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Full text of "Biographical and historical record of Wayne and Appanoose counties, Iowa, containing ... a condensed history of the state of Iowa; portraits and biographies of the governors of the territory and state; engravings of prominent citizens in Wayne and Appanoose counties, with personal histories of many of the leading families, and a concise history of Wayne and Appanoose counties .."

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2008 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/biographicalhistOOinte 











I^E<50I^D 




OF 



U/ay9e#/^ppa900se ^0d9ti^$, loiua, 



Containing Portraits of all the Presidents of the United States from Washington to 
Cleveland, with accompanying Biographies of each;' A Condensed History of the 
State of Iowa; Portraits and Biographies of the Governors of the Terri- 
tory AND State; Engravings of Prominent Citizens in Wayne 
AND Appanoose Counties, with Personal Histories of 
many of the leading families, and a concise 
History of Wayne and Appanoose 
Counties, and their Cities 

AND Villages^. ......,.,. ,. 



INTER-STATE PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

113 Adams Street, Chicago. 
1886. 



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PREFATORT 




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N placiiif^' this volume 
before their patrons, 
the publishers feel 
that their work will 
stand the test of can- 
did criticism, and that 
the Biographical 
AND Historical Record of 
Wayne and Appanoose 
Counties will be received and 
perused with pleasure by all. 
This is not merely a local work, 
but one which in some measure 
is interesting to every true 
citizen of the United States. 
The nation justly is proud of 
its rulers, and their portraits 
and biographies will prove of interest in 
every American home. A State looks with 
pride over its development and growth 
from a barren tract to its present position 
among its sisters, and is interested in know- 
ing something of the men who have stood 
at the head of its affairs ; and in like manner 
the citizens of a county are interested in 
hearing and reading of those who have 
labored to make their county and its cities 
what they are to day. Thus we have en- 
deavored to meet all these desires and have 
prepared this volume. It may contain 
some errors, as perfection is not attainable 
in this world, but we trust they are so 
trivial that they will be overshadowed by 
the many entertaining and instructive 



points that are free from error. In some 
instances we have noticed that members of 
the same family differ in the spelling of the 
name, and also in the dates of certain 
events. In these cases we have tried to 
" follow copy," not knowing which was 
correct. Thus it will be seen that if mem- 
bers of the same family differ, members of 
a community also will not agree in relating 
the same circumstance, and the historian is 
often at a loss to know which statement to 
record. We have tried to prove all things 
and to give to our readers those items 
which are dtf interest in as reliable a form 
as possible. 

We are glad to be able to give to the 
citizens of Wayne and Appanoose counties 
this Record, and feel sure that as the years 
go by it will grow in inteiest and value, 
giving the rising generation an account 
of the lives and adventures of their fore- 
fathers — the pioneers, who labored to make 
the homes they now enjoy. Many of 
these, were it not for works of this kind, 
would s00r5.be forg:otten,»^^nd.th.e, part they 
took in the'early days ^\,Ol•lld in -many cases 
be ascribed to bothers ; bi'-t in after years, 
when the historian is g?f her-ng data, he will 
examine and cfiiU' from this • Record the 
items with whicKVo prepare a memorial of 
the early settlers of Wayne and Appanoose 
counties. 

The Publishers, 

Chicago, July, 1886. 






■♦"♦"♦:♦ "♦"♦"♦■ ♦ ♦-< 
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CONTENTS. 



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PRESIDENTS ♦ OF ♦ THE 

UNITED*STATES. 

George Washington 9 

fohn Adam!' I4 

Thoma* Jefferson. 20 

fn'Tf-' M (diwii) 26 

3J 

\>lamB 38 

"1 47 

tn , S2 

\ I Unison 56 

John ivicr 60 

Tri-r* K Po!k 64 

■ r (A 

re 72 

:.:::;:::.::;::;: I* 

.In 84 

An.; n 93 

L'lv- ' . int 96 



Rutlurfoid B. ilnyes 102 

James A Garfu-ld 109 

Chester A. Arthur ■ 13 

Grover Cleveland 117 

^HISTORY ♦ OF ♦ 10 WA> 

Aboriginal 123 

Caucasian 124 

Pioneer Life 133 

Louisiana Tenilor) 137 

Iowa Territory 139 

State Organization and Subse- 
quent History 141 

Patriotism 146 

Iowa Sinre the War 151 

Slate InstitutionR 151 

Ediiealioiial . 1^4 

Sta'isliral 157 

Phvsi. al Feature- 15S 

Geolojj V 1 5S 

Climate .163 



Census of Iowa. 164 

Territnrial Officers 164 

State Officers 165 

^GOVERNORS ♦ OF ♦ IOWA> 

Robert Lucas 171 

John Chamber- 173 

James Clarke 175 

Ansel Briutjs 179 

Stephen i Uinpstead 183 

Jamco W. Grimes 1S7 

Ralph P. Lowe 191 

Samuel J. Kirkwootl 195 

William M. Stone 199 

Samuel Merrill 203 

Cyrus C. Cai penier 207 

Joshua G. Newhold 31 1 

Joh<i II. (iear 215 

Buren R. Sherman 219 

William Larrabee ... .223 



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HN^HECeirD OP W\YP^E n®UAN(TY.-^ 



^iBiOGRAPHiCAL ♦ SKETCHES.^- 



Adam«, W, C 

Alcorn. J. C 

Alcorn, I. C 

Aleiandrr. James 

Allen. A. E 

Allen. C. S 

Allen. J R.. %.:•,.•. 
Allen. O. G.-:i /.; 

Allen. P.....*,;;. . 

.Mien, u. O 

Allen. William 

A'ln an, Daniel. . ,. 
Arin«troni{ E. H.", 

Arnold. K. R 

All tin, C. H 




M 



Babbitt. W. C. . 
Banning, C W. 



Ilanta, Irn. 



37" 
.368 

•»33 



Barker, Calvin 

Barker. G. W 

Barnc-, M. O 

Baineti. William 

Bcal Tnomas 

Bclvel. E. R 

Qcrry.J. L 

• Bkhop. G. P 

* .Bhick. A J 

Black. S. K 

B arkburn. Thoma*. . . . 

Blakelv. R L 

•JJoUter, C. W 

IBomgardner. P. F 

•TBolt, V. T 

Bmrewell. B 

I'.i 11 .well. Rev. James 

!'• ' will, John 

Hr.uiwcH. WE 

Brevier. C. H 

Brooki, Ezra 



.480 

•^54 
479 

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•463 
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•43J 
•437 
.28S 

•459 
•.3.';4 
•.194 
••».S7 
.45" 
•33' 
•34» 
.4.S^ 
•434 
.13' 



Brooks. J. 11 

JJrown, Jacob 

Brown, Marcellus 

Bi uner, \). M 

Brvan, A. L 

Bullaid, John 
BullinKton, J. S. .. 

Buliis, W. L 

Buov. N. E 

Burk, Joshua 

Burland Tlomas. 

Burnet. M. C 

Burnet. W. P. . 

Burton. E. P 

Burton, W. B 

Bvrtini, Mr«. I 



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• 350 
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349 
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Caldwe I. Jame-. 
Caldwell, I^vi.. 



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CONTENTS. 



Caldwell, Nicholas 3SO 

Calif.J.P 451 

Campbell, James 407 

Cannon, W. B 290 

Carlisle, D. W 238 

Carpenter, VV. H ^27 

Cas>ily, J- R 349 

Cessna, C. W 396 

Chadwick, William 37S 

Chiles, W. R 385 

Clark, A.. A 415 

Clark, C. H 233 

Clark, D. M 469 

Clark, D. P 371 

Clark, William 374 

Clemens, J. W 294 

Clever, M A 313 

Clothier, L. S 445 

Combs, G. K 330 

Comstock, D. H 249 

Conger, C. A 265 

Conklin, Huuh 420 

Corbett, S. R 339 

Corbit, A. M 322 

Cox, George 424 

Cox, Samuel 281 

Cox, S. L 279 

Crawford, Andrew. 359 

Crawford, Elijah 472 

D. 

Darraugh, John 316 

Davis, Charles 381 

Davis, I. G 422 

Davis, Jesse 343 

DaviS; J, M 311 

Davis, Josiah 312 

Davi«^on, J. N 317 

De Silva, C. A 337 

Dick, G W 448 

Dotts, John 416 

Double, Z 246 

Douglass, N 464 

Dowell, Peter -151 

Duden, W. H 286 

Duncan, A. R 353 

Duncan, G P 44^ 

Duncan, H. M 360 

Duncan, J. C 274 

Duncan, T. D 3^4 

E. 

Earnest, W. H 379 

Edgmard, J. B 237 

Elder, Samuel. 406 

Eider, Thomas 398 

Elson, N. O 462 

Evans, Aaron 340 

Evans, G.I 283 

Evans, Hiram 377 

Evans, H. L 280 

Evans, Jerry 357 

Evans, John 411 

Evans, J. H .34^ 

Evans, J. R 303 

Everett, B. S 3co 

Everett, F. M 281 

Ewers, Smith.. 343 

E\\ ing, Samuel 400 

F. 

Fenley, John 3^7 

Ferrel, Edward 26S 

Ferrel, Henry 386 



Ferrel, John 328 

Ferrel, Joseph 397 

Fisk, Daniei 270 

Foreman, J. C 366 

Fox, J. C 443 

Frame, J. W 428 

Frame, William 438 

Frame, W. G 499 

Fieeland, J. W 308 

Fry, F. R 235 

Fry, Samuel 255 

Fuller, L. C 421 

G. 

Games, J. R 255 

Games, R. C 254 

Garratt James 344 

Garton, A D 262 

Garton, G. W 321 

Garton, H. B .286 

Gibbens, Powell 3S8 

Glendenning, Hon. E 431 

Glendenning, H. C ..... .358 

Goodell. H. E 325 

Goodell, L H 445 

Goodhart, J. A 402 

Green, J. W 326 

Greenlee, Sylvester 331 

Guinn, R. E 481 

Gwinn, J. M 339 

H. 

Halfhill, Luke 289 

Hall, James 436 

Hall, James 304 

Hampsliear, Henry 480 

Hancock, Thomas 399 

Harbert, G. W 471 

Harlan, J. S 367 

Harnden, J. L. B 345 

Harper, Barton 478 

Hart, E. L 316 

Hart, K. M 342 

Hart, N. A 295 

Hartshorn, William 259 

Harisough, Walter 269 

Hasbrouck, J. D 240 

Hatfield, J. H 397 

Hauks, Isaac 428 

Havner, D. H 284 

Havner, G.J 342 

Hayes, John , 414 

Hayes, Joseph 457 

Hayes, J. O 385 

Helt, G. W 367 

Helton, A. M 408 

Hemenway, F, M 414 

Henderson, W. H 4615 

Henry, W. L 352 

Herbert, H. J 473 

Herbert, John 460 

Hibbs, S. A 395 

Hickenson, J. A 460 

Hickman, Byard 384 

Hickman, S.'N 472 

Higley, E. R 318 

Hill, J. A 435 

Howell, W. F 373 

Hubbard, H W 413 

Humeston, Alva 457 

Humeston, D. D 439 

Humeston, M. W 269 

Hutchins, William 400 






:♦::♦: 

:♦::♦: 

:♦::♦: 

:♦;:♦: 

Hutchinson, R. E -114. !*<*; 

J- *;;♦; 

Jackson, C. C 266 ** 

Jackson, William 293 ^^ 

Jamison, John 387 [♦JjiJ 

Jared, B. F 34O 5»;>; 

Jeffries,J. N 244 ^ 

Jellison, Rev. John 285 >;>i 

Jenison, Elias 329 |*||*) 

Jennison, E 210 sJi 

Jenkins, S. E 326 [♦;;♦; 

Johnson, J. A 309 v*;>^ 

Johnson, Loren 325 ^^ 

Johnson, R. 257 j^-j^^ 

Jones, J. A 426 ;♦>! 

Jones, William 423 SiJ 

Jones, W. J 479 i^lfl 

Jones, W. R 296 ;♦>: 

Jordan, L. C 397 *<>i 

K. W 

Kelso, Daniel 249 j^o^i 

Kelso, R. F 431 jJ-J< 

Kemple, Lem 425 >;!<^ 

Kilbourn, Francis . .380 ?<|^ 

Kimple. P. S 276 *<* 

King, Samuel 392 >];♦] 

King,T.F 433 ;♦:;♦: 

Kirby,H. B 435 ** 

Kirk, David 323 V!V! 

T :♦::♦: 

Laing, John 382 >;:.^ 

Lancaster, J . W .... 477 !♦!>] 

Latimer, B. T 413 *«♦< 

Laughlin, T. M 386 :♦<>< 

Lawson, J. A 449 >j3^ 

Lawson, William 466 ^^ 

Leavell, J. M 282 ^J^J^ 

LeCompte, c. F 328 :♦;!♦: 

Lewis, B. B 298 ** 

Lewis, John .267 *^'5^ 

Lewis, L. W 43S !c<5 

Lewis, Seth 373 j'*^^ 

Liggett, Abraham 378 ** 

Littell, W. M 259 :♦;:♦: 

Logan, W. N 283 »>: 

Lohr, P. P 370 '^^ 

Lord, C. H 461 s>;|<i5 

Lusher, H. H 44S **' 

M. :♦;:♦: 

Mardis, Alex 373 ** 

Marick, Jesse 354 ^^ 

Markley, John 422 Wd 

Martin, J. L 447 ;♦>; 

Massey, L. D 385 '^}f^ 

Matkin, J. R 379 :♦>: 

May, H. G 262 >>< 

McAnely, John 475 >^^ 

McCallister, J. L ..401 [♦::<^ 

McCart, George 245 |*[* 

McCoy, Hugh ... 475 |*<;*< 

McCo V , J . N 470 :♦::♦: 

McCoV, R. z 243 :♦;;« 

McCulloch, Hon. George 2150 ^^ 

McCullough, N. G 273 ^M 

McCuUv, A. Y 453 :♦::♦: 

McGhee, H. C 315 ^^p 

McGuire, Josiah 2S2 '^^ 

McGuire, J F 258 ;♦!« 

Mcintosh, W. E 424 **< 

McKee, Allen 396 -^y^ 

McKinlev,J. R 421 :♦:!♦: 

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M.Kinlev. Wllloughbjf 33« 

M. \- v.^Icnrv 3«>7 

Ml \ > \ . Jacob 299 

Miri.-iol, G. A. 25S 

M N C 37« 

M 280 

M 4m 348 

M..-..J.0 436 

Mituii, JcMC 465 

Moiu ith. Rolirrt -470 

M...r<, C»rl -Ai- 

M.H.r.-. DC |»i 

M K> ,- |o»ephu« 35' 

M<>..rr.'.S. n 279 

Moon-. \V. 1 39S 

Morlord, H. T 3^3 

Moriran. DanM 341 

Mor^in. W. A 3V5 

M...r.!t. J. S . 365 

Murrttt. lacxjb . . 2"! 

Morr ^on. K. P 427 

MorriMjn, W. P 410 

Mo*«. W. F 260 

N. 

Ndtl. nva« 297 

N ^ P 296 

N Uu» ;>S2 

NoM'-, *. K 267 

o. 

Ockcrman. I). R 479 

Ockcrnian, David 392 

P 

Palladv.John 476 

ParkO- B 3S7 

Pcrkinii.T. M 440 

Per»on, Olof 477 

Peitv. WllUm SnS 

Ph«ll|>i.,J J 40S 

Phnil|>ft, P. M . 409 

Pierce, W F . ....J4S 

Porter. I>. B 309 

Porter. Samuel 3'3 

Po*ton, R. C 3^ 

Potter. John 434 

Prav.j. H 3S0 

PraV. W. M 3«<; 

PriJe. DavU 23S 

Prince. W. A 360 

Prolzman, L. F 324 

R. 

Rankin I R 310 

Ratcllff. Si G ?02 

RatclllTe, T. J 4X) 

Ucj. E. A 329 

Rcail. John 426 

Re.ul, 1 M 406 

H ■ ' 355 

!• 27s 

!•• 345 

U I )K>tna« 330 

U G G 304 

H J.J 463 

H Thom»» 273 

1 W. O 410 

1 M. II ; 314 

Km. . .\ C. 28s 



Rii 



.J T. 



,301 



Rilf.v. V T 407 

RUsier. George 399 

Ritchie. J. H 261 

Robinson, P. L 444 



COXTENTS. 



Rock hold. A. L 302 

Rockhoid. Charleh ^74 

Rfjckhold, Talbot 2S7 

Rotlcrick. E 337 

Roger-.. 11. S 357 

Rogers Kendall 440 

R0H8, JamcK 409 

Ruf. Anton 246 

Rush. George 247 

Rii»h. John 406 

S. 

Soger, Abraham 36? 

Sager. .S. S 35° 

San ford, II eck 245 

.Savre. C. 1 289 

Sa^TC, George 290 

Savie, J. W 47« 

Scott, B V 3S> 

Scott, Q. A 413 

Scott. W. F 478 

Sharp, A. W 425 

Sherritt. R. W 299 

Shirlcv, D. D 295 

Shock'. .Mcxander 340 

Showalter. N . H 359 

Shriver. Adamson. 3^>6 

Shriver. EllU 237 

Shrlver. William 384 

Sircf, George 327 

Slack. W. R 402 

Smith, G. W 336 

Smith. L. L 416 

Snider, .S. A 412 

Snvdir. Charles 253 

Sollenbarger. David 460 

Soiidcr. J. A . .415 

Siandifird, A 419 

Stech, G. A 244 

Stech,John 261 

Stech, P. L 470 

Steele, C. W 291; 

Sleele, E. P 439 

Steele, J. H 297 

•Sullivan. J. M 433 

Surbaiigh, J. fl 317 

Swain, Richard 323 

T. 

Tabler.J. W 472 

Tavlor. Jame* 364 

Tedford. W. H 300 

Terry. C. W 386 

Thomas. A. C. 310 

Thoma», D. M 28^ 

Thomas, J. L 256 

Thonmh, Jonathan 30 

Thompson. W. M . .414 

Thorn. E. W 268 

Trogdon. Nathan 253 

Tulles David 37a 

Tuttle, Noah 452 

U. 

Ulerich. John 232 

Undcrhlll. Jackson . . . 412 

V. 

Van I}enthu»cn, S 235 

Vance, Robert 473 

Van Der Veer. B. W 338 

Vauglm, Stephen 454 

Ve*t, S. L 401 

Vestlc, Jacob. .461 



W. 

Wade, William 247 

Waldcn. T. P 29S 

Walker. D. C 256 

Walker. Joseph 462 

Walker. .Sanders 3SS 

Wallace. W. C 327 

Ward, William 393 

Warren, .\ W 447 

Wjisson.J. I) 271 

Wasson. W. B 381 

Weeks, Aaron 3s6 

Welch, T. W 303 

West. Ilumphroy 270 

While. W.l 366 

Whiteh, J. E 294 

Whitmore, .Samuel 474 

Wliittakcr.J. S.. 482 

Wiiliani*. Ch.irles 4>S 

Williams J. S 379 

Wihon, J. II 410 

Wisehart, G. W 393 

Woods, Jeremiah 338 

Wooden, .\mon 273 

Woodmanhce. (i. W 31S 

Wright. Aaion 4^0 

Wright, C. R 370 

Wright, Hon. G 236 

Wright. G. T 423 

Wright. John 369 

Wright, Mrs. M.J 3SS 

Wright, Hon. Samuel 449 

Wy mer, John 394 

Y. 
Young, Merritt 321 

^GENERAL ♦ HISTORY ^ 

Introductory 485 

Early History.... 489 

Political . .496 

OlVicial Register ^o^ 

The Civil War 50S 

The Press \ix 

The Bar 526 

The Medical Profession 529 

Miscellaneous 533 

Corydon 53b 

.\lIerton 542 

Sey mour 547 

Huineston 551 

Lii.cville S55 

Other Villages . 559 

^IPORTRAITS.I^ 

Arnold, R R 334 

Ileal, Thomas 404 

Bishop. G. P.. 390 

Bui lard, John 292 

Cassitv.J. R 3^8 

Clark.' 1) M 468 

Evans Hiram 376 

Fox, J C 4j2 

Garton. A. D 263 

Garton. CJ. W 320 

(ilendcnning, Hon. E 430 

llasbrouck. J. D 241 

Humeston, Alva 456 

McCuIloch, Hon George 251 

MrKinlcv. Wflloughbv 230 

McVev. llenrv 30^1 

McM)re. S. H. " 278 

Morford. H.T 362 

SUndifird. A- 418 



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CONTENTS. 



ICOMII OF APPAMODSE COUNTY,^ 



BIOGRAPHICAL + SKETCHES.^ 



Andrews, J. O 6i6 

Arvalt, John 597 

Ashbj, E. G 628 

B. 

Barrows, J. C 619 

Bevington, J. C 635 

Blachiey, H. W 637 

Bradley, D. C 624 

Broshar, Edward 630 

Brown, Samuel ... .637 

C. 

Callen, A. D 624 

Callen, P. L 622 

Campbell, D. C . S89 

Clark, William 587 

Clemmens, Levi ... .632 

Cochran, Harvey 638 

Cole, S. S 611 

Cozad, Rev. Elijah 651 

Croft, C. M 629 

Croft, John 621 

Cummins, Ephraim 587 

D. 

Daily, John 582 

Day^ Jesse 601 

Dodd, R. W S72 

Duffield, G.W 613 

Duffield, O.J 618 

Duvall, John 619 

E. 

Eells, A. H 647 

Eells, Franklin 627 

Elgin, A. M 633 

Evans, R. McC 651 

Evans, W. F ..648 

Evans, Wil Ham 642 



Fee, T. M 645 

Ferren, M. A 596 



Gallaher, George 631 

Gay, W. S 617 

Gedney, J. B 654 

Goss, Henry 617 

Goss, Joseph 593 

H. 

Hamilton, James 620 

Hamilton, J S 646 

Hardman, D. W 596 

Harvey, S. L 573 

Hayes, A. A 591 

Hayes, S. A 612 

Haynes, E. C 636 

Henderson, Robert 650 

Henry, G. A 633 

Henry, L. McD 634 



Hiatt, I.,ewis 647 

Hoffman, Hague 597 

Houser, S. G 574 

Howell, C. F 580 

Howell, C. H 604 

Hudson, John 605 

J- 

Jennings, Samuel 583 

Johnson, W. S 575 

Jones, N. M 628 

K. 

Kerr, Cyrus 649 

Knapp, Jacob 613 

L. 

Lain, J L 589 

Lane, C. W 621 

Lankford, John 590 

Lantz, Jonathan 642 

Loughridge, J. M 581 

Luse, Aaron 630 

M. 

Maher, James 649 

Main, Lewis 590 

Mann, J. J 635 

Maring, J. B 603 

Martin, W. J S93 

May, J. N 584 

McCreary, W. M 583 

Merritt, James 571 

Merritt, Moses 572 

Miller, Joshua 595 

Miller, R. H 599 

Moore, R. M 573 

Moore, S. M 639 

Murdy, W. F. S 588 

N. 
Needles, G. W 605 

P. 

Pence, Daniel 614 

Pendergast, Addison 617 

Peugh, David 623 

Porter, G. D 655 

Powell, W. D 609 

Pratt, J. J 612 

R. 

Ransom, Elisha 600 

Reich, F. A 603 

Richard, August 650 

Rinard, S. K 655 

Rummel, Jacob S91 

Russell, H. A 537 

S. 

Sawyers, J. L 598 

Sears, P. W 631 

Scott, N. M 640 

Sidlf-s, Peter 582 

Smith, J. P 595 



Spooner, C. F 592 

Spooner, D. A 602 

Stauber, Joseph 614 

Stevens, G. L 653 

Stewart, Samuel 646 

Stone, J. M 6i8 

Stratton, E. T 604 

Strickler, G. W 629 

Swan, J. N 615 

Swearngen, W. T 648 

T. 

Tannehill, Harvey 571 

Taylor, G. W 602 

Taylor, L. L 620 

Teator, C. C .. ..639 

Thompson, A. F 594 

Thompson, \V. R 600 

Turner, T. J 638 

Turner, W. D 653 

U. 
Ullem, John 656 

V. 
Vrooman, C. E 598 

W. 

Walden, M. M ; 610 

Wales, T. L 641 

Wells, Benjamin 619 

White, John 609 

White, J. W 615 

Williams, J. W 622 

Wilson, James 634 

Wilson, Thomas 632 

Wilson, T. O 629 

Wooden, J. R 623 

Worthington, M. R 652 

Wright, H. H 606 

Wright, J. R ..5S1 

Y. 
Young, W. H 652 

^GENERAL * HISTORY.^ 

Introductory 659 

Early History 665 

Civil History 683 

Political . .693 

Official Register 706 

The Civil War 710 

The Press 715 

The Bar 718 

The Medical Profession 720 

Miscellaneous 722 

Centerville 729 

Villages 738 

^PORTRAITS.^ 

Cummins, E 586 

Eells, Franklin 626 

Fee, T. M 644 

Tannehill, H 570 

Wright, H. H 607 






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GEORGE WASHINGTON. 



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EORGE WASHING- 
TON, the " Father of 
his Country" and its 
first President, 1789- 
'97, was born Febru- 
ary 22, 1732, in Wash- 
ington Parish, West- 
moreland County, Virginia. 
His father, Augustine Wash- 
ington, first married Jane But- 
ler, who bore him four chil- 
dren, and March 6, 1730, he 
married Mary Ball. Of six 
children by his second mar- 
riage, George was the eldest, 
the others being Betty, Samuel, John, Au- 
gustine, Charles and Mildred, of whom the 
youngest died in infancy. Little is known 
of the early years of Washington, beyond 
the fact that the house in which he was 
born was burned during his early child- 
hood, and that his father thereupon moved 
to another farm, inherited from his paternal 
ancestors, situated in Stafford County, on 
the north bank of the Rappahannock, where 
he acted as agent of the Principio Iron 
Works in the immediate vicinity, and died 
there in 1743. 

From earliest childhood George devel- 
oped a noble character. He had a vigorous 
constitution, a fine form, and great bodily 
strensfth. His education was somewhat de- 



fective, being confined to the elementary 
branches taught him by his mother and at 
a neighboring school. He developed, how- 
ever, a fondness for mathematics, and en- 
joyed in that branch the instructions of a 
private teacher. On leaving school he re- 
sided for some time at Mount Vernon with 
his half brother, Lawrence, who acted as 
his guardian, and who had married a daugh- 
ter of his neighbor at Belvoir on the Poto- 
mac, the wealthy William Fairfax, for some 
time president of the executive council of 
the colony. Both Fairfax and his son-in-law, 
Lawrence Washington, had served with dis- 
tinction in 1740 as officers of an American 
battalion at the siege of Carthagena, and 
were friends and correspondents of'Admiral 
Vernon, for whom the latter's residence on 
the Potomac has been named. George's 
inclinations were for a similar career, and a 
midshipman's warrant was procured for 
him, probably through the influence of the 
Admiral ; but through the opposition of his 
mother the project was abandoned. The 
family connection with the Fairfaxes, how- 
ever, opened another career for the young 
man, who, at the age of sixteen, was ap- 
pointed surveyor to the immense estates of 
the eccentric Lord Fairfax, who was then 
on a visit at Belvoir, and who shortly after- 
ward established his baronial residence at 
Green way Court, in the Shenandoah Valley. 






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PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



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Three years were passed by young Wash- 
ington in a rough frontier life, gaining ex- 
perience which afterward proved very es- 
sential to him. 

In 1 75 1, when the Virginia militia were 
put under training with a view to active 
service against France, Washington, though 
only nineteen years of age, was appointed 
Adjutant with the rank of Major. In Sep- 
tember of that year the failing health of 
Lawrence Washington rendered it neces- 
sary for him to seek a warmer climate, and 
George accompanied him in a voyage to 
Barbadoes. They returned early in 1752, 
and Lawrence shortly afterward died, leav- 
ing his large property to an infant daughter. 
In his will George was named one of the 
executors and as eventual heir to Mount 
Vernon, and by the death of the infant niece 
soon succeeded to that estate. 

On the arrival of Robert Dinwiddle as 
Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia in 1752 
the militia was reorganized, and the prov- 
ince divided into four districts. Washing- 
ton was commissioned by Dinwiddle Adju- 
tant-General of the Northern District in 
1753, and in November of that year a most 
important as well as hazardous mission was 
assigned him. This was to proceed to the 
Canadian posts recently established on 
French Creek, near Lake Erie, to demand 
in the name of the King of England the 
withdrawal of the French from a territory 
claimed by Virginia. This enterprise had 
been declined by more than one officer, 
since it involved a journey through an ex- 
tensive and almost unexplored wilderness 
in the occupancy of savage Indian tribes, 
either hostile to the English, or of doubtful 
attachment. Major Washington, however, 
accepted the commission with alacrity ; and, 
accompanied by Captain Gist, he reached 
Fort Le Boeuf on French Creek, delivered 
his dispatches and received reply, which, of 
course, was a polite refusal to surrender the 
posts. This reply was of such a character 



as to induce the Assembly of Virginia to 
authorize the executive to raise a regiment 
of 300 men for the purpose of maintaining 
the asserted rights of the British crown 
over the territory claimed. As Washing- 
ton declined to be a candidate for that post, 
the command of this regiment was given to 
Colonel Joshua Fry, and Major Washing- 
ton, at his own request, was commissioned 
Lieutenant-Colonel. On the march to Ohio, 
news was received that a party previously 
sent to build a fort at the confluence of the 
Monongahela with the Ohio had been 
driven back by a considei^able French force, 
which had completed the work there be- 
gun, and named it Fort Duquesne, in honor 
of the Marquis Duquesne, then Governor 
of Canada. This was the beginning of the 
great " French and Indian war,'' which con- 
tinued seven years. On the death of Colonel 
Fry, Washington succeeded to the com- 
mand of the regiment, and so well did he 
fulfill his trust that the Virginia Assembly 
commissioned him as Cominander-in-Chief 
of all the forces raised in the colony. 

A cessation of all Indian hostility on the 
frontier having followed the expulsion of 
the French from the Ohio, the object of 
Washington was accomplished and he re- 
signed his commission as Commander-in- 
Chief of the Virginia forces. He then pro- 
ceeded to Williamsburg to take his seat in 
the General Assembly, of which he had 
been elected a member. 

January 17, 1759, Washington married 
Mrs. Martha (Dandridge) Custis, a young 
and beautiful widow of great wealth, and de- 
voted himself for the ensuing fifteen years 
to the quiet pursuits of agriculture, inter- 
rupted only by his annual attendance in 
winter upon the Colonial Legislature at 
Williamsburg, until summoned by his 
country to enter upon that other arena in 
which his fame was to become world wide. 

It is unnecessary here to trace the details 
of the struggle upon the question of local 






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GEORGE WA SHING TON. 



self-government, which, after ten years, cul- 
minated by act of Parliament of the port of 
Boston. It was at the instance of Virginia 
that a congress of all the colonies was called 
to meet at Philadelphia September 5, 1774, 
to secure their common liberties — if possible 
by peaceful means. To this Congress 
Colonel Washington was sent as a dele- 
gate. On dissolving in October, it recom- 
mended the colonies to send deputies to 
another Congress the following spring. In 
the meantime several of the colonies felt 
impelled to raise local forces to repel in- 
sults and aggressions on the part of British 
troops, so that on the assembling of the next 
Congress, May 10, 1775, the war prepara- 
tions of the mother country were unmis- 
takable. The battles of Concord and Lex- 
ington had been fought. Among the earliest 
acts, therefore, of the Congress was the 
selection of a commander-in-chief of the 
colonial forces. This office was unani- 
mously conferred upon Washington, still a 
member of the Congress. He accepted it 
on June 19, but on the express condition he 
should receive no salary. 

He immediately repaired to the vicinity 
of Boston, against which point the British 
ministry had concentrated their forces. As 
early as April General Gage had 3,000 
troops in and around this proscribed city. 
During the fall and winter the British policy 
clearly indicated a purpose to divide pub- 
lic sentiment and to build up a British party 
in the colonies. Those who sided with the 
ministry were stigmatized by the patriots 
as " Tories," while the patriots took to them- 
selves the name of " Whigs." 

As early as 1776 the leading men had 
come to the conclusion that there was no 
hope except in separation and indepen- 
dence. In May of that year Washington 
wrote from the head of the army in New 
York : " A reconciliation with Great Brit- 
ain is impossible When I took 

command of the army, I abhorred the idea 



of independence ; but I am now fully satis- 
fied that nothing else will save us." 

It is not the object of this sketch to trace 
the military acts of the patriot hero, to 
whose hands the fortunes and liberties of 
the United States were confided during the 
seven years' bloody struggle that ensued 
until the treaty of 1783, in which England 
acknowledged the independence of each of 
the thirteen States, and negotiated with 
them, jointly, as separate sovereignties. The 
merits of Washington as a military chief- 
tain have been considerably discussed, espe- 
cially by writers in his own country. Dur- 
ing the war he was most bitterly assailed 
for incompetency, and great efforts were 
made to displace him ; but he never for a 
moment lost the confidence of either the 
Congress or the people. December 4, 1783, 
the great commander took leave of his offi- 
cers in most affectionate and patriotic terms, 
and went to Annapolis, Maryland, where 
the Congress of the States was in session, 
and to that body, when peace and order 
prevailed everywhere, resigned his com- 
mission and retired to Mount Vernon. 

It was in 1788 that Washington was called 
to the chief magistracy of the nation. He 
received every electoral vote cast in all the 
colleges of the States voting for the office 
of President. The 4th of March, 1789, was 
the time appointed for the Government of 
the United States to begin its operations, 
but several weeks elapsed before quorums 
of both the newly constituted houses of the 
Congress were assembled. The city of New 
York was the place where the Congress 
then met. April 16 Washington left his 
home to enter upon the discharge of his 
new duties. He set out with a purpose of 
traveling privately, and without attracting 
any public attention ; but this was impossi- 
ble. Everywhere on his way he was met 
with thronging crowds, eager to see the 
man whom they regarded as the chief de- 
fender of their liberties, and everywhere 



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PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



he was hailed with those public manifesta- 
tions of joy, regard and love which spring 
spontaneously from the hearts of an affec- 
tionate and grateful people. His reception 
in New York was marked by a grandeur 
and an enthusiasm never before witnessed 
in that metropolis. The inauguration took 
place April 30, in the presence of an immense 
multitude which had assembled to witness 
the new and imposing ceremony. The oath 
of office was administered by Robert R. 
Livingston, Chancellor of the State. When 
this sacred pledge was given, he retired 
with the other officials into the Senate 
chamber, where he delivered his inaugural 
address to both houses of the newly con- 
stituted Congress in joint assembly. 

In the manifold details of his civil ad- 
ministration, Washington proved himself 
equal to the requirements ot his position. 
The greater portion of the first session of 
the first Congress was occupied in passing 
the necessary statutes for putting the new 
organization into complete operation. In 
the discussions brought up in the course of 
this legislation the nature and character of 
the new system came under general review. 
On no one of them did any decided antago- 
nism of opinion arise. All held it to be a 
limited government, clothed only with spe- 
cific powers conferred by delegation from 
the States. There was no change in the 
name of the legislative department ; it still 
remained "the Congress of the United 
States of America." There was no change 
in the original flag of the country, and none 
in the seal, which still remains with the 
Grecian escutcheon borne by the eagle, 
with other emblems, under the great and 
expressive motto, "£ Pluribus Ununiy 

The first division of parties arose upon 
the manner of construing the powers dele- 
gated, and they were first styled " strict 
constructionists" and " latitudinarian con- 
structionists." The former were for con- 
fining the action of the Government strictly 



within its specific and Hmited sphere, while 
the others were for enlarging its powers by 
inference and implication. Hamilton and 
Jefferson, both members of the first cabinet, 
were regarded as the chief leaders, respect- 
ively, of these rising antagonistic parties, 
which have existed, under different names, 
from that day to this. Washington was re- 
garded as holding a neutral position between 
them, though, by mature deliberation, he 
vetoed the first apportionment bill, in 1790, 
passed by the party headed by Hamilton, 
which was based upon a principle construct- 
ively leading to centralization or consoli- 
dation. This was the first exercise of the 
veto power under the present Constitution. 
It created considerable excitement at the 
tim'e. Another bill was soon passed in pur- 
suance of Mr. Jefferson's views, which has 
been adhered to in principle in every ap- 
portionment act passed since. 

At the second session of the new Con- 
gress, Washington announced the gratify- 
ing fact of " the accession of North Caro- 
lina" to the Constitution of 1787, and June 
I of the same year he announced by special 
message the like " accession of the State of 
Rhode Island," with his congratulations on 
the happy event which " united under the 
general Government " all the States which 
were originally confederated. 

In 1792, at the second Presidential elec- 
tion, Washington was desirous to retire ; 
but he yielded to the general wish of the 
country, and was again chosen President 
by the unanimous vote of every electoral 
college. At the third election, 1796, he was 
again most urgently entreated to consent to 
remain in the executive chair. This he 
positively refused. In September, before 
the election, he gave to his countrymen his 
memorable Farewell Address, which in lan- 
guage, sentiment and patriotism was a fit 
and crowning glory of his illustrious life. 
After March 4, 1797, he again retired to 
Mount Vernon for peace, quiet and repose. 






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GEORGE WASHINGTON. 



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His administration for the two terms had 
been successful beyond the expectation and 
hopes of even the most sanguine of his 
friends. The finances of the country were 
no longer in an embarrassed condition, the 
public credit was fully restored, life was 
given to every department of industry, the 
workings of the new system in allowing 
Congress to raise revenue from duties on 
imports proved to be not only harmonious 
in its federal action, but astonishing in its 
results upon the commerce and trade of all 
the States. The exports from the Union 
increased from $19,000,000 to over $56,000,- 
000 per annum, while the imports increased 
in about the same proportion. Three new 
members had been added to the Union. The 
progress of the States in their new career 
under their new organization thus far was 
exceedingly encouraging, not only to the 
friends of liberty within their own limits, 
but to their sympathizing allies in all climes 
and countries. 

Of the call again made on this illustrious 



chief to quit his repose at Mount Vernon 
and take command of all the United States 
forces, with the rank of Lieutenant-General, 
when war was threatened with France in 
1798, nothing need here be stated, except to 
note the fact as an unmistakable testimo- 
nial of the high regard in which he was still 
held by his countrymen, of all shades of po- 
litical opinion. He patriotically accepted 
this trust, but a treaty of peace put a stop 
to all action under it. He again retired to 
Mount Vernon, where, after a short and 
severe illness, he died December 14, 1799, 
in the sixty-eighth year of his age. The 
whole country was filled with gloom by this 
sad intelligence. Men of all parties in poli- 
tics and creeds in religion, in every State 
in the Union, united with Congress in " pay- 
ing honor to the man, first in war, first in 
peace, and first in the hearts of his country- 
men," 

His remains were deposited in a family 
vault on the banks of the Potomac at Mount 
Vernon, where they ^till lie entombed. 




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14 



PJihSIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



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"OHN ADAMS, the second 
President of the United 
States, 1797 to 1801, was 
born in the present town 
of Ouincy, then a portion 
of Braintree, Massachu- 
setts, October 30, 1735. His 
father was a farmer of mod- 
erate means, a worthy and 
industrious man. He was 
a deacon in the church, and 
was very desirous of giving 
his son a collegiate educa- 
tion, hoping that he would 
become a minister of the 
gospel. But, as up to this 
time, the age of fourteen, he had been only 
a play-boy in the fields and forests, he had 
no taste for books, he chose farming. On 
being set to work, however, by his father 
out in the field, the very first day con- 
verted the boy into a lover of books. 

Accordingly, at the age of sixteen he 
entered Harvard College, and graduated in 
I755> ^^ the age of twenty, highly esteemed 
for integrity, energy and ability. Thus, 
having no capital but his education, he 
started out into the stormy world at a time 
of great political excitement, as France and 
England were then engaged in their great 
seven-years struggle for the master}^ over 
the New World. The fire of patriotism 



seized )'Oung Adams, and for a time he 
studied over the question whether he 
should take to the law, to politics or the 
army. He wrote a remarkable letter to a 
friend, making prophecies concerning the 
future greatness of this country which have 
since been more than fulfilled. For two 
years he taught school and studied law, 
wasting no odd moments, and at the early 
age of twenty-two years he opened a law 
office in his native town. His inherited 
powers of mind and untiring devotion to 
his profession caused him to rise rapidly 
in public esteem. 

In October, 1764, Mr. Adams married 
Miss Abigail Smith, daughter of a clergy- 
man at Weymouth and a lady of rare per- 
sonal and intellectual endowments, who 
afterward contributed much to her hus- 
band's celebrity. 

Soon the oppression of the British in 
America reached its climax. The Boston 
merchants employed an attorney by the 
name of James Otis to argue the legality of 
oppressive tax law before the Superior 
Court. Adams heard the argument, and 
afterward wrote to a friend concerning the 
ability displayed, as follows : " Otis was a 
flame of fire. With a promptitude" of 
classical allusion, a depth of research, a 
rapid summary of historical events and 
dates, a profusion of legal authorities and a 



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JOHN ADAMS. 



17 



prophetic glance into futurity, he hurried 
away all before him. American independence 
was then and there born. Every man of an 
immensely crowded audience appeared to 
me to go away, as I did, ready to take up 
arms." 

Soon Mr. Adams wrote an essay to be 
read before the literary club of his town, 
upon the state of affairs, which was so able 
as to attract public attention. It was pub- 
lished in American journals, republished 
in England, and was pronounced by the 
friends of the colonists there as " one of the 
very best productions ever seen from North 
America." 

The memorable Stamp Act was now 
issued, and Adams entered with all the 
ardor of his soul into political life in order 
to resist it. He drew up a series of reso- 
lutions remonstrating against the act, which 
were adopted at a public meeting of the 
citizens of Braintree, and which were sub- 
sequently adopted, word for word, bv more 
than forty towns in the State. Popular 
commotion prevented the landing of the 
Stamp Act papers, and the English author- 
ities then closed the courts. The town of 
Boston therefore appointed Jerem}^ Grid- 
ley, James Otis and John Adams to argue a 
petition before the Governor and council 
for the re-opening of the courts; and while 
the two first mentioned attorneys based 
their argument upon the distress caused to 
the people by the measure, Adams boldly 
claimed that the Stamp Act was a violation 
both of the English Constitution and the 
charter of the Provinces. It is said that 
this was the first direct denial of the un- 
limited right of Parliament over the colo- 
nies. Soon after this the Stamp Act was 
repealed. 

Directly Mr. Adams was employed to 
defend Ansell Nickerson, who had killed an 
Englishman in the act of impressing him 
(Nickerson) into the King's service, and his 
client was acquitted, the court thus estab- 



lishing the principle that the infamous 
royal prerogative of impressment could 
have no existence in the colonial code. 
But in 1770 Messrs. Adams and Josiah 
Ouincy defended a party of British soldiers 
who had been arrested for murder when 
they had been only obeying Governmental 
orders ; and when reproached for thus ap- 
parently deserting the cause of popular 
liberty, Mr. Adams replied that he would a 
thousandfold rather live under the domina- 
tion of the worst of England's kings than 
under that of a lawless mob. Next, after 
serving a term as a member of the Colonial 
Legislature from Boston, Mr. Adams, find- 
ing his health affected by too great labor, 
retired to his native home at Braintree. 

The year 1774 soon arrived, with its fa- 
mous Boston '"Tea Party," the first open 
act of rebellion. Adams was sent to the 
Congress at Philadelphia ; and when the 
Attorney-General announced that Great 
Britain had " determined on her system, 
and that her power to execute it was irre- 
sistible," Adams replied : " I know that 
Great Britain has determined on her sys- 
tem, and that very determination deter- 
mines me on mine. You know that I have 
been constant in my opposition to her 
measures. The die is now cast. I have 
passed the Rubicon. Sink or swim, live or 
die, with my country, is my unalterable 
determination." The rumor beginning to 
prevail at Philadelphia that the Congress 
had independence in view, Adams foresaw 
that it was too soon to declare it openly, 
tie advised every one to remain quiet in 
that respect ; and as soon as it became ap- 
parent that he himself was for independ- 
ence, he was advised to hide himself, which 
he did. 

The next year the great Revolutionary 
war opened in earnest, and Mrs. Adams, 
residing near Boston, kept her husband ad- 
vised by letter of all the events transpiring 
in her vicinity. The battle of Bunker Hill 



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PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



came on. Congress had to do something- 
immediately. The first thing was to 
choose a commander-in-chief for the — we 
can't say " army " — the fighting men of the 
colonies. The New England delegation 
was almost unanimous in favor of appoint- 
ing General Ward, then at the head of tl>e 
Massachusetts forces, but Mr. Adams urged 
the appointment of George Washington, 
then almost unknown outside of his own 
State. He was appointed without oppo- 
sition. Mr. Adams offered the resolution, 
which was adopted, annulling all the royal 
authority in the colonies. Having thus 
prepared the way, a few weeks later, viz., 
June 7, 1776, Richard Henrv Lee, of Vir- 
ginia, who a few months before had declared 
that the British Government would aban- 
don its oppressive measures, now offered 
the memorable resolution, seconded by 
Adams, " that these United States are, and 
of right ought to be, free and independent." 
Jefferson, Adams, Franklin, Sherman and 
Livingston were then appointed a commit- 
tee to draught a declaration of independ- 
ence. Mr. Jefferson desired Mr. Adams 
to draw up the bold document, but the 
latter persuaded Mr. Jefferson to perform 
that responsible task. The Declaration 
drawn up, Mr. Adams became its foremost 
defender on the floor of Congress. It was 
signed by all the filty-five members present, 
and the next day Mr. Adams wrote to his 
wife how great a deed was done, and how 
proud he was of it. Mr. Adams continued 
to be the leading man of Congress, and 
the leading advocate of American inde- 
pendence. Above all other Americans, 
he was considered by every one the prin- 
cipal shining mark for British vengeance. 
Thus circumstanced, he was appointed to 
the most dangerous task of crossing the 
ocean in winter, exposed to capture by the 
British, who knew of his mission, which 
was to visit Paris and solicit the co-opera- 
tion of the French. Besides, to take him- 



self away from the country of which he 
was the most prominent defender, at that 
critical time, was an act of the greatest self- 
sacrifice. Sure enough, while crossing the 
sea, he had two very narrow escapes from 
capture ; and the transit was otherwise a 
stormy and eventful one. During the 
summer of 1779 he returned home, but was 
immediately dispatched back to France, to 
be in readiness there to negotiate terms of 
peace and commerce with Great Britain as 
soon as the latter power was ready for such 
business. But as Dr. Franklin was more 
popular than heat the court of France, Mr. 
Adams repaired to Holland, where he was 
far more successfulas a diplomatist. 

The treaty of peace between the United 
States and England was finally signed at 
Paris, January 21, 1783; and the re-action 
from so great excitement as Mr. Adams had 
so long been experiencing threw him into 
a dangerous fever. Before he fully re- 
covered he was in London, whence he was 
dispatched again to Amsterdam to negoti- 
ate another loan. Compliance with this 
order undermined his physical constitution 
for life. 

In 1785 Mr. Adams was appointed envoy 
to the court of St. James, to meet face to 
face the very king who had regarded him 
as an arch traitor ! Accordingly he re- 
paired thither, where he did actually meet 
and converse with George III.! After a 
residence there for about three years, he 
obtained permission to return to America. 
While in London he wrote and published 
an able work, in three volumes, entitled : 
'' A Defense of the American Constitution." 

The Articles of Confederation proving 
inefficient, as Adams had prophesied, a 
carefully draughted Constitution was 
adopted in 1789, when George Washington 
was elected President of the new nation, 
and Adams Vice-President. Congress met 
for a time in New York, but was removed 
to Philadelphia for ten years, until suitable 



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buildings should be erected at the new 
capital in the District of Columbia. Mr. 
Adams then moved his family to Phila- 
delphia. Toward the close of his term of 
office the French Revolution culminated, 
when Adams and Washington rather 
sympathized with England, and Jefferson 
with France. The Presidential election of 
1796 resulted in giving Mr. Adams the first 
place by a small majority, and Mr. Jeffer- 
son the second place. 

Mr. Adams's administration was consci- 
entious, patriotic and able. The period 
was a turbulent one, and even an archangel 
could not have reconciled the hostile par- 
ties. Partisanism with reference to Eng- 
land and France was bitter, and for four 
years Mr. Adams struggled through almost 
a constant tempest of assaults. In fact, he 
was not truly a popular man, and his cha- 
grin at not receiving a re-election was so 
great that he did not even remain at Phila- 
delphia to witness the inauguration of Mr. 
Jefferson, his successor. The friendly 
• intimacy between these two men was 
interrupted for about thirteen years of their 
life. Adams finally made the first advances 
toward a restoration of their mutual friend- 
ship, which were gratefully accepted by 
Jefferson. 

Mr. Adams was glad of his opportunity 
to retire to private lite, where he could rest 
his mind and enjoy the comforts of home. 
By a thousand bitter experiences he found 
the path of public duty a thorny one. For 
twenty-six years his service of the public 
was as arduous, self-sacrificing and devoted 
as ever fell to the lot of man. In one im- 
portant sense he was as much the " Father 
of his Country " as was Washington in 
another sense. During these long years of 
anxiety and toil, in which he was laying. 
broad and deep, the foundations of the 



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greatest nation the sun ever shone upon, he 
received from his impoverished country a 
meager support. The only privilege he 
carried with him into his retirement was 
that of franking his letters. 

Although taking- no active part in public 
affairs, both himself and his son, John 
Quincy, nobly supported the policy of Mr. 
Jefferson in resisting the encroachments of 
England, who persisted in searching 
American ships on the high seas and 
dragging from them any sailors that might 
be designated by any pert lieutenant as 
British subjects. Even for this noble sup- 
port Mr. Adams was maligned by thou- 
sands of bitter enemies ! On this occasion, 
for the fii-st time since his retirement, he 
broke silence and drew up a very able 
paper, exposing the atrocity of the British 
pretensions. 

Mr. Adams outlived nearly all his family. 
Though his physical frame began to give 
way many years before his death, his mental 
powers retained their strength and vigor to 
the last. In his ninetieth year he was 
gladdened by the popular elevation of his 
son to the Presidential office, the highest in 
the gift of the people. A few months more 
passed away and the 4th of July, 1826, 
arrived. The people, unaware of the near 
approach of the end of two great lives — 
that of Adams and Jefferson — were making 
unusual preparations for a national holiday. 
Mr. Adams lay upon his couch, listening to 
the ringing of bells, the waftures of martial 
music and the roar of cannon, with silent 
emotion. Only four days before, he had 
given for a public toast, " Independence 
forever." About two o'clock in the after- 
noon he said, "And Jefferson still survives." 
But he was mistaken by an hour or so; 
and in a few minutes he had breathed his 
last. 






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PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



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fHOMAS JEFFER- 
son, the third Presi- 
dent of the United 
States, 1801-9, was 
born April 2, 1743, 
the eldest child of 
his parents, Peter 
and Jane (Randolph) Jef- 
ferson, near Charlottes- 
ville, Albemarle Count}^, 
Virginia, upon the slopes 
of the Blue Ridge. When 
he -was fourteen years of 
age, his father died, leav- 
ing a widow and eight 
children. She was a beau- 
tiful and accomplished 
lady, a good letter-writer, with a fund of 
humor, and an admirable housekeeper. His 
parents belonged to the Church of England, 
and are said to be of Welch origin. But 
little is known of them, however. 

Thomas was naturally of a serious turn 
of mind, apt to learn, and a favorite at 
school, his choice studies being mathemat- 
ics and the classics. At the age of seven- 
teen he entered William and Mary College, 
in an advanced class, and lived in rather an 
expensive style, consequently being much 
caressed by gay society. That he was not 
ruined, is proof of his stamina of character. 
But during his second year he discarded 



society, his horses and even his favorite 
violin, and devoted thenceforward fifteen 
hours a day to hard study, becoming ex- 
traordinarily proficient in Latin and Greek 
authors. 

On leaving college, before he was twenty- 
one, he commenced the study of law, and 
pursued it diligently until he was well 
qualified for practice, upon which he 
entered in 1767. By this time he was also 
versed in French, Spanish, Italian and An- 
g:lo-Saxon, and in the criticism of the fine 
arts. Being very polite and polished in his 
manners, he won the friendship of all whom 
he met. Though able with his pen, he was 
not fluent in public speech. 

In 1769 he was chosen a member of the 
Virginia Legislature, and was the largest 
slave-holding member of that body. He 
introduced a bill empowering slave-holders 
to manumit their slaves, but it was rejected 
by an overwhelming vote. 

In 1770 Mr. Jefferson met with a great 
loss ; his house at Shadwell was burned, 
and his valuable library of 2,000 volumes 
was consumed. But he was wealthy 
enough to replace the most of it, as from 
his 5,000 acres tilled by slaves and his 
practice at the bar his income amounted to 
about $5,000 a year. 

In 1772 he married Mrs. Martha Skelton, 
a beautiful, wealthy and accomplished 






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THOMAS JEFFERSON. 



23 



young widow, who owned 40,000 acres of 
land and 130 slaves; yet he labored assidu- 
ously for the abolition of slavery. For his 
new home he selected a majestic rise of 
land upon his large estate at Shadwell, 
called Monticello, whereon he erected a 
mansion of modest yet elegant architecture. 
Here he lived in luxury, indulging his taste 
in magnificent, high-blooded horses. 

At this period the British Government 
gradually became more insolent and op- 
pressive toward the American colonies, 
and Mr. Jefferson was ever one of the most 
foremost to resist its encroachments. From 
time to time he drew up resolutions of re- 
monstrance, which were finally adopted, 
thus proving his ability as a statesman and 
as a leader. By the vear 1774 he became 
quite busy, both with voice and pen, in de- 
fending the right of the colonies to defend 
themselves. His pamphlet entitled : " A 
Summary View of the Rights of British 
America," attracted much attention in Eng- 
land. The following year he, in company 
with George Washington, served as an ex- 
ecutive committee in measures to defend 
by arms the State of Virginia. As a Mem- 
ber of the Congress, he was not a speech- 
maker, yet in conversation and upon 
committees he was so frank and decisive 
that he always made a favorable impression. 
But as late as the autumn of 1775 he re- 
mained in hopes of reconciliation with the 
parent country. 

At length, however, the hour arrived for 
draughting the " Declaration of Indepen- 
dence," and this responsible task was de- 
volved upon Jefferson. Franklin, and 
Adams suggested a few verbal corrections 
before it was submitted to Congress, which 
was June 28, 1776, only six days before it 
was adopted. During the three days of 
the fiery ordeal of criticism through which 
it passed in Congress, Mr. Jefferson opened 
not his lips. John Adams was the main 
champion of the Declaration on the floor 



of Congress. The signing of this document 
was one of the most solemn and momentous 
occasions ever attended to by man. Prayer 
and silence reigned throughout the hall, 
and each signer realized that if American 
independence was not finally sustained by 
arms he was doomed to the scaffold. 

After the colonies became independent 
States, Jefferson i-esigned for a time his seat 
in Congress in order to aid in organizing 
the government of Virginia, of w^ich State 
he was chosen Governor in 1779, when he 
was thirty-six years of age. At this time 
the British had possession of Georgia and 
were invading South Carolina, and at one 
time a British otificer, Tarleton, sent a 
secret expedition to Monticello to capture 
the Governor. Five minutes after Mr. 
Jefferson escaped with his family, his man- 
sion was in possession of the enemy ! The 
British troops also destroyed his valuable 
plantation on the James River. " Had they 
carried off the slaves," said Jefferson, with 
characteristic magnanimity, " to give them 
freedom, they would have done right." 

The year 1781 was a gloomy one for the 
Virginia Governor. While confined to his 
secluded home in the forest by a sick and 
dying wife, a party arose against him 
throughout the State, severely criticising 
his course as Governor. Being very sensi- 
tive to reproach, this touched him to the 
quick, and the heap of troubles then sur- 
rounding him nearly crushed him. He re- 
solved, in despair, to retire from public life 
for the rest of his days. For weeks Mr. 
Jefferson sat lovingly, but with a crushed 
heart, at the bedside of his sick wife, during 
which time unfeeling letters were sent to 
him, accusing him of weakness and unfaith- 
fulness to duty. All this, after he had lost 
so much property and at the same time 
done so much for his country ! After her 
death he actually fainted away, and re- 
mained so long insensible that it was feared 
he never would recover! Several weeks 









PRES/DEyrS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



passed before he could fully recover his 
equilibrium. He was never married a 
second time. 

In the spring of 1782 the people of Eng- 
land compelled their king to make to the 
Americans overtures of peace, and in No- 
vember following, Mr. Jefferson was reap- 
pointed by Congress, unanimously and 
without a single adverse remark, minister 
plenipotentiary to negotiate a treaty. 

In March, 1784, Mr. Jefferson was ap- 
pointed on a committee to draught a plan 
for the sfovernment of the Northwestern 
Territory. His slavery-prohibition clause 
in that plan was stricken out by the pro- 
slavery majority of the committee; but amid 
all the controversies and wrangles of poli- 
ticians, he made it a rule never to contra- 
dict anybody or engage in any discussion 
as a debater. 

In company with Mr. Adams and Dr. 
Franklin, Mr. Jefferson was appointed in 
May, 1784, to act as minister plenipotentiary 
in the negotiation of treaties of commerce 
with foreign nations. Accordingly, he went 
to Paris and satisfactorily accomplished his 
mission. The suavity and high bearing of 
his manner made all the French his friends; 
and even Mrs. Adams at one time wrote 
to her sister that he was " the chosen 
of the earth." But all the honors that 
he received, both at home and abroad, 
seemed to make no change in the simplicity 
of his republican tastes. On his return to 
America, he found two parties respecting 
the foreign commercial policy, Mr. Adams 
symj)athizing with that in favor of England 
and himself favoring France. 

On the inauguration of General Wash- 
ington as President, Mr. Jefferson was 
chosen by him for the ofifice of Secretary of 
State. At this time the rising storm of the 
French Revolution became visible, and 
Washington watched it with great anxiety. 
His cabinet was divided in their views of 
constitutional government as well 



garding 



as re- 



the issues in France. General 
Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, was 
the leader of the so-called Federal party, 
while Mr. Jefferson was the leader of the 
Republican party. At the same time there 
was a strong monarchical party in this 
country, with which Mr. Adams sympa- 
thized. Some important financial measures, 
which were proposed by Hamilton and 
finally adopted by the cabinet and approved 
by Washington, were opposed by Mr. 
Jefferson ; and his enemies then began to 
reproach him with holding office under an 
administration whose views he opposed. 
The President poured oil on the troubled 
waters. On his re-election to the Presi- 
dency he desired Mr. Jefferson to remain 
in the cabinet, but the latter sent in his 
resignation at two different times, probably 
because he was dissatisfied with some of 
the measures of the Government. His 
final one was not received until January i, 
1794, when General Washington parted 
from him with great regret. 

Jefferson then retired to his quiet home 
at Monticello, to enjoy a good rest, not even 
reading the newspapers lest the political 
gossip should disquiet him. On the Presi- 
dent's again calling him back to the office 
of Secretary of State, he replied that no 
circumstances would ever again tempt him 
to engage in anything public ! But, while 
all Europe was ablaze with war, and France 
in the throes of a bloody revolution and the 
principal theater of the conflict, a new 
Presidential election in this country came 
on. John Adams was the Federal candi- 
date and Mr. Jefferson became the Republi- 
can candidate. The i-esult of the election 
was the promotion of the latter to the Vice- 
Presidency, while the former was chosen 
{^resident. In this contest Mr. Jefferson 
really did not desire to have either office, 
he was " so weary " of party strife. He 
loved the retirement of home 
any other place on the earth. 



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THOMAS JEFFERSON. 



25 



But for four long years his Vice-Presi- 
dency passed joylessly away, while the 
partisan strife between Federalist and Re- 
publican was ever growing hotter. The 
former party split and the result of the 
fourth general election was the elevation of 
Mr. Jefferson to the Presidency ! with 
Aaron Burr as Vice-President. These men 
being at the head of a growing part}', their 
election was hailed everywhere with joy. 
On the other hand, man}^ of the Federalists 
turned pale, as they believed what a portion 
of the pulpit and the press had been preach- 
ing — that Jefferson was a " scofifingatneist," 
a "Jacobin," the "incarnation of all evil," 
" breathing threatening and slaug^hter ! " 

Mr. Jefferson's inaugural address con- 
tained nothing but the noblest sentiments, 
expressed in fine language, and his personal 
behavior afterward exhibited the extreme 
of American, democratic simplicity. His 
disgust of European court etiquette grew 
upon him with age. He believed that 
General Washington was somewhat dis- 
trustful of the ultimate success of a popular 
Government, and that, imbued with a little 
admiration of the forms of a monarchical 
Government, he had instituted levees, birth- 
days, pompous meetings with Congress, 
etc. Jefferson was always polite, even to 
slaves everywhere he met them, and carried 
in his countenance the indications of an ac- 
commodating disposition. 

The political principles of the Jeffersoni- 
an party now swept the country, and Mr, 
Jefferson himself swayed an influence which 
was never exceeded even by Washington. 
Under his administration, in 1803, the Lou- 
isiana purchase was made, for $15,000,000. 
the " Louisiana Territory " purchased com- 
prising all the land west of the Mississippi 
to the Pacific Ocean. 

The year 1804 witnessed another severe 
loss in his family. His highly accomplished 
and most beloved daughter Maria sickened 
and died, causing as great grief in the 



stricken parent as it was possible for him to 
survive with any degree of sanity. 

The same year he was re-elected to the 
Presidency, with George Clinton as Vice- 
President. During his second term our 
relations with England became more com- 
plicated, and on June 22, 1807, near Hamp- 
ton Roads, the United States frigate 
Chesapeake was fired upon by the Brit- 
ish man-of-war Leopard, and was made 
to surrender. Three men were killed and 
ten wounded. Jefferson demanded repara- 
tion. England grew insolent. It became 
evident that war was determined upon by 
the latter power. More than 1,200 Ameri- 
cans were forced into the British service 
upon the high seas. Before any satisfactory 
solution was reached, Mr. Jefferson's 
Presidential term closed. Amid all these 
public excitements he thought constantly 
of the welfare of his family, and longed 
for the time when he could return home 
to remain. There, at Monticello, his sub- 
sequent life was very similar to that of 
Washington at Mt. Vernon. His hospi- 
tality toward his numerous friends, indul- 
gence of his slaves, and misfortunes to his 
property, etc., finally involved him in debt. 
For years his home resembled a fashion- 
able watering-place. During the summer, 
thirtv-seven house servants were required ! 
It was presided over by his daughter, Mrs. 
Randolph. 

Mr. Jefferson did much for the establish- 
ment of the University at Charlottesville, 
making it unsectarian, in keeping with the 
spirit of American institutions, but poverty 
and the feebleness of old age prevented 
him from doing what he would. He even 
went so far as to petition the Legislature 
for permission to dispose of some of his 
possessions by lottery, in order to raise the 
necessary funds for home expenses. It was 
granted;, but before the plan was carried 
out, Mr. Jefferson died, July 4, 1826, at 

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26 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



41^ 

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AMES 

f II r t li 



MADISON, Lhc 
President of the 
United States, iSoq-'i/, 
was born at Port Con- 
way, Prince George 
County, Virginia, March 
16, 1 75 1. His father, 
Colonel James Madison, was 
a wealthy planter, residing 
upon a very fine estate 
called " Montpelier," only 
twenty-five miles from the 
home of Thomas Jefferson 
at Monticello. The closest 
personal and political at- 
tachment existed between 
these illustrious men from their early youth 
until death. 

James was the eldest of a family of seven 
children, four sons and three daughters, all 
of whom attained maturity. His early edu- 
cation was conducted mostly at home, 
under a private tutor. Being naturally in- 
tellectual in his tastes, he consecrated him- 
self with unusual vigor to studj. At a very 
early age he made considerable proficiency 
in the Greek, Latin, French and Spanish 
languages. In 1769 he entered Princeton 
College, New Jersey, of which the illus- 
trious Dr. Weatherspoon was then Presi- 
dent. He graduated in 1771, with a char- 



acter of the utmost purity, and a mind 
highly disciplined and stored with all the 
learning which embellished and gave effi- 
ciency to his subsequent career. After 
graduating he pursued a course of reading 
for several months, under the guidance of 
President Weatherspoon, and in 1772 re- 
turned to Virginia, Avhere he continued in 
incessant study for two years, nominally 
directed to the law, but really including 
extended researches in theology, philoso- 
phy and general literature. 

The Church of England was the estab- 
lished church in Virginia, invested with all 
the prerogatives and immunities which it 
enjoyed in the fatherland, and other de- 
nominations labored under serious disabili- 
ties, the enforcement of which was rightly 
or wrongly characterized b}^ them as per- 
secution. Madison took a prominent stand 
in behalf of the removal of all disabilities, 
repeatedly appeared in the court of his own 
county to defend the Baptist nonconform- 
ists, and was elected from Orange County to 
the Virginia Convnention in the spring of 
1766, when he signalized the beginning of 
his public career by procuring the passage 
of an amendment to the Declaration of 
Rights as prepared by George Mason, sub- 
stituting for " toleration" a more emphatic 
assertion of religious liberty. 






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JAMES MADISON. 



29 



In 1776 he was elected a member of the 
Virginia Convention to frame the Constitu- 
tion of the State. Like Jefferson, he took 
but little part in the public debates. His 
main strength lay in his conversational in- 
fluence and in his pen. In November, 1777, 
he was chosen a member of the Council of 
State, and in March, 1780, took his seat in 
the Continental Congress, where he first 
gained prominence through his energetic 
opposition to the issue of paper money by 
the States. He continued in Congress three 
years, one of its most active and influential 
members. 

In 1784 Mr. Madison was elected a mem- 
ber of the Virginia Legislature. He ren- 
dered important service by promoting and 
participating in that revision of the statutes 
which effectually abolished the remnants of 
the feudal system subsistent up to that 
time in the form of entails, primogeniture, 
and State support given the Anglican 
Church ; and his " Memorial and Remon- 
strance" against a general assessment for 
the support of religion is one of the ablest 
papers which emanated from his pen. It 
settled the question of the entire separation 
of church and State in Virginia. 

Mr. Jefferson says of him, in allusion to 
the study and experience through which he 
had already passed : 

" Trained in these successive schools, he 
acquired a habit of self-possession which 
placed at ready command the rich resources 
of his luminous and discriminating mind and 
of his extensive information, and rendered 
him the first of every assembly of which he 
afterward became a member. Never wan- 
dering from his subject into vain declama- 
tion, but pursuing it closely in language 
pure, classical and copious, soothing al- 
ways the feelings of his adversaries by civili- 
ties and softness of expression, he rose to the 
eminent station which he held in the great 
National Convention of 1787 ; and in that of 
Virginia, which followed, he sustained the 



new Constitution in all its parts, bearing off 
the palm against the logic of George Mason 
and the fervid declamation of Patrick 
Henry. With these consummate powers 
were united a pure and spotless virtue 
which no calumny has ever attempted to 
sully. Of the power and polish of his pen, 
and of the wisdom of his administration in 
the highest office of the nation, I need say 
nothing. They have spoken, and will for- 
ever speak, for themselves." 

In January, 1786, Mr. Madison took the 
initiative in proposing a meeting of State 
Commissioners to devise measures for more 
satisfactory commercial relations between 
the States. A meeting was held at An- 
napolis to discuss this subject, and but five 
States were represented. The convention 
issued another call, drawn up by Mr. Madi- 
son, urging all the States to send their dele- 
gates to Philadelphia, in May, 1787, to 
draught a Constitution for the United 
States. The delegates met at the time ap- 
pointed, every State except Rhode Island 
being represented. George Washington 
was chosen president of the convention, 
and the present Constitution of the United 
States was then and there formed. There 
was no mind and no pen more active in 
framing this immortal document than the 
mind and pen of James Madison. He was, 
perhaps, its ablest advocate in the pages of 
the Federalist. 

Mr. Madison was a member of the first 
four Congresses, 1789-97, in which he main- 
tained a moderate opposition to Hamilton's 
financial policy. He declined the mission 
to France and the Secretaryship of State, 
and, gradually identifying himself with the 
Republican party, became from 1792 its 
avowed leader. In 1796 he was its choice 
for the Presidency as successor to Wash- 
ington. Mr. Jefferson wrote : " There is 
not another person in the United States 
with whom, being placed at the helm of our 
affairs, ray mi-nd would be so completely at 



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30 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UN /TED STATES. 



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rest for the fortune of our political bark." 
But Mr. Madison declined to be a candi- 
date. His term in Congress had expired, 
and he returned from New York to his 
beautiful retreat at Montpelier. 

In 1794 Mr. Madison married a young- 
widow of remarkable powers of fascination 
— Mrs. Todd. Her maiden name was Doro- 
thy Paine. She was born in 1767, in Vir- 
ginia, of Quaker parents, and had been 
educated in the strictest rules of that sect. 
When but eighteen years of age she married 
a young lawyer and moved to Philadelphia, 
where she was introduced to brilliant scenes 
of fashionable life. She speedily laid aside 
the dress and address of the Quakeress, and 
became one of the most fascinating ladies 
of the republican court. In New York, 
after the death of her husband, she was the 
belle of the season and was surrounded with 
admirers. Mr. Madison won the prize. 
She proved an invaluable helpmate. In 
Washington she was the life of society. 
If there was any diffident, timid young 
girl just making her appearance, she 
found in Mrs. Madison an encouraging 
friend. 

During the stormy administration of John 
Adams Madison remained in private life, 
but was the author of the celebrated " Reso- 
lutions of 1798," adopted by the Virginia 
Legislature, in condemnation of the Alien 
and Sedition laws, as well as of the " report" 
in which he defended those resolutions, 
which is, by many, considered his ablest 
State paper. 

The storm passed away ; the Alien and 
Sedition laws were repealed, John Adams 
lost his re-election, and in 1801 Thomas Jef- 
ferson was chosen President. The great re- 
action in public sentiment which seated 
Jefferson in the presidential chair was large- 
ly owing to the writings of Madison, who 
was consequently well entitled to the post 
of Secretary of State. With great ability 
he discharged the duties of this responsible 



office during the eight years of Mr. Jeffer- 
son's administration. 

As Mr. Jefferson was a widower, and 
neither of his daughters could be often with 
him, Mrs. Madison usually presided over 
the festivities of the White House; and as 
her husband succeeded Mr. Jefferson, hold- 
ing his office for two terms, this remarkable 
woman was the mistress of the presidential 
mansion for sixteen years. 

Mr. Madison being entirely engrossed by 
the cares of his office, all the duties of so- 
cial life devolved upon his accomplished 
wife. Never were such responsibilities 
more ably discharged. The most bitter 
foes of her husband and of the administra- 
tion were received with the frankly prof- 
fered hand and the cordial smile of wel- 
come; and the influence of this gentle 
woman in allaying the bitterness of party 
rancor became a great and salutary power 
in the nation. 

As the term of Mr. Jefferson's Presidency 
drew near its close, party strife was roused 
to the utmost to elect his successor. It was 
a death-grapple between the two great 
parties, the Federal and Republican. Mr. 
Madison was chosen President by an elec- 
toral vote of 122 to 53, and was inaugurated 
March 4, 1809, at a critical period, when 
the relations of the United States with Great 
Britain were becoming embittered, and his 
first term was passed in diplomatic quarrels, 
aggravated by the act of non-intercourse of 
May, 1 8 10, and finally resulting in a decla- 
ration of war. 

On the 1 8th of June, 181 2, President 
Madison gave his approval to an act of 
Congress declaring war against Great Brit- 
ain. Notwithstanding the bitter hostility 
of the Federal partyto the war, the country 
in general approved ; and in the autumn 
Madison was re-elected to the Presidency 
by 128 electoral votes to 89 in favor of 
George Clinton. 

March 4, 18 17, Madison yielded the Presi- 



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JAMES MADISON. 



31 



dency to his Secretary of State and inti- 
mate friend, James Monroe, and retired to 
his ancestral estate at Montpeher, where he 
passed the evening of his days surrounded 
by attached friends and enjoying the 
merited respect of the whole nation. He 
took pleasure in promoting agriculture, as 
president of the county society, and in 
watching the development of the University 
of Virginia, of which he was long rector and 
visitor. In extreme old age he sat in 1829 
as a member of the convention called to re- 
form the Virginia Constitution, where his 
appearance was hailed with the most gen- 
uine interest and satisfaction, though he 
was too infirm to participate in the active 
work of revision. Small in stature, slender 
and delicate in form, with a countenance 
full of intelligence, and expressive alike of 
mildness and dignity, he attracted the atten- 
tion of all who attended the convention, 
and was treated with the utmost deference. 
He seldom addressed the assembly, though 
he always appeared self-possessed, and 
watched with unflagging interest the prog- 
ress of every measure. Though the con- 
vention sat sixteen weeks, he spoke only 
twice ; but when he did speak, the whole 
house paused to listen. His voice was 
feeble though his enunciation was very dis- 
tinct. One of the reporters, Mr. Stansbury, 
relates the following anecdote of Mr. Madi- 
son's last speech: 

" The next day, as there was a great call 
for it, and the report had not been returned 
for publication, I sent ray son with a re- 
spectful note, requesting the manuscript. 
My son was a lad of sixteen, whom I had 
taken with me to act as amanuensis. On 
delivering m}^ note, he was received with 
the utmost politeness, and requested to 
come up into Mr. Madison's room and wait 
while his eye ran over the paper, as com- 
pany had prevented his attending to it. He 
did so, and Mr. Madison sat down to correct 
the report. The lad stood near him so that 



his eye fell on the paper. Coming to a 
certain sentence in the speech, Mr. Madison 
erased a word and substituted another ; but 
hesitated, and not feeling satisfied with the 
second word, drew his pen through it also. 
My son was young, ignorant of the world, 
and unconscious of the solecism of which he 
was about to be guilty, when, in all simplic- 
ity, h.6 suggested a word. Probably no 
other person then living would have taken 
such a liberty. But the sage, instead of 
regarding such an intrusion with a frown, 
raised his eyes to the boy's face with a 
pleased surprise, and said, ' Thank you, sir ; 
it is the very word,' and immediately in- 
serted it. I saw him the next day, and he 
mentioned the circumstance, with a compli- 
ment on the young critic." 

Mr. Madison died at Montpelier, June 28, 
1836, at the advanced age of eighty-five. 
While not possessing the highest order of 
talent, and deficient in oratorical powers, 
he was pre-eminently a statesman, of a well- 
balanced mind. His attainments were solid, 
his knowledge copious, his judgment gener- 
ally sound, his powers of analysis and logi- 
cal statement rarely surpassed, his language 
and literary style correct and polished, his 
conversation witty, his temperament san- 
guine and trustful, his integrity unques- 
tioned, his manners simple, courteous and 
winning. By these rare qualities he con- 
ciliated the esteem not only of friends, but 
of political opponents, in a greater degree 
than any American statesman in the present 
century. 

Mrs. Madison survived her husband thir- 
teen years, and died July 12, 1849, ^^^ ^'^^ 
eighty-second year of her age. She was one 
of the most remarkable women our coun- 
try has produced. Even now she is ad- 
miringly remembered in Washington as 
" Dolly Madison," and it is fitting that her 
memory should descend to posterity in 
companj' with thatof the companion of 
her life. 



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3; 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



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AMES MONROE, the fifth 
President of the United 
States, 1817-25, was born 
in Westmoreland County 
Virginia, April 28, 1758, 
He was a son of Spence 
Monroe, and a descendant 
of a Scottish cavalier fam- 
ily. Like all his predeces- 
sors thus far in the Presi- 
dential chair, he enjoyed all 
the advantages of educa- 
tion which the country 
could then afford. He was 
early sent to a fine classical 
school, and at the age of six- 
teen entered William and Mary College.. 
In 1776, when he had been in college but 
two years, the Declaration of Independence 
was adopted, and our feeble militia, with- 
out arms, amunition or clothing, were strug- 
gling against the trained armies of England. 
James Monroe left college, hastened to 
General Washington's headquarters at New 
York and enrolled himself as a cadet in the 
army. 

At Trenton Lieutenant Monroe so dis- 
tinguished himself, receiving a wound in his 
shoulder, that he was promoted to a Cap- 
taincy. Upon recovering from his wound, 
he was invited to act as aide to Lord Ster- 
ling, and in that capacity he took an active 
part in the battles of Brandy wine, Ger- 
mantown and Monmouth. At Germantown 

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he stood by the side of Lafayette when the 
French Marquis received his wound. Gen- 
eral Washington, who had formed a high 
idea of young Monroe's ability, sent him to 
Virginia to raise a new regiment, of which 
he was to be Colonel; but so exhausted was 
Virginia at that time that the effort proved 
unsuccessful. He, however, received his 
commission. 

Finding no opportunity to enter the army 
as a commissioned officer, he returned to his 
original plan of studying law, and entered 
the office of Thomas Jefferson, who was 
then Governor of Virginia. He developed 
a very noble character, frank, manly and 
sincere. Mr. Jefferson said of him: 

"James Monroe is so perfectly honest 
that if his soul were turned inside out there 
would not be found a spot on it." 

In 1782 he was elected to the Assembly 
of Virginia, and was also appointed a mem- 
ber of the Executive Council. The next 
year he was chosen delegate to the Conti- 
nental Congress for a term of three years. 
He was present at Annapolis when Wash- 
ington surrendered his commission of Com- 
mander-in-chief. 

With Washington, Jefferson and Madison 
he felt deeply the inefficiency of the old 
Articles of Confederation, and urged the 
formation of a new Constitution, which 
should invest the Central Government with 
something like national power. Influenced 
by these views, he introduced a resolution 

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JAMES MONROE. 



35 



that Congress should be empowered to 
regulate trade, and to lay an impost duty 
of five per cent. The resolution was refer- 
red to a committee of which he was chair- 
man. The report and the discussion which 
rose upon it led to the convention of five 
States at Annapolis, and the consequent 
general convention at Philadelphia, which, 
in 1787, drafted the Constitution of the 
United States. 

At this time there was a controversy be- 
tween New York and Massachusetts in 
reference to their boundaries. The high 
esteem in which Colonel Monroe was held 
is indicated by the fact that he was ap- 
pointed one of the judges to decide the 
controversy. While in New York attend- 
ing Congress, he married Miss Kortright, 
a young lady distinguished alike for her 
beauty and accomplishments. For nearly 
fifty years this happy union remained un- 
broken. In London and in Paris, as in her 
own country, Mrs. Monroe won admiration 
and affection by the loveliness of her per- 
son, the brilliancy of her intellect, and the 
amiability of her character. 

Returning to Virginia, Colonel Monroe 
commenced the practice of law at Freder- 
icksburg. He was very soon elected to a 
seat in the State Legislature, and the next 
year he was chosen a member of the Vir- 
ginia convention which was assembled to 
decide upon the acceptance or rejection of 
the Constitution which had been drawn up 
at Philadelphia, and was now submitted 
to the several States. Deeply as he felt 
the imperfections of the old Confederacy, 
he was opposed to the new Constitution, 
thinking, with many others of the Republi- 
can party, that it gave too much power to 
the Central Government, and not enough 
to the individual States. 

In 1789 he became a member of the 
United States Senate, which office he held 
acceptably to his constituents, and with 
honor to himself for four years. 






Having opposed the Constitution as not 
leaving enough power with the States, he, 
of course, became more and more identi- 
fied with the Republican party. Thus he 
found himself in cordial co-operation with 
Jefferson and Madison. The. great Repub- 
lican party became the dominant power 
which ruled the land. 

George Washington was then President. 
England had espoused the cause of the 
Bourbons against the principlegfc of the 
French Revolution. President Washing- 
ton issued a proclamation of neutrality be- 
tween these contending powers. France 
had helped us in the struggle for our lib- 
erties. All the despotisms of Europe were 
now combined to prevent the French 
from escaping from tyranny a thousandfold 
worse than that which we had endured. 
Colonel Monroe, more magnanimous than 
prudent, was anxious that we should help 
our old allies in their extremity. He vio- 
lently opposed the President's procla- 
mation as ungrateful and wanting in 
magnanimity. 

Washington, who could appreciate such 
a character, developed his calm, serene, 
almost divine greatness by appointing that 
very James Monroe, who was denouncing 
the policy of the Government, as the Minis- 
ter of that Government to the republic of 
France. He was dii'ected by Washington 
to express to the French people our warm- 
est sympathy, communicating to them cor- 
responding resolves approved by the Pres- 
ident, and adopted by both houses of 
Congress. 

Mr. Monroe was welcomed by the Na- 
tional Convention in France with the most 
enthusiastic demonstrations of respect and 
affection. He was publicly introduced to 
that body, and received the embrace of the 
President, Merlin de Douay, after having 
been addressed in a speech glowing with 
congratulations, and with expressions of 
desire that harmony might ever exist be- 

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I 36 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



I 
I 
III 



tween the two nations. The flags of the 
two repubHcs were intertwined in the hall 
of the convention. Mr. Monroe presented 
the American colors, and received those of 
France in return. The course which he 
pursued in Paris was so annoying to Eng- 
land and to the friends of England in 
this country that, near the close of Wash- 
ington's administration, Mr. Monroe, was 
recalled. 

After his return Colonel Monroe wrote a 
book of 400 pages, entitled " A View of the 
Conduct of the Executive in Foreign Af- 
fairs." In this work he ver}' ably advo- 
cated his side of the question; but, with 
the magnanimity of the man, he recorded a 
warm tribute to the patriotism, ability and 
spotless integrity of John Jay, between 
whom and himself there was intense antag- 
onism ; and in subsequent years he ex- 
pressed in warmest terms his perfect 
veneratit)!! for the character of Georgre 
Washington. 

Shortly after his return to this country 
Colonel Monroe was elected Governor of 
Virginia, and held that office for three 
years, the period limited by the Constitu- 
tion. In 1802 he was an Envoy to France, 
and to Spain in 1805, and was Minister to 
England in 1803. In 1806 he returned to 
his quiet home in Virginia, and with his 
wife and children and an ample competence 
from his paternal estate, enjoyed a few years 
of domestic repose. 

In 1809 Mr. Jefferson's second term of 
office expired, and many of the Republican 
party were anxious to nominate James 
Monroe as his successor. The majority 
were in favor of Mr. Madison. Mr. Mon- 
roe withdrew his name and was soon after 
chosen a second time Governor of Virgfinia. 
He soon resigned that office to accept the 
position of Secretary of State, offered him 
by President Madison. The correspond- 
ence which he then carried on with the 
British Government demonstrated that 



there was no hope of any peaceful adjust- 
ment of our difficulties with the cabinet of 
St. James. War was consequently declared 
in June, 18 12. Immediately after the sack 
of Washington the Secretary of War re- 
signed, and Mr. Monroe, at the earnest 
request of Mr. Madison, assumed the ad- 
ditional duties of the War Department, 
without resigning his position as Secretary 
of State. It has been confidently stated, 
that, had Mr. Monroe's energies been in the 
War Department a few months earlier, the 
disaster at Washington would not have 
occurred. 

The duties now devolving upon Mr. Mon- 
roe were extremely arduous. Ten thou- 
sand men, picked from the veteran armies 
of England, were sent with a powerful fleet 
to New Orleans to acquire possession of 
the mouths of the Mississippi. Our finan- 
ces were in the most deplorable condition. 
The treasury was exhausted and our credit 
gone. And yet it was necessary to make 
the most rigorous preparations to meet the 
foe. In this crisis James Monroe, the Sec- 
retary of War, with virtue unsurpassed in 
Greek or Roman story, stepped forward 
and pledged his own individual credit as 
subsidiary to that of the nation, and thus 
succeeded in placing the city of New Or- 
leans in such a posture of defense, that it 
was enabled successfully to repel the in- 
vader. 

Mr. Monroe was truly the armor-bearer 
of President Madison, and the most efficient 
business man in his cabinet. His enei'gy 
in the double capacity of Secretary, both 
of State and War, pervaded all the depart- 
ments of the country. He proposed to 
increase the army to 100,000 men, a meas- 
ure which he deemed absolutel}" necessary 
to save us from ignominious defeat, but 
which, at the same time, he knew would 
render his name so unpopular as to preclude 
the possibility of his being a successful can- 
didate for the Presidency. 



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JAMES MONROE. 



37 



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The happy result of the conference at 
Ghent in securing peace rendered the in- 
crease of the army unnecessai-y; but it is not 
too much to say that James Monroe placed 
in the hands of Andrew Jackson the 
weapon with which to beat off the foe at 
New Orleans. Upon the return of peace 
Mr. Monroe resigned the department of 
war, devoting himself entirely to the duties 
of Secretary of State. These he continued 
to discharge until the close of President 
Madison's administration, with zeal which 
was never abated, and with an ardor of 
self-devotion which made him almost for- 
getful of the claims of fortune, health or 
life. 

Mr. Madison's second term expired in 
March, 1817, and Mr. Monroe succeeded 
to the Presidency. He was a candidate of 
the Republican party, now taking the name 
of the Democratic Republican. In 1821 he 
was re-elected, with scarcely any opposition. 
Out of 232 electoral votes, he received 231. 
The slavery question, which subsequently 
assumed such formidable dimensions, now 
began to make its appearance. The State 
of Missouri, which had been carved out of 
that immense territory which we had pur- 
chased of France, applied for admission to 
the Union, with a slavery Constitution. 
There were not a few who foresaw the 
evils impending. After the debate of a 
week it was decided that Missouri could 
not be admitted into the Union with slav- 
ery. This important question was at length 
settled by a compromise proposed by 
Henry Clay. 

The famous "Monroe Doctrine," of which 
so much has been said, originated in this 
way: In 1823 it was rumored that the 
Holy Alliance was about to interfere to 
prevent the establishment of Republican 
liberty in the European colonies of South 
America. President Monroe wrote to his 
old friend Thomas Jefferson for advice in 
the emergency. In his reply under date of 



October 24, Mr. Jefferson writes upon the 
supposition that our attempt to resist this 
European movement might lead to war: 

" Its object is to introduce and establish 
the Atnerican system of keeping out of our 
land all foreign powers; of never permitting 
those of Europe to intermeddle with the 
affairs of our nation. It is to maintain our 
own principle, not to depart from it." 

December 2, 1823, President Monroe 
sent a message to Congress, declaring it to 
be the policy of this Government not to 
entangle ourselves with the broils of Eu- 
rope, and not to allow Europe to interfere 
with the affairs of nations on the American 
continent; and the doctrine was announced, 
that any attempt on the part of the Euro- 
pean powers " to extend their system to 
any portion of this hemisphere would be 
regarded by the United States as danger- 
ous to our peace and safety." 

March 4, 1825, Mr. Monroe surrendered 
the presidential chair to his Secretary of 
State, John Quincy Adams, and retired, 
with the universal respect of the nation, 
to his private residence at Oak Hill, Lou 
doun County, Virginia. His time had been 
so entirely consecrated to his country, that 
he had neglected his pecuniary interests, 
and was deeply involved in debt. The 
welfare of his country had ever been up- 
permost in his mind. 

For many years Mrs. Monroe was in such 
feeble health that she rarely appeared in 
public. In 1830 Mr. Monroe took up his 
residence with his s(3n-in-law in New York, 
where he died on the 4th of July, 1831. 
The citizens of New York conducted his 
obsequies with pageants more imposing 
than had ever been witnessed there before. 
Our country will ever cherish his mem- 
ory with pride, gratefully enrolling his 
name in the list of its benefactors, pronounc- 
ing him the worthy successor of the illus- 
trious men who had preceded him in the 
presidential chair. 



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38 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



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OHN QUINCY ADAMS, 

the sixth President of the 

United States, 1825-9, 

was born in the rural 

home of his honored 

father, John Adams, in 

Q u i n c y , Massachusetts, 

July II, 1767. His mother, 

a woman of exalted worth, 

watched over his childhood 

during the almost constant 



absence of his father. He 
commenced his education 
at the village school, giving 
at an early period indica- 
tions of superior mental en- 
dowments. 

When eleven years of age he sailed with 
his father for Europe, where the latter was 
associated with Franklin and Lee as Minister 
Plenipotentiary. The intelligence of John 
Quincy attracted the attention of these men 
and received from them flattering marks of 
attention. Mr. Adams had scarcely returned 
to this country in 1779 ere he was again 
sent abroad, and John Quincy again accom- 
panied him. On this voyage he commenced 
a diary, which practice he continued, with 
but few interruptions, until his death. He 
journeyed with his father from Ferrol, in 
Spain, to Paris. Here he applied himself 
for six months to study; then accompanied 



his father to Holland, where he entered, 
first a school in Amsterdam, and then the 
University of Leyden. In 1781, when only 
fourteen years of age, he was selected by 
Mr. Dana, our Minister to the Russian 
court, as his private secretary. In this 
school of incessant labor he spent fourteen 
months, and then returned alone to Holland 
through Sweden, Denmark, Hamburg and 
Bremen. Again he resumed his studies 
under a private tutor, at The Hague. 

In the spring of 1782 he accompanied his 
father to Paris, forming acquaintance with 
the most distinguished men on the Conti- 
nent. After a short visit to England, he re- 
turned to Paris and studied until May, 
1785, when he returned to America, leav- 
ing his father an embassador at the court 
of St. James. In 1786 he entered the jun- 
ior class in Harvard University, and grad- 
uated with the second honor of his class. 
The oration he delivered on this occasion, 
the " Importance of Public Faith to the 
Well-being of a Community," was pub- 
lished — an event very rare in this or any 
other land. 

Upon leaving college at the age of twenty 
he studied law three years with the Hon. 
Theophilus Parsons in Newburyport. In 
1790 he opened a law office in Boston. The 
profession was crowded with able men, and 
the fees were small. The first year he had 



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yOHN ^UINCr ADAMS. 



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no clients, but not a moment was lost. The 
second year passed away, still no clients, 
and still he was dependent upon his parents 
for support. Anxiously he awaited the 
third year. The reward now came. Cli- 
ents began to enter his office, and before 
the end of the year he was so crowded 
with business that all solicitude respecting 
a support was at an end. 

When Great Britain commenced war 
against France, in 1793, Mr. Adams wrote 
some articles, urging entire neutrality on 
the part of the United States. The view 
was not a popular one. Many felt that as 
France had helped us, we were bound to 
help France. But President Washington 
coincided with Mr. Adams, and issued his 
proclamation of neutrality. His writings 
at this time in the Boston journals gave 
him so high a reputation, that in June, 
1794, he wtis appointed by Washington 
resident Minister at the Netherlands. In 
July, 1797, he left The Hague to go to Port- 
ugal as Minister Plenipotentiary. Wash- 
ington at this time wrote to his father, John 
Adams: 

" Without intending to compliment the 
father or the mother, or to censure any 
others, I give it as my decided opinion, 
that Mr. Adams is the most valuable char- 
acter we have abroad; and there remains 
no doubt in my mind that he will prove the 
ablest of our diplomatic corps." 

On his way to Portugal, upon his arrival 
in London, he met with dispatches direct- 
ing him to the court of Berlin, but request- 
ing him to remain in London until he should 
receive instructions. While waiting he 
was married to Miss Louisa Catherine John- 
son, to whom he had been previously en- 
gaged. Miss Johnson was a daughter of 
Mr. Joshua Johnson, American Consul 
in London, and was a lady endowed with 
that beauty and those accomplishments 
which fitted her to move in the elevated 
sphere for which she was destined. 



In July, 1799, having fulfilled all the pur- 
poses of his mission, Mr. Adams returned. 
In 1802 he was chosen to the Senate of 
Massachusetts from Boston, and then was 
elected Senator of the United States for six 
years from March 4, 1804. His reputation, 
his ability and his experience, placed him 
immediately among the most prominent 
and influential members of that body. He 
sustained the Government in its measures 
of resistance to the encroachments of Eng- 
land, destroying our commerce and insult- 
ing our flag. There was no man in America 
more familiar with the arrogance of the 
British court upon these points, and no 
one more resolved to present a firm resist- 
ance. This course, so truly patriotic, and 
which scarcely a voice will now be found 
to condemn, alienated him from the Fed- 
eral party dominant in Boston, and sub- 
jected him to censure. 

In 1805 Mr. Adams was chosen professor 
of rhetoric in Harvard College. His lect- 
ures at this place were subsequently pub- 
lished. In 1809 he was sent as Minister to 
Russia. He was one of the commissioners 
that negotiated the treaty of peace with 
Great Britain, signed December 24, 18 14, 
and he was appointed Minister to the court 
of St. James in 181 5. In 18 17 he became 
Secretary of State in Mr. Monroe's cabinet 
in which position he remained eight years. 
Few will now contradict the assertion that 
the duties of that office were never more 
ably discharged. Probably the most im- 
portant measure which Mr. Adams con- 
ducted was the purchase of Florida from 
Spain for $5,000,000. 

The campaign of 1824 was an exciting 
one. Four candidates were in the field. 
Of the 260 electoral votes that were cast, 
Andrew Jackson received ninety-nine; John 
Quincy Adams, eighty-four; William H. 
Crawford, forty-one, and Henry Clay, 
thirty-seven. As there was no choice by 
the people, the question went to the House 






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42 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



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of Representatives. Mr. Clay gave the 
vote of Kentucky to Mr. Adams, and he 
was elected. 

The friends of all disappointed candidates 
now combined in a venomous assault upon 
Mr. Adams. There is nothing aiore dis- 
graceful in the past history of our country 
than the abuse which was poured in one 
uninterrupted stream upon this high- 
minded, upright, patriotic man. There was 
never an administration more pure in prin- 
ciples, more conscientiously devoted to the 
best interests of the country, than that of 
John Ouincy Adams; and never, perhaps, 
was there an administration more unscru- 
pulously assailed. Mr. Adams took his seat 
in the presidential chair resolved not to 
know iiny partisanship, but only to con- 
sult for the interests of the whole Republic, 

He refused to dismiss any man from of- 
fice for his political views. If he was a faith- 
ful officer that was enough. Bitter must 
have been his disappointment to find that the 
Nation could not appreciate such conduct. 

Mr. Adams, in his public manners, was 
cold and repulsive; though with his per- 
sonal friends he was at times very genial. 
This chilling address very seriously de- 
tracted from his popularity. No one can 
read an impartial i-ecord of his administra- 
tion without admitting that a more noble 
example of uncompromising dignity can 
scarcely be found. It was stated publicly 
that Mr. Adams' administration was to be 
put down, " though it be as pure as the an- 
gels which stand at the right hand of the 
throne of God." Many of the active par- 
ticipants in these scenes lived to regret the 
course they pursued. Some years after, 
Warren R. Davis, of South Carolina, turn- 
ing to Mr. Adams, then a member of the 
House of Representatives, said: 

" Well do I remember the enthusiastic 
zeal with which we reproached the admin- 
istration of that gentleman, and the ardor 
and vehemence with which we labored to 



bring in another. For the share I had in 
these transactions, and it was not a small 
one, I hope God will forgive vie, for I shall 
never forgive myself ^ 

March 4, 1829, Mr. Adams retired from 
the Presidency and was succeeded by An- 
drew Jackson, the latter receiving 168 out 
of 261 electoral votes. John C. Calhoun 
was elected Vice-President. The slavery 
question now began to assume pretentious 
magnitude. Mr. Adams returned to 
Quincy, and pursued his studies with una- 
bated zeal. But he was not long permitted 
to remain in retirement. In November, 
1830, he was elected to Congress. In this 
he recognized the principle that it is honor- 
able for the General of yesterday to act as 
Corporal to-day, if by so doing he can ren- 
der service to his country. Deep as are 
our obligations to John Quincv Adams for 
his services as embassador, as Secretary of 
State and as President; in his capacity as 
legislator in the House of Representn- 
tives, he conferred benefits' upon our land 
which eclipsed all the rest, and which can 
never be over-estimated. 

For seventeen years, until his death, he 
occupied the post of Representative, tow- 
ering above all his peers, ever ready to do 
brave battle for freedom, and winning the 
title of " the old man eloquent." Upon 
taking his seat in the House he announced 
that he should hold himself bound to no 
party. He was usually the first in his 
place in the morning, and the last to leave 
his seat in the evening. Not a measure 
could escape his scrutin3\ The battle 
which he fought, almost singly, against the 
pro-slavery party in the Government, was 
sublime in its moral daring and heroism. 
For persisting in presenting petitions for 
the abolition of slavery, he was threatened 
with indictment by the Grand Jury, with 
expulsion from the House, with assassina- 
tion; but no threats could intimidate him, 
and his final triumph was complete. 



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JOHN ^UlNCi- ADAMS. 



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On one occasion Mr. Adams presented a 
petition, signed by several women, against 
the annexation of Texas for the purpose of 
cutting it up into slave States. Mr. How- 
ard, of Maryland, said that these women 
discredited not only themselves, but their 
section of the country, by turning from 
their domestic duties to the conflicts of po- 
litical life. 

"Are women," exclaimed Mr. Adams, 
" to have no opinions or actions on subjects 
relating to the general welfare ? Where 
did the gentleman get his principle? Did 
he find it in sacred history, — in the language 
of Miriam, the prophetess, in one of the 
noblest and sublime songs of triumph that 
ever met the human eye or ear? Did the 
gentleman never hear of Deborah, to whom 
the children of Israel came up for judg- 
ment ? Has he forgotten the deed of Jael, 
who slew the dreaded enemy of her coun- 
try ? Has he forgotten Esther, who, by her 
petition saved her people and her coun- 
try? 

" To go from sacred history to profane, 
does the gentleman there find it ' discredita- 
ble ' for women to take an interest in politi- 
cal affairs ? Has he forgotten the Spartan 
mother, who said to her son when going 
out to battle, ' My son, come back to me 
with thy shield, or upon thy shield ? ' Does 
he remember Cloelia and her hundred com- 
panions, who swam across the river unc"'er 
a shower of darts, escaping from Porsena ? 
Has he forgotten Cornelia, the mother of 
the Gracchi ? Does he not remember Por- 
tia, the wife of Brutus and the daughter of 
Cato? 

" To come to later periods, what says the 
history of our Anglo-Saxon ancestors ? 
To say nothing of Boadicea, the British 
heroine in the time of the Caesars, what 
name is more illustrious than that of Eliza- 
beth ? Or, if he will go to the continent, 
will he not find the names of Maria Theresa 
of Hungary, of the two Catherines of 



Prussia, and of Isabella of Castile, the pa- 
troness of Columbus ? Did she bring ' dis- 
credit ' on her sex by mingling in politics ? " 

In this glowing strain Mr. Adams si- 
lenced and overwhelmed his antagonists. 

In January, 1842, Mr. Adams presented 
a petition from fort3^-five citizens of Haver- 
hill, Massachusetts, praying for a peaceable 
dissolution of the Union. The pro-slavery 
party in Congress, who were then plotting 
the destruction of the Government, were 
aroused to a pretense of commotion such as 
even our stormy hall of legislation has 
rarely witnessed. They met in caucus, and, 
finding that they probably would not be 
able to expel Mr. Adams from the House 
drew up a series of resolutions, which, if 
adopted, would inflict upon him disgrace, 
equivalent to expulsion. Mr. Adams had 
presented the petition, which was most re- 
spectfully worded, and had moved that it be 
referred to a committee instructed to re- 
port an answer, showing the reason why 
the prayer ought not to be granted. 

It was the 25th of January. The whole 
body of the pro-slavery party came crowd- 
ing together in the House, prepared to 
crush Mr. Adams forever. One of the num- 
ber, Thomas F. Marshall, of Kentucky, was 
appointed to read the resolutions, which 
accused Mr. Adams of high treason, of 
having insulted the Government, and of 
meriting expulsion; but for which deserved 
punishment, the House, in its great mercy, 
would substitute its severest censure. With 
the assumption of a very solemn and mag- 
isterial air, there being breathless silence in 
the audience, Mr. Marshall hurled the care- 
fully prepared anathemas at his victim. 
Mr. Adams stood alone, the whole pro-slav- 
ery party against him. 

As soon as the resolutions were read, 
every eye being fixed upon him, that bold 
old man, whose scattered locks were whit- 
ened by seventy-five years, casting a wither- 
ing glance in the direction of his assailants, 



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44 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



in a clear, shrill tone, tremulous with sup- 
pressed emotion, said: 

" In reply to this audacious, atrocious 
charge of high treason, I call for the read- 
ing of the first paragraph of the Declaration 
of Independence. Read it ! Read it! and 
see what that says of the rights of a people 
to reform, to change, and to dissolve their 
Government.' 

The attitude, the manner, the tone, the 
words; the venerable old man, with flash- 
ing eye and flushed cheek, and whose very 
form seemed to expand under the inspiration 
of the occasion — all presented a scene over- 
flowing in its sublimity. There was breath- 
less silence as that paragraph was read, in 
defense of whose principles our fathers had 
pledged their lives, their fortunes and their 
sacred honor. It was a proud hour to Mr. 
Adams as they were all compelled to listen 
to the words: 

" That, to secure these rights, govern- 
ments are instituted among men, deriving 
their just powers from the consent of the 
governed; and that whenever any form of 
government becomes destructive of those 
ends, it is the right of the people to alter or 
abolish it, and to institute new government, 
laying its foundations on such principles 
and organizing its powers in such form 
as shall seem most likely to effect their 
safety and happiness." 

That one sentence routed and baffled the 



foe. The heroic old man looked around 
upon the audience, and thundered out, 
" Read that again ! " It was again read. 
Then in a few fiery, logical words he stated 
his defense in terms which even prejudiced 
minds could not resist. His discomfited 
assailants made several attempts to rally. 
After a conflict of eleven days they gave 
up vanquished and their resolution was ig- 
nominiously laid upon the table. 

In January, 1846, when seventy-eight 
years of age, he took part in the great de- 
bate on the Oregon question, displaying 
intellectual vigor, and an extent and accu- 
racy of acquaintance with the subject that 
excited great admiration. 

On the 2 1 St of February, 1848, he rose on 
the floor of Congress with a paper in his 
hand to address the Speaker. Suddenly 
he fell, stricken by paralysis, and was caught 
in the arms of those around him. For a 
time he was senseless and was conveyed 
to a sofa in the rotunda. With reviving 
consciousness he opened his eyes, looked 
calmly around and said, " This is the end of 
earth." Then after a moment's pause, he 
added, " / aj)i content ^ These were his last 
words, and he soon breathed his last, in the 
apartment beneath the dome of the capitol 
— the theater of his labors and his triumphs. 
In the language of h)'mnology, he " died at 
his post;" he " ceased at once to work and 
live." 













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ANDREW JACKSON. 



47 






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NDREW JACKSON, 

the seventh President 
of the United States, 
i829-'37, ^^^s born at 
the Waxhaw Settle- 
ment, Union Coun- 
ty, North Carolina, 
irch i6, 1767. His parents 
'ere Scotch-Irish, natives of 
'arrickfergus, who came to 
Lmerica in 1765, and settled 
Twelve-Mile Creek, a trib- 
utary of the Catawba. His 
father, who was a poor farm 
laborer, died shortly before An- 
drew's birth, when his mother removed to 
Waxhaw, where some relatives resided. 

Few particulars of the childhood of Jack- 
sor. have been preserved. His education 
was of the most limited kind, and he showed 
no fondness for books. He grew up to be a 
tall, lank boy, with coarse hair and freck- 
led cheeks, with bare feet dangling from 
trousers too short for him, very fond of ath- 
letic sports, running, boxing and wrestling. 
He was generous to the younger and 
weaker boys, but very irascible and over- 
bearing with his equals and superiors. He 
was profane — a vice in which he surpassed 
all other men. The character of his mother 



he revered; and it was not until after her 
death that his predominant vices gained 
full strength. 

In 1780, at the age of thirteen, Andrew, 
or Andy, as he was called, with his brother 
Robert, volunteered to serve in the Revo- 
lutionary forces under General Sumter, and 
was a witness of the latter's defeat at Hang- 
ing Rock. In the following j'ear the 
brothers were made prisoners, and confined 
in Camden, experiencing brutal treatment 
from their captors, and being spectators of 
General Green's defeat at Hobkirk Hill. 
Through their mother's exertions the boys 
were exchanged while suffering from small- 
pox. In two days Robert was dead, and 
Andy apparently dying. The strength of 
his constitution triumphed, and he regained 
health and vigor. 

As he was getting better, his mother 
heard the cry of anguish from the prison- 
ers whom the British held in Charleston, 
among whom were the sons of her sisters. 
She hastened to their relief, was attacked 
by fever, died and was buried where her 
grave could never be found. Thus Andrew 
Jackson, when fourteen years of age, was 
left alone in the world, without father, 
mother, sister or brother, and without one 
dollar which he could call his own. He 






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I 48 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



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soon entered a saddler's shop, and labored 
diligently for six months. But graduall}', 
as health returned, he became more and 
more a wild, reckless, lawless boy. He 
gambled, drank and was regarded as about 
the worst character that could be found. 

He now turned schoolmaster. He could 
teach the alphabet, perhaps the multiplica- 
tion table; and as he was a very bold boy, 
it is possible he might have ventured to 
teach a little writing. But he soon began to 
think of a profession and decided to study 
law. With a very slender purse, and on 
the back of a very fine horse, he set out 
for Salisbury, North Carolina, where he 
entered the law office of Mr. McCay. 
Here he remained two years, professedly 
studying law. He is still remembered in 
traditions of Salisbury, which say: 

" Andrew Jackson was the most roaring, 
rollicking, horse-racing, card-playing, mis- 
chievous fellow that ever lived in Salisbury. 
He did not trouble the law-books much." 

Andrew was now, at the age of twenty, 
a tall young man, being over six feet in 
height. He was slender, remarkably grace- 
ful and dignified in his manners, an exquis- 
ite horseman, and developed, amidst his 
loathesome profanity and multiform vices, a 
vein of rare magnanimity. His temper was 
fiery in the extreme; but it was said of him 
that no man knew better than Andrew 
Jackson when to get angry and when not. 

In 1786 he was admitted to the bar, and 
two years later removed to Nashville, 
in what was then the western district of 
North Carolina, with the appointment of so- 
licitor, or public prosecutor. It was an of- 
fice of little honor, small emolument and 
great peril. Few men could be found to 
accept it. 

And now Andrew Jackson commenced 
vigorously to practice law. It was an im- 
portant part of his business to collect debts. 
It required nerve. During the first seven 
years of his residence in those wilds. he 



traversed the almost pathless forest between 
Nashville and Jonesborough, a distance of 
200 miles, twenty-two times. Hostile In- 
dians were constantly on the watch, and a 
man was liable at any moment to be shot 
down in his own field. Andrew Jackson 
was just the man for this service — a wild, 
daring, rough backwoodsman. Daily he 
made hair-breadth escapes. He seemed to 
bear a charmed life. Boldly, alone or with 
few companions, he traversed the forests, 
encountering all perils and triumphing 
over all. 

In 17.90 Tennessee became a Territory, 
and Jackson was appointed, by President 
Washington, United States Attorney for 
the new district. In 1791 he married Mrs. 
Rachel Robards (daughter of Colonel John 
Donelson), whom he supposed to have been 
divorced in that year by an act of the Leg- 
islature ol Virginia. Two years after this 
Mr. and Mrs. Jackson learned, to their 
great surprise, that Mr. Robards had just 
obtained a divorce in one of the courts of 
Kentucky, and that the act of the Virginia 
Legislature was not final, but conditional. 
To remedy the irregularity as much as pos- 
sible, a new license was obtained and the 
marriage ceremony was again performed. 

It proved to be a marriage of rare felic- 
ity. Probably there never was a more 
affectionate union. However rough Mr. 
Jackson might have been abroad, he was 
always gentle and tender at home; and 
through all the vicissitudes of their lives, he 
treated Mrs. Jackson with the most chival- 
ric attention. 

Under the circumstances it was not un- 
natural that the facts in the case of this 
marriage were so misrepresented by oppo- 
nents in the political campaigns a quarter 
or a century later as to become the basis 
of serious charges against Jackson's moral- 
ity which, however, have been satisfactorily 
attested by abundant evidence. 

Jackson was untiring in his duties as 



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49 



United States Attorney, which demanded 
frequent journeys through the wilderness 
and exposed him to Indian hostihties. He 
acquired considerable property in land, and 
obtained such influence as to be chosen 
a member of the convention which framed 
the Constitution for the new State of Ten- 
nessee, in 1796, and in that year was elected 
its first Representative in Congress. Albert 
Gallatin thus describes the first appearance 
of the Hon. Andrew Jackson in the House: 

" A tall, lank, uncouth-looking personage, 
with locks of hair hanging over his face and 
a cue down his back, tied with an eel skin; 
his dress singular, his manners and deport- 
ment those of a rough backwoodsman." 

Jackson was an earnest advocate of the 
Democratic party. Jefferson was his idol. 
He admired Bonaparte, loved France and 
hated England. As Mr. Jackson took his 
seat, General Washington, whose second 
term of office was just expiring, delivered 
his last speech to Congress. A committee 
drew up a complimentary address in reply. 
Andrew Jackson did not approve the ad- 
dress and was one of twelve who voted 
against it. 

Tennessee had fitted out an expedition 
against the Indians, contrary to the policy 
of the Government. A resolution was intro- 
duced that the National Government 
should pay the expenses. Jackson advo- 
cated it and it was carried. This rendered 
him very popular in Tennessee. A va- 
cancy chanced soon after to occur in the 
Senate, and Andrew Jackson was chosen 
United States Senator by the State of Ten- 
nessee. John Adams was then President 
and Thomas Jefferson, Vice-President. 

In 1798 Mr. Jackson returned to Tennes- 
see, and resigned his seat in the Senate. 
Soon after he was chosen Judge of the Su- 
preme Court of that State, with a salary of 
$600. This office he held six years. It is 
said that his decisions, though sometimes 
ungrammatical, were generally right. He 



did not enjoy his seat upon the bench, and 
renounced the dignity in 1804. About 
this time he was chosen Major-General of 
militia, and lost the title of judge in that of 
General. 

When he retired from the Senate Cham- 
ber, he decided to try his fortune through 
trade. He purchased a stock of goods in 
Philadelphia and sent them to Nashville, 
where he opened a store. He lived about 
thirteen miles from Nashville, on a tract of 
land of several thousand acres, mostly un- 
cultivated. He used a small block-house 
for a store, from a narrow window of 
which he sold goods to the Indians. As he 
had an assistant his office as judge did not 
materially interfere with his business. 

As to slavery, born in the midst of it, the 
idea never seemed to enter his mind that it 
could be wrong. He eventually became 
an extensive slave owner, but he was one of 
the most humane and gentle of masters. 

In 1804 Mr. Jackson withdrew from pol- 
itics and settled on a plantation which he 
called the Hermitage, near Nashville. He 
set up a cotton-gin, formed a partnership 
and traded in . New Orleans, making the 
voyage on flatboats. Through his hot tem- 
per he became invt)lved in several quarrels 
and " affairs of honor," during this period, 
in one of which he was severely wounded, 
but had the misfortune to kill his opponent, 
Charles Dickinson. For a time this affair 
greatly injured General Jackson's popular- 
ity. The verdict then was, and continues 
to be, that General Jackson was outra- 
geously wrong. If he subsequently felt any 
remorse he never revealed it to anyone. 

In 1805 Aaron Burr had visited Nash- 
ville and been a guest of Jackson, with 
whom he corresponded on the subject of a 
war with Spain, which was anticipated and 
desired by them, as well as by the people 
of the Southwest generally. 

Burr repeated his visit in September, 
1806, when he engaged in the celebrated 



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50 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



combinations which led to his trial for trea- 
son. He was warmly received by Jackson, 
at whose instance a public ball was given 
in his honor at Nashville, and contracted 
with the latter for boats and provisions. 
Early in 1807, when Burr had been pro- 
claimed a traitor by President Jefferson, 
volunteer forces for the Federal service 
were organized at Nashville under Jack- 
son's command; but his energy and activ- 
ity did not shield him from suspicions of 
connivance in the supposed treason. He 
was summoned to Richmond as a witness 
in Burr's trial, but was not called to the 
stand, probably because he was out-spoken 
in his partisanship. 

On the outbreak of the war with Great 
Britain in 1812, Jackson tendered his serv- 
ices, and in January, 181 3, embarked for 
New Orleans at the head of the Tennessee 
contingent. In March he received an or- 
der to disband his forces; but in Septem- 
ber he again took the field, in the Creek 
war, and in conjunction with his former 
partner. Colonel Coffee, inflicted upon the 
Indians the memorable defeat at Talladega, 
Emuckfaw and Tallapoosa. 

In May, 1814, Jackson, who had now ac- 
quired a national reputation, was appointed 
a Major-General of the United States army, 
and commenced a campaign against the 
British in Florida. He conducted the de- 
fense at Mobile, September 15, seized upon 
Pensacola, November 6, and immediately 
transported the bulk of his troops to New 
Orleans, then threatened by a powerful 
naval force. Martial law was declare'd in 
Louisiana, the State militia was called to 
arms, engagements with the British were 
fought December 23 and 28, and after re-en- 
forcements had been received on both sides 
the famous victory of January 8, 181 5, 
crowned Jackson's fame as a soldier, and 
made him the typical American hero of 
the first half of the nineteenth century. 

In 18 1 7-' 1 8 Jackson conducted the war 



against the Seminoles of Florida, during 
which he seized upon Pensacola and exe- 
cuted by courtmartial two British subjects, 

Arbuthnot and Ambrister acts which 

might easily have involved the United 
States in war both with Spain and Great 
Britain, Fortunately the peril was averted 
by the cession of Florida to the United 
States; and Jackson, who had escaped a 
trial for the irregularity of his conduct 
only through a division of opinion in Mon- 
roe's cabinet, was appointed in 1821 Gov- 
ernor of the new Territory. Soon after he 
declined the appointment of minister to 
Mexico. 

In 1823 Jackson was elected to the United 
States Senate, and nominated by the Ten- 
nessee Legislature for the Presidency. This 
candidacy, though a matter of surprise, and 
even merryment, speedily became popular, 
and in 1824, when the stormy electoral can- 
vas resulted in the choice of John Quincy 
Adams by the House of Representatives, 
General Jackson received the largest popu- 
lar vote among the four candidates. 

In 1828 Jackson was triumphantly elected 
President over Adams after a campaign of 
unparalleled bitterness. He was inaugu- 
rated March 4, 1829, and at once removed 
from office all the incumbents belonging to 
the opposite party — a procedure new to 
American politics, but which naturally be- 
came a precedent. 

His first term was characterized by quar- 
rels between the Vice-President, Calhoun, 
and the Secretary of State, Van Buren, at- 
tended by a cabinet crisis originating in 
scandals connected with the name of Mrs. 
General Eaton, wife of the Secretary of 
War; by the beginning of his war upon the 
United States Bank, and by his vigorous 
action against the partisans of Calhoun, 
who, in South Carolina, threatened to 
nullify the acts of Congress, establishing a 
protective tariff. 

In the Presidential campaign of 1832 



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ANDREW JACKSON. 



51 



Jackson received 219 out of 288 electoral 
votes, his competitor being Mr, Clay, while 
Mr. Wirt, on an Anti-Masonic platform, 
received the vote of Vermont alone. In 
1833 President Jackson removed the Gov- 
ernment deposits from the United States 
bank, thereby incurring a vote of censure 
from the Senate, which was, however, ex- 
punged four years later. During this second 
term of office the Cherokees, Choctaws and 
Creeks were removed, not without diffi- 
culty, from Georgia, Alabama and Missis- 
sippi, to the Indian Territory; the National 
debt was extinguished; Arkansas and 
Michigan were admitted as States to the 
Union; the Seminole war was renewed; the 
anti-slavery agitation first acquired impor- 
tance; the Mormon delusion, which had 
organized in 1829, attained considerable 
proportions in Ohio and Missouri, and the 
country experienced its greatest pecuniary 
panic. 

Railroads with locomotive propulsion 
were introduced into America during Jack- 
son's first term, and had become an impor- 
tant element of national life before the 
close of his second term. For many rea- 
sons, therefore, the administration of Presi- 
dent Jackson formed an era in American 
history, political, social and industrial. 
He succeeded in effecting the election of 



his friend Van Buren as his successor, re- 
tired from the Presidency March 4, 1837, 
and led a tranquil life at the Hermitage 
until his death, which occurred June 8, 

1845- 

During his closing years he was a pro- 
fessed Christian and a member ot the Pres- 
byterian church. No American of this 
century has been the subject of such oppo- 
site judgments. He was loved and hated 
with equal vehemence during his life, but 
at the present distance of time from his 
career, while opinions still vary as to the 
merits of his public acts, few of his country- 
men will question that he was a warm- 
hearted, brave, patriotic, honest and sincere 
man. If his distinguishing qualities were 
not such as constitute statesmanship, in the 
highest sense, he at least never pretended 
to other merits than such as were written 
to his credit on the page of American his- 
tory — not attempting to disguise the de- 
merits which were equally legible. The 
majority of his countrymen accepted and 
honored him, in spite of all that calumny 
as well as truth could allege against him. 
His faults may therefore be truly said to 
have been those of his time; his magnifi- 
cent virtues may also, with the same jus- 
tice, be considered as typical of a state of 
society which has nearly passed away. 



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52 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UN /TED STATES. 




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ARTIN VAN BU- 
REN, the eighth 
-,^^ President of the 
United States, 1837- 
'41, was born at Kin- 
derhook, New York, 
December 5, 1782, 
His ancestors were of Dutch. 
origin, and were among the 
earhest emigrants from Hol- 
land to the banks of the 
Hudson. His father was a 
tavern-keeper, as well as a 
farmer, and a very decided 
Democrat. 
Martin commenced the study 
of law at the age of fourteen, and took an 
active part in politics .before he had reached 
the age of twenty. In 1803 he commenced 
the practice of law in his native village. 
In 1809 he removed to Hudson, the shire 
town of his county, where he spent seven 
years, gaining strength by contending in 
the courts with some of the ablest men 
who have adorned the bar of his State. 
The heroic example of John Quincy Adams 
in retaining in office every faithful man, 
without regard to his political preferences, 
had been thoroughly repudiated by Gen- 
eral Jackson. The unfortunate principle 
was now fully established, that " to the 
victor belong the spoils." Still, this prin- 
ciple, to which Mr. Van Buren gave his ad- 



herence, was not devoid of inconveniences. 
When, subsequently, he attained power 
which placed vast patronage in his hands, 
he was heard to say : " I prefer an office 
that has no patronage. When I give a man 
an office I offend his disappointed competi- 
tors and their friends. Nor am I certain of 
gaining a friend in the man I appoint, for, 
in all probability, he expected something 
better." 

In 1812 Mr. Van Buren was elected to 
the State Senate. In 181 5 he was appointed 
Attorney-General, and in 1 8 16 to the Senate 
a second time. In 1818 there was a great 
split in the Democratic party in New York, 
and Mr. Van Buren took the lead in or- 
ganizing that portion of the party called 
the Albany Regency, which is said to have 
swayed the destinies of the State for a 
quarter of a century. 

In 1 82 1 he was chosen a member of the 
convention for revising the State Constitu- 
tion, in which he advocated an extension of 
the franchise, but opposed universal suf- 
frage, and also favored the proposal that 
colored persons, in order to vote, should 
have freehold property to the amount of 
$250. In this year he was also elected to 
the United States Senate, and at the con- 
clusion of his term, in 1827, was re-elected, 
but resigned the following year, having 
been chosen Governor of the State. In 
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MARTIN VAN BUR EN. 



55 



State by President Jackson, but resigned 
in April, 1831, and during the recess of 
Congress was appointed minister to Eng- 
land, whither he proceeded in September, 
but the Senate, when convened in Decem- 
ber, refused to ratify the appointment. 

In May, 1832, Mr. Van Buren was nomi- 
nated as the Democratic candidate for Vice- 
President, and elected in the following 
November. May 26, 1836, he received the 
nomination to succeed General Jackson as 
President, and received 170 electoral votes, 
out of 283. 

Scarcely had he taken his seat in the 
Presidential chair when a financial panic 
swept over the land. Mail^- attributed 
this to the war which General Jackson had 
waged on the banks, and to his endeavor to 
secure an almost exclusive specie currency. 
Nearly every bank in the country was com- 
pelled to suspend specie payment, and ruin 
pervaded all our great cities. Not less than 
254 houses failed in New York in one week. 
All public works were brought to a stand, 
and there was a general state of dismay. 
President Van Buren urged the adoption of 
the independent treasury system, which 
was twice passed in the Senate and defeated 
in the House, but finally became a law near 
the close of his administration. 

Another important measure was the pass- 
age of a pre-emption law, giving actual set- 
tlers the preference in the purchase of 
public lands. The question of slavery, also, 
now began to assume great prominence in 
national politics, and after an elaborate 
anti-slavery speech by Mr. Slade, of Ver- 
mont, in the House of Representatives, the 
Soutliern members withdrew for a separate 
consultation, at which Mr. Rhett, of South 
Carolina, proposed to declare it expedient 
that the Union should be dissolved ; but 
the matter was tided over by the passage 
of a resolution that no petitions or papers 
relating to slavery should be in any way 
considered or acted upon. 



In the Presidential election of 1840 Mr. 
Van Buren was nominated, without opposi- 
tion, as the Democratic candidate, William 
H. Harrison being the candidate of the 
Whig party. The Democrats carried only 
seven States, and out of 294 electoral votes 
only sixty were for Mr. Van Buren, the re- 
maining 234 being for his opponent. The 
Whig popular majority, however, was not 
large, the elections in many of the States 
being very close. 

March 4, 1841, Mr. Van Buren retired 
from the Presidency. From his fine estate 
at Lindenwald he still exerted a powerful 
influence upon the politics of the country. 
In 1844 he was again proposed as the 
Democratic candidate for the Presidency, 
and a majority of the delegates of the 
nominating convention were in his favor ; 
but, owing to his opposition to the pro- 
posed annexation of Texas, he could not 
secure the requisite two-thirds vote. His 
name was at length withdrawn by his 
friends, and Mr. Polk received the nomina- 
tion, and was elected. 

In 1848 Mr. Cass was the regular Demo- 
cratic candidate. A schism, however, 
sprang up in the party, upon the question 
of the permission of slavery in the newly- 
acquired territory, and a portion of the 
party, taking the name of " Free-Soilers," 
nominated Mr. Van Buren. They drew 
away sufficient votes to secure the election 
of General Taylor, the Whig candidate. 
After this Mr. Van Buren retired to his es- 
tate at Kinderhook, where the remainder 
of his life was passed, with the exception of 
a European tour in 1853. He died at 
Kinderhook, July 24, 1862, at the age of 
eighty years. 

Martin Van Buren was a great and good 
man, and no one will question his right to 
a high position among those who have 
been the successors of Washington in the 
faithful occupancy of the Presidential 
chair. 



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56 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 




Ml WILLIAM HENRY HflHHISDN. ffeS^ 



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ILL I AM HENRY 
HARRISON, the 
ninth President of 
the United States, 
I 84 I, was born 
February 9, 1773, 
in Charles County, 
Virginia, at Berkeley, the resi- 
dence of his father. Governor 
Benjamin Harrison. He studied 
at Hampden, Sidney College, 
with a view of entering the med- 
ical profession. After graduation 
he went to Philadelphia to study 
medicine under the instruction of 
Dr. Rush. 
George Washington was then President 
of the United States. The Indians were 
committing fearful ravages on our North- 
western frontier. Young Harrison, either 
lured by the love of adventure, or moved 
by the sufferings of families exposed to the 
most horrible outrages, abandoned his med- 
ical studies and entered the army, having 
obtained a commission of ensign from Pres- 
ident Washington. The first duty assigned 
him was to take a train of pack-horses 
bound to Fort Hamilton, on the Miami 
River, about forty miles from Fort Wash- 
ington. He was soon promoted to the 



rank of Lieutenant, and joined the army 
which Washington had placed under the 
command of General Wayne to prosecute 
more vigorously the war with the In- 
dians. Lieutenant Harrison received great 
commendation from his commanding offi- 
cer, and was promoted to the rank of 
Captain, and placed in command at Fort 
Washington, now Cincmnati, Ohio. 

About this time he married a daughter 
of John Cleves Symmes, one of the fron- 
tiersmen who had established a thriving 
settlement on the bank of the Maumee. 

In 1797 Captain Harrison resigned his 
commission in the army and was appointed 
Secretary of the Northwest Territory, and 
ex-officio Lieutenant-Governor, General St. 
Clair being then Governor of the Territory. 
At that time the law in reference to the 
disposal of the public lands was such that 
no one could purchase in tracts less than 
4,000 acres. Captain Harrison, in the 
face of violent opposition, succeeded in 
obtaining so much of a modification of 
this unjust law that the land was sold in 
alternate tracts of 640 and 320 acres. The 
Northwest Territory was then entitled 
to one delegate in Congress, and Cap- 
tain Harrison was chosen to fill that of- 
fice. In 1800 he was appointed Governor 






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WILL/AM HENRY HARRISON. 



59 



of Indiana Territory and soon after of 
Upper Louisiana. He was also Superin- 
tendent of Indian Affairs, and so well did he 
fulfill these duties that he was four times 
appointed to this office. During his admin- 
istration he effected thirteen treaties with 
the Indians, by which the United States 
acquired 60,000,000 acres of land. In 1804 
he obtained a cession from the Indians of 
all the land between the Illinois River and 
the Mississippi. 

In 18 1 2 he was made Major-General of 
Kentucky militia and Brigadier-General 
in the army, with the command of the 
Northwest frontier. In 1813 he was made 
Major-General, and as such won much re- 
nown by the defense of Fort Meigs, and the 
battle of the Thames, October 5, 1813. In 
1814 he left the army and was employed in 
Indian affairs by the Government. 

In 18 16 General Harrison was chosen a 
member of the National House of Repre- 
sentatives to represent the district of Ohio. 
In the contest which preceded his election 
he was accused of corruption in respect to 
the commissariat of the army. Immedi- 
ately upon taking his seat, he called for an 
investigation of the charge. A committee 
was appointed, and his vindication was 
triumphant. A high compliment was paid 
to his patriotism, disinterestedness and 
devotion to the public service. For these 
services a gold medal was presented to him 
with the thanks of Congress. 

In 1 8 19 he was elected to the Senate of 
Ohio, and in 1824, as one of the Presiden- 
tial electors of that State, he gave his vote 
to Henry Clay. In the same year he was 
elected to the Senate of the United States. 
In 1828 he was appointed by President 
Adams minister plenipotentiary to Colom- 
bia, but was recalled by General Jackson 
immediately after the inauguration of the 
hitter. 

Upon his return to the United States, 
General Harrison retired to his farm at 



North Bend, Hamilton County, Ohio, six- 
teen miles below Cincinnati, where for 
twelve years he was clerk of the County 
Court. He once owned a distillery, but 
perceiving the sad effects of whisky upon 
the surrounding population, he promptly 
abandoned his business at great pecuniary 
sacrifice. 

In 1836 General Harrison was brought 
forward as a candidate for the Presidency. 
Van Buren was the administration candi- 
date; the opposite party could not unite, 
and four candidates were brought forward. 
General Harrison received seventy-three 
electoral votes without any general concert 
among his friends. The Democratic party 
triumphed and Mr. Van Buren was chosen 
President. In 1839 General Harrison was 
again nominated for the Presidency by the 
Whigs, at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Mr, 
Van Buren being the Democratic candi- 
date. General Harrison received 234 elec- 
toral votes against sixty for his opponent. 
This election is memorable chiefly for the 
then extraordinary means employed during 
the canvass for popular votes. Mass meet- 
ings and processions were introduced, and 
the watchwords " log cabin " and " hard 
cider " were effectually used by the Whigs, 
and aroused a popular enthusiasm. 

A vast concourse of people attended his 
inauguration. His address on that occasion 
was in accordance with his antecedents, and 
gave great satisfaction. A short time after he 
took his seat, he was seized by a pleurisy- 
fever, and after a few days of violent sick- 
ness, died April 4, just one short month after 
his inauguration. His death was universally 
regarded as one of the greatest of National 
calamities. Never, since the death of 
Washington, were there, throughout one 
land, such demonstrations of sorrow. Not 
one single spot can be found to sully his 
fame; and through all ages Americans will 
pronounce with love and reverence the 
name of William Henry Harrison. 






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60 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 




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'OHN TYLER, the tenth 
President of the United 
States, was born in 
Charles City County, 
Virginia, March 29, 1790. 
His father, Judge John 
Tyler, possessed large 
landed estates in Virginia, 
and was one of the most 
distinguished men of his 
day, filling the offices of 
Speaker of the House of 
Delegates, Judge of the Su- 
preme Court and Governor 
of the State. 
At the early age of twelve 
young John entered William and Mary 
College, and graduated with honor when 
but seventeen years old. He then closely 
applied himself to the study of law, and at 
nineteen years of age commenced the prac- 
tice of his profession. When only twenty- 
one he was elected to a seat in the State 
Legislature. He acted with the Demo- 
cratic party and advocated the measures of 
Jefferson and Madison, For five years he 
was elected to the Legislature, receiving 
nearly the unanimous vote of his county. 

When but twenty-six years of age he was 
elected a member of Congress. He advo- 
cated a strict construction of the Constitu- 
tion and the most careful visfilance over 



State rights. He was soon compelled to 
resign his seat in Congress, owing to ill 
health,- but afterward took his seat in the 
State Legislature, where he exerted a 
powerful influence in promoting public 
works of great utility. 

In 1825 Mr. Tyler was chosen Governor 
of his State — a high honor, for Virginia 
had many able men as competitors for 
the prize. His administration was signally 
a successful one. He virged forward inter- 
nal improvements and strove to remove 
sectional jealousies. His popularity secured 
his re-election. In 1827 he was elected 
United States Senator, and upon taking his 
seat joined the ranks of the opposition. He 
opposed the tariff, voted against the bank 
as unconstitutional, opposed all restrictions 
upon slavery, resisted all projects of inter- 
nal improvements by the General Govern- 
ment, avowed his sympathy with Mr. Cal- 
houn's views of nullification, and declared 
that General Jackson, by his opposition to 
the nullifiers, had abandoned the principles 
of the Democratic party; Such was Mr. 
Tyler's record in Congress. 

This hostility to 'Jackson caused Mr. 
Tyler's retirement from the Senate, after 
his election to a second term. He soon 
after removed to Williamsburg for the 
better education of his children, and again 
took his seat in the Legislature. 








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JOHN TYLER. 



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In 1839 he was sent to the National Con- 
vention at Harrisburg to nominate a Presi- 
dent. General Harrison received a majority 
of votes, much to the disappointment of the 
South, who had wished for Henry Clay. 
In order to conciliate the Southern Whigs, 
John Tyler was nominated for Vice-Presi- 
dent. Harrison and Tyler were inaugu- 
rated March 4, 1841. In one short month 
from that time President Harrison died, 
and Mr. Tyler, to his own surprise as well 
as that of the nation, found himself an 
occupant of the Presidential chair. His 
position was an exceedingly difficult one, 
as he was opposed to the main principles of 
the party which had brought him into 
power. General Harrison had selected a 
Whig cabinet. Should he retain them, and 
thus surround himself with councilors 
whose views were antagonistic to his own? 
or should he turn against the party that 
had elected him, and select a cabinet in 
harmony with himself ? This was his fear- 
ful dilemma. 

President Tyler deserves more charity 
than he has received. He issued an address 
to the people, which gave general satisfac- 
tion. He retained the cabinet General 
Harrison had selected. His veto of a bill 
chartering a new national bank led to an 
open quarrel with the party which elected 
him, and to a resignation of the entire 
cabinet, except Daniel Webster, Secretary 
of State. 

President Tyler attempted to conciliate. 
He appointed a new cabinet, leaving out all 
strong party men, but the Whig members 
of Congress were not satisfied, and they 
published a manifesto September 13, break- 
ing off all politicar relations. The Demo- 
crats had a majoritv in the House ; the 
Whigs in the Senate. Mr. Webster soon 
found it necessary to resign, being forced 
out by the pressure of his Whig friends. 

April 12, 1844, President Tyler concluded, 
through Mr. Calhoun, a treaty for the an- 



nexation ot Texas, which was rejected by 
the Senate ; but he effected his object in the 
closing days of his administration by the 
passage of the joint resolution of March i 

1845. 

He was nominated for the Presidency by 
an informal Democratic Convention, held 
at Baltimore in May, 1844, but soon with- 
drew from the canvass, perceiving that he 
had not gained the confidence of the Dem<j- 
crats at large. 

Mr. Tyler's administration was particu- 
larly unfortunate. No one was satisfied. 
Whiers and Democrats alike assailed him. 
Situated as he was, it is more than can 
be expected of human nature that he 
should, in all cases, have acted in the wisest 
manner ; but it will probably be the verdict 
of all candid men, in a careful review of his 
career, that John Tyler was placed in a 
position of such difficulty that he could not 
pursue any course which would not expose 
him to severe censure and denunciation. 

In 18 1 3 Mr. Tyler married Letitia Chris- 
tian, who bore him three sons and three 
daughters, and died in Washington in 1842. 
June 26, 1844, he contracted a second mar- 
riage with Miss Julia Gardner, of New 
York. He lived in almost complete retire- 
ment from politics until February, 1861, 
when he was a member of the abortive 
" peace convention," held at Washington, 
and was chosen its President. Soon after 
he renounced his allegiance to the United 
States and was elected to the Confederate 
Congress. He died at Richmond, January 
17, 1862, after a short illness. 

Unfortunately for his memory the name 
of John Tyler must forever be associated 
with all the misery of that terrible Re- 
bellion, whose cause he openly espoused. 
It is with sorrow that history records that 
a President of the United States died while 
defending the flag of rebellion, which was 
arrayed against the national banner in 
deadly warfare. 



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i^. 64 PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. >:! 

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AMES KNOX POLK, 
the eleventh President of 
^w the United States, 1845- 
'49, was born in Meck- 
lenburg County, North 
Carolina, November 2, 
1795. He was the eldest 
son of a family of six sons 
and four daughters, and was 
a gi-and-nephew of Colonel 
Thomas Polk, celebrated in 
connection with the Meck- 
lenburg Declaration of In- 
dependence. 

In 1806 his father, Samuel 
Polk, emigrated with his fam- 
ily two or three hundred miles west to the 
valley of the Duck River. He was a sur- 
veyor as well as farmer, and gradually in- 
creased in wealth until he became one of 
the leading men of the region. 

In the common schools James rapidly be- 
came proficient in all the common branches 
of an English education. In 18 13 he was 
sent to Murfreesboro Academy, and in the 
autumn of 181 5 entered the sophomore class 
in the University of North Carolina, at 
Chapel Hill, graduating in 1818. After a 
short season of recreation he went to Nash- 
ville and entered the law office of Felix 
Grundy. As soon as he had his finished 



legal studies and been admitted to the bar, 
he returned to Columbia, the shire town of 
Maury County, and opened an office. 

James K. Polk ever adhered to the polit- 
ical faith of his father, which was that of 
a Jeffersonian Republican. In 1823 he was 
elected to the Legislature of Tennessee. As 
a " strict constructionist," he did not think 
that the Constitution empowered the Gen- 
eral Government to carry on a system of 
internal improvements in the States, but 
deemed it important that it should have 
that power, and wished the Constitution 
amended that it might be conferred. Sub- 
sequentl}', however, he became alarmed lest 
the General Govei-nment become so strong 
as to undertake to interfere with slavery. 
He therefore gave all his influence to 
strengthen the State governments, and to 
check the growth of the central power. 

In January, 1824, Mr. Polk married Miss 
Mary Childress, of Rutherford County, Ten- 
nessee. Had some one then whispered to 
him that he was destined to become Presi- 
dent of the United States, and that he must 
select for his companion one who would 
adorn that distinguished station, he could 
not have made a more fitting choice. She 
was truly a lady of rare beauty and culture. 

In the fall of 1825 Mr. Polk was chosen 
a member of Congress, and was continu- 







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yA l/.^6- A'. POLK. 



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ously re-elected until 1839. He then with- 
drew, only that he might accept the 
gubernatorial chair of his native State. 
He was a warm friend of General Jackson, 
who had been defeated in the electoral 
contest by John Quincy Adams. This 
latter gentleman had just taken his seat in 
the Presidential chair when Mr. Polk took 
his seat in the House of Representatives. 
He immediately united himself with the 
opponents of Mr. Adams, and was soon 
regarded as the leader of the Jackson party 
in the House. 

The four years of Mr. Adams' adminis- 
tration passed away, and General Jackson 
took tne Presidential chair. Mr. Polk had 
now become a man of great influence in 
Congress, ana was chairman of its most 
important committee — that of Ways and 
Means. Eloquently he sustained General 
Jackson in all his measures — in his hostility 
to internal improvements, to the banks, and 
to the tariff. Eight years of General Jack- 
son's administration passed away, and the 
powers he had wielded passed into the 
hands of Martin Van Buren ; and still Mr. 
Polk remained in the House, the advocate 
of that type of Democracy which those 
distinguished men upheld. 

During five sessions of Congress Mr. 
Polk was speaker of the House. He per- 
formed his arduous duties to general satis- 
faction, and a unanimous vote of thanks to 
him was passed by the House as he with- 
drew, March 4, 1839. He was elected 
Governor by a large majority, and took 
the oath of office at Nashville, October 14, 
1839. He was a candidate for re-election 
in 1 841, but was defeated. In the mean- 
time a wonderful revolution had swept 
over the country. "W. H. Harrison, the Whig 
candidate, had been called to the Presiden- 
tial chair, and in Tennessee the Whig ticket 
had been carried by over 12,000 majority. 
Under these circumstances Mr. Polk's suc- 
cess was hopeless. Still he canvassed the 



State with his Whig competitor, Mr. Jones, 
traveling in the most friendly manner to- 
gether, often in the same carriage, and at 
one time sleeping in the same bed. Mr. 
Jones was elected by 3,000 majority. 

And now the question of the annexation 
of Texas to our country agitated the whole 
land. When this question became national 
Mr. Polk, as the avowed champion of an- 
nexation, became the Presidential candidate 
of the pro-slavery wing of the Democratic 
party, and George M. Dallas their candi- 
date for the Vice-Presidency. They were 
elected by a large majority, and were in- 
augurated March 4, 1845. 

President Polk formed an able cabinet, 
consisting of James Buchanan, Robert J. 
Walker, William L. Marcy, George Ban- 
croft, Cave Johnson and John Y. Mason. 
The Oregon boundary question was settled, 
the Department of the Interior was created, 
the low tariff of 1846 was carried, the 
financial system of the Governinent was 
reorganized, the Mexican war was con- 
ducted, which resulted in the acquisition of 
California and New Mexico, and had far- 
reaching consequences upon the later fort- 
unes of the republic. Peace was made. 
We had wrested from Mexico territory 
equal to four times the empire of France, 
and five times that of Spain. In the prose- 
cution of this war we expended 20,000 
lives and more than $100,000,000. Of this 
money $15,000,000 were paid to Mexico. 

Declining to seek a renomination, Mr. 
Polk retired from the Presidency March 4, 
1849, when he was succeeded by General 
Zachary Taylor. He retired to Nashville, 
and died there June 19, 1849, i'^ the fifty- 
fourth year of his age. His funeral was at- 
tended the following day, in Nashville, with 
every demonstration of respect. He left 
no children. Without being possessed of 
extraordinary talent, Mr. Polk was a capable 
administrator of public affairs, and irre- 
proachable in private life. 



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ACHARY TAY- 
LOR, the twelfth 
President of the 
United States, 
i849-'50, was born 
in Orange County, 
Virginia, Septem- 
ber 24, 1784. His father, 
Richard Taylor, was Colo- 
nel of a Virginia regiment 
in the Revolutionary war, 
and removed to Kentucky 
in 1785 ; purchased a large 
plantation near Louisville 
and became an influential cit- 
izen ; was a member of the convention that 
framed the Constitution of Kentucky; served 
in both branches of the Legislature ; was 
Collector of the port of Louisville under 
Presideilt Washington ; as a Presidential 
elector, voted for Jefferson, Madison, Mon- 
roe and Clay; died January 19,1829. 

Zachary remained on his father's planta- 
tion until 1808, in which year (May 3) he 
was appointed First Lieutenant in the 
Seventh Infantry, to fill a vacancy oc- 
casioned by the death of his elder brother, 
Hancock. Up to this point he had received 
but a limited education. 

Joining his regiment at New Orleans, he 



was attacked with yellow fever, with nearly 
fatal termination. In November, 18 10, he 
was promoted to Captain, and in the sum- 
mer of 1812 he was in command of Fort 
Harrison, on the left bank of the Wabash 
River, near the present site of Terre Haute, 
his successful defense of which with but a 
handful of men against a large force of 
Indians which had attacked him was one of 
the first marked military achievements of 
the war. He was then brevetted Major, 
and in 18 14 promoted to the full rank. 

During the remainder of the war Taylor 
was actively employed on the Western 
frontier. In the peace organization of 181 5 
he was retained as Captain, but soon after 
resigned and settled near Louisville. In 
May, 1816, however, he re-entered the army 
as Major of the Third Infantry ; became 
Lieutenant-Colonel of the Eighth Infantry 
in 1819, and in 1832 attained the Colonelcy 
of the First Infantry, of which he had been 
Lieuteijant-Colonel since 1821. Ondifferent 
occasions he had been called to Washington 
as member of a military board for organiz- 
ing the militia of the Union, and to aid the 
Government with his knowledge in the 
organization of the Indian Bureau, having 
for many years discharged the duties of 
Indian agrent over larsre tracts of Western 






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country. He served through the Black 
Hawk war in 1832, and in 1837 ^vas ordered 
to take command in Florida, then the scene 
of war with the Indians. 

In 1846 he was transferred to the com- 
mand of the Army of the Southwest, from 
which he was relieved the same year at his 
own request. Subsequently he was sta- 
tioned on the Arkansas frontier at Forts 
Gibbon, Smith and Jesup, which latter work 
had been built under his direction in 1822. 

May 28, 1845, he received a dispatch from 
the Secretary of War informing him of the 
receipt of information by the President 
" that Texas would shortly accede to the 
terms of annexation," in which event he 
was instructed to defend and protect her 
from " foreign invasion and Indian incur- 
sions." He proceeded, upon the annexation 
of Texas, with about 1,500 men to Corpus 
Christi, where his force was increased to 
some 4,000. 

Taylor was brevetted Major-General May 
28, and a month later, June 29, 1846, his full 
commission to that grade was issued. After 
needed rest and reinforcement, he advanced 
in September on Monterey, which city ca- 
pitulated after three-days stubborn resist- 
ance. Here he took up his winter quarters. 
The plan for the invasion of Mexico, by 
way of Vera Cruz, with General Scott in 
command, was now determined upon by 
the Govenrment, and at the moment Taylor 
was about to resume active operations, he 
received orders to send the larger part of 
his force to reinforce the army of General 
Scott at Vera Cruz. Though subsequently 
reinforced b} raw recruits, yet after pro- 
viding a garrison for Monterey and Saltillo 
he had but about 5,300 effective troops, of 
which but 500 or 600 were regulars. In 
this weakened condition, however, he was 
destined to achieve his greatest victory. 
Confidently relying upon his strength at 
Vera Cruz to resist the enemy for a long 
time, Santa Anna directed his entire army 



against Taylor to overwhelm him, and then 
to return to oppose the advance of Scott's 
more formidable invasion. The battle of 
Buena Vista was fought February 22 and 
23, 1847. Taylor received the thanks of 
Congress and a gold medal, and " Old 
Rough and Ready," the sobriquet given 
him in the army, became a household word. 
He remained in quiet possession of the 
Rio Grande Valley until November, when 
he returned to the United States. 

In the Whig convention which met at 
Philadelphia,June 7, 1848, Taylor was nomi- 
nated on the fourth ballot as candidate of 
the Whig party for President, over Henry 
Clav, General Scott and Daniel Webster. 
In November Taylor received a majority 
of electoral votes, and a popular vote of 
1,360,752, against 1,219,962 for Cass and 
Butler, and 291,342 for Van Buren and 
Adams. General Taylor was inaugurated 
March 4, 1849. 

The free and slave States being then equal 
in number, the struggle for supremacy on 
the part of the leaders in Congress was 
violent and bitter. In the summer of 1849 
California adopted in convention a Consti- 
tution prohibiting slavery within its borders. 
Taylor advocated the immediate admission 
of California with her Constitution, and the 
postponement of the question as to the other 
Territories until they could hold conven.- 
tions and decide for themselves whether 
slavery should exist within their borders. 
This policy ultimately prevailed through 
the celebrated " Compromise Measures" of 
Henry Clay ; but not during the life of the 
brave soldier and patriot statesman. July 
5 he was taken suddenly ill with a bilious 
fever, which proved fatal, his death occur- 
ring July 9, 1850. One of his daughters 
married Colonel W. W. S. Bliss, his iVdju- 
tant-General and Chief of Staff in Florida 
and Mexico, and Private Secretary during 
his Presidency. Another daughter was 
married to Jefferson Davis. 



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£'lLLARD FILL- 
MORE, the thir- 
' teenth President 
of the United 
States, i85o-'3, was 
born in Summer 
Hill, Cayuga 



County, New York, Janu- 
ar_y 7, 1800. He was of 
New England ancestry, and 
his educational advantages 
were limited. He earl}' 
learned the clothiers' trade, 
but spent all his leisure time 
in study. At nineteen years 
of age he was induced by 
Judge Walter Wood to abandon his trade 
and commence the study of law. Upon 
learning that the young man was entirely 
destitute of means, he took him into his 
own office and loaned him such money as 
he needed. That he might not be heavily 
burdened with debt, young Fillmore taught 
school during the winter months^ and in 
various other ways helped himself along. 
At the age of twenty-three he was ad- 
mitted to the Court of Common Pleas, and 
commenced the practice of his profession 
in the village of Aurora, situated on the 



eastern bank of the Cayuga Lake. In 1825 
he married Miss Abigail Powers, daughter 
of Rev. Lemuel Powers, a lady of great 
moral worth. In 1825 he took his seat in 
the House of Assembly of his native State, 
as Representative from Erie County, 
whither he had recently moved. 

Though he had never taken a very 
active part in politics his vote and his sym- 
pathies were with the Whig party. The 
State was then Democratic, but his cour- 
tesy, ability and integrity won the respect 
of his associates. In 1832 he was elected 
to a seat in the United States Congress. 
At the close of his term he returned to his 
law practice, and in two years more he was 
again elected to Congress. 

He now began to have a national reputa- 
tion. His labors were very arduous. To 
draft resolutions in the committee room, 
and then to defend them against the most 
skillful opponents on the floor of the House 
requires readiness of mind, mental resources 
and skill in debate such as few possess. 
Weary with these exhausting labors, and 
pressed by the claims of his private affairs, 
Mr. Fillmore wrote a letter to his constitu- 
ents and declined to be a candidate foi re- 
election. Notwithstanding this communi- 



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MILLARD FILLMORE. 



75 



cation his friends met in convention and 
renominated him by acclamation. Though 
gratified by this proof of their appreciation 
of his labors he adhered to his resolve and 
returned to his home. 

In 1847 Mr. Fillmore was elected to the 
important office of comptroller of the State. 
In entering upon the very responsible duties 
which this situation demanded, it was nec- 
essary for him to abandon his profession, 
and he removed to the city of Albany. In 
this year, also, the Whigs were looking 
around to find suitable candidates for the 
President and Vice-President at the ap- 
proaching election, and the names of Zach- 
ary Taylor and Millard Fillmore became 
the rallying cry of the Whigs. On the 4th 
of March, 1849, General Taylor was inaug- 
urated President and Millard Fillmore 
Vice-President of the United States. 

The great question of slavery had as- 
sumed enormous proportions^ and perme- 
ated every subject that was brought before 
Congress. It was evident that the strength 
of our institutions was to be severely tried. 
July 9, 1850, President Taylor died, and, by 
the Constitution, Vice-President Fillmore 
became President of the United States. 
The agitated condition of the country 
brought questions of great delicacy before 
him. He was bound by his oath of office 
to execute the laws of the United States. 
One of these laws was understood to be, 
that if a slave, escaping from bondage, 
should reach a free State, the United States 
was bound to do its utmost to capture him 
and return him to his master. Most Chris- 
tian men loathed this law. President Fill- 
more felt bound by his oath rigidly to see 
it enforced. Slavery was organizing armies 
to invade Cuba as it had invaded Texas, 
and annex it to the United States. Presi- 
dent Fillmore gave all the influence of his 
exalted station against the atrocious enter- 
prise. 

Mr. Fillmore had serious difficulties to 



contend with, since the opposition had a 
majority in both Houses. He did every- 
thing in his power to conciliate the South, 
but the pro-slavery party in that section 
felt the inadequency of all measures of tran- 
sient conciliation. The population of the 
free States was so rapidly increasing over 
that of the slave States, that it was inevita- 
ble that the power of the Government 
should soon pass into the hands of the free 
States. The famous compromise measures 
were adopted under Mr. Fillmore's admin- 
istration, and the Japan expedition was 
sent out. 

March 4, 1853, having served one term, 
President Fillmore retired from office. He 
then took a long tour through the South, 
where he met with quite an enthusiastic 
reception. In a speech at Vicksburg, al- 
luding to the rapid growth of the country, 
he said: 

" Canada is knocking for admission, and 
Mexico would be glad to come in, and 
without saying whether it would be right 
or wrong, we stand with open arms to re- 
ceive them; for it is the manifest destiny of 
this Government to embrace the whole 
North American Continent." 

In 1855 Mr. Fillmore went to Europe 
where he was received with those marked 
attentions which his position and character 
merited. Returning to this country in 
1856 he was nominated for the Presidency 
by the " Know-Nothing " party. Mr. Bu- 
chanan, the Democratic candidate was 
the successful competitor. Mr. Fillmore 
ever afterward lived in retirement. Dur- 
ing the conflict of civil war he was mostly 
silent. It was generally supposed, how- 
ever, that his sympathy was with the South- 
ern Confederacy. He kept aloof from the 
conflict without any words of cheer to the 
one party or the other. For this reason 
he was forgotten by both. He died of 
paralysis, in Buffalo, New York, March 8, 
1874. 



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76 



PRESIDEiYTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



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RANKLIN PIERCE, 
the fourteenth Presi- 
dent of the United 
States, was born in 
Hillsborough, New 
Hampshire, Novem- 
ber 23, 1804. His 
father. Governor 
Benjamin Pierce, was a Rev- 
olutionary soldier, a man of 
rigid integrity ; was for sev- 
eral years in the State Legis- 
lature, a member of the Gov- 
ernor's council and a General 
of the militia. 
Franklin was the sixth of eight children. 
As a boy he listened eagerly to the argu- 
ments of his father, enforced by strong and 
ready utterance and earnest gesture. It 
was in the days of intense political excite- 
ment, when, all over the New England 
States, Federalists and Democrats were ar- 
rayed so fiercely against each other. 

In 1820 he entered Bowdoin College, at 
Brunswick, Maine, and graduated in 1824, 
and commenced the study of law in the 
office of Judge Woodbury, a ver}- distin- 
guished lawyer, and in 1827 was admitted 
to the bar. He practiced with great success 
in Hillsborough and Concord. He served 



in the State Legislature four years, the last 
two of which he was chosen Speaker of the 
House by a very large vote. 

In 1833 he was elected a member of Con- 
gress. In 1837 '"iG ^^'^s elected to the United 
States Senate, just as Mr. Van Buren com- 
menced his administration. 

In 1834 he married Miss Jane Means 
Appleton, a lady admirably fitted to adorn 
every station with which her husband was 
honored. Three sons born to them all 
found an early grave. 

Upon his accession to office, President 
Polk appointed Mr. Pierce Attorney-Gen- 
eral of the United States, but the offer was 
declined in consequence of numerous pro- 
fessional engagements at home and the 
precarious state of Mrs. Pierce's health. 
About the same time he also declined the 
nomination for Governor by the Demo- 
cratic party. 

The war with Mexico called Mr. Pierce 
into the army. Receiving the appointment 
of Brigadier-General, he embarked with a 
portion of his troops at Newport, Rhode 
Island, May 27, 1847. He served during 
this war, and distinguished himself by his 
bravery, skill and excellent judgment. 
When he reached his home in his native 
State he was enthusiastically received by 



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FRANKLIN PIERCE. 



79 



the advcjcatcs of the war, and coldly by its 
opponents. He resumed the practice of his 
profession, frequently taking an active part 
in political questions, and giving his sup- 
port to the pro-slaverv wing of the Demo- 
cratic party. 

June 12, 1852, the Democratic convention 
met in Baltimore t(i nominate a candidate 
for the Presidenc}'. For four days they 
continued in session, and in thirty-five bal- 
lotmgs no one had received the requisite 
two-thirds vote. Not a vote had been 
thrown thus far for General Pierce. Then 
the Virginia delegation brought forward 
his name. There were fourteen more bal- 
lotings, during which General Pierce 
gained strength, until, at the forty-ninth 
ballot, he received 282 v(jtes, and all other 
candidates eleven. General Winfield Scott 
was the Whig candidate. General Pierce 
was elected with great unanimity. Onlv 
four States — Vermont, Massachusetts, Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee — cast their electoral 
votes against him. March 4, 1853, he was 
inaugurated President of the United States, 
and William R. King, Vice-President. 

President Pierce's cabinet consisted of 
William S. Marcy, James Guthrie, Jefferson 
Davis, James C. Dobbin, Robert McClel- 
land, James Campbell and Caleb Cushing. 

At the demand of slavery the Missouri 
Compromise was repealed, and all the Ter- 
ritories of the Union were thrown open to 
slavery. The Territory of Kansas, west of 
Missouri, was settled by emigrants mainly 
from the North. According to law, they 
were about to meet and decide whether 
slavery or freedom should be the law of 
that realm. Slavery in Missouri and 
other Southern States rallied her armed 
legions, marched them into Kansas, took 
possession of the polls, drove away the 
citizens, deposited their own votes by 
handfuls, went through the farce of count- 
ing them, and then declared that, by an 
overwhelming majority, slavery was estab- 



lished in Kansas. These facts nobody 
denied, and yet President Pierce's adminis- 
tration felt bound to respect the decision 
obtained by such votes. The citizens of 
Kansas, the majority of whom were free- 
State men, met in convention and adopted 
the following resolve : 

"Resolved, That the body of men who, 
for the past two months, have been passing 
laws for the people of our Territory, 
moved, counseled and dictated to by the 
demagogues of other States, are to us a 
foreign body, representing only the lawless 
invaders who elected them, and not the 
people of this Territory ; that we repudiate 
their action as the monstrous consummation 
of an act of violence, usurpation and fraud 
imparalleled in the history of the Union." 

The free-State people of Kansas also sent 
a petition to the General Government, im- 
ploring its protection. In reply the Presi- 
dent issued a proclamation, declaring that 
Legislature thus created must be recog- 
nized as the legitimate Legislature of Kan- 
sas, and that its laws were binding upon 
the people, and that, if necessary, the whole 
force of the Governmental arm would be 
put forth to inforce those laws. 

James Buchanan succeeded him in the 
Presidency, and, March 4, 1857, President 
Pierce retired to his home in Concord, 
New Hampshire. When the Rebellion 
burst forth Mr. Pierce remained steadfast 
to the principles he had always cherished, 
and gave his sympathies to the pro-slavery 
party, with which he had ever been allied. 
He declined to do anything, either by 
voice or pen, to strengthen the hands of 
the National Government. He resided in 
Concord until his death, which occurred in 
October, 1869. He was one of the most 
genial and social of men, generous to 
a fault, and contributed liberally of. his 
moderate means for the alleviation of suf- 
fering and want. He was an honored 
communicant of the Episcopal church. 



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PNHS /DENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



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AMES BUCHANAN, the 

fifteenth President of the 
United States. 1857-61, 
was born in FrankHn 
County, Penns3'lvania, 
April 23, 1791. The 
place where his father's 
cabin stood was called 
Stony Batter, and it was 
situated in a wild, romantic 
spot, in a gorge of mount- 
ains, with towering sum- 
mits rising all around. He 
was of Irish ancestry, his 
father having emigrated in- 
1783, with very little prop- 
erty, save his own strong arms. 

James remained in his secluded home for 
eight years enjoying very few social or 
intellectual advantages. His parents were 
industrious, frugal, prosperous and intelli- 
gent. In 1799 his father removed to INIer- 
cersburg, whei"e James was placed in 
school and commenced a course in English, 
Greek and Latin. His progress was rapid 
and in 1801 he entered Dickinson College 
at Carlisle. Here he took his stand among 
the first scholars in the institution, and was 
able to master the most abstruse subjects 
with facility. In 1809 he graduated with 
the highest honors in his class. 

He was then eighteen years of age, tall, 



graceful and in vigorous health, fond of 
athletic sports, an unerring shot and en- 
livened with an exuberant flow of animal 
spirits. He immediately commenced the 
study of law in the city of Lancaster, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1812. He rose 
ver}' rapidly in his profession and at once 
took undisputed stand with the ablest law- 
yers of the State. When but twenty-six 
years of age, unaided by counsel, he suc- 
cessfully defended before the State Senate 
one of the Judges of the State, who was 
tried upon articles of impeachment At 
the age of thirty it was generally admitted 
that he stood at the head of the bar, and 
there was no lawyer in the State who had 
a more extensive or lucrative practice. 

In 18 1 2, just after Mr. Buchanan had 
entered upon the practice of the law, our 
second war with England occurred. With 
all his powers he sustained the Govern- 
ment, eloquently urging the rigorous pros- 
ecution of the war; and even enlisting as a 
private soldier to assist in repelling the 
British, who had sacked Washington and 
were threatening Baltimore. He was at 
that time a Federalist, but when the Con- 
stitution was adopted by both parties, 
Jefferson truly said, " We are all Federal- 
ists; we are all Republicans." 

The opposition of the Federalists to the 
Avar with England, and the alien and sedi- 



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yAMES BUCHANAN. 



83 



tion laws of John Adams, brought the party 
into dispute, and the name of Federalist 
became a reproach. Mr. Buchanan almost 
immediately upon entering Congress began 
to incline more and more to the Repub- 
licans. In the stormy Presidential election 
of 1824, in which Jackson, Clay, Crawford 
and John Ouincy Adams were candidates, 
Mr. Buchanan espoused the cause of Gen- 
eral Jackson and unrelentingly opposed the 
administration of Mr. Adams. 

Upon his elevation to the Presidency, 
General Jackson appointed Mr. Buchanan, 
minister to Russia. Upon his return in 1 833 
he was elected to a seat in the United States 
Senate. He there met as his associates, 
Webster, Clay, Wright and Calhoun. He 
advocated the measures proposed by Presi- 
dent Jackson of making reprisals against 
France, and defended the course of the Pres- 
ident in his unprecedented and wholesale 
removals from office of those who were not 
the supporters of his administration. Upon 
this question he was brought into direct col- 
lision with Henry Clay. In the discussion 
of the question respecting the admission of 
Michigan and Arkansas into the Union, Mr. 
Buchanan defined his position by saying: 

" The older I grow, the more I am in- 
clined to be what is called a State-rights 
man." 

M. de Tocqueville, in his renowned work 
upon " Democracy in America," foresaw 
the trouble which was inevitable from the 
doctrine of State sovereignty as held by 
Calhoun and Buchanan. He was con- 
vinced that the National Government was 
losing that strength which was essential 
to its own existence, and that the States 
were assuming powers which threatened 
the perpetuity of the Union. Mr. Buchanan 
received the book in the Senate and de- 
clared the fears of De Tocqueville to be 
groundless, and yet he lived to sit in the 
Presidential chair and see State after State, 
in accordance with his own views of State 



rights, breaking from the Union, thus 
crumbling our Republic into ruins; while 
the unhappy old man folded his arms in 
despair, declaring that the National Consti- 
tution invested him with no power to arrest 
the destruction. 

Upon Mr. Polk's accession to the Presi- 
dency, Mr. Buchanan became Secretary of 
State, and as such took his share of the 
responsibility in the conduct of the Mexi- 
can war. At the close of Mr. Polk's ad- 
ministration, Mr. Buchanan retired to pri- 
vate life; but his inteUigence, and his great 
ability as a statesman, enabled him to exert 
a powerful influence in National affairs. 

Mr. Pierce, upon his election to the 
Presidency, honored Mr. Buchanan with 
the mission to England. In the year 1856 
the National Democratic convention nomi- 
nated Mr. Buchanan for the Presidency. 
The political conflict was one of the most 
severe in which our country has ever en- 
gaged. On the 4th of March, 1857, Mr. 
Buchanan was inaugurated President. His 
cabinet were Lewis Cass, Howell Cobb, 
J. B. Floyd, Isaac Toucey, Jacob Thomp- 
son, A. V. Brown and J. S. Black. 

The disruption of the Democratic party, 
in consequence of the manner in which the 
issue of the nationality of slavery was 
pressed by the Southern wing, occurred at 
the National convention, held at Charleston 
in April, i860, for the nomination of Mr. 
Buchanan's successor, when the majority 
of Southern delegates withdrew upon the 
passage of a resolution declaring that the 
constitutional status of slavery should be 
determined by the Supreme Court. 

In the next Presidential canvass Abra- 
ham Lincoln was nominated* by the oppo- 
nents of Mr. Buchanan's administration. 
Mr. Buchanan remained in Washington 
long enough to see his successor installed 
and then retired to his home in Wheatland. 
He died June i, 1868, aged seventy-seven 
years. 



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84 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



•=^ 

^I^ 








BRAHAM LIN- 
COLN, the sixteenth 
President of the 
United States, i86i-'5, 
was born February 
12, 1809, in Larue 
(then Hardin) County, 
Kentucky, in a cabin on Nolan 
Creek, three miles west of 
Hudgensville. H i s parents 
w ere Thomas and Nancy 
(Hanks) Lincoln. Of his an- 
cestry and early years the little 
that is known may best be 
given in his own language : " My 
parents were both born in Virginia, of un- 
distinguished families — second families, per- 
haps I should say. My mother, who died 
in my tenth year, was of a family of the 
name of Hanks, some of whom now remain 
in Adams, and others in Macon County, 
Illinois. My paterna' grandfather, Abra- 
ham Lincoln, emigrated from Rockbridge 
County, Virgitiia, to Kentucky in 1781 or 
1782, where, a year or two later, he was 
killed by Indians — not in battle, but by 
stealth, when he was laboring to open a 
farm in the forest. His ancestors, who were 
Quakers, went to Virginia from Berks 
County, Pennsylvania. An effort to iden- 



tify them with the New England family of 
the same name ended in nothing more defi- 
nite than a similarity of Christian names in 
both families, such as Enoch, Levi, Mor- 
decai, Solomon, Abraham and the like. 
My father, at the death of his father, was 
but six years of age, and he grew up, liter- 
ally, without education. He removed from 
Kentucky to what is now Spencer County, 
Indiana, in my eighth year. We reached 
our new home about the time the State came 
into the Union. It was a wild region, with 
bears and other wild animals still in the 
woods. There I grew to manhood. 

" There were some schools, so called, but 
no qualification was ever required of a 
teacher bevond ' readin', writin', and cipher- 
in' to the rule of three.' If a straggler, sup- 
posed to understand Latin, happened to 
sojourn in the neighborhood, he was looked 
upon as a wizard. There was absolutely 
nothing to excite ambition for education. 
Of course, when I came of age I did not 
know much. Still, somehow, I could read, 
write and cipher to the rule of three, and 
that was all. I have not been to school 
since. The little advance I now have upon 
this store of education I have picked up 
from time to time under the pressure of 
necessity. I was raised to farm-work, which 






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ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 



87 



I continued till I was twenty-two. At 
twenty-one I came to Illinois and passed 
the first year in Macon County. Then I got 
to New Salem, at that time in Sangamon, 
now in Menard County, where I remained 
a year as a sort of clerk in a store. 

" Then came the Black Hawk war, and I 
was elected a Captain of volunteers — a suc- 
cess which gave rne more pleasure than any 
I have had since. I went the campaign, 
was elated ; ran for the Legislature the 
same year (1832) and was beaten, the only 
time I have ever been beaten by the people. 
The next and three succeeding biennial 
elections I was elected to the Legislature, 
and was never a candidate afterward. 

" During this legislative period I had 
studied law, and removed to Springfield to 
practice it. In 1846 I was elected to the 
Lower House of Congress ; was not a can- 
didate for re-election. From 1849 to 1854, 
inclusive, I practiced the law more assid- 
uously than ever before. Always a Whig 
in politics, and generally on the Whig elec- 
toral tickets, making active canvasses, I was 
losing interest in politics, when the repeal 
of the Missouri Compromise roused me 
again. What I have done since is pretty 
well known." 

The early residence of Lincoln in Indi- 
ana was sixteen miles north of the Ohio 
River, on Little Pigeon Creek, one and a 
half miles east of Gentryville, within the 
present township of Carter. Here his 
mother died October 5, 18 18, and the next 
year his father married Mrs. Sally (Bush) 
Johnston, of Elizabethtown, Kentucky. She 
was an affectionate foster-parent, to whom 
Abraham was indebted for his first encour- 
agement to study. He became an eager 
reader, and the few books owned in the 
vicinity were many times perused. He 
worked frequently for the neighbors as a 
farm laborer ; was for some time clerk in a 
store at Gentryville ; and became famous 
throusfhout that regfion for his athletic 



powers, his fondness for argument, his in- 
exhaustible fund of humerous anecdote, as 
well as for mock oratory and the composi- 
tion of rude satirical verses. In 1828 he 
made a trading voyage to New Orleans as 
"bow-hand" on a flatboat; removed to 
Illinois in 1830; helped his father build a 
log house and clear a farm on the north 
fork of Sangamon River, ten miles west of 
Decatur, and was for some time employed 
in splitting rails for the fences — a fact which 
was prominently brought forward for a 
political purpose thirty years later. 

In the spring of 185 1 he, with two of his 
relatives, was hired to build a flatboat on 
the Sangamon River and navigate it to 
New Orleans. The boat " stuck " on a 
mill-dam, and was got off with great labor 
through an ingenious mechanical device 
which some years later led to Lincoln's 
taking out a patent for "an improved 
method for lifting vessels over shoals." 
This voyage was memorable for another 
reason — the sight of slaves chained, mal- 
treated and flogged at New Orleans was 
the origin of his deep convictions upon the 
slavery question. 

Returning from this voyage he became a 
resident for several years at New Salem, a 
recentl}^ settled village on the Sangamon, 
where he was successively a clerk, grocer, 
surveyor and postmaster, and acted as pilot 
to the first steamboat that ascended the 
Sangamon. Here he studied law, inter- 
ested himself in local politics after his 
return from the Black Hawk war, and 
became known as an effective "stump- 
speaker." The subject of his first political 
speech was the improvement of the channel 
of the Sangamon, and the chief ground on 
which he announced himself (1832) a candi- 
date for the Legislature was his advocacy 
of this popular measure, on which subject 
his practical experience made him the high- 
est authority. 

Elected to the Legislature in 1834 as a 



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88 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



" Henry Clay Whig," he rapidly acquired 
that command of language and that homely 
but forcible rhetoric which, added to his 
intimate knowledge of the people from 
which he sprang, made him more than a 
match in debate for his few well-educated 
opponents. 

Admitted to the bar in 1837 he soon 
established himself at Springfield, where 
the State capital was located in 1839, 
largely through his influence; became a 
successful pleader in the State, Circuit and 
District Courts ; married in 1842 a lady be- 
longing to a prominent family in Lexington, 
Kentucky; took an active part in the Pres- 
idential campaigns of 1840 and 1844 as 
candidate for elector on the Harrison and 
Clay tickets, and in 1846 was elected to the 
United States House of Representatives 
over the celebrated Peter Cartwright. 
During his single term in Congress he did 
not attain an}^ prominence. 

He voted for the reception of anti-slavery 
petitions for the abolition of the slave trade 
in the District of Columbia and for the 
Wilmot proviso; but was chiefly remem- 
bered for the stand he took against the 
Mexican war. For several )^ears there- 
after he took comparatively little interest 
in politics, but gained a leading position at 
the Springfield bar. Two or three non- 
political lectures and an eulogy on Henry 
Clay (1852) added nothing to his reputation. 

In 1854 the repeal of the Missouri 
Compromise by the Kansas-Nebraska act 
aroused Lincoln from his indifference, and 
in attacking that measure he had the im- 
mense advantage of knowing perfectly well 
the motives and the record of its author, 
Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, then popu- 
larly designated as the " Little Giant." The 
latter came to Springfield in October, 1854, 
on the occasion of the State Fair, to vindi- 
cate his policy in the Senate, and the " Anti- 
Nebraska" Whigs, remembering that Lin- 
coln had often measured his strength with 



Douglas in the Illinois Legislature and be- 
fore the Springfield Courts, engaged him 
to improvise a reply. This speech, in the 
opinion of those who heard it, was one of 
the greatest efforts of Lincoln's life ; cer- 
tainly the most effective in his whole career. 
It took the audience by storm, and from 
that moment it was felt that Douglas had 
met his match. Lincoln was accordingly 
selected as the Anti-Nebraska candidate for 
the United States Senate in place of General 
Shields, whose term expired March 4, 1855, 
and led to several ballots ; but Trumbull 
was ultimately chosen. 

The second conflict on the soil of Kan- 
sas, which Lincoln had predicted, soon be- 
gan. The result was the disruption of the 
Whig and the formation of the Republican 
party. At the Bloomington State Conven- 
tion in 1856, where the new party first 
assumed form in Illinois, Lincoln made an 
impressive address, in which for the first 
time he took distinctive ground against 
slavery in itself. 

At the National Republican Convention 
at Philadelphia, June 17, after the nomi- 
nation of Fremont, Lincoln was put for- 
ward by the Illinois delegation for the 
Vice-Presidency, and received on the first 
ballot no votes against 259 for William L 
Dayton. He took a prominent part in the 
canvass, being on the electoral ticket. 

In 1858 Lincoln was unanimously nomi- 
nated by the Republican State Convention 
as its candidate for the United States Senate 
in place of Douglas, and in his speech of 
acceptance used the celebrated illustration 
of a "house divided against itself " on the 
slavery question, which was, perhaps, the 
cause of his defeat. The great debate car- 
ried on at all the principal towns of Illinois 
between Lincoln and Douglas as rival Sena- 
torial candidates resulted at the time in the 
election of the latter ; but being widely cir- 
culated as a campaign document, it fixed 
the attention of the country upon the 



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ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 



89 



former, as the clearest and most convinc- 
ing exponent of Republican doctrine. 

Early in 1859 ^^ began to be named in 
Illinois as a suitable Republican candidate 
for the Presidential campaign of the ensu- 
ing year, and a political address delivered 
at the Cooper Institute, New York, Febru- 
ary 27, i860, followed by similar speeches 
at New Haven, Hartford and elsewhere in 
New England, first made him known to the 
Eastern States in the light by which he had 
long been regarded at home. By the Re- 
publican State Convention, which met at 
Decatur, Illinois, May 9 and 10, Lincoln 
was unanimously endorsed for the Presi- 
dency. It was on this occasion that two 
rails, said to have been split by his hands 
thirty years before, were brought into the 
convention, and the incident contributed 
much to his popularity. The National 
Republican Convention at Chicago, after 
spirited efforts made in favor of Seward, 
Chase and Bates, nominated Lincoln for 
the Presidency, with Hannibal Hamlin 
for Vice-President, at the same time adopt- 
ing a vigorous anti-slavery platform. 

The Democratic party having been dis- 
organized and presenting two candidates, 
Douglas and Breckenridge, and the rem- 
nant of the " American" party having put 
forward John Bell, of Tennessee, the Re- 
publican victory was an easy one, Lincoln 
being elected November 6 by a large plu- 
rality, comprehending nearly all the North- 
en States, but none of the Southern. The 
secession of South Carolina and the Gulf 
States was the immediate result, followed 
a few months later by that of the border 
slave States and the outbreak of the great 
civil war. 

The life of Abraham Lincoln became 
thenceforth merged in the history of his 
country. None of the details of the vast 
conflict which filled the remainder of Lin- 
coln's life can here be given. Narrowly 
escaping assassination by avoiding Balti- 



more on his way to the capital, he reached 
Washington February 23, and was inaugu- 
rated President of the United States March 
4, 1861. 

In his inaugural address he said: " I hold, 
that in contemplation of universal law and 
the Constitution the Union of these States is 
perpetual. Perpetuity is implied if not ex- 
pressed in the fundamental laws of all na- 
tional governments. It is safe to assert 
that no government proper ever had a pro- 
vision in its organic law for its own termi- 
nation. I therefore consider that in view 
of the Constitution and the laws, the Union 
is unbroken, and to the extent of my ability 
I shall take care, as the Constitution en- 
joins upon me, that the laws of the United 
States be extended in all the States. In 
doing this there need be no bloodshed or vio- 
lence, and there shall be none unless it be 
forced upon the national authority. The 
power conferred to me will be used to hold, 
occupy and possess the property and places 
belonging to the Government, and to col- 
lect the duties and imports, but beyond 
what may be necessary for these objects 
there will be no invasion, no using of force 
against or among the people anywhere. In 
your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-country- 
men, is the momentous issue of civil war. 
The Government will not assail you. You 
can have no conflict without being your- 
selves the aggressors. You have no oath 
registered in heaven to destroy the Gov- 
ernment, while I shall have the most sol- 
emn one to preserve, protect and defend 
it." 

He called to his cabinet his principal 
rivals for the Presidential nomination — - 
Seward, Chase, Cameron and Bates; se- 
cured the co-operation of the Union Demo- 
crats, headed by Douglas; called out 75,000 
militia from the several States upon the first 
tidings of the bombardment of Fort Sumter, 
April 15; proclaimed a blockade of the 
Southern posts April 19; called an extra 



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90 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



session of Congress for July 4, from which 
he asked and obtained 400,000 men and 
$400,000,000 for the war; placed McClellan 
at the head of the Federal army on General 
Scott's resignation, October 31; appointed 
Edwin M. Stanton Secretary of War, Jan- 
uary 14, 1862, and September 22, 1862, 
issued a proclamation declaring the free- 
dom of all slaves in the States and parts of 
States then in rebellion from and after 
January i, 1863. This was the crowning 
act of Lincoln's career — the act by which 
he will be chiefly known through all future 
time — and it decided the war. 

October 16, 1863, President Lincoln called 
for 300,000 volunteers to replace those 
whose term of enlistment had expired ; 
made a celebrated and touching, though 
brief, address at the dedication of the 
Gettysburg military cemetery, November 
19, 1863; commissioned Ulysses S. Grant 
Lieutenant-General and Commander-in- 
Chief of the armies of the United States, 
March 9, 1864; was re-elected President in 
November of the same year, by a large 
majority over General McClellan, with 
Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, as Vice- 
President; delivered a very remarkable ad- 
dress at his second inauguration, March 4, 
1865; visited the army before Richmond the 
same month; entered the capital of the Con- 
federacy the day after its fall, and upon the 
surrender of General Robert E. Lee's army, 
April 9, was actively engaged in devising 
generous plans for the reconstruction of the 
Union, when, on the evening of Good Fri- 
day, April 14, he was shot in his box at 
Ford's Theatre, Washington, by John Wilkes 
Booth, a fanatical actor, and expired early 
on the following morning, April 15. Al- 
most simultaneousl}^ a murderous attack 
was made upon William H. Seward, Secre- 
tary of State. 

At noon on the 15th of April Andrew 



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Johnson assumed the Presidency, and active 
measures were taken which resulted in the 
death of Booth and the execution of his 
principal accomplices. 

The funeral of President Lincoln was 
conducted with unexampled solemnity and 
magnificence. Impressive services were 
held in Washington, after which the sad 
procession proceeded over the same route 
he had traveled four years before, from 
Springfield to Washington. In Philadel- 
phia his body lay in state in Independence 
Hall, in which he had declared before his 
first inauguration " that I would sooner be 
assassinated than to give up the principles 
of the Declaration of Independence." He 
was buried at Oak Ridge Cemetery, near 
Springfield, Illinois, on May 4, where a 
monument emblematic of the emancipation 
of the slaves and the restoration of the 
Union mark his resting place. 

The leaders and citizens of the expiring 
Confederacy expressed genuine indignation 
at the murder of a generous political adver- 
sary. Foreign nations took part in mourn- 
ing the death of a statesman who had proved 
himself a true representative of American 
nationality. The freedmen of the South 
almost worshiped the memory of their de- 
liverer ; and the general sentiment of the 
ofreat Nation he had saved awarded him a 
place in its affections, second only to that 
held by Washington. 

The characteristics of Abraham Lincoln 
have been familiarly known throughout the 
civilized world. His tall, gaunt, ungainly 
figure, homely countenance, and his shrewd 
mother-wit, shown in his celebrated con- 
versations overflowing in humorous and 
pointed anecdote, combined with an accu- 
rate, intuitive appreciation of the questions 
of the time, are recognized as forming the 
best type of a period of American history 
now rapidly passing away. 



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NDREW JOHNSON, i 
the seventeenth Presi- 
dent of the United 
States, i865-'9, was 
born at Raleigh, 
North Carolina, De- 
t c e m b e r 29, 1808. 
His father died when 
he was four years old, and in 
his eleventh year he was ap- 
prenticed to a tailor. He nev- 
er attended school, and did 
not learn to read until late in 
his apprenticeship, when he 
suddenly acquired a passion for 
obtaining knowledge, and devoted 
all his spare time to reading. 

After working two years as a journey- 
man tailor at Lauren's Court-House, South 
Carolina, he removed, in 1826, to Green- 
ville, Tennessee, where he worked at his 
trade and married. Under his wife's in- 
structions he made rapid progress in his 
education, and manifested such an intelli- 
gent interest in local politics as to be 
elected as " workingmen's candidate " al- 
derman, in 1828, and mayor in 1830, being 
twice re-elected to each office. 

During this period he cultivated his tal- 
ents as a public speaker by taking part in a 



debating society, consisting largely of stu- 
dents of Greenville College. In 1835, and 
again in 1839, he was chosen to the lower 
house of the Legislature, as a Democrat. 
In 1 841 he was elected State Senator, and 
in 1843, Representative in Congress, being 
re-elected four successive periods, until 
1853, when he was chosen Governor of 
Tennessee. In Congress he supported the 
administrations of Tyler and Polk in their 
chief measures, especially the annexation 
of Texas, the adjustment of the Oregon 
boundary, the Mexican war, and the tariff 
of 1846. 

In 1855 Mr. Johnson was re elected Gov- 
ernor, and in 1857 entered the United 
States Senate, where he was conspicuous 
as an advocate of retrenchment and of the 
Homestead bill, and as an opponent of the 
Pacific Railroad. He was supported by the 
Tennessee delegation to the Democratic 
convention in i860 for the Presidential 
nomination, and lent his influence to the 
Breckenridge wing of that party. 

When the election of Lincoln had 
brought about the first attempt at secession 
in December, i860, Johnson took in the 
Senate a firm attitude for the Union, and 
in May, 1861, on returning to Tennessee, 
he was in imminent peril of suffering from 



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popular violence for his loyalty to the " old These States accordingly claimed represen- 
flag." He was the leader of the Loyalists' 
convention of East Tennessee, and during 
the following winter was very active in or- 
ganizing relief for the destitute loyal refu- 
gees from that region, his own family being 
among those compelled to leave. 



tation in Congress in the following Decem- 
ber, and the momentous question of what 
should be the policy of the victorious Union 
toward its late armed opponents was forced 
upon that body. 

Two considerations impelled the Repub- 



By his course in this crisis Johnson came lican majority to reject the policy of Presi. 
prominently before the Northern public, i dent Johnson: First, an apprehension that 
and when in March, 1862, he was appointed the chief magistrate intended to undo the re- 
by President Lincoln military Governor of sultsof the war in regard to slaver3'^;and,sec- 



Tennessee, with the rank of Brigadier-Gen- 
eral, he increased in popularity by the vig- 
orous and successful manner in which he 
labored to restore order, protect Union 
men and punish marauders. On the ap- 
proach of the Presidential campaign of 1864, 
the termination of the war being plainly 
foreseen, and several Southern States being 
partially reconstructed, it was felt that the 
Vice-Presidency should be given to a South- 
ern man of conspicuous loyalty, and Gov- 
ernor Johnson was elected on the same 
platform and ticket as President Lincoln; 
and on the assassination of the latter suc- 
ceeded to the Presidenc3% April 15, 1865. 
In a public speech two days later he said: 
"The American people must be taught, if 
they do not already feel, that treason is a 
crime and must be punished; that the Gov- 
ernment will not alwavs bear with its ene- 



ond, the sullen attitude of the South, which 
seemed to be plotting to regain the policy 
which arms had lost. The credentials of the 
Southern members elect were laid on the 
table, a civil rights bill and a bill extending 
the sphere of the Freedmen's Bureau were 
passed over the executive veto, and the two 
highest branches of the Government were 
soon in open antagonism. The action of 
Congress was characterized by the Presi- 
dent as a " new rebellion." In July the 
cabinet was reconstructed, Messrs. Randall, 
Stanbury and Browning taking the places 
of Messrs. Denison, Speed and Harlan, and 
an unsuccessful attempt was made by 
means of a general convention in Philadel- 
phia to form a new party on the basis of the 
administration policy. 

In an excursion to Chicago for the pur- 
pose of laying a corner-stone of the monu- 



mics; that it is strong, not only to protect, ment to Stephen A. Douglas, President 



but to punish. In (jur peaceful history 
treason has been almost unknown. The 
people must understand that it is the black- 
est of crimes, and will be punished." He 
then added the ominous sentence: " In re- 



Johnson, accompanied by several members 
of the cabinet, passed through Philadelphia, 
New York and Albany, in each of which 
cities, and in other places along the route, 
he made speeches justifying and explaining 



gard to my future course, I make no prom- his own policy, and violently denouncing 
ises, no pledges." President Johnson re- the action of Congress, 
tained the cabinet of Lincoln, and exhibited August 12, 1867, President Johnson re- 

considerable severity toward traitors in his moved the Secretary of War, replacing 
earlier acts and speeches, but he soon inaug- ! him by General Grant. Secretary Stanton 
urated a policy of reconstruction, proclaim- retired under protest, based upon the ten- 
ing a general amnesty to the late Confcder- 1 ure-of-office act which had been passed the 
ates, and successively establishing provis- | preceding March. The President then is- 
ional Governments in the Southern States. [ sued a proclamation declaring the insurrec- 



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A NDRE W JOHNSON. 



tion at an end, and that " peace, order, tran- 
quility and civil authority existed in and 
throughout the United States." Another 
proclamation enjoined obedience to the 
Constitution and the laws, and an amnesty 
was published September 7, relieving nearly 
all the participants in the late Rebellion 
from the disabilities thereby incurred, on 
condition of taking the oath to support the 
Constitution and the laws. 

In December Congress refused to confirm 
the removal of Secretary Stanton, who 
thereupon resumed the exercise of his of- 
fice; but February 21, 1868, President 
Johnson again attempted to remove him, 
appointing General Lorenzo Thomas in his 
place. Stanton refused to vacate his post, 
and was sustained by the Senate. 

February 24 the House of Representa- 
tives voted to impeach the President for 
" high crime and misdemeanors," and March 
5 presented eleven articles of impeachment 
on the ground of his resistance to the exe- 
cution of the acts of Congress, alleging, in 
addition to the offense lately committed, 
his public expressions of contempt for Con- 
gress, in " certain intemperate, inflamma- 
tory and scandalous harangues" pronounced 
in August and September, 1866, and there- 
after declaring that the Thirty-ninth Con- 
gress of the United States was not a 
competent legislative body, and denying 
its power to propose Constitutional amend- 
ments. March 23 the impeachment trial 
began, the President appearing by counsel, 
and resulted in acquittal, the vote lacking 



one of the two-thirds vote required for 
conviction. 

The remainder of President Johnson's 
term of oflfice was passed without any such 
conflicts as might have been anticipated. 
He failed to obtain a nomination for re- 
election by the Democratic party, though 
receiving sixty-five votes on the first ballot. 
July 4 and December 25 new proclamations 
of pardon to the participants in the late 
Rebellion were issuer*, but were of little 
effect. On the accession of General Grant 
to the Presidency, March 4, 1869, Johnson 
returned to Greenville, Tennessee. Unsuc- 
cessful in 1870 and 1872 as a candidate re- 
spectively for United States Senator and 
Representative, he was finally elected to the 
Senate in 1875, and took his seat in the extra 
session of March, in which his speeches 
were comparatively temperate. He died 
July 31, 1875, and was buried at Green- 
ville. 

President Johnson's administration was a 
peculiarly unfortunate one. That he should 
so soon become involved in bitter feud with 
the Republican mpjoritv in Congress was 
certainly a surprising and deplorable inci- 
dent; yet, in reviewing the circumstances 
after a lapse of so many years, it is easy to 
find ample room for a charitable judgment 
of both the parties in the heated contro- 
versy, since it cannot be doubted that any 
President, even Lincoln himself, had he 
lived, must have sacrificed a large portion 
of his popularity in carrying out any pos- 
sible scheme of reconstruction. 



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96 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



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LYSSES SIMPSON 
GRANT, the eight- 
eenth President of the 
United States, i869-'77, 
was born April 27, 1 822, 
at Point Pleasant, 
1^ Clermont County, 
Ohio. His father was of Scotch 
descent, and a dealer in leather. 
At the age of seventeen he en- 
tered the Military Academy at 
West Point, and four years later 
graduated twenty-first in a class 
of thirty-nine, receiving the 
commission of Brevet Second 
Lieutenant. He was assigned 
to the Fourth Infantry and re- 
mained in the army eleven years. He was 
engaged in every battle of the Mexican war 
except that of Buena Vista, and received 
two brevets for gallantr3^ 

In 1848 Mr. Grant married J ulia,daughter 
of Frederick Dent, a prominent merchant of 
St. Louis, and in 1854, having reached the 
grade of Captain, he resigned his commis- 
sion in the arm}'. For several years he fol- 
lowed farming near St. Louis, but unsuc- 
cessfully ; and in i860 he entered the leather 
trade with his father at Galena, Illinois. 

When the civil war broke out in 1861, 
Grant was thirty-nine years of age, but en- 
tirclv unknown to public men and without 




any personal acquaintance with great affairs. 
President Lincoln's first call for troops was 
made on the 15th of April, and on the 19th 
Grant was drilling a company of volunteers 
at Galena. He also offered his services to 
the Adjutant-General of the army, but re- 
ceived no reply. The Governor of Illinois, 
however, employed him in the organization 
of volunteer troops, and at the end of five 
weeks he was appointed Colonel of the 
Twenty-first Infantry. He took command 
of his regiment in June, and reported first 
to General Pope in Missouri. His superior 
knowledge of military life rather surprised 
his superior officers, who had never before 
even heard of him, and they were thus led 
to place him on the road to rapid advance- 
ment. August 7 he was commissioned a 
Brigadier-General of volunteers, the ap- 
pointment having been made without his 
knowledge. He had been unanimously 
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September i he was placed in command 
of the District of Southeast Missouri, with 
headquarters at Cairo, and on the 6th, with- 
out orders, he seized Paducah, at the mouth 
of the Tennessee River, and commanding 
the uavii-atioii hotii of that stream and of 



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C/LTSSES S. GRANT. 



99 



the Ohio. This stroke secured Kentucky 
to the Union ; for the State Legislature, 
which had until then affected to be neutral, 
at once declared in favor of the Govern- 
ment. In November following, according 
to orders, he made a demonstration about 
eighteen miles below Cairo, preventing the 
crossing of hostile troops into Missouri ; 
but in order to accomplish this purpose he 
had to do some fighting, and that, too, with 
only 3,000 raw recruits, against 7,000 Con- 
federates. Grant carried off two pieces of 
artillery and 200 prisoners. 

After repeated applications to General 
Halleck, his immediate superior, he was 
allowed, in February, 1862, to move up the 
Tennessee River against Fort Henry, in 
conjunction with a naval force. The gun- 
boats silenced the fort, and Grant immedi- 
ately made preparations to attack Fort 
Donelson, about twelve miles distant, on 
the Cumberland River. Without waiting 
for orders he moved his troops there, and 
with 15,000 men began the siege. The 
fort, garrisoned with 21,000 men, was a 
strong one, but after hard fighting on three 
successive days Grant forced an " Uncon- 
ditional Surrender " (an alliteration upon 
the initials of his name). The prize he capt- 
ured consisted of sixty -five cannon, 17,600 
small arms and 14,623 soldiers. About 4,- 
000 of the garrison had escaped in the night, 
and 2,500 were killed or wounded. Grant's 
entire loss was less than 2,000. This was the 
first important success won by the national 
troops during the war, and its strategic re- 
sults were marked, as the entire States of 
Kentucky and Tennessee at once fell into the 
National hands. Our hero was made a 
Major-General of Volunteers and placed in 
command of the District of West Ten- 
nessee. 

In March, 1862, he was ordered to move 
up the Tennessee River toward Corinth, 
where the Confederates were concentrat- 
ing a large army ; but he was directed not 



to attack. His forces, now numbering 38,- 
000, were accordingly encamped near Shi- 
loh, or Pittsburg Landing, to await the 
arrival of General Buell with 40,000 more; 
but April 6 the Confederates came out from 
Corinth 50,000 strong and attacked Grant 
violently, hoping to overwhelm him before 
Buell could arrive ; 5,000 of his troops were 
beyond supporting distance, so that he was 
largely outnumbered and forced back to the 
river, where, however, he held out until 
dark, when the head of Buell's column 
came upon the field. The next day the 
Confederates were driven back to Corinth, 
nineteen miles. The loss was heavy on 
both sides ; Grant, being senior in rank to 
Buell, commanded on both days. Two 
days afterward Halleck arrived at the front 
and assumed command of the army. Grant 
remaining at the head of the right wing and 
the reserve. On May 30 Corinth was 
evacuated by the Confederates. In July 
Halleck was made General-in-Chief, and 
Grant succeeded him in command of the 
Department of the Tennessee. September 
19 the battle of luka was fought, where, 
owing to Rosecrans's fault, only an incom- 
plete victory was obtained. 

Next, Grant, with 30,000 men, moved 
down into Mississippi and threatened Vicks- 
burg, while Sherman, with 40,000 men, was 
sent by way of the river to attack that place 
in front ; but, owing to Colonel Murphy's 
surrendering Holly Springs to the Con- 
federates, Grant was so weakened that he 
had to retire to Corinth, and then Sherman 
failed to sustain his intended attack. 

In January, 1863, General Grant took 
command in person of all the troops in the 
Mississippi Valley, and spent several months 
in fruitless attempts to compel the surrender 
or evacuation of Vicksburg; but July 4, 
following, the place surrendered, with 31,- 
600 men and 172 cannon, and the Mississippi 
River thus fell permanently into the hands 
of the Government. Grant was made a 






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PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Major-General in the regular army, and in 
October following he was placed in com- 
mand of the Division of the Mississippi. 
The same month he went to Chattanooga 
and saved the Army of the Cumberland 
from starvation, and drove Bragg from that 
part of the country. This victory over- 
threw the last important hostile force west 
of the AUeghanies and opened the way for 
the National armies into Georgia and Sher- 
man's march to the sea. 

The remarkable series of successes which 
Grant had now achieved pointed him out 
as the appropriate leader of the National 
armies, and accordingly, in February, 1864, 
the rank of Lieutenant-General was created 
for him by Congress, and on March 17 he 
assumed command of the armies of the 
United States. Planning the grand final 
campaign, he sent Sherman into Georgia, 
Sigel into the valley of Virginia, and Butler 
to capture Richmond, while he fought his 
own way from the Rapidan to the James. 
The costly but victorious battles of the 
Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna and 
Cold Harbor were fought, more for the 
purpose of annihilating Lee than to capture 
any particular point. In June, 1864, the 
siege of Richmond was begun. Sherman, 
meanwhile, was marching and fighting daily 
in Georgia and steadily advancing toward 
Atlanta ; but Sigel had been defeated in the 
valley of Virginia, and was superseded by 
Hunter. Lee sent Early to threaten the Na- 
tional capital ; whereupon Grant gathered 
up a force which he placed under Sheridan, 
and that commander rapidly drove Early, 
inasuccessionof battles, through the valley 
of Virginia and destroyed his army as an 
organized force. The siege of Richmond 
went on, and Grant made numerous attacks, 
but was only partially successful. The 
people of the North grew impatient, and 
even the Government advised him to 
abandon the attempt to take Richmond or 
crush the Confederacy in that way; but he 



never wavered. He resolved to " fight it 
out on that line, if it took all summer." 

By September Sherman had made his 
way to Atlanta, and Grant then sent him 
on his famous " march to the sea," a route 
which the chief had designed six months 
before. He made Sherman's success possi- 
ble, not only by holding Lee in front of 
Richmond, but also by sending reinforce- 
ments to Thomas, who then drew off and 
defeated the only army which could have 
confronted Sherman. Thus the latter was 
left unopposed, and, with Thomas and Sheri- 
dan, was used in the furtherance of Grant's 
plans. Each executed his part in the great 
design and contributed his share to the re- 
sult at which Grant was aiming. Sherman 
finally reached Savannah, Schofield beat 
the enemy at Franklin, Thomas at Nash- 
ville, and Sheridan wherever he met him ; 
and all this while General Grant was hold- 
ing Lee, with the principal Confederate 
army, near Richmond, as it were chained 
and helpless. Then Schofield was brought 
from the West, and Fort Fisher and Wil- 
mington were captured on the sea-coast, so 
as to afford him a foothold ; from here he 
was sent into the interior of North Caro- 
lina, and Sherman was ordered to move 
northward to join him. When all this was 
effected, and Sheridan could find no one else 
to fight in the Shenandoah Valley, Grant 
brought the cavalry leader to the front of 
Richmond, and, making a last effort, drove 
Lee from his entrenchments and captured 
Richmond. 

At the beginning of the final campaign 
Lee had collected 73,000 fighting men in 
the lines at Richmond, besides the local 
militia and the gunboat crews, amounting 
to 5,000 more. Including Sheridan's force 
Grant had 1 10,000 men in the works before 
Petersburg and Richmond. Petersburg fell 
on the 2d of April, and Richmond on the 
3d, and Lee fled in the direction of Lynch- 
burg. Grant pursued with remorseless 



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energy, only stopping to strike fresh blows, 
and Lee at last found himself not only out- 
fought but also out-marched and out-gen- 
eraled. Being completely surrounded, he 
surrendered on the 9th of April, 1865, at 
Appomattox Court-House, in the open field, 
with 27,000 men, all that remained of his 
army. This act virtually ended the war. 
Thus, in ten days Grant had captured 
Petersburg and Richmond, fought, by his 
subordinates, the battles of Five Forks and 
Sailor's Creek, besides numerous smaller 
ones, captured 20,000 men in actual battle, 
and received the surrender of 27,000 more 
at Appomattox, absolutely annihilating an 
army of 70,000 soldiers. 

General Grant returned at once to Wash- 
ington to superintend the disbandment of 
the armies, but this pleasurable work was 
scarcely begun when President Lincoln was 
assassinated. It had doubtless been in- 
tended to inflict the same fate upon Grant ; 
but he, fortunately, on account of leaving 
Washington early in the evening, declined 
an invitation to accompanj- the President 
to the theater where the murder was com- 
mitted. This event made Andrew Johnson 
President, but left Grant by far the most 
conspicuous figure in the public life of the 
country. He became the object of an en- 
thusiasm greater than had ever been known 
in America. Every possible honor was 
heaped upon him; the grade of General 
was created for him by Congress; houses 
were presented to him by citizens ; towns 
were illuminated on his entrance into them ; 
and, to cap the climax, when he made his 
tour around the world, "all nations did him 
honor " as they had never before honored 
a foreigner. 

The General, as Commander-in-Chief, 
was placed in an embarrassing position by 
the opposition of President Johnson to the 
measures of Congress ; but he directly man- 
ifested his characteristic loyalty by obeying 
Congress rather than the disaffected Presi- 



dent, although for a short time he had 
served in his cabinet as Secretary of War. 

Of course, everybody thought of General 
Grant as the next President of the United 
States, and he was accordingly elected as 
such in 1868 "by a large majority," and 
four years later re-elected by a much larger 
majority — the most overwhelming ever 
given by the people of this country. His first 
administration was distinguished by a ces- 
sation of the strifes which sprang from the 
war, by a large reduction of the National 
debt, and bv a settlement of the dif^culties 
with England which had grown out of the 
depredations committed by privateers fit- 
ted out in England during the war. This 
last settlement was made by the famous 
" Geneva arbitration," which saved to this 
Government $1 5,000,000, but, more than all, 
prevented a war with England. " Let us 
have peace," was Grant's motto. And this 
is the most appropriate place to remark 
that above all Presidents whom this Gov- 
ernment has ever had. General Grant was 
the most non-partisan. He regarded the 
Executive office as purely and exclusively 
executive of the laws of Congress, irrespect- 
ive of " politics." But every great man 
has jealous, bitter enemies, a fact Grant 
was well aware of. 

After the close of his Presidency, our 
General made his famous tour around the 
world, already referred to, and soon after- 
ward, in company with Ferdinand Ward, 
of New York City, he engaged in banking 
and stock brokerage, which business was 
made disastrous to Grant, as well as to him- 
self, by his rascality. By this time an in- 
curable cancer of the tongue developed 
itself in the person of the afflicted ex- 
President, which ended his unrequited life 
July 23, 1885. Thus passed away from 
earth's turmoils the man, the General, who 
was as truly the " father of this regenerated 
country" as was Washington the father of 
the infant nation. 









J'NESJDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 







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UTHERFORD BIRCH- 
: ARD HAYES, thenine- 
\d/ teenth President of 
?^ the United States, 
i877-'8i, was born in 
Delaware, Ohio, Oc- 
tober 4, 1822. His 
ancestry can be traced as far 
back as 1280, when Hayes and 
Rutherford were two Scottish 
cliieftains fighting side by side 
with BaHol, WiUiam Wallace 
and Robert Bruce. Both fami- 
lies belonged to the nobility, 
owned extensive estates and had 
a large following. The Hayes 
family had, for a coat of-arms, a 
shield, barred and surmounted by a flying 
eagle. There was a circle of stars about 
the eagle and above the shield, while on a 
scroll underneath the shield was inscribed 
the motto, "Recte." Misfortune overtaking 
the family, George Hayes left Scotland in 
1680, and settled in Windsor, Connecticut. 
He was an industrious worker in wood and 
iron, having a mechanical genius and a cul- 
tivated mind. His son George was born 
in Windsor and remained there during his 
life. 

Daniel Hayes, son of the latter, married 
Sarah Lee, and lived in Simsburv, Con- 




necticut. Ezekiel, son of Daniel, was born 
in 1724, and was a manufactvirer of scythes 
at Bradford, Connecticut. Rutherford 
Hayes, son of Ezekiel and grandfather of 
President Hayes, was born in New Haven, 
in August, 1756. He was a famous black- 
smith and tavern-keeper. He immigrated to 
Vermont at an unknown date, settling in 
Brattleboro where he established a hotel. 
Here his son Rutherford, father of Presi- 
dent Hayes, was born. In September, 1813, 
he married Sophia Birchard, of Wilming- 
ton, Vermont, whose ancestry on the male 
side is traced back to 1635, to John Birch- 
ard, one of the principal founders of Nor- 
wich. Both of her grandfathers were 
soldiers in the Revolutionary war. 

The father of President Ha3'es was of a 
mechanical turn, and could mend a plow, 
knit a stocking, or do almost anything that 
he might undertake. He was prosperous 
in business, a member of the church and 
active in all the benevolent enterprises of 
the town. After the close of the war of 1812 
he immigrated to Ohio, and purchased a 
farm near the present town of Delaware. 
His family then consisted of his wife and 
two children, and an orphan girl whom he 
had adopted. 

It was in 1817 that the family arrived at 
Delaware. Instead of settling upon his 



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RUTHERFORD B. HATES. 



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farm, Mr. Hayes concluded to enter into 
business in the village. He purchased an 
interest in a distillery, a business then as re- 
spectable as it was profitable. His capital 
and recognized ability assured him the 
highest social position in the communit3^ 
He died July 22, 1822, less than three 
months before the birth of the son that was 
df'stined to fill the ofiice of President of the 
United States. 

Mrs. Hayes at this period was very weak, 
and the subject of this sketch was so feeble 
at birth that he was not expected to live 
beyond a month or two at most. As the 
months went by he grew weaker and weaker 
so that the neighbors were in the habit of 
inquiring from time to time "if Mrs. 
Hayes's baby died last night." On one oc- 
casion a neighbor, who was on friendly 
terms with the family, after alluding to the 
boy's big head and the mother's assiduous 
care of him, said to her, in a bantering way, 
"That's right! Stick to him. You have 
got him along so far, and I shouldn't won- 
der if he would really come to something 
yet." " You need not laugh," said Mrs. 
Hayes, " you wait and see. You can't tell 
but I shall make him President of the 
United States yet." 

The boy lived, in spite of the universal 
predictions of his speedy death; and when, 
in 1825, his elder brother was drowned, he 
became, if possible, still dearer to his mother. 
He was seven years old before he was 
placed in school. His education, however, 
was not neglected. His sports were almost 
wholly within doors, his playmates being 
his sister and her associates. These circum- 
stances tended, no doubt, to foster that 
gentleness of disposition and that delicate 
consideration for the feelings of others 
which are marked traits of his character. 
At school he was ardently devoted to his 
studies, obedient to the teacher, and care- 
ful to avoid the quarrels in which many of 
his schoolmates were involved. He was 



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always waiting at the school-house door 
when it opened in the morning, and never 
late in returning to his seat at recess. His 
sister Fannie was his constant companion, 
and their affection for each other excited 
the admiration of their friends. 

In 1838 young Hayes entered Kenyon 
College and graduated in 1842. He then 
began the study of law in the office of 
Thomas Sparrow at Columbus. His health 
was now well established, his figure robust, 
his mind vigorous and alert. In a short 
time he determined to enter the law school 
at Cambridge, Massachusetts, where for 
two years he pursued his studies with great 
diligence. 

In 1845 ^^ ^^^s admitted to the bar at 
Marietta, Ohio, and shortly afterward went 
into practice as an attorney-at-law with 
Ralph P. Buckland, of Fremont. Here he 
remained three years, acquiring but limited 
practice, and apparently unambitious of 
distinction in his profession. His bachelor 
uncle, Sardis Birchard, who had always 
manifested great interest in his nephew and 
rendered him assistance in boyhood, was 
now a wealth}^ banker, and it was under- 
stood that the young man would be his 
heir. It is possible that this expectation 
may have made Mr. Hayes more indifferent 
to the attainment of wealth than he would 
otherwise have been, but he was led into no 
extravagance or vices on this account. 

In 1849 '""^ removed to Cincinnati where 
his ambition found new stimulus. Two 
events occurring at this period had a pow- 
erful influence upon his subsequent life. 
One of them was his marriage to Miss 
Lucy Ware Webb, daughter of Dr. James 
Webb, of Cincinnati; the other was his 
introduction to the Cincinnati Literary 
Club, a body embracing such men as Chief 
Justice Salmon P. Chase, General John 
Pope and Governor Edward F. Noyes. 
The marriage was a fortunate one as every- 
body knows. Not one of all the wives of 



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io6 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



our Presidents was more universally ad- 
mired, reverenced and beloved than is Mrs. 
Hayes, and no one has done more than she 
to reflect honor upon American woman- 
hood. 

In 1856 Air. Hayes was nominated to the 
office of Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas, but declined to accept the nomina- 
tion. Two years later he was chosen to the 
office of City Solicitor. 

In 1861, when the Rebellion broke out, 
he was eager to take up arms in the defense 
of his country. His military life was 
bright and illustrious. June 7, 1861, he 
was appointed Major of the Twenty -third 
Ohio Infantry. In July the regiment was 
sent to Virginia. October 15, 1861, he was 
made Lieutenant-Colonel of his regiment, 
and in August, 1862, was promoted Colonel 
of the Seventy-ninth Ohio Regiment, but 
refused to leave his old comrades. He was 
wounded at the battle of South Mountain, 
and suffered severely, being unable to enter 
upon active duty for several weeks. No- 
vember 30, 1862, he rejoined his regiment as 
its Colonel, having been promoted Octo- 
ber 15. 

December 25, 1862, he was placed in com- 
mand of the Kanawha division, and for 
meritorious service in several battles was 
promoted Brigadier-General. He was also 
brevetted Major-General for distinguished 



He was wounded four 
horses were shot from 



services in 1864. 
times, and five 
under him. 

Mr. Hayes was first a Whig in politics, 
and was among the first to unite with the 
Free-Soil and Republican parties. In 1864 
he was elected to Congress from che Sec- 
ond Ohio District, which had always been 
Democratic, receiving a majority of 3,098. 
In 1 866 he was renominated for Congress 
and was a second time elected. In 1867 he 
was elected Governor over Allen G. Thur- 
man, the Democratic candidate, and re- 
elected in 1869, In 1874 Sardis Birchard 
died, leaving his large estate to General 
Hayes. 

In 1876 he was nominated for the Presi- 
dency. His letter of acceptance excited 
the admiration of the whole country. He 
resigned the office of Governor and retired 
to his home in Fremont to await the result 
of the canvass. After a h-ard, long contest 
he was inaugurated March 5, 1877. His 
Presidency was characterized by compro- 
mises with all parties, in order to please as 
many as possible. The close of his Presi- 
dential term in 1881 was the close of his 
public life, and since then he has remained 
at his home in Fremont, Ohio, in Jefferso- 
nian retirement from public notice, in strik- 
ing contrast with most others of the world's 
notables. 



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yAMES A. GARFIELD. 



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'AMES A. GARFIELD, 

twentieth President of 
the United States, 1881, 
was born November 19, 
1 83 1, in the wild woods 
o f Cuyahoga County, 
Ohio. His parents were 
Abram and EHza (Ballou) 
Garfield, who were of New 
England ancestry. The 
senior Garfield was an in- 
dustrious farmer, as the 
rapid improvements which 
appeared on his place at- 
tested. The residence was 
the familiar pioneer log cabin, 
and the household comprised the parents 
and their children — Mehetable, Thomas, 
Mary and James A. In May, 1833, the 
father died, and the care of the house- 
hold consequently devolved upon young 
Thomas, to whom James was greatly in- 
debted for the educational and other ad- 
vantages he enjoyed. He now lives in 
Michigan, and the two sisters live in Solon, 
Ohio, near their birthplace. 

As the subject of our sketch grew up, he, 
too, was industrious, both in mental and 
physical labor. He worked upon the farm, 
or at carpentering, or chopped wood, or at 
any other odd job that would aid in support 
of the family, and in the meantime made the 



most of his books. Ever afterward he was 
never ashamed of his humble origin, nor for- 
got the friends of his youth. The poorest 
laborer was sure of his sympathy, and he 
always exhibited the character of a modest 
gentleman. 

Until he was about sixteen years of age, 
James's highest ambition was to be a lake 
captain. To this his mother was strongly 
opposed, but she finally consented to his 
going to Cleveland to carry out his long- 
cherished design, with the understanding, 
however, that he should try to obtain some 
other kind of employment. He walked all 
the way to Cleveland, and this was his first 
visit to the city. After making many ap- 
plications for work, including labor on 
board a lake vessel, but all in vain, he 
finally engaged as a driver for his cousin, 
Amos Letcher, on the Ohio & Pennsyl- 
vania Canal. In a short time, however, he 
quit this and returned home. He then at- 
tended the seminary at Chester for about 
three years, and next he entered Hiram In- 
stitute, a school started in 1850 by the 
Disciples of Christ, of which church he was 
a member. In order to pay his way he 
assumed the duties of janitor, and at times 
taught school. He soon completed the cur- 
riculum there, and then entered Williams 
College, at which he graduated in 1856, 
taking one of the highest honors of his class. 



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PRESIDENTS OF THE UN /TED STATES. 



Afterward he returned to Hiram as Presi- 
dent. In his youthful and therefore zealous 
piety, he exercised his talents occasionally 
as a preacher of the Gospel. He was a 
man of strong moral and religious convic- 
tions, and as soon as he began to look into 
politics, he saw innumerable points that 
could be improved. He also studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1859. 
November 11, 1858, Mr. Garfield married 
Miss Lucretia Rudolph, who ever after- 
ward proved a worthy consort in all the 
stages of her husband's career. They had 
seven children, five of whom are still living. 

It was in 1859 that Garfield made his 
first political speeches, in Hiram and the 
neighboring villages, and three years later 
he began to speak at county mass-meetings, 
being received everywhere with popular 
favor. He was elected to the State Senate 
this year, taking his seat in January, i860. 

On the breaking out of the war of the 
Rebellion in 1861, Mr. Garfield resolved to 
fight as he had talked, and accordingly he 
enlisted to defend the old flag, receiving 
his commission as Lieutenant-Colonel of the 
Forty-second Regiment of the Ohio Volun- 
teer Infantry, August 14, that year. He 
was immediately thrown into active service, 
and before he had ever seen a gun fired in 
action he was placed in command of four 
regiments of infantry and eight companies 
of cavalry, charged with the work of driv- 
ing the Confederates, headed by Humphrey 
Marshall, from his native State, Kentucky. 
This task was speedily accomplished, al- 
though against great odds. On account of 
his success. President Lincoln commissioned 
him Brigadier-General, January 11, 1862; 
and, as he had been the youngest man in 
the Ohio Senate two years before, so now 
he was the youngest General in the army. 
He was with General Buell's army at Shi- 
loh, also in its operations around Corinth 
and its march thrciugh Alabama. Next, he 
was detailed as a member of the ireneral 



court-martial for the trial of General Fitz- 
John Porter, ami then ordered to report to 
General Rosecrans, when he was assigned 
to the position of Chief of Staff. His mili- 
tary history closed with his brilliant ser- 
vices at Chickamauga, where he won the 
stars of Major-General. 

In the fall of 1862, without any effort on 
his part, he was elected as a Representative 
to Congress, from that section of Ohio 
which had been represented for sixty years 
mainly by two men — Elisha Whittlesey and 
Joshua R. Giddings. Again, he was the 
youngest member of that body, and con- 
tinued there by successive re-elections, as 
Representative or Senator, until he was 
elected President in 1880. During his life 
in Congress he compiled and published by 
his speeches, there and elsewhere, more 
information on the issues of the day, espe- 
cially on one side, than any other member. 

June 8, 1880, at the National Republican 
Convention held in Chicago, General Gar- 
field was nominated for the Presidency, in 
preference to the old war-horses, Blaine 
and Grant ; and although many of the Re- 
publican party felt sore over the failure of 
their respective heroes to obtain the nomi- 
nation. General Garfield was elected by a 
fair popular majority. He was duly in- 
augurated, but on July 2 following, before 
he had fairly got started in his administra- 
tion, he was fatally shot by a half-demented 
assassin. After ver}' painful and protracted 
suffering, he died September 19, 1881, la- 
mented by all the American people. Never 
before in the history of this country had 
anything occurred which so nearly froze 
the blood of the Nation, for the moment, as 
the awful act of Guiteau, the murderer. 
He was duly tried, convicted and put to 
death on the gallows. 

The lamented Garfield was succeeded by 
the Vice-President, General Arthur, who 
seemed to endeavor to carry out the policy 
inaugurated by his predecessor. 



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CHESTER A. ARTHUR. 



113 



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HESTER ALLEN 
ARTHUR, the twen- 
ty-first Chief Execu- 
tive of this growing 
republic, i88i-'5, was 
born in F r a n k H n 
Count y , Vermont, 
5, 1830, the eldest of a 
of two sons and five 
ters. His father, Rev. 
Dr. William Arthur, a Baptist 
clergyman, immigrated to this 
country from County Antrim, 
Ireland, in his eighteenth year, 
and died in 1875, in Newton- 
ville, near Albany, New York, 
after serving many years as a successful 
minister. Chester A. was educated at that 
old, conservative institution. Union Col- 
lege, at Schenectady, New York, where he 
excelled in all his studies. He graduated 
there, with honor, and then struck out in 
life for himself by teaching school for about 
two years in his native State. 

At the expiration of that time young 
Arthur, with $500 in his purse, went to the 
city of New York and entered the law office 
of ex-Judge E. D. Culver as a student. In 
due time he was admitted to the bar, when 
he formed a partnership with his intimate 



friend and old room-mate, Henry D. Gar- 
diner, with the intention of practicing law 
at some point in the West ; but after spend- 
ing about three months in the Western 
States, in search of an eHgible place, they 
returned to New York City, leased a room, 
exhibited a sign of their business and al- 
most immediately enjoyed a paying patron- 
age. 

At this stage of his career Mr. Arthur's 
business prospects were so encouraging 
that he concluded to take a wife, and ac- 
cordingly he married the daughter of Lieu- 
tenant Herndon, of the United States Navy, 
who had been lost at sea. To the widow 
of the latter Congress voted a gold medal, 
in recognition of the Lieutenant's bravery 
during the occasion in which he lost his 
life. Mrs. Arthur died shortly before her 
husband's nomination to the Vice-Presi- 
dency, leaving two children. 

Mr. Arthur obtained considerable celeb- 
rity as an attorney in the famous Lemmon 
suit, which was brought to recover posses- 
sion of eight slaves, who had been declared 
free by the Superior Court of New York 
City. The noted Charles O'Conor, who 
was nominated by the " Straight Demo- 
crats" in 1872 for the United States Presi- 
dency, was retained by Jonathan G. Lem- 






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114 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



mon, of Virginia, to recover the negroes, 
but he lost the suit. In this case, however, 
Mr. Arthur was assisted by William M. 
Evarts, now United States Senator. Soon 
afterward, in 1856, a respectable qolored 
woman was ejected from a street car in 
New York City. Mr. Arthur sued the car 
companj in her behalf and recovered $500 
damages. Immediately afterward all the 
car companies in the city issued orders to 
their employes to admit colored persons 
upon their cars. 

Mr. Arthur's political doctrines, as well 
as his practice as a lawyer, raised him to 
prominence in the party of freedom ; and 
accordingly he was sent as a delegate to 
the first National Republican Convention. 
Soon afterward he was appointed Judge 
Advocate for the Second Brigade of the 
State of New York, and then Engineer-in- 
Chief on Governor Morgan's staff. In 1861, 
the first year of the war, he was made In- 
spector-General, and next, Quartermaster- 
General, in both which offices he rendered 
great service to the Government. After 
the close of Governor Morgan's term he 
resumed the practice of law, forming first a 
partnership with Mr. Ransom, and subse- 
quently adding Mr. Phelps to the firm. 
Each of these gentlemen were able lawyers. 

November 21, 1872, General Arthur was 
appointed Collector of the Port of New 
York by President Grant, and he held the 
office until July 20, 1878. 

The next event of prominence in General 
Arthur's career was his nomination to the 
Vice-Presidency of the United States, under 
the influence of Roscoe Conkling, at the 
National Republican Convention held at 
Chicago in June, 1880, when James A, Gar- 
field was placed at the head of the ticket. 
Both the convention and the campaign that 
followed were noisy and exciting. The 
friends of Grant, constituting nearly half 



the convention, were exceedingly persist- 
ent, and were sorely disappomted over 
their defeat. At the head of the Demo- 
cratic ticket was placed a very strong and 
popular man ; yet Garfield and Arthur were 
elected by a respectable plurahty of the 
popular vote. The 4th of March following, 
these gentlemen were accordingly inaugu- 
rated ; but within four months the assassin's 
bullet made a fatal wound in the person of 
General Garfield, whose life terminated 
September 19, 1881, when General Arthur, 
ex officio, was obliged to take the chief 
reins of government. Some misgivings 
were entertained by many in this event, as 
Mr. Arthur was thought to represent espe 
cially the Grant and Conkling wing of the 
Republican party ; but President Arthur 
had both the ability and the good sense to 
allay all fears, and he gave the restless, 
critical American people as good an ad- 
ministration as they had ever been blessed 
with.' Neither selfishness nor low parti- 
sanism ever characterized any feature of 
his public service. He ever maintained a 
high sense of every individual right as well 
as of the Nation's honor. Indeed, he stood 
so hisfh that his successor. President Cleve- 
land, though of opposing politics, expressed 
a wish in his inaugural address that he 
could only satisfy the people with as good 
an administration. 

But the day of civil service reform had 
come in so far, and the corresponding re- 
action against "third-termism" had en- 
croached so far even upon "second-term" 
service, that the Republican party saw fit 
in 1884 to nominate another man for Presi- 
dent. Only by this means was General 
Arthur's tenure of office closed at Wash- 
ington. Since his retirement from the 
Presidency in March, 1885, our good ex- 
President has continued in the practice of 
his chosen profession at New York City. 







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ROVER CLEVE- 
LAND, the twenty- 
second President of the 
United States, 1885—, 
was born in Caldwell, 
Essex County, New 
Jersey, March 1 8, 
The house in which he 
was born, a small two-story 
wooden building, is still stand- 
ing. It was the parsonage of 
the Presbyterian church, of 
which his father, Richard 
Cleveland, at the time was 
pastor. The family is of New 
England origin, and for two centuries has 
contributed to the professions and to busi- 
ness, men who have reflected honor on the 
name. Aaron Cleveland, Grover Cleve- 
land's great-great-grandfather, was born in 
Massachusetts, but subsequently moved to 
Philadelphia, where he became an intimate 
friend of Benjamin Franklin, at whose 
house he died. He left a large family of 
children, who in time married and-settled 
in different parts of New England. A 
grandson was one of the small American 
force that fought the British at Bunker 
Hill. He served with gallantry through- 
out the Revolution and was honorably 
discharged at its close as a Lieutenant in 
the Continental army. Another grandson, 
William Cleveland (a son of a second Aaron 



Cleveland, who was distinguished as a 
writer and member of the Connecticut 
Legislature) was Grover Cleveland's grand- 
father. William Cleveland became a silver- 
smith in Norwich, Connecticut. He ac- 
quired by industry some property and sent 
his son, Richard Cleveland, the father of 
Grover Cleveland, to Yale College, where 
he graduated in 1824. During a year spent 
in teaching at Baltimore, Maryland, after 
graduation, he met and fell in love with a 
Miss Annie Neale, daughter of a wealthy 
Baltimore book publisher, of Irish birth. 
He was earning his own way in the world 
at the time and was unable to marry; but 
in three years he completed a course of 
preparation for the ministry, secured a 
church in Windham, Connecticut, and 
married Annie Neale. Subsequently he 
moved to Portsmouth, Virginia, where he 
preached for nearly two years, when he 
was summoned to Caldwell, New Jersey, 
where was born Grover Cleveland. 

When he was three years old the family 
moved to Fayetteville, Onondaga County, 
New York. Here Grover Cleveland lived 
until he was fourteen years old, the rugged, 
healthful life of a country boy. His frank, 
generous manner made him a favorite 
among his companions, and their respect 
was won by the good qualities in the germ 
which his manhood developed. He at- 
tended the district school of the village and 



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Ii8 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



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1(4 



was for a short time at the academy. His 
lather, however, believed that boys should 
be taught to labor at an early age, and be- 
fore he had completed the course of study 
at the academy he began to work in .the 
village store at $50 for the first year, and the 
promise of $100 for the second year. His 
work was well done and the promised in- 
crease of pay was granted the second year. 

Meanwhile his father and family had 
moved to Clinton, the seat of Hamilton 
College, where his father acted as agent to 
the Presbyterian Board of Home Missions, 
preaching in the chuixhes of the vicinit}'. 
Hither Grover came at his father's request 
shortly after the beginning of his second 
year at the Fayetteville store, and resumed 
his studies at the Clinton Academ3^ After 
three years spent in this town, the Rev. 
Richard Cleveland was called to the vil- 
lage church of Holland Patent. He had 
preached here only a month when he was 
suddenly stricken down and died without 
an hour's warning. The death of the father 
left the family in straitened circumstances, 
as Richard Cleveland had spent all his 
salary of $1,000 per year, which was not 
required for the necessary expenses of liv- 
ing, upon the education of his children, of 
whom there were nine, Grover being the 
fifth. Grover was hoping to enter Hamil- 
ton College, but the death of his father 
made it necessary for him to earn his own 
livelihood. For the first year (i853-'4) he 
acted as assistant teacher and bookkeeper in 
the Institution for the Blind in New York 
City, of which the late Augustus Schell was 
for many years the patron. In the winter 
of 1854 he returned to Holland Patent 
where the generous people of that place, 
Fayetteville and Clinton, had purchased a 
home for his mother, and in the following 
spring, borrowing $25, he set out for the 
West to earn his livinjjf. 

Reaching Buffalo he paid a hasty visit to 
an uncle, Lewis F. Allen, a well-known 



stock farmer, living at Black Rock, a few 
miles distant. He communicated his plans 
to Mr. Allen, who discouraged the idea of 
the West, and finally induced the enthusi- 
astic boy of seventeen to remain with him 
and help him prepare a catalogue of blooded 
short-horn cattle, known as " Allen's Amer- 
ican Herd Book," a publication familiar to 
all breeders of cattle. In August, 1855, he 
entered the law office of Rogers, Bowen 
& Rogers, at Buffalo, and after serving a 
few months without pay, was paid $4 a 
week — an amount barely sufficient to meet 
the necessarv expenses of his board in the 
family of a fellow-student in Buffalo, with 
whom he took lodgings. Life at this time 
jvith Grover Cleveland was a stern battle 
with the world. He took his breakfast by 
candle-light with the drovers, and went at 
once to the office where the whole day was 
spent in work and study. Usually he re- 
turned again at night to resume reading 
which had been interrupted by the duties 
of the day. Gradually his employers came 
to recognize the ability, trustworthiness 
and capacity for hard work in their young 
employe, and by the time he was admitted 
to the bar (1859) he stood high in their con- 
fidence. A year later he was made confi- 
dential and managing clerk, and in the 
course of three years more his salary had 
been raised to $1,000. In 1863 he was ap- 
pointed assistant district attorney of Erie 
County by the district attorney, the Hon. 
C. C. Torrance. 

Since his first vote had been cast in 1858 
he had been a staunch Democrat, and until 
he was chosen Governor he always made 
it his duty, rain or shine, to stand at the 
polls and give out ballots to Democratic 
voters. During the first year of his term 
as assistant district attorney, the Democrats 
desired especially to carry the Board of Su- 
pervisors. The old Second Ward in which 
he lived was Republican* ordinarily by 250 
majority, but at the urgent request of the 






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GRO VER CL E VELA ND. 



119 



party Grover Cleveland consented to be 
the Democratic candidate for Supervisor, 
and came within thirteen votes of an elec- 
tion. The three years spent in the district 
attorney's oflfice were devoted to assiduous 
labor and the extension of his professional 
attainments. He then formed a law part- 
nership with the late Isaac V. Vanderpoel, 
ex-State Treasurer, under the firm name 
of Vanderpoel & Cleveland. Here the bulk 
of the work devolved on Cleveland's shoul- 
ders, and he soon won a good standing at 
the bar of Erie County. In 1869 Mr. 
Cleveland formed a partnership with ex- 
Senator A. P. Laning and ex-Assistant 
United States District Attorney Oscar Fol- 
som, under the firm name of Laning, Cleve- 
land & Folsom. During these years he 
began to earn a moderate professional in- 
come; but the larger portion of it was sent 
to his mother and sisters at Holland Patent 
to whose support he had contributed ever 
since i860. He served as sheriff of Erie 
County, i870-'4, and then resumed the 
practice of law, associating himself with the 
Hon. Lyman K. Bass and Wilson S. Bissell. 



The firm was strong and popular, and soon 
commanded a large and lucrative practice. 
Ill health forced the retirement of Mr. Bass 
in 1879, ^i^d the firm became Cleveland & 
Bissell. In 1881 Mr. George J. Sicard was 
added to the firm. 

In ^e autumn election of 1881 he was 
elected mayor of Buffalo by a majority of 
over 3,500 — the largest majority ever given 
a candidate for mayor — and the Democratic 
city ticket was successful, although the 
Republicans carried Buffalo by over 1,000 
majority for their State ticket. Grover 
Cleveland's administration as mayor fully 
justified the confidence reposed in him by 
the people of Buffalo, evidenced by the 
great vote he received. 

The Democratic State Convention met 
at Syracuse, September 22, 1882, and nomi- 
nated Grover Cleveland for Governor 
on the third ballot and Cleveland was 
elected by 192,000 majoritv. In the fall of 
1884 he was elected President of the United 
States by about 1,000 popular majority, 
in New York State, and he was accordingly 
inaugurated the 4th of March following. 






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HISTORY OF IOWA. 



123 





j^istory of louya. 



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*^HE race or races who 
occupied this beau- 
tiful prairie country 
before the advent erf 
the whites from Eu- 
rope had no litera- 
ture, and therefore 
have left us no history of 
themselves. Not even tra- 
ditions, to any extent, have 
been handed down to us. 
Hence, about all we know 
of the Indians, previous to 
explorations by the whites, 
is derived from mounds 
and a few simple relics. 
The mounds were erected 
by a people generally denominated Mound 
Builders, but whether they were a distinct 
race from the Indians is an unsettled ques- 
tion. Prof. Alex. Winchell, of the Michigan 
State University, as well as a number of 
other investigators, is of the opinion that 
those who built mounds, mined copper and 
iron, made elaborate implements of war, 
agriculture and domestic economy, and 
built houses and substantial villages, etc., 
were no other than the ancestors of the 
present Indians, who, like the ancient 

Greeks and Romans, were more skilled in 
10 



the arts of life than their successors during 
the middle ages. Most people have their 
periods of decline, as well as those of prog- 
ress. The Persians, Hindoos and Chinese, 
although so long in existence as distinct 
nations, have been forages in a state of de- 
cay. Spain and Italy do not improve, 
while Germany, Russia and the United 
States have now their turn in enjoying a 
rapid rise. Similarly, the Indians have long 
been on the decline in the practical arts of 
life. Even since the recent days of Feni- 
more Cooper, the " noble " red men have 
degenerated into savages, despite the close 
contact of the highest order of civilization. 

Nearly all modern authorities unite in 
the opinion that the American continent 
was first peopled from Eastern Asia, either 
by immigration across Behring's Strait or 
by shipwrecks of sailors from the Kamt- 
schatkan and Japanese coast. If mankind 
originated at the north pole, and subse- 
quently occupied an Atlantic continent, 
now submerged, it is possible that the 
American Indians are relics of polar or 
Atlantic races. 

The ancient race which built the towns 
and cities of Mexico and the Western 
United States is called the Aztec, and even 
of them is scarcely anything known save 



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HISTORY OF IOWA. 



what can be learned from their buried 
structures. The few inscriptions that are 
found seem to be meaningless. 

Indian mounds are found throughout 
the United States east of the Rocky 
Mountains, but are far more abundant in 
some places than others. In this State 
they abound near the principal rivers. 
They vary in size from a few to hundreds 
of feet in diameter, and from three to fifteen 
or more feet in height. They are generally 
round, or nearly so, but in a few notable 
exceptions they bear a rude resemblance in 
their outline to the figure of some animal. 
Their contents are limited, both in quantity 
and variety, and consist mainly of human 
bones, stone implements, tobacco pipes, 
beads, etc. The stone implements are axes, 
skinning knives, pestles and mortars, arrow 
points, etc. The human bones are often 
found in a mass as if a number of corpses had 
been buried together, and indicate that their 
possessors were interred in a sitting posture. 
Judge Samuel Murdock, of Elkader, this 
State, who has made this subject a special 
study for many years, is of the opinion that 
these remams are not of subjects who were 
inhumed as corpses, but of persons who, 
under the influence of a savage religion, 
voluntarily sacrificed themselves by under- 
going a burial when alive. 

CAUCASIAN. 

The first member of this race to discover 
the Mississippi River was Ferdinand De 
Soto, a Spaniard, who explored the region 
of the Lower Mississippi in 1541, but came 
no farther north than the 35th parallel. 
He founded no settlements, nor was he ever 
followed by others of his country to make 
settlements, and hence Spain lost her title 
to the country which she had earned by 
discovery through her subject, De Soto. 
At a subsequent period a Frenchman re- 
discovered the realm, took possession of it 
in the name of France, and his fellow 



countrymen soon followed and effected 
actual settlements. Accordingly, in 1682, 
France claimed the country, and, accord- 
ing to the usage of European nations, 
earned a proper title to the same. The re- 
sult was a collision between those two na- 
tions, success finally crowning the efforts of 
France. 

In a grand council of Indians, on the 
shore of Lake Superior, they told the 
Frenchmen glowing stories of the " Father 
of Waters " and of the adjacent country, 
and in 1669 Jacques Marquette, a zealous 
and shrewd Jesuit missionary, became in- 
spired with the idea of visiting this re- 
gion, in the interests of civilization. After 
studying the language and customs of 
the Illinois Indians until 1673, he made prep- 
arations for the journey, in which he was 
to be accompanied by Louis Joliet, an agent 
of the French Government. The Indians, 
who had gathered in large numbers to wit- 
ness his departure, endeavored to dissuade 
him from the undertaking, representing that 
the Indians of the Mississippi Valley were 
cruel and bloodthirsty. The great river 
itself, they said, was the abode of terrible 
monsters which could swallow men, canoes 
and all. But the shrewd missionary, already 
aware of Indian extravagance in descrip- 
tion, set out upon the contemplated jour- 
ney May 13. With the aid of two Miami 
guides he proceeded to the Wisconsin 
River, and down that stream to the Mis- 
sissippi. Floating down the latter he dis- 
covered, on the 25th of June, traces of 
Indians on the , west bank, and landed. 
This was at a point a little above the mouth 
of the Des Moines River, and thus a Euro- 
pean first trod the soil of Iowa. After re- 
maining a short time and becoming ac- 
quainted with the red man as he then and 
there exhibited himself, he proceeded down 
to the mouth of the Illinois, thence up 
that river and by Lake Michigan to the 
French settlements. 



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HISTORY OF IOWA. 



125 



Nine years later, in 1682, Rene Robert 
Cavelier La Salle descended the Missis- 
sippi to the Gulf of Mexico, and in the name 
of the King of France took formal posses- 
sion of all the Mississippi Valley, namingvit 
Louisiana, in honor of his king, Louis XIV. 
The river itself he named Colbert, in honor 
of the French minister. Soon afterward 
the Government of France began to en- 
courage the establishment of a line of trad- 
ing posts and missionarv stations through- 
out the West from Canada to Louisiana, 
and this policy was maintained with par- 
tial success for about seventy-five years. 
Christian zeal animated both France and 
England in missionary enterprise, the 
former in the interests 'of Catholicism and 
the latter in favor of- Protestantism. Hence 
their haste to pre-occupy the land and prose- 
lyte the aborigines; but this ugly rivalry dis- 
gusted the Indians and the}' refused to be 
converted to either branch of Christianity. 
The traders also persisted in importing 
whisky, which canceled nearly every civ 
ilizing influence that could be brought to 
bear upon the savages. Another character- 
istic of Indian nature was to listen atten- 
tively to all that the missionary said, pre- 
tending to believe all he preached, and then 
offer in turn his theory of the world, of re- 
ligion, etc.; and, not being listened to with 
the same degree of attention and pretense 
of belief, would depart from the white 
man's presence in disgust. This was his 
idea of the golden rule. 

Comparatively few Indians were perma- 
nently located within the present bounds 
of the State of Iowa. Favorite huntingf 
grounds were resorted to by certain bands 
for a time, and afterward by others, subject 
to the varying fortunes of their little wars. 
The tribes were principally the Illinois, 
lowas, Dakotas, Sioux, Pottawatomies and 
finally the Sacs and Foxes. 

In 1765 the Miami confederacy was com- 
posed of four tribes, whose total number 



of warriors was estimated at only 1,050 
men. Of these about 250 were T wight wees, 
or Miamis proper; 300 VVeas, or Ouiate- 
nons; 300 Piankeshaws and 200 Shockeys; 
but their headquarters were along the 
Maumee River, in Indiana and Ohio. 

From 1688 to 1697 the wars in which 
France and England were engaged re- 
tarded the growth of their American colo- 
nies. The efforts made bv France to 
connect Canada and the Gulf of Mexico by 
a chain of trading posts and colonies nat- 
urally excited the jealousy of England and 
gradually laid the foundation for a struggle 
at arms. The crisis came and the contest 
obtained the name of the French and Indian 
war, the French and Indians combining 
against the English. The war was termi- 
nated in 1763 by a treaty at Paris, by which 
France ceded to Great Britain all of North 
America east of the Mississippi, except the 
island on which New Orleans is situated. 
The preceding autumn France ceded to 
Spain all the country west of that river. 

In 1765 the total number of French fami- 
lies within the limits of the Northwest Ter- 
ritory did not probably exceed 600. These 
were in settlements about Detroit, along 
the river Wabash and the neighborhood of 
Fort Chartres on the Mississippi. The 
colonial policy of the British Government 
opposed any measures which might 
strengthen settlements in the interior of 
this country, lest the}' should become self- 
supporting and consequently independent 
of the mother country. Hence the settle- 
ment of the Northwest was still further 
retarded. That short-sighted policy con- 
sisted mainly in holding the lands in the 
possession of the Government, and not 
allowing it to be subdivided and sold to 
those who would become settlers. After 
the establishment of American indepen- 
dence, and especially under the administra- 
tion of Thomas Jefferson, both as Governor 
of Virginia and President of the United 



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126 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



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States, subdivision of land and giving it to 
actual settlers rapidly peopled this portion 
of the Union, so that the Northwest Terri- 
tory was formed and even subdivided into 
other Territories and States before the 
year 1820. 

For more than 100 years after Marquette 
and Joliet trod the virgin soil of Iowa and 
admired its fertile plains, not a single settle- 
ment was made or attempted ; not even a 
trading-post was established. During this 
time the lUmois Indians, once a powerful 
tribe, gave up the entire possession of this 
" Beautiful Land," as Iowa was then called, 
to the Sacs and Foxes. In 1803. when 
Louisiana was purchased by the United 
States, the Sacs, Foxes and lowas pos- 
sessed this entire State, and the two for- 
mer tribes occupied also most of the State 
of Illinois. The four most important towns 
of the Sacs were along the Mississippi, two 
on the east side, one near the mouth of the 
Upper Iowa and one at the head of the 
Des Moines Rapids, near the present site 
of Montrose. Those of the Foxes were — 
one on the west side of the Mississippi just 
above Davenport, one about twelve miles 
from the river back of the Dubuque lead 
mines and one on Turkey River. The 
principal village of the lowas was on the 
Des Moines River, in Van Buren County, 
where lowaville now stands. Here the last 
great battle between the Sacs and Foxes 
and the lowas was fought, in which Black 
Hawk, then a jajung man, commanded the 
attacking forces. 

The Sioux had the northern portion of 
this State and Southern Minnesota. They 
were a fierce and war-like nation, who often 
disputed possessions with their rivals in 
savage and bloody warfare; but finally a 
boundary line was established between 
them by the Government of the United 
States, in a treaty held at Prairie du Chien 
in 1825. This, however, became the occa- 
sion of an increased number of quarrels be- 



tween the tribes, as each trespassed, or was 
thought to trespass, upon the other's side of 
the line. In 1830, therefore, the Govern- 
ment created a fort3^-mile neutral strip of 
land between them, which policy proved to 
be more successful in the interests of peace. 

Soon after the acquisition of Louisiana by 
our Government, the latter adopted meas- 
ures for the exploration of the new terri- 
tory, having in view the conciliation of the 
numerous tribes of Indians by whom it was 
possessed, and also the selection of proper 
sites for military posts and trading stations. 

The Army of the West, General Wilkin- 
son commanding, had its headquarters at 
St. Louis. From this post Captains Lewis 
and Clarke, in 1805, were detailed with a 
sufficient force to explore the Missouri 
River to its source, and Lieutenant Zebulon 
M. Pike to ascend to the head of the Missis- 
sippi. August 20 the latter arrived within 
the present limits of Iowa, at the foot of the 
Des Moines Rapids, where he met William 
Ewing, who had just been appointed Indian 
Agent at this point, a French interpreter, 
four chiefs and fifteen Sac and Fox war- 
riors. At the head of the rapids, where 
Montrose now is. Pike held a council with 
the Indians, merely for the purpose of stat- 
ing to them that the President of the United 
States wished to inquire into the needs of 
the red man, with a view of suggesting 
remedies. 

On the 23d he reached what is supposed 
from his description to be the site of Bur- 
lington, which place he designated for a 
post ; but the station, probably b}^ some 
mistake, was afterward placed at Fort Madi- 
son. After accidentally separating from his 
men and losing his way, suffering at one 
time for six days for want of food, and after 
many other mishaps Lieutenant Pike over- 
took the remainder of the party at the point 
now occupied bv Dubuque, who had gone 
on up the river hoping to overtake him. At 
that [)oint Pike was cordially received by 



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HISTORY OF IOWA. 



127 



Julien Dubuque, a Frenchman who held a 
mining claim under a grant from Spain, but 
was not disposed to publish the wealth of 
his possessions. Having an old field-piece 
with him, however, he fired a salute in 
honor of the first visit of an agent from the 
United States to that part of the country, 
and Pike pursued his way up the river. 

At what was afterward Fort Snelling, 
Minnesota, Lieutenant Pike held a council 
with the Sioux September 23, and obtained 
from them a grant of 100,000 acres of land. 
January 8 following (1806) he arrived at a 
trading post on Lake De Sable, belonging 
to the Northwestern Fur Company, whose 
field of operations at that time included this 
State. Pike returned to St. Louis the fol- 
lowing spring, after making a successful 
expedition. 

Before this country could be opened for 
settlement by the whites, it was necessary 
that Indian title should be extinguished and 
the aboriginal owners removed. When the 
Government assumed control of the country 
by virtue of the Louisiana purchase, nearly 
the whole State was in possession of the 
Sacs and Foxes, at whose head stood the 
rising Black Hawk. November 3, 1804, a 
treaty was concluded with these tribes by 
which they ceded to the United States the 
Illinois side of the great river, in consider- 
ation of $2,234 worth of goods then de- 
livered, and an annuity of $1,000 to be paid 
in goods at cost ; but Black Hawk always 
maintained that the chiefs who entered into 
that compact acted without authority, and 
that therefore the treaty was not binding. 

The first fort erected on Iowa soil was at 
Fort Madison. A short time previously a 
military post was fixed at what is now 
Warsaw, Illinois, and named Fort Edwards. 
These enterprises caused mistrust among 
the Indians. Indeed, Fort Madison was 
located in violation of the treaty of 1804. 
The Indians sent delegations to the whites 
at these forts to learn what they were do- 



ing, and what they intended. On being 
" informed " that those structures were 
merely trading-posts, they were incredu- 
lous and became more and more suspicious. 
Black Hawk therefore led a party to the 
vicinity of Fort Madison and attempted its 
destruction, but a premature attack by him 
caused his failure. 

In 1812, when war was declared between 
this country and Great Britain, Black Hawk 
and his band allied themselves to the British, 
partly because they were dazzled by their 
specious promises, but mostly, perhaps, be- 
cause they had been deceived by the Amer- 
icans. Black Hawk said plainly that the 
latter fact was the cause. A portion of the 
Sacs and Foxes, however, headed by Keo- 
kuk ("watchful fox"), could not be per- 
suaded into hostilities against the United 
States, being disposed to abide by the 
treaty of 1804. The Indians were there- 
fore divided into the " war " and the 
" peace " parties. Black Hawk says he 
was informed, after he had gone to the war, 
that his people, left on the west side of the 
river, would be defenseless against the 
United States forces in case they were at- 
tacked ; and, having all the old men, the 
women and the children on their hands to 
provide for, a council was held, and it was 
determined to have the latter go to St. 
Louis and place themselves under the 
" American" chief stationed there. Ac- 
cordingly they went down, and were re- 
ceived as the " friendly band " of Sacs and 
Foxes, and were provided for and sent up 
the Missouri River. 

On Black Hawk's return from the British 
army, he says that Keokuk Avas introduced 
to him as the war chief of the braves then 
in the village. On inquiry as to how he 
became chief, there were given him the 
particulars of his having killed a Sioux in 
battle, which fact placed him among the 
warriors, and of his having headed an ex- 
pedition in defense of their village at Peoria. 



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In person Keokuk was tall and of portly 
bearing, and in speech he was an orator. 
He did not master the English language, 
however, and his interpreters were never 
able to do him justice. He was a friend of 
our Government, and always endeavored 
to persuade the Indians that it was useless 
to attack a nation so powerful as that of 
the United States. 

The treaty of 1804 was renewed in 1816, 
which Black Hawk himself signed; but he 
afterward held that he was deceived, and 
that that treaty was not even yet binding. 
But there was no further serious trouble 
with the Indians until the noted " Black 
Hawk war" of 1832, all of which took place 
in Illinois and Wisconsin, with the expected 
result — the defeat and capture of the great 
chief, and the final, effectual and permanent 
repulsion of all hostile Indians to the west 
of the great Mississippi. Black Hawk died 
October 3, 1838, at his home in this State, 
and was buried there ; but his remains were 
afterward placed in the museum of the His- 
torical Society, where they were accident- 
ally destroyed by fire. 

More or less affecting the territory now 
included within the State of Iowa, fifteen 
treaties with the Indians have been made, 
an outline of which is here given. In 1804. 
when the whites agreed not to settle west 
of the Mississippi on Indian lands. In 18 15, 
with the Sioux, ratifying peace with Great 
Britain and the United States; with the 
Sacs, a treaty of a similar nature, and also 
ratifying that of 1804, the Indians agreeing 
not to join their brethren who, under Black 
Hawk, had aided the British ; with the 
Foxes, ratifying the treaty of 1804, the In- 
dians agreeing to deliver up all their 
prisoners ; and with the lowas, a treaty of 
friendship. In 1816, with the Sacs of Rock 
River, ratifying the treaty of 1804. In 1824, 
with the Sacs and Foxes, the latter rehn- 
quishing all their lands in Missouri ; and 
that portion of the southeast corner of 



Iowa known as the "half-breed tract" was 
set off to the half-breeds. In 1825, placing 
a boundary line between the Sacs and Foxes 
on the south and the Sioux on the north. 
In 1830, when that line was widened to 
forty miles. Also, in the same year, with 
several tribes, who ceded a large portion of 
their possessions in the western part of the 
State. In 1832, with the Winnebagoes, ex- 
changing lands with them and pi'oviding a 
school, farm, etc., for them. Also, in the 
same year, the "Black Hawk purchase" 
was made, of about 6,000,000 acres, along 
the west side of the Mississippi from the 
southern line of the State to the niou.th of 
the Iowa River. In 1836, with the Sacs and 
Foxes, ceding Keokuk's reserve to the 
United States. In 1837, with the same, 
when another slice of territor}-, comprising 
1,250000 acres, joining west of the forego- 
ing tract, was obtained. Also, in the same 
3'ear, when these Indians gave up all their 
lands allowed them under former treaties; 
and finally, in 1842, when they relinquished 
their title to all their lands west of the 
Mississippi. 

Before the whole of Iowa fell into the 
hands of the United States Government 
sundry white settlers had, under the Spanish 
and French Governments, obtained and oc- 
cupied several important claims within our 
boundaries, which it may be well to notice 
in brief. September 22, 1788, Julien Du- 
buque, before mentioned, obtained a lease 
of lands from the Fox Indians, at the point 
now occupied by the city named after him. 
This tract contained valuable lead ore, and 
Dubuque followed mining. His claims, 
however, as well as those to whom he after- 
ward conveyed title, were litigated for 
many years, with the final result of dis- 
appointing the purchasers. In 1799 Louis 
Honori obtained a tract of land about three 
miles square where Montrose is now sit- 
uated, and his title, standing through all 
the treaties and being finally confirmed by 



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HIS TORT OF IOWA. 



129 



the Supreme Court of the United States, is 
the oldest legal title held by a white man 
in the State of Iowa. A tract of 5,860 acres 
in Clayton County was granted by the 
Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Louisiana 
in 1795 to Basil Girard, whose title was 
made valid some time after the preceding 
case was settled. 

Other early settlers were : Mr. Johnson, 
an agent of the American Fur Company, 
who had a trading-post below Burlington. 
Le Moliere, a French trader, had, in 1820, 
a station at what is now Sandusky, in Lee 
County, six miles above Keokuk. During 
the same year Dr. Samuel C. Muir, a sur- 
geon of the United States army, built a 
cabin where the city of Keokuk now stands. 
His marriage and subsequent life were so 
romantic that we give the following brief 
sketch : 

While stationed at a military post on the 
Upper Mississippi, the post was visited by 
a beautiful Indian maiden — whose native 
name unfortunately has not been preserved 
— who, in her dreams, had seen a white 
brave unmoor his canoe, paddle it across 
the river and come directly to her lodge. 
She felt assured, according to the super- 
stitious belief of her race, that in her dreams 
she had seen her future husband, and had 
come to the fort to find him. Meeting Dr. 
Muir she instantly recognized him as the 
hero of her dream, which, with childlike 
innocence and simplicity, she related to 
him. Her dream was, indeed, prophetic. 
Charmed with Sophia's beauty, innocence 
and devotion, the Doctor honorably mar- 
ried her, but after a while the sneers and 
gibes of his brother officers — less honorable 
than he, perhaps — made him feel ashamed 
of his dark-skinned wife, and when his regi- 
ment was ordered down the river to Belle- 
fontaine, it is said that he embraced the 
opportunity to rid himself of her, and left 
her, never expecting to see her again, and 
little dreaming that she would have the 



courage to follow him. But, with her in- 
fant child, this intrepid wife and' mother 
started alone in her canoe, and alter many 
days of weary labor and a lonely journey of 
900 miles, she at last reached him. She 
afterward remarked, when speaking of this 
toilsome journey down the river in search 
of her husband, " When I got there I was 
all perished away — so thin !" The Doctor, 
touched by such unexampled devotion, 
took her to his heart, and ever after until 
his death treated her with marked respect. 
She always presided at his table with grace 
and dignity, but never abandoned her na- 
tive style of dress. In i8i9-'20 he was 
stationed at Fort Edward, now Warsaw, 
but the senseless ridicule of some of his 
brother officers on account of his Indian 
wife induced him to resign his commission. 
He then built a cabin as above stated, 
where Keokuk is now situated, and made 
a claim to some land. This claim he leased 
to Otis Reynolds and John Culver, of St. 
Louis, and went to La Pointe (afterward 
Galena), where he practiced his profession 
for ten years, when he returned to Keokuk. 
His Indian wife bore to him four children — 
Louise, James, Mary and Sophia. Dr. 
Muir died suddenly of cholera in 1832, but 
left his property in such a condition that it 
was soon wasted in vexatious litigation, and 
his brave and faithful wife, left friendless 
and penniless, became discouraged, and, 
with her two younger children, disap- 
peared. It is said she returned to her peo- 
ple on the Upper Missouri. 

The gentleman who had leased Dr. 
Muir's claim at Keokuk subsequently em- 
ployed as their agent Moses Stillwell, who 
arrived with his family in 1828, and took 
possession. His brothers-in-law, vVmos and 
Valencourt Van Ansdal, came with him 
and settled near. Mr. Stillwell's daughter 
Margaret (afterward Mrs. Ford) was born 
in 1 83 1, at the foot of the rapids, called by 
the Indians Puckashetuck. She was prob- 



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130 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



ably the first white American child born in 
Iowa. 

In 1829 Dr. Isaac Gallaud made a settle- 
ment on the Lower Rapids, at what is now 
Nashville. The same year James S. Lang- 
worthy, who had been engaged in lead- 
mining at Galena since 1824, commenced 
lead-mining in the vicinity of Dubuque. A 
few others afterward came to that point as 
miners, and they soon found it necessary' to 
hold a council and adopt some regulations 
for their government and protection. They 
met in 1830 on the bank of the river, by the 
side of an old Cottonwood drift log, at what 
is now the Jones Street Levee in Dubuque, 
and elected a committee, consisting of J. L. 
Langworthy, H. F. Lander, James Mc- 
Phetres, Samuel Scales and E. M. Wren, 
who drafted a set of rules, which were 
adopted by this, the first " Legislature" of 
Iowa. They elected Dr. Jarote as their 
officer to choose arbitrators for the settle- 
ment of difficulties that might arise. These 
settlers, however, were intruders upon In- 
dian territory, and were driven off in 1832 
by our Government, Colonel Zachary Tay- 
lor commanding the troops. The Indians 
returned and were encouraged to operate 
the rich mmes opened by the late white 
occupants. 

But in June of the same year the troops 
were ordered to the east side of the Missis- 
sippi to assist in the annihilation of the 
very Indians whose rights they had been 
protecting on the west side ! 

Immediately after the close of the Black 
Hawk war and the negotiations of the treaty 
in September, 1832, by which the Sacs and 
Foxes ceded the tract known as the " Black 
Hawk Purchase," the settlers, supposmg 
that now they had a right to re-enter the 
territory, returned and took possession of 
their claims, built cabins, erected furnaces 
and prepared large quantities of lead for 
market. But the prospects of the hardy 
and enterprising settlers and miners were 



again ruthlessly interfered with by the 
Government, on the ground that the treaty 
with the Indians would not go into force 
until June i, 1833, although they had with- 
drawn from the vicinity of the settlement. 
Colonel Taylor was again ordered by the 
War Department to remove the miners, 
and in January, 1833, troops were again 
sent from Prairie du Chien to Dubuque for 
that purpose. This was a serious and per- 
haps unnecessary hardship imposed upon 
the miners. They were compelled to aban- 
don their cabins and homes in mid-winter. 
This, too, was only out of respect for forms; 
for the purchase had been made, and the 
Indians had retired. After the lapse of 
fifty years, no very satisfactory reason for 
this rigorous action of the Government can 
be given. But the orders had been given, 
and there was no alternative but to obey. 
Manv of the settlers re-crossed the river, 
and did not return ; a few, however, re- 
moved to an island near the east bank of 
the river, built rude cabins of poles, in 
which to store their lead until spring, when 
they could fioat the fruits of their labor to 
St. Louis for sale, and where they could re- 
main until the treaty went into force, when 
thev could return. Among these were the 
Langworthy brothers, who had on hand 
about 300,000 pounds of lead. 

No sooner had the miners left than Lieu- 
tenant Covington, who had been placed in 
command at -Dubuque by Colonel Taylor, 
ordered some of the cabins of the settlers to 
be torn down, and wagons and other prop- 
erty to be destroyed. This wanton and 
inexcusable action on the part of a subordi- 
nate, clothed with a little brief authority, 
was sternly rebuked by Colonel Taylor, and 
Covington was superseded by Lieutenant 
George Wilson, who pursued a just and 
friendly coarse with the pioneers, that were 
only waiting for the time when they could 
repossess their claims. 

The trcatv went formallv into effect June, 



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HISTORY OF IOWA. 



131 



1833, the troops were withdrawn, and the 
Lang worthy brothers and a few others at 
once returned and resumed possession of 
their homes and claims. From this time 
must date the first permanent settlement of 
this portion of Iowa. John P. Sheldon was 
appointed superintendent of the mines by 
the Government, and a system of permits 
to miners and licenses to smelters was 
adopted, similar to that which had been 
in operation at Galena since 1825, under 
Lieutenant Martin Thomas and Captain 
Thomas C. Legate. Substantially the primi- 
tive law enacted by the miners assembled 
around that old cotton wood drift log in 
1830, was adopted and enforced by the 
United States Government, except that 
miners were required to sell their mineral 
to licensed smelters, and the smelter was 
required to give bonds for the payment of 
6 per cent, of all lead manufactured to the 
Government 

About 500 people arrived in the mining 
district in 1833, after the Indian title was 
fully extinguished, of whom 150 were from 
Galena. In the same year Mr. Langworthy 
assisted in building the first school- house in 
Iowa, and thus was formed the nucleus of 
the populous and thriving city of Dubuque. 
Mr. Langworthy lived to see the naked 
prairie on which he first settled become the 
site of a city of 15,000 inhabitants, the small 
school-house which he aided in construct- 
ing replaced by three substantial edifices, 
wherein 2,000 children were being trained, 
churches erected in every part of the city, 
and railroads connecting the wilderness 
which he first explored with all the eastern 
world. He died suddenly on the 13th of 
March, 1865, while on a trip over the Du- 
buque «& Southern Railroad, at Monticello, 
and the evening train brought the news of 
his death and his remains. 

Lucius H. Langworthy, his brother, was 
one of the most worthy, gifted and influ- 
ential of the old settlers of this section of 
11 



Iowa. He died greatly lamented by many 
friends, in June, 1865. 

The name Dubuque was given to the 
settlement by the miners, at a meeting held 
in 1834. 

Soon after the close of the Black Hawk 
war in 1832, Zachariah Hawkins, Benjamin 
Jennings, Aaron White, Augustine Horton, 
Samuel Gooch, Daniel Thompson and Peter 
Williams made claims at Fort Madison. In 
1833 General John H. Knapp and Colonel 
Nathaniel Knapp purchased these claims, 
and in the summer of 1835 they laid out the 
town of " Fort Madison." Lots were ex- 
posed for sale early in 1836. The town was 
subsequently re-surveyed and platted by 
the United States Government. The popu- 
lation rapidly increased, and in less than 
two years the beautiful location was cov- 
ered by a flourishing town, containing 
nearly 600 inhabitants, with a large pro- 
portion of enterprising merchants, mechan- 
ics and manufacturers. 

In the fall of 1832 Simpson S. White 
erected a cabin on the site of Burlington, 
seventy-nine miles below Rock Island. 
During the war parties had looked long- 
ingly upon the " Flint Hills" from the op- 
posite side of the river, and White was 
soon followed by others. David Tothers 
made a claim on the prairie about three 
miles back from the river, at a place since 
known as the farm of Judge Morgan. The 
following winter the settlers were driven 
off by the military from Rock Island, as 
intruders upon the rights of the Indians. 
White's cabin was burned by the soldiers. 
He returned to Illinois, where he remained 
during the winter, and in the following 
summer, as soon as the Indian title was ex- 
tinguished, returned and rebuilt his cabin. 
White was joined by his brother-in-law, 
Doolittle, and they laid out the town of 
Burlington in 1834, on a beautiful area ot 
sloping eminences and gentle declivities, 
enclosed within a natural amphitheater 



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HISTORY OF IOWA. 



formed b}' the surrounding hills, which 
were crowned with luxuriant forests and 
presented the most picturesque scenery. 
The same autumn witnessed the opcnnig of 
the first dry-goods stores by Dr. W. R. Ross 
and Major Jeremiah Smith, each well sup- 
plied with Western merchandise. Such 
was the beginning of Burlington, which in 
less than four )'ears became the seat of 
government for the Territor}^ of Wisconsin, 
and in three years more contained a popu- 
lation of 1 ,400 persons. 

Immediately after the treaty with the 
Sacs and Foxes, in September, 1832, Colonel 
George Davenport made the first claim on 
the site of the present thriving city of 
Davenport. As early as 1827, Colonel 
Davenport had established a flat-boat ferry, 
which ran between the island and the main 
shore of Iowa, by which he carried on a 
trade with the Indians west of the Missis- 
sippi, In 1833 Captain Benjamin W. Clark 
moved from Illinois, and laid the founda- 
tion of the town of Buffalo, in Scott County, 
which was the first actual settlement within 
the limits of that county. 

The first settlers of Davenport were An- 
toine Le Claire, Colonel George Davenport, 
Major Thomas Smith, Major William Gor- 
don, Philip Hambough, Alexander W. Mc- 
Gregor, Levi S. Colton, Captain James May 
and others. 

A settlement was made in Clayton County 
in the spring of 1832, on Turkey River, by 
Robert Hatfield and William W. Wayman. 
No further settlement was made in this part 
of the State until 1836. 

The first settlers of Muscatine County 
were Benjamin Nye, John Vanater and G. 
W. Kasey, all of whom came in 1834. E. 
E. Fay, William St John. N. Fullington, 
II. Reece, Jonas Pettibone, R. P. Lowe, 
Stephen Whicher, Abijah Whitney, J. E. 
Fletcher, W. D. Abernethy and Alexis 
Smith were also early settlers of Musca- 
tine. 



As early as 1824 a French trader named 
Hart had established a trading-post, and 
built a cabin on the bluffs above the large 
spring now known as " Mynster Spring," 
within the limits of the present city of 
Council Bluffs, and had probably been there 
some time, as the post was known to the 
emplo3"es of the American Fur Company 
as " La Cote de Hart," or " Hart's Bluff." 
In 1827 an agent of the American Fur 
Company, Francis Guittar, with others, 
encamped in the timber at the foot of the 
bluffs, about on the present location of 
Broadway, and afterward settled there. In 
1839 ^ block house was built on the bluff in 
the east part of the city. The Pottawat- 
omie Indians occupied this part of the 
State until i846-'7, when they relinquished 
the territory and removed to Kansas. Billy 
Caldwell was then principal chief. There 
were no white settlers in that part of the 
State except Indian traders, until the arri- 
val of the Mormons under the lead of Brig- 
ham Young. These people on their way 
westward halted for the winter of i846-'7, 
on the west bank of the Missouri River, 
about five miles above Omaha, at a place 
now called Florence. Some of them had 
reached the eastern bank of the river the 
spring before in season to plant a crop. In 
the spring of 1847 Brigham Young and a 
portion of the colony pursued their journey 
to Salt Lake, but a large portion of them 
returned to the Iowa side and settled mainly 
within the present limits of Pottawatomie 
County. The principal settlement of this 
strange community was at a place first 
called " Miller's Hollow," on Indian Creek, 
and afterward named Kanesville, in honor 
of Colonel Thomas L. Kane, of Pennsyl- 
vania, who visited them soon afterward. 
The Mormon settlement extended over 
the county and into neighboring counties, 
wherever timber and water furnished de- 
sirable locations. Orson Hyde, priest, law- 
yer and editor, was installed as president 






^^^^^^^^s^^^^^s^^^mms^^^m^^^^^m^s^^^^m 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



133 



of the Quorum of Twelve, and all that part 
of the State remained under Mormon con- 
trol for several years. In 1847 they raised 
a battalion numbering 500 men for the 
Mexican war. In 1848 Hyde started a 
paper called the Frontier Guardian, at 
Kanesville. In 1849, after many of the 
faithful had left to join Brigham Young at 
Salt Lake, the Mormons in this section of 
Iowa numbered 6,552, and in 1850, 7,828; 
but they were not all within the limits of 
Pottawatomie County. This county was 
organized in 1848, all the first officials be- 
ing Mormons. In 1852 the order was pro- 
mulgated that all the true believers should 
gather together at Salt Lake. Gentiles 
flocked in, and in a few years nearly all 
the first settlers were gone. 

May 9, 1843, Captain James Allen, with 
a small detachment of troops on board the 
steamer lone, arrived at the site of the 
present capital of the State, Des Moines. 
This was the first steamer to ascend the Des 
Moines River to this point. The troops 
and stores were landed at what is now the 
foot of Court avenue, and the Captain re- 
turned in the steamer to Fort Sanford to 
arrange for bringing up more soldiers and 
suppHes. In due time they too arrived, 
and a fort was built near the mouth of Rac- 
coon Fork, at its confluence with the Des 
Moines, and named " Fort Des Moines." 
Soon after the arrival of the troops, a trad- 
ing-post was established on the east side of 
the river by two noted Indian traders 
named Ewing, from Ohio. Among the 
first settlers in this part of Iowa were Ben- 
jamin Bryant, J. B. Scott, James Drake 
(gunsmith), John Sturtevant, Robert Kin- 
zie, Alexander Turner, Peter Newcomer 
and others. 

PIONEER LIFE. 

Most of the early settlers of Iowa came 
from older States, as Pennsylvania, New 
York and Ohio, where their prospects for 



even a competency were ver3q)our. The}- 
found those States g(xxl — to emigrate from. 
Their entire stock of furniture, implements 
and family necessities were easily stored 
in one wagon, and sometimes a cart was 
their only vehicle. 

After arriving and selecting a suitable 
location, the next thing to do was to build 
a log cabin, a description of which may be 
interesting to many of our younger readers, 
as in some sections these old-time struct- 
ures are no more to be seen. Trees of 
uniform size were chosen and cut into logs 
of the desired length, generally twelve to 
fifteen feet, and hauled to the spot selected 
for the future dwelling. On an appointed 
day the few neighbors who were available 
would assemble and have a " house-raising." 
Each end of every log was saddled and 
notched so that they would lie as close down 
as possible; the next day the proprietor, 
would proceed to " chink " and " daub " 
the cabin, to keep out the rain, wind and 
cold. The house had to be re-daubed ev- 
ery fall, as the rains of the intervening time 
would wash out a great part of the mortar. 
The usual height of the house was seven or 
eight feet. The gables were formed by 
shortening the logs gradually at each end 
of the building near the top. The roof was 
made by la^'ing very straight small logs or 
stout poles suitable distances apart, and on 
these were laid the clapboards, somewhat 
like shingling, generally about two and a 
half feet to the weather. These clapboards 
were fastened to their place by " weight- 
poles " corresponding m place with the 
joists just described, and these again were 
held in their place by " runs" or " knees " 
which were chunks of wood about eighteen 
or twenty inches long fitted between them 
near the ends. Clapboards were made 
from the nicest oaks in the vicinity, by 
chopping or sawing them into four-foot 
blocks and riving these with a frow, which 
was a simple blade fixed at right angles to 



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^ 134 HISTORY OF IOWA. || 



its handles. This was driven into the 
blocks of wood by a mallet. As the frow 
was wrenched down through the wood, 
the latter was turned alternately over from 
side to side, one end being held by a forked 
piece of timber. 

The chimney to the Western pioneer's 
cabin was made by leaving in the original 
building a large open place in one wall, or 
by cutting one after the structure was up, 
and by building on the outside, from the 
ground up, a stone column, or a column of 
sticks and mud, the sticks being laid up 
cob house fashion. The fire-place thus made 
was often large enough to receive fire-wood 
six to eight feet long. Sometimes this 
wood, especially the " back-log," would be 
nearly as large as a saw-log. The more 
rapidly the pioneer could burn up the wood 
in his vicinity the sooner he had his little 
farm cleared and ready for cultivation. 
For a window, a piece about two feet long 
was cut out of one of the wall logs, and the 
hole closed, sometimes by glass but gener- 
ally with greased paper. Even greased deer- 
hide was sometimes used. A doorway was 
cut through one of the walls if a saw was to 
be had; otherwise the door would be left 
by shortened logs in the original building. 
The door was made by pinning clapboards 
to two or three wood bars, and was hung 
upon wooden hinges. A wooden latch, 
with catch, then finished the door, and the 
latch was raised by any one on the outside 
by pullmg a leather string. For security 
at night this latch-string was drawn iri, but 
for friends and neighbors, and even stran- 
gers, the " latch-string was always hanging 
out," as a welcome. In the interior over 
the fire-place would be a shelf called " the 
mantel," on which stood a candlestick or 
lamp, some cocjking and table ware, possi- 
bly an old clock, and other articles; in the 
fire-place would be the crane, sometimes of 
iron, sometimes of wood; on it the pots were 
hung for cooking; over the door, in forked 



cleats, hung the ever-trustful rifle and pow- 
der-horn; in one corner stood the larger bed 
for the " old folks," and under it the 
trundle-bed for the children; in another 
stood the old-fashioned spinning-wheel, 
with a smaller one by its side; in another the 
heavy table, the only table, of course, there 
was in the house; in the remaining was a 
rude cupboard holding the tableware, 
which consisted of a few cups and saucers, 
and blue-edged plates, standing singly on 
their edges against the back, to make the 
display of table-furniture more conspicu- 
ous; while around the room were scattered 
a few splint-bottom or Windsor chairs, and 
two or three stools. 

These simple cabins were inhabited by a 
kind and true-hearted people. They were 
strangers to mock modesty, and the traveler 
seeking lodging for the night, or desirous 
of spending a few days in the community, 
if willing to accept the rude offering, was 
always welcome, although how they were 
disposed of at night the reader might not 
easily imagine; for, as described, a single 
room was made to answer for kitchen, 
dining-room, sitting-room, bed-room and 
parlor, and many families consisted of six 
or eight members. 

The bed was very often made by fixing a 
post in the floor about six feet from one 
wall and four feet from the adjoining wall, 
and fastening a stick to this post about 
two feet above the floor, on each of two 
sides, so that the other end of each of the 
two sticks could be fastened in the oppo- 
site wall; clapboards were laid across these, 
and thus the bed was made complete. 
Guests were given this bed, while the fam- 
ily disposed of themselves in another cor- 
ner of the room or in the loft. When 
several guests were on hand at once they 
were sometimes kept over night in the fol- 
lowing manner: When bedtime came the 
men were requested to step out of doors 
while the women spread out a broad bed 



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HISTORY OF IOWA. 



135 



upon the mid floor, and put themselves 
to bed in the center; the signal was given, 
and the men came in and each husband took 
his place in bed next his own wife, and 
single men outside beyond them again. 
They were generally so crowded that they 
had to lie "spoon" fashion, and whenever 
anyone wished to turn over he would say 
" spoon," and the whole company of sleep- 
ers would turn over at once. This was the 
only way they could all keep in bed. 

To witness the various processes of cook- 
ing in those days would alike surprise and 
amuse those who have grown up since 
cooking stoves and ranges came into use. 
Kettles were hung over the large fire, sus- 
pended with pot-hooks, iron or wooden, 
on the crane, or on poles, one end of which 
would rest upon a chain. The long-hand- 
led frying pan was used for cooking meat. 
It was either held over the blaze by hand 
or set down upon coals drawn out upon 
the hearth. This pan was also used for 
baking pancakes, also call flapjacks, batter- 
cakes, etc. A better article for this, how- 
ever, was the cast-iron spider, or Dutch 
skillet. The best thing for baking bread 
in those days, and possibly even in these 
latter days, was the flat-bottomed bake 
kettle, of greater depth, with closely fitting 
cast-iron cover, and commonly known as the 
Dutch oven. With coals over and under it, 
bread and biscuits would be quickly and 
nicely baked. Turkey and spare-ribs were 
sometimes roasted before the fire, sus- 
pended by a string, a dish being placed 
underneath to catch the drippings. 

Hominy and samp were very much used. 
The hominy, however, was generally hulled 
corn— boiled corn from which the hull or 
bran had been taken by hot lye, hence 
sometimes called lye hominy. True hom- 
iny and samp were made of pounded corn. 
A popular method of making this, as well 
as real meal for bread, was to cut out or 
burn a large hole in the top of a huge 



stump, in the shape of a mortar, and pound- 
ing the corn in this by a maul or beetle 
suspended by a swing pole like a well- 
sweep. This and the wellsweep consisted 
of a pole twenty to thirty feet long fixed in 
an upright fork so that it could be worked 
" teeter " fashion. It was a rapid and sim- 
ple way of drawing water. When the samp 
was sufficiently pounded it was taken 
out, the bran floated off, and the delicious 
grain boiled like rice. 

The chief articles of diet in an early day 
were corn bread, hominy or samp, venison, 
pork, honey, pumpkin (dried pum[)kin for 
more than half the year), turkey, prairie 
chicken, squirrel and some other game, 
with a few additional vegetables a portion 
of the year. Wheat bi-ead, tea, coffee and 
fruit were luxuries not to be indulged in 
except on special occasions, as when visit- 
ors were present. 

Besides cooking in the manner described, 
the women had many other arduous duties 
to perform, one of the chief of which was 
spinning. The big wheel was used for 
spinning yarn and the little wheel for spin- 
ning flax. These stringed instruments fur- 
nished the principal music for the family, 
and were operated by our mothers and 
grandmothers with great skill, attained 
without pecuniary expense, and with far 
less practice than is necessary for the girls 
of our period to acquire a skillful use of 
their costly and elegant instruments. But 
those wheels, indispensable a few years ago, 
are all now superseded by the mighty fac- 
tories which overspread the country, fur- 
nishing cloth of all kinds at an expense ten 
times less than would be incurred now by 
the old system. 

The traveler always found a welcome at 
the pioneer's cabin. It was never full. 
Although there might be already a guest 
for every puncheon, there was still " room 
for one more," and a wider circle would be 
made for the new-comer at the big fire. If 






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136 



HI STOUT OF IOWA. 



the stranger was in search of land, he was 
doubly welcome, and his host would vol- 
unteer to show him all the " first rate claims 
in this neck of the woods," going with him 
for days, showing the corners and advan- 
tages of every " Congress tract " within a 
dozen miles of his own cabin. 

To his neighbors the pioneer was equally 
liberal. If a deer was killed, the choicest 
bits were sent to his nearest neighbor, a 
half-dozen miles away perhaps. When a 
pig was butchered, the same custom pre- 
vailed. If a new-comer came in too late 
for " cropping," the neighbors would sup- 
ply his table with just the same luxuries 
they themselves enjoyed, and in as liberal 
quantity, until a crop could be raised. 
When a new-comer had located his claim, 
the neighbors for miles around would 
assemble at the site of the proposed cabin 
and aid himin " gittm " it up. One party 
with axes would cut down the trees and 
hew the logs; another with teams would 
haul the logs to the ground; another party 
would " raise " the cabin; while several 
of the old men would rive the clap-boards 
for the roof. By night the little forest 
domicile would be up and ready for a 
'* house-warming," which was the dedica- 
tory occupation of the house, when music 
and dancing and festivity would be enjoyed 
at full height. The next day the new-comer 
would be as well situated as his neighbors. 

An instance of primitive hospitable man- 
ners will be in place here. A traveling 
Methodist preacher arrived in a distant 
neighborhood to fill an appointment. The 
house where services were to be held did not 
belong to a church member, but no matter 
for that. Boards were collected from all 
quarters with which to make temporary 
seats, one of the neighbors volunteering to 
lead off in the work, while the man of the 
house, with the faithful rifle on his sh(julder, 
sallied forth in quest of meat, for this truly 
was a " ground hog " case, the preacher 



coming and no meat in the house. The 
host ceased not to chase until he found the 
meat, in the shape of a deer; returning he 
sent a boy out after it, with directions on 
what " pint " to find it. After services, 
which had been listened to with rapt atten- 
tion by all the audience, mine host said to 
his wife, " Old woman, I reckon this 'ere 
preacher is pretty hungry and you must 
git him a bite to eat." " What shall I get 
him ? " asked the wife, who had not seen 
the deer, " thar's nuthen in the house to 
eat." " Why, look thar," returned he, 
" thar's a deer, and thar's plenty of corn in 
the field; you git some corn and grate it 
while I skin the deer, and we'll have a 
good supper for him." It is needless to add 
that venison and corn bread made a sup- 
per fit for any pioneer preacher, and was 
thankfully eaten. 

Fires set out by Indians or settlers some- 
times purposely and sometimes permitted 
through carelessness, would visit the prai- 
rie every autumn, and sometimes the for- 
ests, either in autumn or spring, and settlers 
could not always succeed in defending 
themselves against the destroying element. 
Many interesting incidents are related. 
Often a fire was started to bewilder game, 
or to bare a piece of ground for the early 
grazing of stock the ensuing spring, and it 
would get away under a wind and soon 
be beyond control. Violent winds would 
often arise and drive the flames with such 
rapidity that riders on the fleetest steeds 
could scarcely escape. On the approach 
of a prairie fire the farmer would immedi- 
ately set about "cutting off supplies " for 
the devouring enemy by a " back fire." 
Thus b}' starting a small fire near the bare 
ground about his premises, and keeping it 
under control next his property, he would 
burn off a strip around him and prevent the 
attack of the on-coming flames. A few 
furrows or a ditch around the farm were 
in some degrees a protection. 



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HISTORY OF IOWA. 



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An original prairie of tall and exuberant 
grass on fire, especially at niglit, was a mag- 
nificent spectacle, enjoyed only by the 
pioneer. Here is an instance where the 
frontiersman, proverbially deprived of the 
sights and pleasures of an old community, 
is privileged far beyond the people of the 
present day in this country. One could 
scarcely tire of beholding the scene, as its 
awe-inspiring features seemed constantly to 
increase, and the whole panorama unceas- 
ingly changed like the dissolving views of 
a magic lantern, or like the aurora borealis. 
Language cannot convey, words cannot 
express, the faintest idea of the splendor 
and grandeur of such a conflagration at 
night. It was as if the pale queen of night, 
disdaining to take her accustomed place in 
the heavens, had dispatched myriads upon 
myriads of messengers to light their torches 
at the altar of the setting sun until all had 
flashed into one long and continuous blaze. 
One instance has been described as follows: 

" Soon the fires began to kindle wider 
and rise higher from the long grass; the 
gentle breeze increased to stronger currents, 
and soon formed the small, flickering blaze 
into fierce torrent flames, which curled up 
and leaped along in resistless splendor; and 
like quickly raising the dark curtain from 
the luminous stage, the scenes before me 
were suddenly changed, as if by a magi- 
cian's wand, into one boundless amphithea- 
ter, blazing from earth to heaven and 
sweeping the horizon round, — columns of 
lurid flames sportively mounting up to the 
zenith, and dark clouds of crimson smoke 
curling away and aloft till they nearly ob- 
scured stars and moon, while the rushing, 
crashing sounds, like roaring cataracts, 
mingled with distant thunders, were almost 
deafening; danger, death, glared all around; 
it screamed for victims; yet, notwithstand- 
ing the imminent peril of prairie fires, one 
is loth, irresolute, almost unable to with- 
draw or seek refuge. 



LOUISIANA TERRITORY. 

As before mentioned, although De Soto, 
a Spaniard, first took possession of the Mis- 
sissippi Valley for his Government, Spain 
did not establish her title to it by following 
up the proclamation with immediate settle- 
ments, and the country fell into the hands 
of France, by whose agent it was named 
" Louisiana." 

By the treaty of Utrecht, France ceded 
to England her possessions in Hudson's 
Bay, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, but 
retained Canada and Louisiana. In 1711 
this province was placed in the hands of a 
governor-general, with headquarters at 
Mobile, for the purpose of applying a new 
policy for the settlement and development 
of the country. The very next year ano- 
ther change was made, placing all this ter- 
ritory in the hands of Anthony Crozat, a 
wealthy merchant of Paris, but this scheme 
also failed, as Spain continued to obstruct 
the efforts of any Frenchman to establish 
trade, by closing the ports against him. In 
17 1 7 John Law appeared on the scene with 
his famous " Mississippi Company," as the 
Louisiana branch of the Bank of France ; 
and as his roseate scheme promised to do 
much in raising crippled France upon a 
surer footing, extended powers and privi- 
leges were granted him. He was to be 
practically a viceroy, and the life of his 
charter was fixed at twenty-five years. But 
in 1720, when the " Mississippi bubble" was 
at the height of its splendor, it suddenly 
collapsed, leaving the mother country in a 
far worse condition than before. 

Heretofore Louisiana had been a sub- 
ordinate dependence, under the jurisdiction 
of the Governor-General of Canada. Early 
in 1723 the province of Louisiana was 
erected into an independent Government, 
and it was divided into nine districts, for 
civil and military purposes. 

Characteristic of human nature, the peo- 
ple were more excited with prospects of 



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138 



f//S TO J? r OF IOWA. 



finding enormous wealth ready at hand, if 
they should continue to scour the country, 
which they did in places as far west as the 
Rocky Mountains, to the neglect of their 
asfricultural and domestic interests. A habit 
of roaming became fixed. At the same time 
their exposed condition was a constant 
temptation to Indian rapine, and the Nat- 
chez tribe in 1723 made a general assault 
upon the whites. At first they were re- 
pulsed, but about five years afterward, 
aided by the Chickasaws and others, they 
fell upon the French village of St. Catha- 
rine and massacred the whole male popu- 
lation. Two soldiers, who happened to be 
in the woods, alone escaped to New Or- 
leans, to bear the news. The colonies on 
the Yazoo and the Washita suffered the 
same fate. Maddened by these outrages, 
the whites turned upon the Natchez and in 
the course of three years exterminated 
them. They were probably the most in- 
telligent tribe of Indians north of Mexico. 

During the fifteen years from 1717 to 
1732 the province increased in population 
from 700 to 5,000, and in prosperity to a 
wonderful degree. It remained under royal 
governors until 1764, the end of the French 
dominion. Most of this time the Indians 
were troublesome, and in 1754 began the 



long "French and Indian war 



with Eng- 



land, which resulted in favor of the latter, 
that Government obtaining all of New 
France, Canada, and the eastern half of 
Louisiana. This province did not suffer 
by being the scene of battle, but did suffer 
a great deal from a flood of irredeemable 
paper money. In the meantime the western 
portion, or residue, of this province was 
secretly promised to Spain ; but before 
either of the foreign powers had opportu- 
nity to rejoice long in their western posses- 
sions, a new power on earth, the United 
States, took independent possession of all 
the country except Louisiana and Florida, 
which it has maintained ever since. During 



the seventy years of French control the 
province of Louisiana increased in popula- 
tion from a few destitute fishermen to a 
flourishing colon)^ of 13,540. 

St. Louis, Missouri, was started in 1764. 

Don O'Reilly, the new Governor of Loui- 
siana in 1764, ruled with a despotic hand, 
yet for the general advantage of the peo- 
ple. His successor, Don Antonio Maria 
Bucarelly, was mild, and he was succeeded 
January i, 1777, by Don Bernard de Gal- 
vez, who was the last Governor. He sym- 
pathized with American independence. The 
British, with 140 troops and 1,400 Indians, 
invaded Upper Louisiana from the north 
by way of the Straits of Mackinaw, and in- 
vested St. Louis, Missouri, in 1780, but 
were driven off. When the Indians saw 
that they were led to fight " Americans" as 
well as Spaniards, they found that they had 
been deceived, and withdrew from the 
British army, and thus General George R. 
Clark, in behalf of the Americans, easily 
defended St. Louis, and also all the new 
settlements in this western country. 

After the Revolutionar)- war the country 
began again to prosper. Governor Galvez, 
by a census, ascertained thatf Louisiana had 
in 1785 a population of about 33,000, exclu- 
sive of Indians. 

In the summer of the latter year Don 
Estavan Miro became Governor/r^ ton. of 
the Spanish possessions in this country, and 
was afterward confirmed as such by the 
king. During his administration a vain 
attempt was made by the Catholics to 
establish the inquisition at New Orleans. 
He was succeeded in 1792 by Baron dc 
Carondelet, and during his term the Spanish 
colonies grew so rapidly that their Govern- 
ment became jealous of the United States 
and sought to exclude all interference from 
them in domestic affairs ; but all efforts in 
this direction were ended in 1795 by the 
treaty of Madrid, which, after some delay 
and trouble, was fully carried out in 1798. 



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HISTORY OF IOWA. 



139 



Under the leadership of Livingston and 
Monroe, the United States Government, 
after various propositions had been dis- 
cussed by the respective powers, succeeded 
in effecting, in 1803, a purchase of the whole 
of Louisiana from France for $11,250,000, 
and all this countr}' west of the great river 
consisted of the " Tcrritorv of Orleans" 
(now the State of Louisiana) and the " Dis- 
trict of Louisiana "' (now the States of Ar- 
kansas, Miss<^uri and Iowa, and westward 
indefinitely). The latter was annexed to the 
Territory of Indiana for one year, and in 
1805 it was erected into a separate Terri- 
tory, of the second class, the legislative 
power being vested in the Governor and 
judges. Before the close of the year it was 
made a Territory of the first class, under 
the name of the " Territory of Louisiana," 
the Government being administered by the 
Governor and judges. The first Governor 
wasjames Wilkinson, and he was succeeded 
near the close of 1806 by Colonel Meri- 
weather Lewis, the seat of Government be- 
ing at St. Louis; and during his adminis- 
tration the Territory was divided into six 
judicial districts or large counties — St. 
Charles, St. Louis, St. Genevieve, Cape 
Girardeau, New Madrid and Arkansas. In 
1 8 10 the population of Louisiana Territory 
was 21,000, five-sevenths of whom were in 
Arkansas. 

In 18 12 the State of Louisiana was ad- 
mitted into the Union, and then it was 
deemed expedient to change the name of 
the Territory. It was accordingly given 
the name of " Missouri Territory," which it 
retained until the admission of the State of 
Missouri in 1821. 

IOWA TERRITORY. 

Although the " Northwestern Territory" 
— carved out of Virginia and now divided 
into the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan and Wisconsin — never included 
Iowa, this State was in 1834 incorporated 

12 



into the "Territory of Michigan," and thus 
became subject to the ordinance of 1787; 
and two years later it was made a part of 
" Wisconsin Territory," and two years still 
later, in 1838, the "Territory of Iowa" 
was formed independently, with sixteen 
counties and a population of 23,000. 

In 1833, at Dubuque, a postoffice was 
established, and some time prior to 1834 
one or two justices of the peace had been 
appointed. In 1834 the Territorial Legis- 
lature of Michigan created two counties 
west of the Mississippi — Dubuque and Des 
Moines — separated by a line drawn west- 
ward from the foot of Rock Island. These 
counties were partially organized. John 
King was appointed " Chief Justice" of Du- 
buque County, and Isaac Leffler, of Bur- 
lington, of Des Moines County. Two 
associate justices in each county were ap- 
pointed by the Governor. In October, 
1835, General George W. Jones, of Du- 
buque, was elected a delegate to Congress. 
April 20, 1836, through the efforts of Gen- 
eral Jones, Congress passed a bill creating 
the Territory of Wisconsin, which went 
into operation July 4, that year. Iowa was 
then included in that Territory, of which 
General Henry Dodge was appointed Gov- 
ernor. The census of 1836 showed a popu- 
lation in Iowa of 10,531, of which 6,257 
were in Des Moines County and 4,274 in 
Dubuque County. 

Ths first Legislature assembled at Bel- 
mont, Wisconsin, October 25, 1836; the 
second at Burlington, Iowa, November 9, 
1837 ; and the third, also at the latter place, 
June I, 1838. 

As early as 1837 the people of Iowa be- 
gan to petition Congress for a separate 
Territorial organization, which was granted 
June 12 following. Ex-Governor Lucas, of 
Ohio, was appointed by President Van Bu- 
ren to be the first Governor of the new 
Territory. Immediately upon his arrival 
he issued a proclamation for the election of 



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140 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



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members of the first Territorial Legislature, 
to take place September 10. The following 
were elected : 

Council. — Jesse B. Brown, J. Keith, K. 
A. M. Swazey, Arthur Ingram, Robert 
Ralston, George Hepner, Jesse J. Payne, 
D. B. Hughes, James M. Clark, Charles 
Whittlesey, Jonathan W, Parker, Warner 
Lewis, Stephen Hempstead. 

Ho7ise. — Wm. Patterson, Hawkins Tay- 
lor, Calvin J. Price, James Brierly, James 
Hall, Gideon S. Bailey, Samuel Parker, 
James W. Grimes, George Temple, Van B. 
Delashmutt, Thomas Blair, George W. 
Beeler, Wm. G. Coop, Wm. H. Wallace, 
Asbury B. Porter, John Frierson, Wm. L. 
•Toole, Levi Thornton, S. C. Hastings, 
Robert G. Roberts, Laurel Summers, 
Jabez A. Burchard, Jr., Chauncey Swan, 
Andrew Bankson, Thomas Cox and Har- 
din Nowlin. 

At the session of the above Legislature 
Wm. W. Chapman was elected delegate 
to Congress. As the latter body had given 
the Governor unlimited veto power, and 
as Governor Lucas was disposed to exer- 
cise it arbitrarily, the independent " Hawk- 
eyes " grew impatient imder his administra- 
tion, and, after having a stormy session for 
a time, they had Congress to limit the veto 
power. Great excitement also prevailed, 
both in the Legislature and among the 
people, concerning the question of the loca- 
tion of the seat of Government for the 
State. As they knew nothing concerning 
the great future development and extent of 
the State, they had no correct idea where 
the geographical center would or should 
be. The Black Hawk purchase, which was 
that strip of land next the Mississippi, in 
the southeastern part of the State, was the 
full extent and horizon of their idea of the 
new commonwealth. Hence they thought 
first only of Burlington or Mount Pleasant 
as the capital. Indeed, at that time, the 
Indians had possession of the jest of Iowa. 



But a few of the more shrewd foresaw 
that a more central location would soon be 
further to the north at least, if not west, 
and a point in Johnson County was ulti- 
mately decided upon. 

Commissioners, appointed by the Gov- 
ernor, selected the exact site, laid out a sec- 
tion of land into a town, sold lots and 
proceeded to erect the public buildings. 
The capitol was commenced in 1840 and 
Iowa City became thenceforward the capi- 
tal of the State. The fourth Legislative 
Assembly met at this place December 6, 
1841, but not in the new capitol building, 
as it was not yet ready. Being somewhat 
difficult to raise the necessary funds, the 
building was not completed for several 
years. The early Territorial Legislatures 
of Iowa laid the foundation for a very just 
and liberal Government, far in advance of 
what had ever been done before by any 
State. 

About this time a conflict arose between 
this Territory and Missouri concerning the 
boundary line between them. There was 
a difference of a strip eight or ten miles 
wide, extending from the Mississippi to the 
Missouri rivers, which each claimed. Mis- 
souri officers, attempting to collect taxes 
within the disputed territory, were arrested 
and confined in jail by Iowa sheriffs, and 
the respective Governors called out the 
militia, preparing for bloodshed. About 
1,200 Iowa men enlisted, and 500 were act- 
ually armed and encamped in Van Buren 
County, ready to defend their Territory, 
when three prominent and able men were 
sent to Missouri as envoys plenipotentiar}', 
to effect, if possible, a peaceable adjustment 
of the difficulty. Upon their arrival, they 
found that the county commissioners of 
Clark County, Missouri, had rescinded their 
order for the collection of the taxes, and that 
Governor Boggs had dispatched messen- 
gers to the Governor of Iowa proposing to 
submit an agreed case to the Supreme 






HISTORT OF IOWA. 



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Court of the United States for the settle- 
ment of the boundary question. This prop- 
osition was decHned; but afterward, upon 
petition of Iowa and Missouri, Congress 
authorized a suit to settle the controversy. 
The suit was duly instituted, and resulted 
in the decision that Iowa had only asserted 
" the truth of history," and she knew where 
the rapids of the Des Moines River were 
located. Thus ended the Missouri war. 
" There was much good sense," says Hon. 
C. C. Nourse, '' in the basis upon which 
peace was secured, to-wit: ' If Missourians 
did not know where the rapids of the river 
Des Moines were located, that was no sufih- 
cient reason for killing them off with powder 
and lead; and if we did know a little more of 
history and geography than they did we 
ought not to be shot for our learning. We 
commend our mutual forbearance to older 
and greater people.' " Under an order 
from the Supreme Court of the United 
States commissioners surveyed and estab- 
lished the boundai-y. The expenses of the 
war, on the part of Iowa, were never paid, 
either by the United States or the Territo- 
rial Government. 

STATE ORGANIZATION AND SUBSEQUENT 
HISTORY. 

The population having become, by the 
year 1844, sufficient to justify the formation 
of a State Government, the Territorial Leg- 
islature of Iowa passed an act, approved 
February 12, that year, submitting to the 
people the question of the formation of a 
State Constitution and providing for the 
election oi delegates to a convention to be 
called together for that purpose. The 
people voted upon this at their township 
elections in the following April, giving the 
measure a large majority. The elected 
delegates assembled in convention at Iowa 
City, October 7, 1844, and completed their 
work by November i. Hon. Shepherd 
Leffler, the President of this convention. 



was instructed to transact a certified copy 
of the proposed Constitution to the Dele- 
gate in Congress, to be submitted b}' him 
to that body at the earliest practicable day. 
It also provided that it should be submitted, 
together with any conditions or changes 
that might be made by Congress, to the 
people of the Territory, for their approval 
or rejection, at the township election in 
April, 1845. 

The Constitution, as thus prepared, fixed 
the boundaries of the State very differently 
from what were finally agreed upon. 

May 4, 1846, a second convention met at 
Iowa City, and on the i8th of the same 
month another Constitution, prescribing the 
boundaries as they now are, was adopted. 
This was accepted by the people, August 
3, by a vote of 9,492 to 9,036. The new 
Constitution was approved by Congress, 
and Iowa was admitted as a sovereign 
State in the American Union, December 
28, 1846. The people of the State, antici- 
pating favorable action by Congress, held 
an election for State officers October 26 
which resulted in Ansel Briggs being de- 
clared Governor; Elisha Cutler, Jr., Secre- 
tary of State; Joseph T. Fales, Auditor; 
Morgan Reno, Treasurer; and members of 
the Senate and House of Representatives. 

The act of Congress which admitted 
Iowa gave her the i6th section of every 
township of land in the State, or its equiv- 
alent, for the support of schools; also 
seventy-two sections of land for the pur- 
pose of a university; also five sections of 
land for the completion of her public build- 
ings; also the salt springs within her limits, 
not exceeding twelve in number, with sec- 
tions of land adjoining each; also, in con- 
sideration that her public lands should be 
exempt from taxation by the State, she 
gave to the State five per cent, of the net 
proceeds of the sale of public lands within 
the State. Thus provided for as a bride 
with her marriage portion, Iowa com- 






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142 



HISTORT OF IOWA. 



menced " housekeeping " upon her own 
account. 

A majority of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1846 were of the Democratic party; 
and the instrument contains some of the 
pecuHar tenets of the party at that day. 
All banks of issue were prohibited within 
the State. The State was prohibited from 
becoming a stockholder in any corporation 
for pecuniary profit, and the General As- 
sembly could only provide for private cor- 
porations by general statutes. The Consti- 
tution also limited the State's indebtedness 
to $100,000. It required the General As- 
sembl}- to provide public schools through- 
out the State for at least three months in 
the year. Six months' previous residence 
of any white male citizen of the United 
States constituted him an elector. 

At the time of organization as a State, 
Iowa had a population of 1 16,65 1, as appears 
by the census of 1847. There were twenty- 
seven organized counties in the State, and 
the settlements were rapidly pushing to- 
ward the Missouri River. 

The first General Assembly was com- 
posed of nineteen Senators and fort}' Rep- 
resentatives. It assembled at Iowa City, 
November 30,1846, about a month before 
the State was admitted into the Union. 

The most important business transacted 
was the passage of a bill authorizing a loan 
of $50,000 for means to run the State Gov- 
ernment and pay the expenses of the Con- 
stitutional conventions. The great excite- 
ment of the session, however, was the 
attempt to choose United States Senators. 
The Whigs had a majority of two in the 
House, and the Democrats a majority of 
one in the Senate. After repeated attempts 
to control these majorities for caucus nom- 
inees and frequent sessions of a joint con- 
vention for purposes of an election, the 
attempt was abandoned. A school law was 
passed at this session for the organization 
of public schools in the State. 



At the first session also arose the ques- 
tion of the re-location of the capital. The 
western boundary of the State, as now 
determined, left Iowa City too far toward 
the eastern and southern boundary of the 
State; this was conceded. Congress had 
appropriated five sections of land for the 
erection of public buildings, and toward the 
close of the session a bill was introduced 
providing for the re-location of the seat of 
Government, involving to some extent the 
location of the State University, which had 
already been discussed. This bill gave rise 
to much discussion and parliamentary ma- 
neuvering, almost purely sectional in its 
character. It provided for the appointment 
of three commissioners, who were author- 
ized to make a location as near the geo- 
graphical center of the State as a healthy 
and eligible site could be obtained; to select 
the five sections of land donated by Con- 
gress; to survey and plat into town lots not 
exceeding one section of the land so se- 
lected, etc. Soon after, by " An act to 
locate and establish a State University," 
approved February 25, 1847, the unfinished 
public buildings at Iowa City, together 
with ten acres of land on which they were 
situated, were granted for the use of the 
University, reserving their use, however, 
by the General Assembly and the State 
officers, until other provisions were made 
by law. 

When the report of the commissioners, 
showing their financial operations, had 
been read in the House of Representa- 
tives, at the next session, and while it was 
under consideration, an indignant member, 
afterward known as the eccentric Judge 
McFarland, moved to refer the report to a 
select committee of five, with instructions 
to report " how much of said city of Mon- 
roe was under water, and how much was 
burned." The report was referred with- 
out the instructions, but Monroe City never 
became the scat of Government. By an 



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act approved January 15, 1849, the law by 
which the location had been made was re- 
pealed and the new town was vacated, the 
money paid by purchasers of lots being re- 
funded to them. This, of course, retained 
the seat of Government at Iowa City, and 
precluded for the time the occupation of 
the building and grounds by the University. 

After the adjournment of the first Gen- 
eral Assembly, the Governor appointed 
Joseph Williams, Chief Justice, and George 
Green and John F. Kinney, Judges of the 
Supreme Court. They were afterward 
elected by the second General Assembly, 
and constituted the Supreme Court until 
1855, with the exception that Kinney re- 
signed in January, 1854, and J. C. Hall, of 
Burlington, was appointed in his place. 

At this session Charles Mason, William 
G. Woodward and Stephen Hempstead 
were appointed commissioners to prepare a 
code of laws for the State. Their work 
was finished in 1850 and was adopted by 
the General Assembly. This " code " con- 
tained among other provisions a code of 
civil practice, superseding the old common- 
law forms of actions and writs, and it was 
admirable for its simplicity and method. It 
remained in force until 1863, when it was 
superseded by the more complicated and 
metaphysical system of the revision of that 
year. 

The first Representatives in Congress 
were S. Clinton Hastings, of Muscatine, 
and Shepherd Leflfler, of Des Moines 
County. The second General Assembly 
elected to the United States Senate Au- 
gustus Caesar Dodge and George W. Jones. 
The State government, after the first ses- 
sion, was under the control of Democratic 
administrations till 1855. The electoral vote 
of the State was cast for Lewis Cass in 1848, 
and for Franklin Pierce in 1852. The popu- 
lar vote shows that the Free-Soil element 
of the State during this period very nearly 
held the balance of power, and that up to 



1854 it acted in the State elections to some 
extent with the Democratic party. In 1858 
Lewis Cass received 12,093 votes, Zachary 
Taylor 11,034, and Martin Van Buren, the 
Free-Soil candidate, 1,226 votes, being 167 
less than a majority for Cass. In 1852 
Pierce received 17,762 votes, Scott 15,855, 
and Hale, Free-Soil, 1,606, being for Pierce 
301 votes more than a majority. 

The question of the permanent location 
of the seat of government was not settled, 
and in 185 1 bills were introduced for the 
removal of the capital to Pella and to Fort 
Des Moines. The latter appeared to have 
the support of the majority, but was finally 
lost in the House on the question of order- 
ing it to its third reading. 

At the next session, in 1853, a bill was 
introduced in the Senate for the removal of 
the seat of government to Fort Des Moines, 
and on first vote was just barely defeated. 
At the next session, however, the effort was 
more successful, and January 15, 1855, a 
bill re-locating the capital within two miles 
of the Raccoon Fork of the Des Moines, 
and for the appointment of commissioners, 
was approved by Governor Grimes. The 
site was selected in 1856, in accordance 
with the provisions of this act, the land 
being donated to the State by citizens- and 
property-holders of Des Moines. An asso- 
ciation of citizens erected a building for a 
temporar}^ capitol, and leased it to the State 
at a nominal rent. 

The passage by Congress of the act or- 
ganizing the Territories of Kansas and Ne- 
braska, and the provision it contained abro- 
gating that portion of the Missouri bill that 
prohibited slavery and involuntary servi- 
tude north of 36° 30' was the beginning of 
a political revolution in the Noilhern States, 
and in none was it more marked than in the 
State of Iowa. Iowa was the " first free 
child born of the Missouri Compromise," 
and has always resented the destruction of 
her foster parent. 



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144 



HISTORr OF IOWA. 



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The year 1856 marked a new era in the his- 
tory of Iowa. In 1854 the Chicago & Rock 
Island Railroad had been completed to the 
cast bank of the Mississippi River, opposite 
Davenport. In the same year the corner- 
stone of a railroad bridge that was to be the 
first to span the " Father of Waters," was 
laid with appropriate ceremonies at this 
point. St. Louis had resolved that the 
enterprise was unconstitutional, and by 
writs of injunction made an unsuccessful 
effort to prevent its completion. Twenty 
years later in her history, St. Louis re- 
pented her folly, and made atonement for 
her sin by imitating Iowa's example. Jan- 
uary I, 1856, this railroad was completed to 
Iowa City. In the meantime, two other 
railroads had reached the east bank of the 
Mississippi — one opposite Burlington, and 
one opposite Dubuque — and these were be- 
ing extended into the interior of the State. 
Indeed, four other lines of railroads had 
been projected across the State from the 
Mississippi to the Missouri, having eastern 
connections. 

May 15, 1856, Congress passed an act 
granting to the State, to aid in the con- 
struction of railroads, the public lands in 
alternate sections, six miles on either side 
of the proposed lines. An extra session of 
the General i\ssembly was called in July of 
this year, that disposed of the grant to the 
several companies that proposed to com- 
plete these enterprises. The population of 
Iowa was now 500,000. Public attention 
had been called to the necessity of a rail- 
road across the continent. The position of 
Iowa, in the very heart and center of the 
republic, on the route of this great high- 
way of the continent, began to attract atten- 
tion. Cities and towns sprang up through 
the State as if by magic. Capital began to 
pour into the State, and had it been em- 
ployed in developing the vast coal measures 
and establishing manufactories, or if it had 
been expended in improving the lands, and 



in building houses and barns, it would have 
been well. But all were in haste to get 
rich, and the spirit of speculation ruled the 
hour. 

In the meantime, every effort was made 
to help the speed}' completion of the rail- 
roads. Nearl}' every county and city on 
the Mississippi, and many in the interior, 
voted large corporate subscriptions to the 
stock of the railroad companies, and issued 
their negotiable bonds for the amount. 
Thus enormous county and city debts were 
incurred, the payment of which these mu- 
nicipalities tried to avoid, upon the plea 
that they had exceeded the constitutional 
limitation of their powers. The Supreme 
Court of the United States held these bonds 
to be valid, and the courts by mandamus 
compelled the city and county authorities 
to levy taxes to pay the judgments re- 
covered upon them. These debts are not 
all paid, even to this day ; but the worst is 
over, and the incubus is in the course of 
ultimate extinction. The most valuable 
lessons are those learned in the school of 
experience, and accordingly the corpora- 
tions of Iowa have ever since been noted 
for economy. 

In 1856 the popular vote was as follows: 
Fremont, 43,954; Buchanan, 36,170, and 
Fillmore, 9,180. This was 1,296 less than a 
majority for Fremont. The following year 
an election was held, after an exciting cam- 
paign, for State officers, resulting in a ma- 
jority of 1,406 for Ralph P. Lowe, the Re- 
publican nominee. The Legislature was 
largely Republican in both branches. 

One of the most injurious results to the 
State, arising from the spirit of speculation 
prevalent in 1856, was the purchase and 
entry of great bodies of Government land 
within the State by non-residents. This 
land was held for speculation and placed 
beyond the reach of actual settlers for many 
years. From no other one cause has Iowa 
sufTered so much as from the short-sighted 



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policy of the Federal Government in selling 
lands within her borders. The money 
thus obtained by the Federal Government 
has been comparatively inconsiderable. 
The value of this magnificent public do- 
main to the United States was not in the 
few thousands of dollars she might exact 
from the hardy settlers, or that she might 
obtain from the speculator who hoped to 
profit by the settlers' labors in improving 
the country. Statesmen should have taken 
a broader and more comprehensive view of 
national economy, and a view more in har- 
mony with the divine economy that had 
prepared these vast fertile plains of the 
West for the " homes of men and the seats 
of empire." It was here that new States 
were to be builded up, that should be the 
future strength of the nation against foreign 
invasion or home revolt. A single regi- 
ment of Iowa soldiers during the dark days 
of the Rebellion was worth more to the 
nation than all the money she ever exacted 
from the toil and sweat of Iowa's early 
settlers. Could the statesmen of forty 
years ago have looked forward to this day, 
when Iowa pays her $1,000,000 annually 
into the treasury of the nation for the ex- 
tinction of the national debt, they would 
have realized that the founding of new 
States was a greater enterprise than the re- 
tailing of public lands. 

In January, 1857, another Constitutional 
Convention assembled at Iowa City, which 
framed the present State Constitution. One 
of the most pressing demands for this con- 
vention grew out of the prohibition of 
banks under the old Constitution. The 
practical result of this prohibition was to 
flood the State with every species of " wild- 
cat" currency. 

The new Constitution made ample pro- 
visions for home banks under the super- 
vision of our own laws. The limitation of 
the State debt was enlarged to $250,000, 
and the corporate indebtedness of the cities 



and counties was also limited to 5 percent, 
upon the valuation of their taxable property. 
The judges of the Supreme Court were to 
be elected by the popular vote. The per- 
manent seat of government was fixed at 
Des Moines, and the State University lo- 
cated at Iowa City. The qualifications of 
electors remained the same as under the old 
Constitution, but the schedule provided for 
a vote of the people upon a separate propo- 
sition to strike the word " white" out of the 
suffrage clause, which, had it prevailed, 
would have resulted in conferring the right 
of suffrage without distinction of color. 
Since the early organization of Iowa there 
had been upon the statute book a law pro- 
viding that no negro, mulatto nor Indian 
should be a competent witness in any suit 
or proceeding to which a white man was a 
party. The General Assembly of 1856-'/ 
repealed this law, and the new Constitution 
contained a clause forbidding such disquali- 
fication in the future. It also provided for 
the education of " all youth of the State " 
through a system of common schools. This 
Constitution was adopted at the ensuing 
election by a vote of 40,311 to 38,681. 

October 19, 1857, Governor Grimes issued 
a proclamation declaring the city of Des 
Moines to be the capital of the State of Iowa. 
The removal of the archives and offices was 
commenced at once and continued through 
the fall. It was an undertaking of no 
small magnitude; there was not a mile of 
railroad to facilitate the work, and the 
season was unusually disagreeable. Rain, 
snow and other accompaniments increased 
the difficulties; and it was not until Decem- 
ber that the last of the effects, — the safe of 
the State Treasurer, loaded on two large 
" bob sleds " drawn by ten yokes of oxen, 
— was deposited in the new capitol. It is 
not imprudent now to remark that during 
this passage over hills and prairies, across 
rivers, through bottom lands and timber, 
the safes belonging to the several depart- 



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146 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



ments contained large sums of money, 
mostly individual funds, however. Thus 
Iowa City ceased to be the capital of the 
State, after four Territorial Legislatures, 
six State Legislatures and three Constitu- 
tional Conventions had held their sessions 
there. By the exchange, the old capitol at 
Iowa City became the seat of the university, 
and, except the rooms occupied by the 
United States District Court, passed under 
the immediate and direct control of the 
trustees of that institution. Des Moines 
was now the permanent seat of govern- 
ment, made so by the fundamental law of 
the State, and January 11, 1858, the Sev- 
enth General Assembly convened at the 
new capitol. The citizens' association, 
which built this temporary building, bor- 
rowed the money of James D. Eads, Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction, and leased 
it to the State. In 1864 the State pur- 
chased the building. At the session of the 
General Assembly in 1858, James W. 
Grimes was elected United States Senator 
as successor to George W. Jones. 

During the years i858-'6o, the Sioux 
Indians became troublesome in the north- 
western part of the State. They made fre- 
quent raids for the purpose of plunder, and 
on several occasions murdered whole fami- 
lies of settlers. In 1861 several companies 
of militia were ordered to that portion of 
the State, to hunt down and expel the 
thieves. No battles were fought. The 
Indians fled as soon as they ascertained 
that S3'stematic measures had been adopted 
for their punishment. 

PATRIOTISM. 

The Presidential campaign of i860 was 
the most remarkable and exciting of all in 
the history of Iowa. The fact that civil 
war might be inaugurated and was threat- 
ened, in case Mr. Lincoln was elected, was 
well understood and duly considered. The 
people of Iowa indulged in no feeling of 



hatred or ill-will toward the people of any 
State or section of the Union. There was, 
however, on the part of the majority, a 
cool determination to consider and decide 
upon our national relations to this institu- 
tion of slaver}', uninfluenced by any threat 
of violence or civil war. The popular vote 
of Iowa gave Mr. Lincoln 70,409; Stephen 
A. Douglas, 55,011; Breckenridge, 1,048. 

The General x\ssembly of the State ot 
Iowa, as early as 185 1, had by joint resolu- 
tion declared that the State of Iowa was 
" bound to maintain the union of these 
States by all the means in her power." The 
same year the State furnished a block of 
marble for the Washington monument at the 
national capital, and by order of the Gen- 
eral Assembly there was inscribed upon its 
enduring surface the following: " Iowa: 
Her affections, like the rivers of her borders, 
flow to an inseparable Union." The time 
was now approaching in her history when 
these declarations of attachment and fidelity 
to the nation were to be put to a practical 
test. 

The declaration of Mr. Buchanan's last 
annual message, that the nation possessed 
no constitutional power to coerce a seced- 
ing State, was received by a great majority 
of our citizens with humiliation and dis- 
trust. Anxiously they awaited the expiring 
hours of his administration, and looked to 
the incoming President as to an expected 
deliverer that should rescue the nation 
from the hands of traitors, and the control 
of those whose non-resistance invited her 
destruction. The firing upon the national 
flag at Sumter aroused a burning indigna- 
tion throughout the loyal States of the re- 
public, and nowhere was it more intense 
than in Iowa; and when the proclamation 
of the President was published, April 15, 
1 861, calling for 75,000 citizen soldiers to 
" maintain the honor, the integrity, and 
the existence of our national Union, and 
the perpetuit}' of popular government," 



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HISTORY OF IOWA. 



•47 



the g-ood people of Iowa were more 
than willing to respond to the call. Party 
lines gave way, and for a while, at least, 
party spirit was hushed, and the cause of 
our common country was supreme in the 
affections of the people. Peculiarly fort- 
unate were the citizens of Iowa at this 
crisis, in having a truly representative 
man, Samuel J. Kirkwood, as executive 
of the State. 

Within thirty days after the date of the 
President's call for troops, the first Iowa 
regiment was mustered into the service of 
the United States, a second regiment was 
in camp ready for the service, and the 
General Assembly of the State was con- 
vened in special session, and had by joint 
resolution solemnly pledged every resource 
of men and money to the national cause. 

The Constitution of Iowa limited the 
State debt to $250,000, except debts con- 
tracted to " repel invasion, suppress insur- 
rection, or defend the State in war." The 
General Assembly authorized a loan of 
$800,000 for a war and defense fund, to be 
expended in organizing, arming, equipping- 
and subsisting the militia of the State to 
meet the present and future requisitions of 
the President. Those in power looked to 
the spirit rather than to the letter of the 
Constitution, and acted upon the theory 
that to preserve the nation was to pre- 
serve the State, and that to prevent in- 
vasion was the most effectual means of 
repelling it. A few, however, in both 
branches of the General Assembly were 
more careful of the letter of the Constitu- 
tion. Three votes in the Senate and sev- 
enteen in the House were cast against 
the loan bill. These bonds were at 7 per 
cent, interest. Only $300,000 were ever 
issued, and they were purchased and held 
chiefly by our own citizens. At this crisis 
James W. Grimes and James Harlan were 
in the United States Senate, and General 
Samuel R. Curtis and General Vandeverin 

13 



the House of Representatives. During the 
first year of tht; war, Iowa furnished sixteen 
regiments of infantry, six of cavalry and 
three batteries, — in all, 22,000 soldiers. 
Iowa had no refuse population to enlist as 
" food for powder." Her cities contained 
none of that element found about the pur- 
lieus of vice in the great centers of popu- 
lation. Her contribution to the armies of 
the republic was a genuine offering of 
manhood and patriotism. From her fields, 
her workshops, her counting-houses, her 
offices, and the halls of her schools and 
colleges, she contributed the best muscle, 
sinew and brain of an industrious, enter- 
prising and educated people. The first 
regiment of Iowa soldiers fought the bat- 
tle of Wilson's Creek after their term of 
enlistment had expired, and after they were 
entitled to a discharge. They were citi- 
zen soldiers, each of whom had a personal 
interest in the struggle. It was to them no 
question of enlistment, of bounty or of pay. 
When the gallant General Lyon placed 
himself at their head, and told them that 
the honor of Iowa and of the nation was in 
their hands, he addressed men who knew 
what the appeal meant, and to whom such 
an appeal was never made in vain. 

At the fall election of 1861, party spirit 
had revived; and the contest for the control 
of the State administration was warm and 
earnest. Dissensions arose in both parties 
but the election resulted in a majority of 
16,600 votes for Kirkwood, who was thus 
retained as Governor of Iowa. In 1863 
the Republicans elected their candidate 
for Governor, William M. Stone, by a ma- 
jority of 29,000. 

Meanwhile the General Assembly had 
passed a law authorizing the " soldiers' 
vote," that is, citizens of the State in the 
volunteer military service of the United 
States, whether within or without the limits 
of the State, were authorized to open a poll 
on the day of the election, and to make re- 



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HISTORY OF IOWA. 



to the proper civil au- 
Presidental contest of 
vote at home was as 

72,122; McClellan, 47,- 
Lin- 



turn of their votes 

thorities. In the 

1864 the popular 

follows: Lincoln, 

703. The soldier vote returned was 

coin, 16,844; McClellan, 1,883. 

The General Assembly did all in its 
power to encourage enlistment and to pro- 
tect the soldiers in the field and their fami- 
lies at home. Statutes were enacted sus- 
pending all suits against soldiers in the 
service, and all writs of execution or attach- 
ment against their propert}'; and county 
boards of supervisors were authorized to 
vote bounties for enlistments, and pecuni- 
ary aid to the families of those in the serv- 
ice. The spirits of our people rose and 
fell, according to the success of the Union 
armies. One da}' the bells rung out with 
joy for the surrender of Vicksburg, and 
again the air seemed full of heaviness be- 
cause of our defeats on the Peninsula; but 
through all these dark and trying days, the 
faith of the great majorit}' never wavered. 

The Emancipation Proclamation of the 
President was to them an inspiration of a 
new hope. 

In the Adjutant's department at Des 
Moines are preserved the shot-riddled col- 
ors and standards of Iowa's regiments. 
Upon them, by special authority, were 
inscribed from time to time during the war 
the names of the battle-fields upon which 
these regiments gained distinction. These 
names constitute the geographical nomen- 
clature of two-thirds of the territory lately 
in rebellion. From the Des Moines River 
to the Gulf, from the Mississippi to the 
Atlantic, in the Mountains of West Virginia 
and in the valley of the Shenandoah, the 
Iowa soldier made his presence known and 
felt, and maintained the honor of the State, 
and the cause of the nation. They were 
with Lyon at Wilson's Creek; with Tuttle 
at Donelson. They fought with Sigel and 
with Curtis at Pea Ridge; with Crocker 



at Champion Hills; with Reid at Shiloh. 
They were with Grant at the surrender of 
Vicksburg. They fought above tho clouds 
with Hooker at Lookout Mountain. They 
were with Sherman in his march to the sea, 
and were ready for battle when Johnston 
surrendered. They were with Sheridan in 
the valley of the Shenandoah, and were in 
the veteran ranks of the nation's deliverers 
that stacked their arms in the national cap- 
itol at the close of the war. 

The State furnished to the armies of the 
republic, during the war, over 70,000 men, 
and 20,000 of these perished in battle or 
from diseases contracted in the service. 

We append here a brief notice of each 
regiment : 

The First Regiment was organized under 
the President's first call for three-months 
volunteers, with John Francis Bates, of Du- 
buque, as Colonel. It comprised various 
independent military companies that had 
been organized before the war, who ten- 
dered their services even before the break- 
ing out of hostilities. They were mustered 
in May 14, and first saw service under 
General Lyon in Missouri. 

Second Infantry; Samuel R. Curtis, of 
Keokuk, Colonel. This was the first three- 
years regiment, and made a most distin- 
guished record throughout the South, go- 
ing with Sherman to the sea, returning 
through the Carolinas, etc. After the 
battle at Fort Donelson, the unenthusiastic 
General Halleck pronounced this regiment 
" the bravest of the brave." 

Third Infantrv ; Nelson G. Williams, of 
Dubuque County, Colonel. Veteranized 
in 1864, but before the new officers received 
their commissions the regiment fought itself 
out of existence at the battle of Atlanta ! 

Fourth Infantry ; G. M. Dodge, of Coun- 
cil Bluffs, Colonel. Engaged in the prin- 
cipal battles of the South. 

Fifth Infantry ; William H. Worthington, 
of Keokuk, Colonel; 180 veteranized in 






HISTORY OF IOWA. 



149 



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1864 and were transferred to the Fifth 
Cavalry. 

Sixth Infantry ; John A. McDowell, of 
Keokuk, Colonel. Engaged faithfully in 
many of the prominent battles. 

Seventh Infantry ; J. G. Lauman, of Bur- 
lington, Colonel. It lost 227 at the single 
battle of Belmont. 

Eighth Infantry ; Frederick Steele, of the 
regular army, Colonel. Most of this com- 
mand suffered in rebel prisons for eight 
months. Was on duty in Alabama nearly 
a year after the collapse of the Rebellion. 

Ninth Infantry ; William Vandever, of 
Dubuque, Colonel. Was in almost every 
Southern State, traveling altogether 10,000 
miles ; marched more than 4,000 miles ! 

Tenth Infantry ; Nicholas Persczel, of 
Davenport, Colonel. Fought mainly in 
Mississippi ; losing half its number at the 
battle of Champion Hills alone ! 

Eleventh Infantry ; A. M. Hare, of Mus- 
catine, Colonel. Served mainly in the in- 
terior of the South, doing as valiant service 
as any other regiment. 

Twelfth Infantry ; J. J. Wood, of Maquo- 
keta. Colonel. In rebel prisons eight 
months. Veteranized January 4, 1864, a 
larger proportion of the men re-enlisting 
than from any other Iowa regiment. Served 
for several months after the close of the 
war. 

Thirteenth Infantry; M. M. Crocker, of 
Des Moines, Colonel. Fought in the South- 
ern interior and made the famous round 
with Sherman to the sea, being the first to 
enter Columbia, South Carolina, where se- 
cession had its rise. 

Fourteenth Infantry; William T. Shaw, 
of Anamosa, Colonel. Nearly all captured 
at Shiloh, but were released after a few 
months. Engaged in some of the severest 
contests. 

Fifteenth Infantry; Hugh T. Reid, of 
Keokuk, Colonel. Served three and a half 
years in the heart of the Rebellion. 



Si.Kteenth Infantry ; Alex. Chambers, of 
the regular army, Cc^lonel. Bravely served 
throughout the South. 

Seventeenth Infantry; John W. Rankin, 
of Keokuk, Colonel. Served in the in- 
terior of the South. 

Eighteenth Infantry; John Edwards, of 
Chariton, Colonel. Much of its time was 
spent in garrison duty. 

Nineteenth Infantry ; Benjamin Crabb, 
of Washington, Colonel. Served mainly in 
Mississippi. Were prisoners of war about 
ten months. 

Twentieth Infantry, comprismg five com- 
panies each from Scott and Linn counties, 
who vied with each other in patriotism; 
William M. D3'e, of Marion, Colonel. En- 
gaged mainly on the Gulf coast. 

Twenty-first Infantry ; ex-Governor Sam- 
uel Merrill, Colonel. Distinguished in val- 
iant service throughout the South. See 
Twenty-third Regiment. 

Twenty-second Infantry ; William M. 
Stone, of Knoxville, since Governor of the 
State, was Colonel. Did excellent service, 
all the way from Mississippi to old Virginia. 

Twenty-third Infantry ; William Dewey, 
of Fremont County, Colonel. Its services 
were mainly in Mississippi. At Black River 
but a few minutes were required in carry- 
ing the rebel works, but those few minutes 
were fought with fearful loss to the troops. 
The Twenty-first also participated in this 
daring assault, and immediately after the 
victory was gained General Lawler passed 
down the line and joyfully seized every man 
by the hand, so great was his emotion. 

Twenty-fourth Infantry ; the " Iowa 
Temperance Regiment," was raised by 
Eber C. Byam, of Linn County. Engaged 
mainly in the Lower Mississippi Valley. 

Twenty-fifth Infantry ; George A. Stone, 
of Mt. Pleasant, Colonel, " To the sea." 

Twenty-sixth Infantry ; Milo Smith, of 
Clinton, Colonel. Took part in many great 
battles. 






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OF IOWA. 



Twenty-seventh Infantry ; James I. Gil- 
bert, of Lansing, Colonel. On duty all the 
way from Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico. 

Twenty-eighth Infantry ; William E. 
Miller, of Iowa City, Colonel. Service, in 
the region of the Lower Mississippi. 

Twenty-ninth Infantry ; Thomas H. Ben- 
ton, Jr., of Council Bluffs, Colonel. Sta- 
tioned in Arkansas. 

Thirtieth Infantry ; Charles B. Abbott, 
of Louisa County, Colonel. In the thickest 
of the war, coming home loaded with 
honors. 

Thirty-first Infantry ; William Smyth, of 
Marion, Colonel. Returned from its many 
hard-fought battles in the interior of the 
South with only 370 men out of 1,000 en- 
listed. 

Thirty -second Infantry; John Scott, of 
Nevada, Colonel. Engaged in a number of 
battles. 

Thirty-third Infantry ; Samuel A. Rice, 
a popular politician of Central Iowa, Colo- 
nel. Served from Arkansas to Alabama. 

Thirty-fourth Infantry; George W.Clark, 
of Indianola, Colonel. Traveled 15,000 
miles in its service! 

Thirty-fifth Infantry ; S. G. Hill, of Mus- 
catine, Colonel. Served bravely in a dozen 
battles, and traveled 10,000 miles. 

Thirty-sixth Infantry ; Charles W. Kitt- 
redge, of Ottumwa, Colonel. Suffered a 
great deal from sickness— small-pox, measles, 
malaria, etc. 

Thirty-seventh Infantry, the " Gray- 
Beard Regiment," being composed of men 
over forty-five years of age, and was the 
only one of its kind in the war. Garrison 
and post duty. 

Thirty-eighth Infantry; D. H. Hughes, 
of Decorah, Colonel. Most unfortunate of 
all in respect of sickness, 300 dying during 
the first two years. 

Thirty-ninth Infantry ; H. J. B. Cum- 
mings, of Winterset, Colonel. One of the 
most distinguished regiments in the field. 



Fortieth Infantry ; John A. Garrett, of 
Newton, Colonel. 

Forty-first Infantry was not completed, 
and the three companies raised for it were 
attached to the Seventh Cavalry. 

There were no regiments numbered 
Forty-second or Forty-third. 

Forty-fourth Infantry for 100 days; 
Stephen H. Henderson, Colonel. Garrison 
duty in Tennessee. 

Forty-fifth Infantry, lor 100 days; A. H. 
Bereman, of Mt. Pleasant, Colonel. Garri- 
son duty^ in Tennessee. 

Forty-sixth Infantry, for 100 days; D. B. 
Henderson, of Clermont, Colonel. Garri- 
son duty in Tennessee. 

Forty-seventh Infantry, for 100 days ; 
James P. Sanford, of Oskaloosa, Colonel. 
Stationed at the sickly place of Helena, 
Arkansas. 

Forty-eighth Infantry (battalion), for 100 
days ; O. H. P. Scott, of Farmington, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel. Guarded prisoners on Rock 
Island. 

First Cavalry ; Fitz Henry Warren, of 
Burlington, Colonel. Served for three 
years, mainly along the Lower Mississippi. 

Second Cavalry ; W. L. Elliott, a Cap- 
tain in the Third Cavalry of the regular 
army. Colonel. Fought faithfully in many 
important battles in Tennessee and Missis- 
sippi. 

Third Cavalry ; Cyrus Bussey, of Broom- 
field, Colonel. Distinguished in war. 

Fourth Cavalry ; A. B. Porter, of Mt. 
Pleasant, Colonel. Participated with zeal 
and judgment in the hottest of battles in 
Tennessee and Mississippi. 

Fifth Cavalry, only in part an Iowa regi- 
ment ; William W. Lowe, of the regular 
army, Colonel. Distinguished in the hotly 
contested battles of Tennessee and vicinity. 

Sixth Cavalry ; D. S. Wilson, of Du- 
buque, Colonel. Served against ihe In- 
dians. 

Seventh Cavalry ; S. W. Summers, of 







"m "^ 



^n^Vo- 













IOWA STATE HOUSE AT DES MOINES 






HISTORY OF IOWA. 



iS» 



Ottumwa, Colonel. Served against the 
Indians. 

Eighth Cavalry ; Joseph B. Dorr, of Du- 
buque, Colonel. Served faithfully in guard- 
ing Sherman's communications, etc. 

Ninth Cavalry; M. M. Trumbull, of 
Cedar Falls, Colonel. Scouting, guard and 
garrison duties in Arkansas. 

First Battery of Light Artillery ; C. H. 
Fletcher, of Burlington, Captain. Served 
in Arkansas and Tennessee. 

Second Battery; Nelson I. Spoor, of 
Council Bluffs, Captain. Engaged at Farm- 
ington, Corinth and other places. 

Third Battery ; M. M. Hayden, of Du- 
buque, Captain. Engaged at Pea Ridge, 
and in other important battles. 

Fourth Battery ; on duty most of the 
time in Louisiana. 

Iowa Regiment of Colored Troops ; John 
G. Hudson, of Missouri, Colonel. Garrison 
duty at St. Louis and elsewhere. 



Northern Border Brigade ; 



James \. 
Protected 



Sawyer, of Sioux City, Colonel, 
the Northwestern frontier. 

Southern Border Brigade ; protected the 
southern border of the State. 

The following promotions were made by 
the United States Government from Iowa 
regiments : To the rank of Major-General 
— Samuel R.Curtis, Frederick Steele, Frank 
J. Herron and Grenville M. Dodge ; to that 
of Brigadier-General — Jacob G. Lauman, 
James M. Tuttle, W. L. Elliott, Fitz Henry 
Warren, Charles L. Matthies, William Van- 
dever, M. M. Crocker, Hugh T. Reid, 
Samuel A. Rice, John M. Corse, Cyrus 
Bussey, Edward Hatch, Elliott W. Rice, 
William W. Belknap, John Edwards, James 
A. Williamson, James I. Gilbert and Thomas 
J. McKean ; Corse, Hatch, Belknap, Elliott 
and Vandever were brevetted Major- 
Generals ; brevetted Brigadier-Generals — 
WiUiam T. Clark, Edward F. Winslow, S. 
G. Hill, Thomas H. Benton, S. S. Glasgow, 
Clark R. Weaver, Francis M. Drake,* 



George A. Stone, Datus E. Coon, George 
W. Clark, Herman H. Heath, J. M. Hed- 
rick and W. W. Lowe. 

IOWA SINCE THE WAR. 

The two principal events of political in- 
terest in this State since the war have been 
the popular contests concerning woman 
suffrage and the liquor traffic. In the 
popular elections the people gave a ma- 
jority against the former measure, but in 
favor of prohibiting the sale or manufact- 
ure of intoxicating liquors. 

A list of State officers to date is given on 
a subsequent page. The last vote for 
Governor, October 9, 1883, stood as fol- 
lows: For Buren R. Sherman, Republican, 
164,141 ; L. G. Kinne, Democrat, 140,032, 
and James B. Weaver, National Green- 
back, 23,093. 

STATE INSTITUTIONS. 

The present capitol building is a beauti- 
ful specimen of modern architecture. Its 
dimensions are, in general, 246 x 364 feet, 
with a dome and spire extending up to a 
height of 275 feet. In 1870 the General 
Assembly made an appropriation, and pro- 
vided for the appointment of a board of com- 
missioners to commence the work of build- 
ing. They were duly appointed and pro- 
ceeded to work, laying the corner-stone with 
appropriate ceremonies, November 2 3, 1871. 
The structure is not yet completed. When 
finished it will have cost about $3,500,000. 

The State University, at Iowa City, was 
established therein 1858, immediately after 
the removal of the capital to Des Moines. 
As had already been planned, it occupied 
the old capitol building. As early as Janu- 
ary, 1849, two branches of the university 
were established — one at Fairfield and one 
at Dubuque. At Fairfield, the board of 
directors organized and erected a building 
at a cost of $2,500. This was nearly de- 
stroyed bv a hurricane the following year, 



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152 



HI STORY OF IOWA. 



but was rebuilt more substantially by the 
citizens of Fairfield. This branch never 
received any aid from the State, and Janu- 
ary 24, 1853, at the request of the board, 
the General Assembly terminated its rela- 
tion to the State, The branch at Dubuque 
had only a nominal existence 

By act of Congress, approved July 20, 
1840, two entire townships of land were 
set apart in this State for the support of a 
university. The Legislature of this State 
placed the management of this institution 
in the hands of a board of fifteen trustees, 
five to be chosen (by the Legislature) every 
two years, the superintendent of public 
instruction to be president of the board. 
This board was also to appoint seven trus- 
tees for each of the three normal schools, to 
be simultaneously established — one each 
at Andrew, Oskaloosa and Mt. Pleasant. 
One was never started at the last-named 
place, and after a feeble existence for a 
short time the other two were discontin- 
ued. The university itself was closed dur- 
ing i859-'6o, for want of funds. 

The law department was established in 
June, 1868, and soon afterward the Iowa 
Law School at Des Moines, which had been 
in successful operation for three years, was 
transferred to Iowa City and merged in the 
department. The medical d epartment was 
established in 1869; and in 1874 a chair of 
military instruction was added. 

Since April 11, 1870, the government of 
the university has been in the hands of a 
board of regents. The present faculty 
comprises forty-two professors, and the 
attendance 560 students. 

The State Normal School is located at 
Cedar Falls, and was opened in 1876. It 
has now a faculty of nine members, with an 
attendance of 301 pupils. 

The State Agricultural College is located 
at Ames, in Story County, being established 
by the legislative act of March 23, 1858. 
In 1862 Congress granted to Iowa 240,000 



acres of land for the endowment of schools 
of agriculture and the mechanic arts. The 
main building was completed in 1868, and 
the institution opened the following year. 
Tuition is free to pupils from the State 
over sixteen years of age. The college 
farm comprises 860 acres, of which a major 
portion is in cultivation. Professors, twen- 
ty-two; scholars, 319. 

The Deaf and Dumb Institute was estab- 
lished in 1855, ^t Iowa City, but was after- 
ward removed to Council Bluffs, to a tract 
of ninety acres of land two miles south of 
that city. In October, 1870, the main build- 
ing and one wing were completed and 
occupied. In February, 1877, ^^'^ destroyed 
the main building and east wing, and dur- 
ing the summer following a tornado par- 
tially demolished the west wing. It is at 
present (1885) manned with fifteen teachers, 
and attended by 292 pupils. 

The College for the Blind has been at Vin- 
ton since 1862. Prof. Samuel Bacon, himself 
blind, a fine scholar, who had founded the 
Institution for the Blind, at Jacksonville, 
Illinois, commenced as early as 1852 a school 
of instruction at Keokuk. The next year 
the institution was adopted by the State 
and moved to Iowa City, with Prof. Bacon 
as principal. It was moved thence, in 1862, 
to Vinton. The building was erected and 
the college manned at vast expenditure of 
money. It is said that $282,000 were ex- 
pended upon the building alone, and that it 
required an outlay of $5,000 a year to heat 
it, while it had accommodations for 130 in- 
mates. At present, iiowever, they have 
accommodations for mcjre pupils, with an 
attendance of 132. There are eleven teach- 
ers. The annual legislative appropriation 
is $8,000, besides $128 per year for each 
pupil. 

The first Iowa Hospital for the Insane 
was established by an act of the Legislature 
approved January 24, 1855. It is located at 
Mt. Pleasant, where the building was com- 






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HISTORT OF IOWA. 



153 



pleted in 1861, at a cost of $258,555. Within 
the first three months 100 patients were ad- 
mitted, and before the close of October, 
1877, an aggregate of 3,684 had been ad- 
mitted. In April, 1876, a portion of the 
building was destroyed b}^ fire. At this in- 
stitution there are now ninety-four superin- 
tendents and assistants, in charge of 472 
patients. 

Another Hospital for the Insane, at Inde- 
pendence, was opened May i, 1873, in a 
building which cost $88,114. The present 
number of inmates is 580, in the care of 1 1 1 
superintendents and employes. 

The Soldiers' Orphans' Home is located at 
Davenport. It was origmated by Mrs. Annie 
Wittenmeyer, during the late war, who 
called a convention for the purpose at Mus- 
catine, September 7, 1863, and uly 13 fol- 
lowing the institution was opened m a brick 
building at Lawrence, Van Buren County. 
It was sustained by voluntary contributions 
until 1866, when the State took charge of 
it. The Legislature provided at first for 
three " homes." The one in Cedar Falls 
was organized in 1865, an old hotel build- 
ing being fitted up for it, and by the follow- 
ing January there were ninety-six inmates. 
In October, 1869, the Home was removed 
to a large brick building about two miles 
west of Cedar Falls, and was very prosper- 
ous for several years ; but in 1876 the Leg- 
islature devoted this building to the State 
Normal School, and the buildings and 
grounds of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home 
at Glenwood, Mills County, to an institution 
for the support of feeble-minded children, 
and also provided for the removal of the 
soldiers' orphans at the Glenwood and 
Cedar Falls homes to the institution at 
Davenport. The latter has now in charge 
169 orphans. 

The Asylum for Feeble-Minded Children, 
referred to above, is at Glenwood, estab- 
lished by the Legislature in March, 1876. 
The institution was opened September i. 



following, with a few pupils; but now the 
attendance is 215, in the care of four teach- 
ers. This asylum is managed by three trus- 
tees, one of whom must be a resident of that 
county, Mills. 

The first penitentiary was established in 
1 84 1, near Fort Madison, its present loca- 
tion. The cost of the original building was 
$55,934, and its capacity was sufficient for 
138 convicts. At present there are at this 
prison 364 convicts, in charge of forty-three 
employes. 

The penitentiary at Anamosa was estab- 
lished in i872-'3. It now has 239 convicts 
and thirty-four employes. 

The boys' reform school was permanently 
located at Eldora, Hardin County, in 1872. 
For the three years previous it was kept at 
the building of the Iowa Manual Labor In- 
stitute at Salem, Henry County. Only 
boys between seven and sixteen years of 
age are admitted. Credit of time for good 
conduct is given, so that occasionally one 
is discharged before he is of age. There 
are now (1885) 201 pupils here. 

The "girls' department" is at Mitchell- 
ville, similarly managed. Inmates, eighty- 
three. 

The State Historical Society is in part 
supported by the State, the Governor ap- 
pointing nine of the eighteen curators. 
This society was provided for in connection 
with the University, by legislative act of 
January 28, 1857, ^"d it has published a 
series of valuable collections, and a large 
number of finely engraved portraits of 
prominent and early settlers. 

The State Agricultural Society is con- 
ducted under the auspices of the State, and 
is one of the greatest promoters of the 
welfare of the people among all the State 
orpfanizations. It holds an annual fair at 
Des Moines, and its proceedings are also 
published annually, at the expense of the 
State. 

The Fish-Hatching House has been suc- 



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154 



HTSTORT OF IOWA. 



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cessfuUy carr3Mng on its good work since 
its establishment in 1874, near Anamosa. 
Three fish commissioners are appointed, 
one for each of the three districts into which 
the State is for the pnrpose divided. 

The State Board of Health, established 
in 1880, has an advisory supervision, and to 
a limited extent also a police supervision, 
over the health of the people,— especially 
with reference to the abatement of those 
nuisances that are most calculated to pro- 
mulgate dangerous and contagious diseases. 
Their publications, which are made at the 
expense of the State, should be studied by 
every citizen 

EDUCATIONAL. 

The germ of the free public school sys- 
tem of Iowa, which now ranks second to 
none in the United States, was planted by 
the first settlers, and in no other public 
measure have the people ever since taken 
so deep an interest. They have expanded 
and improved their original system until 
now it is justly considered one of the most 
complete, comprehensive and liberal in the 
country. 

Nor is this to be wondered at when it is 
remembered that humble log school-houses 
were built almost as soon as the log cabins 
of the earliest settlers were occupied, and 
school teachers were among the first im- 
migrants to Iowa. Schools, therefore, the 
people have had everywhere from the start, 
and the school-houses, in their character and 
acctnnmodations, have kept fully abreast 
with the times. 

The first school-house within the limits 
of Iowa was a log cabin at Dubuque, built by 
J. L. Langworthy and a few other miners, 
in the autumn of 1833. When it was com- 
pleted George Cabbage was employed as 
teacher during the winter of 1833-4, thirty- 
five pupils attending his schcjol. Barrett 
Whittemore taught the next school term, 
with twenty-five pupils in attendance. Mrs. 
Caroline Dexter commenced teachins: in 



Dubuque in March, 1836. She was the first 
female teacher there, and probably the first 
in Iowa. In 1839 Thomas H. Benton, Jr., 
afterward for ten years Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, opened an English and 
classical school in Dubuque. The first tax 
for the support of schools at Dubuque was 
levied in 1840. 

At Burlington a commodious log school- 
house, built in 1834, was among the first 
buildings erected. A Mr. Johnson taught 
the first school in the winter of i834-'5. 

In Muscatine County, the first school was 
taught by George Bumgardner, in the 
spring of 1837. In 1839 ^ ^^Z school-house 
was erected in Muscatine, which served for 
a long time as school-house, church and 
public hall. 

The first school in Davenport was taught 
in 1838. In Fairfield, Miss Clarissa Sawyer, 
James F. Chambers and Mrs. Reed taught 
school in 1839. 

Johnson County was an entire wilderness 
when Iowa City was located as the capital 
of the Territory of Iowa, in May, 1839. 
The first sale of lots took place August 18, 
1839, ^"^^ before January i, 1840, about 
twenty families had settled within the limits 
of the town. During the same year Jesse 
Berry opened a school in a small frame 
building he had erected on what is now 
College street. 

In Monroe County, the first settlement 
was made in 1843, by Mr. John R. Gra}^ 
about two miles from the present site of 
Eddyville; and in the summer of 1844 a log 
school-house was built by Gray, William 
V. Beedle, C. Renfro, Joseph McMullcn 
and Willoughby Randolph, and the first 
school was opened by Miss Urania Adams. 
The building was occupied for school pur- 
poses for nearly ten years. 

About a year after the first cabin was 
built at Oskaloosa, a log school-house was 
built, in which school was opened by Sam- 
uel W. Caldwell, in 1844. 









HISTORY OF IOWA. 



155 



At Fort Des Moines, now the capital of 
the State, the first school was taught by 
Lewis Whitten, Clerk of the District Court, 
in the winter of iZaJS-j, in one of the rooms 
on " Coon Row," built for barracks. 

The first school in Pottawattamie County 
was opened by George Green, a Mormon, 
at Council Point, prior to 1849; '^'^d until 
about 1854 nearly all the teachers in that 
vicinity were Mormons. 

The first school in Dccorah was taught in 
1855, by Cyrus C. Carpenter, since Gov 
ernor of the State. In Crawford County the 
first school-house was built in Mason's 
Grove, in 1856, and Morris McHenry first 
occupied it as teacher. 

During the first twenty years of the his- 
tory of Iowa, the log school-house pre- 
vailed, and in 1861 there were 893 of these 
primitive structures in use for school pur- 
poses in the State. Since that time they 
have been gradually disappearing. In 1865 
there were 796; in 1870, 336; and in 1875, 
121. 

In 1846, the year of Iowa's admission as 
a State, there were 20,000 scholars out of 
100,000 inhabitants. About 400 sch(3ol dis- 
tricts had been organized. In 1850 there 
were 1,200, and in 1857 the number had in- 
creased to 3,265. 

In March, 1858, upon the recommenda- 
tion of Hon. M. L. Fisher, then Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, the seventh 
General Assembly enacted that "each civil 
township is declared a school district," and 
provided that these should be divided into 
sub-districts. This law went into force 
March 20, 1858, and reduced the number of 
school districts from about 3,500 to less than 
900. This change of school organization 
resulted in a very material reduction of the 
expenditures for the compensation of dis- 
trict secretaries and treasurers. An effort 
was made for several years, from 1867 to 
1872, to abolish the sub-district system. 
Mr. Kissell, Superintendent, recommended 



this in his report of January i, 1872, and 
Governor Merrill forcibly endorsed his 
views in his annual message. But the 
Legislature of that year provided for the 
formation of independent districts from the 
sub-districts of district townships. 

The system of graded schools was in- 
augurated in 1849, ^'"'d new schools, in 
which more than one teacher is employed, 
are universally graded. 

Teachers' institutes were organized early 
in the history of the State. The first offi- 
cial mention of them occurs in the annual 
report of Hon. Thomas H. Benton, Jr., 
made December 2, 1850, who said: "An 
institution of this character was organized 
a few years ago, composed of the teachers 
of the mineral regions of Illinois, Wisconsin 
and Iowa. An association of teachers has 
also been formed in the county of Henry, 
and an effort was made in October last to 
organize a regular institute in the county 
of Jones." 

No legislation, however, was held until 
March, 1858, when an act was passed au- 
thorizing: the holding of teachers' institutes 
for periods not less than six working days, 
whenever not less than thirty teachers 
should desire. The superintendent was 
authorized to expend not exceeding $100 
for any one institute, to be paid out by the 
county superintendent, as the institute may 
direct, for teachers and lecturers, and $1,- 
000 was appropriated to defray' the expenses 
of these institutes. Mr. Fisher at once 
pushed the matter of holding institutes, and 
December 6, 1858, he reported to the Board 
of Education that institutes had been ap- 
pointed in twenty counties within the pre- 
ceding six months, and more would have 
been held but the appropriation had been 
exhausted. At the first session of the Board 
of Education, commencing December 6, 
1858, a code of school laws was enacted, 
which retained the existing provisions for 
teachers' institutes. In March, i860, the 



14 



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156 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



General Assembly amended the act of the 
board by appropriating " a sum not ex- 
ceeding $50 annually for one such institute, 
held as provided by law in each county." 
In 1865 the superintendent, Mr. Faville, re- 
ported that " the provision made by the 
State for the benefit of teachers' institutes 
has never been so fully appreciated, both 
by the people and the teachers, as during 
the last two years." Under this law an in- 
stitute is held annually in each county, 
under the direction of the county superin- 
tendent. 

By an act approved March 19, 1874, nor- 
mal institutes were established in each 
county, to be held annually by the county 
superintendent. This was regarded as a 
very decided step in advance by Mr. Aber- 
nethy, and in 1876 the General Assembl}' 
established the first permanent State Nor- 
mal School at Cedar Falls, Black Hawk 
County, appropriating the building and 
property of the Soldiers' Orphans Home 
at that place for that purpose. This school 
is now " in the full tide of successful ex- 
periment." 

Funds for the support of the public 
schools are derived in several ways. The 
sixteenth section of every congressional 
township was set apart by the General 
Government for school purposes, being 
one thirty-sixth part of all the lands of the 
State. The minimum price of these lands 
was fixed at $1.25 per acre. Congress also 
made an additional donation to the State of 
500,000 acres, and an appropriation of 5 
per cent, on all the sales of public lands to 
the school fund. The State gives to this 
fund the proceeds of the sales of all laitds 
which escheat to it; the proceeds of all 
fines for the violation of the liquor and 
criminal laws. The monej' derived from 
these sources constitutes the permanent 
school fund of the State, which cannot be 
diverted to an}^ other purpose. The pen- 
alties collected by the courts for fines and 



forfeitures go to the school fund in the 
counties where collected. The proceeds 
of the sale of lands and the 5 per cent, fund 
go into the State Treasury, and the State 
distributes these proceeds to the several 
counties according to their request. 

In 1844 there were in the State 4,339 
school districts, containing 11,244 schools, 
and employing 21,776 teachers. The aver- 
age monthly pay of male teachers was 
$32.50, and of female teachers $27.25. There 
were 594,730 persons of school age, of whom 
431,513 were enrolled in the public schools. 
The average cost of tuition for each pupil 
per month was $1.62. The expenditures 
for all school purposes was $5,129,819.49. 
The permanent school fund is now $3,547,- 
123.82, on which the income for 1881 was 
$234,622.40. 

Besides the State University, Agricult- 
ural College and Normal School, described 
on preceding pages, ample provision for 
higher education has been made by the 
different religious denominations, assisted 
by local and individual beneficence. There 
are, exclusive of State institutions, twent}'- 
three universities and colleges, and one 
hundred and eleven academies and other 
private schools for the higher branches. 
All these are in active operation, and most 
of them stand high. 

Amity College, located at College 
Springs, Page County, has eight instructors 
and two hundred and forty-five students. 

Burlington Universitv, eight instructors 
and forty-three pupils. 

Callanan College, at Des Moines, has 
eighteen in the faculty and one hundred 
and twenty students enrolled. 

Central University, at Fella, Marion 
County, is under the auspices of the Baptist 
church, and has eleven in the faculty and 
one hundred and two students. 

Coe College, at Cedar Rapids, has a 
faculty of ten, and an attendance of one 
hundred and ninety-nine. 









HISTORY OF IOWA. 



157 



Cornell Ccjllege, Methodist Episcopal, at 
Mt. Vernon, Linn County, has eighteen 
members of the faculty and four hundred 
and seventy-nine scholars. This is a strong 
institution. 

Drake University, at Des Moines, has 
thirty instructors and three hundred and 
twenty-five pupils. 

Griswold College, at Davenport, is under 
the control of the Episcopal church, and 
has seven instructors and seventy-five stu- 
dents. 

Iowa College, at Grinnell, is permanently 
endowed. Has fourteen instructors and 
three hundred and eighty-four students. 

Iowa Wesleyan University (Methodist 
Episcopal), at Mt. Pleasant, has six mem- 
bers of the faculty and one hundred and 
seventy-five students. 

Luther College, at Decorah, Winneshiek 
County, has a faculty of ten, and one hun- 
dred and sixty-five pupils. 

Oskaloosa College has a faculty of five, 
and one hundred and thirty-five students. 

Penn College, at Oskaloosa, has a faculty 
of five members, and one hundred and forty 
pupils in attendance. 

Simpson Centenar}' College, at Indianola, 
Warren County (Methodist Episcopal), has 
a faculty of seven and an attendance of two 
hundred. 

Tabor College, at Tabor, Fremont 
County, modeled after the Oberlin (Ohio) 
College, has twelve members in the facult^^ 
and an attendance of two hundred and ten 
scholars. 

U liversity of Des Moines has five in- 
structors and fifty pupils. 

Upper Iowa University (Methodist Epis- 
copal), located at Fayette, in Fayette 
County, has eleven instructors and three 
hundred and fifty students. 

Whittier College, at Salem, Henry 
County, is under the auspices of the 
Friends. There are two instructors and 
sixty pupils. 



STATISTICAL. 

When Wisconsin Territory was organ- 
ized in 1836, the entire population of that 
portion of the Territory now embraced in 
the State of Iowa was 10,531. The Terri- 
tory then embraced two counties, Dubuque 
and Des Moines, erected by the Territory 
of Michigan in 1834. Since then the 
counties have increased to ninety-nine, and 
the population in 1880 was 1,624,463. The 
following table will show the population at 
different periods since the erection of Iowa 
Territory : 



Year. 

1S38. 

1840. 

1S44 

1846. 

1847. 

1849 

1850. 

1S51. 

1852. 

1854- 
.856. 



Populalioi) 

22,589 

.... 43,115 

75,1 =;2 

.... 97,588 
. . . . 116,651 
,...152,988 
. . . . 191,982 
....204,774 
...230,713 

326,013 

5'9.o5.S 



Year Population 

'S59 638,775 

i860 ... 674,913 

1863 701,732 

1865.. 750-699 

1S67 902,040 

1S69 1,040.819 

1870 1,191,727 

1S73 1.251,333 

1875 1 366,000 

1880 1,624463 



The most populous county is Dubuque — 
42,997. Polk County has 42,395, and Scott, 
41,270. Not only in population, but in 
everything contributing to the growth and 
greatness of a State, has Iowa made rapid 
progress. In a little more than thirty-five 
years its wild but beautiful prairies have 
advanced from the home of the savage to a 
highly civilized commonwealth. 

The first railroad across the State was 
completed to Council Bluffs in January, 
1 87 1. The completion of three others scon 
followed. In 1854 there was not a mile of 
railroad in Iowa. Within the succeeding 
twenty years, 3,765 miles were built and 
put in successful operation. 

The present value of buildings for our 
State institutions is as follows : 



Sta e Capitol.. . .\ 
State University. 
Agricultural Co). 

and Farm .... 
Inst, for the lilind 
Institution for the 

Deaf and Dumb 



2,5CX),COO 

400,000 

300,000 
1 50,000 

225,000 



Institutions for the 

Insane $1,149,000 

Orphans' H me.. 62,000 
Penitentiaries .... 408,000 
Normal School. . 50,000 
Reform School . . 90,000 






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158 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



The State has never levied more than 
two and one-half mills on the dollar for 
State tax, and this is at present the consti- 
tutional limit. 

Iowa has no State debt. Whatever obli- 
gations have been incurred in the past have 
been promptly met and fully paid. Man}' 
of the counties are in debt, but only four of 
them to an amount exceeding $100,000 each. 
The bonded debt of the counties amounts 
in the aggregate to $2,592,222, and the float- 
ing debt, $153,456; total, $2,745,678. 

In the language of Judge C. C. Nourse, 
we feel compelled to say : " The great ulti- 
mate fact that America would demonstrate 
is, the existence of a people capable of at- 
taining and preserving a superior civiliza- 
tion, with a government self-imposed, self- 
administered and self-perpetuated. In this 
age of wonderful progress, America can 
exhibit nothing to the world of mankind 
more wonderful or more glorious than her 
new States — young empires, born of her 
own enterprise and tutored at her own 
political hearth-stone. Well may she say 
to the monarchies of the Old World, who 
look for evidence of her regal grandeur 
and state, 'Behold, these are my jewels!' 
and may she never blush to add, ' This one 
in the center of the diadem is lowA !' " 

PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

Iowa, in the highly figurative and ex- 
pressive language of the aborigines, is said 
to signify " The Beautiful Land," and was 
applied by them to this magnificent section 
of the country between the two great rivers. 

The general shape of the State is that of 
a rectangle, the northern and southern 
boundaries being due east and west lines, 
and its eastern and western boundaries de- 
termined by southerly flowing rivers — the 
Mississippi on the east and the Missouri 
and the Big Sioux on the west. The width 
of the State from north to south is over 200 
miles, being from the parallel of 43° 30' to 



that of 40° 36', or merely three degrees; 
but this does not include the small angle at 
the southeast corner. The length of the 
State from east to west is about 265 miles. 
The area is 55,044 square miles, nearly all 
of which is readily tillable and highly fer- 
tile. 

The State lies wholly within, and com- 
prises a part of a vast plain, and there is no 
mountainous or even hilly country within 
its borders, excepting the bluffs of the larger 
rivers. The highest point is near Spirit 
Lake, and is but 1,200 feet above the lowest, 
which is in the southeast corner, and is 444 
feet above the level of the Gulf of Mexico. 
The average descent per mile between these 
two points is four feet, and that from Spirit 
Lake to the northeast corner of the State, 
at low-water mark of the Mississippi, is five 
feet five inches. 

It has been estimated that about seven- 
eighths of Iowa was prairie when the white 
race first settled here. It seems to be a set- 
tled point ill science that the annual fires of 
the Indians, prevented this western country 
from becoming heavily timbered. 

GEOLOGY. 

Geologists divide the soil of Iowa into 
three general divisions, which not only 
possess different physical characters, but 
also differ in the mode of their origin. 
These are drift, bluff and alluvial and be- 
long respectively to the deposits bearing 
the same names. The drift occupies a 
much larger part of the surface of the State 
than both the others. The bluff has the 
next greatest area of surface. 

All soil is disintegrated rock. The drift 
deposit of Iowa was derived to a consider- 
able extent from the rocks of Minnesota; 
but the greater part was derived from its 
own rocks, much of which has been trans- 
ported but a short distance. In Northern 
and Northwestern Iowa the drift contains 
more sand and erravel than elsewhere. In 



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Southern Iowa the soil is frequently stiff 
and cla3^ey. The bluff soil is found only in 
the western part of the State, and adjacent 
to Missouri River. Although it contains 
less than i per cent, of clay in its com- 
position, it is in no respect inferior to the 
best drift soil. The alluvial soil is that of 
the flood plains of the river valleys, or bot- 
tom lands. That which is periodically 
flooded by the rivers is of little value for 
agricultural purposes ; but a large part of 
it is entirely above the reach of the highest 
flood, and is ver}' productive. 

The stratified rocks of Iowa range from 
the Azoic to the Mesozoic, inclusive ; but 
the greater portion of the surface of the 
State is occupied by those of the Palaeozoic 
asre. The table below will show each of 
these formations in their order : 



CO 



c:3 



O 



n 



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p 



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cr 



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c ST J- 



nJri. 



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a: 3 



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3 = ^3 
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a «^ crc 
3 c p 

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ft C/3 3 
21 3- ft 
o p 2. 

ft </) D 



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3 -J •-! O 

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— ft 3 ^ 



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P ft 



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= <» 3 & 



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5? S = 2;.Q-: 

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The Sioux quartzite, in the azoic system, 
is found exposed in natural ledges only 
upon a few acres in the extreme northwest 
corner of the State, upon the banks of the 
Big Sioux River, for which reason the 
specific name of Sioux quartzite has been 
given them. It is an intensely hard rock, 
breaks in splintery fracture, and of a color 
varying, in different localities, from a light 
to deep red. The process of metamorphism 
has been so complete throughcjut the whole 
formation that the rock is almost every- 
where of uniform texture. The dip is four 
or five degrees t(3 the northward, and the 
trend of the outcrop is eastward and west- 
ward. 

The Potsdam sandstone formation is ex- 
posed only in a small portion of the north- 
eastern part of the State. It is only to be 
seen in the bases of the bluffs and steep 
valley sides which border the river there. 
It is nearly valueless for economic purposes. 
No fossils have been discovered in this for- 
mation in Iowa. 

The Lower Magnesian limestone has but 
little greater geographical extent in Iowa 
than the Potsdam sandstone. It lacks a 
uniformity of texture and stratification, ow- 
ing to which it is not generally valuable for 
building purposes. 

The St. Peter's sandstone formation is 
remarkably uniform in thickness through- 
out its known geographical extent, and it 
occupies a large portion of the northern 
half of Allamakee County; immediately be- 
neath the drift. 

With the exception of the Trenton lime- 
stone, all the limestones of both Upper and 
Lower Silurian age in Iowa are magnesian 
limestone. This formation occupies large 
portions of Winneshiek and Allamakee 
counties, and a small part of Clayton. The 
greater part of it is useless for economic 
purposes ; but there are some compact, 
even layers that furnish fine material for 
window caps and sills. 









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160 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



The Galena limestone is the upper for- 
mation of the Trenton Group. It is 150 
miles long and seldom exceeds twelve miles 
in width. It exhibits its greatest develop- 
ment in Dubuque County. It is nearly a 
pure dolomite with a slight admixture of 
silicious matter ; good blocks for dressing 
are sometimes found near the top of the 
bed, although it is usually unfit for such a 
purpose. This formation is the source of 
the lead ore of the Dubuque lead mines. 
The lead region proper is confined to an 
area of about fifteen miles square in the 
vicinity of Dubuque. The ore occurs in 
vertical fissures, which traverse the rock at 
regular intervals from east to west ; some 
is found in those which have a north and 
south direction. This ore is mostly that 
known as galena, or sulphuret of lead, very 
small quantities onl} of the carbonate being 
found with it. 

The surface occupied by the Maquoketa 
shales is more than 100 miles in length, but 
is singularly long and narrow, seldom reach- 
ing more than a mile or two in width. The 
most northern exposure yet recognized is 
in the western part of Winneshiek County, 
while the most southerly is in Jackson 
County, in the bluffs of the Mississippi. 
The formation is largely composed of bluish 
and brownish shales, sometimes slightly 
arenaceous, sometimes calcareous, which 
weather into a tenacious clay upon the sur- 
face, and the soil derived from it is usually 
stiff and clayey. 

The area occupied by the Niagara lime- 
stone is forty and fifty miles in width and 
nearly 160 miles long from north to south. 
This formation is entirely a magnesian lime- 
stone, with a considerable portion of sili- 
cious matter, in some places, in the form of 
chert or coarse flint. A large part of it 
probably affords the best and greatest 
amount of quarry rock in the State. The 
quarries at Anamosa, Le Claire and Farley 
are all opened in this formation. 



The area of surface occupied by the 
Hamilton limestone and shales, is as great 
as those by all the formations of both Upper 
and Lower Silurian age in the State. Its 
length is nearly 200 miles, and width from 
forty to fifty. Portions of it are valuable 
for economic purposes ; and, having a large 
geographical extent in the State, is a very 
important formation. Its value for the pro- 
duction of h)-draulic lime has been demon- 
strated at Waverl}^ Bremer County. The 
heavier and more uniform magnesian beds 
furnish material for bridge piers and other 
material requiring strength and durability. 
A coral occurs near Iowa City, known as 
" Iowa City marble" and " bird's-eye mar- 
ble." 

Of the three groups of formations that 
constitute the carboniferous, viz., the sub- 
carboniferous, coal measures and Permian, 
only the first two are found in Iowa. 

The Subcarboniferous gi'oup occupies a 
very large area of surface. Its eastern 
border passes from the northeastern part of 
Winnebago County, with considerable di- 
rectness in a southeasterly direction to the 
northern part of Washington County. It 
then makes a broad and direct bend nearly 
eastward, striking the Mississippi at Mus- 
catine. The southern and western bound- 
aries are to a considerable extent the same 
as that which separates it from the real 
field. From the southern part of Poca- 
hontas County it passes southeast to Fort 
Dodge, thence to Webster City, thence to 
a point three or four miles northeast of El- 
dora, in Hardin County, thence southward 
to the middle of the north line of Jasper 
County, thence southeastward to Sigour- 
nev, in Keokuk County, thence to the north- 
eastern corner of Jefferson County, thence 
sweeping a few miles eastward to the south- 
east corner of Van Buren County. Its arc 
is about 250 miles long and from twenty to 
fifty miles wide. 

The most southerly exposure of the Kin- 



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HISTORY OF IOWA. 



derhook beds is in Des Moines County, 
near the mouth of Skunk River. The most 
northerly now known is in the eastern part 
of Pocahontas Count}', more than 200 miles 
distant. The principal exposures of this 
formation are along the bluffs which border 
the Mississippi and Skunk rivers, where 
they form the eastern and northern bound- 
ary of Des Moines County ; along English 
River, in Washington County ; along the 
Iowa River, in Tama, Marshall, Hamlin 
and Franklin counties, and along the Des 
Moines River, in Humboldt County. This 
formation has a considerable economic 
value, particularly in the northern portion 
of the region it occupies. In Pocahontas 
and Humboldt counties it is invaluable, as 
no other stone except a few boulders are 
found here. At Iowa Falls the lower 
division is very good for building purposes. 
In Marshall County all the limestone to be 
obtained comes from this formation, and 
the quarries near Le Grand are very valu- 
able. At this point some of the layers are 
finely veined with peroxide of iron, and are 
wrought into both useful and ornamental 
objects. In Tama County the oolitic mem- 
ber is well exposed, where it is manufact- 
ured into lime. Upon exposure to atmos- 
phere and frost it crumbles to pieces ; 
consequently it is not valuable for building 
purposes. 

The Burlington limestone is carried down 
by the southerly dip of the Iowa rocks, so 
that it is seen for the last time in this State 
in the valley of Skunk River, near the 
southern boundary of Des Moines County ; 
it has been recognized in the northern part 
of Washington County, which is the most 
northerly point that it has been found ; but 
it probably exists as far north as Marshall 
County. Much valuable material is afforded 
by this formation for economic purposes. 
The upper division furnishes excellent com- 
mon quarry rock. Geologists are attracted 
by the great abundance and variety of its 



fossils — crinoids — now known to be more 
than 300. 

The Keokuk limestone formation is to be 
seen only in four counties : Lee, Van Buren, 
Henry and Des Moines. In some localities 
the upper silicious portion is known as the 
Geode bed ; it is not recognizable in the 
northern portion of the formation, nor in 
connection with it where it is exposed, 
about eighty miles below Keokuk. The 
geodes of the Geode bed are more or less 
masses of silex,' usually hollow and lined 
with crystals of quartz ; the outer crust is 
rough and unsightly, but the crystals which 
stud the interior are often very beautiful ; 
they vary in size from the size of a walnut 
to a foot in diameter. This formation is of 
great economic value. Large quantities 
of its stone have been used in the finest 
structures in the State, among which are 
the postoffices at Dubuque and Des Moines. 
The principal quarries are along the banks 
of the Mississippi, from Keokuk to Nauvoo. 

The St. Louis limestone is the uppermost 
of the subcarboniferous group in Iowa. It 
occupies a small superficial area, consisting 
of long, narrow strips, yet its extent is very 
great. It is first seen resting on the Geode 
division of the Keokuk limestone, near Keo- 
kuk ; proceeding northward, it forms a 
narrow border along the edge of the coal 
fields in Lee, Des Moines, Henry, Jeffer- 
son, Washington, Keokuk and Mahaska 
counties ; it is then lost sight of until it 
appears again in the banks of Boone River, 
where it again passes out of view under the 
Coal Measures, until it is next seen in the 
banks of the Des Moines, near Fort Dodge. 
As it exists in Iowa, it consists of three 
tolerably distinct sub-divisions : The mag- 
nesian, arenaceous and calcareous. The 
upper division furnishes excellent material 
for quicklime, and when quarries are well 
opened, as in the northwestern part of Van 
Buren County, large blocks are obtained. 
The sandstone, or middle division, is of 






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162. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



little value. The lower, or magnesian di- 
vision, furnishes a valuable and durable 
stone, exposures of which are found on Lick 
Creek, in Van Buren County, and on Long 
Creek, seven miles west of Burlington. 

The Coal Measure group is properly 
divided into three formations, viz.: The 
Lower, Middle and Upper Coal Measures, 
each having a vertical thickness of about 
20Q feet. The Lower Coal Measures exist 
eastward and northward of the Des Moines 
River, and also occupy a large area west- 
ward and southward of that river, but their 
southerly dip passes them below the Middle 
Coal Measures at no great distance from 
the river. This formation possesses greater 
economic value than any other in the whole 
State. The clay that underlies almost ever}- 
bed of coal furnishes a large amount of ma- 
terial for potter's use. The sandstone of 
these measures is usually soft and unfit, but 
in some places, as in Red Rock in Marion 
County, blocks of large dimensions are ob- 
tained, which make good building material, 
samples of which can be seen in the State 
Arsenal, at Des Moines. 

The Upper Coal Measures occupy a 
very large area, comprismg thirteen whole 
counties, in the southwestern part of the 
State. By its northern and eastern bound- 
aries it adjoins the area occupied by the 
Middle Coal Measures. 

The next strata in the geological series 
are of the Cretaceous age. They are found 
in the western half of the State, and do not 
dip, as do all the other formations upon 
which they rest, to the southward and west- 
ward, but have a general dip of their own 
to the north of westward, which, however, 
is very slight. Although the actual ex- 
posures of cretaceous rocks are few in Iowa, 
there is reason to believe th^t nearly all the 
western half of the State was originally 
occupied by them ; but they have been 
removed by denudation, which has taken 
place at two separate periods. 



The Nishnabotany sandstone has the most 
easterly and southerly extent of the cre- 
taceous deposits of Iowa, reaching the 
southeastern part of Guthrie County and 
the southern part of Montgomery County. 
To the northward, it passes beneath the 
Woodbury sandstones and shales, the latter 
passing beneath the chalky beds. This 
sandstone is, with few exceptions, valueless 
for economic purposes. 

The chalky beds rest upon the Wood- 
bury sandstone and shales. Thev have not 
been observed in Iowa except in the bluffs 
which border the Big Sioux River in Wood- 
bury and Plymouth counties. They are 
composed almost entirely of calcareous ma- 
terial, the upper portion of which is exten- 
sively used for lime. No building material 
can be obtained from these beds, and the 
only value they possess, except lime, are 
the marls, which at some time may be use- 
ful on the soil of the adjacent region. 

Extensive beds of peat exist in Northern 
Middle Iowa, which, it is estimated, contain 
the following areas: Cerro Gordo County, 
1,500 acres; Worth, 2,000; Winnebago, 2,- 
000; Hancock, 1,500; Wright, 500; Kos- 
suth, 700; Dickinson, 80. Several other 
counties contain peat beds, but the peat is 
inferior to that in the northern part of the 
State. The beds are of an average depth 
of four feet. It is estimated that each acre 
of these beds will furnish 250 tons of dry 
fuel for each foot in depth. At present 
this peat is not utilized ; but owing to its 
great distance from the coal fields and the 
absence of timber, the time is coming when 
its value will be fully realized. 

The only sulphate of the alkaline earths 
of any economic value is gypsum, and it 
may be found in the vicinity of Fort Dodge 
in Webster County. The deposit occupies 
a nearly central position in the county, the 
Des Moines River running nearly centrally 
through it, along the valley sides of which 
the g3'psum is seen in the form of ordinary 






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HISTORY OF IOWA. 



'03 



rock cliff and ledges, and also occurring' 
abundantly in similar positions along both 
sides of the valleys of the smaller streams 
and of the numerous ravines coming into 
the river valley. The most northerly known 
limit of the deposit is at a point near the 
mouth of Lizard Creek, a tributary of the 
Des Moines River and almost adjoining the 
town of Fort Dodge. The most southerly 
point at which it has been exposed is about 
six miles, by way of the river, from the 
northerly point mentioned. The width of 
the area is unknown, as the gypsum be- 
comes lost beneath the overlying drift, as 
one goes up the ravines and minor valleys. 

On either side of the creeks and ravines 
which come into the valley of the Des 
Moines River, the gypsum is seen jutting 
out from beneath the drift in the form of 
ledges and bold quarry fronts, having al- 
most the exact appearance of ordinary lime- 
stone exposures, so horizontal and regular 
its lines of stratification, and so similar in 
color is it to some varieties of that rock. 
The principal quarries now opened are on 
Two Mile Creek, a couple of miles below 
Fort Dodge. 

Epsomite, or native Epsom salts, having 
been discovered near Burlington, all the 
sulphates of alkaline earths of natural origin 
have been recognized in Iowa, all except 
the sulphate of lime being in very small 
quantity. 

Sulphate of lime in the various forms of 
fibrous gypsum, selenite and small, amor- 
phous masses, has also been discovered in 
various formations in different parts of the 
State, including the Coal Measure shales 
near Fort Dodge, where it exists in small 
quantities, quite independently of the great 
gypsum of deposit there. The quantity of 
gypsum in these minor deposits is always 
too small to be of any practical value, 
usually occurring in shales and shaly clays, 
associated with strata that contain more or 
less sulphuret of iron. Gypsum has thus 

15 

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been detected in the Coal Measures, the St. 
Louis limestone, the Cretaceous strata, and 
also in the dead caves of Dubuque. 

Sulphate of strontia is found at Fort 
Dodge. 

CLIMATE. 

The greatest objection to the climate of 
this State is the prevalence of wind, which 
is somewhat greater than in the States south 
and east, but not so great as farther west. 
The air is purer than either east or south, 
as indicated by the bluer sky and conse- 
quent deeper green vegetation, and is 
therefore more bracing. By way of con- 
trast. Northern Illinois has a whiter sky 
and a consequent more yellowish green 
vegetation. 

The prevailing direction of the wind is 
from the west. 

Thunder-storms are somewhat more vio- 
lent here than east or south, but not so 
furious as toward the Rocky Mountains. 
The greatest rainfall is in the southeastern 
part of the State, and the least in the north- 
western portion. The increase of timber 
growth is increasing the amount of rain, as 
well as distributing it more evenly through- 
out the year. As elsewhere in the North- 
western States, easterly winds bring rain 
and snow, while westerly ones clear the sky. 
While the highest temperature occurs here 
in August, the month of July averages the 
hottest, and January the coldest. The mean 
temperature of April and October nearly 
corresponds to the mean temperature of 
the year, as well as to the seasons of spring 
and fall, while that of summer and winter 
is best represented by August and Decem- 
ber. Indian summer is delightful and well 
prolonged. Untimely frosts sometimes oc- 
cur, but seldom severely enough to do 
great injury. The wheat crop being a 
staple product of this State, and not injured 
at all by frost, this great resource of the 
State continues intact. 



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164 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



CENSUS OF IOWA. 



COUNTIES. 



Adair 

Adams 

Allamakee.. . 
Appanoose . 
Audubon. . . . 

Benton 

Black Hawk. 

Boone 

Bremer 

Buchanan . . . 
Buena Vista.. 

Butler 

Calhoun 

Carroll 

Cass 

Cedar 

Cerro Gordo. 
Cherokee. . . . 
Chickasaw. . . 

Clarke 

Clay 

Clayton 

Clinton 

Crawford 

Dallas 

Davis 

Decatur 

Delaware.. . . 
Des Moines.. 
Dickinson. . . 

Dubuque 

Emmett 

Fayette 

Floyd 

Franklin 

Fremont 

Greene 

Grundy 

Guthrie 

Hamilton.. . . 

Hancock 

Hardin 

Harrison 

Henry 

Howard 

Humboldt. . . 

Ida 

Iowa 

Jackson 

Jasper 

Jefferson 

Johnson 

Jones 

Keokuk 

Kossuth 

Lee 

Linn 

Louisa 

Lucas 

Lyon 

Madison 

Mahaska 

Marion 

Marshall. . . . 
Mills 



1S50 



i860. 



777 
3,131 



672 
'35 
735 



517 



3,941 



709 



3,«73 



854 
7,264 

965 

1,759 

1 2,5 



10,841 
""825 



1,244 



8,707 



822 
7,210 
1,280 
9,904 
4,472 
3,007 
4,822 



18,861 

5.444 

4,939 

471 



1,179 

5989 

5,482 

338 



984 

1,533 

12,237 

",931 

454 

8,496 

8,244 

4,232 

4,915 
7,906 

57 

3,724 

147 

281 

1,612 

12,949 
940 

58 

4,336 

5,427 

52 

20,728 

18,938 

383 

5,244 

13,764 

8,677 

11,024 

19,611 

180 

31,164 

105 

12,073 

3,744 

1,309 

5,074 

1,374 

793 

3,058 

1,699 

179 

5,440 

3,621 

18,701 

3,168 

332 

n 43 

8,029 
18,493 

9,883 
15,038 

'7,573 
13,306 

13,271 
416 

29,232 

18,947 

10,370 

5,766 

7,339 

14,816 

16813 

6,015 

4,481 



1870. 



3.982 

4,614 

17,868 

16,456 

1,212 

22,454 
21,706 

14.584 
12,528 

17,034 

1,585 
9.951 
1,602 

2,451 

5,464 

19.731 

4,7 -'2 

1,967 

10,180 

8,735 

1.5-3 

27,771 

35-357 

2,530 

12,019 

15.565 
12,018 

17,432 
27,256 

1,389 
38,969 

1,392 
16,973 
10,768 

4,738 
11,174 
4,627 
6,399 
7,061 
6,055 

999 
13,684 

8,931 
21,463 

6,282 

2,596 

226 

16,664 

22,619 

22,116 

17,839 
24,898 

19.731 
19434 
3,351 
37,210 
28,852 

■ 2,877 
10,388 
221 
13,884 
22,508 
24.436 
17,576 
8,718 



1880. 



11,199 

ii.iSS 

19,791 
16,636 

7.448 
24,888 

23913 
20,838 
14,081 
18,547 

7,537 
14,-93 

5 595 
12,351 
16.943 
18937 
1 1,461 

8,240 

14,534 
11,512 
4,248 
26,829 
36,764 
12,413 
18,746 
16,468 
15.336 
17,952 

33.099 
1,901 

42,997 

1,550 

22,258 

14,677 
10,248 

17,653 

12,725 
12,639 
14,863 
11,252 

3,453 
17,808 
16,649 
20,826 
10,837 

6,341 

4,382 

19,221 

23,771 
25,962 

17,478 

25,429 
21,052 
21,259 

6,179 
34,859 
37,235 
13,146 
i4>.'^3o 

1,968 

17,225 
25.201 

2.5,1" 

23,752 
'4,135 



COUNTIES. 



Mitchell 

Monona 

Monroe 

Montgomery. . 
Muscatine... . 

O'Brien 

Osceola 

Page 

Palo Alto 

Plymouth 

Pocahontas. . . , 

Polk 

Pottawattamie. 

Poweshiek 

Ringgold 

Sac 

Scott 

Shelby 

Sioux 

Story 

Tama 

Taylor 

Union 

Van Buren. . . , 

Wapello 

Warren 

Washington. . . 

Wayne 

Webster 

Winnebago. . . 
Winneshiek.. . . 

Woodbury 

Worth 

Wright 



Total. 



18.50. 



i860. 



2884 



5,731 



551 



4,513 
7,828 

615 



5,986 



8 
204 

12,270 

8,471 
961 

4,957 
340 



546 



192,214 



3,409 

832 

8,612 

1,256 

16,444 



1870. 



9,582 

3,654 
12,724 

5,934 
21,688 

715 



4,419 

132 

148 

103 

11,625 

4,968 

5,668 

2,923 

246 

25,959 

S18 

10 

4,051 

5.285 

3,590 

2,012 

17,081 

14,518 

10,281 

14,235 
6,409 

2,504 
1 68 

13,942 
1,119 

756 
653 



674,913 



9,975 
1.336 
2,199 
1,446 

27,857 
16,893 

15,581 
5,691 
1,411 

38,509 

2,549 

570 

11,651 
16,131 

6,989 

5,986 

17,672 

22,346 

17,980 

18,952 

11,287 

10,484 

1,562 

23,570 

6,172 

2,892 

2,392 



1880. 



14,361 
9,055 
13,719 
15,895 
23,168 

4,155 

2,219 

19,667 

4,131 

8,567 

3,713 

42,.39S 

39.846 

18,936 

12,085 

8,774 
41,270 
12,696 

5,426 
16,966 
2i,.58s 
15,635 
14,980 
17,042 
25,282 
19.578 

20,375 
16,127 

15.950 

4,917 

23.937 

14,997 

7,953 

5,062 



1,191,792 1,624,463 



TERRITORIAL OFFICERS. 

Governors. — Robert Lucas, 1838-41; John 
Chamber, 1841-45; James Clark, 1S45. 

Secretaries. — Wm. B. Conway, 1838, died 
1839; James Clark, 1839-41; O. H. W. 
Stull, 1841-43; Samuel J. Burr, iS43-'45 ; 
Jesse Williams, 1845. 

Auditors. — Jesse Williams, 1840-43; Will- 
iam L. Gilbert, 1843-45; Robert M. Secrest, 

1845- 

Treasurers. — Thornton Bay lie, 1839-40; 

Morgan Reno, 1840. 

Judges. — Charles Mason, Chief Justice. 
1838; Joseph Williams, 1838; Thomas S. 
Wilson, 1838. 

Presidents of Council. — Jesse B. Brown, 
i838-'49; Stephen Hempstead, 1839-40; M. 
Bainridge, 1840-41; J. W. Parker, i84i-'42; 
John D. Elbert, i842-'43 ; Thomas Cox, 









HISTORY OF IOWA. 



iC>5 



■ i843-'44; S. Clinton Hastings 1845; Stephen 
Hempstead, i845-'46. 

Speakers of tJie House. — William H. Wal- 
lace, i838-'39; Edward Johnson, 1839-40; 
Thomas Cox, i840-'3i ; Warner Lewis, 
1841-42; James M. Morgan, 1842-43; James 
P. Carleton, 1843 -'44; James M. Morgan, 
1845 ; George W. McLeary, i845-'46. 

STATE OFFICERS. 

Governors. — Ansel Briggs, 1 846-' 50 ; 
Stephen Hempstead, i85o-'54: James W. 
Grimes, i854-'58; Ralph P. Lowe, 1858- 
'60; Samuel J. Kirkwood, i86o-'64 ; Will- 
iam M. Stone, i864-'68; Samuel Morrill, 
i868-'72; Cyrus C. Carpenter, i872-'76; 
Samuel J. Kirkwood, i876-'77; J. G. New- 
bold, 1877-78; John H. Gear, 1878-82; 
Buren R. Sherman, i882-'86 ; William Lar- 
rabee, 1886. 

Lieutenant-Governors. — Oran Faville,i858- 
'60; Nicholas J. Rusch, i86o-'62; John R. 
Needham, i862-'64; Enoch W. Eastman, 
i864-'66; Benjamin F. Gue, i866-'68; John 
Scott, 1868-70; M. M. Walden, i87(>-'72 ; 
H. C. BuHs, i872-'74; Joseph Dysart, 
1874-76; Joshua G. Newbold, i876-'78; 
Frank T. Campbell, i878-'82; Orlando H. 
Manning, i882-'85 ; John A. T. Hull, 1886. 

This office was created by the new con- 
stitution Sept. 3, 1857. 

Secretaries of State. — Elisha Cutter, Jr., 
i846-'48; Joseph H. Bonney, i848-'5o; 
George W. McCleary, i850-'56; Elijah 
Sells, i856-'63; James Wright, i863-'67; 
Ed. Wright, i867-'73 ; Josiah T. Young, 
i873-'79; J- A. T. Hull, 1879-85; Franklin 
D. Jackson, 1885. 

Auditors of State. — Joseph T. Fales, 
i846-'5o ; William Pattee, i85o-'54; Andrew 
J. Stevens, i854-'55 ; John Pattee, i855-'59 \ 
Jonathan W. Cattell, i859-'65 ; John A. 
Elliott, 1865-71; John Russell, i87i-'75 ; 
Buren R. Sherman, 1875-81 ; Wm. V. 
Lucas, 1881 ; John L. Brown, i882-'83; J. 
W. Cattell, acting, i885-'86. 



Treasurers of State. — Morgan Reno, 
i846-'5o; Israel Kister, i85o-'52; Martin L. 
Morris, i852-'59; John W. Jones, i859-'63; 
William H. Holmes, i863-'67; Samuel E.. 
Rankin, i867-'73 ; WiUiam Christy, 1873- 
''j'j\ George W. Bemis, i877-'8i ; Edwin 
H. Conger, i88i-'85; Voltaire Twombly, 
1885. 

Attorney-Generals. — David C. Cloud, 
1853-56; Samuel A. Rice, i856-'6o; Charles 
C. Nourse, i86o-'64; Isaac L. Allen, 1865- 
'66\ Frederick E. Bissell, i866-'67; Henry 
O'Connor, i867-'72; Marcena E. Cutts, 
1872-76; John F. Mcjunkin, i877-'8i ; 
Smith McPherson, 1881-85 ; A. J. Baker, 
1885. 

Adjutant-Generals. — Daniel S. Lee, 185 1- 
'55; George W. McCleary, i855-'57; Eli- 
jah Sells, 1857; Jesse Bowen, i857-'6i ;-Na- 
thaniel Baker, i86i-'77; John H. Looby, 
1877-78; W. L, Alexander, i878-'84. 

Registers of the State Land-Office.- — Anson 
Hart, i855-'57 ; Theodore S. Parvin, 1857- 
'59; Amos B. Miller, i859-'62 ; Edwin 
Mitchell, i862-'63; Josiah A. Harvey, 
\'^6i-6'j ; Cyrus C. Carpenter, i867-'7i ; 
Aaron Brown, i87i-'75 ; David Secor, 
i875-'79; J- -K. Powers, i879-'82.* 

Superintendents of Public Instruction. — 
James Harlan, i847-'48; Thos. H. Benton, 
Jr., i848-'54; James D. Eads, i854-'57, 
Joseph C. Stone, 1857; Maturin L. Fisher, 
1857-58; Oran Faville, iS64-'67; D.Frank- 
lin Wells, i867-'68 ; A. S. Kissell, i868-'72; 
Alonzo Abernethy, 1 872-76; Carl W. 
Van Coelen, i876-'82; John W. Akers, 
1882-84. 

This office was created in 1847 and abol- 
ished in 1858, and the duties then devolved 
upon the secretary of the Board of Educa- 
tion; it was re-created March 23, 1864. 

State Printers. — Garrett D. Palmer and 
George Paul, i849-'5i ; William H. Merritt, 
i85i-'53; William A. Hornish, 1853; Den- 

*Oflace abolished January i, 1883, and duties devolved 
on the Secretary of State 






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HIS TORT OF IOWA. 



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nis A. Mahoney and Joseph B. Dorr, 1853- 
'55; Peter Moriarty, i855-'57 ; John Tees- 
dale, i857-*6i ; Francis \V. Palmer, 1861- 
'69; Frank M. Mills, 1^6^-71 ; G. W. Ed- 
wards, i87i-'73 ; Rich. P. Clarkson, 1873- 
'79; Frank M. Mills, i879-'8i ; Geo. E. 
Roberts, 1881. 

State Binders. — William M. Coles, 1855- 
'58; Frank M. Mills, i858-'67; James S. 
Carter, iS6y-yi ; J.J. Smart, i87i-'75 ; H. 
A. Perkins, i875-'79; Matt. Parrott, 1879- 
'85; L. S. Merchant, 1885. 

Secretaries of Board of Education. — T. 
H. Benton, Jr., i859-'63 ; Oran Faville, 
i863-'64. 

This office was abolished March 23, 1864. 

Presidcfits of the Senate. — Thomas Baker, 
i846-'47; Thomas Hughes, 1847-48; John J. 
Selman, 1848-49; Enos Lowe, i849-'5i ; 
Wm. E. Leffingwell, i85i-'53; Maturn L. 
Fisher, i853-'55 ; Wm. W. Hamilton, 1855- 

'57. 

Under the new Constitution the Lieuten- 
ant-Governor is President of the Senate. 

Speakers of the House. — Jesse B. Brown, 
1846-48; Smile}' H. Bonham, i848-'5o; 
George Temple, i85o-'52; James Grant, 
i852-'54; Reuben Noble, i854-'56; Samuel 
McFarland, i856-'57; Stephen B. Sheledy, 
i857-'59; John Edwards, 1859-61; Rush 
Clark, 1861-63; Jacob Butler, 1863-65; Ed. 
Wright, i865-'67; John Russell, i867-'69; 
Aylett R. Cotton, i869-'7i ; James Wilson, 
1871-73; John H. Geer, i873-'77; John Y. 
Stone, 1877-79; Lore Alford, i88o-'8i ; G. 
R. Struble, 1882-83; Wm. P. Wolf, 1884; 
Albert Head, 1886. 

Chief Justices of the Supreme Court. — 
Charles Mason, 1847; Joseph Williams, 
1847-48; S. Clinton Hastings, i848-'49 ; 
Joseph Williams, i849-'55 ; George G. 
Wright, 1855-60; Ralph P. Lowe, i86o-'62; 
Caleb Baldwin, i862-'64; George G. 
Wright, i864-'66; Ralph P. Lowe, 1866- 
'68; John F. Dillon, 1868-70; Chester C. 



Cole, i870-'7i ; James G. Day, 1871-72; 
Joseph M. Beck, 1872-74; W. E. Miller, 
1874-76; Chester C. Cole, 1876; Wm. H. 
Seevers, i876-'77; James G. Day, i877-'78; 
James H. Rothrock, 1878-83 and '84; 
Joseph M. Beck, i879-'8o and '85 ; Austin 
Adams, i88o-'8i and '^6\ Wm. H. Seevers, 
1882. 

Associate Justices. — Joseph Williams, held 
over from territorial government until a 
successor was appointed ; Thomas S. Wil- 
son, 1847; John F. Kinney, i847-'54; George 
Greene, i847-'55; Jonathan C. Hall, 1854- 
'55 ; William G. Woodward, 1855 ; Norman 
W. Isbell, i855-'56; Lacon D. Stockton, 
i856-'6o; Caleb Baldwin, i86o-'64; Ralph 
P. Lowe, i860; George G. Wright, i860; 
John F. Dillon, 1864-70 ; Chester C. Cole, 
1864-77; Joseph M. Beck, 1868; W. E. 
Miller, 1870; James G. Day, 1870. 

United States Senators. — Augustus C. 
Dodge, 1 848-' 5 5 ; George W. Jones, 1848- 
'59; James Harlan, i855-'65 ; James W. 
Grimes, i859-'69; Samuel J. Kirk wood, 
1866; James Harlan, i867-'73; James B. 
Howell, 1870; George G. Wright, 1871- 
fj; William B. Allison, 1873-79; Samuel 
J. Kirkwood, 1877-81 ; Wm. B. Allison, 
i879-'85; James W. McDill, 1881 ; James 
F. Wilson, 1883. 

Present State Officers (^1886). — Governor, 
William Larrabee ; Secretary of State, 
Frank D. Jackson ; Auditor of State, J. W. 
Cattell, acting ; Treasurer, Voltaire Twom- 
bly ; Superintendent Pubhc Instruction, 
John W. Akers ; Printer, George E. Rob- 
erts ; Binder, L. S. Merchant ; Adjutant- 
General, W. L. Alexander • Librarian, Mrs. 
S. B. Maxwell. 

Supreme Court. — William H. Seevers, 
Chief Justice, Oskaloosa ; James G. Day, 
Sidney, James H. Rothrock, Tipton, Joseph 
M. Beck, Fort Madison, Austin Adams, 
Dubuque, Judges; A. J. Baker, .Hturney- 
General. 



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OBERT LUCAS, the first 
Governor of Iowa Ter- 
ritory, was the fourth 
son and ninth child of 
Wilham and Susan, 
nah Lucas, and was 
born April i, 1781, 
in Jefferson Valley, 
at Shepherdstown, Jefferson 
County, Virginia, a few miles 
from Harper's Ferry, where his 
ancestors settled before the Rev- 
olution. His father, who was 
descended from William Penn, 
was born January 18, 1743, and 
his mother, of Scotch extrac- 
tion, was born October 8, 1745. 
They were married about the 
year 1760, and reared a family of six sons 
and six daughters. His father, who had 
served as a Captain in the Continental army 
during the Revolutionary war, and had 
distinguished himself at the battle of Bloody 
Run, emigrated with his family to Scioto 
County, Ohio, early in the present century. 
At the time of this removal Robert was 
a young man. He had obtained his educa- 
tion chiefly in Virginia, from an old Scotch 
schoolmaster named McMuUen, who taught 
him mathematics and surveying. The latter 
afforded him remunerative employment im- 
mediately upon his entrance into Ohio. 

He was married at Portsmouth, Ohio, 
April 3, 1 8 10, to Elizabeth Brown, who died 
October 18, 181 2, leaving an infant daugh- 



ter, who afterward became Mrs. Minerva 
E. B. Sumner. March 7, 18 16, he formed 
a second matrimoniak connection ; this time 
with Friendly A. Sumner, who bore to him 
four sons and three daughters. 

The first public office held by Robert 
Lucas was that of County Surveyor of Sci- 
oto County, the commission from Governor 
Edward Tiffin, of Ohio, appointing him such 
being dated December 26, 1803, Decem- 
ber 16, 1805, he was commissioned by 
Governor Tiffin justice of the peace for 
three years. His first military appointment 
was that of Lieutenant of militia, by virtue 
of which he was authorized to raise twenty 
men to assist in filling Ohio's quota of 500 
volui>teers called for by the President in 
view of possible difficulties with the Spanish. 
He was subsequently promoted through 
all the military grades to Major Gen- 
eral of Ohio militia, which latter rank was 
conferred upon him in 18 18. 

He was a Brigadier-General on the 
breaking out of the war of 1S12, and had 
much to do with raising troops. He was 
appointed a Captain in the regular army, 
but before his commission reached him he 
was already in active service, scouting, 
spying, carrying a musket in the ranks and 
in other useful capacities. After Hull's 
surrender he was paroled and returned to 
Ohio. He was in the course of time made 
a Lieutenant-Colonel, and then a Colonel, 
from which position he resigned. 

He served in numerous civil offices in 



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172 



GOVERNORS OF IOWA. 



Ohio, and at the time of his second marriage, 
in 1 8 16, he was and had been for some time 
a member of the Ohio Legislature, serving 
successively for nineteen years in one or the 
other branch, and in the course of his leg- 
islative career presiding over first one 
and then the other branch. In 1820 and 
again in 1828, he was chosen one of the 
Presidential electors of Ohio. In May, 
1832, at Baltimore, Maryland, he presided 
over the first Democratic National Con- 
vention — that which nominated Andrew 
Jackson for his second term as President, 
and Martin Van Buren for Vice Presi- 
dent. In 1832 he was elected Governor 
of Ohio, and re-elected in 1834. He declined 
a third nomination for the same ofifice. 

Under the act of Congress to divide the 
Territory of Wisconsin and to establish the 
territorial government of 'Iowa, approved 
June 12, 1838, the subject of this sketch was 
appointed Governor of the new Territory, 
and he immediately accepted the responsi- 
bility. A journey from the interior of Ohio 
to the banks of the Upper Mississippi was 
then a matter of weeks ; so that, although 
Governor Lucas set out from his home on 
the 25th of July, delaying on his route 
a few days at Cincinnati, to arrange for the 
selection of the books for a territorial 
library, it was not till nearly the middle of 
August that he reached Burlington, then 
the temporary seat of government. 

The first official act of Lucas as Gov- 
ernor of Iowa was to issue a proclamation 
dated August 13, 1838, dividing the Terri- 
tory into eight representative districts, ap- 
portioning the members of the Coimcil and 
House of Representatives among the nine- 
teen counties then composing the Terri- 
tory, and appointing the second Monday 
in September ensuing for the election of 
members of the Legislative Assembly and 
a delegate to Congress. His first message 
to the Legislature, after its organization, 
was dated November 12, 1838, and related 



chi^y to a code of laws for the new com- 
monwealth. He opposed imprisonment for 
debt, favored the death penalty for murder 
(executions to be in the presence of only 
the Sheriff and a suitable number of wit- 
nesses), and strenuously urged the organi- 
zation of a liberal system of common 
schools. The organization of the militia 
was also one of his pet measures. There 
was a broad difference between the views 
of a majority of this Legislative Assembly 
and the Governor, on many questions of 
public policy, as well as points of authority. 
This resulted in the sending to the Presi- 
dent of a memorial, dated January 12, 1839, 
signed by eight of the council and seven 
of the Representatives, praying the re- 
moval of Governor Lucas. In addition to 
this, a memorial for the Governor's re- 
moval was passed by both Houses, signed 
in due form by their presiding officers, and 
transmitted to the President. The charges 
made were met by a protest signed by 
eight Representatives, and as a result Gov- 
ernor Lucas was allowed to remain in office 
until the next change of administration. 

In 1839 and '40 occurred the well-known 
boundary dispute with Missouri, which 
was finally settled in favor of Iowa, by the 
Supreme Court of the United States. No- 
vember 5, 1839, Governor Lucas announced 
that the Territory had advanced in improve- 
ment, wealth and population (which latter 
was estimated at 50,000) without a parallel 
in history, and recommended the necessar}' 
legislation preparatory to the formation of 
a State government. This was overruled 
by the people, however. Among the latest 
of Governor Lucas's acts was a proclama- 
tion dated April 30, 1841, calling the Leg- 
islature to assemble, for the first time, at 
Iowa City, the new capitol. 

March 25, 1841, he was succeeded by 
John Chambers. He lived a private life 
near Iowa City until his death, February 
7, 1853, at the age of seventy-one )"ears. 



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JOHN CHAMBERS. 





'OHN CHAMBERS was 

the second Governor of 
Iowa Territory. He was 
born October 6, 1 780, at 
Bromley Bridge, Somer- 
set County, New Jersey. 
His father, Rowland Cham- 
bers, was born in Pennsyl- 
vania, of Irish parentage. 
According to a tradition in 
the family, their remote 
ancestors were Scotch, and 
belonged to the clan Cam- 
eron. Having refused to 
join in the rebellion of 1645, 
they migrated to Ireland, 
whei-e, by an act of Parliament, on their 
own petition, they took the name of Cham- 
bers. Rowland Chambers espoused with 
enthusiasm the cause of American inde- 
pendence, and was commissioned a Colonel 
of New Jersey militia. At the close of the 
war, reduced in circumstances, he immi- 
grated to Kentucky and settled in Wash- 
ington, then the seat of Mason County. 
John, the youngest of seven children, was 
then fourteen years old. A few days after 
tiie family settled m their new home he 
found employment in a dry-goods store, 
and the following spring was sent to 
Transylvania Seminary, at Lexington. He 
returned home in less than a year. In 1797 



he became deputy under Francis Taylor, 
Clerk of the District Court. His duties 
being light, he applied himself to the study 
of law. In the spring of 1800 he assumed 
all the duties of the office in which he had 
been employed, ^nd in November following 
he was licensed to practice law. 

In 1803 Mr. Chambers, who had now 
entered upon a career of uninterrupted 
professional prosperity, was married to Miss 
Margaret Taylor, of Hagerstown, Mary- 
land. She lived but about three years, and 
in 1807 he married Miss Hannah Taylor, a 
sister of his first wife. Not long after he 
engaged in the manufacture of bale rope 
and bagging for the Southern market. In 
this he incurred heavy losses. 

In the campaign of 18 12 he served as 
aid-de-camp to General Harrison, with the 
rank of Major. In 181 5 Mr. Chambers was 
sent to the Legislature, and in 1828 he went 
to Congress to fill the unexpired term of 
General Thomas Metcalfe. In 1830 and 
1 83 1 he was again in the State Legislature. 
In 1832 he lost his wife. She was alady of 
cultivated mind and elegant manners, and 
had made his home a happy and attractive 
one. The same year he was offered a seat 
on the bench of the Supreme Court of 
Kentucky, but this he declined. The same 
office was tendered him in 1835, but before 
the time for taking his seat, he was obliged 



16 



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GOVERNORS OF IOWA. 






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to resign, out of consideration for his health. 
From 1835 to 1839 he was in Congress, 
making for himself a high reputation. 

Between 181 5 and 1828 Mr. Chambers 
was, for several years, the commonwealth's 
attorney for the judicial district in which 
he lived. He was during that period at the 
zenith of his reputation as a lawyer and ad- 
vocate. He met the giants of the Ken- 
tucky bar in important civil and criminal 
trials. His well-known high sense of honor, 
and his contempt for professional chicanery, 
commanded the respect of his legal com- 
peers. His appearance and manner were 
dignified, his tone calm and impressive, 
and his language singularly direct and 
vigorous. 

He closed his congressional career in 
1839 with the purpose of resuming the 
practice of law, but his old friend General 
Harrison was nominated for the Presi- 
dency and induced him to aid in the 
personal canvass General Harrison made 
through the country. He was urged by 
President Harrison to accept some office 
requiring his residence in Washington, but 
this he declined, though he afterward ac- 
cepted the appointment of Governor of 
Iowa. He entered upon the duties of this 
office May 13, 1841. His success in his 
administration of the affairs of the Territor}- 
was well attested by the approbation of the 
people, and by the hearty commendation 
of those in authorit}' at Washington, espe- 
cially for his management of Indian affairs. 
During his term of office he found it neces- 
sary on several occasions to suppress the 
feuds of the red men, which he did with 
such firmness and decision that quiet was 
promptly restored where war seemed im- 
minent. Governor Chambers was repeat- 
edly called on to treat with the Indian tribes 



for the purchase of their lands. In October, 
1 84 1, he was commissioned jointly with 
Hon. T. H. Crawford, Commissioner of In- 
dian Affairs, and Governor Doty, of Wis- 
consin, to hold a treaty with the Sacs and 
Foxes, which, however, did not result in a 
purchase. In September, 1842, being ap- 
pointed sole Commissioner for the same 
purpose, he succeeded fully in carrying out 
the wishes of the Government. In 1843 he 
held a treaty with the Winnebagoes, but in 
this instance no result was reached. 

In 1844, his term of office having expired, 
he was re-appointed by President Tyler, 
but was removed in 1845 by President 
Polk. Shortly afterward, with greatly im- 
paired health, he returned to Kentucky, 
where, with skillful medical treatment and 
entire relief from official cares, he partially 
recovered. During the few remaining years 
of his life Governor Chambers's recollec- 
tions of Iowa were of the most agreeable 
character. He spoke gratefully of the re- 
ception extended to him by her people, and 
often referred with great kindness to his 
neighbors in Des Moines County. 

His infirm health forbade his engaging in 
an)^ regular employment after his return to 
Kentucky, but in 1849, ^t the solicitation of 
the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, he ne- 
gotiated jointly with Governor Ramsey, of 
Minnesota, a successful treaty with the 
Sioux Indians for the purchase of lands. 
The latter years of Governor Chambers's 
life were spent mostly with his children, 
whose affection and respect were the chief 
conditions of his happiness. During a visit 
to his daughter in Paris, Kentucky, he was 
taken sick at the house of his son-in-law, C. 
S. Brent, and after a few weeks breathed 
his last, September 21, 1852, in his seventy- 
second year. 



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JAMES CLARKE. 



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HE third and last Ter- 
ritorial Governor 
was James Clarke. 
Sometime in the 
autumn of the year 
1837, when the trees 
were in the " sear 
and yellow leaf," a printer 
boy of slender form and 
gentle appearance might 
have been seen crossing 
the laurel hills of his own 
State. Behind him rolled 
the waters of the " Blue 
Juniata," on the banks of 
which he had spent, in 
merry glee, his youthful 
days. He had heard and read of strange 
countries that lay far off toward the setting 
sun, through which broad rivers run, and 
spreading landscapes unfolded to human 
eyes the most rare and magnificent beauty. 
With his youthful gaze fixed upon that star 
which never sets, he set forth into the wilds 
of Wisconsin, a stranger in a strange land, 
an adventurer seeking his own fortune, de- 
pending upon his own exertions, with no 
recommendation save an honest face and 
genteel deportment. This young man was 
James Ckirke, who afterward became the 
able, talented and popular Governor of 
Iowa. 

He remained in Wisconsin, working at 
his trade as a printer, until after the organi- 



zation of the Territory of Iowa, when he 
removed to Burlington, where the first 
Legislature of Iowa assembled. After the 
death of Mr. Conway he was appointed by 
President Van Buren, Secretary of the Ter- 
ritory, which ofifice he filled with great 
credit to himself and satisfaction to the 
people. During the time he held this office 
he contributed by his kind, gentle and 
amiable manner to soften the feelings of 
hatred and distrust which at one time ex- 
isted between leading men of the Territory. 
Whoever had business at his office found 
him a kind, gentle, quiet, amiable man, al- 
ways read}^ and willing to do whatever was 
desired of.him, regretting, at the same time, 
that he could do no more. During the 
time he was Secretary he performed a vast 
amount of labor, but notwithstanding the 
large amount of business he transacted, he 
still found time to write for the press, and 
contributed many valuable articles touch- 
ing the future greatness of Iowa. 

After he retired from the office of Secre- 
tary he again returned to the printing trade, 
and became the leading editor of the Bur- 
lington Gazette. To the columns of this 
paper he devoted his whole energies, and 
by so doing made it the leading Democratic 
paper of the Territory. In the early sum- 
mer of 1845 President Polk removed Mr. 
Chambers, and appointed Mr. Clarke to suc- 
ceed him as Governor of Iowa. Previous 
to his appointment he had been elected by 









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176 



GOVERNORS OF IOWA. 



the people of his county a delegate to the 
first convention which assembled to form a 
Constitution for the State of Iowa. In this 
convention he distinguished himself both 
for his talent and personal demeanor, and 
contributed to the pages of that Constitu- 
tion some of the great elementary principles 
which lie at the foundation of human rights. 
And although that Constitution was de- 
feated, he still had the satisfaction of seeing 
their spirit and meaning transferred to 
another, and still continued as the funda- 
mental law of our State. 

The first Legislature after he received 
his appointment assembled at Iowa City, 
on the first Monday of December, 1845. 
His message to the Legislature after its or- 
ganization is a model of style and clearness. 
He set forth the importance of an early ex- 
tinguishment of the Indian title to all the 
lands within the limits of Iowa, and urged 
the Legislature to memorialize Congress to 
purchase a tract of land on the Upper Mis- 
sissippi for a future home for the Winne- 
bagoes, and thus induce them to part with 
their title to a large tract of country known 
as the " neutral ground," a recommendation 
which the General Government#soon after 
acted upon and carried out. 

Januar}'^ 16, 1846, the Legislature passed 
once more an act for the purpose of elect- 
ing delegates to frame a Constitution for 
the State of Iowa. This time the friends of 
a State government took it for granted 
that the people of the Territory wanted a 
Constitution, so the Legislature provided 
that at the April election following the 
passage of this act, the people of the Ter- 
ritory should elect delegates to a conven- 
tion. Accordingly, at the April election 
delegates were elected, and the convention, 
agreeable to said act, consisting of thirty- 
two members instead of seventy as in the 
previous convention, met at Iowa City, on 
the first Monday of May, 1846, and after a 



session of eighteen days produced a Con- 
stitution which was immediately submitted, 
adopted, and made the organic law of the 
State of Iowa. After the result was known 
the Governor issued his proclamation for a 
general election to be held in November 
following, atwhich Ansel Briggs, of Jack- 
son County, was elected Governor of the 
State. 

This proclamation was the last public act 
of James Clarke, for as soon as the new 
Governor was qualified, he turned over to 
him all the archives of his office, and re- 
turned once more to the printing office. 
Again he scattered through Iowa his beau- 
tiful editorials through the columns of the 
Burlington Gazette, until the name and 
fame of Iowa became known throughout 
the length and breadth of the land. He 
appeared at the capitol at the first session 
of the State Legislature under the new Con- 
stitution, delivered to that body an affecting 
and interesting fare^vell address, then stood 
back quietly during the whole of the ses- 
sion, and gazed with indignation upon his 
countenance at the dreadful strife, storms 
and bitterness which was manifested during 
the entire session. 

This was the last time that Mr. Clarke 
ever appeared at the Legislature. He died 
soon after, at Burlington, of the cholera. 
Thus closed the earthly career of a just and 
noble man, cut off in the prime of life and 
in the midst of an useful career. He was 
married to a sister of General Dodge, and 
this fact being known at the time of his ap- 
pointment as Governor, drew upon the 
Dodges the title of the " ro3'al family." But 
whatever might be said in this respect, the 
appointment could not have been bestowed 
upon a better man, or one more competent 
to fill it. His history is without a stain or 
reproach, and throughout his whole life no 
man ever imputed aught against his char- 
acter as a man and a citizen. 






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►I ANSEL BRIGGS. 



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179 







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sHE first Governor of 
Iowa under its State 
organization, was 
Ansel Briggs, who, 
like his two imme- 
diate successors, was 
a son of that won- 
derful nursery of progress. 
New England. He was 
the son of Benjamin Ingley 
Briggs and Electa his wife, 
and was born in Vermont, 
February 3, 1806. His 
boyhood was spent in his 
native State, where, in the 
common schools, he re- 
ceived a fair education, 
improved by a term spent at the academ}- 
of Norwich. In his youth, about the year 
1830, with his parents, he removed to 
Cambridge, Guernsey County, Ohio, where 
he engaged in the work of establishing 
stage lines, and where, as a Whig, he com- 
peted with John Ferguson, a Jackson 
Democrat, for the of^ce of county audi- 
tor and was defeated. In his twenty- 
fourth year he married a wife, born the 
same day and year as himself, of whom he 
was soon bereft. Before leaving Ohio he 
married his second wafe, Nancy M., daugh- 
ter of Major Dunlap, an ofificer of the war 
of 1812. 



In 1836, removing from Ohio, he joined 
that hardy band, so honored here to-day, 
the pioneers of Iowa, and settled with his 
family at Andrew, in Jackson County. 
Here he resumed his former business of 
opening stage lines, sometimes driving the 
stage himself, and entering into contracts 
with the postofihce department for carrying 
the United States mails weekly between 
Dubuque and Davenport, Dubuque and 
Iowa City, and other routes. 

On coming to Iowa he affiliated with the 
Democrats, and on their ticket, in 1842, 
was elected a member of the Territorial 
House of Representatives from Jackson 
County, and subsequently sheriff of the 
same county. On the formation of the 
State government, he at once became a 
prominent candidate for Governor. His 
competitors for the Democratic nomination 
were Judge Jesse Williams and William 
Thompson. The question above all others 
dividing the parties in Iowa in that day was 
that of banks, favored by the Whigs, and op- 
posed by the Democrats. A short time be- 
fore the nominating convention met, Briggs, 
at a banquet, struck a responsive chord in 
the popular heart by offering the toast, " No 
banks but earth, and they well tilled," a 
sententious appeal to the pride of the pro- 
ducer and the prejudice of the partisan, 
which was at once caught up as a party 






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i8o 



GOVERNORS OF IOWA. 



cry, and did more to secure its author the 
nomination for Governor than all else. 

The convention was held at Iowa City 
on Thursday, September 24, 1846, and as- 
sembled to nominate State officers and two 
Congressmen. It was called to order by 
F. D. Mills, of Des Moines County. Will- 
iam Thompson, of Henry County, presided, 
and J. T. Tales, of Dubuque, was Secretary. 
The vote for Governor in the convention 
stood : Briggs, sixty-two ; Jesse Williams, 
thirty-two ; and William Thompson, thirtv- 
one. The two latter withdrew, and Bnggs 
was then chosen by acclamation. Elisha 
Cutler, Jr., of Van Buren County, was 
nominated for Secretary of State; Joseph 
T. Fales, of Linn, for Auditor, and Morgan 
Reno, of Johnson, for Treasurer. S. C. 
Hastings and Shepherd Leffler were nomi- 
nated for Congress. The election was held 
October 28, 1846, the entire Democratic 
ticket being successful. Briggs received 
7,626 votes, and his competitor, Thomas 
McKnight, the Whig candidate, 7,379, giv- 
ing Briggs a majority of 247. 

The administration of Governor Briggs 
was generally placid. Although avoiding 
excitement and desirous of being in har- 
monious accord with his party, when oc- 
casion required he exhibited an independent 
firmness not easily shaken. One perplex- 
ing controversy bequeathed him by his 
predecessors was the Missouri boundary 
question, which had produced much dis- 
quiet, and even a resort to arms on the part 
of both Iowa and Missouri, 

After the expiration of his four-years 
term, Governor Briggs continued his resi- 
dence in Jackson Count}', where he engaged 
in commercial business, having sold out his 
mail contracts when he became Governor. 

By his second marriage he had eight 
children, all of whom died in infanc}' save 
two, and of these latter Ansel, Jr., died 
May 15, 1867, aged twenty-five years. 
John S. Briggs, the only survivor of the 



family, is the editor of the Idaho Herald, 
published at Blackfoot, Idaho Territory. 
Mrs. Briggs died December 30, 1847, dur- 
ing her husband's term as Governor. She 
was an ardent Christian woman, adhering 
to the Presbyterian faith, and very domestic 
in her tastes. She was well educated and 
endowed by nature with such womanly 
tact and grace as to enable her to adorn the 
high estate her husband had attained. She 
dispensed (albeit in a log house, a form of 
architecture in vogue in Iowa in that day, 
as the mansion of the rich or the cabin of 
the poor) a bounteous hospitality to the 
stranger and a generous charity to the poor, 
in which gracious ministrations she was al- 
ways seconded by her benevolent husband. 

In 1870 Governor Briggs removed from 
Andrew to Council BlufTs. He had visited 
the western part of the State before rail- 
roads had penetrated there, and made the 
trip by carriage. On that occasion he en- 
rolled himself as one of the founders of the 
town of Florence, on the Nebraska side of 
the Missouri River, six miles above Coun- 
cil Bluffs, and which, for a time, disputed 
with Omaha the honor of being the chief 
town of Nebraska. 

He made a trip to Colorado during the 
mining excitement in i860. After return- 
ing and spending some time at home, he 
went to Montana in 1863, v/ith his son John, 
and a large party, remaining until 1865, 
when he came back. 

His last illness, ulceration of the stomach, 
was only five weeks in duration. He was 
able to be out three days before his death, 
which occurred at the residence of his son, 
John S. Briggs, in Omaha, May 5, 1 881, at 
half past three in the morning. Governor 
Gear issued a proclamation the next day, 
reciting his services to the State, ordering 
half-hour guns to be fired and the national 
flag on the State capitol to be half-masted, 
during the da}' of the funeral. He was 
buried on Sunday succeeding his death. 



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STEPHEN HEMPSTEAD. 



183 










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IHIS gentleman, the 
second Gov^ernor of 
the State, was born 
at New London, 
Connecticut, Octo- 
ber I, 1 8 12, and 
lived in that State 
until the spring of 1828, 
when his father's family 
came West and settled on 
a farm a few miles from 
St. Louis, Missouri. Here 
he remained until 1830, 
when he entered as clerk 
in a commission house in 
Galena, Illinois, and dur- 
ing the Black Hawk war he 
was an officer in an artillery company or- 
ganized for the protection of that place. 

At the close of the war he entered as a 
student of the Illinois College at Jackson- 
ville, Illinois, remaining about two years, 
leaving to commence the study of law 
which he finished under Charles S. Hemp- 
stead, Esq., then a prominent lawyer at 
Galena. In 1836 he was admitted to prac- 
tice his profession in the courts of the Ter- 
ritory of Wisconsin, then embracing Iowa, 
and in the same year located in Dubuque, 
being the first lawyer who practiced in 
that place. At the organization of the 



Territorial Legislature in 1838 he was 
elected to represent the northern portion 
of the Territory in the Legislative Council, 
of which he was chairman of the committee 
on judiciary, one of the important com- 
mittees of the Council. At the second 
session of that body he was elected presi- 
dent thereof, was again elected a member 
of the Council in 1845, which was held in 
Iowa City, and was again president of the 
same. In 1844 he was elected one of the 
delegates to the first constitutional conven- 
tion of the State of Iowa, and was chair- 
man of the committee on incorporations. 
In 1848, in connection with Hon. Charles 
Mason and W. G. Woodward, he was ap- 
pointed commissioner by the Legislature to 
revise the laws of the State of Iowa, and 
which revision, with a few amendments, 
was adopted as the code of Iowa in 185 1. 
In 1850 he was elected Governor of the 
State of Iowa, receiving 13,486 votes, 
against 11,403 for James L. Thompson, 575 
for William P. Clarke, and 1 1 scattering. 

The vote was canvassed on the 4th of 
December, and a committee was appointed 
to inform the Governor elect that the two 
Houses of the Legislature were ready to re- 
ceive him in joint convention, in order that 
he might receive the oath prescribed by 
the Constitution. After receiving formal 



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GOVERNORS OF IOWA. 



notification, Governor Hempstead, accom- 
panied by Governor Brig-gs, the judges of 
the Supreme Court and the officers of 
State, entered the hall of the House, and 
having been duly announced, the Governor 
elect delivered his inaugural message, after 
which the oath was administered by the 
chief justice of the Supreme Court. 

This session of the Legislature passed a 
number of important acts which were 
approved by Governor Hempstead, and 
formed fifty-two new counties, most of 
them having the same names and bound- 
aries to-day. These new counties were : 
Adair, Union, Adams, Cass, Montgomery, 
Mills, Pottawattomie, Bremer, Butler, 
Grundy, Hardin, Franklin, Wright, Risley, 
Yell, Greene, Guthrie, Carroll, Fox, Sac, 
Crawford, Shelby, Harrison, Monona, Ida, 
Waukau, Humboldt, Pocahontas, Buena 
Vista, Fa3'ette, Cherokee, Plymouth, Alla- 
makee, Chickasaw, Floyd, Cerro Gordo, 
Hancock, Kossuth, Palo Alto, Clay, O'- 
Brien, Sioux, Howard, Mitchell, Worth, 
Winnebago, Winneshiek, Bancroft, Em- 
mett, Dickinson, Osceola and Buncombe. 
The last-named county was so called under 
peculiar circumstances. The Legislature 
was composed of a large majority favoring 
stringent corporation laws, and the liability 
of individual stockholders for corporate 
debts. This sentiment, on account of the 
agitation of railroad enterprises then begin- 
ning, brought a large number of prominent 
men to the capital. To have an effect upon 
the Legislature, they organized a " lobby 
legislature," in which these questions were 
ably discussed. They elected as Governor 
Verplank Van Antwerp, who delivered to 
this self-constituted body a lengthy mes- 
sage, in which he sharply criticised the 
regular general assembly. Some of the 
members of the latter were in the habit of 
making long and useless speeches, much to 
the hindrance of business. To these he 
especially referred, charging them with 



speaking " for buncombe," and recom- 
mended that as their lasting memorial, a 
county should be called by that name. 
This suggestion was readily seized upon 
by the Legislature, and the county of " Bun- 
combe" was created with few dissenting 
voices. By act of the General Assembly 
approved September 11, 1862, the name 
was changed to " Lyon," in honor of Gen- 
eral Nathaniel Lyon, who was killed in the 
civil war. 

Governor Hempstead's message to the 
fourth General Assembly, December, 1852, 
stated, among other things, that the popu- 
lation of the State was by the federal cen- 
sus 192,214, and that the State census 
showed an increase for one year of 37,786. 
He also stated that the resources of the 
State for the coming two years would be 
sufficient to cancel all that part of the funded 
debt which was payable at its option. 

By 1854 the State had fully recovered 
from the depression produced by the bad 
season of 1851, and in 1854 and 1855 the 
immigration from the East was unprece- 
dented. For miles and miles, day after day, 
the prairies of Illinois were lined with cattle 
and wagons, pushing on toward Iowa. At 
Peoria, one gentleman said that during a 
single month 1,743 wagons passed through 
that place, all for Iowa. The Burlington 
Telegraph said: "Twenty thousand immi- 
grants have passed through the city within 
the last thirty days, and they are still cross- 
ing the Mississippi at the rate of 600 a day." 

Governor Hempstead's term expired in 
the latter part of 1854, and he returned to 
Dubuque, where the following year he was 
elected county judge. This position he 
held twelve years, and in 1867 he retired on 
account of impaired health. He lived, how- 
ever, till February 16, 1883, when at his 
home in Dubuque he closed his record on 
earth. He was a useful and active man, 
and deserves a prominent place in the 
esteem of lowans. 



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y.i MES IV. GRIMES. 



187 




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[he third to fill the of- 
fice of Governor of 
Iowa, and whose 
name deserves a 
foremost rank 
among the men 
whose personal his- 
tory is interwoven insepar- 
ably with that of the State, 
was James Wilson Grimes. 
He was born in the town 
of Deering, Hillsborough 
County, New Hampshire, 
October 20, 18 16. His 
parents — John Grimes, 
born August 11, 1772, and 
Elizabeth Wilson, born 
-were natives of the same 
town. Of a family of eight children born 
to them, James was the youngest. In 
early childhood he evinced a taste for 
learning, attending the district school and 
also studying Latin and Greek under the 
instruction of the village pastor. He 
completed his preparation for college 
at Hampton Academy, and entered Dart- 
mouth College in August, 1832, in the 
sixteenth year of his age. Upon leaving 
college in February, 1835, he commenced 
reading law with James Walker, Esq., in 
Petersburgh, New Hampshire. 

Being young and adventurous, and wish- 
ing to carve a fortune for himself, he left 

17 



March 19, 177. 



his native home in 1836 for the far West, 
landing in Burlington, then a new town in 
what was known as the " Black Hawk 
Purchase." Here he opened an office and 
soon established a reputation as a rising 
lawyer. In April, 1837, he was appointed 
city solicitor ; and entering upon the duties 
of that ofifice he assisted in drawing up the 
first police laws of that town. In 1838 he 
was appointed justice of the peace, and be- 
came a law partner of William W. Chap- 
man, United States District Attorney for 
Wisconsin Territory. In the early part of 
the year 1841 he formed a partnership with 
Henry W. Starr, Esq., which continued 
twelve years. This firm stood at the head 
of the legal profession in Iowa. Mr. Grimes 
was widely known as a counselor of supe- 
rior knowledge of the law, and with a clear 
sense of truth and justice. He was chosen 
one of the representatives of Des Moines 
County in the first Legislative Assembly 
of the Territory of Iowa, which convened 
at Burlington, November 12, 1838; in the 
sixth, at Iowa City, December 4, 1843 ; and 
in the fourth General Assembly of the 
State, at Iowa City, December 6, 1852. 
He early took front rank among the pub- 
lic men of Iowa. He was chairman of the 
judiciary committee in the House of Rep- 
resentatives of the first Legislative As- 
sembly of the Territory, and all laws for the 
new Territory passed through his hands. 



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i88 



GOVERNORS OF IOWA. 



sT<;T; 



He was married at Burlington, Novem- 
ber 9, 1846, to Miss Elizabeth Sarah Neally. 

In February, 1854, Mr, Grimes was nom- 
inated by a convention of the Whig party 
for Governor of the State. It was the 
largest convention of that party ever held 
in Iowa, and the last. He was elected, and 
assumed the duties of the office in Decem- 
ber, 1854. Soon after his election it was 
proposed that he should be sent to the 
United States Senate, but he made it under- 
stood that he should fill the term of office 
for which he had been chosen, and he 
served his full term to the entire satisfac- 
tion and acceptance of all parties. He was 
a faithful leader in the political regenera- 
tion of the State. He introduced liberal 
measures to develop the resources of 
the State, and to promote the interests 
of all educational and humane establish- 
ments. Up to the time of his election 
as Governor, Democracy reigned supreme 
in the Territory. The representatives in 
Congress were allies of the slave power. 
He, after being elected, gave his whole 
soul to the work, and it may truly be said 
that Governor Grimes made Iowa Repub- 
lican and allied it with the loyal States. 

January 14, 1858, he laid down his office, 
only to be placed in another and greater 
one ; for on the 25th he was nominated 
by the Republican caucus for United 
States Senator. He took his seat in the 
Senate March 4, 1859, ^^d was placed upon 
the committee on naval affairs January 24, 
1 861, on which he remained during the 
remainder of his senatorial career, serving 
as chairman from December, 1864. 

Mr. Grimes voted for the Pacific Rail- 
road bill on June 20, 1862, and for estab- 
lishing the gauge of the road from the Mis- 
souri River to the Pacific Ocean, at four 
feet eight and a half inches, February 18, 
1863. 

Januar}^ 16, 1864, Mr. Grimes was again 
chosen United States Senator from Iowa 



for six 3^ears from March 4, 1865, receiving 
the votes of all but six of the members of 
the General Assembly in joint convention ; 
128 out of 134. His council was often 
sought in matters of great moment, and in 
cases of peculiar difficulty. Always ready 
to promote the welfare of the State, he 
gave, unsolicited, land worth $6,000 to the 
Congregational college at Grinnell. It 
constitutes the " Grimes foundation," and 
" is to be applied to the establishment and 
maintenance in Iowa College, forever, of 
four scholarships, to be awarded by the 
trustees, on the recommendation of the fac- 
ulty, to the best scholars, and the most 
promising, in any department, who may 
need and seek such aid, and without any 
regard to the religious tenets or opinions 
entertained by any person seeking either 
of said scholarships." These terms were 
imposed by Mr. Grimes and assumed July 
20, 1865, by the trustees. He received 
the honorary degree of LL.D. in 1865 
from Dartmouth College, and also from 
Iowa College. He also aided in founding 
a public library in Burlington, donating 
$5,000, which was expended in the purchase 
of costly books, and subsequently sent from 
Europe 256 volumes in the German lan- 
guage, and also contributed 600 volumes of 
public documents. 

In Januar}', 1869, he made a donation of 
$5,000 to Dartmouth College, and $1,000 
to the " Social Friend," a literary society of 
which he was a member when in college. 

His health failing, Mr. Grimes sailed for 
Europe April 14, 1869, remaining abroad 
two years, reaching home September 22, 
1 87 1, apparently in improved health and 
spirits. In November he celebrated his 
silver wedding, and spent the closing 
months of his life with his family. He voted 
at the city election February 5, 1872, was 
suddenly attacked with severe pains in the 
region of the heart, and died after a few 
short hours of intense suffering. 



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RALPH /'. LOWE. 



191 



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'HE fcHirth Governor 
of the State, and 
the seventh of Iowa 
without reference to 
the form of govern- 
ment, was Ralph P. 
Lowe. He was born 
in Ohio in 1808, and Uved 
just three-fourths of a cent- 
ury. He came tg the 
Territory of Iowa in 1839 
or 1840, when he was a 
Httle over thirty years old. 
He settled in Muscatine, 
where in a short time he 
became prominent in local 
affairs and of recognized 
ability in questions of public policy. While 
yet residing in that city, he represented 
the county of Muscatine in the constitu- 
tional convention of 1844 that framed the 
rejected Constitution. 

After this constitutional convention, Mr. 
Lowe took no further part in public mat- 
ters for a number of years. He removed 
to Lee County about 1849 o^" 'S^' where 
he became district judge as a successor to 
George H Williams, who was afterward 
famous as President Grant's Attorney Gen- 
eral. He was district judge five years, 
from 1852 to 1857, being succeeded by 
Judge Claggett. In the summer of 1857 



he was nominated by the Republicans for 
Governor of Iowa, with Gran Faville for 
Lieutenant-Governor. The Democracy 
put in the field Benjamin M. Samuels for 
Governor and George Gillaspy for Lieu- 
tenant Governor. There was a third ticket 
in the field, supported by the American or 
" Know Nothing " party, and bearing the 
names of T. F. Henry and Easton Morris. 
The election was held in October, 1857, and 
gave Mr. Lowe 38,498 votes, against 36,088 
for Mr. Samuels, and 1,006 for Mr. Henry. 

Hitherto the term of ofifice had been four 
years, but by an amendment to the Consti- 
tution this was.now reduced to two. Gov- 
ernor Lowe was inaugurated Januai'y 14, 
1858, and at once sent his first message to 
the Legislature. Among the measures 
passed by this Legislature were bills to in- 
corporate the State Bank of Iowa ; to pro- 
vide for an agricultural college ; to author- 
ize the business of banking ; disposing of 
the land grant made by Congress to the 
Des Moines Valley Railroad ; - to provide 
for the erection of an institution for the 
education of the blind ; and to provide for 
taking a State census. 

No events of importance occurred dur- 
ing the administration of Governor Lowe, 
but it was not a period of uninterrupted 
prosperity. The Governor said in his 
biennial message of January 10, i860, re- 



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192 



GOVERNORS OF IOWA. 



viewing the preceding two years: " The 
period that has elapsed since the last, 
biennial session has been one of great dis- 
turbing causes, and of anxious solicitude to 
all classes of our fellow citizens. The first 
year of this period was visited with heavy 
and continuous rains, which reduced the 
measure of our field crops below one-half 
of the usual product, whilst the financial 
revulsion which commenced upon the At- 
lantic coast in the autumn of 1857 did not 
reach its climax for evil in our borders until 
the year just past." 

He referred at length to the claim of the 
State against the Federal Government, 
and said that he had appealed in vain to 
the Secretary of the Interior for the pay- 
ment of the 5 per cent, upon the military 
land warrants that the State is justly en- 
titled to, which then approximated to a 
million of dollars. The payment of this 
fund, he said, " is not a mere favor which 
is asked of the General Government, but a 
subsisting right which could be enforced in 
a court of justice, was there a tribunal of 
this kind clothed with the requisite juris- 
diction." 

The subject of the Des Moines River 
grant received from the G£)vernor special 
attention, and he gave a history of the 
operations of the State authorities in ref- 
erence to obtaining the residue of the lands 
to which the State was entitled, and other 
information as to the progress of the work. 
He also remarked " that under the act 
authorizing the Governor to raise a com- 
pany of mounted men for defense and pro- 
tection of our frontier, approved February 
9, 1858, a company of thirty such men, 
known as the Frontier Guards, armed and 
equipped as required, were organized and 
mustered into service under the command 
of Captain Henry B. Martin, of Webster 
City, about the first of March then follow- 
ing, and were divided into two companies, 
one stationed on the Little Sioux River, 



the other at Spirit Lake. Their presence 
afforded security anfl gave quiet to the 
settlements in that region, and after a ser- 
vice of four months they were duly dis- 
banded. 

" Late in the fall of the year, however, 
great alarm and consternation was again 
felt in the region of Spirit Lake and Sioux 
River settlements, produced by the appear- 
ance of large numbers of Indians on the 
border, whose bearing was insolent and 
menacing, and who were charged with 
clandestinely running off the stock of the 
settlers. The most urgent appeals came 
from these settlers, invoking again the 
protection of the State. From the repre- 
sentations made of the imminence of their 
danger and the losses already sustained, 
the Governor summoned into the field once 
more the frontier guards. After a service 
of four or five months they were again 
discharged, and paid in the manner 
prescribed in the act under which they 
were called out." 

Governor Lowe was beaten for the 
renomination b}' Honorable S. J. Kirkwood, 
who was considered much the stronger 
man. To compensate him for his defeat 
for the second term. Governor Lowe was 
appointed one of the three judges under 
the new Constitution. He drew the short 
term, which expired in 1861, but was 
returned and served, all t(jld, eight years. 
He then returned to the practice of 
law, gradually working into a claim busi- 
ness at Washington, to which city he re- 
moved about 1874. In that city he died, on 
Saturday, December 22, 1883. He had a 
large family. Carleton, one of his sons, 
was an otificer in the Third Iowa Cavalry 
during the war. 

Governor Lowe was a man of detail, 
accurate and industrious. In private and 
public life he was pure, upright and honest. 
In religious faith he was inclined to be a 
Spiritualist. 






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SAMUEL y. KIRKWOOD. 



195 



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^^^^^ 





, AMU EL JORDAN 
KIRKWOOD, the 
fifth Governor of the 
State of Iowa, was born 
December 20, 18 13, in 
Harford County, Mary- 
land, on his father's 
farm. His father was twice 
married, first to a lady named 
Coulson, by whom he had 
two sons, and, after her 
death, to Mary Alexander, by 
whom he had three children, 
all sons, the youngest of whom 
is the subject of these notes. The 
father of Governor Kirkwood was 
a native of Maryland, his ancestors 
having settled there previous to the Revo- 
lution ; his mother was born in Scotland, 
and both parents were strict members of 
the Presbyterian church. 

When ten years old young Kirkwood was 
sent to Washington City to attend a school 
taught by a relative named John McLeod. 
He remained at school four years, when he 
entered a drug store at Washington as 
clerk, in which occupation he continued till 
after attaining his majority, with the excep- 
tion of about eighteen months spent in 
teaching in York County, Pennsylvania. 
In 1835 Samuel left Washington and set- 
tled in Richland County, Ohio, where he 
assisted his father and brother (who had re- 



moved from Maryland there) in clearing a 
farm. In 1841 he entered, as a student, the 
law office of Thomas W. Bartley, afterward 
Governor of Ohio, and in 1843 ^^as admit- 
ted to the bar by the Supreme Court of 
Ohio. He then engaged in the practice 
of law with his former preceptor, Mr. 
Bartley, forming an association which con- 
tinued for eight years. 

From 1845 to 1849 he served as prose- 
cuting attorney of his county. In 1849 he 
was elected as a Democrat to represent his 
county and district in the constitutional 
convention. In 185 1 Mr. Bartley, his part- 
ner, having been elected to the supreme 
judiciary of the State, Kirkwood formed a 
partnership with Barnabas Barns, with 
whom he continued to practice until the 
spring of 1855, when he removed to the 
West. 

Up to 1854 Mr. Kirkwood had acted with 
the Democratic party. But the measures 
proposed and sustained that year by the 
Democracy in Congress, concentrated in 
what was known as the Kansas-Nebraska 
act, drove him with hosts of anti-slavery 
Democrats out of the party. He was be- 
sought by the opposition in the " Richland 
district " to become their candidate for 
Congress, but declined. In 1855 he came 
to Iowa and settled two miles northwest of 
Iowa City, entering into a partnership with 
his brother-in-law, Ezekiel Clark, in the 






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196 



GOVERNORS OF IOWA. 



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milling business, and kept aloof from pub- 
lic affairs. He could not long conceal his 
record and abilities from his neighbors, 
however, and in 1856 he was elected to the 
State Senate from the district composed of 
the counties of Iowa and Johnson, and 
served through the last session of the 
Legislature held at Iowa Cit)' and the first 
one held at Des Moines. 

In 1859 Mr. Kirkwood was made the 
standard-bearer of the Republicans of Iowa, 
and though he had as able and popular a 
competitor as General A. C. Dodge, he was 
elected Governor of Iowa by a majority of 
over 3,000. He was inaugurated January 
II, i860. Before the expiration of his first 
term came the great civil war. As Gov- 
ernor, during the darkest days of the Rebell- 
ion, he performed an exceedingl}^ impor- 
tant duty. He secured a prompt response 
by volunteers to all requisitions by the 
federal Government on the State for troops, 
so that during his Governorship no " draft " 
took place in Iowa, and no regiment, except 
the first, enlisted for less than three years. 
At the same time he maintained the State's 
financial credit. The Legislature, at its ex- 
tra session in 1861, authorized the sale of 
$800,000 in bonds, to assist in arming and 
equipping troops. So frugally was this 
work done, that but $300,000 of the bonds 
were sold, and the remaining $500,000 not 
having been required, the bonds represent- 
ing this amount were destroyed by order 
of the succeeding Legislature. 

In October, 1861, Governor Kirkwood 
was. with comparatively little opposition, 
re-elected — an horror accorded for the first 
time in the history of the State. His ma- 
jority was about 18,000. During his second 
term he was appointed by President Lin- 
coln to be Minister to Denmark ; but he 
declined to enter upon his diplomatic duties 
until the expiration of his term as Governor. 
The position was kept open for him until 
that time, but, when it came, pressing pri- 



vate buTsiness compelled a declination of 
the office altogether. 

In January, 1866, he was a prominent 
candidate before the Legislature for United 
States Senator. Senator Harlan had re- 
signed the senatorship upon his appoint- 
ment to the office of Secretary of the 
Interior by President Lincoln, just before 
his death, but had withdrawn from the 
cabinet soon alter the accession of Mr. 
Johnson to the Presidency. In this way 
it happened that the Legislature had two 
terms of United States Senator to fill, a 
short term of two years, to fill Harlan's 
unexpired term, and a long term of six 
years, to immediately succeed this; and 
Harlan had now become a candidate for 
his own successorship, to which Kirkwood 
also aspired. Ultimately, Kirkwood was 
elected for the first and Harlan for the 
second term. During his brief senatorial 
service, Kirkwood did not hesitate to meas- 
ure swords with Senator Sumner, whose 
natural es^otism had besfotten in him an 
arrogant and dictatorial manner, borne with 
humbly until then by his colleagues, in 
deference to his long experience and emi- 
nent ability, but unpalatable to an inde- 
pendent Western Senator like Kirkwood. 

At the close of his senatorial term, Marcli 
4, 1867, he resumed the practice of law, 
which a few years later he relinquished to 
accept the presidency of the Iowa City 
Savings Bank. In 1875 he was again elected 
Governor, and was inaugurated January 13, 
1876. He served but little over a year, as 
early in 1877 he was chosen United States 
Senator. He filled this position four years, 
resigning to become Secretary oi the In- 
terior in President Garfield's cabinet. In 
this office he was succeeded, April 17, 1882, 
by Henry M. Teller, of Colorado. 

Goveri^ior Kirkwood returned to Iowa 
City, his home, where he still resides, being 
now advanced in years. He was married 
in 1843 to Miss Jane Clark, a native of Ohio. 



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WILLIAM M. STONE. 



199 










^HE subject of this brief 
sketch was the ninth 
to hold the position 
of Governor of Iowa, 
and the sixth to fill 
the office under the 
State organization. 
He held the office four 
years, from 1864 to 1868. 

William Milo Stone was 
born October 14, 1827, 
a son of Truman and La- 
vina (North) Stone. His 
great-grandfather on both 
sides of the family was in 
the seven years' struggle 
for independence. His 
grandfather, Aaron Stone, was in the second 
war with England. Truman Stone moved 
to Lewis County, New York, when the son 
was a year old, and six j^ears later to Co- 
shocton County, Ohio. 

Like many other self-made men, William 
M. had few advantages. He never attended 
a school of any kind more than twelve 
months. In boyhood he was for two seasons 
a team-driver on the Ohio Canal. At seven- 
teen he was apprenticed to the chairmaker's 
trade, and he followed that business until 
Iwenty-three years of age, reading law 



meantime during his spare hours, wher- 
ever he happened to be. He commenced 
at Coshocton, with James Mathews, who 
afterward became his father-in-law ; con- 
tinued his readings with General Lucius V. 
Pierce, of Akron, and finished with Ezra B. 
Taylor, of Ravenna. He was admitted to 
the bar in August, 185 1, by Peter Hitch- 
cock and Rufus P. Ranney, supreme judges, 
holding a term of court at Ravenna. 

After practicing three years at Coshocton 
with his old preceptor, James Mathews, he, 
in November, 1854, settled in Knoxville, 
which has remained his home since. The 
year after locating here Mr. Stone pur- 
chased the Knoxville yicwr^rt/, and was one 
of the prime movers in forming the Repub- 
lican party in Iowa, being the first editor to 
suggest a State convention, which met 
February 22, 1856, and completed the or- 
ganization. In the autumn of the same 
year he was a Presidential elector on the 
Republican ticket. 

In April, 1857, Mr. Stone was chosen 
Judge of the Eleventh Judicial District. 
He was elected judge of the Sixth Judicial 
District when the new Constitution went 
into operation in 1858, and was serving on 
the bench when the American flag was 
stricken down at Fort Sumter. At that 



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GOVERNORS OF IOWA. 



time, April, 1861, he was holding court in 
Fairfield, Jefferson Count)', and when the 
news came of the insult to the old flag he 
immediatel}' adjourned court and prepared 
for what he believed to be more important 
duties— duties to his country. 

In May he enlisted as a private; was 
made Captain of Compan}' B, Third Iowa 
Infantry, and was subsequently promoted 
to Major. With that regiment he was at 
the battle of Blue Mills, Missouri, in Sep- 
tember, 1861, where he was wounded. At 
Shiloh, the following spring, he commanded 
the regiment and was taken prisoner. By 
order of Jefferson Davis he was paroled for 
the time of forty days, with orders to re- 
pair to Washington, and if possible secure 
an agreement for a cartel for a general ex- 
change of prisoners, and to return as a 
prisoner if he did not succeed. Failing to 
secure that result within the period speci- 
fied he returned to Richmond and had 
his parol extended fifteen days ; repairing 
again to Washington, he effected his pur- 
pose and was exchanged. 

In August, 1862, he was appointed by 
Governor Kirkwood Colonel of the Twen- 
ty-second Iowa Infantry, which rendez- 
voused and organized at Camp Pope, Iowa 
City, in August, 1862. The regiment was 
occupied for several months in guarding 
supply stores and the railroad, and escorting 
supply trains to the Army of the Southeast 
Missouri until January 27, 1863, when it re- 
ceived orders to join the army under Gen- 
eral Davidson, at West Plains, Missouri. 
After a march of five days it reached its 
destination, and was brigaded with the 
Twenty-first and Twenty-third Iowa regi 
ments, Colonel Stone commanding, and was 
designated the First Brigade, First Divis- 
ion, Army of Southeast Missouri. April i 
found Colonel Stone at Milliken's Bend, 
Louisiana, to assist Grant in the capture of 
Vicksburg. He was now in immediate 
comn^and of his regiment, which formed a 



part of a brigade under Colonel C. L. 
Harris, of the Eleventh Wisconsin. In the 
advance upon Port Gibson Colonel Harris 
was taken sick, and Colonel Stone was 
again in charge of a brigade. In the battle 
of Port Gibson the Colonel and his com- 
mand distinguished themselves, and were 
successful. The brigade was in the reserve 
at Champion Hills, and in active skirmish 
at Black River. 

On the evening of May 21 Colonel Stone 
received General Grant's order for a gen- 
eral assault on the enemy's lines at 10 A. M. 
on the 22d. In this charge, which was 
unsuccessful, Colonel Stone was again 
wounded, receiving a gunshot in his left 
forearm. Colonel Stone commanded a 
brigade until the last of August, when, 
being ordered to the Gulf department, he 
resigned. He had become very popular 
with the people of Iowa, and they were 
determined to make him Governor. 

He was nominated in a Republican con 
vention held at Des Moines in June, 1863, 
and was elected by a large majority. He 
was bre vetted Brigadier-General in 1864, 
during his first year as Governor. He was 
inaugurated January 14, 1864, and was re- 
elected in 1865, his four years in ofifice 
closing January 16, 1868. His majority in 
1863 was nearly 30,000, and in 1865 about 
16,500. His dmiinished vote in 1865 was 
due to the fact that he was very strongly 
committed in favor of negro suffrage. 

Governor Stone made a very energetic 
and efficient executive. Since the expira- 
tion of his gubernatorial term he has sought 
I0 escape the public notice, and has given 
his time largely to his private business in- 
terests. He is in partnership with Hon. (). 
B. Ayres, of Knoxville, in legal practice. 

He was elected to the General Assembly 
in 1877, '^^^^ served one term. 

In May, 1857, he married Miss Carloaet 
Mathews, a native of Ohio, then residing in 
Knoxville. They have one son — William A. 



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SAMUEL MERRILL. 



203 



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OLONEL SAM- 
UEL iMERRILL,the 

seventh Governor of 
the State of Iowa, the 
successor of Governor 
Stone, is among the 
men of the West who 
have b^en called from 
private life to places of trust on 
account of their peculiar fitness 
for office. He was born m the 
town of Turner, Oxford County, 
Maine, August 7, 1822. He is 
of English ancestry, being a 
descendant on his mother's side 
of Peter Hill, who came from 
the West of England and set- 
tled in Saco, Maine (now known as Bidde- 
ford), in 1653. From this ancestry have 
sprung the most of the Hills of America. 
On his father's side he is a descendant of 
Nathaniel Merrill, who, wdth his brother 
John, came from Salisbury, England, and 
settled in Newburg, Massachusetts, in 1636. 
Abel Merrill married Abigail Hill, June 
25, 1809, i'^ Buxton, Maine. They soon 
moved to Turner, where they became the 
parents of eight children, Samuel, the sub- 
ject of this sketch, being next the youngest, 
the fourth and youngest son in the family, 
and in the eighth generation from his Pil- 
grim fathers. 

18 



Samuel was married first to Catherine 
Thoms, who died m 1847, but fourteen 
months after their marriage. In January, 
185 1, he was again married, his second wife 
being a Miss Hill, of Buxton, Maine. To 
this union there have been born four chil- 
dren, three of whom died young, the eldest 
living to be only two and a half years old. 

At the age of sixteen he moved with his 
parents to Buxton, where his time was 
mostly engaged by turns in teaching and 
in attending school until he attained his 
majority. Having determined to make 
teaching a profession, he set out for that 
purpose toward the sunny South, but, as 
he says, he was " born too far north " for 
his political comfort. Suspicion having 
been aroused as to his abolitionist pro- 
clivities, and finding the elements not al- 
together congenial, he soon abandoned the 
land of chivalry for the old Granite State, 
where he engaged for several years in 
farming. 

In 1847 he removed to Tam worth. New 
Hampshire, where he embarked in mer- 
cantile business in company with a brother. 
In this, as in all his business enterprises, he 
was quite successful. Not being satisfied 
with the limited resources of Northern 
New England, he determined to try his 
good fortune on the broad prairies of the 
new and more fertile West. Accordingly, 






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I 


204 


GO VER/VORS 


OF IOWA. '< 



in 1856, he turned his face toward the set- 
ting sun. He made a final settlement at 
McGregor, Iowa, where he established a 
branch house of the old firm. 

During all these years of business Mr. 
Merrill took an active but not a noisy part 
in politics. In 1854 he was elected as an 
Abolitionist to the New Hampshire Legis- 
lature, at the same time General N. B. 
Baker, ex-Adjutant General of Iowa, was 
Governor of the same State. In 1855 he 
was returned for a second term to the Leg- 
islature, In Iowa he was equally fortunate 
in securing the good will of those who 
knew him. His neighbors and those who 
had dealings with him found a man who 
was honest in his business, fair in his deal- 
ings, social in his relations, and benevolent 
in his disposition. He took an active in- 
terest in the prosperity of the town and 
ever held an open hand to all needed chari- 
ties. These traits of character had drawn 
around him, though not realized or intended 
by himself, a host of personal admirers. 
This good will resulted in his being nomi- 
nated for a seat in the State Legislature, 
and he was the only one on his ticket that 
was elected. The Legislature met in extra 
session in 1861 to provide for the exigencies 
of the Rebellion, and in its deliberations Mr. 
Merrill rendered effective and unselfish 
service. 

He continued in business at McGregor 
until the summer of 1862, when he was 
commissioned as Colonel of the Twenty- 
first Iowa Infantry, proceeding immediately 
to Missouri, where active service awaited 
him. Marmaduke was menacing the Union 
forces in Central Missouri, which called for 
prompt action on the part of the Union 
Generals. Colonel Merrill was placed in 
command of a detachment of the Twenty- 
first Iowa, a detachment of the Ninety-ninth 
Illinois, a portion of the Third Iowa Cavalry 
and two pieces of artillery, with orders to 
make a forced march to S[)ringfield, he be- 



ing at Houston, eighty miles distant. On 
the morning of the nth of January, 1863, 
they having come across a body of rebels, 
found them advancing in heavy force. 
Colonel Merrill immediately made dis- 
position for battle, and brisk firing was 
kept up for an hour, when the enemy fell 
back. Colonel Merrill now moved in the 
direction of Hartville, where he found the 
rebels in force under Marmaduke, and from 
six to eight thousand strong, with six pieces 
of artillery, while Colonel Merrill had but 
800 men and two pieces of artillery. 

In this engagement the rebels lost several 
officers and not less than 300 men in killed 
and wounded. The Union loss was seven 
killed and sixty-four wounded, five captured 
and two missing. The regiment performed 
severe marches and suffered much in sick- 
ness during the winter. It was assigned to 
the Thirteenth Corps, General John A. Mc- 
Clernand ; fought gallantly at the battle of 
Port Gibson; and while the impetuous 
charge of Black River bridge was being 
made Colonel Merrill was severely, and re- 
ported fatally, wounded. The battle of Black 
River bridge, the last of the series of engage- 
ments during the campaign of Vicksburg in 
which the rebels fought without their fortifi- 
cations, was a short but bloody combat. 
While Colonel Merrill was leading his regi- 
ment in this deadly charge he was wounded 
through the hips. This brought his mili- 
tary career to a close. Suffering from his 
wounds, he resigned his commission and re- 
turned to McGregor, but was unable to at- 
tend to his private affairs for many months. 

In 1867 he was chosen Governor to suc- 
ceed William M. Stone. He was inaugu- 
rated January 16, 1868, and served till 
January 11, 1872, being re-elected in 1869, 
After the expiration of his term of office 
he returned to McGregor, but as soon as 
he could adjust his business interests he lo- 
cated in Des Moines, where he is now 
President of the Citizens' National Bank. 



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ROM his numerous offi- 
cial positions, and 
the ability with 
which they have 
been filled, Cyrus 
C. Carpenter, the 
eighth Governor of 
the State of Iowa, 
deserves to be remembered 
one of Iowa's foremost 
He is a native of Sus- 
County, Pennsyl- 
was born Novem- 
9. His parents 



as 

men. 

quehanna 
vania, and 
ber 24, 18 



were Asahel and Amanda M. 
(Thayer) Carpenter, both of whom died be- 
fore he was twelve years old. His grand- 
father, John Carpenter, was one of nine 
young men who, in 1789, left Attleborough, 
Massachusetts, for the purpose of finding a 
home in the " new country." After various 
vicissitudes they located upon the spot 
which they called Harford, in Northeastern 
Pennsylvania, the township in which Cyrus 
was born. This location at that time was 
far from any other settlement, Wilkesbarre, 
in Wyoming Valley, near the scene of the 
celebrated Indian massacre, being among 
the nearest, though fifty miles away. 

Gyrus attended a common school three 
or four months in a year until 1846, then 



taught winters and worked on a farm sum- 
mers for three or four years, and with the 
money thus raised paid his expenses for 
several months at the academy which had 
been established in his native town. After 
leaving this institution, in 1852, he started 
westward ; halted at Johnstown, Licking 
County, Ohio ; taught there a year and a 
half, and with his funds thus replenished he 
came to Iowa, loitering some on the way, 
and reaching Des Moines in June, 1854. A 
few da3^s later he started on foot up the 
Des Moines Valley, and found his way to 
Fort Dodge, eighty miles northwest of Des 
Moines, from which place the soldiers had 
moved the previous spring to Fort Ridgely, 
Minnesota. 

He now had but a single half dollar m 
his pocket. He frankly told the landlord 
of his straightened circumstances, offering 
to do any kind of labor until something 
should " turn up." On the evening of his 
arrival he heard a Government contractor 
state that his chief surveyor had left him 
and that he was going out to find another. 
Young Carpenter at once offered his ser- 
vices. To the inquiry whether he was a 
surveyor, he answered that he understood 
the theory of surveying, but had had no 
experience in the field. His services were 
promptly accepted, with a promise of steady 









208 



GOVERNORS OF IOWA. 



employment if he were found competent. 
The next morning he met the party and 
took command. When the first week's 
work was done he went to Fort Dodge to 
replenish his wardrobe. As he left, some 
of the men remarked that that was the last 
that would be seen of him. He was then 
of a slight build, jaded and torn by hard 
work, and, when he left the camp, so utterly 
tired out it is not surprising that the men 
who were inured to out-door life thought 
him completely used up. But they did not 
know their man. With the few dollars 
which he had earned, he supplied himself 
with comfortable clothing, went back to 
his work on Monday morning and con- 
tinued it till the contract was completed. 

The next winter he taught the first school 
opened in Fort Dodge, and from that date 
his general success was assured. For the 
first two years he was employed much of 
the time b}' persons having contracts for 
surveying Government lands. He was thus 
naturally led into the land business, and 
from the autumn of 1855, ^vhen the Land 
Office was established at Fort Dodge, much 
of his time was devoted to surveying, select- 
ing lands for buyers, tax-paying for foreign 
owners, and in short a general land agency. 
During this period he devoted such time as 
he could spare to reading law, with the 
view of eventually entering the profession. 

Soon after the civil war commenced he 
entered the army, and before going into the 
field was commissioned as Captain in the 
stafif department, and served over three 
years, attaining the rank of Lieutenant- 
Colonel and being mustered out as brevet 
Colonel. 

He has served his State in numerous 
civil capacities. He was elected Surveyor 
of Webster County in the spring of 1856, 
and the next year was elected a Represen- 
tative to the General Assembly, and served 
in the first session of that b(xly held at Des 
Moines. He was elected Register of the 



State Land Office in 1866, re-elected in 
1868, and held the office four years, declin- 
ing to be a candidate for renomination. 
He was elected Governor of Iowa in 

1 87 1, and was inaugurated January 11, 1872. 
He was re-elected two years later, and 
served until January 13, 1874. He made 
an able and popular executive. In his first 
inaugural address, delivered January 11, 

1872, he made a strong plea for the State 
University, and especially its normal de- 
partment, for the agricultural college, and 
for whatever would advance the material 
progress and prosperity of the people, urg- 
ing in particular the introduction of more 
manufactories. 

At the expiration of his second term as 
Governor Mr. Carpenter was appointed, 
without his previous knowledge, Second 
Comptroller of the United States Treasury, 
and resigned after holding that office about 
fifteen months. He was influenced to take 
this step at that time because another bureau 
officer was to be dismissed, as the head of 
the department held that Iowa had more 
heads of bureaus than she was entitled to, 
and his resigning an office of a higher grade 
saved a man who deserved to remain in 
Government employ. 

He was in the forty-seventh Congress 
from 1881 to 1883, and represented Web- 
ster County in the twentietli General As- 
sembl}-. He is now leading the fife of a 
private citizen at Fort Dodge, his chief 
employment being the carrying on of a 
farm. He is not rich, which is a striking 
commentary on his long official service. 
He has led a pure and upright life. 

He has been a Republican since the or- 
ganization of that party. In religious mat- 
ters he is orthodox. 

He was married in March, 1864, to Miss 
Susan C. Burkholdcr, of Fort Dodge. They 
have no cliildren, but have reared from 
childhood a niece of Mrs. Carpenter, Miss 
Fannie Burkholder. 



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JOSHUA G. NEWBOLD. 










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'OSHUA G. NEWBOLD 

was the tenth Governor 
of the State, and the 
thirteenth of Iowa, num- 
bering from the first 
Territorial G o v e r nor. 
He is yet Hving at Mount 
Pleasant. He is a native of 
Pennsylvania, and his an- 
cestors in this country were 
among the very early set- 
tlers in New Jersey. They 
were Friends, and conse- 
quently none of them 
figured in the struggle for 
the independence of the colo- 
nies. Governor Newbold is the son of 
Barzilla and Catherine (Houseman) New- 
bold. He was born in Fayette County, 
Pennsylvania, May 12, 1830, and reared as 
a farmer. When he was eight years of age 
the famil}' moved to Westmoreland County, 
same State, where he was educated in the 
common school, and also in a select school 
or academy, the latter taught by Dr. John 
Lewis, since of Grinnell, Iowa. At sixteen 
he returned with the family to Fayette 
County, where he remained eight years, 
assisting his father in running a flouring 
mill, when not teaching. When about nine- 
teen he began the study of medicine, read- 
ing a year or more while teaching, and then 
abandoning the notion of being a physician. 



In the month of March, 1854, Mr. New- 
bold removed to Iowa, locating on a farm, 
now partly in the corporation of Mount 
Pleasant, Henry County. At the end of 
one year he removed to Cedar Township, 
Van Buren County, there merchandising 
and farming till about i860, when he re- 
moved to Hillsboro, Henry Count}', and 
pursued the same callings. 

In 1862, when the call was made for 600,- 
000 men to finish the work of crushing the 
Rebellion, Mr. Newbold left his farm in the 
hands of his family and his store in charge 
of his partner, and went into the army as 
Captain of Company C, Twenty-fifth Regi- 
ment Iowa Infantry. He served nearly 
three years, resigning just belore the war 
closed, on account of disability. During 
the last two or three months he served at 
the South he filled the position of Judge 
Advocate, with headquarters at Woodville, 
Alabama. 

His regiment was one of those that made 
Iowa troops famous. It arrived at Helena, 
Arkansas, in November, 1862, and sailed in 
December following on the expedition 
against Vicksburg by way of Chickasaw 
Bayou. At the latter place was its first en- 
gagement. Its second was at Arkansas 
Post, and there it suffered severely, losing 
in killed and wounded more than sixty. 

Alter Lookout Mountain it- joined in the 
pursuit of Bragg's flying forces to Ring- 






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GOVERNORS OF IOWA. 



gold, where iL engaged the enemy in their 
strong works, November 27 losing twenty- 
nine wounded. The following year it joined 
Sherman in his Atlanta campaign, then on 
the famous march to the sea and through 
the Carolinas. 

On returning to Iowa he continued in 
the mercantile trade at Hillsboro for three 
or four years, and then sold out, giving 
thereafter his whole attention to agricult- 
ure, stock-raising and stock-dealing, mak- 
ing the stock department an important 
factor in his business for several years. Mr. 
Newbold was a member of the thirteenth, 
fourteenth and fifteenth General Assem- 
blies, representing Henry County, and was 
chairman of the school committee in the 
fourteenth, and of the committee on appro- 
priations in the fifteenth General Assembly. 
In the fifteenth (1874) he was temporary 
Speaker during the deadlock in organizing 
the House. In 1875 he was elected Lieu- 
tenant Governor on the Republican ticket 
with Samuel J. Kirkwood. 

His Democratic competitor was E. B. 
Woodward, who received 93,060 votes. Mr. 
Newbold received 134,166, or a majority of 
31,106. Governor Kirkwood being elected 
United States Senator during that session, 
Mr. Newbold became Governor, taking the 
chair February i, 1877, and vacating it for 
Governor Gear in January, 1878. 

Governor Newbold's message to the Leg- 
islature in 1878 shows painstaking care 
and a clear business-like view of the fn- 
terests of the State. His recommendations 
were carefully considered and largely 
adopted. The State's finances were then 
in a less creditable condition than ever be- 
fore or since, as there was an increasing- 
floating debt, then amounting to $340,- 
826.56, more than $90,000 in excess of the 
Constitutional limitation. Said Governor 
Newbold in his message: " The common- 
wealth ought not to set an example of dila- 



toriness in meeting its obligations. Of all 
forms of indebtedness, that of a floating 
character is the most objectionable. The 
uncertainty as to its amount will invariably 
enter into any computation made by persons 
contracting with the State for supplies, ma- 
terial or labor. To remove the present 
difficulty, and to avert its recurrence, I 
look upon as the most important work that 
will demand your attention." 

One of the greatest problems before 
statesmen is that of equal and just taxation. 
The following recommendation shows that 
Governor Newbold was abreast with fore- 
most thinkers, for it proposes a step which 
yearlv finds more favor with the people : 
" The inequalities of the personal-property 
valuations of the several counties suggest 
to my mind the ^propriety of so adjusting 
the State's levy as to require the counties 
to pay into the State treasury only the tax 
on realty, leaving the corresponding tax on 
personalty in the county treasury. This 
would rest with each county the adjust- 
ment of its personal property valuations, 
without fear that they might be so high as 
to work injustice to itself in comparison 
with other counties." 

Governor Newbold has always affiliated 
with the Republican party, and holds to its 
great cardinal doctrines, having once em- 
braced them, with the same sincerity and 
honesty that he cherishes his religious senti- 
ments. He has been a Christian for some- 
thing like twenty-five years, his connection 
being with the Free-Will Baptist church. 
He found his wife, Rachel Farquhar, in 
Fayette County, Pennsylvania, their union 
taking place on the 2d of May, 1850. They 
have had five children, and lost two. The 
names of the living are — Mary AUene, 
Emma Irene and George C. 

The Governor is not yet an old man, and 
may serve his State or county in other 
capacities in the coming years. 



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JOHN II. GEAR. 



215 





; HE eleventh to hold the 
highest official posi- 
tion in the State of 
Iowa was John H. 
Gear, of Burlington. 
He is yet living in 
that city. He was 
born in Ithaca, New York, 
April 7, 1825. His father 
was Rev. E. G. Gear, a cler- 
gyman of the Protestant 
Episcopal c h u r c h , who 
was born in New London, 
Connecticut, in 1792. 
When he was quite young 
h i s family removed to 
Pittsfield, Berkshire County, 
Massachusetts; in 1816, after being or- 
dained, he emigrated to New York and 
settled at Onondaga Hill, near which is now 
the thriving city of Syracuse. Soon after 
locating there he was married to Miranda E. 
Cook. He was engaged in the ministry in 
various places in Western New York until 
1836, when he removed to Galena, Illinois. 
There he remained until 1838, when he was 
appointed Chaplain in the United States 
Array at Fort Snelling, Minnesota. He 
died in 1874, aged eighty-two years. 

John H., his only son, in 1843, came to 
Burlington, where he has since continued 
to reside. On his arrival he commenced 



his mercantile career by engaging as clerk 
with the firm of Bridgeman & Bros. Alter 
being with this firm for a little over a year 
he entered the employ of W. F. Coolbaugh 
(since president of the Union National 
Bank, of Chicago), who was even at that 
early date the leading merchant of Eastern 
Iowa. He was clerk for Mr. Coolbaugh 
for about five years, and was then taken 
into partnership. The firm of W. F. Cool- 
baugh & Co. continued in business for 
nearly five years, when Mr. Gear suc- 
ceeded to the business by purchase, and 
carried it on until he became known as the 
oldest wholesale grocer in the State. He 
is now president of a large rolling mill 
company at Burlington. 

Mr. Gear has been honored by his fellow- 
citizens with many positions of trust. In 
1852 he was elected alderman ; in 1863 was 
elected mayor over A. W, Carpenter, be- 
ing the first Republican up to that time 
who had been elected in Burlington on a 
party issue. In 1867 the Burlington, Cedar 
Rapids & Minnesota Railroad Company 
was organized, and he was chosen as its 
president. His efforts highly contributed 
to the success of the enterprise, which did 
much for Burlington. He was also active 
in promoting the Burlington & Southwest- 
ern Railway, as well as the Burlington «& 
Northwestern nairow-gauge road. 



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2l6 



GOVERNORS OF IOWA. 



He has always acted with the Republican 
party, and in 1871 was nominated and 
elected a member of the House of Repre- 
sentatives of the Fourteenth General As- 
sembly. In 1873 he was elected to the 
Fifteenth General Assembly. The Repub- 
lican caucus of the House nominated him 
for Speaker by acclamation, and after a 
contest of two weeks he was chosen over 
his opponent, J. W. Dixon. He filled the 
position of Speaker very acceptably, and 
at the close of the session all the members 
of the House, independent of party affili- 
ations, joined in signing their names to a 
resolution of thanks, which was engraved 
and presented to him. In 1875 he was the 
third time nominated to the Assembly by 
the Republican party, and while his county 
gave a large Democratic vote he was again 
elected. He was also again nominated for 
Speaker, by the Repubhcan caucus, and 
was elected by a handsome majority over 
his competitor, Hon. John Y. Stone. He 
is the only man in the State who ever had 
the honor of being chosen to this high posi- 
tion a second time. He enjoys the reputa- 
tion of being an able parliamentarian, his 
rulings never having been appealed from. 
At the close of the session he again received 
the unanimous thanks of the House for his 
courtesy and impartiality. 

In 1877 he was nominated for Governor 
by the Republican convention which met 
at Des Moines, June 28, and at the election 
held the following October he received 
121,546 votes, against 79,353 for John P. 
Irish, 10,639 for Eliasjessup, and 38,228 for 
D. P. Stubbs. His plurality over Irish was 
42,193. He was inaugurated January 17, 
1 878, and served four years, being re-elected 
in 1879, by the following handsome vote: 
Gear, 157,571 ; Trimble, 85,056; Campbell, 
45.439; Dungan, 3,258; Gear's majority 
over all competitors, 23,828. His second 
inauguration was in January, 1880. 

Governor Gear's business habits enabled 



him to discharge the duties of his office 
with marked ability. He found the finan- 
cial condition of the State in a low ebb, bufe 
raised Iowa's credit to that of the best of 
our States. In his last biennial message he 
was able to report : " Tlie warrants out- 
standing, but not bearing interest, Septem- 
ber 30, 1 88 1, amounted to $22,093.74, and 
there are now in the treasury ample funds 
to meet the current expenses of the State. 
The war and defense debt has been paid, 
except the warrants for $125,000 negotiated 
by the executive, auditor and treasurer, 
under the law of the Eighteenth General 
Assembly, and $2,500 of the original bonds 
not yet presented for payment. The only 
other debt owing by the State amounts to 
$245,435.19, due to the permanent school 
fund, a portion of which is made irredeem- 
able by the Constitution. These facts place 
Iowa practically among the States which 
have no debt, a consideration which must 
add much to her reputation. The expenses 
of the State for the last two years are less 
than those of any other period since 1869, 
and this notwithstanding the fact that the 
State is to-day sustaining several institu- 
tions not then in existence ; namely, the 
hospital at Independence, the additional 
penitentiary, the normal school, and the 
asylum for the feeble-minded children, be- 
sides the girl's department of the reform 
school. The State also, at })rcsent, makes 
provision for fish culture, for a useful 
weather service, for sanitary supervision 
by a board of health, for encouraging im- 
migration to the State, for the inspection of 
coal mines by a State inspector, and liberally 
for the military arm of the Government." 

Governor Gear is now in the sixty -first 
year of his age, and is in the full vigor of 
both his mental and physical faculties. He 
was married in 1852 to Harriet S. Foot, 
formerly of Middlebury, Vermont, by whom 
he has had four children, two of whom are 
living. 



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BUREN R. SHERMAN. 



219 






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^FIE twelfth Governor 
of the State was 
Buren R. Sherman, 
who held office two 
terms, from 1882 to 
1886. He was born 
in Phelps, Ontario 
County, New York, May 
28, 1836, and is the third 
son of Phineas L. and Eve- 
line (Robinson) Sherman, 
both of whom were natives 
of the Empire State. 

The subject of this sketch 
received his early educa- 
tion in the public schools 
of his native place, and con- 
cluded his studies at Elmira, New York, 
acquiring a thorough knowledge of the 
English branches. At the close of his 
studies, acting on the advice of his father, 
who was a mechanic (an ax maker), he ap- 
prenticed himself to Mr. S. Ayres, of El- 
mira, to learn the watchmaker's trade. In 
1855, with his family, he removed to Iowa 
and settled upon an unbroken prairie, in 
what is now Geneseo Township, Tama 
County, where his father had purchased 
lands from the Government. There young 
Sherman labored on his father's farm, em- 
ploying his leisure hours in the study of 
law, which he had begun at Elmira. He 
also engaged as bookkeeper in a neighbor- 

19 



ing town, and with his wages assisted his 
parents in improving their farm. In the 
summer of 1859 ^^ ^^'^s admitted to the bar, 
and the following spring removed to Vin- 
ton, and began the practice of law with 
Hon. William Smyth, formerly District 
Judge, and J. C. Traer, conducting the 
business under the firm name of Smyth, 
Traer & Sherman. 

They built up a flourishing practice and 
were prospering when, upon the opening 
of the war, in 1861, Mr. Sherman enlisted in 
Company G, Thirteenth Iowa Volunteer 
Infantry, and immediately w'ent to the 
front. He entered the service as Second 
Sergeant, and in February, 1862, was made 
Second Lieutenant of Company E. On the 
6th of April following he was very severely 
wounded at the battle of Pittsburg Landing, 
and while in the hospital was promoted to 
the rank of Captain. He returned to his 
company while yet obliged to use crutches, 
and remained on duty till the summer of 
1863, when, by reason of his wound, he was 
compelled to resign and return home. Soon 
after returning from the army he was 
elected County Judge of Benton County, 
and re-elected without opposition in 1865. 
In the autumn of 1866 he resigned his judge- 
ship and accepted the office of clerk of the 
District Court, to which he was re-elected 
in 1868, 1870 and 1872, and in Decembei% 
1874, resigned in order to accept the office 






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GOVERNORS OF IOWA. 



of Auditor of State, to which he had been 
elected by a majority of 28,425 over J. M. 
King-, the " anti-monopoly" candidate. In 
1876 he was re-nominated and received 50,- 
272 more votes than W. Growneweg(Demo- 
crat) and Leonard Brown (Greenback) to- 
gether. In 1878 he was again chosen to 
represent the Republican party in that office, 
and this time received a majority of 7,164 
over the combined votes of Colonel Eiboeck 
(Democrat) and G. V. Swearenger (Green- 
back). In the six years that he held this 
office, he was untiring in his faithful appli- 
cation to routine work and devotion to his 
especial share of the State's business. He 
retired with such an enviable record that it 
was with no surprise the people learned, 
June 2j, 1 88 1, that he was the nominee of the 
Republican parly for Governor 

The campaign was an exciting one. The 
General Assembly had submitted to the 
people the prohibitory amendment to the 
Constitution. This, while not a partisan 
question, became uppermost in the mind, 
of the public. Mr. Sherman received 133,- 
330 votes, against ^3,244 for Kinne and 28,- 
112 for D. M. Clark, or a plurality of 50,086 
and a majority of 21,974. In 1883 '^e was 
re-nominated by the Republicans, as was L. 
G. Kinne by the Democrats. The National 
party offered J. B. Weaver. During the 
campaign these candidates held a number 
of joint discussions at different points in the 
State. At the election the vote was: Shei"- 
man, 164,182 ; Kinne, 139,093 ; Weaver, 23,- 
089; Sherman's i)lurality, 25,089; majority, 
2,000. In his second inaugural Governor 
Sherman said : 

" In assuming, fur the second time, the 
office of Chief Magistrate of the State, I 
fully realize my grateful (obligations to. the 
people of Iowa, through whose generous 
confidence I am here. I am aware of the 
duties and grave responsibilities of this ex- 
alted position, and as well what is expected 
of me therein. As in the past I have given 



my undivided time and serious attention 
thereto, so in the future I promise the most 
earnest devotion and untiring effort in the 
faithful performance of my official require- 
ments. I have seen the State grow from 
infancy to mature manhood, and each year 
one of substantial betterment of its previous 
position. 

" With more railroads than any other 
State, save two ; with a school interest the 
grandest and strongest, which commands 
the support and confidence of all the peo- 
ple, and a population, which in its entirety 
is superior to any other in the sisterhood, 
it is not strange the pride which attaches to 
our people. When we remember that the 
results of our efforts in the direction of good 
government have been crowned with such 
magnificent success, and to-day we have a 
State in most perfect physical and financial 
condition, no wonder our hearts swell in 
honest pride as we contemplate the past 
and so confidently hope for the future. 
What we may become, depends on our own 
efforts, and to that future I look with earnest 
and abiding confidence." 

Governor Sherman's t(;rm of office con- 
tinued until January 14, 1886, when he was 
succeeded by William Larrabee, and he is 
now, temporarily, perhaps, enjoying a well- 
earned rest. He has been a Republican 
since the organizati(jn of that party, and his 
services as a campaign speaker have been 
for many years in great demand. As an 
officer he has been able to make an enviable 
record. Himself honorable and thorough, 
his management of public busmess has been 
of the same character, and such as has com- 
mended him to the hearty approval of the 
citizens ot the State. 

He was married August 20, 1862, to Miss 
Lena Kendall, of Vinton, Iowa, a young 
lady of rare accomplishments and strength 
of character. The union has been happy 
in every respect. They have two children 
— Lena Kendall and Oscar Eugene. 






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WILLIAM LARRABBE. 




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LLIAMLARRABEE 

is the thirteenth 
Governor of this 
State, and the six- 
teenth Governor 
of Iowa, counting 
from the Territo- 
organization. His ancestors 
e the name of d'Larrabee, and 
e among the French Hugiie- 
3 who came to America early 
:he seventeentli century, set- 
w^ in Connecticut. Adam 
rabee was born Marcli 14, 
and was one of the early 
graduates of West Point Military Academy. 
He served with distinction in the war of 
18 12, having been made a Second Lieuten- 
ant March i, 181 1. He was promoted to be 
Captain February i, 18 14, and was soon 
after, March 30, of the same year, severely 
wounded at the battle of Lacole Mills, dur- 
ing General Wilkinson's campaign on the 
St. Lawrence. He recovered from this 
wound, which was in the lung, and was 
afterward married to Hannah Gallup Lester, 
who was born June 8, 1798, and died March 
15, 1837. Captain Larrabee died in i86g, 
aged eighty-two. 

The subject of this sketch was born at 



Ledyard, Connecticut, Januar}-- 20, 1S32, 
and was the seventh of nine children. He 
passed his early life on a rugged New Eng- 
land farm, and received only moderate 
school advantages. He attended the dis- 
trict schools winters until nineteen years of 
age, and then taught school for two winters. 

He was now of an age when it became 
necessary to form some plans for the futui-e. 
In this, however, he u'as embarrassed by a 
misfortune which belcl him at the age ol 
fourteen. In being trained to the use of 
fire-arms under his fatiier's direction, an ac- 
cidental discharge resulted in the loss of 
sight in the right eye. This unfitted him 
for many employments usually sought b}' 
ambitious youths. The family lived two 
miles from the sea, and in that locality it 
was the custom for at least one son in each 
family to become a sailor. William's two 
eldest brothers chose this occupation, and 
the third remained in charge of the home 
farm. 

Thus made free to choose for himself 
William decided to emigrate West. In 
1853, accordingly, he came to Iowa. His 
elder sister, Hannah, wife of E. H. Williams, 
was then living at Garnavillo, Clayton 
County, and there he went first. In that 
way he selected Northeast Iowa as his 



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M 224 



GOVERNORS OF IOWA. 



future home. After teaching one winter at 
Hardin, he was for three years employed as 
a sort of foreman on the Grand Meadow 
farm of his brother-in-law, Judge Williams. 

In 1857 he bought a one-third interest in 
the Clermont Mills, and located at Cler- 
mont, FaAxtte Count}-. He soon was able 
to buy the other two-thirds, and within a 
year found himself sole owner. He oper- 
ated this mill until 1874, when he sold to S. 
M. Leach. On the breaking out of the war 
he offered to enlist, but was rejected on ac- 
count of the loss of his right e3'e. Being 
informed he might possibly be admitted as 
a commissioned officer he raised a company 
and received a commission as First Lieu- 
tenant, but was again rejected for the same 
disability. 

After selling the mill Mr. Larrabee de- 
voted himself to farming, and started a 
private bank at Clermont. He also, ex- 
perimentally, started a large nursery, but 
this resulted only in confirming the belief 
that Northern Iowa has too rigorous a cli- 
mate for fruit-raising. 

Mr. Larrabee did not begin his political 
career until 1867. He was reared as a 
Whig, and became a Republican on the or- 
ganization of that party. While interested 
in politics he generally refused local offices, 
serving only as treasurer of the School 
Board prior to 1867. In the autumn of that 
year, on the Republican ticket, he was 
elected to represent his county in the State 
Senate. To this high position he was re- 
elected from time to time, so that he served 
as Senator continuously for eighteen years 
before being promoted to the highest office 
in the State. He was so popular at home 
that he was generally re-nominated by ac- 
clamation, and for some years the Demo- 
crats did not even make nominations. 
During the whole eighteen years Senator 
Larrabee was a member of the principal 
committee, that on Ways and Means, of 
which he was generally chairman, and was 



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also a member of other committees. In the 
pursuit of the duties thus devolving upon 
him he was indefatigable. It is said that 
he never missed a committee meeting. Not 
alone in this, but in private and public 
business of all kinds his uniform habit is 
that of close application to work. Many 
of the important measures passed by the 
Legislature owe their existence or present 
form to him. 

He was a candidate for the gubernatorial 
nomination in 1881, but entered the contest 
too late, as Governor Sherman's following 
had been successfully organized. In 1885 
it was generally conceded before the meet- 
ing of the convention that he would be 
nominated, which he was, and his election 
followed as a matter of course. He was 
inaugurated January 14, 1886, and so far 
has made an excellent Governor. His 
position in regard to the liquor question, 
that on which political fortunes are made 
and lost in Iowa, is that the majority should 
rule. He was personally in favor of high 
license, but having been elected Governor, 
and sworn to uphold the Constitution and 
execute the laws, he proposes to do so. 

A Senator who sat beside him in the 
Senate declares him to be " a man of the 
broadest comprehension and information, 
an extraordinarily clear reasoner, fair and 
conscientious in his conclusions, and of 
Spartan firmness in his matured judg- 
ment," and says that " he brings the prac- 
tical facts and philosophy of human nature, 
the science and history of law, to aid in his 
decisions, and adheres with the earnestness 
of Jefferson and Sumner to the fundamental 
principles of the people's rights in govern- 
ment and law." 

Governor Larrabee was married Sep- 
tember 12, 1 86 1, at Clermont, to Anna M. 
Appelman, daughter of Captain G. A. 
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children — Charles, Augusta, Julia, Anna, 
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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



231 






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ILLOUGHBY McKINLEY.— 

,yi) When preparing for future gener- 
ations a memorial of the pioneers 
who have made Wayne County one of the 
most prosperous in the grand State of Iowa, 
we feel that it would be incomplete did it 
not contain at least a brief record of the 
life of Willoughby McKinley. He is a na- 
tive of the Buckeye State, born in Belmont 
County, April 23, 1821, and was the fifth 
child of William and Tamar (Brown) Mc- 
Kinley, both natives of Loudoun County, 
Virginia. His early life was somewhat 
uneventful, attending school and assisting 
in the home work, as is common with sons 
of parents in moderate circumstances. 
When seventeen years of age he learned 
the carpenter's trade, which with char- 
acteristic energy he plied zealously for 
a period of thirty years. Being suc- 
cessful in his calling and wishing a 
home of his own, like all wise young men, 
he concluded to take to himself a wife and 
settle down to the stern realities of life. 
Accordingly, when twenty-four years of 
age, he was married to Elizabeth Carter, 
daughter of Richard and Rachel Carter, 
then residents of Guernsey County, Ohio. 
As years went on he became dissatisfied 
with his prospects in his native State, and, 
thinking the West held out better induce- 
ments for men in limited circumstances, in 



the fall of 1863, with his family, he immi- 
grated to the State of Iowa, and located 
immediately on the farm in Richman Town 
ship, Wayne County, where he now lives, 
which is situated two miles southwest of 
the town of Humeston. At that time it 
was a wild and unbroken tract of prairie 
land, Mr. McKinley being the first to 
live on it, although he bought it of Rev. 
Kyle, of Guernsey County, Ohio. His first 
purchase was 320 acres, but to this he has 
added until he now owns 720 acres in Rich- 
man Township and forty acres of timber- 
land in Clay Township. At the time he 
settled in Iowa, wolves, deer and prai- 
rie chickens were numerous, he often shoot- 
ing deer on the present site of Humeston. 
For fifteen years he devoted considerable 
attention to sheep-raising and was often 
annoyed and suffered severe losses by the 
wolves killing his sheep. His neighbors 
were few, and these were at some distance 
from him, but in those days were valued 
highly, as their kindred trials and priva- 
tions drew them closer together and united 
them with the bond of sympathy and true 
friendship. Not many of the companions 
of the early days are left, and ere another 
quarter of a century shall have rolled away 
they will recall the story of their life on the 
prairies of Wayne County in their brighter 
home. As time rolls on none will be re- 



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232 



HIS TORT OF WATNE COUNTl. 



membered more kindly or with more es- 
teem for the part taken in transforming the 
boundless prairie into a country of thrifty 
farms and prosperous villages than Wil- 
loughby McKinley, and it is with pleasure 
that we pen these altogether too brief lines 
that the rising generation ma}' know some- 
thing of the life of one who was identified 
with the county in its infancy, or at least 
early youth, and may learn from him the 
lessons of self-dependence and honorable 
integrity. July 12, 1885, Mr. McKinley's 
wife, who had shared alike his sorrows and 
joys for a period of forty years, left him for 
the home beyond. She had been a faithful, 
loving wife, a fond mother and kind neigh- 
bor and friend. Their family consists of 
three children, two sons and one daughter 
— John R., the eldest, married Miss Han- 
nah Davis, and has four children; Rachel 
married Augustus Taylor, of Humeston, 
and has five children; the youngest, George 
W., married Clara Porter, and has two 
children. Mr. McKinley was a charter 
member of Garden Grove Lodge, F. & 
A. M., but, on the organization of the 
Humeston lodge, transferred his member- 
ship to that pl^ce. He is a member of the 
Christian church at Humeston, and has 
been one of its most faithful supporters. 
He was one of the trustees when the 
church was built and contributed $400 
toward its erection. He has ever re- 
sponded freely when duty called, and 
has never shrunk, even though burdens 
at times seemed heavy. He has by his 
indomitable perseverance been successful 
where many would have utterly failed, his 
courage and zeal overriding all obstacles. 



^OOO^ 



fOHN ULERICH was born in Baden, 
Germany, July 20, 1841, his father, Ja- 
cob Ulerich, being a native of the same 
place. The father brought his family to 
America in the year 1847 ^^^ settled in 



the State of Ohio, where he still lives, 
being now a resident of Wyandot County. 
John Ulerich was reared on a farm in Ohio. 
His educational advantages were rather 
limited, as his father was a poor man, and 
he was obliged to help with the work on 
the farm. He began life on his own account 
as a day laborer, chopping wood, etc. He 
came to Wayne County, Iowa, in March, 
1877, and the first two years lived on 
rented land. He then bought his present 
farm on section 28, Clay Township, where 
he has a line farm of 405 acres of well-cul- 
tivated land. All this has been acquired 
by his persevering industry, strict economy, 
and good management, and from a poor 
man he has become a prosperous farmer, 
and a much respected citizen of his town- 
ship. Mr. Ulerich was united in marriage, 
in 1866, to Miss Barbara Binaw, a daugh- 
ter of George Binaw, of Salem, Ohio. Six 
children have blessed this union, of whom 
one is deceased. Those living are — Anna, 
Laura, Lizzie, Cora and Julia. In religious 
faith Mr. Ulerich and family are Lutherans. 



% ALLEN, senior member of the firm 
^ of P. Allen &Sons, dealers in general 
— 3(' ® merchandise, Warsaw, was one of the 
pioneers of Wayne County. He was born 
in Shenandoah County, Virginia, April 15, 
1832, the eldest of a family of five sons of 
G. W. and Rebecca Allen, who were both 
natives of Virginia. When he was five 
years old his parents "^e moved to La Porte, 
Indiana, where our subject was reared, and, 
his father being a merchant, his youth was 
passed in his father's store, and in attend- 
ing the schools of La Porte. At the age 
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fornia, reaching his destination at the end 
of six months, after much suffering for 
want of provisions and water. He was en- 
gaged in mining in California ten months, 
when he returned home by way of the 



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BIOGRAPHICAL 


SKETCHES. 


233 




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Isthmus of Panama. In the spring of 1854 
he came to Iowa, locating first at Center- 
ville, Appanoose County, where he carried 
on a drug store two years. In the spring 
of 1859 he went to Pike's Peak, Colorado, 
where he spent eight months, when he re- 
turned home. In i860 he removed to Ge- 
noa, Wayne County, where he was engaged 
in the mercantile business for four years. 
In June, 1864, he enlisted in Company H, 
Forty-sixth Iowa Infantry, and after serv- 
ins: four months he received an honorable 
discharge. He then traveled some time 
for J. S. Kimball, as salesman of dry-goods 
and notions. In the spring of 1865 he came 
to Wayne Count}- , Iowa, and engaged in 
the mercantile business at Warsaw. He 
subsequently sold out his business and 
built the Warsaw Steam Mill, this being 
the second steam mill in Wayne County, 
where he did an extensive business for sev- 
eral years. Mr. Allen was married Octo- 
ber 17, 1855, to Tabitha McCreary, of 
Brook County, West Virginia, a daughter 
of William and Actius (Harper) McCreary. 
Of the ten children born to this union nine 
are living — Millard F., Albert E., Carl S., 
Leo L., Fanny Belle, Clora T., Eva A., 
William P., Isal V. A daughter, Floyed 
L., is deceased. Mr. Allen resides^ on a 
fine farm of 120 acres where he and his 
family have a good home, surrounded with 
all the comforts of life. 

||RA BANTA, of the firm of Ira Banta 
in & Co., established the pioneer drug 
^ store at Harvard in May, 1881, this be- 
ing the only drug store in the town. This 
firm also carries a stock of groceries and 
other merchandise in connection with their 
drug business, and is carrying on a good 
trade. Mr. Banta is a native of Woodford 
County, Illinois, where he was born in 
1849, ^ son of William H. and Elvira (Page) 
Banta, the former born in Mercer County, 



Kentucky, and the latter a native of New 
Hampshire. Ira Banta received a good 
education, and for a number of years fol- 
lowed school teaching in Iowa and Mis- 
souri. For his wife he married Miss Sarah 
J. Weeks, a native of Indiana, and daughter 
of Aaron and Susan Weeks. This union 
has been blessed with a family of seven 
children — Ivan, John W., Alvin Ira, Earl, 
Alma, Dell and an infant daughter. Mr. 
Banta was reared in this county, his par- 
ents being pioneers of Howard Township, 
where they settled with their family in the 
fall of 1854, removing from Woodford 
County, Illinois, and are still residents of 
that township. The}^ are the parents of 
four children, whose names are as follows 
— Mary Elizabeth, Ira, Alice R. and Laura 
E., all of whom are married and living in 
Wayne County, Iowa. 



I^lOLUMBUS H. CLARK, farmer and 
MIS stock-raiser, was born near Ashland, 

^m. Wapella County, Iowa, February 5, 
185 1, a son of D. M. Clark. He received 
his early education in the schools of his 
native county and later took a business 
course at Oskaloosa, Iowa. He was mar- 
ried in Benton Township, Lucas County, 
December 31, 1873, to Mary Ida Merrill, 
who was born in Trivoli Township, Peoria 
County, Illinois, February 14, 1854, a 
daughter of J. G. and Sarah (Thompson) 
Merrill, natives of Maine, the father born 
in Charleston, Penobscot County, and the 
mother in Hermon. Mrs. Clark's parents 
were married in Bangor, and subsequently 
removed to Lucas County, Iowa, where 
the mother died in 1873, leaving seven chil- 
dren, all now deceased with the exception 
of Mrs. Clark and her brother Everett, 
who still resides with his father on their 
homestead in Lucas County. Mr. Clark 
has been a resident of Wayne County since 

1863, when he located with his parents in 



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Union Township. They subsequently re- 
moved to Richman Township, where Mr, 
Clark worked on a farm with his father 
till 1 88 1. He then purchased his present 
farm in Corydon Township, on section 2, 
from U. H. Welch, who had improved the 
land and erected the house and barn. Mr. 
Clark's farm now contains 352 acres of well- 
cultivated land, and his residence and farm 
building's are comfortable and commodious. 
Part of his farm is bottom land, sixty acres 
being timber land. He pays considerable 
attention to stock-raising-, making a spe- 
cialty of cattle, and has fed on an average, 
during the past few years, twenty-eight 
head of cattle. He also has a flock of sixty 
sheep. Mr. and Mrs. Clark are the parents 
of seven children — M. Bertha, J. Albert, 
Carl H., Hattie E., Sarah M., Kittie E. and 
Harry D. In politics Mr. Clark affiliates 
with the Greenback party. While living 
in Richman Township, Mr. Clark held the 
office of township trustee. 



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tHARLES H. AUSTIN, editor and 
publisher of the Lineville Tribinic, 
is a son of C. G. and Harriet (Curtis) 
Austin, natives of the State of Connecticut. 
They were married in Portage County, 
Ohio, in the early days of that State, and 
after twenty-five years' residence in Ohio 
came to Iowa in 1842. They lived at Mus- 
catine the next three years, and both died 
of typhus fever on the same day in 1845, 
leaving two sons and two daughters. The 
subject of this biography was born May 
28, 1838, at Ravenna, Ohio, and lived with 
his parents until their death, after which, 
returning to Portage County, Ohio, he 
lived with an uncle until fourteen years 
old, attending the common schools. Going 
once more to Muscatine, he attended the 
high school until eighteen years of age, and 
then learned his trade (printing) in the 



Journal office. In the spring of 1858 he 
came to Chariton and engaged as manager 
of a paper, owned by the then county 
treasurer. A year later the office was sold, 
but Mr. Austin was retained as manager. 
Six months later, however, he went to Leon, 
Decatur County, and assisted in establish- 
ing the first newspaper in that town, the 
Leon Pioneer. Returning to Chariton he 
was married and then carried on farming 
near Chariton for two years. In the spring 
of 1 861 he moved to Chariton again and 
took charge of a printing office and book 
bindery for his brother-in-law, who had en- 
listed in the army. Then till 1863 Mr. 
Austin was again a farmer, near Chariton, 
having the care of, besides his own family, 
several relatives dependent upon persons 
who had volunteered in defense of the 
Union. During this time Mr. Austin was 
engaged more or less in trading. A stock 
company having been formed at Corydon 
with a view to establishing a Republican 
paper in Wayne's count}' seat, and a com- 
mittee being sent to Chariton to purchase 
the material, Mr. Austin arranged with 
them to come to Corydon and run the 
mechanical part of the Monitor, William 
Hartshorn being employed as editor. This 
was the autumn of 1863. Two numbers ot 
the Monitor came out before election, when 
the county gave a Republican majority for 
the first time in its history. Mr. Austin 
remained in the Monitor office for two years 
and was then appointed revenue collector 
for Wayne County. He also engaged in 
photography. During his residence at 
Corydon he was for two years county 
supervisor for Corydon Township. His 
next move was to a farm three-fourths of a 
mile east of Corydon. During his residence 
of seven years on this farm he was en- 
gaged in job and editorial work in the 
News and other Corydon offices until 
Messrs. Miles & Le Compte purchased the 
Monitor and changed it to the Republican. 






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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 235 '^^ 

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He was by them employed as editor for a 
year, and March 18, 1874, he purchased the 
Lineville Tribune of Lewis Miles. Since 
that date he has devoted himself to the 
Tribune and resided at Lineville. He was 
postmaster of Lineville from October, 1879, 
to April, 1884. He was married at Chari- 
ton, December 24, 1859, ^o Henrietta Van 
Voast, and has seven children — Edward C, 
Carl G., M. Eugene, Clara E., Louise M., 
Chassie E. and Ivan W. Mr. Austin is a 
Mason and an Odd Fellow. Republican in 
politics. 



—^-^^W^- 



^[TEPHEN VAN BENTHUSEN 
ti^l) ^^^'™^^ ^""^ stock-raiser, section 10, 
^^ Wright Township, is one of the old 
and respected pioneers of Wayne County. 
He is a native of Ohio, born in Goshen, 
Clermont County, November 5, 1827, the 
ninth of twelve children, eight sons and 
four daughters, of James and Susan (Smith) 
Van Benthusen. His paternal grandfather 
was a soldier in the war of the Revolution, 
and his father in the war of 1812. His ma- 
ternal grandfather, David Smith, was a sea 
captain and died while absent from home 
on a voyage across the ocean. When he 
was two years old his parents moved to 
Shelby County, Indiana, where he remained 
until manhood, and was there married. In 
the winter of 185 1 he left Indiana and 
started with an ox team for Iowa. He first 
entered some Government land in Lucas 
County, where he lived until September, 
1852, when he moved to Wayne County 
and located in Wright Township on the 
farm where he now lives. He owns 320 
acres of valuable land which he has im- 
proved and has erected comfortable build- 
ings and has a good orchard set out by 
huuself . He has a pleasant home, where he 
is surrounded by all the comforts of life, as 
a reward for his many years of toil, and 
can now contemplate with pleasure the re- 



sult of a life well spent. Mr. Van Benthu- 
sen has served with honor in two wars. 
First in the Mexican war, enlisting in Sep- 
tember, 1847, 'II Company E, Fifth Indiana 
Infantry, and was absent from home ten 
months. May 19, 1864, he enlisted in Com- 
pany G, Forty-sixth Iowa Infanti^y, and 
served until his discharge, September 23, 
1864, being mostly engaged on guard duty. 
Five of his brothers were in the Union 
army during the war of the Rebellion, as 
were also three of Mrs. Van Benthusen's 
brothers. Mr. Van Benthusen was mar- 
ried February 14, 1850, to Miss Margaret 
Kendall, daughter of Abbott G. and Sarah 
(Lucas) Kendall, of Shelby County, Indi- 
ana. They have had a family of seven chil- 
dren, of whom but four — Mrs. Inez Isadora 
Finley, Mrs. Susan Frances Searse, Mrs. 
Sarah Ann Stone and Zella Agnes are liv- 
ing. James A. died aged twenty-nine years, 
Margaret Jane died aged nine years, and 
one died in infancy. Mr. Van Benthusen 
has held several localofficesof trust, among 
others that of assessor, township trustee 
and school director. He is a member of 
the Grand Army of the Republic post at 
Confidence. He and his wife and three 
daughters are members of the Christian 
church. 



R. FRY was born in Mason County, 
Virginia, December 28, 1852, a son 
of Samuel Fry, a prominent pioneer 
of Washington Township, Wayne County. 
Our subject received a liberal education at 
Western College, of Iowa, graduating from 
that institution. He commenced teaching 
school at the age of nineteen years, which 
he followed successfully for several terms. 
He was married March 2, 1874, to Carrie 
M. Kellogg, who was born in Lamoille 
County, Vermont, May 7, 1856. She came 
to Wayne County, Iowa, with her parents, 
A. V. and F.Jane (Marsh) Kellogg, in 1865, 



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236 



HISTORY OF WAYNE COUNTY. 



where her father died September 5. 1869. 
Mr. and Mrs. Fry have five children — F. 
Bird, Jeva M., Arva M., Elo and S. A. Mr. 
Fry is located on a good farm of 190 acres 
on section 25, Washington Township. His 
land is under a high state of cultivation, and 
his residence, which is well furnished, and 
out buildings are comfortable and commo- 
dious. Mr. and Mrs. Fry are active members 
of the United Brethren church, and Mr. 
Fry IS superintendent of the Sunda)'-school 
at Fry's Chapel. He is one of the enterpris- 
ing citizens of Washington Township, 
where he has won the confidence and 
esteem of all who know him. PoiticalUy 
he affiliates with the Republican party. 



->4iili£r©-^^— ^ 



%— ,*^va>fZJZnnin« 



tON. GREENWOOD WRIGHT, of 
Wright Township, residing on section 
3, was born in Washington County, 
Indiana, August 30, 1818, a son of Samuel 
and Jane (Brinton) Wright, the father born 
in North Carolina and reared in Wayne 
Count}', Kentucky, and the mother a native 
of Kentucky, born near Lexington, of Irish 
and English descent. The father is also of 
English descent, hisfather,William Wright, 
coming from England to America when a 
young man, and served as a soldier in the 
Revolutionary war. Mr. and Mrs. Samuel 
Wright were the parents of thirteen chil- 
dren, seven sons and six daughters, all of 
whom grew to maturity. Greenwood being 
the eldest child. When he was six years 
old his parents removed to Putnam County, 
Indiana, and there he was reared to man- 
hood, his early life being spent in assisting 
his father on their pioneer farm. His ed- 
ucation was limited to a few months at- 
tendance at a subscription school, and 
study at home. December 6, 1838, he was 
married to Susan May, a daughter of John 
and Nancy (Hight) Ma}^ of Mercer County, 
Kentucky. Five children were born to 



this union — J. N., of Centerville, Iowa; 
Samuel W., of Melrose, Iowa; W. H., de- 
ceased ; T. R., residing in Wright Town- 
ship, Wayne County, and Nancy Jane, who 
died aged three years. All his sons re- 
ceived good educational advantages, and 
are good business men. In the fall of 1848 
Mr. Wright removed with his family to 
Lucas County, Iowa, coming from Putnam 
County, Indiana, b}^ team. Four months 
later he sold his claim in Lucas County 
and went to Monroe County, where he re- 
sided till the spring of 1852. He then came 
to Wayne County and settled on land 
where he now resides, entering 200 acres 
from the Government. Here he erected a 
log cabin and commenced improving his 
land. During the war Mr. Wright made 
a trip South. Three of his sons, J. N., S. 
W., and W. H., were soldiers in the war of 
the Rebellion. J. N. first enlisted in an 
Indiana regiment, and after ser'\'ing a year 
he re-enlisted in Company F, Thirty -sixth 
Iowa Infantry, of which he was Second 
Lieutenant. He was taken prisoner at 
Marks Mill, Arkansas, and was confined for 
thirteen months at Shrevesport, Louisiana. 
S. W. and W. H. enlisted in the same reg- 
iment and company, the latter going as a 
recruit in the spring of 1864, and died in 
the service April i of the same year. Mr. 
Wright has always been active in the sup- 
port of every movement calculated to pro- 
mote the public welfare, and has ever taken 
a prominent position in the community, 
and has gained the confidence and esteem 
of all who know him. He has held many 
official trusts in Wright Township, which 
was called in honor of him. He has held 
the office of justice of the peace, assessor, 
and county supervisor two terms, serving 
as chairman of the board two terms. He 
was elected to the Seventeenth General 
Assembly of the Iowa State Legislature on 
the Republican ticket by about 500 ma- 
jority, taking his seat in January, 1878. He 



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II BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 237 || 



was in session sixty-six days, and served 
with credit to himself and satisfaction to 
his constituents. Mr. Wright is still en- 
gaged in dealing in stock with J. N. Jeffries 
& Robinson, this firm shipping about 100 
car-loads annually. Mr. Wright has one 
of the best farms in Wright Township, 
which contains 435 acres of land under a 
high state of cultivation. 

^[LLIS SHRIVER is the eldest son of 
irol Abraham and Ruth (Adamson) Shri- 
^Sp' ver, the latter born in West Virginia 
in 1818, and his wife a native of Pennsyl- 
vania. Elhs was born in Monroe County, 
Ohio, in J 841, and in the spring of 1857 
came with his parents to Wayne County, 
Iowa, they locating in Grand River Town- 
ship. He was united in marriage to Miss 
Maria Thomas, who was born in Illinois in 
1847, ^ daughter of George Thomas, who 
is now a resident of Howard Township, 
this county. Of the ten children born to 
Mr. and Mrs. Shriver seven survive — 
William A., Sara I., Cassah E., Alvia Ray, 
Julietta, Halloweve, Jasper O., Benjamin 
F., Thomas J. and Giles W.; the three latter 
died in childhood. Mr. Shriver was one of 
the early settlers of Harvard, and has ever 
taken an active interest in the advance- 
ment of the place. He has been engaged 
jn the stock business for many years, buy- 
ing and shipping most of the time since the 
town was started. He was mainly instru- 
mental in having a station established at 
this place, and it was he who circulated the 
petition which resulted in the establish- 
ment of the postoffice in the fall of 1876. 
This postoflfice first received the name of 
Grainville, which was later changed to 
Harvard. The original plat of the town 
was named South Grainville, and was plat- 
ted by Mr. Shriver and Lemuel Kemple, 
each of whom owned a half interest in the 
plat, which was located on the south side 



of the railroad track. Mr- Shriver has 
served as secretary of the School Board 
ever since the organization of Jackson 
Township School Board. Abraham Shri- 
ver, father of our subject, was reared in 
Ohio, going to that State when a boy with 
his parents. He was married in Ohio to 
Ruth Adamson, and of the eight children 
born to this union seven were natives of 
Ohio. Seven are still living — Ellis, our 
subject; William; Sarah A., wife of L. H. 
Elson ; Eunice, wife of Frank McConnell ; 
Delilah, wife of J. F. Allen ; Lucy, wife of 
William Rynor, and Adamson. One daugh- 
ter died in Ohio. Mr. Shriver settled in 
Grand River Township, as before stated, 
in the fall of 1857, and resided on the farm 
where he first made his home till his death, 
May 30, 1884, his wife dying on the same 
farm March 8, 1870. Alter the death of 
his first wife he married again, a lady who 
still survives him. 



^OHN B. EDGMAND, of Wayne 
County, residing on section 2, Grand 
River Township, where he is engaged 
in farming, is a native of Wayne County, 
Kentucky, born September 13, 1826, a son 
of Thomas K. Edgmand, who was a native 
of East Tennessee. Our subject was reared 
on a farm, his father being a farmer by oc- 
cupation, and his education was received 
in the primitive log-cabin schools of his 
neighborhood. He left his native State in 
March, 1849, coming West to Missouri, 
and in October of the same year he set- 
tled in Wayne County, Iowa. Before be- 
ginning to work for himself he made a 
home for his widowed mother in Jefferson 
Township, Wayne County, after Avhich he 
settled on his present farm, on which he 
had worked for some time prior to his set- 
tlement. Mr. Edgmand was one of the 
earliest settlers of Wayne County, coming 
here when everything was in a wild state. 



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238 



HISTORT OF WATNE COUNTT. 



Williams, daughter of Charles Williams, 
now of Clay Township. They have had 
a family of eight children; but six are liv- 
ing — Elizabeth, Charles, Berthena, Louisa, 
Maude and Elsie. One son, Eddie, died in 
the eighth year of his age. 



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and here he experienced all the hardships 
and privations incident to the life of a 
pioneer. His nearest mill was at Trenton, 
Missouri, a distance of fifty miles, and his 
trading in those early days was done at 
Keokuk and Brunswick, the former place 
140 and the latter 125 miles distant. Mr. 
Edgmand was married March 22, 1857, to 
Anna J. Hayes, daughter of Joseph Hayes, 
of Jefferson Township. They have had ten 
children, of whom seven are living — Joseph 
T., Thomas K., Nancy A., Robert J., Rettie 
S., Ini J. and Eva M. In connection with his 
farming Mr. Edgmand devotes some atten- 
tion to stock-raising. He has been success- 
ful through life, and now owns 485 acres 
of choice land. He was the first school 
treasurer of Grand River and Jefferson 
townships when both were in one district, 
and has served as school director. He has 
been trustee of his township for twenty 
years, and has also served as road super- 
visor. He is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity. 



;AVID PRICE is a native of South 
Wales, born in Cardiff, November 7, 
1835, a son of John Price. He was 
reared in his native village, and when a 
young man learned the carpenter's trade, 
which he followed in his native country till 
1868, when, in August, he came to the 
United States and settled in Corydon, 
Wayne County, Iowa, where he has since 
lived. He bought a few acres of ground 
and engaged in general gardening, at the 
same time working at his trade till about 
seven years ago, when he added the culture 
of fruit trees for market to his gardening, 
and has given the most of his attention to 
this business. He has a good trade, which 
is constantly increasing. He makes a spe- 
cialty of raising vegetables, and supplies 
them to his customers fresh from the garden. 
He was married May 5, 1863, to Mary J. 



,ANIEL W. CARLISLE, M. D., gen- 
In) eral merchant and physician, Line- 
ville, Iowa, was born in Southeastern 
Kansas, near Osage Mission, on the Osage 
River, September 17, 1838, when Kansas 
was a Territory. His father, William Car- 
lisle, was a native of the State of New York, 
and in 18 19 came West and settled in 
Booneville, Missouri, where, in 182 1, he 
married Narcissa Black, a native of Ken- 
tucky, and at the time of our subject's 
birth he was employed by the Government 
as a blacksmith. In 1839 he moved to Ray 
County, Missouri, and thence, in 1840, to 
Livingston County, where he died in 1861. 
In 1 86 1 Daniel W. Carlisle came to Line- 
ville, Iowa, and began the study of medi- 
cine with Dr. E. Glendening, remaining 
with him three years, when he located, in 
the spring of 1864, in Bethlehem, Iowa, 
having practiced a year with Dr. Glenden- 
ing in Lineville, and in 1865 went to Cory- 
don, Iowa, and in 1866 again located in 
Lineville, Iowa. He afterward went to 
Spring Hill, Missouri, but in 1870 returned 
to Lineville, Iowa, where he has since lived. 
He has a good practice in the town, but 
does not visit in the country, his mercan- 
tile interests demanding his attention, 
where most of his time is consumed. He 
carries a capital stock of $6,000 to $10,000, 
and has an annual trade of about $30,000. 
He graduated and received his diploma as 
M. D. at the Keokuk Medical College in 
1885. Dr. Carlisle married, in the spring 
of 1867, Mary Butcher, daughter of Samuel 
Butcher, and to them was born, January 






♦.:♦.:♦::♦: 






BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



239 



22, 1869, one child — William S. Mrs. Car- 
lisle died March 8, 1870. October 29, 1872, 
Dr. Carlisle married Miss Ellen Helton, 
daughter of Mitchell E. Helton, of Line- 
ville. They have one daughter — Hattie 
C, born August 22, 1874, and a son, John 
Franklin, born June 17, 1886. Dr. Carlisle 
is a niember of the Masonic fraternity. He 
and his wife are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. South. 



|ARL S. ALLEN, a member of the 
general mercantile firm of P. Allen & 
Sons, is a native of Centerville, Appa- 
noose County, Iowa, born January 8, i860, 
the third son of P. and Tabitha (McCreary) 
Allen. His early life was spent in assisting 
his father in his store, and at the age of 
fifteen he began working in his father's 
mill, thoroughly learning the business. 
April 23, 1885, he was married to Alice 
M. Kelso, of Howard Township, Wayne 
County. Although yet a young man, Mr. 
Allen is classed among the best business 
men of Wayne County. 



JENNISON, one of the old pioneers 
I of Clinton Township, Wayne County, 
i® is a native of Ripley County, Indi- 
ana, born January 12, 1830. His parents, 
Rufus and Lois (Hickcox) Jennison, were 
natives of New York and Connecticut re- 
spectively. They were the parents of 
eleven children, six sons and five daughters, 
of whom our subject was the eldest child. 
Our subject remained in his native county 
till twenty-two years of age, locating in 
Wapello County, Iowa, in 1852, where he 
improved a tract of wild land which he 
sold in the spring of 1855. He then came 
to Wayne County, Iowa, and settled in 
Clinton Township, where he has since 
made his home. His farm in Clinton Town- 
ai 

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ship contains 200 acres of land which, un- 
der his skillful management, has been 
brought to a fine state of cultivation. Mr. 
Jennison has been a successful teacher as 
well as a successful agriculturist, begin- 
ning his career in the teacher's profession 
in Ripley County, Indiana, in 185 1. He 
has also taught in Wapello County, and in 
Clinton and Warren townships, since com- 
ing to Wayne County. Mr. Jennison was 
married December 18, 185 1, to Eleanor 
Standifird, a daughter of William and Re- 
becca (Broshears) Standifird, of Harden 
County, Kentucky. They have eight chil- 
dren living — Alexis H., William R., John 
H., Francis M., David J., Martha E., Lois 
E. and Anna. Mr. Jennison has held the 
office of township clerk for eighteen years, 
and has been a member of the Board of 
Supervisors for three years, and justice of 
the peace twelve years. 



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f^OSHUA BURK, section 12, Benton 
Township, is one of the prominent 
and prosperous farmers of the town- 
ship. Locating on his farm in 1871 he has 
for fifteen years been identified with the 
agricultural interests of Wayne County, 
and has by his enterprise and good man- 
agement made for himself one of the 
pleasantest homes in the township. His 
farm contains 127 acres of choice land, and 
his residence and farm buildings are 
models of convenience and comfort. He 
was born in Butler County, Ohio, May 4, 
1830, a son of Moses L. and Rebecca (Lem- 
mon) Burk. In 1836 his parents moved to 
Dunlapsville, Union County, Indiana, and 
subsequently to Montgomery County, the 
same State. His father was a farmer and 
a merchant, and he in his youth assisted in 
the work of both the farm and store. When 
a young man he clerked in stores in Lafay- 
ette and New Richmond, Indiana, several 
years, and then for two years engaged in 

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240 



HISTOR7' OF WAl'NE COUNTY. 



business for himself near New Richmond. 
He then engaged in farming for a time, and 
for three winter terms taught school, and 
was assessor in Montgomei'y County, Indi- 
ana, four years. He came to Iowa in 
October, 1869, and lived near New York, 
Wayne County, a year and a half, moving 
to his farm where he now lives in the 
spring of 1871. Mr. Burk was married 
September 7, 1854, to Sarah L., daughter 
of Charles and "Mary (McCaw) Forbes. 
They have had a family of five children. 
The eldest, Mary E., died at the age of 
seventeen years. The living are — Edward 
S., Barbara A., Rebecca A. and Charles 
A. The youngest son, Charles A., al- 
though but ten years of age, displays won- 
derful musical talent, both vocal and 
instrumental, his voice being remarkably 
fine for one of his age. Mr. and Mrs. 
Burk are members of the Methodist Episco- 
pal church. His great-grandfather, Moses 
Lemmon, was a soldier in the war of the 
Revolution. 



•«ae££rS^^ 



»^^l<OTTOv» 



||^ APTAIN JACOB D. HASBROUCK 
]fte was born in the town of Lloyd, Ul- 
^^[ ster Count}'-, New York, August 25, 
1838, the fourth son of Colonel J. J. and 
Eliza Ann Hasbrouck. He is a descendant 
of Jean Hasbrouck, one of the original 
twelve patentees of the New Paltz Patent. 
The family of Hasbrouck, in Ulster County, 
New York, trace the line of descent from 
the old Huguenot ancestry, who fled their 
country following the massacre on St. 
Bartholomew's Day, in France, and sought 
refuge in the wilds of America. The name 
of Hasbrouck is widely known and mem- 
bers of this old and prominent family — 
inspired with a love for the truth and un- 
swerving desire for freedom of thought, 
and a patriotism that shrinks not from the 
sacrifices of life for the protection of free 
institutions and a free people — may be 



found during two centuries of the existence 
of civilization in this country, filling places 
of honor and trust. Their representatives 
were on the battle-fields of the Revolution, 
prominent in the legislative halls of the 
nation, foremost among the educators of 
their day, safe counselors in the administra- 
tion of justice, and judicious in bifsiness 
relations. The Captain received a fair 
common-school education, supplemented by 
two years at Charlotteville and Claverack 
Seminary, New York State. In the spring 
of 1858 he went to Rochester, Sangamon 
County, Illinois, and taught ten months of 
district school in South Fork Township. 
In the winter of 1858 he joined a company 
that was then being organized to go to 
Pike's Peak, signed a contract with four 
others to go in the spring or forfeit his 
share of the outfit ($75). When the 
day for departure arrived Mr. H. and 
two others were the only ones ready. 
The other two, who had failed to appear, 
surrendered their part of the outfit. They 
started from Rochester, Illinois, with a 
wagon and two yoke of cattle, tent, picks, 
pans, and all necessary mining tools, ar- 
riving at what is now Denver City the i8th 
of June, 1859. They met with sufficient 
success in mining to get back to the Mis- 
souri River the following December with 
about the same amount of money they 
started from Rochester with. He returned 
to New York, and December 26, i860, mar- 
ried Rowena, daughter of i\bram Deyo, of 
the same town. Their children are four 
boys and three girls — Herman J., born July 
II, 1862; Fred L., born January 10, 1866; 
Jacob, born March 5, 1868; Mar}^ E., born 
March i, 1870; Deyo, born April 12, 1873; 
Pearl, born November 24, 1875, and Hattie, 
born May 14, 1878. All are living except 
Pearl, who died October i, 1876. Mrs. 
Hasbrouck's devotion to the welfare of her 
family is incessant and unswerving. She 
loves education and strives to have her 









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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



children prize it and receive it as the truest 
means of promoting respectability and hap- 
piness. In August, 1862, he was commis- 
sioned by the Governor of the State as a 
recruiting officer at Highland, New York, 
and enlisting thirty-five men became a 
Second Lieutenant in Company B, One 
Hundred and Fifty-sixth New York Vol- 
unteer Infantry, Nineteenth Army Corps. 
In December, 1862, the company formed a 
portion of Banks's expedition to New 
Orleans, participating in all the engage- 
ments in which the regiment took part. He 
was promoted to Captain, Company D. 
same regiment. In August, 1864, they left 
the department of the Gulf and reinforced. 
General Sheridan, in the Shenandoah Val- 
ley. He was wounded in the right leg while 
leading his company in a charge at Opea- 
quan Creek, Virginia, September 19, 1864 
and was honorably discharged by the Sec- 
retary of War, on account of wound, March 
2, 1865. He moved to Richman Township, 
Wayne County, Iowa, in the spring of 
1869, and engaged in farming by bu3nng 
320 acres of wild land. The countfy made 
rapid progress in improvement and in 1880 
all was changed to luxuriant farms, with 
Humeston, a flourishing town, in the center 
of the township with cross railroads. Under 
his judicious and systematic management 
he made farming pay, and in 1880 was in- 
duced by his esteemed friend. Dr. George 
McCulloch,to engage with him inthet)ank- 
ing business at Humeston, Iowa. He has 
been outspoken against fanaticism and all 
isms, fearlessly and publicly censuring 
wrong-doing. He has given little attention 
to political notoriety and never sought pre- 
ferment of that king. He identified himself 
with the Republican party, and cast his 
first vote for Abraham Lincoln. Captain 
Hasbrouck was a delegate to the Iowa 
Grand Encampment of the Grand Army of 
the Republic, which met in April, 1886, at 
Sioux City, and while there was appointed 



delegate to the Grand Encampment o f 1 1 
United States, at San Francisco, Califor- 
nia, August 2-7, 1886. 



-•1*0 — 



-^41^ 



„ jOBERT Z. McCOY, although not a 
^ pioneer, has been a resident of 
^\| Wayne County for the past fifteen 
years, where he has become well and favor- 
ably known. He was born in Pendleton 
County, Kentucky, in 1840, and in 1855 l^is 
father, J. J. McCoy, went with his family 
to Scotland County, Missouri, where the 
father died in 1864. Our subject being the 
eldest son the care of his widowed mother 
and family devolved on him after his 
father's death. After settling up the busi- 
ness left by his father, he resolved to start 
out into the world, and endeavor to win his 
way to success. Accordingly he went to 
Oregon, where he arrived without money, 
but possessed of health, youth and energy. 
There he was eminently successful in the 
mercantile business, freighting and dealing 
in stock. He returned from Oregon in 
1869, and in 1870 settled on a farm in CHn- 
ton Township, Wayne County, which he 
owned, the farm containing 189 acres. He 
added to this farm till it contained 400 
acres, beside purchasing land elsewhere in 
the same county until he owned 1,000 
acres, most of which he has sold, but now 
has much valuable land in the immediate 
vicinity of Allerton. He also owns consid- 
erable property -in Allerton, including his 
beautiful home. Mr. McCoy was married 
in Oregon in 1869, to Miss M. A. Myers, 
a native of Scotland County, Missouri, 
going to Oregon with her parents, where 
her father, J. J. Myers, died in 1871. Her 
mother is now the wife of M. B. Baird. 
Mr. and Mrs. McCoy have known each 
other since their youth. Their family con- 
sists of two children — Frata May and Lot- 
tie G., both of whom were born in Wayne 
County. Mr. McCoy and his wife are 



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244 



HISTORY OF WAYNE COUNTY. 



members of the Christian church, having 
belonged to the same since i860. Mr. Mc- 
Coy has six brothers and one sister living 
— S. M. and Jasper, merchants at Allerton; 
H. B. and W. H., farmers and stock-raisers 
in Decatur County, formerly in the furni- 
ture business at Humeston, Wayne County; 
Dr. J. W. McCoy, of Cory don; Mason, a 
stock-raiser of Wayne County ; Chalista, 
wife of James T. Moore, of Pratt County, 
Kansas. His elder sister, Nancy Y., mar- 
ried Thomas A. Williams in Scotland 
County, Missouri, and died in June, 1877, 
leaving three children. The mother of R. 
Z. McCoy is now the wife H. B. Crawford, 
of Memphis, Missouri, and was born in 
Pendleton County, Kentucky, July i, 1820. 

EORGE A. STECH, section 14, 
Union Township, postofifice New 
York, came to Wayne County, Iowa, 
in 1854, with his family and his brother 
John and family, from Seneca County, 
Ohio, coming with wagons and crossing 
Ohio, Indiana and Illinois in their journey. 
He entered eighty acres of his present 
farm and built a house, 14 x 18, of elm logs, 
with a puncheon floor and clapboard roof, 
his only tool with which to do the work 
being an ax. He had only a team and 
wagon when he came to Iowa, but finally 
bought a plow and began breaking his land, 
and as a result of his work and good man- 
agement has now a fine farm of 230 acres 
with a good residence and other building 
improvements. He has been an active 
supporter of all measures that promised 
benefit to his township, and has held various 
offices of public trust, having been honored 
with some one or more since coming to the 
county. He was born in Franklin County, 
Pennsylvania, January 19, 1822, a son of 
Philip Stech. His father lived and died in 
Pennsylvania, having reared a family of six 



sons and one daughter. George A. Stech 
was married in Seneca County, Ohio, 
March 24, 1853, to Rebecca Crall, who 
was born on the same farm where she was 
married, February 14, 1830. The}' have 
a family of ten children, tiie eldest born 
in Seneca County, Ohio, and the rest 
in Union Township — MelindaJ., Henry C, 
Samuel, Sophia, Stephen, Morrison, Jacob, 
Mary, George and Martha J. 



-o— 5- 



.8>-^- 



N. JEFFRIES, farmer and stock- 
dealer, section 10, Wright Township, 
is a native of Kentucky, born in Mont- 
gomery County, April i, 1847, the fourth of 
a family of six children of John and Eliza- 
beth Jane (McCormick) Jeffries, natives of 
Kentucky, the father of English and the 
mother of Irish descent. He spent his 
youth in his native county, and his father be- 
ing a tanner, was often employed in the yard. 
His father was a Union man, and when the 
war broke out was outspoken in defense of 
his country, and was killed by rebel bush- 
whackers, being the first Union man killed 
in his county. When seventeen years old 
our subject was employed to drive a Gov- 
ernment team, which he continued six 
months, and in the spring of 1865 came to 
Iowa and lived in Wright Township, 
Wayne County, about six months. Return- 
mg fo Kentucky he remained there until 
April, 1866, when he started to cross the 
plains, but on arriving at Leavenworth, 
Kansas, he changed his mind and returned 
to Platte County, Missouri, and two months 
later to Wayne Count}-, Iowa, where he 
lived until December, 1868. He then once 
more returned to the home of his child- 
hood, where he lived one year, and then 
located permanently in Wayne County. 
He worked for some time at farming, and 
later at coal mining, and then engaged in 
dealing in stock until 1875, ^vhen he bought 



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24s :♦::♦: 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



eighty acres of land, adding eighty acres 
to it in 1877, and eighty more in 1880, hav- 
ing now a fine farm of 240 acres. He is en- 
gaged with Wright & Robinson in buying 
and shipping stock. They are among the 
largest stock dealers in the county, ship- 
ping annually about 100 car-loads. Mr. 
Jeffries is a man of strict business integrity, 
and is one of the most honored men of his 
township. He was married February 4, 
1877, to Miss Etha Reynolds, daughter of 
Thomas and Mary (Brown) Reynolds. 
They have four children — Ed., Roy, John, 
and Leora. Mr. Jeffries is a member of 
Vernon Lodge, No. 410, F. & A. M. In 
politics he, is a Democrat. 



P^ECK SANFORD, the able editor of 
mi the Humeston Neiv Era, is a native of 
^(1 Montezuma, Poweshiek County, Iowa, 
born April 4, 1854, a son of H. Clay and 
Clara A. (Bates) Sanford. The father was 
a practicing physician for many years, and 
ranked very high as a surgeon. For a 
short time the family resided in Eddyville, 
Iowa, but in 1857 removed to Moravia, 
Appanoose County, and in 1865 located in 
Leon, Decatur County, where our subject 
received his education. He entered the 
office of the Leon Pioneer, where he learned 
the "art preservative," remaining in that 
ofifice till 1870. He then went to Burling- 
ton, Iowa, and entered the employ of Acers, 
Blackmar & Co., publishers, remaining 
with this firm nine years. In 1879 ^^ went 
to Warren County, Iowa, and established 
the Lacona Record, which, after a brief 
existence of one year, succumbed to the in- 
evitable. He then established the Humes- 
ton Era, but about six months later ill 
health caused him to dispose of his interest. 
January i, 1884, a firm, of which he was a 
member, bought the outfit of the old paper 
in Humeston apd commenced the publica- 



tion of the Nezu Era, which Mr. Sanford 
has edited since July i, 1884, and is also 
part owner of the paper. As a writer, he 
makes the advancementof his town, county 
and State his chief aim, and is an able and 
tireless worker. Mr. Sanford was united 
in marriage. May 24, 1878, to Miss Anna 
Gustafson. They are the parents of one 
child, named Marsalete. Mr. Sanford is a 
member of Humeston Lodge, No. 61, 
K. of P. 

,7^[EORGE McCART, one of the enter- 

toI^ prismg and well-to-do farmers of 
"^^L Clay Township, was born in County 
Derry, Ireland, in the fall of 1838, a son of 
George McCart, a native of the same coun- 
ty, where he lived till his death. Our 
subject came to the United States in 1856. 
He first located in New Jersey, where he 
worked almost two years ; then, after spend- 
ing a few months in New York State, he 
went to Morrow County, Ohio, in which 
county he was married to Susan Johnston, 
a daughter of Absalom Johnston, of Rich- 
land County, Ohio. Two of the nine chil- 
dren born to this union are deceased. The 
names of those living are — Mary E., Hattie 
E., George, Edmond, Isabelle, James and 
Sarah. They have also an adopted- son 
named Thomas McCart. Mr. McCart re- 
moved to Linn County, Iowa, in the fall of 
1864, coming to this county in the fall of 
1869, when he settled on his present farm, 
which at that time was a tract of wild 
prairie land. Mr. McCart began life in this 
country without means, but to-day ranks 
among the prosperous farmers of his town- 
ship, where he has a valuable farm on sec- 
tion 2 of 390 acres. He has always been 
a hard worker, and by his industrious hab- 
its and strict economy has acquired the 
property which he now owns. Beside the 
cultivation of his land Mr. McCart devotes 
some time to the raising of stock. He was 



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246 



HISTORT OF WAYNE COUNTY. 



a soldier in the British army, and during 
the late war he drilled two companies for 
the Union service. Mr. and Mrs. McCart 
and their eldest daughter are members of 
the Presbyterian church. 



-13- 



-C^ 



^;EPHANIAH double, one of the 
pioneers of Wayne County, locating 
-^^^ in Walnut Township, among the very 
earliest settlers, is a native of Butler Coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania, born November 16, 1830, 
and was reared in Butler and Warren coun- 
ties. His father, Zephaniah Double, Sr., 
was a mechanic by trade, and a resident of 
Butler County till his death. His widow 
is still living in Pennsylvania, at the ad- 
vanced age of eighty-four years. They 
were the parents of nine children, of whom 
four sons and one daughter still survive. 
Our subject was reared a farmer, but on 
reaching manhood he engaged in lumber- 
ing on the Alleghany River, which he fol- 
lowed for a number of years.^ In Septem- 
ber, 1855, he came to Walnut Township, 
Wayne County, Iowa, going soon after to 
Appanoose County, and engaged in the 
lumber trade at Hibbsville. He settled on 
land near that place, entering eighty acres, 
which he improved, living on the same for 
two years. He remained in Appanoose 
County till 1864, when he returned to Wal- 
nut Township, Wayne County, and settled 
on the place where he now lives, on sec- 
tion 23. His farm contains 270 acres of 
valuable land, located on sections 23 and 
24. Since settling on his present farm Mr. 
Double has been engaged in the nursery 
and fruit business, and has quite an exten- 
sive nursery, supplying much of the sur- 
rounding country with trees since 1870, 
besides shipping them in large numbers 
to Kansas, Colorado and Dakota. He has 
a fine orchard, comprising twenty acres, 
which contains almost every variety o 



fruit trees grown in the county, and has 
also about four acres of small fruit, such as 
grapes and berries of various kinds. He 
has made a success of the fruit business, and 
has established a reputation for the abund- 
ance and excellence of his fruit. In June, 
1857, he was married to Nancy Hibbs, a 
daughter of Mahlon Hibbs, who immigra- 
ted to Indiana from Tennessee, thence to 
Wapello County, Iowa, in 1849, where he 
lived till his death. Mrs. Double's mother 
is now living in Appanoose County, aged 
eighty-two years. To Mr. and Mrs. Hibbs 
were born eight children, all of whom are 
yet living. Mr. and Mrs. Double have four 
children living — Rinaldo H., Othelo, Eliza- 
beth and Mary. Mr. and Mrs. Double have 
seen the country develop from a wilder- 
ness to its present prosperous condition, 
having come here when wolves and other 
wild animals roamed at large. The nearest 
school to them was three and a half miles 
distant, and it was mainly due to the efforts 
of Mr. Double that his school district was 
organized, of which he has served as di- 
rector for eighteen years, the first school 
meeting of the district being held at his 
house. He now lives within the limits of 
the independent school district of Se3'mour. 
In politics Mr. Double generall}^ votes the 
Democratic ticket, but was one of the first 
in his township to espouse the Greenback 
party. 



4^^NTON RUF, residing on section 21, 
'iW%> ^^"^y Township, was born in Baden, 
^^ Germany, June 16, 1823, his father, 
Anton Ruf, having been a native of the 
same place, where he remained till his 
death. Our subject was reared in his na- 
tive country, where he remained until 1850. 
He then immigrated to America, locating 
in New Jersey, living there three years, and 
in 1853 removed to Kendall County, Illinois. 
He was married May 26, 1854, to Notburga 



\9. -^-^ 

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



247 



StoU, a daughter of Francis X. Stoll, who 
is now deceased. Mrs. Ruf was born in Ba- 
den, Germany, coming to this country 
when quite young. Mr. and Mrs. Ruf have 
three children — Charles A., Wilhelm F. 
and Bertha M. The sons are in Colorado, 
and Bertha is at home and is an excellent 
musician. Mr. Ruf came to this county in 
June, 1862, and settled on raw prairie land 
on section 21, Clay Township, which he 
immediately began to improve. He and his 
family spent their first winter here in a 
board shanty, and the following spring 
erected a more suitable house, tearing down 
the shanty in order to use the lumber for 
the new residence. His wife did the cook- 
ing out of doors at this time, and she and 
the children found shelter at night in the 
homes of their neighbors, while Mr. Ruf 
made his bed in the stable. As a farmer 
and stock-raiser Mr. Ruf has met with suc- 
cess, and by his persevering industry has 
brought his 130 acres from an unimproved 
tract of land to a well-cultivated farm. Al- 
though reared to the Catholic faith, he and 
his wife are now members of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. Both Mr. and Mrs. Ruf 
commenced life in this country without 
means, the latter being obliged to hire out 
as a servant after coming to New York. 
She has always been a hard-working wom- 
an and has done her part toward building 
up a home for her family. Mr. Ruf landed 
in New York with but 75 cents in his 
pocket, and from this humble beginning 
has become possessed of a fair share of this 
world's goods. 



J«EORGE RUSH was born in Blount 
Hw County, Tennessee, October 10, 1830, 
^^l his father, James Rush, being a native 
of the same State. The father removed 
with his family to Madison County, Illinois, 
in 1838, where he remained till his death 
in the spring of 1846. George Rush was 



reared to maturity on a farm in Madison 
County, Illinois, receiving his education in 
the rude log-cabin subscription schools, 
when any one sending one or more pupils 
had to haul his proportion of wood to be 
used in the school, which was chopped by 
the teacher and pupils. Mr. Rush was 
married December 4, 185 1, to Mary A. 
Estes, daughter of Byrd Estes, deceased. 
Eight of the ten children born to this union 
are living — William B., James M., Nancy 
J., Fredrick P., Emma J., Florence E., 
Laura A. and Pearl. Mr. Rush has been 
a resident of Wayne County, Iowa, since 
October, 1856, when he settled on his 
present farm, then an unimproved tract of 
land. He has met with good success in his 
agricultural pursuits, and by his untiring 
industry and frugality has acquired his 
present property on section 3, Benton 
Township, his farm containing 400 acres of 
land under fine cultivation. During the 
late war Mr. Rush served for three years 
as a member of the Iowa State militia. In 
religious faith both he and his wife are 
Baptists, and both are highly respected 
citizens of the township, where they have 
made their home for so many }'ears. 




ILLIAM WADE, deceased, was 
one of the founders of the town of 
^^1 Seymour, and a representative of 
one of the pioneer families of Wayne 
County. He was a native of West Virgin- 
ia, born in 1838, living there till 1854, when 
his father. Judge George I. Wade, removed 
with his family to Iowa. After residing a 
year or two in Davis County, the family re- 
moved to Wayne County, settling in South 
Fork Township. William Wade received 
a good common-school education, and when 
a young man followed the occupation of 
teaching for a number of years. He was 
married in i860 to Mary S. Wilson, a 
daughter of Reed Wilson, an early settler 



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rt: 248 HISTORY OF WAYNE COUNTY. %% 



of South Fork Township, where he still 
lives. Mrs. Wade is a native of Indiana, 
born in 1842. To Mr. and Mrs. Wade were 
born four children — Josephine, wife of 
William Merritt ; Cora, at home ; Lee and 
Worth. In 1862 Mr. Wade, accompanied 
by an older brother, Thomas Wade, went 
to the Pacific coast and took up a claim in 
Oregon, and there engaged in farming 
about two years. He then returned to 
Wayne County, and purchased a farm of 
160 acres in Walnut Township, which he 
soon after sold and bought another quarter 
section which was also located in this town- 
ship. He added to his original purchase 
till he owned 480 acres. He also owned 
fifty acres, a part of which is a part of 
the town plat of Seymour. Mr. Wade was 
one of the prominent and well-known citi- 
zens of Wayne County, a very active and 
successful business man, being extensively 
engaged in dealing in stock. He died sud- 
denly of heart disease at Chicago, February 
3, 1886, and his remains were brought to 
Seymour for burial. His widow is still a 
resident of Seymour. 

f^^ILLIAMF. PIERCE, retired farm- 
Vii er,Lineville, Iowa, was born in Pulas- 
1^=^!^ ki County, Kentucky, August 31, 
1823, a son of Jeremiah Pierce, a native of 
Virginia. He was reared in his native- 
State and in 185 1 removed to Putnam Coun- 
ty, Missouri, and in 1852 to Mercer County, 
and thence in February, 1853, to Wayne 
County, Iowa, where he has since lived, 
with the exception of a few years spent 
again in Putnam County, Missouri. When 
he came to Iowa there was but one house 
between Lineville and Corydon, two dwell- 
ing houses, one store and a blacksmith shop 
comprising Lineville, and three log-cabins 
Corydon. His mill was twenty-six miles 
distant and he often went to the Missouri 



The grass grew so 



River for his groceries, 
high in the sloughs that a man on horse- 
back could not be seen a few rods distant. 
Mr. Pierce had always been a farmer until 
failing health compelled him to retire from 
the active cares of life. Mr. Pierce was 
married in Clinton County, Kentucky, Feb- 
ruary 13, 1846, to Malinda Key, a native of 
that county, daughter of Hugh Key. They 
have had five children, four of whom are 
living — Jeremiah N., Stephen M., Albert 
M. and Hartley B. Mr. and Mrs. Pierce 
are members of the Christian church. He 
has served his township as justice of the 
peace one term, and trustee several years. 



TILLIAM MILES, deceased, was 
^iv/i\ii) born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
Ir^^J April 6, 18 16, and died in Corydon, 
Iowa, December 26, 1879. His father, 
Lewis Miles, was a native of Wales, and 
came to the United States about 18 10, set- 
tling in Philadelphia, and later moved to 
Delaware County, Ohio, where our subject 
was reared and educated. He made Ohio 
his home til 1853, when he moved to Wayne 
County, Iowa, and made Corydon his home 
till his death. He was an honorable, up- 
right citizen, and in the twenty -six years he 
lived in Corydon won many friends, who 
valued his esteem and felt a personal be- 
reavement when he died. He was a lover 
of freedom, and a strong abolitionist, think- 
mg it an insufferable wrong to hold human 
beings in bondage. He was a member of 
the Free- Will Baptist church and an earnest 
and conscientious Christian. He was mar- 
ried in 1844 to Emily Welch, and to them 
were born'ten children, seven of whom are 
living — Lewis, Solomon W., Lovina S., 
Hannah M., Benjamin T., Martha J. and 
Emma F. Mrs. Miles died in October, 
1865, and in 1867 he returned to his native 
State, and was married March 5, 1867, to 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



249 



Phoebe W, Bridge, a native of Marion 
County, Iowa, born October 6, 1825, a 
daughter of William Davids and widow of 
Dr. William W. Bridge. Dr. Bridge was 
a native of Athens County, Ohio, born Oc- 
tober 26, 1S17, his parents having settled in 
that county in 18 13. His father worked in 
the Kanawha salt works with Hon. Thomas 
H. Ewing, when that distinguished gentle- 
man was an awkward, barefooted, ignorant 
young man, twenty-one years old, at that 
time not knowing a single letter of the al- 
phabet. Dr. Bridge was a surgeon in the 
war of the Rebellion, in the service of the 
United States, and died in the hospital at 
Marietta, Georgia, in 1864. To him and 
his wife were born three children, but one 
of whom is living — Belle, now the wife of 
William Sproatt, of Corydon, Iowa. 



^ANIEL H. COMSTOCK, farmer and 
stock-raiser, residing on section 3, 
Grand River Township, is a native of 
Yates County, New York, where he was 
born July 13, 1821. He was reared to the 
avocation of a farmer, which he has always 
followed, and his education was received 
in the common schools of his neighborhood. 
In 1832 he accompanied his parents to 
Madison County, Ohio, and in 1835 his 
father was killed near Springfield while 
working on the national pike, by the cav- 
ing in of a bank. In 1849 o^r subject set- 
tled in Cedar County, Iowa, locating in a 
sparsely settled country, where he improved 
a farm, on which he lived till 1869. He then 
came to Wayne County, settling on the 
farm where he now resides, and is the 
owner of a fine farm containing 270 acres 
of choice land. Mr. Comstock was united 
in marriage, September 18, 1842, to Miss 
Mary A. Sidner, a native of Madison Coun- 
ty, Ohio, and daughter of David Sidner, 
■^deceased. Eleven children have been born 

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to this union, of whom seven are living — 
W. Lewis, who served as a soldier in the 
war of the Rebellion ; Nancy J., Eliza, 
David, Charles, Mary and Edward L. One 
son, George S., was killed while fighting 
for his country in the late war. Mr. Com- 
stock has served his township as super- 
visor and trustee, besides holding other 
offices of public trust and responsibility. 



ANIEL KELSO, farmer and stock- 
raiser, residing on section 3, Howaid 
Township, is one of the old and re- 
spected pioneers of Wayne County. He 
was born in Switzerland County, Indiana, 
September 13, 1835, a son of David and 
Nancy (White) Kelso, the father a native 
of New York State, and the mother born 
in Indiana in 1800. Daniel Kelso can trace 
his ancestors back to 1750, he being a de- 
scendant of Alexander Kelso, who came to 
America from the northern part of Ireland 
in that year. His son, Daniel Kelso, was 
our subject's great-grandfather, and Robert, 
son of Daniel, was our subject's grandfather. 
David Kelso was a soldier in the Mexican 
war, and removed from his native State to In- 
diana in 1828, and was married in that State 
in 1830. He had a family of five children 
— Robert, William, Joseph, Daniel and Ad- 
eliza. Daniel remained in his native county 
till ten years of age when he went with his 
parents to Tazewell County, lUmois. His 
early life was spent in assisting with the 
work of the farm, and in attending the 
common schools, where he received but a 
limited education. In 1857 he came to 
Wayne County, Iowa, and bought 160 
acres of his present farm. He then built a 
house, and improved a part of his land, on 
which he resided till 1861. He then re- 
turned to Illinois, remaining there till 1867, 
when he again settled on his farm in 
Howard Township, where he has since re- 

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250 



HISTORY OF WATNE COUNTT. 



sided. His farm now contains 370 acres 
of as good land as can be found in the 
township, and is under a high state of cul- 
tivation. He has a substantial two-stor)- 
dwelling, 20x40 feet, comfortably furnish- 
ed, and his barns and outbuildings are 
noticeably good. He has one of the best 
orchards in the county, which contains 260 
fruit trees of the best varieties. In con- 
nection with his general farming Mr. Kelso 
devotes his attention to the raising of cattle 
and horses. Mr. Kelso was married March 
5, 1864, to Fannie E. Marshall, of Wood- 
ford Count}^. Illinois, formerly of Lamoille 
County, Vermont, where she was born 
October 5, 1845, ^ daughter of Charles H. 
and Melvina (Marsh) Marshall. Her 
mother was a daughter of Perry Marsh, 
who served as a soldier in the war of 181 2. 
Mr. and Mrs. Kelso have six children — 
Inez F., Esther M., Nancy M., Jessie A., 
Charles D., and Mareness D. Mr, Kelso 
is one of the enterprising citizens of Howard 
Township, and during his long residence 
here has won the confidence of the entire 
community by his honest and upright 
dealings with his fellow-citizens. He has 
held almost all the township offices, and in 
1882 was elected supervisor, holding that 
office three years. 



,LBERT E. ALLEN, of the firm of P. 
Allen & Sons, dealers in clothing, dry- 
goods, groceries, boots, shoes, etc., 
was born in Centerville, Appanoose County, 
Iowa, the date of his birth being April 2, 
1858. His education was obtained at the 
common schools and at his home. His 
early life was passed in assisting in his 
father's store and mill. The mercantile 
firm of which he is a member carries a 
larger stock of general merchandise than 
any other business house in Wayne County, 
their trade being second to none in the 



county. Mr. Allen was united in marriage, 
November i, 1884, to Ella Glasner, a daugh- 
ter of William Glasner, a resident of 
Wayne County. They are the parents of 
one child, a daughter, named Beulah. 



■♦Ho- 



-«44^ 



lP,ON. GEORGE McCULLOCH, M. D., 

twas born in Benton, Holmes County, 
Ohio, October 24, 1 848, a son of Joseph 
and Nancy (Miller) McCulloch, who were 
both natives of Pennsylvania. Our subject 
was reared on his father's farm, receiving 
his education in the schools of his neigh- 
borhood, and at Millersburg and Hayes- 
ville. After completing his education he 
began the study of medicine with Dr. C. 
E. Rayburn, of Brooklyn, Iowa, he having 
come to this State in 1870. In the fall of 
1 87 1 he entered Rush Medical College, 
Chicago, Illinois, with the intention of at- 
tending lectures, but the great fire which 
devastated that city in October of that 
year destroyed the college. After witness- 
ing this, one of the greatest fires, he re- 
moved to Michigan, attending lectures in 
the medical department of the Michigan 
State University at Ann Arbor. The fol- 
lowing year he entered Rush Medical Col- 
lege, of Chicago, Illinois, from which insti- 
tution he graduated February 19, 1873, 
with the degree of M. D. On leaving his 
Alma Mater he went to Malcolm, Powe- 
shiek County, Iowa, remaining there but 
a short time. In the fall of the same year 
he came to Humeston, Waj'^ne County, 
being the pioneer physician of this city, 
where he is still engaged in the practice of 
his chosen profession. Possessed of rare 
mental abilities he is unusually skilled in 
the knowledge of his profession, and among 
the medical men of this and the southwest 
part of Iowa he ranks with the highest. 
The Doctor was married October 14, 1879, 
to Drucilla D. Maxwell, a native of Millers-v 






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BIOGRAPHICA L SKE TCHES. 



burg, Holmes County, Ohio, and this union 
has been blessed with one child — Milan E., 
born January 5, 1883. Dr. McCulloch 
served as a member of the Nineteenth Gen- 
eral Asssembly of Iowa, having been elected 
on the Republican ticket. He is the owner 
of 440 acres of land in Richman Town- 
ship, which is a part of 800 acres of 
land which his father entered in an 
early day. He is interested in fine graded 
cattle, and has started a herd of Poll- 
Angus stock on his farm. He is also 
a partner of Captain J. D. Hasbrouck in 
the Home Bank of Humeston. Dr. Mc- 
Culloch is a prominent member of Fidelit}- 
Lodge No. 228, A. F. & A. M., and of Chap- 
paqua. Lodge, No. 121, L O. O. F., of 
Humeston. 



^<XDO^ 



/^iHARLES SNYDER has been a resi- 
M^'vi dent of Wayne County, Iowa, since 
^^i 1866, when he settled on his present 
farm on section 26, Corydon Township. 
He was born in Baden, Germany, Decem- 
ber 3, 1830, a son of Henry Snyder, who 
died when our subject was fourteen years 
old. Charles Snyder was drafted into the 
German army for a period of six years, but 
after serving his country for three years 
he resolved to come to America, and made 
good his escape, reaching New York City, 
December 24, 1854. He immediately went 
went to Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, where he 
worked foratime. He was then employed 
on a farm thirty miles west of Chicago, 
where he remained three years, after 
which he was engaged in a livery stable at 
Burlington, Iowa, about eight months. He 
then located in Fulton County, Illinois, 
where he was married to Catherine Efland, 
a native of Germany. He removed fi'om 
Fulton County t(j Wayne County, Iowa, in 
1866, where his wife died in 1869, leaving 
three children — Milton, Catherine and Car- 
oline, of whom Caroline is now deceased. 



For his second wife Mr. Snyder married 
Lovina Shottsman, a native of Ohio, who 
died October 25, 1882. To this union were 
born seven sons and one daughter, of whom 
one son, Eli, is deceased. Mr. Snyder has 
a fine farm of eighty acres where he resides. 
Politically he is a Democrat. 

^ATHAN TROGDON, who is num- 
(M bered among the pioneers (^f Wayne 
County, Iowa, is a native of North 
Carolina, where he was born in 1814. In 
1829, when he was fifteen years of age, he 
went with his parents, Samuel and Elander 
Trogdon, to Edgar County, Illinois, they 
being among the early settlers of that coun- 
ty. There the father died many years ago, 
the mother and one of her sons still resid- 
ing in that county, the former aged nearly 
ninety years. Nathan Trogdon was reared 
to manhood in Edgar County, and was 
there married in 1835 to Elizabeth Hodgin, 
who was born in North Carolina in 18 18, 
a daughter of William and Mary Hodgin, 
with whom she removed to Illinois, her 
parents living in that State till their death. 
Mr. and Mrs. Trogdon have had fifteen 
children born to them of whom eight still 
survive — Samuel A., Melinda J., Solomon 
C, Matilda M., James A., Viola D., Mil- 
lard F. and Lincoln L. Those deceased 
are — William J.; Cynthia M., married T. 
C. York and died aged thirty-two years ;the 
remainder died in childhood. William J. 
served as a soldier in the late war, enlisting 
in the one hundred days' service. He 
died at Keokuk on the last day of his term 
of service, Solomon and Samuel also 
served in the late war. Mr. Trogdon re- 
moved with his family to Buchanan Coun- 
ty, Iowa, in 1846, Iowa being then a Terri- 
tory, Mr. Trogdon helping to organize 
Buchanan County. Five years later they 
returned to Illinois, remaining there until 



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254 



HISTORl' OF WAYNE COUNTY. 



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coming to WaA^ne Count}' in 1855. The 
family remained in Monroe Township till 
the following spring, since which they re- 
sided on section 36, Walnut Township, till 
March, 1882, when Mr. Trogdon sold his 
farm and came with his family to Seymour. 
Mr. and Mrs. Trogdon are members of the 
Christian church. Although born in a 
slave State, Mr. Trogdon is much opposed 
to the institution of slavery. In politics he 
has always affiliated with the Republican 
party. 



T^OBERT C. GARNES, residing on 
^ section 7, Cory don Township, was 
•=!5-;^\ born in Clarke County, Ohio, in 1836, 
a son of Joseph and Mary (Clark) Games, 
who settled in Corydon Township in 1856. 
Joseph Games was a native of Virginia, 
born in 181 3, and when thirteen years old 
went with his parents to Clarke County, 
Ohio, where he grew to manhood. He 
was a tanner and currier by trade, which 
he followed till 1842, after which he en- 
gaged in farming till his death. He came 
to Wayne County, Iowa, in the fall of 
1856 with his wife and three children — 
James R., Robert C, and Catherine, who 
married R. J. Lancaster. Mr. Lancaster 
died in rebel prison, Charleston, South 
Carolina, during the late war, and his 
widow subsequently married Captain W. 
E. Taylor, and after his death she married 
a Mr. Nelson, who is also deceased. After 
coming to this county Joseph Games set- 
tled on section 7, Corydon Township, pur- 
chasing a quarter-section of land from the 
Government. He improved his land, on 
which he resided till his death, which 
occurred November 18, 1864, the home- 
stead being now part of the farms of his 
two sons. Joseph Games was one of the 
enterprising early settlers of his township. 
In politics he was formerly a Whig, casting 
his first Presidential vote for General Har- 



rison, but was an ardent Republican after 
the organization of that party. He was a 
man of remarkable energy, and devoted to 
principle. Even on his death bed, during 
the time of the re-election of President 
Lincoln for President in the fall of 1864, he 
was at his request taken to the voting 
place at Corydon and, though unable to 
rise from his bed, deposited his last vote 
for the martyred President. Both he and 
his wife were consistent members of the 
Methodist Episcop;^l church for many 
years. The latter survived her husband 
until October 14, 1875, when she quietly 
passed away. Robert C. Games, whose 
name heads this sketch, married Miss 
Susan F. Bos well, a native of Virginia, and 
daughter of Opeachy Boswell, and to this 
union have been born four children — Hat- 
tie, Joseph C, Sumner R. and Marv. 
Robert C. Games served in the war of the 
Rebellion, enlisting in August, 1862, in 
Company F, Thirty-fourth Iowa Infantrj'. 
He participated in the battle of Chickasaw 
Bluff, siege of Vicksburg, Champion Hills, 
Arkansas Post, and was in General Banks's 
Red River Expedition, his last engage- 
ment being at Fort Blakely. He served 
till August 15, 1865, n£ver receiving a 
wound, but returning to his home with 
health impaired, and has since followed 
agricultural pursuits. 



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jlLTON O. BARNES, the business 

^J//\*/Vl\f i^i^"^g^'" ^'id part owner of the 
"^^^^^ Hunieston Nciv Era, is a native of 
Monroe County, Ohio, making his advent 
into the world March 13, 1858. He is a 
son of Josiah and Mary Elizabeth (Driggs) 
Barnes, both natives of the Buckeye State. 
In 1865 the family moved to Grundy 
County, Missouri, and while there Milton 
attended school in the town of Edinburg 
and at (irand River College. On leaving 
school he engaged in agricultural pursuits. 



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which he followed until the year 1877, 
when he commenced teaching school in 
Daviess County, Missouri, and continued 
in that profession about three years. He 
then entered the Railway Mail Service as 
postal-clerk, and remained in the emplo}^ of 
the Government until the fall of 1885, when 
his services were dispensed with for politi- 
cal reasons, and removing to the town of 
Humeston he entered into partnership with 
Heck Sanford, forming the present firm 
publishing the Nrw Era, one of the model 
newspapers of Southern Iowa. January 2, 
1884, Mr. Barnes was united in marriage 
with Clara A. Sanford. They are the 
parents of one child — Sanford. Mr. Barnes 
is a member of the Humeston Lodge, No. 
61, K. of P., of which he is the present 
prelate. 

^^AMES R. GARNES, the eldest son of 

f Joseph and Mary (Clark) Games, is a 
native of Clarke County, Ohio, where 
he was born May 24, 1835. He came with 
his parents to Wayne County, Iowa, in the 
fall of 1856, and now occupies the house 
which his father built in that year, located 
on section 7, Corydon Township. After 
the death of his father in 1864, his mother 
made her home with him till her death, 
which occurred October 14, 1875. March 
zj, 1862, he married Miss Nancy A. Pop- 
lin, born in Putnam County, Indiana, in 
March, 1839, ^ daughter of David Poplin. 
The}'' have eight children living — Emma A., 
James F., Nellie B., Charles H., Sarah F., 
Maud, Pearl and Minnie. Two children, 
William W. and Edward H., are deceased. 
In August, 1862, Mr. Games enlisted in 
Company I, Fourth Iowa Infantry, his first 
engagement being at Chickasaw Bayou, 
December 28 and 29, 1862. He also par- 
ticipated at Arkansas Post, January 11, 
1863 ; siege of Vicksburg, from May 18 till 
July 4, 1863, and Jackson, Mississippi, from 



the loth till the 17th of July, 1863. He was 
discharged for disability January 25, 1864, 
and still suffers severely from pulmonary 
trouble, which he contracted while in the 
army, this being the cause of his discharge. 

|^[AMUEL FRY, one of the old and 
f^^^l well-known settlers of Wayne County, 
^^ living on section 25, Washingt(jn 
Township, was born in Mason County, 
West Virginia, near Point Pleasant, the 
date of his birth being February 7, 1824. 
His parents, John and Elizabeth (Aumiller) 
Fry, were both natives of Shenandoah 
County, Virginia, the father born April 2, 
1 79 1, and is still living in fair health in New 
Haven on land where he settled seventy- 
four years ago. They had a family of 
seven children — Gideon, Christena, Absa- 
lom, Sarah, John, Elizabeth, and Samuel, 
who was the youngest child. His early 
life was passed in assisting on the farm and 
working in a mill, his education being ob- 
tained in the common schools and at home. 
He was married April 18, 1848, to Mary 
Zerkle, who was born and reared in Mason 
County, Virginia, a daughter of Michael 
and Catharine Zerkle. In April, 1857, Mr. 
Fry came to Wayne County, Iowa, and 
rented land in Union Township, on which 
he lived four years. In 1861 he came to 
Washington Township and located on 
eighty acres of his present farm, which he 
has since improved and added to by sub- 
sequent purchases till he now owns over 
500 acres of as good land as the county 
affords, all well cultivated, with comfort- 
able house and farm buildings. His wife 
died August 26, 1862, leaving two children 
— F. R. and Mary Virginia. Mr. Fry was 
married a second time, in 1863, to Mary 
Ann Ball, who was born and reared in Fau- 
quier County, Virginia, a daughter of Ben- 
jamin and Nancy Ball. Mr. Fry is a good 
example of a self-made man, having com- 






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256 



HISTORY OF WATNE CO U NTT. 



menced life without means, but being pos- 
sessed of much energy and excellent busi- 
ness management has succeeded in accu- 
mulating a large property. He was elected 
county supervisor when one man was taken 
from each township, and after holding this 
position two years he resigned. He was 
again elected to the same office in 1874 and 
served three years with credit to himself 
and satisfaction to his party. He has also 
served in several of the offices of his town- 
ship. He has alwa3's taken an active in- 
terest in anything pertaining to the ad- 
vancement of education or religion, and it 
was due to his efforts that Fry's Chapel 
was erected. This was accomplished by 
the sale of the parsonage together with his 
soliciting, and giving about $600 of his 
own means, the chapel being built at a cost 
of about $1,400. Mr. Fry is one of the 
directors, and a stockholder in the Farmers' 
and Merchants' Bank of Corydon. He nas 
been a member of the United Brethren in 
Christ denomination for over forty years, 
and is at present steward of his church. 
In politics he is a Republican. 



AVID C. WALKER, railroad and 
express agent, Clio, Wayne County, 
^g. was born in Greene, now Christian, 
County, Missouri, July 7, 1850, a son of 
John T. Walker, a native of Tennessee, 
now a resident of Mahaska County, Iowa. 
Our subject was reared and educated in 
Kenton, Missouri, and in his youth began 
clerking in a store. He began railroading 
in 1879 ^^^ since that time has been in the 
employ of the Rock Island Railroad Com- 
pany. He came to Clio in the year 1880 
and took charge of his present office, where 
he gives entire satisfaction to the company. 
Mr. Walker was united in marriage, Sep- 
tember 12, 1875, to Miss AUie Moyer, a 
daughter of Richard J. Moyer, a resident 



of Cherokee County, Kansas. Five chil- 
dren have been born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Walker, of whom three are living, whose 
names are given in the order of their birth — 
J. Gola, Effie L. and Charles William. Mr. 
Walker is one ot the enterprising young 
business men of Clio, and during his resi- 
dence here has made many friends, winning 
the confidence and esteem of all who know 
him. 



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fOHN L. THOMAS was born in Ross 
County, Ohio, in 1821, a son of Will- 
iam Thomas, a native of Virginia, who 
subsequently settled in Ross County, Ohio, 
where he lived till his death. John L. 
Thomas was married in his native State to 
Susan M. Beckwith, by whom he has five 
children — Mrs. Ellen E. Grimes, Mrs. Mary 
Riggs, Mrs. America Hower}--, Alexander, 
and Mrs. Eliza Young. Mr. Thomas re- 
moved to Illinois in 1853, '^"d in 1857 to 
Missouri, where his wife died in 1858. In 
1859 ^^^ married Louisa A. Van Buskirk, 
and of the six children born to this union 
four are living — Olive J., Ira A., Alma and 
Meade. Their two eldest children, Mrs. 
Laura Rowan and Mrs. Belle Morrison, 
are deceased, the former leaving a daugh- 
ter — Luella. Mr. Thomas remained in Mis- 
souri till 1877, when he removed with his 
family to Wayne County, Iowa, and since 
1878 has resided on his present farm lo- 
cated on section 11, Warren Township, just 
outside the limits of AUerton, buying the 
land from the AUerton Town Company. 
No improvements had been made on this 
land when purchased by Mr. Thomas, but 
by his untiring industry and excellent man- 
agement he has his farm all under good 
cultivation, and has erected a commodious 
residence and substantial farm buildings. 
Among other improvements he has a fine 
young orchard of eighty apple and chcn-y 
trees. His farm contains 201 acres, part of 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



257 



which is located on section 2, Warren Town- 
ship. Mrs. Thomas was born in Henry 
County, Indiana, January 30, i845,adaugh- 
ter of Benjamin and Rebecca Van Buskirk, 
her parents being natives of Virginia and 
Ohio, respectively. They removed to Mis- 
souri when Mrs. Thomas was in her ninth 
year, where her father died in 1873. Her 
mother died in Allerton in 1881. Mr. and 
Mrs. Thomas are the only members of their 
respective families who are living in the 
State of Iowa. Both Mr. Thomas and his 
wife are members of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church of Allerton. 

JlJALENTINE T. BOTT, section 18, 
~^mn Benton Township, was born in Mus- 
5^ kingum County, Ohio, the date of 
his birth being December 7, 1838, a son of 
George Bott, a native of Germany, his 
father now deceased. He was reared on 
a farm in his native county, receiving a 
common-school education. He learned the 
carpenter's trade in his youth but has made 
farming the principal avocation of his life, 
which he has followed successfully in Ben- 
ton Township, Wayne County, Iowa, since 
February, 1859, when he located on his 
present farm. In i86r he crossed the plains 
to Denver, Colorado, returning to Wayne 
County the same year. He served in the 
war of the Rebellion for three years as a 
member of Company F, Thirty-fourth Iowa 
Infantry, and participated in the battles of 
Vicksburg, Arkansas Post, Fort Gaines, 
Fort Blakely, Shreveport campaign, and 
was on a raid to Brownsville, Texas, be- 
sides taking part in several minor battles. 
He received an honorable discharge when 
he returned to his home, but with a broken 
down constitution, caused by the hardships 
and privations he had experienced while 
in the service. Mr. Bott was married Jan- 
uary 20, 1870, to Louisa J. Ellis, daughter 



of William D. Ellis. They have four chil- 
dren — Mary, Viola J., Albert F. and Caro- 
line. Mr. Bott is at present engaged in 
general farming on his farm on section 18, 
which contains seventy-six acres of choice 
land. He and his wife are members of the 
Methodist church. 



|OBERT O. JOHNSON was born in 
^^ Louisa County, Iowa, May 15, 1848, a 
^=^lf\| son of George B. Johnson, who was 
born in Blount County, Tennessee, m 18 16. 
His father, Francis Johnson, died when he 
was seventeen months old. George B. 
Johnson was reared in his native State, 
and there married Elizabeth H. Orr, who 
was also a native of Blount County. They 
were the parents of ten children of whom 
six still survive — Esther M.; Catherine A., 
wife of A. R. Duncan ; Francis E., of Ne- 
braska; Roberto., our subject; William M., 
in Nebraska, and John N. Though born 
and reared in a slave State, Mr. Johnson 
was opposed to the institution of slavery, 
and for this reason he left Tennessee for 
the free soil of Iowa, coming with his 
family to this State in 1842 and locating 
in Louisa County. Quite a colony came 
with him consisting of seven families, num- 
bering in all forty-nine persons, among 
whom were his mother, and elder brother, 
Joseph, and a married sister, Mrs. Joseph 
M. Moore, all of whom settled in Iowa. 
From Louisa County Mr. Johnson removed 
to Washington County of this State in 
1863, coming to Wayne County in 1867, 
where he has since resided. Both he and 
his wife are members of the United Presby- 
terian church. Robert O. Johnson, whose 
name heads this sketch, spent his boyhood 
in Louisa County, remaining there till 1863 
when he went with his father's family to 
Washington County, coming to Wayne 
County in 1867, settling in Warren Town- 



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258 



HISTORY OF WATNE COUNTY. 



ship in the spring of that year. He is a 
farmer by occupation, and is the owner of 
a fine farm of 113 acres located on section 
6, where he resides. He is the present 
efficient assessor of Warren Township, 
which office he has filled since the fall of 
1884. His wife was formerly Nancy J. 
Duncan, a daughter of James A. Duncan, 
who came to Iowa and settled in Louisa 
County in 1842, where Mrs. Johnson was 
born in 1852. Mr. and Mrs. Robert O. 
Johnson have five children — Nettie M., 
George F., Rosa O., William F. and 
James C. 



^1^1 L LI AM PETTY, lumberman, 
■ |/\/, Lineville, Iowa, was born in East 

l^'^s^] Tennessee, January 20, 1849, ^ son 
of Marion Petty. He was reared a farmer, 
receiving his education at the schools of 
New Market, Jefferson County, Tennessee, 
remaining in his native State until his ma- 
jority. In 1 87 1 he came north to Mercer 
County, Missouri, and was employed by 
George «& Donaldson, merchants at Cotton- 
wood, five years. In 1876 he was sent by 
the same firm to Allerton, Iowa, and con- 
tinued in their employ until 1878, when he 
Degan to work for Lewis & Co., lumber- 
dealers of Allerton. In 1880 he took charge 
of their yards at Harvard, Iowa, and in 
February, 1885, was transferred to Line- 
ville, Iowa. Mr. Petty is a man of good 
business ability, and by his strict integrity 
and close attention to business has won the 
confidence of his employers. He was mar- 
ried September 24, 1867, to Mary E. Pol- 
lard, daughter of John R. Pollard. They 
have had five children — Samuel T., Mary 
J., Martha A. (deceased), Howard and an 
infant son. Mr. Petty has held the office 
of township clerk and at present is a mem- 
ber of the village council. He is a member 
of the Odd Fellows order. Lodge No. 210, 
and Encampment No. in, and of the Ma- 



sonic fraternity. Lodge No. 183. He and 
his wife are members of the Baptist 
church. 



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FRANKLIN McGUIRE, farmer and 
stock-raiser, of Clay Township, Wayne 
County, Iowa, was born in that town- 
ship, the date of his birth being September 
12, 1857, a son ol Josiah McGuire. Our 
subject was reared on a farm, and in his 
youth attended the schools of his neighbor- 
hood, where he obtained a common-school 
education. He was united in marriage 
December 6, 1882, taking for his wife Miss 
Cynthia Surbaugh, a daughter of John 
Surbaugh, who settled in Clay Township in 
an early day, remaining there till his death. 
She was also a native of Clay Township. To 
Mr. and Mrs. McGuire has been born one 
son, named Adolph. Mr. McGuire has fol- 
lowed agricultural pursuits through life, 
and has been fairly successful in his chosen 
avocation. He is classed among the enter- 
prising young farmers of his township, 
where he has a fine farm of 160 acres of 
choice land, located on section 10, where 
he is engaged in farming and stock-raising. 
He is a member of the Masonic fraternity. 

A. MICHAEL was born in Ripley 
County, Indiana, in 1856. In 1868 his 
® father, Joseph Michael, removed with 
his family to Iowa and settled in Corydon 
Township, Wayne County, where he lived 
about eight years. In 1876 he removed to 
Monroe Township, where he still lives. In 
February, 1880, G. A. Michael left the farm 
and the life of a farmer and located in Har- 
vard, where he was employed as clerk for 
D. M. Thomas until April i, 1883, when he 
succeeded F. M. Allen as postmaster, a po- 
sition he acceptably filled until February, 
1886, when, owing to the change in the 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



259 



politics of the administration, he resigned, 
and was succeeded by D. M. Thomas, who 
was also the first postmaster of the place. 
Mr. Michael still has charg^e of the office, 
as deputy under Mr. Thomas, and is dis- 
charging- the duties devolvmg on him with 
a faithfulness characteristic of his strict 
business integrity and methodical habits. 
Mr. Michael married A. L. Gardner, a 
daughter of Elijah Gardner, a resident of 
Jackson Township. They have two chil- 
dren — Ethel E. and Pearl. 



j^[AFTAIN W. M. LITTELL, a real- 
m6i estate and loan agent, residing at 
^^l Corydon, was born in Beaver County, 
Pennsylvania, in 1835, a son of William and 
Cynthia Littell, the mother dying in 1853, 
and the father one year later. Our subject 
is of Irish descent, his grandfather having 
been born in County Armagh, Ireland, but 
coming to America before the Revolution- 
ary war, and taking part in the struggle 
for independence. The father served as 
a soldier in the war of 18 12. Captain Lit- 
tell is the only member of his father's 
family who settled in Wayne County, Iowa, 
his first residence being at Promise City. 
He has been a resident of this county since 
1857 with the exception of two years spent 
in Kansas. July 26, 1862, he enlisted at 
Corydon, in Company D, I'wenty-third 
Iowa Infantry, and in August, 1863, was 
promoted to First Lieutenant of his com- 
pany. He was made Captain January 14, 
1864, and had command of the company 
from that time till the close of the war. 
During his three years' service he was 
never absent from his company for any 
length of time, participating in all the com- 
pany's marches and battles in which his 
regiment took part, including the battles of 
Port Gibson, Champi(^n Hills, Black River 
(where his regiment led the charge), Milli- 

$£3 



ken's Bend (where his regiment lost heav- 
ily), and siege of Vicksburg. After the battle 
of Vicksburg his regiment was in the Gulf 
department till the close of the war. Of 
the six sons of his parents five served in 
the Union army, during the late war one of 
whom died in the service. Another, John 
S., wasseverely wounded, and subsequently 
became a Brigadier-General, and another 
son, Henry Clay Littell, died of disease 
contracted in the service. On the close of 
the war Captain Littell returned to Wayne 
County, Iowa, and in the fall of 1865 was 
elected sheriff of the county, which office 
he held four years, after which he was en- 
gaged in the photographer's business for 
seven years. In 1882 he was elected 
county clerk, holding this position one 
term. For his wife he married Nancy A. 
Glasgow, a daughter of James Glasgow, 
who came to Wayne County in 1856 from 
Adams County, Ohio. Mr. Glasgow had 
six sons who served in the army, all of 
whom served in Iowa regiments, one at- 
taining the rank of Brigadier-General. Of 
the five children born to Mr. and Mrs. Lit- 
tell four are living — Minnie M., Wilbert 
W., Chester C. and Otto O. A son, Law- 
rence, died at the age of fifteen years. 



•utajaex®--^*— ^>< 



A-'H^^^^^mm^^ 



I L LI AM HARTSHORN, de- 
ceased, was one of the representa- 
[^=§^J tive citizens of Wayne County. 
He was born in Dublin, Ireland, Decem- 
ber 7, 1823, and when a boy removed with 
his father's family to Liverpool, England. 
His father, William Hartshorn, Sr., was a 
well-educated gentleman, a graduate of 
Trinity College, Dublin, intending to en- 
ter the ministry of the Church of England, 
but changed his views and became a Uni- 
tarian. At the time of his death he was. 
professoiof mathematics at the Mechanics' 
Institute, Liveipoul. The subject of this 



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260 



HISTORT OF WAYNE COUNTY. 



sketch received excellent educational ad- 
vantages, attending the institute of which 
his father was a professor, and also took a 
thorough business course at a wholesale 
mercantile house at Liverpool. He came to 
America in 1850, and resided for several 
years in Pike County, Illinois. In 1853 he 
was married to Miss Mary Thompson, who 
was born in London, England, in 1828. Mr. 
Hartshorn came to Wayne County, Iowa, 
in 1855, locating with his family at Bethle- 
ham, and in February, 1861, removed to 
Corydon, where he died December 13, 1867. 
As editor of the Mo)iitor,\\\^ first Republican 
paper in Wayne County, he became widely 
known for his able and earnest advocacy 
of that great political organization; and 
throughout the war of the Rebellion, the 
cause of the Union had no more earnest ad- 
vocate than he. The following, written at 
the time of his death, by one who knew him 
well, is a just tribute to his character and 
ability: " He came in 1855 to Bethlehem, 
in this (Wayne) county, and thence to this 
place in 1861, and shortly after started the 
Monitor, the first paper published in Wayne 
County devoted to the advocacy of the 
principles of the Republican party. As a 
writer he was eminently sincere, able and 
forcible; as a man, his convictions of duty 
and right were clear and strong, and his 
courage in maintaining them, unflinching; 
as a husband and father he was truly the 
bond of his house, to shield and defend the 
loved ones from the storms of the world; 
as a citizen he was patriotically attached to 
the interests of the country of his adoption, 
which he conceived depended mainl}^ on 
the great principles of freedom, justice and 
humanity. His religion was to do good 
and live up to his convictions of duty and 
right; hence he was radically bold in the 
advocacy in the abolition of slavery 
throughout all this land, and desired that 
all men, everywhere, throughout the world 
should enjoy the inestimable boon of free- 



dom; hence he was an ardent advocate of 
the equality of all men before the law, and 
the investment of the freedmen of the 
South with the ballot, as a security for their 
newly acquired liberty; hence he was the 
foe of all restrictions on the liberty of man 
based on race or color. Right boldly he 
battled for the right, ' as God gave him to 
see the right,' but he has fallen with his 
armor on. He did not live to see the full 
consummation he so ardently desired — he 
has left us his example." At his death he 
left his wife, who still resides at Corydon, 
and five children, all of whoni were under 
ten years of age. His children are — Kate, 
wife of George A. Hayes; William G.; 
John; Annie, wife of Prof. Charles W. Mar- 
tindale, and Emma. The fall before his 
death he was elected to the State Senate 
from the counties of Wayne, Lucas and 
Clarke. 

J^f^ F. MOSS, furniture dealer at Grain- 
fp^W ville, was born in Putnam Coun- 
r^^{ ® ty, Indiana, in the year 1850, and 
May, 1852, his parents removed to Madison 
County, Iowa, and in February, 1854, re- 
moved to Monroe County. Iowa, where he 
was reared on a farm, his father being still 
engaged in farming on the same farm in 
that county. He engaged in teaching pen- 
manship for three years, after which he en- 
gaged in the mercantile business at Fred- 
eric, Monroe County, Iowa, which he 
followed about a year. He was married to 
Miss Mary M. Glass and to this union have 
been born three children — Farley, Clara 
H. and Roy. In 1875 he purchased a farm 
in Jackson Township, Wayne County, 
Iowa, in partnership with his brother, John 
Moss, and together they engaged in farm- 
ing, the farm being still occupied by the 
latter. W. F. Moss removed to Grain vi He 
in the spring of 1882, and since that time he 
has been engaged in the furniture business. 



«>:»::c«:c*::c4;:*:>;:*;:*:»::«»:>;>::«>::«:«:*::cc*:«:^^ 






BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



261 



This business was established at Grainville 
by Stine & Son, who sold out April 7, 1882, 
to Farnsworth & Moss. This firm contin- 
ued until September 8 of the same year, 
when Mr. Moss bought his partner's inter- 
est and has since conducted the business 
alone. He carries a large stock of furni- 
ture, and by his gentlemanly deportment 
and close attention to busmess has estab- 
lished a good trade. As a citizen he is 
much respected and is at present serving 
his township as assessor, having held this 
position four years by re-election. 

fOHN STECH, deceased, was born Sep- 
tember 5, 1824, in Franklin County, 
Pennsylvania, where he was reared a 
farmer, and in 1848 went to Seneca County, 
Ohio, and there married Caroline Crall, 
who was born in Maryland, March 22, 1822, 
her parents, Henry and Melinda Crall, 
moving to Seneca County, Ohio, in 1826. 
In 1854 Mr. and Mrs. Stech came to Iowa 
driving a team from Ohio, and settled in 
Wayne County, entering eighty acres of 
Government land on section 14, Union 
Township. He built a log house with a 
puncheon floor, slab roof, and prairie-horse 
bedstead, and for a year used a bedquiltfor 
a door. At this time deer roamed the 
prairies at will and wolves made night hid- 
eous with their cries, and our pioneers in 
their msecure dwellings often passed sleep- 
less nights for fear of these lawless maraud- 
ers. In 1863 Mr. Stech bought the farm of 
120 acres where his family now live. He 
made additions to the house, built comfort- 
able farm buildings, and planted a fine 
grove, thus greatly enhancing its value. He 
died September 9, 1884, leaving a large 
circle of friends and acquaintances to mourn 
his loss, after several years of ill-health. 
His family consisted of fovir children — Re- 
becca J., Philip H., William and Mary, the 
first two born in Ohio and the last two in 



Wayne County. Philip H. is a farmer of 
Wayne County, and William in Nebraska. 
Mr. Stech was a prominent member of the 
Odd Fellows order. 

-< " :=:^ <ooo^ =. ■»- 

H. RITCHIE came to Wayne County, 
Iowa, about the year 1870, and since 
1874 has resided on his present farm, 
on section 6, Warren Township, which 
contains 174 acres of valuable land. His 
father, John C. Ritchie, was born in Ten- 
nessee in 1809, where he was reared, and 
there married Elizabeth Duncan, by whom 
he had six children, and of the three yet 
living, J. H., our subject, is the eldest. 
John C. Ritchie removed from Tennessee 
to Iowa about 1848 and settled in Louisa 
County, where he lost his wife by death. 
He then married Margaret Duncan, who 
also died in Louisa County. By his sec- 
ond marriage he had one child, who died 
in childhood. His third marriage was 
consummated with Margaret A. Tedford, 
who still lives at the homestead farm in 
Warren Township, Wayne County, and 
of the seven children born to the last union 
five survive. He resided in Louisa County 
till 1868, when he settled in Warren 
Township, where he resided till his death 
in 1878. J. H. Ritchie, whose name heads 
this sketch, was born in Tennessee in 1837, 
and was about ten years of age when he 
came with his father to Iowa. For his 
wife he married Ann Moore, a native (jf 
Iowa, born in 1846, and daughter of Joseph 
M. and Margaret Moore. Mr. and Mrs. 
Ritchie have three children — Joseph C, 
Maggie M. and James O., all born in 
Wayne County. Politically Mr. Ritchie 
is Republican, his first presidential vote 
having been cast for i\braham Lincoln 
Mrs. Ritchie's father was a native oi Ten- 
nessee, and was twice married, both of his 
wives being bora in the same State, Mrs. 
Ritchie being a child of the second mar- 






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262 



HISTORY OF WAi'iYE COUNTY . 



riage. Her parents removed from their 
native State to Louisa County, Iowa, about 
the year 1842. Both parents are now de- 
ceased. 



•MUjCjCT©^^^ 



KSI>a);OTTOv» 



G. MAY, one of the old pioneers of 
pyji Wayne County, engaged in farming 
^1® and stock-raising on section 14, 
Wright Township, is a native of Putnam 
County, Indiana, born April 21, 1828, a son of 
John and Nancy (Hight) May, the father be- 
ing a native of Virginia. He was a soldier in 
the war of 181 2. He was one of the pioneers 
of Putnam County, settling there in 1 824. In 
1852 he removed to Lucas County, Iowa, 
and after living there several years came to 
Wayne County, locating in Wright Town- 
ship, where he died in 1873. His wife was 
a daughter of Thomas and Priscilla Hight, 
her father being a soldier in the war of the 
Revolution. Mr. and Mrs. John May were 
the parents of eight children — W. T., T. R., 
A. H., H. G., J. W., S. L., P. E. and S. A. 
H. G., our subject, was reared on a farm 
in his native county, receiving his educa- 
tion in the subscription and district schools, 
and by study at home. '* During the Mexi- 
can war he enlisted in Company A, First 
Indiana Infantry, and served twelve months 
when he received an honorable discharge. 
He then returned to his home in Putnam 
County where he was married December 
5, 1850, to Julia A. McCarty, a daughter of 
William and Anna (Landham) McCarty, 
the former a native of Virginia and the lat- 
ter of Tennessee. Mr. and Mrs. McCarty 
were among the first pioneers of Putnam 
County, Indiana. They had a family of 
eleven children, three sons and eight 
daughters. Mr. and Mrs. May have two 
children living — J. W. and Lillie. In the 
fall of 1852 Mr. May came with his family 
to Wayne County, Iowa, locating in 
Wright Township, where he now makes 
his home. His farm contains 195 acres of 



well-improved land, with a substantial resi- 
dence, well furnished, and a large and com- 
modious barn, and other farm buildings. 
August 9, 1862, Mr. May enlisted in the 
war of the Rebellion, in Company F, Thir- 
ty-sixth Iowa Infantry, serving as First 
Lieutenant of his company, and was honor- 
ably discharged January 16, 1863. In the 
fall of 1863 he was elected county treasurer, 
but on account of poor health resigned his 
office in the following June. Mr. May is a 
comrade of J. W. May Post, No. 405, of 
Confidence, Wayne County, the post being 
so named in honor of J. W. Ma}^ who was 
killed at Marks Mill during the war. Mr. 
and Mrs. May are earnest members of the 
Baptist church. In politics Mr. May is a 
staunch Republican. 

tLLEN D. GARTON, section 29, 
Washington Township, is one of the 
^:^^=r pioneer farmers, who has for thirtv- 
five years watched with interest the growth 
and prosperity of Wayne County, and has 
been one of the chief factors in advancing 
in value and beauty the agricultural sec- 
tions of the county. He is a native of 
Putnam County, Virginia, born September 
17, 18 17, a son of Thomas and Martha 
(Gillespie) Garton, and grandson of Thomas 
Garton, Sr., a native of Virginia, of Scotch- 
Irish ancestr}-, and a soldier in the war of 
the Revolution. His father was a soldier 
in the war of 1812, and was wounded, carry- 
ing British lead in his body thirty years. 
Allen D. Gart(jn remained in his native 
county until thirt3'-four years of age. He 
was reared a farmer, receiving but limited 
educational advantages, but being anxious 
to improve his mind he studied during his 
leisure time at home, and thus became fit- 
ted to teach, a vocation he followed several 
terms. In the spring of 1851 he left old 
Virginia and came to the State of Iowa, 






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^^'^'' .o*>^ 






BTOdRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



265 



and first lived in Jefferson County, locat- 
ing in Wayne County, October 10, 185 1. 
He had but limited means at the time, but 
came West for the purpose of making for 
himself and family a home, and accord- 
ingly made the best use of what he had as 
far as he was able to judge, and with a zeal 
that sets at naught all trivial obstacles he 
went to work, and soon, in place of a wild 
prairie covered with grass, we find fields of 
waving grain, a fine residence surrounded 
with shade and ornamental trees, an orchard 
of the choicest varieties of fruit, and all 
other necessary adjuncts to a thrifty and 
well-appointed farm. His farm contains 
280 acres of valuable land, well situated in 
one of the most productive sections of the 
county. He has served his township in 
several local positions, his innate honesty 
and strict attention to any duties imposed 
on him fitting him to perform his work to 
the entire satisfaction of his constituents. 
He was county assessor in 1857 and 1858, 
and for ten years served as a justice of the 
peace. He has taken an especial interest 
in all public affairs, whether of material, 
educational or of religious interest, and the 
good roads, bridges, school-houses and 
churches of Washington Township are in 
great part due to his enterprise and public 
spiritedness, his voice and money being al- 
ways freely given to aid in promoting such 
worthy objects. He has many friends 
among the noble pioneers of the county, 
and to their kindness and sympathy he 
ascribes much of his success in life, and his 
gratitude to them often finds expression in 
words which emanate from an overflowing 
heart. In 1837 he united with the Method 
ist Episcopal church, and was a faithful 
member over twenty-five years. In 1878 
he transferred his allegiance to the Baptist 
church, and is now connected with that 
denomination. Mr. Garton has been twice 
married: First, October 3, 1843, to Miss 
Caroline Kimberling, oi Putnam County, 



Virginia, who died May 31, i860. To 
them were born eight children — George 
W., J. M., Henry B., F. M., Thomas E., 
N. H., Elizabeth J. and C. A. October 31, 
1 86 1, Mr. Garton married Mary Rains, 
daughter of John and Ellen (Cooper) Rains. 
They have had seven children — ^William A., 
Mary A., Charles W., Maria F., Lewis M., 
Emma May and Willis L. 



->-S- 



i»-s>-^- 



^^[HARLES A. CONGER is the senior 
lis niember of the general mercantile firm 
'^l of Conger & Michael. This business 
was first established at Genoa in 1869, under 
the firm name of Conger, Michael & Con- 
ger, the father of C. A. Conger being for a 
short time associated in the business. In 
1872 the business was removed to Seymour, 
where it has since been carried on under 
the present firm name. Their store is lo- 
cated on Main street, opposite the Rock 
Island depot, and is one of the oldest 
business houses in the town. Charles A. 
Conger, whose name heads this sketch, is a 
native of Ohio, born in Monroe County in 
1836. In the fall of i860 he engaged in the 
general mercantile business as junior part- 
ner of the firm of Harvey & Conger, in the 
town of Bellair, Appanoose County, Iowa. 
During the summer of 1861 E. E. Harvey, his 
partner, raised a company and entered the 
service as its Captain, leaving the business 
entirely in charge of Mr. Conger, which he 
continued for a short time and then closed 
up its affairs and was soon after appointed 
Sutler of the Sixth Regiment Kansas Cav- 
alry, which position he resigned, and re- 
turning home in the spring of 1864 he 
assisted in raising Company B, Forty- 
seventh Iowa Infantry, and on the organi- 
zation of the company he was made Second 
Lieutenant. He served six months, and 
much of the time had charge of the com- 
pany, owing to the illness of the Captain 



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>::€.c«:'«:«:^::<»::4;:<»:»>::«.:<(!:«::€:«:<»::€:<k:<»::4>:»::4 



266 



HISTORY OF WArNE COUNTY. 



and First Lieutenant. In 1866 he was 
married to Margaret L. 0\v, who died in 
1874, leaving four children — Olive, John, 
George and Albert, the latter being the 
first child born in Seymour. One son, 
Walden, died in infancy. Mr. Conger 
married for his present wife Mrs. Alice 
Shedd, youngest daughter of J. T. McVay. 
She was reared in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 
graduated from Pleasant Hill Seminary, 
West Virginia, in 1861, adopted teaching 
as her profession, and had charge as princi- 
pal of one of the Indianapolis public schools 
for several years. Both Mr. and Mrs. Con- 
ger are members of the Christian church. 
In his political views Mr. Conger afhliates 
with the Republican party. His father, John 
Conger, was a native of Greene County, 
Pennsylvania, born June 8, 1808, and when 
quite young he removed with his father to 
Monroe County, Ohio, where he was 
reared. He was married in that county to 
Elizabeth Atkinson. To this union were 
born eight children, of whom four are liv- 
inef — Elizabeth, wife of Ichabod Henkle, an 
early settler of Appanoose County, Iowa, 
but now living in Benton County, Oregon, 
where he settled in 1852; Charles A., our 
subject; Nancy J., wife of Wallace M. 
Harvey, of Appanoose County, and Lydia, 
wife of Newton C. Michael, of the firm of 
Conger <!v: Michael ; Julia died in Ohio, 
in childhood. Mary died in Appanoose 
County, after reaching her majority ; 
William was a member of Company I, 
Thirty-sixth Iowa Infantry, and died in the 
service at Benton Barracks, at St. Louis, 
December 12, 1862, and Abel died in Ap- 
panoose County, aged about sixteen months. 
John Conger removed with his family to 
Iowa in April, 1849, remaining till the fall 
of the same year in Lee County. He then 
removed to Appanoose County, and settled 
on a farm about five miles south of Center- 
ville. In the spring of 1864 he removed to 
Centerville, remaining there several years, 



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when he returned to his farm for a short 
time. In 1869 he engaged in business at 
Genoa, as before stated. He came to 
Seymour when his son settled here, living 
here till his death, which occurred August 
8, 1883. His widow is still living in Sey- 
mour with her daughter, Mrs. Michael. 



|«HARLES C. JACKSON is one of the 
f|^, pioneers of Wayne County, Iowa, 
^p^l having been a resident of Corydon 
Township since April 14, 1852, and is now 
the oldest living settler in the township. 
Mr. Jackson was born in Mercer County, 
Pennsylvania, July 31, 1824, a son of 
Thomas and Catherine Jackson, the father 
a native of Washington Comity, Pennsyl- 
vania, and the mother born in Huntingdon 
County, Pennsylvania, in August, 1797. 
Both parents are now deceased, the father 
dying when our subject was twelve years 
of age, and the mother living till the ad- 
vanced age of eight3-four years. The 
great-grandfather of our subject served in 
the Revolutionar)' war, during which time 
he was attacked with tomahawks in the 
hands of Indians, though not fatally 
wounded. The Jacksun family were of 
English descent, but our subject's mother 
was of Scotch origin. Charles C. Jackson 
was reared in his native county. He came 
to Wayne Count}' a few months later than 
his brother, William Jackson, the present 
county recorder, and the township of Jack- 
son, where the Jackson brothers first settled, 
was named in honor of them, they being the 
first settlers of that township. Charles C. 
Jackson is now engaged in agricultural 
pursuits on section 5, Corydon Township, 
locating on his present farm in 1868. He 
has been twice married, his first marriage 
with Rachel Greenman.in September, 1853, 
being the first in Corydon Township. His 
wife died about eighteen months after their 






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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



267 



marriage, leaving one daughter — Nettie, 
who was the first female child born in 
Corydon Township. Mr. Jackson was 
agaiti married December 25, 1855, to Sarah 
Marberry, a native of Tennessee, who came 
with her parents to Illinois, where they 
lived till their death. To this union were 
born six children — Mary H., Robert S. 
and Thomas F., and three who are deceased. 
Mr. Jackson served in the late war, enlist- 
ing in August, 1863, in Company L, Eighth 
Iowa Cavalry, and served till September, 
1865. He participated in the Atlanta and 
Nashville campaigns, under the command 
of Colonel Joseph B. Dorr, when his regi- 
ment was ti'ansferred South and placed in 
Wilson's command. Mr. Jackson still feels 
the effect of his army experience. In poli- 
tics Mr. Jackson has always affiliated with 
the Democratic party. 



-«f^ 



c>»^ 



fOHN LEWIS, of Walnut Township, 
Wayne County, residing on section 4, 
is a native of England, having been 
born near Leeds, in 1847. When he was 
but one year old his father, William Lewis, 
immigrated to America, the father being 
drowned at Long Island soon after reach- 
ing this country. John Lewis was reared 
in Iowa, his mother having come to this 
State after the death of his father. In the 
fall of 1864 he enlisted in the Forty-fifth 
Iowa Infantry, at that time being but sev- 
enteen years of age, serving till the close of 
the war. Since the war he has been suc- 
cessfully engaged in agricultural pursuits, 
and now owns about 160 acres of valuable 
land, comprising the northwest quarter of 
section 4. He has been a resident or 
Wayne County since 1878, locating on his 
present farm in 1882, his land showing 
thorough and careful culture, and his farm 
buildings being noticeably good. His wife, 
whose maiden name was Susan McMillan, 



is a daughter of Amos McMillan, who was 
one of the pioneers of Lee Count}', Iowa, 
but is at present a resident of Henry 
County, this State. Mrs. Lewis is a native 
of Pennsylvania. To Mr. and Mrs. Lewis 
have been born three children — Annie, wife 
of W. S. Evans; Jay and John I. In poli- 
tics Mr. Lewis casts his suffrage with the 
Republican party. He is at present serv- 
ing his second year as township assessor. 
He is a comrade of William Kellogg Post, 
of Seymour. 

j^[HARLES R. NOBLE, one of the 
Iwl pro'^ii^'^cnt and successful citizens of 
^^l South Fork Township, Wayne 
County, residing on section 35, was born 
in Franklin County, Ohio, in 1846, a son of 
Zenos Noble, a native of Connecticut, and 
now a resident of Indiana. Mr. Noble was 
reared to the occupation of farming, which 
he has followed successfully the greater 
part of his life. Before coming to Iowa 
he was engaged in saw-milling for four 
years. He came to Iowa in 1870, and set- 
tled on the farm where he has since made 
his home, he having owned a quarter-sec- 
tion two years before he settled here, his 
land being entirely unimproved. By in- 
dustry and good management he has added 
to his original 160 acres till his farm con- 
tains 400 acres. He is engaged quite ex- 
tensively in buying and feeding stock, of 
which he ships annually about two car- 
loads. Mr. Noble has been twice married. 
His first wife was Miss Eliza Elder, who 
died in Wayne County in December, 1883, 
and for his second wife he married Miss 
Rebecca Scott, a native of Ohio. He had 
six sons and two daughters by his first 
wife, all but the first three being born in 
South Fork Township. Their names are — 
Orpha, Emry (who died in infancy), Al- 
bertus. Glen, Glyde, Dempsey, Victor and 



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268 



HISTORY OF WATNE COUNTT. 



Clayton. Mr. Noble's farm comprises the 
south half of section 35, the remainder of 
his land bein<r on section 34 of South Fork 
Townshij). 

fUGENE W. THORN, farmer and 
stock-raiser, section 30, Clay Town- 
ship, was born in Hillsdale County, 
Michigan, July 21, 1842, a son of James H. 
and Mary (Monroe) Thorn, the father being- 
a native of Dutchess County, New York. 
The genealogy of our subject's maternal 
ancestors is as follows: In the year 1620 
one Elizabeth Pattengill landed at Ply- 
mouth, Massachusetts, she being a maid of 
all work in the emplcjy of one of the Puri- 
tan fathers. She married a man named 
Oscar Clark, and settled at PoUet, Vermont. 
A daughter was born to them, named Al- 
thea, who married Isaac Fitch, and their 
daughter Betsy married Asa Andrews, an 
Englishman, and to this union was born a 
daughter named Anna. Anna married 
David Monroe, and their daughter Mary 
was the mother of our subject, her father 
having been a soldier in the war of 18 12. 
Our subject's paternal grandfather, Samuel 
Thorn, was a man in very limited circum- 
stances, and his son James, who was our 
subject's father, was bound out but ran 
away when about eighteen years old. He 
then came to Michigan and spent the first 
winter with the Ottawa Indians. He often 
slept in tiie woods alone, making a swing- 
ing hammock out of his blanket by hang- 
ing it to trees out of the reach of the 
wolves. His land entry was the first made 
in Jefferson Township, Hillsdale County, 
Michigan, and after paying for his land had 
but 10 cents left, which he invested in 
cheese and crackers. He returned on foot 
from the land office at Monroe to his home, 
a distance of seventy miles, where he lived 
almost fifty years, and died on the land 
which he entered from the Government. 



He left an estate valued at $11,000. Our 
subject's parents had a family of six chil- 
dren, of whom four are yet living — Wray, 
of Minden, Nebraska, being the founder of 
that place ; Eugene W., our subject ; Mrs. 
Josephine E. Snow, of Humeston, and 
James B., of Hudson, Michigan. After the 
mother's death the father was again mar- 
ried to Sarah A. Dillon, by whom he had 
three children — Henry, of Coldwater, 
Michigan; Mrs. Mary Tuck, of Green- 
ville, Michigan, and Waldo, of Sweetwater, 
Nebraska. Eugene W. Thorn, whose name 
heads this sketch, attended the common- 
schools of his native county, completing 
his education at Hillsdale College, Michi- 
gan, after which he taught school for twelve 
years. He was married in Hillsdale County, 
December 25, 1868, to Mary J. Kilborn, 
daughter of Luther C. and Chloe P. (Parker) 
Kilborn. Mr. Thorn came to Wayne 
County, Iowa, in March, 1870, locating in 
Clay Township, which has since been his 
home. He commenced life here on a capi- 
tal of $100, and to-day, as we are informed 
by the assessor of the township, his per- 
sonal taxes are higher than any man's in 
Clay Township. He has always been an 
honest, hard-working man, and for his up- 
right dealings is respected throughout the 
township. He is now the owner of a 
valuable farm of 160 acres where he re- 
sides, which is under high cultivation. He 
has served his township as justice of the 
peace for six years. He is a member of 
the Masonic fraternity. 



t[DWARD FERREL, deceased, a son 
of John Ferrel, was born in Greene 
"^3^ County, Pennsylvania, August 6, 1800. 
He became a resident of the State of Ohio 
in 1830, locating first in Trumbull County, 
where he remained several years, when he 
removed to Athens County, of the same 



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:4'>::c*::*::c*:>:5»::cc*:>::«:*:»:>:»:»:**'«»:»:»::^^ 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



269 



State. He settled in Indiana in the fall of 
185 1, and in the 3'ear 1854 came to Wayne 
County, Iowa, where he lived in Corydon 
Township two years. He moved to Ben- 
ton Township in 1856, making his home 
here till his death, which occurred February 
15, 1864. For his wife he married Rosella 
Fish, and to them were born eleven chil- 
dren, nine of whom are yet living — Seth, 
Mary, Brewster, Hannah, Bethuel, Caro- 
line, Lucretia, Lizzie and Lydia. One son 
died in his thirtieth year. In religious faith 
Mr. Ferrel believed in the doctrines of the 
Baptist denomination, and as a citizen he 
was held in high esteem by all who knew 
him. 

-^ --siis>-<= EX- 




ALTE R HARTSOUGH, mer- 
/)) chant, Genoa, is a native of Beaver 
^3 County, Pennsylvania, born Octo- 
ber 22, 1836, a son of Benjamin Hartsough, 
a native of Delaware, his mother being born 
in the State of Pennsylvania. He was 
reared in Beaver County, Pennsylvania, 
and Columbiana County, Ohio, where he 
lived till twenty-one years of age, his early 
life being spent in assisting with the work 
of the farm, and in attendmg school. In 
1857 he went to Scott County, Missouri, 
where he was engaged clerking in a store 
until 1 861, when he went to Cairo, Illinois, 
where he was employed in the Commissary 
Department for some time. December 28, 
1862, he enlisted in the Sixteenth Illinois 
Cavalry, a member of Company K, and par- 
ticipated in several engagements. He was 
taken prisoner at Jonesville, Virginia, and 
was confined in Richmond, Belle Island, 
Andersonville, Savannah, Lawton and 
Thomasville, where he made his escape, 
and taking to the swamps, arrived in Jack- 
sonville, Florida, where he was welcomed 
by Union troops. He was then ordered to 
New York, thence to Annapolis, Maryland. 
He returned to his regiment at Pulaski, 



Tennessee, and was honorably discharged 
at Franklin, Tennessee. He then returned 
to his home in Columbiana County, Ohio, 
where he remained till the spring of 1866, 
when he removed to Lewis County, Mis- 
souri, and engaged in farming in that coun- 
tv for two years. He then came to Wayne 
County, Iowa, and engaged in farming for 
two seasons, when he bought one-half the 
stock of merchandise of L. S. Hopkins, of 
Genoa, and formed a partnership with J. 
W. Miller, since which they have carried 
on a successful business, being noted for 
their fair and honest dealing. Mr. Hart- 
sough was married June 12, 1870, to Miss 
M. Miller, a daughter of Edwin and Nellie 
Miller, residents of Wayne County. They 
have two children — Nellie and Estella. Mr. 
Hartsough is a comrade of William Kell- 
ogg Post, No. 186, G. A. R. He is the 
present postmaster of Genoa, which office 
he has filled since 1870. 



~^*^*-^>*^W^*^-*'^i^r*- 



|ONROE W. HUMESTON, a son 

'WWim °^ ^^^^ ^"^ Mary (Northrup) 
"^^^ Humeston, who were among the 
pioneers of this part of Wayne County, 
was born at Fowler, Trumbull County, 
Ohio, November 20, 1850. When a child 
his parents moved to Hiram, Portage 
County, Ohio, and there he attended school. 
He removed to Garden Grove,. Decatur 
County, Iowa, with his parents in the spring 
of 1864, attending school until in 1866, 
when he returned to his native State, and 
began life for himself as clerk in his brother's 
store. Continued clerking in Ohio and 
Pennsylvania until the fall of 1872. Return- 
ing to Humeston the same fall he, with his 
father, and brother, Litchfield H., estab- 
lished the firm of A. Humeston & Sons, 
dealing extensively in grain. The 25th of 
April, 1873, the firm opened a general 
store on the corner of Front and Broad 
streets, being the first business house in 

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270 



HISTORl OF WATNE COUNTY 



Humeston. Litchfield H. retired from the 
firm soon after, leaving the name A. Hume- 
ston & Son. In the spring of 1874 he re- 
moved to Cedar Lake, Cerro Gordo County, 
Iowa, and became a member of the firm of 
W. A. Moore & Co., hardware and grocer- 
ies. He was married to Miss Sarah H. 
Bruck, daughter of Edwin and Lizzie Bruck. 
This union has been blessed with three 
children, two of whom are living — Clara 
L. and Ray Leeds ; Roy Edwin is deceased. 
Returning to Humeston in January, 1875, 
he was engaged in closing out a stock of 
goods in Derby, Lucas County, Iowa, until 
fall, when he became a member of the firm 
of A. Humeston & Co. Most of the time 
since 1882 he has been engaged in the lum- 
ber trade, having lived one year during the 
time at Marysville, Kansas, and where he 
owns a half interest in the lumber business 
of Moore & Humeston. Mr. Humeston is 
one of the prominent and reliable business 
men of Humeston. 

ANIELFISK, farmer, section i, Wash- 
ington Township, is one of the pio- 
neers of Wayne County. He is a na- 
tive of Fayette County, Ohio, born January 
20, 1827, a son of Jesse and Regana (Hinkle) 
Fisk, natives of Virginia, the former of 
Norfolk, born in 1803, o^ German descent, 
and the latter of Randolph County. Of 
a family of thirteen children, nine lived 
till maturity — Elizabeth, Daniel, Melinda, 
Sampson, Christian, Jesse, Susan, Mary and 
Ephraim. Our subject was the second child, 
and being the eldest son his assistance was 
early required on the farm, receiving but 
limited educational advantages. In Octo- 
ber, 1843, the family started for Iowa, mak- 
ing the journey with teams, and first set- 
tled in Van Buren County. Daniel learned 
the trade of a carpenter, at which he worked 
about twelve years. In July, 1855, he moved 



to Wayne County, and made his home in 
Washington Township, moving to the farm 
where he now lives in 1867. He owns 250 
acres of good land, a comfortable residence, 
and other farm buildings, and has one of 
the best orchards in the township. He is 
a thrifty, energetic farmer and an honor- 
able, upright business man, whose word 
with all who know him is as good as his 
bond. Mr. Fisk was married in March, 
1861, to Martha Jane Miller, who was born 
in Fayette County, Ohio, a daughter of 
Hiram and Nancy (Fanshier) Miller, who 
came to Iowa and located in Jefferson 
County in 1849. ^^^- ^^'^^ Mrs. Fisk are 
the parents of four children — David Milton, 
Anna Regana, Floj-d H. and Nancy M. 
They are earnest members of the Christian 
church. 



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HUMPHREY WEST, one of the most 
prominent and successful stock-raisers 
of Wayne County, was born in Knox 
County, Illinois, in 1840, a son of Marcus 
West, who is now a resident of Corydon. 
Humphrey West was reared on a farm, and 
has made agricultural pursuits his princi- 
pal avocation through life. He enlisted in 
Company L, Seventh Illinois Cavalry, in 
August, 1862, and served till the close of 
the war. October 1 1, 1863, he was severely 
wounded in the left foot at the battle of 
Colliers ville, Tennessee, when he fell into 
the hands of the enemy. His wound being 
a very serious one he was not detained as 
a prisoner, but was taken to Adams Hos- 
pital, Memphis, where he remained till the 
close of the war; to the present time his 
wound still troubles him. He was married 
in Illinois in 1866 to Climena A. Moler, a 
native of that State. Six children have 
been born to this union — Ada Estella, Lewis 
E., Clark M., Jesse (died in his third year), 
Walter E. and KateSelby. Mr. West came 
to Wayne County, Iowa, in 1871, and re- 



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♦;:*;:*:!»;>:>::4'>::c*:>::*::cccccc4;:cc*x*^^^^^ 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



271 



sides at present on his forty -acre farm ad- 
joining the corporation of Corydoti on the 
east. He also owns a farm of 160 acres 
located in Clinton Township. He has been 
engaged in farming and stock-raising since 
the war, and for the past twelve 3ears has 
made a specialty of short-horn cattle and 
Poland-China hogs, in which he has been 
very successful. He has at present thirty- 
five head of this valuable breed of cattle, 
being now engaged in forming a new herd, 
having recently disposed of his old herd. 
Mr. West was mainl}- instrumental in form- 
ing the present Wayne County Agricult- 
ural Society, of which he has been presi- 
dent six years. He was elected to the office 
of county treasurer in 188 1, and served as 
such four years. Politically Mr. West is a 
Republican, casting his first presidential 
vote for xAbraham Lincoln in 1864. 

H -^>£>i^^f<^i*^* 1- 

fOSEPH D. WASSON, President of the 
Lineville Bank, is a native ol North Car- 
olina, born in Iredell County, April 4, 
1820, a son of William Wasson, also a na- 
tive of North Carolina. He was reared a 
farmer in his native State and Illinois, and 
had but limited educational advantages, at- 
tending only the log-cabin schools common 
in his boyhood. When he attained his ma- 
jority he started out to make his own fort- 
une having no pecuniarv assistance as his 
father was a poor man. His father had 
moved to Morgan County, Illinois, in 1829, 
and there he liveduntil 1854, when he left 
the State of his adoption and came to Iowa 
and settled in Decatur County, on Grand 
River, just across from Grand River 
Township, Wayne County. He lived in 
Decatur County fifteen years, but was so 
intimately connected with Grand River 
Township and Lmevilleand their interests 
that his removal to the county changed his 
citizenship only in name. He sold his farm 



in 1869 for $8,000 and then for three years 
followed agricultural pursuits in Wayne 
County. In 1872 he located in Lineville 
where for eighteen months he was identi- 
fied with the mercantile interests. He then 
sold out and soon after assisted in the or- 
ganization of the Lineville Bank, the first 
and only bank of the place. They have a 
paid-up capital stock of $75,000 and carry 
on a good general banking business. Mr. 
Wasson is a man of fine business ability 
and his success is due to his good manage- 
ment and strict business integrity. While 
in Decatur County he was a member of the 
Board of Supervisors three terms, andjias 
served one term in Wayne County. Mr. 
Wasson was married September 14, 1842, 
to Mary E. Cassell, daughter of Benjamin 
Cassell. To them were born five children, 
three of whom are living — Mrs. Eliza Jor- 
dan, William Benjamin and Albert M. 
Wasson. Mrs. Wasson died in 1853, and 
in 1865 Mr. Wasson married Mary E. 
Gaskel, daughter of Albert Gaskel. They 
have four children — Frank S., Burress E., 
Alice V. and Coll. D. Mr. and Mrs. Was- 
son are members of the Methodist Episco- 
pal church. 



-o-<5-4 



>e>-o- 



fACOB MORRETT, deceased, was born 
in 1 818, in Cumberland County, Pennsyl- 
vania, a son of Jacob Morrett, a promi- 
nent farmer of that county. He learned 
the tailor's trade in his youth, at which he 
worked several years in Pennsylvania, and 
in 1839, when twenty-one years old re- 
moved to Stark County, Ohio, and followed 
his trade there and in Holmes County till 
ill-health and a desire to better his financial 
standing induced him to try the fortunes of 
a new country, and accordingly, in Sep- 
tember, 1853, he removed to Iowa, bringing 
all his earthly effects in a one-horse wagon. 
He entered forty acres of land just west of 






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New York, on which he built a one-story 
log cabin, with puncheon floor, clapboard 
roof, and one small window. A piece of 
rag carpet served for a door three years, 
which was an insecure protection against 
the wolves howling outside. The family 
suffered extreme hardships, subsisting for 
weeks on buckwheat ground in a coffee- 
mill, mixed with water and baked, and this 
was without butter, meat or milk; and often 
they did not know from day to day where 
the next scanty meal was coming from. Mr. 
Morrett was obliged to go eighty miles to 
Black Hawk to mill. Wagon roads, bridges, 
postoffices and school-houses were unknown 
in the county. In 1856 Mr. Morrett sold 
his first farm and built a small frame house 
on what is now the homestead. Here he 
began again with forty acres of land, for 
which he gave his horse and wagon. He 
by his industry and good management was 
successful and added to his land till his 
farm contained 160 acres, ond his farm 
buildings were among the best in the town- 
ship. Mr. Morrett was m:.rried in Decem- 
ber, 1840, to Elizabeth Kennedy, a native 
of Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, born 
in 1 8 19. She was reared in the same neigh- 
borhood with her husband, but subsequent- 
ly, accompanied her father, George Ken- 
nedy, to Stark County, Ohio, where she 
was married. Her father afterward moved 
to Michigan and there died. To Mr. and 
Mrs. Morrett were born seven children; 
four came with the parents from Ohio, and 
three were born in Iowa — Elmira J., Jacob 
S., Irene E., John D., George K., James M. 
and Callie S., all married and settled ex- 
cept the two youngest sons. Mr. Morrett 
died November, 1881. He was an honored 
citizen and left a large circle of friends to 
mourn his death. He was in politics a 
strong Republican, and a Union man dur- 
ing the war; later affiliated with the Green- 
back part}-. For seveial years he was 
township clerk, an office now filled by his 



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son James. James Morrett is now success- 
fully managing the homestead, which is 
presided over by his mother, a most esti- 
mable and capable wqman. 



fHOMAS RICHARDSON, the oldest 
citizen of Cor^-don, Iowa, was born 
^•> in Lincoln County, Kentucky, June 
15, 1801. His father, David Richardson, 
was a native of the State of Maryland and 
served as a soldier in the Revolutionary 
war, and later in the Indian wars under 
General Anthony Wayne, and participated 
in the battle of the Thames, where the In- 
dian chief Tecumseh was killed. Later in 
life he removed to Missouri, where he 
lived until his death. Thomas Richardson 
was reared in Kentucky and was there 
married April 26, 1825, to Miss Mary Clark, 
who was born in Barren County, Kentucky, 
April 3, 1 8 10. Her father, William Clark, 
was born in Mercer County, Kentucky, and 
was a soldier in the war of 18 12. He died 
near Natchez, Mississippi. Her mother 
died in Mercer County. After several 
years of married life Mr. and Mrs. Rich- 
ardson moved to Hamilton County, In- 
diana, where they lived twent3''-two years. 
June I, 1857, they came to Iowa, and soon 
after Mr. Richardson entered a tract of 
about 1,200 acres of land, the larger part 
being in Jackson Township, Wayne Coun- 
ty, and also bought 400 acres. He has al- 
ways been a large land-owner and has giv- 
en his children about 2,000 acres. He has 
retired from farming and he and his wife 
are passing the evening of their lives at 
their [)leasant home in Corydon. They 
are not only the oldest citizens of Corydon, 
but have been husband and wife longer 
than any other couple in Wayne County. 
April 26, 1875, they celebrated the fiftieth 
anniversar)^ of their wedding and about 
150 guests were present, among them many 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 27^ :♦::♦: 

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of the pioneers of the county. They have 
had fourteen children, six of whom are 
living — Emily Jane, wife of James T. Selby; 
Thomas H.; John N.; Rachel, wife of John 
N. Farnsworth ; Joseph and Maitha. One 
son, James W., was killed by his brother- 
in-law, Benjamin Belleville, in February, 
1877. He was a prominent business man, 
an extensive stock-dealer and a worthy 
citizen, and his sudden and tragic death 
was a severe shock to his aged parents. 



-•-»>»^»«-^t^»®«^5tf^«^5<^^ 




G. McCULLOUGH, farmer, section 
12, Washington Township, post- 
office, Chariton, Lucas County, is 
one of the most enterprising and intelligent 
citizens of Wayne County. He is a native of 
Pennsylvania, born in Huntingdon County, 
January 23, 1831. His father, George Mc- 
Cullough, was a native of Beaufort, South 
Carolina. In 1661 his ancestors left their 
Scottish home to establish a Presbyterian 
colony in Ireland ; they located at Carrick- 
fergus, in Ulster, bearing with them, like 
^^neas of old, " their Ilium and their house- 
hold gods." Of this colony it is said : 

"There came from Scotland's storied l.md 
To Carrick's old and fortressed town 
A Presbyterian band. 

Thev planted on the castle wall 
The banners of the blue; 

They worshiped God in simple form, 
As Presbyterians do." 

From that country three brothers, in 
1 73 1, came to the United States. One set- 
tled in New York and the others in the 
South. Our subject's mother's maiden 
name was Margaret Irwin. She was a 
native of Blair County, Pennsylvania, of 
Scotch parentage. Mr. and Mrs. George 
McCullough had two children — N. G. and 
Estelle. The father was a wealthy man and 
from the age of seven years, the earl}- life 
of N. G. was spent in Europe. He was 
educated at the Presbyterian University, 



at Belfast, and Trinity College, Dublin, Ire- 
land. He graduated in 185 i, and shortly 
after came to the United States and located 
in Philadelphia, where he engaged in the 
manufacture of oil-cloth about six vears. 
He then engaged in teaching school for 
several years, and in 1871 came to lowaand 
located in Washington Township, Wayne 
County, on what is now his valuable farm. 
At that time it was a tract of wild land, but 
he has improved it and erected his hand- 
some residence and other farm buildings, 
and planted his orchard, which is one of the 
best in the county. Mr. McCullough was 
married November i, i860, to Miss Electa 
Hilton, who was born in Rock Island 
County, Illinois, daughter of Robert and 
Ruhamah (Pelton) Hilton, who located in 
that county in 1837. Mr. and Mrs. Mc- 
Cullough have four children — Margaret P., 
Mary G., Sarah C. and Georgiana. In pol- 
itics Mr. McCullough is a Democrat. He 
is an ardent supporter of the cause of edu- 
cation and is giving his children the benefit 
of the best schools in the country, thus 
fitting them for useful positions in life. 



?^MON WOODEN was born in Fair- 
f^l field County, Ohio, in 1829, a son of 
^^ Elijah and Nanc}' Wooden. His 
father was born and reared in Maryland, 
and there married to Nancy Carey, bv 
whom he had eight children, four of whom 
are living — Benjamin, in Michigan ; Mary, 
in Jackson County, Indiana ; Jane, in Illi- 
nois, and Amon, ot Wayne County, Iowa. 
After his marriage Elijah Wooden removed 
to Ohio, and when our subject was eight 
years old his parents removed to Jackson 
County, Indiana, where they lived till their 
death. Amon Wooden was reared to man- 
hood m Indiana, and was married in 185 i 
to Phoebe Barnes, a native of Parke Count v, 
that State, her parents. Fielding and Eliza 
Barnes, being born, reared and married in 









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274 HISTORY OF WAl'NE COUNTY. ;ct: 



Kentucky. When Mrs, Wooden was eleven 
years of age her parents removed from 
Parke County to Whitle}- County, Indiana, 
where they still reside. Eight of the four- 
teen children born to Mr. and Mrs. Barnes 
are living, of whom Mrs. Wooden is the 
only one living in Iowa. Mr. and Mrs. 
Wooden have four children — Mary Jane, 
wife of James Inman ; Marcia, wife of John 
McKeever, of South Fork Township, 
Waj'ne County; Frank, who married Sarah 
Thomas, and Stella. Their third child, 
Fielding, died aged five ^-ears. Mr. Wood- 
en left Indiana with his family in 1856, 
locating in Monroe County, Iowa, and in 
1857 went to Illinois, coming to Wayne 
County, Iowa, in 1873 when he settled on 
his present farm. He has 160 acres in his 
farm, eighty acres being on section 12, and 
the remainder on section 3. Almost all 
the improvements on this place have been 
made by Mr. Wooden, and his fine com- 
modious residence, which is on section 3, 
Walnut Township, was erected by him in 
1880. 

H •^3!^»^^«^;c-^ \- 

fAMES C. DUNCAN, residing on sec. 
tion 6, Warren Township, is a son of 
William M. and EUza A. (Edmondson) 
Duncan, and a grandson of James and 
Mary Duncan. The parents had a family 
of ten children, seven of whom are living — 
Mrs. Janet Shaw, James C, Mrs. Mary E. 
Duncan, Andrew H., Mrs. Eliza A. Ed- 
mondson, Mrs. Martha E. Abel and George 
W., all being residents of Wayne Countv 
except George W., who lives in Nebraska. 
In 185 1 the parents removed with their 
family, which then consisted of nine chil- 
dren, to Louisa County, Iowa, and in 1868 
located in Wayne County, on section 6, 
Warren Township, where the father lived 
till his death in 1873. His widow still re- 
sides on the homestead farm. James C. 
Duncan, whose name heads this sketch, 



was born in East Tennessee, October 13 
1835, his father being a native of the same 
State. He came -to Iowa with bis parents 
in 1851, and September, 1861, enlisted in 
Company C, Eleventh Iowa Infantry. He 
received a severe gunshot wound in the 
elbow of his right arm on the first dav of 
the battle of Shiloh, which resulted in the 
amputation of his arm a few days later, re- 
ceiving his discharge September 15 of the 
same year. He has made agiicultural pur- 
suits the principal avocation of his life, and 
notwithstanding the misfortune which haji- 
pened to him while in the service of his 
country, he has been a successful farmer. 
He came to Wayne County in the fall of 
1867, and has resided on his present farm 
since the spring of 1868, having broken the 
first eighty acres of his lar.d almost entirely 
without assistance. Mr. Duncan was first 
married to Nancy J. Johnston, a daugh- 
ter of George B. Johnston. She died June 
27, 1870, leaving two children — William F. 
and George A. He was again married, 
taking for his present wife Mary S. 
Johnston, a daughter of Francis H. and Jane 
(Ferguson) Johnston. Three children have 
been born to this union — Freddie H., 
Robert J. and Marietta. The latter died 
aged ten months. Politically Mr. Duncan 
is a Republican, casting his first presiden- 
tial vote for John C. Fremont in 1856. His 
farm now contains 160 acres of choice land, 
on which he has made all the improvements. 
Both he and his wife are members of the 
United Presbyterian church. Mrs. Dun- 
can's parents were both born, reared and 
married in Tennessee, and in that State 
their eleven children were, born. They 
came to Iowa, locating in Louisa County, 
in the fall of 1856, leaving their native State 
and the parents of Mr. Duncan, because of 
the existence of slavery. They made their 
home in Louisa County till their death, the 
death of the father taking place December 
24, 1882, at the age of eighty years, the 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



275 



mother dying in her seventy-sixth year. 
Eig'ht of their children still survive — James 
H., John N., Mrs. Robert Orr, Mrs. Esther 
McConnell, Thomas J. (who served with 
Mr. Duncan in the Eleventh Iowa Infantry), 
Mrs. Margaret L. Tedford, Mrs. Mary S. 
Duncan and Mrs. Sarah I. Duncan, Mrs. 
Mary S. Duncan being the only one now 
residing in Wayne County. 



::?K^ILTON D. REW, section 29, Union 
" l.fvfcM Township, postofifice Corydon, is a 
^^^^^ son of Orris Rew, and was born in 
Friendship, Allegany County, New York, 
April 17, 1843. He remained at home un- 
til the breaking out of the war of the Re- 
bellion, when in August, 1861, he enlisted 
and was mustered into the Fifth New York 
Cavalry. His regiment was commanded 
by seven different Colonels, one of them, 
Henry Boice, distinguishing himself by es- 
caping from the rebels after being shot 
seven times. The regiment fought at Win- 
chester, where they covered the Union re- 
treat, and invaded the Shenandoah Valley 
under Banks. Later was under Fremont 
and Pope, being the escort of Pope at the 
second battle of Manassas, where a heavy 
loss was sustained. The same was true at 
the battle at Chantilly, where Generals 
Kearney and Stevenson were killed. After 
the second invasion of the Shenandoah 
Valley the regiment performed picket and 
guard duty until the battle at Cedar Mount- 
ain. At the battle of Gettysburg their 
brigade was ordered to charge Brecken- 
ridge's infantry in a strong and difficult po- 
sition. General Farnsworth commanding. 
In the fall pf 1863 the regiment re-enlisted, 
and took part in Dahlgren's Chancellors- 
ville raid and opened the battle of the Wil- 
derness. At a bridge over the Nye River, a 
Sergeant was ordered to charge with six- 
teen men, among them Mr. Rew. The Ser- 



geant was shot on the bridge and fell dead 
at the end of it. The men held the ground 
and fired briskly on a large rebel force. 
His regiment was a part of Wilson's com- 
mand sent to defend Washington against 
the raid of Stonewall Jackson. They then 
joined Sheridan's famous cavalr}- and 
fought at the battle of Winchester, Sep- 
tember 19, 1864, and when the regiment 
was retreating it was attacked at Forest- 
ville, October 7, by Rosseau's cavalry, and 
forty men were captured, among them Cor- 
poral Rew. At this time he fell down a 
rough, rocky ledge, bruising his right leg 
so severely thnt amputation afterward be- 
came necessary. He was confined in Libby 
Prison until February 15, 1865. Three 
hundred and seventy-five men were in one 
room, and their experiences were those so 
often told and read. Christmas day, 1864, 
his fare was two and a half crackers and the 
gristle of a hog's nose, and about the same 
New Year's day. He became a victim of 
scurvy and suffered untold tortures. After 
his exchange he was regimental postmaster 
until the close of the war. He returned 
to Friendship and attended the academy 
two terms, but his leg still troubling him, 
a change of climate was thought advisable, 
and accordingly he started West, but at 
Carlinville was obliged to have his leg cut 
off between the ankle and knee. In Octo- 
ber, 1867, he started for Iowa, and when at 
Quincy, Illinois, was robbed of all he had. 
He came to Wayne County and stopped 
with his brother, Madison, and soon after 
obtained a position as teacher and taught 
five terms. In 1868 he bought for $400 
eighty acres of prairie land, which is a part 
of his present farm. From this beginning, 
in spite of being crippled, he has been suc- 
cessful and has now 400 acres of valuable 
land well improved, his line barn being the 
largest in the township. It is 32 x 100 feet 
in size, with a basement, two hay carriers, 
and all necessary fixtures and appliances. 



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276 



HISTORY OF WAYNE COUNTY. 



He is in politics a Republican. He is a 
charter member of Messenger Post, No. 
288, G. A. R. His twin brother, Newton 
C, enlisted with him and served as a brave 
and faithful soldier until his capture at 
Gainesville, Virginia. He was confined at 
Belle Isle, later at Andersonville, where he 
suffered all the horrors of that infamous 
prison-pen and was the fortieth man to die 
within its accursed stockade. Mr. Rew 
was married in October, 1871, to Miss 
Phoebe L. Clark, daughter of Jabez Clark, 
of Union Township, an early settler and 
honored citizen. To them have been born 
four children — Gertrude E., Newton C, 
Frank A. and Warren E. 



km 



HILIP S. KIMPLE, section 27, Ben- 



fton Township, was born in Sussex 
County, New Jersey, June 16, 1823, a 
son of John and Mary (Siegler) Kimple, 
who were of German descent. His father 
is deceased, but his mother is living in In- 
diana County, Pennsylvania, aged eighty- 
three years. He was the eldest of eighteen 
children, and his parents being in lim- 
ited circumstances he was early obliged to 
assist in the maintenance of the family, and 
liis educational advantages were necessari- 
ly meager. In 1835 his father started with 
his family for Ohio, but when in West- 
moreland County, Pennsylvania, one of his 
horses died and the}^ were unable to pro- 
ceed farther. Philip obtained employment, 
working the first year for $4 a month, and 
the second at $6 a month, giving all his 
money to his parents. In the fall of 1843 
he wanted to leave home and therefore 
bought the rest of his time (about six 
months) of his father for $200 which he aft- 
erward paid, having only $1 when he left 
home. He met Henry Kelts, with whom 
he walked to Virginia, and when they 
reached his uncle's, George Kimple's, he had 



5 cents and H^nry 10. They there took a 
contract of building a barn, which when 
completed netted them 7 cents a day a 
piece. They then took a contract for clear- 
ing some land, which netted them 16 cents 
a day, but in the meantime Philip cut his 
leg and was unable to work for four weeks. 
In the spring of 1844 he married Jane 
Smock, a daughter of Henry Smock, of 
Wheeling, Virginia. He had to borrow 
money with which to pay the minister and 
for the license. His grandfather had 
died a short time before and his grand- 
mother had sent him a coat, and this with 
a pair of corduroy pants, a borrowed vest, 
and a pair of worn cow-hide shoes consti- 
tuted his wedding suit. In 1845 he moved 
to Guernsey County, Ohio, where he rented 
land, and when not at work on it made 
rails and worked at grubbing at 37 cents a 
day. When he reached Ohio he had 87 
cents with which he bought two walnut 
planks, making a cradle of one and a table 
of the other. After working a 3'ear for 
$120 he moved to Jackson County, Ohio, 
in 1849, ^'^d entered eighty acres of land 
and fenced forty acres of it, carrying the 
rails to his land on his back. In the fall of 

1854 he came to Iowa and the following 
February settled in Benton Township, 
Wayne County, where he has since lived. 
He improved his land, adding to it from 
time to time till he now owns 700 acres, all 
well improved. His wife died in 1855. 
They had a family of seven children — 
Henry (deceased), Mary E., John (deceased), 
Alye A., Margaret, Charles W. and one 
that died in infancy. He was married in 

1855 to Jane M. Beard, daughter of An- 
thony Beard, then of Vinton, but now of 
Hancock County, Illinois. To them were 
born nine children — Emily, Philip, Anthony 
L., Rebecca J., George T., Jacob O. (de- 
ceased), Elnora, David G. and Nellie (de- 
ceased). His wife died January 21, 1875, 
and June 28, 1875, he married Mrs. Marga- 



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e^^i^H 



^l^trtD^iy- 






BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



279 



ret Hubbell, daughter of Alexander Gunn, 
of Morgan County, Illinois. To them were 
born two children — Bertha and Bertie 
(twins) ; the former is deceased. Mrs. 
Kimple has also been married three times: 
First to Mr. Cook, and to them seven chil- 
dren were born — Samuel, Mary J., John A., 
Hester A., Lenore C, Vincent G. and 
David W., of whom but Mary J. and Vin- 
cent are living. Her second husband, Mr. 
Hubbell, lived less than a year after their 
marriage. Their only child is James W. 
Hubbell. Mr. Kimple's son, Henry, at his 
death left a family of seven children, all of 
whom have good homes in the neighbor- 
hood, the youngest, Clyde, living with his 
grandfather. Mr. and Mrs. Kimple are 
members of the Presbyterian church at 
Allerton, and are among the respected and 
influential citizens of the township. He 
takes an active interest in public affairs but 
has no aspirations for official honors. 

— c4i«- 

AMUEL H. MOORE, a prominent 
agriculturist of Richman Township, 
^j.- resides upon the southeast quarter 
of section 24, where he has lived since 1874, 
removing from Washington Township. 
He owns 200 acres of land well stocked 
with improved breeds of horses and cattle. 
He came to Iowa from Pennsylvania, in 
1870, and located on his father's farm in 
Wayne County, that gentleman having 
come to Iowa the year before. His father 
died May 10, 1881, and his mother now 
makes his house her home. Mr. Moore 
was born in Greene County, Pennsylvania, 
March 9, 1845, a son of John S. and Mary 
(Hill) Moore, both natives of Pennsylvania, 
the former a son of Carle and Annie (Jen- 
nings) Moore and the latter a daughter of 
Samuel and Elizabeth (Cathers) Hill. He 
remained at home until March 26, 1864, 
when in response to his country's call he 



Moore is a 
No. 137, G. 
commander. 



enlisted and was assigned as a recruit to 
the Eight}'-fifth Pennsylvania Infantry un- 
der Colonel J. B. Howell, and from there 
was transferred to the Eighty-eighth Penn- 
sylvania, the former regiment being mus- 
tered out before his time had expired, serv- 
ing until December, 1865. He participated 
in the seige ot Petersburg, the engagement 
at Richmond, Ware Bottom Church and 
Deep Run. After his discharge he re- 
turned to his home in Pennsylvania, where 
he remained until March, 1870, engaged in 
farming and at that time immigrated to 
Iowa. Mr. Moore was married May 28, 
1868, to Miss Martha Scott, a daughter of 
Elias and Harriet (Kent) Scott, a native of 
Pennsylvania. They are the parents of 
three children — Delbert S., born May 6, 
1872; Bessie, born March 22, 1874, and 
William T., born October 5, 1876. Mr. 
member of Wayne Post, 
A. R., of which he is past 
He has served his township 
as trustee, clerk and school director, and 
as a member of the County Board of Su- 
pervisors six years, or continuously from 
January i, 1878. 



§ LITTLER COX, son of Samuel and 
j Hannah (Littler) Cox, is a native of 
■o^"® Logan County, Illinois, where he 
was born December 20, 1849. He came with 
his parents to Iowa in 1852, and after spend- 
ing a year in Polk County, he removed 
with them to Wa3me County, and has 
since lived on the farm on section 31, Clay 
Township, which his father entered in the 
year 1853. He was reared to agricultural 
pursuits, and has always followed farming 
and stock-raising, in which he has met with 
excellent success and is now the owner of 
a fine farm of 340 acres. Mr. Cox was 
united in marriage, January 1,1874, to Miss 
Martha C. Wiley, daughter of Isaac Wiley, 



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:S) 



IIISTOIir OF WAViXE COUNTT 



of High Point, Iowa. Mrs. Cox was born 
in Jackson County, Iowa, Ma\' 13, 1S54. 
Five children liave been born to this union 
of whom three are hving — George W., 
Eva J., Ehiier P. Mr. Co\- is an enterpris- 
ing farmer and a higlily respected citizen 
of his township. He is always interested 
in every enterprise for the good of his 
county, but has never sought for office, his 
entire time being devoted to his farm. 

^|%EWIS ]NnLES, attorney and counsel- 
'Mrfi or at law, residing at Cor3'don, and 
^^ at present one of Iowa's State Senators, 
is a representative of one of the pioneer 
families of Wayne County. His father, 
William Miles,was a native of Philadelphia, 
born April 6, 18 16, but was reared in Ohio, 
going to that State when a child, and was 
there married to Emily Welch. They 
were the parents of ten children — Lewis, 
our subject; S. W., now in Kansas; Lovina, 
wife of George T. Tosh; Hannah D., wife 
of C. F. Le Compte; Benjamin T., a mer- 
chant of Corydon; Mrs. Martha J. Clark; 
Emma, and three who died in infancy, the 
last six being born in Corydon. William 
Miles came with his wife and four children 
to \Va3'ne Count}-, Iowa, in 1853, purchas- 
ing land in the immediate vicinit}- of 
Corydon where he followed agricultural 
pursuits till his death, which occurred 
December 26, 1869. His wife died October 
II, 1865. Lewis Miles, whose name heads 
this sketch, is the eldest child of his par- 
ents, and was born in Ohio, June 30, 1845. 
He began the study of law with General 
S. L. Glasgow, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1868. He served in the Thirteenth 
General Assembly of Iowa, having been 
elected in 1869, when but twenty-four 
years of age, and is now serving as State 
Senator, having been elected for the Twen- 
tieth and Twenty-first General Assemblies. 



Mr. Miles may be classed among the self- 
made men. His early educational advan- 
tages were somewhat limited, but b}' earn- 
est and determined application he has 
become one of the leading lawyers of 
Southern Iowa, and fitted himself to ably 
discharge the duties of a legislator. He is 
an extensive reader of the best books, his 
library being one of the finest in Wayne 
Count}-. For his wife Mr. Miles married 
Mary D. Robb, a daughter of William 
Robb. Politically Mr. Miles is a Repub- 
lican, and is an able exponent of the princi- 
ples of his party. 

,ENRY LEE EVANS, residing on 
section 17, Grand River Township, 
was born in Blount County, East 
Tennessee, April 15, 1830, a son of William 
and Nancy (Johnson) Evans, natives of Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina respectively, and 
of Scotch ancestry. Henry Lee was the 
eighth in a family of ten children, all of 
whom grew to maturity. Our subject was 
reared on a farm in his native county, re- 
ceiving a common-school education. He 
came with his parents to Davis County, 
Iowa, in 1850, and in 185 i located in Deca- 
tur Comity. He was married November 
25, 1852, to Mary E. Duncan, a daughter of 
Hon. Harvey B. Duncan, a resident of 
Wayne County. Mrs. Evans died Novem- 
ber 14, 1861, leaving three children — Mrs. 
Henrietta N. Thomison, Edward G. and 
William H. B. The latter died in his 
twenty-third year. Mr. Evans was again 
married February 26, 1863, to Margaret S. 
Duncan, daughter of Joseph Duncan, de- 
ceased. Nine children have been born to 
this union, of whom eignt still survive — 
Joseph H., Mary S., Homer and Dudley 
(twins), Lola M., Estella Lee and Susie A. 
Mr. Evans came to Wayne County, Iowa, 
in 1853, and settled in Grand River Town- 









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



ship where he has since made his home. 
He has been successful in his agricultural 
pursuits, and is now the owner of 230 acres 
of choice land. Since coming to this county 
he has served as justice of the peace 
for twenty-one years. He has served as 
township clerk six years and has been town- 
ship treasurer fifteen 3^€ars, and is at pres- ' 
ent serving his third year as county 
supervisor. He is a charter member of the 
Masonic fraternity. Mr. and Mrs. Evans 
and their daughter Mary are members of 
the Methodist Episcopal church South. 



-5^- 



WRANCIS M. EVERETT, M. D., is the 

, ri oldest practicing ph3'sician in Cory- 
^3^ don. He was born in Mason County, 
Virginia, in 1840, and when but a year old 
his father. Rev. Warren D. Everett, a Bap- 
tist clergyman, removed with his family to 
Monroe County, Missouri, where he lived 
seven years, and in 1848 located in Marion 
County, Iowa. Warren D. Everett was a 
native of the State of New York, and when 
a young man removed to Virginia, where 
he married Pantha J. Morris He entered 
the ministry of the Baptist church when 
twenty-one years of age. His wife died in 
185 1 and her sickness and death directed 
his attention to the study of the nature, 
cause and cure of disease, which resulted 
in his adoption of the medical art as a pro- 
fession, although he never gave up his min- 
isterial duties. His medical practice began 
in 1854, and in 1856 he removed to Wayne 
County and located in Corydon in the 
spring of 1864, where he died the following 
year. He was a man of excellent literary 
attainments, having been through life a 
hard student. He was possessed of good 
judgment and great perceptive powers 
which enabled hun to readily discriminate 
between the true and the false, and was 
withal a worthy and valuable citizen. 



Francis M. Everett began the study of 
medicine with his father in the spring of 
1 86 1, and graduated from the Keokuk 
Medical College in February, 1864. He 
soon after formed a partnership with his 
father which continued until severed by 
the latter's death. Dr. Everett has for 
many years had an extensive practice and 
has attained a high rank in his profession. 
In the earlier days, when physicians were 
less numerous than now, his practice ex- 
tended over a large area of country, and 
many horseback rides has he taken, miles 
from home, on dark and stormy nights and 
in the cold and gloom of winter, to minister 
to the suffering of the sick. The Doctor is 
a member of the Iowa State Medical Socie- 
ty, the Des Moines Valley Medical Society 
and is President of the Wayne County 
Medical Society. Dr. Everett was married 
in November, 1861, to Fidelia C. Barlow, 
a native of Ohio, born in 1845. They have 
had five children, four of whom are living 
— Burrus E.; Blanche, wife of E. J. How- 
ard, of Centerville, Iowa; Claud and Maud. 
Their eldest child died at the age of nine 
months. 



<^jisinM^*'-'§^^ 



^— ,t^~gi/3'7zr5v. 



'^[ AMU EL COX, section 31, Clay 
""^!^v^\ Township, was born in Logan Coun- 
^^ ty, Ohio, April 27, 1816, his father, 
Abner Cox, being a native of Virginia, and 
a pioneer of Logan County, Ohio. In 1844 
our subject located in Champaign Countv, 
Illinois, and in 1846 removed to Logan 
County, Illinois. He came to Iowa in June, 
1852, living in Polk County till 1853, when 
he settled on his present farm. He was 
married November 27, 1836, to Miss Han- 
nah Littler, daughter of John Littler, and 
of the six children born to this union only 
two survive — Elizabeth and S. Littler. 
Elizabeth married Elijah Mendenhall, and 
has five children — Laura, Mary, Samuel, 






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2S2 



HISrORT OF WAYNE COUNTY 



Frank and John. Mr. Cox was bereaved 
by the death of his wife, March 30, 1878. 
Mrs. Cox was possessed of all the attributes 
of a true Christian woman, and was re- 
spected by all who knew her. Mr. Cox 
commenced life without means, but a de- 
termination to succeed. He has always 
been a hard-working- man, and by his in- 
dustry and strict economy has acquired a 
competency for his old age. He is now 
living on the old homestead with his -son, 
S. Littler. He is a member of the Method- 
ist Episcopal church. 

/^OSIAH McGUIRE, section 17, Cfay 
'^W\ Township, was born in Monroe Coun- 
^^ ty, East Tennessee, in 1829, a son of 
Josiah McGuire, a native of Baltimore, 
Maryland. His early life was spent on the 
farm of his father, who, being a poor man, 
could not give the son even the meager ed- 
ucational advantages to be had at that time 
in his county, but was obliged to require 
his assistance to maintain the family. He, 
however, by persistent effort, obtained a fair 
knowledge of the common branches, often 
working for his teacher to defray his ex- 
penses. Upon reaching manhood he began 
working for himself, and not being satisfied 
with the opportunities for obtaining a home 
offered by his native State, in 1852 came to 
Iowa, and first located in Henry County, but 
in the fall of 1855 removed to Wayne Coun- 
ty, and settled where he now lives, in Clay 
Township. He first built a hewed log 
house, and went bravely to work to culti- 
vate his farm. As time went on and his 
capital increased his buildings were im- 
proved, and there are now none in the 
township that surpass them in comfort and 
convenience. He owns 522 acres of valu- 
able land, which is mostly under cultiva- 
tion. His stock is of the finest grades, his 
cattle being of the Jersey breed. Mr. Mc- 



Guire was married in 1850, to Elizabeth J. 
Axley, a native of Monroe County, Ten- 
nessee, daughter of Rev. James and Cynthia 
(Earnest) Axle)'. They have had six chil- 
dren, but three of whom are living — Frank, 
Carleton M. and Mary A. The former re- 
sides on section 10, Clay Township, and the 
other two are at home. Carleton is an en- 
terprising, intelligent young man, and a 
prominent and useful member of society. 
He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, 
an organization in which he is much inter- 
ested. Mrs. McGuire's great-grandfather 
came to the United States when a bo}-, 
starting from home in company with his 
parents and a 3^ounger sister. W hile on the 
ship his parents died, and the captain in- 
tended selling the children to pay their 
passage, but a wealthy gentleman became 
interested in them and examining their 
effects found sufficient to pay their fare. 
He then took them to Pennsylvania and 
reared and educated them. The boy after 
reaching manhood married and moved to 
Greene County, Tennessee, where he reared 
a large family. 



-^' :===i >000^ 



fOHN M. LEAVELL, of Seymour, is 
the eldest child of Benjaminj^W. and 
Susannah Leavell, who settled in what 
is now Udell Township, Appanoose County, 
in the fall of 1851, among the pioneers of 
that county. He was born in Wayne 
County, Indiana, in 1842, being in his tenth 
year when he came with his parents to 
Appanoose County. He was reared on a 
farm, and learned the carpenter's trade. 
For his wife he married Orilla Clemens, 
daughter of J. W. Clemens, who is now a 
resident of Seymour. Mr. and Mrs. Lea- 
vell have seven children — Walter F., Elbert 
J., Cora E., Henry, Tazwell A., Isis M. 
and Winnie. Benjamin W. Leavell was 
born and reared in Wayne County, In- 
diana, his parents being originally from 



'^MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM/M/M/M/M/M/M/M/M/M/M/M/M/MrM/M/M/M/^^^^^ 






]UO(,HAPHICAL SKR ICHES. 



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283 m 



Kentiick}', and of French descent. In 1850 
he came to Jefferson County, Iowa, with 
his family, moving to Appanoose County 
the following year. The lamily then con- 
sisted of the parents and five children — John 
M.; David A., who was a member of Com- 
pany C, Thirty-sixth Iowa Infantry, and 
died at St. Louis, in December, 1862; Jacob 
A., now residing on part of the homestead 
in Appanoose County; Jasper E., who died 
at the age of about fifteen years, and 
Amanda A., who is living on the home- 
stead with her mother. Five children 
were born to the parents after coming to 
Iowa, of whom four are yet living — Mary 
E., Benjamin F., William H. and Oliver 
W. Benjamin W. LeavcU settled on a new 
farm in Appanoose County, which he ob- 
tained from the Government. He im- 
proved this farm, living on it till his death, 
which occurred in November, 1867. His 
widow still resides at the homestead in 
Appanoose County. 

ILLIAM N. LOGAN, residing on 
If section 18, Grand River Township, 
l^^l Wayne Count}^, was born Decem- 
ber 12, 1 841, a native of Laurel County, 
Kentucky. In 1844 his father, John E. 
Logfan, removed with his family to Decatur 
County, Iowa, when the principal inhabit- 
ants of that county were Indians and wild 
animals, and here our subject passed his 
youth on his father's farm, his education 
being obtained in the rude log-cabin school- 
houses of that early day. He was united 
in marriage, September 15, 1861, to Charity 
A. Neill, a daughter of Robert Neill, de- 
ceased. Seven children have been born to 
this union, of whom six still survive — James 
A., Eliza A., William N. B., Erminna, 
John E. and Tony. Mr. Logan has made 
his home on his present farm since 1863, 
where he owns 150 acres of choice land 

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under good cultivation. In connection 
with his farming he pays some attention to 
stock-raising, making a specialty of short- 
horn cattle. He is one of the respected 
citizens of Grand River Township, which 
he has served as justice of the peace for 
three years. He is a member of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church South, He is also 
a member of the Masonic fraternity. 



j« EORGE I. EVANS, general merchant, 
A\lw Seymour, Wayne County, established ;' 
^sJ^l his present business here in Septem- :* 



ber, 1884, and by his close attention to the 
wants of his customers and his gentleman- 
ly deportment has built up a good trade. 
He is a native of Walnut Township, Wayne 
County, born April 25, i860, his father, 
Aaron Evans, being one of the early set- 
tlers of Walnut Township. He was reared 
on his father's farm, and was subsequently 
engaged as a clerk for the firm of Conger & 
Michaels, with whom he remained three 
years. He was united in marriage to Cora 
L. Reynolds, who was born in Jefferson 
County, Iowa, in 1866 a daughter of David 
and Nancy Reynolds. Mr. and Mrs. Evans 
have two children — Willis and Mamie. 
David Reynolds, father of Mrs. Evans, was 
born near Lexington, Kentucky, in 1838, 
and when a boy came with his parents, 
James P. and Almina Z. Reynolds, to Jef- 
ferson County, Iowa. They removed to 
Appanoose County in 1866, remaining there 
till 1882, when they settled in Taylor 
County, Iowa, where Mrs. James P. Rey- 
nolds died. David Reynolds was married 
in Jefferson County, Iowa, to Nancy M. 
Widger, who was born in Fulton County, 
Illinois, her parents, Charles and Sarah 
Widger, removing to Jefferson County, 
Iowa, where they died when she was a 
child. David Reynolds and wife removed 
to Appanoose County in February, 1868 

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284 



HISTORT OF WAYNE COUNTY. 



and are now residents of Seymour. Four 
children have been born to them — Cora, 
wife of G. I. Evans; Gertrude, wife of 
WilHam Veach; Charlie, who died in Appa- 
noose County, aged seven years, and James 
\V., born Octobers, 1871, in Appanoose 
Count V. Iowa. 



^AVID M. THOMAS, of Harvard, has 
iViij been identified with this place since it 
^^ had a beginning, and transacted the 
first business here. The inducement which 
led him to engage in business here was the 
hop3 that the railroad company would estab- 
lish a station at this point, the hope being 
realized several yeai"s later, Mr. Thomas be- 
ing the only man in business till that event. 
In the fall of 1879 he purchased the first grain 
here, and since that time has continued 
dealing in grain with the exception of two 
years, and has met with success, this being 
a fine grain point. Mr. Thomas also ship- 
ped the first live-stock from here. He has 
also been quite extensively engaged in 
farming and stock-raising and now owns a 
half-section of land two miles east of Har- 
vard and 120 acres adjoining the town, be- 
side a lOD-acre farm in Putnam County, 
Missouri. He still carries on his mercan- 
tile business in connection with his stock 
and grain trade. He was the first post- 
master here, receiving his appointment in 
1876, the name of the office being Grain- 
ville, a name by which the village plat is 
still known, but the station and postoflice 
have since received the name of Harvard. 
Mr. Thomas is a native of Illinois, born 
April 5, 1838. For his wife he married 
Miss Ellen Ferguson, a native of Ohio, and 
daughter of Oliver Ferguson, who settled 
in Washington Township, this county, 
about the year of i860, but is now living in 
Clarinda, Page County, Iowa. Mr. and 
Mrs. Thomas have four children — Lloyd, 
Lizzie, Tilden and Charles. Mr. Thomas 



served his country about three 3'ears during 
the late war, enlisting in Company F, Thir- 
ty-fourth Iowa Infantry, August 18, 1862. 
He participated in the siege oi Vicksburg, 
Banks' Red River Expedition, battle of Ar- 
kansas Post, and also took part in the at- 
tack on the defences of Mobile. He still 
feels the effect of his service in the army. 
Mr. Thomas is a son of George and Mary 
(Guthrie) Thomas, who were pioneers of 
Wayne County, they having settled with 
their family in Benton Township, in March, 
1855. George Thomas was born in Ken- 
tucky, but removed with his parents to In- 
diana when a boy, and in that State was 
reared to manhood and married, his wife 
being a native of Indiana. Twelve children 
were born to Mr. and Mrs. George Thomas, 
several being born in this county. Three 
s.ons and four daughters still survive, our 
subject being the onl}' one now residing in 
this county ; Ellen M. resides in Nebraska; 
Reuel lives in Kansas ; Harriet, in Van 
Buren Count}-, Iowa ; Lemuel and Janett, 
residents of Nebraska, and Jane, living in 
Van Buren County, Iowa. George Thomas 
removed from Indiana to Brown County, 
Illinois, with his famil}-, thence to Wayne 
County, Iowa, settling on a farm of unim- 
proved land for which he paid $4 per acre, 
his farm being located on section 23, Ben- 
ton Township. Beside his home farm he 
owned a tract of timber land on section 2^ 
of the same township. He impi-ovcd his 
farm, living there till his death, which oc- 
curred in the fall of i860 at the age of six- 
ty-seven years. After his death his widow 
returned to Illinois, where she died in 1876. 



^<X30^ 



V H. IIAVNER, deceased, who was 
J among the old pioneers of Wayne 
/ ® County, was born in North Caro- 
lina, in the year 1817. He was reared in his 
native State, and there married Miss Eliz- 
abeth Rhinehart, a native of the same 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



county as lier husband, the date of their 
marriage being January 21, 1836. To this 
union were born eleven children as follows 
— Barbara, G. J., J. D., Sarah, Anna, Sa- 
phronia, Belle, Henry, J. W., A. M. and 
Virginia. In 1843 ^^i"- Havner removed 
with his family to Morgan County, Indiana, 
and after living there four 3'ears returned 
to North Carolina. In 1848 he located 
with his family in Lee County, Iowa, re- 
maining there till the spring of 1857, when 
he came to Wayne County and settled in 
Union Township, living there on his farm, 
on section 19, till his death. For five years 
he held the position of postmaster at 
Wayne Cross-Roads. He was a consistent 
member of the Methodist Episcopal church 
which he served for ten years as class- 
leader. He also served as steward of his 
church, and as superintendent of the Sun- 
day-school. 



■^tfo— 



iS^o- 



jEV. JOHN JELLISON, residing on 
0.,^ section 19, Howard Township, Wayne 
^^^ County, was born September 30, 1827, 
a native of Mercer County, Pennsylvania, 
the eldest of ten children of Joseph and 
Nancy R. (Adams) Jellison. He passed his 
youth in assisting with the work on his 
father's farm and in attending the subscrip- 
I tion schools of his native county, where he 
lived till eighteen years of age. In 1845 he 
removed with his parents to Wood County, 
Ohio, where they resided about fourteen 
years, removing thence to La Fayette 
County, Wisconsin, and engaged in farm- 
ing. Our subject was engaged in the hotel 
business for some time at Warren, Jo 
Daviess County, Illinois. In 1871 he re- 
moved to Ellsworth County, Kansas, where 
he improved some town property, and for 
some time was engaged in dealing in cat- 
tle. In 1875 he traded his property in Kan- 
sas for his present farm in Howard Town- 
ship, which contains 206 acres of well-im- 

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proved land, this being one of the oldest 
farms in the township. When fourteen 
years of age Mr. Jellison united with the 
Presbyterian church, beginning to preach 
the gospel at the age of forty years. In 
1 88 1 he joined the Methodist church. He 
has been an earnest and devoted worker in 
the cause of religion, having been a success- 
ful minister of the gospel. Mr. Jellison 
was united in marriage September 21, 1848, 
to Barbara Ann Harting, of Pennsylvania, 
a daughter of Jacob and Susan Harting. 
Eight children have been born to this union, 
of whom five are living — E. W., Florence 
L., Ida L., Eva and Albert. Celesta E., 
Alice A. and William J. are deceased. 

|ETER RIFE, one of the progressive 
farmers of Warren Township, Warren 
County, is a native of Rhine, Prussia, 
where he was born in 1824. He was reared 
to the occupation ot farming, remaining in 
his native country till twent3'-four years of 
age. He served four years as a soldier in 
the Prussian army. He left the fatherland 
on account of the revolution which then 
prevailed in Germany, coming to America, 
and for two 3^ears lived in Cayuga Count}^ 
New York. He then went to Sangamon 
County, Illinois, and engaged in farming. 
He was married in Springfield, Illinois, to 
Eliza Lemons, who was born in England in 
1826, coming to America in 1848 with her 
brother, John Lemons, her parents, Joseph 
and Jane (Sturgeon) Lemons, coming to 
America and locating at Springfield, where 
the mother died immediately on her arrival. 
The father lived in Sangamon County till 
his death. He left two sons and five 
daughters, who all live in America, Mr. 
Rife had one brother and six sisters, all of 
whom died in German)^ but one sister, who 
still lives in that country. His brother was 
an architect, and left one son, who adopted 



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2S6 



HISTORT OF WATNE CO U NTT. 



his father's trade. He came to America, 
and is now in Atchison, Kansas. Mr. and 
Mrs. Rife ha:l no children of their own, but 
have reared a girl from childhood, who is 
now the wife of William Ellis. From San- 
gamon Countv Mr. and Mrs. Rife went to 
Christian Count}', where thev improved a 
farm, on which they lived till 1875, when 
they came to Wayne County, Iowa. They 
then settled on a farm on section 15, War- 
ren Township, on which but little improve- 
ment had been made, but b}' hard work 
and careful management they have made 
for themselves a pleasant home, having now 
good buildings and other valuable improve- 
ments, their farm containing sixty acres of 
well-improved land. In politics Mr. Rife 
is a Democrat, casting his first vote for 
James Buchanan in 1856. 



I 



H. DUDEN, M. D., homeopathic 
physician and surgeon, has been 
l^i?^j ® resident of Iowa since 1854, com- 
ing to Wayne County in 1857, and is the only 
physician of his school in the county. He 
was born in Huntingdon County, Pennsyl- 
vania, March 13, 1830. When four years 
of age his parents moved to Licking Coun- 
ty, Ohio. His father, David Duden, died 
at the age of seventy-two years, and his 
mother, in 1885, aged seventy-five years. He 
was married in 1852 to Mary L. Bigelow, a 
daughter of Dr. Alpheus Bigelow, of Gale- 
na, Delaware County, Ohio. In 1854 Dr. Du- 
den came to Monroe County, Iowa. In 1857 
he removed to Wayne County, and settled 
on a farm in Clinton Township, where he 
lived until the spring of 1885, when he 
moved to AUerton. He graduated from 
the New York Homeopathic College in 
1870. He has been practicing medicine 
since 1862 and is one of the oldest ph3'si- 
cians in the county. He is very liberal in 
his theorv and practice, and is very success- 



ful in his treatment of disease. Dr. Du- 
den and his wife have a family of eight liv- 
ing children — Flora, Lenora, George E., 
Dulana, Althea, Alpheus B., Charles W. 
and Estus G. One child died in infancy. 
In politics Dr. Duden is a Republican. His 
farm which he settled on in 1857 he still 
owns, and it is one of the best stock farms 
in the county, with fine house and barn, 
and fruit of all kinds. His father's family 
consisted of eight sons and one daughter, 
all of whom are living, and Februar\- 6 and 7, 
1886, there was a reunion of the family at 
the home of D. S. Duden, in Clinton, Mis- 
souri, thirty-four years having elapsed 
since they were all together. 



~-<3>i 




B. GARTON, an enterprising farmer 
l^jii) of Washington Township, residing 
on section 19, was born in Mason 
County, Virginia, May 21, 1849, ^ son of 
A. D. and Caroline (Kimberling) Garton, 
his father being one of the prominent pio- 
neers of Wayne County. To his parents were 
born seven children, as follows — George 
W., H. B., F. M., T. E., N. H., C. A. and 
Elizabeth Jane. H. B. was but three years 
old when his parents came to Iowa, and 
after spendingoneyear in Jefferson County, 
they came, in 1853, to Wayne County. 
The father then entered land from the 
Government, in Washington Township, 
which he improved, but subsequently re- 
moved to section 29, Clay Township. Our 
subject was reared on a farm, and received 
his education in the district schools and at 
Chariton, Iowa. He commenced teaching 
school at the age of eighteen years which 
he followed many terms with good success. 
November 30, 1876, he was married to 
Miss Anna Moore, a daughter of John S. 
Moore. This union has been blessed with 
four daughters — Carrie M., Gracie, Flora 
and Stella. Mr. Garton located on a farm 



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BIOGRA PHICA L SKE TCHES. 



287 



where he now resides in 1876, where he 
has 232 acres of choice land under a high 
state of cultivation, a good residence, barn, 
out buildings and orcliard. He is engaged 
in general farming and stock-raising, in 
which pursuit he is meeting with success. 
Mr. Garton is one of the influential citizens 
in Washington Township, having gained a 
good position both socially and financially. 
He has filled most of the township offices, 
and is at present serving his township as 
trustee. 



'"■^anasm^^-''^^ 



4s4— rt^vS/OTwn* 




B. BURTON, section 17, Un- 
/» ion Township, postoffice New 
^J ® York, was born September 2, 
1 83 1, in Windham County, Vermont, a 
son of Timothy and Mary (Pierce) Bur- 
ton, also natives of Vermont. He was 
reared a farmer in his native State, re- 
maining there until 1856, when he came 
West and lived in Macoupin County, Ill- 
inois, several years. He taught school 
in the winter, working as a farm hand in 
the summer, until he had saved enough 
to start for himself. Finally he bought 
eighty acres at $21.50 an acre and built a 
house and in other ways improved it. He 
was married September 22, 1859, to Mary 
A., daughter of Ebenezer and Susan D. 
(Grout) Upham. Mr. Upham was born in 
Windham County, Vermont, and for sev- 
eral years was a merchant in Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts. In 1836 he immigrated to Ma- 
coupin County, Illinois, and in 1840 went 
into business at Chesterfield, where he con- 
tinued until 1864. Mrs. Upham was a na- 
tive of Westboro, Massachusetts, but met 
and married her husband in Alton, Illinois. 
Mr. Upham was one of the original aboli- 
tionists, and early became an intimate 
associate of Lovejoy and other noted 
workers in that cause. He was the trusted 
lieutenant of Lovejoy at the time of the 

'46 



Alton riot and vainly tried to raise enough 
men to protect the great reformer from his 
ignominious death. In 1864 Mr. Upham 
and Mr. Burton moved with their families 
to Iowa and bought adjoining farms, Bur- 
ton paying $3.15 an acre for his and Upham 
$1,000 for 160 acres, on which was a log 
house, a leaky, shaky affair, in which the 
family were obliged to hoist umbrellas dur- 
ing every rain-storm. Mr. Upham farmed 
but a short timepreferring a mercantile life, 
and accordingly went into business as clerk 
at New York, which he continued until his 
death, March 2, 1876. Mr. Burton lived 
with his father-in-law until he could build a 
house, which was the following fall. In 
1 869 he built an addition to his house, which 
is now his comfortable and commodious 
home. Their house was often the abiding- 
place of wayfaring men, at one time their 
floor serving as a bed for sixteen. He began 
his tree-planting in the spring of 1865, and 
now has a fine orchard, and his buildinpfs 
are protected by a luxuriant growth of 
shade trees. His barn, which is a model 
of its kind, 30x40 feet in size, was built in 
1878. He has served as township trustee 
one term and as town clerk ten or twelve 
years. In politics he is a Republican. He 
and his wife are members of the Congre- 
gational church. They have seven children, 
the two eldest born in Illinois and the 
others in Wayne County. 



•*~^>i3*> 



1^5*?-*- 



'ALBOT ROCKHOLD, section 23, 
Grand River Township, was born in 
^1 Whitley County, Kentucky, March 
2, 1 82 1, a son of Charles Rockhold, a native 
of Baltimore, Maryland, who lived to the 
advanced age of ninety-four 3^ears. Our 
subject came to Iowa in 1843 ^i^d was a 
member of the Board of Commissioners 
that organized Wayne County, and also 
laid out the town plat of Corydon, buying 



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>*cj 2SS HISTORT OF WATNE COUNT 7. 



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i6o acres, which was the original site, for 
$1 an acre. He located on liis present 
farm in 1850. He has been successful in 
his operations and now has 6441/ acres of 
valuable land, which is conducted b}- his 
sons. Mr. Rockhold was married March 
25, 1844, to Louisa M., daughter of Alexan- 
der Laughlin. To them were born eight 
children, six of whom are living — Alexan- 
der L., Joseph E., Mary A., Elizabeth E., 
John J. C. and George, Mrs. Rockhold 
died April 16, 18 So. 

••H-o — 

P. BURTON, M. D., New York, 
Iowa, was born in Windham Town- 
^i"^ ship, Windham County, Vermont, 
January 8, 1826. His parents, Timothy 
and Mary (Pierce) Burton, were also natives 
of Vermont, the father of Manchester and 
the mother of Windham. E. P. Burton 
worked on his father's farm in his youth, 
attending the academy at Townsend, Ver- 
mont. When twenty-two years old he be- 
gan the study of medicine with Dr. Ran- 
ney, ex-Lieutenant-Governor of Vermont, 
and later entered the Castleton, then Wood- 
stock, Medical College, from which he 
graduated in June, 185*2, and then located 
in Wardsboro, where he practiced six years. 
In 1859 ^''^ moved to Chesterfield, Illinois, 
where he lived until 1864, when in January 
he enlisted in the war of the Rebellion and 
was appointed Assistant Surgeon of the 
Seventh Illinois Infantry, and the 22d of 
the following October was promoted to 
Surgeon of the Twelfth Illinois. His regi- 
ment participated in the battle at Allatoona 
Pass, October 5, but at that time the Doctor 
was attending to the hospital at Rome, 
Georgia. He accompanied his regiment 
on its march through Georgia and the Car- 
olinas with General Sherman and witnessed 
the capture of Fort McAllister and the 
burning of Columbia. His journal, kept 



during this march, gives vivid and inter- 
esting descriptions of the battles and por- 
trays many thrilling events. While the 
Doctor was in the army his wife was with 
her parents, and after his discharge he went 
to Gill, Massachusetts, where he practiced 
two and a half years. In 1868 he came 
West and located in New York, Iowa, 
where for eleven years he enjoyed a good 
practice which extended ten miles in every 
direction. In 1879 ^^ ^"^^ ^ partial stroke 
of apoplexy and has since been unable to 
attend to the duties of his profession. Dr. 
Burton was married January 31, 1854, to 
Miss Harriet Caldwell, a daughter of Rufus 
and Lucinda (King) Caldwell. Her father 
was born and always lived on the farm 
where he died, in Northfield, Massachusetts. 
Her mother was a native of Marlboro, Ver- 
mont. Her father was the son of a Revo- 
lutionary soldier who bought a Connecti- 
cut River Valley farm at Northfield, this 
farm being still in the family. Doctor and 
Mrs. Burton have four children — William 
C, a civil engineer and farmer of Kansas ; 
Minnie M., wife of I. G. Davis, of Union 
Township; Almon P., of Kansas, and Alice 
E., attending the Moody school at North- 
field, Massachusetts. 



^000^ 



HOMAS BLACKBURN, one of the 
jil enterprising farmers of Wayne Coun- 
V0i ty, residing on section 16, Jackson 
Township, is a native of Favette County, 
Pennsylvania, where he was born October 
10, 1812. When he was two years old his 
father, Moses Blackburn, died, and his 
mother, Sarah Blackburn, removed to 
Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, and 
in that county he was;. reared to manhood. 
He then went to Jefferson County, Ohio, 
where he lived some six years, removing 
thence to Morgan County, Ohio, where he 
made his home for thirteen years, engaged 
in agricultural pursuits. He then sold his 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



2S. 



land in Morgan County, and in 1876 bought 
his present farm in Jackson Township, which 
contains 160 acres of choice land under a 
high state of cultivation. This is one of the 
best farms to be found in the township, and 
his commodious two-story residence, built 
in modern style, and farm buildings are large 
and comfortable. Mr. Blackburn was 
united in marriage April 27, 1843, to Cath- 
erine Elliot, a native of Allegheny County, 
Pennsylvania. Ten children have been 
born tt) this union c^f whom only five are 
living — Sarah A., Robert W., Maria, 
Thcvmas E. and Nancy. Margaret, Mary, 
Samuel W., Minerva and Ida are deceased. 



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UKE HALFHILL is a native of Han- 
cock County, Illinois, where he was 
p^ born in 1840, but since his sixth year 
has lived in the State of Iowa. Mr. Half- 
hill served in the defense of the Union, be- 
ing a member of the gallant Fifteenth Iowa 
Infantry. He participated in some of the 
most severe conflicts of the war, including 
Shiloh, siege of Vicksburg and Kenesaw 
Mountain. At the last-mentioned battle 
he received a severe gun-shot wound in 
the right wrist, which disabled him from 
active service with his regiment. He was 
then attached to a veteran reserve corps 
during the remainder of the war. After 
the war he returned to his home in Van 
Buren County, Iowa, and was there mar- 
ried to Miss Sarah Robinson, her father, 
William Robinson, having been one of the 
early settlers of that county, living there 
till his death, which occurred in i860. Mr. 
and Mrs. Halfhill are the parents of eight 
children — William, Mecca, Clyde, Walter, 
Lesley, Fred, Ora and Eva. Mr. Halfhill 
has been a resident of Wayne County 
since 1873, locating on his present farm, on 
section 26, Warren Township, in 1881. He 
has met with success in his agricultural 



pursuits, having acquired a good property 
by his good management. His home farm 
contains sixty acres of excellent land, be- 
sides which he owns 120 acres located else- 
where in the township. 

^^^^ L. SAYRE, a son of George and 
*m^ Sarah Sayre, was born in New York 
"^i® City, New York*, July 23, 1846. He 
was reared to manhood in Buchanan 
County, Iowa, to which county his parents 
removed when he was nine years of age. 
His early life was spent in assisting his 
father with the work of the farm, and in 
attending the district schools, where he re- 
ceived a fair education. February 13, 1865, 
he enlisted in Company C, One Hundred 
and Fifty-sixth Illinois Infantry, receiving 
his discharge at Memphis, Tennessee, Sep- 
tember 25, 1865, when he returned to his 
home in Buchanan County. In March, 
1866, he came with his father's family to 
Wayne County, Iowa, they settling in 
Wright Township. He was married July 
9, 1876, to Mary E. Miller, a daughter of 
Samuel and Seely Miller, the father a na- 
tive of Graceland County, Kentucky, they 
coming to Wayne County in 1861. Mr. 
and Mrs. Sayre are the parents of three 
children — Ettie B., OUie M. and George 
Roy. Mr. Sayre located on a farm on sec- 
tion 17, Wright Township, where he now 
lives, in 1877. He has 134 acres of good 
land well improved, a fine orchard of 160 
trees, and a beautiful maple grove, and his 
home and out buildings are noticeably 
good. He has always followed agricult- 
ural pursuits, and by his industrious habits 
and good management has been highly suc- 
cessful. During his residence in Wright 
Township he has won the respect of all who 
know him by his honorable and upright 
dealings. He has held several offices of 
trust in the township which he has filled 






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satisfactorily. In politics he casts his suf- 
frage with the Greenback party, and is a 
comrade of Messenger Post, G. A. R., of 
New York, Iowa. He is a demitted mem- 
ber in good standing of the Grand Lodge, 
A. F. & A. M., of Iowa. 

ILLIAM B. CANNON, section 10, 
^^^ Jefferson Township, was born in- 
cy^T=-j Shelby County, Ohio, a son of 
Richard M. and Mar}- (Broad wick) Cannon. 
His father was a native of Scotland and 
came to the United States in his childhood. 
He grew to manhood in Hunt County, 
Ohio, and helped to clear the ground which 
is now the site of the city of Sidney. He 
was a soldier in the war of 18 12 serving 
with distinction, and in the early days of 
Ohio was a noted hunter. He is especially 
famous as the pale-face who shot the noted 
Indian chief Long Pipe. His wife,the mother 
of our subject, was a daughter of Robert E. 
Broad well, a native of Pennsylvania, and for 
many years superintendent of a Quaker 
school in his native State, and for five years 
Indian agent in Ohio. A son (uncle ot our 
subject) has followed in the footsteps of the 
father and is now an agent at one of the In- 
dian reservations. William B. Cannon was 
reared in Ohio, and there obtained a good 
education in the common schools. He en- 
gaged in farming until the breaking out of 
the war of the Rebellion, when he enlisted 
in the defense of his country and was as- 
signed to Company B, Twentieth Ohio In- 
fantry. He was a faithful soldier, and with 
his regiment participated in seventeen en- 
gagements, the more important being Fort 
Donelson, Shiloh, luka, Corinth, Holly 
Springs. He started with Sherman to the 
sea but, his term expiring,he was discharged 
at Atlanta. After his return home he ex- 
changed his implements of war for those of 
peace, and again devoted his attention to 
agriculture, remaining in his native State 



until 1878, when he came to Iowa and lo- 
cated in Wayne County. He has a pleas- 
ant home, his farm containing 120 acres of 
land, and his improvements being built 
with a view to convenience and durability. 
He was married October 26, 1865, to Mrs. 
Sarah A. Sipes, daughter of Emerson 
Brown and widow of Samuel B. Sipes. 
Mr. Sipes was a native of Saratoga 
Springs, New York, a son of John S. Sipes, 
and of German descent. He was a mem- 
ber of Company H, Sevent3--sixth Illinois 
Infantry, and participated in the battles of 
Vicksburg and Holly Springs. He returned 
from the war and died at his home in St. 
Ann, Illinois, January 11, 1865. He was 
married to jNIiss Sarah A. Brown July 23, 
1854, and at his death left a son — Samuel A. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Cannon has been born 
one son — Milton E., now an intelligent and 
enterprising young man, who is his father's 
assistant on the farm. Mr. Cannon is a 
prominent member of the Grand Army of 
the Republic, an organization in which he 
is much interested. 



EORGE SAYRE, deceased, was born 
vjv.j% on the island of Guernse}' in the Eng- 
lish Channel. He immigrated to 
America at the age of eighteen years, 
landing in New York City, where he made 
his home for a period of twenty-five 3'ears, 
working at his trade, he being a carpenter 
by occupation. He came to Iowa in 1855, 
locating in Buchanan County, where he 
remained till 1866. For his wife he mar- 
ried Sarah Paul who was a native of New 
York City. Six children were born to this 
union — George W., Sarah A., William H., 
Charles L., J. W. and Mary Jane. William 
H. was a member of Company E, Fifth 
Iowa Infantry, during the late war. He 
was confined in prison eleven months, and 
died at i\.ndersonville Prison. George W. 






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THE NEW YORK 
PUBLIC L15RARY 



ASTOR, LVUOX ANO 
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS. 



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:♦::♦; biographical sketches. 

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293 



served over four years in Company C, 
Ninth Iowa Infantry, two years as Color- 
Bearer. Mr. Sayrecame to Wright Town- 
ship, Wayne County, in i855, where he 
died several years later, respected and es- 
teemed by a large number of friend-;. 



Ql 



OHN BULLARD, a leading represen- 
tative of the stock and grain-dealing 
S^ business of Wayne County, is the 
owner and operator of the Humeston ele- 
vator and stock-yards. This building was 
erected by a man by tiie name of Brook- 
ings, about 1880, and after passing through 
the hands of Davidson, J. R. Cassity, John 
Harkins and H. N. Blair, in October, 1884, 
was purchased by its present owner. It is 
32 X 34 feet in ground area, three stories 
high, and has a storage capacity of 10,000 
bushels, and is fully equipped with all 
modern machinery. The stock-yards com- 
prise some two acres. Mr. BuUard was 
born in Lee County, Iowa, August 15, 1844, 
and is the son of James and Althea (Dunn) 
Bullard, the former a native of Virginia, 
and the latter of Kentucky. When he was 
six years of age death deprived him of his 
father, and at a very tender age he was 
forced to strike out in the world and bat- 
tle for himself, at first on a farm and later 
in trading in stock. When he was about 
twenty-three years old he entered the em- 
ploy of Atlee, Davis & Co., contractors, 
who were building a part of the Burling- 
ton and Sovith western Railroad. The next 
year he took a contract himself on the same 
road, from Farmington to Bloomfield. The 
following spring he took charge of the 
grading, furnishing bridge timbers and ties 
lor the intended Iowa, Minnesota & North- 
ern Pacific Railroad, under Hornish, Davis 
c\: Co., c<mtractors, and graded the road 
from Monroe to Newton. The road fell 
throu;jh and Mr. BuUard next took charere 



of and managed a steam saw-mill one win- 
ter, but in the spring purchased the farm 
in Lee County, Iowa, belonging to Senator 
Morton, of Indiana, where he followed 
farming six years. He, in 1880, removed 
to Weldon, Iowa, where he lived four 
years, engaged in buying and shipping 
stock and grain, and dealing in lumber. In 
October, 1884, he removed to Humeston, 
and is now one of the largest dealers in his 
line in Southern Iowa, shipping from an 
elevator which he owns in Corjdon, one 
at Cambria, and a scale and office at Go- 
shen, in addition to the business he transacts 
at Humeston. Large amounts ot money 
are yearly paid by him to the farmers in 
Wayne County for his products. Upright 
and honorable in all his dealings he has the 
respect of the whole community. He was 
married February 16, 1865, to Mary A. 
Griffiths, a native of Indiana, a daughter of 
William and Ruth A. (Elson) Griffiths. 
They are the parents of six children, four 
of whom are living — Ruth Ann, wife of C. 
E. Joy ; James Madison, Myrtle and Harrv 
H. The deceased are — Jesse and May. 
Mr. BuUard's paternal grandfather, James 
Bullard, was a soldier during the Revolu- 
tionary war, and died in 1864, at the ad- 
vanced age of ninety-seven years. He was 
a member of the old Iron-side Baptist 
church, in Brown County, Illinois, near 
Versailles. His wife lived to be ninet3'-six 
years of age. 

.^o ,^^3^3^ c««- 




ILLIAM JACKSON, one of the 

i!)'/.. \/,) pioneers of Wayne County, Iowa, 
l^l^j and at present county recorder, 
.was born in Mercer County, Pennsylvania, 
December 25, 1822, a son of Thomas and 
Catherine (Caldwell) Jackson. The Jack- 
son family were pioneers of the Keystone 
State, and active participants in the early 
Indian wars of that State and also in the 
war of the Revolution. The great-grand- 



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lUSTORJ- OF WAYNE COUNTT. 



29\ 

father of our subject was captured by the 
Indians, but was rescued by the famous Poe 
brothers, noted Indian fighters. The par- 
ents of our subject Avcre both born in t he year 
1797, the father dying in 1838. The moth- 
er survived her husband until 1881, dying 
at the advanced age of eighty-four years. 
William Jackson was reared to manhood 
in his native countv, and was there married 
at tiie age of twenty-three years to Miss 
Lucinda Mitcheltree, who died in 185 1. 
The same year, soon after the death of his 
wife, Mr. Jackson came to Wayne County, 
Iowa, locating in Walnut Township, where 
he engaged in farming. He was again 
married iii December, 1853, to Miss Grace 
E. Wilson, and after her death he married 
Mrs. Susan E. (^Porter) Hubbard. Mr. 
Jackson has but two children living — Em- 
ma C. and Charles, both by his second 
marriage and now living in Kansas. Ten 
children are deceased, several of whom 
reached maturity and left families. Politi- 
cally Mr. Jackson affiliates with the Demo- 
cratic party. In 1856 he was elected clerk 
of the District Court, and removed to the 
county seat, serving in that capacity for 
five years, after which he was variously 
employed till the fall of 1882, when he was 
elected county recorder and has since 
held that office by re-election. 

fAMES E. WHITELEY, farmer and 
dealer in lumber and grain, Jackson 
c^,\i Township, postoffice, Harvard, Iowa, 
is among the oldest settlers of the town- 
ship. He is a native of Yorkshire, Eng- 
land, born February 18, 1823, a son of 
John G. and Mary (Scott) Whiteley. His- 
early life was spent in his native country, 
and in his youth he assisted his father in a 
mill, there learning a trade that has been a 
source of revenue to him since coming to 
America, although his principal vocation 
has been other branches of business. He 



came to the United States when twenty- 
three years old, and first lived in Delaware, 
subsequently going to Pennsylvania and 
Ohio. In 1849 he moved to Iowa and en- 
tered eighty acres of land in Marion 
County, where he lived until 1856, when 
he sold his farm and removed to Wayne 
County, locating on the farm in Jackson 
Township, where he now lives. He has 
450 acres of Wayne County's best land, 
which is well-adapted for both grain and 
stock. His residence is a model oi con- 
venience and his barn and other farm build- 
ings are commodious and comfortable. He 
is the owner of a lumber yard in Harvard, 
which he conducts in addition to superin- 
. tending his farm, and also deals in grain 
and hardware, his sons, Frank E. and 
James E., being associated with him in the 
business. Mr. Whiteley was married 
March 31, 1856, to Mary J. Ellsworth, of 
Marion County, Iowa, daughter of Simeon 
and Sai"ah Ellsworth. To them have been 
born ten children, nine of whom are liv- 
ing — Frank E., Henry A., James E., Scott 
F., Ralph R., Floyd A., Wallace G., Carl 
and Eunice. 



W. CLEMENS, senior member of 
the firm, J. W. Clemens cS: Son, gen- 
eral furniture dealers and undertak- 
ers, Seymour, Iowa, bought the entire stock 
of furniture from W. S. Brant in 1877. 
K. P. Morrison, a partner with J. \V. Clem- 
ens, was succeeded by A. E. Clemens in 
1883. This firm keeps a full line of furni- 
ture, having a large stock and complete 
assortment, and has established a good 
trade. Its building and stock have twice 
been destroyed by fire— October 28, 1881, 
and August 9, 1884, and each time a severe 
loss was sustained. J. W. Clemens was born 
near Dayton, Ohio, in 1825. When eight 
years of age he accompanied his father, 
John Clemens, to Wayne County, Indiana, 









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



:♦:;♦: 

295 11 



and lived there until 1852, when he re- 
moved to Appanoose County, Iowa, to 
which county his father had moved in 
185 1, and had bought a farm near Union- 
ville, where he lived until his death, Feb- 
ruary 28, 1880. The father's family con- 
sisted of ten children, all of whom save one 
son are living. He was killed by a fall 
down a. canyon in Idaho, near Boise City. 
J. W. Clemens was married in Indiana to 
Leanah Beaver, a native of West Virginia. 
To them have been born ten children, five 
sons and five daughters, seven of whom 
are living — Orilla, wife of J. W. Leavell; 
Elizabeth M.,wife of H. M. Townsend; The- 
odore, now of Greene County, Iowa, mar- 
ried Sarah Underwood; David S., a con- 
ductor on the Rock Island Railroad, mar- 
ried Carrie Munsey; Arlando E. was born 
in Appanoose County, Iowa, December 3, 
1857; Osee E., wife of J. R. McCoy, of 
Seymour; Leah Catherine, wife of J. R. 
Pettigrew. Mr. Clemens has been in the 
furniture business since 1854, starting in 
Appanoose County, where he remained 
until removing to Seymour, He is a thor- 
oughly practical business man, and since 
locating in Seymour has been an active 
worker in promoting and advancing the 
interests of the town. 



yM^; W. STEELE, attorney at law, is one 
M1& *-*^ ^^ youngest members of the pro- 
^^l® fession in Wayne County. He was 
born in Owen County, Indiana, in 1858. 
His father, J. H. Steele, moved with his 
family to Wayne County, Iowa, in 1864, and 
settled in Benton Township, where he died 
in February, 1884. The family consisted 
of three children, a son and two daughters. 
C. W. Steele was reared on his father's 
farm, and was given a good education, 
graduating from Simpson Centenary Col- 
lege, Indianola, Iowa, in 1880. He had 



prior to this studied law, having chosen 
that profession, and after his graduation 
continued his studies, and in March, 1881, 
was admitted to the bar. He located at 
AUerton, where he continued his practice 
two years, and in 1883 removed to Cory- 
don. In 1885 he was elected mayor of the 
city. Mr. Steele is a young man of more 
than ordinary ability, and in his profession 
is fast gaining an enviable place. He is 
popular in both business and social circles, 
his genial and affable manner having won 
him many friends. His wife, formerly 
Fannie Chapman, is a daughter of A. J. 
Chapman, of Washington Township. 



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|EHEMIAH A. HART, farmer and 
f stock-raiser, section i, Benton ToAvn- 
^(| ship, was born in Clay County, Mis- 
souri, October 9, 1842. His father, Matillo 
Hart, who is now deceased, was a native of 
Virginia, and an early settler of Clay Coun- 
ty, Missouri. He settled in Washington 
Township, Wayne County, Iowa, in the 
year 1848, where he entered 160 acres of 
wild land from the Government. The 
country was then mostly inhabited by In- 
dians and wild animals, and at that time 
there were but two houses in the present 
limits of Wayne County. The Harts were 
six miles distant from any habitation, and 
Indians were their most frequent visitors. 
Nehemiah A., our subject, was reared to 
manhood on a farm in this county, and ed- 
ucated in a rude log-cabin subcription 
school which was built by people of the 
county after his coming here. He was 
united in marriage, December 24, 1863, to 
Miss Parmelia Cox, a daughter of George 
Cox who settled in this county in an early 
day, remaining here till his death. Seven 
children blessed this union, of whom six 
survive — George N., James I., William L., 
Martin L., Ella B. and Leona Edith. Mr. 



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296 



HISTORY OF WAtXE COUJSiTr 




Hart has made farming the principal avoca- 
tion of his life, and by his industrious hab- 
its and excellent management has acquired 
a fine farm of 286 acres, which he keeps 
under good cultivation. Mr. Hart is an 
enterprising citizen of Benton Township, 
and is active in all enterprises which he 
thinks are for the advancement of her 
interests. He is always interested in ed- 
ucational matters, and has served one term 
as school director. 



P. NEWCOiMB, one of the leading 
men of Humeston, Wayne County, 
and a member of the firm of A. 
Humeston & Co., was born in Medina 
County, Ohio, April 29, 1841, a son of 
James and Harriet (Bennett) Newcomb. S. 
P. was reared on a farm, his father being 
engaged in agricultural pursuits. He re- 
ceived his rudimentar)^ education in the 
district schools, completing his studies r.t 
the Western Reserve Eclectic Institute of 
Hiram, Ohio, of which James A. Garfield 
was the principal, taking a three years' 
course at this institution. September 22, 
1861, Mr. Newcomb enlisted in the Forty- 
second Ohio regiment, commanded b}' 
Colonel Garfield, and partici})atcd in the 
battle of Haines' Bluff, siege of Vicksburg, 
Champion Hills, and in the campaign after 
General Humphrey Marshall, beside numer- 
ous skirmishes. He was then commissioned 
Captain of Company H, Third Mississippi 
Colored Infantry, serving in that capacity 
till the spring of 1864, when he resigned 
on account of his objection to stealing 
cotton, assigned to many regiments in the 
scene of their operations, and to the gen- 
eral antipathy displayed toward ofificers of 
colored regiments. He then returned to 
Ohio, coming to Iowa in the fall of 1865, 
and for one year had charge of the schools 
of Leon, Decatur County. He then pur- 



chased a farm in Richman Township, 
Wayne County, where he followed farming 
four )'^ears, after which he taught for a 
time in the schools of Osceola, Iowa. He 
began his mercantile career at Clear Lake, 
Iowa, but in a year sold out his business, 
and came to Humeston, becoming a mem- 
ber of the firm of A. Humeston & Co., 
about a year later. This firm was estab- 
lished by A. Humeston c^ Sons in the fall 
of 1872, and has since been carried on by 
some member of the family, their store 
being the pioneer business place of the 
town. Mr. Newcomb was married in 1865 
to Alice B. Humeston, daughter of Alva 
Humeston, and to this union were born 
three children — James Alva, Charles Eu- 
gene, and one who died in infancy. Mrs 
Newcomb died in the winter of 1880, and 
in the fall of 1881, Mr. Newcomb was 
united in marriage to Alice F. Arnold. 
This union has been blessed with two chil- 
dren — Errett L. and Harry G. Mr. New- 
comb is a member of the Christian church. 
He belongs to Wayne Post, No. 137, G. A. 
R., of which he was the first commander. 
He is at present serving his post as sur- 
ofeon. 



•'\asiidlf%^* 



^4— rt^vgi-'Z'TJTTM 




ILLIAM R. JONES, one of the 
old settlers of Wa3'ne County, was 
T born in Putnam County, Indiana, 
March 27, 1826, a son of William and Abi- 
gail (Davis) Jones, the father being a native 
of Kentucky, and the mother born in Casey 
County, of the same State. They were 
the parents of eleven children, ten of whom 
lived to maturity — Belinda C, Milton G., 
Louisa J., William R., Sandy B., Nathan 
M., Sarah A. M., Jonathan L., John A. and 
Newton J. Our subject was reared to 
manhood in his native county. He received 
but a limited education in the subscription 
schools, he being obliged from an earlv 
a<re to assist with the work of the farm. In 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



297 



the spring of 185 1 he came to Iowa, mak- 
ing the journey by team, first locating in 
Johns Township, Appanoose Coimty, where 
he resided until 1871, since which he has 
been a resident of Wright Township, 
Wayne County. He was united in mar- 
riage, July 5, 1874, to Rebecca C. Miller, of 
Monroe Township, Wayne County, a daugh- 
ter of Edwin and Nellie Miller. Mr. and 
Mrs. Jones are the parents of one son — 
Thomas F., who was born November 12, 
1879. ^-I^^- Jones has been ver}' successful 
in his agricultural pursuits, and is now the 
owner of a finely cultivated farm of 285 
acres, with a good residence and farm 



buildings. 



o-J3^=>— ^H^^ — »>-J€:J-»— 



m 



Mary Burk, a native of Johnson County, 
Indiana, daughter of Archie Burk, who 
was a native of Kentucky and is now a resi- 
dent of Clay County, Illinois. Seven 
children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Steele, but three of whom are living — 
Charles, an attorney of Corydon ; Laura, 
and Minnie. Charles married Fannie Chap- 
man, and has one child — Ila. Laura is the 
wife of Granville Rile}^, of Corydon, and 
Minnie is the wife of Wendell Corbett, of 
Benton Township and has one child, an 
infant dausrhter. 



-»-i>t>»^>f^l'^5*J-»«^#tf-*- 



OSEPH H. STEELE, deceased, was 
born in Owen County, Indiana, Sep- 
tember 6, 1 83 1, and died in Benton 
Township, February 22, 1883. His grand- 
father, James Steele, was a pioneer of Ow- 
en County, and for a year and a half lived 
in the block house, or fort, and there his 
father, Joseph H., Sr., was also reared. He 
spent his youth in a manner common to 
boys in the early days of Indiana, attending, 
when not at work on the farm, the old- 
fashioned subscription schools. In 1863 he 
moved to Edgar County, Illinois, and in the 
fall of 1864 to Wa3^ne County, Iowa, and 
located in Benton Township, .which was his 
home over eighteen years till he was called 
to the home beyond. He was a conscien- 
tious and devoted member of the MethrKlist 
Episcopal church, in which he was a class- 
leader ten 3'ears and a steward fifteen years. 
He was a consistent Christian man, upright 
and honorable in all his dealings, and was 
loved and esteemed by all who knew him. 
He was a liberal supporter of his church 
and a benevolent and kind friend to the 
poor and needy, and his death was a'loss to 
the community hard to be replaced. Mr. 
Steele was married in the fall of 1852, to 

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^YAS NEILL, one of the enterprising 
■•■'M and successful citizens of Clinton 
Township, Wayne County, residing 
on section 19, is a native of Ireland, where 
he was born March 10, 1839, being the 
fourth in a family of eight children of James 
and Margaret (Vincent) Neill. When he 
was twelve years of age his parents immi- 
grated to America, locating in Harrison 
County, Ohio, where our subject remained 
till 1855. He then removed to Monroe 
County, Iowa, locating in Pleasant Town- 
ship. During the late war he enlisted in 
Company H, First Iowa Cavalry, taking 
an active part in the battle of Little Rock 
and other engagements and skirmishes. 
He was mustered out of the service at Gal- 
veston, Texas, in the spring of 1866, when 
he returned to his home in Monroe County, 
Iowa. In the spring of 1867 he came to 
Wayne County, Iowa, and settled in Jeffer- 
son TowMiship, where he resided four 3-ears. 
He came to Clinton Township in 1871, 
where he bought eighty acres of land, to 
which ne has since added 160 acres, his 
farm now containing 240 acres of choice 
land. He has a substantial residence sur- 
rounded b}' shade and ornamental trees and 
good farm buildings. He also has a very fine 
orchard. Mr. Neill was married Februai-y 
20, 1868, to Mary R. Crowcll, of Monroe 

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29S 



HISrORl OF WATSE COUNTY. 



County, Iowa, a daughter of Hiram and 
Mary Crowell. Two children have been 
born to this union — William Ernest and 
Nellie. Mr. Neill began life on limited 
means, and his present fine property has 
been acquired by his own efforts, and to- 
day he is classed among the successful 
farmers of Clinton Township. 



|lf YLER P. WALDEN, Cashier of the 
^iflji^ First National Bank, Allerton, Iowa, 
^1 is a brother of Allen Walden, of 
Corydon. They are the sons of Joseph M. 
Walden, who, in 1851, bought property in 
Lee County, Iowa, with the intention of 
locating. In the spring of 1852 he visited 
the county for the purpose of transacting 
some business pertaining to his interest 
there, and was taken suddenly sick and 
died. The family at that time were resid- 
ing in Adams County, Ohio. In the fall of 
1852 the mother with her family came to 
Iowa and located in Lee County. The 
eldest son, Allen, having moved there in 
the spring of 185 I. Her family consisted 
of ten children, five sons and five daughters, 
of whom four sons and one daughter are 
living. She now lives with her son in Cory- 
don, aged eighty-four years. Allen Wal- 
den was born in Fayette County, Indiana, 
and was but three years of age when his 
parents moved to Adams Connty, Ohio, 
where he grew to manhood. In the spring 
of 1 85 1 he located on a farm in Lee County, 
Iowa, and in the spring of 1862 went over- 
land to California, where he remained uiitil 
1868. In 1869 he located in Corydon, 
where he has since lived. Tyler P. Wal- 
den was born in Adams County, Ohio, in 
1846, and was but six 3xars of age when his 
mother removed to Iowa. When eighteen 
years old he went to Keokuk, and during 
the years 1864 and 1865 was employed as 
clerk in a mercantile house. He then went 



to Corydon, where he served as deputy 
auditor several years and in June, 1869, en- 
gaged in the lumber business with his 
brother Allen. In 1874 he was largely in- 
strumental in organizing and secured the 
most of the stock for the First National 
Bank of Allerton, and has been its cashier 
ever since that time. The success of the 
enterprise has been mamly due to his skill 
and excellent business capacity. On the 
organization of the bank the officers were: 
William Bradle}^ President; John Wright, 
Vice-President, and T. P. Walden, Cashier. 
The only change in the officers has been 
vice-president, R, S. Lowry having taken 
the place of John Wright. 



B. LEWIS was born in Licking 
County, Ohio, June 30, 1828, a son of 
.y^^ Seth and Sally (Castle) Lewis, the 
father born May 2, 1785, in Massachusetts, 
and the mother a native of New York 
State, born March 22, 1789. They were 
among the first settlers of Licking County, 
remaining there till our subject was seven 
vears cf age when they removed to Ver- 
million County, Indiana, subsequentlv re- 
moving to 'tazewell County, Illinois. The 
father died March 24, 1846, and the 
mother, January 30, 1868. They were the 
parents of eleven children — George, Ande- 
nette, Angeline, Martin, Sylvester, Maiy 
Ann, Sally, Seth, Billings B., Elijah and 
Clementine. Billings B., our subject, was 
married October 4, 1855, to Emeline Ewing, 
a daughter of Robert Ewing, who was born 
August 25, 1789, in Fauquier County, Vir- 
ginia. Mr. and Mrs. Lewis have nine chil- 
dren living — Howard E., Lissie, Chester, 
George D., Almar, Lyman G., Fred J., 
Robert S. and Everett J. A son, Simon B., 
is deceased. In 1857 Mr. Lewis went to 
McLean County, Illinois, making his home 
there for thirteen years. In- the fall of 



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►;;♦; BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



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299 :♦::♦: 

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1870 became to Iowa, locating on his pres- 
ent farm on section 8, Wright Township, 
in 1 87 1. His farm contains 280 acres of 
well-cultivated land, with a good residence 
and farm buildings. In 1885 he built a 
cheese factory which has a capacity to 
manufacture 300 pounds dail3\ His cheese 
is of the highest quality, and meets with a 
ready sale at good market prices. Mr. 
Lewis is one of the enterprising men of 
Wright Township, and is always ready to 
support every movement calculated to pro- 
mote the public welfare. Mr, Ewing, 
father of Mrs. Lewis, was m'arried in 
Guernsey County, Ohio, Januar}^ 30, 18 10, 
to Mary A. Beymer, who was born June 
19, 1 791, a native of Greene County, Penn- 
sylvania. They had a family of ten chil- 
dren born to them — Philip, John, Eleanor, 
Juliana, Polly, Elizabeth, Simon, Stewart, 
Robert and Emeline. 

,. W. SHERRITT, owner and proprie- 
tor of the Sherman House, Allerton, 
^^1® Iowa, was born in Gallia Count}^, 
Ohio, in 1833. His father, James Sherritt, 
was a native of Virginia and removed to 
Ohio when a young man, making that State 
his home until his death. Mr. Sherritt re- 
mained in his native State until manhood; 
and in 1858 came West as far as Missouri, 
and located in Putnam County, just south 
of the Iowa State line, and Cory don and 
Vllerton were his trading points. In 1874 
he purchased the Sherman House, which 
for several years was known as the Aller- 
ton House. It was built about the time 
the town was laid out, by George McClane, 
who conducted it several years. It is a 
commodious building, located near the 
depot, on the north side of the railroad 
track. Mr. Sherritt is an accommodating, 
attentive landlord, and his house is well 
patronized by the traveling public. In ad- 
dition to his hotel business Mr. Sherritt 



has for many years dealt extensively in 
grain and stock, and is among the promi- 
nent business men of Allerton. He was 
married after coming West to Mary A. 
Graham, daughter of William Graham, of 
Corydon, Iowa. They have four children, 
two sons and two daughters — Cora, Curtis, 
Mattie and Frank. 



•uiej2i2r©^^— H 



>^4— 'rt/©^2^OT?tv. 



^rACOB McVEY, section 17, Clay Town- 

fship, was born in Maryland, March 4, 
1 83 1, a son of William McVey. When 
he was a child his father moved to Coshoc- 
ton County, Ohio, and twelve or thirteen 
years later to Greene County, Indiana. 
After he reached manhood his parents, in 
1854, moved to Iowa and settled in Clay 
Township, Wayne County, where the 
father died January 29, 1869. Jacob Mc- 
Vey was the son of poor parents, and was, 
early obliged to assist in the maintenance 
of the famil3^ His educational advantages 
were necessarily limited as his services 
were required on the farm. In his youth 
he was inured to the m)^steries of clearing, 
chopping, picking brush, rolling logs, 
splitting rails, etc. He has often chopped 
the timber for 300 rails in a day, his brother 
Henry splitting them. When he started 
in life for himself his father was unable to 
give him any assistance, and the only thing 
he possessed was a young colt ; but with a 
determination to make life a success he 
persevered and soon had a comfortable, 
though not elegant home, and a few acres 
under cultivation. His first house was a 
log cabin, with puncheon floor and door, 
clapboard roof, and sod fire-place. His 
furniture was of the rudest sort, mostl}^ of 
his own manufacture. He was industrious, 
and by good management and economy 
has accumulated a fine property. His farm 
now contains 320 acres of fine land, all well 
improved, and his home is one of the 






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300 



///STO/n' OF WATiVE COUNTT. 



pleasantest in the township. He was mar- 
ried February i, 1858, to Nancy J., daugh- 
ter of Henr)' Shank, now of Oregon. They 
have had seven children, of whom six are 
living — Frank, Samuel, Ella, Rachel, Henry 
and Cora. 



■»^AA<--a/VL( 




•C^C####^^f3T/vt..' 



H. TEDFORD, a leading attorney 
of Wayne County, Iowa, has re- 
sided in Corvdon since Septem- 
ber 10, 1869. He was born in Blount 
County, Tennessee, November 8, 1844. ^^ 
185 1 his parents, John and Elizabeth Ted- 
ford, removed with their family to Iowa, 
and located in Louisa County, where they 
still live. On the breaking out of the war 
of the Rebellion Mr. Ted ford enlisted but 
was rejected on account of his youth, but 
in September, 1861, his services were ac- 
cepted and the 23d ol that month he was 
enrolled a member of Company F, Eleventh 
Iowa Infantry, and served until the close 
of the war, the entire length of his term as 
a soldier being three years, eight months 
and twenty days. He participated in many 
of the most important battles and cam- 
paigns of the war, including Shiloh, 
Corinth, siege and battle around Vicks- 
burg, the Atlanta campaign and Sherman's 
march to the sea. He was a gallant sol- 
dier and served his country long and faith- 
fully. He participated in all the campaigns 
and battles in which his regiment was en- 
gaged, the only time he did not report for 
duty being two weeks that he was in the 
hospital at Jefferson Cit)-, Missouri, in the 
early part of his enlistment. At the battle 
of Shiloh his regiment lost 200 in killed 
and wounded out of 600 who went into 
action, and in that engagement he was 
slightly wounded. Soon after his return 
home from the war he entered Grandview 
Academy, where he remained two years. 
In the spring of 1868 he entered the law 
department of the Iowa State University, 



where he graduated in June, 1869, and in 
September following located in Corydon, 
and began the practice of his profession. 
In 1873 he formed a partnership with Lewis 
Miles, which continued until 1879, ^"d 
since then he has engaged in practice alone. 
He has an extensive practice, standing high 
in his profession both as a counselor and 
pleader before a jury. He is a Republican 
in politics and is an influential member of 
the party. In 1884 he was elected one of 
the presidental electors for the State of 
Iowa. Mr. Tedford was married June 22, 
1875, to Miss Emma Thomas, daughter of 
W. W. Thomas, of Corydon. They have 
Eva, born July 9, 1877. 



one daughter 



EVERETT, M. D., of Allerton, 
is the second son of Dr. Warren D. 
Everett, and was born in Moniteau 
County, Missouri, March 25, 1843. He be- 
gan the study of medicine with his father 
in i860, but relinquished it in 1861 to enter 
the Union army, enlisting in August of 
that year in Company I, Fourth Iowa In- 
fantry. The Doctor was seriously wounded 
at the battle of Pea Ridge, by being shot 
through the left hip. He la}- upon the bat- 
tle field till the next day, and tliere is no 
doubt that his knowledge of the science of 
anatom}' which enabled him to staunch the 
bleeding of his wound saved his life. Dr.' 
F. M. Everett, of Corydon, on learning of 
the misfortune of his brother, repaired at 
once to the hospital where his brother lav, 
and through his skillful nursing he re- 
covered sufficiently to return home, al- 
though the Doctor has never fully 
recovered from the effects of his wound. 
In August, 1863, the Doctor again entered 
the army, enlisting as First Sergeant of 
Company D, Eighth Iowa Cavalr}', he hav- 
ing assisted in recruiting this company. 
This regiment was organized at Davenport, 






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** _^____ 



and took part in Sherman's Atlanta cam- 
paign, and in the celebrated raid of Stone- 
man and McCook. While on the latter 
expedition the Doctor was taken prisoner, 
and after being incarcerated in Anderson- 
ville Prison about four months he was re- 
moved to Florence, where he was held a 
prisoner six months longer. He was then 
parolled, after having suffered all the hor- 
rors of the worst rebel prisons for ten 
months, and as soon as he was able to 
travel he returned home. But even a 
greater affliction than any he had yet en- 
dured awaited him at home, the knowledge 
of which had not reached him while being 
confined in a rebel prison. We refer to the 
death of his father, whom "lie loved, and 
who had died several months before his ar- 
rival home. The Doctor regards this as the 
greatest affliction of his life, he having 
looked forward to the reunion with his father 
with great joy and gladness, and it was on 
him he always depended for advice and 
counsel. Soon after his return from the 
army he resumed the study of medicine 
with his brother at Corydon, and in 1869 
graduated at the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons at Keokuk. He began the prac- 
tice of his profession at Peoria, where he 
remained two years, when he formed a 
partnership with his brother at Corydon, 
with whom he practiced several years. 
He then, in 1874, came to Allerton, he being 
the second physician at this place, where 
he has succeeded in building up a good 
practice. Dr. Everett has been devoting 
his entire attention to surgery for the past 
few years, and has a great love for the 
science of surgery. He has been a mem- 
ber of the Board of Examining Surgeons 
for pensions at Allerton for the past year. 
In 1884 he sold his residence in Allerton, 
intending to remove to Kansas City, where 
his desires for surgery could be better sat- 
isfied, but, owing to sickness in his own 
familv, he abandoned that idea, and re- 



cently purchased a neat, comfortable home 
in Allerton, where he expects to follow his 
profession. In 1867 the Doctor married 
Mary E. Fletcher, a daughter of Eli 
Fletcher, one of the pioneers of Wayne 
County, Iowa. They have an adopted 
daughter, named Cora, who is a student at 
the Baptist Institution at Pella, Iowa. The 
family are members of the Baptist church 
at Allerton. Dr. Everett is a member of 
the Masonic fraternity, and was master of 
the lodge at Corydon for four years. He 
was the first master of the Masonic lodge 
at Allerton, being one of its charter mem- 
bers. 

H •^>i^i^^<^«f- — t- 

'AMES T. RIGGLE, one of the lead- 
ing agriculturists of Richman Town- 
s;^^ ship, residing on section 15, has been 
a resident of Wayne County since the fall 
of 1864. He first settled in Washington 
Township, where he lived till the fall of 
1875, when he removed to his present farm, 
where he is successfully engaged in gen- 
eral farming. Mr. Riggle is a native of 
Guernsey County, (3hio, born July 3, 1843, 
and is a son of Isaac and Elizabeth (Brown) 
Riggle, his father being a native of Vir- 
ginia. Our subject lived on a farm in Ohio 
till ten years of age, when he went with his 
parents to Iroquois County, Illinois, and 
was there engaged in farming till coming 
to Wa3-ne County, Iowa. He was married 
April 18, 1866, to Miss Talitha C. Marsh, 
who was born in Grant Cc^unty, Indiana, 
December 2, 1844, but at the time of her 
marriage was living in Lucas County, 
Iowa. They have four children — Lula 
May, born February 10, 1867; Elma Belle, 
born December 9, 1869; James Harmont, 
born January 20, 1872, and Edna Maud, 
born January 6, 1876. Mr. Riggle takes a 
deep interest in the educational matters of 
his township and county. While a resi- 
dent of Washington Township he was 



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3,02 



HISTOm- OF WAVNE COUNTY. 



twice elected school director, and has held 
the same office continuously since coming 
to this township. He was largely instru- 
mental in having Humeston made an inde- 
pendent school district, as under the old 
regulations there was no school-house in 
the village, the nearest one being two and 
a* half miles distant. He is at present 
serving as trustee of the Methodist Episco- 
pal church, of which he is an active mem- 
ber, and has also held the position of 
superintendent of the Sabbath-school. He 
was the first president of the Humeston 
Public Library Association. He was a 
member of the company that established 
the Humeston Creamery, and was its man- 
aarcr for some time. 



tLEX. L. ROCKHOLD, banker, is a 
native of Grand River Township, 
— i^ Wayne Count}-, Iowa, born June 21, 
1850, his father, Talbot Rockhold, being 
still a resident of this township. His3'Outh 
was passed on his father's farm, and his 
education received at the schools of Gar- 
den Grove, and at the Business College at 
Burlington, Iowa. After leaving school he 
followed farming for three years. In 1875 
he came to Lineville and was engaged in 
the hardware business for five years when 
he was elected cashier of the Bank of Line- 
ville, which does a general banking busi- 
ness in which he, as cashier, is meeting with 
good success, and carries loans to the 
amount of from $60,000 to $75,000. Mr. 
Rockhold is a man of excellent business 
qualifications, and by his fair and honest 
dealings and strict integrity he has won the 
confidence and esteem of all who know 
him. He was united in marriage, October 
I, 1872, to Miss Eliza Comstock, a daughter 
of Daniel H. Comstock, of Grand River 
Township. Two children have been born 
to bless this union — Pearl and Floy. Mr. 




Rockhold is a member of both the Odd 
Fellows and Good Templars orders. He 
is a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church South. 

G. RATCLIFF, general merchant 
and postmaster, of Cambria, 
is a native of Marion Countj', 
Iowa, born December 12, 1857, his father, 
Thomas J. Ratcliff, being a native of 
Hamilton County, Indiana. The father 
was the eldest son of Jesse and Rosanna 
(Cozad) Ratcliff, of Kentucky, and a grand- 
son of John Ratcliff, who was of Welsh an- 
cestry. The parents of Thomas J. Ratcliff 
had a family of nine children, as follows — 
John A., Thomas J., AUie A., Aaron L., 
Rosanna, Sarah, Rosanna, Levina, and 
Jacob W. Thomas J. Ratcliff was reared 
in Hamilton County, Indiana, till eighteen 
years of age, when he located in Van Buren 
County, Iowa. He was married about 1847, 
to Jane A. Boswell, of Van Buren County, 
a daughter of Peachie and Caroline Bos- 
well. Nine children were born to this union 
— M. G. (our subject), Ed. R., Mollie E., C. 
A., Jesse, William T., Lloyd, Emma and 
Peachie G. Thomas J. Ratcliff resided in 
Van Buren County till 185 i, when he came 
with his family to Wayne County, and 
lived in Corydon Township till 1861. He 
then bought a farm of 240 acres, on section 
I, Benton Township, where he has a good 
residence and commodious farm buildings, 
a fine orchard, and his land under excellent 
cultivation. M. G. Ratcliff, whose name 
heads this sketch, was the eldest child in 
his father's family. His education was re- 
ceived in the common schools, and at the 
Birmingham Academy. On leaving school 
he engaged in teaching, and taught several 
successful terms. In the fall of 1880 he en- 
gaged in the mercantile business at Cam- 
bria, which continued till October 22, 1885, 
when his store and its contents were 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



^03 



destroyed by fire, but not being discour- 
aged he again engaged in the business, and 
now carries a general assortment of the 
best staple groceries, patent medicines and 
notions, and by his strict attention to the 
wants of his customers and gentlemanly 
deportment he is meeting with good suc- 
cess in his business, and building up a good 
trade. October 17, 1885, he was appointed 
to his present position of postmaster, which 
office he has filled with credit to himself 
and satisfaction to his constituents. He 
lias been justice of the peace since the fall 
of 1884, and dispenses the duties of this 
office in a wise and judicious manner. He 
is also a notary public. He is the chairman 
of the Democratic township committee of 
Washington Township. Mr. Ratcliff was 
imited in marriage, January i, 1881, to 
Allie A. McMeans. They have one son — 
Floyd, who was born September 17, 1882. 



--vl/lC£G#§■^^f (^0^(310^- 



-/WW* 



fAMES R. EVANS, druggist, residing 
in Lineville, Wayne County, is a na- 
-,^ tive of Tennessee, being born in Knox 
Count}^ that State, September 21, 1849, ^ 
son of William H. Evans, of Decatur 
County, Iowa, he having settled in that 
county in 1850. Our subject was reared 
on his father's farm, his education being 
obtained in the common schools of his 
neighborhood. In his youth he learned the 
carpenter's trade, which he followed in 
connection with his farming pursuits till 
1885. In March of that vear he came to 
Lineville, Grand River Township, Wayne 
County, and bought the stock of drugs 
owned by D. R. Ockerman, and has since 
conducted the business, in which he is 
meeting with fair success. Mr. Evans was 
united in marriage, November 23, 1876, to 
Emma Hinds, a daughter of Sampson 
Hinds, a resident of Decatur County, Iowa. 
Three children have been born to Mr. and 




Mrs. Evans, whose names are — Werf J., 
Glenn J. and Alta B. Mr. and Mrs. Evans 
are both members of the Presbyterian 
church. Mr. Evans is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity. 



m W. WELCH, an enterprising farmer 
*- of Union Township, residing on 
section 35, was born in Marion 
County, Ohio, January 26, 1827, a son of 
Solomon and Lovina Welch. Our subject 
was reared and educated in Marion and Dela- 
ware counties, Ohio, and after complet- 
ing his education he began teaching school, 
commencing on $14 per month. He was 
united in marriage, August 28, 1853, to 
Elizabeth Biggerstaff, who was born in 
Marion County, Ohio, July 31, 1836. They 
have four children — Senora, Thomas S., 
Hannah and William B., all but the eldest 
born on the homestead in Union Township. 
Mr. Welch left Marion County in 1857, 
coming to Wayne County, Iowa, with his 
wife and infant daughter, and locating on 
his present farm, August i of that year. 
They came by boat as far as Keokuk, Iowa, 
thence to Corydon, Wayne County, by 
wagon. Mr. Welch had but 75 cents when 
he reached his destination. He first pre- 
empted and later bought his land, paying 
for it $5 and $10 per acre. He and his 
brother, Presley S. Welch, removed a 
squatter's cabin to his land, rebuilt it and 
there he and his family lived for years. 
They were noted for their hospitality 
their latch-string was always out and no 
stranger was ever turned from their home, 
their floor being at times covered with 
sleeping land-hunters. Mr. Welch has suc- 
ceeded in his agricultural pursuits, and by 
his own industry and good management 
has accumulated a fine property, owning 
in all 700 acres of choice land, 400 acres 
the homestead. His losf cabin 



being in 






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was replaced by his present substantial and 
commodious residence, in 1862, and his 
barn and out buildings are in good condi- 
tion. In politics he is a radical Republi- 
can. Both Mr. and Mrs. Welch have been 
members of the Methodist Episcopal 
church since 1850. Two of our subject's 
ancles were soldiers in the war of 1812. 
His father, Solomon Welch, was a native 
of Vermont, and came to Ohio in 1815. In 
1820 he married Lovina Smith, who died 
in 1835, Mr. Welch surviving till 1863. 
Their son, P. S. Welch, died three davs 
after the father. Mrs. Welch's father, 
Friend Big-gferstaff, was born in Westmore- 
land Countv, Virginia, in 1789, and settled 
in Ohio in the year 1516. He was a son 
of William Biggerstaff, a native of Ireland, 
and of high birth. He, William Bigger- 
staff, was abducted from his native country 
when quite young, and kept on board a 
ship for years, when he was landed ih 
America to fight the battle of life alone. 
For his wife he married Rachel Ashcroft, 
the orrandmothcr of Mrs. Welch. 



.^-5- 



-5-0- 



lEORGE G. RICHARDSON, one of 

Ihe prominent farmers of Wayne 
County, was born in Davis County, 
Iowa, October 16, i85i,a son of Harvey 
D. and Elizabeth Richardson, natives of 
Vernon, now residents of Decatur County, 
Iowa. His father was married to Elizabeth 
Lock wood, of Vermont, in the year 1848, 
emigrated to Iowa, Davis County, and from 
there to Decatur County when George 
was but a small boy and there he was 
rearecf. His father being one of the pio- 
neers of Iowa, moving to the State when 
it was mhabited by Indians and wild 
animals, all the hardships incident to a life 
on the frontier were undergone by him, 
and life at that early day was a bitter and 
trying experience. Our subject was reared 



by practical and industrious parents, and 
the lessons he learned from them have 
resulted in placing him on a sound financial 
basis, and although a young man he has a 
good home and the prospect of a prosperous 
future. He moved to Wayne County in 
April, 1882. His fine farm is located on 
section 13, Benton Township. He was 
married April 12, 1882, to Rebecca, daugh- 
ter of Thomas and Mary Beal,of Corydon, 
Iowa. The}' have two children — Thomas 
H. and Mary N. Mr. Richardson is an 
active member of the Masonic fraternitv. 



fAMES Hx\.LL, one of the enterprisinaf 
farmers of Richman Township, Wayne 
c^v4 County, resides on section 15, where 
he has a fine farm of 430 acres, lying partly 
in Wayne and partly in Lucas County. He 
was born in Cumberland County, New 
Jersc}', September 15, 1844, and is the son 
of Caleb S. and Phoebe (Ayres) Hall. When 
he was thirteen months old he had the 
misfortune to lose his mother, and in 1848 
his father removed to Peoria County, Illi- 
nois, where he engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits and later in the mercantile business. 
He subsequently moved to Fulton Count}', 
and from there to Marshall County in the 
same State. When James was ten years 
of age he left his father's home, going to 
live with M. P. Simms, a brother-in-law, 
and remained with him about six years. 
From that time he worked by the month 
for various parties until February i, 1864, 
when he enlisted in Company E, Eighty- 
sixth Illinois Infantry, under Colonel Fahne- 
stock, and took part in the battles of Rome, 
Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, 
Dalton, Resaca, Rocky Face Ridge, the en- 
iratrements around Atlanta and at Jones- 
boro, Georgia, where he was slightly 
wounded. He moved on with Sher- 
man's victorious army and participated 



Koa 






Sue LiWARV 






BlOCnAPHlCAL SKETCHES. 



307 



in the engagements at Averysboro and 
Benton ville, and when the regiment was 
mustered out he was transferred to Com- 
pany E, Thirty-fourth Illinois Infantry, 
as his time had not expired, and served 
until July, 1865, receiving his discharge 
a month later at Chicago. He returned 
home and after taking a much-needed 
rest he again worked at farming by the 
month. He subsequently farmed with 
H. S. Brown on shares, remaining with 
him several 3'ears. Early in 1869 he came 
to Wayne County, Iowa, and on the 4th 
of March was- married to Miss Sarah X. 
Barnes. He returned to Illinois, but in the 
fall of the same year came to Iowa, and 
early in 1870 settled in Lucas County, 
where he lived until 1874, when he moved 
to Wayne County, where he has since 
lived. He is numbered among Wayne 
County's most intelligent self-made men, 
and deservedly stands high in the estima- 
tion of all. He is a member of Humeston 
Lodge, No. 61, K. of P., and Wayne Post, 
No. 137, G. A. R. Mr. and Mrs. Hall have 
two children — Carrie A. and Lillie M. 
They are members of the Baptist church. 

^'^^iENRY McVEY, deceased, was a na- 
Iji^ tive of Maryland, where he was born 
^)(| April 24, 1825, a son of William and 
Mary (Bailey) McVey. When a child he 
went with his parents to Coshocton Coun- 
ty, Ohio, where his mother died, his father 
surviving till January 29, 1869. His fa- 
ther's family afterward removed to Greene 
Count}', Indiana, where he lived till becom- 
ing a resident of this county, when he lo- 
cated on the farm where his family has 
since resided. He was luiited in marriag^e 
December i, 1859, to Mary Miller, daugh- 
ter of John and Sophia (Walworth) Miller, 
natives of Pennsylvania and Canada respect- 
ively. Her father is now deceased, and 



her mother makes her home with her 
daughter, Mrs. McVey. Of the eight chil- 
dren born to Mr. and Mrs. McVey five 
are living — John W., Benjamin N., Nel- 
lie M., Joseph M. and Lewis F. John mar- 
ried Lillie Ritchie and has one child— ^Nlary 
L. He is a resident of Clay Township, this 
county. Mr. McVey died in Clay Township 
on his farm, on section 17, February 5, 1882, 
and in his death his family lost an affec- 
tionate husband and father, and the township 
a good citizen. He was upright in all his 
dealings, and was highly respected by all 
who knew him. During his life he was a 
hard working man, and many a time has 
split 300 rails in a day, and at his death his 
family was left in comfortable circumstan- 
ces. 

-^= o^g^iQ^ o4i^ 



fOHN FEN LEY, residing in Wright 
Township, on section 9, was born in 
Hendricks County, Indiana, April 22, 
1837, a son of Havilahand Melinda(Bohan- 
nan) Fenley, the father now deceased. 
They were the parents of ten children — 
Nancy, Mary, Eli J., John, Andrew, Eme- 
line, James, Mahala and Isaac (twins) and 
Lemuel. After the death of the father, the 
mother was -subsequently married to John 
Allen, one of the old pioneers of Wayne 
County, the date of their marriage being 
April 20, 1 87 1. John Allen was born in 
Mason Count}-, Virginia, March 4, 1806, a 
son of John and Rachel i\llen. He has 
been a resident of Wayne County, Iowa, 
since 185 1, and is now living with our subject 
in Wright Township He held the office of 
clerk of Wayne County for eighteen 
months. John Fenley, whose name heads 
this sketch, was reared in his native county 
till seventeen years of age, when he re- 
moved with his parents to Putnam County, 
Indiana, He was united in marriage, No- 
vember 27, i860, to Nancy Jane Wright, 
a daughter of William and Elizabeth (Rude) 



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308 



HISTORY OF WAYNE COUNTY. 



Wright. Six of the seven children born 
to Mr. and Mrs. Fenle}-, arc living- — F. M., 
Laura Belle, Charles M., Albert, Cvnthia 
O. and Gertrude. A son, William Wash- 
ington, is deceased. Mr. Fenley came with 
his family to Wayne County, Iowa, in 1868, 
and first located on section 16, Wright 
Township, where he resided eight years, 
and in 1877 settled on the farm where he 
has since made his home. His farm con- 
tains ninety-four acres of choice land under 
thorough cultivation, on which he has a 
good residence and farm buildings. Mr. 
and Mrs. Fenley are consistent members of 
the Missionar}' Baptist church, and re- 
spected members of society. 



mEVI CALDWELL, engaged in farm- 
m^ ing and stock-raising on section 17, 
^P^ Clay Township, was born in Portage 
Count}', (3hio, October 23, 1822, his father, 
John Caldwell, being a native of Westmore- 
land Countv, Pennsylvania, and an early 
settler of Ohio. Our subject received his 
education in the schools of his neighbor- 
hood, which were supported by subscrip- 
tions, the school-house being a rude log 
cabin. He was reared to agricultural pur- 
suits which he has followed through life, 
and by his persevering industry and excel- 
lent management he has succeeded well in 
his farming operations, and is now the 
owner of a fine farm in Clay Township 
which contains 205 acres of land under 
good cultivation. He has been a resident 
of Wayne County since 1855 ^vhen he lo- 
cated in Richman Township, four miles 
north of his present farm. He has made 
his home on section 17, Clay Township, 
since i860, but the board shant}' in which 
he then settled has given place to a sub- 
stantial farm dwelling. Mr. Caldwell was 
married in Portage County, Ohio, October 
25, 1843, t<^ Louisa M. Curtis, a daughter 



of Reuben and Hopy (Hills) Curtis. Nine 
children have been born t(^ them, five of 
whom are living — Oscar G., Marietta J., 
John F., L3'dia A. and Seymour G., all 
now married and settled in life. One son, 
Gilbert C, was killed in a snow slide in 
Colorado, in February, 1878, at the age of 
twenty-six years. Mr. Caldwell has served 
his township as trustee, school director 
and road supervisor. He is a member bf 
the Masonic fraternity. 

-^ ■»^»i^:*^^*s^<^ V- 

\ W. FREELAND, the oldest practic- 
ing attorney now living in Corydon, 
is a native of Owen County, Indiana, 
born in August, 1840, a son of John R. and 
Anna (Hance) Freeland, natives of Mary- 
land. The mother died when our subject 
was a child, the father living to the ad- 
vanced age of eighty-five years. The early 
educational advantages of Mr. Freeland 
were such as the common schools of his 
native town afforded. He afterward at- 
tended the county seminary of his native 
count}" for one year. In 1857, at the age 
of seventeen years, he left his native county, 
coming to Corydon for the purpose of re- 
ceiving instruction of W. E. Taylor, then 
one of the prominent lawyers of Wavne 
County, Iowa. He remained a student in 
his office till the fall of 1859 ^^hen he was 
admitted to the bar, J. S. Townsend being 
at that time presiding judge. After being 
admitted to the bar he became associated 
with Mr. Taylor, under the firm name of 
Taylor & Freeland. In 1862 the former 
entered the army, when Mr. Freeland 
practiced alone for several years. He then 
formed a partnership with J. N. McClene- 
han, with whom he practiced several years, 
when he was again alone for two or three 
years. E. E. Clark was then associated 
with him two years, and in 1879 the present 
law firm of Freeland & Miles was formed. 






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^<| BIOr.RAPHICAL SKETCHES. 309 



As will be seen, Mr. Freeland has spent 
all his professional life in Corydon. Com- 
ing here when but a boy and when Wayne 
County was in its infancy, he has witnessed 
its remarkable growth and the changes 
which have taken place in the past thirty 
years. Probably no man is more widely 
known in Wayne County than Mr. Free- 
land. He has always l^een a close student 
of his profession, and, aided by a sound 
judgment and clear reasoning powers, 
has gained the head of his profession, and 
his opinions on matters of law are regarded 
as authoritative. Before the oflfice of 
County Judge was abolished Mr. Free- 
land served one term in that capacit}^, be- 
ing elected in i860. In polities he has al- 
ways affiliated with the Democratic party. 
Mr. Freeland was married in January, 
1861, to Miss Belle Kelley, a native of 
Ohio, and a daughter of B. H. Kelley. 
They have three children — Carrie B., wife 
of J. S. Garrett ; Lillie and Floy, 



-«- 



-&I- 



^^, B. PORTER, son of Samuel and 
;| Lydia Porter, was born in Fulton 
~-^ ® County, Illinois, October 2, 1854. 
When he was a babe he was taken by his 
parents to Wayne County, Iowa, they loca- 
ting on the farm which is still the home of 
otir subject. Here he was rearf d to the life 
of a farmer, receiving a limited education 
in the common schools of the county. June 
28, 1874, he was united in marriage to Mar- 
tha E. Rook, she being a daughter of i\.dam 
and Barbara (Grubaugh) Rook, of Mercer 
County, Missouri. This union has been 
blessed with two children, a daughter, 
Sarah Etta, and -Gilbert Glenn. Mr. Por- 
ter, though yet a young man, has gained a 
good position in the county, both socially 
and financially, and is classed among the 
enterprising farmers of Clinton Town- 
ship, where he has so long resided. His 



mother finds a home with him, where she 
is surrounded with all the necessary com- 
forts of life. Mr. Porter is quite extensively 
engaged in dealing in stock, and has some 
fine specimens of horses and mules on his 
farm, his mules and jacks being classed 
among the best in the county. He is pleas- 
antly located on section 21, Clinton Town- 
ship, having a good story and a half 
residence built in 1883, and his farm under 
thorough cultivation. 



f^'OHN A. JOHNSON, general mer- 
chant, Lineville, was born near Cam- 
bridge, Guern sey County, Ohio, Octo- 
ber 9, 1843. His father, Jesse Johnson, was 
a native of Pennsylvania. In early life he 
followed the hatter's trade, but later en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits which he fol- 
lowed till his death. John A. Johnson was 
reared on a farm, and in his youth attended 
the common-schools, completing his educa- 
tion at the Garden Grove (Iowa) Seminary. 
He enlisted in the late war in Company H, 
Seventy-eighth Ohio Infantry, and partici- 
pated in the battles of Shiloh and Donelson. 
He wasdischarged on account of disability. 
He came to Wayne County, Iowa, in the 
fall of 1865, and in the spring of 1867 set- 
tled in Lineville, where he had charge of 
the school for one year. He had taught 
school one year previous to coming to this 
place. He then ran a branch store at Som- 
erset, Missouri, for J. M. Sullivan, when he 
returned to Lineville. He then clerked 
one year at this place for Mr. Sullivan, 
when he engaged in business on his own 
account, in which he has metw^ith ex- 
cellent success. He began life without 
means but by his persevering industry 
and energy he has become one of the 
well-to-do citizens of Wayne County. He 
carries a stock of $6,000, his annual 
sales amounting to about $10,000. Mr. 






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310 



HISTORY OF WAYNE COUNTY. 



Johnson was married June 8, 1871, to Julia 
A. Mead, daughter of George Mead, of 
Grand River Township. Mr. and Mrs. 
Johnson are members of the Presbyterian 
church, the church of that denomination 
at Lineville being organized by them. 
Mr. Johnson is a member of the Grand 
Army of the Republic, and of the Good 
Templar's order. He was nominated by 
the Republican party for the Iowa State 
Legislature, in 1881, but was defeated solely 
because he made the canvass from a tem- 
perance standpoint. 



-^i«^ 



fOHN R. RANKIN, deceased, was one 
of the pioneers of Wayne County, 
^v^ Iowa. He was born in Brown County, 
Ohio, December 20, 1809, and was there 
married to Polly Harbaugh, a native of 
Adams County, Ohio, born October 7, 18 14. 
In 1832 they moved to Hamilton County, 
Indiana, and settled on a new farm which 
he improved, making it his home until 
1854, when he moved to Warren County, 
Iowa, and in April of the next year located 
in Wayne County, on section 24, Warren 
Township, where he entered 320 acres of 
land, to which he afterward added sixty 
acres. The family at that time consisted of 
four children — William M., John W., Mary 
E. (died ^ged ten years); and Thomas T. 
(died aged five years). An elder son, 
Lewis H., remained in Indiana, but came 
to Iowa in 1859. Two children were born 
in Iowa, but both died in childhood. In 
1866 Mr. and Mrs. Rankin visited their old 
home in Hamilton County, Indiana, and 
when returning home Mrs. Rankin was 
taken sick with cholera, and died on the 
evening of the day she returned home. 
Mr. Rankin was attacked with the same 
disease three days later and lived but a few 
hours. Their son, William M. Rankin, was 
born in Hamilton County, Indiana, Sep- 



-V^Ta C. THOMAS, section 24, Jackson 
, i Y Township, is one of the entei-pris- 
'k^'Tr® ing farmers and stock-raisers of 
Wayne County. He is a native of Jef- 
ferson County, Iowa, born January 4, 
1 85 1, a son of Jesse and Elizabeth (Ander- 
son) Thomas. His early life was spent in 
assisting his father on the farm and in at- 
tending school, remaining at home until 
manhood. In 1875 he went to Wayne 



tember 30, 1841. He was a gallant soldier 
in the war for the preservation of the Union, 
serving with his two brothers in the 
Twenty-third Iowa Infantry. In 1871 he 
lost his right arm in his flouring mill at 
Warsaw, and for several years has been 
traveling salesman for M. C. Lillie & Co., 
of Columbus, Ohio, selling lodge fixtures, 
regalias, -etc. Hq, married Martha M. 
Farnsworth and has six children, three 
sons and three daughters. John W. Rankin 
was born in Indiana, February 21, 1844. He 
enlisted July 26, 1862, in Company D, 
Twent3^-third Iowa Infantry. He partici- 
pated in the battle of Port Gibson, and was 
there on detached service until May 15, 
1863, when he joined his regiment at Ray- 
mond, Mississippi, and took part in the bat- 
tle of Champion Hills, May 16. The follow- 
ing day he was seriously wounded at the 
charge at Black River Bridge, which 
resulted in his discharge from the service 
September 21. He remained on the home- 
stead farm until 1870, when he engaged in 
the dry-goods business at Warsaw, and later 
at AUerton, where he now resides. Mr. 
Rankin has been twice married. His first 
wife was Nancy E. Wilson, daughter of 
James R. Wilson. She died in 1878, leav- 
ing two children — Mary E. and Hattie M. 
His present wife was Mary J. Wilson, a 
sister of his first wife. They have one son 
— Charles G., born December 16, 1881. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



311 



County, and in 1880 located on his present 
farm, where he owns 240 acres of valuable 
land near the village of Harvard. He has 
one of the pleasantest homes in the town- 
ship, surrounded with shade and ornamental 
trees, with a good orchard and an abund- 
ance of small fruit. Mr. Thomas was 
married October 26, 1876,10 Mary Thomp- 
son, who died September 8, 1878, leaving 
one child — Charles T. March 17, i88r,Mr, 
Thomas married Mar}" Harper, daughter of 
Daniel and Sarah Harper. They have two 
children — William and Ira T. 



E. BUOY, youngest child of Nathan- 
iel and Mary (Reighter) Buoy, is a 
® native of Pennsylvania, born in 
Perry County, December 17, 1825. His 
parents were of German ancestry. The}' 
had a family of ten children as follows — 
Mary, Sarah, George, Joseph, Catherine, 
John, Matilda, Susan, Nancy and Nathan- 
iel E. Our subject remamed on the home 
farm till seventeen years of age, when he 
began learning the carpenter's trade which 
he followed many yea-rs, making that his 
principal avocation till 185 i. At the age 
of twenty-two years he went to Adams 
County, Ohio, living there till 1853. He 
was united in marriage, November 22, 1854, 
to Anna Query, a daughter of William and 
Ruhama Query, who died November 3, 

1863, leaving five children — Mary A., John 
W., W. Hyman, Anna Jane and Wilber N. 
Mr. Buoy was again married March 3, 

1864, to Mary Johnson, of Licking County, 
Ohio, who came with her parents, Samuel 
and Mary (Wheeler) Johnson, to Iowa in 
i860. One son, George E., has been born 
to this union. In 1863 Mr. Buoy came to 
Wright Township, Wayne County, Iowa, 
when he bought part of his present farm. 
He has added to his original purchase till 
his farm now contains 480 acres of as good 



land as can be found in the township, all 
under cultivation. He has a comfortable 
and commodious residence, which was 
erected in 1875, and a fine barn, 36x51 feet 
in size with good basement underneath, 
and (Jther farm buildings all in good con- 
dition. Since coming here he has devoted 
his attention to general farming and stock- 
raising, which he has followed industri- 
ously, and by his good management has ac- 
quired his present fine property, he having 
commenced life without means. He is now 
classed among the wealthy and influential 
citizens of Wright Township, and during 
his residence here has filled acceptably 
most of the township ofifices. He has been 
elected three times justice of the peace but 
declined to serve. In his political views 
he is a Democrat. He is a member of 
Bethlehem Lodge, No. 125, I. O. O. F. 
Both he and his wife are worthy members 
of the Methodist Episcopal church. 



^^OC>« 



,«APTAIN JOHN M. DAVIS, de- 
iviC ceased, who was one of the well- 
^i known pioneers of Wayne County, 
was a native of Rockbridge County, Vir- 
ginia, born March 20, 1790, a son of James 
and Florence (Blackwood) Davis, the 
father of Scotch-Irish descent, and served 
as a soldier in the war of the Revolution. 
James Davis removed with his family to 
Fayette County, Kentucky, and located 
near Lexington in 1791. John M. Davis, 
whose name heads this sketch, received a 
fair education at his home, his mother, who 
was a good scholar, being his teacher. He 
began teaching school when quite young, 
and followed the teacher's profession with 
success for many years. He served as a 
soldier during the war of 1812, being clerk 
in the Commissary Department for a time, 
and was Captain of a company of scouts in 
the Northwest in 1814. He was united in 



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312 niCi I u/ii uf \vji.ii\n. t^uu j\ i i . -*;s*; 



HIS TOUT OF WATNE COUNT!. 



marriage in 1820 to Jane Hughes, a native 
of Kentucky, and a daughter of Peter 
Hughes. Six children were born to this 
union — Flora, James, Samuel, Dianna, Jo- 
siah and John S. In 185 1 Mr. Davis came 
to Wayne County, Iowa, in company with 
his son Josiah, and entered the east half of 
section 36, in Wright Township, where 
he lived till his death, which took place 
July 29. 1865. tie was much respected 
throughout the township, where he had 
made many warm friends during his resi- 
dence here. 



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^P^LIJAH R. BELVEL, general mer. 
vT^ll. chant, Lineville, Iowa, was born in 
^')^^ Guernsey County, Ohio, November 
18. 1839. In 1849 '"'IS lather, Henry 
V. Belvel, moved to Jasper County, Mis- 
souri, where he died in 1852. In the fall 
of the same year our subject accompanied 
his mother to Knox County, Illinois, and in 
the fall of 1857 came to Wayne County, 
Iowa, locating in Lineville in the spring of 
1858. In i858and 1859 ^^ carried the mail 
on horseback from Princeton to Chariton, 
his headquarters being at Lineville, and 
received $10 a month for his services. He 
served a year and a half as an apprentice 
at the cabinet-maker's trade. After the 
breaking out of the war of the Rebellion, 
he enlisted and was assigned to Company 
M, Third Iowa Cavalry. He participated 
in the battle at Pea Ridge, but served onl}^ 
nine months, when, on account of ill health, 
he was discharged and returned home, and 
for a year had charge of his brother's prop- 
erty, the latter being in the army. He then 
went to Chariton, and imtil the spring of 
1864 carried the mail from Chariton to 
Newton, Iowa, on horseback, after which 
he went to Corydon and clerked in the 
postoflfice until the following fall, when he 
returned to Lineville and bought the cabi- 
net shop where he had worked as an ap- 



prentice, which he carried on about a year. 
From 1865 until 1866 he was employed in 
the store of Saylor & Lovett, and, in the 
summer of the latter 3-ear engaged in busi- 
ness on his own account, buying about $300 
worth of groceries. Ten months later he 
sold his stock and services for a year to J. 
S. Saylor. In March, 1869, he began clerk- 
ing for Lovett & Sullivan, and a year later, 
Mr. Sullivan having died, he became a part- 
ner of Mr. Lovett. August 15, 1872, they 
sold their stock to Laughlin & Wasson, and 
in the fall of 1873 he again engaged in the 
grocery business. In October, 1874, he 
bought the stock of general merchandise 
of the administrators of H. A. Laughlin, 
and since then has conducted his present 
business, having a stock valued at $12,000, 
and an annual business of from $215,000 to 
$30,000. In the winter of 1881 he built 
his fine brick block, the lower floor of 
which he occupies. Mr. Belvel was mar- 
ried February 21, 1871, to Margaret A. 
Helton, daughter of Mitchell A. Helton, of 
Lineville. But two of the children born to 
them are living — Marlow A. and Annie L. 
Martha G. Belvel, a niece of Mr. Belvel, 
makes her home with them, her mother hav- 
ing died when she was an infant. Mr. 
Belvel is a member of the Grand Army of 
the Republic and the Independent Order 
of Good Templars. He and his wife are 
members of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. 



^<300€ 



f^'OSIAH DAVIS is a son of John M. 
and Jane (Hughes) Davis, and was 
born in Montgomery County, Ken- 
tucky, April 9, 1832. He spent his early 
life on a farm, his father being a farmer by 
occupation, and also a teacher, our subject 
attending the school which he taught. Lie 
lived in his native county till 1851, when 
he came to Wayne County, Iowa, with his 
father, who settled in Wright Township, on 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



313 



has 



made his 



section 36, where he lias since 
home. October 6, 1864, our subject enlist- 
ed in the late war, a member of Company 
H, Sixteenth Iowa Infantry, and was with 
General Sherman on his grand march to 
the sea. He received an honorable dis- 
charge at Louisville, Kentucky, July 19, 
1865, when he returned to his home in 
Wright Township. He is now a comrade 
of the Grand Army Post of Corydon. He 
has made farming his principal avocation, 
in which he has met with good success, and 
is now the owner of a fine farm, containing 
240 acres of well-cultivated land. In 1854 
he was elected to the office of county sur- 
veyor, and served as such two 3-ears, and 
in 1874 he was again elected to the same 
office for a term of two vears. 



AMUEL PORTER, deceased, 
one of the old and respected 
neers of Wayne County. 



was 



pio- 
He was a 

native of Chenango County, New York, 
born May 4, 1808. In 181 5 he removed 
with his parents to Athens County, Ohio, 
where he lived till 1850. December i, 
1 83 1, he was married to Lydia True, of 
Athens County, daughter of Josiah and 
iVlmira (Tuttle) True. Six children were 
born to this union — John T., Sarah Ann, 
Isaac R., William A., Charles M. and Dan- 
iel B. The sons, William A. and Charles 
M., were members of Company M, Third 
Iowa Cavalry, and both died in the service 
of their country. In 1850 Mr, Porter re- 
moved with his family to Fulton County, 
Illinois, remaining in that county till 1855. 
The family then came to Wayne County, 
Iowa, making the journey by team, locat- 
ing in Clinton Township, on the farm 
where Mrs. Porter still resides. Here Mr. 
Porter entered 120 acres of land from the 
Government, and built a house 18 x 24 feet, 
of hewed logs, which at that time was the 




best house in the township. Game was in 
abundance, and wild animals were numer- 
ous, their cattle being frequently followed 
home by wolves. The nearest mill was 
fifty miles distant, and many were the hard- 
ships and privations endured by this pio- 
neer family. Mr. Porter died January 7, 
1875, well respected by all w^ho knew him. 



A. CLEVER, a leading farmer of 
Richman Township, Wayne 
^^^g, County, has a well-improved 
farm of 240 acres on sections 33 and 34. His 
fine imposing residence is surrounded by 
beautiful grounds, and everything about 
his place betokens care and thrift. Mr, 
Clever was born in Allegheny County, 
Pennsylvania, August 10, 1849, '^^s parents, 
Martin and Elizabeth (De Groff) Clever, 
being natives of the same wState. The 
father followed agricultural pursuits the 
greater part of his life, and is now living 
retired from his active labors at Albia, 
Iowa. The mother died of camp fever in 
September, 1863, she, having taken the 
disease while nursing her husband, he hav 
ing gone down to view the battle-ground 
at Gettysburg, where he was taken sick 
with the fever. Bert, as the subject of this 
sketch is commonly called, was reared on 
his father's farm, receiving his education 
m the best schools in his native State. In 
the spring of 1869 the family immigrated 
to Monroe County, Iowa, and settled on 
land which the father had entered in 1854, 
and March 22, 1872, he w^as married to Miss 
J. A. Dunkin, a native of Indiana, and 
daughter of Joseph and Sarah A, Dunkin. 
After the death of her father her mother 
came with the family to Iowa, where she 
still lives. Mr. and Mrs. Clever are the 
parents of six children — Mabel, Joseph 
Martin, Lulu, Homer, Warren and Albert. 
Mr. Clever besides carr3nng on his farm is 



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3H 



HISTORY OF WAYNE COUNTY 




interested in the livery business at Humes- 
ton, buying out the stock of T. E. Lee 
Maixli 12, 1886. He is also part owner of 
three noted stock stallions — Clyde, an im- 
ported Clydesdale horse ; Norman, a grade, 
Percheron, and a standard bred Hamble- 
tonian of rare strain. He is also interested 
in the improvement of cattle, and is part 
owner in some imported black Polled- An- 
gus stock. It is his intention to make a 
business of buying horses for home trade 
and for shipping purposes. He is one of 
the live business men of his township, where 
he is held in high esteem for his excellent 
business qualities, and strict integrity. 

ARSHALL H. RICHMAN, the 

pioneer of the township which 
"'^^^^^ bears his name, was born \\\ Green- 
brier County, West Virginia, September 
1 1, 1820, and is the son of Samuel and Sarah 
(Caperton) Richman. The former was 
shot by a bushwhacker during the late war, 
he being a Unionist. Marshall remained 
on his father's farm until his marriage on 
the 9th of December, 1841, to Mary Ann 
Guinn. They remained in their native 
county until 1850, when they immigrated 
to the West, arriving in this State in the 
spring of that year, settling on the Des 
Moines River until that fall, when he 
moved to his present location in Wayne 
County, on the southeast quarter of sec- 
tion 5, Richman Township, the first settler 
therein, and has remained here ever since. 
Mr. and Mrs. Richman are the parents of 
fourteen children — Rachel, James Harve}', 
Samuel M., Oliver, Ephraim, William, an 
infant unnamed, Enos, John M., Abner E., 
Sarah E., Thomas Allen, Mary A. and 
Cynthia J. Mr. Richman has followed sur- 
veying for many years, and served as 
county surveyor from 1851 to 1856; as jus- 
tice of the peace for eighteen years, as 



member of the Board of Supervisors several 
terms, as school director, and as postmaster 
at Selma until it was discontinued. He is 
a member of the Masonic fraternity. 



ROBERT E. HUTCHINSON, retired 
'^^ farmer, Lineville, Iowa, was born in 
^=S^ Campbell Count}-, Kentucky, April 
16, 18 1 7, a son of Carter Hutchinson, a 
native of Spottsylvania County, Virginia, 
and grandson of Robert Hutchinson, who 
was born in Scotland, near Belfast, and was 
brought by his parents to America when 
an infant. He was a soldier in the Revolu- 
tionary war, serving under General Wash- 
ington, and participated in the battle at 
Bunker Hill and was present at the sur- 
render of Cornwallis. In April, 1824, our 
subject's parents crossed the Ohio River, 
ten miles below Cincinnati, Ohio, and set- 
tled in Morgan Township, Butler Countv, 
Ohio. The)' made their home in the 
woods, their neighbors being Indians and 
wild animals. Here Robert E. was reared, 
receiving his education in the pioneer log- 
cabin school-house. In Januar}-, 1843, '""^ 
moved to Franklin County, Indiana, and 
in May, 1852, with a wife and five children, 
to Henry County, Illinois, and thence, in 
the fall of 1855, to ^\apello Count}', Iowa, 
where he lived during the winter, and in 
the spring .of 1856 located in Decatur 
County. He lived there until 1882, and in 
the fall of the latter year moved to Clio, 
Wayne County. For six months Mr. 
Hutchinson was a member of the Board of 
Supervisors of Decatur County, and was 
justice of the peace six years. He was 
married February 27,1 840,to Rebecca Charl- 
ton, and to them were born ten children, six 
of whom arc living — Mrs. Mary E. Marick, 
Mrs. Hannah M. Stephens, Jesse L., Mrs. 
Sarah J. Dye Robert C. and George W. 
Thedeceased are — Milton C, Mrs. Rebecca 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



315 



Somerville, William S. and Mrs. Pha^be 
M. Bay. Milton C. fell in the charge on 
Fort Blakely, while fighting in the defense 
of his country. Mrs. Rebecca Hutchinson 
died April 19, 1886. She was a member 
of the Protestant Meth(xlist church, a con- 
sistent Christian, and endeared herself to 
all who knew her by her kindness and be- 
nevolent and manv womanly virtues. 



-•Jfo 



-c^^ 




JH^m M. PRAY, one of the prosperous 
and influential citizens of Wayne 
County, is i. native of Indiana, 
born at Charlestown, Clark County, Sep- 
tember II, 183 1, a son of Hezekiah and 
Elizabeth (McNeal) Pra}', the father a na- 
tive of New Jersey, of German ancestry, 
and the mother of Irish descent. His 
parents had a family of seven children, as 
follows — Jane, Catherine, Samuel, John, 
Stephen, W. M. and Matthew. When our 
subject was three years old his parents 
went to Darke County, Ohio, and six years 
later removed to Washington County, In- 
diana. W. M. w^as reared to farming pur- 
suits, and educated in the common schools 
of his neighborhood. He was married 
October 6, 1853, to Letitia Bennett, who 
was born and reared in Scott County, In- 
diana, a daughter of Samuel and Patience 
Bennett. They have nine children living 
whose names are as follows — John H., 
George W., W. A., Francis, Emmerson 
G., Lewis D., Cora E., Ida L., and Sadie 
I. Mr. Pray located in Wapello County, 
Iowa, April 20, 1854, near Agency City, 
where he made his home for nine years. 
He came with his family to Wayne County 
in 1863, and first settled in Union Town- 
ship on section 24, on land which he still 
owns, living there till 1869, since which he 
has resided on his present farm on section 
19, Wright Township, where he has a 
fine farm under excellent cultivation, with 

S9 



good residence, barn and outbuildings. Mr. 
Pray began life without means, but by hard 
work and good business management he 
has become one of the wealthiest men of 
Wayne County, being the owner of 1,225 
acres of choice land located in this county, 
265 acres being in Union Township, eighty 
acres in South Fork Township, and the re- 
mainder in Wright Township. He is one 
of the most successful farmers and stock- 
raisers in Wright Township, and has at 
present 100 head of cattle, several of them 
being thoroughbreds, besides having a 
large humber of horses and hogs. He is 
one of the respected citizens of Wright 
Township, having during his residence 
here won the confidence and esteem of his 
neighbors by his fair and honorable deal- 
ings. 

• ■ :=::^ <0OO^ ^=:. '» 

UGH C. McGHEE, residing on sec- 
tion 8, Clay Township, was born in 
Monroe County, West Virginia, May 
16, 1844, his father, Hugh C. McGhee, who 
is now deceased, having been a native of 
the same county. When an infant of but 
six months he was taken by his parents to 
Bartholomew County, Indiana, and to Wa- 
pello County, Iowa, in the fall of 1847, i" 
which county he was reared on a farm, 
and educated in the common-schools. In 
April, 1868, he came to Clay Township, 
Wayne County, Iowa, settling on his pres- 
ent farm, which at that time was but 
slightly improved. He has been quite suc- 
cessful in his farming operations, and in 
connection with his farm he devotes some 
time to stock-raising. He is now the 
owner of 130 acres of land where he re- 
sides, all of which has been acquired by 
industry and economy. He was married 
February 16, 1869, to Virginia F. Gwinn, 
daughter of James M. Gwinn, of Clay 
Township. They have had six children — 
Seth (deceased), Alice, Hugh, Maude, James 



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316 



HISTORY OF WAYNE COUNTY. 



and Roy. Mr. McGhee is a natural genius 
with the use of tools. He built his own 
house, and part of the furniture, and, in fact, 
can make almost everything out of w^ood. 
He is active in promoting the interests of his 
township, and takes an interest in educa- 
tional matters, having served four A^ears as 
school director. He has also held the office 
of township trustee for two years. Mr. 
McGhee is of Irish and English descent. 
His grandfather, John McGhee, came from 
Ireland in an early da}-, and John Abbott, 
his maternal grandfather, immigrated to 
America from England, settling in the New 
England States. 

[DWARD L. HART, attorney at law, 
residing at Allerton, was born in 
'^i Lapeer County, Michigan, in the 
year 1850, his parents, Ansel L. and Clem- 
mie Hart, being natives of New York. In 
the spring of 1856 the father came with his 
family to Wayne County, Iowa, and lo- 
cated on a new farm on section 27, Wash- 
ington Township. He improved his land, 
living on it till his death, which occurred 
in March, 1877. He was twice married, 
and by his first wife he had a family of 
seven children who grew to maturity, six of 
whom yet survive — Mary J., wife of Lewis 
Kallogg; Lydia, widow of E. B. Lynde ; 
Edward L. and Edwin A. (twins), the latter 
living in Minnesota, and the former our 
subject; Adelaide, living in Mills County, 
Iowa, and Lincoln, in Dakota. William 
Henry died at the homestead in this county 
at the age of twenty-three years. Three 
children were born to the second marriage. 
Edward L. Hart, the subject of this sketch, 
was reared in Wayne County, coming here 
with his parents when a'.jout six years of 
age. In 1875 he began the study of law 
at Allerton with J. B. Evans, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar at Corydon in 1877, since 



which time he has been engaged in the 
practice of his chosen profession, and is 
meeting with fair success. For his wife 
he married Miss Ida M. Matson. a daugh- 
ter of Thomas A. Matson, a resident of 
Lucas Countv, Iowa. Three children have 
been born to Mr. and Mrs. Hart — Edward 
L., Jesse B. and David R. 



i'^5<;^->«^5*?-< 



fOHN DARRAUGH, one of the suc- 
cessful farmers of Union Townsliip, 
residing on section 23, was born in 
Harrison County, Kentucky, October 23, 
1834, his parents, James and Evaline (Col- 
lins) Darraugh, being natives of the same 
State. They had afamily of six children. In 
1853 they removed to Indiana, locating in 
Putnam County, where the mother died in 
May, 1878, and the father in April, 1880. 
John Darraugh was reared and educated 
in the schools of his native county, where 
he remained till 1853. He then accompa- 
nied his parents to Indiana, and in 1863 
came with H. T. Peck to Wayne County, 
Iowa. They leased land from James Peck, 
a brother of H. T. Peck, who had come to 
this county in 1847 '^^'^^ entered a large 
tract of land near Peoria. He was one of 
the most active and industrious pioneers 
of Peoria, where he carried on the mercan- 
tile business for many years, and also dealt 
quite extensively in live stock. He went 
to California, in 1868, and thence to Oregon, 
where he died in 1881. After coming to 
Wayne County Mr. Darraugh carried on 
the mercantile business at Corydon for 
one year, when he went to Bethlehem and 
engaged in the same pursuit, living there 
for nine years. He then moved to the 
farm on section 23, where he has since 
made his home, his farm containing 160 
acres of improved land under a high state 
of cultivation. Mr. Darraugh was united 
in marriage in 1855 to Miss Susan Peck, 
who was born in Putnam County, Intliana, 









BIOGRAPHICA L SKE TCHES. 



?,i7 



in December, 1833, a daughter of Isaac 
Peck, a native of Kentucky, and Nancy 
(Moore) Peck, who was born, reared and 
married in the same State. Mr. and Mrs. 
Darraugh have two children — Martha, 
born in Putnam Coimty, Indiana, and Eva, 
born in Peoria, Iowa. Mrs. Darraugh's par- 
ents were among the early settlers of In- 
diana, living there till their death, the 
mother dying in 1862 and the father in 
1864. 



N. DAVISON, farmer and stock- 



raiser, section '})},, Union Township, 

was born in Loraine County, Ohio, 
April 2, 1843, his parents, Chauncey W. and 
Eliza (Wheeler) Davison, being natives of I classed among the well-to-do citizens of 
Pennsylvania and New York respectively. | Union Township. He has always followed 



came to Iowa by teams, accompanied by 
his wife and three sons, and his wife's 
parents. He came to this count}- with 
$500 in cash and located on rented land in 
Union Township, and the second year 
bought eighty acres, on which he lived two 
years, when he sold it. He then bought 
forty acres, which is now owned by C. B. 
Stark, to which he subsequently added 
eight}- acres, living on this land for several 
years. He met with poor success during 
the first few years of his residence. First, 
the failure of the crops and high rent 
caused hard times, and the second year the 
drouth caused him to become discouraged, 
but by the help and advice of his wife he 
surmounted all difficulties, and is now 



His father was a son of James Davison, who 
was a native of Connecticut. C. W. Davi- 
son was a farmer, carpenter and joiner by 
occupation, remaining in Ohio till August, 
1852, when he removed to Stark County, 
Illinois. J. N. Davison spent his boyhood 
in his native county, where he lived till 
coming to Illinois with his parents. He 
was married at the age of nineteen to Mary 
C. Richards, who was born in Delaware 
County, Ohio, but reared in Stark County, 
Illinois. Mrs. Davison is a daughter of 
Nathaniel and Dorcas (Stark) Richards, 
the father being a native of New Jersey, 
and the mother of Pennsylvania. Mr. and 
Mrs. Davison are the parents of nine chil- 
dren — Albert L., Oliver G., William C, 
Minnie Lenora, Lucy E., Carrie D., Ethel 
M., Merritt J. and Hattie May. Mr. Davi- 
son enlisted in the late war, August 15, 
1862, a member of Company F, One Hun- 
dred and Twelfth Illinois Infantry, and 
served six months in Kentucky, when he 
was discharged for disability. He then 
returned to his home in Stark Coimty, 
where he lemained until 1869, engaged in 
farming and dealing in stock. In 1869 he 



farming pursuits, and has been a life-long 
dealer in live-stock. He has been a feeder 
of cattle since 1872. In 1873 his wife fed 
three sleers while he was away from home 
buying and shipping stock. During the past 
ten years he has fed on an average thirty- 
five to forty head, and during 1885 fed 
seventy-five head of cattle. In 1885 h<^" 
raised over 5,000 bushels of corn, and 
bought 5,000 bushels. Mr. Davison gives 
to his wife and mother-in-law the credit of 
his success. Mr. Davison is a comrade of 
Messenger Post, G. A. R., of New York, of 
which he is at present commander ; in poli- 
tics an uncompromising Greenbacker. 



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POHN H. SURBAUGH, deceased, was 
born in Greenbrier County, West 
\^ Virginia, March 9, 1829, and died in 
Clay Township, Wayne County, Iowa, Feb- 
ruary 22, 1876. He was a son of Heniy 
Surbaugh, a native of Virginia, of German 
descent. In 1854 he came to Iowa and 
settled on section 20, Cla}- Township, 
Wayne Comity, the present site of Lcwis- 






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