the Second district, composed of the counties 

of Adams, Butler, Chase, Clay, Dundy, Fillmore, 
Furnas, Franklin, Frontier, Gasper, Hamilton, Har- 
lan, Hayes, Hitchcock, Jefferson, Kearney, Nuck- 
olls, Phelps, Polk, Red Willow, Saline, Seward, 
Thayer, Webster and York, in 1882 James Laird 
(R) received 12,983 votes; V. S. Moore (D), 10,012; 
F. A. Harman (D), 3.060; 1884, James Laird (R), 
21,182; J. H. Stickel (D), 17,650; B. Crabb (P), 
1,176; 1886, James Laird (R), 21,373; W. A. Mc- 
Keighan (D), 16,315; C. S. Hamson (P), 3,789; 
1888, James Laird (R), 30,959: W. G. Hastings 
(D), 21,207; George Scott (P), 4,128; H. H. 
Rohr(U. L), 1,590. 

The Third district is composed of the counties 
of Antelope, Blaine, Boone, Box Butte, Brown, Buf- 
falo, Burt, Cedar, Cheyenne, Cherry, Colfax, Cum- 
ing, Custer, Dakota, Dawes, Dixon, Dodge, Dawson, 
Grant, Greeley, Garfield, Hall, Holt, Howard, 
Ke3'a Paha, Keith, Knox, Lincoln, Logan, Loup, 
Madison, Merrick, Nance, Perkins, Pierce, Platte, 
Sioux, Sheridan, Sherman, Stanton, Thomas, Val- 
ley, Washington, Wayne and Wheeler. The votes 
cast in the district have been, in 1882, F. K. Valen- 
tine (R), 11,284; M. K. Turner (D), 7,342; W. H. 
Munger(D), 9,932; 1884, G. W. E. Dorsey (R), 
25,985; William Neville (D), 20,871; Albert Felch 
(P), 572; 1886, G. W. E. Dorsey (R), 28,717; A. 
H. Webster (D), 20,943; W. J. Olinger (P), 2,583; 
1888, G. W. E. Dorsey (R), 42,288; E. P. Weath- 
erby (D), 31,128; A. M, Walling (P), 2,995; P. 0. 
Jones (U. L), 1,487. 

The population of the Territory and State of Ne- 
braska at the different years mentioned has been as 
follows: 1855,4,494; 1856, 10,716; 1860, 28,841; 
1870, 122,993; 1874, 230,007; 1875, 246,280; 1876, 
257,747; 1878, 313,748; 1880, 452,542; 1885, 740,- 
645. According to the rate of increase from 1880 
to 1885, the population of 1890 will be about 
1,200,000, though owing to the increased facilities 
for immigraion, it may exceed that estimate. 

As has been the case in all or nearly all newly 
settled portions of America, ministers of the Gospel 
accompanied the pioneer settlers to the Territory of 
Nebraska and began preaching the Word of God; 
and , in proportion as the Territory and State has in- 
creased in population, religious organizations have 


been established and church edifices have been 
erected. In several older States the !Mctlii»lists and 
Baptists were, for some j-ears, the picnicrr Cliiistian 
workers; but this cannot be said of Nebraska, for, 
with its settlement, side by side with the ministers 
of these denominations were the preachers of the 
Presbyterian. Cln-istian, Disciple, and other churches. 

It is [irdlialile tliat tiie ruile(| States garrison, 
stationed where Neliraska City now stands, was 
favored with religious services by a chaplain several 
years before the settlement of the Territory began. 
Early in the spring of 1854, Rev. William D. Gage, 
a Methodist missionary, began regular preaching in 
Nebraska City. A frame "meeting house" was 
erected soon thereafter. The following year the 
Methodist and Baptist denominations each organized 
a church with several constituent members. The 
first was under the supervision of Rev. Gage, and 
the members were Rev. Gage himself and wife, 
Mattie Gage, William Walker and wife, M. Ridden 
and Mrs. Rowena Craig. The second was under 
the supervision of Rev. J. C. Renfro, and the mem- 
bers were B. B. Belcher, Samuel Findley, Edward 
McHenry, Lucinda Nuckolls, Mary Ann Belcher, 
Lavison Cook and Caroline Thomas. The same 
year, 1855, a church was organized in Nebraska 
City by the Presbyterians, under the supervision of 
Revs. H. M. Giltner, a missionary, and L. G. Bell, 
of Sidney, Iowa. The constituent members were 
D. F. Jackson and wife, W. B. Hall and wife, Mrs. 
Harriet Anderson, Mrs. Mary Cowles, Mrs. Cath- 
arine Cowles, Miss Maggie J. Martin, Solomon 
Martin, David Martin, W. S. Van Doren, Dr. J. C. 
Campbell. Miss Emily Lorton, Miss Nancy Pearman 
and Mrs. S. E. Giltner. 

The Christian Church, organized in Brownville in 
January, 1855, by Elder Joel M. Woods, is said to 
have been the first organized religious body in the 
Ten-itory, except the Indian Mission. In 1858 the 
Methodist Episcopal, Congregational, Presbyterian 
and Baptist Churches each organized societies in 
Brownville. In 1855, the next year after the site 
of Omaha was settled, a religious awakening took 
place there under the preaching of Revs. Koulmer, 
Isaac F. Collins, William Leach, Moses F. Shinn 
and Reuben Gaylord. 

'■ The latter was one of the foremost and most 
influential of the holy men who came into the wil- 
derness and assisted in shaping the religious des- 
tiny, not alone of Omaha, but of Nebraska and 
the West. He was born in the State of Connecticut, 
where a mother's instruction and prayers directed 
his opening powers and led to an early cdnserratinn 
to God. Upon his graduation, he passed twenty 
years in Iowa, laying the foundations of Ids <-hureh 
in that State, whence he came to Omaha on a pros- 
pecting tour. At that time there was no church or- 
ganization of his denomination, nor house of wor- 
ship of any other religious association. He imme- 
diately entered upon his duties as a minister, and 
preached in the old capitol building on Ninth Street. 
On the first Sabbath in May, 1856, he organized a 
Congregational Church witli nine members, holding 
services in tlie iliiiin^-i-ooin ol' the houglas House. 
He soon inaugurated measures for the erection of a 
church edifice, which was completed and dedicated 
in 1857, and after a service in the pastures of the 
Lord for nearly a third of a century, he [)assed 
away. He died in 1880, respected as a minister of 
the Gospel for his talents and Christian \iitui's. not 
more than for his work as a man in pulilie and pri- 
vate life." 

' ' Foremost also among those who came in the 
same cause during 1855, was the Rev. W. Emmonds, 
of Council Bluflfs, who enjoys the distinction of 
having been the first Catholic clergyman in the Ter- 
ritor}' of Nebraska. He came for the purpose of 
attending to the wants of tlie Catliolies in Omaha, 
but finding no aet-oiniuodal ions fortlie performaiiee 
of his sacred duties, he was eompelled to return to 
Council Bluffs, whither at intervals devout Catholics 
on this side were forced to repair to attend mass 
and approach tlie sai laments. During the latter 
part of the year, it is rlairaed that mass was said in 
the Representatix e iliauilier of the old capitol, while 
others insist that the services were held at the resi- 
dence of the Hon. T. B. Cuming, corner of Dodge 
and Eighteenth Streets. Be this as it may, no 
church was determined upon until June, 1856, when 
Thomas O'Connor, James Ferry and Vincent Burk- 
ley were appointed a committee to solicit subscrip- 
tions. " — [Andre is' History of Nebraska.] The 



church edifice, a small liiick building, was erected 
before the year closed. 

In 1855 the Methodists held services at Archer, 
the original county seat of Richardson County, and 
the same year a class was organized at the home of 
Henry Shellhorn on South Fork, in Pawnee County. 
Rev. David Hart was the pioneer Methodist preacher 
in this exti-eme southeastern part of the State. Also 
in 1855, a Presbyterian Church was organized at 
Bellevue, in Sarpy County, by Rev. William Ham- 
ilton. The following year Rev. I. E. Heaton, of 
the Congregational Church, commenced preaching 
at Fremont, and in 1857 a Congregational and a 
Methodist Church were organized at that place. 

Prior to 1854 only a few points in the Territory 
now composing the State of Nebraska had been 
pei-manently settled, and not a sufficient number of 
individuals had settled at any particular place to 
organize a church. But during that and the follow- 
ing year there seems to have been a large immigra- 
tion to the Territory, and it is remarkable how 
rapidly religious denominations began to organize 
churches. The denominations mentioned in the 
foregoing may be considered the pioneers in inaugu- 
rating Christian work in the new Territory. All of 
them have grown strong in numbers and in property, 
and it is to be hoped equally as strong in their zeal 
to advance the cause of Christianity. In 1857-58, 
especially in the latter year, many new churches 
mostly by the denominations mentioned were organ- 
ized. But few if any other denominations organ- 
ized spcieties in the Territory prior to 1860. In this 
year, on August 3, Bishop Talbot, of the Episcopal 
Church, held services in Plattsmouth, and the society 
organized by him received its regular supply the 
following year in the person of Rev. Isaac A. Hager, 
who commenced his work June 16. The St. James 
Episcopal Church of Bellevue was organized in 1861, 
by Rev. I. A. Hager. Services were held at differ- 
ent points until 1867, when the name of the society 
was changed from St. James to Holy Trinity, and 
the work of erecting an edifice begun. In the fall 
of 1863, Episcopal services were held in Brown- 
ville, by Rt. Rev. J. C. Talbot, the second mission- 
ary bishop of the diocese, and a society still exist- 
ing was organized. Bishop Talbot and Rev. 0. C. 

Pake held the first Episcopal service in Fremont, 
July 14, 1865, from which time Dr. Dake became 
the settled pastor. This denomination has since 
organized many societies throughout the State, and 
become prominent in religious work. In 1860 
Roman Catholic services were first held in Platts- 
mouth, and the following year a church edifice was 
erected. In 1868 Bishop O'Gorman organized a 
Roman Catholic Church in Lincoln, and in 1879 the 
church of St. Theresa, one of the largest and hand- 
somest structures in the city, was erected. Many 
Catholic churches, especially in the larger cities and 
towns of the State, now exist, the memberships con- 
sisting largely of citizens from the old country. 

In 1866 a society of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, was organized at Nebraska Citj-; but 
as there has only been a sprinkling of immigrants 
fi'om the South, this denomination has not be- 
come prominent in the State. German Methodist 
Episcopal, German Presbyterian, Evangelical Luth- 
eran and United Brethren Churches have been or- 
ganized in some of the larger cities. The Univer- 
salist Church organized a society at Lincoln, Sep- 
tember 1, 1870. Rev. James Gorton was the first 
pastor. Their chui'ch building, completed in June, 
1872, was the first one erected in Nebraska by Uni- 
versalists. There are but few organizations of this 
denomination within the State. In a few cities of 
the State, where there is a considerable population 
of colored poeple, Colored Methodist, Colored 
Baptist and African Methodist Churches have been 
established. At a few points in the State the Sev- 
enth Day Adventists have colonized themselves and 
organized and established churches; but they are not 
numerically strong throughout this locality. Other 
denominations, not herein named, have also organ- 
ized religious societies. 

Numerically the Methodist Episcopal Church is 
the strongest in Nebraska, having at this time 
(March, 1890) a membership of about 35,000. The 
original Nebraska conference of this denomination, 
organized in 1860, embraced all that portion of the 
State lying east of the line between Ranges 1 2 and 
13 west. This line forms the western boundary of 
Webster, Adams, Hall, Howard, Greeley and 
Wheeler Counties. All that portion of the State 




l3-ing west thereof was made a mission district. lu 
1881 ttie Nebraslva conference was divided by the 
Platte River from its mouth to the line dividing 
Townships 15 and 16 north; thence west on this 
line to the point where it again crosses the river; 
thence up the river to the western boundary of the 
conference. All lying south of this line retained 
the original name "Nebraska Conference," and all 
lying north thereof was made to constitute a new 
conference by the name of the ' ' North Nebraska 
Conference. " Since that time the mission district, 
above described, has been erected into conference, 
and named "West Nebraska Conference." The 
twenty-ninth session of the Nebraska Annual Con- 
ference was held at York, October 2, 3, 4 and 5, 
1889, Bishop John H. Vincent, presiding. The 
thirtieth annual session of this conference will be 
held at Hastings. 

A detailed history of individual church oi-ganiza- 
tions will appear in the count}' histories. 

The best historj' of Nebraska is found in the 
columns of the newspapers which were founded with 
the first settlement of the Territory. The history of 
the newspapers of Nebraska would alone fill a vol- 
ume. The rapid development of the State is due 
largely to their efforts, and no State in the Union 
can boast of a better class of newspapers or a more 
intelligent and enterprising class of publishers. 
The first newspaper published in Nebraska was the 
Palladium and Platte Valley Advocate, issued on 

November 14, 1854, by Thomas Morton, D. E. 
Reed & Co. It preceded the publication of the 
Arrow but a few days, the latter paper being issued 
at Omaha on November 28, 1854. The Nebraska 
City News was established in 1855, with J. Sterling 
Morton at the editorial helm. As the Territory in- 
creased in population the number of newspapers in- 
creased. Journalism has not only kept pace with 
progi-ess in Nebraska, but has actually preceded it, 
and to-day nearly every village has its local publi- 
cation, while the larger towns and cities support 
from two to twenty and more papers. The leading 
daily papers of Omaha are the Bee, the "World-Her- 
ald, the Republican and the Democrat. These 
papers will compare favorably with the best daily 
newspapers of the country, especially the Bee, which 
out>ranks all Western journalistic efforts. Lincoln 
has the Daily State Journal, Daily News and Daily 
Call. Fremont has two dailies, the Tribune and the 
Herald. The Express and Democrat, both dailies, 
are able exponents of Beatrice. . Nebraska City has 
the Daily Press and the Dailj- News. Grand Island 
supports the Dailj' Independent, while Hastings is 
represented by the Daily Nebraskan. Kearney 
gives a liberal support to the Enterprise, the Hub 
and the Journal, all dailies. Plattsmouth supports 
two dailies, while Columbus, York, Broken Bow and 
Red Cloud each boast of enterprising daily publica- 
tions. The weekly publications of Nebraska num- 
lier into the hundreds. 



Adaivls County. 


Ax Historical Sketch — Location and Area — Population — Adaptabllity to Agricultuise — Physical Fea- 
tures — Natural Gas — Climatic Features — Game — Fremont's Travels — Kit Carson — The 
.Government Well— Indian Treaties— " Bill " Kress— Some First Things- 
Pioneers — Op.iginal Tax Roll — Settlers' Associations. 

! <.■-, 

"The past is theirs— 
And we must learn 
They had no model, 

j D V^IS County is cue of the 
(liMsions of Nebraska in 
the second tier of counties 
noith of the Kansas line, 
1 20 miles west of the Mis- 
J" souii River. Its Coiigres- 
"i^C description is — 
(iislups 5 (), 7 and 8, in Ranges 9, 
11 and 12 west of the sixth princi- 
meiidian, almost midwaj' between 
and 41 degrees north latitude and 
degiees and 20 degrees west longi- 
The area is 576 square miles 
.U)8 G40 acies. The elevation above 
I le\el at H insen is 1,949 feet, at 
Hastings 1 934 .it Paulino 1,777, at Roseland 
1,969 ; Holstein 2,011 and Leroj- 1,860. The pop- 
ulation in 1870 was 19; in 1874,2,694; in 1875, 
3,093; in 1876,3.940; in 1878,5.583; in 1879, 
8,162; in 1880,* 10,239; in 1885,18,002; while, 
in 1889, it was estimated at 25,000. 


-the future ours; 
and teach. * * 
but they left us one." 

lu 1873 the pioneer agriculturists were firmlj' 
established and every township gave evidence of its 
possibilities. There were scarcelj' a thousand per- 
sons in the fields of Adams County at the time ; but 
the news of success of the fortunate ones soon 
spread abroad and, by the spring of 1874, over 
1,500 persons came to share in the fortunes of the 
pioneers. All became evangelists of faith in Ne- 
braska and, notwithstanding the difficulty of setting 
aside the ideas of the "Great American Desert," 
inculcated for 30 years, and based on the reports of 
the Pathfinder, Fremont, the teachings of the new 
doctrine were well received and answered by almost 
a thousand more in 1874-75. Then the great truth 
spread out that Fremont's desert lay west of longi- 
tude 23 degrees, and his description, even then, was 
only applicable in part; for, when supplied with 
water to make up for the limited rainfall, that por- 
tion of the State west of longitude 23 degrees is 
highly productive and its fecundity proverbial. For 
a thousand j-ears its natural grasses have insured to 
the great herds of buffalo a pasturage at once 
alnindant and rich in such parts as support animal 
life, and, when the humid region of Nebraska is 


filled to overflowing, that section of the State and 
adjoining territory, comprising 100,000,000 acres 
of arid lands, vill become the home of industry. 

The Little Blue rises in Kearney County, but 
the greater number of its sources are found in 
Adams County. Its course in Nebraska is about 
110 miles. It receives the Big Sandy in Jefferson 
County, and flows into the Big Blue south of the 
State line. In its beautiful valley a few of the early 
settlements of the State were made, and in later 
years the sanguinary' Sioux enacted many of their 
tragedies along its course. The head streams of the 
Little Blue give to the greater portion of Adams 
County many advantages — except in the neighbor- 
hood of Kenesaw, they give a stream to almost ever}' 
section. Pawnee, Sand}', Thirty-two Mile and Cot- 
tonwood Creeks are the principal feeders of this 
river. The northwestern townships of the county 
are drained by the Platte, the south channel of 
which occupies the extreme northwest corner. * The 
divide between the Republican and the Little Blue 
is almost on the line between Webster and Adams 

The Chamberlain well phenomena, the disturl> 
ances in the well on the Jones farm, north of the 
citj-, the escape of gas above the village of St. Paul, 
and the gas spring near Omaha, drew the attention 
of the people to the existence of natural gas under 
the prairies. 

One of the most thorough explorations of strata, 
made in Central Nebraska, was begun in August, 
1889, and completed to 1,0-10 feet on December 6, 
1889, when George Haller, who kept a record of 
strata, reported to the Tribune: From 125 feet to 
230 feet an extensive bed of sand and water was 
found. At 230 feet the great bed of yellow ochre 
was discovered. By a good many this was thought 
to be a glazier formation. At 260 to 270 feet the 
ochre began to have a gray color. At 280 feet a 
light colored shale was found with a few thin streaks 
of gray spar. This shale extends to a depth of 430 
feet, more or less darker at difl'erent depths. Here 
a formation of gypsum and limestone was passed 

*In early years (1850) there was a small lake near the great 
trail, three miles northwest of Kenesaw. The Germans who 
carried the mail from the Missouri to Colorado had a camping 
ranch six miles north ol Kenesaw, round which grass was 

through, it being probably a foot and a half thick. 
A small flow of water was then struck ; then the 
shale again. It continued to show small deposits 
of iron pyrites, and then thin stratas of limestone, 
with occasionally a small streak of gray spar. This 
formation continued until a depth of 805 was reached, 
but from 805 to 950 feet shale predominated. Then 
about seven feet of very thin limestone were passed 
through ; then about twenty feet of shale gypsum ; 
then about twenty feet of '-gumbo" shale. At 900 
feet from five to six feet of gypsum, then shale, dry 
spar and limestone until a depth of 925 was reached. 
Here a vein of water and a little sand were obsen'ed 
for the first time after leaving the large bed of sand. 
From 925 to 942^ feet, at which latter point the 
great salt bed was struck, a soft "gumbo" like 
shale, getting softer near the salt. From 942|- to 
987^ the salt bed. After leaving the salt, sand- 
stone was found. From 400 feet down the gas 
odor was stronger as the distance increased until the 
salt was struck. Another fact is that more or less 
small pieces of iron pyrites were found aU the way 
from 300 to 930 feet. What future boring may 
develop is an unknown quantity — the enterprise of 
business men must find it out — the scientific man 
can only speculate. 

Joseph Horgan discovered a large deposit of 
calcine on his fann in June, 1873. 

The seasons are delightful. No killing frosts 
in the spring are likely in Nebraska after April 10, 
and no frost after May 14 ; in the fall, during seven- 
teen years, the average date of killing frosts is 
October 7 ; slight frost, September 23. The hottest 
month is July, the coldest, February. Grass has 
started so as to change the aspect of the prairie Iiy 
April 9 , and by April 29 will yield cattle a full sup- 
port. The cold weather begins in January and con- 
tinues until April. On January 1, 1883, the ther- 
mometer registered 8 degrees below at Hastings ; on 
the 7th, 14th and 18th was at zero, while on the 
19th it was 30 degrees below; on the 20th, 26 de- 
grees, and 21st, 16 degrees below. On January 1, 
1884, it was 10 degrees below, and on the 5th and 
24th, 18 degrees below. It fell to 26 degi-ees on 
January 1, 1885, to 18 degrees on the 16th, and to 
22 degi-ees on the 19th and 20th. On Januarv 8, 



1886, 26 degrees below were registered; on .the 
16th, 23 degrees; on the 9th, 24 degrees, and on 
the 16th, 20 degrees below. The mercury showed 
12 degi-ees below on January 1, 1887; 15 degrees 
on the 6th, and 20 degi-ees on the 8th and 9th. On 
January 1, 1881, the mercury was 6 degrees below; 
on the 8th, 12 degrees ; on the 12th, a blizzard ; on 
the 13th, 1-t degrees; on the 14th, 20 degrees; on 
the 15th, 24 degrees, and on the 16th, 12 degrees. 
February of 1888 was the most temperate of all 
Februaries during the six years given, the mercury 
ranging from 60 degrees to 66 degrees above for 
several days ; but March was the coldest March of 
all the j'ears. Travelers may speak of the beautiful 
fall in Southern France and along the chain of the 
Pyrenees ; but it is very questionable if the sunshine 
is of longer duration there than in this section of 
Nebraska. The fall of 1880 was just simply a con- 
tinuation of the summer, and the sk}- a summer's 
sky. When winter spreads her mantle over the 
prairies he comes to stay for three full months. He 
is grim, of course, and treacherous ; but withall, this 
Nebraska winter clarifies the soil, builds up the 
constitution of man, and cames with it health to all 
who come here healthy ; and, in some cases, causes 
the disappearance of even hereditary disease. 

The blizzard of April, 1873, came when the 
robes of winter had disappeared, and the pioneers of 
Adams were enjoj-ing the first spring day of that 
year. Although a warm rain was falling, the farmers 
were busy in the fields, and the stock had been 
turned loose among the corn-stalks. Late in the 
afternoon the mercurj' fell, and toward the close of 
the day a cold breeze sprung up, which suddenly 
changed into a blizzard, filling the air with snow 
and corn-stalks. A Mrs. Brown, of the Independent, 
speaking of this storm in 1888, says: '■ The tem- 
perature seemed to be falling at the rate of forty 
degrees in thirty-nine minutes; no one had time to do 
anything but fly in doors, and before midnight one 
of the worst blizzards that ever struck Nebraska was 
prevailing with a fury that was frightful to contem- 
plate. " The story was suggested by the blizzard of 
January 12, 1888, in which Mrs. Malinda Chapman 
and two children of Mrs. Faust, of Turtle Creek, 
were frozen to death. The cyclone of April, 1874, 

broke over Kenesaw, closing a beautiful afternoon, 
and scattering the homes of the people. One house, 
belonging to A. D. Williams, alone remained of the 
little town, and into this the frightened people ran 
for safety. It is related that E. 6. Knapp, his 
wife, and W. V. Miller sought shelter in a sod 
hen-house (about fortj'-five cubical feet in size) and 
remained there for seventy-two hours, a can of 
peaches and two eggs, picked up from the debris, 
being their only provision for food. 

In May, 1874, a heavy rain storm swept over 
this section. The wide prairie was unable to absorli 
the volume of water, and so it spread out into a 
shallow lake, the depression in which Kenesaw is 
located being submerged to a depth of over three 
feet. During the thunder storm of April 17, 1880, 
the house belonging to Thomas Hughes, three miles 
northeast of Juniata, was destroyed by lightning. 
The wife of Eugene Parnum was killed and himself 
scorched by the fluid. The storm of June 25, 1881, 
created havoc among small buildings in and around 
Juniata, floral hall on the agricultural grounds 
being entirelj' destroj-ed. On July 11, 1882, a 
bail stoi-m swept over the county from a point two 
miles west of Hastings. It broke nearly 2,000 
panes of glass in the city, and in its southerly 
course destroyed crops of all kinds. On July 12, 
1883, a similar storm swept a section of country, two 
miles north of Hastings, destroying a strip of crops 
twenty-four miles in length by two in width, or 
forty-eight full sections. In view of such disasters 
the question of organizing a hail insurance company 
was raised in January, iss 4. 'I'lir storm of July 
20, 1884, commenced north of (I rand Island, and 
created havoc along its southwestern course at 
Juniata, Hansen and other places. 

The leg-bone of a mastodon was unearthed in 
October, 1883, on a farm belonging to the Nebraska 
Real Estate Company. How long since the giants 
of the wilderness roamed over the land ? What ani- 
mals did they crowd out ? Who were their hunters ? 
are all questions which history cannot answer. The 
buflfalo, moose, the antelope are the only great ani- 
mals of this class known to exist on the prairies 
within this historic period. Since the settlement of 
Adams County, they have appeared at intervals 



within its boundaries and since its settlement the 
last great herd of buffalo disappeared within a 
circle of fire and under showers of lead. In June, 
1873, two buffalo visited the Plank farm near Hast> 
ings, both of which the owner killed. Prior to this 
time, as recorded in the historj' of Clay Couutj-, a 
young woman rode down and captured an antelope 
in the vicinity of Spring Ranche. During the latter 
part of January and earlj' in February, 1890, 
weekl}- wolf hunts formed the progi-amme for the 
farmers in the northern part of the county. 

One of the first and largest white owls ever cap- 
tured in this country was captured bj- Frank Ternow, 
of Holstein, in December, 1889. It measured five 
feet and a half from tip to tip of wing. 

During the latter part of July and the first days 
of August, 1873, a plague of insects descended on 
the prairies, like a heavy cloud which obscured the 
sunlight. All vegetation, save the single prairie 
grasses, disappeared before the devouring myriads, 
and within two days the grain fields were laid waste. 
Through the efforts of the State Grange, the United 
States appropriated $150,000 for the relief of the 
sufferers, while the States and the cities contributed 

A local blacksmith, it is alleged, guarded his 
anvil to save it from the "pesky things." He had 
little faith in the "hoppers." He saw them eat 
holes in axe handles, devour brooms and broom 
handles ; he witnessed the destruction of his fields, 
and now was determined to save his anvil. 

The plague of locusts falling upon this country, 
at a time when the pioneers looked forward to a 
harvest of plenty, was a gi'eat disappointment in- 
deed. Such a disaster would result in an exodus in 
almost any other State ; but the sufferers had faith 
in their rich prairie lands, and their faith has since 
been repeatedly rewarded by rich harvests and years 
free from climatic or other disadvantages. It is 
true that, during the fall of 1889, the grain ware- 
house blockade and the utter lack of transportation 
facilities for the immense corn product of this sec- 
tion, caused some discontent and no small loss to 
the grain growers ; but under all this manifest dis- 
affection was the consolatorj- conviction that how- 
ever much other parts of the world might suffer 

from short products, there was gi-aiu enough for 
millions still in this prairie Egypt. 

The quietest j-ear of the decade ending December 
31, 1889, was the one just then closed. Summer 
mixed with fall continued up to December 28, and 
so disorganized commercial circles a little ; but the 
interest in the lands of Adams County did not abate, 
for from January 2 to December 24, there were no 
less than 1,597 deeds to real estate recorded. 

The first recorded exploration of the Platte Val- 
ley dates back to 1739. During that and the fol- 
lowing year Messieurs Pieri-e and Paul Mallet, 
Philip Robitaille and others traveled up the valley, 
and in 1740 reported to the commandant at New 
Orleans. The Lewis and Clarke and the Long ex- 
peditions followed. 

The Fremont expedition of 1842 reached the 
Big Blue in longitude 19 degrees, 32 minutes, 35 
seconds west of Washington, D. C. , and latitude 39 
degrees, 45 minutes, 8 seconds, on June 20. On 
the evening of the 22d the command camped on the 
Little Blue, twenty -four miles west of their first 
camp in Nebraska, and next day crossed Sandy 
Creek. Game appeared in large numbers, elk and 
antelope coming to the little hill tops to take obser- 
vation of the visitors. Col. Fremont describes his 
first experiences in a Nebraska rain storm. He 
says: "A heavy bank of black clouds in the west 
came on us in a storm, preceded by a violent wind. 
The rain fell in such torrents that it was difficult to 
breathe facing the wind ; the thunder rolled inces- 
santly-, and the whole sky was tremulous with light- 
ning, now and then illuminated by a blinding flash, 
succeeded by pitchy darkness." 

Kit Carson was one of the leading spirits of this 
expedition. On the third or fourth night out from 
the fii-st camp in Nebraska, he had the watch from 
1 P. M. to midnight with Brant and Benton, whose 
first night on duty this was. The stories of Indian 
atrocity and cunning had already unnerved the afore- 
said pair of tenderfeet, and the two hours of duty 
imposed upon them was onl}- preferable to a sentence 
to return home ; but necessitj' drove them to fulfil 
this duty, and afterward they accepted such duty 
like veterans. On the fifth morning while proceed- 
ing up the valley of the Little Blue, objects were 



seen ou the opposite bills which disappeared iu- 
stantl}-. One of the rear guard came up rapidlj', call- 
ing, "Indians! Indians!" He reassured his fellow 
travelers that twentj'-seven red-skins were within 
view. The alarm drove every man to prepare for a 
liattle, and even Kit Carson placed some reliance on 
till' statement; for, mounting an unsaddled horse, he 
wi'iit forth into the rolling prairie to scout, and 
ifturning, reported that the twentj'-seven Indians 
had resolved themselves into six elk. 

On the night of June 25, 1842, Fremont's part}- 
camped in longitude 21 degrees, 22 minutes, 12 
seconds west of Washington, in north latitude 40 
degrees, 26 minutes, 50 seconds, a point about four 
miles south of the present city of Hastings, and 
four miles east of the fork of the Blue where the 
old road left the river for the Platte. No water 
was found on the divide. Antelope appeared dur- 
ing the succeeding morning although an electric and 
rain storm was raging. In the Colonel's report of 
June 26 he states: "Crossing on the way several 
Pawnee roads to the Arkansas, we reached, in about 
twenty-one miles from our halt on the Blue, what is 
called the coast of the Nebraska or Platte River. 
This had seemed, in the distance, a range of high 
and broken hills; but on a nearer approach was 
found to be elevations of forty to sixty feet, into 
which the wind had worked the sand. They were 
covered with the usual fine grasses of the country, 
and bordered the eastern side of the ridge on a 
breadth of about two miles. Change of soil and 
countrj- appeared here to have produced a change in 
vegetation. Cacti were numerous, and all the plants 
of the region seemed to flourish among the warm 
hills. The AmorpJia in full bloom was remarkable 
for its large and luxuriant purple clusters. From 
the foot of the coast, a distance of two miles across 
the level bottom brought us to our encampment on 
the shore of the river, about twenty miles below the 
head of Grand Island, which lay extended before 
us, covered with dense and heavy woods." 

The Oregon trail of 1847-48, called the "Cali- 
fornia Trail " in after years, was not a common 
roadway as the modern settler understands a road- 
way. It was a wide avenue of many tracks, widen- 
ing out to meet the requirements of fancy or neces- 

sity or confining itself to a narrow passage 
some creek or swamp. This trail changed gi-adually 
from the height of land between the Big Sandy and 
the Little Blue to the Eighteen Mile Ridge and Lit- 
tle Blue Valley, which it followed for sixty miles, 
when a bee line for Fort Kearney was adopted. 
Over this trail the mud wagon trains of the Salt 
Lake express were established in 1858. This ti-ain 
was drawn by a locomotive in the shape of six mules, 
guided by a driver and goaded by a loMpper-up, 
whose promotion depended upon the degree of 
cruelty which he could reach in his whipping trade. 
Fortunately for the mules the Pike's Peak stampede 
came up in 1859, and the Salt Lake express being too 
slow gave way to Ben Halladay's overland stage 
line and pony express between St. Joseph and Sacra- 
mento. Each department of this service was admin- 
istered in a business-like way. The pony express 
route — about 2,000 miles in length — was covered in 
eight days. Each division was 100 miles in length, 
with a depot at every twenty-five mile point. Indian 
ponies and courageous riders, weighing about 120 
pounds, were emplo3-ed. The depots of the Over- 
land Stage Line were arranged on the same principle ; 
but the heavy coaches precluded the possibilitj- of 
making the time of the pony express. 

The following facts related bj- H. G. Armitage 
are deserving of mention in this chapter : About 
two miles east of Kenesaw, on the farm of C. P. 
Mecham, can yet be seen the remains of what is 
called the "old government well.' It was dug 100 
feet deep and curbed with logs hauled from the Lit- 
tle Blue. Although dug in the "days of '49," it 
was still in good state of preservation when the first 
settlers came into the country. This well has a his- 
torj' in connection with a ' ' lone grave " three miles 
northwest of Kenesaw, where the old "overland" 
trail comes out of the bluffs into the Platte River 
Valley. The grave is about a quarter of a mile 
east of the old trail on the north side of a little 
hillock. A marble headstone marks the spot, upon 
which is the following inscription, ' ' Sacred to the 
memorj' of Mrs. Susan C. Haile, of Lafayette Coun- 
tj-, Mo., who died June — , 1852, aged . " 

The so-called " government well " was dug by a 
party for the purpose of selling water to thirsty trav- 



elers as they were passing over this divide between 
the Little Blue and Platte Rivers, a distance of 
about twenty miles. After leaving the Little Blue, 
travelers usually made it to this well at about noon. 
From an old " 49er " it is learned that the proprie- 
tor of this well was massacred one morning b}- the 
Indians, and the well poisoned. Mr. Haile and his 
wife passing along the trail a few daj'S afterward 
used of the water and both became violently sick. 
They succeeded, however, in getting as far on their 
way as where the "lone grave" is found. Mr. 
Haile recovered, but his wife died in the night. The 
next morning Haile took off his wagon-box, and 
making a coffin from it buried his wife. He then 
drove back to Omaha, procured the marble head- 
stone, brought it back and marked the long and 
lonely resting place of his departed companion. 

Indian ti-eaties were made with the Otoes, Mis- 
souris, lowas and Pawnees, by the officers of the 
Missouri For Company, as early as 1809. On Jan- 
uary 5, 1812, a treaty between the United States 
and the Pawnees was negotiated; on December 26, 
1815, the Mahas and lowas ratified a talk held dur- 
ing the year. Two years later the Otoes ratified a 
treat}'; while on January 7, 1819, a treaty with the. 
Grand Pawnees and Noisy Pawnees was negotiated, 
and on January 17, 1819, the Republican Pawnees 
entered into treaties of peace with the young repub- 
lic. Benjamin O'Fallon was the prime agent of the 
United States in the negotiations. December 30, 
1825, the Kansas ti'ibe ceded a large tract of terri- 
tory here, and on April 12, 1834, the Grand Paw- 
nees, Pawnee Loups, Republican Pawnees and 
Pawnee Tappaye (then residing on the Platte and 
Loup Fork) ceded all their ten-itory south of the 
Platte River. The latter treaty was rendered easy 
of negotiation by the fact that, in 1832, the ten-ible 
epidemic, small-pox, earned away the Pawnees and 
other Indians of this section in large numbers, while 
the Delawares destroyed their town on the Republi- 
can River and killed hundreds of the residents. In 
1833 the remnant of this once great tribe moved 
north of the Platte, where they were found when the 
Congi-essional act of June 30, 1834, designated Ne- 
braska as Indian Territory. 

The Sioux, Cheyennes and Pawnees may be 

termed the original inhabitants of this section, 
within the historic period at least — the Sioux inhab- 
iting the plains at will. Through it passed the Fre- 
mont ti-ail of later days ; but owing to the fact that 
Fort Kearney was only forty miles away, the sav- 
ages held aloof from this section when in war paint, 
except during the Civil War, and especially in 1864, 
when the general attack along the trail was carried 
out. Evidences of a massacre were observed four 
miles south of Juniata some years ago ; while in the 
fall of 1870, four of the five emigrants, forming a 
little party, were killed by the savages. In the his- 
tory of Clay County the story of the attack on 
Spring Ranche and other points bordering on the 
present county of Adams, is related at length from 
the reminiscences of James Bainter. 

Mr. Bainter relates the following anecdote: 
"Early in the spring of 1866 a man named Cline 
and mj-self were trapping near where Ayr now 
stands, in what is known as Fleming's gi'ove. One 
morning, while cooking breakfast, two Sioux ap- 
peared, and asked for something to eat. After 
finishing the meal they began packing our furs and, 
putting them on my pony, started off with our proi> 
erty. I made up my mind not to submit to it, and , 
as I had just taken from the Dutch oven a hot cake, 
I concealed a knife therein and followed them. 
Near the camp was an icj' place, and round it the 
Indian, leading my ponj', went, while the other went 
sti-aight across. Thus they lost sight of each other. 
I had nearly overtaken the one with the pony when 
I made a slight noise and he turned and stopped. 
As I came up to him, I offered the bread, which, 
with a sardonic grin, he reached to take, and, as he 
did so, I di-ew my knife and sti-uck him with it. 
As he fell I struck him across the throat and killed 
him without attracting the attention of his com- 
panion. I followed Indian number two, and before 
he was aware of my presence shot him dead, and 
thus saved our furs and my pony. " 

For the purposes of this chapter the following 
memoir of Mortimer N. Kress, the actual pioneer of 
the county, is given. The story is based on his own 
relation of names and events. 

Mortimer N. Kress, or Bill Kress, as he was 
sometimes called by companions or friends, in the 




earlj- days when the State of Nebraska was one vast 
wilderness — was born in Lycoming Count3', Pa., 
near Williamsport, in 1841. He was the youngest 
of thirteen children forming the family of George 
and Eliza (Dunlap) Kress. His father, a native of 
the United States, was born in 1799. He followed 
farming, and was a successful business man until 
his death in 1873. The senior Mrs. Kress died in 
lS4i;, leaving Mortimer, the youngest son, who 
then was only five years old, an orphan. He had 
some schooling up to the age of eleven years, when 
he took a notion to see some of the world. He was 
thrown on his own resources mostly, and while still 
young saw a great deal of life. He enlisted in 
1861, in answer to the first call, in Company E, First 
Pennsylvania Cavalry, under Col. George Bayard, 
and served under Fremont in what was common!}' 
known as the Army of Virginia. He was in all the 
battles after Bull Run fought by the eastern army. 
His regiment traveled 4,500 miles while in the ser- 
vice, and he was all the way with Sheridan on his 
raid, and on June 9, 1863, was injured at Brandy 
Station, receiving a sabre wound in the shoulder. 
He remained with his company, and during the day 
was taken prisoner, and escaped three times. The 
sabre wound proved to be serious, but he still con- 
tinued with the company until he received his dis- 
charge, in December, 1864. He offered to remain 
with the reorganized company, but exposure and 
hard fighting had so militated against his health 
that he was not received. 

Returning to the place of his youth, the old 
home in Lycoming County, Pa. , he remained a few 
months, and in the spring of 1865, being of an 
active nature, moved westward and located at Den- 
ver, Col., where he stopped a short time. There 
his life as a plainsman and trapper commenced. 
Mr. Kress passed over what is now Adams County 
iu 1865. The plains Scemed to be his home; he 
loved them and thej' agi-eed with him, even as well 
as did most of his friends and acquaintances. Mr. 
Kress was a young, active men — few men on the 
plains were his equal at anything he undertook to 
do. He had a good, strong constitutiorf and a large 
amount of native pluck. In following the life of a 
trapper he traveled all over the western country. In 

the spring of 1867 he was through this section of the 
State and at Thirty-two Mile Creek, the supposed site 
of the great Indian massacre, was told of a man be- 
ing found dead there, but states there is no reason 
to suppose any wholesale slaughter occurred at that 
place, as is reported. Subsequently he went all 
over the State, and through Kansas, Colorado, In- 
dian Territory and Texas. In these various locali- 
ties he mingled with the difl'erent tribes of Indians, 
and became familiar with each language, and was 
engaged in trading with them a great part of the 
time. Traffic with the Indians proved to be a busi- 
ness that had some profit, for at times he would 
accumulate a large amount of money, that was in- 
vested in some venture. During his wanderings he 
found the Republican River to be a good trapping- 
gi-ound, and located there. While engaged at that 
business he became acquainted with M. J. Fonts 
(California Joe), they later hunting and trapping 
together. In 1869, while looking for some stray 
mules he had lost, Mr. Kress wandered into Adams 
County. He admired the country for several reasons ; 
it would give him a home near to his field of action, 
and as it was necessary to have a home somewhere 
for the summer months, he concluded to take up a 
claim in Adams County. He went back and in- 
formed his companion of the intention, and they in 
company came and located claims in Little Blue 
Township, the claim of Mr. Kress being on what is 
now Section 13, Township 5, Range 9. It is still 
owned by him. M. J. Fonts also settled on the 
same section. At the time of their location there 
were no settlers in what is now this county. The 
county took in haK of what is now Hall County, and 
a few men had chosen sites up Thirty-two Mile 
Creek, in the latter county. After settling, Mr. 
Kress went to take out his papers for the claim, and 
found that, aside from Fouts' and his, onl}- two en- 
tries had been made, his numbering the fourth in 
the county. In the winter of 1869 and spring of 
1870 Kress built a hewed log-house. He commenced 
to improve his claim, and in 1870 turned over fifty 
acres of sod, and had it well stocked. The summer 
of 1870 he remained on the claim and farmed. In 
the winter he engaged in trapping on the Republican 
River. He found it very profitable as well as en- 



jo3-able emploj-ment, his yearly income from wolf 
pelts amounting to a lai-ge sum. In the winter, 
leaving his ranch in charge of a man employed to 
look after his stock, it was his custom to go to the 
Republican River, there staying and hunting buflfalo, 
deer, antelope, and trap the wolves, otter, beaver 
and mink. Some of these trips took him a long 
way from home. He led the life of a scout and 
hunter from his first settlement in the county until 
1880, sometimes absenting himself from this region 
a number of months. On one of these occasions he 
drove from Texas, and never a day passed that he 
did not see and talk with some of his former acquaint- 
ances or border friends. He was scouting on Big 
Piney Creek when Fort Kearney was built, and 
assisted in its construction. Mr. Kress acted as 
scout for Gen. Miles and Gen. MeKenzie in 1874. 
In the early spring of 187.3 the country was 
aroused by the report that the Indians were coming 
down to take the life of Wild Bill, who was then at 
his claim in Little Blue Township, for the shoots 
ing of Whistler, the chief of the Sioux. The in- 
habitants of the county were much alarmed, and 
some of them threatened to hang Bill if they could 
find him. All this time Bill was on friendly terms 
with the Indians, and was in no danger, although 
circumstances did point rather stronglj- against him. 
The story in effect is as follows: In the spring of 
1873, Bill was camped on the Republican River 
trapping, when he fell in with one named Jack Ral- 
ston. The latter was a man of good education, and 
had been on the successful side of life at one time ; 
but becoming too familiar with the bottle, he had 
chosen to remove to the wild west to reform. Bill 
took him in and shared his gains with him. One day 
about the latter part of March, Bill and his com- 
panion crossed the river, and while hunting in the 
timber came upon a dead mule. Shortly after two 
Indian ponies were found, which they took with 
them over the river to camp. A few days later, the 
weather being cold and wet and the two companions 
having just finished their evening meal, three In- 
dians came into their camp, and asked for food and 
lodging. Bill offered them the remains of the sup- 
per, pancakes, cold meat and coffee. But Ralston 
being of a somewhat kind nature, wanted to enter- 

tain them more royallj- and give them a hot supper. 
Bill knew that the supply of coffee and sugar and 
salt would not last but a few days, and not wishing 
to run short, differed from him. The difficulty 
ended in Ralston being kicked out of the camp. He 
took one of the ponies and went to some of the small 
trading places in the upper part of the countj-, and 
there traded the pony for a plug of tobacco, a square 
meal and a half gallon of good old whiskj', which 
was too freely imbibed, with the result that he told 
a very nice story about Bill and himself killing the 
three Indians who had come into their camp. At 
about this time Whistler was killed, and one of the 
ponies proved to be his. Suspicion was naturally 
attached to Mr. Kress. Ralston could not be found. 
Kress was not arrested, and the Indians did not 
make any attempt to kill him. In fact. Snow 
Flake, who took Whistler's place, thanked him for 
the favor he supposed he had done him. Mr. Kress 
was elected or appointed constable in the early days 
before the county was organized, and served in that 
capacity while at home. 

The first deaths that occuiTed in Adams County 
were two parties named Bobbins and Lumos, young 
men who settled in 1870 on the Blue, and the same 
year were killed by a man alleged to be Jake 
Haynes. There was no doubt of the fact that 
Haynes did the work, but he was cleared, and a few 
weeks later was hung for stealing a mule in Kansas. 

In 1873 the first load of grain was taken to 
Hastings to market — wheat raised by W. S. Mont. 
Kress had brought wheat into the county for seed, 
and raised the first crop, though this was not 
marketed. The first couple who were married after 
settling in the county were Ebeu Wright and Susan 
Gates. Mr. Kress took them to Grand Island on 
October 10, 1870, where the ceremony was per- 
formed. The first mamage in the county proper 
by a white man was Roderic Lomas and Lila War- 
wick, married by her father, John Warwick, who 
also preached the first sermon in Mr. Kress' log 
house in 1870. 

The first birth was a child born to Frank Lucy 
and wife in the spring of 1870. A man b}- the 
name of Cecil started a small general supplj- store 
m 1871 on the Blue, in Little Blue Township. Mr. 


Kress shot his last buffalo in Adams County in 1873, 
but up to 1880 continued to hunt in the Republican 

California Joe, or Jerome Fonts, and Mortimer 
Kress, settled in Adams County in 1864 and 1867, 
respeetivel}^, and on March 5, 1870, located claims 
in the southeast part of the county, where they re- 
mained for about three years when they resumed 
scouting, but later returned to their lands. In the 
summer and fall of 1870 there came thither among 
others — Charles Mont, James Bainter, (referred to 
in the historj- of Clay County), Charles Bird, W. S. 
Mont, J. W. King, Charles and Volney Jones, S. 
L. Brass, Isaac Stark, the Ballous, and Titus Bab- 
cock and others, named in the history of Juniata. 

Mr. Fonts, who as stated homesteaded 160 acres 
on Section 11, of Little Blue Township, was born in 
Hancock County, 111. , in 18-48, the oldest of seven 
children of David and Emaline (Perry) Fonts, of 
Pennsylvania and Maine, respectively. The former 
when a young man located in Illinois, but in 1852 
went to California, settling at Cloverdale, whence 
he removed to Seattle, Wash., his present home, his 
wife having died in California in 1877. In 1863 
Jerome enlisted in the First Nevada Cavalry, took 
part in the Indian warfare, and after two years and 
eight months of service was discharged at Camp 
Douglass, Utah. His subsequent history partakes 
largely of experiences on the plains; hunting, trap- 
ping, fighting the savages, frontier life in all its 
phases have combined to make him a sturdy son of 
the West. His wife, foi-merly Maria Wiswell, has 
borne six children. As one of Adams' first settlers 
Mr. Fouts is well and favorably known. 

F. iM. Luey, who entered his homestead on the 
Little Blue, March 5, 1870, claims the honor of be- 
ing the first homesteader of Adams County. J. R. 
Carter, of Little Blue, was the third person to settle 
in Adams County, September, 1870, and his wife, 
Elizabeth, was the first white woman who ever made 
a home here. In October they saw their first vis- 
itors — two men who stayed with them that night, 
next day went on their claim and next night were 
murdered by white murderers — as stated in the rem- 
iniscences of Mr. Kress. On the authority of a 
statement made in February, 1884, by Rev. J. AV, 

Warwick, it is said that William H. Kress, who 
resided on Section 10, Township 5, Range 9, was 
the first settler who died in Adams County and 
received Christian burial. This occun-ed in the fall 
of 1871. Mrs. Eliza (Warwick) Knoll was the first 
person married here, Rev. Warwick officiating. The 
first deed recorded in Adams County was that by 
John and Margaret Stark, to Charles F. Morse, 
dated October 31, 1S71, conveying the northeast 
quarter of Section 12, Township 7, Range 11, in 
consideration of $500. 

The list of personal property owners and polls 
in the year 1872, with the amount of assessment 
in each case, is as follows: Edwin M. Allen;* E. 
N. Adams, $125; Pliny Allen, $150; Paul Abney, 
$175; Louis Abney, $140; Adna H. Bowen, as- 
sessed $1,800 for 120 lots at Juniata, and Titus 
Babcock, $15 for one lot, the tax per lot being 
$2.79; C. C. and R. D. Babcock, four lots and 
other property valued at $510; Titus Babcock, 
$200; Peter H. Babcock, $200; Austin Banker;* 
John W. Bradner;* William Bahl;* George Bea- 
man, $175; Stephen B. Bonfield, $125; H. H. 
Ballon, $95 ; Judson Burwell, $130; G. W. Briggs, 
$350; Nathan L. Brass, $165; Samuel L. Brass 
(128 lots at Juniata were assessed $15 each, yield- 
ing a tax of $2.79), $75; Charles Bird, $125; 
James Beasley, $200; J. H. Bachman, $165; An- 
drew Clute, $150 ; John S. Chandler, $210 ; Charles 
M. Cranson;* John Clarkson, $125; George Carr, 
$50 ; James Carr, $5 ; W. W. Camp, $140 ; C. H. 
Chapman, $510; I. R. Carter, $246 ; John B. Cecil, 
$316; Jacob Calhoun, $228; H. A. DeWolf;* H. 
A. Dean, $10; William Derrick, $5; Ira G. Dillon, 
$50; R. K. Daily, $601; James Donaldson, $5; P. 
Duncan, $390; F. Ernest, $255; G. Edgerton, 
$800; Thomas Fleming, $234; Wilkinson Farrar, 
$200 ; William Gardner, $5 ; A. T. Gales, $383 ; 
J. T. Gault, $210 ; S. P. Howland, $50 ; John Hur- 
son;* N. B. Hamp, $110; Joseph Hopkins, $20; 
J. H. Hummel, $105 ; William A. Henderson & Co. , 
$400; George Henderson, $150; Orland Hudson ; * 
John Huston, $240 ; Joseph Horgan, $20 ; Simeon 
Johnson, $105; William J. Jones &Co., $190; J. 
M. Jacobson, $700, and one lot at Juniata ; Thomas 



Johnson ; * J. W. Keatley, $75 ; Charles Kilbuni ; * 
E. S. Knapp, $120; W. L. Kemp, $155 ; William 
Kelley, $225; L. G. King, $185; Lewis Keith. 
$320; William Kress, $280; George Kucler, $5; 
R. S. Langle}', $135; M. C. Lintlsey;* William 
Lawden, $125; F. Lenbye, $10 ; John G. Moore, 
$125; Walter Meeklin, $50; Isaac Mattie, $260; 
John JI. 3Ieyer, $50 ; Clark S. Morrison ; * Henry 
McKelva, $20; D. Monroe, Jr.;* M. McKenzie;* 
Joseph Meeklin, $245; James MeCleary, $35; H. 
B. Munson, $445; W. S. Moote, $178; A. T. 
Matheson ; * Charles Muntz, $20; Robert Mason, 
$110; John Avery, $288; H. J. Parkin, $145; 
John Plank, $140; N. G. Piatt;* C. Peters, $75; 
Albert D. Rust;* George Robbing, $175; Oliver C. 
Rogers, $180; J. W. Roby, $180; B. E. Swift, 
$20; Ezra Shaw;* Henry Skinner, $105 ; Jacob A. 
Swift, $130 ; D. E. Salsbury-, $55 ; Frank Salsbury, 
$55; Isaac W. Stark; $140; John Stark, $95; 
Menzo Snyder ; * John Skinner, $125 ; William Sten- 
house ; * James H. Sweeting, $75 ; Isaiah Sluyter, 
$25; Simeon Sinclair;* James Sinclair;* W. W. 
Sellick, $282; A. M. Sachem;* John F. Shafer, 
$423; Milton Scott, $722; Edmund Spelckner, 
$125; A. M. Suckett;* B. H. Scott;* Thomas 
Tisit, $50; Thomas B. Wilks;* George Wilks;* 
Robert Wright;* William White;* Thomas E. 
Watts, $125; Amos Wetherby, $5; E. Wyatt;* 
Eben Wright, $95; D. L. Winters, $206; C. W. 
Wilson, $260 ; W. M. West, $861 ; John Woods, 
$160; M. Wilson, $35; William Wallace, $125; 
and John Yager, $150. 

Lots were assessed at $15 each, and a tax of 
$2.79 levied on each lot. A poll tax of $2.00 on 
each male inhabitant of legal age was also levied, 
and the dog tax amounted to $54, the total tax on 
personal property levied being $978.06. 

Charles F. Morse's 1,063 lots in Juniata village 
were assessed $15,945, and his 308 acres in Section 
12, Township 7, Range 11, $6,160, on which 
amounts a tax of $1,658.06 was levied. 

The acreage of Burlington & Missouri River Rail- 
road lands was 105,423, valued at $3,200 per 640 
acres, and assessed at $74.40 per section. The 
Union Pacific Company claimed 72.270 acres in this 

county, valued and taxed the same as the Burlington 
& Missoui-i River Railroad lands. 

In 1873 the Eastern Land Association's lots at 
Juniata were assessed at $10 each and a levy of 
$4. 05^ cents made on each. The lots were assessed 
to Morse in 1872. The Association's lots at old In- 
land numbered 528, assessed at $3 each, on which a 
tax of $1.35 each was levied. At Kenesaw the 
same association had 334 lots, valued at $3 each, on 
which a tax of $1.24 each was levied. The Hastings 
Town Company's lots were assessed for the first 
time in 1873. Their thu-t\-three blocks containing 
about 500 lots were assessed variously, also 16^ sec- 
tions in Township 5, Range 9, and 721 miles of rail- 
road in Denver precinct. 

Personal property was first assessed in Silver 
Lake, as a precinct, in 1874. Among the names of 
tax-payers that year are S. E. Blesh, J. M. Black- 
ledge, N. D. Blackley, E. M. Beach, J. R. Chap- 
man, M. V. Hatfield, A. and R. Hohlfeldt, W. S. 
Milner, Jacob Morgan, Benj. Morgan, J. B. Roscoe, 
W. W. Philleo, W. H. Shaw, J. D. Van Houten, H. 
A. Wilson, J. C. Wilson, John Wade, Henry Wade 
and Daniel Wilson. 

In Juniata precinct in 1874 were the persons 
named in the list of 1872 with J. R. Royce, James 
Laird, A. H. Brown & Brother, W. S. Bonebrake, 
J. P. Conger, Fred Cook, John Corven, T. N. Crit- 
tenden, James Clark, W. B. Cushing, William Cal- 
ler, William Doolittle, George Demster, William Der- 
rick, Hilbry Dean, D. L. Eagle, Peter Fowlie, Sam 
Fancher, W. H. Gardner, Harris, Freeman & Co., 
F. Henry, E. A. Haselton, F. H. Hall, D. H. 
Holmes, William and Ned Hodgson, Ransom House, 
T. I. Howard, George Henderson, Niles Johnson, 
C. R. Jones, M. B. Kelley, T. and W. L. Kemp, 
Peter Lawson, Larkin Brothers, J. G. Moore, C. B. 
and W. A. Moorehouse, James Norrish, William 
Norton, James Patterson, Orlando Stiver, J. H. and 
W. Skinner, S. J. Shulej', J. E. Smith, William 
Tivedale, Job Tanner, Myron Van Fleet, A. E. 
Wells, W. H. White, William Woolman, L D. 
Wadsworth, Ezra Warren and R. Wood. 

The persons assessed in Kenesaw in 1874 were 
E. N. Adams, C. D. Bennett, James Cockley, L. 
Cline, S. M. and G. J. Holman, S. K. and H. C. 


Humbert, Josiah Hodges, John S. Jewell, John 
Kent, Oscar Kent, M. W. Knapp, E. H. Blacklin, 
Samuel Min, Miller & Knapp, W. Parmenter, C. 
Peters, J. T. Raglan, James H. Rockafellow, G. L. 
and J. W. Stine, 0. W. and F. B. Spellman, David 
Shattuck, G-eorge Spindler, G. B. Staples, William 
Shultz, F. R. Staples, W. L. Stark, John Vannen 
Kirk, E. J. Willis, W. T. Wright, A. D. WUliams, 
T. G. Whiting and I. W. Worslej-. 

On November 1, 1873, a party of four Indians 
visited L. G. King's house, at Kingston, and took 
formal possession. King went for help and return- 
ing found the red men in his bed. Ordering them to 
leave, they resisted, but King put Texas Jim out. 
Another Indian leveled his revolver at Abbott and 
Mason, but looking into the muzzles of their rifles 
did not carry the threat further. A party of settlers, 
headed by J. M. Bird, drove the few aborigines out 
of the count)'. 

The first Fourth of July celebration at Juniata 
was held in 1873. Col. B. M. Allen presided. The 
vice-presidents were R. H. Crane (Rev.), James 
Morrish, L. P. Hawley, of Juniata; Charles Clutz, F. 
S. Wells, V. S. James, of Denver; I. A. Matlick, 
E. G-. Knapp, E. J. Willis, of Kenesaw; W. W. 
Selleck, I. J. Draper and C. G. Wilson, of Little 
Blue; B. H. Scott, J. J. Hoyleman, R. K. Daily, 

of Silver Lake. Miss Rosa Kelley was reader ; R. 
S. Laugley, marshal; Rev. A. D. Williams, chap- 
lain, and James Laird, orator. The fefe at Hastings 
was attended by 1,500 people. 

The Adams County Old Settlers' Association was 
organized at Ayr, August 14, 1886, with M. N. 
Kress, of Ayr, president; Gen. A. H. Boweu, of 
Hastings, vice-president; Isaac Le Doiyt, of Hast 
ings, secretary and historian, and George F. Brown, 
of Juniata, treasurer. The assistant secretaries 
elected were R. S. Spicknall, of Silver Lake ; W. W. 
Philleo, of Zero; J. C. Woodworth, of Ayr ; W. P. 
Davis, of Roseland; S. L. Martin, of Cottonwood; 
John Shellhamer, of Logan ; John Overy, Little 
Blue; M. E. Palmer, West Blue; William Brown, 
Highland; E. J. Hanchett, Verona; L. A. Boley, 
Kenesaw ; Israel Spindler, Wanda ; A. H. Brown, 
Denver; H. B. McGaw, Blaine; John Jung, Han- 
over, and S. L. Brass, Juniata. A. H. Bowen, A. H. 
Brown and A. L. Wigton were appointed a commit 
tee to prepare a constitution and set of bj^-laws. 

The Poweshiek (Iowa) County Association was 
oi-ganized at Hastings in June, 1888, with M. K. 
Lewis, president; C. F. Royce, secretary; L. B. 
Palmer, treasurer; W. A. Chapman, L. A. Royce, 
A. L. Wigton, Mrs. L. B. Palmer and Mrs. Wigton, 
members of executive committee. 






War — Court Affairs — Terms from Mat, 1873, to January, 1890 — Important Criminal 
Cases — Numerous Murders, Hangings, Etc. — Defalcation. 

Laws do not put the least restraint 

Upon our freedom, but maintain "t. — Butler. 

*HE couiity of Adams was 
established under the act 
approved Februury 16, 1867, 
within the following de- 
scribed boundaries: From 
the point where the east line 
of Range 9 west crosses the 
Platte; thence up the river chan- 
nel to the intersection of the west 
Ime of Range 12 ; thence south to 
southwest corner of Township 5, 
Range 12; thence east to south- 
east corner of Township 5, Range 
9, and north to place of begin- 
ning. It was a piece of legislation 
common to the times, as was that 
of Pennsylvania in the first decade 
of the century. Establishing a county where two 
or three persons resided was so strange in itself 
that the legislators themselves were willing to forget 
their acts, and in this instance the act of February 
16, 1867, " fell into innocuous desuetude," and the 
county within these boundaries was formed. 

On November 7, 1871, Acting Governor James, 
responding to a petition presented tiy the few resi- 
dents of Adams, ordered the county to be organized 
for judicial and executive purposes, fixing the day 
of election on December 12, following. As told in 
the political chapter, this election was held and the 
chosen officers duly qualified. 

The first regular meeting of the county commis- 
sioners was called for January 2, 1872, but Commis- 
sioner W. W. Selleck being the only official present, 
an adiournment to January 16 was ordered. The 
record is signed by Titus Babcock, deputy county 
clerk. The adjourned meeting was duly held, W. 
W. Selleck and Samuel L. Brass being present. The 
county was divided into three commissioners' dis- 
tricts — the first of which comprised Township 5 , in 
Ranges 9, 10, 11 and 12, and the two southern tiers 
of sections in Township 6. Wellington W. Selleck 
represented this district on the board. District No. 
2 comprised that portion of the county north of 
district No. 1 , and west of the line between Ranges 
10 and 11, with Edwin M. Allen representative on 
the board; while district No. 3 comprised all the 
territory in Adams north of district No. 1 and east 
of the line between Ranges 10 and 11. Samuel L. 
Brass was representative. The county was sub- 
divided into seven road districts. No. 1 being Town- 
ships 5 and 6 in Range 9, with Eben "Wright, super- 
visor; No. 2, Townships 7 and 8 in Range 9, Volney 
Jones; No. 3, Townships 5 and 6 in Range 10, L. 
G. King; No. 4, Townships 7 and 8 in Range 10, 
John M. Myer; No. 5, Townships 5 and 6 in Range 
11, R. K. Daily; No. 6, Townships 7 and 8 in Range 
11, Pliny Allen, and No. 7, Townships 5, 6, 7 and 8, 
in Range 12, with James H. Sweeting supervisor. 
Accounts aggregating $7-1 were allowed — McNally 
& Co. receiving $12 for seats; A. H. Bowen $17 for 


registration; T. Babcock $25. 15 for rent and fuel 
and $4 for election expenses ; R. D. Babcock, $2 ; 
Simeon Johnson, $2, and Judson Burwell, $2 for 
election expenses. A day later $2 was allowed I. 
W. Stark for election expenses. 

The salary of the county clerk (R. D. Babcock) 
was fixed at $150 per annum (raised on January 30, 
to $300) ; of countj- commissioners, $3 per day for 
time actually employed and legal mileage, and of 
probate judge, $75. On January 17 a building for 
county offices was ordered to be erected within ten 
days, and the sheriff authorized to advertise for 
proposals for building a house 20 feet long, 16 feet 
wide and 8 feet high between joists, with rafters 
coming down to upper joists, frame of pine lumber, 
boarded and battened on outside, shingle roof, four 
windows, one door, one matched floor and ceiled 
overhead with building paper. The building was to 
be finished ten daj-s after the sale of contract, ma- 
terial was to be furnished by the commissioners, 
except door and window frames and case. The 
payment was to be made by county warrant, draw- 
ing 10 per cent until paid. Joseph Stuhl bought 
this contract for $30. S. L. Brass was building 

The county treasurer was authorized to take pos- 
session of any books formerlj' obtained for Adams 
County, and give to the holder his receipt therefor. 
On the 18th C. C. Babcock was allowed for printing 
200 county orders the sum of $2. On January 29 
a meeting to approve treasurer's bond was held ; but 
owing to J. S. Chandler, the treasurer-elect, hand- 
ing in his resignation, the subject was postponed 
until the 30th when George Henderson was ap- 
pointed, but S. L. Brass was ordered to act as tem- 
porary treasurer. An order for blank books was 
given to Acres, Blackman & Co. through C. L. 
Wundt. On January 31 Thomas C. Fleming was 
appointed county surveyor, owing to failure to elect 
such officer. On February 15, 1872, Deputy Sheriff 
Hummel produced H. H. Ballon, overseer of the 
poor, who stated he employed Dr. Laine to amputate 
the feet of a count}- charge. The Doctor presented 
a bill for $150, but the wily commissioners allowed 
only half that sum. H. H. Ballon resigned the of- 
fice of justice, and A. D. Rust was appointed. 

Treasurer Henderson qualified February 15, and 
received $94. 84 from temporary Treasurer Brass ; 
$872.50 bank certificate, and cancelled warrants for 
$255. 15, or$l,222. R. K. Dailey resigned as road 
supervisor, and Charles Wilson appointed to that 
office. On the 16th the report of Commissioner 
Selleck on the indebtedness of other counties to 
Adams pointed out the sum of $3,370.11 collected 
by Hamilton County in Adams from 1867 to 1870 
inclusive, of which $927.90 was paid out for State 
taxes; $243.28 collection fees to attorney; $12.50 
clerk's fees; $14.08, treasurer's fees, and $29.86 
assessor's charges, a total expenditure of $1,227.62; 
but owing to accounts in the hands of Attorney- A. 
H. Bowen the actual amount could not be ascer- 
tained. This report was adopted. The sheriff was 
ordered to proceed to Hamilton County and notify 
said county that the funds belonging to Adams, paid 
to A. H. Bowen, was done without authority, and 
that Hamilton County would be held responsible for 
$883.43, which A. H. Bowen refused to pay. Com- 
missioner Selleck also reported on moneys due by 
Fillmore and Saline Counties, and obtained the tax 
lists of Adams and Kearney Counties. He expressed 
his belief in the statement that Saline County 
owed Adams County about $8,000 of back taxes. 
The board ordered the employment of an attorney to 
collect from Saline. The lists for Adams and 
Kearney for 1871 were placed in the hands of the 
treasurer. During this session the commissioners 
resolved themselves into a committee of the whole 
to select a site for poor farm and buildings, and S. 
L. Brass was specially appointed to confer with the 
owners of the town site of Juniata in the matter of 
obtaining a donation of twenty acres for such pur- 
pose. Jacobson's charge of malfeasance was read 
before the board February 17, 1872, and A. H. 
Bowen was cited to answer the charge. Accounts 
aggregating $259. 01 were ordered to be paid. 

On February 27, 1872, a resolution by Com- 
missioner Brass gives to the money trouble of the 
period another complexion ; showing that Deputy 
Clerk Babcock issued to A. H. Bowen an order, duly 
sealed, to receive Adams County funds from Ham- 
ilton. His motion to concur in the transaction was 
adopted. Immediately after the adoption of this 



resolution O. A. Abbott, agent of Hall County, pre- 
sented the claims of that new countj' against Adams 
for taxes collected in 1870 and prior j-ears ; but in 
response, heard the resolution of Commissioner 
Brass, asking for the emplo3'ment of the best coun- 
sel in the State to consider Hall Count3''s claim. 
On February 28, Isaac "W. Stark, superintendent of 
schools, presented his complaint against A. H. 
Bowen. Jacobson's charge was withdrawn, and on 
February 29, the other charges against him were 
dismissed by the commissioners, owing to the fact 
that a copy of the complaint was not furnished to 
him with the citation. At this time Commissioner 
Allen moved that a license fee of $200 per annum 
be adopted, while Selleck wanted it fixed at $300. 
The lower figures were adopted. The attack by A. 
H. Bowen, made in the Gazette, was denounced by 
the board, and a resolution ordering the assessment 
of the Union Pacific lands in the county adopted. 
In March, 1872, Kearney County was set apart as a 
distinct precinct for revenue purposes only, and 
Adams County was divided into two precincts — 
No. 1 comprising all the county north of an east and 
west line from the southeast corner of Section 12, 
Township 6 north. Range 9 west, to the northwest 
corner of Section 7, Township 6, Range 12. Dis- 
trict No. 2 comprised all the county south of such 
line. The first was named "Juniata Precinct," and 
the second "Little Blue Precinct." 

The removal of the court house to lot 551, with- 
out expense to the county, was ordered to be carried 
out under the direction of Commissioner Brass. 
Mr. Brass on this occasion proposed that the charge 
of embezzlement preferred by the State against 
Adna H. Bowen should not be further prosecuted. 
This proposition was adopted. Abbott and Thum- 
mel, attorneys for Hall County, were notified that 
the commissioners of Adams did not consider the 
county indebted to Hall County, and refused to paj- 
any of the money received from Hamilton County. 
In April, ten road districts were established. On 
April 4, the commissioners selected Section 2, Town- 
ship 6, Range 11, for poor farm purposes, audits 
acquisition bj- preemption or otherwise ordered. 
The commissioners appointed to locate roads were 
offered a compensation of $2 for every ten miles of 

road laid out by them, and the salary of the probate 
judge was increased from $75 to SlOO per annum. 
The request for $75,000 aid to the St. Joseph & 
Denver Railroad was presented April 17, by E. E. 
Brown, and a special election on the subject was 
ordered. On April 30, a proposition to buy some 
quarter sections from the Burlington & Missouri 
River Railroad was favorably received ; Commis- 
sioner Allen was authorized to move the court house 
at an expense of $10. He performed this work, 
and, with the original grant, $29.78 for repairs. 
The license for sale of liquor was increased to $300 
in Maj', 1872. In Julj^ Treasurer Henderson re- 
signed and Ira G. Dillon was appointed to fill the 
vacancy. The amount of State taxes to be levied in 
1872 was 5f mills or $5,503.61; general fund, in- 
eluding support of poor, $4,785.76 at 5 mills on 
the dollar; road and land fund, $4 on each quarter 
section; poll tax, $2 on each poll; sinking fund, 
2^ mills; bridge tax, 5 mills; school tax, $905.75 in 
district No. 1; $144 in No. 2; $300 in No. 9; $870 
in No. 12; $650 in No. 16, and $175 in No. 17. 
The total valuation was $957,153. 

The valuation of Kearney County was $722,736, 
on which a State, general and poor, land, road and 
poll tax were collected, the rates being the same as 
in Adams County. No bridge or school tax is 
recorded. The south ^ of Section 1, Township 6, 
Range 11, was purchased from the Burlington & 
Missouri Company at this time for the purposes of 
a poor farm. A junketing expedition was subse- 
quently, in July, organized; when the commis- 
sioners proceeded in a body to locate a bridge over 
Thu'ty-two Mile Creek. The expense of this expe- 
dition, it is alleged, was much heavier than that of 
the bridge subsequently built. After this resolution 
was adopted the clerk presented thu-tj--two wolf 
scalps and one wild cat scalp, which were ordered 
to be destroyed. An election on the question of 
granting $6,000 aid toward the building of a steam 
grist>mill, at Juniata, was ordered to be held at the 
time of holding general election. In Jul}-, 1872, 
the balance due bj- Adams and Kearney Counties to 
Fillmore was fixed at $45.25, and by Adams to 
Kearney at $934. 68. In August the board adver- 
tised for proposals to build a poor house 16x24 feet, 


aud one and one-half stories high, and appointed 
Peter Fowlie poor-master at $25 per mouth. Ira G. 
Dillon's proposal to erect the poor house for $1 ,400 
was accepted. Ou October 9, 1872, Township 7 
and 8, Range 12, the West'tier of sections in Town- 
ships 7 and 8, Range 11; the north tier of sections in 
Townships 6, Range 12, and Section 6, Township 6, 
in Range 12, were set off to form the precinct of 
Kenesaw, while Townships 7 and 8, Range 9, the 
north tier of sections in Township 6, Range 9, 
Sections 1 and 2 in Township 6, Range 10, and the 
two eastern tiers of sections in Townships 7 ami S. 
Range 10, set off under the title of Dchmm' piviim-t. 

Silver Lake precinct was established 0, 
1872, within the following described lines: The west 
half of Townships 5 and 6, Range 10, except the 
north tier of sections in Townships 6, all of Town- 
ship 5, in Ranges 11 and 12, and Township C 
in the same ranges, except the north tier of sec- 
tions in Township 6, in each range. During 
the mouth of October H. L. Clark's proposition 
to erect Queen Truss wooden l)ridges over the 
Little Blue and Thirty-two Mile Creek for §1,795, 
was received and acquiesced in. Poor-master Fowlie 
reported six poor persons as charges on the county 
on November 1, 1872, and on the 4th took possession 
of the new poor house, but from December 5 to the 
close of the year there were none chargeable to the 
county. In January the board asked the representa- 
tives in House and Senate to inti-oduce a bill, making 
all section lines in Adams County public roads. The 
subject of purchasing artificial feet for Peter Fowlie 
was then discussed; but the opinion of the county 
attorney and the law set aside the good intentions of 
the commissioners toward him. 

In January, 1873, the State land commissioner 
was petitioned to place the school sections of the 
county on the market; the salary of the clerk was 
placed at $300; of the probate judge, $100; of the 
superintendent of schools, $4 per day while on 
duty, and of the poor-master $25 per month, and in 
February R. S. Langley was appointed sheriff, vice 
Haselton resigned. The question of increasing 
license fee was discussed in March and the amount 
raised to $400. Charles Kohl was granted a license 
for Hastings village at this time. In April W. H. 

Martin, R. R. Crane and George Kuder were ap- 
pointed commissioners to appraise the school lands 
of Adams County. A statement by Treasurer ^\. 
M. West per the dejDuty treasurer, Peter Fowlie, was 
presented to the board in May. This showed a 
balance of $534.78 on December 2, 1872, and 
82,128.65 received from that period to May 5, 1873. 
Of this total ($2,663.43) there was $1,418.59 ex- 
pended. In July the Burlington & Missouri Ri^er 
Railroad Company asked damages by reason of loss 
sustained through the act of the Legislature in set- 
ting off section lines for road purposes. The board 
appointed Ira G. Dillon, Eli B. Dailey and William 
L. Kemp assessors in the matter. D. S. Cole peti- 
tioned for the erection of a temporary jail. This was 
granted and the question of tax levy for 1873 con- 
sidered. The lev}- ordered for State tax was $6,- 
7.38.90; for county tax, $29,238.60 and for poll tax, 
$2 per poll. In Juniata, $600 interest on grist-mill 
bonds was authorized; while the direct school tax 
was as follows: District No. 1, $1,300; Nos. 2 and 3, 
10 mills on the dollar and $400; No. 4, $340; No. 5, 
10 mills on the dollar; No. 19, 13 mills on the dollar; 
No. 10, 40 mills on the dollar; No. 12, $465; No. 13, 
$438; No. 14, $600; No. 16, 10 mills on the dollar 
and $170; No. 17, $2,900; No. 18, $2,000; No. 19, 
$370; No. 21, 25 mills on the dollar; No. 22, 15 
mills on the dollar; No. 23, $285; No. 24, $670; No. 
25, $600; No. 28, $200; No. 31, $945; No. 32, 
$350; No. 33, $500; No. 34, $200,andNo. 35, $300. 
Prof. A. D. Williams, the immigration agent for 
Adams Count}', was granted tht' use nf room in the 
court house at Juniata. A |)ct itii ui si-ned by Simon 
Rankins and 327 other citizens and a remonstrance 
signed by C. H. Chapman and 201 citizens, on the 
question of county seat removal, were received, but 
not granted. James Laird, agent of the Eastern 
Land Association , asked for the vacation of streets 
and alleys in the villages of Kenesaw and Inland, 
and commissioners were appointed to report upon the 
justice of the demand. Such reports were favorable 
to the petitioners in each ease and the vacation was 
ordered. On January .'i. Is74. A. H. Cramer signed 
the record as clerk and the salary was placed at $400. 
Charges against Peter Fowlie were not sustained bv 
the board — the ill-treatment of a horse being the 


onl}' evidence of an}- carelessness by the poor- 

In February A. H. Cramer was named as mem- 
ber of the Centennial Board for Adams County. 
Letters from James Beach, A. C. Wright, E. "W. 
Morse, N. D. Blakely, M. B. Kelley, George Rob- 
bins, S. B. Webb and J. C. Woodworth, asking to be 
appointed poor-master, vice Fowlie, were received, 
and Kelley appointed. An election ordered on the 
questions of granting $45,000 aid to the St. Joseph 
& Denver Railroad, and on issuing bonds to cover 
indebtedness of the county on May 1, 1874, amounts 
ing to about $22,120.98. In June a meeting held at 
Juniata adopted resolutions in favor of the erection 
of county buildings at that point, and the use of 
the sinking fund for that purpose. A. H. Bowen, 
E. JI. Allen and B. F. Smith formed the committee 
appointed by this meeting to present the matter to 
the board. This body took prompt action and asked 
for lilans and specifications for a building, the cost 
of which was not to exceed $15,000. On June 30, 
a remonstrance against such action was presented by 
Frank Sears and eighty-eight others: but it had not 
the power expected and the bid of D. H. Freeman 
($14,000) was accepted, but the authority of the 
commissioners in the matter was questioned and the 
subject referred to Judge Gantt. The contract was 
set aside later and again petition and remonstrance 
on the vexatious re-location subject claimed the 
attention of the board — a petition of 584 praying 
for re-location and a remonstrance of 349 against 
the proposition being the signals of war. A number 
of persons withdrew their names from the former 
petition, and the commissionei's taking cognizance of 
the remonstrance denied an election on the subject. 
In February, 1875, C. C. and R. D. Babcock,of the 
Gazette, and R. A. Dague, of the Journal, proposed 
to print the transactions of the commissioners, as 
officially reported by the county clerk, at five cents 
per line for both papers or two and a half cents per 
line in fact. A second proposition was $125 per 
annum to each newspaper for publishing the official 

On March 5, 1875, the "troublesome question" 
was resurrected. A petition by J. L. Parrott and 
491 other citizens asking for an election "On Re- 

location of County Seat" was gi-anted, and April 1, 
1875, fixed as the day of voting. Fifteen per 
centum of the amount of taxes recovered for this 
county in re Union Pacific Company vs. McShane and 
others, was adjusted and settled as attorneys' fees 
and expenses due to Bowen, Laird, Briggs and 
Cowin as counsel fees as decreed by the court. In 
May, E. C. Shellhamer's charge of neglect of duty 
and partialitj' in office was preferred against A. H. 

In July the assessed value of Ailams County 
was fixed at $1,160,529, on which a State tax of 
7 7-20 mills was levied, and a county tax of 17 1-2 
mills. The $2 poll tax yielded $1, 566, while the $1 
tax on dogs and $2 tax on female dogs was not 
estimated. The direct school tax bj' districts was 
$19,338. The road tax ranged from 5 to 25 mills 
on the dollar. Denver's bond interest tax was 
$2,660, and Juniata's interest and principal on 
bonds, $800. W. W. McDonald was poor-master 
in 1876, and N. F. Chamberlain builder of addition 
to house. In the fall of 1875 road and bridge con- 
struction assumed large proportions, and a few iron 
bridges were erected. In February, 1876, a petition 
was read from S. Alexander and other citizens ask- 
ing the board to employ Abbott & Batty to prosecute 
the case of Charles H. Paul ex. rel. vs. William B. 
Thome et al., for the purpose of cancelling and de- 
stroying bonds of Denver Township ($33,250) issued 
in May, 1874, to aid in building the Hastings & 
Grand Island Railroad. The board granted this 

The valuation in 1876 was $1,048,913.60, on 
which 7 7-20 mills were levied for State tax, and 18 
mills for county tax, with a $2 poll tax and $1 and 
$2 dog tax. A 70-mill and 110-mill school tax 
marked school affairs in a few districts. 

In March, 1877, "the troublesome question" 
came again before the board, when a petition signed 
by 635 citizens was considered, and an election or- 
dered to be held April 9, 1877. On that date 844 
votes were cast in favor of location at Hastings, and 
535 for Juniata; and on April 30 Commissioners A. 
D. Yocum, Moore and Ratclifl' declared Hastings the 
future seat of justice. In October a petition asking 
for township organization was presented, and a 

Aj ^ 


^■ote on the question ordered to be taken in Novem- 
ber. In March, 1878, the petition for the incor- 
poration of Juniata was returned, as it bore the 
names of many non-residents. The issue of bonds 
to the Republican Valley Railroad Company was 
considered at this time, as related in the history of 
railroads and in the political chapter. In May, 1879, 
tlie commissioners met at Hastings. Dr. William 
H. Lynn, who acted as the first medical employe of 
the county in 1872, offered his services as county 
physician for $390 per annum. This offer was 
accepted by the commissioners. In July John M. 
Ragan was appointed county attorney at a salary of 
$400. The tax levy authorized on the assessed 
valuation of $1,734,848 was 6 mills for State, and 
20 5-8 mills for county purposes. A poll tax does 
not seem to have been levied this j'ear; but the $1 
and $2 dogs did not escape justice. The special 
district and precinct taxes were light compared with 

1878, and the school taxes insignificant except in 
districts 35, 33 and 29, the rate being 50 mills in 
the first, and 30 mills in the two last numbered dis- 
tricts. The general statement of W. B. Thorne of 
disbursements from January 1, 1874, to May 1, 

1879, was presented in July. This showed $173,- 
943.16 disbursed; $30,178 balance, and $67,930.36 
due b}- delinquents. The total receipts amounted to 
$203,583.62, and $537.86 balance in treasury 
January 1, 1874. 

The detailed statement points out liabilities ni 
excess of assets amounting to $41,183.68, and 
aoout $13,000 doubtful tax, or total liabilities in 
excess of assets $54,183.68.* 

In September, 1879, township or precinct boun- 
daries were subjected to change in two instances. 
Little Blue was established within the lines of Town- 
ships 5 and 6, in Range 9. Pawnee was changed to 
Ayr, and established within the lines of Townships 
5 and 6, in Range 10. 

The funding debt proposition was made on Sep- 
tember 27, 1879, when the people were asked to vote 

* The question of the issue of 7 per cent bonds for $70,000 for 
funding the county indebtedness, and that relating to the sale 
of Lot 048 at Juniata, were submitted to a vote in November, 
1879. At this time county warrants were selling from sev- 
enty-five to eighty-five cents, so that the funding of the 
debt became imperative. The funding proposition was de- 

for the issue of $70,000 bonds, payable in ten annual 
installments of $7,000 each, the last due on January 
1, 1900, and the first on January 1, 1891. 

The petition of H. A. Morelaud, Joseph A. Rob- 
ertson and sixtj--two others, for the incorporation of 
Juniata town, was presented June 15, 1880, and 
granted. Ira G. Dillon, S. L. Brass, H. E. Wells, 
E. M. Allen and L. F. Picard were named as trus- 

In January, 1880, Timothy May was chosen su- 
perintendent of the Adams County Infirmary. In 
June Dr. Lynn was re-appointed physician; John 
31. Ragan, attorney, while the county printing was 
awarded to the Gazette, Journal, Herald and Ne- 
braskan, three mouths being the term for each in 
the order given. In December the examination of 
Treasurer Thome's account was carried on; but at 
the close a petition against the reception of his state- 
ment or warrants until the law would be fully com- 
plied with. Saxon & Moulton represented William 
Kerr, A. L. Clarke & Co. and C. N. Paine & Co. , 
who signed petition No. 1 ; while petition No. 2 was 
signed by twenty-two citizens. 

On January 5, 1881, Treasurer Thome's state- 
ment of receipts and disbursements from May 1, 
1879, to October 1, 1880, was presented by Peter 
Powlie, then and for some time previous deputy 
treasurer. He showed $30,123.37 on hands May 1, 
1879, and $106,313.08 collected within the time 
given, or a total of $136,436.45. The amount re- 
ported paid out was $100,530.55, and balance on 
hand $35,905, with $69,096.87 delinquent. The 
commissioners appeared to agree with this state- 
ment, but postponed final settlement until some 
vouchers in controversy were received or rejected. 
On January 25 the board assembled as a court of 
trial and investigation. B. F. Smith, 0. B. Hew- 
ett, A. T. Ash and John M. Abbott, of counsel for 
the treasurer; Messrs. Saxon, Moulton, R. H. Mills 
and R. A. Batty, of counsel for S. Alexander; A. 
L. Clarke and others, petitioners with John M. 
Ragan, for the county, were present. The treas- 
urer's counsel urged final settlement and the post- 
ponement of the inquiry into the charges of January 
25; but the motion was overruled, as were several 
other motions, between January 25, when the trial 


commeaced, and February 1, when counsel for the 
treasm-er denied the authority of the commissioners 
to obtain a new or additional bond for $25,000 from 
the treasurer in addition to the $15,000 bond already 
given. On March 10, however, this bond was ap- 
proved; on March 12 he resigned, and Emanuel 
Steinau was appointed treasurer, and on the 16th 
the ex-treasurer was ordered to turn over all prop- 
erty', moneys and amount of deficiency to the com- 

In December, 1881, the clerk was instructed to 
receive from the trustees of the assets of Ex-Treasurer 
Thome, the full amount of county certificates and 
warrants drawn thereon, and credit same to the 
deficiency account of the several funds. On March 
28, 1881, the county clerk was ordered to advertise 
for rooms for county offices, and secure a lease for 
same. Propositions from C. N. Paine & Co., to 
erect a brick building or provide a suitable building; 
from Farrell & Mowery to erect a stone building 
100x44 feet, and one from George W. Mowery to 
erect a similar building on Lots 7 and 8, Block 24, 
were received. Then follows the protest by A. B. 
Ideson; but it did not prevail, and Mowery's bid 
was accepted, which provided for a lease of five 
years at a consideration of $1,000 per annum. 

The Thome assets as applied in 1881 show 
$87.42 to Denver precinct bond fund; $779.83 to 
State general fund; $98.35 to State sinking fund; 
$188.18 to State school fund; $72.91 to State Uni- 
versity fund; $3.34 to penitentiary fund; $21.84 to 
State asylum fund; $141.45 to county judgment 
fund; $2,108.41 to district school fund; $2,165.09 
to school bond fund; $726.66 to school judgment 
fund; $1.51 to poll and labor tax; $40.39 to Juniata 
mill bond fund; $5.80 to Hastings City; $4.40 to 
Juniata village; and $130.27 to miscellaneous fund. 
The receipts from Ex-Treasurer Thome's assets up to 
January 11, 1882, amounted to $8,141.59, of which 
$8,082.05 were distributed as above. On October 
13, 1882, the commissioners agreed with C. R. 
Jones and A. L. Clarke, trustees of the Thorne 
assets, to pay the latter 5 per cent on the monej's 
collected and paid to the county by said trustees 
including the audited claims. 

In January, 1882. William S. Crow qualified as 

treasurer. On June 2 the question oi issuing bonds 
for $65,000, to fund the indebtedness of the county, 
was received, and an election ordered to be held 
July 8. 

The collections and balances for 1883 up to July 
9, amounted to $89,649.91, the balance on January 
1 being $18,710.69. 

In November, 1883, the vote on the question of 
township organization was taken, and a numlier of 
vouchers received in reduction of Thome's defi- 
ciency. The last meeting of the last board of 
county commissioners was held November 20, 1883, 
their final act being the granting of a contract for 
building the approaches to Silver Lake bridge, to 
W. D. Young. H. C. Armstrong was president at 
this time, with G. H. Edgerton and A. V. Cole 
associate commissioners, and R. B. Tussey, clerk. 
They adjourned sine die, the clerk closing the record 
book before the ink. used in writing his signature, 
was dry. 

The new era of government by township super- 
visors was introduced November 21, 1883, with 
H. C. Minnix,M. A. Hargleroad, W. G. Parmenter, 
J. H. Spicer, S. M. Frink, George Crane, W. R. 
McCully, Henry Stammer and E. G. Dyer present. 
Owing to the county judge not being present to 
approve bonds, the meeting wasi adjourned. Super- 
visor Dyer refused to serve and H. P. Rowe was 
appointed by the clerk to represent Ayr. W. R. 
McCully was chosen first president of the board. 
On the 26th George Crane was present, with the 
officers named, the other supervisors, named in elec- 
tions of 1883, being aljsent. 

The petition of Moses Van Biiskirk and others, 
residents of Kenesaw village, for incorporation, 
was rejected for the reason that a majority of 
the resident tax-payers of the village did not 
sign the document. On December 13 John M. 
Ragan resigned the office of county attorney, 
and O. B. Hewett was appointed to fill the office 
until January. A petition signed by R. D. Bab- 
cock and 115 others asked that L. J. Capps be ap- 
pointed attorney for the county; but the petition 
was ordered to be placed on file. On January 9, 
1884, the salary of superintendent of schools was 
placed at $800. On this date the establishment of 



townships was considered. West Blue was estab- 
lished within the territory of Township 8 in Ranges 
n and 10; Denver, Township 7 in Ranges 9 and 10, 
except the city of Hastings; Little Blue, Townships 
5 and 6 in Range 9; Ayr, Townships 5 and 6 in 
Range 10; Silver Lake, Township 5 in Ranges 11 
and 12; Cottonwood, Township 6 in Ranges 11 and 
12; Juniata, Townships 7 and S in Range 11, and 
Kenesaw, Townships 7 and 8 in Range 12. 

The name of James Reed appears on the roll of 
supervisors in June, 1884, Supervisor Crane, of 
Denver, having previously resigned. The claim of 
$1,000 against Juniata precinct by Batty & Ragan, 
who represented the precinct in the law affairs grow- 
ing out of the issue of $6,000 mill bonds in 1872, 
was mentioned at this session. Their petition prayed 
for the levy of a tax on the residents within the old 
precinct of 1872, sufHcient to meet this indelstedness. 

In January, 1885, J. H. Spicer, of Juniata; 
George Crafford, of Zero, and E. L. Dutton, of 
Kenesaw, were appointed to fill vacancies on the 
Ijoard. H. C. Minnix was chosen president jyro 
tern, and on the 13th J. H. Spicer was elected per- 
manent president. "VV. R. McCully was admitted to 
a seat as supervisor of Hastings, L. J. Capps 
was appointed count}' attorney, and the salaries of 
clerk, deputy and assistant deputy were fixed, so as 
not to excel the Icrs edlleetrd during the j-ear 
1885. Amus Shaltuek was elected permanent presi- 
dent for 1886. The transactions of the last few 
years are of the character of former years, but of 
much larger proportions. The members of the 
board of supervisors are named in the political 
chapter, and all propositions submitted to the peo- 
ple by them, and the vote on such propositions 
given in that chapter. The issue of court-house 
bonds was the most important transaction. The 
bonds sold for $77,500. Treasurer Paul received 
two-thirds of that sum, $51,666.50, and a certified 
check for the balance, $25,833.50, December 24, 

1889. It has been a good transaction all round, 
and the count}- officers taking part in it are entitled 
to commendation for their prudence, caution and 
successful management of the affair. In January, 

1890, warrants were paid by Treasurer Paul on 
presentation, this being the first time in the county's 

history that such an agreeable state of financial 
affairs has existed. 

From that day in 1872 when Messrs. Parrell & 
Co. dedicated a spot of the prairie to the uses of civ- 
ilization under the name of Hastings, the villagers 
looked longingly westward, coveting the honors of 
the seat of justice and inwardl.y determining to have 
those honors. In May, 1873, when the first journal 
was established here, their modest thoughts found 
expression. On June 3, 1873, a meeting was held 
at Hastings, to take steps for the removal of the 
county seat. M. K. Lewis presided, with J. M. 
Abbott, secretary. On motion of Samuel Alexan- 
der a committee of ten was appointed to canvass 
each precinct in the county in the interest of Hast^ 
ings. For Denver, Thomas E. Farrell and R. V. 
Strockey were selected; for Little Blue, G. W. Don- 
ahey and A. Berg; for Silver Lake, C. K. Lawson 
and C. Kohl; for Kenesaw, A. D. Yocum and C. H. 
Paul, and for Juniata, B. H. Brown and S. S. Dow. 
The canvassers named were very active, so that all 
the measures, referred to in the former pages, were 
hurried forward. The opposition was not inactive. 
As hitherto told, a court-house was planned and the 
contract actually sold by the commissioners before 
the people stepped in to stop progress in the matter. 
In 1874-75, affidavit after aflfldavit flowed into the 
archives of the Legislature, pointing out an alleged 
irregular! t}' in the organization of the county; also 
the fact that many of the election officials and a few 
of those elected were not citizens; that thirty legal 
voters were disfranchised because they would not 
vote for Juniata, and further, that the onl}- notices 
of election, posted in the southern townshi^js, was 
one at Spring Ranche, in Clay County. The election 
on this question was carried to the supreme court, 
where an order was issued compelling the board of 
canvassers to count the returns from Cottonwood , it 
being held that the judges and clerks of that pre- 
cinct had duly qualified before the commissioners' 
board. Prior to the election the Hastings people 
gave material evidence of their good intentions in 
the matter. 

In March, 1875, the celebrated bond for $10,000 
was acknowledged before J. H. Darnell, a notary, 
by Thomas E. Farrell, J. L. Parrott, Charles H. 




Paul, R. A. Batty and M. K. Lewis, principals, and 
S. Alexander, J. G. B. Smith, Sam. Chaney, H. A. 
Forcht, J. M. Smith, A. J. Millett, G. W. Mowery, 
R. W. Oliver, C. C. Ingalls, J. T. Ross, George H. 
Pratt, 0. Whitson, W. S. Deisher, J. H. Vande- 
raark, J. Kolb, H. Hibeler, W. H. Stock, Charles 
Kohl, D. S. Cole, 0. Oliver, R. Moreledge, F. J. 
Benedict and B. F. Brower, sureties. This bond 
was given to Adams County to insure the completion 
of a courthouse before November 1, 1875, and the 
donation of such house and one city block to the 
county, in the event of the people voting to remove 
the seat of justice from Juniata to Hastings. Plans 
and specifications of the building were also made 
part of this agreement. The vote was taken in May, 
but Juniata having more than two-fifths of the total 
vote cast held the seat of justice. 

In March, 1877, the county seat war was opened 
m the newspapers, the Journal giving valid reasons 
for removal, and the Juniata papers valid reasons 
against removal. Even the local poets loaned their 
genius for the occasion. One poem by Anonymous 
contains sixt^'-eight lines, reviewing the former con- 
test and prophesying the result of the coming one in 
favor of Hastings. The last six lines of this poem 
are as follows: 

Theu like a monster from the deep, 
She will come forth more fierce and bold, 
To fight the battle o'er again — 
And .still continue on to fight 
Until her enemies are slain 
And victory shall crown the right. 
On March 21, 1877, a bond was entered into by 
R. A. Batty, S. Alexander and C. K. Lawson, as 
principals, and C. H. Paul, R. R. Moreledge, James 
McWade, F. Forcht, J. W. Davis, Charles Cameron, 
0. Oliver, Mowery & Farrell, J. T. Ross, T. J. 
Benedict, A. W. Wheeler, Charles Kohl, Zehrung 
& Coy, M. K. Lewis and J. S. Mclntyre as sureties 
for performance. This document provided for the 
erection of a court>house to cost $8,000, and the 
conveyance of building and lots to the county in 
case the seat of justice should be located at Hast- 
ings. Plans and specifications were also made a 
part of this bond as in the former instance. The 
war of words preceding the election on this question 
was only equaled by the virulence of the language 

used by the press of the county on each side, and in 
the midst of this turmoil the religious controversy 
between Rev. John Rutherford and Rev. W. E. 
Copeland, on the inspiration of the Scriptures, was 
introduced. "Without regard to this substantial offer, 
the war was carried on, as shown in the election re- 
turns, and Hastings, after several legal quibbles 
were resorted to, was declared to have won the bat^ 
tie. The house in which the first term of the dis- 
trict court was held still stands at Juniata, a small 
frame building, now untenanted, the property of 
Dr. Ackley. The building is a one-story frame 
structure, and would hold not more than fifty people. 
The citizens of Juniata will hold it as a relic, and as 
a reminder of the great county seat fight between 
that place and Hastings. 

The history of the removal of the offices to 
Hastings is given in detail in former pages. In 
November, 1888, the proposition to issue bonds, 
proceeds of which should be devoted to the erection 
of a court-house and jail, was carried by a vote of 
1,416 for, and 1,044 contra. The bonds were 
issued, but owing to delays in registration, and a 
controversy over the act providing for the invest- 
ment of the State school fund in bonds of this 
character, over a year elapsed from the date of elec- 
tion until Adams County received the first install- 
ment of moneys from this source. On December 
24, 1889, a draft from W. J. Hayes & Sons, of 
Cleveland, O., for $51,666.50, and certified check 
for $25,833.50 were received by County Treasurer 
Paul. It is a singular fact that while other counties 
were trying the legality of their bonds and the con- 
stitutionality of the law under which they were 
issued, Adams County went right along with the 
work of building the court-house. Up to December 
24, 1889, the county had neither received nor paid 
out a dollar of the bond money. In the summer 
the contract for building was sold to J. R. Sims, of 
Hastings, for $66,000, he being the lowest bidder. 
The cornerstone was placed September 4, 1889, and 
before the first rain storm of that fall (December 28) 
the walls were complete, the roof ready for the 
slaters, and the construction of the clock tower 
well advanced. This building is described in the 
history of Hastings, 



The first term of the district court held in Adams 
Couuty was that opened May 6, 1873, within the 
school-building at Juniata. Judge Daniel Gantt 
presided, with Russell S. Langley, sheriff, and R. 
D. Babcoek, clerk. The first grand jury comprised 
Ira G. Dillon, Harmon H. Ballou, W. H. Burr, R. 
D. Carrier, George Dade, John Huston, Clark S. 
Morrison, Edward Moore, C. B. Nelson, James 
Non-ish, John Plank, Abram Parks and C. W. 
Wilson. The first suit presented was that of Adna 
H. Bowen vs. The Challenge Mill Company. The 
replevin suit by William Skinner resulted in the 
amendment of petition. The question of the admis- 
sion of James Laird to the bar of this State was 
considered. Benjamin F. Smith, on presenting his 
credentials as a member of the Steuben County, Ind. , 
bar, and Titus Babcoek, as a member of the Monroe 
County, Mich., bar, were also admitted to practice 
in the several district courts of Nebraska. A com- 
mittee, comprising C. J. Dilworth, John D. Hays 
and James Laird, was appointed to examine appli- 
cants for admission to the bar. On the certificate 
of this committee Hai-risou H. Blodgett, Guevera 
M. Blodgett and John M. Abbott were admitted. 
Dr. Charles A. Morgan and James Laird were ap- 
pointed commissioners of insanity for Adams 
County. The petition for divorce by John B. Silvis 
from Miranda Silvis was granted without delay ; the 
appeal of A. H. Bowen from the decision of the com- 
missioners' court, and the indictment for false 
imprisonment against A. H. Bowen and James 
Laird were quashed, for the reason that it was not 
endorsed by the prosecutor. 

The second term of court was opened May 25, 
187-i. Indictments for keeping tippling houses on 
the Sabbath were returned; the petition of Levi 
Carkins for divorce from Christina Carkins was 
granted, and a number of civil cases presented. On 
May 26, R. A. Batty and John M. Ragan were 
examined by a committee of lawj^ers comprising 
C. J. Dilworth, H. S. Kaley and L. S. Estele, and 
admitted to the bar on the certificate of this com- 
mittee. The first judgment against the county was 
rendered at this time to J. R. Laine. L. P. Hawley 
was foreman of the trial jury in this case. The 
first indictment for assault and battery was returned 

against Peter Halverson, and for selling liquor with- 
out license against Nathan Piatt. 

The third term of court was opened May 24, 
1875. Four indictments for permitting games to 
be played in saloons were returned ; A. H. Bowen, 
James Laird, George Donahey, Titus Babcoek and 
Eugene A. Haselton were indicted lor false imprison- 
ment. Three petitions for divorce were entered. 
The injunction proceedings in re. Alex. D. Buck- 
worth vs. commissioners, clerk and D. H. Free- 
man, contractor, in re. erection of court-house at 
Juniata, resulted in the granting of a perpetual in- 
junction against further proceedings in the erection 
of county buildings as proposed. 3Iortgage fore- 
closures were authorized in several cases, and the 
divorce mill was reopened. 

The application of J. James, of the bar of 
Potter County, Pa. (admitted in 1873), for admis- 
sion to the bar was granted; that of Augustus T. 
Ash, of Linn County, Iowa, and also that of G. D. 
Pierce, of Michigan, were granted. 

The fourth term of court was opened April 3, 
1870. The first indictment for horse-stealing was 
returned against J. J. Williams and Milo Keech, 
and petitions for a divorce and embezzlement were 
entered. The petition for injunction against Treas- 
urer Thorne and the trustees of Denver precinct 
railroad bonds was entered by C. H. Paul, and 
granted by the court, with a further order that such 
bonds be "cancelled and held for naught." Ab- 
bott & Ragan were the attorneys in this proceeding. 
A few petitions for divorce were presented. John 
Miller was found guilty of assault with intent to 
kill, by a jury of whom E. M. Beach was foreman, 
and sentenced to a two years' term in the peniten- 
tiary. The special term of May, 1876, considered 
the indictment for murder against John Williams of 
Harvey Count}', Neb. The prisoner was represented 
by Bowen & Laird and the State by C. J. Dilworth. 
The jury returned a verdict of "not guilty." In 
June George W. Stocker was admitted on certificate 
of the examiners — A. H. Bowen, A. T. Ash and 
M. V. Mondy. A few divorce cases were presented 
at this time. During the special November term 
similar cases were presented and William Wallace, 
Sr. , and his son granted final papers in the matter 


of their citizenship. In December the first indict- 
ment for peijury was entered against J. E. Suttie, 
nor did the hist month of Centennial jear pass away 
without a petition for divorce. 

On February 12, 1877, the indictment for mur- 
der was returned against Jordan P. Smith, Fred Q. 
Copelandand Bernardine Roach, on change of venue 
from Kearney County. Smith was represented by 
Gray & Laird and the State by C. J. Dilworth, 
Mondy, Alibott and Smith. On February 22 a jury, 
of which E. M. Allen was foreman, found Smith 
guilty of manslaughter and he was sentenced to a ten 
years' tenn in the penitentiary. In July, 1877, R. 
W. Beeson, of Montgomery Countj', Iowa, was ad- 
mitted a member of the bar, and in February, 1878, 
Benjamin H. Hayden and James F. Nelson were ex- 
amined by A. H. Bowen, R. A. Batty and T. D. 
Scofield and admitted on their certificate of examin- 
ers. There were only a few cases of criminal char- 
acter before the court from the close of the February 
term of 1877 to the close of 1878. Civil cases 
growing out of debts due Cyrus H. McCormick, 
Deere & Co. and others, were numerous and may be 
said to have occupied the sole attention of the 
court. George Banks, of Winnebago, Wis. , Web- 
ster M. Pond, of Dane County, Wis., Joseph A. 
Vanatta, of Iowa, were admitted members of this 
bar. Lucius Junia Capps, admitted in Illinois in 
1875, became a member of the Nebraska bar on 
December 6, and also L. A. Royce, of Poweshiek 
County, Iowa. The suits of C. H. McCormick 
against several citizens occupied the attention of 
this term almost exclusively. Judge Gaslin signed 
the record January 1, 1879. Thomas D. Scofield 
qualified as district attorney. On February 15, the 
indictment for murder against John Brown, alias 
William John McElroy, was returned and John M. 
Ragan assigned for his defense. Attornej-s Scofield 
and Brown prosecuted. A jury of which R. H. 
Vanatta was foreman found McElroy guilty of mur- 
der in the first degree as charged in first count, and 
not guilty under the second count. Judge Gaslin 
sentenced him to be hanged May 29, 1879. 

On February 17, 1879, the murder of Ann W. 
Ketchum and Luther Mitchell on December 10, 
1878, in Custer County, was officially brought, by 

C. W. McNamor, before the notice of Judge Gaslin. 
Custer was then unorganized; but for judicial pur- 
poses was attached to the Fifth and Sixth judicial 
districts, so that no district judge could exercise jur- 
isdiction over the whole territory. In view of this 
and further, considering that the crime was perpe- 
trated in territory belonging to the Fifth district, or 
west of Sherman County, the judge ordered the trial 
of the murderers to be held in Adams County, be- 
ginning February 26, 1879. John M. L3"mau was 
foreman of the special grand jury, who returned the 
indictment against the murderers. The case may be 
said to have occupied the attention of the court until 
April 17, when the jurj' returned a verdict of guilty 
of murder in the second degree, against Frederick 
Fisher and I. P. Olive. Both received sentences for 
life terms in the penitentiary. 

R. S. Erwin was admitted to the bar March 31; 
A. D. Yocum, William C. Reilly, R. A. Dague and 
Samuel M. Brobst in April. On April 26 the jury 
disagreed on the question of the guilt of William H. 
Green and John Baldwin, who were indicted for mur- 
der with Olive and Fisher. 

David P. Maryatt, of Iowa; F. H. Hepljurn, of 
Iowa; L. D. Dent, of Illinois; C. D. Steele, of Illi- 
nois; William H. Lanning, of Illinois, and J. J. 
Lewis, of Ohio, were admitted to the bar in Novem- 
ber, 1879. John Brown McElroj-, sentenced to be 
hanged in 1879, survived the day; for on November 
26, 1879, he is on trial anew for the murder of 
Stutzman. On May 12, 1880, he plead guilty of 
murder in the second degree, and was sentenced to 
a life term in the penitentiary. 

On December 2 Miles J. Jacobs was examined 
and admitted, and on the 6th George F. Work was 
admitted. In May, 1880, F. M. Hallowell appears 
as official reporter. B. F. Hilton was admitted to 
the bar at this time, and also Thomas H. Mattars, 
James W. Carver and Thomas J. Noll. The indicts 
ments of William B. Baldwin and Ralph M. Tay- 
lor, for the murder of Allen J. Yocum, were pre- 
sented on May 12. On the 18th Baldwin was found 
guilty of manslaughter on the first count. 

Roger H. Mills was admitted to the bar on Juno 
21, 1880, and Ambrose H. Gates in December. On 
the 17th of this month the suit of the Burlinajton & 


Missouri River Railroad Company against Adams 
County, iu tlie matter of taxes, was finished, and the 
county perpetually enjoined from the collection of 
taxes, except $308.50, and the cloud on the title to 
some of the railroad lands removed. 

During the year judgments were rendered against 
the Protestant Episcopal and First German Evangeli- 
cal societies of Hastings. March 9, 1881, the first 
record of death among the legal circle is made in 
the case of Augustus F. Ash, who died February 25. 
March 17 the celebrated cases growing out of title 
to the town site of Hastings were decided by Judge 
Gaslin, as recorded in book 2, journal of district 
court, pages 571 to 582, and referred to in the his- 
tory of Hastings. Harrison Bostwick was admitted 
to the bar on March 19. On this day the following 
agreement in the case of Adams County vs. W. B. 
Thorne, as principal, and William E, Thorne, C. R. 
Jones & Co. , W. M. West, Weidler Grabill, Ira G. 
Dillon, James M. Sewell,'J. S. Chandler, A. Yeazel 
and C. N. Paine & Co., as his sureties, was sub- 

■■In consideration of the conveyance to C. R. Jones 
;ind A. L. Clarke, trustees of assets of W. 15. Thorne for 
use of Adams County, by Abraham Yeazel and William 
B. Thorne, of all property heretofore conveyed to A. 
Yeazel or transferred to him and now conveyed or trans- 
ferred by William B. Thorne to Jones & Clarke— the 
same being scheduled at S<i3,886.63, all of which having 
been heretofore conveyed to Abraham Yeazel for the in- 
demnificial of himself and other siiiiUi'^ cm the bond of 
W. B. Thorne, as treasurer of Adam- lonniy. it is here- 
by agreed that all the sureties of .-itiil Thdiue shall be 
discharged from all liability at law or in equity." 

The names of Clarke and Jones were substituted 
as plaintilTs vice Thorne, in suits by the ex-treasurer. 

On June 21 the grand jury, of which Carlton 
Clarke was foreman, returned a true bill against 
William B. Thorne, ex-treasurer, for the embezzle- 
ment of $15,997.65 of county moneys; $5,570.34 
of the district school land fund; $8,479-. G3 of the 
district school fimd, and $5,664.75 of the district 
school judgment fund. V. Bierbcwer was district 
attorney. In June Mr. Thorne denied the charge, 
and the trial was postponed to December, 1881, the 
ex-treasurer being held in $5,000 bail, which was 
promptly furnished. In December the case was 
brought up, but the records do not show its disposal 

until mention is made in March, 1883. This term 
was opened in flowery & FaiTell's building at Hast- 
ings, on December 12. and at its close Frank I). 
Taggart and John L. Finley were admitted to the 

On October 23, 1882, court was opened by S. B. 
Pound under a previous order by Judge Gaslin. 
The grand jury returned an indictment against Peter 
Fowlie for embezzlement of $50,000, which had 
come into his possession by virtue of his office as 
deputy treasurer. John N. Lyman was foreman. 
In March he was allowed out on $3,000 bail to 
appear for trial in June. On March 29, 1883, the 
indictment for murder against William B. Baldwin 
was disposed of (the supreme court reversing the 
judgment and ordei'ing one according to the verdict) , 
and the prisoner sentenced to a one jear term in the 
penitentiary. The jury in the case — State of Ne- 
braska vs. William B. Thorne, finished work June 
18, and found the ex-treasurer guilty of embezzling 
$22,000. Thomas Pearl was foreman of this body. 
A motion for a new trial was overruled and he was 
sentenced to a one year term in the penitentiary 
without solitar}' confinement, by Judge William H. 
Morris. On June 25, a writ of error was filed in the 
clerk's office, issued by the clerk of the supreme 
court, asking for a transcript of the Thorne case. 
John A. Casto and W. S. McKinne^- were admitted 
to the bar in October, 1883. Morriss Cliggett antl 
Melville C. Hester were admitted March 19, 1884. 
An indictment for arson against William B. Bald- 
win was nolle jjrossed at the request of the district 
attorney. Edwin A. Hogg, formerl}' of Michigan, 
was admitted to practice here in November, also 
Lewis W. Hague, of Illinois. The indictments 
against Frederick Young, John Blivernicht, Oscar 
Winkler, Louis Hoffman and Henry Winkler were 
presented in June, 1885; but the trial jur3- could 
not agree, and Gustave Vosberg was sentenced to a 
year's term in the penitentiary. The Thorne case 
came up in another form on June 3, when Thome's 
indebtedness was shown to be $47,187.86, but in 
December, 1886, the sum of $11,355.72 was ordered 
to be paid to the treasurer and Clarke & Jones 
discharged from liability. Charles D. Taylor, for- 
merly of Iowa, was admitted to the bar in November, 


also A. M. Cunuingham. formeii}- of Pennsylvania, 
and James H. H. Hewett. In May J. B. Cessna* 
was admitted to practice here on formal application 
and on presentation of his Pennsylvania certificate. 

On June 19, 1886, the refusal of ■ Treasurer Mc- 
Cleery to accept moneys from A. L. Clarke (pre- 
sumably moneys held by him as one of the trus- 
tees of the Thorne assets) was brought before the 
court, and Henry Bostwick named as receiver, or, 
in case of his refusal, S. A. Searle was ordered to 
receive the amount and place it in the safety vaults 
at Omaha. 

William R. Burton was admitted in June, 1886, 
and in July, B. F. McLoney. In June, 1887, the 
case of Anna Boeder vs. Henr}- and Oscar Winkler; 
John Blevend and Fred Young were tried before a 
jury, of which D. H. Dean was foreman. In 1884 
the State proceeded against the parties, but the jury 
disagreed; on this occasion, however, the damages 
were assessed against the defendants in the sum of 
$200 and $100 attornej-s' fees. George D. Browne, 
of Utica, N. Y. , and John C. Stephens, were admit 
ted to the bar in June. In September, 1888, Charles 
Edmundson was admitted, and in December, Wil- 
liam F. Peck. The trial of Lish Nelson was con- 
cluded during the December term, when a jury, of 
which D. W. Ripley was foreman, found him guilty 
of murder in the second degree. Judge Gaslin sen- 
tenced him to a life term in the penitentiary. His 
crime was the killing of C. J. Balcom, August 5, 
1881. D. W. King, a burglar, was sentenced to a 
five years' term in the penitentiary Elmer E. Ferris 
was admitted to the bar December 14, 1888. The 
information against David Crinkalau for the murder 
of Prank Pansier, November 2, 1888, was presented 
by District Attorney Tanner, in January, 1889, but 
the jury acquitted the prisoner. Joseph H. Ed- 
mundson was admitted to the bar in February, 
1889. The information against Lizzie Aldridge for 

•J. B. Cessna was admitted before the court of common 
pleas of Bedford County, Pa., February 1.5, 1865, Alex. King, 
present judge. lu May, 1872, be was admitted to practice be- 
fore the Pennsylvania supreme court; in June, 1873, to the 
common pleas court of Erie County, Pa., and January 26, 
1876, on nomination of Jeremiah S. Black, to the supreme 
court of the United States. Letters from Judge W. J. Baer, of • 
the Somerset and Bedford court of common pleas, and from 
Ulysses Mercer, chief justice of Pennsylvania, were tendered 
to Mr. Cessna on bis leaving for Nebraska in 1885. 

the murder of (poisoning) John Aldridge. was pre- 
sented Maj^ 20, 1889; but the evidence was of too 
general a character to convict her. 

John C. Stevens was admitted to the Nebraska 
bar in June, 1887; John Snider in September, 
1887, and Hugh Clemans in November, 1887, and 
John C. Hartigan, Benjamin P. Rawalt and Harry 
S. Dingan in May, 1889. In 1890 S. R. Brass, 
of Juniata, was admitted to the bar. 

In former pages a memoranda of many cases 
brought before the courts of Adams County is given. 
The murder of the two settlers mentioned in the 
pioneer chapter may be taken as the beginning of 
the criminal calendar of this district. Some of 
these cases presented here deserve a more extended 
notice, because the plan of crime should be exposed 
in every case, and the incidents connected with the 
detection and punishment of the criminals given. 
In one instance the enormity of crime led some of 
the best citizens of the county to organize as a Secret 
Tribunal. This organization was perfected in a 
moment, "and its edict carried into execution with 
admirable promptitude and regularity'. In another 
case a specialist in rascality, named Randall, was 
shot down (it is alleged) in the court room by the 
brother of an outraged child, this doing away with 
the farce of trial, and saving to the county the 
moneys which would otherwise be expended in hold- 
ing the farce on the stage of the district court. 

In the case of the State vs. A. D. Rust for vio- 
lating order of injunction in re. the school bonds, 
Titus Babcock, who was then count}- judge, had to 
testify, and so sent for Justice Jones that he 
might testify before him. En route the justice be- 
came gloriously drunk, and though called did not 
answer. Attorney Bowen ventured the statement 
that he was notary public, and could administer the 
oath to his honor; but Judge Babcock declined this 
kind offer, saying he would administer the oath to 
himself. Standing up, with folded hands and closed 
eyes, he said: *■ I, Titus Babcock, probate judge 
of Adams County, Neb., the evidence that I shall 
give, wherein the State of Nebraska is plaintiff and 
A. D. Rust defendant, shall be the whole truth, etc." 
After this he testified in the case. Opposition was 
of no use, and Rust was sent to jail at Omaha. 


In 1875 a partj- of thirteen herders or cowboys 
killed Milton Collins, of Buffalo County, and fled up 
the Platte Valley. Deputy United States Marshal 
Ball and nineteen citizens went in pursuit and cap- 
tured eleven of the party immediately; but the next 
day Jordan P. Smith, the actual murderer, and the 
thirteenth associate were captured on an island in 
the Platte. Several times the captors were on the 
point of executing the first batch of eleven cowboys; 
but the absence of the principal criminal led to post^ 
ponement, and ultimately the leading prisoner was 
allowed to be brought to trial. Smith was tried, 
found guilty, and sentenced to be hanged at 
Kearney; but a new trial was gi-anted, and the case 
heard before Judge Gaslin, Jr. , at Juniata. Smith 
was found guilty of murder in the second degree, 
and sentenced to a ten years' term in the peniten- 

The killing of Henry Stutzmau was the first 
proven deliberate murder which occurred in Adams 
County. This murder was committed by William 
John McElroy, on the morning of February 8, 1879. 
McElroy, alias John Brown, was a young man who 
had been making his home at Ked Cloud with a 
relative, and at various places in Adams County. 
He had worked for different farmers during the fall 
and winter of 1878-79. On the evening of the 
day preceding the murder he started afoot from 
Hastings, armed with a revolver and rifle, and was 
presumedly on his way to Red Cloud. About four 
miles southwest of Hastings coming to the home- 
stead of Henry Stutzman, he requested permission 
to remain all night. Stutzman consented, the two 
men had supper, and after a short time, as McElroy 
stated, retired to rest. The next morning as Cam- 
eron Belliel, a neighbor of Stutzman, was passing 
by the latter' s house, he noticed that the mules 
were gone. Calling'to Stutzman and receiving no 
answer, he suspected something wrong, and in com- 
pany with another neighbor, Joseph WoU, they en- 
tered Stutzman's house. Then their suspicions of 
foul play were at once proven true, for Henry Stutz- 
man was lying across a chair dead, having a wound 
in his head from both a rifle and revolver. 

The people of the vicinity at once started in 
pursuit of the murderer and McElroy was soon 

caught with the mules in his possession.* He 
made no attempt to escape, but said he killed 
Stutzman in self defense. He was taken to Ayr, 
a few minutes before the train arrived with Sheriff' 
Martin and other oflScers, and was immediately 
conveyed to Hastings. Later on the same day an 
inquest was held by County Coroner W. Ackley, 
and the verdict of the jury was that Stutzman was 
killed by John Brown. 

Excitement among the people when it was known 
that a murder had been committed in their midst, 
and that the murderer was in the hands of the 
sheriff, ran high. Some talk of lynching was in- 
dulged in, and Sheriff Martin, fearing he might be 
overpowered and his prisoner taken from him, had 
him adroitly conveyed to the railroad station and 
removed to the jail at Kearney. 

The prisoner was soon indicted on two counts, 
first, murder in the first degree by shooting Stutz- 
man with a gun. The second count was an indict- 
ment for the same offence, by shooting with a pistol. 
Court was then convened by Judge Gaslin, when 
McElroy was arraigned and pleaded "not guilty," 
whereupon the following jurors were empaneled to 
ti-y the case: A. J. Adams, R. H. Vanatta, C. A. 
Lane, E. W. Hall, T. L. Orton, M. L. Cook, J. W. 
Sheffield, W. T. Pomeroy, J. H. Spencer, D. W. 
Biglow, S. G. Johnson and George Beatte. T. D. 
Scofield, district attorney, assisted by A. H. Bowen 
conducted the case for the State. John M. Ragan 
and A. T. Ash were the attorneys for the defendant. 
The evidence elicited that some time during the 
night of the tragedy McElroy, while still in bed, 
reached over to the table where his pistol was lying 
and shot Stutzman while he was still asleep. The 
first shot only stunning or dazing him, he arose 
from the bed and staggered to a chair, and while 
sitting on the chair, McElroy shot him a second 
time with the rifle, which resulted in his instant 

The trial occupied one day, and at 10 o'clock 
the next morning the jury brought in a verdict of 
murder in the first degree, whereupon Judge Gaslin 

♦Engineer Clark saw the mules on his way up from Bed 
Cloud. Hearing of the murder on his arrival, he reported the 
matter and took a posse at once to capture the murderer. 


sentenced the prisoner to death, and Maj' 29, 1879, 
was fixed as the day of execution. 

The speedy capture and trial of jMcElroy is 
probably the most summary transaction of the kind 
on record in the State of Nebraska, for in less than 
eight days after the commission of the crime the 
murderer received his sentence to expiate his guilt 
by the extreme penalty of the law. He was not 
hanged, however, for his attorneys secured a new 
trial, and he was allowed to plead guilty of murder 
in the second degree, and was then sentenced to the 
State's prison for life. In 1889 Gov. Thayer par- 
doned him. 

The celebrated Olive case in point of general 
interest was the most important ever tried in Ne- 
braska, or, perhaps, west of the Missouri River, 
This was the trial in Hastings, in 1879, of I. P. Olive 
and others for the lynching and murder of Luther 
Mitchell and Ami W. Ketchum. From the most 
relialile sources of information it is learned that on 
November 27, 1878, a party of men rode up to the 
house of Mitchell, on Clear Creek, for the purpose, 
they claimed, of arresting Ketchum, who was living 
with Mitchell, for cattle stealing. Instead of quietly 
demanding his surrender they began shooting at 
him. He was soon wounded in the arm, but re- 
turned the shot and killed a deputy sheriff known 
by the name of Stevens, but whose right name was 
Olive. I. P. Olive, a wealthy cattle man of the 
South Loup, and brother of the man "Stevens" or 
Olive, killed by Ketchum, at once offered a reward 
of $1,000 for the capture, dead or alive, of both 
Mitchell and Ketchum. These men were both will- 
ing to surrender to the proper authorities, but ex- 
pressed fear of the cowboys of Custer County. They 
were, however, soon arrested, and several sheriffs 
and deputy sheriffs of adjoining counties received 
their share of the i-eward. Then as they were being 
taken from Kearnej' County to Custer County for 
preliminary examination, by Sheriff Gillan, of Keith 
County, and Phil Dufrand, of Custer County, they 
were taken fi-om these officers by a party of armed 
men, and at a point about one mile south of the 
South Loup River, in Custer County, were hanged 
and burned. 

Thev were found the next afternoon. Ketchum 

was still hanging, )_iut the rope suspending Mitchell 
had broken, and he was lying in the ashes of the 
still smoldering fire partly supported by the left 
arm, which was fastened to Ketchum's right by a 
pair of handcuffs. 

The brutality surrounding the circumstances of 
these men's death, being hung, shot and burned, 
perhaps alive, was such as to cause the greatest 
excitement, and a strong demand from the people of 
Nebraska that those guilty of this crime be hunted 
down and punished, caused the State to offer a re- 
ward of SI 0,000, and a further reward of $200 each 
from the governor for all proven to be implicated in 
the sad affau-. 

Suspicion at once pointed to I. P. Olive, who 
with John Baldwin, Myron Brown, Barney Ann- 
strong, John Gaslin, Fisher Gillan, Dufrain and a 
tfew more, were soon arrested and placed in jail at 

As Custer County, the county where the crime 
was committed, had not at this time been attached 
to any judicial disti'ict. Judge Gaslin concluded to 
have these men indicted and tried in Adams County. 
This was clone, and, after a protracted trial, in 
which the State was ably represented by Attorney- 
General C. J. Dilworth, District Attorney C. J). 
Scofield, and C. M. Thurston, of Omaha, and the 
defendants by the late Hon. James Laird, Judge 
Homer, now judge of the Tenth district and others, 
the jury brought in a verdict of guilty against I. P. 
Olive and one of the others, toward whom suspicion 
pointed, who were at once sentenced to the peniten- 
tiary for life, while the remainder of the indicted 
men were released. 

From the fact that the State appropriated 
$10,000 for the prosecution of this case, the num- 
ber of men under indictment, the ability and bril- 
lianc}' of the lawyers arraigned on both sides, and 
the heinousness of the crime charged, made it the 
most important in point of interest of any case 
tried in Nebraska, before or since. The proceedings 
were reported by the Associated Press all over the 
United States, while some papers had special corres- 
pondents located at Hastings during the trial. 

After Olive had been in prison about one year 
his lawyers succeeded in having his case brought 


before the superior court of the State, and there it 
was held that the indictment and trial in Adams 
County was an eiTor, that the proceedings against 
him should have been brought in Custer County, 
on account of this error the prisoners were released 
on their own recognizance. The grand jury of Cus- 
ter County never having takfii any action in the 
case, they were not brought h' trial aiiniii. 

The inquisition upon the bculy of tiie muraerei\ 
Martin HoUerick was held at the house in Cotton- 
wood, where the deceased resided, August 28, 1880. 
The jury found Nicholas Eickinger (his brother-in- 
law) guilty "f strikiui;- the falal blow. As hitherto 
related, Rickingcr escaped punishment. 

Matt Simmerman, who on October 16, 1882, 
with Dick Belmont, shot and killed Sheriff Woods 
in the dining-room of the hotel at Minden, was cap- 
tured, tried, convicted. He was sentenced bj- Judge 
Gaslin to be hanged on April 21, 1883. On the 
18th of that month a writ of error was sued out in 
the State supreme court, and in July the judgment 
was reversed. On October 13, his second trial be- 
gan, and, on the 25th, he was sentenced to be 
hanged. February 4, 1884, another appeal to the 
supreme court failed him, and the sentence was 
ordered to be carried out on March 17, 1885. A 
few daj's prior to this Lawyer Burr sued out a writ of 
error to the United States supreme court, and for 
the first time in the legal history of the country a 
criminal under the death sentence was allowed out 
on bail. 

The murder of Cassius M. Millett was another 
unfortunate affair. Notary' Puljlic Le Dioyt took 
the statement of Mr. Millett, March 27, 1883. This 
pointed out the sidewalk between Pickens' house 
and the mill where the three murderers held him up, 
telling him to give up his money. They then or- 
dered him west, and at May's gate he made an effort 
to escape, and was nearly inside the gate when he 
was shot, after which he climbed the line fence be- 
tween May's ground and his own. On March 28 a 
meeting was held at Liberal Hall, over which Mayor 
Lanning presided, to consider the question of rais- 
ing moneys to be expended in the capture of the 
murderers. S. J. Weigle was chosen secretary, and 
S. Alexander, A. L. Clarke, L. H. Tower, D. M. 

McElHinney and A. H. Cramer were appointed a 
committee on collections, and Thomas E. Farrell, R. 
A. Batty and C. K. Lawson members of the execu- 
tive committee. Mr. Millett died on March 27, 
and was buried on April 1 by the G. A. R. , of 
which body he was a member. The coroner's in- 
quest was held on March 30 bj' Winfield Aekley, 
coroner, John N. Lyman, Charles Cameron, D. M. 
McElHinney, J. B. Heartwell, W. 0. Hall and A. 
L. Wigton, jurors; and Messrs. Sowers, Lynn, 
Urquhart, Cook, Naulteus and Royce, physicians. 
Prior to this Deputy Sheriff Stock, Stoelting and 
others collected some evidence which led to the 
arrest of James Green, John Babcock and Fred 
Inghi-am. A Mrs. Davis found a mask of curtain 
calico near the scene of the murder, which was recog- 
nized as a part of the wash-stand cover used by Green 
ivi his room at the Central House. This, with the 
fact that the three criminals were seen in consulta- 
tion, led to their arrest at Kohl's farm. On seeing 
the mask and other evidences of their guilt they 
were amazed. After a preliminary examination be- 
fore Judge Work, two of the prisoners, Inghram 
and Babcock, turned State's evidence, and each told 
the story of the crime precisely as it was planned 
and perpetrated. On the day of their victim's 
funeral the prisoners were taken to Lincoln by Sheriff 
Hutchinson; but on the day after were taken back 
as far as Howard, where the coroner's jury visited 
them. On April 3 they were removed to Hastings 
and arraigned before Judge Work. Babcock alone 
of the trio plead guilty. They were guarded l\y 
special deputies— C. H. Deitrich, W. Cutter, Z. E. 
Hutchinson, Edward Burton and J. P. Parr, in the 
jury room off the court room in the " Stone Block," 
and to all intents the law was to take its slow course. 
At about 10 o'clock that night a squad of thirty 
men entered the court room, breaking in the door, 
whence they proceeded to the room where the prison- 
ers were guarded, which they entered in the same 
manner, and placing revolvers at the head of each 
guard, abducted the self-confessed criminals, taking 
them from their beds. Placing ropes around their 
necks, they were marched down stairs, when Green 
and Inghram were placed in a buggy, and Babcock 
led to the place of execution — a bridge on the Grand 



Island Railroad about one mile north of the city. 
There the ends of the ropes attached to the three 
condemned men were fastened to the rails and the 
trio pushed off the bridge. Mr. Deitrich. one of 
the guards who was pressed into the service of 
leading Babcock to execution, cut the rope and thus 
saved the fellow for trial. An inquisition on the 
executed criminals was held by Sheriff Hutchinson 
with Lyman H. Tower, Charles L. Stone, A. H. 
Sowers, G. E. Douglass, George Marks and G-. E. 
Kimball, jurors, who returned a verlict of death 
from strangulation. — [Mr. LeDioyt's report in Ga- 
zette-Journal. ] 

In Jul}-, 1833, ghostly visitants were observed 
at the St. Joseph & Western Railroad bridge, north- 
east of the city. It appears that a few persons while 
passing the place where Inghram and Green were so 
summarily executed, saw the dead criminals approach 
the bridge and begin an inspection of it. Other 
parties visited the spot, always reporting the pres- 
ence of an unapproachable ghost. In 1883 and 1884 
the Invincibles took a part in administering justice. 

The Aldrich mystery for a long time occupied 
public attention* John Aldi-ich was a quiet, highly 
respected farmer living near Blue Point in the south- 
ern part of Adams County. He died suddenly on 
December 5, 1885, under quite suspicious circum- 
stances. A few days after his Ijurial the citizens 
concluded that an investigation was necessary, and 
his body was exhumed, and the contents of the 
stomach sent to Prof. Haines, of the Rush Medical 
College at Chicago. The chemical analysis revealed 
a large quantity of arsenic. Suspicion pointed to 
his wife, Lizzie Aldrich, as the criminal, and she 
was arrested, indicted and brought to trial at the 
May term of the district court in 1889, but owing to 
insufficient evidence was acquitted. 

The theory of self-murner was advanced and 
believed in by some, as he had threatened to com- 
mit suicide on several occasions, and about one half 
hour before his death he took a drink of whisky 
from a bottle; as he did so, it is reported that he 
said, " here goes the last," The whisky remaining 
in this bottle was analyzed and revealed arsenic, but 
whether placed there by himself or some one else, 
was never known. 

The body of James Quinn was found September 
28, 1886, partially devoured by hogs. His mur- 
derers placed the body in a shallow grave, from 
which the hogs removed the clay covering and began 
devouring the body. A German named Sproetz was 
arrested and charged with the crime, but Lawyer 
Tanner urged his discharge so eloquently that the 
justice acquiesced. Later he was held to give evi- 
dence before the coroner, but after the adjournment 
of the inquest, he escaped. Mayor Alexander 
called a meeting to consider the question of offering 
a reward for the capture of the murderer. C. F. 
Royce was appointed secretary. The efforts to cap- 
ture the criminal failed and after waiting until 
December 7, the coroners jury found Wilhelm 
Sproetz guilty of wilful murder. 

G. W. Randall was arrested March 16, 1887, 
charged with criminal assault upon Lora May Hart, 
the eleven year old daughter of Marion Hart, of 
Edgar. On March 17 he was taken before Judge 
Fleming, but the hearing was postponed until the 
18th; it being St. Patrick's day, and a number of 
people in the city, the authorities sent the ruffian 
under guard of Deputy Hammond to Grand Island 
for safety. Next morning he was brought back for 
trial. He was defended by Batty & Casto, while 
Searl, of Edgar, and C. H. Tanner prosecuted. (On 
Friday Mrs. Randall arrived from Forest City, Mo. , 
and was at once arrested on the charge of abetting 
her husband in his designs upon the child.) Ran- 
dall pleaded not guilty. The evidence, then taken, 
points out that in February Dr. Randall visited his 
several patients at Edgar, among whom was Mrs. 
Hazelbaker, who was the first to discover the Doe- 
tor's (?) doings. Randall, learning that Lora Hart 
was suffering from sore eyes, prevailed upon Mr. 
Hart to allow his dauulit^T to lie treated by him. 
The girl boarded at tiif Xiw Eniihuid House for two 
days, after which Mrs. Ilaiidall and the Doctor com- 
pelled her to stay with them and even sleep with 
them. All would go to bed together, but in the 
morning the child would find herself alone with the 
demon who was her physician. The child protested 
against his assaults and removed to the Commercial 
Hotel, where he placed her under the influence of 
opiates and assaulted her repeatedly. By threats 


the couple compelled her to return to their room, and 
then their treatment became too terrible to bear, 
Mrs. Randall assisting the Doctor. On March 12 
the girl returned, and her actions were of such a 
character as to occasion suspicion. Her parents 
questioned her, and breaking into tears she told the 
whole story. The evidence was so strong that 
Judge Fleming held the leech in $5,000 bonds to 
appear for trial. While the papers in the case were 
being made out a shot was heard and Randall fell 
dead. A coroner's jur}-, presided over by F. L. 
Brown, comprising C. H. Dietrich, G. J. Evans, J. 
E. Gant, Thomas E. Farrell. J. F. Ballinger and 
H. C. Haverly, found that death ensued " from a 
gun shot wound at the hand of some party to us un- 
known." Mrs. Randall claimed the body, but being 
short of funds, it was interred in the potter's field. 
Mrs. Randall was held for trial in bonds of $1,000, 
by Justice Vineyard. She was taken to her board- 
ing house and later that night removed to a safer 
place, lest the angry people should execute her. 
The avenger of the wrongs of his little sister shot 
well and truly, sending one of the blackest hearted 
wretches of the country before a higher tribunal 
than the district court, and saving the county the ex- 
pense of a prosecution. 

The celebrated case growing out of the defalca- 
tion of W. B. Thome was closed in December, 1886. 
He came to Adams County with moderate means in 
1872, but later was found to be in straitened cir- 
cumstances. In the fall of 1873 he was elected 
treasurer of the county, re-elected in 1875, again in 
1876. and lastly in 1879. Up to within a yesxr prior 
to November, 1879, there was not a word uttered 

against his integrity as treasurer. Did hail or grass- 
hoppers destroy the crops, Thorne would advance the 
farmers' tax, taking a note in payment. He was lib- 
eral in other directions; but the whisperings of 
1878 won some believers, for it was apparent that 
"Papa" Thorne could not go so deeply into specu- 
lative deals and purchase so much lands, or fix his 
sons in business so solidly, without using the county 
funds. In 1879 the day of reckoning was seen ap- 
proaching. Commissioners Moore, Yocum and Wil- 
son examined the treasurer's accounts and found 
his balances of $30,178.32 fully accounted for. 
This action disarmed suspicion for a time; but dur- 
ing the year 1880 another examination of forty days' 
duration disclosed a storage of about $50,000. Mr. 
Thorne turned his property over to A. L. Clarke 
and Charles R. Jones as trustees, who in December, 
1886, received the acknowledgments of Judge Mor- 
ris for the manner in which they carried out the 
trust. When the defalcation was known to exist, 
criminal proceedings were taken and after two years 
of law's delays, he was sentenced to a one year's 
term in the penitentiary; but the sentence was sus- 
pended and remains suspended. 

On January 10, 1890, Judge Gaslin handed down 
his decision in the case of Adams County vs. 
R. B. Tussey, ex clerk of the county, to recover a 
defalcation. Judgment against Tussey and his fif- 
teen sureties was given for $1,774.62 and $150 
costs. The Nebraskan in noticing this case says: 
" The original deficiency was about $3,000, after- 
ward reduced, principally by Mrs. Tussey, who 
worked for mouths in the oflSce writing up the record 
that her husband had neglected to attend to. 





Rrfoisi) OF Ei.i-CTioNS — Various Officials Chosen — Coxsideration of Questions of Local Importance- 
I'mur To\\ '(SHIP Organization Laws — Proposition for Funding Bonds — Journalists and Journal- 
ism — The Newspaper as a Po^vERFUL Moral Agent — Sketches of Press Enterprises — 
First Issues of Sundry Publications — Their Development and Influence. 

Serious in aspect, earnest in tlieir taltc. — Diijdcn. 

>HE first general election for 
Adams County was held De- 
cember 12, 1871, when 29 
votes were cast, the total 
vote being recorded onlj- on 
the question of locating the 
county seat on Section 12, 
Township 7 , Range 1 1 , west of the 
sixth principal meridian, there 
being 28 votes for and 1 against 
the proposition. Samuel L. Brass, 
Edwin M. Allen and Wellington 
W. Selleck received 28 votes each 
^^>N for county commissioners, for 
three, two and one year terms re- 
spectively, one vote being recorded 
against each of the two first named. 
Russell D. Babcock received 27 votes for clerk; 
John S Chandler, 26 for treasurer; Isaac W. 
Stark, 26 for sheriflf; Titus Babcock, 26 for pro- 
bate judge, Gc^orge Henderson, 27 for surveyor; 
Adna H. Bowen, 26 for school superintendent; 
Isaiah Sluyter. 28 for coroner; William W. Camp, 
27 for assessor; W. W. Selleck, 28 and Harmon 
H Ballou. 27 for justices of the peace; Simeon 
Johnson and Robert Mason, 28 each for consta- 
bles, Judhon Burwell, Thomas J. Kemp and Ed- 
gar A Adams, 27, 28 and 27, respectively, for 
judges of election; Samuel P. Howland and William 

"^ ^^ 

J. Janes, 28 votes each for clerks of election. One 
voter appears to have opposed this ticket, which was 
known as the Adams County ticket throughout, ex- 
cept in the case of Commissioner Selleck, against 
whom not one vote was east, although one of his 
friends evidently did not vote for him. 

The election for Juniata precinct in October, 
1873, resulted in the choie of Samuel J. Shirley and 
William B. Cushing, justices, over Charles Kilburn 
and Joseph A. Robertson, the winners' vote being 
95 and the defeated candidates' 41. George Kuder, 
Charles R. Jones and James Norrish were elected 
judges of election; John M. Cole and Enos J. Han- 
chett, clerks of election; William J. Derrick and 
William H. Gardner, constables; William L. Kemp 
received 134 votes for assessor. 

The elections of October, 1873, in Little Blue 
precinct gave a majority vote to R. M. Jones for 
justice, he receiving 60 against 56 recorded for 
C. G. Wilson and 21 for W. S.Mote; C. Bird, R. D. 
Carrier and S. M. West were chosen election judges; 
J. L. Johnson and J. A. Waldeck, clerks of elec- 
tion; Robert Mason and William Vastine, constables; 
Moses Livingstone, assessor. 

The elections of October, 1873, in Denver pre- 
cinct resulted as follows: G. J. Milliard received 
100, L. C. Gould 86, and F. S. Wells 15 for justices 
of the peace, the first named being chosen. M. K. 
Lewis. S. S. Dow and A. W. Wheeler were chosen 


judges of election over C. K. Lawson, A. Andrus 
and L. C. Gould; E. Steinau and D. S. Cole were 
chosen clerks of election; G. \V. Mowerj- and F. 
Hudson, constables; Cliarles H. Paul received 107 
votes for assessor and was unopposed. In April, 
1874, there were 7 votes cast in favor of giving 
aid to the St. Joe & Grand Island Railroad Com- 
pany, and 171 votes against such aid. In May 134 
votes were recorded for and 87 contra. 

The elections of October, 1873, in Silver Lake 
precinct show 46 votes for Isaac Vanderwort and 45 
for Charles W. Wilson, who were elected justices; 
B. H. Scott, R. K. Dailey and M. B. Kelly, judges 
of election; H. B. Munson and J. J. Hoyleman, 
clerks of election; J. W. Yeager, who received 47 
votes and John P. Duncan 38 votes, were chosen 
constables, and A. C. Moore received 48 votes for 
assessor and was elected. 

The fall elections of 1873 were held October 17. 
Alexander H. Cramer received 374 votes and Wil- 
liam H. Gardner 1 vote for clerk; William B. 
Thorne 289, and Peter Fowie 87, for treasurer; 
Benjamin F. Smith 238, and A. W. Wheeler 137 
votes for probate judge; James B. McCleery 277, 
and W. H. Gardner 93 for sheriff; Hiram C. Hum- 
bert 376 for coroner; William Scott 274, and Joseph 
Horgan 97 for surveyor; Russell S. Langley 273, 
and Dr. George Kuder 99 for commissioner of 
the Second district; A. H. Bowen 374 for school 
superintendent. The question of issuing bonds to 
fund county indebtedness received 172 votes, while 
against the proposition 295 votes were recorded. 

In June, 1874, Juniata gave 78, Kenesaw 3, 
Denver 4, Ovid or Silver Lake 17, and Little Blue 
2, or a total of 104 votes in favor of issuing bonds 
to pay outstanding warrants. The vote against this 
proposition, in the precinct order given, was 36, 22, 
156, 23 and 55, or a total of 292. 

The elections of October, 1874, show 480 votes 
for Lorenzo Grouse and 47 for J. W. Savage, can- 
didates for Congress. Under this heading, with 
contg't written after title of office on record, Pat- 
rick 0. Hawes is credited with 487 votes; Silas 
Garber, candidate for governor received 485 votes, 
and A. Tucklniry 42 votes; W. J. Council received 
243 votes for the office of district attorney in the 

Second and M. B. Iloxie in the Third judicial dis- 
trict; N. K. Griggs received 457, and R. P. Stein 
75 votes for Senator of the Twelfth district; A. 
Nance 457, and George H. Peebles 74, for represen- 
tative of the Thirteenth district. There were 527 
votes cast for holding constitutional convention, 
and three cast against the proposition; A. D. Yocum 
received 341 , and J. H. Vandemark 182 votes for 
commissioner of the Third district. 

W. D. Willoughby was elected justice of Little 
Blue, and Moses Livingstone assessor; J. B. Roseoe, 
assessor of Silver Lake; McD. Martin and William 
Martin, justices of Cottonwood, and Richard Spick- 
nail, assessor; A. L. Wigton, justice of Denver; B. 
E. Boyer, assessor, and C. E. Forgy and John 
Gould, constables; Peter Fowlie, justice of Juniata; 
W. L. Kemp, assessor; Edward Moore and John 
W. Sherffield, justices of Kenesaw, and L. Darling, 

In May, 1875, delegates to the constitutional 
convention from the district composed of Webster, 
Kearney and Adams, were voted for. James Laird 
received 399, Legrand B. Thorne, 375, M. V. 
Mondy, 564, and Jacob C. Wilson, 528. 

The question of re-locating the county seat was 
also submitted at this time, the vote for Juniata be- 
ing 381, made up as follows: Juniata precinct, 201; 
Kenesaw, 66; Denver, 7; Silver Lake, 68; Little 
Blue, 11, and Cottonwood, 28. The vote in favor of 
Hastings was 559, Juniata giving 53; Kenesaw, 9; 
Denver, 295; Silver Lake, 48; Little Blue, 114, and 
Cottonwood, 10. The canvassing board comprised 
County Clerk A. H. Cramer, George W. Wolcott 
and W. H. Burr, who declared that Juniata, having 
more than two-fifths of all the votes cast, should 
continue to be the county seat. Some wag in the 
midst of the serious contest cast his vote for some 
place which he named Liiniata. 

The elections of October 15, 1875, show 729 
votes for and 21 against the adoption of the new 
constitution; 650 for the article relating to seat of 
government, and 32 against; 673 for article allow- 
ing electors to express their preference for United 
States Senators, and 46 against; 444 votes for 
William Gaslin, Jr. , 390 for C. J. Dilworth, and 46 
for B. I. Hinman, judge of the Fifth district; 509 


for John R. Rateliff, and 373 for John B. Roscoe, 
candidates for commissioners of First district; 868 
for B. F. Smith, probate judge; 489 for 'Vyilliam B. 
Thorne, and 391 for S. Sadler, candidates for 
treasurer; 457 for A. L. Wigton, and 399 for L. 
Darling, candidates for school superintendent; 596 
for James B. McCleery, and 269 for H. B. Strout 
for sheriff; 864 for William Van Allen, survej-or; 
485 for Dr. C. M. Wright, and 380 for Col. W. L. 
Smith, candidates for coroner; 542 for A. H. 
Cramer, and 347 for Wesley M. White, candidates 
for clerk. Samuel J. Shirley and Peter Fowlie were 
elected justices, and George T. Brown assessor of 
Juniata; H. W. Krone and John Kent justices, and 
L. A. Boley assessor of Kenesaw; George F. Work 
and L. C. Gould justices, and J. A. Innis assesor 
of Denver; C. W. Wilson and Isaac Vanderwort 
justices, and A. C.Moore assessor of Silver Lake; 
S. F. Reed and W. S. Moote justices, and M. Liv- 
ingstone assessor of Little Blue; E. C. Clewitt and 
Charles Morse justices, and R. S. Spicknall assessor 
of Cottonwood. 

The November elections were introduced in Cen- 
tennial year. The vote for A. H. Connor and other 
electors was 767; for D. A. Wheeler and other elec- 
tors, 401. For Congress, Frank Welch received 
627; Marvin Warren, 111, and Joseph HoUman, 
207; for Congress contingent, Thomas J. Majors, 
746, and William H. Deck, 19; for governor, Silas 
Garber, 766, and Paren Eigland, 205; for district 
attorney, C. J. Dilworth, 965; for Senator, Twenty- 
fourth district, J. S. Mclntyre, 567, J. S. Gilham, 
300, and R. M. Simonton, 101; for representative. 
Second district, S. Sadler, 593; L. P. Hawley, 331, 
and George T. Hutchinson, 125; for commissioner. 
Second district, Edward Moore, 498 ; Thomas 
Faribee, 282, and E. M. Allen, 157. 

The justices and assessors then elected were: 
William L. Kemp justice, and G.»T. Brown assessor 
of Juniata; E. B. Moore and 0. H. Wright justices, 
and John Fruman assessor of Kenesaw; D. L. Bar- 
lass assessor of Denver; J. P. Duncan justice, and 
R. S. Spicknall assessor of Silver Lake; A. C. 
Moore assessor of Little Blue; J. A. Nichols justice, 
and J. Holman assessor of Cottonwood; John Dyer 
and A. G. Hall justices, and S. M. West assessor of 

Pawnee; A. F. Powers and L. P. Hawley justices, 
and D. M. Barlass assessor of West Blue. 

In April, 1877, the question of locating the 
county seat was again submitted. Five hundred 
and thirtj'-five votes were cast for Juniata, and 844 
for Hastings. Juniata precinct gave 231 ; Kenesaw, 
65; Denver, 26; Silver Lake, 46; Little Blue, 32; 
Cottonwood, 90; Pawnee, 27, and West Blue, 18, in 
favor of old Juniata; while Juniata gave 4; Kene- 
saw, 13; Denver, 491; Silver Lake, 15; Little Blue, 
82, Cottonwood, 7; Pawnee, 130, and West Blue, 
102, in favor of Hastings. The canvassing board 
comprised County Clerk A. H. Cramer, Thomas R. 
Lee, and Thomas D. Scofleld, who declared Hast^ 
ings the new county seat in virtue of having received 
over three-fifths of the entire vote cast. In No- 
vember A. D. Yocum received 873 votes for com- 
missioner, the other thirteen candidates receiving 
only 50 votes in totn; A. H. Cramer received 970 
votes against 14 given to the other six candidates; 
W. B. Thorne received 645 votes, and Charles S. 
Powers 405 for treasurer; S. L. Martin, 315, Ben- 
jamin Vastine, 272; C. Kilburn, 167; W. S. Hubble, 
168, and J. H. Robertson, 114 votes for sheriff; B. 
F. Smith, 600; J. C. Wilson, 357, and A. H. Bowen 
86 for probate judge; William Van Allen, 1,004 for 
surveyor; A. L. Wigton, 755, and A. D. Williams, 
260 for school superintendent; W. Ackley, 537, and 
F. E. Dalrymple 496 for coroner. 

The question of township organization was sub- 
mitted in November, 1877. The project received 
732 votes and was opposed by 56. 

Orlando Stever and Robert Ash were elected jus- 
tices of Juniata, and John L. Kent, assessor; J. M. 
Strohl and J. W. Stinchcomb, justices of Kenesaw, 
and John Truman assessor; George F. Work, justice 
of Denver, and D. L. Barlass, assessor; J. J. Hoyle- 
man, justice of Silver Lake, and R. S. Spicknall, 
assessor; D. C. Olmsted, justice of Little Blue, and 
M. Livingstone, assessor; A. N. Hall, justice of 
Pawnee, and S. M. West, assessor; A. F. Powers, 
justice of West Blue, and D. M. Barlass, assessor; 
W. P. Davis and Joseph Basye, justices of Cotton- 
wood, and G. J. Holman, assessor. 

The elections of May 4, 1878, on the question of 
voting bonds in aid of the construction of the Re- 


publican Valley Railroad, show 48 for and 11 contra 
in Silver Lake; 82 for and 21 contra in Cottonwood; 
199 for and 2 contra in Juniata; 323 for and 110 
contra in Denver; 72 for, 59 contra and 12 neutral 
in Pawnee; 55 for, 25 contra and 27 against any 
issue of bonds in Little Blue. 

In November, 1878, Edward K. Valentine re- 
ceived 773 and J. W. Davis 266 votes for Congress- 
man; Thomas J. Majors 775 and Thomas B. Parker 
260 for Congressman, contingent (later Majors re- 
ceived 776 and Alex. Bear, 264 to fill vacancy); 
768 for Albinus Nance and 263 for W. H. Webster, 
candidates for governor; 782 for C. J. Dilworth and 
260 for S. H. Calhoun, candidates for attorney-gen- 
eral; 723 for T. D. Scofield and 292 for William 
Neville, candidates for district attorney; 773 for S. 
R. Thompson, and 269 for S. L. Barrett, candidates 
for superintendent of schools; 461 for Charles L. 
Antram, for surveyor; A. L. Wigton, 480, J. M. 
Abbott, 213, and Charles Kilburn, 329, candidates 
for Senator; 491 for A. F. Powers, and 527 for R. 
A. Batty, candidates for representative; 570 for C. 
G. Wilson, and 412 for John Duncan, candidates 
for commissioner of First district; 398 for bonds, 
and 616 contra, Juniata precinct giving 15; Kene- 
saw, 42; Denver, 259; Silver Lake, 1; Little Blue, 
10; Pawnee, 27; West Blue, 32, and Cottonwood, 
12 for; while 155, 18, 178, 50, 62, 55, 54 and 44 
were recorded against in the respective precincts. 

In 1878 Charles Kilburn was elected justice, and 
John L. Kent, assessor, of Juniata; S. M. Roberts 
and J. G. Hayzlett, justices of Kenesaw, and John 
Truman, assessor; Isaac Le Dioyt, assessor of Den- 
ver; S. L. Parks and B. F. Munson, justices, and 
R. S. Spicknall, assessor of Silver Lake; E. M. 
Beach, justice, and M. Livingstone, assessor of Lit 
tie Blue; D. M. Barlass, of West Blue; C. C. Clew- 
itt and 11. M. Boyd, justices of Cottonwood, and C. 
IlDlilfeld, assessor; John Dyer, justice of Pawnee, 
and A. W. Waldeck, assessor. 

The elections of November, 1879, show 1,843 
votes for William Gaslin for judge of the Fifth dis- 
trict. For commissioner, Albert V. Cole received 
1,147, and George T. Hutchinson, 693; for county 
clerk, John A. Waldeck received 565, Robert T. 
McGrew, 523, and Robert B. Tussey, 752; for clerk 

of the district court, A. H. Cramer received 1,319, 
and George H. Hartsough, 513; for treasurer, Will- 
iam B. Thorne received 1,000, and Charles K. Law- 
son, 852 votes; S. Lewis Martin received 1,204 
votes, J. H. Robertson, 213, and T. M. Abbott, 313 
for sheriff; Benjamin F. Smith, 976, Charles Kil- 
burn, 396, and G. D. Pierce, 347 votes for county 
judge; Jasper N. Smith, 1,627 for surveyor; Lucy 
A. McFadden, 1,360, and L. Darling, 451 votes for 
superintendent of schools; Dr. William H. Lynn, 
1,267, and Dr. J. J. Hoyleman, 526 for coroner. 

The justices and assessors elected in Juniata pre- 
cinct were W. H. Beal, justice, and John L. Kent, 
assessor; in Kenesaw, J. G. Hayzlett, justice, and 
George W. Wolcott, assessor; in Denver, J. A. 
Vanatta, justice, and A. J. Orendorf, assessor; in 
Ayr, 0. D. Barrass received 83, James Winney, 16, 
and four other candidates 18 votes in toto for justice, 
while A. C. Moore received 106, E. J. Oldham, 36, 
and S. Ellis, 30 votes for assessor; in Little Blue, 
J. K. Dean was elected justice, and M. Livingstone, 
assessor; in Cottonwood Solomon Holman was chosen 
justice, and C. Hohlfeld, assessor; in West Blue, 
A. F. Powers was elected justice, and George Bran- 
nan, assessor, and in Silver Lake, B. F. Munson was 
chosen justice, and R. L. Spicknall, assessor. 

The votes on the funding bond proposition and 
the sale of county lot submitted in 1879 were as 
follows: For funding bonds, 284, against 865; for 
selling lot, 1,174, against, 35. 

The elections of November. 1880, show 1,444 
votes for James Laird, 550 for James E. Boyd and 
51 for W. M. Connor, presidential electors; 1,448 
for Albinus Nance and 547 for T. W. Tipton, candi- 
dates for governor; 1 ,440 for C. J. Dilworth and 
544 for George E. Pritehett, candidates for attor- 
ney-general; 1,431 for E. K. Valentine and 542 for 
James E. North, for Congress; 1,437 for W. W. W. 
Jones, superintendent of schools, and 547 for Alex. 
Bear; 1,477 for A. T. Ash and 526 for L. D. Dent, 
candidates for district attorney; 1,371 for C. R. 
Jones and 640 for Charles Cameron, candidates for 
representative; 1,363 for C. B. Coon and 649 for E. 
]M. Allen, candidates for Senator of the Twenty- 
fourth district; 1,389 for W. W. Hopper and 627 for 
J. H. Vandermark, for commissioner. There were 





only 173 rotes cast as preference 'votes for United 
States Senator — James Laird receiving 169. The 
assessors elected were John L. Kent, Juniata; M. 
Higgins, Kenesaw; D. L. Barlass, Denver; A. C. 
Moore, Ayr; William Colton, Little Blue; E. Dom- 
iny. West Blue; C. Hohlfeld, Cottonwood, and R. 
S. Spicknall, Silver Lake. Isaac Vanderwort was 
elected justice of Ayr, C. P. Horcletoad of Cotton- 

In November, 1881, Victor Bierbower received 
1,106 votes for district attorney; Samuel L. Brass 
was candidate for university regent; S. L. Martin 
received 642, C. G. Wieson, 424, and George T. 
Hutchinson, 669 votes for sheriff; W. S. Crow, 1 ,346 
and Emanuel Stienau, 475 votes for treasurer; George 
F. Work, 978, and Ben. F. Smith, 830 votes for 
county judge; Lucy A. McFadden, 1 ,789, and Lucy 
A. Darling, 3 votes for superintendent of schools; 
Gordon H. Edgerson, 1 ,567, and C. W. Wilson, 238 
votes for commissioner; Thomas E. Farrell, 1,087, 
and E. N. Woodford, 718 votes for surveyor; Jose- 
phus Williams, 978, and William H. Lynn, 822 
votes for coroner; Robert B. Tussey, 1,037, andL. 
M. Sevenford 777 votes for county clerk. 

The assessors elected were R. Ash, A. C. Snoe- 
berger, D. L. Barlass, A. C. Moore, John Jung, 
Isaac Boyd, J. G. Holman, C. H. Chapman and G. 
W. Spicknall. 

The justices of the peace elected this year were 
J. W. Liveringhouse, J. G. Hayzlett, J. H. Fleming, 
W. W. Philleo, James K. Dean, Solomon Favinger, 
Aaron Powers and F. McDonald, the order of 
location being Juniata, Kenesaw, Denver, Ayr, Lit- 
tle Blue, Cottonwood, West Blue and Silver Lake. 

In February, 1882, the funding proposition was 
submitted. There were 406 votes cast against this 
measure and 46 in favor of it. 

The fall elections of 1882 show James W. Dawes 
to have received 712 votes; E. P. IngersoU, 782, 
and J. Sterling Moi-ton, 440; for the office of com- 
missioner of public lands and bonds, C. H. Madely, 
865 votes, and A. G. Kendall, 765 votes; for Con- 
gress, James Laird received 1,005, and S. V. Moore, 
806 votes; for district attorney, J. M. Abbott re- 
ceived 1,427 votes, and W. S. Morlan, 511 votes; 
for Senator, A. H. Sowers was given 1,011 and A. 

T. Powers, 840 votes; for representative, H. G. Ar- 
mitage received 784, L. H. Trower, 747, W. C. 
Weaver, 719, C. W. Wilson, 688, J. G. Hayzlett, 
439, and E. Koekler, 398; A. V. Cole received 
1,135, and J. W. Han-is 666 votes for commis- 
sioner of Second district, while H. Armstrong re- 
ceived 713, J. Wooster, 667, and 0. C. Brown, 521; 
for commissioner of the Third district, W. Ackley 
received 490, and W. H. Lynn, 333 votes for 
coroner. The assessors elected were Robert Ash, L. 
A. Boley, D. L. Barlass, A. C. Moore, C. H. Chap- 
man and R. S. Spicknall. The justise elected was 
John Merrill, of Cottonwood. 

The proposed constitutional amendment received 
643 votes, while 952 were cast against it. 

The elections of 1883 show 1,188 votes for W. 
H. Morris, and 785 for R. A. Batty, candidates for 
district judge; 1,229 for G. W. Bemis, and 739 for 
J. W. Eller, candidates for district attorney; 1,203 
for R. B. Tussey, and 767 for L. H. Felt for clerk 
of district court; 1,122 for George Spicknall, 639 
for E. J. Hanchett, and 265 for Isaac Le Dioyt, 
candidates for county clerk; 1,163 for J. B. Mc- 
Cleary, and 816 for W. S. Crow for treasurer; 711 
for J. M. Abbott, and J. H. Fleming, 1,260, candi- 
dates for probate judge; 711 for George T. Hutchin- 
son, and 1,266 for D. L. Barlass for shei-iff; 841 
for W. S. Hall, and 1,136 for A. E. Allyn for 
superintendent of schools; 657 for E. N. Woodford, 
and 1 ,353 for Thomas E. Farrell for surveyor; 1 ,988 
for George B. Lloyd for coroner; 636 for H. C. 
Armstrong, and 1,350 for George Crane for county 
commissioner; 1,523 for township organization, and 
146 against such organization. 

The assessors elected were J. L. Kent, L. A. 
Boley, C. E. Hill, A. C. Moore, J. G. Holman, 
John Jung, R. S. Spicknall and J. A. Snyder. 

The justices of the peace chosen were S. L. Brass, 
W. D. Prindle, L. A. Royce, W. W. McDonald and 
George McMillan (tie), George Colling, J. Miller 
and A. F. Powers. 

Under the law of township organization as 
adopted in 1883 by a vote of 1,523 against 146, the 
offices of supervisor, treasurer and clerk were 
created, who, with the other township officers, 
formed the township boards, while the supervisor 


was a member of the county lioard. Juniata gave 
289 votes for this sjstein; Kenesaw, 120; Denver, 
509; Ayr, 169; Little Blue, 96; Cottonwood, 121; 
Silver Lake, 71, and West Blue, 148. Juniata op- 
posed by 3 votes, Denver bj' 124, Ayr bj- 6, Lit- 
tle Blue by 4, Silver Lake by 8, and West Blue 
by 1. 

The first board of supervisors, elected in No- 
vember, 1883, comprised J. H. Spieer, of Juniata; 
W. Parmenter, of Kenesaw; W. R. McCully, George 
Crane and James E. Reed, of Denver; E. G. Dyer, 
of Ajt: H. Stammer, of Little Blue; M. A. Hargle- 
road, of Cottonwood; H. C. Munnix, of Silver Lake, 
and S. M. Frink, of West Blue. 

The clerks elected in 1883 were S. L. Salsbury, 
D. D. Norton, F. C. Mastin, J. E. Bovard, I. M. 
Dean, Isaac Boj'd, John P. Duncan and T. L. 
Monaghan, for the townships in order as given in 
the list of supervisors. 

The treasurers chosen in 1883 for the respective 
townships in this order were W. D. Sewell, E. Budy, 

F. J. Benedict, T. J. Edgington, A. W. Waldeck, 
Jacob Silvers, P. H. Sailor and H. M. Palmer. 

The elections of 1884* show 1,853 votes for 
Robert B. Harrington, 1,109 for Patrick Hines, and 
114 votes for L. B. Boggs, candidates for elector 
on the three respective presidential tickets. James 
Laird received 1,796; J. H. Stickel, 1,057, and 
Benjamin Crab, 109 votes for Congress; James W. 
Dawes received 1,789; J. S. Morton, 1,171, and J. 

G. Miller, 114 for governor; H. H. Shedd, 1,943, 
and L. C. Pace, 1 ,121 for lieutenant governor; D. D. 
Norton received the third party's vote (114) for 
State auditor; A. H. Sowers, 1,502, H. G. Armitage, 
1,398, and A. M. Hall, 143 votes for Senator of 
Twentj'-eighth district; F. R. Olmsted, 1,665; A. V. 
Cole, 1,664; H. B. McGaw, 1,227; E. M. Allen, 
1,253, Robert Ash, 149, and W. Woolman, 112 
for representatives of Forty-seventh district. For 
amendment of constitution, legal department, 2,762, 

* The Free Trade League was organized in May, X884, at a 
meeting called liy S. M. Brobst, M. F. Wallace. Moses Sadler. 
J. R. McLaughlin. F L. Brown. T. F. Coy. W. Sanders. C. E. 
Hill. A. May, E. H. Reed, A. Woolman, M. C. Ross, C. Frahm, J. 
Lahr, N. Villmer, E. P. Jansreau. E. Foster, Griff Evans, T. W. 
Hoffman, W. Woolman, W. Dale. O. H. McNeil, M. Sohella. 
John Jones. J. N. Showen, L. Showen. Joseph Flicli. A. H. 
Browne and G. De Lagnecau. 

contra, 92; for amendment of Section 1, executive 
department, 1,839; contra, 1,907. 

The justices of the peace elected in 1884 are 
named as follows: S. M. Roberts, Ed Heine, J. 
M. Slater and Ed Forney, a tie vote of 93 in Denver; 
A. N. Hall, Joel Carter, George Colling, John 
Honeywell, L. Williams, W. Patterson, W. W. 
Philleo and I. Johnson, a tie vote in Zero, W. Still- 
well, J. Fleming, B. F. Nunson, L. A. Ku-k, J. B. 
Elrod and James Cooper. 

The first regular Prohibition convention of 
Adams County was held September 9, 1884, with 
Dr. H. P. Pitch, president, and D. D. Norton, sec- 
retary. The delegates to the State convention 
chosen were N. L. Brass, W. H. Burr and I. Evans, 
of Juniata; William Woolman and Dr. Fitch, of 
Hastings; A. C. Williams and C. H. Madely, of 
West Blue; Robert Ash, of Kenesaw; C. N. Rawalt, 
of Denver; W. H. Winters, of Cottonwood; D. D. 
Norton, of Kenesaw, and A. N. Hall, of Ayr. 
Messrs. Henry Shedd, W. Woolman, W. H. Burr, 
C. H. Madely and Rev. J. Fleming were elected 
members of the county committee. 

The supervisors elected in 1884 are named as 
follows: Howard Spieer, Juniata; B. F. Schlegel, 
Kenesaw; Wan-en N. Waldron, Denver; H. P. 
Rowe, Ayr; Samuel Arnold, Little Blue; Henry 
Schnelle, Hanover; S. M. Frink, West Blue; J. E. 
Reed, Blaine; Walter Stebbins, Highland; D. Low- 
man, W, R. McCully, A. H. Cramer, D. S. Fowler 
and C. K. Lawson, Hastings; George Crawford, 
Zero; A. T. Shattuck, Verona; R. M. Boyd, Rose- 
land; J. P. Dunton, Silver Lake; L. L. Mills, Cot- 
tonwood; Amos Shattuck, Wanda, and H. C. Min- 
nix, Logan. 

The township clerks chosen for townships, in 
order as given above, were James Newell, L. B. 
Partridge, G. W. Hill, William A. Garrison, Charles 
Spaldron, W. H. Coltron, Elmer Simer, John 
Forner, Fred Johnson, F. C. Maston, R. K. Dailey, 
C. B. Bigelow (Frank E. Crosier and Bans. Wil- 
liams received each 61 votes in Roseland), C. F. 
Orvis, H. H. Crone, Levi Spindler and Charles Fer- 

The township treasurers elected in 1884 were B. 
F. Kellogg, E. P. Gillette, T. M. White, E. M. 



Burton, Frank IMcCormick, A. W. Wtildeck, Lafaj-- 
ette Dominy, 0. A. Dungau, B. L. Kernon, W. M. 
Cline, Charles Jessie, B. R. Bigelow, Amos Wilson, 
P. H. Sailor, L. W. Swinford, E. Budy and D. F. 

The assessors elected were J. Burwell, L. A. 
Boley, C. E. Hill, F. Rudley, Griff Evans, W. 
Biuderup, John Wilson, G. P. Alford, Michael 
McKenney, D. H. Ballard, Adam Reeder, W. Wil- 
lards, I. Boyd, R. S. Spicknall, C. P. Hargleroad, 
C. Wilson and D. F. Wilkinson. 

The elections of 1885 give 1,829 votes to F. C. 
Mastin, 676 to A. Showan, and 212 to J. W. Brew- 
ster, for register of deeds; 1 ,409 to J. B. McCleary, 
1,043 to M. M. McGrew, and 267 to Henry Shedd, 
for treasurer; 1,887 to George Spicknall, 377 to L. 
W. Swinford, and 212 to D. D. Norton, for county 
clerk; 1,705 to J. H. Fleming, 202 to A. T. Shat> 
tuck, 637 to W. S. McKinney, 220 to 0. B. Hewett, 
for county judge; 1,594 to D. L. Barlass, 734 to N. 
J. Hengen, and 317 to J. F. Merrill, for sheriff; 
1,742 to A. E. AUyn, and 1,003 to Nettie Winters, 
for superintendent of schools; 1,911 to Thomas E. 
Farrell, 219 to Soloman Favinger, and 216 to Titus 
Babcock, for surveyor; 1,636 to F. L. Brown, 
657 to E. R. Chaffee, 216 to L. R. Markley, and 
212 to J. W. Wood, for coroner. There were 744 
votes cast for selling the poor farm, and 705 against 
its sale; 712 votes were cast for purchasing build- 
ing and 539 against purchasing building. 

The elections of 1886 show 1,790 votes for 
James Laird, 1,233 for William A. McKeighan, and 
229 for C. S. Harrison, Congressional candidates in 
the Second district; 1,845 votes for John M. 
Thaj-er, 990 for James E. North, 239 for H. W. 
Hardy, and 218 for G. Burrows, candidates for gov- 
ernor; 1,808 for H. H. Shedd, and 243 for M. K. 
Lewis, candidates for lieutenantgovernor; 1.691 for 
Gilbert L. Lewis, for State secretary, and 471 for 
E. J. O'Neil for same office. 

For Senator James B. Heartwell received 1,582 
votes, M. Cleggitt, 1,006, and H. P. Fitch, 688. 
For representative, A. V. Cole received 1,675; Hugh 
C. Minnix, 1,670; C. Hohlfeld, 866; M. J. Sadler, 
814; H. M. Palmer, 793, and H. G. Armitage, 750. 

The candidates for countv attorney were C. H. 

Tanner, who received 1,593 votes; C. Kilburu, 651, 
and 0. B. Hewett, 922. The vote on preference of 
United States Senator gave 567 to C. H. Van W3'ck; 
3 to James Laird; 7 to J. S. Morton. 

There were 1,818 votes cast for constitutional 
amendment, and 399 against it. 

The township elections of 1886* resulted in the 
return of the following named citizens to the county 
board of supervisors: A. S. Thompson, from Ken- 
esaw; A. T. Shattuck, Verona; W. B. Brown, High- 
land; S. M. Funk, West Blue; Amos Shattuck, 
Wanda; James McKelog, Juniata; W. H. Waldron, 
Denver; W^. W. Miles, F. J. Benedict, Jacob Woos- 
ter, M. Van Fleet, L. Hahn and Edward Jones, 
from Hastings; H. B. McGaw, Blaine; T. B. Burns. 
Cottonwood; Thomas Carter, Roseland; J. S. 
Way, Ayr; W. Theissen, Hanover; E. L. Button. 
Logan; J. P. Duncan, Silver Lake; Louis Bloom- 
ingthal. Zero, and F. C. McCoi-mick, Little Blue. 

The justices elected for the respective townships 
were R. Bigelow and G. W. Pratt, Ira Ford, U. S. 
Holderman, C. F. Keitzer, O. R. Palmer, John 
Plank, of Denver; W. S. McKenney, W. A. Dil- 
worth, I. W. Cramer, J. E. Gant, Charles Doyen 
and D. M. McElHinney, of Hastings; E. T. Win- 
ters, L. W. Swinford, Frank Coilmann, A. N. Hall, 
W. Binderup; G. W. Parks and J. W. Smith had a 
tie vote in Logan; S. W. Conkle, Silver Lake; W. W. 
Philleo and C. F. Warner. 

The assessors elected in 1886 were G. W. Plum- 
mer, William Willars, M. McKenna, A. C. Tompkins, 
of West Blue; J. T. Raglaud and I. Spiudler, tie in 
Wanda; J. Burwell, E. A. Waldron, N. B. vine- 
yard, S. M. Hoagland, C. F. Kidd, George Mizen, 
J. C. Woodworth, W. Binderup, E. S. Minnix. R. 
S. Spicknall, J. W. Isaac and Griff Evans. 

The question of issuing bonds in aid of the Kan- 
sas City & Omaha Railroad Company was submitted 
in March, 1887. Little Blue gave 83 for and 24 
contra; Roseland, 58 for and 52 contra; Cottonwood. 
32 for and 48 contra. 

*The Hastings non Political No License League was organ- 
ized in February, 1886, with O. F. Heartwell, president; C. F. 
Eawalt, secretary; D. M. Leland, treasurer; W. E. McCully, 
Prof. J. v. Collins, C. S. Jones, R. Cory, E. M. Coover, C. 
L. Kirk and O. B. Hewett, executive committee. This league 
was supported by the W. C. T. U. of the city. 


The vote ill May, 1887, on issuing bonds for 
$30,000, the proceeds to be devoted to building a 
county jail, was 758, and against the proposition, 
405, the returns from Little Blue not being in at 
time of canvassing. 

The vote in June, 1887, on the proposition to 
issue bonds to aid in the construction of the Pacific 
Kailroad in Nebraska, and to provide for principal 
and interest by direct tax, was 3,272 for and 4,120 

The elections of November, 1887, show 2,028 
votes for William Gaslin, Jr., and 310 for 0. B. 
Hewett, candidates for judge of Eighth district; 1,794 
for J. H. Spicer, 977 for K. B. Tussey, and 328 
for Mrs. Jennie B. Holland, candidates for clerk of 
the disti-ict court; 1,969 for David L. Barlass, 959 
for Thomas Carter, and 201 for W. B. Hamilton, 
for sheriflf; 1,756 for Charles H. Paul, 1,237 for 
M. M. JIcGrew, and 158 for Peter Griffith, candi- 
dates for treasurer; 1,947 for L. B. Partridge, 1,001 
for J. P. Duncan, and 197 for D. D. Norton, candi- 
dates for county clerk; 1,739 for F. C. Martin, 313 
for V. Edwards, 173 for J. W. Brewster, and 886 
for J. N. Smith, candidates for register of deeds; 
1,965 for J. H. Fleming, 1,001 for Chris Hoepner 
and 196for William L. Parmenter, for county judge; 
1,864 for A. E. Allyn, 1,049 for John Stevens, 219 
for Nettie Winter, candidates for superintendent of 
schools; Thomas E. Farrell was elected surveyor 
without opposition; F. L. Browne received 1,961, C. 
M. William, 944, and L. L. Ames, 248 for coroner. 

The supervisors elected were S. A. Sayre, of 
Kenesaw; S. G. Johnson, Verona; William B. 
Brown, Highland; A. F. Powers, West Blue; Fran- 
cis Phillipi, Wanda; James McKelvey and Ed Kroe- 
ger received 116 votes each in Juniata; W. H. 
Waldron, Denver; L. Hahn received 160; C. E. Ap- 
gar, 142; W. M. Breed, 139; W. M. Paine, 137, and 
Chris Hansen, 135 in Hastings City; D. B. Snod- 
grass, Blaine; H. P. Johnson, Cottonwood; T. W. 
Carter, Koseland; J. E. Woodworth, Ayr; Henry 
Stammer, Hanover; J. F. Fernon, Logan; B. F. 
Munson, Silver Lake; Adam Reeder, Zero; F. P. 
Harrison, Little Blue. 

The assessors elected in 1887, in the order of 
townships as given in list of supervisors, are named 

as follows: A. C. Moore, William Willers, M. Mc- 
Kinney, A. C. Tompkins, J. M. Sandford, John 
Burwell, F. M. White, W. W. Miles, S. M. Hoag- 
land, H. W. Crone, George E. Mizen, W. Houston, 
W. Binderup, E. S. Minnix, R. S. Spicknall, S. F. 
Reed, Griffith Evans. 

The justices of the peace elected in 1887, in the 
same order of townships were: J. G. Hayzlett, R. 
Bigelow, V. Kernon, A. F. Powers, M. McQuinlan, 
A. R. Palmer; H. H. Ballou and W. S. Miles re- 
ceived 67 votes each in Denver; D. M. McElHinney, 
J. Forner, G. J. Holman, M. J. Stoetzel, G. M. 
Bechtelheimer. L. Calhoun, James Cooper, H. J. 
Miller, W. W. PhiUeo, J. K. Deane; J. E. Pierce 
was chosen justice in the Second ward of Hastings; 
N. B. Vinyard and L. A. Royce received 307 votes 
each in the Third ward, and R. V. Shirley was chosen 
in the Fourth ward. 

The vote for presidential electors in 1888 was 
1,282 for C. W. Allen and four others; 1,029 for 
George H. Hastings and four others; 375 for 
James R. Carej' and four others, and 230 for C. W. 
Wheeler and four others. For Congress, James 
Laird received 1,800; William G. Hastings, 1,315; 
George Scott, 435, and R. H. Rohr, 211. For gov- 
ernor, John M. Thayer received 1,887; John A. 
McShane, 1,339; George E. Bigelow, 376, and 
David Butler, 209. For Senator, Frank D. Tag- 
gart received 1,529; W. A. Jones, 1,218; Samuel 
Alexander, 665, and Francis Phillips, 311. For 
representative Forty-fifth district, Fred P. Olmsted 
received 1,737; Herman D. Einspahr, 1,280; D. 
D. Norton, 406, and J. B. Koch, 268. For repre- 
sentative Fortj'-sixth district, Leopold Hahn, 1,708; 
Frank C. Buschow, 1,236; J. B. Elrod, 471, and 
J. F. Merrill, 289. For county attorney, John A. 
Casto received 1,889; George W. Tibbits, 1,296; 
John Snider, 372, and George Lynn, 235. 

The vote on the issue of bonds for the purpose 
of building a court-house and jail, and the levy of a 
tax to pay principal and interest of such bonds, was 
1,416 for, and 1,044 conti-a. Kenesaw gave 11; 
Highland, 10; West Blue, 22; Juniata, 5; Denver, 
14; Blaine, 20; Roseland, 8; Ayr, 6; Hanover, 8; 
Logan, 2; Zero, 9; Little Blue, 7, and Hastings, 
1,301 votes for the proposition. Kenesaw gave 


108; Verona, 66; Highland, 51; West Blue, 20; 
Wanda, 73; Juniata, 239; Denver, 35; Blaine, 12; 
Cottonwood, 69; Roseland, 94; Ayr, 73; Hanover, 
34; Logan, 54; Silver Lake, 33; Zero, 27; Little 
Blue, 49, and Hastings Citj-, 7 against the proposi- 

The supen'isors elected in 1888 were the fol- 
lowing : S. A. Saj-re, Kenesaw (161 votes cast); 
William Willars, Verona (122); M. McKenna, 
Highland (158); A. F. Powers, West Blue (142); 
Fred. Einspahr, Wanda (126); Ed. F. Gettle, Juni- 
ata (281); D. C. Kerr, Denver (140); D. B. Snod- 
grass, Blaine (123); C. R. Hohlfeld, Cottonwood 
(91); Charles Grebe, Roseland (122); W. C. Hodges, 
Ayr (168); John Clute, Hanover (122); J. F. 
Fernon, Logan (83); W. E. Huslin, Silver Lake 
(95); A. Reeder, Zero (91); T. T. Jones, Little 
Blue (114). Warren Letson, F. J. Benedict, 
James Strickland, D. W. Palmer, received the high- 
est number of votes in their respective wards of 

The assessors elected in 1888, in the order of 
townships, as observed in list of supervisors, were: 
J. Coulter, E. J. Hanchett, A. C. Tompkins, G. 
W. Wolcott, W. E. Shaver, C. E. Hill, S. M. Hoag- 
land, Mark Schroeder, W. E. Stoetzel, William 
Huston, W. Binderup, G. W. Maxwell, R. S. Spick- 
nail, J. W. Isaac, W. Washbourn and E. P. Nellis. 

The justices elected in 1888, for the respective 
townships, were: J. G. Hayzlett, H. J. Strait, L. 
Shepherd, E. Hemenover, Jacob J. Lauerman, D. 
R. Ball, J. R. Lefever (no election for this office 
reported in Blaine), Gaylord Wright, John Young, 
A. N. Hall (no election for this office in Hanover), 
D. F. Nicholas, Logan; R. N. Kinsey, Silver Lake; 
H. Weathwax, Zero (no election for this office in 
Little Blue); George W. Spicknall received a major- 
ity of votes in First ward, Robert Morledge in Second 
ward, and E. E. Sawyer in Fourth ward, of Hast^ 

The supervisors elected in 1889 were John L. 
Stoner (70),* Kenesaw; W. J. Willars (111), Ver- 
ona; M. McKenna (87), Highland; A. F. Powers 
(113), West Blue; H. Fred Einspahr (75), Wanda; 
Ed F. Gettle (245), Juniata; John T. Barr (113), 

* The vote given for the townships is the total vote. 

Denver; B. B. Snodgrass (76), Blaine; C. R. Hohl- 
feld (48), Cottonwood; J. P. Duncan (121), Rose- 
land; J. Hill (94), Ayr; John Gordon (100), Han- 
over; H. C. Minnix (79), Logan; W. P. Clawson 
(84), Silver Lake; Lester Warmuth (121), Zero; T. T. 
Jones (97), Little Blue. D. H. Ballard received 
818 votes; W. M. Vastine, 814; F. J. Benedict, 
811; D. M. McElHinney, 811; W. A. Dilworth, 801, 
R. V. Shockey, 803, and Ed Burton, 681. 

The assessors elected in 1889, in the order above 
given, are named as follows: A. C. Moore, E. J. 
Hanchett, J. C. Millikin, A. C. Topipkins, George 
W. Wolcott, W. E. Shaver, T. J. Taylor, S. M. 
Hoagland, George Slay, A. E. Stoetzel, M. N. Kress, 
J. Madson, G. W. Maxwell, R. S. Spicknall, W. 
Blumenthall, William Washbourne, and E. P. Nel- 
lis re-elected in Hastings. 

The justices of the peace elected in 1889 were 
W. E. Latta, B. F. Barr, A. R. Pearson, J. Wilson, 
J. J. Lauerman (0. R. Palmer and D. R. Ball re- 
ceived 149 votes each in Juniata), S. W. Niles, H. 

B. McGaw, C. Larson, T. W. Carter, W. S. Wil- 
loughby, G. CoUings, N. B. Clark, C. F. Orvis, W. 
W. Philleo; S. Bechtelheimer, in the townships. A. 

C. Moore (R. R. Morledge and N. S. Rohrer re- 
ceived each 201 votes), N. B. Vinyard and J. C. 
Williams received the majority votes in their respec- 
tive wards at Hastings. 

The township clerks elected in 1889 are P. E. 
Hatch, Kenesaw; Frank Sutter, Verona; Thomas 
Wynne, Highland; W. J. Huxtable, West Blue; 
Leo Portz, Wanda; F. E. Kelly, Juniata; William 
Brodley, Denver; F. V. Nash, Blaine; W. T. Car- 
son, Cottonwood; Charles Hohlfeld, Roseland; Dan 
Bitner, Ayr; J. M. Dean, Hanover; Eli Jenkins, 
Logan; Frank McDonald, Silver Lake; R. Ratcliff, 
Zero, and Griffith Evans, Little Blue. 

The township treasurers elected in 1889 were J. 

B. Cook, Kenesaw; D. R. Bigelow, Verona; Hei-man 
Bertert, Highland; H. M. Palmer, West Blue; Peter 

C. Einspahr, Wanda; Gilbert Faber, Juniata; S. A. 
Nash, Denver; John Forner, Blaine; C. B. Powers, 
Cottonwood; W. F. Duncan, Roseland; W. J. Clark, 
S. Bauder, W. E. Munson, Logan; H. M. MeClure, 
Silver Lake; Chris Kork, Zero, and B. K. West. 
Little Blue. 


The elections of Xovember, 1889, show 1,6G8 
votes for Nerval (R); 1.170 for Ames (D), and 221 
f(.r Wigton (P), candidates for supreme judge; 
],G91 for Laws (R), 1,151 for Casper (D), and 190 
for Bentley (P), candidates for Congress; 1,760 for C. 
H. Paul (R), 1,057 for Phillips (D), and 198 for 
Waldron (P), candidates for county treasurer; 1,756 
for Patiidge (R), 1,088 for Breed (D), and 196 for 
Hoagland (P), candidates for county clerk; 1,641 
for Wilson (R); 1,207 for Brown (D), and 204 for 
Norton (P), candidates for recorder; 1,687 for 
Cramer (R); 1,159 for Kelly (D) and 191 for Aim- 
strong (P), candidates for sheriff; 1,759 for Burton 
(R), 1,117 for Lynn (D), and 164 for Hewitt (P), 
candidates for county judge; 1,860 for Bette3's (R), 
and 298 for Jones (P), candidates for superintendent 
of schools; 1,738 for Irwin (R), 1,111 for Mc- 
Kenney (D), and 219 for Putt (P), candidates for 
office of coroner; 1,758 for Woodward (R), and 197 
for Orvis (P), candidates for survej-or. 

The pioneer journal of Adams County was the 
Gazette, issued at Juniata in 1872. It was estab- 
lished solely to defend the old county seat against 
all assailants, and to cry down all opposition to the 
little village of the prairie. In 1873 the Journal 
was founded at Hastings. It was superior to the 
Gazette as a local newspaper; but, like the pioneer 
paper, defended its new town of Hastings against 
all the assaults of the press and people of Juniata. 
In 1876 the Times was issued at Kenesaw and there 
were three Richmonds in the field. As newspapers 
the publishers overlooked thousands of interesting 
incidents, while singing the praises of their respect- 
ive districts. They were expert songsters, each 
liaving his own scale. Thej- never sung in harmony. 
After the second paper was established the county 
seat war was begun, and the third paper presented 
itself in time to act the part of home guard. A few 
years later the Bohemians, with all their faults and 
their many virtues, came, and the little newspaper 
world of Adams County extended its dominion. 
The adopted sons of Bohemia, following fancy's 
bright stream, ignoring the honors of thrift and 
trade, condemning the iced charity given in the 
name of a business-like statistical God, helping a 
liiother in want, and always hoping to live and die 

in Bohemia, came hither to preach their theories. 
Some of them failed in the Bohemian land, some 
prospered and are here to-day. The Gazette deserted 
the waning cause of Juniata, and the Times came 
all the way from distant Kenesaw. The latter was 
merged into the Nebraskan and the former into the 

The consolidation of the warring journals was 
effected in January, 1880, by A. L. and J. W. Wig- 
ton, who conducted the Gazette- Journal until the 
organization of the stock company in the fall of 
1882, when work on a new office building was com- 
menced. In the spring of 1883 the building was 
completed and taken possession of, and in August 
of that year the Daily Gazette-Journal was issued. 
The Gazette-Journal Publishing Company was re-or- 
ganized in September, 1885, with E. C. Webster, 
president; J. V. Heartwell, vice-president; C. P. 
Webster, treasurer; Samuel Alexander, secretary, 
and J. 0. Fisher, manager. A. L. Wigton con- 
tinued on the directors' board, and C. F. Royce, edi- 
tor. The office was improved in many departments, 
new type, presses and bindery machinerj' introduced, 
and the stock of paper and printing material in- 
creased. In October the Daily Gazette-Journal was 
enlarged to a twenty-eight column paper, and a reg- 
ular system of delivery adopted. 

In 1886 an addition of forty-four feet was made 
to the building of 1882-83, and the present arrange- 
ment of departments adopted by J. 0. Fisher, the 

C. F. Royce came to Hastings from Iowa in 
1878. He purchased the Sunday Gazette-Journal 
in 1889, and is still managing editor of that paper. 

Miles K. Lewis, born in Genesee County, N. Y. , 
in 1825, located 400 acres of land near Hastings in 
1873, and the same year entered the field of journal- 
ism with A. L. Wigton in the publication of the 
Journal. Early in 1875 he determined to give at 
tention to his lands, but in 1878 returned to the city 
and established the Lewis Patent Grain Header fac- 
tory. A reference to the several chapters on Adams 
County history will give the details of Mr. Lewis' 
connection with this section of the State. On July 
30, 1874, R. A. Dague issued his greeting as part 
ner of Mr. Wigton in the publication of the Journal, 


the latter being alone in the management since Feb- 
ruary 2G, 1874. Later that year John and Emma 
Leonard, employes of the ofHce since its beginning, 
left for Texas. On January 7, 1875, Mr. Wigton 
sold his half interest to Dague, but on October 14, 
1875, tlie pioneer editor resumed sole ownership, 
when W. F. J. Comly was appointed associate editor. 

During the year 1875 the county seat war was 
confined for a time to the pages of this Journal and 
the Gazette. 

The destruction of the Gazette office and contents 
occuiTed July 29, 1889. Insurance on building and 
stock, although heavy, did not cover the total loss. 
Owing to the efficiency of the fire department the 
Oliver building was saved, although at one time in 
possession of the fire fiend. 

The Central Nebraskan was issued February 8, 
1878, by A. D. Williams and M. J. Abbott. In 
their salutatory they speak of the success which at- 
tended the Kenesaw Times during its existence for 
the eighteen months prior to February 8, 1878, when 
the Nebraskan succeeded it. The publishers further 
state: "The Times was a sort of by-play with us. 
We expect to give more time and energy to the Ne- 
braskan. * * * It will be Republican in pol- 
itics. * * * ■^'e desire both specie payment 
and the remonetizing of silver; not because we 
deem either gold or silver a desirable currency, but 
for the purpose of making the greenback equal to 
the gold dollar or any other." Some days after 
Abbott called on ]Mr. Clarke at the bank for pro- 
ceeds of note left for collection, and was handed 
seventy-five silver dollars. He scratched his head a 
little, but without further comment took away the 
load of metal. In March, 1878, A. D. Williams' 
name appears as sole owner, and on November 8, 
I. D. Evans became associated with him. With 
No. 1 of Volume II of the Central Nebraskan, Feb- 
ruar}' 4, 1879, was ushered in the era of semi- weekly 
journals here. 

No. 1, Vol. I, Daily Nebraskan, was issued May 
3, 1880, by A. D. Williams, who in his salutatory 
says: "Well! here we are — the Hastings Daily 
Nebraskan — and with associated press dispatches 
several hours ahead of any other source. AiTange- 
ments have been made by which we shall, in any 

event, run the Daily during the presidential cam- 
paign. It is for the citizens, and especially the bus- 
iness men of Hastings, to say whether it shall con- 
tinue as a permanent institution of the city. This 
arrangement will do away with the semi-weekly 
edition, and the weekly will assume its old quarto or 
double foi-m." 

The salutator}' of A. T. Bratton, as publisher of 
the Nebraskan (weekly), appeared June 21, 1883. 
In this he says: "Politically we have always lent 
allegiance to the Republican party. * * * Our 
doctrine is ' live and let live. ' There are substantial 
rights which labor is demanding, and which, when 
properly formulated and understood, must and will 
be recognized, simply because they are founded in 
eternal justice. " In this issue the verdict of guilty, 
returned bj- the jury in the trial of William B. 
Thorne, for embezzling $22,000, is given. In the 
local columns is a report of the first annual literarj' 
entertainment by the students of Hastings' College, 
and a programme of the Fourth of July festivities 
at Ayi-. 

The Adams County Democrat was issued July 
10, 1880, by Richard Thompson, who in his salu- 
tatory says: " The question of establishing a Demo- 
cratic newspaper in Adams County is a question that 
has been agitated for some time. The enterprise in 
all its bearings has been thoroughlj- discussed. The 
question as to whether there was a dejnand for such 
a paper, and whether it would pay, were the princi- 
pal points. These having been settled the Demo- 
crat makes its appearance as a Democratic journal. 
Its mission is not to pull down and destroj', but to 
build up — to represent the real interests of the party 
and this great country." The Wahlquist Brothers 
(R. B. and G. L.) are the present owners of this 
journal. Mr. Le Doiyt, for many years connected 
with the press, and one of the old settlers of Hast> 
ings, is a member of the staff of the Democrat. 

The Nebraska Volksfreund dates back to 1883. 
On April 13, 1886, the office was purchased by 
William Breed, who settled at Hastings in 1874, and 
in November, 1889, by P. N. Carson, who issued No. 
26 of Vol. VII. December 19, 1889. At the close 
of January, 1890, this journal suspended publica- 

-® V 


The Hastings College Review for December, 
1883, was edited by F. R. Dungan, assisted by Prof. 
G. E. Wliite, J. H. H. Hewitt, A. D. Raney, Alice 
Yocum, 0. A. Farnham, T. J. MeCully and G. A. 
Bii-dsall. Bliss Ada F. Nowlan contributed a paper 
on Beethoven. 

The Yidette is the college journal of the students. 
It was first issued in 1885. 

The Hastings Independent was issued July 3, 
1886, by Frank Taggart, manager, and Isaac Le 
Doiyt, editor. In the salutatory the editor says: 
"The Independent comes before you as an inde- 
pendent family newspaper. Politically we shall hold 
that measures are above men, and shall support such 
men only as we think will best subserve the com- 
mon good. On March 12, 1887, the office was pur- 
chased b^^ A. L. Wigton and A. H. Brown, and 
this journal entered the Republican ranks. 

The Nebraska Newspaper Union was established 
at Hastings in March, 1888, with the view of sujj- 
plying to the local press ready printed matter or 
whole editions of weekly newspapers. Beyond the 
organization little was accomplished, although the 
field is here and Hastings has railroad communica- 
tion with it in all its parts. 

The Hastings Republican was issued January 12, 
1889, by C. L. and F. A. Watkins. In their salu- 
tatory they outline their politics in the following 
paragraph: ' ' The Hastings Republican as a name 
mirrors a true image of the political features of this 
journal. The Republican expects to have the cour- 
age of its convictions. When an opinion is ui'ged 
by the stress of demand it will be given without 
fear or favor, but given with due defference to the 
honest judgment and motives of its readers. " This 
modest little paragraph was well received and the 
Republican won its way into tavor. The issue aver- 
ages about 1,200 weekly. The whole paper is 
printed at Hastings. 

Hastings Tribune, No. 1 , Vol. I. , was issued 
November 16, 1889, by R. Thompson, who estab- 
lished the Democrat in 1880, and Allen P. Brown, 
of Clay County. Within a month the Tribune 
established itself as a journal full of news, and one 
capable of drawing a very fine line between the 
sacred and profane. The Christmas of 1889 ap- 

pears to have made a favorable impression on 
Brother Dick, for, on December 27, he makes on his 
editorial page, the following modest proposition: 
' ' The Tribune office is greatly in need of a popular 
book, written bj' several well-known authors. The 
work is one of mutual interest and has been read, 
more or less, by thousands of people. It is famil- 
iarly known as the Bible, or word of God. We 
were, at one time, the owner of this valuable work, 
but it was pilfered by some unknown wretch. To 
an}' one who will kindly furnish us with a volume 
of this valuable work we will send them a copy of 
this great moral and familj^ newspaper. This prop- 
osition will be open until January first only. An 
illustrated edition preferred ! " 

The Daily Press was issued November 21:, 1889, 
by the Press Publishing Company — J. AY. Kinsella, 
president and manager; W. B. Palmer, secretary 
and treasurer, and Walt Mason, editor. 

The Press was a most aggressive morning jour- 
nal and made enemies daily. The old Nebraskan 
was even driven to oppose it determinedly;, so that, 
notwithstanding its newsy character, it had to col- 
lapse, the last copy being issued December 12, 1889. 

The Trade Book, a periodical devoted to the in- 
terests of real estate agents and property owners, is 
issued by F. E. Garratt in January, April, July and 
October each year, No. 29 being issued in October. 

In January, 1890, a report was cun-ent that a 
new weekly journal was to be established in the 
interest of the Union Labor movement. 

The Adams County Gazette made its appearance 
at Juniata, in January, 1872, by C. C. and R. I). 
Babcock. In 1876 the office was removed to Hast- 
ings. In November, 1880, Charles Kelley and J. 
W. Short purchased the office, and thej-, in Decem- 
ber of that 3'ear, sold to W. L. Wigton & Brother, 
who consolidated it with the Journal under the 
name Gazette-Journal. During its career of four 
years at Juniata it espoused the claims of that town 
against all opposition, but deserted when the enemj- 
attacked in force, and moved into their headquarters. 

R. D. Babcock, born in Moni-oe County, Mich., 
in 1846, served from 1863 to 1865 with the Eleventh 
Michigan Cavalry and Sixth United States Colored 
Cavalry, and, in 1871, settled in Juniata precinct, 


where he entered a quarter-section. In December 
he was elected county clerk, studied law, and was 
admitted to the bar in July, 1876. In January, 
1872, he and C. C. Babcock established the Adams 
County Gazette, which they continued to publish at 
Juniata until the fall of 1876, when the office was 
moved to Hastings. On Mr. Babcock's removal to 
Hastings he resumed the practice of law, making 
land laws a specialty. 

The Juniata Herald was issued October 25, 
1876, by the Citizens Company, with A. H. Brown, 
editor. The office was sold to G. S. Guild, Septem- 
ber 15, 1877. William Knickerbocker purchased the 
office July 23, 1880. He was followed by J. W. 
Liveringhouse and F. W. Francis. On the latter's 
death in March, 1884, I. H. Rickel, the present 
publisher, purchased the paper. 

The Ayr Times was established January 14, 
1882, by C. L., G. M., and F. A. Watkins. 

A. H. Brown, who in 1868 established the 
People's Journal at Vinton, Iowa, settled in Juniata 
precinct, August 16, 1872, where he resided on his 
160-acre homestead for a year, when he was elected 
county superintendent of schools. From 1873 to 

1876 he was editor of the Gazette, and when the 
Hei'ald was established by the citizens, in the fall of 
1876, he was appointed editor. 

The Kenesaw Times was founded June 8, 1876, 
by A. D. Williams, and continued publication there 
until 1878, when it was merged into the Central Ne- 
braskan of Hastings. It appears, however, that a 
second paper of the same name was established in 

The Holstein Record was issued April 13, 1889, 
by the Holstein Publishing Company. This journal 
is devoted to the interests of the village and neigh- 
borhood and is considered a good advertising medium 
for the locality. 

The Holstein Nonpareil is the name of a little 
paper started in January, 1890, at the place named. 
W. T. Carson is the manager. 

The third newspaper office ever built in Adams 
County, the Central Nebraskan,in 1877-78, on Third 
Street, was torn down in May, 1885, to make wayfor 
the new block at the corner of that street and Lincoln 
Avenue. The first printing office was erected for the 
Juniata Gazette in 1872, and the third for the Hast- 
tings Journal in 1873. 



Military History — Sttrvivors of the Civil War — Roster 
Hansen Post — Kenesaw Post — Company F — Assoc 

Soldiers — Strickland Post — JirinATA Post- 
noxs AND Societies^Reunions, Etc. 

The mighty rivals, whose destructive rage 
Did the whole world in civil arms engage. 
Are now agreed. — Roscommon. 

HILE the Rebellion occu- 
pied the attention of a 
number o f t h e present 
citizens of Adams Coun- 
ty, none of its native 
white residents have been 
K'^lf"^'^***^ ' engaged in warfare. Dur- 

ing the terrible years of civil strife only 
two settlers were within its boundaries 
and the date of their location was then 
recent. Again, the tide of Civil War 
ebbed and flowed far away from this 
prairie land, so it may be truly said of 
Adams County that it was outside the 
war belt, for the reason that there was 
nothing here to antagonize. The Sioux 
in their attack on the California Trail carried their 
war to the very lines of the county, south and 
east, destroying the property of the settlers, kill- 
ing some and carrying others to a captivity far 
worse than death. A few years more and the 
county is filled with veterans of the greatest war 
known in history. Round the summer camps of the 
pioneers, stories of Gettj'sburg, South Mountain, 
Shiloh, the march to the sea. Wilderness, Pea Ridge, 
Vicksburg and a hundred other well-fought fields are 
told; but there is no war. The soldiers have laid 
aside the rifle and sword and taken up the plow-share. 
They are the harbingers of peace — the pioneers of 
progress. The story of the war has been told in 

thousands of volumes and in tens of thousands of 
written reminiscences. The results of that war are 
accepted forever. Here may be given the names of 
participants in the struggle for preserving the Union, 
only so far as local records permit. It is a list of sol- 
diers associated together in the ranks of the Grand 
Armj' of the Republic. A few decades and such 
names will be searched for in vain, like those of the 
Revolution and other wars marking the first ceutuiy 
of tlie Republic. 

The question of organizing a post of the G. A. 
R. was considered at a soldiers' meeting held at Mil- 
lett's Hall, April 18, 1878. C. H. Paul presided, 
with E. Steinau, secretary; a committee, comprising 
J. N. Lyman, F. S. Wells and the officers named, 
was appointed to obtain a charter. The charter was 
duly granted, and on May 13, 1878, Strickland Post 
No. 19 was organized with T. D. Scofield, com- 
mander; C. H. Paul, S. V. C. ; W. H. Brown, J. 
V. C. ; J. N. Lyman, Q. M.; A. H. Sowers, surgeon; 
F. S. Wells, chaplain; L. C. Palmer, adjutant; 
John D. Crane, S. M.; E. Steinau, Q. M. S. 

Post No. 13, G. A. R , met October 5, 1880, for 
re-organization. A. C. Yocum was elected P. C. ; 
A. H. Bowen, S. V. C. ; James Walling, J. V. C; 
A. H. Sowers, surgeon; W. H. Stock, Q. M. ; L. B. 
Palmer, adjutant; George F. Work, chaplain; A. 
Poole, 0. G. ; W. W. Dungan, 0. D. ; R. R. Mor- 
ledge, Q. M. S. ; A. S. Hill, S. M., and A. L. Wig- 
ton, A. A. M. 0. , and four unofficial members. 









The roster of the post is as follows, the eighteen 
first named being charter members; 

L. S. Gould, 73d 111. Inf. 
W. H. Colton, 45th III. Inf. 
I. W. Cramer, 30th Wis. Inf. 

Charles Dominic, 20th Pa. 

U. K. Brown, 53d Pa. Inf. 

S. Alexander, 1st Neb. Inf. 

James T. Farrer, 10th la. 

Hart Livingstone, 99th Ind. 

H. M. Carpenter, 15th Mass. 

A. L. Wigton, 88tli 0. Inf. 




W. W. Dungan, 5th la. Inf. 

Isaac A. Hall, 101st N. Y. 

J. Hodges, 14th 0. Inf. 

Joseph A.Palmer, 54th Mass. 

Geo. F. Work, 5th la. Inf. 


F. C. Mastin, 153d 111. Inf. 


E. M. Abbott, 84th 111. Inf. 

Henry Jewett, 47th 111. Inf. 

Geo. M. Rogers, 18th Wis. 

West Montgomery, 1st Neb. 

A. D. Yocum, 17th O. Inf. 

H. E. Houghtaling, 10th 



Geo. Miller, 15th U. S. Inf. 

Wis. Inf. 

Fred Rinker, 64th 111. Inf. 

J. O. Beebe, 1st R. I. L. A. 

J. D. Crane, 5th N. Y. Art. 

James Ross, 2d la. Inf. 

F. S. Browning, 1st III. Art. 

H. S. Rogers, 14th la. Inf. 

L-B. Palmer, 62d 111. Inf. 

Alfred Martinis, 202d Pa. 

L. H. Tate, 8th Mass. Art. 

John D. Hayes,Berdine's S. 

A. F. Benjamin, 157th N. Y. 


Jonathan Carter, 17th Mich. 



Wm. -Monroe, 13th Wis.Inf. 


J. J. Buchanan, 3d Mo. Cav. 

W. S. Martin, 83d O. Inf. 

W. R. Saine, 17th O. Inf. 

J. B. McCleary, 1st Col. Cav. 

John Stabler. 

Alex. Rogers, 54th III. Inf. 

D. H. Holmes, Merrill's Horse 

W. C. Ridley, 118th 0. Inf. 

Sames K. Sample. 

A. H. Sowers. 14th 0. Inf. 

H. Bromley, 92d N. Y. Inf. 

.L-Jicholas Corbin, 7th Mo. 

IsaactE. Dorsey, 30th 0. Inf. 

David Koch, 23d Mo. Inf. 

H. G. Wetherill, 96th N. Y. 


Albert S. Pierce, 17th V. R. 

J. N. Lvman. 


N. A. Nash, 42d Wis. Inf. 


J. F. Heiler. ^ III. Inf. 

H. G. Nights. 36th la. Inf. 

G. A. Whitman, 72d 111. Inf. 

S. H. Snively, 1st Pa. Cav. 

J. F. K.KS. V. S. Xavv. 

1). li. Wilt. 46th Ind. Inf. 

P. AUender, 58th 111. Inf. 

A. C. M,.<,iv. .Mil la. Inf. 

F. S. \\"cll>. I'. S. Xaw. 

(n.,,. II. Ilurd, 37th 111. Inf. 

C. M. MiUett, 65th N. Y. 

.1. H. Kiiiu'lil. :id Ind Cav. 

T. 1). Srnli,'l,l, VTth M.S. S. 

.1. \\-. Cn„lter. 33d 111. Inf. 


H. C. Mills. l(i:.M HI. Inf.' 

C. 1.. Stun'r.Chiras.^M. JJat. 

W. 11. .Scott, 60th 0. Inf. 

G. W. Dade, 19th Mass. Inf. 

Seth Lewis, GthN. Y. H.D. 

H. .sii,.,M. 11 Till N. Y. Inf. 

W. A. Smith, 16th Ky. Inf. 

C. H. Hurd, 2d Pa. Inf. 

Joseph Marion, 46th III. Inf. 

A. I'nolr, nth Wis. Vol. 

S. B. Whitman, 2d U. S. S. 

Henry Van Fleet, 27th Mich. 

N. R. Burton. 

Jainrs Walliiii;, 149th N. Y. 

J. D. Van Houten, 5th 111. 


A. Benedict, 65th 111. Inf. 



James Corliss, 42d Mo. Inf. 

James Meadows, 51st Mo. 

J. Wooster, 36th O. Inf. 

W. H. Marshall, 140th 111. 

F. L. Stock, 142d 111. Inf. 


H. B. Tanner, 17th Mo. Inf. 


C. B. Nelson, 1st N. Y. Eng. 

B. F. Ranall, 8th Minn. Inf. 

Henry Williams, 78th N. Y. 

J. R. Sims, 203d Pa. Inf. 

Geo. V. Cope, 10th Mich. 

G. S. Morgan. 2d Ky. Cav. 


Samuel Long, 20th Wis. Inf. 


Geo. N.Waller, (ilst III. Inf. 

H.A. Forcht.Merrill's Horse. 

Peter Zobel, 32d Ind. Inf. 

D. M. Leland, 24th la. Inf. 

James E. l!,i,(c.67tli O. Inf. 

J. E. Hutchinson, 4th la. 

John R. Winter, 186th O. 

T. F. Pearl, 21st N. Y. Cav. 

Alfred Bursrc 42,1 111. Inf. 



George P. Alford, 27th 0. 

Geo. Stratton. M N. Y. Inf. 

W. H. Stock, 17th 111. Cav. 

J. 0. Garmon, 19th Mich. 


Josiah Lee, 40th la. Inf. 

R. R. Morledge, 4th la. Inf. 


Myron Van Fleet, 30th Mich. 

Jacob B. Boyer,84th 111. Inf. 

A. H. Bowen. 4th Mich. Inf. 

J. P. Sackrison, 40th Ill.Inf. 


Frank Kearney,106th N. Y. 

A. S. Hill. 3d Wis. Inf. 

A. A. Adams, 22d V. R. C. 

Byron S. Morrell, 64th N. Y. 


Carl Clark', slid m. Inf. 

Milton C. Ross, 3d la. Inf. 


F. M. Hickok, nth la. Inf. 

E. 11. Ilaiilrit. 1-t la. Cav. 

S. C. Dilley, U. S. Art. 

Thomas F. Coy, 26th Ky. Inf. 

James Gibson, Art. 

J. T. i; ml, liid. Inf. 

GrifiSn Yeatman, 1st Del. 

Wm. Hoiloks, 20th Wis. Inf. 

Jesse Doty, 54th O. Inf. 

W. H. H. Coulter. «lli Mo. 


Edwin Burroughs, 42d 111. 

Calvin Sowers, 6th O. Inf. 


Richard Conquest, 1st Col. 


Frank Hartman. 1st III Art. 

J. Stebbler. 


C. J. Delnitt, 35th III. Inf. 

Chas. Nute, 2d D. C. Inf. 

N. C. Barlow. 95th 111. Inf. 

Wm. H. Reed, 30th 111. Inf. 

M. H. Batty. 3d N. Y. H.A. 

W. H. Chadwick,20th Mich. 

A.G. Willis.s.-'d la. Cav. 

A. M. Eager, 124th N. Y. 

M. W. Peters, 1st Wis. Inf. 


C. L. Kinkaid. 1st la. Cav. 


Fred Stoelting, 20th Wis. 

C. B. Kemple, 86th 111. Inf. 

J. R. Hui-sh. 195th Pa. Inf. 

B. F. Noll, 20th 111. Inf. 


C. W. DeRocher,3d Me. Inf. 

S. Khinhanlt, :,'d Mich. Inf. 

Peter Newoomb, 129th Ind. 

O. B. Hewett, 2d Neb. Cav. 

W. S. Reeser, 151st O. Inf. 

H. B. McGaw, 97th 0. Inf. 


J. J. Bassett, 160th N. Y. 

W. C. Beale, 9th N. Y. Inf. 

A. J. Millet, 13th la. Inf. 

Anson Forbes, 1st Mich. 


G. W. Spay, 38th 111. Inf. 

Wm. Callahan. 28th Pa. Inf. 


Wm. Croft, 6th Mich Inf. 

Geo. R. Wolf, 175th O. Inf. 

John M. Boyd, 61st Pa. Inf. 

F. M. Alexander, 26th Ind. 

Nick Zinner, 36lh 111. Inf. 

W. H. Akenum, 186th N. Y. 

Chas. H. Paul. 


John Yeager. 12th 111. Inf. 

L. C. Shields. 2d Kan. Inf. 

F. M. Clark, 8th O. Inf. 

A. H. Brown, 13th la. Inf. 

H. L. Grisell. 75th Ind. Inf. 

H. E. W. Deremus, 2d Col. 

W. C. Beal, 9th Mich. Inf. 

Wm. Worline. 

J. H. Darnell, 48th 111. Inf. 


J. A. Snyder, 7th Wis. Inf. 

James Steffins, 15th Hl.Inf. 

L. U. Albershardt, 72d O. 

J. W. Forbs, 142d III. In.f 

S. H. Henderson, 24th la. 

Lewis D. Reynolds. 


James Milman,5th Wis. Inf. 


Henry P. Klinger, 47th 111. 

John Weytman. 13th Kan. 

James T. Johnson, 17th III. 

C. B. Sperry, 4th Wis. Art. 




J. L. Cliiic. .Ml, Pa. TI. A. 

Robt. B. Williams. 

T. J. Dowd, 3d Wis. Inf. 

James T. Reuther, 8th 111. 

Jos. S. L!,ii.l. Kill, Mirh.Inf. 

Frank Dalbry, 2d O. Inf. 

D. S. Wilkinson, 7th Wis. Inf. 


J. P. Hoau'la,),!. i:;.',l I'a. Inf. 

J. T. Briggs, 77th III. Inf. 

G. E. Douglass, 157th N. Y. 

Oliver Wright, 106th N. Y. 

R. D. P,al.r,,rk. nth Mich. 

W. H GrifBth, 1st Mich. 

Stephen Mason, 104th 111. 

John G. BurgerofF, 49th 111. 



A list of soldiers buried in Hastings Cemetery, given 




in the record of this post, is as follows: G. W. Howe. 


Edward Orton, 7th 111. Inf. 

Wm. C. Hodges, 41st 0. Inf. 

Col. Burke, Otto Arnoux, — Keating, Levi W. Miller,— 

-^ . 





Riggs, — Alexander, Stephen Carson, C. M. Millet, N. A. 
Xash, J. W. Hansel. James McCleary, James Riley, J. H. 
Sicptt. iVug. Poole, Capt. Wicks, George Brennan. — 
I'uhnrr. — Cope, ^ Pearson, Joseph Howe and Willis 

In January, 1888, James Gibson was adjutant 
and W. R. Burton, commander. In December of 
that year H. G. Knight was elected commander; H. 
M. Carpenter, S. V. C. ; Franlc Kearney, J. V. C. ; 
Jacob Wooster, Q. M. ; I. W. Cramer, 0. of D. ; 
liyrcm S. Morrell, surgeon; ^Y. S. Beale, I. G. ; S. 
11. Snively, 0. G.; T. F. Pearl and J. R. Hursh, 
delegates, with J. L. Kline and J. E. Bruce, alter- 
nates; John Winters, 0. of G. Byron S. Morrell 
was subsequently appointed adjutant, and Dr. Pierce 
appointed surgeon to fill vacancy; J. R. Wright, 
chaplain; George Stratton, S. M. ; J. M. Boyd, Q. 
M. S., and W. C. Beale, sentinel, 

The following officers were elected in December, 
1889: A. H. Brown, B. S. Morrell, G. M. Rogers, 
AV. R. Burton, D. M. Leland, F. M. Alexander, Mr. 
Snively, J. M. Boyd, Mr. Beal, John Winter, T. F. 
Pearl and J. R. Hursh, delegates, and A. C. Moore 
and I. W. Cramer, alternates. George Stratton was 
appointed adjutant. 

. Strickland Post elected A. Poole, captain; I. W^. 
Cramer, first and J. Hursh, second lieutenant of the 
drill company of twentj'-four, who proposed to com- 
pete for the prize tent offered by the department. 

Juniata Post of the G. A. R. was instituted Oc- 
tober 24, 1881, under the title of Geary Post No. 82, 
with B. F. Smith, commander; S. L. Salsbury, &■. 
V. C; A. H. Brown, J. Y. C. ; J. W. Livering- 
house, adjutant; G. T. Brown, Q. M. ; 0. Steever, 
surgeon; W. Spade, chaplain; A. V. Cole, 0. of D.; 
H. H. Ballon, 0. of G. ; G. S. Guild, S. M. , and 
M. Yan Buskirk, Q. M. S. Philip Hoover, R. H. 
Nolan, S. J. Shirley, S. L. Brass, G. Avery, F. M. 
Thompson, B. W. Hammond, G. T. Brown, W. 
Twidale and James Newell unofficial members. 
The position of commander has been filled by the 
following named members: B. F. Smith, A. V. 
Cole, S. L. Brass, James Newell, J. Burwell, 0. 
Steever, James L. Kelvej' and I. R. Ball. S. L. 
Brass is the present adjutant. 

The roll of members comprises the following 
names : 

B. F. Smith, 1st Mich. S. S. 
A. H. Brown, 13th O. Inf. 
O. Stevcis. iMlth N. Y. Inf. 
G. S. Giiil.l. .Mass. Inf. 
Wm. S],n,\r. 1471 li Pa. Inf. 
S. L. Salisbury, 1.3<Jth Pa. 

A. V. Cole, 4th Mich. Inf. 
P. Hoover, 104th O. Inf. 

H. H. Ballon, 13th Vt. Inf. 
S. L. Brass, 1st Mich. Cav. 
R. H. Nolan, U. S. Navy. 
S. J. Shirley, 83d 111. Inf. 
G. Avery, 23d Mich. Inf. 

F. M. Thompson, 6th P. R. 

V. C. 

B. W. Hammond. 

M. Van Buskirk,109th N. Y. 

Wm. Twidale, 9th Mich. 


G. T. Brown, 47th la. Inf. 
J. W. Liveringhouse, 30th 

Ind. Inf. 
J. Newell, 30th Ind. Inf. 
D. H. Freeman, 13th Mich. 

J. Burwell, 14th O. Inf. 
M. K. Hutchinson, 47th O. 

R. S. Langley, 132d 111. 

*G. G. Vreeland, 3Gth 111. 


A. Borden. 

H. Schick. 3d Pa. Art. 

John S. Price. 

James McKelvey, 16th N. 

Y. Inf. 
G. P. Alford. 
Jacob Swift, N. Y. Inf. 
Alvin Wells, 1st Mich. Cav. 

C. H. Chapman, 18th Mich. 

W. P. Davis, 111. Inf. 
Henry Vinear, 12th Md. 

G. S. Dwight. 

D. Morgan, 13th Wis. Inf. 
Gottleib Laher, 68th O. Inf. 
O. A. Buzzell, 33d Mass. 
fJohn Young, Mexican War. 
John E. Adams, 30th Ind. 


E. J. Hanchett. N. Y. Cav. 
James Beach. :.'(! Mirh. Art. 
C. F. Orvis, 14.-.tli 111. Inf. 
N. L. Brass. 1st .Mi.h. ( av. 
Amos Wilson, 36tli O. Cav. 
Alex. Rogers, 1st and 54th 

111. Cav. 

B. E. Swift, 117th N. Y. 

Adam Land, 123d 111. Cav. 
H. E. Drake, 30th Ind. Cav. 

Benj. Davis, 38th la. Cav. 
J. G. Mahler, 20th Ind. Cav. 
Jacob Silvers, loth U. S. 

James M. Miller, 1st Ind. 

P. Kieser, 34th Ind. Inf. 
Nick Gordon, 2d la. Inf. 
Wilson S. Richards, 68th O. 


0. F. Foote, 7th Pa. Cav. 
Jacob Hammer, 47th Ind. 

W. F. Kellar. 

1. Vanderwort, 140th 111. 

D. R. Ball, 46th Ind. Inf. 
Jacob Morgan, 31st O. Inf. 
Richard Van Buskirk, 21st 

N. J. Inf. 
Peter Anderson, 2d U. S. 

Henry Winkley, 37th Wis. 

Riley D. Burton, 67th Ind. 

Joseph Lilly, 172d Pa. Inf. 
Simeon Johnson, 14th Pa. 

Lewis Alvcrs, 58th 111. Inf. 
Joseph Basey, 1st 0. H. Art. 
B. F. P.aker. 
Alisal.uii o. Overman, 95th 

liHl. inr. 
Win. Martin. s3(l 0. Inf. 
J.Iniin F. .M.rrill. 
Charles Collins, 7th Mo. Inf. 
James McFerren, 21st Pa. 

Darius C. Kerr, 14th Ind. 

Wm. Champlin, 1st Jlich. 

W. J. Barger, 15th la. Inf. 
Geo. Mizen, Sr., 42d Wis. 

Samuel W^right, 5th Mass. 

Jesse Millikar, 139th Ind. 



Norman G. Gibson, 29th 

Ind. Inf. 
D. V. Stevens, 118th Ind. 

W. B. Hamilton, 53d 111. 

N. H. Kathorn, 12th 111. 

Henry Jewett, 47th 111. Inf. 

*A11 the above named nii 
tMustered in I8S2. 
Clustered in 1883. 

red in October 24, 1881. 


Samuel Nicholas, 18th 111. 

D. M. Criswold, 129th 111. 

James Powell. 87th Ind. Inf. 
Al. M. Clay, 97th Ind Inf. 
C. B. Booth, 7th Ind. Inf. 
Logan Sarrison, 17th Ind. 

Edward Morgan, 1st Ill.Cav. 
David Bruckman, 99th Ind. 

J. S. Robesy, 1st Md. Cav. 
N. K. Metser, 9th Wis. Inf. 
Peter Griffith, 102d 111. Inf. 
Samuel P. Howland, 4th 

Mich. Inf. 
John W. McCracken, 38th 

Wis. Inf. 
W. S. Webster. 8th Mich. 

Sanford Webster, 2d Minn. 


John R. VanHouten, 151st 

111. Inf. 
John Konkright, 155th Ind. 

Calvin Ball, 26th Ind. Inf. 
John D. Ball, 2d Mo. Cav. 
Geo. S. Parks, 26th 111. Inf. 
Chas. S. James, 27th Mich. 

W. D. Burroughs, 9th Mich. 

L. D. Sergeant, 32d Wis. 

T. M. Battrell, 26th 111. Inf. 
Jacob H. Gates, 40th Wis. 

Lafayette L. Anger, 1st N. 

R. J. Worthington, 13th 

Mich. Inf. 
Henry W. Crone, 13th Ind. 

O. E. Woods, 21st N. Y. Cav. 

One hundred and twenty-three members have been 
enrolled, and of this total Amos Wilson, C. S. Jones and 
Moses Van Buskirk are the only members who died since 
organization. Other soldiers buried in the cemetery 
were named: G. G. Holzworth, E. Shaw, Findley, 
Dwight, Liudsey and a veteran of the Mexican War. 

On May 21, 1880, Company K, now F, was re- 
organized and the following officers were elected: 
A. V. Cole, captain; S. J. Shirle}*, first lieutenant; 
E. L. Button, second lieutenant. The members 
presented a list of names for non-commissioned offi- 
cers , from which Capt. Cole selected the following: 
Sergeants, William Spade, James Kent, M. K. 
Hutchinson, Josiah Hodges and George Watkins; 
corporals, F. C. Brosins, D. Conger, P. Nash, R. 
Crawford, George Mizen, 0. Button, W. Babcock 
and W. Winter. 

In 1882 the company was represented in the 
State encampment at Omaha by the following named 
members: A. V. Cole, E. L. Button, J. M. Kent, 
M. K. Hutchinson, S. J. Shirley, William Spade, 
Josiah Hodges, George Watkins, Bamon Conger, A. 
Bordon, Wayland Babcock, Robert Crawford, Mar- 
shal Ash, W. G. Beal, H. G. Armitage, G. S. Guild, 
W. H. Payne, William A. Ballou, E. R. Farrabee, 
B\Ton H. Button, William Ellington, Bavid Houts, 
R. W. Crone, Irwin Farrabee, William Knicker- 
bocker, Francis Ballou, J. J. Flemming, E. F. 
Walker, J. B. Osier, Charles Signor, Henry Homan, 
Charles F. Boty, William Winter, Ed. A. Buzzell, 
C. R. Bigelow, Frampt Brosius, Frank Rosencrans, 
H. W. Mitchell. 

The company under the command of A. V. Cole 
took the governor's challenge cup at the encamp- 
ment at Crete, in 1883. They held the cup until 
1885, when Companj- C, of Beatrice, took it. The 
present strength is about 41. The commissioned 
officers are: L. A. Ballou, captain; W. A. Ballou, 
first lieutenant; T. H. Ellis, second lieutenant, with 
four sergeants, three corporals, one musician, and 
twenty privates. 

Hansen Post, G. A. R. , was instituted June 23, 
1883, with A. F. Powers, commander; J. M. Bearse, 
S. V. C. ; J. F. Nyce, J. V. C. ; M. B. HoUey, sur- 
geon; F. H. Calder, chaplain; Fred. Albright, Q. 
M. ; J. Countryman, 0. of B. ; J. G. Honeywell, O. 
of G. ; J. Smith, Adjt. ; T. M. Beatreall, S. M. ; 
and George Mills, sergeant. The post is not now 
in active work. In fact it is alleged that beyond 
the formal organization nothing was accomplished. 

The Posts at Kenesaw, Ayr, and near Prosser. 
are referred to in local sketches elsewhere to be 

The Soldiers' and Sailors' Association of Adams 
County was presided over in 1884 by A. V. Cole, 
with L. B. Palmer, adjutant. The vice-presidents 
were: A. F. Benjamin, of Benver; H. M. Spencer, 
of Little Blue; S. C. Moore, of Ayr; W. P. Bavis, 
of Cottonwood; J. G. Hayzlett, of Kenesaw; R. 
Spicknall, of Silver Lake; S. L. Brass, of Juniata, 
and J. A. Snyder, of West Blue. The soldiers' and 
sailors' reunion of July, 1883, was held at Ayr, and 
the encampment named "Camp Heron." A. V. 
Cole was elected camp commander. 

The County Veteran Society was organized in 
May, 1889, with A. V. Cole, president; Joseph 
Me3"ers, vice-president, and W. R. Kilburn, secre- 
tary. In Becember, 1889, this association elected 
the following named officers: President, A. B. 
Yocum; vice-president, A. H. Brown; secretary and 
treasurer, W. R. Burton. Br. J. N. L\'man was 
appointed a committee to prepare a programme for 

Sixtj'-flve Posts of the G. A. R. were represented 
at the Camp Sheridan reunion, near Hastings, in 
September, 1883. A convention of the Nebraska 
Woman's Suffrage Association was opened in the 
head-quarters tent at Camp Sheridan on September 


13, 1883, when Mrs. M. L. Brass, of Juniata, 
was elected president. This society decided to 
continue the publication of The Woman's Trib- 
une, of which Mrs. Clara B. Colby, of Beatrice, 
was editi-ess. 

The G. A. K. fair of January and February, 

1886, was held to raise funds for building a hall. 
Over $1,000 in cash, together with other property, 
was obtained. 

Mrs. Green, a widow of a soldier of 1812, died 
at Hastings, in January-, 1879, aged eighty-three 
years. The veteran of that war died in 1868. 




■ I5> 




Societies, Associations, Etc., of Local Importance — Agricultural Society — Hastings Fair Ground Associ- 
ation — District and Central Agricultural Societies — Patrons of Husbandry, Grange, Etc. — Aid 
Society — Farmers' Alliance — Medical Associations — Associations of Teachers — Temperance 
Societies and Movements — Sunday School Conventions — Woman's Suffrage Associa- 
tion — Railroad History — Education — School System, Etc. 

Heaven forming each ou 
A master, or a servant, c 

S the first agricultural soci- 
ety of Adams County may 
lie mentioned that organ- 
ized at Kingston, May 6, 
1872, with W. W. Selleck, 
-', --1^ president; Charles Bird and 
^j\^ Walter West, vice-presi- 
dents; John H. Bauchman, secretary; 
G. Edgerton, treasurer; G. I. Selleck, 
L. G. King, W. F. Selleck, J. L. 
Johnson and H. B. Munson, directors. 
There were thirty-nine members with 
the officers named. The first fair of 
this society of which there is a record 
was held October 10 and 11, 1873, 
at Kingston. No less than eighty-two prizes were 
offered. This meeting was so great a success that 
the officers of the society advertised their vote of 
thanks to the people, while M. W. Bird, the secre- 
tary, mailed copies of the report to many points 
in the east. The list of first and second prize 
winners is given as follows: 

Brood mares, A. W. Waldeck, 1st: B. H. Scott, 2d. 

Draft liorses, ' 

T. Wright, 1st; Tliomas Flemming, 
G. W Don- 

Carriage horses, Marion Van Fleet. 

ahev, 2d. 
Saddle liorses, C. R. Jones, 1st: A. West, 2 

other to depend, 
r a friend. — Pope. 

Trotting horses, E. J. Wheeler, 1st; George Brown, 

Lady equestrianism, Mrs. William Van Alstyne, 1st: 

Mrs. W. B. Cushion, 2d. 
Best management of horses in harness, by lady, Mrs. 

W. B. Cushion, 1st; Mrs. William Van Alstyne, 

Mules, J. H. Vandemark, 2d. 
Draft mules, J. H. Vandemark. 2d. 
Four-year-old bull, S. J. Shirley, 2d. 
One-year-old bull, N. R. Pratt, 1st; A. W. Waldeck, 

Cow, John Shafer, 1st. 
Two-vear-old heifer, Jacob Calhoun, 2d. 
Heifer calf, X. R. Pratt, 2d. 
Herd cattle, A. W. Waldeck, 2d. 
Sweepstakes, bull, N. R. Pratt, 1st. 
Sweepstakes, heifer, A. W. Waldeck, 1st. 
Work cattle, J. R. Carter, 2d. 
Fat ox, J. R. Carter, 2d. 
Fat cow, J. H. Vandemark, 2d. 
Berkshire boar, A. W. Waldeck, 2d. 
Berkshire sow, A. W. Waldeck, 2d. 
Berk-shirr, sow and pigs, A. W. Waldeck, 2d. 

1-year-old, A. D. Williams, 2d. 
■-old, A. D. Williams, 2d. 
A. D. Williams, 2d. 

r. C. Wilson. 2d. 
ai-ulil, I!. H. Scott, 2d. 
^. M. West, 2d. 

1. Srntt. 1st. 

. Williams, 1st. 
Williams, 1st. 
. Cushion, 1st. • 

1st; J. H. Vande- 


Winter potatoes, J. H. Vandemark, 1st; C. R. Jones, 

Sweet potatoi's. A. ^). Williams, 1st. 
Beets, Mrs. W . s. Maiiin. 1st. 
Turnips, J. 11. Vaii.lriiuiik. 1st; B. H. Scott, 2d. 
Carrotts, A. 1). \Villiain>. Ht. 
Squashes, T. E. Davis. 1st: K. S. Laugley, 2d. 
Egg plant, Mrs. M S. Xniii.n, Isl. 
Peanuts, George and Kalic \\ illiams, 1st. 
Two-horse wagon, C. R. Jones, 1st. 
Open buggy, W. R. Linton, 1st. 
Plows, C. R. Jones, 1st. 
Silk patchwork, quilt, Mrs. G. Kruder, 1st; J. F. 

Jennett. 2d. 
Calico quilt, Mrs. J. H. Vandemark, 1st; Mrs. O. 

Stevers. 2d. 
Worsted quilt. ^Irs. O. Stevers, 1st; Mrs. George 

KiMiilrr. ■,M. 
Rat: .:ii|i. t. Mr-. O. Stevers, 1st; Mrs. R.H.Crane,2d. 
Couiii.ipaii.-. Mis. J. A. Rust, 2d. 
Gents' .-Uppers. Miss Sadie Biglow, 2d. 
Pin cushion. Miss May Jones, 2d. 
AVorsted work. Miss Sadie Biglow, 3d. 
Bead work. Miss Sadie Biglow, 2d. 
Afghan work, Miss Sadie Biglow, 2d. 
Lamp mat, Mary Saintclair, 2d. 
Crochet, Mrs. Francis Dwight, 2d. 
Silk embroidery, Mrs. H. F. Jennett, 2d. 
Tidy, Mrs. J. H. Vandemark, 2d. 
Best display of millinery, Mrs. Forgy. 
Butter, Mrs. Jennie Jones, 1st. 

The Adams County Agricultural Society perfected 
orgauization at Juniata, March 9, 1874, with PI M. 
Allen, president; H. C. Humbert and W. W. Selleck, 
vice-presidents; D. H. Freeman and Dr. A. D. Buck- 
worth, secretaries; W. B. Thome, treasurer; Samuel 
J. Shirly, E. N. Noyce, A. D. Williams, D. S. Cole 
and C. G. Wilson, directors. The unofficial mem- 
bers were Adna H. Bowen, Nathan Platte, A. H. 
Brown, J. M. Jacobson, James Laird, Charles R. 
Jones, J. S. Chandler, B. F. Smith, Nathan L. 
Brass, A. Clute, William B. Kelly, A. V. Cole, J. 
W. Stark, R. S. Langley, Charles Kilbourn, 
William Caller, C. C. Babcock, John Stark, 
^Y. H. Burr, H. J. Savery, E. Warn, W. H. 
Gardner, W. B. Cushing, T. Babcock, W. L. 
Van Alstyne, Pliny Allen, H. H. Ballou, C. Mor- 
rison, C. H. Chapman, N. J. Smith, R. D. Bab- 
cock, Joseph Carr, A. C. Wright, J. McKelvey, Jud- 
son Burwell, George Brown, John Duncan, A. C. 
Moore, George Kuder, D. H. Babcock, George W. 
Wolcott, Abram Park, Ira G. Dillery, S. L. Brass, 
Louis Keeth, Robert Ash, Peter Fowlie, AVilliam L. 
Kemp, M. C. Lindsey, John M. Cole, M. B. Kelley, 
Henry Shedd and Conrad House. On the completion 
of this organization the sum of $50 was subscribed. 

In June, 1874, C. G. Wilson was elected presi- 
dent. Five vice-presidents were chosen, one from 
each precinct, the first elected to have seniority in 
ofHce. First vice-president, M. K. Lewis, of Hast- 
ings; second vice-president, Robert Ash, of Juniata; 
third, A. C. Moore, of Silver Lake; fourth, G. H. 
Edgerton, of Little Blue; fifth, V. Darling, of Kene- 
saw. D. H. Freeman, of Juniata, was elected re- 
cording and financial secretary, and W. A. Smith, of 
Hastings, corresponding secretary. W. B. Thorne, 
of Silver Lake, was elected treasurer; 0. H. Wright, 
of Kenesaw, was elected general superintendent. It 
was voted to have a board of directors of sixteen, 
one from each Congressional township. The follow- 
ing were recommended by a committee appointed to 
select persons for these offices, and were unanimously 
elected: W. S. Moote, William Willoughby, J. H. 
Vandemark, L. B. Palmer, John Waldeck, W. M. 
West, William B. Cushing, Henry Shedd, J. P. 
Duncan, M. B. Kelley, William L. Kemp, E. J. 
Hanchett, E. C. Siiellhammer, Jacob Spindler, F. 
Phillips, W. V. Miller; S. J. Marshall was ap- 
pointed marshal. 

From the minutes of the meeting the following 
extract is made : 

On motion it was voted that the county commis- 
sioners purchase the grounds selected by the society for 
holding this fair. 

On motion it was voted that all members of both 
the old societies shall be considered members of this 
society, and all persons living in Adams County, by pay- 
ing the sum of SI, may become members. 

On motion of Elder Crane, three rousing cheers 
were given, una animo, for the consolidation of the two 
societies, and the dissipation of all sectional jealousies. 

The Hastings Fair Ground Association entered 
articles of agreement August 6, 1878, signed by R. 
A. Batty, A. D. Yocum, A. L. Clarke, S. Alex- 
ander, O. Oliver, J. D. Crane, A. L. Wigton, A. J. 
Millett, J. N. Smith, C. H. Paul, B. Martin, W. A. 
Camp and G. W. Warren. During the year forty 
acres were purchased and improved for fair ground 
purposes. The society elected the following named 
officers in September, 1880: A. D. Yocum, presi- 
dent; J. R. Maxon, A. W. Wheeler, J. B. McCleery, 
C. G. Wilson, J. A. Robertson, W. S. Martin, C. F. 
Orvis and A. S. Inompson, vice-presidents; A. B. 


Ideson, secretaiy; J. N. Lj-man, treasurer, and S. 
J. Shirelj-, superintendent. The directors chosen 
were A. W. MeDavitt, S. L. Brass, John Cook, G. 
W. Parks, A. N. Hall, W. W. McDonald, A. R. 
Powers, J. M. Strahl, C. R. Biglow, James Miller, 
R. M. Ratcliff, Peter Grooms, George Crane, H. 
Armstrong and W. M. White. In 1884 the society 
elected D. Lowman, president; D. C. KeiT, vice- 
president; W. R. McCully, secretarj^; C. K. Lawson, 
treasurer; Ira Ford, superintendent, and the follow- 
ing named directors: L. J. Halsteads, W. A. Jones, 
0. Lamereaux, Silas Stichter, Andrew Beal, S. 
Saulsbury, Dr. Putt, Dr. Kimball, J. W. Crissman, 
W. W. Philleo, Charles Boyd, Dr. J. N. Lyman, H. 
C. Minnix, Sr., C. F. Orvis, James Connelly and 
H. W. Olmstead. 

The Disti-ict Agricultural Society was organized 
February 26, 1878, with M. C. Long, president; C. 
H. Walker, secretary; A. L. Wigton, assistant secre- 
tary, and C. C. Ingalls, treasurer. The vice-presi- 
dents elected were James M. Flynn, of Clay County; 
A. N. Hall, of Adams; H. A. Day, of Nuckolls; 
John H. Powers, of Hall; C. Wells, of Franklin; 
W. M. Richardson, of Webster; A. H. Harland, of 
Kearney; G. L. Laws, of Harlan; T. D. Case, of 
Hamilton; C. G. Bruce, of Thayer; and H. C. Daw- 
son, of Jefferson. The committee on constitution 
comprised J. W Small, R. A. Batty, A. D. Wil- 
liams, A. D. Yocum and Mr. Babcock. 

The Central Horticultural Society was organized 
in September, 1878, with M. K. Lewis, of Adams, 
president; J. W. Small, secretary; A. D. Williams, 
assistant secretary, and J. M. Flynn, treasurer. The 
vice-presidents chosen were H. S. Kaley, of Webster; 
George F. Warner, of Clay; R. D. Granger, of Kear- 
ney; M. S. Budlong, of Franklin, A. N. Hall, of 
Adams; H. H. Williams, of Nuckolls; M. Creason, 
of Hall, and O. P. Duncan, of Hamilton. 

A County Council of Patrons of Husbandry was 
organized February 24, 1874, with A. H. Brown, 
master; M. B. Kelley, O. ; J. W. Holt, lecturer: 
James McCleary, steward; J. H. Vandemark, assis- 
tant steward; James McKelvey, chaplain; R. K. 
Dail3-, ti'easurer; A. D. Rust, secretary; J. M. Cole, 
gate keeper; Miss Rose Kelley, ceres; Miss Edna 
Lowr}-, flora; Miss Ada Snodgrass, pomona; Julia 

A. Rust, lady assistant steward, and D. H. Freeman, 

The Hastings Grange was established in Febru- 
ary, 1874, by D. D. Organizer R. S. Langley, 
assisted by S. L. Brass. J. W. Holt was elected 
master, with G. W. Lazenby, J. W. Coulter, J. H. 
Hanson, S. Sadler, M. B. Holly and Secretary 
Blake filling the other offices. 

Blue Valle}- Grange was organized at Kingston 
in February, 1874, with E. D. Jones, A. W. Wal- 
deck, W. H. Coultrin, J. B. McCleery, W. S. Moote, 
C. G. Wilson, C. H. Edgerton, John Gray, Mary J. 
Heaps, Ada Snodgrass, Emma Wilson and Miss 
Martin filling the offices in the order of rank. 

Silver Lake Grange was organized in February, 
1874, with J. P. Duncan, J. C. Wilson, R. K. Daily, 
J. J. Hoyleman, John Woods, Patrick Duncan, J. 

B. Roscoe, Mrs. Woods, H. Humphrey, Miss Mary 
Duncan, Mrs. Roscoe, Mrs. Blackledge and Mrs. 
Hoyleman officials. 

Lone Star Grange was organized at the Hawley 
school house in March, 1874, with L. P. Hawley, 
I. Yocum, J. A. Innis, M. Van Fleet, H. Houghtal- 
ing, T. Boice, Mrs. L. P. Hawley, D. H. Holmes, S. 
E. Gardener, Mrs. T. R. Boice, Mrs. Innis and Mrs. 

C. L. Aldridge officers in the order of rank. 

Rose Hill Grange (three miles southeast of Hast- 
ings) was organized in March, 1877, withB. F. Brow- 
er, master, and N. R. Pratt, secretar}'. The charter 
members were the officers named, T. Wisdom, Joseph 
Bland, S. and N. Schoonover, John Connor, Roberi 
Williams, T. N. White, A. J. Orendorflf, James 
Kemp, James Purdj-, Mrs. Orendorff, E. Bower, 
Rhoda and Hannah Schoonover, Bertha Kemp, 
Jessie J. Connor, Sophia White, Sue A. Pardee, 
Sarah Williams and Mrs. Pratt. 

The Adams County Aid Society was organized 
at Juniata October 10, 1874, with W. B. Thorne, 
president; J. JI. Abbott, vice-president; D. H. Free- 
man, secretary-; 0. H. Wright, treasurer; S. J. Shir- 
ley, C. R. Jones, A. W. Wheeler, Capt. Strout, W. 
S. Moote, — Sinclare, E. B. Daily, J. P. Duncan, 
E. C. Shellhamer, G. Spicknall, E. Moore and A. 
Shattuck, members of executive committee. The 
object of this association was to extend aid to citi- 
zens who were suffering from the effects of the 


grasshopper plague. A second society with the 
same object was organized at Hastings in Novem- 
ber. C. C. Ingalls was president; A. L. Wigton, 
secretarj', S. Alexander, treasurer; S. Sadler, R. 
A. Dague, and A. L. Wigton, executive committee. 

A complete history of the different attempts that 
have been made by the farmers of this country to 
form themselves into organizations for mutual pro- 
tection and benefit, would make a large volume. 
When the Grange movement had subsided, for sev- 
eral j-ears the farmers seem to have lost heart, and 
nothing was done b}' them to protect their own in- 
terests. But recently the gi-owth of another union 
of the farmers has been most marked. The Adams 
County Fanners' Alliance, the new movement, was 
organized August 31, 1S89, with Francis Phillips, 
of Kenesaw, president; W. I. Huxtable, West Blue, 
vice-president; H. B. McGaw, Blaine, treasurer and 
secretary; John Shea, of West Blue, sergeant-at- 
arms; J. B. Brown, Kenesaw, door keeper; A. C. 
Tompkins, of West Blue, lecturer, and John Brech- 
ner. of Ayr, chaplain. 

Some years ago, after the fall of the Grange, the 
Alliance was established. The first Farmers' Alli- 
ance organized in Nebraska was that of West Blue 
Precinct, York County, in June, 1880. On Febru- 
ary 26, 1881, the Adams County Farmers' Alliance 
was organized. On Julj' 2 no less than sixteen 
lodges of this society were represented in convention 
at Hastings, while in April, 1882, there were 
eighteen lodges represented in convention. 

The Adams Count}' Medical Association may be 
said to date back to 1886, when Drs. Sowers, Lynn, 
Alfred Naulteus, Lloyd, Steele, Irwin, Urquhart, 
with the ph3'sicians from Ayr and Blue Hill, signed 
articles of association. Dr. A. H. Sowers was 
chosen president; Dr. Urquhart, vice-president; Dr. 
Steele, secretary, and Dr. Lynn, treasurer. This 
society has accomplished little more than formal or- 

The fourteenth annual session of the State Medi- 
cal Society assembled at Hastings May 9, 1881. 
Among the new members were William H. Lynn, 
John Cook, F. Naulteus and A. F. Naulteus, of 
Hastings; George M. Prentice, Fairfield, and W. J. 
Royce, Doniphan. Among tlie old members present 

were 'SI. L. Gahan, of Grand Island, and W. H. 
Acklej', of Juniata. A. H. Sowers was elected pres- 
ident. As shown in other pages of this work, many 
of the leading physicians of Adams County are mem- 
bers of this societj'. 

The act approved March 3, 1881 (taking effect 
June 1), regulated medical practice and provided for 
registration of physicians. The society urged this 
and other special bills for regulating practice in Ne- 

The physicians' record of Adams County dates 
back to May, 1881 , when Dr. W. H. Lynn registered. 
The names appearing on this record are as follows: 


Wm. H. Lynn, Rush, 18TT. 

J. O. Garmon, Michigan, 1S77. 

Hogan J. Ring, Bennett Ec. 1877. 

T. H. Urquahart, Jefferson, 1848. 

S. A. Bookwalter, Louisville, 1873. 

W. W. Phar, Keoluik, 1878. 

Winfield Ackley, Rush, 1875. 

Sarah E. Young, Practice, 18G8. 

A. H. Sowers, Columbus, 0., 1862. 
C.O.Arnold, 'Practice, 1877. 
Francis Naulteus, Holland, 18(54. 
*John Cook, Scotland, 1867. 
E. H. Gale, Philadelphia, 1865. 

B. M. Shockey, Practice, 1868. 
Emma Watkins, England, 1856. 
J. Williams, Practice, 1879. 
A. R. VanSickle, Iowa, 1880. 
J. Alonzo Greene, National Med., 1866. 
Mary Breed, Germany, 1862. 
John N. Lyman, Washington, D. C, 1862. 
Mary A. Howard. Practice, 1878. 
George W. Howard, Hahnemann, 1857. 


A. S. Fishblatt, 

N. Y. E. M. C, 


George F. Lloyd, Omaha, 1883. 

*L. J. Forney, Ohio, 1873. 

Samuel E. Furry, Philadelphia, 1880. 

Mary M. Michael, N. Y. F. M. C, 1875. 

*L. K. Markley, Omaha, 1883. 

*H. P. Fitch, Chicago, 1879. 


L. R. Markley. 

Ralph J. Irwin. Indianapolis, 1882 

Sol. C. Warren. Philadelphia, 1885. 

James W. Wood, Chicago, 1883. 

*John W. Smitli, England, 1865. 

Henry J. Smith, Philadelphia, 1865. 

George H. Chaffee, :\Iichigan, 1881. 

T. J. Eaton, W. Res. Col., 1847. 

E. L. Y'arletz, Cin. M. C. 1872. 
Louis Lodd, 111. B. of H., 1878. 
J. O. Mote, Keokuk, 1884. 

F. C. Brosius, Rush, 1883. 

*Did not report on graduation up to 1886 to compilers of 
Medical and Surgical Directory of the United States. 




Sheldon E. Cook, 
Win. Tanner, 
L. N. Howard, 
C. W. Seliek. 
H. S. Rogers, 
C. M. Williams, 
Albert S. Pierce, 
C. U. Ullrich, 
A. F. Naulteus, 




St. Louis, 

E. Med. A. 







M. O. B. McKinney, Cincinnati, 

W. A. Chapman, Cleveland, 

Jos. T. Steele, Rush, 

Laura A. Edwards, Michigan, 

J. S. Gurtiss, Cincinnati, 

J. E. Anderson, Cincinnati, 

F. J. Schaufelberger, Jefferson, 

George W. Randall, Cincinnati, 


K. R. Blair, 
Edward D. Barrett, 
John M. France, 
Rufus C. Corey, 
Geo. B. M. Free, 
L. J. Rogers, 
E. T. Cassell, 
Alvin H. Keller, 
Louis Turner, 
A. E. W^pssel, 
A. M. Rickett, 
Luther L. Ames, 
Charles J. Carrick, 

St. Louis, 
St. Louis, 


Arthur H. Brownell, 
C. A. Bassett, 
C. G. A. Hullhorst, 
J. M. F. Cooper, 
Milo S. Kensington, 
J. C. Solomon, 
A. Lee Sabin, 


St. Louis, 



Joplin, Mo. 




A. J. Bacon, 
Jacob B. Hoshaw, 
E. H. Waters, 
C. J. Yate.s 
A. J. Rogers, 
Wm. McGregor,- 
Ed. R. Holmes, 
H. S. Aley, 
P. James, 


Des Moines, 
New York, 
New York, 

Mrs. Emma Walker's name appears in the United 
States Gazetteer of Medicine. 

A Normal Institute held at Hastings in July, 
1876, is said to have been the first general meeting 
of teachers held within this county. The Adams 
County Teachers' Libraiy Association was organized 
in May, 1879, with L. Darling (superintendent), 
president. The Teachers' Institute of August, 1884, 

opened August 19 in the Congregational building. 
The name adopted for this organization was ' ' The 
Adams County Teachers' Library Association." 

The Central Nebraska Teachers' Association was 
organized in November, 1884, with F. W. Parsons, 
president; J. W. Mercer, vice-president; Hattie 
Snodgrass, secretary; Nellie Martin, treasurer; R. 
C. Barr, C. L. Ebaugh and Bertha McCorkle, execu- 
tive committee. 

An Institute held at Juniata August 2, 1888, 
was attended by forty -two teachers, and the Institute 
was addressed on various educational subjects by 
Profs. Wilson, Thompson and Davis. 

In the pages devoted to local history reference is 
made to the Woman's Christian Temperance Union 
and other modern organizations, into which temper- 
ance workers find admittance. Here mention is 
made of the district or county societies and their 
beginnings in Nebraska. The district lodge of the 
I. 0. G. T. for Adams and Clay Counties was or- 
ganized in June, 1879, with J. E. Hopper, Mrs. 
A. A. White, C. Borin, A. E. Neighbor, L. F. 
Gould, 0. M. Soule and S. Brown, officials in the 
order of rank. 

The I. 0. G. T. dates back to 1867, when dele- 
gates from the thirteen lodges then existing in Cass, 
Douglas, Nemaha and Otoe Counties organized a 
Grand Lodge. In 1871 a number of professional 
lecturers on temperance were introduced into the 
State. In 1880 there were no less than 158 lodges 
and 6,263 members; decreased to 113 lodges and 
5,054 members in 1881. The sixteenth annual 
session of the Grand Lodge was held at Hastings in 
January, 1882. 

The Temple of Honor dates back to March, 1877, 
when a lodge was organized at Lincoln. The same 
year temples were formed at Hastings, Crete, Sutton, 
Juniata and other places, and in February, 1878, 
the Grand Temple was organized with A. H. Boweu, 
G. W. T. He was succeeded in 1880 by W. A. 
Hosford, but was chosen grand recorder, and re- 
elected in 1882. J. E. Morrison was chosen G. W. 
T. and E. M. Buswell G. W. V. T. in 1882. 

The red ribbon movement was begun in October, 

In 1873 the ''troublesome question" was 


brought before the Legislature. In 1875 a bill reg- 
ulating the granting of licenses was passed. In 
1878 the banded legions asked for prohibition. 
Among their opponents was R. A. Batty, of Adams 
Count}-. A. H. Bowen worked against him in the 
lobby, as the latter was not a member of the House. 
Mr. Batty pointed out the danger of church and 
State government, and his speech aided in the defeat 
of the bill. In 1880 another defeat was experienced. 
In June, 1881, the license law was passed, and de- 
clared constitutional b}- the supreme court in July, 

The Adams County Sunday-School Association, 
organized in 1874, may be said to have only per- 
fected organization in May, of 1880, with J. B. 
Heartsvell, president; 0. A. Buzzell, C. S. : L. B. 
Palmer, R. S. ; W. H. Buit, treasurer; A. F. Powers, 
Davis Lowman, W. Klingerman, J. A. Davidson, 
D. P. Maryatt, L. Parmenter, W. White, and C. F. 
Orvis, ■vice-presidents. The report showed 1,200 
Sunday-school scholars in the county. The work of 
this society has been carried on methodically since 
1880. The Eleventh Annual Convention of the 
County Sundaj'-School Association was commenced 
at Ayr, Maj- 21, 1885. D. D. Norton was chosen 
secretary; Prof. H. B. Gilbert, correspondent; L. 
M. Campbell, recorder; Nettie Winter, treasurer; 
James Newell, George F. Work and A. N. Hall, 
executive committee. Some changes have been 
made in the official list within the last five years, 
but the workers in the Sunday-school movement 
have retained their interest in it under every change 
of administration. 

The woman's suffrage question, or the Bloomer 
movement, was presented to Nebraskans January 8, 
1856, when Mrs. Amelia Bloomer delivered an ad- 
dress before the State Legislature. A bill was at 
once intr.oduced providing for women the right of 
voting. This bill was caiTied in the House b}' 1-1 
to 11, Representative Laird voting with the minor- 
ity. It failed, however, to be brought up for third 
reading in the Council. In 1867, the trio, George 
Francis Train, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. 
Anthony, reviewed the question, but it was not well 
received, as the constitution of 1871 made no pro- 
vision for enfranchising women. In 1877 the 

Woman's Suifrage Association, of Thayer County, 
was organized, and this society asked for a constitu- 
tional amendment, omitting the word male and giv- 
ing the franchise to every person a citizen of the 
United States. On Januarj- 27, 1880, the Nebraska 
AVoman's Suffrage Association was formed. Mrs. 
J. H. Bowen, of Hastings, was a member of the first 
executive committee. This association worked so 
earnestly that eighty-four of the two hundred jour- 
nals then published in the State espoused its 
cause; while only eighteen journals opposed it. 
Adams County Woman's Sufl'rage Association was 
organized March 30, 1882, by Mrs. M. A. Brass. 
Mrs. S. H. Henderson was elected president, jMrs. 
S. H. Williams, R. S., and Mrs. Liveringhouse, C. 
S. The vice-presidents chosen were Mrs. A. Wal- 
deck, of Little Blue precinct; Mrs. J. Bovard, of 
Ayr; Mrs. M. Renfrew, of Denver; Mrs. M. Van 
Fleet, of West Blue; Mrs. B. Smith, of Juniata; 
Mrs. L. A. Boley, of Kenesaw; IMrs. B. F. Evans, 
of Cottonwood, and Mrs. Clinton Soper, of Silver 

The pioneer railroad of Adams County, and in- 
deed, of Nebraska, south of the Platte River, is the 
Burlington & Missouri River Railroad, now connect- 
ing Denver with Chicago, and bringing Hastings 
within seventeen hours distance of that city. This 
road was constructed in 1871-72, from Omaha to 
Kearney, and in July, of 1872, tlie first office in this 
county was opened at Hastings by Agent Wiggins. 
This road was built without asking aid from the 
pioneers of Adams County. In April, 1878, the 
question of granting financial aid to the Burlington 
& Missouri River Railroad Company, on their prop- 
osition to build a road from Hastings, through Lit- 
tle Blue and Pawnee to Red Cloud, took practical 
shape, and resolutions favoring the proposition were 
widely circulated and signed. This project was 
carried out in 1878, Denver precinct voting the 
bonds referred to in the transactions of the com- 
missioners and in the political chapter. Work on 
the Hastings & Republican Valley Railroad was be- 
gun June 12, 1878, by the chief contractor, John 
Fitzgerald. About a month later a small band of 
Hibernian workmen, dissatisfied with the presence 
of labor-competing Russians, rebelled and drove the 

I 160 


peaceful ex-slaves of the Czar from the phice. The 
local press was full of praise for the great contract- 
or's methods. 

The Hastings & Olierliu road and the Hastings 
& Aurora road are branches of this system. The 
great strike of locomotive engineers and firemen on 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy system began at 
4 A. M. on February 29, 1888, when ten engines 
were laid up at the Hastings round house. " Pap " 
Willis, an old conductor, and formerly an engineer, 
took charge of No. 6, running to Lincoln, and re- 
turned with No. 5 , being his own fireman. A meet- 
ing to consider the rates on grain, charged by the 
Burlington & Missouri River and other roads from 
Hastings to Chicago, resulted in a resolution boj- 
cotting the Burlington & Missouri River, and favor- 
ing the St. Joseph & Western. 

At the crossing of the Grand Island & St. Joseph 
Railroad within the limits of Hastings two wrecks 
have already been recorded. That of December, 
1889, resulted in the death of Fireman Cahill and 
injury to mail ear No. 37, of No. 1 Flj^er. 

The St. Joseph & Grand Island Railroad was 
constructed in 1872 without financial aid from the 
county, and was at that time known as the St. 
Joseph & Denver City. It was the original inten- 
tion of the projectors of the enterprise to construct 
the line through to Denver, Colo., and, in pursuance 
of that intention, the road was graded and the track 
laid for some miles west of Hastings. Afterward, 
when the idea of building to Denver was abandoned, 
the track that had been put down west of the city 
was taken up, and Hastings remained the western 
terminus of the road until the fall of 1879, when 
the construction of the Hastings & Grand Island 
Railroad formed a connection between the St. Joseph 
& Denver and the Union Pacific. The two com- 
panies were then put under the same management, 
and the consolidated line became the St. Joseph & 
Grand Island, which name it now bears. 

During the heavy snow storm of January, 1886, 
a ti-ain on the St. Joseph & Western Railroad was 
snow liound between Hastings and Hansen, near the 
S. !NI. Bates farm. The cold was extreme, so that 
the passengers who remained in the coaches during 
the blockade suffered severelj-. 

The Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley Rail- 
road Company was incorporated in December, 1886, 
the capital stock being placed at $30,000,000. The 
road was completed to Hastings in October, 1887, 
thus giving the Chicago & Northwestern commu- 
nication with this rich prairie section. In January', 
1886, there were construction contracts sold for 297 
miles of the Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley 
Railroad, including the twenty-six miles from Hast 
ings to Aurora. It was an interesting sight to see 
a band of forty or more Russians, of all sizes, rig- 
ging up a team to go to work on the grade, with 
Fitzgerald in their midst talking Chenook, and 
gesticulating some sense into them. The road was 
completed to Hastings, October 10, 1887. One 
branch extends from Fremont to the Black Hills 
and into Wyoming. Another line stretches out to- 
ward the Kansas field, and a line from Hastings to 
Denver is projected. 

On October 15, 1887, the question of subscribing 
$20,000 aid to the Pacific Railroad Company, in Ne- 
braska, was carried by a majorit}- vote of the tax- 
payers of Hastings. The countj- subscribed $100,- 
000 and the bonds were issued April 24, 1888. A 
few days later a temporary injunction to prevent 
deliver}- of bonds was gi-anted by the district court, 
an act at once condemned by the Hastings Board of 

The workmen on the Missouri Pacific Railroad 
camped at Hastings February 28, 1888, and placed 
the houses on the depot site on rollers to be moved 
fi-om right of way. Track laying was commenced 
April 4, when the depot building was completed. 
The first arrival and departure of a Missouri Pacific 
Railroad ti-ain at Hastings took place April 21, 1888, 
when locomotive 168, in charge of Raj-mond, hauling 
a regular train with W. P. Davis, conductor, steamed 
into the citj-, thence proceeded to Juniata, where the 
first agent was installed, and thence to the western 
terminus at Prosser, just at the county line, where 
J. H. Korner was the first agent. 

The Burlington & ^lissouri River Railroad, built 
in 1871-72, and the St. Joseph & Western Railroad, 
in 1872, were constructed without financial aid being 
asked from the pioneers. Not so the branch of the 
Burlington & Missouri River — the Republican Val- 


k'}- Railroad — built in 1S7S. Denver township 
donated $20,000 in bonds. In 1879 the Northern 
branch was built from the north to Hastings; so that 
the fifty-seven miles of railroad in Adams County in 
1880 cost the people directly only $2,000 and that 
sum was confined to the few residents of one 

In February, 1874, the record of land sale 'con- 
tracts by the Union Pacific Company with buyers 
began in this county. 

In April, 1888, Secretary Lamar issued his cele- 
brated order restoring to the United States the un- 
earned land grants of several railroads companies. 
The St. Joseph & Denver Railroad lost 12,000 
acres, a large portion of which belong to the south- 
ern townships of Adams County. Settlers who pur- 
chased from the railroad company were alarmed, 
but the vacatmg act secured for the buyers from the 
company a preference right to re-purchase. 

The Kansas City, Wyandotte & Northwestern 
Railroad has been built from Kansas City to Beatrice, 
and regular trains were running into the latter city 
in December, 1889. In the fall of 1885 Mayor Yo- 
cum and Charlie Dietrich took an active interest in 
the organization of this road. Both gentlemen were 
members of the board of directors. 

The Rock Island Railroad, which now reaches 
Nelson in Nuckolls County, the Chicago & Santa Fe, 
the Kansas Cit}', Lawrence & Nebraska are aU look- 
ing over the prairie toward Hastings; while the roads 
already represented here are equally watchful in 
planning extentions or in carrying their plans 

The first school in Adams County was opened 
one mile south of Juniata early in 1872, by Miss 
Emma Leonard, and that fall Miss Lizzie Scott was 
emplo3-ed to teach a school at Juniata. In the rec- 
ords of the county commissioners, summarized for 
this work, the ofllcial dealings with the pioneer 
schools are related. By April 1, 1872, there were 
thirteen districts organized, and by October 1, 187.3, 
no less than thirtj^-eight districts reported organiza- 
tion. The enumeration of children of school age gave 
a total of 467, of whom 251 were males and 216 fe- 
males. The expenditures for school purposes in 1875 
amounted to $10,850.46, or an expense per child of 

$6. 60. In the thirty-eight districts were twenty-five 
school-houses, one of which was a log-house. In 
1880 sixty-six districts and fifty-five school buildings 
were reported; 3,275 children of school age — 1,083 
males and 1,032 females. Thirty-two male and 41 
female teachers were employed during the first year 
of the past decade (1880), who received $12,505.61 
as salary. The school buildings were valued at 
$31,492.20, and the school grounds at $911. The 
first statistics of apportionment of school moneys, 
published in October, 1873, on the bases of the cen- 
sus of April of that year, form a little history of the 
beginnings of the common schools of Adams 

The amount received from tlu' State was .■?('i26.83, 
and that from the county s^L'iJS. yj. makinu a total of 
$865.42. It will be seen that all organized districts 
received $7.46, being each district's share of the 
one-fourth of the whole amount. Some will be no- 
ticed marked *, which denotes that they had three 
months school prior to the taking of the census in 
April, 1873, and hence were not entitled to the pro rata 
apportionment. District No. 18, which includes 
Hastings, was organized more than three months 
before the taking of the school census in April, 
1883, and had no school until after that time, hence 
was not entiled to the jjro rata apportionment. 

Disti-ict No. 1, 37 children, $114.02; disti-ict 
No. 2, 29 children, $90.98; district No. 3*, $7.46; 
district No. 4, 33 children, $102.50; district No. 
5*, $7.46; district No. 8*, $7.46; district No. 9*, 
$7.46; district No. 10, 10 children, $36.26; disti-ict 
No. 12, 8 children, $30.50; district No. 13, 6 chil- 
dren, $24.74; district- No. 14* $7.46; district 
No. 16, 7 children, $27.62; district No. 17* $7.46; 
district No. 18* $7.46; district No. 19, 21 chil- 
dren, $67.94; district No. 21*, $7.46; district No. 
22, 22 children, $76.82; district No. 13*, $7.46; 
district No. 24*, $7.46; district No. 25, 19 chil- 
dren, $62.18; district No. 26*. $7.46; district No. 
28*, $7.46; district No. 29*, $7.46; district No. 
31*, $7.46; disti-ict No. 32, 7 chilcken, $27.62; 
district No. 33, 11 children, $39.24; district No. 
34, 8 children, $30.50; district No. 35, 7 children, 
$27.62; district No. 37 *,$7.46. 

Superintendent A. E. AUyn, of Adams County, 


reporting on the schools for the year ending Decem- 
ber 31, 1888, credits the county with 5 brick, 77 
frame and 2 sod school houses, and places the value 
of school property at $173,014. The number of 
acres of common school lands in the county on No- 
vember 30, 1888, was 16,560. During the year 
then ended 1,515 acres were sold, and 4,160 acres 
leased at $3,462. 95 per annum. The apportionment 
of school funds to Adams County in 1888 was 
$8,279.44. On July 11, 1887, there were 2,713 
males and 2,709 female pupils, or children between 
the age of five and twenty-one; 35 males and 102 
female teachers were emploj'ed; 4 graded schools 
were in existence, and 75 of the 80 districts had 

school for six months or more each year. At 
Hastings J. B. Moulux was principal, and at Juniata 
J. H. Albright (succeeded by Mr. Webster). Miss 
Bertha Green was principal of the partially graded 
school at A3'r, and H. H. Monlux at Kenesaw. The 
enrollment of school children at the close of 1888 
was 281 over that of the former year, but the in- 
crease in attendance was only 9. During the year 
1889 a marked increase in enumeration was reported, 
and an improvement in the sj'stem of teaching and 
qualification of teachers. 

The first flag raised over a school house in Adams 
Count}' was hoisted over the school building in the 
Wallace district, January 6, 1890, by W. E. Nute. 



Hastings City —Location and Additions— Town Company— Judicial History— Kinnan Claim— First Settle- 
ment—Beginnings OF Religious and Business Enterprises— Building the City- Fires— Storms- Im- 
provements— Transactions op City Council— Financial— Officials, Etc.— Board of Trade- 
Business Men's Association— Post Office— Banks and Loan Associations— Whole- 
sale Houses— Commercial Institutions— Manufactories— Churches— Schools 
and college.s — secret and benevolent societies — y. m. c. a. — home 
for THE Friendless— Insane Asylum- Sundry Societies. 


She shalv^ 
And seeir 

; the rubbish from her mounting brow, 
to have renew'd her charter's date. — Dryden. 

ASTINGS, also known as 
the "Queen City of the 
Phiins, " dates back to 
1872. A little while 
prior to that daj-, in Oc- 
tol)er of that j'ear, when 
Charles W. Colt and his 
drew their lines over a part 
of the southeast quarter of Section 
12, the site was part and parcel of 
Fremont's Great American Desert. 
The spirit of progress had spread its 
wings over the country, and a glim- 
mer from the head-light of the first 
locomotive on the Burlington & Mis- 
souri River Railroad shot across the 
prairie and seemed to rest here. In July the rail- 
road to this point was an accomplished fact, and the 
dream of town-builders took possession of those who 
entered the lands in 1871. Within six months this 
dream was partly realized, and, while the shadows 
of the panic of 1873 ebbed and flowed over the land, 
the new town of the prairies leaped forward like a 
young fawn freed from maternal restraints. 

The town was surveyed by Charles W. Colt, of 
Lowell, Neb., in October, 1872, on the west one- 

half of the southeast quarter of Section 12, Town- 
ship 7, Range 10, under orders from Walter M. 
Micklen and Thomas E. Farrell. The plat shows 
the crossing of the Burlington & Missouri River 
and St. Joseph & Denver Railroads between Hast- 
ings and Lincoln Avenues, south of First Street. 
This street is paralleled with numbered streets. Sec- 
ond to Sixth. The north line is shown by North 
Street and the south line by South Street. Burling- 
ton Avenue, running north and south along the west 
line of the plat, is paralleled on the east by Lincoln, 
Hastings, Denver and St. Joseph Avenues. On 
October 15, 1872, Micklen appointed Thomas E. 
Farrell, "my true and lawful attorney," to convey 
any part of the west one-half of the southeast quar- 
ter of Section 12, Township 7, Range 10. He also 
conveyed to him, for $500, a half of the west one- 
half of the southeast quarter of Section 12, Town- 
ship 7, Range 10. 

Moore's addition was surveyed by N. P. Cook 
in Novemljer, 1872, for John Gillespie Jloore. This 
tract extended north from South Street to Sixth 
Street, and west from Burlington Avenue to the 
alley west of Bellevue Avenue. On October 28, 
1872, E. Worthing, receiver of the land office at 
Lowell, entered the east one-half of the southwest 


quarter of Section 12, Township 7, Range 10, to 
John G. Moore, for §2.50 per acre. 

Johnson's addition was sun-ej-ed in March, 1873, 
by Survej'or C. W. Colt, east of St. Joseph Avenue, 
within the north and south lines of original town 
site. The numerical order of east and west streets 
in original town was retained, while the streets run- 
ning north and south were named Kansas Avenue, 
Colorado Avenue, Minnesota Avenue and Wabash 
Avenue, later occupied hy the Hastings & Grand 
Island Railroad. The railroad addition was sur- 
veyed by A. B. Smith, in July, 1873. 

The articles of incorporation of the Hastings 
Town Company were filed at Juniata, April 17, 
1873; but aclinowledged before John L. Jones, of 
Buchanan County, Mo. , April 8, that year, by 
James D. Carl, W. L. Smith, W. B. Slosson, 
Thomas E. Farrell and Walter M. Micklen. On 
April 23, the above named (except Carl), with 
Thomas Johnson, Louise Slosson and Julia Micklen, 
gave power of attorney to the president and secre- 
tary of the company to conve}' or mortgage all lots 
in Johnson's addition to the original town. The 
company was organized April 9, 1874, with James 

D. Carl, Thomas E. Farrell, William L. Smith, R. 
Beitel, Henry Beitel, George H. Pratt, C. K. Law- 
son, W. B. Slosson, and S. Slosson, members. 

St. Joseph addition was surveyed bj' A. R. 
Buttolph, in July, 1873 (east of railroad addition 
and south of Johnson's and original town), for D. 
M. Steele, of Buchanan County, Mo. A. M. Ghost's 
addition was surveyed by A. B. Smith, October 6, 
1873, on the northwest corner of Section 13, Town- 
ship 7, Range 10, for A. M. Ghost. It was named 
originally Junction Land Company's addition. 
Johnson's addition to the Town of Hastings Com- 
pany was organized in April, 1874, with Thomas 

E. Farrell, Thomas Johnson, George H. Pratt, C. 
K. Lawson, William L. Smith, Henry Beitel, Ru- 
dolph Beitel, and Slosson Brothers, stockholders. 
In May, 1880, the fortj'-acre tract of J. V. Lewis, 
west of the city, was surveyed into five-acre building 

In the celebrated case, R. A. Batty, adminis- 
trator of the estate of John 0. Barada, deceased, 
Delilah Barada and Margaret Barada vs. the Com- 

missioners of Adams County and Thomas E. Par- 
rel, William L. Smith, Walter M. Micklen, Rudolph 
Beitel, Henry Beitel, George H. Pratt, Charles K. 
Lawson, WLHiam Slosson and Samuel Slosson, the 
history of the town site of Hastings is judicially- re- 
lated by Judge Gaslin. On March 17, 1881, he 
delivered judgment in this case in favor of the 
defendant countj-. He pointed out clearly that the 
convej-ance of the Town Company, on October 8. 
1878, to the county, of Block 15, and the contract 
to convey, made in 1875, were binding, and further, 
that the sale to Barada was made without a consid- 
eration for Block 15, and ordered the persons named 
as plaintiffs and the individuals named as defend- 
ants, heirs and legal representatives of Barada, and 
grantee of Carl, to make quit claim deed to Adams 
County for Block 15, within sixty days. 

In December, 1886, a quit claim deed from 
Lorenzo H. and Caroline 0. Dow to Charles Dietrich 
was filed in the county office. This instrument 
showed a consideration of $2,000, and was made in 
the interest of the owners of the original town plat, 
and to settle a suit of long standing in the United 
States court. The site as hitherto stated became 
the property of a stock company, who delegated to 
certain persons the power to sell lots. Members of 
the company complained of the manner in which the 
power was used, and the old Town Companj- dis- 
banded, and a new one was formed, whose agents 
sold the balance of the property, Mr. Batty buying 
some of the property, the same to which Dow held 
title under the original company. In the summer of 
1886 the latter began ejectment proceedings, and the 
former asked the United States court to quiet the 
title of Dow. The property involved was then 
valued at $200,000. 

The " Kinnan claim " suggested itself in Decem- 
ber, 1889. It affected Johnson's addition and the 
original town. If there was any real justice in the 
claim it would be a very serious matter indeed, but 
the vigorous steps being taken to show the character of 
the title alleged to be held by Hurlbut by quit claim 
from Mrs. Kinnan, will doubtless succeed in break- 
ing it down completely. There are altogether about 
700 lots in the body, 399 in Johnson's addition and 
300 in the original town site land. 


The owners organized to defend their rights and 
appointed John P. Keedle, M. Van Fleet, Jay Cherry 
and A. Van Sickle members of a committee for this 
purpose. Propositions from Kagan, Capps, Mc- 
Creary & Stephens, A. H. Bowen, C. H. Tanner, 
and from Batty, Casto & Dungan, all agi-eeing to 
clear title, Tvere received, and on December 30, 1889, 
the proposition of the last named Arm to clear title 
to lots for S750 was recommended and subsequentl}' 

In April, 1871, a small colony located here — 
Walter Micklen, Thomas Johnson, John G. Moore 
and Thomas Watts being the members. During 
the summer and fall others arrived, so that at the 
close of 1871 there were twent3--nine voters and a 
number of foreign adults, or ten more voters than 
there were persons in the county in June, 1870. 
Micklen erected his little sod house on Lincoln 
Avenue, just north of the N. L. & T. Company's 

Hastings Stock, son of W. H. Stock, was the 
first child born in Hastings, and to him the company 
deeded a town lot. 

In 1871 Walter Micklen homesteaded the south- 
west quarter of Section 12, Township 7, Range 10, 
west, and proving his claim in 1872, was granted 
a patent. The Hastings Town Site Company was 
organized with Walter Micklen, W. L. Smith, 
Thomas E. Farrell, secretary; Walter B. Slosson, 
Samuel Slosson and James D. Carl, members. Mick- 
len's land was surveyed into lots and the name 
Hastings given to the surveyed tract. The origi- 
nal owner built a sod house in 1871. Earl^- in 1872 
Samuel Alexander moved from Lincoln to this point 
and established the first business house here. In 
October of that year he was commissioned first post- 
master. The Burlington & Missouri River Railroad 
was constructed to Juniata and trains were running 
in July, 1872. In September following the St. 
Joseph & Denver City Railroad (later St. Joe & 
Western) was completed to Hastings. The Metho- 
dist Society was founded here in 1872; the Congre- 
gational Societj- was organized in 1871. 

As has been stated, Mr. Alexander is the pion- 
eer of the commercial circle. He hauled the goods 
from old Inland, then the nearest railroad depot. 

In October he was appointed postmaster, the 
consideration being $1 per month. In December 
Capt. Weeeler became his partner and their building 
on Second Street and Hastings Avenue was erected, 
where Morledge & JMcWade established their house 
in later years. In January the partnership was dis- 
solved, but Mr. Alexander still had the post office in 
the new building. 

C. B. Nelson came to Hastings October 1, 1872, 
as land agent of the Burlington & Missouri River 
Railroad Company. Prior to this J. Ross opened 
his blacksmith shop in a sod house, but later erected 
a good shop on Denver Avenue, and was joined by 
L. W. Miller. 

S. S. Dow arrived from Wisconsin May 28, 1872. 
In June he established a land office here and within 
a year located 270 homesteads. He cast the first 
ballot ever cast in Denver precinct. In May, 1871, 
J. G. Moore homesteaded what is Moore's addition. 
In March, 1873, he became a partner of George W. 
Donahey and built a law and land office at the corner 
of First and Burlington Streets. C. C. Ingalls 
built a small house, the third in the village, about 
September 1, 1872, and soon after joined Benedict 
in the coal and agricultural implement business. D. 
S. Cole, who resided east of the town site, set out 
his nursery in the spring of 1873. B. H. Brown & 
Son (lumber dealers) built the third house in Sep- 
tember, 1872, and in October Pratt & Lawson began 
the building in which they opened the ' • Headquar- 
ters " store in November. Capt F. S. Wells (U. S. 
N. ) built the Inter Ocean Hotel near the St. Joseph & 
Denver Railroad depot early in the winter of 1872- 
73. E. Steinau came October 10, 1872, and within 
ten dajs opened store in a building just west of his 
second store completed in May. Silas Crooker built 
a shop on Front Street in October, 1872, and in No- 
vember opened his shoe store. A. Andrus erected 
his drug store on Second Street and Hastings Avenue 
in March, 1873. Within six months from the founda- 
ticfti of the town between forty and fifty houses were 
erected, and at the close of the first year of its ex- 
istence there were fifty-one distinct business and 
professional men here. 

In January, 1873, W. H. Stock opened a meat 
market; in March or April J. H. Ballard established 


his lumber yard, following A. W. Cox & Brother, 
who came prior to this time and established a large 
lumber business. Abbott, Batty & Dow opened 
their law office June 2, Miss Blodgett her millinery 
rooms, and W. L. Smith his book store. J. P. 
Crowley's, G.W. Mowery's, John Douglass' and Dr. 
Buekworth's residences were completed, and the 
Denver House opened. Miles Humphrey built the 
first carpenter shop, and R. Chandler moved his 
wagon shop from Juniata. A. W. Cox built a dry- 
house in their lumber yard; E. Steinau's new store 
was completed; Dr. Buekworth's new building on 
First Street and Hastings Avenue was sold to 
Charles Cameron, of Lincoln, who soon after estab- 
lished their dry goods house here in May, 1873. In 
the summer of 1873 H. A. Forcht's stove store, P. 
F. Burruss' and Peter Hessell's harness shops, J. 
Millett's bakery, Hill & Luniac's restaurant, Gor- 
don's tailor shop, T. B. Pratt's barber shop, 
Twidale's meat market and Secor's boot and shoe 
shop were in existence. In June, 1873, Mclntire & 
Reed, who purchased '^"heeler's store, took posses- 
sion: Wiggins, the agent of the Burlington & Mis- 
souri River Railroad, opened the new depot; C. H. 
Paul his boot and shoe store; J. M. Smith opened a 
grocery in the Town Company's old office; M. K. 
Lewis erected his residence, and Gould his imple- 
ment warehouse. Jules Lemoine established his 
jewelry store in Julj-; Mackaj' & Co. owned the nur- 
series; Shockey & Hutchinson opened their hard- 
ware store, and Dr. C. M. Wright was in the An- 
drus store. In July, 1873, the block north of 
Third Street and east of Hastings Avenue was 
donated by the county for the purposes of a public 
square, and a liberty pole raised thereon. The 
first Fourth of July celebration was held at Hast- 
ings in 1873, S. W. Martin, of Bladison, Wis., be- 
ing the orator of the daj-. There were 1 ,500 people 
reported present. In addition to the buildings 
named, the Burlington & Missouri round-house, the 
Oliver block, Samuel Chaney's residence, A. B. 
Ideson's residence, George Haguewood's, Dr. Yea- 
zel's and the Cline brothers' residences, together 
with various smaller buildings, were commenced in 
October. In September, 1874, Buswell's dwelling, 
Razee's two dwellings, Cameron's two-storj^ business 

block. Prof. Ballinger's residence, an addition to 
the Burlington House, an addition to Mclntire & 
Morledge's store house, Eidel's dwelling, and the 
Taylor and Ash dwellings were commenced. The 
Journal was established in May, 1873. Hastings 
Lodge of Masons and the Presbyterian Society were 
organized in 1873. The town was incorporated 
April 2, 1874, and the Baptist Society organized, 
and Lodge No. 50, L 0. 0. F. , founded. In 1876 
I. W. Cramer established a broom corn market here, 
and the ranks of the business circle were generally 
recruited. Hastings was chosen the seat of justice 
in 1877. The Exchange Bank and A. L. Clarke & 
Co.'s Bank were established; the Central Nebraskan 
was issued in 1878; the German Evangelical Society 
was organized in 1878; the Evangelical Association 
in 1879; the Catholic congregation was founded the 
same year; Strickland Post, G. A. R. , was chartered 
in 1878, and reorganized in 1880, in which year the 
Protestant Episcopal Society was organized. Hast- 
ings Chapter and Nebo Commandery were chartered 
in 1881; the same year the Y. M. C. A. was or- 
ganized; the City Bank and the First National 
Bank were founded, and Heartwell & Co.'s real 
estate and loan office established. 

During the 3-ear 1874 there were thirty-three 
business houses and twenty-five dwellings erected, 
together with additions to former buildings. From 
January 1 to July 1, 1878, there were 130 houses 
erected in the town. Such a record of substantial 
growth needs no word of comment. Local real 
estate owners and agents sold 75,000 acres during 
this year. Additions were made to the city, and a 
large number of building lots disposed of. In the 
beginning of 1879 there was not a brick building at 
Hastings. Ideson built the brick block on Hastings 
Avenue, north of Morledge & Mc Wade's store. He 
was followed by the Adams County Banking Com- 
pany, who erected their large building that year. 
Then came the fire, and after it the building era of 
the city was introduced — the brick store buildings 
occupied in August, 1880, by Henry & Frahm, 
Hursch, Shean, Barnes, Walbach and Edwards, the 
saloon buildings of Kelley & Hahn and Plamnaidon 
& Co., and the Commercial Hotel — all coming in 
I lately after the fire. In the spring of 1880 


Ideson's two stores on Seroiid Street were com- 
menced, and in the fall the Buckeye House, the 
Alexander Phillipps block ($10,000), the South Side 
school-house, the Farrell block ($15,000), and the 
Mowery block, on the site of the old Denver House, 
were started, together with the Davis building and 
the Methodist Episcopal and Protestant Episcopal 
churches. During the building season of 1884: there 
were 3,251,000 brick used in buildings, and 287 
new residences were erected. In the fall of 1885 
H. A. Fy\ev arvixed en route to Kansas Citj', where 
he intended to establish a large dry goods house. 
Stopping off at Hastings, he was impressed with the 
appearance and prospects of the town, and signified 
his intention of remaining should he be able to bu}' 
or rent a store building. Unsuccessful, he was 
about to carry out his original intention, when 
Messrs. Kerr, Heartwell, McElHinney and others 
proposed to erect a building rather than lose such a 
concern and such a citizen. The Central Building 
Association was organized in October, with Dr. 
jSaulteus, president; D. M. McElHinney, vice-presi- 
dent; William Kerr, treasurer; E. C. Webster, sec- 
retary, and they with O. Oliver, directors. The 
two lots adjoining the Kerr Opera House were pur- 
chased at once, and a building, after plans by Ritten- 
house, erected. 

The fire of October 7, 1878, destroyed Maston & 
Mitchell's livei-y, six of their horses and eleven tran- 
sient horses. The fire of September ,1879, originated 
in the basement of Allison's drug store, when an oil 
lamp or lantern exploded. The destruction of thirty- 
three buildings followed, creating damage estimated at 
from S90 ,000 to $100,000. The losses are set forth 
as follows: J. S. Allison's stock, $5,000; J. W. 
Davis, building stock, $6,000; H. Lepin's hotel and 
fixtui'es, $8,000; C. Cameron's stock and his fine 
buildings, $13,000; Thomas Scales' building, $800; 
A. W. Cox's stock and two buildings, $2,300; J. 
Weingart & Bros', elevator and 800 bushels of 
wheat, $2,200; Kelley & Hahn's building and con- 
tents, $2,300; Dr. Naulteus' dwelling, office and 
stock, $3,000; Walbach Bros', building and stock, 
$15,000; N. F. Damrou's hotel and furniture, 
$6,000; D. H. Ballard's building and stock, $4,000; 
G. F. Work's office, $125; Exchange Bank, furni- 

ture, $200; James AValling's hotel furniture, 
$1,000; 0. Oliver's lumber, $100; Wigton Bros.' 
office and type, $600; C. Borin's press, $75; Millett 
& Mulford's stone works, $1,000; A. L. Clarke & 
Co's. brick building, $400; C. H. Manker's carpen- 
ter shop, $200; Prindle & Burke's shop, $50; Mrs. 
How's two buildings, $450; Mrs. Higgins' building, 
$300; Langevin & Plamondon's two buildings, 
$1,500; J. B. Sevage's building, $800; W. A. 
Smith's stock, $900; George Volland's two livery 
stables, $1,200; J. Kohl's building and fixtures, 
$1,500; E. Stout's building and stock, $800; A. J. 
Nolan's stock, $300; damage to Forcht & Co's. 
building, $100; Lowman & Fisher's office furniture, 
$150; Charles Carmichael's personal effects, $300. 
and a few smaller losers. 

Immediately after the fire of September, 1879, 
subsided, the work of rebuilding commenced, and 
nine brick buildings were under construction, with 
several frame houses, among them the Lepin House. 

The Burlington & Missouri River Railroad depot 
was destroyed by fire November 25, 1879, under 
circumstances described in the chapter devoted to 
the courts. 

The burning of Lee's barn, February 24, 1880, 
threatened the destruction of that section of the city 
which was not destro3'ed in September, 1879. The 
firemen averted the danger and saved the town, an 
action which won for them fame. The fire of July 
16, 1881, originated in Davis' drug store, destroying 
that building, with Altschul's, Binderup's, Jorgen- 
sen's, Dieti'ich's (occupied by Nowlan) buildings 
and much valuable property. The insurance carried 
amounted to $1 9,7 50. This disastrous fire destroyed 
the block between Second and Third Streets and 
Hastings and Denver Avenues. Cole's circus was 
here; the thermometer registered 103 degrees in the 
shade, and the town was full of visitors. The circus 
men aided the fire department, but the natural and 
artificial heat made the atmosphere so oppressive 
that numbers of the workers fell insensible, leaving 
the fiames to devour everything save the Forgy build- 
ing on Second Street and Denver Avenue. 

The fire of October 19, 1885, destroyed Bristol's 
agricultural implement warehouse and Yetter's paint 
shop. The fire apparatus proved almost useless in 


face of the strong wind. The fire of Februarj- 2, 
1886, originated in Winsor's restaurant, and resulted 
in the destruction of Fisher's building adjoining, and 
the grocery stoclc of Knight & Green. Hattie Hig- 
gins' building was damaged, also Mrs. D. B. Farry's 
house and the M. Stern building. Alfred Curtis 
proclaimed an offer of $100 to the department, 
should it be saved, and the firemen won the reward. 
Dilley's slaughter-house was burned May 31 , 1886. 
The burning of the brewery and small buildings is 
of recent date. In January, 1889, the New York 
Five Cent Store was burned out and the New Eng- 
land Hotel damaged. The fire which destroyed E. 
Cole's barn in Februar}' almost led to the burning of 
the La Belle Hotel and the steam laundry. 

The rain and wind storm of May 22-23, 1873, 
blew down Moore & Donahey's office, carried out the 
front of Veith's furniture store; Gordon's new build- 
ing was leveled; Capt. Wells' stable was blown 
away; Pratt & Lawson's house, on their claim, 
was torn to pieces, while southwest of the town a 
school-house was blown down. At Juniata only one 
house was blown over. 

The storm of July 4, ISSO, carried away part of 
the roof of the Lepin House, entailing a loss of 
$1,500; Bacon's new house, north of the depot, 
was carried bodily off the foundation, also Schermer- 
horn's house; Meson's unfinished house, on the 
north side of the square, was moved twelve inches; 
Mount's new house was moved over twenty-four in- 
ches, but the sleeping owners did not know of it 
until morning; barns and other buildings in the 
northwestern quarter of Hastings were carried away 
or damaged; Steinau's warehouse was torn to pieces; 
the front of Crane & Hayzlett's store was blown 
out, and fifty per cent of the wind-mills were taken 
away or broken by the wind. 

In the summer of 1887 a wind storm demolished 
the large building then being erected by the Hast- 
ings Building Association, for Moriarty, Trimble 
& Co. 

The old fire department re-organized November 
26, 1878, with J. D. Crans, C. E. ; H. M. Hicks, 
A. M. ; J. S. Allison, secretary; A. Yeazel, treas- 
urer; H. H. Cherry, foreman; Peter Wood and L. 
McBride, assistant foremen. The hook and ladder 

company was presided over by N. R. McBride, with 
Louis Kline and A. Pool, assistants. The hose 
companj- claimed E. D. Kennard as foreman, while 
the department trustees were J. N. Lj-man, E. 
Hayzlett, C. Cameron, F. J. Benedict and George 
E. Brown. The special election of Januarj-, 1879, 
resulted in 308 votes being recorded on the question 
of issuing bonds for $6,000 to meet the expenditures 
of the reorganized fire department. The proposition 
was carried by a majority of seventy-three votes. 
The roster of firemen, in good standing, December 
19, 1883, shows the names of J. C. Williams (chief 
of department), O. Oliver, J. N. Lyman, D. M. 
McElHiunej', James McWade, F. J. Benedict, C. 
Hammott, C. K. Lawson (treasurer), Ed. Quinn, J. 
M. Strickland, J. J. Wemple, J. C. Craig, Ed. 
Havens, Frank Coy, H. H. Cherry and S. M. 
Wright — all of engine company No. 1 ; C. Fisher, 
Ed. Kennard, H. Ellison, George W. Houck (assist- 
ant engineer of department), W. G. Snyder, John 
Dugan, 0. H. McNeil, William Cutler, J. L. Finley 
and N. P. Eckles — all of hose company; G. J. 
Evans, H. C. Haverly, M. Stern, Charles C. Cline, 
J. B. Dallas, F. Browning, Fred Stine, Charles 
Wahlquist and Alex. Meyer — all of hook and ladder 
company. The officers for 1890 are J. C. Williams, 
chief; H. C. Haverly, assistant chief; C. C. Cline, 
secretary, and Mike Reed, treasurer. 

The ordinance empowering the city to borrow 
$85,000 for the construction of a system of water- 
works was adopted in March, 1886. The people 
confirmed this ordinance by vote, and in November 
the entire bond issue was purchased by Edward M. 
Needles, of the Penn Mutual Insurance Company, 
of Philadelphia, who came here to see the city. 

The works were completed in 1886. The system 
consists of eight bored wells, each supplied with a 
separate steam pump which pumps the water into a 
large receiving reservoir. Two large steam pumps 
take the water from the reservoir and force it iato 
the stand pipe. The stand pipe rests upon a solid 
stone foundation, and is 125 feet in height and 20 

feet in diameter. There are 1 Si 

i of mains. The 

total cost of the works and mains is $100,000. For 
the eleven months ending November 30, there had 
been pumped 63,451,613 gallons of water. The 

~a) ^ 



Adams County, Nebraska. 


water rent for 1889 was about $8,G50. During the 
year 140 permits were issued, making total number 
of water permits 725. The best of maintenance, 
including coal, wages, etc., is less than $G,000. As 
an investment, Hastings water works stock, were it 
owned by private individuals, would be above par. 
There is not another city in Nebraska with a better 
system of water works, better management, or fur- 
nishing better water than the Hastings, system. The 
water is as pure as that from a mountain spring or 
brook, and the supply is inexhaustible. 

The transactions of the council of the town are 
interesting: The commissioners declared Hastings 
an incorporated town April 2, 1874, and M. K. 
Lewis, A. D. Buckworth, J. G. B. Smith, A. W. 
Cox and A. H. Forcht were chosen trustees. The 
board of trustees of the town of Hastings organized 
May 4, 1874, with M. K. Lewis, president; W. F. 
J. Combj', clerk; W. A. Smith, treasurer; Thomas 
E. Farrell, collector; G. W. JMowery, marshal; G. D. 
Pierce, attornej^; L. C. Gould, police justice; C. H. 
Paul, assessor; C. K. Lawson and R. Y. Shockey, 
flue inspectors. On May 18 the first business meel^ 
ing was held. M. K. Lewis, A. D. Buckworth, H. 
A. Forcht and A. W. Cox were present. A petition 
from residents on the north side of Second Street, 
asking for the construction of a sidewalk, was pre- 
sented, and an ordinance for a walk six feet in width 
was adopted. The ordinance for closing saloons 
between the hours of 10 P. M. and 5 A. M. and all 
day on Sundays was adopted. A. Berg was ap- 
pointed street commissioner vice Dungan, resigned. 
Trustee J. G. B. Smith was present on May 30. 
Petitions for sidewalks on Hastings Avenue and 
First Street and for street crossings were pre- 
sented. The ordinances of Lincoln City were 
adopted for use here. On June 8 a $1 dog tax was 
authorized, and a town tax of ten mills ordered. 
This tax was reduced to five mills on July 15. 

The meeting of July 28, 1874, is noticeable for 
the organization of Hastings as a city of the second 
class. On August 8 the election of officers took 
place, and the vote canvassed on the 10th. A pro- 
test from W. L. Smith, of the First ward, on the 
grounds of illegality was received. The poll book 
of the Third ward was objected to b}- A. D. Buck- 

worth, owing to some informality, and the returns 
ignored; while the returns of the Second ward were 
reported in-egular. On August 11 the last named 
returns proved correct, were canvassed, and the 
following named officers elected: H. A. Forcht, 
mayor; G. D. Pierce, clerk; J. G. B. Smith, 
treasurer; L. C. Gould, police justice; Alfi-ed Berg, 
marshal; J. G. B. Smith and John E. Wood, coun- 
cilmen. For some reason, unexplained on the record 
Ijook, the whole batch of officials resigned. Buck- 
worth's motion to hold anew election on the 27th 
was lost, and on the 17th Trustee Cox moved that 
the clerk notify the officers-elect to qualify. On 
September 7 the offices were declared vacant, and 
on September 22, the election under the order rais- 
ing Hastings to a city of the second class was held. 
John E. Wood was chosen maynr; O. D. Pierce, 
clerk; A. L.Wigton, police jud-f; A I'x'iv, marshal; 
Samuel Alexander, treasurer; Tlidinas E. Farrell,' 
engineer; A. W. Cox and J. L. Parrott, councilmen 
for First ward; J. G. B. Smith and H. A. Forcht, 
for Second, and J. E. Smith and Thomas E. Farrell 
for Third ward. The new council attempted to 
modernize the primitive water system of the village, 
and had galvanized tubing inserted in the old well. 
Thomas E. Farrell was appointed a committee to 
secure from the Town Company, for tlic city, a deed 
to the lot on which the city will \\as liMiitci], wliile 
J. Smith and A. W. Cox were appciiiited •■ t.i see 
that the city is in good shape to receive a wind-mill. " 
0. Oliver was declared representative of the First 
ward on October 26 in the case of Pamitt cv. Oliver, 
by reason of the former's absenee ami failure to 
qualify. T. J. Pardee was elected in the Second 
ward in January, 1875. 

On Januarj' 18, 1875, the modest couneilmen 
moved to circulate a petition to be pre^sentell to the 
Legislature for the annexation to Adams Connty of 
all that portion of Hall County south of the I'latte 
River. A. W. Cox was appointed, W. L. Smith 
was also appointed, to procure a copy of the petition 
for the removal of the county seat. A city prison 
was authorized to be built at tliis time, and a petition 
by A. D. Buckworth and eight others asking that a 
committee of the council proceed to Lincoln to urge 
before the Legislature the illegality of the organiza- 


tiou of Adams County, and $300 was at once ap- 
propriated to meet the expenses of such committee. 
Mr. Buckworth was empowered to select this com- 
mittee. In March $500 was appropriated to be ex- 
pended in canvassing the county in re re-location of 
seat of justice, and on April 12 a number of bills 
were paid on this acrcount. 

Tlie elections of April, 1875, resulted in the 
choice of Charles H. Paul, for mayor; G. D. Pierce, 
clerk; S. Alexander, treasurer; John E. Wood, 
police judge; C. E. Forgy, marshal; A. Berg, 
engineer; George T. Work, J. L. PaiTott, Robert 
Moriedge, Fred Forcht, J. M. Smith and Thomas E. 
Farrell, councilmen. Mr. Paul would not qualify, 
and M. K. Lewis was elected mayor. The ordi- 
nance adopting a grade for First and Second Streets 
and Hastings and Denver Avenues was adopted in 
May, and in August the councilmen adopted their 
scale of pay at 150 cents for each meeting. The 
city immigration committee was working earnestly 
at this time in connection with the council, and 
meetings were held at short intervals. 

lu September, 1875, a committee was appointed 
to superintend the burning of grass within the city 
limits, and G. T. Work was instructed to plat the 
cemetery gi-ounds, and an election of councilman 
vice PaiTott was ordered. On January 3, 1876, the 
question of issuing city bonds for $2,750 to fund 
indebtedness, was ordered to be submitted to a vote 
and can-ied, in April, by 91 for, 4 contra. A. D. 
Yocum was chosen mayor; John E. Wood, clerk; 
S. Alexander, ti-easurer; J. H. Darnell, police 
judge; William Hubbell, marshal; S. D. Stoddard, 
engineer; J. C.ounti-yman, Fred Forcht and J. Stab- 
ler, councilmen. This council introduced a new era 
in valuation of real estate, and examined every lot 
and tract within the city jurisdiction, and levied five 
mills for general and five mills for improvement 
fund. On August 14, 1876, appears the account of 
M. V. Mondy ($162.50) and A. H. Connor, for legal 
services in securing an injunction against the erec- 
tion of a court house. In November the proposition 
of W. W. Holmes to pay eighty-three cents for city 
tionds was accepted. In April, 1877, J. S. Mcln- 
tyre was chosen mayor; G. D. Pierce, clerk; Isaac 
Le Doivt, J. Stabler, T. D. Scofield, F. J. Benedict, 

F. Forcht and J. Countrymen were councilmen. 
Paine & Co. had partially completed their contract 
on old water works. In April, 1878, R. A. Batty 
was chosen mayor by 228 votes against 17 cast for 
J. S. Mclntyre. Messrs. Pierce, Alexander and 
Work (judge) were re-elected to their positions; W. 
W. Brown, marshal; T. E. Farrell, engineer; J. G. 
B. Smith, J. Wemple, W. W. Dungan, Samuel Sad- 
ler, and A. D. Yocum, councilmen. This council 
adopted a resolution to submit to the voters of the 
city in November, 1878, the proposition to issue 
bonds for $6,000, to be expended in procuring fire 
apparatus and other protection against fire. 

The vacancy caused by the death of J. G. B. 
Smith was filled by the election of William Breed, 
in January. The vote on the bond proposition was 
49 in the First, 54 in the Second and 86 in the Third 
ward for, and 30, 41 and 45, in the respective 
wards, conti-a, or a majority of 73. In April. 1879. ^ 
Fred Forcht was elected maj-or; J. H. Fleming, 
citj' clerk; J. A. Vanatta, police judge; E. Steinau, 
treasurer; W. W. Brown, marshal, and T. E. Far- 
rell, engineer. The councilmen elected were D. M. 
McElHinney, William Breed, C. H. Paul and A. H. 
Sowers. The records of the council for the balance 
of this year were destroyed in the fire. The second 
record book' was opened in 1881. On April 12. 
1881, D. M. McElHinney qualified as maj-or; I. W. 
Cramer, C. L. Stone and W. A. Camp, as council- 
men; James B. Heartwell, as treasurer, and J. H. 
Fleming, as clerk. The councilmen holding over 
were C. K. Lawson, William Breed and 0. Oliver. 
The overseer of streets was W. W. Brown, and 
police judge, J. A. Vanatta. In June a tax levy of 
ten mills per dollar of valuation was ordered to meet 
estimated expenditures of $3,462.09. An eight mill 
school tax to meet $2,769.67, and a four mill sink- 
ing fund tax to meet $1,384.84, were also levied. 
On July 16, 1881, the council tendered thanks to 

'The taxes collected and warrants paid in 1875 amounted 
to $954.52; in 1876, to 81,010.30, and in 1877, to $1,575.88. During 
these years the levies and warrants issued amounted, respect- 
ively, to $1,081.04, $1,600.02, and $2,928.31; and in 1878 to $3,357.92, 
or a total of $8,968.09; but there was paid out from proceeds of 
sale of bonds $2,200, thus leaving the balance, $3,227.39, to repre- 
sent the city's debt in February, 1879, plus the $2,200 outstand- 
ing in certificates of indebtedness or bonds, showing a total 
debt of $5,427.39. 


the managers and employes of the circus company, 
in consideration of their services during the fire of 
that day, and further ordered the forty dollar license 
paid in to be refunded. A vote of thanks to the 
firemen was also carried. J. M. Abbott was ap- 
pointed city attorney, and iu January, 1882, John 
P. Ballinger was appointed police judge, vice Van- 
atta, resigned. 

In April, 1882, W. H. Lanning received 319 
votes and Patrick Nowlan 150 votes, for mayor; 
E. J. Evans was elected clerk; J. S. Allison, treas- 
urer; J. F. Ballinger, judge; Thomas E. Farrell, 
engineer; D. C. Brown, L. H. Tower and F. J. 
Benedict, councilmen. W. R. McCully, E. Hayz- 
lett and A. H. Cramer were elected members of the 
first board of education. In March, 1883, J. C. 
Williams was appointed marshal, vice S. L. Martin. 
The annual election held in April, resulted in the 
return of Mayor Lanning, Clerk Evans, Treasurer 
Allison, J. F. Ballinger, Thomas E. Farrell; while 
I. W. Cramer, C. L. Stone and J. E. Gant were 
chosen councilmen, and the council organized with 
C. L. Stone, president. The board of education 
chosen compi-ised J. Wooster, H. Shedd and A. H. 
Sowers. In August twenty street lamps were intro- 
duced; exclusive permission given to the Telephone 
Exchange " to erect and maintain a system of tele- 
phonic communication," and matters relating to the 
fire department considered. 

The elections of April, 1884, resulted in the 
choice of J. E. Gant, mayor; G. J. Evans, treas- 
urer; E. A. Boelich, clerk; T. E. Farrell, engineer; 
J. Wooster, E. C. Webster, C. K. Lawson, council- 
men from First, Second and Third wards, and Wil- 
liam Breed, to fill vacancy in Third ward. W. H, 
Stock was elected marshal and Joe Landcraft sexton 
of the city cemetery. In June a tax levj^ for gen- 
eral purposes of ten mills on the assessed value, 
$570,423, was ordered, also two mills for sinking 
fund, three mills for special water tax, ten mills for 
use of city schools, and one mill for interest on 
school bonds. On July 28 certain exclusive rights 
were granted to the Hastings Electric Light Com- 
pany to erect its plant, and a contract made with the 
company to supply ten lights to the city at a cost of 
$10 each per month. 

In April, 1885, Henry Shedd was elected mayor, 
Thomas E. Fan-ell, engineer; E. A. Boelich, clerk; 
G. J. Evans, treasurer; J. F. Ballinger, police 
judge; William Vastine, Charles Cameron and 0. 
Oliver, councilmen. The ordinance giving privileges 
to C. R. Miller and others, to lay gas-pipes, etc., 
was approved June 22, 1885. The usual limitations 
are found in this document. The petition of the 
Alexanders in re. the construction of street railroads 
was considered, and the question of new water- works 
claimed a good deal of attention. In December 
Hastings was declared a city of the second class. 
The city elections of 1886 were held April 6. 
There were 469 votes cast for Samuel J. Alexander; 
197 forT. E. Farrell and 466 for A. D. Yccum; a 
total of 1,132 votes. E. Fist was elected treasurer; 
J. D. Nunes, clerk; N. B. Vineyard, police judge; 
Ezra Langevin and W. H. Stock, councilmen. First 
ward; C. C. Rittenhouse, Second ward, 0. Oliver 
and T. E. Farrell, Third ward; Ed. L. Lewis and R. 
Covert, Fourth ward; D. M. Leland and Prof. An- 
drews, members of school board. The resolution of 
March 8, to submit the question of issuing bonds 
for the construction of water works, was carried out 
April 15, when the proposition was carried hy a vote 
of 465 to 164. Advertisement was at once made, 
and on May 18 the proposition of A. L. Strang & 
Co., of Omaha,, to complete the works for $75,775, 
was accepted; while the bid of Lindley & Leighton, 
of Lincoln, for the $85, 000 bonds was accepted. J. 
A. Hall was appointed chief of police; on May 12, 
1886, the ordinance declaring Hastings a city of the 
second class was carried. On June 28, C. H. Paul 
was appointed water commissioner and J. N. Smith, 
city engineer. In October, 1886, the Palmer dona- 
tion of If acres to the city for park purposes was 

On February 14, 1887, the proposition of the 
Hastings Improvement Company was carried liy a 
vote of 65 to 207, and so dcdarcl l,y the mayor. 
The ordinance to extend the city limits was approved 
March 14. On April 11, the vote of the city was 
canvassed. For police judge W. R. Burton received 
1,073 votes; for councilmen, W. H. Stock, Charles 
Cameron, Thomas E. Farrell and J. E. Gant received 
the majority vote in their respective wards; while A. 

H. Cramer and E. Hayzlett were chosen members of 
the school board; C. H. Paul resigned the office of 
water commissioner and T. C. Martin was appointed 
to fill vacancy. The records of summer meetings 
of this year are devoted mainly to ordinances 
relating to grants in aid of railroad construction, 
vacation of streets and alleys, and right of way to 
City Railroad Company. In August, a deed to Lots 
240, 249, 239 and 250 (in the old cemeterj') to the 
G. A. R. Post, hitherto appointed to settle with 
Strang & Co. , for extras on water works, reported 
an allowance for extras of $9,632.57. On Decem- 
ber 1 3, the proposition to issue funding bonds for 
$10,000 was carried. The April elections of 1888 
show 785 votes for A. D. Yocum, and 724 for S. J. 
Alexander, candidates for mayor; 787 votes for 
H. C. Haverly and 725 for W. W. Miles, candidates 
for the office of city clerk; 971 for J. D. Mines and 
524 for Emanuel Fist, for treasurer. The council- 
men chosen were Ezra Langevin, C. L. Stone, C. C. 
Rittenhouse and J. J. Lyons. There were 604 votes 
for and 25 against the issue of water works bonds. 
E. P. Nellis received 1,411 votes, J. W. Wooster, 
748 and Mr, Firmin, 684 for members of board of 
education, and the two first named were declared 
elected. George Crane was appointed marshal, with 
Lafayette Mitchell, Charles H. Wanzer and Nicholas 
Shelling, service police; William McGrath, weigh- 
master; Joseph Williams, chief of fire department; 
H. H. Stine, J. R. Jarvis, W. H. Thomas and C. B. 
Cox, service foremen. T. M. Clark was appointed 
temporary engineer of waterworks and on June 11, 
was employed as engineer at $125 per month, from 
which sum the fireman was to be paid. The tax 
levy for all city purposes, including general, sinking 
and interest funds, was thirty-two mills. On June 
21, there were 335 votes cast for the issue of water 
bonds and 21 against such issue. On September 3, 
the resolution in the matter of Street Commissioner 
William Breed was ignored by the mayor; but the 
commissioner's resignation smoothed the disagree 
ment between the executive and council. The elec 
tion of April, 1879, proved a spirited contest be- 
tween political parties for the office of police judg 
N. B. Vineyard received 466 votes; George Lyni 
386, and R. Corey, 169. For members of the 

school board a strictly- party vote was cast — C. K. 
Lawson (693) and J. M. Ferguson (690) defeating 
Mrs. P. Nowlan (307) and Mrs. N. Perham (304). 
For the council, J. A. Rose received 215 votes, and 
H. Lepin, 140 for First ward; W. M. Vastine, 110, 
and D. W. Palmer, 29 in Second ward; T. J. Creeth, 
166; J. Baily, 7, and R. Brown, 2 in Third ward; G. 
A. Kent, 162, and R. Brown, 70 in the Fourth ward, 
Councilmen Langevin, Rittenhouse, Stone and Lyons 
holding over. George Crane was appointed chief of 
police; August Rice, water commissioner; J. C. Wil- 
liams, chief of fire department; William McGrath, 
weigh-master; Ed. Burton, street commissioner; J. 
W. Houseman, city tapper; C. H. Wanzer, Nicholas 
Schilling, J. M. Tcnnant and A. Britchfield , mem- 
bers of police force; John Hoagland, D. L. Haker, 
Ed. Hamilton and A. ^I. Smith, service foremen. 

In May, 1889, a proposition to construct sewers 
throughout the city was received from Andrew Rose- 
water, of Omaha, and what is known as the " sewer 
bond ordinance" was passed June 10, and July 16 
fixed for holding an election on the question of issu- 
ing $75,000 bonds and levying a direct tax to meet 
interest and principal. There were 959 votes cast — 
465 for and 494 against the proposition. On June 
12 a tax levy of thirty-one mills was authorized to 
meet city estimates of 1889. This was made up as 
follows: 8 mills, general fund; 6^ interest; 6 sink- 
ing; 4^ fire department; 2^ police; ^ park and 3 
water fund, on a total assessment of $1,667,900, 
yielding from the 8 mills tax alone $13,343.20, 
Warrants have been drawn to about the legal limits, 
which is a little over $11,000. About $2,500 of 
this amount was used in the sewerage survey, pur- 
chasing lot for new citj^ hall and engine house, 
sewer pipe, grading, etc. The balance has been 
paid for salaries and incidentals. 

The sewer bond ordinance was submitted on date 
given above. Notwithstanding the importance of 
the matter but little interest was taken in the elec- 
tion, and as stated only 959 votes were given, 465 
for and 494 against, where at least 1,600 votes 
should have been cast. 

Mayor Yocum appointed C. H. Wanzer chief of 
police, vice George Crane, resigned, in January, 
1890. Mr. Wanzer is one of the oldest policemen 


on the force. X. Sehilliug took his place as day 
policeman, and Joseph Yocum was appointed by the 
mayor as one of the night policemen. On the ap- 
pointment of Capt. Yocum to a Federal office C. C. 
Rittenhouse was chosen to fill the vacancy in the 
office of mayor. 

The board of trade was organized March S, 1SS7, 
with 153 members. The call for the meeting was 
signed by Maj'or Alexander. A. D. Yocum was 
chosen temporary president, and J. D. Crosthwait, 
secretary. Messrs. Cessna, A. L. Clarke, C. H. 
Deitrich, Emanuel Fist and Samuel Alexander were 
appointed a committee to draft a constitution, and 
on motion of F. D. Taggart this committee was em- 
powered to nominate permanent officers. On March 
10 C. H. Deitrich was chosen president; A. L. 
Clarke, vice-president; A. D. Yocum, secretary; D. 
M. McElHinney, treasurer, and J. A. Casto, attor- 
ney. Messrs. Clarke, Deitrich, Bostwick, Alexan- 
der, Elsemore, Hahn, Wemple, Palmer and Fist were 
previously named as members of the executive com- 
mittee. A railroad committee, standing committee, 
committee on commerce and manufacturing and 
committee on advertising were also appointed. In 
September a committee was appointed to meet the 
directors of the Chicago & Sante Fe Railroad Com- 
pany at Topeka, Kan. In March, 1888, M. L. 
Elsemore, G-. J. Evans and J. B. Heartwell were 
elected members of the executive committee. M. 
L. Elsemore was elected vice-president and W. E. 
Barnes, treasurer — the president and secretary being 
re-elected. In May, 1889, J. F. Ballinger was 
elected secretary; M. L. Elsemore, president; F. J. 
Benedict, vice-president, and J. D. Rilej', treasurer. 
J. N. Lyman was chosen member of executive com- 
mittee, rice Heartwell, and Messrs. Hahn, Barnes, 
Benedict, A. H. Cramer and W. A. Dilworth new 
members of that committee. 

The charter members of this organization com- 
prised the officers whose names are given above, 
with Ezra Langevin, George J. Volland, H. C. 
Whitlock, J. C. Rosenfield, M. Stern and others — 
among whom ma}- be included all the members of the 
Union Club, named in other pages. In later years 
Snow & O'Shaughnessy, E. E. Merritt and a number 
of new citizens became members of this board. 

The Business Men's Association was organized 
December 9, 1879, with A. D. Yocum, president; 

D. H. Ballard, vice-president; A. B. Ideson, secre- 
tary; C. K. Lawson, treasurer; Gr. F. Work, J. M. 
Abbott, A. L. "Wigton, A. B. Ideson, S. Alexander 
and W. A. Camp, executive committee. Tbe object 
was to promote all enterprises which promised bene- 
fits to the city. 

The Nebraska Business Men's Association was 
organized May 29, 1889, with H. A. Fyler, presi- 
dent; E. L. Scott, vice-president; F. C. Ashall, sec- 
retary; P. H. Kipp, treasurer, and those officers 
with R. A. Barr, A. S. Yetter, M. J. Lumbard, W. 

E. Barnes, J. C. Ideson, F. J. Benedict and M. L. 
Elsemore, members of committees. Each of the 
associations have played an important part in the 
progress of Hastings, and in the development of the 
county's resources. 

Samuel Alexander was appointed postmaster of 
Hastings, September 19, 1872, and held the office 
until March 31, 1882. He was a native of Butler 
County, Pa., where he was born in 1842. He 
served throughout the Civil War; in 1S(]9 moved to 
Lincoln, Neb., and on April --. 1S72, located a 
quarter section, on soldier's warrant, near Hastings, 
where, in July, 1872, he established his business 
house. The money orders issued together with fees 
amounted to $38,968.72, and money orders paid, to 
$30,445.05. In 1878 there were 1,000 letters 
registered, and 800 registered letters delivered; 
4,360 i-egistered letters in transit, and stamps, 
envelopes and cards sold to the value of $5,072.44. 
In May, 1880, a direct mail route between Hastings 
and Grand Island was established via St. Joseph & 
Denver Railroad. On June 1 the railroad mail ser- 
vice on the Burlington & Missouri River was in- 
augurated. In October, 1883, Hastings was one of 
the four second class offices in the State, the salary 
of which was placed at $2,100, being next to Fre- 
mont in this class, and consequently holding fourth 
place in point of postal business in the State. 
G. J. Evans was appointed master in 1885. The 
bill which placed Hastings, Beatrice and Fremont 
within the circle of the free delivery system passed 
the House December 14, 1886. On September 1, 
1887, four letter carriers began their rounds here 


uuder the direction of Postmaster Evans. In 
January railroad mail sei-vice on tlie F. E. & M. V. 
line began. In November, 1889, J. B. Heartwell 
was commissioned postmaster. 

Tlie First National Bank dates its beginning 
back to 1877, when A. L. Clarke & Co. opened 
their private banking house. On July 1, 1881, 
business was started under United States charter as 
a National Bank, with a capital of $100,000. 

The Exchange National Bank may be said to 
have been established October 14, 1877, when Ray- 
mond Brothers & Yeazel opened the old Exchange 
Bank. On January 8, 1884, the company re-or- 
ganized under the National banking law, with I. M. 
Raymond, president; W. H. Lanning, vice-presi- 
dent; A. Yeazel, cashier, and J. R. McLaughlin, 
assistant cashier. The paid-up capital at date of 
re-organization was $100,000. 

L. H. Tower & Co. (L. H. Tower, A. A. Sweet 
and R. E. Dent, Jr.) established their real estate 
and loan office in 1879, and were the first to advance 
loans on real estate in Adams County at the rate of 
8 per cent. 

The Nebraska Loan & Trust Company credits 
its beginnings to J. B. Heartwell and E. C. Web- 
ster, who established a money-loaning house here 
January 1, 1881. A reorganization was effected 
May 1, 1882, when the present name was adopted, 
and the capital placed at $100,000. A year later 
the stock was increased to $250,000; but on August 
1, 1885, an increase to $500,000 paid-up stock was 
reported and confirmed. In 1884 the company's 
building on the northwest corner of Second Street 
and Lincoln Avenue was erected. 

The City National Bank was chartered in Octo- 
ber, 1883. This house was established in August, 
1881, under the title, City Bank, with L. H. Tower, 
E. S. Fowler, John M. Ferguson, E. C. Allen and 
Chester Hard, stockholders; but in September, 1885, 
a controlling interest was purchased by H. Bostwick 
and W. Gr. Clark, who have served as president and 
cashier respectively, with C. J. Dilworth, vice- 
president, and J. M. Ferguson, assistant cashier. 
The officers named, with John M. Lyman, John 
Slaker and G. J. Evans, formed the first board of 
directors after reorganization in 1885. The bank of 

Yuma, Col. , and the Farmers' and Merchants' Bank 
of Doniphan, Neb. , are conducted by this company. 

The Adams County Savings Bank was organized 
in January, 1886, with William Kerr, president; J. 
M. Sewell, vice-president, and H. Shedd, cashier. 
J. M. Ragan, D. McCool, R. A. Batty, A. R. Van 
Sickle, M. L. Alexander, Jacob Fisher, Abram 
Loeb, Sam Hirsch and L. Hahn were directors. 
The bank was opened April 6. 

The Westei-n Loan & Investment Company was 
organized in June, 1886, with H. Bostwick, presi- 
dent; A. H. Cramer, vice-president; J. R. Penfield, 
treasurer; C. J. Dilworth, attornej-, and they with 
G. J. Evans, J. M. Ferguson, W. G. Clark, W. A. 
Dilworth, R. V. Stockey and W. C. Penfield, direc- 

Adams County Bank was established April 2, 
1886, under the Nebraska banking laws. The old 
bank building was moved in November, 1879, to the 
lot east of Hawley's old grocery store. The Benev- 
olent Union of Hastings perfected organization in 
May, 1885, with D. M. McElHinney, president; C. 
H. Deitrich, vice-president; A. L. Wigton, secre- 
tary; Samuel Alexander, treasurer; J. A. Casto, 
attorney; Dr. L. Lodd, medical examiner; Thomas 
E. Farrell, A. H. Cramer, Morris Alexander, Jacob 
Fisher, D. M. McElHinney and C. H. Deitrich, 

From what has already been stated much has 
been learned relating to the old-time business men 
of the city. A glance at the statistics of early years 
will prove of profit. During the season ending No- 
vember 11, 1875, 214,200 bushels of grain were 
shipped from Hastings. During the same jear the 
following implements were sold: 78 harvesters, 
100 combined machines, 65 mowers, 84 drills and 
seeders, 540 plows, 143 harrows, 10 corn planters, 
26 threshing machines, 71 cultivators, 75 sulky 
rakes, 40 revolving rakes and 148 wagons. 

The lumber trade of Hastings in 1878 was 
represented by the Badger, Central and Chicago 
Lumber Companies. No less than 1,025 cars of 
lumber were imported, sliowing a business of over 
$300,000 in this branch alone. This body of lum- 
ber was in time distributed throughout the fifteen 
counties tributary to the town. 



On July 6, 1885, the movement to close business 
houses at Hastings at 8:00 P. M. was adopted, and 
the telling system of ringing a bell at each door and 
calling out the welcome hour was introduced. To- 
ward the close of the year this primitive system was 
dropped and a new era in business forms introduced. 

The wholesale houses of Hastings have their 
origin in the hardware house established by Burger 
Brothers, Alexander & Co., early in 1887. The 
Burgers established their retail hardware store about 
six years before. In October, 1887, they moved 
into the Enterprise Building, soon enjoying a trade 
of about $500,000 per annum. In 1888 the firm 
was incorporated, the capital stock being placed at 

Moriarty, Trimble & Co. 's wholesale grocery 
house was established in the summer of 1887. In 
June of that year the stock arrived; but two weeks 
before the daj' set for occupation of the building, a 
wind storm demolished it. This building was pro- 
jected by the Hastings Building Association specially 
for this firm , and its destruction was a great disap- 
pointment. The stock was placed in Germania Hall, 
pending the completion of a new building. The 
Hastings Association went at once to work rebuilding, 
and late in November the building was ready for the 
firm. The business of this house is estimated at 
nearly $100,000 annually. 

The wholesale gi'ocery of Ezra Langevin & Co. 
(E. Langevin, W. B. Cushing and E. L. Gauvi-eau) 
was established in December, 1889. Their stock 
fills three floors of their newly erected brick block 
at the corner of Denver Avenue and Front Street. 

A. J. Neimeyer & Co. , wholesale dealers in yel- 
low pine lumber, own their own mills at Texarkana, 
Ark. , and Hastings is their principal place of busi- 
ness. Their trade extends all over the West, and 
during 1887 reached the sum of $300,000. 

The Gazette-Journal Company has done an exten- 
sive business in wholesaling paper, office stationery 
and printers' supplies. The company's trade ex- 
tends as far west as Washington, Arizona, Utah, 
Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico, while 
a large business is done in Kansas, Nebraska and 
Colorado. This trade amounted to nearly $70, 
000 in 1887, and is constantly on the increase. 

Hastings has two wholesale commission houses 
which did a large business during 1887. Mr. J. 
Rosenfield has had a patronage of $50,000, while 
Jacobson & Co. , who were engaged in business only 
during half of the year, enjoyed a trade which 
amounted to $30,000. Still another commission 
house was opened near the close of 1887 by Apgar 
& Brown, but as their business operations covered 
only a period of a few weeks no figures were 

G. Bratt & Co., wholesale furniture dealers, 
established a retail store some years ago; but not 
until the close of 1887 did they embark in their 
wholesale trade. The Shedd & Jones building, 
erected in 1887, is occupied by this firm. The an- 
nual business is estimated at from $50,000 to 

The wholesale liquor and cigar house of Carney 
& Crowley is the pioneer house of this character in 
this section of the State. Their trade area is exten- 
sive. M. Stern's wholesale liquor house is also 
credited with a large trade. 

The following tabulated statement, prepared in 

1888 by the editor of the Gazette- Journal, shows the 
figures of Hastings' wholesale ti-ade as they appear in 
the aggregate. They are worthy of especial note 
because they present the first tabulated statement of 
the wholesale trade of this city ever made. 

Hardware 5f 400,000 

Groceries 350,000 

Lumber 300,000 

Furniture 60,000 

Liquor and cigars 335,000 

Commission 80,000 

Paper and stationery 70,000 

Total 81,385,000 

The retail business of Hastings is well repre- 
sented. The professional and business du-ectory of 

1889 shows 620 offices, stores, workshops and fac- 
tories; while all the names given in that work do not 
exceed 3,325. 

Sixty traveling men make their homes in this 
city. Many of them are men of families and own 
or rent nice, comfortable homes. They are a part 
of Hastings and as such are valuable citizens. 

In December, 1885, the Hastings Sti-eet Railway 
Company, M. L. and C. L. Alexander, incorpo- 


rators, presented their plans to the people, and asked 
that such jDlaus be submitted to the people, with a 
petition for a franchise. 

The Hastings Improvement Company was incor- 
porated in December, 1886, with J. B. Heartwell, 
James Laird, J. J. Wemple, E. C. Webster, C. P. 
Webster, H. Bostwiek, Charles P. Heartwell, Angus 
McDonald and L. M. Campbell, corporators. The 
object of this association was to construct and oper- 
ate a sti-eet railroad. In 1887-88 the present exten- 
sive system of railroads (about fifteen miles in 
length) was completed, and regular runs over the 
whole system made. It is said that the Citizens' 
Sti-eet Car Company will build a line to the asylum 
in 1890, and that the Hastings Improvement Com- 
pany will run a line to the convent. 

The Hastings Building Company was organized 
in June, 1884, with Thomas E. Farrell, George W. 
Mowery, Andreas Veith, A. H. Cramer, J. N. Lj-- 
man (vice-president), C. H. Deitrich (elected presi- 
dent), Charles Doyen, John T. Ballinger, M. Stern, 
M. K. Lewis, J. C. Kay, J. T. Burroughs, G. J. 
Evans, J. J. Anderson, N. R. Pratt, Jay Cherry, 
A. J. Anderson and H. Bostwiek, incorporators. 
The company purchased eight lots on the north side 
of Second Street northeast of Denver Avenue, re- 
moved the old buildings thereon, and commenced 
the work of erecting a two-story building to cover 
the entire property. Emanuel Fist was elected 
secretarj'. This association has added many build- 
ings, all large ones, to the city within the last six 

In October, 1884, Manager Pileher, of the elec- 
tric light company, reported thirty new lights for 
private use and three additional citj^ lights. The 
company introduced machinery at this time, the city 
mill engines having previously supplied the power. 

The Hastings gas works were consti-ucted in 
1885, the main building being 32x82 feet, and the 
reservoir 48 feet in diameter. By August 26, the 
six inch pipes were laid on Second Street. 

The Hastings Prospecting Companj' was organ- 
ized in 1889, with J. N. Lj-man, president, and A. 
L. Edwards, secretary. On July 17, the bids (for 
drilling 4,000 fest into the earth) of Johnson, of 
Kan., and Taylor & Wood, of Hastings, 

were rejected. On the 19th the proposition of Ta}-- 
lor & Wood was brought up a second time and 
accepted, the consideration being $15,000 for 4,000 
feet, to be paid at the rate of $4, 000 for first thou- 
sand feet; $3,500 for second, and $3,500 for third 
and $4,000 for fourth thousand feet of drilling. 
Prior to Juh', 1889, the contract was sold to a 
Michigan man, who was compelled to relinquish it. 
A New York man was the next successful bidder, 
but he also failed to carry out his proposition. In 
July, 1889, the board of directors was elected to 
look after the interests of the citizens and see that 
the work was properly done. Machinery was pur- 
chased by the contractors and work began immedi- 
ateh' with the result as shown in former pages of 
this work. The first well was abandoned, but work 
will be commenced on a new hole, twelve instead of 
eight inches. With new machiuerj- and twice the 
motive power, it is intended to bore down until 
4,000 feet of strata are revealed. The record of the 
boring of the old well is kept by George Haller. 
The new well was commenced the first week in Jan- 
uary, 1890. 

The Lewis foundry- and machine shop was 
founded in 1878, and completed in December, by 
31. K. Lewis & Sons (F. S. and E. L. Lewis). Ma- 
chinery for drilling wells, broom corn threshers and 
foundry machine work is manufactured here; also 
horse-power machinerj- for pumping water fi'om deep 
wells, casting for wind-miUs, cresting, sash weights 
and brick-kiln supplies. The Lewis header works 
form a branch of this industry. The Moritz iron 
and brass foundry was established in 1887, for the 
manufacture of iron columns, store fronts, machine 
castings and ornamental brass work. The brick 
yards of Johnson & McElHinney were established 
early in 1878, and during the ensuing season 
500,000 brick were manufactured. In 1879 there 
were 700,000 brick manufactured, and in 1880, 
1,100,000, of which about 200,000 were shipped to 
Grand Island. Millett & Mulford's brick yards were 
established early in 1880, but before the season was 
far advanced Mulford's retirement was recorded. 
The attempt to introduce a special brick machine 
was unsuccessful, and caused such delays as to post- 
pone work until 1881, when about 200,000 brick 


were produced. Stewart & Collins' brick j'ards were 
established iu April, 1887, southeast of the citj-, and 
burned 700,000 brick that season. In 1888 they 
inti-oduced the "New Quaker Brick Machine," and 
almost trebled the product of 1887. Crans & Camp- 
bell introduced the manufacture of patent pavement 
in 1887. 

The Hastings Steam Flouring Mill Companj- was 
organized in May, 1880, with A. W. Lewis, of Ohio, 
a subscriber of $15,000; Leopold Hahn, of 15,000; 
Charles Kohl, of 85,000; Jacob Fisher, $1,500, and 
Fred C. Benedict SI, 500. The board of trade do- 
nated $2,500, and citizens not members of the board, 

The Hastings Creamery Association organized 
in January, 188-4, with S. C. DiHey, president; N. 
B. Vinej'ard, A'ice-president; S. E. Furry, secretary 
and manager, and D. B. Furry, treasurer. The 
work of erecting buildings, south of McElHinney's 
brickyard, was at once entered upon, and the first 
annual meeting held January- 7. 1SS4. The Noveltj- 
CaiTiage Works were established by C. 0. Jamieson 
in 1886. • This factory made rapid strides. The 
cigar factories are operated by Snyder & Brewer, 
McTaggart & McKeehan, C. A. Dunn and Berry & 
Sons. The Hastings Manufacturing Company was 
organized in May, 1886, for the purpose of manu- 
facturing a combination heater under the Campbell 
& Pryor patents. M. K. Lewis is president and L. 
B. Palmer, secretary, while William Kerr is also in- 
terested in this industrj'. During the year 1887 the 
product of the company's work was valued at over 
$20,000. The Champion & Morledge packing house 
was opened December 21, 1886. 

The Hastings roller mills of Humphrey & Ed- 
gerton were erected in the summer of 1889, and the 
machinery supplied by E. P. Ellis, of Milwaukee. 
In 1880 the sash, door and blind factory of B. 
Button was established. The old mill site on Block 
5 of Moore's addition was sold to E. 0. Alexander 
in 1887, and the machinery and buildings taken to 
the corner of Hastings Avenue and C Street. The 
Hastings planing-mill was opened in January, 1887. 
D. H. Miller and D. S. Cole established the Globe 
Poultry Yards, near Hastings, in March, 1880, and 
later introduced steam incubators. The Wilkinson 

candj- factory is no smiill industry. During the 
year 1887 the establishment produced $35,000 worth 
of sweet meats. The Hastings sorghum factory, 
which collapsed in the big fire, was re-established by 
L. F. Gould in September, 1880. The Bauersock 
brewery, with which are connected two bottling 
houses, is operated by Theodore Bauersock. The 
plant is valued at about $25,000. William Breed's 
bottling house is also a large concei-n, as is Forcht 
& Brandt's. The Bonanza wind mill, invented byL. 
W. Maxau, of this county, was manufactured at 
Hastings, in 1880, by Maxan Bros. The water is 
elevated by windlass and bucket as in common- 
bored wells, the power being derived from an 8-foot 
wind-wheel. The Kellar Medicine Company organ- 
ized in the fall ot 1889, with Messrs. Nellis, presi- 
dent; J. C. Parsons, vice-president; 0. H. Gordon, 
secretary; A. H. Farrens, treasurer and manager, 
and Dr. Kellar, chemist. The company propose to 
establish an extensive laboratorj' here and manufac- 
ture several medical specialties. The Hastings 
broom factory is one of the latest additions to the 
manufacturing industries of Hastings. It was estal> 
lished in 1887, by Elroy Pettys. The Singer Man- 
ufacturing Companj' is represented — the popular 
Fred Rowe, traveling superintendent, being acting 

In 1872 the Inter Ocean Hotel was erected by 
Capt. Wells near the St. Joseph & Denver Railroad 
depot. In January, 1873, the Denver House was 
completed and opened, followed by the Burlington 
House. During the year 1874, the Town Company 
built an addition to the Denver House, and A. H. 
Burhans to the Burlington. The old Lepin Hotel, 
destroyed in the fire of September, 1879, was the 
leading house of all Central Nebraska. The present 
house was built immediately after the fire; but the 
storm of July 4, 1880, carried away part of the 
roof, and injured the furniture. Even part of the 
furniture for this house was burned in November, 
1879, while stored at the depot. This is un- 
doubtedly one of the most comfortable houses in the 

The New Commercial, rebuilt by N. F. Damron, 
on First street and Lincoln Avenue, was opened in 
January, 1880, by James Wailing. In December, 


1889, Dad Ronian succeeded Mr. Whitne}- as pro- 
prietor of this house. In April, 1880, the old 
Badger Yard building was fitted up for hotel pur- 
poses by H. M. Ridle}-. The Arlington, Denver, 
Gibout, Illinois, Mechanics' Home, Metropolitan, 
New England, Queen Cit}-, St. Louis and Tremont 
are all fair houses. It is now proposed to erect a 
200-room house, and the proposition will probably 
soon take eflfect. 

The Bostwick, in the Hastings Building Com- 
pany's block, was erected in 1884 under plans by 
Architect Weigle. The building is 80x176 feet, three 
stories in height. The three eastern rooms of the 
building on ground floor are used for hotel purposes, 
the dining rooms being 30x55 feet. The second 
and third floors of the building are devoted entirely 
to hotel purposes. The great central room , off which 
are several bed rooms, is 26x70 feet. Twenty-two 
feet above the floor of this parlor is the heavy 
glass room, and twelve feet from the floor a 
gallery sweeps around, giving access to the bed 
rooms on the third floor. There are seventy bed 
rooms in addition to ladies' parlor, sample rooms, 
dining room and office. W. H. Dildine opened the 
house in October, 1885. The present lessees are 
Parker & Dillon. W. H. Dillon, formerly of the 
Commercial, took charge of the Bostwick, February 
1, 1889. The first 'bus was introduced in Decem- 
ber, 1879, by the Alexander Bros., to be run be- 
tween the depots and the new Lepin House, com- 
pleted and opened that month. 

During the summer of 1878 the Central Ne- 
In-askan suggested the building of an opera house. 
About this time the Liberal Hall Association was 
founded, and a building was erected for worship as 
well as for amusement. Work on the Kerr Opera 
House building was begun May 7, and completed in 
1884 at a cost of $61,000, by a company of local 
capitalists organized for that express purpose. Such 
leading citizens as M. L. Alexander, William Kerr, 
George H. Pratt, L. B. Palmer, James R. Heart- 
well, F. Naulteus, and many others were identified 
with the object. It stands at the southeast corner 
of Lincoln Avenue and Second Street, is 66x125 
feet in size, and rises three stories above a high 
basement. It is a verj- substantial structure of 

pressed brick and stone, with solid granite founda- 
tion, after designs by Mr. C. C. Rittenhouse. F. 
D. Taggart purchased the stock of the opera house 
company, and became its owner. Cole's Park was 
opened June 27, 1889. 

Religious denominations by no means lack rep- 
resentation in Hastings. The first services of the 
Congregational Church here were conducted in the 
covered wagons in which the hardy pioneers traveled 
to this region. The First Congregational Church 
was organized in the fall of 1871, by the direction 
of Rev. J. F. Clarkson, who came as chaplain 
of the English colony. In the Home Missionary 
report of 1873 the Rev. John F. Clarkson is at 
Hastings. It is spoken of as " a wide field; rapid 
increase in population; more laborers needed; church 
organized." The number of church members is 13; 
conversions, 4, which added to 9 who united b3' let^ 
ter make the 13 reported. The first services of the 
newly organized church were held in a sod house 
located in Moore's addition to the city of Hastings. 
Owing to some difficulty between the minister and 
his people, he was dismissed from the pastorate of 
the church, and after a time his place supplied by 
the Rev. W. Haviland, who remained only about 
one year. The church maintained only a feeble or- 
ganization until the month of September, 1874, 
when Rev. M. F. Piatt took charge. Services were 
held in the school house until 1875. In that j'ear 
the old Millet Hall, which stood on the corner of 
First Street and Hastings Avenue, was secured as a 
place of meeting. In October, 1875, the T. C. C. 
F. S. was organized for the purpose of raising funds 
for furnishing the hall. The church society con- 
tinued to hold its services in Millet's Hall until the 
fall of 1878, when another move was made — this 
time to the Presbyterian Church, which had been 
erected and dedicated in the meantime. As the so- 
ciety had become well organized, a systematic 
effort was now made to raise funds for the erection 
of a church building. A house was erected at the 
corner of Lincoln Avenue aad Third Street, which 
was dedicated March 29, 1879. Rev. Mr. Stewart, 
who succeeded A. W. Curtis, was present. The 
first church bell at Hastings was placed in the bel- 
fry the day prior to the dedication. Rev. Henry 


Wilson succeeeded Mr. Stewart in 1882. Kev. G. 
R. Milton came in the fall of 1884, and served until 
January 1, 1886, when Rev. William Walters took 
charge. A legacy of $500 left by Davis Lowman 
with additional subscriptions were used in paying 
oflf a debt of $1,000. In 1887, shortly after, the 
Hastings Improvement Company gave $6,700 and 
the two lots on which the building now stands for 
the old site. The church house was removed, and 
re-dedicated September 25, 1887. The twenty- 
fourth annual meeting of the Congregational Society 
of Nebraska was held at Hastings in October and 
November, 1880. The Ladies Missionary Society' 
also assembled here, and reported having paid $330 
for the support of a lady missionary at Erzerum, 
Turkey in Asia. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church, of Hastings, 
had its origin in as humble quarters as had the 
other church organizations of the city. The first 
services were held in the St. Joseph & Western Rail- 
road depot, on September 29, 1872, by R. A. Crane. 
Hastings was then included in the Juniata circuit, 
and fell within the bounds of the Beatrice district. 
The class comprised William and Maria Hudson, 
Benjamin H. and Rebecca Brown, Richard and Liz- 
zie Rainforth and Mary E. Ross. As the newly 
organized church grew stronger, funds were col- 
lected, and a neat little church edifice erected on the 
corner of Second Street and Kansas Avenue. On 
July 13, 1873, Presiding Elder White selected a 
site for the proposed house on the north side of 
Second Street, west of the school house, and by 
August of that year the building was enclosed and 
roofed by the contractors, Millett & Mulford. By 
some peculiar oversight the honor of holding first 
services was accorded to the Presbyterians, and the 
wily Rev. Griffes formally dedicated the partially 
completed building August 10, 1873. In April, 
1880, it was sold to the Evangelical Society, and on 
August 12, that year, the corner stone of the pres- 
ent church house was placed. Rev. A. C. Crosth- 
waite presiding. The building was completed at a 
cost of $6,000. During progress of construction 
the members worshipped in Liberty Hall. In Sep- 
tember, 1881, Rev. Crosthwaite resigned the pastor- 
ate of the church and was succeeded by S. H. Hen- 

derson, who was in turn succeeded by Revs. Brock- 
way and Jones. The present pastor is Rev. L. F. 
Britt, who is credited with being the most popular 
of all the Methodist preachers to fill that pulpit. 
Revs. R. H. Crane, Hiram Hersey, E. J. Willis, 
who was here in 1874-75, Richard Pierson, Edward 
Thomson, A. C. Crosthwaite and S. H. Henderson 
may be termed the pioneer preachers of this circuit. 

The Presbyterian Church dates back to August, 
1873, when Rev. James A. Griffes preached to a 
small number of Presbyterians in the partially com- 
pleted Methodist Church, being the first to preacli 
under a church roof here. On August 10, an organ- 
ization was effected by Rev. N. C. Robinson, S.'M. , 
and Rev. J. A. Griffes, with the following named 
members: Samuel Alexander, A. L. Wigton, Mrs, 
Mary A. Wigton, Samuel Reed, William M. Snod- 
grass, H. M. Palmer and Mr. Electa Palmer. A. 
L. Wigton was the first stated clerk, serving until 
1881, when L. B. Palmer was chosen. In 1884, A. 
L. Wigton was re-elected and is now incumbent of 
the clerk's office. The following ministers have 
supplied the pulpit since the organization, viz: 
Rev. James A. Grifl'es, August, 1873; Rev. John 
Rutherford, January, 1877; Rev. D. S. Schafl', 
July, 1877; Rev. E. L. Williams, September, 1881: 
Rev. W. F. Ringland, October, 1882, and Rev. 
George T. Crissman, D. D., November, 1885. 

The First Presbyterian Church of Hastings was 
organized for incorporation June 4, 1874, when the 
constitution was adopted. James K. Sample, H. 
M. Palmer, L. B. Palmer, James Slate, N. L. Ed- 
wards, Samuel Alexander, A. L. Wigton, John 
Simpson and J. J. Worswick were chosen trustees. 
The edifice in which the organization was effected 
was not completed, and the burning rays of the 
August sun pierced the unfinished roof in many 
places. A bundle of shingles laid across the top of 
an empty baiTel served as a pulpit. In these un- 
favorable surroundings the church was organized. 
The first pastor. Rev. J. A. Griffes, conducted ser- 
vices in the school house for about two years. 
Afterwards Millet's Hall was utilized as a place of 
worship, until the summer of 1877, when the first 
building was completed and dedicated under the 
supervision of Samuel Alexander, A. L. Wigton and 



L. B. Palmer. This building stood ou the comer 
of Fourth Street and Lincoln Avenue. In 1888 the 
congregation outgrew the old building and services 
were held in the opera house, pending the erection 
of a modern house of worship. The second build- 
ing was erected on the southwest corner of Seventh 
Street and Lincoln Avenue, in 1888-89, under super- 
vision of the following named members of the build- 
ing committee: Samuel Alexander, Rev. George T. 
Crissman, D. D. , C. P. Webster, L. B. Palmer, A. 
J. Xeimeyer and L. M. Campbell. The church 
was completed at a cost of $35,000 and dedi- 
cated February 10, 1889, President Ringland and 
Rev. C. G. A. HoUhorst, of the college, with the 
pastor. Rev. George T. Crissman, conducting the 

St. Cecilia's Catholic Church dates its beginning 
back to the establishment of Hastings, when Rev. 
Father Leichleitner, pastor of Crete in 1871 (suc- 
cessor of Rev. W. Kelly), visited the new settle- 
ment. This portion of the mission was attended by 
Father Leichleitner until March 25, 1878, when 
Rev. George Glauber was appointed in charge of the 
congregation. Prior to this date the services of the 
church were held at the house of Thomas E. Farrell, 
but now the work of building a house of worship 
was entered upon. In 1880 this house was com- 
pleted, and the building of the parochial house be- 
gun. In December, 1879, Rev. E. Rhullier was 
assistant priest at Hastings. The first records of 
the missions in this section of the State form part 
of the parish records of Crete. The records of St. 
Cecilia's parish begin March 25, 1878. The first 
Iiaptisms recorded are those of Elizabeth, daughter, 
and Thomas, son of John and Elizabeth (Griggs) 
Britt. Thomas and Elizabeth Farrell were sponsors. 
A son of Michael Hess and a daughter of John 
Young were baptized on the 21st of April, and a 
daughter of John and Patience (Brown) Farrell, of 
Ireland, on May 12, 1878. Other names on the 
Liber Baptismoriim of this period include many of 
the old settlers. 

The mission in 1880 comprised Hastings, Kene- 
saw, Roseland, Riverton, Harvard, Fairfield, Wheat- 
land, Orleans, Sarpy, Lowell, Minden, Indianola, 
Juniata. Glenwood, Bloomington, Red Cloud, Arap- 

ahoe and Inland. In 1881 Rev. James Simeon* 
succeeded Father Glauber, but Rev. E. Rhullier was 
continued as assistant priest. New names are added 
dailj- to the long list of baptisms, while the settle- 
ments of Cambridge, Whitlock and Franklin ap- 
peared on Fremont's ' ' Great American Desert " as 
new missions of this parish. Hazel Dell is named 
in April, 1883, and Heartwell in 1885 — the latter 
place attended hy Rev. 0. N. Turgeon, who appears 
to be assistant priest at this time. Rev. F. Schraffe 
was here in December, 1884, and throughout 1885. 
Services were held at EUwood in 1886, and at Axel 
in 1888. Rev. J. J. Laughran was assistant priest 
in June, 1888. On May 15, 1881, Bishop OCou- 
•nor administered the sacrament of confirmation to 
fiftj^-nine children and adults at Hastings, and next 
day to twenty-five children and adults at W^heatland. 
On May 18 the sacrament was administered to twen- 
ty-four persons at Orleans, and on May 19 to six- 
teen persons at Indianola. 

The first marriage recorded in this parish is that 
of Alonzo P. Cook and Agnes Fisher, May 12, 1878. 
From that time up to July 2, 1888, when Father 
Simeon signed the parish records for the last time, 
there were eightj'-six marriages solemnized, and 
from that period until November 6, 1889, twenty 
marriages were celebrated. Father J. E. English 
is the present priest. During the short time which 
has elapsed, since taking charge of the parish, he 
has almost eclipsed the record of his life at Omaha. 
A church building, parochial house and the greatest 
convent building in Central Nebraska have been 
brought into existence. Among his principal 
helpers are Thomas E. Farrell. John Rooney, Mrs. 
Mary Stoetzel, Ezra Langevin, M. Moriart}-, S. 
Kelly, who contributed largelj' to church building. 
The congregation embraces over 200 families, and 
the parish includes Kenesaw, Hansen, Inland, Glen- 
ville and other points in this district. 

•Eev. James Simeon studied at the University of St. Louis. 
ISardstown, Mo., and subsequently in 
' i1:iimI, til' was ordained priest at Lou- 
■ Tvtd the church in the Ehine 
- i> 1,,-n he returned to the United 
"I .1 ~i . I.. ~eph's German Catholic Church 
:■., and later built Holy Trinity German 
Boston. He also served at Philadelphia 
ugust. 1881, located at Hastings, in 

at St. Joseph's Colli-j:- 
Germany and Swiwi i 
vain. Belgium. : i- 

States. Hewas ii:i-ir>i 

at Washington, D. C, 

Catholic Church 

and New York, and 

charge of the wide mission field. 


The Baptist Church is the pioneer religious 
society of Adams Couut^-. In Januar}-, 1871, Rev. 
J. W. Warwick preached at the house of William 
Kress, on the Little Blue. Three years later their 
doctrine was preached at Hastings. 

The early settlers of Hastings whose religious 
attachments were with the Baptist denomination, 
organized themselves into a congregation in 1874. 
Rev. I. G. Newell was the first pastor, and the ser- 
vices were conducted in Millett's Hall. The organi- 
zation did not develop much strength in the earlier 
years of its history and maintained but a feeble ex- 
istence until 1879, when the Rev. J. E. Rockwood 
assumed control. Among the early members were 

D. S. Cole, Jacob Wooster, J. H. Vandemark, Frank 
Talmage, N. T. Eckles, Joseph Simms, Mrs. Alli- 
son, Mrs. Talmage, and Mrs. Vandemark. Under 
efficient management the society took a long stride 
forward and became firmly fixed in the community. 
After having guided the affairs of the church for 
about a year. Rev. Rockwood resigned and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. J. H. Mise. The last named gen- 
tleman began his pastoral duties in February, 1881, 
and in the following summer raised the necessary 
funds to erect a house of worship. The new Bap- 
tist Church was dedicated Januarj' 31, 1882. It is 
a neat structure of appropriate architectural design, 
and cost about $3,000. Since Rev. Mr. Mise sev- 
ered his connection with the church the pulpit has 
been occupied successively by Revs. H. P. Fitch, J. 
Y. Aitchison and H. C. Holden, the latter being the 
present pastor. 

The Hastings Free Religious Society adopted a 
constitution July 14, 1878. John N. Lyman was 
president; George W. Mowerj', secretary; R. A. 
Batty, treasurer; A. D. Yocum, M. K, . Lewis and 

E. Steinau, trustees. 

The same year Liberal Hall was built — a one 
story frame, 40x75 feet. This large hall was intended 
for a place of amusement as well as for worship, 
and in it the first religious bodies assembled for 

St. Mark's Protestant Episcopal Church was or- 
ganized May 3, 1880, by Rev. J. W. Greenwood. 
He came thither in 1879 from Honeoye Falls, N. Y. , 
to the Nominal Mission Station of Hastings and 

Grand Island, where he found a few members. On 
April 18, 1880, he performed the services of his 
church for the first time, and this action was fol- 
lowed by the organization on the date aljove written. 
On May 4, the society elected Messrs, N. Z. Barlow, 
and 0. Oliver, wardens; and Messrs. Charles Cam- 
eron, F. J. Benedict, J. M. Norton, Emery and A. 
B. Ideson, vestrymen. The officers constituted 
themselves a committee to locate a site for a church 
building. On July 10, Bishop Clarkson placed the 
corner stone of the first church building, the pastor, 
Mr. GrrcinvtHiil, (•(iiidurting the services according to 
thi' litiKil. 'i'liis liiiildiiig was dedicated the third 
Suuday aft.T Ki.ipiiaiiy in 1881. 0. H. M. and 
Robert Oliver, J. M. Norton, A. B. and J. C. Ide- 
son were the members. Rev. John Love was mis- 
sionary at the time; Mr. Greenwood was rector of 
the parish, followed by Rev. Henry Shaw and Rev. 
J. W. Gilman. The present number of communi- 
cants is placed at seventy -seven. 

The Christian Church is a modern organization 
here. The members worshiped at the old Presby- 
terian Church for some time until the new church- 
house on Lexington and Fourth Streets was erected 
in 1889. Rev. W. T. Maupin served the church. 

The Swedish Evangelical Lutherans of Hast- 
ings claim Rev. Mr. Torren as preacher, and also 
Rev. A. C. Tredin, who performed the services of 
church in the Good Templars' Hall. 

The German Evangelical Association was estab- 
lished as a mission in the city of Hastings in 1879. 
Two years following a church organization was 
effected by Revs. G. G. Zellhoefer and Jacob Wein- 
gart. Rev. Inhelder assumed the pastorate in 
April, 1880, and held it until the past year, when 
he was succeeded by Rev. H. Illian. At first wor- 
ship was conducted in the old :\Ieth(:.(list Church, 
ami in April. ]>:sO, the associaticjii puK liascd that 
building and tlcdicated it anew I'm- its own use. 
The mission at present includes nearly one hundred 
families, all of whom are Germans. 

The First German Evan-vliml Church of Hast 
ings was organized for iinoiii.ujiiMii November 8, 
1879, with William Steinhaiw. clcik: Henry Stam- 
mer, August Forcht and the clerk, trustees. The 
society was formally organized in September, 1878, 


and in the fall the work of church building was 
entered upon. The church house was completed in 
January, 1879, and dedicated on the 12th of that 
month. The school was also opened by Rev. H. 
Seikman. Rev. Mr. Stark served this church for 
some time, and Rev. Mr. Fritze is now pastor. 

The Evangelical Lutheran Society hold services 
in the G. A. R. hall. Rev. C. S. Schaefer is pastor. 

On August 10, 1873, a union Sunday-school was 
organized with R. V. Shockey, superintendent; Mrs. 
E. Palmer, secretary; W. A. Smith, treasurer, and 
W. T. Comby, librarian. 

In the pages devoted to the transactions of the 
county commissioners, the annual progress of the 
school system of the county and city is noted. In 
the summary of the city records other references to 
the schools are made, and the names of the trustees 
or directors given; in the political history the contests 
for the office of school superintendent are referred 
to, and in the general chapter on county societies the 
organization of the Normal Institute is recorded. 
In 1872 the Hastings school district was organized 
with D. S. Cole, — Dyer and S. S. Dow, trustees. 
Within a short time A. D. Yocum took Mr. Dyer's 
place, and in August, 1872, this board placed be- 
fore the district the question of voting $4,000 bonds 
for the purpose of building a school. In April, 
1873, a vote on this question was affirmative. 
Samuel Alexander was elected treasurer, and several 
changes made in the personnel of the board. Be- 
fore the school house was built an injunction was 
sued out at the instance of George W. Donaghey to 
postpone building; but this was dissolved in March, 
1873, and the school building erected. Before pro- 
ceedings on this injunction were served, Mr. Dow, 
learning that Charles Kilburn was in Hastings for 
the purpose of serving papers, and seeing him in 
Wheeler's store, went out the back door and pro- 
ceeding to Capt. Wells' office sold the bonds. Im- 
mediately after the injunction papers were served 
Messrs. D. S. Cole and S. S. Dow were arrested for 
disobej-ing the injunction; but got out on a writ of 
habeas corpus, Attorneys Bowen & Laird represent 
ing the prosecution. Subsequently Cole and Dow 
were taken to Lincoln by James Laird, and while 
there Mr. Dow visited the capitol and heard the bill 

read authorizing the commissioners to build a court 
house at Juniata. Returning at once to Hastings, he 
spread the alarm, and that night a remonstrance was 
prepared and on its way to Lincoln. This had the 
effect of defeating the bill. It was revenge for in- 
terference with the school interests of the j'oung 

The committee in charge of the school house of 
District 18, A. D. Yocum, S. Alexander, D. S. Cole 
and L. Reynolds, located a sight for the building, 
and sold the contract to G. W. McDade. Early in 
May this body desired to change the location to 
Block 18, and to extend the plans; and McDade be- 
ing agreeable, proposals for building were again 
asked for, and Col. W. L. Smith was the successful 
bidder. On May 30, 1873, stone for the founda- 
tion arrived, and the house was completed that 

Three years later (1876) there were 122 pupils 
enrolled, of whom an average of ninety-eight attended. 
The principal at this time was H. W. Myers , successor 
of Col. Monroe. The school teachers of the city in 
March, 1880, were C. J. Davis, principal; Misses 
Dora Tucker, Jones, Parker, Clark, Edmunson and 
Mesdames Davis and Wigton. The school house in 
the western part of the town was opened by Miss 
Edmunson and Miss Moore in June, 1879. In July, 
1880, the contract for a brick school building on the 
south side was sold to D. M. McElHinnej- for 
$3,400. The structure was completed that year. 

The Hastings high school building was destroyed 
by fire November 12, 1886. The insurance carried 
amounted to $16,000. 

Hastings now has five large public school build- 
ings. The high school building, erected in 1887, 
occupies the site of the old high school building on 
High Street, between Denver and Hastings Avenues. 
This handsome two-story brick structure is 85x103 
feet in size, with high basement, and a graceful 
tower 100 feet in height. The total cost was $5,000. 
J. B. Molnux is superintendent and principal. 

The West ward school building, a highly orna- 
mental and commodious edifice, two stories and 
basement, is built of stone and brick, surmounted 
by a tasty tower and steep gable roof. It has six 
rooms with a capacity of 400 pupils, and cost 



$15,000. It is well conducted under the manage- 
ment of 3I:\iii>;ie E. Molnux, principal. 

In the South ward is a new and modern two-story 
brick building, with accommodation for over 400 
pupils. Mary E. Palmer is principal. 

The East ward school, a two-story frame, is the 
oldest school building in the city, erected in 1873-74, 
at a cost of $5,000, and has room for 350 pupils. 
Anna S. Rogers is principal. 

When this building was proposed there was an 
enumeration of scarcely twenty pupils in Hastings, 
and many people complained about erecting so large 
an edifice, fearing Hastings would never have need 
of so much school room. At present, with five more 
larger and finer buildings, the capacity is sadly 
taxed. "Col." Monroe taught the first school at 
Hastings in this building in 1874. 

The South Side school, situated on H Street, be- 
tween St. Joe and Hastings Avenues, was erected in 
1888, and first occupied in the fall and winter of 
that year. It is a conspicious building, two stories 
and basement, with tower, built of brick and well 
finished and furnished. It accommodates 400 
pupils and cost $10,000. 

A sad accident occurred at this school, February 
8, 1889. The teacher. Miss Aldrich, fearing the 
effects of a threatening storm, dismissed the smaller 
pupils, and as they were on the board walk just 
after leaving the school yard, the strength of the 
wind raised the walk and turned it over upon them, 
killing John Pauls, a young child, and seriously in- 
juring the teacher and several other pupils. 

Under the able management of General Superin- 
tendent J. B. Molnux, the Hastings City schools 
have risen to a high degree of efficiency. The sys- 
tem of a twelve years' course has been adopted, 
giving four years each to the primary, grammar and 
high school departments; in the high school the 
pupil has choice of two courses of study, designated 
as the classical and scientific. The classical course 
includes such studies as physiology, civil govern- 
ment, general history, algebra, physical geography, 
botany, natural philosophy, geometry, rhetoric, 
astronomy and Latin. 

The burning of the high school building on No- 
vember 12, 1886, was a great misfortune and caused 

much inconvenience, but in the place of the old 
building was erected, during' the suiniiier of 1887, a 
far handsomer and more siiii^taiiiial structure, one 
that would make a credital)li' showing anywhere. 

The completion of the South Side school build- 
ing, in 1888, gave to the city five buildings, or twen- 
tj^-nine rooms devoted to school purposes. These 
edifices are all of brick, except one, and of recent 
construction, except the frame, which will no doubt 
be replaced next year by a good brick of six or eight 
rooms. Hastings will then rejoice in the excellency 
of its school buildings. The public schools are the 
pride of the city, and a great degree of interest is 
constantly manifested. The enumeration of children 
of school age here is 2,400, taught by twentj'-eight 
teachers, including the superintendent and princi- 

Queen City Business College, conducted by J. 
H. Schoonover, was established at Hastings in the 
summer of 1888. It is receiving a generous support, 
and its various courses of study embrace such 
branches as are best adapted to fit young men for 
an actual business life. In addition to book-keep- 
ing, penmanship, commercial law, etc. , there is a 
shorthand course under the instruction of Mrs. 
Schoonover, a practical reporter. 

The rooms of this school are located in the Cen- 
tral block, and are commodious, well-fitted and 

A. L. Wigton was one of the first to suggest the 
founding of a college at Hastings. During the 
summer and fall of 1873 steps were taken to have a 
college established here and the movement was en- 
couraged by the Presbytery and Synod; $20,000 
was subscribed in lands and lots, but the grasshop- 
per visitation of 1874-75 delayed the development 
of plans, so that not until 1879 was the project 
placed on a practical footing — the Business Men's 
Association taking the matter in hand. During 
that year the citizens subscribed $50,000 in lands 
and moneys, and arrangments were made for the 
erection of suitable buildings; school rooms were 
opened over the post office. In September, 1882, 
the first session was held. Rev. W. F. Ringland 
was president; Prof. J. M. Wilson had charge of the 
Normal and English classes; Prof. George E. White, 



of the Latin and Greek classes; Prof. George M. 
Whicher, of natural science and English literature 
class; Miss Abbie Brewster, of the department of 
modern languages; JNIiss Lou Vance, of the art de- 
partment, and John Rees, of the musical depart- 
ment. A meeting of the incorporators was held in 
May , 1 882. Articles of incorporation were adopted , 
and under their provisions tinistees were elected. 

The first officers of the board of ti'ustees were 
J. B. Heartwell, president; A. L. Wigton, vice- 
president; L. B. Palmer, secretary, and A. L. Clarke, 
treasurer. The executive committee comprised the 
officers named, with A. D. Williams, Samuel Alex- 
ander, 0. Oliver, D. Lowman and O. B. Hewett. 
They were all members of the first board of trustees, 
with J. P. Kernohan, of Grand Island; Dr. Baird, 
of Red Cloud; John Fleming, of Ayr; A. H. Sow- 
ers and W. R. McCully, of Hastings; A. B. Byram, 
of Edgar, and H. M. Giltner, of Aurora. Xo changes 
were made in 1883-84, with the exception of the ap- 
pointment of Rev. J. L. Lower, financial secretary. 
In 1886 C. P. Webster was appointed treasurer, 
and Samuel Alexander, secretary; G. T. Crissman 
and C. P. Webster were added to the executive 
committee. In 1887-88 the officers of the board 
and examiners of executive committee were the 
same as in 1887. 

In 1883 Prof. J. Y. Collins was appointed to 
the charge of the department of mathematics and 
phj-sics; Miss M. I. Dinsmore, rhetoric and English 
literature; and J. W. Brewster, stenography; Rev. D. 
S. Gregory, Rev. H. D. Ganse, Rev. D. S. Schaflf, 
and Rev. C. L. Thompson were the lecturers. The. 
register shows 143 members of all classes. In 
1884-85 the facultj' named held their respective 
positions, with the addition of W. E. Andrews, 
professor of Latin and history; L. T. Terry, of 
Greek and German; Miss Florence D. Peterson, of 
elocution, and Mrs. Emma Herron, of vocal music. 
The lecturers were Rev. Herrick Johnson, Rev. W. 
W. Harsha and Judge O. B. Hewett. There were 
165 students enrolled in all classes. At the beginning 
of the collegiate year, 1885-86, President Ringland 
was professor of mental and moral sciences; George 
M. Whicher, of Greek and German; J. Y. Collins, of 
mathematics and physics: Miss Dinsmore, of rhetoric 

and literature; W. E. Andrews, of Latin and history; 
John Rees, of instrumental music; 3Irs. W. E. An- 
drews, of vocal music; J. W. Brewster, of stenog- 
raphy, and Miss Ella Cameron, of drawing and 
painting. Rev. George F. Magoun and J. B. 
Cessna were the lecturers. There were 215 students 
enrolled in all classes. The faculty of 1886-87 
comprised, in addition to that of 1885-86, Prof. 
Harvey Thompson, natural science department; Rev. 
George T. Crissman, instructor in church historj*; 
Rev. F. 51. Hickok, in ethics and logic; Miss Kid- 
doo, in history and English; Miss Helen M. Cam- 
eron, in drawing and painting, and Mrs. W. E. 
Andrews, in vocal music. O. B. Hewett, C. H. 
Yan Wyck (ex.-U. S. Senator), and Rev. E. H. 
Curtis were the lecturers. Two hundred and thirty- 
six students were enrolled in the several classes. 
During the collegiate year of 1887-88, Miss Phil- 
lips was appointed instructor in drawing and 
painting, vice Miss Cameron, while Rev. George 
Williams, of Grand Island, and Rev. C. G. A. Hull- 
horst, of Gibbon, were chosen lecturers. There were 
241 students registered in all classes. There are no 
changes in the faculty recorded in 1889. 

J. H. Hansen donated the twenty acres known 
as the College Campus, while the citizens purchased 
seventy -five acres and donated the same to the trus- 
tees for college purposes. They also raised $8, 000 
for the erection of the first wing building. In July, 
1883, the brick work contract on the McCormick 
Hall was sold to McElHinney & Johnson, the car- 
penter work to Cisney and the plastering to Worline. 
The corner stone was placed July 12, 1883, and the 
house was ready for occupation in September, 1884. 
In October of that year the dedication of the hall to 
collegiate purposes was carried out b^- Re\-. Herrick 
Johnson. The cost of this building was $14,700. 
It was named in honor of the late Cyrus H. McCor- 
mick, whose gift of So, 000 to Hastings College was 
the first gift received by the Presbyterian Board of 
Aid to Colleges. On the day the building was dedi- 
cated, Cyrus BlcCormick, Jr., added by telegraph 
an additional gift of $3,000. 

In February, 1884, J. B. Heartwell made a 
proposition to the executive committee, that should 
the citizens raise $10,000 he would subscribe 



$10,000; provided, that S15,000 of the total sum 
would be devoted to the building of a second house 
for college purposes. The proposition was accept 
able: but only $9,000 of the $10,000 was sub- 
scribed and 'Mr. Heartwell increased his donation to 
$11 .000. Work on the second building was at once 
commenced and the whole sum of $20,000 expended 
thereon. In the catalogue for 1885-86, the follow- 
ing paragraph is printed: "This building is yet 
without a name. The board of trustees would be 
glad to have some munificent friend of higher edu- 
cation, with $10,000, adopt this finished monument, 
standing by the side of the one erected bj' Hon. 
Cyrus H. McCormick, and allow the name of the 
donor to fill the conspicuous blank in the picture 
and give name to this nameless building. " 

This building is much larger than the first one 
erected, although it is similar in finish and archi- 
tectural detail, and is occupied as a young ladies' dor- 

The Democrat, of December 27, 1889, referring 
to this institution, says: "It is a matter of great 
encouragement that the gift of $15,000 during the 
past year came from Mrs. Cyrus H. McCormick, of 
Chicago, the widow of that magnificent friend whose 
$8,000 gave the name to McCormick Hall. While 
tiie citizens of Hastings have been liberal in provid- 
ing fur the college, aid to the amount of $33,000 
has come from friends in the east." 

The Athenian Society was organized in 1883, and 
the Whittierean in 1885. The Hastings College 
Journal is published monthlj' by the faculty, while 
Tlie A''idette is published by the students. 

The convent building of the Sisters of the Visi- 
tation was commenced in the spring of 1889, and 
the work completed in December of that year. The 
community was founded in France, about 280 years 
ago, as an order of teachers, and is to-day recog- 
nized as one of the highest educators of women in 
all that conduces to the good of that sex. Some 
time ago it became evident that the community at 
Ottumwa, Iowa, would be compelled to erect new 
convent buildings or estaljlish new houses. Bishop 
Bonacum, learning something of the intentions of 
the sisters, suggested the possibility of an establish- 
ment at Hastings, and on this suggestion the com- 

munity acted. A grant of ten acres was promised 
by the citizens of Hastings, and more than that in 
an expression of perpetual good will. Thomas E. 
FaiTell made the donation of the valuable tract in 
that spirit which he has ever manifested since the 
beginning of the city. The eight propei-ty owners 
adjoining the present convent grounds agreed to 
convey to Mr. Farrell a proportionate share in lands 
in lieu of the ten acres conveyed by him to the sis- 
ters. The agreement was verbal, Mr. Farrell de- 
pending solely on the public spirit and honor of the 
parties thereto. 

The Nebraskan, in noticing the completion of the 
building, saj-s: "It is a building that will stand 
for centuries, a credit to the builders and the city. " 
The ground dimensions of the building are 60x184, 
with stone basement, 10 feet high, constructed of 
Colorado granite or sand stone from the Tower 
quarries, laid in random Ashler style. There are 
three stories above the massive foundation, with a 
20-foot attic to be subsequently utilized as another 
story. These walls are constructed of brick. This 
is an $85,000 structure, but good management and 
cash for material and labor brought the actual cost 
down to $52,000. The capacity at present is 140 
boarders. The basement is divided into a large 
number of refectories or dining rooms, lunch rooms, 
kitchen, play and store rooms. On the first floor 
the main part of the building is divided into a com- 
modious sanctuary, with chapel in center and wide 
corridors. The east wing is called the monastery, 
and is especially set apart for the sisters in charge. 
The west wing is the academy for the accommoda- 
tion of students, and the front parlors assigned for 
the reception of visitors. The second floor is divided 
into two large study halls, well lighted, and six 
convenient class rooms. The third floor has three 
large dormitories and five music rooms. It is sup- 
plied with all the modern improvements, without 
which no buildings are complete. Every feature in 
the plan construction is highly creditable to those 
who had part in it. It is a Hastings building in 
almost every particular. C. C. Eittenhouse, a 
Hastings architect, made out the plans and specifica- 
tions (after designs by Kiely of New York), and F. 
M. Trich, a Hastings contractor, carried the enter- 


prise through faithful to every detail of good work 
and economj-. Col. Hoj'e, an experienced contrac- 
tor of Chicago, in behalf of the sisters, acted as 
general superintendent. But the supreme control 
and authority in the whole matter was vested in 
Father English, who labored assiduously from the 
beginning, and watched every move in the construc- 
tion. The buildings were opened January 6, 1890. 
On Februarj' 5, 1890, the fii'st reception of novices 
was solemnized at the new convent by Bishop 
Henness}-, Miss Mary Poulter, of St. Louis, and 
Miss Mary Donahue, of Philadelphia, being the 
recipients of the habit and veil. 

Masonry in Adams County is contemporary with 
its occupation. The first organization, however, 
only dates back to July, 1873, when the pioneer 
lodge was founded at Juniata. Under date, 
August 14, 1873, a call was extended to all Masons 
in good standing at Hastings and in the neighbor- 
hood, to attend a meeting at E. Steinau's store. 
This call was signed l)y G. W. Mowerj-, James Cor- 
bin, Sam Sadler, E. Stelnau, L. D. Rej-nolds, L. W. 
Spier, R. V. Shockey, F. S. Wells, W. M. West, 
William L. Smith and L. C. Gould. A lodge was 
at once organized U. D., but not until June, 1874, 
was a charter granted, the number given being 50. 
The first officers were Dr. A. D. Buckworth, W. M. ; 
L. C. Gould, S. W.; R. A. Batty, J. W.; E. 
Steinau, S. , and C. E. Forgy, T. The lodge held 
its meetings in the school house or I. O. 0. F. hall 
and in other temporary quarters until the fall of 
1879, when it moved into the second story of the 
first brick block erected in Hastings — the one on 
North Hastings Avenue, which is generally referred 
to as the Masonic Building. This lodge room served 
its purpose until 1887, when the various Masonic 
lodges took possession of their present handsome 
quarters in Masonic Temple. 

The masters and secretaries of the Blue Lodge 
were selected from the charter members for some 
few j-ears. The minute books, so far as reported 
existing, gave up the following names of masters: 
E. Steinau, 1877: G. W. Mowery, 1879; J. J. 
Wemple, 1880; F. J. Benedict, 1881; G. H. Pratt, 
1882; D. M. McElHinney, 1883; Joseph Meyer, 
1884; D. M. McElHinney, 1885; E. C. Webster, 

1886; C. C. Rittenhouse, 1887; W. S. McKinney, 
1888; W. F. Buchanan, 1887. 

Secretaries: J. J. Wemple, 1877; T. J. Pardee, 
1879; E. Steinau, 1880; J. J. Wemple, 1881; A. 

F. Boston, 1882-83; Claus Frahm, 1884; F. D. 
Taggart, 1885; W. S. McKinney, 1886; W. F. 
Buchanan, 1887; E. N. Winslow, 1888; H. C. 
Armfield, 1889; A. H. Farrens. The membership 
at present is about 150. 

Hastings Chapter No. 21 . R. A. M. , was char- 
tered January 14, 1881, A. L 2,411, with the fol- 
lowing officers: J. J. Wemple, H. P. ; Emanuel 
Fist, K.; J. S. Allison, S.; R. W. Oliver, Treas.; 
William Cline, Sec; J. J. Raymaker, C. of H. ; G. 
J. Evans, Sojr. ; Joseph Mejer, R. A. C. ; Jacob 
Fisher, G. M. 3 V.; B. F. Rawalt, G. M. 2 V.; J. 
Vandemark, G. M. 1 V. and M. L. Alexander, S. 
Since that time the Chapter has been presided over 
bj- John J. Wemple, Emanuel Fist, Joseph S. Alli- 
son, John J. Raymaker, Benjamin F. Rawalt, D. 
M. McElHinney 'and Edwin C. Webster. C. C. 
Rittenhouse is the present high priest of the Chap- 
ter. The office of secretary has been filled by W. 
M. Cline, E. C. Webster, W. S. McKinney and R. 
W. Oliver, while W. S. McKinney is the present in- 
cumbent. There were seventy-four members in Feb- 
ruary, 1890. 

Mt. Nebo Commandery No. 1 1 , K. T. , was cre- 
ated February 22, A. D. , 1881, with the following 
Sir Knights as officers and members: John J. 
Wemple, E. C. ; John J. Raymaker, G. ; Joseph S. 
Allison, C. G.; Benjamin F. Rawalt, P.; J. W. 
Small, S. W. ; T. F. Pardoe, J. W. ; Oswald Oliver, 
Rec. ; Robert W. Oliver, Treas. ; Morris L. Alexan- 
der, S. B.; E. H. Bartlett, S. B. , and Jacob 
Fisher, W. 

A charter was granted April 27, 1881, to the 
following named members (the officers named were 
elected June 14): John J. Wemple, E. C. ; Joseph 
S. Allison, C. of G. ; John J. Raj-maker, G. ; Ben- 
jamin F. Rawalt, P.; J. W. Small, S. W.; W. H. 
Lanning, J. W. ; R. W. Oliver, T. ; Oswald Oliver, 
M. L. Alexander, St. B. ; George H. Bott, Jacob 
Fisher, W. ; J. G. Hayzlett, E. H. Bartlett, S. B. ; 
W. M. Cline, C. of G. ; Jacob Miller, J. A. Tulleys, 

G. M. 3 v.; Fred J. Benedict, J. J. Wagen, G. M. 



2 v.; Charles Cameron, C. K. Lawson, A. L. Webb, 
Henry Gibbon, G. M. 1 V.; Paul Kalmuck, K. E. 

The following is a list of past eminent com- 
manders: John J. Wemple, Benjamin F. Rawalt, 
Jacob Fisher and Fred J. Benedict. The past 
recorders are named as follows: Oswald Oliver, 
Charles C. Rittenhouse, William F. Buchanan, 
Joseph R. Sims. The Commandery now claims 
seventj--nine members. 

Fidueia Lodge of Perfection No. 3, A. and A. 
S. R. , was founded October G, 1883, and chartered 
December 20, that year, with twentj^ members. To 
the original roll thirteen members were added, and of 
the total, thirty-three, there are twentj'-two members 
now belonging. The masters of the lodge have 
been Benjamin F. Rawalt, 33°, John J. Wemple, 
32°, and Francis Naulteus, 32°. William F. 
Schultheis, 32°, was the first secretary, succeeded 
by Edwin C. Webster, 33°. 

Hastings Council No. 8, R. and S. M., was 
chartered bj' the Grand Council, December 13, 
1887, with twenty-seven members, namel}-: C. L. 
Alexander, M. L. Alexander, W. F. Buchanan, F. 
J. Benedict, W. M. Cline, Emanuel Fist, Jacob 
Fisher, C. K. Lawson, B. S. Morrill, D. M. McEl- 
Hinney, W. S. McKinney, James C. McNaughton, 
Francis Naulteus, R. W. Oliver, G. H. Pratt, B. F. 
Rawalt, C. C. Rittenhouse, E. H. Reed, F. J. 
Schaufelberger, Levi Stone, J. R. Sims, J. H. 
Scales, J. J. Wemple, E. C. Webster, J. B. Web- 
ster, E. H. Bartlett and E. C. Sawyer. E. C. Web- 
ster was the first T. I. master, succeeded bj^ C. C. 
Rittenhouse. W. S. McKinney has held the posi- 
tion of secretary since the organization of the Coun- 
cil. This Masonic body comprises thirty-two mem- 
bers. The triennial election, held in Januarj-, 1890, 
resulted in the choice of D. M. McElHinney, 32°, 
V. M.; N. B. Vineyard, 32°, S. W. ; Morris Alex- 
ander, 32°, J. W.; Edwin Winslow, 14°, T. ; E. C. 
Webster, 33°, Sec; Charles D. L. Moore, 32°, 0.; 
F. Naulteus, 32°, A.; C. L. Alexander, 32°, D. E.; 
F. D. Taggart, 14°, J. E. ; W. F. Buchanan, 32°, 
M. of C. , and R. W. Oliver, 32°, T. 

The corner stone of the Masonic Temple was 
placed with due ceremony September 16, 1886, 

by P. G. W. M. J. J. Wemple and the grand offi- 
cers. The building has a frontage of 66 feet on 
Second Street, and a depth of 110 feet. It is 65 
feet in height, constructed of pressed brick with 
iron trimmings. The floor is divided into three 
store rooms, which run the entire length of the build- 
ing. The east room is a large double store room, 
30x110 feet in size, with receding triple front of 
plate glass. The other two store rooms are 18x110 
feet, and are also supplied with elegant plate glass 
fronts. Between the double store room and the one 
adjacent is located the wide entrance to the stair- 
waj' which leads to the Masonic rooms in the second 
story— a reception room 20x34 feet, a hall 22x33, 
the banquet hall, the main hall — a room 40x60 in 
size, with a Gothic cathedral ceiling 32 feet high in 
the center. A number of ai-mories and closets are 
connected with this main hall. The entire building 
is an-anged with especial reference to the needs of 
the five Masonic organizations. 

Hastings Lodge No. 50, I. 0. 0. F. , was or- 
ganized August 13, 1874, with F. Forcht, N. G. ; 
Alfred Berg, V. G. ; Benjamin E. Boyer, Rec. Sec. ; 
C. -M. Wright, Treas.; Melville Griffith, W. ; D. W. 
Dalton, C; G. E. Grant, R. S. N. G.; J. T. Ross, 
R. S. V. G., and C. B. Sperry, O. G. Among the 
charter members was R. A. Batt}'. Within a short 
time the names of J. B. Heartwell, James McWade, 
J. H. Fleming, N. L. Jorgenson, J. F. Hiler, D. 
M. McElHinney, E. C. Webster, W. W. Brown, A. 
L. Wigton, S. M. Clark, C. C. Rittenhouse, L. A. 
Royce and E. C. O'Donal appear on the roll. The 
lodge held its first meetings in the East ward 
school house, and afterward in a frame building 
on Second Street, between Hastings and Denver 
Avenues, moving in 1880 into new quarters in the 
old Masonic building on North Hastings Avenue. 
In 1884 it built and occupied a fine two-storj' block 
of its own on Lincoln Avenue. In November, 1887, 
the civil suit to test the legality of taxing the prop- 
erty of benevolent associations was brought by this 
lodge before Judge Gaslin. The judge decided that 
the rooms leased for business purposes were under 
the law taxable propert3-, while the lodge rooms 
were exempt. 

Hastings Lodge No. 28, K. of P. , is the pioneer 


of Pythianlsm in this section of Nebraslca. AI- 
tliougla it was established here when the JIasons and 
Oddfellows had obtained all the prestige of numbers 
and experience in work, Lodge No. 28 won popu- 
larity promptlj', and is to-day one of the most im- 
portant local organizations in the State. There are 
now (January, 1800) 120 members reported, among 
whom are the followfng named officials: A. J. Nowlan, 

C. C. ; E. N. Thacker, Y. C. ; Chris Hoeppner, P. ; 
W. W. Johnson, K. of R. and S. ; A. T. Bratton, 
M. A.; L. B. Partridge, M. of E. ; J. L. Kehm, M. 
of F. 

Teutonia Lodge No. 55, K. of P. , was organized 
July 1, 1886, by. John M. Dugan, with L. Hahn, 
P. G. C; S. Schwaibold, G. C. ; Samuel Hirsch, V. 
G. C; Otto Arnold, P. ; Dr. F. Naulteus, Treas. ; 
John H. Yager, 0. G. , and F. Brenningsen, I. G. 
The members formerly belonged to Hastings Lodge 
No. 28, but detached themselves, owing to a desire 
to have an exclusive German lodge. 

Uniform Rank No. 4, K. of P., was instituted 
May 21, 1885, with the following named members: 
James Walling, W. H. Lynn, George Delagneau^ 
George W. Spicknall, W. A. Dilworth, John M. 
Dugan, D. A. Guldin, Chris Paulick, Samuel Hirsch, 
0. H. McNeil, J. H. Clark, B. F. Leed, W. H. 
Dodd, R. B. Wahlquist, C. B. Wahlquist, R. A. 
Boyd, George C. Dade, Frank Stine, W. H. Bald- 
win, S. Schwaibold, J. E. Gant, M. M. McGrew, J. 

D. Craus, W. H. Harvey, D. J. Berry, A. Yeazel, 
H. L. Edwards, Jacob Thomas, J. C. Williams, J. 
F. Ballinger, W. F. Schultheis, Francis Naulteus, 
Alfred Naulteus, Charles F. Barly, George E. Ford 
and Frank Barclay. The first commander was 
John M. Dugan. W. A. Dilworth succeeded him; 
subsequently Stephen Schwaibold was elected, and in 
1888, Ed. N. Thacker was chosen to fill that 

The first recorder was George W. Spicknall. 
George Delagneau and Chris Hoeppner followed, and 
in 1889 W. S. McKinney was elected recorder. 

The roll of active members of this branch of 
Pythianism contains thirty names. The division is 
credited with being the best equipped and drilled in 
Nebraska. At the second last meeting of the Grand 
Lodge the first State prize was awarded to Rank No. 

4, and to the commander was given the prize for 
being the best drilled captain on the grounds. 

The Pythian sistei-hood was organized in Jlay, 
1889, with Mrs. John Han-is, Mrs. W. Dilworth, 
Mrs. George Tjler, Mrs. Curt. Alexander, Mrs. D. 
Guldin, Mrs. Ed. Thacker, Mrs. S. Schwaibold, 
Mrs. D. Barlass, Mrs. Mel. Tennant, Mrs. Joe. Wil- 
liams, Mrs. Arthur Allyn and Miss Anna Breed, 
officials. The officers chosen in December, 1889, 
are named as follows in the order of rank: Mrs. Ed. 
Lewis, Mrs. W. A. Dilworth, Mrs. George Tyler, 
Mrs. Chris Hoeppner, ISIiss Ida Kay, Mrs. A. E. 
Allyn, Mrs. D. A. Guldin, Mrs. E. N. Thacker, 
Mrs. S. Schwaibold, Miss Grace Phillips, Mrs. Mel. 
Tennant, Miss Lena Schwaibold. 

Hastings Lodge No. 43, A. 0. U. W. , was or- 
ganized June 11, 1884, with the following named 
members: Dr. H. P. Fitch, Charles Kelsey, S. C. 
Heacox, E. C. Webster, J. B. Webster, Dr. A. R. 
Van Sickle, William F. Bybee, W. T. J. Comley, F. 
C. Mastin, C. K. Lawson, Jacob Wooster,G. A. Wig- 
ton, A. L. Wigton, J. W. Wigton, B. F. Rawalt, 
A. H. Brown, M. VanFleet and F. E. Waters. 

In December, 1886, F. C. Mastin was chosen M. 
W. ; A. H. Brown, F. ; 0. G. Johnson, 0. ; A. P. 
Brown, R. ; L. M. Campbell, Fin. ; C. K. Lawson, 
R.; L. B. Palmer, G. ; E. E. Todd, 0. W. ; A. J. 
Millett, I. W. ; A. R. Van Sickle and H. P. Fitch, 
medical examiners. 

The officers of Lodge No. 43, in 1889, were Ed. 
Jones, M. W.; F. C. Mastin, F.; E. E. Todd, 0.; G. 
A. Wigton, R.; S. C. Heacox, F. ; J. W. Wigton R. ; 
J. P. Roberts, G. ; J. W. Fawthrop, 0. W. , and H. 
E. Hoklas, I. W. In December, 1889, there were 
fift}--two members reported. 

A lodge of I. 0. G. T., No. 223, was organized 
January 17, 1880, with 135 members. The official 
list is as follows, the order of lodge rank being ob- 
served — August Poole, L. M. Tanner, J. E. Rock- 
wood, L. B. Palmer, S. P. Tuttle, L. P. Hawley, H. 
T. Lee, H. Poole, E. K. Wemple, L. Ulmer, H. M. 
Poole, E. Parker, S. Hayzlett, L. F. Gould and A. 
H. Bowen. In 1882 this lodge still held a mem- 
bership of 107, and on January 19 that year enter- 
tained the Grand Lodge. 

Queen City Lodge No. 140, I. 0. G. T., was or- 

•<^ i 


ganized February 20, 1886. with the following named 
officers in the order of rank: B. F. Kimball, L. B. 
Palmer, John Cawthorn, Elsie M. Palmer, Alice 
Koch, 0. G. Goodwin, Cora Gowdj', James Hester, 
Rose Koch. 

In April, 1876, the Hastings Grange 456 adopted 
a resolution pledging the members to use all means 
to discourage intemperance. 

Hastings Camp No. 277, M. W. A. (Woodmen), 
was re-organized June 5, 1889, with J. C. Ideson, 
I. F. Pierce, F. A. Watkins, E. 0. Churchill, R. 
Stewart, P. A. Stewart, S. J. Weigel and George 
Woods. By the close of the j-ear there were over 
sixty memljers enrolled. In January, 1890, the 
following named officers were chosen: Dr. L. F. 
Britt, Jacob Wooster, Wes. Montgomery, George 
Wigton, F. VanHorn, F. M. Michael, E. J. Parker, 
I. G. S. Cleland and E. H. Manchester. 

The old camp of Modern Woodmen was organ- 
ized November 29, 1886, with J. F. Ballinger, C; 
Wes. Montgomery, A.; A. S. Rohrer, C; J. H. 
Haney, B.; W. H. Lynn, P.; Fred Renner, W. E. ; 
W. S. McKinney, W.; William A. Dilworth, S. ; 
E. H. Manchester, A. E. Allyn and W. A. Dil- 
worth, IMgrs. 

The A. O. H. (Ancient Order of Hibernians) is 
a strong organization here. 

The G. A. R. Post of Hastings is gi\-en in the 
militarj' chapter. Silas A. Strickland W. R. C. , 
No. 9, was organized February 23, 1884, with Mrs. 
E. 0. Dilworth, Pres. ; Mrs. Julia S. Bowen, V. P. ; 
Mrs. :\Iary L. Garison, J. V. P.; Mrs. Jane Har- 
loi'ckcr. Sec; Mrs. Agnes A. Hard, Treas. ; Mrs. 
Katie .liuld. Chap.; Mrs. Emily Stoelting, Con. and 
Mrs. Mary Gould,- G. 

The officers of the W. R. C. installed in Janu- 
ary, 1886, were Mrs. A. D. Taggart, Pres. ; Mrs. 
B. F. Smith, Angle Holman, Mrs. H. Zimmer, 
Mrs. A. H. Brown, Mrs. C. Dominic, Mrs. A. 
Boyd, Mrs. A. A. Adams, Mrs. Calahan and Mrs. 
J. E. Hutchinson, in the order of rank. On Decem- 
ber 12, 1889, the following named officers were 
chosen: Mrs. A. H. Brown, Pres.; Mrs. J. M. 
Boyd, Mrs. I. W. Cramer, Mrs. J. T. Dowd, Mrs. 
Jane Doty, Mrs. P. Dalby, Mrs. C. Dominic, Mrs. 
Gouldsbury, Mrs. Will Dilworth, Mrs. F. Dalb}' and 

Mrs. Jane Doty; Miss Delia Brown. Mrs. D. M. 
Leland and Mrs. Dr. Howard, alternates to depart- 
ment convention. 

Strickland Camp No. 20, Sons of Veterans, was 
organized at Hastings, January 8, 1887, with L. C. 
Bartlett, Capt. ; C. Burggraf and C. A. Gardner, 
Lieuts. ; R. A. Bruce and A. H. Bowen, Jr. , 
Sergts. ; Ross Dalby, Chap.; W. Yager, Col. Sergt.; 
J. B. Koch, Joe Alexander, H. K. Snively, J. M. 
Boyd, J. V. Snively, E. Carkins and F. C. Bassett, 
junior officers. 

In November, 1889, W. C. Faye, of Chicago, 
district president of the Patriotic Order Sons of 
America, visited Hastings with the object of organ- 
izing a camp and making Hastings the head-quarters 
of the order for five western States. Whether defeat 
or success waited on his proposition is unknown. 

The Union Club of Hastings was organized Feb- 
ruary 18, 1889, for the purpose of maintaining a 
social business club, reading rooms, recreation 
rooms, and particularly, for the promotion of the 
business interests of Hastings. The capital stock 
was placed at $2,500, divided into 250 shares of 
$10 each, and the fifth article provided for com- 
mencing business on February 15, 1889. The con- 
stitution of this organization bears 108 signatures. 
As the present list of membership encloses nearly 
all the best citizens, it is given as follows vice the 
list of charter members: A. E. Allyn, M. L. Alex- 
ander, F. J. Benedict, R. A. Barr, William R. Bur- 
ton, H. Bostwick, A. T. Boston, W. E. Barnes, J. 
F. Ballinger, D. L. Barlass, F. C. Babcock, A. F. 
Bratton, B. Brown, E. J. Bloom, B. Bernhardt, A. 
L. Clarke, J. A. Casto, J. Cherry, J. Conoughy, J. 

D. Crosthwait, J. B. Cessna, L. J. Capps, W. A. 
Chapman, B. Cramer, Archie S. Campbell, C. J. 
Dilworth, W. A. Dilworth, B. F. Denham, C. H. 
Deitrich, J. B. Dallas, W. H. Dillon, W. M. Dutton, 
George Douglass. W. W. Dwight, W. C. Donaghy, 
N. F. Damron, M. L. Elsemore, G. J. Evans, H. 
L. Edwards, D. T. Evans, W. L. Elledge, Thomas 

E. Farrell, A. H. Farrens, W. J. Falk, J. M. Fergu- 
son, F. H. Firmin, H. A. Fyler, L. H. Guernsey, 
J. E. Gant, H. C. Haverly, 0. B. Hewett, Thomas 
C. Hurst, C. E. Higinbotham, J. C. Ideson, W. W. 
Johnson, George B. Johnson, J. C. Kuney, George 


A. Kent, H. B. Knowlton, J. C. Kay, Ezra Lan- 
gevin, J. N. Lj-mau, W. M. Lowman, W. H. Lynn, 
C. K. Lawson, J. J. Lyon, W. P. McCleary, J. 
Musselmau, W. A. MeKey, Eil. E. Merritt, J. D. 
Mines, W. L. MarshaR, F. C. Mastin, J. H. MiUer, 
G. H. McLaughlin, S. J. Mattocks, A. J. Nowlan, 
0. ORver, G. H. Pratt, F. L. Pearl, C. H. Paul, J. 
W. Pickens, W. H. Payne, P. H. Passey, L. B. 
Partridge, J. D. Riley, J. F. Riley, S. P. Rounds, 
U. S. Rohrer, E. H. Reed, C. L. Rose, J. C. 
Stevens, H. E. Schaufelberger, 0. G. Smith, C. L. 
Stone, Nate Stone, J. R. Sims, W. B. Sheldon, S. 
M. Thompson, George B. Tyler, O. D. Thatcher, 
M. F. Trich, A. R. Van Sickle, M. \im Vlect, W. 
M. Vastine, A. Veith, R. B. Wahlquist, E. C. 
Webster, J. W. Wigton, George F. Wilkin, C. M. 
Weiss, J. C. Williams, George Wood and C. B. 

On February 15, 1889, Messrs. Elsemore, Riley 
and Webster were appointed a committee to obtain 
signatures to articles of association. G. J. Evans, 
J. W. Pickens, M. L. Elsemore, T. J. Benedict, R. 
A. Barr, J. A. Casto, J. D. Riley, W. H. Lynn 
and E. C. Webster were chosen directors. Three 
days later F. J. Benedict was chosen president; G. 
J. Evans, vice-president; John Riley, treasurer, and 
J. W. Pickens, secretary. Messrs. Casto, Lynn 
and Webster were appointed auditors. In June the 
presept club-rooms were rented, furnished and dedi- 

The Bachelors' Club of Hastings, organized in 
November, 1881, with forty members, adopted the 
motto, Carj>e diem. The president was W. H. Lan- 
nmg; the vice-president, R. A. Batty; secretary, G. 
J. Evans, and treasurer, E. Steinau. 

The Germania Club was organized in September, 
1885, with William Breed, president; A. S. Yetter, 
vice-president; John G. Burkhardt, seeretaiy; Leo- 
pold Hahn, treasurer, and Messrs. Padee, Schwai- 
bold and Landman, trustees. Liberal Hall was 
leased by the Germania Society in January, 1886, 
and named Germania Hall. 

The Repuljlican Valley and Central Nebraska St. 
Andrew's Society held the third annual meeting at 
the Lepin House in December, 1883. H. Steven- 
son, of Inavale, was chosen president; John Allan, 

of Grand Island, V. P. ; Peter Fowlie, of Hastings, 
Sec; A. Richmond, Treas. ; Dr. Cook, Phys. ; John 
Jackson, P. ; Andrew Cosh, of Grand Island; G. A. 
Kent, of Hastings; James Ewing, of Wood River, 
and John Mitchell, of Riverton, directors. 

Camp No. 1, Patriotic Sons of America, was or- 
ganized January 9, 1890, with thirty members. 
The first officers were T. M. Clark, Past Pres. ; F. 
C. Mastin, Pres.; R. J. Irwin, V. P.; C. L. Wat. 
kins. Sec; Joseph James, M. F. ; H. G. Knights, 
C. of C; R. C. Corey, Treas.; J. M. Houseman, 
S. E. 

The Hastings Lyceum, temporarily organized in 
the winter of 1872-73, perfected organization in No- 
vember, 1874, Thomas E. Farrell presiding. The 
election of officers resulted in the choice of W. A. 
Smith for president; Mrs. A. A. White for vice- 
president; Mrs. W. W. Wilcox, secretary, and J. J. 
Rochford, treasurer. 

The Ladies Quartette was organized in Novem- 
ber, 1889. The Quartette is composed of Mrs. 
William Lowman, Misses Mamie Kerr, Freda Wahl- 
quist and Zora Harlocker, with Miss Helen Officer 
as pianist. 

The Apollo Club was organized in the fall of 
1889, with the following named officers: Dr. 
Waters, president; 0. H. Gordon, business manager; 
0. F. Farnham, secretary and treasurer; T. L. Bur- 
ger, musical director, and has sixteen active mem- 
bers. Miss Maria Kerr is pianist, with Miss Floy 
Work as assistant pianist. The first club concert 
was given December 30, 1889. Harrison M. Wild, 
the celebrated pianist, and Miss Golda Breedlove, 
the leading soprano, made their first appearance 
here, the Ladies' Quartette and the Apollo Club ap- 

Prof. Rees' orchestra as organized in December, 
1889, comprised John Rees, director and first violin; 
Benjamin Urquhart, second violin; Gustav Binderup. 
cello; William Rees, bass; Dr. F. C. Babcock, first 
clarionet; Will Sherard, second clarionet; Charles 
Schaufelberger, first cornet; H. H. Williams, second 
cornet; Fred Taggart, trombone; Ben Boyd and 
Arlie Gardner, drums. 

The female cornet band is one of the latest 
musical organizations. 



The Hastings Base Ball AsfOciatiou was or- 
ganized June 23, 1880, with C. H. Paul, presi- 
dent; John Stabler, vice-president; George T. Wil- 
liams, secretary; S. D. Tussey, treasurer; J. D. 
Crosthwaite, captain; Edwin Boelich, umpire, and 
John Ballard, scorer. The team in harness at this 
time comprised these players : Gr. J. Evans,* H. S. 
Mulford, J. D. Crosthwaite, Frank Stine, 0. F. 
Lambertson, J. J. Cline,* J. A. Dallas,* E. Hersey 
and Frank Miner. The Hastings Base Ball club 
was admitted to membership in the Western League 
February 1, 1886, the certificate being issued by E. 
E. Murphy. 

Two lawn tennis clubs are in existence. The 
Queen Citj' Tennis club has three excellent courts in 
the vacant block south of the high school building. 
The Outing Club has two courts at the Athletic 
grounds near the college. Among those men whose 
expertness has placed them in the front rank, are O. 
G. Smith, G. H. Pratt, H. W. Main, S. J. Ma1> 
tocks, Bedford Krown, Frank Pearl, P. L. John- 
son, Harry Armfield, J. B. McLaughlin, Charles 
Heartwell, Thomas Frahm, Harry Dungan, 0. H. 
Gordon, Frank Babcock, 0. Oliver and George Wil- 
kins. Among the ladies may be named Mrs. H. W. 
Main, Mrs. 0. Oliver, Mrs. O. G. Smith, Mrs. 
George Pratt, Misses Mattie Johnson, Helen Officer, 
Addie and Fannie Shedd and Ada Nowlan. 

The Young Men's Christian Association was or- 
ganized May 12, 1881, with the following named 
members: J. B. Heartwell, L. M. Campbell, Kev. 
D. S. Schaff, 0. B. Hewitt, John Reese, J. W. Wig- 
ton, George Wigton, W. Snook, L. A. Royce, Doris 
Lowman, A. P. Green, L. B. Palmer, Rev. J. D. 
Stewart, George F. Work, W. E. Ullmer, E. C. 
Webster, Frank Haynes, N. V. Stine, E. B. Steven- 
son, A. L. Work, J. J. Wemple, W. F. J. Comley, 
D. P. Grew, C. J. Work, 0. C. Hubble, L. H. Felt, 
Samuel Alexander, C. J. Doris, A. Anderson, C. F. 
Royce, Rev. J. H. Nise, W. Bates, George B. John- 
son and William Brock. 

The Y. M. C. A. building was dedicated Novem- 
ber 13, 1885. The house cost $5,000, and was 
built under direction of Samuel Alexander, George 
P. Work and L. M. Campbell. It is the first build- 

ing erected in the State exclusively for Association 
pui'poses. Here, on November 20, that year, a con- 
vention of the State Association assembled. The 
building was exchanged in 1889 for the old Presby- 
terian Church house. 

The presidents of the Association are named as 
follows: J. B. Heartwell, 1881; 0. C. Hubble, 
1882-83; George F. Work, 1884-85; L. B. Palmer, 
1886-87; G. M. Gillan, 1888, succeeded shortly by D. 
W. Palmer. Mr. Palmer was chosen in 1889, and 
is the present president. The general secretary 
serving in 1885 for six months was Mr. Baker; O. 
F. Purdy and C. L. Kirk, in 1886, each for six 
months; Charles Kelsej', for a short time. In Feli- 
ruary, 1887, J. L. Ogden was elected, and is the 
present secretary. The present number of members 
is 147. 

The Benevolent Union was organized April 24, 
1885, with a capital of $100,000. D. M. McEl- 
Henney was president; Charles H. Deitrich, vice- 
president; A. L. Wigton, secretary; Samuel Alex- 
ander, treasurer; Dr. L. Lodd, treasurer, and J. A. 
Casto, attorney. The board of directors comprised 
A. H. Cramer, M. L. Alexander, Jacob Fisher, 
Thomas E. Farrell and the first named officers. 

The Benevolent Union Life Insurance Company, 
of Hastings, was organized in April, 1885. During 
the first years $1,250,000 insurance was taken, at a 
cost of $2 per $1,000. 

The Hastings Typographical Union was presided 
over in 1889 by R. E. Rrown, with Ed. N. Thacker, 
V. P. ; J. H. Bassett, Rec. ; J. W. L. Miller, F. S. ; 
F. F. Palmer, Treas. , and Charles H. Taylor, S. at 
A. The executive committee composed S. W. Mc- 
Atee, F. W. Cooley and T. F. Sturgess.. 

The Gazette- Journal Band, as constituted in 1889, 
was under the leadership of Prof. F. W. White. J. 
W. Wigton was treasurer; J. H. Bassett, secretar}'; 
Messrs. McElroy, Wigton and Thacker, executive 
committee. The members of the band were G. B. 
McElroy, Al. Boyd, F. W. Cooley, John Beardsley, 
C. F. Royce, S. W. McAtee, J. H. Bassett, T. F. 
Sturgess, George C. Hensman, Fred Taggart, J. W. 
Wigton, Ed. N. Thacker, B. H. Bowen, D. T. 
Evans, Samuel Payne and C. H. Taylor. 

The Hastings Auxiliary Society' qi the Home for 


the Friendless completed organization in May, 1885, 
with Mrs. 0. B. Hewett, president; Mesdames J. C. 
Webber, L. Lamer, A. J. Millett and E. H. Reed, 
vice-presidents; Mrs. M. M. Blichael, correspondent; 
Mrs. J. D. Stewart, recorder, and Mesdames J. A. 
Gallagher, J. P. Todd, H. P. Fitch, N. C. Baxter 
and Orrin Thatcher, directors. 

A society to help boys was organized in August, 
1886, with Mrs. C. J. Todd, president; Mrs. H. L. 
Edwards, vice-president; Mrs. Clemens, secretary; 
Mrs. A. E. Allyn, recorder, and Mrs. M. L. Averill, 

The Hastings Hospital Association, organized 
during the winter of 1887-88, elected trustees in 
January of the latter year. The members of the 
society included Mesdames J. M. Ragan, A. D. Yo- 
cum, Gillman, Douthett, Tomlinsou, Nowlan, Bost^ 
wick, Oliver, H. C. Oliver, Fyler, Pratt, Firmin, 
Campbell, Kirby, 'Fuller, Benedict, Cronkhite, Hal- 
derman, Frahm, HoUingsworth, Rice, Lumbard, 
Main, Burger, G. Burger, Smith, McDonald, Wing, 
Tussey, Webster, Barnes, McKinney, Brown, Hol- 
man, Cessna, Rose, Stone, Lepin, Stern, Fisher, 
Lindsay, Sims, Schwaibold, Unna, Leland, Hirsch, 
Edwards, Dilworth, E. 0. Dilworth, F. M. Lyman, 
Shedd, Loeb, Clarke, Hartwell, Phillips, Pearl, 
Lanning, Reed, Farrell, J. De Roeher, Miss M. 
Jones, Messrs. Clyde, Sewell, Kerr, Kent, Hamp- 
shire and Cameron. 

The board of managers for 1890 consists of the 
following: Mesdames Stone, Bostwick, Reed, Barr, 
Ragan, Frahm, Kirby, Smith, Shedd, Pearl, Moriar- 
ity. Main, Loeb, Rosenfeld, Fuller and Miss Mar- 
geret Jones. The following officers for the year 
were elected in January: Mrs. J. M. Ragan, presi- 
dent; Mrs. W. H. Main, vice-president; Mrs. O. G. 
Smith, secretary; Mrs. Glaus Frahm, treasurer. 

The Hastings Trotting Association was organ- 
ized iu February, 1886, with C. K. Lawson, presi- 
dent; Leopold Hahu, vice-president; A. L. Clarke, 
treasurer; F. J. Benedict, S. J. Weigle and L. 
Hahn, executive committee. 

The Hastings Driving Park Association was or- 
ganized December 12, 1889. A temporary organ- 
ization was effected by the election of A. L. Clarke, 
president; W. P. McCreary, secretary, and Fred 

Blake, treasurer. It was agreed to organize with 
a capital stock of $5,000, with the privilege of 
increasing it to $10,000, if necessary. The stock is 
to be divided into shares of $25 each. The object 
of this organization is to construct a mile track, 
erect the necessary buildings, aud then foster the 
growing of thoroughbred horses. 

The Hastings Cemetery Association was organ- 
ized January 19, 1886, and the ' following named 
trustees elected: 0. B. Hewett, A. L. Clarke, S. 
Alexander, Davis Lowman, F. H. Firmin, T. E. 
Farrell, Jacob Fisher, D. M. McElHinney and J. B. 
Heartwell. The clerk appointed was S. Alexander. 

The Mt. Sinai Cemetery Association was organ- 
ized January 24, 1886, with J. C. Rosenfeld, presi- 
dent; Emanuel Fist, vice-president; J. Mitchell, sec- 
retary; 31. Stern, treasurer; Aaron May, L. Stone 
and Samuel Hirsch, trustees. 

The solid brick and stone business blocks which 
have been partially or wholly completed in Hastings 
during the year ending March, 1888, may be 
summed up as follows, the property of those persons 
or corporations named: J. W. Davis' block, 
$35,000; Weingart block, $28,000; Stern block, 
$7,000; Hastings Building Association, $20,000; 
Mrs. Mow, $10,000; Bostwick, Shellak aud Cramer 
block, $36,000; J. F. Ballinger, $3,500; Mrs. Lee, 
$3,500; Mr. Fawthrop, $3,500; Electric Light build- 
ing, $4,000; Jacob Wooster, $1,500: Lincoln 
Avenue Building Association, $40,000; Enterprise 
Building Association; $40,000; Henry Shedd and C. 
L. Jones, $20,000; A. W. Binderup & Dyer Bros., 
$16,000; S. C. Dilley, $7,500; Natatorium, $5,000; 
new High School building, $25,500; street car 
stables, $3,500; Masonic Temple, $30,000; West 
ward school building, $18,000; addition to South 
ward school building, $5,000; J. E. Gant's "Ter- 
race Row," $25,000; total for brick buildings, 
$354,000. The general improvements comprise: 
For residences, $500,000; for improvements on 
residences, $125,000; city water works, $85,000; 
for water works in private residences, $28,000; for 
lumber for culverts and crossings, $1,500; for 
bridges and culverts, $5,795; labor on streets, grad- 
ing, etc., $3,204; electric light plant, $20,000; side- 
walks, $3,100; street car lines and equipments. 


$100,000; improvements on gas works and exten- 
sion of gas mains, $12,000; Chicago & Northwestern, 
new track, depot, switches, etc., $150,000; Burling- 
ton & Missouri Raih-oad, new switches, sheds, etc., 
$75,000; total general improvements, $1,105,596. 

The Presbyterian Church asylum for the incur- 
able insane, the court house and the convent of the 
Sisters of the Visitation are the great buildings of 
1889 — the greatest in Nebraska outside of Omaha 
and Lincoln. 

In the original bill of appropriation for the State 
Insane As3lum at Hastings in 1887 a mistake of 
$74,925 was made in engrossing it. The bill as 
passed showed only $75 as the total appropriation. 
Of course, the error was corrected at the next ses- 

sion, and the work of building entered upon. The 
first occupation of the asj'lum was made August 1 , 
1889, when fort}' incurable insane were brought 
hither from Lincoln. The officers of the institution 
are Dr. M. W. Stone, superintendent; Dr. F. F. 
Test, hospital physician; J. W. Liveringhouse, 
steward; Mrs. Helen Slater, matron, and H. O. 
Beatty, accountant. The building was designed by 
C. C. Rittenhouse, is of three stories 112x176, with 
wings 156 feet each. There are now 131 patients 
in the institution. The officials have proven them- 
selves well worthy of their responsible positions, and 
all that can be criticised is the poor material used in 
the construction of the building. Already several 
repairs have been made, and many more are needed. 




Towns Outside op Hastings— Juniata's History— As the Old County Seat— Development— Present In- 
TEitESTS— Representative Citizens— Sketch of Kenesaw and Vicinity— Its Founding and Subse- 
quent Growth— Some First Things— Ayr Village— Hansen— Millington—Roseland— May- 
flower — HoLSTEiN — Other Centers of Commercial Note — Inland — Ludlow. 

The constant tenor of their well-spent days 
No less deserved a just return of praise. — Pope. 

T .Juniata was established 
tho first village within 
\(lams County. It is true 
111 it Inland was surveyed 
In tore Juniata; but the 
j)lat was vacated and the 
^ "!*;' name given to another tract 
ot pumic in Clxy County, leaving the 
fiist seat of justice the honor of being 
the ijioneei of Adams Count}' villages. 
K.iilj in 1871 a number of citizens 
of immigrated to this point 
on the suiTuestion of Samuel L. Bras° 
and A II Bow en. Within a few months 
about 100 families, some of whom were 
pioneeis of Miciiigan, came in. The conditions 
which marked their early life amid the oak open- 
ings or pine woods of the fair peninsula were not 
found here. The beautiful prairie w:iited for its de- 
velopment by them. The great animals, which 
hitherto roamed at will, appeared singlj- or in groups 
to look with surprise on the latest addition to the 
invaders, an'' the Indians came hither to view them 
and ponder on the change. John and Isaac Stark 
and Titus and C. C. Babeock entered the section 
which was surveyed into lots, as shown in the chap- 
ter on the settlement of the county. 

The town of Juniata was surveyed and platted 
in November, 1871, for Charles F. Morse, bv Aii- 

selmo B. Smith, surveyor, on a part of the east half 
of northeast quarter, and a part of the east half of 
southwest quarter, and the west part of the southeast 
quarter, and the west part of the northeast quarter of 
Section 12, Township 7, Range 11, embracing 322^ 
acres. South Street forms the south line of the 
town, with streets First to Tenth inclusive running 
parallel. South and North Depot Streets along tho 
railroad, and Eleventh, Twelfth and Thirteenth 
Streets running due east and west, north of railroad. 
The avenues running north and south, beginning 
160 feet east of west line of survey, are named Re- 
publican, Platte, Blue, Juniata, Adams, Bo wen and 
Brass. Immediately after this survey John J\I. 
Jacobson had his hotel and store building erected, 
and early in 1872 C. R. -Jones opened the second 
store. In January, 1872 , the Adams Count}' Gazette 
was founded by the Babcocks; in July a Baptist 
Society was organized by Rev. D. H. Babeock; the 
railroad was formerly opened, and about this time 
the general store of W. Birdsall and Frank Mitchell , 
the drug store of Nathan Platte and the lumber yard 
of W. L. Van Alstjne were established. In Decem- 
ber the village was declared the countj- seat. By 
the spring of 1872 a small school building was in 
existence, and by the beginning of November the 
village comprised fifteen houses, inhabited by fifty 
persons. The school building was completed this 
year, at a cost of $3,500, and a Methodist society 


was organized by Elder Crane. Early in 1873 the 
grocery business of A. V. Cole was established. Ira 
G. Dillon's store was opened in August, and S. J. 
Shirley's restaui-ant in November. A 3Iasonic lodge 
was chartered in July, and three months later a 
Congregational society was organized by Rev. M. 
P. Platte. Early in 1874 D. H. Freeman opened a 
lumber j-ard for the Cox's of Hastings, and a wagon 
shop was established by Jacob Swift. 

In April, 1872, Titus Babcock was appointed 
postmaster, at $1 per month. In 1881 William 
Knickerbocker was appointed, but held the office for 
only one month, when S. J. Shirley was commis- 
sioned. In 1879 the receipts of the office were esti- 
mati'd at $14,783.70. Samuel L. Brass succeeded 
Ml-. Shirley, and in December, 1889, D. V. Stephens 
succeeded Mr. Brass. 

In August, 1878, the Ira C. Dillon elevator was 
erected. The year 1879 witnessed great activity in 
litiildiiig in Juniata; improvements aggregating 
.':<7.'i.o()0 were added to the town. Among other 
oditiees was a business block erected b^' William B. 
Thorne, at a cost of $15,000. P. B. Hungerford, 
P. W. Warner, Ray L. Pomeroy, R. S. Langley, H. 
Barth, Samuel Dodge, Rev. J. W. Dobbs, Rev. 
H. A. Guild, Mr. Lombard and Mr. Light had res- 
idences erected; that of Ira G. Dillon cost $1 ,575. 
Dwellings were also built for William Twidale, D. 
H. Freeman, E. Moore, James Laird, A. V. Cole 
and many others. In the vicinity much land was 
lirokeu and improved, and manj- country houses 

On February 27, 1880, Juniata was threatened 
with a conflagration. A fire broke out in the barn 
of E. M. Allen, but it was finally gotten under con- 
trol by using a large quantity of salt secured from 
the stores of A. V. Cole and W. E. Sewell & Co. 
The loss was some $15,000. 

In 1881-82 the business circle of Juniata com- 
prised A. V. Cole, W. D. Sewell, J. H. Freeman 
and W. H. Burr, general merchants; W. B. Gush- 
ing, grocer; H. E. Wells and Edward Moore, drug- 
gists; L. F. Picard and L. B. Thorne, hardware 

The Juniata fire of January 29, 1883, destroyed 
property valued at $25,000. A. V. Cole, H. E. 

Wells, Mr. Sewell, John T. Hill, Adams & Miles, 
Adams Company building, A. T. Showen, Wil- 
liam Twidale and Company F. militia were among 
the losers. 

Juniata in 1883-84 saw the burned district re- 
covered with substantial brick buildings, and old 
business houses in a prosperous condition. D. H. 
Freeman, dealer in clothing and dry-goods, was 
located in a new brick block. Fred Francis was 
publisher of the Herald; S. J. Shirley, postmaster; 
Kelly & Hogg, druggists; C. R. Jones, George T. 
Brown and H. P. Stock, bankers; W. B. Gushing, 
grocer; Allen & Kettle, hardware; James Newell, 
dealer in agricultural implements; W^illiam Twidale, 
meat dealer; H. E. Wells, druggist in the new block; 
Mrs. M. E. Keelor, milliner; John T. Hill and Ad. 
Miles, proprietors of ,the only saloon; J. M. Sewell 
and Ira G. Dillon, grain buyers and dealers in agri- 
cultural implements; R. L. VanBuskirk of the 
Commercial House; George W. Garter's Central din- 
ing hall; S. W. Clarke, owner of Juniata mills; Wal- 
ker & Watkins' livery; 0. M. Lombard, blacksmith; 
Frank Wilson & Brothers, livery near depot; James 
Beach, meat dealer; A. J. Neimeyer, lumber mer- 
chants; F. Waldon, harness dealer; L. F. Picard, 
hardware merchant; Ed. Fowler, jeweler; Jackson, 
shoemaker; Richard Dailj^, blacksmith; R. G. Ful- 
ford, painter; F. M. Anderson, wagon-maker; G. 
O. Angell, furniture dealer: 0. R. Palmer, drayman; 
M. N. Parmalee, express agent, succeeded shortly 
after by George A. Brass; William Spade and Will- 
liam Winters, builders; Rev. J. W. Smith (now a 
physician), Methodist preacher; 0. A. Buzzell, Bap- 
tist preacher; A. N. Cole, real estate dealer, and 
captain Go. F. , N. G.; W. G. Beall, lawyer; Dr. Em- 
ma Watkins and Dr. W. Ackley, were the physi- 
cians. A lodge of Masons, I. 0. O. F., L 0. G. T. 
and G. A. R., were in existence. The large school 
building was completed in 1885, by Abram & Sav- 
ery, and Kelly's brick block commenced. 

The village of Juniata was incorporated June 15, 
1880, on petition of sixty -four resident tax-payers. 
Ira G, Dillon, S. L. Brass, H. E. Wells, E. M. 
Allen and L. F. Picard were named as trustees. On 
January 15, 1880, a temporary organization was ef- 
fected with the trustees named above, and Charles 



Kilbuni, secretary. The same organization con- 
tinued until 1881. 

On May 5, 1881, Village Clerk Kilburn reported 
a reyenue to date of $441.50 and an expenditure of 

In 1881 the old board was re-elected — C. R. 
Jones, I. G. Dillon, S. L. Brass, E. M. Allen and A. 
V. Cole. The board organized with I. G. Dillon, 
president; T. H. Freeman, clerk; George T. Brown, 
treasurer, and B. F. Smith, attorney. 

In Maj', 1883, Ira G. Dillon, E. M. Allen, D. 
H. Freeman, B. F. Smith and L. F. Pieard quali- 
fied as trustees; G. S. Guild as clerk, and B. F. 
Smith, attorney. In July, Clerk Guild resigned 
and E. F. Walker was appointed. Messrs. Allen, 
Smith, Pieard, Freeman and W. B. Gushing were 
elected in April, 1884, S. L. Brass was chosen clerk, 
and all re-elected in 1885. The expenditures for 
the year ending May 12 amounted to $1,574.86, 
and the revenue to $2,700.31. In April, 1886, 
George W. Babcock, A. P. Slack, F. M. Anderson, 
W. M. Winters and D. V. Stephens were chosen 
trustees, who appointed Ed. F. Fowler, clerk. In 
June William Spade took the place of Winters. The 
petition of A. V. Cole and sixty-eight others, ask- 
ing the appointment of H. A. Moreland as marshal, 
was received, and George T. Brown appointed treas- 
urer. In July, 1886, D. V. Stephens of the ceme- 
terj' committee reported on the removal of the re- 
mains of the dead to potter's field from a street 
in the cemetery, and reinterment there in four 
graves. In November, 1886, W. H. Burr was ap- 
pointed trustee, vice A. P. Slack resigned. In April, 
1887, B. F. Smith, L. F. Pieard, 0. P. Palmer, Asa 
Neimeyer and E. F. Gettle qualified as trustees. E. 
M. Allen was chosen clerk and D. R. Ball, marshal, 
but H. A. Moreland was subsequently appointed. 
In April, 1888, B. F. Smith, Asa Neimeyer, G. G. 
Vreeland, E. F. Gettle, D. V. Stephens and D. H. 
Freeman were elected trustees, and S. L. Brass, 
clerk. H. VanBuskirk was appointed marshal. 
They were re-elected in 1889, with the exception of 
D. H. Freeman, who was replaced by A. H. Lang- 
jahr. Messrs. Brass and Brown, clerk and treas- 
urer respectively, were re-appointed. 

The first school at Juniata was opened in a house 

erected for that purpose (Ijy Ira G. Dillon and E. 
M. Allen), by Lizzie Scott, early in 1872. During 
that 3ear a school board was elected — H. H. Ballon, 
S. L. Brass and Titus Babcock, trustees; a small 
building was put up by E. M. Allen and I. G. Dil- 
lon. Subsequently a building was erected at a cost 
of $3,500. 

5Iiss Lucy A. McFadden, born at Ogdensburg, 
N. Y. , came to Nebraska in June, 1872, and for 
three j^ears presided over the graded school at Har- 
vard. Subsequently she was principal of the Ju- 
niata school, resigning the position January 1, 1880, 
to take that of superintendent of schools, to which 
she was elected and re-elected as related in the politi- 
cal chapter. A. W. Griffith was principal of schools 
in 1880-81. G. G. Sill was principal in 1882. with 
Misses Lucy A. Robertson and Nettie Winters, 

In 1884-85 Prof. A. E. Compton was principal 
of the schools, with Miss Nettie Winters in charge 
of the intermediate department, and Miss Gertrude 
Smith in charge of the primary department; W. F. 
Bybee with the same assistants. J. H. Albright 
succeeded Mr. Bybee, and W. S. Webster succeeded 
Mr. Albright, with Miss Annie Buzzell in primary. 
Miss Elizabeth Allen in the intermediate and 3Irs. 
Webster in the grammar department. Mrs. Web- 
ster gives much attention to school aflfairs, not only 
at Juniata but also throughout the country. 

Juniata Lodge No. 42, A. F. and A. M., was 
established in June, 1873, and meetings were held 
in the old school house until May, 1878, when the 
society purchased a two-story building. The char- 
ter was secured June 18, 1873, and accepted by the 
following named members: Edwin M. Allen, Wil- 
liam White, William L. Van Alstyne, Ira G. Dillon, 
Andrew Clute, Rufus H. Crane, Hillary Dean, 
Marcus C. Lindsay, Barney E. Swift, Russell D. 
Babcock, Henry Ormsbee and George Kuder. The 
masters of this lodge have been Edwin M. Allen, 
William L. Van Alstyne, Barney E. Swift, Ira G. 
Dillon, H. A. Guild and E. J. Hanchett. 

Juniata Lodge No. 79, I. O. 0. F., was organ- 
ized by charter from the Grand Lodge of the 
State February 11. 1880, with the following char- 
ter members: Georoe T. Brown S. L. Brass, 



Horace Groble, Benjamin F. Smith, Josiah Hodges, 
Hugh A. Moreland, William Spade, John E. Adams, 
James F. Kelley and N. H. Manzee. Names of 
noble grands in order: B. F. Smith, H. Goble, 
George T. Brown, R. S. Langley, G. H. Hartsough, 
B. F. Kellogg, P. B. Hungerford, W. G. Beall, A. 
V. Cole, William Spade, H. A. Moreland, F. E. 
Kelley, B. F. Smith, 0. R. Palmer, S. L. Brass, I. 
H. Riekel, J. A. Ferguson, E. G. Angell, D. C. 
Kerr and George E. Mizen. Secretaries in order: 
S. L. Brass, R. S. Langley, George H. Hartsough, 
P. B. Hungei-ford, W. G. Beall, A. V. Cole, F. E. 
Kelley, Fred W. Francis, W. L. Kilburn, B. F. 
Kellogg, Jesse Milliken, B. F. Smith, D. 0. 
Stephens and W. A. Slack. The membership is 

Miriam Lodge No. 43, Daughters of Rebekah, 
was chartered January 1, 1889, with Sisters E. G. 
Angell, D. C. Kerr, B. F. Smith, M. A. Brass, D. 
V. Stephens, A. V. Cole, J. A. Ferguson, Ella H. 
Rickell, G. T. Brown, E. H. Macklin, W. A. Slack, 
Mary E. Robertson, Sophia Palmer, Josie Moreland, 
and Brothers Moreland, Brown, S. L. Brass, D. V. 
Stephens, Rickell, Kerr, Angell, Slack, Palmer, 
Macklin, Mizen, Ferguson and Smith. The officers 
chosen in November, 1889, were Mrs. D. Y. 
Stevens, N. G. ; Mrs. A. V. Cole, Rec. Sec; Mrs. 
Cris Hansen, L. Sec, and Mrs. W. A. Slack, Treas. 

White Clover Camp No. 1,240, Modern Wood- 
men of America, was organized under charter No- 
vember 11, 1889, with the following members: A. 
Y. Cole, E. G. Angell, W. C. Frew, W. A. Morse, 
D. Y. Stephens, T. J. Stover, A. S. Rogers, G. T. 
Brown and W. G. Aylsworth, officials. 

In the general history is given a sketch and 
roster of the Grand Army Post at this point. 

The militar}' company of Juniata was organized 
May 12, 1878, with L. J. Shirley, Capt. ; E. L. 
Dutton, First Lieut.; A. Y. Cole, Second Lieut; 
George Watkins, First Sergt. 

Woman's Relief Corps No. 55 was chartered 
December 12, 1888, with the following named mem- 
bers: Mesdames Ellen Spade, Fannie A. Swift, 
Anna Buzzell, Delia C. Gates, Hannah E. Stephens, 
May Burwell, Susan Oliphant, Emma McKelvej', 
Sabrina Yreeland, Nancy E. Ball, Emma Watkins, 

Augusta Knowles, Susan P. Cole, Louisa Konkright, 
Sarah Smith, Margaret Brass, Nancy A. Stephens, 
Lizzie Ball, Magdalena Mohler, Hettie Kerr, Belle 
Woods, Sate Smith, Mary D. Robinson and Ella 

The charter was withdrawn from Geary Corps 
over a year ago by Mrs. Emma JLxnchester, past 
department president. The Council of 1888 and 
1889, after thorough investigation, had the charter 
restored, thereby reinstating the corps and restoring 
to them their past presidents and all the rights and 
privileges of the department — the Council of 1888 
and 1889 finding no just cause that their charter 
should have been taken. 

Adjt.-Gen. A. Y. Cole, assisted by a number of 
members of Geary Post, instituted a camp of the 
Sons of Veterans in Juniata, December 5, 1889. 
The following officers were installed for the coming 
year: Ed. P. Gettle, Capt.; George N. Monger, 
First Lieut. ; H. L. Sergeant, First Sergt. ; Aubrey 
L. Twidale, Qm. Sergt. ; D. M. Ball, Chap. ; J. Miles 
McCracken, S. of G.; Austin Cole, Col. Sergt.; 
Will Babcock, C. of G. ; Rufus G. Swift, P. G. 
Council, D. M. Ball, Clarence Yreeland, Ed. Hub- 
bard. As the Herald suggested some weeks before, 
the Camp was named "Camp James Laird," thus 
perpetuating and honoring the noble dead in the 
hearts of Juniata people for all time. The unofficial 
members are A. J. Johnson, H. C. Hoover, P. L. 
Howland, Charles Buzzell, Carl McCracken, William 
Laher, John Laher, Thomas A. Ball, J. W. Thomp- 
son, L. F. Alves, A. H. McCracken, J. H. Stephens 
and W. H. Davis. 

The hall of the Juniata G. A. R. Post was dedi- 
cated June 1, 1886. The building is 90x25 feet 
and two stories high, the upper floor being occupied 
as Post quarters. The lower floor was then occu- 
pied by the W. C. T. U. and Reform Association. 

A Juvenile Temple was organized March 8, 
1878, by Mrs. White, with the following officers in 
temple rank: Katie Bowen, Lulu Brass, Frankie 
Bowen, Freddie Hall, Electa Johnson, Ruflne Swift; 
Anna Brass, Mrs. Schuyler and Mrs. George H. 
Hartsough; Mrs. C. R. Jones, Mrs. M. E. Robert, 
son and Miss Nellie Babcock forming the execu- 
tive committee. 



Juuiata Degree Temple, I. 0. G. T., was re- 
organized in December, 1887, with H. A. Guild, 
Mrs. Twidale, L. B. Partridge, W. E. Ovitt, Mrs. 
Ovitt, A. H. Pritehard, W. Knickerbocker, Mrs. 
Robertson, 0. Stever, W. D. Mun-ay and A. H. 

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union was 
organized here some years ago, and continued in 
operation until about two years since. 

The Juniata Musical Societj' was organized in 
May, 1881, with William Winter, S. J. Shirley, 
Mrs. A. V. Cole, E. Thorne, J. W. Liveringhouse, 
James Newell and Miss Woodbury, officials. 

The Juniata Woman's Suffrage Society was 
organized in February, 1882, with Mrs. Oran Pease, 
president; William Moreland, vice-president; Nellie 
Van yieet, secretary, and Mrs. Rachel Steadman, 

In April, 1880, A. V. Cole, president of the 
Cemetery Association, with G. S. Guild, secretary; 
L. F. Picard, treasurer; 0. Stever, D. H. Freeman 
and S. J. Shirley, trustees, petitioned the Union 
Pacific Company for a deed for the land on which 
the cemetery was established. 

The old grist mill at Juniata, which was turned 
over to the county as a part of the Thorne estate, 
was sold to O. R. Palmer, of that place, in January, 
1890, for $2,100. The mill has been a piece of 
dead property on the hands of the county, and con- 
sequentlj' the price paid was so much money found. 
The purchaser proposes to re-establish the milling 
industry here. 

The first religious services at Juniata were car- 
ried on by Rev. Mr. Clarkson, at the house of S. L. 
Brass, early in 1872. In April of that j-ear a 
Methodist class was organized by Rev. R. H. Crane, 
who held sen'iees in various places until July, 1875, 
when a house of worship was dedicated by Rev. E. 
Thompson. Work on this house was commenced in 
the fall of 1873. 

The Methodist Episcopal class dates back to 
April, 1872, when Rev. R. H. Crane held services 
in the temporary school building. On June 14, 
1873, a conference of the Methodist Church con- 
vened at Juniata — A. G. White, presiding elder, and 
S. L. Brass, secretarj' — elected William Hudson, B. 

A. Brown, Shockej', F. S. Wells and George I). 
Dade, trustees of the church at Hastings. In 1874 
the scandal growing out of some mistakes by the 
pioneer preacher created much dissatisfaction, and 
Rev. E. Thompson took his place. He dedicated 
the first Jlethodist Episcopal building in the sum- 
mer of 1875. In 1877 a Sundaj'-school was organ- 
ized with fifty members, by T. J. Adams, who con- 
tinued to serve as superintendent until Miss Nettie 
Winter was chosen in 1881-82. The preachers in 
charge since Mr. Thompson's time are named as 
follows: Charles Reylly, — Summers, J. W. Smith, 
— Bristol, George M. Jones and Re\'. Hiram Cur- 

*There being a number of Baptist families resid- 
ing in Juniata, previous notice having been given, 
and Rev. J. N. Webb, general State missionary, 
having been invited to be present, a meeting was 
held, where after free intei'change of views upon 
the subject, the following resolution was unani- 
mously adopted: 

Resolved, That duty to God, ourselves and the world 
requires its to erect and maintain the standard of our 
Redeemer in this place, that we here, now, pledge our- 
selves to God and to each other, to the best of our 
ability to maintain a church organization, to be known 
as the Baptist Church of Juniata. 

On July 26, 1872, the church was organized 
with the following named members: Titus Babcock, 
Thankful M. Babcock, Charles D. Morgan. The 
pastors have been Revs. H. A. Guild, 0. A. Buz- 
zell, W. H. Brodt, H. R. Williams, P. A. Tink- 
ham, C. H. Hands, and the clerks, Charles D. Mor- 
gan, T. Babcock, A. H. Brown, George W. Carter, 
William Knickerbocker, S. M. Roberts, G. G. Sill, 
Mrs. A. P. Slack, S. BI. Roberts, second term, 
Annie S. Buzzell, S. P. Howland, and Annie S. 
Buzzell, second term. The church building was 
dedicated December 15, 1878, and the report of the 
building committee (T. Babcock, I. W. Stark, 
George W. Hartsough), received. 

*The history of the church was prepared by Miss Annie 
Buzzell. The meeting to organize this church was held at G. 
H. Hartsough's house, February 11, 1878. Rev. O. A. Buzzell 
presided, with G. W. Carter, secretary. George W, Carter and 
A. N. Brown were elected trustees for one year; S. M. Roberts 
and Simeon Johnson for two years, and D. H. Babeocli: for 
three years. 


The first sermon was preached August 4. 1872, 
b}- Rev. George Weaver. Titus Babcock was 
elected the first moderator and Charles D. Morgan 
the first clerk. The church enjoj^ed occasional 
preaching b}' Rev. D. H. Babcock, and Dr. Webb, 
general missionary, frequently visited them. On 
February 27, 1876, A. H. Brown was baptized by 
Rev. J. T. ^lilner, of Webster County, as the first 
candidate. Maj'4, 1876, Rev. H. A. Guild received 
appointment from the Home Mission Society, mak- 
ing him missionary pastor for one-half time service, 
he thus being the first pastor of the church. 

The Congregational Societj' was organized in the 
fall of 1878, and Rev. M. F. Piatt filled the pulpit 
until 1880, when the star of the society failed to 
show further light here. 

In Maj-, 1880, the United Brethren began hold- 
ing services in the Baptist Church of Juniata. 

The Blue Valley Congregational Society assem- 
bled at Juniata in May, 1880. The territory repre- 
sented was 200 miles long by 48 to 75 miles wide, 
embracing 44 churches. 

The Gazette was established in January, 1872, 
by the Babcock Brothers. In 1876 the office was 
moved to Hastings, leaving the field to the Herald, 
which was established on October 25, 1876, by A. 
H. Brown, representing a committee of citizens. 
It was variously conducted, as shown in the chapter 
on journalism, until 1885. On August 6, 1885, I. 
H. Rickell succeeded Mr. Royce, who leased the 
office, and, purchasing the office from the town, be- 
came owner of the Herald. 

The Gazette fought the first battle for retaining 
the county seat. The Herald took the leading part 
of the defenders during the battle of 1877, and like 
a loyal knight, stood by the defeated party until the 
close of that struggle, and abides with that party 

The Juniata Flouring Mill was erected in 1874 
by R. S. Langley and D. H. Freeman, at an expense 
of $12,000, on the strength of bonds voted by the 
precinct. The question of the validity of such 
bonds was carried into the courts , where an unfavor- 
able decision was ultimately handed down. The 
history of this bonding business and the votes on 
the question are given in the transactions of the com- 

missioners, and in the political chapter. The ma- 
chinery was purchased at Indianapolis, Ind., and a 
mortgage for $8,000 given thereon. The mortgage 
was foreclosed, and the building was sold to S. W. 
Clark, who operated it for some time. It is now 

The banking house of C. R. Jones & Co. was 
established in 1879, by C. R. Jones and J. M. 
Sewell, two of the leading business men of the 
county at that time. 

The establishment of the poor farm dates back 
to 1873. The first superintendent was the first 
county charge. This concern was located four miles 
south of Juniata, and, as shown in the pages devoted 
to the acts of the commissioners, occupied much of 
their attention. On one occasion, at least, charges 
were preferred against the superintendent, which the 
commissioners declared were unsustainable. 

The little court house, untenanted and lonely, 
still stands at Juniata as a souvenir of the past. 
Around it cluster all the memories of the old board 
of commissioners, as well as the old bar and the old 
litigants of the county. Here, too, centered the 
object of two civil wars — the first sustaining the 
claim of the little frame building and the village in 
which it was situated; the second setting aside the 
claims of both. The wars were bitter ones. During 
the last fight citizens of Hastings organized for the 
purpose of insuring a true count, and it is said 
many of them went to Juniata to superintend the 
counting of the vote. The counting was satisfactory 
to Hastings, but not to Juniata; and thus the war 
was transferred from the ballot-box to the courts. 
Judge Gaslin appointed a commission to gather all 
the evidence pointed out in the petition of the 
Juniatians, and this, with other documents in the 
case, were taken to Kearney by him. Shortly after 
Judge Gaslin's office was burned, and with it disap- 
peared all the acquired testimony in the case. The 
election returns were again presented and, believing 
figures do not lie, he declared Hastings the county 
seat. The removal of the records and documents to 
Hastings then became an anxious question; but the 
execution of this important act was earned out 
without telling opposition. Juniata lost the seat of 


Kenesaw precinct was assessed by Mr. Truman 
in 1879. He reported a population of 544 — 289 
males and 256 females. During the year ending 
March 31, a number of frame houses were erected 
for the following named owners: S. S. Dow, John 
Cook, B. F. Sehiegel, J. Shurriger, George Phelps, 
W. Z. Parmenter, J. H. Cooley, Jennie L. Hayz- 
lett, who came in 1877; B. F. Armitage, H. M. 
Vanderbilt, V. W. Darling, P. Schneider, W. A. 
Odell, E. Budy, C. A. Miller, C. F. Keutzer and 
S. F. Isenberger. Two school buildings were also 
erected, costing $700 and $800, and several sub- 
stantial sod-dwelling were constructed, at a cost of 
from $50 to $200 each. Three wind-mills were in- 
troduced during the year. H. D. Einspahr settled 
in the vicinity in 1877. 

Kenesaw was surveyed in June, 1872, by Anselem 
B. Smith, for Charles F. Morse, on the central por- 
tion of Section 34, Township 8, Range 12 — a tract 
containing 142;^ acres, previously conveyed to Morse 
by Samuul P. and Eliza T. Howland, northeast 
quarter Section 34; by Milton F. Brown, northwest 
quarter Section 34; by Charles W. Colt, southwest 
quarter, and by J. D. Butler, Jr. , southeast quailer. 
A system of street nomenclature, differing from 
Juniata in the matter of ignoring numbers, was 
adopted. Beginning on the south line is Larch Street 
paralleled by Spruce, Pine and Poplar south of 
South Depot Street, and by Maple, Elm and Ash 
north of North Depot Street. Beginning near the 
west line of the plat is Brooks, running north and 
south, paralleled by Forbes, Denison, Smith, Per- 
kins and Doane. The gi-eater part of the plat south 
of the railroad was subsequently vacated and the ex- 
tremes of the north side also vacated. The plat was 
drawn by J. H. Cummings. 

The first actual settlement was not made until 
the fall of 1872, when A. D. Williams located at 
this point. During the following winter and spring 
Mrs. M. S. Norton and family and Edward Moore 
arrived. The Nortons set out an orchard in 1873, 
and in the fall Josiah Hodges built the fii'st business 
house, which he opened and conducted until early 
in 1874, when he sold his interests to Edward 
Moore, who continued to extend the business until 
1879, when A. S. Thompson purchased the house 

from him. D. D. Norton kept the postofflce and 
was railroad agent. He was telegraph agent in 
October, 1879, when the wires were completed to 
this point. In the spring of 1874 Amos Shattuck 
set out ten acres of Cottonwood, one mile south of 
the village, which escaped the grasshopper plague 
of that j-ear. During the summer of 1873 a school 
house was erected at a cost of $4,000. James Cook 
opened a blacksmith shop here in 1874, and when 
the gi-asshoppers came guarded his anvil fi'om the 
" pesky things," lest they should carry it off as they 
did his seed corn. 

In 1874 Dow & Latta introduced farm ma- 
chinery. In 1879 J. G. Richard arrived and opened 
a hotel in the S. S. Dow building, pending the 
erection of his own house. Earl}' in 1878 J. G. 
Hayzlett moved to Kenesaw from Hastings, and 
purchased the grain elevator of N. L. Thayer. In 
the summer of 1879 G. B. Crandall came from Iowa 
and opened his general store here; Wench & Cook's 
lumber and coal 3'ard was opened in 1879, and A. 
S. Thompson purchased the Moore store. Dr. 
George Williams was phj'sician; Charles Sawder 
began the erection of his livery stables; C. B. Nel- 
son was land agent for the Burlington & Missouri 
Railroad Company, and also represented the Union 
Pacific Railroad Company' and private land owners. 
E. 0. Hildebrand was in charge of the railroad and 
telegraph offices; Rev. Griffin had built his cottage, 
and was preacher in charge of Methodist work here; 
William Worline, who purchased the Stebbins build- 
ing, moved it into the village; while S. M. Brobst's 
drug store building was projected. 

In the summer of 1876 a number of Irish citi- 
zens from Massachusetts settled in the neighborhood 
of Kenesaw, the Kane family being the pioneers. 

Prior to 1880 people outside the Kenesaw dis- 
trict called it the sandy region. In that year, how- 
ever, the finest crops in the countrj' were produced 
there, and never since has a citizen said: " It's all 
sand up there. " 

Kenesaw in January, 1884, claimed the follow- 
ing business men: E. N. Crane, M. F. White and 
A. Barton, general merchants; J. G. Hayzlett, of 
the Metropolitan Hotel (a new house); George A. 
Lindsey, manager of Sewell & Co. 's grain business; 


Cook & Coolev, lumber dealers; Barton & Collins, 
grain dealers; A. S. Thompson (a pioneer), druggist 
and postmaster; H. W. Mitchell and W. F. Man- 
speaker, hardware merchants; A. S. Martin, dealer 
in agricultural implements; R. B. Ground, in furni- 
ture; George Bechtelheimer, manager of Neimeyer & 
Co. 's lumber yards; D. A. Kennedy's restaurant; 
Smith & Shafer, dealers in meat; John Nickerson, 
owner of billiard room; L. C. White, barber, J. Wil- 
liams, physician; Misses Ostler, milliners; Cook 
Bros. , blacksmiths; G. W. Hodges, laundry man; B. 
F. Armitage, insurance agent; Horace Armitage, 
builder, and George Williams, publisher of Times. 
Matthias Post 155, G. A. R., was then presided 
over by B. F. Schlegel, with M. Higgins, Q. M. , 
and J. W. Woody, Adjt. In !May, Kemp & Hope 
moved into their new hardware store, and Gillett's 
bank building opened. 

Keuesaw Methodist Episcopal Church organized 
in 1871. Its early history has been lost and most 
of the members connected with its organization have 
died or removed. It is known that Rev. R. H. 
Crane of the Juniata circuit early preached at the 
house of Josiah Hodges. In 1874 he organized a 
class here, the members of which assembled period- 
ically at ■ the school house. The church is now 
served by Mr. DeMotte, who also attends the so- 
cieties at Frosser, Pearson school house and Ash 
school house. The latter appointment was held by 
Mr. Hardman until December, 1889. Rev. John 
Walker was first pastor, followed successively by 
Rev. T. J. Brink, Rev. Isaac New and Rev. R. M. 
Hardman. E. G. Collins is recording steward, and 
Rev. McK. DeMotte the pastor. The church at 
Kenesaw now numbers forty members. The present 
work embraces four other appointments, and is in a 
healthy, prosperous condition. 

The Presbyterian Church house of Kenesaw, 
built under G. A. Lindsay, J. N. Cooley, and the 
third member of the building committee, was dedi- 
cated October 12, 1884, the sermon being preached 
by Rev. George T. Crissman, superintendent of 
missions. S. W. Hayzlett, secretary and treasurer, 
showed a balance due on building of $853. Of this 
sum, $810 was received or promised on date of 
dedication. In 1877 Rev. G. C. Giffin visited the 

Presbyterians of this section. The society was 
founded January 16, 1879, by Rev. George T. 
Little, synodical missionary, Messrs. J. G. Hayzlett, 
J. B. EUrod, G. C. Giffln, J. S. Frank, Samuel 
Jones, their wives and Henrietta Moore, signing the 
articles of association. Mr. Giffln, the first pastor, 
was succeeded by Mr. A. Folsom, and he by J. P. 
Black. The clerk of the session is J. G. Hayzlett, 
and the number of members forty-one. 

The Free Will Baptist Church was organized 
November 18, 1883, with A. D. Williams, S. H.Wil- 
liams, James and Annie Currier, Lewis and Lydia Cur- 
rier and Kate Boley, members. Revs. A. D. Wil- 
liams and W. H. Edger were organizing preachers, 
and they with W. H. Edger formed the building 
committee, under whose direction a building was 
completed in February, 1884. Revs. R. N. Borick, 
G. W. Knapp and E. M. Chace filled the pul- 
pit respectively. The office of clerk has been 
filled by A. D. Williams, F. W. Ricke, G. Wolcott 
and Mrs. Cooley. 

In August, 1884, Rev. Mr. Borick moved to 
Cortland, Neb., and Mr. Black took charge of the 
.Presbyterian work here. 

Steps were taken in 1878 to erect a Catholic 
Church at Kenesaw. Father Glauber was at that 
time the priest of this large mission. 

The Evangelical Church was organized in 1878 
with Ernest Budy, Green Cullop, Charles Oliver, J. 
W. Bobbitt, Reuben Budy, Mrs. Mary Jones, Charles 
Schliehouf, 0. A. Bentz and B. Young. The pas- 
tors in the order of service have been Paul Gressley, 
— Leibhart, — McSesslin, T. N. Serf and Rev. J. 
H. Peters, the present pastor. The society has not 
yet erected a house of worship, although the mem- 
bership numbers 137. 

The Kenesaw Cemetery Association was organ- 
ized April 26, 1880, with G. W. Baldwin, W. Z. 
Parmenter and G. C. Giffin, trustees; D. D. Nor- 
ton, secretarj', and J. G. Hayzlett, treasurer. 

Kenesaw Lodge No. 144, A. F. and A. M. , was 
organized June 24, 1885, and chartered July 28, 
that year, with twenty-one members. The first offi- 
cers were installed July 28: H. E. Norton, W. M. ; 
J. G. Hayzlett, S. W. ; G. W. Wolcott, J. W. ; L. 
B. Partridge, S. D. ; E. N. Crane, T. ; R. B. Ground, 


S. ; T. B. Booth, J. D. ; F. H. Cole, E. L. Dutton, 
T. J. Fink, J. W. Bobbitt and Milan Young were 
unofficial members. The office of master has been 
held by H. E. Norton, J. G. Hayzlett, L. B. Par- 
tridge, S. H. Smith and F. C. Brosius, the present 
master. The secretaries in order of service are 
named as follows: R. B. Ground, S. A. SajTe and 
J. H. Cooley, the present incumbent. There are 
fortj'-four members in good standing. Officers in 
1884 were F. C. Brosius, E. P. Gillette, C. D. 
Courtright, Henry E. Norton, J. H. Cooley, E. E. 
Norton, Marshall Morse, John B. Cook, Benjamin 
F. Cook and T. P. Booth. 

The Grand Army of the Republic is referred to 
in the military chapter. 

The Woman's Suflfrage Association was organ- 
ized June 2, 1882, by Mrs. M. A. Brass. Madam 
D. D. Norton was chosen president; Mrs. Hayzlett, 
A-ice-president; Mrs. J. H. Cooley, secretar3-, and 
Jlrs. J. H. Roberts, treasurer. Mesdames Wil- 
liams, Thompson and Cooley formed the executive 

In the general history mention is frequently made 
to this, village. In an early chapter the storms of 
1874 are described, and in the chapter on journalism 
a reference is made to the first newspaper established 
there — the Times. Years ago, when the argonauts 
sped over the prairies of Nebraska, the Kenesaw 
district was a favorite camping ground. Near the 
village is the Lone Grave, a sad reminder of the 
penalties attached to travel fifty j-ears ago. The 
story of this grave and its tenant is told in the 
chapter on exploration and settlement, and in the 
same chapter is related the scant facts obtainable 
of Indian doings in that vicinity. 

The village of Ayr was established in September, 
1878, by the Southern Pacific Town Site Company. 
Within eighteen months it claimed three general 
stores, one hardware, one grocery, one drug store, 
one saloon, one agricultural implement warehouse, 
one livery, one lumber yard, two blacksmith shops, 
one boot and shoe shop, one land office, one milliner}' 
store, the Ajt and Commercial Hotels, two public 
halls, and two physicians' offices. Mrs. Richards 
was in charge of the school. The name was given 
in honor of Br. Avr. of Iowa, then one of the 

directors of the Burlington & Missouri River Rail- 
road. The site was originally the property of John 
Radcliffe, owner of Section 33; Ayers Golile owned 
one quarter section on the east, and A. C. Moore, a 
quarter section on the south, while south of Goble's 
and west of Moore's, Prof. Meyers owned a half 
section. The railroad was built in 1878, and to in- 
sure the establishment of a depot at this point, the 
owners of the site were compelled to donate every 
other lot to the railroad company. 

Ayr in 1879 pointed with pride to its large grain 
elevator, two drj'-goods and grocery stores, a drug 
store, a livery stable, blacksmith shop, and lumber 
yard, together with Goble's agricultural implement 
and coal yard, and Laughlin & McMillan's lumber 
yard. The post office established that year was 
presided over by C. B. Scott. James Fleming (for- 
merly West & Fleming) kept the hotel; S. G. Clark 
presided over the school. In October, 1878, 0. D. 
Barras built the first house — a small frame dwelling. 
In November, a two-story frame building was erected 
for hotel purposes by R. C. Fleming, and a house 
for general trade was opened by A. L. West and T. 
C. Fleming. R. C. Gregg established the first drug 
store at this time (later Kochler & Phar); John Rich- 
ards' grocery, Hull & McMillan's general store; 
Peck & Howe's saloon and the Edgerton hardware 
house were all opened in the fall of 1878. 

The petition for a post office in this section was 
signed by William and Milton Scott, T. C. Fleming, 
V. C. Rogers, and others, and resulted in the estab- 
lishment at Gibson. The Gibson office was moved 
one and a half miles south to Ayr in 1879, and B. 
H. Scott continued as master. Early in 1881 he 
was succeeded by James E. Bovard. who served 
until April 1, 1884, when H. A. Howe was ap- 

Dr. S. A. Bookwalter moved from Juniata to 
this point in February, 1880, and the Millington 
store building was moved thither by Kress and 3Ioot. 
The Methodist class of Ayr was organized in 1879, 
by Elder Lemons, and Rev. John Holland was as- 
signed to the new circuit by the next Conference. 
During the ensuing few years the church was with- 
out a pastor, and the organization almost ceased. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church was organized 


October 4, 1870. with Peter Rose, Ely Burton, Peter 
Griffith, M. B. Foote, A. N. Hall, Hugh Knepper 
and J. A. Rice, members. The church has been 
served by Revs. Nathan Brown, Louis Barr, R. M. 
Hardman, — Harbert, A. Gore, E. L. Wolf and J. 
jM. Carroll. A. N. Hall has served as recording 
steward of this society since its organization. On 
Scptcmlier 1, 1SS5, the church building was dedi- 
cated under the name Mt. Pleasant M. E.- Church. 

In January, 1884, the United Presbyterians held 
services at the hotel in Ayr. A Hastings man who 
visited the village that day noticed a number of per- 
sons ascending the stairs, and through curiosity 
asked what was going on. The landlord responded 
that it was a U. P. meeting. The Hastings man 
went up to take part in a railroad meeting which in- 
terested him, but just as he entered the room, the 
T'nited Presbyterians opened with the hymn, ' • There 
is a land of pure delight." The disappointment he 
suffered destroyed his sympatliy for Christian forms 
and music. 

The first child born on the town site was Harvey 
Fleming. The first death in the community was 
recorded iu October, 1881, when Henry Harm's 
twin infants died. 

The Mennonites located a cemetery five miles 
west of A3T, in 1880, and in May the society' took 
steps to build a meeting house. 

Henry Gund & Co's. elevator was erected in June, 
1879, and John Robinson's livery barns were built. 
Later that j'ear, Isaac Vanderwert established his 
blacksmith shop; A. J. Pate built the Commercial 
House, and Rev. J. Fleming erected the old Church 
Hall at his own expense. The first school was 
taught late in 1878 hy John Gainer, a fine scholar, 
and said to have been a good judge of whisky. At 
the close of the winter term he entered on a term of 
drunkenness, left the place and never returned. 

In June, 1883, three companies of United States 
colored cavalry camped near Ayr, en route from Fort 
Riley to Fort McKinlej-. The population at this 
time was 260, about equal in number to the colored 

Little Blue post office was discontinued in March, 

■ ■ Presbvteriauism in the Valley of the Little 

Blue in Adams County.'' is the title of a short paper, 
prepared by Rev. "John Fleming for this work. He 
states that the first sermon preached by a Pres- 
byterian minister iu the valley of the Little Blue in 
Adams County was bj' the Rev. James A. Griffes, 
on August 10, 1873, in a recently built frame 
school house called the Kingston school house. Mr. 
Griffes was the pastor of the Presbj'terian Church in 
Hastings, then a small village. He preached stat> 
edly in this school house once a month, until in 
Februar}^, 1876, when it was resolved to organize a 
church under the name of ' ' The Presbyterian Church 
of Kingston, Neb. " Entering into this organization 
were Adam Melville and wife, George Crafford and 
wife, Angeline Mitchel, Daniel H. Mitchel, Benja- 
min F. Nole, Manilla Scott, William M. Snodgrass 
and wife, Joseph Snodgrass and wife, Thomas E. 
Davis and wife, Norbert Debut and wife, John L;.- 
londe and wife, A. C. Mather and wife, William I. 
Snodgrass and wife and Jane A. Vastine. Subse- 
quently the congregation moved one mile and a half 
south to a larger school house, retaining still their 
corporate name, supplied by Rev. James A. Griffes 
and occasionally by other ministers. In the sum- 
mer of 1878, a small house of worship was built in 
the immediate vicinity of Dyer's mill, when the con- 
gregation assumed the corporate name of "South 
Adams," and was ministered to by the Rev. John 
Fleming. In the year 1879 another house of wor- 
ship was built in the village of Ayr, and the two 
churches came under the ministry of the Rev. Fred 
Johnston for some eighteen months. His successor 
was the Rev. Albinus Powers, for twelve months, 
and his successor was the Rev. W. W. Morton. In 
its first years the church was a flourishing church, 
but bj- deaths, and principally bj' removals, it is 
now reduced to a membership of sixteen and is 
without a pastor. The elders of this church under 
its different names and composing its session were 
Adam Melville, Oliver C. Rogers, Arthur C. Mather 
and George Craflford, all of whom are now removed 
without its bounds, except 0. C. Rogers. Its secu- 
lar interests are managed b}' a board of trustees, 
holding office until their successors are elected. 

Kingston Lodge No. 54, I. 0. G. T. , was organ- 
ized February 23, 1877, with A. C. Mather, May 



Jones, S. M. Bird, E. D. Jones, Mrs. Willoughby, 
J. E. Davis, I. M. Dean, I. B. Wliite, A. Sinclair, 
Lizzie Carter, Emma Carter, E. J. Jones and Elva 
Edgerton, officials in the order of rank. 

In December, 1879, the first post office was 
established at Hansen, with James McGregor, mas- 
ter. He appointed Mrs. Maurey (wife of the rail- 
road agent), deputy, while he carried the mail to 
and from Hastings on his own back. In April, 
1881, J. L. Evans was appointed, and in 1882 he 
was succeeded by Jacob Smith. The village was 
surveyed in 1879 for A. B. Ideson and J. J. 
Wemple, on the entry of Charles and William 
Haines. In the fall of 1879 a railroad depot was 
erected. S. L. Loucks built his hotel. The gen- 
eral stores of J. L. Evans and B. F. Ford were 
opened, and James McGregor, as agent of the Paine 
Bros. , opened a lumber yard. B. F. Fisher's black- 
smith shop was opened in April, 1880, but Jacob 
Countryman succeeded him in 1881. In October 
of that year J. G. Honeywell purchased the hotel 
building. His father opened a grocery store and 
his brother a shoe store. Jacob Smith came also at 
this time, and purchasing Evans' interests, became 

The Presbyterian Society was organized on the 
7th day of September, 1879, Rev. G. L. Little act- 
ing as moderator and Rev. D. S. Schafl as clerk of 
the meeting for organizing. The names of the 
original members are: Alanson Baker and his wife 
Alice C. Baker, J. L. Brockover and his wife Jane 
E. Brockover, Mrs. Isabella Carpenter, Ryneas 
Covert and Rebecca Covert his wife, Lafayette 
Dominy and his wife Sarah A. Doming-, Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Gregg, Philopoena Huf, Mrs. Nancy Mowers, 
Laura Mowers, Ella Mowers, Jonathan Oldfield and 
his wife Priscilla Oldfield, John H. Powers and his 
wife E. E. Powers, Nancy R. Powers, Lucy A. 
Powers, Mrs. Jane B. Powers, Charles A. Powers 
and his wife Ellen M. Powers, Lifee F. Powers, 
Aaron F. Powers and his wife Ann Powers, Robert 
W. Powers, William Palmerton and his wife Carrie 
Palmerton, William H. Reese and his wife Jane C. 
Reese, James W. Smith and his wife Nancy Smith, 
Emma J. Smith, Augustus A. Stone and his wife 
Luella J. Stone, Letas W. Stone and his wife L. 

Stone, Henry E. Ware and his wife Harriet A. 
Ware, Luella A. Defenbaugh. The first elders were 
Aaron F. Powers, John H. Powers and William 
Palmerton. The names of pastors are D. S. Schaff, 
Peter Wessels, E. A. McCuUum, H..K. Bushnell, 
F. M. Hickok. Clerks of session have been J. H. 
Powers and A. F. Powers. 

The church house was erected in 1884, at a cost 
of $2,116, under the superintendence of A. A. 
Stone, L. Dominy, George B. Loucks and William 
Bishop, trustees and members of the building com- 
mittee. This house was dedicated November 9, 
1884, by Mrs. Schaff. 

The Oliver grain house was established in 1880, 
when W. L. Baker took charge. Prior to 1882 two 
elevators existed here, with a capacity of 23,000 
bushels, the Baker coal yard and hardware store 
were established, and the little prairie village as- 
sumed the proportions of a town in the volume of its 

Congress Lodge No. 173, 1. O. O. F. , was organ- 
ized at Hansen, December 13, 1889, with S. M. 
Funk, N. G. , and H. Stire, secretary-. 

The Heptasoples were recently organized b}- the 
Supreme Ruler of Nebraska, D. M. Morris. 

A school house was completed in the summer of 
1880, and opened in the fall of that year. Miss 
Sperry, of Hastings, was employed to preside over 
this primitive educational institution. 

Congress Lodge No. 173, I. O. 0. P., was in- 
stituted December 6, 1889, at Hansen. The charter 
members were D. M. Morris, S. M. Frink, John 
Wilson, B. F. Barr, J. H. Allen, Winthrop Jones, 
Howard Stire, W. B. Brown, F. J. Taylor, H. E. 
Ashley, Fred Albright. The election of officers re- 
sulted: S. M. Frink, N. G. ; J. H. Allen, V. G. ; 
D. M. Warden, W. ■, B. F. Barr, Con.; Howard 
Stire, R. S. ; Winthrop Jones, P. S. ; John Wilson, 
Treas.; W. B. Brown, R. S. N. G. ; H. E. Ashley, 
L. S. V. G. ; F. J. Taylor, I. G. This lodge was 
instituted by W. H. Barger, G. 31. of Grand Lodge 
of the State. At the time of institution six brothers 
were elected and initiated — W. E. Lucas, Frank 
Lamphear, R. E. Williams, Aleck Kanester, Will- 
iam Wilhite, James H. Elliot. " Installation of offi- 
cers took place December 6, 1889. 



A reference to the transaetious of the count}' 
commissioners will show the steps taken toward the 
establishment of a grist-mill at Millington on the 
Little Blue. In 1872 work on this manufacturing 
industry was commenced by John Dyer; but before 
the completion of the mill in 1875, Elbridge and 
True Dyer became partners in the project. Power 
was obtained from the waters of the Litttle Blue. 
The Dj'ers located lauds in Denver Township in 
1872. Some few years after the mills were com- 
pleted a building for mercantile purposes was erected. 
Within a short time (in 1880) this house was moved 
to Ayr by Mortimer Kress and W. S. Moot, or by 
Kress and Keith. 

Koseland Township raised 57,702 bushels of 
wheat,. 147, 775 of corn, 14,747 of barley and 30,311 
of oats, in 1884. Personal property was valued at 
831,086, and real estate at $56,995. There were 
349 horses, 945 cattle, 96 mules and 2,388 hogs re- 
ported. Silas Caton was credited with the best im- 
proved farm; John Winter with the largest stock 
farm, and Peter Griffith with the largest wheat field, 
48 acres yielding 877 bushels. Matt Sheffering 
planted the greatest number of forest treees, while 
S. Caton and R. M. Boyd set out 600 fruit trees 
each. The greatest apple producers were C. A. 
Cole and R. M. Boyd, each of whose orchards yielded 
40 bushels. 

W. S. Hall presided over the school in 1879. 
In February, 1879, Rev. Shifler, of the Mennonite 
Church, established himself on the southeast quarter 
of Section 15, Township 6, Range 11, near Roseland. 
The school there was then in charge of Mrs. Hartman, 
who also taught the preceding year. 

Mayflower was established as a post office in 
1877. A. Burling, the present master, writing un- 
der date December 3, 1889, states: 

' ' I would say, in answer to your request for a 
list of postmasters for Mayflower, Mr. D. M. Gris- 
wold was the only one before me. He served eleven 
years and I took it a year ago the 6th of December. 
The oldest resident now living in this neighborhood 
is J. 31. Strahl. He came about fifteen years ago." 

Holstein is one of the modern villages of the 
county. A newspaper office, a school house, a few 
stores and a number of dwellings point out the pro- 

gress made in a few years. There is a Lyceum in 
existence here, among the active members being A. 
S. Thompson, A. L. Boj'd, J. S. Feruow, Jennie 
Larson, Versa Larson, Mecham Bros. , Holstein 
band, Mrs. F. J. Hurst, Joe McCowan, Dr. W. T. 
Carson, Ruby and Lottie Mecham, Fred Hurst, 
Anna Larson, -A. E. Troyer and Eva McPeak. 

The Dramatic Club claims Dr. W. T. Carson as 
manager and A. L. Boj-d, secretary. Among the 
members are C. A. Sipple, A. E. Troyer, T. L. Am- 
bler, J. M. Heckler, E. L. Hannaford, Jennie Lar- 
son and Eva McPeak. The Holstein brass band is 
another organization which caters to the entertain- 
ment of the people. With all this local talent for 
music, literature and the drama, there are workers 
in and around the village who made and continue 
to make the little town a S3'nonym for industrj'. 
The Record aud Nonpareil are the newspapers of the 

The Holstein board of trade was organized in 
January, 1890, with the following named members; 
W. T. Carson, Pres. ; C. A. Sipple, V. P.; John 
Hargleroad, Sec; William Shellheimer, Treas. C. 

F. Keutzer, Frank Fernow and F. C. .Van Veghten 
were appointed a committee to draw up the consti- 
tution and by-laws. 

Mountain Ash Camp No. 1,035, M. W. A. , organ- 
ized last jear, elected the following named officers in 
January, 1890: A. E. Troyer, V. C. ; W. S. Mc- 
Auley, W. A.; A. L. Boyd, E. B.; J. M. Heckler, 
C; F. C. Van Veghten, E. ; Dr. W. T. Carson, C. 
P.; C. McCall, W., and F. Y. Hurst, S. F. C. Van 
Veghten was appointed manager in the place left 
vacant by George A. Bentley. W. T. Carson was 
elected manager for the ensuing three years. 

The Holstein mill was established early in 1890 
by Shellheimer & Clark. 

The Van Allen I. 0. G. T. was organized in No- 
vember, 1878, with S. P. Howland, S. Morrison, S. 
Nicholas, W. Van Allen, James Slote, John Plank, 

G. H. Howland, D. H. Hill, O. Hudson, Fred 
Browning, G. W. Hill, F. Van Allen, R. Raneforth 
and L. F. Gould officials in the order of rank. 
Many of the above named were connected with the 
old lodge at Hastings. 

At Pauline, S. V. Bechtelheimer was appointed 


postmaster January 2, 1890, to succeed W. E. 

The Lutheran Church Society of Section 12, 
Township 6, Range 12, was organized at Fred Wag- 
ner's house, February 11, 1873, with Herman D. 
Einspahr, Robert Hohlfeklt and Fred Wagner, trus- 

Pleasantville Cemetery Association was organ- 
ized in February, 1877, with E. M. Beach, Robert 
Wetson, C. W. Wilson, M. V. Hatfield and R. 31. 
Ratcliff, members. 

The Missouri Pacific was opened to Prosser in 
1888. J. H. Korner was the first agent tliere. S. 
G. Harrow was the pioneer of the district, and S. 
W. Smith, a farmer, took the first steps to have an 
office established at that point. 

The Methodist Church at Prosser was organized 
in 1887 by Rev. R. M. Hardman. The Union Pa- 
cific Raih-oad official Ivindly gave the use of their 
depot for church and Sunday-school until a vevy 
neat church was built in 1889. The present trustees 
are J. F. Morgan, L. J. Ware and Don Steadman, 
and the present pastor. Rev. McK. DeMotte. There 
is at present a membership of fifteen. 

There are prosperous societies at Pearson, Ash 
and Liliertj' school houses, and a total membership 
of 140. 

The First German Presbyterian Church of 
Hanover Township was organized by Rev. Jacob 
Brinkema, July 3, 1883, with a membership of 
twenty-seven. The first elders of the church were 
Mr. D. G. Laj- and J. W. Baxter. The deacons 
were M. Falricks aud Heur3- Bradair, and the 
trustees Simon Van Boening, H. Jleester and George 
Lay. The church was completed in 1884, aud 
dedicated Jul}- 6, that year. Within the last few 
years the membership has enlarged itself to about 
fifty members. The present pastor, Rev. Jacob 
Brinkema, has officiated from the first organization 
of the church. The church and parsonage were 
built at a cost of S2,000 or $3,000. They are 
located on the northeast corner of Section 21, on 
land owned by 5Ir. Lay. 

Inland was surveyed in the central portion of 
Section 12, Township 7, Range 9, in March, 1872, 
for Charles F. Morse. Tulip, Chestnut and South 

Railroad Streets run east and west, south of rail- 
road, and North Railroad Street, Oak, Maple, Beech 
and Alder, north of railroad. The streets rupniug 
north and south, beginning on the west line, are Dry- 
den, Burns, Moore, Pope, Byron, Milton and Syd- 
ney. The corner stone of the first school house at 
Inland was placed July 1, 1873, bj- Millard and 
Yandemark. As related in the transactions of the 
board of the commissioners, this plat was vacated 
in 1S7S, and the name and interests of the first 
town in Adams County transferred to Claj- County. 
At that time there were three small stores, six or 
seven dwellings and a large frame school building 
there; but within a few years very few traces of 
ancient Inland existed. 

Ludlow postoffice was establisheil iu January. 
1880, with J. L. Huff in charge, on petition of H. B. 
Talbert and others. When Trumbull post office in 
Cla}' County was esti Iilished, that at Ludlow was 
discontinued. S. 31. Walker is the present master 
at Trumbull. 


Samuel Alexander, well aud favorably known 
to a host of acquaintances in Hastings, was born 
January 16, 1842, and like many other residents of 
Adams County is a native of Pennsylvania, his birth 
having occurred in Butler County. His parents, 
William and Agnes (Black) Alexander, were born in 
Ireland in 1801 and 1809, and died in Pawnee City, 
Neb, , and Prospect, Penn, ,in 1879 and 1844, respec- 
tivel3\ They came to the United States in 1837, 
and settled in Peuns^'lvania ; but in 1855 Mr. Alex- 
ander and his son Samuel moved to Jackson County. 
Iowa, and three j'ears later to Missouri. In ISGl 
they returned to Iowa, taking up their abode in 
Page Count}', and here Mr, Alexander enlisted in 
Company F, First Nebraska Yolunteer Infantrj-, 
joining the regiment at Sedalia, Mo, He gave faith- 
ful serv'ice to his country until February, 1863, 
when he was honorably discharged on account of 
physical disability at Memphis, Tenn. B}" August, 
1864, he had sufflcientl}- recovered to again enter 
the service, and he rejoined his old company and 
resfiment, aud served until ho received his final dis- 


charge at Omaha, Xeb. , on July 1, 18CG. After 
returuiug aud remaining in Iowa one year he took 
a contract of grading on the main line of the Union 
Pacific Railway in Western Nebraska, and in 1869 
took up his abode in Lincoln. The first years were 
spent in digging wells and cellars, and the next two 
years he acted as janitor of the State house. In 
1872 he came to Adams County, Neb. , and located 
on the northeast half of Section 12 of Denver Town- 
ship, which is now a part of the city of Hastings, and 
the finest residence portion of the place is on this 
tract. Mr. Alexander erected the first business 
house in Hastings in July, 1872, on what is now 
Block 27 of the original tract, it being a frame 
building 16x20 feet. In this building was kept a 
general stock of goods, and although he went to 
Juniata for some time for his mail, a post oflSce was 
established at Hastings in October, 1872, of which 
he was put in possession, receiving his appointment 
from U. S. Grant, a position he held for nine aud 
one-half years. His salary the first year amounted 
to $12, and at the time of his removal brought in 
S2,000 annually. He has been a director of the 
First National Bank since its organization, also of 
the Nebraska Loan and Trust Comiany; and in poli- 
tics has always been a Republican. In 1885 he was 
elected mayor of Hastings on the "no license" 
issue, aud it was openly declared he made the best 
mayor the city ever had. In the administration of 
affairs he was wholly independent in the perform- 
ance of his duties, aud having the interests of the 
town at heart, he exercised his ingenuity and intelli- 
gence to the utmost. In every public emei'gency he 
has been a patriot, and selfish and personal con- 
siderations have been laid aside when the question 
of duty has been presented. In 1871 he was mar- 
ried at Brownsville, Neb., to Miss Hattie R. 
Phillips, a native of Pennsylvania, born in 1S52, and 
a daughter of Dr. A. R. and Harriet Phillips. Mr. 
and Mrs. Alexander are members of the Presby- 
terian Church, and he was one of the original mem- 
bers of the church organized at Lincoln in 1870, 
also of the church at Hastings in 1873. Mr. Alex- 
ander and his wife have five children: Agnes E., 
Rachel M. , Esther N. , Frances P. and Samuel R. 
H. C. Armstrong, farmer and stock raiser, Hast- 

ings, Neb. Mr. Armstrong is one of those sterling 
men of Ohio nativity, so man}' of whom ai'e met 
with in this portion of the State, who possess 
such qualities of character as make them successful 
and prominent almost without exception wherever 
their lots are cast. He was born in Columbiana 
County, Ohio, in 1845, and was the seventh of a 
family of children born to John and Frances (Moore) 
Armsti'ong, natives of Ireland, where they were 
maiTied. In 1839 the parents immigrated to 
America, settled in Columbiana Count}', Ohio, and 
there the father followed farming. In 1853 thej' 
moved to Knox County, 111., settled near Abing- 
don, 111., and thence to "Warren County of the same 
State, where the father opened up a farm. He died 
there in 1860. His excellent wife followed him to 
the grave on December 24, 1879. H. C. Armstrong 
was early instructed in the duties of farm life, and 
received his education in the schools of Warren 
Count}-, 111. After growing up he went west to 
Page County, Iowa, worked by the month as a farm 
laborer for three years and then rented land. He 
was married in that county on December 31, 1872, 
to Miss Sarah J. Reed, a native of Harrison County, 
Ohio, and the daughter of M. and S. (Foster) Reed, 
natives of Ohio. Her father was a wagon maker by 
trade, and in about 1854 he moved to Wapello 
County, Iowa, and in 1859 to Page County, Iowa, 
where he and wife are both living at the present 
time. After his marriage Mr. Armstrong remained 
in Iowa until 1874, when he moved to Adams 
County, Neb. , settled in Denver precinct, now 
Blaine Township, and bought 160 acres of railroad 
land, which he immediately began improving, and on 
which he first erected a small cabin, 14x16 feet. 
In 1885 he moved to West Blue Township, selling 
his farm in Blaine Township, and bought the 160 
acres where he now lives. He was one of the first 
settlers of the county, and the first night camped on 
what is now the main square of the city of Hastings. 
He assisted in the organization of the township, and 
yet takes a prominent part in the upbuilding of the 
county. He is also active in politics, votes with the 
Republican party, and was elected county com- 
missioner by the Anti-Monopoly vote in 1881, to fill 
a vacancy, serving from January, 1882, to Novem- 


ber of that year. He served on the school board 
for twelve years in Adams County, and has always 
taken an active interest in schools. Mr. and Mrs. 
Armstrong are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church at Hastings. Their marriage has been 
blessed by the birth of seven children: John M. , 
Oscar R. , Edwin H. , Fannie Bell, Thomas, Charles 
and Clyde. Mr. Armstrong has seen the complete 
growth of Adams County, and has experienced three 
seasons of grasshopper raids. He is practically a 
self made man, having accumulated all his property 
by his own exertions. He is engaged quite exten- 
sively in stock raising. 

W. G. Aylsworth is a proper representative of 
the energetic business men of the county, and 
he seems admirably suited to his present calling. 
He was born in Erie County, N. Y. , in 1844, and is 
a son of Aaron and Julia (French) Ajdsworth, the 
former of whom was an agriculturist throughout his 
long life of seventy-five years, his death occurring 
in 1883. His wife died three years later, having 
borne him nine children, two sons and seven daugh- 
ters, W. G. Aylsworth and 'his sister, Mrs. Bennett, 
being residents of Juniata. The former's youth 
was spent in learning the intricacies of farm labor, 
and until he was twenty years of age he was an at- 
tendant of the common schools, where he acquired 
a thorough knowledge of the English branches. In 
1864 he enlisted in Company B, Ninety-eighth New 
York Infantry, but on account of the war being 
practically over, he was discharged on September 
22 of that year, and returned to his former occupa- 
tion of following the plow in his native State, which 
received his attention untd 1870, when he moved to 
Michigan and settled in Barry County, and was en- 
gaged in clerking in a store for three years. He 
then returned to his native State and fai-med two 
years, at the end of which time he again returned 
to Michigan, which State was his home until 
1884. During this time the occupation of merchan- 
dising received his attention at Nashville, but on 
March 30, of the above named year, he settled in 
Juniata, Neb. , and after residing for a few months 
on a farm of eighty acres south of the town, he re- 
moved to Juniata, and engaged in clerking in the 
store of D. H. Freeman, remaining in his emplo}^ 

two years, renting out his farm. In 1886 he moved 
to Keith County, Neb., where he located a home- 
stead, and after proving up on it and making it his 
home for about a year, sold out. He was one of 
the early settlers of the county, and was thirty miles 
from any store or postoffice, and the township in 
which he settled was only occupied by three or four 
families. Upon his removal from there one year 
later every quarter section was occupied. The day 
after settling on his claim he started for Ogallala, 
thirty-five miles distant, and purchased $7 worth of 
lumber, with which to build his dugout, sleeping at 
night on the road, but was greatly annoyed by wolves 
that kept prowling around his wagon. The next 
night an old neighbor from Michigan, Conrad Pies- 
ter, settled on the claim across the road from his, 
and during the week seven more families arrived. 
Upon his return to Adams County he went to his 
farm and made one crop, but in October, 1888, sold 
his land and is now engaged in general merchandis- 
ing in the town. Besides his stock of goods he 
owns a large hotel and liver}^ barn, which he rents. 
He was married in 1872 to Miss Hattie M. Bm-ling- 
ham, a native of Michigan, and by her has four liv- 
ing children: Fannie, Helen, Clarance and Mary. 
Mun-ay died in 1884 at the age of five years. Mr. 
Aylsworth and his wife are members of the Bap- 
tist Church, and socially he is a member of Lodge 
No. 28, K. of P. , of Hastings. 

Frank C. Babcock, D. D. S., was born at Galvn, 
III, March 18, 1865, and is a son of Dr. Asa D. 
and Elizabeth (Mott) Babcock, the former of whom 
was born at Cortland, N. Y. , in 1830, came to Illi- 
nois in 1855, and for five and twent}' years was a 
prominent and successful physician at Galva, his 
death occurring at this place in 1880. His wife was 
born at Kalamazoo, Mich., in 1840, and is now a 
resident of Hastings. Frank C. Babcock is the 
second of three living children born to their union, 
and in his early j'outh secured a good education in 
the schools of Galva. In 1883 he began the study 
of dental surgery in the office of Dr. J. P. Huston, 
and in the fall of 1885, he entered the Dental De- 
partment of the University of Michigan, from which 
institution he graduated on June 30, 1887, and 
July 23, of the same year, came to Hastings, Neb. , 


which place has since been his home. In the fol- 
lowing Augnst he opened his dental office over the 
First National Banlv, and here he is now actively en- 
gaged in practicing his profession, having already 
acquired a liberal and paying patronage by the ex- 
cellence of his work, his reasonable prices and his 
genial manner. He is a memlier of the State Den- 
tal Association and in his political views is a Re- 

Calvin Ball has been a resident of Adams County, 
Neb., since March, 1873, and has proved a valuable 
acquisition to the farming interests of the commu- 
nity, for he is a man of energy, progressive spirit and 
clear perception, and is reliable bej-ond suspicion in 
all his business transactions. His propert3' consists 
of 160 acres of fine farming land, and it is fairly 
improved with buildings of all kinds, an orchard, 
etc. He was born in Fulton County, Ind. , Novem- 
ber 22, 1841, and from here enlisted in April, 1862, 
in the Union Army, becoming a member of the 
■ Twenty-sixth Indiana Infantry, and was a faithful 
servant of Uncle Sam until he received his discharge 
at the end of his term of service in April, 1865. 
He was a participant in many important engage- 
ments, among which may be mentioned Prairie 
Grove, Ark., siege and surrender of Vicksburg. 
He was captured near Morgan's Bend, Miss., on the 
Sterling plantation, and after being kept in captivity 
at Tyler, Tex. , for about nine months, he was ex- 
changed and immediately rejoined his army at New 
Orleans, and a short time after took part in the eight 
days' fight at Mobile in front of Spanish Fort. Af- 
ter being discharged he returned to Indiana, and 
after clerking in a store for some time, bought an 
interest in the establishment and sold goods at Silver 
Lake for about four years. From that time until 
1873 he followed farming, then came to Nebraska as 
above stated. He is a Republican in his political 
views, and in November, 1882, was elected township 
assessor, and served two terms. He was married 
in Indiana, October 18, 1866, to Miss Elizabeth 
Creager, a native of that State, and a daughter of 
Adam Creager, and by her has had a family of six 
children: Myrtle, wife of William Wai-den, by whom 
she has one child, Cyril Thomas, married and resides 
at Juniata; Charles E. , Clarence C. , Ettie May and 

Naomi W. Mr. and Mrs. Ball are members of the 
United Brethren Church, and he is a member of 
Geary Post No. 81, G. A. R. , at Juniata. His 
parents, C. M. and Nancy (Woolf) Ball, were born in 
Tenneesee and Indiana , respectively, and were mar- 
ried in the latter State, the father having been taken 
there by his parents when a child. After their mar- 
riage they resided in Indiana a number of years, 
and in 1872 Mr. Ball moved to Illinois, thence to 
Nebraska in 1877, the father being now a resident 
of Garfield Count}'. His wife died about 1854. 
Mr. Ball served one year as postmaster at Oswego, 
Ind. , in 1878, resigning on account of moving from 
that place. 

David L. Barlass, the popular sheriff of Adams 
County, Neb. , although born in Rock County, Wis. , 
September 10, 1854, has been a resident of Adams 
County, Neb., since 1874. His parents, Andrew 
and Margaret (Clink) Barlass, were born in Scot- 
land in 1822 and 1824, respectively, and in 1840 
left their native land to seek a home in the New 
World. They settled in Rock County, Wis., on 
what is known as Rock Prairie, being among its 
first settlers, and there opened up a large farm. On 
this farm David L. Barlass was reared, and in 
addition to assisting his father in tilling the land on 
which they had settled, he attended the common 
school, near his home, and, being persevering and 
intelligent, he acquired a good education. This he 
supplemented by a two years' course at Milton Col- 
lege, in Milton, Wis. , then in 1874, as above stated, 
came to Nebraska, and the first nine years of his 
residence here were spent in following the plow on a 
farm three miles south of Hastings. Being a Re- 
publican politically and a strict party man, he was 
elected on that ticket, in the fall of 1883, to the 
office of sheriff, with a majority of 555; was re- 
elected two j-ears later with a majority of 800, and 
in 1877 was again honored with the position, his 
majority this time being more than 1,000. This 
shows beyond question his popularity as an official, 
and he has proven himself to be a competent, faith- 
ful and fearless officer. Socially he is a member of 
Hastings Lodge No. 28, of the K. of P. His mar- 
riage with Miss Ella M. Hill was celebrated Sei> 
tember 2, 1884. She was born in Illinois, and 


by Mr. Barlass is the mother of one chihl, Her- 
bert L. 

B. F. Biur, lumber dealer, Prosser, Neb. The 
busiuess interests of this town are ablj- represented 
b3' Mr. Barr, who not only represents the city in 
that capacity, but who is also recognized as a pleas- 
ant, genial gentleman. He owes his nativity to 
Logan County, 111. , and was born there on Septem- 
ber 4, 1859. His father, George Barr, is a native 
of the Buckeye State, and in about 1852 emigrated 
to Logan County, 111. , where he married Miss 
Maria Jackson, also a native of Ohio, but who had 
emigrated with her parents some time previous to 
Illinois. Of the three children born to their mar- 
riage, B. F. Barr is the eldest. He passed his boy- 
hood da3-s in Illinois, received a good education, 
and in January, 1880, he came to Nebraska, where 
for two years he was engaged in farming near Hast- 
ings. He subsequently went to Oregon, spent some 
time traveling through that and other Western States, 
but finally returned to Bloomington, Neb., where 
he accepted a position with the White Lake Lumber 
Company. From there he went to Hastings, Neb. , 
engaged with the Paine Lumber Company, and in 
April, 1885, he accepted the position of general 
manager and superintendent of their luml)er and 
coal yards at Hansen, Neb. On July 1, 1889, he 
opened his present business at Prosser, Neb. , and is 
the pioneer lumber dealer of the place. On No- 
vember 26, 1883, he married Miss Eva C. Richards, 
a native of Wisconsin, who, when a child, went to 
Dakota with her parents, and later to Nebraska. 
To this union have been born two children: Mabel C. 
and Grant. Mr. Barr is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity, a member of the I. 0. O. F. , and also 
of the order of Heptasops or Seven Wise Men. 
Mrs. Barr is a member of the Presbyterian Church, 
and both are much esteemed citizens. 

Herman Bentert, farmer and stock raiser, Hast- 
ings, Neb. Of that sturdy and independent class, 
the farmers of Nebraska, none are possessed of more 
genuine merit and a stronger character than he whose 
name s ands at the head of this sketch. Mr. Bentert 
was born in Sheboygan County, Wis. , in 1859, and 
was the youngest of two children born to the union 
of Frederick and Dora T. (Kibbos) Bentert, natives 

of Germany. The father was married in his native 
country in 1854, emigrated to America in 1857, and 
at once began working on a farm in Sheboygan 
Countj-, Wis. , receivjng fifty cents a day for his 
labor. Finally he purchased eighty acres of land, 
improved it, and in 1874 came to Nebraska, where 
he purchased 160 acres. Since then he has added 
to his original tract, and is now the owner of 400 
acres, and is also the owner of considerable property 
in Hastings. He is still living and makes his home 
with his son, Herman. The mother died in Wiscon- 
sin in 1860. Herman Bentert's early life was divided 
between assisting on the farm and in receiving an 
education in the common schools of Wisconsin and 
Nebraska. He came to Nebraska at the age of fif- 
teen j-ears, and being the onl}' one of the childi'en 
now living, is directly connected with his father in 
business. They came to Nebraska with onlj- S2, 5(MI 
and now, b}- their industr}' and good business abil- 
ity, own property to the value of $25,000. They 
are engaged extensively in stock raising, feeding 
from fifty to one hundred cattle and hogs yearly. 
Herman Bentert takes an active interest in politics 
and his vote is cast with the Democratic party. As 
treasurer of Highland Township (having been elected 
to that position in 1888, and re-elected in 1880) he 
is a man who has the perfect confidence and respect 
of the people. He is progressive in his views and 
has borne a prominent part in promoting the various 
interests of the county. He is the tallest man in 
Adams County, if not in the State, measuring six 
feet, eight inches in height, and is one of the best 
known men in the county. He aids all public enter- 
prises of a laudable nature, and is Lutheran in his 
religious belief. 

F. M. Betteys, county superintendent of schools, 
Hastings, Neb. To undertake to introduce to our 
readers the subject of this sketch would be some- 
thing entirely unnecessary, for his extensive ac- 
quaintance and long connection with the afl'airs of 
the vicinity, have rendered him well and popularly 
known. Born in La Porte County, Ind. , April 29, 
1844, he was the son of Alonzo and Julia (Lykins) 
Betteys. The father was born in New York in 1809, 
and is now a resident of Boone, Neb. The mother 
was born in Kentucky, and died in 1871. In July, 


LSIIS.F. M. enlisted in Company B, Twelftli Missouri 
Crtvalry. He served until June, 18C5, aftei- which 
lie returned to Iowa and taught school in that State 
until 188'4. He then came to Hastings, Neb., and 
spent five years in the county clerk's office as deputy 
county clerk. In politics he is a Republican, and 
in 1889 he was elected superintendent of the public 
schools of the county. Mr. Betteys selected for his 
companion in life Miss Virginia J. Wade, a native 
of Will County, 111., born in 1850, and was united 
in marriage to her in 187-1. The fruits of this union 
have lieen four children: Eugene, Mamie, Edward 
and Winnie. 

Harm .J. Bierman. farmer and stock raiser, 
Hastings, Xeb. In his farming operations in this 
country Mr. Bierman has pursued the sturdy, in- 
dusti'ious and enterprising princiiiles which charac- 
terize the customs of those of foreign birth now re- 
siding in Adams County, Neb. He was born in 
Germany in 18-tO, and was the fourth child in order 
of birth. His father, John Bieiman, was born in 
Germanj' in 1804; was a farmer bj' occupation, 
and remained in his native counti-y until 1863, when 
he crossed the ocean to the United States, and set- 
tled in Woodfoi 1 County, 111. Here he followed 
farming, and was very successful in this occupation. 
He died in Illinois in 1875. His wife, Miss 
Johanna Severs, who bore him six children, died in 
1867. Both were members of the Lutheran Church, 
and he in his political views was Independent, vot- 
ing for principle not for party. Their children were 
named as follows: Henrietta, Francis, Harm, de- 
ceased, and Harm who is living and is the subject 
of this sketch; Peterke (living), and John (deceased). 
In early life Harm J. Bierman assisted his father on 
the farm, and at the age of sixteen yesas went on 
the sea, which he followed for some time. He then 
went to Illinois, settled in Woodford, near Minonk, 
and there followed agricultural pursuits for twelve 
years. He was married in 1867 to Miss Katie Flyr, 
who was born in Germany and who moved to Illi- 
nois with her father, William Flyr, when but two 
years of age. The father died in Illinois in 1883. 
To the marriage of 5Ir. Bierman were born nine 
children, eight now living: Albert (deceased), 
Henry, Christina, now Mrs. Knapp, and resides in 

Hastings, Johanna, John, Harr3-, Albert, Herman 
and Theodore. Mrs. Bierman moved to Adams 
Count}', Neb., in 1876, settled on the prairie where 
he now lives; bought 320 acres of good land, and 
this he has improved ver}- much. He and his wife 
are members of the Lutheran Church, and are much 
respected citizens. He was road . supervisor of the 
township for one year, and he takes a deep interest 
in school and church matters. He is a wide-awake, 
industrious farmer, as may be seen by the itnprove- 
ments made on his farm. He is a ReiJublicau in 

Luther A. Boley, Kenesaw, Neb. Since his res- 
idence in the count}-, Mr. Boley has been very prom- 
inently identified with the material affairs of this 
community, indeed far more so than the average of 
men. He was born in Huron County, Ohio, Sep- 
tember 29, 1839, and received his education in the 
high schools, supplementing the same by attending 
the seminary at Auburn. In 1 859 he began teaching 
in the public schools of Indiana, and followed that 
occupation for four years. He then worked for the 
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad Company 
as section foreman, and eight years later turned his 
attention to farming, which he followed until 1874, 
when he came to Nebraska, locating on a homestead 
near Kenesaw. There he remained eleven years and 
then accepted a position as manager of the Burling- 
ton & Missouri River Railroad Company's coal busi- 
ness at Kenesaw, which he still continues to hold. 
In 1876 he was elected assessor for Kenesaw pre- 
cinct and served six years; was a member of the 
town council for two years, and is a member of Ken- 
esaw Lodge No. 144, A. F. & A. M. He selected 
as his companion in life. Miss Kate J. Hodges, a 
native of Huron County, Ohio, and their marriage 
was solemnized in 1862. To this union have been 
born three children: Edith Camilla, now Mrs. Harry 
Mitchell, resides at Cheyenne; Walter F., and Madge 
A. Mrs. Boley is a church worker and takes a 
deep interest in all charitable enterprises. Mr. 
Boley's parents, Martin and Sarah Ann (Hodges) 
Boley, were natives of New York, and came to Ohio 
about 1835. When the subject of this sketch was 
an infant only a few weeks old they moved to Kent 
County, Ontario, where they remained four }ears, 


and then returned to Ohio, residing on the original 
farm for four 3-ears. In 1847 they moved to Indi- 
ana, locating in De Kalb County, where they were 
pioneer settlers, and where they both passed their 
last days, the fatlier dying in the fall of 1859, and 
the mother in 1874. The former was one of the 
original Abolitiomsts. 

Harry Broolts Borley, drayage and transfer, 
Hastings, Neb. This successful and enterprising 
business man was born in the County of Suffolk, Eng- 
land, on June 3, 1854, and is the son of John and 
Sarah (Brooks) Borley, natives also of England. The 
union of the parents was blessed by the birth of six 
children, three now living, and Harry Brooks Borley 
is the fourth child in order of birth. The latter at- 
tained his growth in London, England, attended the 
schools of the same, and for two years prior to com- 
ing to the United States, was engaged in the book 
and newspaper business for W. H. Smith & Sons in 
London. He emigrated to the United States in 
1873, located in Hastings, and in 1874 bought 
eighty acres of railroad land, the south half of the 
southeast quarter of Section 35, Township 7, Range 
10, which he still owns and has greatly improved. 
For six years he was a clerk in what was then the St. 
Joe & Denver Railroad, but what is now the St. Joe 
& Grand Island. In 1880 Mr. Borley began the 
draj'age and transfer business in this city, and this 
he still continues. He was married on December 
31, 1884, to Miss Henrietta Wallace, daughter of 
Martin F. and Nellie Wallace. Mrs. Borley was 
born in Indiana in 1865, and came to Adams 
County, Neb., with her parents in 1873. To this 
marriage have been born two children, Harry W. , 
whose birth occurred on February 27, 1886, and 
William E. , who was born on December 23, 1887. 
In politics Mr. Borley is a Republican, and in 1879 
he joined the Masonic Fraternity, Hastings Lodge 
No. 50. He is one of the early settlers of Adams 
County, and is practicall}' a self-made man, having 
accumulated the most of his property by his own 

Isaac Boyd is a wealthy tiller of the soil of 
Adams County, Neb., and comes of an excellent 
stock, his ancestors having been prominent and in- 
fluential citizens of the different localities in which 

they resided. Born in Seneca County, Ohio, on 
August 28, 1843, he learned the intricacies of farm 
labor from his father, and this, in connection with 
stock raising, has continued to be his calling ever 
since. John Boyd, his father, was born in Penn- 
sylvania, but was reared in the Buckeye State, and 
was married in Seneca County to Elizabeth Eckley, 
a native of Ohio, and after farming there for a 
period of twenty years, and becoming well known 
throughout that region as an honorable, upright and 
worthy man, he passed to his long home in August, 
1856, deeply mourned not only by his immediate 
and sorrowing household, but by all who knew him. 
Soon after his death his wife and family moved to 
Stark County, 111. , and here the mother made her 
home for some twenty years, but is now residing 
with her son Isaac. The latter grew to mature 
years in the State of Illinois, but in 1871 went to 
Guthrie County, Icwa, where he was engaged in 
following the plow for about two years, and taught 
school one year, having received a good education 
in his youth, being an attendant of Knox College, 
111. , for about two years, and a college' at Hayesville, 
Ohio, one year. He was married in Guthrie County, 
Iowa, December 25, 1872, to Mary E. Mizen, a 
native of Wisconsin, reared and educated in Dean 
County, and a daughter of George Mizen; and 
shortly after their marriage they removed to Ne- 
braska, and in March, 1876, arrived in Adams 
Count}', and settled on the farm where they now re- 
side. He now has land to the amount of 240 acres, 
all in a good state of cultivation, on which are good 
buildings, orchards, etc. He is a Republican in 
politics, and has served two successive terms as 
assessor, and has been a delegate to county and 
State conventions. He and his wife are members of 
the jNIethodist Episcopal Church, and are the parents 
of five children: Laura, Lena, Maud, Frank and 
Effie. Two children died in infancy. 

Robert M. Boyd is accounted a prosperous farmer 
and stockman of Adams Count}', and like the ma- 
jority of native Ohioans is progressive in his views 
and of an energetic temperament. His birth occurred 
in Seneca County, March 1, 1844, and he is a son of 
John and Elizabeth (Eckley) Boyd, also natives 
of that State, and prosperous agriculturists. The 


father's death took place in his native State, August 
13, 1857, and soon after his family removed to Stark 
Country, 111. , where thej' made their home for many 
years. R. M. Boyd grew to manhood in this county, 
but after attaining his majority he began farming 
for himself, and in 1874 came to Nebraska, having 
come here in 1872 and homesteaded some land. 
Nearly all the county was prairie land at that time 
and there were verj'few houses, and these were nearh' 
all sod houses, and the county seat was then at Ju- 
niata. Mr. Boyd built a good frame house, which 
at that time was among the best in the township, and 
set energetically to work to put his land in tillable 
condition, which he succeeded in doing in a short 
time. He has since purchased 160 acres of land ad- 
joining his home place, and his farm now comprises 
a tract of 320 acres, all in a good state of cultiva- 
tion, ninetj--flve being devoted to corn, twenty acres 
to millet and sugar cane, and eightj- acres to smalt 
grain. He has been feeding cattle and hogs for the 
market for the past ten years, and ships on an aver- 
age of one ear load each year. He has two thorough- 
bred Hereford animals for breediiiL; |iiii|">si's, also 
some good graded stock. He has a pi arh orchard 
of about 300 trees, and an apple orchard of about 
three acres, the yield from the latter being some 300 
Inishels in 1889. In May, 1862, he enlisted in the 
Union Army, Sixty-ninth Illinois Infantry, and served 
four months, at the expiration of which time he was 
doing guard duty in Chicago. He is a Republican 
and has served as a delegate to county and State 
conventions, but has never had any desire for office. 
His union to Miss Eliza E. Addis was celebrated in 
Stark County, III, Februray 3, 1874, a daughter of 
Daniel Addis, a native of New Jersey. She was 
born in Fulton County, 111. , but from the time she 
was twelve years of age until she reached woman- 
hood was a resident of Stark County. Her union 
with Mr. Boyd resulted in the birth of four chil- 
dren: Frances V. , Frederick, and a son and daughter 
who died in infancy. 

Nathan L. Brass is a prominent citizen of Juni- 
ata, Neb., and throughout life has followed the 
teaching of the Golden Rule to the best of his abil- 
ity, and as a result has gained the respect and 
of all who know him. A native of Michigan , 

born in 1843, he is the fifth child born to Samuel 
Brass, who removed from Rochester, N. Y. , to 
Clinton County, Mich. , of which he was one of the 
pioneer settlers. After the death of his first wife 
the father married Margaret Dotj- at Ann Arbor, 
and by her became the father of Nathan L. He was 
a farmer and boot and shoe maker by occupation, 
and died in March, 1864, his wife's death occurring 
in 1858. After being engaged in farm labor and 
attending the district schools until he was eighteen 
years of age, he enlisted in Company D, First Mich- 
igan Cavalry, and was sent to Maryland, but his 
company was soon detached from the regiment and 
assigned to scouting duty after Mosby's bush- 
whackers, serving in this capacity until nearly the 
close of the war, when he was injured and trans- 
ferred to the Eighth United States Regiment, and 
with his company was detailed to guard prisoners 
that were being tried for the murder of President 
Lincoln. Before his duties were ended he became 
thoroughlj' familiar with Mrs. Mary Sun-att, Dr. S. 
A. Mudd, L. P. Payne, D. E. Herrold and others, 
and so vigilant was he in the discharge of his duties 
that for thirty days he had not time to remove his 
clothes. His regiment led the funeral procession 
through the city to the train. He received his dis- 
charge November 16, 1865, and was mustered out 
at Washington, D. C. Upon his return to Michi- 
gan he resumed farming, but a few months later 
was taken ill, the result of an injury received in the 
service, and for two years was incapacitated for work. 
After recovering he engaged in butchering, but in 
1869 gave up this work and removed to Wisconsin, 
where he resumed agricultural pursuits, but upon 
his health again failing him at the end of about a 
j-ear, he came to Nebraska and settled near Juniata, 
where he homesteaded 160 acres of land, imme- 
diately erecting a dwelling thereon with lumber that 
he hauled from Sutton. His house was the fifth 
frame house erected in the township, and Juniata 
then consisted of only four houses. Many interest- 
ing anecdotes are told bj' Mr. Brass concerning 
some of his earl}' hunting experiences, but want of 
space forbids their repetition. He resided on his 
farm near the town until 1880, making many very 
valuable improvements, then moved to Juniata and 

"* 'y 



settled in a uew residence which he had just com- 
pleted, being engaged for two years in selling agri- 
cultural machinery. The three following years were 
spent on his farm, and in 188G he bought a one- 
half block in town, built him a residence, set out 
trees, shrubs, etc., and has made him a very pleas- 
ant home. He was a consistent Republican in poli- 
tics until ISSJr, when he became a Prohibitionist, 
and in 1886 began lecturing for that party, his 
labors in this direction being recognized in nearly 
every part of the State, and in the campaign of 
1888 did excellent work for his party, He was 
married in 186C to Miss Rachel R. Smith, a native 
of Michigan, and a daughter of Rev. J. Smith, a 
minister of the United Brethren Church and an old 
missionary to the Indians. Mr. and Mrs. Brass 
attend the Methodist Episcopal Church, and are the 
parents of four children: Bertha, wife of Charles 
Allen; Franklin A., Fred Adna A., and Willie, who 
died at the age of two and one-half year.s 

John Brechner, farmer and stock raiser, Hast- 
ings, Neb. The agricultural affairs of Adams 
County, and particularly of this township, are ably 
represented among others by the subject of this 
sketch, who has been a resident of the same since 
1880. He was originally from Stark Count}^, Ohio, 
where he was born in 1845, and is the son of John 
and Delilah (Lindersmith) Brechner. The father 
was a native of Pennsylvania, born in 1813, and 
although he learned the blacksmith trade when a 
boy, in later years he followed the occupation 
ot a farmer and blacksmith. He died in 1860, 
but the mother is still living in Indiana. Their 
family consisted of fifteen children: Aaron, 
Joseph, Anna, Wilson, Peter, John, Samuel, Lu- 
cinda, Susan, Matilda, Saloma, Jacob F., Mary E. , 
George and Genevera. They reared all these chil- 
dren but Mary E. arid Jacob F. The mother is a 
member of the United Brethren Church, of which 
the father was also a member. John Brechner emi- 
grated from Ohio to Indiana when a boy, and in the 
latter State he received the principal part of his edu- 
cation. In 1866 he went to the lumber regions of 
Micliigan, and there remained for seven 3'ears, when 
he returned to Indiana and engaged in farming, 
lie was married in 1872 to Miss Harriet Barnes, 

daughter of Amos Barnes, and eight children have 
been the result of this union: J. Harvey, George 
W., Lydia B. , Henry, Delilah, Stella, Daisy and 
Sady. Mr. Brechner followed farming in Indiana 
for six years, and in 1880 he emigrated to Nebraska, 
and settled on his present property-. He bought a 
parti j^ improved farm of eighty acres, and also eighty 
acres of railroad land, which he has since improved 
very much. In politics Mr. Brechner votes for 
principle and not for party. He is a member of the 
Farmers' Alliance, and has been a member of the 
school board three terms. He and wife are members 
of the United Brethren Church, and are much es- 
teemed citizens. He has been very successful since 
coming to Nebraska, and has one of the best farms 
in the township, all the result of his own exertions. 
His brothers, Aaron, Wilson, Joseph and Peter, all 
enlisted in the Forty-seventh Indiana Infantry, and 
were in a great many hard fought battles. Samuel 
was in the One Hundred and Eighteenth Indiana In- 
fantry, Aaron and Peter lost their health while in 
the war, and the former died from the effects of his 
service in 1867. Mr. Brechner is the only one of 
his father's family who came to this State. 

Rev. Jacob Brinkema is the present pastor of the 
Presbj-terian Church in Hanover Township, Adams 
County, Neb. , and is a native German, having been 
Ijorn in Hanover, March 2, 1836, being the youngest 
of seven children born to the marriage of Justus and 
Anna (Green) Brinkema. The father was an en- 
terprising and successful agriculturist and he and his 
wife were membei's of the Reformed Church, and 
died in 1844 and 1843, respectively. Their children 
are George, Margaret, Agnes, Ernest, who died in 
1853; Justus, and two who died in infancy. Rev. 
Jacob Brinkema attended the schools of Hanover 
in his youth, but in 1864 left his native land to seek 
a home in the New World, and settled first in Ogle 
County, 111. In 1866 he entered a school at Du- 
buque, Iowa, and in this institution began his theo- 
logical studies, but in April, 1871, left school, and 
in the fall of that year was ordained a minister of 
the Gospel and put in charge of a church in Grundy 
County, Iowa. After spending six months in Ack- 
ley, he preached in Hamilton County for some time, 
and while in that State was instrumental in organizing 


a number of churclu's. On the 3(1 day of July. 
1883, be organized a uhurch in Hanover Township, 
Adams County, Neb. , and was put in charge of the 
same in Ma\-, 1884, and since his residence here has 
been instrumental in bringing many people into the 
church. January 11, 1872, he was married to Miss 
Bernhardine Gruis, a daughter of Ralph and Bern- 
hardiue Gruis, all natives of Hanover, Germany, 
and by his wife has had a family of ten children: 
Kuno, who died January, 1873; Juslon, who died 
January 16. 1881; Anna, was born in 1875: Kuno, 
died in 1887; Barnhard, who was born in 1879; Jus- 
tus, born in 1881 and died March 15, 1885; Kuno, 
born in 1882 and died in 1885; Rubalt, who died in 
1884; Margaret, who was born in 1886, and Justus 
born in 1888. Mr. Brinkema is deeply interested in 
the welfare of the county, and is an earnest, faithful 
and consistent worker for the cause of Christianity. 
Bedford Brown, attorney, Hastings, Neb. Of 
the many prominent names that go to make up the 
strength of the Nebraska bar is that of Mr. Bed- 
ford Brown, who though j'Oung in yt':iis, is lookcil 
uiiDU with roiisidci-.ilile pride bythe peciilcol' AWjiiis 
County, not only lor his brilliant efforts in his piolVs- 
sion, but for his unquestioned integrity and honesty 
of purpose. He was born near where stands the 
pivscnl vilhi-eof Divernon, III., October 7, 18G1, 
;inil lir^t allciided the district schools of Sangamon 
County, ill. Subsequently he attended Whiijple 
Academy at Jacksonville, 111. , and also at Illinois 
College, of the same place, from which he graduated 
in 1884 with the degree of A. B. He then taught 
school for one year, and in the fall of 1885 entered 
the Columbian University Law School at Washing- 
ton, D. C. , from which he graduated in the spring 
of 1 877. After this he was in the office of Dilworth, 
Smith & Dilworth, at Hastings, for three months, and 
in Ainil, 1888, he formed a co-partnership for the 
practice of law with W. L. Marshall, which contin- 
ued until January 25, 1890, when the partnership 
was dissolved. Mr. Brown is a close student, is one 
of the popular young men of Hastings, and is a bril- 
liant young lawyer. He is a Democrat in politics, 
and is a member of the Presbyterian Church. He 
is the sixth of nine children born to Reuben S. and 
Sallie (Wright) Brown, natives of Kentuckj- and Illi- 

nois, respectively. The parents and most of the 
family reside in Sangamon County, 111. The father 
is an agriculturist by occupation near Divernon, 111., 
and occupies a prominent position among the many 
successful business men of that community. 

William R. Burton, county judge-elect of Adams 
County, Neb., is a man of recognized worth, and to 
his natural abilities have been added the wisdom and 
experience of a useful and well spent life. He was 
born on the frontier in Southwestern Missouri, May 
31, 1844, his father, Garrett Burton, who was a na- 
tive Kentuckian, born in 1820, being of a wandering 
disposition, and with his family, was in \Ii--onrl at 
the time of William's birth. The motlicr was a most 
estimable lady, and was a faithful wife and mother. 
Her maiden name was Catherine Waugh, and she was 
born in Tennessee in 1819, and is now a resident of 
Harrison County, Ind. Her husband's death occurred 
in 1862, and upon her devolved the rearing, support 
and education of her children, five in number, and 
how well this dutj'was fulfilled is evident in looking 
upon her children, who have grown to honored man- 
hood and womanhood. William R. Burton is the 
eldest of the family, and in early boyhood he re- 
turned to Indiana with his mother, and here his early 
scholastic advantages were enjoyed, and besides ob- 
taining all the knowledge to be acquired in the com- 
mon schools, he was so fortunate as to obtain a 
four years' schooling in the Northwestern Christian 
University at Indianapolis. In Jul3-, 1861, he en- 
listed in Company E, Twenty-third Indiana Volunteer 
Infantry, to do battle for the Union, and was a faith- 
ful servant for "Uncle Sam" uutil the last of May, 
1865, and during his term of service was in many 
important engagements. He was wounded at the 
siege of Vicksburg, captured on the field of battle 
and was cast in prison, but was soon after paroled 
and sent to a hospital at St. Louis. Upon his re- 
covery he entered the quarter-master's department 
of the Army of the Cumberland under Gen. Thomas, 
and in that capacity served until the close of the 
war. In 1872 he began the stud}' of law, and two 
years later was admitted to the bar in Union County, 
Ind., where he continued the practice of his pro- 
fession until 1881, at which time he accepted a posi- 
tion on the editorial staff of the Indianapolis Jour- 




nal, in which capacity he remained two years. He 
then came to Adams County, Neb., and for some 
time was engaged in wielding the ferule, but in 1887 
was chosen judge of the city court of Hastings, re- 
ceiving all the votes cast with the exception of one. 
In 1889 he was elected to his present position, with 
a plurality of 700, and his devotion to the welfare 
of this county, and his ability and fidelity in his 
present position, have been recognized by all. Polit 
ically he has always been a Republican, and socially 
he is a member of the I. 0. O. F. and the G. A. R. 
January 1, 1873, he was united in marriage to Miss 
Anna J. Langtree, of Madison, Ind. , by whom he 
has one son: Harry G. 

Rev. 0. A. Buzzell has been long and worthily 
identified with the farming and religious interests of 
Adams Countj-, Neb. , and no history of this imme- 
diate vicinity would be complete which failed to 
make proper mention of Mr. Buzzell. Originally 
from Grafton County, N. H. , he was born there in 
1835, and was the third of a family of eight chil- 
dren born to his parents, D. R. and Anna D. 
(Pease) Buzzell. The father is yet living, and has 
resided on one farm in New Hampshire since he was 
seven years of age, the farm being originally pur- 
chased by his father, the grandfather of our sub- 
ject. Since he attained his majority he has been an 
active spirit in the affairs of Grafton County, which 
he has represented twice in the State Legislature. 
For over fifty j-ears he served as clerk of the Free 
Will Baptist Church of his town, and politically was 
a Jacksonian Democrat; and still adheres to the 
principles of that party. For a number of years he 
was extensively engaged in the lumber business, 
and operated two saw mills on a stream which ran 
through his farm, but a freshet swept both these 
structures awaj', which loss financially embarrassed 
Mr. Buzzell for many years. He eventually recov- 
ered his losses, and paid his debts to the last dol- 
lar. He was born in 1806, and accordingly is now 
at the advanced age of eightj'-three years, and is 
yet quite hale and hearty, bearing his burden of 
many years with ease, his memory especially show- 
ing few indications of the ravages of time. His 
wife died in 1879 at the age of sixtj--nine years. 
The parental grandfather was a sturdy pioneer 

farmer of New Hampshire, and died in 1872 at the 
ripe old age of ninety-eight and one-half years, ha\ - 
ing enlisted, but not taking an active part, in the 
War of 1812. The mother's parents were also 
among the sturdy pioneers of New Hampshire, and 
lived to a goodly age. 0. A. Buzzell's days from 
his earliest recollections were occupied with the 
monotonous duties of farm life, and in acquiring an 
education in the district schools near his home, and 
when his twentieth year was reached he went to 
Lowell, Mass. , and began clerking in a book store; 
but in December, 1857, bought out the proprietor 
and started in business for himself, conducting the 
establishment until the outbreak of the late Civil 
War. In July, 1862, he joined Company F of the 
Thirty-third Regiment Massachusetts Infantry, and 
was a member of the Army of the Potomac for one 
year. After becoming a member of the Eleventh 
Army Corps, he participated in the battle of Chan- 
cellorsville, and in the fall of 1863 was transferred 
to the Army of the West, and marched from Bridge- 
port to Chattanooga; and after reaching the latter 
place took part in the battles of Lookout Valley, 
Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. He also 
participated in nearly all the engagements of the 
Atlanta campaign in the Twentieth Corps (Joe 
Hooker's), and while in the city of Atlanta his regi- 
ment was detailed for provost duty, and upon the 
evacuation of the arm}' their regiment set fire to the 
city. He was with Sherman on his march to the 
sea, and on March 7, 1865, received injuries which 
confined him to the hospital for some time. He 
was discharged May 24, 1865, and returned home 
with the rank of corporal, to which he had been 
promoted while on the Atlanta campaign. Before 
reaching his home, however, he was stricken down 
by fever, and for a time his life was despaired of; 
but by fall he had recovered sufBciently to engage 
in business, which he did in the city of Lowell, 
Mass., continuing until May, 1867, at which date 
he sold out and engaged in the manufacture of shoe 
findings in Boston, this occupation receiving his at- 
tention for some three years. During this time he 
had purchased the exclusive control of Dr. James 
Craigue's Indian family medicines, and three j-ears 
were spent in the preparation of these remedies for 


the public. In 1872 he removed to Nebra.ska, cou- 
sideriug that the new country beyond the Mississippi 
offered better advantages to a man than the East; 
and time has proved the wisdom of his decision in 
locating here. He settled on a homestead in Buf- 
falo County, near where Kearnej' now is; but after 
living on it five years and making many improve- 
ments, he sold out and moved to a farm of eighty 
acres near the town of Juniata, which he has suc- 
ceeded in putting in a fine state of cultivation. He 
has a pleasant and commodious residence, and his 
farm is well supplied with fruit and is abundantlj' 
stocked, this branch of business receiving a con- 
siderable portion of Sir. Buzzell's attention. Mr. 
Buzzell joined the Free Will Baptist Church when 
about nineteen years of age, and the following year 
changed his membership to the First (regular) Bap- 
tist Church of Lowell, Mass.; and while in Lowell, 
in 1866, he and two gentlemen friends started the 
Y. M. C. A. , of which he was an active member 
during his stay in the city. On May 27, 1873, he 
was licensed to preach by the Baptist Church of 
Gibbon, Neb. , and served that church as pastor for 
one year, during which time also he organized a 
church at Huntsville. In 1874 he became pastor 
of the First Church of Kearney, and later organized 
a church at Overton, and became pastor of the 
Plum Creek Church, ten miles west. He was or- 
dained March 9, 1877, and in the fall of the same 
year he received a call from Juniata, which he 
accepted, and moved to this town; and under his 
guidance the membership soon became doubled, 
which necessitated the erection of a new church, 
which still stands as a tribute to his zeal and fidelity. 
In 1881 he organized a church at Minden; in 1884, 
the Mount Pleasant Church, south of Juniata, and 
has also assisted in organizing a number of other 
churches. He was pastor of a church in Hamilton 
County two years; was pastor of the Union and 
Catherton Churches in Webster County, and the 
Pleasant Home Church in Polk County. He was 
one of the organizers of the Grand Island and 
South Central Baptist Associations, and was one of 
the Board of Directors for the State Convention, 
and Chairman of the State Committee of Foreign 
Missions, and has served as Moderator of each of 

these associations. He has also served as mis- 
sionary- in employ of the Baptist Home Missionary 
Society, American Bible Society and American Sun- 
day School Union, establishing work on the frontier. 
He was married in 1858 to Miss Addie M. Jlerrill, a 
native of New Hampshire, and a daughter of Jere- 
miah and Jlary A. (George) Merrill, the father dying 
when Mrs. Buzzell was a child, and the mother in 
1877. ■ The former was a farmer bj- occupation, and 
an enterprising citizen. To Mr. and Mrs. Buzzell 
seven children have been born. Edgar A. , the eldest, 
is a graduate of the University of Chicago, having 
worked his way through this institution, and re- 
ceived at the end of the course $50 for the prize 
essay. In the fall of 1888 he was admitted to the 
bar of Chicago, and is now practicing law in that 
city. He was born October 10, 1860, and was mar- 
ried April 4, 1887, to Miss J. Isetta Gibson, by 
whom he has a son born January 8, 1888, named 
Edgar Gibson. Minnie A., the second child, was 
born December 13, 1862, and was the first graduate 
of the Gibbon Baptist Seminary. She later spent 
one year in the University of Chicago in the study 
of special branches preparatory to engaging in 
foreign missionary work, and in the fall of 1884 
sailed from San Francisco to China. Her support 
abroad was guaranteed by the ladies of Oregon, and 
she reached her destination, Swatow, China, Decem- 
ber 1, 1884; but after three years of successful 
labor among the heathen women, owing to ill health, 
returned to America in 1887, and is at present in 
Oregon for the benefit of her health, and is at the 
same time engaged in organizing women's mis- 
sionary societies in Oregon and Washington. She 
was the youngest single lady sent on this work, and 
the superintendent of the mission in China said that 
she made rapid progress in learning the language. 
Annie, Mr. Buzzell's second daughter, was born 
August 3,1866, and received her education in Gibbon 
Seminary. She began teaching in the public schools 
of Adams County at the age of fifteen years, and is 
now in her third year in charge of the primary de- 
partment of the Juniata public school. Charles D. , 
born November 8, 1870, is at home; Jennie M. was 
born November 22, 1873, and is a pupil in the high 
school at Juniata. Lewis J. was born September 



12, 1876, and died June 19, 1878, and Francis H. 
was born November 9, 1882, and died September 6, 
1884. Mr. Buzzell cast his first presidential vote 
for John C. Fremont, and has ever since voted in 
general elections for the Republican candidate. He 
is a member of Geary Post No. 81, G. A. R., and 
has been honored with the office of Chaplain of that 

W. P. W. Campbell, fanner and stockman, 
Trumbull, Neb. This representative citizen is one 
of the pioneers of "West Blue Township, Adams 
County, Neb., whither he had emigrated in Febru- 
ary, 1874, and where he has since homesteaded 
160 acres on Section 12. He was born in Kanawha 
County, Va, , on November 24, 1826, and is the 
sixth in a family of eight children born to the union 
of Roliert and Mary (Griffith) Campbell, natives of 
the Old Dominion, Botetourt County. The father 
was a cabinet maker by trade, and was the inventor 
of the old fashioned auger pump. He moved to 
Sangamon County, 111., in 1830, settled on a farm, 
entered land, and made that count}- his home until 
his death, which occurred in December, 1844. His 
wife survived him until November, 1861. Of their 
children Charles resides in Labette County, Kan. , 
John, in St. Louis, who is a master machinist, and 
W. P. W. The latter (the subject of this sketch) 
remained on the farm until twentj'-one years of age 
and then entered a machine shop, where he became 
a master mechanic. He set up machinery all over 
Illinois, and later ran stationary engines in different 
parts of the country. After this he worked in the 
shop and on the road for ten jears. On May 26, 
1861, he enlisted in the Fourteenth Infantry, Com- 
pany I, for three years, at Waverly, 111., and was 
engaged in the battles of Shiloh, Hatchie and siege 
of Vicksburg. While at Natchez he was transferred 
to the invalid corps on account of disability, being 
sent to guard the prison at Rock Island until the 
expiration of term of service. He was discharged 
at the latter place on Slay 27, 1864, after which he 
went to Springfield, 111. Mr. Campbell was mar- 
ried previous to the war, in 1852, to Miss Julia M. 
Slater, a native of Sangamon County, 111. , and the 
daughter of Jay and Lucretia (Carman) Slater, 
natives of New York and Virginia, respective!}'. 

Mr. Slater settled in Illinois at an earl}- day, and 
there followed agi'icultural pursuits. Both he and 
wife are deceased. Mrs. Campbell's brother, James 
H. Slater, was United States Senator from Oregon, 
and was also in the XLIst Congress. He is now a 
resident of Oregon and a prominent criminal lawyer 
of La Grande. Mr. Campbell, after marriage, set- 
tled in Springfield, 111. , whither he had returned 
after the war, and there resided until 1874, when he 
emigrated to Adams County, Neb. He entered 160 
acres of land, and now has all that in a good state 
of cultivation. He is also interested in the raising 
of stock. Mr. Campljell is not active in politics, 
but votes with the Republican party. He has been 
a member of the school board, and was one of the 
first in the district. He is a member of William H. 
Harrison Post No. 183, G. A. R., at Trumbull, 
and is Senior Vice Commander. ]>Irs. Campbell is 
a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. To 
their union bave been born three children: Mary, 
now Mrs. L. F. Gould, of Orange Vale, Cal. ; Olive, 
now Mrs. Ramsey, of Nebraska, and Charles R. , 
who is married and resides at home. Mr. Campbell 
has seen the complete growth of the county, and in 
its early settlement has been obliged to go to the 
Platte River to get willows for fuel. He takes an 
interest in and aids all causes for the good of the 

L. M. Campbell, secretary of the Nebraska Real 
Estate and Live Stock Association, and one of the 
prominent business men of Hastings, was born at 
DeWitt, Iowa, on September 12, 1859, and is the 
son of W. R. and Rebecca (McBride) Campbell, 
natives of Ohio, and now residents of South Dakota, 
the former being about sixty-two years of age and 
the latter sixty-five years of age. Mr. Campbell is 
the second of five children. He remained at De- 
Witt, Iowa, until 1871, and then for five years at- 
tended school at Washington, Iowa, and a business 
college at Davenport, Iowa. In 1876 he went to 
Des Moines, and during the winter season for five 
years was book keeper for the Des Moines Pork 
Packing Company. In 1881 he came to Hastings, 
and until September, 1888, was bookkeeper for the 
Nebraska Loan and Trust Company, and since then 
has been actively engaged in the real estate business. 



in connection with one of tlie most extensive real 
estate firms in ttie West. The same was organized 
August 1, 1883. Mr. Campbell takes an active part 
in the advancement of fastings, and readily gives 
his support to all laudable enterprises. He was 
married in 1882 to Miss Almira U. Dillanback, a 
native of Kalamazoo, Mich. , who died in Hastings, 
Neb., in 1886, leaving two children, Sidney E., 
born in 1883, and Almira U., born in 1886. Mr. 
Campbell was married the second time on January 
18, 1888, to Miss Mary E. Ritter, a native of Con- 
stantine, Mich. Mr. Campbell is an ardent Repub- 
lican, and cast his first presidential vote for James 
A. Garfield, at Creston, Iowa. He is a member of 
the Masonic Lodge, is also a member of the I. 0. 0. 
F. and the A. 0. U. W. , and is one of the popular 
men of Hastings. 

Lucius Juuia Capps is the senior member of the 
law firm of Capps, McCreary & Stevens, of Hastings, 
Neb. As a copartnership whose honor is above 
criticism, whose abilitj' places it in the front rank of 
the Western bar, whose name is well known through- 
out Adams and surrounding counties, this firm 
occupies an enviable place. The gentlemen com- 
posing the firm are admirably adapted to their call- 
ing, and Mr. Capps is especially well known. He 
was born in Indiana, October 10, 1852, and is a son 
of J. W. and Julia (Boone) Capps, who were born 
in North Carolina and Indiana, in 1824 and 1834, 
respectively. They removed to Boone County, 
Iowa, at an early day, and here the mother's death 
occurred in 1873, her husband being still alive and 
a prominent resident of that county. Lucius J. 
Capps is the eldest of their seven children, and when 
a little less than one year old his parents located in 
Iowa, and until nineteen years of age he was an 
attendant of the public schools of Boone County. 
He then began studying law in the office of W. R. 
Lawrence, but finished his legal studies in the office 
of Judge Mitchell, and on May 15, 1873, he was 
admitted to the Boone County bar. The same year 
he went to Utah Territory, but a few months later 
returned home, and in September, 1874, entered the 
law department of the University of Michigan, at 
Ann Arbor, and on March 24, graduated with the 
class of 1875. From that time until December, 

1878, he practiced his profession in Paris, 111., be- 
ing admitted to practice before the Supreme Court 
of that State June 4, 1875, after which he came to 
Hastings, Neb., and in December, 1878, became a 
member of the Adams County bar. He also holds 
a certificate to practice in the federal courts. De- 
cember 26, 1876, he was married to Miss Mary J. 
Vance, who was born in Wisconsin in 1857, and 
died May 16, 1888, leaving two children, Louis 
Junia and Harry F. V. Mr. Capps has always been 
a stanch Republican. 

Levi Carkins, farmer and stock breeder, Hast> 
ings, Neb. Among the infiuential and respected 
citizens of Adams County, there is no one more 
justly entitled to representation in this work than 
Levi Carkins. He came to the county in the spring 
of 1873, entered 160 acres of land, erected a frame 
house and commenced improving his farm. He was 
born in Onondaga County, N. Y. , in October, 1841, 
and was the fifth of ten children born to the union of 
Levi and Lefy (Richmond) Carkins, both natives of 
the southern part of New York State. The parents 
were married in New York in 1832, moved to Mc- 
Henry County, 111. , in 1845, and here the father cul- 
tivated the soil until 1856. They then moved to 
Chickasaw County, Iowa, where the father continued 
his former pursuit until his death the following year. 
The mother was born in Onondaga County, in 1813, 
and survived her husband until 1884, having been a 
resident of Iowa for twenty-eight years. Their 
family consisted of the following children: Mary, 
died in Iowa; Sarah, now Mrs. Graves, of New Hamp- 
ton, Iowa; Amaziah, died in McHenry Count}', 111., 
many years ago; Sylvester, died November 14, 1881; 
Levi (our subject), Richmond, enlisted in the L^nion 
Army, Company C, Thii-tj--eighth Iowa Infantry, at 
Chickasaw, Iowa, in 1862, and was assigned to the 
Western Department; he died at New Orleans in 
1863 of chronic diarrhrea, contracted in service; 
Phoebe Jane, now Mrs. Gregory, of Charles City, 
Iowa; George Washington, married and resides in 
Iowa; Ruthfield, married and resides in Hayes 
County, Neb. , and Cyrus who resides in Hayes 
County, Neb. Levi Carkins' time in early life was 
divided between assisting on the farm and receiving 
an ordinar}- education in the schools of Chickasaw, 


Iowa. He enlisted in Company B, Seventh Iowa 
Infantry, at Hampton, Iowa, July 8, 1861, for three 
years, and was sent to the Western Department. He 
was in the battle of Belmont and there received a 
gunshot wound. He participated in the battle of 
Shiloh, Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta, also 
several other prominent battles, and was with Sher- 
man on his march to the sea. He was honorably 
discharged at Chattanooga, Tenn., in August, 1864. 
Returning home to Iowa he engaged in agricultural 
pursuits, and this has continued ever since. His 
mamage occurred in Chickasaw County, Iowa, in 
1884, to Miss C. D. Carpenter, a native of Ohio, who 
bore him two children: Kittle M. , now Mrs. Miukler, 
of Ohio, and H. E., who now resides in Nebraska. 
Mr. Carkins took for his second wife Mrs. Angeline 
(Keene) Hudson, the daughter of Alvin and Sarah 
(Cheever) Keene, natives of New York, and was 
married to her in Nebraska, in 1877. Her parents 
moved to Monroe County, Mich., in 1837, settled on 
a farm, and there the mother died in 1852. The 
father died January 30, 1879. Mrs. Carkins was 
married in Monroe County, Mich., in 1865, to Fer- 
nando Hudson, a native of Monroe County, Mich. , 
and came to Adams County, Neb., in 1872, settling 
in Denver Township, where thej- entered eighty acres 
of land within the present limits of Hastings, which 
at that time consisted of a few sod cabins. Mr. 
Hudson's death occurred in 1874. Mr. Carkins has 
continued to improve his farm, and now has 320 
acres under cultivation. He feeds considerable 
stock, has a good grade, and has made many and 
vast improvements. He is the township committee- 
man of Highland Township, takes an active part in 
politics and votes with the Republican party. He 
was school treasurer in 1876, and has filled many 
other local positions. He assisted in the organiza- 
tion of Highland Township. Mrs. Carkins is a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
is active in its various workings. Mr. Carkins 
has seen a vast change in the countj' since his 
residence here, and being one of the pioneers 
has tsiken a deep interest in everything that per- 
tains to the good of the same. When he first 
settled here he was offered a lot in Hastings for 
a watch, but refused the offer. He is a self-made 

man and has accumulated all his property since 
coming here. 

Thomas Carroll, farmer and stockman, Ayr, Neb. 
If, as is self-evident, this work would be incomplete 
without sketches of the more public spirited of the 
successful agriculturists and stockmen, and substan- 
tial, well-to-do citizens of Adams Countj-, the biog- 
raph3- of the subject of this sketch justly finds a 
conspicuous place in the present volume. Mr. Car- 
roll was originally from New York Citj-, where his 
birth occurred in 1843, but his education was re- 
ceived in Illinois. His parents, John and Bridget 
(Mooney) Carroll, were both natives of County ^layo. 
Province of Connaught, Ireland. The father was 
born in 1803, and in 1838 emigrated to New Y'ork 
City, where he remained until 1845. From there he 
removed to Vermont, thence in 1846 to Illinois, and 
from there, in 1878, to Union County, Iowa, where 
he lived a retired life. He died in that State in 
1884, and the mother in Illinois in 1864. The father 
was a Democrat in politics, and was a member of 
the Catholic Church. Thomas Carroll spent his 
school-boy days in Illinois, and at the breaking out 
of the war he enlisted in Company H, Twelfth Illi- 
nois Infantry, under Col. John McCarthy, and was 
in many of the principal engagements. He was in 
the battles of Donelson and Shiloh, where he was 
wounded by a minie-ball (which he carries to this 
day), and being unable to do further service on ac- 
count of this, was discharged in 1862. He has 
since been unable to do manual labor. In 1864 he 
was married to Miss Lucelia Bort, daughter of Daniel 
Bort, of Illinois, and afterward followed agricultural 
pursuits in that State for a number of years. In 
1873 he came to Nebraska, settled in Ajt Township, 
Adams County, entered 160 acres of land, which he 
has since increased to 640 acres, and has this all 
under fence and well improved. Although a Demo- 
crat he is not a party man and votes for principle. 
He has been school treasurer in his district, and is 
interested in all local affairs. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Carroll have been born ten children: John M., 
Charles H. , Thomas B. , Louis H. , Frank, James C. , 
Wesley A. , Herron G. , Maggie Lue and Mary 0. 
The children are all at home. 

Thomas W. Carter, farmer and stock rai.ser, Rose- 

-® "V 


land, Neb. Mr. Carter is a native of Rlioile Island, 
and was born in the city of Providence on Angust 
21, 1844. His father, Charles W. Carter, was born 
on Breed's Hill, Charleston, Mass., was reared there, 
and when a j'oung man went to Rhode Island, where 
he married Miss Phoebe Ann Patt, a native of that 
State. Mr. Carter was a blacksmith and machinist 
by trade, and after remaining in Rhode Island from 
1852 until 1872 he moved to Adams County, Neb. , 
and here passed the closing scenes of his life, his 
death occurring on August 19, 1882. His wife is 
still living. He was in Rhode Island during the 
Dorr trouble. T. W. Carter moved with his parents 
to Illinois in 1852, settled in McLean County, and 
August 15, 1862, he enlisted in the One Hundred 
and Seventh Illinois Infantrj', and was transferred 
in 18G3 to the Seventh Illinois Battery, and in 1864 
to Batterj' K, First Illinois Light Artillery, serving 
until the close of the war. He was discharged in 
July, 1865, and was mustered out at Knoxville. 
He participated ia the fight at Bean Station, and his 
battery whipped the fnnioiis Gray ILirse battery of 
Longstreet. He also ijailicipatcil in the liattle of 
Perryville, siege of Knoxville, Strawberry Plains and 
a great many lesser battles. He was not sick nor 
did he lose any time during his term of service. 
Returning to Illinois, McLean County, he there re- 
sided until 1872, when he moved to Adams County, 
Neb., in the fall of that year. In March, 1873, he 
entered land, and has since added to this and now 
has his place in a good state of cultivation. He was 
married here on March 19, 1883, to Mrs. Lydia J. 
Barnard, a native of Stueben County, Ind. , born near 
Angola, and the daughter of 0. V. Barnard. In his 
political views Mr. Carter affiliates with the Demo- 
cratic party and has held some local positions. He 
was elected supervisor in 1886 and re-elected in 
1887, serving two terms in that capacity. He then 
resigned in the last named j'ear, moved to Alma and 
engaged in business there for one season, renting out 
his farm. He was appointed magistrate of Rose- 
land Township in 1889, and is a man who has the 
confidence and respect of all acquainted with him. 
He and Mrs. Carter are hospitable and very pleas- 
ant in all their intercourse with the public, and 
as such have the esteem of all. Mr. Carter in- 

tends building a fine residence on his place the 
present season. 

John A. Casto, a leading member of that well 
known and popular law firm of Batty & Casto, of 
Hastings, Neb. , is a' successful business man and in 
every respect is self-made. His birth took place in 
Clinton County, Ohio, May 31, 1852, and he is a 
son of Firman and Susan (Moore) Casto, natives of 
Pennsylvania, the father's birth occurring March 1, 
1805. At an early day he removed to Ohio, and in 
1858 from there to Illinois, and died in McDonough 
County, this State, on January 4, 1889, having lived 
the honest and worthy life of a farmer. His wife, 
who was born in Pennsylvania, survives him, and is 
a resident of Good Hope, 111. From the time he 
was four years of age until he attained his majority 
John A. Casto resided on the homestead in Illinois, 
and from his father learned the intricacies of farm 
life, also lessons of industry and economy, which 
have been his stepping stones to success in later 
years. After attending the public schools a suffi- 
cient length of time he finished his education in the 
Normal School of Abingdon, 111., and still later, as 
a law student, entered the office of C. F, Wheat, at 
Macomb, 111. (in the fall of 1870), and at the end of 
twenty-one mouths took a course in the Chicago 
Union College of Law, and graduated in June with 
the class of 1883. In September of that year he 
came to Hastings where he entered upon the active 
practice of his profession, and in March, 1884, 
formed a partnership with Morris Cliggitt, a college 
classmate, which connection continued until May, 
1887. Since that time Mr. Casto has been associa- 
ted with Mr. Batty, and they constitute one of the 
leading firms of the county. Miss Etta M. Ratkin 
became his wife November 16, 1876. She was born 
in Illinois, and is the mother of a son, Earle. Mr. 
Casto beh.ngs to the L 0. 0. F. , the K. of P. , and 
in his political views has always been a Republican, 
and on this ticket was elected in 1888 to the posi- 
tion of countj' attorney of Adams County. Three 
of his brothers, Jonathan, George and Thomas J., 
seiM'il ill the I'uiou anny during the war, and the 
first named was killed in battle, the second died in 
the hospital, and onl}- Thomas returned to his home 
from the field of action. 



J. B. Cessna, attorney, Hastings, Neb. Promi- 
nent among the comparatively young men of Adams 
County, wliose career thus far has been both honor- 
able and successful, is the subject of this sketch. 
He was born in Bedford County, Pa., on the 24th of 
March, 1840, and his parents, William and Rachel 
(Mogart) Cessna, were natives also of the Keystone 
State. The father was born in 1800, and died 
in Bedford County, Pa., at the age of sixty-four 
jears. The mother was born in 1789 and died in 
1860. She was of German descent, while the father 
was of French and Italian. J. B. Cessna is the 
youngest of eleven children, ten of whom are now 
living. His brother John is a prominent politician 
of Pennsylvania, was speaker of the House of the 
Pennsylvania Legislature for three terms, and three 
times represented the Eighteenth Congressional Dis- 
trict in Congress. He has been a prominent poli- 
tician for forty years. J. B. Cessna first attended 
the public schools of Pennsylvania, and later at- 
tended the Alleghany Male and Female Seminary at 
Rainsburg, Pa. He entered the sophomore class 
of Franklin Marshall College, at Lancaster, Pa., 
in September, 1861, and graduated from the same 
in July, 1864. One year later he was admitted to 
the bar at Bedford, Pa. , and practiced law in that 
and other counties until April, 1885, when he came 
to Hastings, Neb. He had a good practice in the 
counties of his native State, and was admitted to 
practice before the Supreme Court of the United 
States on January 26, 1876, on motion of Hon. 
Jeremiah Black. His marriage to Miss Kate B. 
Brown, of Erie, Pa., occurred on June 12, 1872, 
and they have two children living: W. Brown and 
Reon B. In politics he adheres strictlj' to the Re- 
publican party. He is a member of the College 
Fraternity Phi Kapa Psi. He was admitted to prac- 
tice before the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania on 
May 15, 1872, and during his practice in that State 
he had quite a number of important cases, notable 
among which was the case entitled "Noble vs. The 
Thompson Oil Company." The case was in the 
court for fifteen j-ears. Mr. Cessna was connected 
with it as counsel for the plaintiffs below and de- 
fendants in error, and in March, 1879, the case was 
decided in favor of the defendants, in the Supreme 

Court of the United States. The case involved 
$50,000 and was of great legal importance. Since 
coming to Hastings. Mr. Cessna has had a good 
practice and is an independent thinker, deriving his 
information when practical from original sources, 
and is a hard working, industrious lawyer. He is a 
member of the Presbyterian Church. 

William A. Chapman, M. D. , is a man whom 
nature seems to have especially' designed to be a 
physician, for he has met with more than ordinary 
success in the practice of his profession, and owing 
to his desire to kgep out of the beaten path, his in- 
telligence and energy, he has become well known to 
the citizens and the medical fraternity of Adams 
and many surrounding counties. He was born in 
Delaware, Ohio, on September 11, 1843, and is the 
eldest of four living children born to Rev. A. D. 
and Alma E. (Wigton) Chapman, the former's birth 
occurring in the " Green Mountain State" Novem- 
ber 16, 1809, and his death in Malcom, Iowa, in 
1880. He was a well known and popular minister 
of the Presbyterian Church, and was licensed to 
preach the gospel to his fellow men in the year 
1838, being ordained the following year, from which 
date he continued an active worker for his Master 
until death called him home. His wife was born in 
Bradford, Pa., December 1, 1816, and is still re- 
siding in Malcom. Dr. Chapman removed to Iowa 
with his parents in 1859, and after attending the 
public schools until he acquired a fair education, 
he entered Iowa College, which he attended for 
some time. On September 30, 1862, he enlisted in 
Company E, Fourth Iowa Cavalrj', and was in 
active service for Uncle Sam until he received his 
discharge at Helena, Ark., in 1863. After remain- 
ing in college two years longer he went to Delaware, 
Ohio, and began canying out a long cherished de- 
sire, that of studying medicine, in the office of Dr. 
T. B. Williams, who was surgeon of the Eighty- 
second Ohio during the war. He then took two 
courses of lectures in the Cleveland Medical College, 
and from this institution was graduated March 4, 
1868, after which he returned to Malcom and 
entered at once upon the practice of the " healing 
art." In 1860 he removed to Marshalltown , Iowa, 
where he made his home till 1881; and while there 




■was for eight years chief surgeon of the Iowa Cen- 
tral Railroad. During the winter of 1878-79 he took 
lectures at Bellevue Hospital Medical College, 
graduating in the latter j'ear; and the year 1885 
found him also a graduate of the New York Poly- 
clinic. In the fall of 1881 he removed to Trinidad, 
Colo. , but five years later came to Hastings, Neb. , 
and here has become well and favorably known, as 
stated above. Dr. Chapman makes a specialty of 
general surgery. He has a name for good judg- 
ment, and for being a cool, careful and skillful 
operator. This, with his uniform success, has won 
for him a reputation throughout Central Nebraska, 
of which he may justly feel proud. In 1887 he 
was appointed surgeon of the Burlington & Mis- 
souri Railroad, and of the Chicago & Northwestern in 
1889. He is a Mason, a member of the G. A. R. , 
and he and his wife, whom he married November 
25, 1868, and whose maiden name was Mary L. 
Clark, are members of the Presbyterian Church. 
She was born in Peacham, Vt. They have two 
children: Alma J. and William H. 

Carlos Clark, one of the leading farmers and rep- 
resentative men of Adams County, was born in the 
Empire State on September 10, 1828, and is the 
eldest of eleven children, eight of whom are now 
li\-ing, born to the union of Dolphus and Sally (Lor- 
ing) Clark, natives of New York. The family set- 
tled in Illinois in 1838, and there the father culti- 
vated the soil until his death, which occurred in La 
Salle County in 1886, when he was eighty years of 
age. The mother now resides in La Salle County, 
111. , and is eighty j'ears of age. The paternal 
grandfather, Joseph Clark, was born in Massachu- 
setts and died in New York. In 1852 Carlos Clark 
began farming for himself in La Salle County, and 
there continued for eighteen 3'ears. He was then 
two years in Missouri, and in 1876 came to Adams 
County, Neb., and settled in Highland Township. 
In 1884 he moved to his present residence, two and 
a half miles fi-om Hastings, and is now the owner of 
160 acres of land, one of the best improved farms 
in Western Nebraska. He was married in 1852 to 
Miss Clarissa Dike, a native of Connecticut, who 
died in Missouri in 1869, leaving three children: 
Dolphus, Lee and Carlos. Mr. Clark's second mar- 

riage occurred in 1878, to Miss Helen E. Kilmer, a 
native of Pennsylvania, and the daughter of John 
and Betsey (Burger) Kilmer. Mr. and Mrs. Kilmer 
are both living, and are eighty-nine years of age 
each. They are natives of New York, and now re- 
side in La Salle County, 111. They are the parents 
of eleven children. Mr. Clark is one of the well-to- 
do farmers of the county. 

T. M. Clark, citj' water works engineer, Hast- 
ings, Neb. This honorable and upright citizen of 
Hastings was originally from Darke County, Ohio, 
where he was born July 14, 1840, and is the son of 
A. B. and Julia (Lawrence) Clark, natives also of 
the Buckeye State. The father was born in 1813, 
and died in Darke County, Ohio, in 1865, and the 
mother, who was born in 1821, died in the same 
county in 1863. Of the fourteen children born to 
their union, eleven of whom are still living, T. M. 
Clark is the second in order of birth. He was early- 
instructed in the mysteries of farm life, received his 
education in the public schools, and remained with 
his father until August, 1861, when he enlisted in 
Company G, Forty-fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantrj". 
He participated in the battles ot Winchester, Lynch- 
burg raid, Charleston (West Va.), Lewisburg, Mound- 
field, and was taken prisoner at the battle of 
Beverl}', Va. He was kept confined at Pemberton 
for forty-five days and was exchanged in February, 
1864, after which he returned home on a furlough 
for thirty days. After this he joined the regiment 
at Clarksburg, Va. , where he was discharged in 1865, 
and then returned to his native State, where he en- 
gaged in the grocery business at New Madison. 
This occupation he continued until 1871, when he 
emigrated to Nebraska, and lived for eighteen months 
in Saline Count}'. From there he went to Nebraska 
City, entered the employ of the Chicago, Burling- 
ton & Quincy Railroad, and for twelve years ran 
one of the " Q" engines. For five years after this 
he was a passenger engineer, and in the spring of 
1878 he removed to Hastings, where he continued 
railroading until the sti'ike in the spring of 1882. 
Since May, 1888, he has been engineer of the City 
Water Works. He was married in 1866 to Miss 
Nancy E. Cloyd, who was born in Ohio, January 24, 
1843, and the fruits of this union have been two 



children: Harry V. and Curt A. In his political 
views Mr. Clark is a Republican. He is a member 
of the I. 0. 0. F., also Encampment, Patriotic 
Order Sons of America, and Brotherhood of Loco- 
motive Engineers. He is one of the old settlers of 
Nebraska, and one of Hastings' respected citizens. 
W. J. Clark, farmer and stock raiser, Hastings, 
Neb. Upon reaching the age when it became neces- 
sary for him to choose some calling in life to which 
he would afterwards adhere as his chosen occupa- 
tion, Mr. Clark wisely adopted agricultural pursuits, 
and this has continued to receive his attention. He 
was born in Toronto, Canada, in 1854, and is the 
oldest son of six children born to Thomas and 
Nancy (Miller) Clark, natives of England and Can- 
ada, respectively. The father was born in 1809, 
and emigrated to Canada about 1830, settling at 
Toronto, where he carried on farming. He was 
first married to Miss Mary Linton, and they became 
the parents of these children: William, Mary, Sarah, 
Joseph, Francis, Alviua and Ellen. His first wife 
died in 1846, and in 1848 he married Miss Nancy 
Miller, who was born about 1825. They reared by 
this union six children, of whom four are still liv- 
ing: Orinda, Annie, L W. J. and Hattie (Lydia and 
Johnnie deceased). Mr. Clark was a successful 
farmer, and died in 1889, at the age of eighty-one 
years. He was a public spirited citizen, and was 
always interested in the affairs of the country. The 
mother is still living, and is a resident of Toronto, 
Canada. W. J. Clark's earlj- life was spent in the 
school room and in labor upon the farm. He 
started for himself in 1878, and the same year was 
married to Miss Melissa Steffens, a daughter of 
Joseph and Orinda Steffens, natives of Canada, who 
emigrated to Illinois at an early day and settled in 
Carroll County. There the father tilled the soil un- 
til his death in 1881. The mother is still living and 
is a resident of Illiuois. Mr. Clark emigrated from 
Canada to Nebraska in 1884, settled on his present 
property, which consists of 160 acres of land, which 
he has improved and which is well stocked with 
horses and cattle of the Durham breed. He is a 
Republican in politics, and is township treasurer 
for 1 890. He and wife are members of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, of which he is steward, and 

he is also president of the Ayr Township Sunday- 
school Association. He is interested in the upbuild- 
ing of schools and churches, and in fact every thing 
for the good of the county. 

Isaac G. S. Cleland, contractor, Hastings, Neb. 
Were it necessarj' to include in the sketch of 3Ir. 
Cleland's life any items pertaining to his ability 
and skill as a mechanic or builder, perhaps the 
greatest compliment that could be paid him would 
be for us to point out those monuments of his 
handiwork which now grace so manj* of the cities 
and homesteads of Adams County. Mr. Cleland 
was originall}' from St. Lawrence Count}-, N. Y., 
where his birth occurred on June 22, 1850, and is 
the youngest of ten children born to the union of 
Thomas and Jane M. (McMillen) Cleland, natives of 
Scotland. The parents died in St. Lawrence County, 
N. Y. , whither they had emigrated at an early date. 
They had four sons, John, William, Thomas and 
George, who were soldiers in the late war, and two 
of them were in rebel prisons. They all enlisted in 
1861, and served until the surrender. The father 
was a farmer by occupation. Isaac G. S. Cleland 
attended the schools of St. Lawrence County, N. Y. , 
and spent two years at Canton Academy. At the 
age of seventeen he began the carriage making 
trade, which he continued for five years, and 
then commenced the carpenter trade, which he 
carried on in New York State until the summer 
of 1884. On July 28 of that year he came 
to Hastings, and for a year and a half was 
foreman for J. R. Sims in the carpenter business. 
For nearly four years he has now been carpentering 
and contracting for himself, and as before men- . 
tioned, has built some of the best business houses 
and residences in Hastings. He erected the Cle- 
land flats on Lexington Avenue, seven in number, 
and worth about $12,000, and numerous other 
buildings. In his political views 3Ir. Cleland 
affiliates with the Republican part}-, without whisky. 
He was married on October 26, 1872, to Miss Mary 
Jane Allan, a native of Oneida Count}-, N. Y. , 
born in 1851, and the fruits of this union are two 
children, Charles A. and Celia M. Mrs. Cle- 
land is a member of tlie Presbyterian Church, 
and he is a member of the I. 0. O. F. , also of the 





Modern Woodmen of America. He is a self-made 
man, and by his energy and enterprise has accumu- 
lated a comfortable competency. He employs from 
eight to fifteen men in his business. 

J. H. Cofi'man, live stock auctioneer, and one of 
the well-known men of this part of Nebraska, was 
born in Harrison County, Ky. , on April 29, 1838. 
He is the son of Judge Henry Coflfman, a native of 
Jessamine County, Ky., born in 1809, and the grand- 
son of Abraham Coffman, who was born in Strath- 
burg, Germany, and who came to the United States 
prior to the Revolution, in which he was a soldier 
during the entire war. He was honorably dis- 
charged at Redstone, Pa., and subsequently went 
to what is now Faj-ette County, Ky. , where he died 
at a ripe old age. Judge Henry Coffman was mar- 
ried to Miss Eliza Harrison, a native of Kentucky, 
born in the year 1814, and who now resides in In- 
dianapolis. She is the daughter of Robert Harrison, 
who was a cousin of William Henrj' Harrison. Judge 
Coffman died in Indiang,polis, Ind. , in 1875. He 
was the father of fifteen children, J. H. Coffman be- 
ing fifth in order of birth, and twelve of whom are 
now living. The latter was reared in Cynthiana, 
Ky., and began life for himself by ringing an 
auction bell for some auctioneer. For thirty -one 
years Mr. Coffman has made auctioneering a busi- 
ness, and is one of the most popular and thoroughly 
efficient representatives of that calling in Nebraska 
or the entire West. During 1889 he held 110 pub- 
lic sales. He came to Hastings in 1885, and has 
since been a resident of that city. During the late 
war he was captain of Company B, Forty-second 
Kentucky Volunteers, of the Union troops, and 
served four years. He was married in 1861 to Miss 
Latitia Patch, who died in Pennsjdvania in 1869, 
leaving two children: James and Lydia. His second 
marriage occurred in 1881 , to Miss Maria J. Gaddis, 
of Columbus, Ohio, and to them have been born six 
children: Adda, Roy, Earl, Dee, Ray and Grace. 
In politics he is an Independent Republican. He 
and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and are much esteemed and respected citi- 
zens. Notwithstanding the exposure he has under- 
gone in carrj'ing on his business, he is a well pre- 
served man and strictly temperate. He is enter- 

prising and progressive, and has made his own way 
in life. 

John M. Cole (deceased). It would seem that 
nature had intended Mr. Cole for a long and more 
than ordinarily useful life, but while in its meridian 
his career was closed forever. He was born in 
Seneca County, Ohio, October 9, 1838, and died 
February 6, 1880, mourned not only by his imme- 
diate family, but by his numerous friends and 
acquaintances, by whom his many sterling social and 
business qualities were seen and recognized. He 
remained with his parents in the State of his nativity 
until he attained his majoritj-, receiving a common 
school education, and in 1881 enlisted in the Thirty- 
eighth Illinois Infantry, and was a faithful Union 
soldier for three years, or until the term of his enlist- 
ment had expired. He was in the engagements at 
Stone River, Missionary Ridge, Perry ville, Freder- 
icksburg, besides numerous engagements of equal 
note, or perhaps of even greater importance, and for 
nine months previous to receiving his discharge was 
sick in the hospital. He soon after went to Illinois, 
and was married in Stark Countj- of that State 
November 17, 1864, to Christina A. Peterson, a 
native of Sweden, but who was reared and educated 
in Illinois. She was a daughter of Jonas Peterson, 
and after her marriage to Mr. Cole they settled down 
to farming in Stark County, continuing until 1872, 
at which time they moved to Nebraska and took up 
a homestead claim in Adams County. By industry 
and good management he increased his farm to 320 
acres, but did not live to carry out the plans he had 
made concerning the conduct of his farm. His wife 
has since taken charge of affairs, and how well she has 
succeeded is evident in looking over her property, 
for the buildings are all in excellent condition and 
well kept up. She is, as was her husband, an earn- 
est member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
has reared her children in that belief. Their names 
are Flora, wife of Harvey Walters; William Austin, 
a young man, and John G., a lad of twelve years. 

Hon. H. V. Cole is Adjutant-General of the 
State of Nebraska, and his career through life has 
been one of more than usual interest, for he is enter- 
prising and progressive in his views, honorable and 
upright in his dealings, and is thoroughly posted on 


all matters of public interest. He owes his nativity 
to Huron County, Ohio, his birth occurring there in 
1842, he being the only child born to Vanransellar 
and Nancy J. (Barnes) Cole, who were born in Ver- 
mont and New York, respectively. The father died 
at the untimely age of twenty-five years, and his 
widow afterwards married again, and with her hus- 
band moved to Canada, where her demise occurred 
years afterwards, the subject of this sketch being 
eight j-ears of age at the time. After the death of 
his mother he returned to Ohio, where he made his 
home with friends until he arrived at his tenth year, 
and was then sent to an uncle in New York, with 
whom he made his home for five j-ears, the summer 
months being spent at farm labor, and the winter 
months in attending the disti-ict schools. In 1857 
he determined not to be longer dependent on any 
one for his living, but decided to carve out his 
career for himself, and thinking the West afforded 
better opportunities for a young man to rise in the 
world than the East, he emigrated to Michigan and 
settled in Lenawee Count}', where his time was 
divided between farm work and attending school. 
This State continued to be his home until August, 
1861, when he enlisted in Company C, Fourth Mich- 
igan Infantry, and served in the Fifth Army Corps 
in the Army of the Potomac, participating in the 
battles of Yorktown, New Briilgv. Hanover, Gaines 
Mill, New Market, Malvern Hill, Harrison's Land- 
ing, Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg and numer- 
ous others. He was discharged for disability on 
May 21, 1863, but by December had recovered suffi- 
ciently to re-enlist, and this time became a member 
of Company Gr, Sixth Michigan Cavalrj', Custer's 
Brigade, and was with Kilpatrick on his raid of 
1864, and took part in the Battle of the Wilderness. 
He was also with Sheridan on his raid and partici- 
pated in many sharp skirmishes, being wounded in 
an engagement at Haws' Shop, May 28, 1864, which 
resulted in total disability for further service. 
After remaining in the hospital at Washington, D. 
C. , for thirteen months, he received his discharge 
on July 6, 1865, whereupon he returned to Michi- 
gan. In the fall of that year he entered Eastman's 
College, at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., but in the spring 
of the following year he returned to Michigan, and 

continued his studies in a school of that State for 
six months longer. From 1867 until the spring of 
1871 he was engaged in business at Addison, Mich., 
but prior to this on September 6, 1869, he was mar- 
ried to Miss Susan P. Crane, a native of Hillsdale 
County, Mich. , whose parents were pioneers of that 
State. In October, 1871, he came to Adams 
County, Neb. , located the fourth homestead in what 
is now Highland Township, bored the first well in 
that township, and broke the first prairie sod in that 
section. He proved his claim in August, 1873, but 
on account of wounds received during the war, had 
to give up farming, and moved to Juniata. After 
following the occupation of clerking for about a 
year, he engaged in the grocery business in Juniata, 
but later became associated with I. G. Dillon, and 
the firm took the name of Dillon & Cole, their house 
then becoming a general mercantile establishment. 
Their eonnection continued until January, 1879, 
when Mr. Cole purchased Mr. Dillon's interest, con- 
tinuing in business alone until January, 1883, when 
a fire destroyed the most of his stock, and the bal- 
ance he sold to E. N. Crane. Mr. Cole then began 
dealing in real estate, and was also actively en- 
gaged in the insurance business. In 1880 he was 
elected county commissioner, in which capacity he 
served by n'-clcctinn four j'ears. In 1884 he was 
elected to the St;itc i.ri;islature from Adams County, 
and so ably did lie discharge the duties incumbent 
on this office, that he was re-elected for a second 
term in 1886, and in 1887 introduced a bill for the 
erection of an insane asylum at Hastings, which 
bill passed, and that fine structure stands to-day as 
a monument to his credit. He was chairman of the 
committee which introduced a bill to build a sol- 
diers' home at Grand Island, and on April 11, 
1887, he was appointed Adjutant-General on the 
Governor's staff. Mr. Cole has been quite success- 
ful in the accumulation of worldly goods, and owns 
property in various townships of the county and in 
other places also. He is pre-eminently a self-made 
man, and his example of industry, earnest and sin- 
cere endeavor to succeed in life, and the admirable 
manner in which he has surmounted all difficulties, 
are well worthy of imitation. He belongs to Gear}' 
Post No. 81, G. A. R., at Juniata, and has 



served as Post Commauder and .Junior A'ice-Com- 
mander of the Department, and Department^Com- 
mander in 1885. Socially he belongs to Juniata 
Lodge No. 79 , I. 0. O. F. , and is a member of 
the Modern Woodmen of America. He is a patron 
of education and all worthy enterprises. To Mr. 
Cole and his wife a family of five children have 
been born, four of whom are living: Lucy J. , Ely, 
Mabel and Chester Arthur. Albert Daniel died in 

George Colling, farmer and stock raiser, Hast^ 
ings. Neb. The same peculiarities which seem to 
distinguish others of German nativity from those 
American born, are noticeable in the career of jMr. 
Colling since his settlement in this country — indus- 
try, close application to his chosen calling, economy 
and perseverance. An intelligent application of 
these principles have resulted in giving him an 
excellent estate of 340 acres, which he is now im- 
proving and cultivating to good advantage. He was 
born in Prussia, Germany, in 1874, and was fourth 
in a family of children born to the marriage of 
Theodore and Elizabeth (Schadeck) Colling. The 
father was a native of France, born in 1803, and 
lived in a portion of that counti-y taken by the Prus- 
sians in 1813. He was a contractor and builder by 
trade, and in 1861 emigrated to the United States, 
settled in DuPage County, 111., near Warrenville, 
and here followed the stone mason's trade for a num- 
ber of years. He was married in his native country 
in 1831 to Miss Elizabeth Schadeck, a daughter of 
Peter Schadeck, a native of Rhine Province, Prus- 
sia; and the following children were born to this 
union: Henrj^, married and resides in Indianola, 
Neb.; Mary A. (deceased), Nic^holas, married and 
resides in Indianolia, Neb.; William, married and 
resides at the same place; John (deceased), Peter 
(deceased), George and Charles, who reside 
at Indianola, Neb. All were born in the Old 
Country. The mother died on February 5, 1879, 
in Illinois, and the father died June 21, 1880, 
in the same State. Both were members of 
the Catholic Church. George Colling spent his 
boyhood days in the Old Country, and was thirteen 
years of age when he came to the United States. 
He attended school in Illinois, and when starting 

out for himself engaged in agricultural pursuits. 
He was inanicd in Illinois on March 9, 1869, to 
Miss ^hii y Iv ivinnear, daughter of Andrew and 
ElizalictU (Cliiii') Kinnear, natives of New Bruns- 
wick, born in 1816 and 1821, respectively. Mr. and 
Mrs. Kinnear moved to Illinois in 1847 and settled in 
Kane County, near St. Charles, and there Mr. Kin- 
near received his final summons in 1867. His wife 
is still living, and resides at St. Charles, 111. 
George Colling emigrated to Nebraska in September, 
1872, settled where he now lives, and took up 160 
acres of government land, to which he has since 
added eighty acres, and has one of the finest farms 
in that portion of the county. The country was all 
in praii-ie at that early date, but since then Mr. Col- 
ling has witnessed many improvements and changes. 
He was in the county before Hastings was thought 
of, and when Juniata was the county seat; was 
there during the grasshopper season, and witnessed 
the heavy snow storm of 1873. The result of his 
marriage has been the birth of five children: 
Elizabeth Mary, born in DuPage County, 111. , on 
January 25, 1870; Bertha Jane, born in Adams 
County, Neb., on December 31, 1874; Anna L. , 
born in Adams County, Neb., on July 12, 1878; 
Edward George, born in Adams County, December 
30, 1881, and Etta Nathelia, who was born January 
10, 1885, and died February 3, 1887. Mr. Colling 
has been justice of the peace of his township for 
eight years, and has lately been re-elected for two 
years more. He has been a member of the school 
board a number of times, and is a man who has the 
respect and esteem of all who know him. In 1864, 
during the late war, he and his brother William 
enlisted in Company A, Fifty-second Illinois Infan- 
try, and participated in the battles of Resaca, At- 
lanta, and a number of skirmishes. He was in 
Gen. Sherman's army. Fifty-second Illinois, Com- 
pany A, First Brigade, of the Sixteenth Army 
Corps. In the fall of 1864 the Sixteenth was con- 
solidated with the Fifteenth Army Corps, after 
which it was called the Fifteenth. Mr. Colling 
and his brother were discharged on July 12, 1865. 
He then went to Illinois. 

A. Coltrin, farmer and stock raiser, Pauline, 
Neb. Originally from the Buckeye State, where his 




birth occurred hi 184:5, 3Ir. Coltrin is now success- 
fully following agricultural pursuits, a calling that 
has for ages received undivided efforts from many 
worthy individuals, and one that always furnishes 
sustenance to the read}' worker. He was one of a 
large family of children born to E. C. and Elizabeth 
(Sinclair) Coltrin, the father a native of New York, 
born in 1799, and the mother of Vermont. The 
father was a carpenter b}' ti-ade, and was married in 
1825 to Miss Sinclair. Their children were named 
as follows: Sylvester, C. W. , Edwin, DoUie A., 
Sarah, Mary, Eliza (one died in infancy), William 
H., A., Frances and Ellen. The parents of these 
children moved to Illinois in 1852, settled in Jo 
Daviess County, and there the father followed his 
trade. He died in that State in 1882 , and the mother 
in 1886. Both were members of the Baptist Church. 
The father was a good Republican and was a public 
spirited citizen. A. Coltrin received his education 
in the schools of Illinois, attained his growth there, 
and in 1862 he enlisted in Company I, Twenty-third 
Illinois Infantry, for three years, under Col. Mulli- 
gan. He was in the battles of Kingstown, Peters- 
burg, Sailor Creek, and was in numerous severe 
skirmishes. In July, 1864, he was wounded by a 
shell in the right leg, and was in the hospital for a 
number of months. He again entered the service 
in November of the same j'ear, and was discharged 
in 1805. Returning to Illinois, he worked at the 
stone mason trade for some time, and in 1873 he 
emigrated to Nebraska and located where he now 
lives. He entered 160 acres of land, and this he 
now has well improved. He was married in 1882 
to Miss Lizzie R. White, daughter of John White, 
of Hanover Township, this county, and to them has 
been born one son: Ray, whose birth occurred in 
1883. Mr. Coltrin was elected justice of the peace 
when the town was organized, and has held the place 
ever since. He is a Republican, and is interested 
in political matters, being chairman of the township 
committee. He is interested in the upbuilding of 
schools and churches, and is ever ready to lend a 
helping hand to all laudable enterprises. He is a 
self-made man, and all his property has been the re- 
sult of honest endeavor and many hard days' work. 
James Cooper, farmer and stock raiser, Holstein, 

Neb. This much respected and enterprising citizen 
was born in Bartholomew County, Ind. , Ma}' 6, 
1833, and is the son of William Cooper, a native of 
Kentucky. The elder Cooper was reared in the 
Blue Grass State, and went to Indiana when a young 
man, where he was married to Dulcina Batey, a 
native also of Kentucky. He followed tilling the 
soil in Bartholomew County, then Tipton County, 
where his death occurred in 185-4. His wife sur- 
vived him until 1868. James Cooper moved to 
Tipton County with his father in 1849, and there 
passed his boyhood days. His health was quite 
poor while growing up, and the principal part of his 
education has been received since attaining his 
majority. He received a good common school edu- 
cation, and after finishing the same engaged in agri- 
cultural pursuits on a farm in Howard County, Ind. , 
in 1861, continuing at this for a number of j'ears. 
He then returned to Tipton Countj' where he tilled 
the soil until coming West in 1883, and then settled 
on his present property in December of that year. 
He has 320 acres of land, all in a good state of cul- 
tivation and nearly all fenced. He has good and 
substantial buildings on the same and an excellent 
orchard. Mr. Cooper was married in Howard 
County, Ind., August 9, 1864, to Miss Rachel Mc- 
Graw, a native of Shelby County, Ind. , and the 
daughter of John McGraw. To this union were born 
four children: Sarah, wife of N. J. Fuel; Martha, 
wife of William A. Gullion; Charles C. , and Mary, 
wife of C. T. Gates. Mr. Cooper is a Republican in 
politics, and has always adhered strictly to that party. 
He was elected magistrate of Logan Township 
in 1884, and so well was he liked that he was re- 
elected at the expiration of his term, having served 
six consecutive years in that capacity. 

J. W. Coulter, farmer and stock raiser, Hast- 
ings, Neb. Few who have moved to Nebraska have 
better improved the meager advantages offered by 
the State in its infancy than J. W. Coulter. Born 
in Washington County, 111., in September, 1830, he 
spent his boyhood days in assisting with the duties 
of the home farm, together with attendance at the 
public schools, and in 1849 was united in marriage 
to Mrs. Margaret (Armor) MeDill, daughter of John 
and Harriet Armor, natives of South Carolina, who 


had moved to Illinois in 1822. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Coulter were born six children: Hattie (now Mrs. 
Hensign, of Nebraska), Roliert (married, and resides 
in Colorado), James (married, in Nebraska), Milton 
and Addle (twins), Adelia (now Mrs. Carlile) and 
Fred. Mr. Coulter began the study of medicine in 
1858, and commenced practicing in Illinois in 1860. 
In 1802 he enlisted in Company H, Sixtieth Illinois 
lufantrj', and the principal battles in which he en- 
gaged are as follows: Island No. 10, Shiloh, Nash- 
ville, Corinth, Murfreesboro; was eight months at 
Nashville, Missionary Ridge, and was from Atlanta 
to the Sea. He was in service three and a half 
years, and was promoted from a private to the rank 
of second lieutenant. He was discharged in August, 
1865. In 1871 Mr. Coulter emigrated to Nebraska, 
settled in Lincoln, where he remained until 1872, 
and then moved to Blaine Township, Adams Count}', 
settling on his present land which was then all 
prairie. He now has 160 acres, splendidly located, 
and it is considered one of the finest places in the 
county. Being one of the pioneers he has exper- 
ifni-t'd many trying times, and has seen some of the 
terrible snow storms that have visited that region. 
He has witnessed the entire growth of the country 
and the marvelous changes that have been made. 
Robert and Isabella (Wiley) Coulter, his parents, 
were natives of Tennessee and Pennsjlvania, re- 
spectively. The father was born in 1809 and moved 
to Illinois in 1820. He was a son of Robert Coulter, 
and his wife was a daughter of John Wiley, a native 
of Pennsylvania. Robert Coulter and wife became 
the parents of nine children: J. W. , James, Robert, 
Arthur, Martha, Samuel, Sarah, Philip and Lizzie. 
The father of these children died in 1851. He was 
a successful farmer and was a member of the Pres- 
byterian Church. He was first a Whig in politics, 
then a Republican, and was a strong anti-slavery 
man. The mother is still living, and makes her 
home with her children. She is a member of the 
same church. 

John H. Coulter, farmer, Kenesaw, Neb. A 
glance at the lives of many representative men 
whose names appear in this volume will reveal 
sketches of some honored, influential citizens, but 
none more worthy or deserving of mention than Mr. 

John H. Coulter. This gentleman resides six miles 
northeast of Kenesaw, three miles southwest of Pros- 
ser, and has eighty acres of excellent land, all well 
improved. He was.born in Canada, near Stratford, 
Ont., January 24, 1854, and is the son of Robert 
and Louisa (Hunter) Coulter. Robert Coulter is a 
native of Tyrone County, Ireland, and came to 
America when but four years of age, locating in 
County Perth, Canada. There he grew to manhood, 
maiTied Miss Hunter, and in 1879 he and family 
moved to Michigan, and, in 1880, from Port Huron 
to Nebraska, locating on Section 12, Kenesaw Town- 
ship. He and wife now reside near the village of 
Kenesaw. Their family consisted of eight children, 
four sons and four daughters, John H. Coulter being 
third in order of birth. He attained his growth on 
the home farm, received the rudiments of an educa- 
tion in the common schools, and moved with his 
parents to Nebraska in 1880, passing through the 
pioneer period of this region. On January 13, 
1889, he married Miss Leona Chambers, a native of 
Indiana, who came with her parents to Nebraska, 
and located near Juniata at an earl^- date. In 1889 
Mr. Coulter was elected assessor of Kenesaw Town- 
ship, and has also served as supervisor of the public 
highways, and has been a member of the school 
board. He is a first class agriculturist and a man 
much respected by all. 

A. W. Cox, of the house furnishing and under- 
taking establishment of Cox & Reed, was born in 
Indiana, July 10, 1837, and is the son of Bennett 
and Elizabeth (Kindley) Cox, natives of Ohio and 
Indiana, respectively. The father died in Nebraska 
at the age of seventy-three years, but the mother is 
still living and makes her home in Hastings. A. 
W. Cox first attended the common schools, but later 
entered Earlham College at Richmond, Ind. , and 
from there went to Indianapolis, where he was en- 
gaged in the forwarding and commission business. 
In 1871 he emigrated to Nebraska, and for a year 
and a half was a member of the firm of Cox, 
Kingman & Ballard. January, 1873, he came to 
Hastings and engaged in the lumber business, which 
he continued for about a j'ear and a half, after which 
for four years he was in the hardware business. Since 
that time, and for about ten years, he has been in 



his present business. He built the fourth house in 
Hastings and has seen that settlement grow to its 
present dimensions, with a population of 15,000. 
He is a Republican in politics, and was a member 
of the first city council of Hastings. He was united 
in marriage, in 1863, to Miss Ellen Ballard, who was 
born in Indiana in 184:4, and to them have been born 
two children: Lueva, now the wife of A. Yeazel, of 
Hastings, and Mary, wife of Edward Allen, cashier 
of the First National Bank at Ottawa, HI. For 
about one year after Mr. Cox came to Hastings his 
were the only female children in the town. 

George Crafford, agriculturist and stockman, 
of Zero Township, Adams County, Neb., was born 
in Washington County, Pa., in 1828. Harriet S. 
Dunbar, his wife, was born in Saratoga Count}-, N. 
Y., in 1834. George Craflford was the tenth of 
twelve children born to Joseph and Deborah (Jack- 
son) Crafford, both of whom were born in Pennsyl- 
vania, the former in 1780 and the latter in 1785. 
They were married in Washington County, Pa., 
in 1803. The following are the children given 
them: Elisabeth, Elijah, Rachel, Frances, Rebecca, 
Ruth, Joseph, John, Thomas, George, Martha and 
Mary. Mr. Crafford removed with his family to 
McDonough County, HI., at an early day, and was 
there engaged in farming until his death, which 
occurred in 1863. He was a Republican, a public 
spirited citizen, and was deeply interested in the 
welfare of his adopted country. He was postmaster 
of Raccoon, Pa., for years, and while in Illinois 
was postmaster of a town there also. His wife died 
in Illinois in 1859, both being members of the Pres- 
byterian Church. Their son , George Crafford , started 
out in life for himself in 1851, and two years later 
was married to Harriet S. Dunbar, a daughter of 
Noah W. and Sarah (Hops) Dunbar, both of whom 
were born in York State. He farmed in Illinois 
until 1868, then removed to Lucas County, Iowa, 
where he made his home until 1870, then went to 
Kansas, and a short time later came to Cass County, 
Neb. This county continued to be his home until 
1873, since which time he has been engaged in 
farming and stock raising in Adams County. He is 
the owner of one-half section of land — 160 acres 
in Adams County and a like quantity in Webster 

County. He is an enterprising citizen, is a Repub- 
lican in his political views, and on this ticket was 
elected to the office of county supervisor in 1884, 
and he has also been a member of his local school 
board a number of terms. He is one of the wealthy 
farmers of the county and his farm is well stocked , 
his cattle and sheep being of an especially good 
grade. His children's names are as follows: Joseph 
M. , who died in 1879; Noah W., who is man-ied to 
Mary E. Nichols, their union taking place in 1878; 
George C. , Leonia E. and Mable M. , who was born 
in Cass County, Neb. The four first named were 
born in McDonough County, 111. 

Alexander H. Cramer is an excellent example of 
what can be accomplished in life when thorough de- 
termination to succeed is coupled with energy, per- 
severance and close application, and he is now un- 
questionably one of Adams County's most puli- 
lic spirited citizens. He was born in Utica, N. 
I''., January 31, 1852, but his primary education 
was received in Oneida, 111. , after which he was 
engaged in farming, and later clerked in the store 
of Pratt & Lawson; and in this capacity remained 
with the firm after their removal to Hastings, Neb., 
October 1, 1872. However, in the spring of 1873, 
he entered the employ of A. W. Cox, a lumber 
dealer, but the same year, being a stanch supporter 
of the Republican part}-, he was elected on that 
ticket to the office of clerk of Adams Count}-, and 
ser^^ed by re-election three successive terms, later 
serving four years as clerk of the district court. 
In 1877 he purchased a set of abstract books and 
engaged in that business, making the first complete 
set of abstract books in Adams County, all of which 
are now the property of the firm of Cramer & Rohrer. 
In 1881 Mr. Cramer formed a partnership with H. 
Bostwick, and opened what was then known as the 
Farmers' and Merchants' Bank, which was located 
where the City National Bank now stands. In De- 
cember, 1885, Mr. Cramer sold his interest to his 
partner and engaged in the abstract, loan and in- 
surance business, at the same time dealing exten- 
sively in real estate. In July, 1886, he became 
one of the organizers of the Western Loan and In- 
vestment Company, of which he was chosen vice- 
president, and the same }ear the firm of Cramer, 


Rohrer & Robinson was organized and continued two 
years, wlieu Mr. Robinson withdrew, and the firm now 
stands as Cramer & Rohrer. They are safe, thorough 
and reliable business men, and without doubt de- 
serve the large patronage which they command. 
He belongs to Hastings Lodge No. 50 of the A. F. 
& A. M. , and is also a member of Hastings 
Lodge No. 28 of the K. of P. His maiTiage to 
Miss Ella Cox, daughter of Bennett and Elizabeth 
Cox, was solemnized in October, 1884. Mrs. 
Cramer was born in Henry County, Ind. , and is the 
mother of, two children, Edna and Mabel. Mr. 
Cramer is a son of Alexander and Cynthia (Harris) 
Cramer, who were born in New Jersey and New 
York in 1810 and 1822 respectively, and the 
former's death occurred in the State of Iowa in 
February, 1874. In 1856 he removed with his 
family to Wisconsin, but thirteen years later settled 
in Illinois, and finally in Iowa. The mother is still 
living, and resides at Indianola, Neb. 

E. N. Crane, merchant, Kenesaw, Neb. Prom- 
inent among, and one of those citizens of Kenesaw 
who have held the advancement of the town and 
Adams County above all personal interests, and who 
have devoted years of their time and labored assid- 
uously for its advancement, is the subject of this 
article. He owes his nativity' to Hillsdale County', 
Mich., where his birth occurred on March 14, 1853, 
and is a descendant of one of the old Puritan fam- 
ilies, his ancestors coming to America long before 
the war for independence, and some of them partic- 
ipated in that memorable struggle. His paternal 
grandfather died from the effects of a wound received 
in the War of 1812. Mr. Crane is a worthy repre- 
sentative of this old family, and sound Puritan- 
ical traits of integrity and industry have character- 
ized his successful career. His parents, Daniel C. 
and Lucy (Benedict) Crane, were both natives of 
New York State, were married in that State, and in 
1840 emigrated to Michigan, being among the first 
settlers of Hillsdale County. They resided there 
until 1878, when they removed to Hastings, Neb., 
and there Mr. Crane died in 1877, at the age of sev- 
enty-one years. His widow still survives and makes 
her home with her daughter, Mrs. Gen. A. Y. Cole, 
at Juniata. Neb. Y^oung Crane grew to manhood in 

that newlj- developed country, when the district 
school was the Alma jNIater of many, and naturally 
received a better practical than literarj' educatior. 
It is very probable that there he developed the true 
business principles which have characterized his 
success so far. He earl}' aspired to a mercantile 
life, and in order to better qualify himself for such 
he entered May hew Business College, of Detroit, 
Mich. , from which he graduated in 1875. Soon 
after leaving college he accepted the position of 
book-keeper for the firm of Smith Bros. , an exten- 
sive mercantile firm of Addison, Mich. , and remained 
with them until the spring of 1876, when failing 
health compelled him to resign. In the hopes of 
regaining his health he began traveling in the West, 
and spent a part of the time at Juniata, Neb. , after 
which he went to Philadelphia to attend the Centen- 
ial Exposition. He then returned to Juniata, but 
later engaged as a traveling salesman, which occu- 
pation he followed until 1883, when lie riunv t.> Ki'u- 
esaw and established himself in thi- unifial niiivaii- 
tile business. In 1883 he erected his present business 
lilock, the largest and finest business house in Ken- 
esaw. He has always taken an active interest in 
the general welfare of the place , and has been prom- 
inently identified with all movements tending towards 
its improvement. He is a charter member of Kene- 
saw Lodge No. 144, A. F. & A. M. , also a member 
of Mt. Nebo Commandery No. 11, Hastings, Neb., 
and takes a deep interest in political matters, being 
chairman of the Adams County Republican con- 
vention in 1887. On July 26, 1878, he was united 
in marriage, at Juniata, Neb., with Miss Ella V. 
Light, a native of Angola, Ind. , and their union has 
been blessed by the birth of two children: Susan 
Agnes and Daniel C. Mr. Crane is a man of genial 
disposition, courteous and charitable, and enjoys 
with his family the respect and esteem of all. 

William S. Crow, ex-county treasurer of Adams 
County, and now actively engaged in farming and 
stock raising, was born in Fayette County, Pa., 
August 2, 1835, being a son of Alexander and 
Christina (Sadler) Crow, who were born in Mary- 
land and Fayette County, Pa. , and died in Vinton 
County. Ohio, aged fifty-seven and sixty-two, re- 
spectively. The paternal grandfather, John Crow, 


was a German who came to the United States at an 
early day, and died in Licliing County, Ohio. 
WiUiam S. Crow is the fourth of nine children, five 
now living, and when about "one year old was taken 
by his parents to Guernsey County, Ohio, and was 
there brought up to the life of a farmer, learning 
during his youth many lessons of industry and per- 
severance, which have since stood him in good 
stead. After acquiring a fair knowledge of the 
English branches in the distiict schools near his 
home, he entered the scientific course in Witten- 
berg College, Springticlil. Ohio, in which institution 
he graduated in the ((imiiMTcial department, after 
which he spent nearly fifteen years in teaching in 
the public schools in Southern Ohio. In 1864 he 
served for one hundred days in the United States 
service, doing duty at City Point, Va. , during the 
siege of Kichmond. In the fall of 1875 he emi- 
grated to Nebraska, and in 1876 he homesteaded his 
present property, and has since given his attention 
to tilling the soil and raising stock, and the success 
which has attended his efforts denotes him to be a 
thrifty and intelligent agriculturalist. His farm of 
280 acres is one of the best improved in the county, 
and being a natural mechanic, all his buildings have 
been erected by himself. He has always been a 
Republican in politics, and his first presidential vote 
was cast for John C. Fremont. In 1881 he was 
elected to the office of ti-easurer of Adams County, 
and for two years discharged the duties of this re- 
sponsible position in a manner highly complimen- 
tary to himself, and to the entire satisfaction of his 
constituents. He is one of the substantial men of 
the county, is thoroughly practical, and does not use 
tobacco or intoxicants in any form. 

James B. Dallas, hardware merchant, Hastings, 
Neb. No better proof of the advancement of Hast^ 
ings within the last ten years can be shown than the 
dimensions which the hardware trade has assumed. 
Among others, one of the largest is the well known 
house of James B. Dallas, who established his busi- 
ness in 1883. He was born in Urbana, Ohio, January 
20, 1859, and is the younger of two children born 
to the union of James B. and Sarah E. (McClellan) 
Dallas, natives of Ohio. The father was born in 
1829, and died in his native county in Ohio, in 

1860. He was a farmer by occupation. The 
mother was born in 1831, and now resides in Frank- 
lin, Ohio. James B. Dallas was reared in Middle- 
town, Ohio, and there attended school. He emi- 
grated to Hastings, Neb., in 1877, was for some time 
in the employ of Phillips & Hamot in the grocery 
business, and then began the hardware business in 
the employ of Lawson & Hamot. In 1883 he began 
the business for himself in partnership with C. H. 
Dietrich, and about one year later changed to Dallas 
& Litton, which continues at the present time. They 
are doing well and are enterprising business men. 
Mr. Dallas was united in marriage in 1884 to Miss 
Amelia Litton, a native of St. Joseph, Mo. , born in 
1865, and the daughter of William and Elizabeth 
Litton. To Mr. and Mrs. Dallas has been born one 
child, Joseph D. , whose birth occurred January 4, 
1888. Mr. Dallas is an uncompromising Democrat 
and his first presidential vote was cast for Gen. 
Hancock. Hs is a prominent young business man 
of the city. 

Nicholas F. Damron keeps a livery sale stable at 
Hastings, Neb. , which from the large business done, 
not only exemplifies the importance of the town, but 
reflects credit upon his management also. He has 
been a resident of Adams County since November 
4, 1877, but was born in Pike County, Mo. , Decem- 
ber 4, 1838, and is one of eight children born to 
James T. and Martha J. (Thurman) Damron, who 
were native Virginians. The father died in Minne- 
sota, in 1861, and his wife in 1887. Nicholas F. 
Damron, owing to the early death of his father, was 
compelled to fight his own way in the world, and 
after acquiring such education as could be obtained 
in the public schools prior to his thirteenth year, he 
liegan driving a peddling wagon in Southern Wis- 
consin, and then followed the occupation of mer- 
chandising until his removal to Hastings at the 
above named date. For two years after his arrival 
here he conducted the Commercial Hotel, which 
stood on the present site of his livery stable, but in 
1889 the building was consumed by fire, and a short 
time after he erected the present Commercial Hotel. 
He has been engaged in the livery and sale business 
for the past eight years and has bought and sold as 
many horses as any other man in Nebraska, and is 

deceased j 
Adams County, Nebraska 


ever readj- to purchase good animals, guaranteeing 
a ready sale of any stocli placed in his hands. In 
point of convenience and in regard to the animals 
and vehicles which he owns, his establishment is 
second to none in the State. His residence is one 
of the finest in the citj% which with all its improve- 
ments cost about $12,000. He was married in 1861 
to Miss Frances V. Jefferson, a native of the "Em- 
pire State," who is well known as an admirable 
housekeeper and a worthy and intelligent lady. 
They have three children: Edith, James F. and 
Birdie. Mr, Damon belongs to Hastings Lodge 
No. 50, of the A. F. & A. M. 

Walter P. Davis is a proper representative of the 
energetic and prosperous agi-iculturists of Adams 
County, Neb. , which element has done so much to 
ailvanre' the interests of the State. He was born in 
DiarlKirn Cniiiity, Ind. , January 30, 1839, and re- 
ceived early and careful ti'ainiug in the mysteries of 
farm life from his father, Nicholas Davis, who was a 
well-to-do agriculturist. The latter was born on 
Blue G-rass soil, but was reared in the " Hoosier 
State," and was there married to Rachel Randall, a 
native of Rush County, Ind. In 1857 he moved 
with his family to Cumberland County, 111., but in 
1861 he settled in Mattoou , where he made his home 
until after the war, then located on a farm in Coles 
Count}-, and at a still later period took up his abode 
in Clark County, where he continued to till the soil 
until his death in August, 1879. His wife survives 
him and is a resident of Omaha, making her home 
with a son. Their family, consisting of five sons 
and one daughter, grew to mature years, and all are 
now living and are the heads of families. Walter 
Davis was sixteen j-ears of age upon his removal to 
Illinois, and there, in September, 1861, he and two 
brothers enlisted in Compan}- I, Fifth Illinois Cav- 
alry; he served his country faithfully until mustered 
out of service at Vicksburg,- November 17, 1864, at 
which time he was promoted from a private to the 
position of sergeant. He was in the engagements 
at Pocahontas and Cotton Plant and in the siege and 
battles around Vicksburg, besides many small en- 
gagements and skirmishes. After receiving his dis- 
charge he returned to Illinois, and until 1872 was 
engaged in farming in Coles and Cumberland 

Counties. In 1873 Nebraska became his home, and 
after farming on land near where he now lives about 
one year he homesteaded his present property, which 
consists of 160 acres, all of which is fine farming 
land and well fenced. His residence is a substantial 
frame, one and a half stories in height, and all 
his out^buildings are commodious and in good re- 
pair. He has eight acres of timber land and a well 
selected fruit orchard of four acres, and his property 
is well improved in other ways. He has always 
been identified with the Republican party, and has 
served as magistrate for nine or ten consecutive 
years. He has been a delegate to county. State and 
National conventions, and has always taken an active 
part in the campaigns of his party. He is now a 
member of Geary Post No. 180, G. A. R. , and 
he and wife l.eluim to tli.^ T'nited Brethren Church. 
He was iiii.iTi,.,! in Cuiuliei-lainl County, 111., in 
August, IS.MK \n Mariah Xecdliain, a native of that 
county, and a daughter of P. D. Needham, by whom 
he has the following family: W. E. , Lorena (wife 
of H. K. Brown), James N. , George, Charles, Lucy, 
Nettie, Denison D. and Minnie. 

J. K. Dean, farmer and stock raiser, Pauline, 
Neb. Mr. Dean emigrated from Livingston County, 
111., to Adams County, Neb., in September, 1877, 
and was one of the pioneers of Little Blue Town- 
ship. He was born in Wayne County, N. Y. , in 
1822; was the third in a family of five children born 
to the union of Joseph and Elizabeth (Barrows) 
Dean, natives of Connecticut. The father in his 
younger days followed the cooper's trade, but later 
was a successful agriculturist. He was married in 
his native State in 1812, and emigrated to New 
York at a very early date, where he continued to 
cultivate the soil. He died in that State on Feb- 
ruary 6, 1842, and the mother died in October, 1861. 
Grandfather Levi Dean was a Revolutionary soldier, 
and died from the effects of service in that war. 
Grandfather Aaron Barrows was also in the Revolu- 
tionary War, and the families on both sides were 
early settlers in the colonies. J. K. Dean was 
taiii;iit the I'lidiinents oC lann life by his father at an 
early day, luang educated in the subscription schools 
of New York. His brother and sisters were named 
as follows: Sarah, now Mrs. Woleott, of Wayne 




County, N. Y. ; Hester, died February 2, 1884, in 
Adams County, Neb.; Levi W. , was born July 18, 
1817, and died December 3, 1838, at Butler, Wayne 
County, N. Y. Our subject was married in the last 
named county on October 25, 1843, to Miss Mary 
Ann Post, a native of Stanford, Dutchess County, 
N. Y. , and the daughter of Daniel and Maiy (Cronk- 
hite) Post, natives also of New York. The father 
was a farmer and mechanic, and in 1852 moved to 
La Salle County, 111. , and thence to Miami Count}', 
Kan., in 1873. His wife died in Illinois in 1867, 
and his death occurred in 1885. After his marriage 
Mr. Dean remained in New York until 1857, when 
he emigrated to Illinois and engaged in farming. 
In 1863 he moved to Livingston County and settled 
in Sunburg Township. At the breaking out of the 
war he enlisted in La Salle County, but was taken 
sick. In 1863 he went into service in Company D, 
Eleventh Illinois Infantry, and was on duty for six 
months, when he was promoted to the ordnance de- 
partment. He was at DeVall's Bluff, Helena, Saline 
Cross Roads and others. He kept charge of the 
books, and was honorably discharged at Springfield, 
111., in 1865. After returning to Livingston County 
he followed agricultural pursuits, and was for some 
time in the hardware business. In 1877 he emi- 
grated to Adams County, Neb., and purchased 160 
acres of land in Little Blue Township, which he 
immediately commenced improving. He has alwa3's 
taken an active part in politics, and his vote is cast 
with the Republican party. He has been justice of 
the peace of his township for eleven j-ears, and has 
filled that position in different places for the past 
thirty years. He is a member of Huron Post No. 
151, G. A. R., and is Senior Vice Commander 
of the same. To his marriage have been born seven 
children: Huldah, now Mrs. Miller, of Adams 
County; J. "W. , enlisted in the Thirty-ninth Illinois 
Infantry in 1864, and was at the battle of Peters- 
burg; he was taken sick, and is still suffering; 
he was honorablj' discharged in 1865, and resides 
in Adams County; George, married and resides in 
Kansas; Medora, now Mrs. Sherman, of Adams 
County; J. M. , married and a resident of Adams 
County; Lucien and W. H. , also both living and 
in Adams Countv. 

Lucien Dean. Although a 3'oung man Mr. Dean 
has labored earnestly as an agriculturist, and his 
energy, coupled with strict integrity and honesty of 
purpose, has placed him among the leading 
farmers of Adams County. He was born in La 
Salle County, 111., June 21, 1861, and was one of a 
family of 7 children born to James K. and Mary 
A. (Post) Dean, who removed from La Salle to Liv- 
ingston County in 1862, where Lucien was reared 
and educated, and learned the intricacies of farm 
work on his father's land. The family removed to 
the State of Nebraska in 1877, and settled on a 
farm of 120 acres in Little Blue Township, Adams 
County, but Lucien only remained with his father 
until he was eighteen 3ears of age, then began 
working for himself by the month, continuing for 
five years, then began tilling the soil on his own 
responsibilitj', purchasing land in Section 6, Town- 
ship 5, Range 9, to the amount of 167 acres, the 
property being partly improved. He is much inter- 
ested in stock raising and has a large and valuable 
drove of cattle and hogs. His enterprises in Ne- 
braska have met with excellent results, and he has 
done his full share in developing Adams County, 
and here he expects to make his permanent home. 
So far as his means will allow he contributes to the 
building of churches and schools, and he is other- 
wise interested in the improvement of the county, 
and is ever ready to assist all feasible enterprises. 
In his political views he is a Republican, and in 
1886 and 1887 was elected town clerk. His mar- 
riage, which occurred on October 21, 1882, was to 
Miss Mary A. Palmer, the adopted daughter of Wil- 
liam H. Palmer, of New York State. Mrs. Dean 
was born in that State, Julj' 12, 1855. Mr. Dean's 
father and mother were born in New York in 1823 
and 1822, respectively, and after their marriage, in 
1857, removed to Illinois, and since 1877 have re- 
sided in Nebraska, where the\- have become well 
and favorably known 

Jacob DeWester, farmer, Hastings, Neli. The 
County of Adams is indeed fortunate in having 
among her foreign-born element men whose iudus- 
trj', strict attention to business, economy and perse- 
verance have produced such substantial results in 
the different affairs with which thev have connected 



themselves. Mr. DeWester belongs to this class, 
for, originally from Germany, his location in this 
county dates from 1872. He was born on the 
Rhine Province in 1840, and was second in a family 
of five children born to John and Mary (Leopold) 
DeWester, also natives of the Rhine Province, G-er- 
many. The parents left their native country in 
1853, crossed the ocean to the United States and 
located in Rush County, Ind. Here the father fol- 
lowed farming and made that county his home until 
his death in 1882. The mother died two years later. 
Jacob DeWester was partly reared on the farm in 
Rush County, although up to thirteen years of age 
he resided in Germany and was educated in the 
schools of that country. In August, 1862, he en- 
listed from Rush County in Company H, Sixteenth 
Indiana Infantry, and was mustered into service at 
Indianapolis. He participated in the battle of Rich- 
mond and Vicksburg, was in the Red River expedi- 
tion. Pleasant Hill, and numerous other engage- 
ments. He had the buttons shot from his clothing, 
but was never wounded. He was discharged at 
New Orleans in 1865, after which he returned to 
Rush County, Ind. , where he tilled the soil. He 
was married in Indiana in 1862, to Miss Martha 
Norton, a native of North Carolina, and the daugh- 
ter of George and Harriet Norton, also natives of 
North Carolina. At an early day, 1853, her par- 
ents settled in Indiana, where the mother died in 
1883. The father resides in Iowa and is a success- 
ful tiller of the