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Full text of "A biographical history of the county of Litchfield, Connecticut: comprising biographical sketches of distinguished natives and residents of the county; together with complete lists of the judges of the county court, justices of the quorum, county commissioners, judges of probate, sheriffs, senators, &c. from the organization of the county to the present time"

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BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

OF THE 

COUNTY OF LITCHFIELD, 

CONNECTICUT: 

COMPRISING 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

OF 

DISTINGUISHED NATIVES AND RESIDENTS Of THE COUNTY; 

TOGETHER WITH 

COMPLETE LISTS OF THE JUDGES OF THE COUNTY COURT, 

JUSTICES OF THE QUORUM, COUNTY COMMISSIONERS, 

JUDGES OF PROBATE, SHERIFFS, SENATORS, &c. 

FROM THE 

ORGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY TO THE PRESENT TIME. 

BY PAYNE KENYON KILBOURNE. 



NEW YORK: 
CLARK, AUSTIN & CO., 205 BROADWAY. 

MDCCCLI. 



EMIGRANT SONS AND DAUGHTERS 



THIS VOLUME 



IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED 

BY 

THE AUTHOR. 



CONTENTS 



PAGK. 

Preface, 7 

Ethan Allen, . 9 

Oliver Wolcott, ll. d 24 

John Trumbull, ll. d. 39 

Seth Warner, .......... 53 

Nathaniel Chipman, ll. d 70 

Samuel J. Mills, Sen'r 75 

Daniel Chipman, ll. d. ........ 81 

Stanley Griswold, 84 

Martin Chittenden, 89 

Samuel J. Mills, Jr., 92 

Ephraim Kirby, 103 

John Cotton Smith, ll. d . . 107 

Ira Allen, 117 

Jonathan Brace, 121 

Bezaleel Beebe, 126 

Frederick Wolcott, 132 

Augustus Pettibone, 135 

Nathaniel Smith, 137 

Horace Hoi ley, ll. d 140 

Abraham and Plnneas Bradley, 154 

Richard Skinner, ll. d 161 

Joseph Vail I, 164 

David Bostwick, . 175 

Ebenezer Foote, 181 

Daniel S. Dickinson, 187 



V) 



Jedediah Strong, 
Edmund Kir by, 
Ambrose Spencer, 
William Ray, . 
Timothy Merritt, 
Henry W. Wessells, 
Araasa J. Parker, ll. d. 
Elijah Board man, 
Elisba Whittlesey, 
Junius Smith, ll. d. 
Peter B. Porter, . 
Nathaniel W. Taylor, n. d. 
Joseph I. Foote, d. d. 
William Thompson Bacon, 
Frederick Whiltlesey, 
Samue! S. Phelps, 
John Pierpont, 
Jeremiah Day, n. d., ll. d. 
Ebenezer Porter, d. i>. 
Horatio Seymour, ll. d. 
Thomas Day, ll. d. 
Nathan Smith, 
Frederick A. Tallmadge, 
Arphaxad Loomis, 
William W. Boardman, 
John Milton lloiley, 
Mrs. Laura M. Thurston, 
Francis Bacon, 
Charles G. Finney, 
George B. Holt, 
Ebenezer Porter Mason, 
Brief Sketches, &c, 
Appendix, County Officers, &< 



PREFAC E. 



" The history of nations," says Plutarch, " is little else than 
the history of its warriors, sages, poets and philosophers." In a 
similar sense, this volume may be properly entitled a history of 
Litchfield County. The author has endeavored to collect and pre- 
serve in a durable form, the prominent incidents in the history of 
some of the more conspicuous personsages, who have spent their 
lives among us, or who have gone out from our borders and distin- 
guished themselves in other fields of usefulness and fame. The 
body of the work is devoted exclusively to sketches of natives of' 
the County, who are either numbered among the dead or who are 
residents abroad. The rule thus adopted, must of course exclude 
not a few men, now high in office and honor at home. These, and 
many other natives and former residents of the County, are briefly 
noticed at the close of the volume. 

Litchfield County is the youngest in the State in point of organi- 
zation — having been incorporated at the October Session, 1751. 
Much of the land, moreover, having been very rough and unin- 
viting, some of our towns were the very last in the State to be set- 
tled. Persons are now living who can remember when wolves 
and other wild animals inhabited the " Green Woods" and other 
regions in the northern part of the County. When, therefore, we 



VI 11 

take into consideration the newness of the country around us, and 
the privations and hardships incident to pioneering in the midst of 
mountains, and rocks, and swamps, and interminable forests, such 
as our fathers here encountered, we have no fear in comparing the 
number and position of our great men, with those of any other 
region of no greater limits and population. 

Most of the materials for this volume have been collected from 
original sources ; at the same time the author has availed himself 
of such other facts and sketches as have fallen in his way, without, 
in all cases, giving credit. He has aimed to make his work as 
correct as possible, though even in that particular, it is by no means 
improbable, that errors of date or otherwise, may now and then 
be discovered. He hopes it will prove an interesting and valued 
memorial to those for whom it is especially intended. 

Litchfield, August 4. 1851. 



BIOGRAPHY. 



ETHAN ALLEN. 

Among the most conspicuous in laying the foundation upon 
which the'independent State of Vermont has been reared, and 
indeed the leader and champion of that lesolute band of hus- 
bandmen, who first planted themselves in the wilderness of 
the Green Mountains, was Ethan Allen. He was born in 
Litchfield,* January 10, 17S7. His parents soon after- 
wards removed to Cornwall where other children weie born, 
making- in all six sons and two daughters— Ethan, Heman, 
Heber, Levi, Zimiri, Ira, Lydia, and Lucy. The family sub- 
sequently became residents of Salisbury, where, in 1762, 
Ethan was one of the proprietors of the Iron Furnace. All 
the brothers grew up to manhood, and at least four of them 
emigrated early to the territory west of the Green Mountains* 
where they all were active and conspicuous characters in their 
border feuds and in the Revolutionary struggle — and the name 



*Biographers have differed in regard to the place of his birth. Hinman says 
he was a native of Roxbury ; Allen's Biographical Dictionary calls him a native 
of Cornwall; Salisbury has also been named as his birth place. Sparks and 
Barber have correctly designated Litchfield as the place of his birth— his birth 
being recorded upon the records of that town His father was Joseph Allen of 
Coventry ; his mother was Mary Baker of Woodbury. 



to 

of Ethan Allen gained a renown, which spread widely while 
he lived, and has been perpetuated in history. 

The territory on which the Aliens and their associates sel r 
tied, was then called the " New Hampshire Grants," and was 
claimed hy the Government of New York — a claim, however, 
which the settlers openly and vigorously resisted. In 1 76 i, 
tht Crown having declared I he Connecticut River to he the 
boundary line between New York and New Hampshire, the 
New York Governor decided that jurisdiction meant the some 
thing as right of property, and forthwith proceeded to vacate 
all the titles by which the settlers held their lands, and even 
issued writs of ejectment. This roused to its full extent the 
spirit of the Green Mountain Boys. Ethan Allen was ap- 
pointed an agent to manage the affairs of the defendant before 
the Court at Albany ; and, having secured the aid of Mr, In- 
gersoll, an eminent counsellor in Connecticut, it is scarcely 
necessary to add, that the cause of the settlers was defended 
with great boldness and ability. The verdict was of course 
given to the plaintiffs — it being the theoretical and practical 
doctrine of the New York government that nil of Governor 
Wentworth's grants w r ere illegal. 

It is recorded, that after Allen retired from (he Couit at Al - 
bany, two or three gentlemen interested in the New York grants 
called upon him, one of whom was the King's attorney general 
for the colony, and advised him to go home and persuade his 
friends of the Green Mountains to make the best terms they 
could with the new landlords, intimating that their cause was 
now desperate, and reminding him of the old proverb, that 
" might often prevails against right." Neither admiring the 
delicacy of the sentiment, nor intimidated by the threat it held 
out, Allen replied, " The gods of the valleys are not the gods 
of the bills." This laconic figure of speech he left to be inter- 
preted by his visitors, adding only, when an explanation was 



li 
asked by (lie King's attorney,* that if liis troops ever come to 
Bennington his meaning should be made clear. 

The purpose of his mission being thus brought to a close, 
Allen returned and reported the particulars to his constituents. 
The news spread from habitation to habitation, and created a 
sudden and loud murmer of discontent among the people. 
Seeing, as they thought, the door of justice shut against them, 
and having tried in vain all the peaceful means of securing 
their rights, they resolved to appeal to the last arbiter of dis- 
putes. The inhabitants of Bennington immediately assembled, 
and came to a formal determination to defend their property by 
by force, and to unite in resisting all encroachments upon the 
lands occupied by persons holding titles under the warrants 
granted by the governor of New Hampshire. This was a bold 
step ; but it was promptly taken, and with seeming determin- 
ation to adhere to it at any hazard, and without regard to con- 
sequences. Nor was this decision changed or weakened by a 
proposition on the part of the New York patentees, made about 
this time, which allowed to each occupant a fee simple of his 
farm, at the same price for which the unoccupied lands in his 
neighborood were sold. The first purchasers still insisted, that 
this was requiring them to pay twice for their lands, and that in 
any view the proposal was not just, inasmuch as the value of 
unoccupied lands depended mainly on the settlements which 
had been made in their vicinity by the toil and at the expense 
of the original occupants. In short, the time for talking about 
charters, and boundaries, and courts of judicature, was past, 
and the mountaineers were now fully bent on conducting the 
controversy by a more summary process. Of the wisdom or 
equity of this decision, it is not our province or purpose to de- 
cide. 

Actions of ejectment continued to be brought before the Al- 
bany courts; but the settlers, dispairing of success after the 
precedents of the first. cascs 3 did not appear in defence, nor 



12 
give themselves any more trouble in the matter. Next came 
sheriffs and civil magistrates to execute the writs of possession, 
and by due course of law to remove the occupants from the 
lands. At this crisis the affair assumed a tangible shape. The 
mountaineers felt themselves at home on the soil which they 
had subdued by their own labor, and in the territory over 
which they had begun to exercise supreme dominion, by meet- 
ing in conventions and committees and taking counsel of each 
other on public concerns. <„To drive one of thenTfrom home, 
or deprive him of his hard earned substance, was to threaten 
the whole community with an issue fatal alike to their clearest 
interests, andjothe rights which every man deems as sacred 
as life itself. It was no wonder, therefore/ that they should 
unite in a common cause, which it required their combined ef- 
forts to maintain. 

In all the feats of enterprize and danger, as well as in mat- 
ters of State policy, Ethan Allen had 'from the first been the 
chief adviser and actor. It was natural that, in arranging their 
military establishment, the people should look up to him as the 
person best qualified to be placed at its head. He was ap- 
pointed colonel-commandant, with several captains under him, 
of whom the most noted were Seth Warner and Remember 
Baker, both natives of Roxbury, Conn. Committees of safety 
were likewise chosen, and intrusted with powers for regulating 
local affairs. Conventions of delegates, representing the peo- 
ple, assembled from time to time, passed resolves and adopted 
measures, which tended to harmonize their sentiments and con- 
centrate their efforts. 

Open war now existed, and hostilities hac] commenced. 
Sheriffs, constables, magistrates and surveyors, were forcibly 
seized and punished whenever they were so unlucky as to be 
caught on the grants. Frequent acts of violence on the part 
of the Green Mountain Boys, as they were called, drew down 
upon them the special wrath of the government of New York. 



la 

Proclamation succeeded proclamation, in the first of which Go* 
vernor Tryon branded (he settlers as 'rioters,' whom the sher,-, 
iffs were commanded to seize and imprison ; in the second 
they were pronounced 'felons,' and offered a reward of £20 
for the arrest of Allen and Warner ; in the third, a reward of 
£150 was offered for Allen, and £50 each for six others. — 
Not to be outdone in exercising the prerogatives of sovreignty, 
Colonel Allen 'and his friends issued a counter proclamation, 
offering a reward of £5 for the delivery of the attorney general 
of New York into their hands, But notwithstanding the fre- 
quency of the Governor's proclamations, no one of Allen's 
men was ever apprehended. 

Affairs were proceeding in this train of aciive hostilities, 
when Tryon, despairing of ever conquering ihe 'felons,' resol- 
ved to try a milder policy. He wrote to the inhabitants of 
Bennington, under date of May 19, 1772, expressing a. desire 
to do them justice, and requesting them to send a deputation 
for consultation and peaceable negotiation. To any deputies, 
thus sent, he piomised protection, except Allen, Warner, and 
three others named. The settlers, always ready for an honor- 
able peace, acceded to the proposal, and dispatched Stephen 
Fay and Jonas Fay on the mission. Tryon received the dep- 
ties with much politeness, and laid their grievances before his 
council. After due deliberation, the council reported that all 
suits respecting the lands in controversy, and all prosecutions 
growing out of said suits, should be suspended, until the King's 
pleasure should be known. This report was approved by the 
Governor, and with it the deputies returned home. The news 
spread quickly to the cabins of the remotest settleis, and with 
it went the spirit of gladness. The single cannon, constituting 
the whole artillery of Allen's regiment, was drawn out and dis- 
charged several 'times in honor of the occasion ; and Captain 
W T arner's company of Green Mountain Boys, paraded in battle 
array, fired three volleys with small arms ; and the surrounding 
multitude answered each discharge with huzzas. 



1 » 

Hut unluckily this season of rejoicing was short. During 
the absence of the deputies, it was ascertained that a noted 
surveyor from New York was in one of the border town, run- 
ning out lands. Allen rallied his men, pursued and captured 
him, and, after breaking- his instruments, they passed the sen- 
tence of banishment upon him, threatening him with death if 
he ever returned. On this expedition Allen discovered an in- 
truder from New York upon the grants, who had dispossessed 
an original settler. Him he also banished, burnt his cabin, and 
restored the saw mill and premises to their first owner. 

The fame of these exploi.s soon reached New York, and 
kindled anew the anger of Governor Tryon and his council. 
The governor wrote a letter of sharp rebuke to the inhabitants 
of the grants, complaining of the conduct as an insult to the 
government and a violation of public faith. This letter was 
taken into consideration by the committees*of the several towns, 
assembled at Manchester, who voted to return an answer — 
which was drafted by Ethan Allen, secretary of the conven- 
tion. 

The answer was written with great force and perspicuity, 
but was not dictated by a spirit calculated to conciliate the feel 
ings of Tryon and his council. The feelings of animosity be- 
tween the two parties were daily becoming stronger and more 
embittered, when it was suddenly arrested by events of vastly 
greater moment, which drew away the attention of the political 
leaders in New York from these border feuds. The Revolution 
was on the eve of breaking out; and the ferment which already 
had begun to agitate the public mind from one end of the con- 
tenent to the other, was not less active in that city than in other 
places. From this time, therefore, the Green Mouatain settlers 
were permitted to remain in comparative tranquility. 

Early in the year 1775, as soon as it was made manifest 
that open hostilities must soon commence between the colonies 
and !he 'mother country, it began to be secretly whispered 



15 

among (lie principal politicians of New England, that ihe cap 
ture of Ticonderoga was an object demanding the first, attention. 
Several gentlemen at that time attending (he Assembly at Hart- 
ford, Connecticut, concerted a plan for surprising- that fortress 
and seizing its cannon for the use of our army, then marching 
from all quarters to the environs of Boston. A committer was 
appointed, at ihe head of which were Edward Mott and Noah 
Phelps, with instructions to proceed to the frontier towns, in- 
quire into the state of the garrison, and, should they think propc", 
to raise men and take possession of the same. To aid the pro- 
ject, one thousand dollars were borrowed from the treasuiy, for 
which security was given. 

On their way, the committee collected sixteen men in Con- 
necticut, and went forward to Pittsfield in Massachusetts, 
where they laid open their plan to Colonel Eastern and John 
Brown, who agreed to join them, and they proceded in compa- 
ny to Bennington. On the route, Easton enlisted between 40 
and 50 volunteers As no time was to be lost, a council of 
war was immediately held, in which it was voted that Colonel 
Ethan Allen should command the expedition, that James Eas- 
ton should be the second in commandj and Seth Warner the 
third. Allen having first rallied his Green Mountain Boys, 
it was decided that he should march with the main body ol their 
combined forces, (about 140 men,) directly to Shoreham, 
opposite Ticonderoga — which point was reached on the 9th of 
May. With the utmost difficulty boats were procured, and 83 
men were landed near the garrison. The approach of daylight 
rendering it dangerous to w r ait for the rear, it was determined 
immediately to proceed . The commander in chief now address- 
ed his men, representing that they had long been a scourge to 
arbitrary power, and famed for their valor : and concluded 
by saying, "I now propose to advance before you, and in per- 
son conduct you through the wicket gate; and you that will go 
with me voluntarily in this desperate attempt, poise your fire- 



!■; 
locks!" In an instant every firelock was poised. Ai the head 
of ihe centre file he marched instantly to the gate, where a 
sentry snapped his gun at him and retreated through the cover- 
ed way ; he pressed forward into the fort, and formed his men 
on the parade in such a manner as to face two opposi.se barracks. 
Three huzzahs awakened the garrison. A sentry, who asked 
quarter, pointed out the apartments of the commanding oiftcer ; 
and Allen, with a drawn sword over the head of Captain De 
La Place, who was undressed, demanded the surrender of the 
fort. " By what authority do you demand it V 9 inquired the as- 
tonished commander. "I demand it. (said Allen) in the name 
of the great Jehovah and of the continental congress." The 
summons could not with safety be disobeyed ; and the fort, with 
its valuable stores and 49 prisoners, was immediately surrender- 
ed. Crown Point was taken by Warner the same day, and the 
capture of a sloop of war soon afterwards, made Allen and his 
brave party complete masters of Lake Champlain. 

In the fall of 1775, Allen went twice into Canada to observe 
the disposition of the people, and attach them if possible to the 
American cause. During this last tour, Col. Brown met him 
and proposed an attack upon Montreal in concert. The propo- 
sition was eagerly embraced, and Col. Allen, with 110 men, 
crossed the river in the night of September 24. In the morning 
he waited with impatience for the signal from Col. Brown, who 
had agreed to co-operate with him — but he waited in vain. 
He made a resolute defence against an attack of 500 men, and it 
was not until his own party was reduced in number to 31. that 
he surrendered. A moment afterwards, a furious savage rush- 
ed towards him, and presented his firelock with the intention of 
killing him. It was only by making use of the body of the offi- 
cer to whom he had given his sword, as a shield, that he escaped 
destruction. 

From Colonel Allen's own Narrative we make the following inter- 
esting extracts : 



17 
The regular officers said that they were very happy to see Col. 
Allen. I answered them, that I should rather have seen them at 
■■General Montgomery's camp. The gentlemen replied that they gave 
full credit to what I said, and as I walked to the town, which was, 
as I should guess, more than two miles, a British officer walked at my 
right hand, and one of the French nobles at my left ; the latter of which, 
in the action, had his eyebrow carried away by a glancing shot,but was 
nevertheless very merry and facetious, and no abuse was ottered me 
till I came to the barrack yard at Montreal, where I met Gen. Prescott, 
who asked me my name, which 1 told him. He then asked me wheth- 
er I was that Coi. Allen who took Ticonderoga. I told him I was 
the very man. Then he shook his cane over my head, calling many 
hard names, among which he frequently used the word Rebel, and 
put himself into a great rage. I told him he would do well not to 
cane me, for I was not accustomed to it, and shook my fist at him — 
adding, that was the beetle of mortality for him, if he offered to strike ; 
upon which Capt. M'Cloud, of the British, pulled him by the tkiri 
and whispered to him (as he afterwards told me) to this import ; that 
it was inconsistent with his honor to strike a prisoner. He then or- 
dered a Serjeant's command with fixed bayonets to come forward and 
kill thirteen Canadians, which were included in the treaty aforesaid. 
It cut me to the heart to see the Canadians in so hard a case, in con- 
sequence of their having been true to me ; they were wringing their 
hands, saying their prayers, as I concluded, and' expected immediate 
death. I therefore stepped between the executioners and the Cana- 
dians, opened my clothes, and told Gem Prescott to thrust his bayo- 
net into my breast, for I was the sole cause of the Canadians takiug 
up their arms. The guard in the meantime, rolliug their eye balls 
from the General to me, as though impatient, waiting his dread com- 
mands to sheath their bayonets in my heart. I could, however, plain- 
ly discern that he was in a suspense and quandary about the matter. 
This gave me additional hopes of succeeding ; for my design was not 
to die, but to save the Canadians by a finesse. The General stood a 
minute, when with an oath he made the following reply : " / will 
not execute you now ; but you shall grace a halter at Tyburn'* I re- 
member I disdained his mentioning such a place. I was, notwith- 
standing, a little inwardly pleased with the expression, as it significant- 
ly conveyed to me the idea of postponing the present appearances 
of death, besides his sentence was by no means final, as to ''gracing 
a halter t " although I had anxiety about it after I landed in England, 
as ihe reader will find in the course of this history. General Prescott 
then ordered one of his officers to take me on board the Gaspee 
schooner of war, and confine me, hands and feet, in irons, which was 
donu the same afternoon I was taken. 

I now come to the description of the irons which were put on me. 
The handcuff was of a common size and form, but my leg irons. J 



18 
should imagine, would weigh thirty pounds; the bar was eight feet 
long, and very substantial ; the shackles which encompassed my ancles, 
were very tight. 1 was told by the officer who put them on, that it 
was the king's plate, and I heard others of their officers say, that it 
would weigh forty weight. The irons were so close upon my ancles, N 
that I could not lie down in any other manner than on my back. I 
was put into the lowest and most wretched part of the vessel, where 
I got the favor of a chest to sit on ; the same answered for my bed 
at night, and having procured some little blocks of the guard, who, 
day and night, with fixed bayonets, watched over me, to lay under 
each end of the large bar of ray leg irons, to preserve my ancles from 
galling, I sat on the chest or lay back on the same, though most of 
the time, night and day, I sat on it ; but at length having a desire to 
lie down on my side, which the closeness of the irons forbid, I desired 
the Captain to loosen them for that purpose, but was denied the favor. 
The Captain's name was Royal, who did not seem to be an ill-natured 
man ; but oftentimes said that his express orders were to treat me with 
such severity, which was disagreeable to his own feelings ; nor did he 
ever insult me, though many others who came on board, did. One of 
the officers by the name of Bradley was very generous to me ; he 
would often send me victuals from his own table ; nor did a day fail, 
but what he sent me a good drink of grog. 

I was confined in the manner I have related, on board the Gaspee 
schooner, about six weeks ; during which time I was obliged to throw 
out plenty of extravagant language which answered certain purposes, 
at that time, better than to grace a history. To give an instance ; upon 
being insulted, in a fit of anger I twisted off a nail with my teeth, 
which I took to be a ten-penny nail ; it went through the mortise of 
the bar of my handcuff, and at the same time I swaggered over those 
who abused me ; particularly a Doctor Dace, who told me that I was 
outlawed by New York, and deserved death for several years past ; 
was at last fully ripened for the halter, and in a fair way to obtain it. 
When I challenged him, he excused himself in consequence, as he said, 
of my being a criminal. But I flung such a flood of language at him 
that it shocked him and the spectators, for my anger was very great. I 
heard one say, " d — n him, can he eat iron V After that, a small pad- 
lock was fixed to the handcuff' instead of the nail ; and as they were 
mean-spirited in their treatment to me, so it appeared to me that they 
were equally timorous and cowardly. 

I was sent with the prisoners taken to an armed vessel in the river, 
•which lay off against Quebec, under the command of Capt. M'Cloud, 
of the British, who treated me in a very generous and obliging manner, 
and according to my rank ; in about twenty-four hours I bade him 
farewell with regret ; but my good fortune still continued. The name 
©f the Captain of the vessel I was put on board, was Littlejohn ; who 
with his officers, behaved in a polite, generous, and friendly manner 



19 
I lived with them in the cabin and fared on the best ; my irons having 
been taken off contrary to the oiders he had received from the com- 
manding officer ; but Capt. Littlejohn swore that a brave man shculd 
not be used as a rascal on board his ship. 

When a detachment of Gen. Arnold's little army appeared on Point 
Levy, opposite Quebec, who had performed an extraordinary march 
through a wilderness country, with a design to have surprised the capi- 
tal of Canada, I was taken on board a vessel called the Adamant, 
together with the prisoners taken with me, and put under the power 
of an English merchant from London, whose name was Brook Watson* 
— a man of malicious and cruel disposition. A small place in the ves- 
sel, enclosed with white oak plank, was now assigned for the prisoners, 
and for me among the rest. I should imagine that it was not more 
than twenty feet one way, and twenty two the other. Into this place 
we were all, to the number of thirty-four, thrust and handcuffed, two 
prisoners more being added to our number, and were provided with 
two excrement tubs. In this room we were obliged to remain during 
the voyage to England ; and were insulted by every blackgu ird sailor 
and tory on board, in the cruellest manner ; but what is the most sur- 
prising is, that none of us died on the passage. 

When I was first ordered to go into the filthy enclosure, through a 
small sort of door, I positively refused, and endeavored to reason the 
before-named Brook Watson out of a conduct so derogatory to every 
sentiment of honor and humanity, but all to no purpose ; my men be- 
ing forced into the den already ; and the rascal who had charge of the 
prisoners, commanded me to go immediately in among the rest. 

When the prisoners were landed, multitudes of the citizens of Fal- 
mouth, excited by curiosity, crowded together to see us. I saw num- 
bers of people on the top of houses, and the rising adjacent ground was 
covered with them of both sexes. The throng was so great that the 
King's officers were obliged to draw their swords and force a passage to 
Pendennis Castle, which was near a mile from the town, where we 
were closely confined, in consequence of orders from Gen. Carlton, 
who then commanded in Canada. 

JVJy personal treatment by Lieut. Hamilton, who commanded the castle 
was very generous ; he sent me every day a fine breakfast and dinner from 
his own table, and a bottle of good wine. Another aged gentleman, whose 
name I cannot recollect, sent me a good supper. But there was no distinc- 
tion in public support between me and the privates — we all lodged on a 
sort of Dutch bunk, in one common apartment, and were allowed straw. 
The privates were well supplied with fresh provisions, and with me took 
effectual measures to rid ourselves of lice. 

Among the great number of people who came to see the prisoners, some 
gentlemen told me that they had come fifty miles on purpose to see me, and 
desired to ask me a number of questions, and to make free with me in con* 

* Afterwards Lord Mayor of London, 



20 
rersatfon. I gave for answer that I chose freedom in every sense of the 
word. Then one of them asked me what my occupation in life had been ; 
I answered him, that in my younger days I had studied divinity, but was 
a conjurer by profession. He replied that I conjured wrong at the time I 
was tak^n ; and I was obliged to own it that time, but I had conjured 
them out of Ticonderoga. This was a place of great notoriety in England, 
so that the joke seemed to go in my favor, 

The prisoners were landed at Falmouth a few days before Christmas, 
and ordered on board the Solebay frigate, Capt. Symonds, the eighth day 
of January 1776, when our hand irons were taken off The Solebay, wilh 
sundry other men of war, and about forty transport, rendezvoused at the 
cove of Cork, in Ireland, to take provisions and water. 

The narrative is too long to be followed farther. By a cir- 
cuitous route Allen was carried to Halifax, where he remained 
confined in jail from June to October, and was then removed 
to New York. In the latter city he was admitted to parole 
with other officers, while his men were thrust into the loath- 
some churches and prison-ships, with the prisoners taken at 
Fort Washington. He was kept in New York about a year 
and a half, much of the time imprisoned, though some times 
permitted to be out on parole. 

Col. Allen was exchanged for Col. Campbell, May 6, 1778, 
and after having repaired to head quarters, and offered his ser- 
vices to Gen. Washington in case his health should be restored, 
he returned to Vermont. His arrival, on the evening of the 
last of May, gave his friends great joy, and it was announced 
by the discharge of cannon. As an expression of confidence 
in his patriotism and military talents, Congress sent, him a com- 
mission as Colonel in the continental army, and the legislature 
appointed him Major-General and commander of the Vermont 
Militia. It does not appear, however, that his intrepidity was 
ever again brought to the test, though his patriotism was tried 
by an unsuccessful effort to bribe him to attempt a union of 
Vermont with Canada. He was elected by his fellow-citizens 
a member of the State Legislature, and a special delegate to 
the Continental Congress. He died suddenly at his estate in 
Colchester, (Vt.,) February 13, 1789. 

The writings of General Allen were like himself — bold, 
pointed, often ingenious, but without polish, and sometime* 



21 
with little refinement or taste. In addition to several pamph- 
lets growing out of the controversy between the Green M -m- 
tain Boys and the government of New York, he published a Nar- 
iative of his captivity, in a volume of nearly 200 pages, and a 
work entitled, "Allen's Theology, or the Oracles of Reason,'* 
the design of which was to ridicule the idea of revealed religion. 
As may well be supposed, this last work added nothing to his 
popularity even in his own neighborhood. Descended from the 
puritans, the people of New England had too much reverence 
for the religion of their ancestors to see it assailed with impuni- 
ty even by one who had been a favorite. Preachers declaim- 
ed against him, critics derided, and poets lampooned him.* 

*The following piece of satire from the pen of the celebrated Di\ Lemuel 
Hopkins, we find in Dr. E. H. Smith's Collection of American Poetry, printed 
at Litchfield, by Collier & Buel, in 1794. 

"ON GENERAL ETHAN ALLEN. 

" Lo Allen, 'scaped from British jails, 

His tushes broke by biting nails, 

Appears in hyperborean skies, 

To tell the world the Bible lies. 

See him on green hills north afar, 

Glow like a self-enkindled star, 

Prepared (with mob -collecting club 

Black from the forge of Beelzebub, 

And grim with metaphysic scowl, 

With quill just plucked from wing of owl,) 

As rage or reason rise or sink, 

To shed his blood, or shed his ink. 

Behold, inspired from Vermont dens, 

The Seer of Antichrist descends, 

To feed new mobs with hell-born manna 

In Gentile lands of Susquehanna; 

And teach the Pennsylvania quaker 

High blasphemies against his Maker ! 

Behold him move, ye staunch divines ! 

His tall head bustling through the pines b 

All front he seems like wall of brass, 

And brays tremendous as an ass ; 

One hand is clenched to batter noses, 

While t'other scrawls -gainst Paul and Mosei !" 



22 

An interesting fact is related of General Allen by the late 
President Dwight, which would indicate that the veteran hero 
had in reality very little genuine faith in his own system of di- 
vinity. He had a favoiite and much beloved daughter, who 
had early been instructed in the principles of Christianity by 
her pious mother, and into whose mind he had also labored to 
instil his own peculiar sentiments. She died young — and in 
her last sickness she called her father to her bed-side, and thus 
addressed him — "Father, I am about to die; shall I believe 
ii: the doctrines which you have taught me, or in those which 
my mother has taught me ?' Allen was overcome with emo- 
tion — his lip quivered — his voice for a moment, i altered. " My 
child, believe what your mother has taught you !" was his re- 
ply. 

" There is much," says Br. Sparks, " to admire in the 
character of Ethan Allen. He was brave, generous, and 
frank, true to his friends, true to his country, consistent and 
unyielding in his purposes, seeking at all times to promote the 
best interests of mankind-*-a lover of social harmony, and a de- 
termined foe to the artifices of injustice and the encroach- 
ments of power. Few have suffered more in the cause of 
freedom, few have borne their sufferings with a firmer con- 
stancy or a loftier spirit. His courage, even when apparently 
approaching to rashness, was calm and deliberate. No man 
probably ever possessed this attribute in a more remarkable 
degree. He was eccentric and ambitious, but these weak- 
nesses, if such they were, never betrayed him into acts dishon- 
orable, unworthy, or selfish. So rigid was he in his patriotism, 
that, when it was discovered that one of his brothers had 
avowed tory principles, and been guilty of a correspondence 
with the enemy, he entered a public complaint against him in 
his own name, and petitioned the Court to confiscate his pro- 
perty in obedience to the law. His enemies never had cause to 
question his magnanimity, nor his friends to regret confidence 



2% 

misplaced or expectations disappointed. He was kind, benev- 
olent, humane and placable. In short, whatever may have 
been his peculiarities, or however these may have diminished 
the weight of his influence and the value of his public services, 
it must be allowed that he was a man of very considerable 
importance in the sphere of his activity, and that to no individ- 
ual among her patriot founders is the State of Vermont more 
indebted for the basis of her free institutions, and t he achieve- 
ment of her independence, than to Ethan Allen." 

General Allen was twice married. His second wife, and 
children by both marriages, survived him. 

« ■ 1 V ! ~ * ' 1 w 

NOTE. — The following persons were taken prisoners with General 
Allen, and were carried with him to England, viz.- -Roger Moore, of 
Salisbury ; Peter Noble, (made his escape to Cape Fear in Carolina ;) 
Levi Barnum, of Norfolk; Barnabas Cane, Preston Denton, John 
Gray, Samuel Lewis, William Gray, David Goss, and Adonijah Max- 
um, of Sharon ; Zachariah Brinsmade, of Woodbury ; Wm. Drink- 
water, of New Milford ; Jonathan Mahee, of Goshen ; Ebenezer Mack, 
of Norfolk, &c. — See Hinman 1 s History of the Revolution, p. 5*71. 

Mr. Maxum (whose name is given above,) is still living in Sharon. 



24 



OLIVER WOLCOTT 



The family of WoLcott were among the earliest of the 
colonists of New England, Henry Wolcott the ancestor, 
having emigrated from the mother country in 1630, to escape 
the religious persecutions of the day. 

His eldest son, of the same name, was one of the patentees 
under the Charier of Charles II., and for many years a magis- 
trate of the Colony. Simon, another son, was a farmer in 
Windsor and left a numerous issue, of whom the youngest son 
was Roger Wolcott, a man distinguished in the province 
both for his civil and military services. From a weaver, with 
no property and little education, he rose to the rank of Chief 
Justice and Governor ; and was Major General and the second 
officer in command at the capture of Louisbourg. He died in 
1767, aged 89. 

Oliver, youngest son of Roger Wolcott, established him- 
self as a physician at Litchfield; and on the organization of 
the county of that name, in 1751, he was chosen its first Sher- 
iff. He was afterwards a Signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, Lieutenant-Governor, and Governor, 

OLIVER WOLCOTT, ll. d., son of the preceding, was 
born at Litchfield, on the 11th of January, 1760. The rudi- 
ments of his education he received at the common town school, 
of which one Master Beckwith was then teacher. He was a 
mild man, more devoted to the fishing rod than the birch, and 
under his tuition the pupil made at least as much proficiency in 
angling and squirrel shooting as in Lilly's grammar. Maternal 
anxiety for his health, which was delicate, gave him perhaps a 



larger liberty in I his respect, and he improved it to the acquir- 
ing of an iron constitution. At odd hours he was employed in 
•tending the cattle and the other occupations of a farmer's son. 

At a period much later than this, Litchfield was on the out- 
skirts of New England civilization, ami presented a very dif- 
ferent aspect from its now venerable quiet. The pickets which 
guarded its first dwellings were not yet destroyed. The Indi- 
an yet wandered through its broad streets, and hunters as 
wild as our present borderers, chased the deer and the pan- 
ther on the shores of the lake. The manners of its inhabitants 
were as simple and primitive as those of their fathers, a centu- 
ry back, in the older settlements on the Connecticut. Trav- 
eling was entirely on horseback, except in the winter, and but 
a casual intercourse was carried on with the distant towns. 
Occasionally, and more frequently as they became more inter- 
esting, tidings reached them from Boston, and even from the 
old world. Here among the mountains the future Secretary 
passed a tolerably happy boyhood, except when on Sundays 
he was encased in a suit of tight scarlet breeches and forced to 
wear shoes, a penance reserved for that day, and endured with 
much dissatisfaction. 

At the age of thirteen he had mastered the lore then requis- 
ite for entering college. His father, although considering him 
too young, was yet willing to let him exercise his own discre- 
tion, or perhaps catch a glimpse of the world. The outfit of a 
student was not cumbrous, and, mounted on a steady horse, 
with a passport to the clergy on the road, Master Oliver for the 
first time left his native village. 

His first halt was at the venerable parson Trumbull's, the 
father of the poet, John Trumbull. In an account of this ad- 
venture some years ofter, he says, " I found parson Trumbull 
in the field superintending laborers. He received me well, 
ordered my horse to be taken care of, and invited me to a farm- 
er's dinner; He looked kindly at me, and placing his hand on 



26 
my head, said, I was one of the old stock of Independents. I 
did not understand his meaning,~but as it was said to be a lam- 
ily characteristic, I recollected it ever after. I was dismissed 
in season to get to parson Leavenworth's, at Waterbury, before 
sunset. Here I found another agricultural clergyman, who 
lived well in a good chouse, but in a poor parish, where the 
lands did not enable his parishioners to afford a support equal 
to that received by parson Trumbull. On asking my name, 
placing his hands on my head, he enquired whether I intend- 
ed, if I was able, to be like old Noll, a republican and a King- 
Killer ? These words were new phrases to my ears, but I treas- 
ured them in my memory." 

After spending a week in viewing New Haven, some mys- 
terious apprehensions of the coming trial, and the awe inspired 
by the solemn wigs and robes worn by the professors, convin- 
ced him, what his father's opinion had failed to do, that he was 
too young to enter college. He therefore retraced his steps, 
pondering on the wonders he had seen, and on his newly dis- 
coved family characteristic, The year after, however, 1774, 
he returned to New Haven and entered college. Thick com- 
ing events soon explained the meaning of his clerical friends, 

Of Wolcott's class/ there were several who afterwards be- 
came eminent in different pursuits. Among them may be 
mentioned Noah Webster, Joel Barlow, Uriah Tracy, and 
Zephaniah Swift. One of them, Dr. Webster, speaks as fol- 
lows of Wolcott's collegiate reputation — " I was an intimate 
friend, classmate, and for some months room-mate of Governor 
Wolcott. My acquaintance with him was of nearly sixty 
years' duration. I found him always frank and faithful in his 
friendship, and generous to the extent of his means. He was 
in college a good scholar, though not brilliant. He possessed 
l he firmness and strong reasoning powers of the Wolcott fami- 
ly, but with some eccentricities in reasoning." 

During the long absence of General Wolcott, (Oliver's fath- 



2T 
er,) in the State and national councils and in the field, Mrs, 
Wolcott managed hi3 farm and educated his youngest children 
«~-thus enabling him to devote himself to the public service un- 
fetter by private anxieties. Indeed, her devotion to the cause 
was not exceeded by that of her husband, and the family un- 
derwent privations and fatigues during some of the years of the 
revolution, which, not uncommon then, would startle the mat- 
rons of our more peaceful days. 

In April, 1777, the studies of young Oliver were broken in 
upon, by a call to more stirring scenes than the groves of Yale. 
He was in Litchfield on a visit to his mother, when the news 
arrived that a large body of the British under Tryon had landed 
and marched to Danbury to destroy the continental stores. 
Awakened at midnight by the summons to repair at the ren- 
dezvous of the militia, he armed himself ; and his mother fur- 
nished his knapsack with provisions and a blanket, hastened 
his departure, and dismissed him with the charge " to conduct 
like a good soldier." The party to which he was attached 
reached the enemy at Wilton, where a skirmish took place, in 
which, as well as in the subsequent attacks during the retreat 
of the British, Wolcott participated. 

The next year he took his degree at Yale College, and im- 
mediately commenced the study of law at Litchfield under 
Tapping Reeve. In 1779, after the destruction of Fairfield 
and Nor walk, he attended his father as a volunteer aid, to the 
coast. At the close of this service, he was offered a commis- 
sion in the continental service, which he declined in conse- 
quence of having already entered upon his professional studies. 
He however shortly after accepted a commission in the Quar- 
ter Master's department, which being stationary at Litchfield 
would the less interfere with them. 

During the severe winter of 1779-80, famine added its ter- 
rors to excessive cold. The deep snows in the mountain region 
•of thtt State, and the explosion of the paper system rendered 



4 

k almost impossible to procure the necessaries of life. Con- 
necticut had been in the foremost rank of the supporters of the 
war ; she had contributed freely from her narrow resources, 
and' the blood of her sons had fattened every battle-field. Nev- 
er the seat of much opulence, the few individuals who had 
possessed comparative wealth were reduced to indigence, the 
towns were burdened with the support of the families of the 
soldiers in addition to the usual poor. And now when cold 
and hunger threatened their utmost rigors, when a dark cloud 
hung over the fate of the country, when misfortune attended 
its arms, and bankruptcy its treasury,xthe courage of her citi- 
zens failed not. The records of her towns, the votes of recruits 
to the army and of bread to the suffering, showed that she had 
counted the cost of the struggle, and was willing to meet it. 
It may well be supposed that the resources of so zealous an 
advocate for the war as General Wolcott, were not withheld. 
Every dollar that could be spared from the maintenance of the 
family, was expended in raising and equipping men ; every 
blanket not in actual use was sent to the army, and the sheets 
were torn into bandages or cut into lint, by the hands of his 
wife and daughters. During almost the whole of this winter 
had he been in Congress, and his absence threw upon young 
Oliver an almost insupportable burden, in obtaining fuel and 
provision for the family, and in keeping open the roads for the 
transportation of stores. At that time the line of traveling and 
carriage, from New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Rhode 
Island, to Pennsylvania, had, in consequence of the incursions 
of the enemy, been turned northward of the highlands of New 
York. Much of the army stores and ordnance had been de- 
posited at Litchfield, and in his capacity as Quarter Master, 
the charge of providing for their safe keeping and conveyance* 
fell upon him. 

One family anecdote is interesting and may be mentioned 
here, although the circumstance occurred earlier in the war. 



20 
Before the revoluti'Dn, a leaden equestrian Stafue of George 
III., stood in the Bowling Green in the city of New York. — 
Soon after the war commenced, this statue was overthrown, 
and lead being valuable, it was sent to General Wolcott's at 
Litchfield for safe keeping ; where, in process of time, it was 
cut up and run into bullets by his daughters and r heir friends. 
An account of the number of cartridges made by each, is stiH 
preserved among the family papers. This conversion of a mon- 
arch in into practical arguments of the people, as may be sup- 
posed, furnished abundant material for the wits of the day. 

The hospitalities of his house and his father's public charac- 
ter, introduced young Wolcott to many persons of distinction 
in the army and in Congress. In the year 1780, he thus re- 
ceived General Washington, who, with his suite, among 1 whom 
were Hamilton and Meade, passed through the district. The 
arduous duties thrown upon him at so early a period of his life y 
and his constant intercourse with men, were high advantages 
in their influence in forming and ripening his character. 

In January, 1781, he became of age, and was immediately 
admitted to the bar. He shortly after removed to Hartford. 
Such was his poverty, that he left home with no more than 
three dollars in his pocket, and to defray his expenses, on 
reaching Hartford he accepted a clerkship in the office of the 
Committee of the Pay-Table, with a salary amountingto about 
fifty cents per diem, in specie value. His diligence in this em- 
ployment attracted the notice of the General Assembly, who,, 
in January, 1782, unsolicited, appointed him one of the mem- 
bers of the Committee, at that time the central beard of ac- 
counts. Being the junior member, it became a part of his- 
duty to call upon the Council of Safety at their almost daily 
sittings, and receive and execute their directions. There, un- 
der the keen inspection of Governor Trumbull and the Council, 
he became initiated into the system of public affairs, and per- 
sonally known to many of the prominent characters in different 



BO 

departments. His labors from this time, to the end of the war 
were incessant.. Cut off from the society natural to his age, 
and at twenty-one thrown upon his own resources, in a situa- 
tion arduous and responsible, he acquired the self-confidence, 
the intense application to business, the practical habits and 
iron perseverence, which formed the basis of his success in life. 
* In May, 1784, he was appointed a Commissiener for the State 
of Connecticut, in concert wi(h Oliver Ellsworth, with full 
power to adjust and settle the acounts and claims of the State 
against the United States, with the Commissioner on the part 
of Congress. In May, 1788, the Committee of the Pay-Table 
was abolished, and theoffice of Comptroller of Public Accounts 
instituted. Wolcott was appointed Comptroller, and continu- 
ed to discherge the duties of the office with general acceptance 
until the establishment of the National Treasury, in the fall 
of the succeeding year. 

In 1785, he had married Elizabeth, the only daughter of 
CoL John Stoughton, a descendant of one of the families who 
sealed Windsor, and a distinguished officer of the French War. 

During his residence in Hartford, Wolcott formed or cemen- 
ted a friendship with a number of men, then young, but after- 
wards well known for their wit and literary attainments. Such 
were Juhn Trumbull, Dr. Lemuel Hopkins, Richard Alsop, 
Barlow and Webster, few cities in the Union could boast of 
a more cultivated or intelligent society than Hartford, whether 
in its men or women ; and, during the intervals of business, he 
was enabled, in the study of the English classical writers and 
intercourse with educated minds, to make amends for the irreg- 
ularities of his education. He never, even during the pressing 
occupations of after life, forgot his literary tastes ; his powerful 
memory enabling him to recall long passages of the English 
poets, with whom he was especially familiar. 

At this time, in concert with his literary friends, he occasion- 
ally indulged in writing poetry. Among his poems is one en- 



3i 
tied " The Judgment of Paris," of which it is only necessary 
to say, it would be much worse than Barlow's epic, if'it were 
not much shorter. 

Upon the organization of the General Government under 
the new Constitution, in September, 1789, Mr. Wolcott receiv- 
ed from President Washington the appointment of Auditor of 
the Treasury. The appointment was announced to him in the 
following letter from Colonel Hamilton — 

New York, September 13 th, 1789. 
Sir: 

It is with pleasure I am able to inform you, that you have been 
appointed Auditor in the Department of the Treasury. The salary of 
this office is $1500. Your friends having expressed a doubt of your 
acceptance, I cannot forbear saying that I shall be happy to find the 
doubt has been ill-founded, as from the character I have received of 
you, I am persuaded you will be an acquisition to the Department, 
I need scarcely add that your presence here as soon as possible is 
•essential to the progress of business. 

I am, Sir, your obedient servant, 

Alexander Hamilton, 
Secretary of the Treasury. 

Mr. Wolcott, after some hesitation, accepted the appoint- 
ment, and forthwith took up his lesidence in New York, the 
then seat of Government. Mr, Eveleigh, the Comptroller of 
the Treasury, died in the spring of 1791 ; soon after which 
Colonel Hamilton addressed a letter to the President, warmly 
recommending the appointment of Mr. Wolcott to the vacant 
post. In that letter he says- — 

'" This gentleman's conduct in the station he now fills, has been that 
of an excellent officer. It has not only been good, but distinguished. 
It combines all the requisites which can be desired — moderation with 
firmness, liberality with exactness, indefatigable industry with an ac- 
curate and sound discernment ; a thorough knowledge of business, 
and a remarkable spirit of order and arrangement. Indeed I ouo-ht 
to say, that I owe very much of whatever succecs may have attended 
the merely executive operations of the department to Mr. Wolcott ; 
and I do not fear to commit myself, when I add, that he possesses in 
an eminent degree all the qualifications desirable in a Comptroller of 
the Treasury— that it is scarcely possible to find a man in the United 



States "more competent to the duties of that station than himself — few 
-who could be equally so." 

It is hardly necessary to add, that Wolcott received the ap- 
pointment of Comptroller. 

The U. S. Bank, created during the late session, was organi- 
zed in the summer of 179 1 . Wolcott was offered the Presiden- 
cy of the Bank, with an ample salary, which he declined ; 
"preferring the public service, and believing that such a station 
would be deemed unsuitable for ayoung man without property." 
At this time, and during the whole of Wolcott's residence in 
Philadelphia, which had now become the seat of Government, 
his situation, though involving laborious duties, was in a high 
degree delightful. A society at that time existed there, mark- 
ed by every characteristic which could recommend it to one of 
a cultivated mind and social disposition, embracing much of the 
genius, the worth, and no little of the wit and the beauty of the 
county, and cemented by mutu.il confidence and congeniality 
of opinions and pursuits. Of this society, two members of 
Wolcott's family, his younger sister and his wife, were them- 
selves no inconsipuous ornaments. The former, married to 
the Hon. Chauncey Goodrich, was distinguished for her per- 
sonal beauty and brilliant conversation ; Mr3. Wolcott, with 
less beauty, had still a countenance of much loveliness, and 
manners graceful and dignified. To the most femenine gen- 
tleness of disposition' she added sound sense, and that kind of 
cultivation which is acquired in intercourse with thinkers. — 
Both belonged to a class of women of whom Connecticut could 
then boast many, whose minds were formed, and habits of re- 
flection we directed by men ; and without coming within the 
category of female politicians, they had been almost from child- 
hood familiar with questions of public and general interest. 
An anecdote of Geneial Tracy,* whose sarcasms were of old 
dreaded alike in the Senate chamber and in the drawing-room, 

* Hon. Ukiah Tracy, of Litchfield, then in the U. S. Senate. 



has been preserved, commemorative at once of Mis. Wolcott's 
attraction and his own peculiar wit. Mr. Lis' on, who suc- 
ceeded Mr. Hammond as British Minister at Philadelphia, and 
who was thoroughly English in his ideas, on some occasion re- 
marked to him, ''Your countrywoman, Mrs. Wolcott, would 
be pdmired even at St. James.' " "Sir," retorted the Senator 
from Connecticut, "she is admired even on Litchfield Hill !" 

On the last day of January, 1795, Col. Hamilton resigned 
the office of Secretary of the Treasury, and Mr. Wolcott was 
commissioned as his successor on the 2d of February following. 
The Cabinet now consisted of Edmund Randolph, Secretary 
of State ; Oliver Wolcott, Jr., of the Treasury ; Timothy Pick- 
ering, of War; and William Bradford, Attorney General. 

It appeals that Washington had Wolcott in view among the 
persons upon whom the office of Secretary of State might be 
conferred. Mr. Jefferson says, " He asked me what sort of a 
man Mr, Wolcott was. I told him I knew nothing of him my- 
self. I had heard him characterized as a cunning man."-— 
Judging from his subsequent appointment to a more responsi- 
ble office, this hear-say slander had not much weight with 
Washington. Nothing could in fact be more unjust. The last 
quality of Wolcott's mind was ' cunning.' 

Wolcott had at this time but just completed his thirty-fifth 
year ; but though thus young, he possessed in an eminent de- 
giee the requisites of a minister of finance. He had not, it is 
true, the brilliant qualities of genius ; but he had a comprehen- 
sive and well regulated mind, a judgment matured and reliable, 
strong practical good sense and native shrewdness. President 
Washington placed the fullest confidence in his intelligerce 
and patriotism, and frequently consulted him on matters of 
great public importance. On the 25th of March, 1796, the 
President addressed him the following queries — 
-Sir: 

The Resolution moved in the House of Representatives for the pa- 
pers relative to the negociation of the Treaty with Great Britain, hav- 
ing passed in the affirmative, I request your opinion — 



34 

Whether that branch of Congress hath or hath not a right by the 
Constitution, to call for these papers ? Whether, if it does possess 
the right, it would be expedient, under the circumstances of this par- 
ticular case, to furnish them ? And in either case, what terms would 
be more proper, to comply with* or refuse the request of the House ? 

These opinions in writing, and your attendance, will be expected 
at 12 o'clock to-morrow. George Washington." 

With the Fourth Congress, (1797,) the administration of 
Washington closed; Was it strange that there were few smiles 
on his last reception day, or that tears fell from eyes unused to 
them upon the hand that many pressed for the last time 1 The 
relation in which the Secretaries had stood with the President, 
had been one of respectful but affectionate intimacy. Famil- 
iarity with him was a thing impossible, but the most c6rdial 
and unreserved friendship was extended to all whom he trusted 
and esteemed. Wolcott, among others, had enjoyed much 
of the domestic society of the President's house, His gentle 
and graceful wife had been regarded with maternal solicitude 
by Mrs. Washington, and was the friend and correspondent of 
her eldest daughter. His child had been used to climb, con- 
fident of welcome, the knees of the chief ; and, though so ma- 
ny years his junior, while Wc lcott's character and judgment 
had been held in respect by the President, his personal and 
social qualities had drawn towards him a warm degree of in^ 
terest. 

On leaving the seat of Government, Washington presented, 
it is believed, all his chief officers, with some token of regard. 
To Wolcott he g.tve a piece of plate. Mrs. Washington gave 
his wife, when visiting her for the last time, a relic still more 
interesting. Asking her if she did not wish a memorial of the 
General, Mrs. Wolcott replied, "Yes, I would like a lock of 
his hair. " Mrs. Washington, 'smiling, took her scissors and 
cut off for her a large lock her husband's, and one of her own. 
These, with the originalsof the President's letters, Wolcott pre- 
served with careful veneration, and divided between his survi- 
ving children. 



35 

" On the retirement of General Washington," says Wolcott, 
" being desirous that my personal interests should not embar- 
rass his successor, and supposing that some other person might 
be preferred to myself, I tendered my resignation to Mr. Ad- 
ams before his inauguration. The tender was declined, and I 
retained office under my former commission." 

On the 8th of November, 1800, Mr. Wolcott sent the Pres- 
ident his peremptory resignation of the office of Secretary of 
the Treasury — which was accepted by Mr. Adams- At Mr. 
Wolcott' s request, a Committee was appointed by Congress 
to examine into the condition of the Department which he 
had vacated. The Committee consisted of Messrs. Otis, Nich- 
olas, Griswold, Nicholson, Wain, Stone, and Craik ; who, af- 
ter a thorough investigation, unanimously reported that "the 
financial concerns of the couniry have been left by the late 
Secretary in a state of good order and prosperity." 

The subject of this notice had now, and as he supposed for- 
ever, retired from public life. The necessities of his family 
required that he should at once enter upon some active em- 
ployment for their maintenance — his whole property consisting 
at this time of a small farm in Connecticut, and a few hundred 
dollars in cash. He had the satisfaction of going out of office 
poorer than when, at the first establishment of the Government, 
he entered upon the duties of the auditorship. Men had not 
in those days acquired the art of becoming rich in ihe public 
service — though even then our officers were not exempt from 
the charge of peculation and fraud. It was a period character- 
ized by unprecedented bitterness of party spirit. The ste- 
reotyped charge of defalcation, made by the organ of the Jef- 
fersonian party, the Aurora, and other kindred prints, received 
a momentary impulse from two events of the winter of 1800- 
1801. Fires successively occurred in the buildings occupied 
by the War and Treasury Departments. Furious attacks were 
at once made upon the federal officers, of which Wolcott re» 



«6 

ceived bis full proportion. The fires, as a matter of course, 
were attributed to design, and party malignity vented itself m 
accusations of the most attrocious kind. The fact that the 
persons under whose charge the Departments had so long been, 
had resigned, and that the federal party itself was on the eve 
of going out of power — that, predictions of such occurrences 
had been among the thousand calumnies of hack editors — gave 
a tempory but only a temporary coloring to those falsehoods. 
A Committee of the House was appointed on the 10th of Feb- 
ruary, to examine into the cause of these occurrences — a ma- 
JDrity of whom were members of the opposition. The Com- 
mittee reported that in regard to the fire in the War Depart- 
ment there was " no evidence whatever on which to ground a 
suspicion of its originating in negligence or design ;" that 
concerning the fire in the Treasury Department, "they had 
obtained no evidence which enables them to form a conjecture 
satisfactory"— and therefore " choose to report in the words of 
the witnesses themselves." The published testimony of those 
witnesses, (though unsatisfactory to a party committee,) fully 
exhonorated Mr. Wolcott from all blame in the eye of the 
public. 

Mr. W. now left Washington and repaired to Middletown, 
Connecticut, where his family had for some time resided. 
His resources but little exceeded what was necessary to satis- 
fy his family expenses for a few months. Most unexpectedly 
to him, he was nominated by President Adams as Judge of 
the United States Circuit Court for the second district, embra- 
cing the States of Connecticut, Vermont, and New York — 
which nomination was unanimously confirmed by the Senate. 
This was a proud day for Wolcott — a day which forever silen- 
ced the calumnies of his political and personal enemies, both 
in and out of Congress. Partizan libelers no longer dared to 
throw out their base insinuations relative to the burning of the 
Treasury building, for the object of their vengeance was shields 



it 

ed by the unanimous vote of the American Senate, a targe pro- 
portion of whose members were his political opponents. 

On the 3d of March, 1801, the ascendency of the federal 
party in the United States ended, Mr. Jefferson succeeding 
Mr. Adams in the Presidential chair. 

In 1802, the Judiciary Act under which Mr, Wolcott had 
been appointed to the Judgeship, was repealed. He then took 
up his residence in the city of New York, where he engaged 
in mercantile business, in company with nine other gentlemen, 
with a capital of $100,000. During the succeeding year, the 
Merchants* Bank, a joint stock corporation, was created, and 
he was elected its President The hostility of De Witt Clinton 
and Governor Lewis, however, shortly after destroyed it by 
effecting the passage of the act known as the 'restraining act.* 
It was subsequently re-incorporated, and flourished for many 
years under the Presidency of the late Lynde Catlin, Esq., also 
a native of Litchfield. 

On the expiration of the charter of the first Bank of the 
United States, Mr. Wolcott employed nearly all his capital in 
establishing the Bank of America. It was incorporated in 
1812, and he was chosen its first President, which office he 
held until 1814, when, in consequence of political differences 
betw r een himself and the directors of the institution, he resign- 
ed. About this time, (in connection with his brother, the late 
Hon. Frederick Wolcott,) he commenced the extensive man- 
ufacturing establishments at Wolcottville, near Litchfield. 

In 1815, he returned to his native town, and in the follow- 
ing year was placed in nomination by the democratic party as 
their candidate for Governor of the State of Connecticut, but 
was defeated. In 1817, he was elected Governor; and the 
same year he was chosen a member of the Convention which 
formed our present State Constitution, and was called to pre- 
side over the deliberations of that distinguished body. He 
was annually re-elected Governor for leu successive years. 



38 
Governor Wolcott subsequently returned to New York, and 
died there on the 2d of June, 1833. He was the last survivor 
of Washington's Cabinet. The departure of few men from 
the world, ever produced a moie deep and general feeling of 
sorrow. AU felt that a most important link in the chain 
that united the present generation with the era of the Father 
o( bis Country, was broken. 



m 



John t r u m fc u l L , 



^fhe family of Trumbull was among the early settlers of Ne# 
England. Their ancestor came from England, and in 1645 
fixed his residence at Ipswich in Massachusetts. His son* 
John, removed to Suffield, in this State. He had three sons, 
John, Joseph,' and Benoni. The Rev. Benjamin Trurnbulh 
D. D., the historian of Connecticut, was a grandson of Benoni \ 
Joseph settled at Lebanon, and at his death left one son, Jon- 
athan Trumbull^ who Was Governor of the State during" the 
whole of the revolutionary war* and whose patriotic exertions 
are amply recorded in history. Two of his sons were Jona- 
than Trumbull, afterwards Governor of the State> and John 
Trumbull, the celebrated painter, whose merits have long been 
distinguished both in Europe and America. 

The subject of this sketch was the grandson of John Triim- 
bull, eldest son of him who first settled at Suffield. He was 
born on the 13th day of April, old style, in the year 1750, in 
the then parish of Westbury, but since formed into a separate 
town by the name of Watertown, in Litchfield county. The 
settlement of that village was begun a (ew years before his 
birth. His father, who was the first pitstor ol the Congrega- 
tional church in that place, was a good classical scholar, high- 
ly respected by his brethren, and for many years one of the 
Trustees or Fellows of Yale College. His mother was a daugh- 
ter of the Rev. Samuel Whitman, of Farmington, in Hartford, 
and grand-daughter of the Rev. Solomon Stoddard, D. D., of 
Northampton, Massachusetts. 



4o 
Being an only son, and of a very delicate and sickly consti ; 
tution, he was of course the favorite of his mother. She had 
received an education superior to most of her sex, and not only 
instructed him in reading, from his earliest infancy, but find- 
ing him possessed of an extraordinary memory, taught him all 
the hymns, songs, and other verses, with which she was ac- 
quainted. The Spectator and Watts' Lyiic Poems were the 
only works of merit in the belles-lettres, which he possessed. 
Young Trumbull not only committed to memory most of the 
rhymes and poetry they contained, but was seized with an un- 
accountable ambition of composing verses himself, in which 
he was encouraged by his parents. The country clergy at 
that time generally attempted to increase their income by keep- 
ing private schools for the education of youth. When he was 
about five years of age, his father took under his care a lad, 
seventeen years old, to instruct and qualify him for admission 
as a member of Yale College. Trumbull noticed the tasks 
first imposed — which were, to learn by heart the Latin Acci^ 
dence and Lilly's Grammar, and to construe the Select Collo- 
loquies of Corderius, by the help of a literal translation. With- 
out the knowledge of any person, except his mother, he began 
the study of the Latin language. After a few weeks, his fath- 
er discovered his wishes, and finding that by the aid of a better 
memory, his son was able to outstrip his fellow-student, en_ 
couraged him to proceed. At the Commencement in Sep- 
tember 1757, the two lads were presented at college, examined 
by the tutors, and admitted as members. Trumbull, however, 
in consequenee of his extreme youth at that time, and his sub- 
sequent ill health, was not sent to reside at college until 1763, 
He spent these six years in a miscellaneous course of study, 
making himself master of the Greek and Latin authors usually 
taught in that institution, reading all the books he could meet 
with, and occasionally attempting to imitate, both in prose and 
verse, the style of the best English writers whose works he 



41 
fcould procure in his native village. These Were of course 
few. Paradise Lost, Thompson's Seasons, with some of the 
poems of Dryden and Pope, were the principal. On commen- 
cing his collegiate life, he found little regard paid to English 
composition, or the acquirement of a correct style. The Greek 
and Latin authors, in the btudy of which, only, his class were 
employed, required but a small portion of his time. By the 
advice of his tutor, he turned his thoughts to Algebra, Geome- 
try, and astronomical calculations, which were then newly 
introduced and encouraged by the instructors. He chiefly 
pursued this course during the three first years. In his senior 
year he began to resume his former attention to English liter- 
ature. Having received the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 
1767, he remained three years longer at college as a resident 
graduate. Being now master of his own time, he devoted 
himself chiefly to polite letters ; reading all the Greek and 
Latin classics, especially the poets and orators, and studying 
the style and endeavoring to imitate the manner of the best 
English writers. 

His acquaintance now commenced with Timothy Dwight, 
afterwards President of the University, who was then in his 
third year in college, and two years his junior in age. That 
young gentleman had translated two of the finest Odes of 
Horace, in a manner so elegant and poetical as would not have 
disgraced his more mature intellect. Happy in the discovery 
of a rising genius, Mr. Trumbull immediately sought his ac- 
quaintance, and began an intimacy which continued during 
their joint residence at New Haven, and a friendship which 
was terminated only by death. 

At this period the learned languages, mathematics, logic, 
and scholastic theology, were alone deemed worthy of the at- 
tention of a scholar. They were dignified with the name of 
"solid learning." English poetry and the belles-lettres were 
called nonsense, and their study was deemed an idle waste of 



42 
time. The two friends were obliged to stem the tide of gen- 
eral ridicule and censure. This situation called forth the sa- 
tirical talents of Trumbull, in occasional humorous poetical 
essays. Their party was soon increased by the accession of 
several young men of genius ; and a material change was 
eventually effected in the taste and pursuits of the students. 

In 1769, they began the publication of a series of essays in 
the manner of the Spectator, in a gazette printed in Boston, 
and continued it several months. They next commenced a 
course of similar essays in the New Haven papers, which in- 
creased to more than forty numbers. 

In September, 1771, Messrs. Trumbull and Dwight were 
chosen tutors of Yale College. From this period, every effort 
wps unanimously made to cultivate in that seminary a correct 
taste in style and elocution. 

In 1778, Trumbull published the first part of a poem, which 
he entitled, The Progress of Dullness, designed to expose the 
absurd method of education which then prevailed; he added 
a second and third part in the course of the next year. Dwight 
about the same time published a poem entitled, America, writ- 
ten in the manner of Pope's Windsor Forest. He had some 
time before begun his greatest poetical work, The Conquest 
of Canaan, and now completed his first sketch in five books. 
By the advice of Mr. Howe, a tutor in the same institution, he 
added the Vision of Futurity, which now makes the tenth book, 
and upon the suggestion of Mr, Trumbull, he inserted the 
night-scene of the battle, illuminated by the burning city of 
Ai. The whole was the work of Dwight — those gentlemen 
assisting him only by their criticism and advice. After their 
dispersion, he considerably altered and enlarged the poem, and 
published it in its present form, in eleven books. 

During their residence at the university, several young gen- 
tlemen were associated in their literary and poetic society* 
particularly Messrs. David Humphreys and Joel Barlow. 



43 

Trumbull, while he held the office of tutor, devoted as much 
attention as his other avocations would admit, to the study of 
law, which he had now selected as his future profession. In 
November, 1773, he was admitted as a practicing attorney at 
the bar in Connecticut, but immediately went to Boston, and 
entered as a student in the office of John Adams, Esq., after- 
wards President of the United States, taking lodgings with Tho- 
mas Gushing, Esq., then Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives, but since a delegate to Congress and Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts. He was now placed in the centre of 
American politics. The contest between Great Britain and 
the Colonies approached rapidly towards a crisis. The vio- 
lence of party was extreme. The Governor, Council, Judges, 
and all the legal authority under the crown, employed their 
utmost efforts to establish the universal supremacy, and enforce 
the oppressive acts, of the English Parliament. In the con- 
test, Trumbull warmly espoused the cause of the people. — 
Though he prosecuted his studies with the utmost attention, 
he frequently employed his leisure hours in writing essays on 
political subjects, for the public gazettes, — which had perhaps 
a greater effect from the novelty of his style, and the caution 
he used to prevent any discovery of the real author. Nor did 
he neglect occasionally to cultivate the muse ; and just before 
he left Boston, he anonymously published his Elegy on the 
Times, which is now known throughout the country. Even 
then verging towards hostility in Massachusetts, the sessions 
of the courts being suspended, and Mr. Adams absent at the 
Congress, in Philadelphia, Trumbull returned to New Haven, 
and successfully commenced practice at the bar, in November 
1774. The following year was a period of terror and dismay. 
The war had. commenced by the battle at Lexington. Un- 
conditional submission, or a total rejection of the authority of 
England, presented the only alternative. Every exertion was 
made by the friends of American liberty, to inspire confidence 



44 

hi our cause, to crush the efforts of the " tory party," and to 
prepare the public mind for. the declaration of independence. 
With these views, at the solicitation of some of his friends in 
Congress, Trumbull wrote the first part of the poem of " Mc- 
Fingal," which they immediately procured to be published at 
Philadelphia, where Congress was then assembled. He had 
also formed the general plan of the work, sketched some of the 
scenes of the third Canto and written tke beginning of the 
fourth, with the commencement of the Vision, at which point, 
not being gifted with the prophetic powers of his hero, he left 
it unfinished. 

In November 1776, he married Miss Sarah Hubbard, daugh- 
ter of Colonel Leverett Hubbard, of* New Haven. That town 
being exposed to invasion, and all business lapidly declining, 
he returned in the following May to his native place, where he 
remained during the four succeeding years. Too constant ap- 
plication to his studies, and the fatigue of attending courts at 
a distance in all seasons, especially during the severe winter of 
1780, occasioned the loss of his health by a nervous decline. 
With the hope of recovery, by a change of situation to a place 
more advantageous to his professional business, and more 
agreeable by its literary society, he removed with his family to 
Hartford in June 1781. 

A friendly club was soon established, which assembled once 
a week for the discussion of questions on proposed subjects, 
legal, philosophical, and political. Trumbull, though fully 
employed in the duties of his profession, was one of its most 
active members. The fate of the revolution being now event- 
ually decided by the capture of Lord Cornwallis and his army, 
the friends of the author urged him to complete the poem of 
McFingal, and having obtained his promise, they immediately 
put in circulation a subscription for the work. Thus situated, 
he employed his leisure hours in revising the first half of the 
poem, which he divided into two Cantos, and in composing the 



45 

last. The whole was finished, and the first edition published; 
at Hartford, before the close of the year 1782. As no author 
at that period was entitled by law to the copy right of his pro- 
ductions, the work soon became the prey of every bookseller 
and printer, who chose to appropriate it to his own benefit, 
Among more than thirty different editions, one only, at any 
subsequent time, was published with the permission, or even, 
the knowledge of the author. 

Our author thus introduces his hero and his subject ; 

When. Yankies, skilled in martial rule, 
First put the British troops to school ; 
Instructed them in warlike trade, 
And new manoeuvre of parade — -, 
The true war- dance of yankee-reels, 
And manual exercise of heels ; 
Made them give up, like saints complete, 
The arm of flesh, and trust to feet, 
And work, like christians undissembling, 
Salvation out, with fear and trembling ; 
Taught Percy fashionable races, 
And modern modes of Chevy-chases : 
From Boston, in his best array, 
Great 'Squire McFingal took his way, 
And graced with ensigns of renown, 
Steered homeward to his native town, 

His high descent our heralds trace 
To Ossian's famed Fingalian race ; 
For though his name some part may lack, 
Old Fingal spelt it with a Mac ; 
Which great M'Pherson, with submission > 
We hope will add, the next edition. 

His fathers flourished in the highlands 

Of Scotia's fog benighted islands ; 

Whence gained our 'Squire two gifts by right, 

Rebellion and the Second-sight. 



40 

Of these the first, in ancient days, 

Had gained the noblest palm of praise, 

'Gainst kings stood forth, and many a crown'd hea.dk 

With terror of its might confounded, 

Till rose a King with potent charm, 

His foes by goodness to disarm, 

Whom every Scot and Jacobite 

Straight fell in love with at first sight ; 

Whose gracious speech, with aid of pensions, 

Hushed down all murmurs of dissensions, 

And with the sound of potent metal, 

Brought all their blustering swarms to settle , 

Who rained his ministerial mannas, 

Till loud Sedition, sang hosannahs ; 

And good Lord Bishops and the Kirks 

United in the public works. 

For these our 'squire among the valiant'st 
Employed his time and tools and talents ; 
And in their cause with manly zeal, 
Used his first virtue, to rebel ; 
And found this new rebellion pleasing 
As his old king- destroying treason. 
Nor less availed his optic clight, 
And Scottish gift of second-sight. 
No ancient sybil famed in rhyme, 
Saw deeper in the womb of time ; 
No block in old Dodona's grove, 
Could ever more orae'lar prove. 
Nor only saw he all that was, 
But much that never came to pass • 
Whereby all prophets far outwent he, 
Though former days produced a plenty ' 
For any man with half an eye, 
What stands before him may espy, 
But optics sharp it needs, I ween, 
To sec what is not to be seen, 



47 
In another part of the same canto, our author thus hits a 
class of men in each of the professions which is not even yet 
extinct; 

And are there in this freeborn land, 

Among ourselves a venal band, 

A dastard race, who long have sold 

Their souls and consciences for gold — • 

Who wish to stab their country's vitals, 

If they may heir surviving titles — 

With joy behold our mischief brewing, 

Insult and triumph on our ruin ? 

Priests who, if Satan should sit down 

To make a Bible of his own, 

Would gladly for the sake of mitres, 

Turn his inspired and sacred writers ; 

Lawyers, who should he wish to prove 

His title to his old seat above, 

Would, if his cause he'd give 'em fees id, 

Bring writs of Entry sur disseisin, 

Plead for him boldly at the session, 

And hope to put him in possession ; 

Merchants who, for his kindly aid, 

Would make him partner in their trade, 

Hang out their signs in goodly show, 

Inscribed with " Beelzebub & Co." 

And Judges, who would list his pages, , 

For proper liveries and wages ; 

And who as humbly cringe and bow 

To all his mortal servants now ? 

There are — and shame with pointing gestures, 

Marks out the Addressers and Protesters ; 

Whom, following down the stream of fate, 

Contempts ineffable await, 

And public infamy forlorn, 

Dread hate and everlasting scorn. 



48 
'In the following lines McFin ;al exercises his faculty of 
"second sight," in foretelling the" doom of Britain and the us- 
ing glory of America. Are not his predictions relative to our 
own country, already verified 1 

Now view the scenes in future hours, 
That wait the famed European Powers. 
See where yon chalky cliff's arise, 
The hills of Britain strike your eyes'; 
Its small extension long supplied 
By vast immensity of pride, — 
So small, that had it found a station 
In this new world at first creation, 
Or were by Justice doomed to suffer, 
And for its crimes transported over, 
We'd find full room for't in Lake Erie, or 
That still larger waterpond, Superior, 
Where North on margin taking stand, 
Would not be able to spy land. 
No more, elate with power, at ease 
She deals her insults round the seas ; 
See dwindling from her height amain, 
What piles of ruin spread the plain ! 
With mouldering hulks her ports are fill'd 
And brambles clothe the cultured field. 
See on her cliffs her Genius lies, 
His handkerchief at both his eyes, 
With many a deepdrawn sigh and groan, 
To mourn her ruin and his own ! 
While joyous Holland, France and Spain, 
With conquering navies rule the main, 
And Russian banners wide unfurled, 
Spread Commerce round the eastern world. 
And see (sight hateful and tormenting,) 
Th' American empire proud and vaunting, 
From anarchy shali change her crasis, 
And fix her powers on firmer basis, 
To glory, wealth and fame ascend, 
Her commerce rise, her realms extendi 



40 
Where now the panther guards his den, 
Her desert forests swarm with men, 
Her cities, towers and columns rise, 
And dazzling temples meet the skies ; 
Her pines, descending to the main, 
In triumph spread the watery plain, 
Ride inland lakes with favoring gales, 
And crowd her ports with whit'ning sails, 
Till to the skirts of western day, 
The peopled regions own her sway. 

These brief extracts will give the reader some idea of the 
style and manner of this greatest of American Satires a po- 
em which Blackwood called "the Hudibrasof the new world." 
" McFingal" is a builesque epic of some thousands of lines, 
directed against the enemies of American liberty, and holding 
up to particular scorn and contempt, the tories and British 
officers, civil, military and naval, then in this country. It is a 
merciless satire throughout. Whatever it touches, it trans- 
forms ; kings, ministers, lords, bishops, generals, judges, ad- 
mirals, all take their turn, and become in the light or associa- 
tions in which they are exhibited, alternately the objects of 
our merriment, hatred, or scorn: So wedded is the author to 
this vein of sarcasm, that even McFingal himself, the professed 
friend of England and champion of the tories, is made in fact 
the scoffer of both them and their cause. The story of the po- 
em may be thus briefly stated | the hero, a Scotchman and 
justice of the peace in a town near Boston, goes to a town 
meeting, where he and one Honorius make speeches at each 
other through two whole cantos^ At the end of the second 
canto, the meeting breaks up tumultuously ; and the people 
gather round a liberty pole, erected by the mob. Here Mc- 
Fingal makes a violent speech of near two hundred lines, at 
f he end of which he is pursued by the whigs, and brought back 



50 
to the liberty pole, where the tory constable is swung alof^ 
and McEingal tarred and feathered. The latter is then set at 
liberty ; he goes home, and at night makes a speech to some 
of history friends in his cellar, extending through the rest of 
the poem, leaving only room to tell that the mob broke off the 
address in the middle by assaulting the house, and McFingal 
escaped to Boston. 

After the peace in 1783, in consequence of mobs and insur- 
rections in various parts of the country, the public became sen- 
sible of the want of an efficient general government, and a 
protracted contest ended in the adoption of the federal con- 
stitution. During most of this exciting period^ several of the 
principal literary characters of the State were resident in Hart- 
ford, and gave to the friends of order whatever assistance could 
be afforded by their publications. The principal work they 
produced wasa series of essays entitled "American Antiquities," 
first printed in the gazettes of New Haven and Hartford, and 
re-printed in other newspapers in almost every part of the Un- 
ion. At this time public curiosity had been awakened by the 
discovery of ancient Indian fortifications, with other relics, 
which were considered as proofs that this Country had once 
been inhabited by a people highly advanced in the arts of civ- 
ilized life. The story of the emigration of Madoc, with a body 
of Britons and Welch, about the year SO0, and of an existing 
tribe of their descendants in the interior part of the continent, 
was revived and circulated. These writers assumed the fic- 
tion, that in digging among the ruins of one of those forts, an 
ancient heroic poem in the English language was found. The 
essays consisted of supposed extracts from that poem, (which 
they styled, The Anarchiad,) accompanied with critical re- 
marks in prose. Colonel Humphreys, who had seen a similar 
work in England, called The Rolliad, ascribed to Fox, Sheri- 
den, and their associates, was the first proposer of the design. 
Most of the essays were written in concert. The writers were 



51 
Humphreys, Barlow, Dr. Lemuel Hopkins, and our author. 
The publications of these gentlemen were supposed at the 
time to have had considerable influence upon the public taste 
and opinions ; and, by the boldness of their satire, to have 
checked and intimidated the leaders of disorganization and in- 
fidel philosophy. 

After the adoption of the federal constitution, Trumbull was 
first called to act in a public capacity — he having been appoint- 
ed State's Attorney for the County of Hartford in 1789. In 
1792, he was elected a Representative from Hartford to the 
State Legislature, where he took an active and influential part 
in their deliberations and debates; particularly in obtaining 
an enlargement of the funds and an alteration of the charter 
of Yale College*. But the increasing burden of his employ- 
ments, public and professional, again impaired his health, and 
at length reduced him to the lowest stages of nervous debility, 
He spent the summers, for two or three successive years, in 
taking long journeys and visiting the most noted mineral 
springs, in quest of health, but in vain. In 1795, he resigned 
the office of State's Attorney, and declined all public business. 
In November 1798, he experienced a severe fit of sickness, 
from which, contrary to expectation, he escaped with his life, 
and which appeared to form the crisis of his nervous disorders. 
His convalescence, though slow, was favorably progressive ; 
and as, during his long confinement, he never relinquished his 
habits of reading, nor his attention to public affairs, he was 
enabled, on his return to society, to resume his farmer rank in 
his professional and official employments. 

In May 1800, Trumbull was again a member of the Legis- 
lature ; and during the following year, he was chosen a Judge 
of the Superior Court of the State oi Connecticut. From this 
period he declined any interference in politics, and applied 
himself exclusively to the duties of his office — being of opinion 
that the character oi a politician and political writer were in* 



r,2 
consistent with the station of a Judge, and destructive of the 
confidence of suitors in the impartiality of judiciary decisions; 
In 1808, he received from the Legislature the additional ap- 
pointment of a Judge of the Supreme Court of Errors. He 
was happy in the society of his brethren of the bench, and the 
Courts of the State were at no period more respectable for le- 
gal science, or more respected for the justice and integrity of 
their adjudications. 

To these offices he was annually appointed until May 1819, 
when he, with all his associates on the bench, were removed 
from office — a State Constitution having been adopted, and a 
new party having risen into power. 

He was for several years Treasurer of Yale College, from 
which institution he subsequently received the honorary degree 
of Doctor of Laws. 

Trumbull continued his residence in Hartford until 1825, 
when he removed to Detroit, Michigan, and tbere spent the 
remainder of his days in the family of his daughter, Mrs. 
Woodb ridge, (wife of the distinguished Senator and Governor. 
Woodbridge.) He died in Detroit in 1831. 






5$ 



SETH WARNER. 



This renowned warrior and successful leader in the civil 
commotions amidst which the foundations of a sister State 
were laid, was born in Roxbury, then a parish of Woodbury, 
in the year 1743. Without any advantages for an education 
beyond those which were found in the common schools of those 
times, he was early distinguished by his energy, sound judg- 
ment, and manly and noble bearing. In 1763, his father, Dr.- 
Benjamin Warner, removed with his family to Bennington, in 
the New Hampshire Grants, the second year after the first set- 
tlement of the town. The game with which the woods aboun-. 
ded at once attracted the attention of young Warner, and he 
was soon distinguished as an indefatigable, expert and success- 
ful hunter. About this time a scene began to open, which 
gave a new direction to his active and enterprizing spirit — the 
controversy between New York and the settlers upon the New 
Hampshire Grants had commenced. As a general outline of 
the history of this controversy has been given in the biograph- 
ical sketch of Ethan Allen, it will be referred to again only so 
far as may be necessary to illustrate the principal events in the 
life of Colonel Warner. 

It will be remembered that the colonial government of New 
York not only claimed exclusive eivil jurisdiction over the set- 
tlers on "the Grants," but even assumed a right of property in 
the soil ; consequently the New York sheriffs, constables, ma- 
gistrates, &c, were constantly being sent into the disputed 
territory, to dispossess those settlers who had not purchased 
their right from Governor Tryon, It was to resist these ar- 



54 
bitraryacts, and this assumption of civil power, that the u JV en 
Mountain Boys formed themselves into a military compact, 
constituted their own courts of judicature, and not unfrequent^ 
ly executed "summary justice" upon the agents of what they 
regarded as a foreign government. In all these border feuds, 
extending through a series of years, Seth Warner and Ethan 
Allen were the acknowledged leaders and champions of a 
band of patriots as heroic and self-sacrificing as any tha* the 
world ever saw. Twins in fame, and fellow-pioneers in the 
cause of American freedom, they suffered and triumphed to^ 
gether— -together they were declared outlaws, and hunted like 
wild beasts through the mountain-forests — side by side they 
fought the battles of independence — and side by side their 
names are written high in the niche of human glory, 

Previous to 1770, many acts of violence had been commits 
ted by both of the billigerent parties ; but it was not until this 
year that the Goveinor of New York attempted to enforce his 
authority over the Grants by resort to military force. The 
Green Mountain Boys having learned that the Sheriff of 
Albany county was on his way to their settlements with 750 
armed militia, immediately organized a military association, of 
which Allen was appointed Golonel commandant, and Seth 
Warner, Remember Baker, and others, were appointed Cap^ 
tains. The Sheriff and his force, having advanced at night up- 
on the dwelling of a settler, were suddenly surprised by the 
Mountaineers in ambush, and the whole posse ingloriously 
fled without a gun being fired on either side. The settlers 
were not again disturbed for some months, but in the mean 
time they occasionally met for exercise and discipline. John 
Monro, in a letter to Governor Tryon, says, " The rioters have 
established a company at Bennington, commanded by Captain 
Warner, and on New Year's day [1771] his company was re- 
viewed, and continued all day in military exercise and firing 
at marks." 



55 

On the 27th of November, 1771, the Governor of New York 
issued a proclamation offering a reward of ,£20 each, for the 
arrest of Warner, Allen, and Baker. On the 22d of March 
following, John Monro, moved by a hope of the reward and a 
desire for notoriety, resolved to attempt the arrest of Baker. 
Having collected ten or twelve of his friends and dependents, 
he proceeded to the house of Baker in Arlington, before day- 
light. The intruders broke open his door, rushed upon and 
wounded him by a cut across his head with a sword, and hav- 
ing bound him, he was thrown into a sleigh and conveyed with 
the greatest speed towards Albany. The news of this trans- 
action being sent by express to Bennington, Warner withtiine! 
Others immediately mounted their horses aild set off at full 
speed, determined td intercept the "Yorkers" ; and they did 
overtake them before they reached the Hudson. On the first 
appearance of the pursuers, the abductors threw the prisoner 
overboard and fled. Finding Baker nearly exhausted by his 
sufferings and loss of blood, they refreshed him, dressed his 
wounds, and conveyed him home, to the great joy of his family 
and neighbors. 

Shortly after this, Monro made an attempt to arrest Warner. 
While Warner, in company with a single friend, was riding on 
horseback in the vicinity of Monro's residence, he was met by 
Monro and several of his dependents ; a conversation ensued* 
in the midst of which Monro seized the bridle of Warner's 
horse and commanded those present to assist in arresting him. 
Warner, after vainly urging him to desist, struck Monro over 
the head with a dull cutlass and leveled him to the ground. 
Though stunned and disabled for the time, he received no per- 
manent injury, and the spectators manifesting no disposition to 
interfere, Warner passed on without farther interruption. 

Finding the settlers intractable, the government of New 
York next endeavored to bring them to terms by negotiation ; 
but failing in this also, they resorted to threats and intimida- 



56 
tion. A law was immediately passed, threatening "death 
without benefit of clergy" against any one who should wilfully 
"oppose any civil officer of New York in the discharge of his 
official duty." At the same time, Governor Tryon issued a pro- 
clamation, increasing the reward for the arrest of Warner and 
Allen to £56 each. This sanguinary law, as Well as these 
proffered bribes, were simply themes of derision to the sturdy 
settlers. No Green Mountain Boy ever fell into the hands of 
the enemy during the continuance of this controversy. 

Warner, having thus been engaged as a prominent leader of 
these Mountaineers in defence of their property against the 
oppressive acts of the Royal Government of New York 
from the year 1763 to 1775, was perfectly prepared to enter 
heart and soul in the defence of his whole country against the 
oppressions of the Royal Government of Great Britain. Ac- 
cordingly, We find him in the very commencement of the Rev- 
olutionary War, engaged in the enterprize against the enemy's 
posts on Lake Champlaim 

The reduction of Ticonderoga and CroWn Point having 
been secretly resolved upon, in 1775, by the Legislature of 
Connecticut in concert with several of the most eminent men 
in other parts of New England, a Committee was appointed 
to proceed to the frontier towns, ascertain the strength of the 
garrisons, and, should they think proper, raise men for their 
capture. At Pittsfield, Massachusetts, the Committee were 
joined by Colonel Easton with about fifty volunteers; and at 
Bennington, by Colonel Allen and his Green Mountain Boys. 
On reaching Castleton, May 7th, a council of war was held, 
and Ethan Allen, James Easton, and Seth Warner, were ap- 
pointed to command the expedition. The surprise and capture 
of Ticonderoga by Allen, on the 10th of May, are familiar to 
every American. Warner had succeeded in crossing the lake 
with his men, just in time to find that the garrison had sur- 
rendered. As soon as the prisoners were properly secured, 



54 

Warner set out with a detachment of mef, take Crown Point. 
Strong head winds drove back the boats, and the whole party 
returned (he same evening'. The expedition was, however, 
renewed on the following day, and the result was all that could 
have been desired. ' The men were made prisoners, and one 
hundred and thirteen cannon were captured. Just previous to 
this, Colonel Allen had sent a messenger to Captain Baker, 
who was at Onion River, requesting him U) join the army at 
Ticonderoga with as large a number of men as he could as- 
semble. Baker obeyed ; and when he was coming up the 
lake, he met two small boats, which had been despatched by 
the enemy from Crown Point to carry intelligence of the re* 
duction of Ticonderoga to St. Johns and Montreal, and solicit 
reinforcements. The boats were seized by Baker, and he ar- 
rived at Crown Point just in time to unite with Warner in tak- 
ing possession of that post. 

<5rown Point, next to Ticonderoga, was the strongest and 
most important garrison on Lake Champlain. For many years 
previous to 1759, it had been in possession of the French. In 
that year, an expedition was fitted out by the British Govern- 
ment, comprising 18,000 men, and arms and ammunition in 
proportion, for the express object of capturing these two for- 
midable fortresses. The command of the expedition was giv- 
en to Sir Jeffrey Amherst, who succeeded in accomplishing 
the object deemed so desirable by his King. They remained 
in possession of the British from that time until they were cap- 
tured by the invincible Warner and Allen and the heroic spir- 
its under their command. 

Congress subsequently ratified these doings, and ordered 
that all the officers and soldiers who marched against the for- 
tresses on Lake Champlain should receive the same pay that 
they would have been entitled to had they belonged to the 
continental army. 

The soldiers, having served out their time, now returned 



58 
home ; and Warner and Allen were forthwith sent to (he con- 
tinental congress, by the people of the Grants, for the especial 
purpose of soliciting authority to raise a new regiment, and to 
obtain the necessary funds for paying off the soldiers recently 
disbanded. In both these objects they were successful. They 
were welcomed by Congress with great cordiality, were for- 
mally introduced on the floor of the House, and each in an 
address stated the objects which had called them to the seat 
of government, and communicated such information as was 
desired by ihe members. They then repaired to the congress 
of New York, where they were received with the same consid^ 
eration, notwithstanding they were objected to by certain 
members on the ground of their being outlaws. 

The delegates having concluded their mission, returned to 
their friends* The committees of the several towns assembled 
at Dorset to choose officers for the new regiment, which was to 
be commanded by a lieutenant-colonel. Seth Warner was 
chosen lieutenant-colonel, and Samuel Safford major. Dr. 
Jared Sparks, in his biography of Ethan Allen, commenting 
upon the result of this election, says, " Whether Colonel Allen 
declined being a candidate, or whether it was expected that 
the regiment would ultimately have a colonel and that he 
would be advanced to that post, or whether his name was 
omitted for any other reason, I have no means of determining." 
The subjoined extract from a communication from the Hon. 
Daniel Chipman, of Vermont, to the author of this volume, will 
solve the query. Referring to the above passage from Sparks, 
he justly remarks, " This, it is obvious, is calculated to lessen 
the real merit of Warner with posterity. To prevent this 
false impression, they should be informed that in the conven- 
tion which met at Dorset on the 27th of July, 1775, for the 
purpose of nominating field officers, Warner was nominated 
by a vote of 41 to 5; and this was a fair expression of public 
opinion of the two men at that time." Allen was a candidate 



59 
for the office, as appears by his letter to Governor Trumbull, 
written shortly after, in which he says he was overlooked be- 
cause the old men were reluctant to go to war. For a bold, 
desperate, off-hand enterprise, Allen was invariably the leader 
selected ; but in choosing a commander for a long and doubt- 
ful campaign, where coolness, perseverence, and patient endur- 
ance, united with patriotism, bravery and tact, were deemed 
requisite to success, Warner was preferred. 

In September, 1775, we find Warner at the head of his re- 
giment, during the seige of St. Johns by Montgomery. Gen- 
eral Carleton, while crossing the St. Lawrence with 1000 men 
to relieve the garrison at St. Johns, was attacked from the 
south shore by Colonel Warner with about 300 Green Moun- 
tain Boys. By a sudden and well-directed fire of musketry 
and grape-shot, Carleton's force was thrown into the utmost 
confusion and retreated with precipitation and disorder. In 
consequence of this defeat, the garrison was left without relief, 
and Major Preston, the commander, was obliged to surrender. 
By this surrender, several cannon, a large quantity of military 
stores, and 600 prisoners, fell into the hands of the Americans. 

Warner's regiment having served as volunteers, and the men 
being too miserably clad to endure a winter's campaign in that 
severe climate, on the 20th of November Montgomery dis- 
charged them with peculiar marks of respect, and his thanks 
for their meritorious services. The gallant officer now re- 
turned home with his regiment, but instead of enjoying a res- 
pite from fatigues and hardships, he was called on to return to 
Canada in the dead of winter. General Wooster, in a letter to 
him, dated at Montreal, January 6, 1776, after giving an ac- 
count of the defeat at Quebec, says, c< I have sent an express 
to Gen. Schuyler, to Washington, and to Congress, but you 
know how very long it will be before we can have relief from 
them. You, sir, and your valiant Green Mountain Boys, are 
in our neighborhood ; you all have arms, and I*am confident 



60 / 

ever stand ready to lend a helping hand to your brethren 
distress ; therefore, let me beg of you to raise as many men as 
you can, and have them in Canada with the least possible de- 
lay, to remain till we can have relief from the colonies. You 
will see that proper officer are appointed under you, and the 
officers and privates will have the same pay as the continental 
troops. It will be well for your men to start as soon as they 
can be collected. No matter whether they all march together, 
'but let them come on by tens, twenties, thirties, forties, or fif- 
ties, as fast as they can be prepared to march. It will have a 
good effect upon the minds- of the Canadians, to see succor, 
coming in. You will be good enough to send copies of this 
letter or such parts of it a* you shall judge proper, to the people 
below you. I can but hope the people will make a push to 
get into this country, and I am confident I shall see you here, 
with your men, in a very short time." And General Wooster 
was not disappointed. He did see Warner in Canada, with, 
his men, even before he anticipated. Probably no revolutionary 
patriot during the war, performed a service evincing more en- 
ergy, or a more noble patriotism, than the raising of a regiment 
in so short a time, and marching it to Quebec in the face of a 
Canadian winter. The men of this day would shiver at the. 
thought of it. 

The following letter from General Schuyler to Washington, 
(written only about two weeks after the above call upon War- 
ner,) shows the promptness with which that call was respond- 
ed to : 

Albany, January 22, 1776. 

Dear Sir — Col. Warner has been so sucessful in sending men into 
Canada, and as a regiment will soon be sent from Berkshire county in. 
Massachusetts, and as I am informed by letter from Congress, that 
one regiment from Pennsylvania and one from New Jersey will im- 
mediately be sent to Albany, and put under my command, and as these 
troops can be in Canada as early as any which your Excellency can 
send from Cambridge, the necessity of sending on those troops which 
]; had the honor to request you to send,, will be superceded. 



61 

I am, sir, with respect and esteem, your Excellency's most obedient 
and very bumble servant, PHILIP SCHUYLER. 

His Excellency, George Washington. 

Warner had advantages in the performance of this service, 
which no other man possessed. His regiment of Mountaineers 
had long been armed in self-defence, and were accustomed 
to rally at his call almost at a moment's warning. As they 
had hitherto been successful in every enterprise, they had the 
most perfect confidence in their leader, and they moreover 
loved him for his moral and social qualities- He sympathised 
with all classes, and this rendered him affable and familiar wit) 
them, while at the same time he maintained a self-respect and, 
a dignified deportment. 

This winter campaign in Canada proved extremely dis- 
tressing. The troops were in want of comfortable clothing, 
barracks, and provisions. Most of them took the small pox^ 
and many of them died. At the opening of spring, in May 
1776, a large body of British troops arrived at Quebec to relieve 
the garrison, and the American army, in their distressed situ- 
ation, were compelled to make a hasty retreat. Warner took 
a position exposed to the greatest danger, and requiring the 
utmost care and vigilance. He was ever in the rear during 
the retreat, picking up the wounded and the diseased, assisting 
and encouraging those who were least able to take care of 
themselves, and generally keeping but a few miles in advance 
oi the British, who closely pursued the Americans from post 
to post. By calmly and steadily pursuing this course, he 
brought off most of the invalids, and with this corps of the dis- 
eased and infirm, arrived at Ticonderoga a few days after the 
main army had taken possess ion of that post. 

Highly approving of these extraordinary exertions, Congress 
resolved to raise a regiment out of the troops who had served 
with so much reputation in Canada, to be commanded by a 
Heutenant-colonel. Of this regiment, also, Warner was ap- 



62 
pointed lieutenant-colonel, and Samuel Safford major. Most 
of the officers of the regiment were persons who had been dis- 
tinguished by their opposition to the claims and proceedings 
of New York. By this new appointment, Warner was agair 
placed in a situation perfectly suited to his genius, and, in con- 
formity with his orders, he raised his regiment and repaired to 
Ticonderoga, where he remained until the close of the cam- 
paign of 1776: 

On the 16th day of January, 1777, the convention of the 
New Hampshire Grants declared the whole district to be a free 
sovereign and independent State, by the name of Vermont, 
The provincial congress of New York was then in session, 
and, on the 20th of the same month, announced the transac- 
tion to the continental congress, complaining in strong terms 
of the conduct of Vermont, denouncing it as a dangerous re- 
volt, and at the same time remonstrating against the appoint- 
ment of Warner to the command of a regiment independent 
of the Legislature of New York, " especially as this Col. War- 
ner hath been constantly and invariably opposed to the Legis- 
lature of this State, and hath been on that account proclaim- 
ed an outlaw by the late Government thereof. It is absolute- 
ly necessary to recall the commission of Warner, and the of- 
ficers under him, to do us justice." No measures were taken 
by Congress, at this time, to interfere in the civil concerns of 
the two States, or to remove Warner from his command. Still 
anxious to effect this purpose, the Legislature of New York, 
on the 1st of March following, wrote again on the subject, and 
among other things declared, that " there was no probability 
that Warner could raise such a number of men as would be an 
object of public concern," Congress still declined to dismiss 
so valuable an officer from their service. On the 23d of June 
following, Congress was obliged to take up the controversy 
between New York and Vermont, but instead of proceeding to 
disband Warner's regiment, on the 30th of the same month, 



63 
they resolved, " that the reasons which induced Congress to 
form that corps were, that many officers of diffeient States 
who had served in Canada, and who, as was alleged, might 
soon raise a regiment, but who were then unprovided for, 
might be retained in the service of the United States." 

Fortunately, Governeur Morris was the only member pres- 
ent from New York, when Congiess acted upon this subject ; 
and he was too true a patriot and too honorable a man to vote 
to recall Warner's commission, even though he knew he was 
incurring the displeasure of his constituents by not doing so. 

While Burgoyne was on his way up Lake Champlain in the 
summer of 1777, Col. 4 Warner addressed the following letter 
to the Vermont State Convention, then in session at Windsor ; 

Rutland, July 1, 17 77. 

Gentlemen : Last evening I received an express from the General 
commanding at Ticonderoga, advising me that the enemy have come 
up the lake, with 17 or 18 gun-boats, two large ships, and other craft, 
md lie at Three Mile Point. The General expects an attack every 
hour. He orders me to call out all the militia of this State, of Mas- 
sachusetts and New Hampshire, to join him as soon as possible. I 
have sent an express to Col. Simonds. Col. Robinson and Col. Wil- 
liams are at Hubbardton, waiting to be joined by Col. Bellows, who is 
with me. When the whole are joined, they will amount to 700 or 
800 men. I knew not to whom to apply except to your honorable 
body, to call out the militia on the East side of the mountain. I shall 
expect that you will send on all the men that can possibly be raised, 
and that you will do all in your power to supply the troops at Ti- 
conderoga with beef. Should the seige be long, they will be abso- 
lutely destitute, unless the country exert themselves. If 40 or 50 
head of beef cattle can be brought on by the militia, they will be paid 
for by the commissary, on their arrival. The safety of the post de- 
pends on the exertions of the country. Their lines are extensive and 
but partially manned, for want of men. I should be glad if a few 
hills of corn unhoed should not be a motive sufficient to detain men at 
home, considering the loss of such an important post might be irre- 
trievable. 

I am, gentlemen, with the greatest respect, your obedient and very 
humble servant, SETH WARNER. 

When Ticonderogo was evacuated, on t he night of the 6th 



-of July, 1777, thf. main body of the American army took the* 
road through Hubbardton and Castleton. When they arrived 
at Hubbardton, the rear guard was put under the command 
of Warner, with orders to follow the main army, as soon as 
those who were left behind should come up, and keep about a 
mile and a half in the rear. The retreat of the Americans 
was no soontr discovered by the British, than an eager pursuit 
was begun by Fraser, with the light troops, who was soon fol- 
lowed by Reidesel with the greater part of the Brunswick re- 
giment. Frazer continued the pursuit through the day, and 
learning that the rear guard of the American army was not 
far distant, he ordered his men that night to lie on their arms. 
Early on the morning of the 7th, he renewed the pursuit, and 
about 7 o'clock commenced an attack on the Americans un- 
der Warner. Warner's force consisted of his own regiment, 
and the regiments of Colonels Francis and Hale. Hale, for 
some reason retired, leaving Warner and Francis with only 
seven or eight hundred men to dispute the progress of the en- 
emy. The conflict was fierce and bloody. Warner charged 
the enemy with such impetuosity, that they were thrown into 
disorder, and gave way, but they soon recovered, formed anew, 
and advanced upon the Americans, but were again brought to 
a stand. At this critical moment, Reidesel arrived and joined 
Fraser, with his troops, and Francis fell, fighting bravely at the 
head of his regiment, which then gave way, and the fortune of 
the day was decided. The Americans fled into the woods in 
all directions. Those of Warner's regiment, who heard the 
order to that effect, repaired to Manchester, the others, with 
Francis's regiment, followed and joined the main army, and 
marched to Fort Edward. 

Warner was soon after stationed with his troops at Man- 
chester, where, by order of the Council of Safety, Herrick's 
regiment of Rangers was placed under his command. 

Many of the inhabitants the present county of Rutland were 



Co 
what were termed "torit s," or friends of the Crown. Some 
of them, in consequence of being so near the Canadian fron- 
tier, were led to seek British protection more through fear than 
from principle. These men were very offensive to the Whi'-s, 
particularly because of their furnishing the British troops with 
large quantities of fresh provisions. In consequence of the 
"aid and comfort" thus afforded to the enemy, Gen. Schuyler 
directed Warner to sieze and bring in all the property north of 
Manchester which might be liable to fall into the hands of the 
British, and to arrest the tories and cause them to be sent into 
the interior. These orders were promptly and thoroughly ex- 
ecuted. Large droves of cattle were driven into Bennington, 
and sold under the direction of the Council of Safety, who held 
a perpetual session in that town during the summer. Many 
of the protectionists escaped and joined the enemy; others 
were taken and brought before the Council of Safety, and all 
declared that they took the oath of allegiance to his Majesty 
by compulsion, that they did not consider themselves bound 
by it, and were ready to take the oath of aiiegiance to the Uni- 
ted States. After taking this oath, they were discharged. 
Most of them soon after fought bravely in the battle of Ben- 
rington. 

Through the whole of this unpleasant business, the magna- 
nimity and humanity of Warner were conspicuous. Only one 
person was killed or injured by, the scouts during the summer, 
and that one was killed through a misapprehension. 

About the first of August, Stark arrived at Manchester with 
some 800 New Hampshire militia, on his way to the seat of 
war on the Hudson; By General Schuyler's order, these ve- 
ry militia were to be stationed at Manchester, under the com- 
mand of Warner, but the Government of New Hampshire had 
given Stark the command of the militia of that State, indepen- 
dent of the Continental officers. Situated as Stark and War- 
ner were, men of narrow minds, influenced bv the mere love 



C6 
of personal glory, would have come in collision at once. But 
they y actuated by higher motives, were ready to serve their 
country in any station in which they could be most useful. 
They therefore acted together cordially, manifesting a high 
degree of respect for each other, and in the Bennington battle 
they in fact commanded jointly, so that if the result had been 
disastrous, Congress would have censured Warner for yielding 
the command to Stark. 

Though Warner had assisted Stark in planning the battle of 
Bennington, his regiment (which had been left behind at Man- 
chester,) did not arrive on the battle-ground until the Ameri- 
cans were beginning to fall back. Disappointed that they had 
not been in season for the first engagement and shared in the 
glory, they now advanced and attacked ihe enemy with great 
spirit and resolution. The British troops, who had just been 
exulting in the prospect of an easy victory, were now brought 
to a stand, and more of the scattered militia being brought 
forward by Stark and Herrick, the action became general. 
The combat was maintained with great bravery on both sides, 
until sun-set, when the enemy gave way, and were pursued 
till dark. 

In the two engagements at Bennington, the Americans 
took four brass field pieces, four ammunition wagons, and 
above 700 prisoners, with their arms and accoutrements. The 
number of the enemy found dead on the field was 207, their 
number of wounded not ascertained. The loss of the Ameri- 
cans was 30 killed and about 40 wounded. 

The following letter from General Gates to the President of 
the Massachusetts Council, renders it probable that Warner 
was present with his regiment at the capture of Burgoyne— 

Albany, 25th November 1*777. 

Dear Sir — This letter will be presented to the Hon. Council, by 

Colonel Seth Warner, an officer of merit. His business at Boston, is 

to solicit your Hon. Board to give order for a supply of clothing, for 

Ihe regiment under his command. Having experienced the good be- 



67 
havior of this corps during the summer campaign, I cannot but recjm 
mend them to your good offices, for the supply they so much want, 
and the more especially as I hare in view a service of much importance 
m which Colonel Warner's regiment will be very actively concerned. 
I am, sir, with respect, your most humble and obedient servant, 

HORATIO GATES. 
It is very certain, that after this Warner was able to perform 
but very little active service. His constitution, naturally strong 
and vigorous, gave way under the fatigues and hardships which 
he endured in the service, particularly in his winter campaign 
in Canada, It has been seen that in the year 1776, Congress 
gave Warner the command of a regiment with the rank of 
lieutenant colonel. He held the same rank at the battle of 
Bennington, but soon after was appointed colonel, and Safford 
lieutenant colonel. In a return of his regiment, made Novem- 
ber 10, 1777, Colonel Warner was returned sick at Hoosic. 
He recovered from this sickness, but was never afterwards 
able to perform any active duty in the war, and of course re- 
ceived no farther promotion. He however continued in com- 
mand of his regiment, residing with his family in Bennington, 
to the end of the year 1781. In the mean time, the number 
of men in the regiment had been greatly reduced by the loss- 
es sustained in several hard fought actions, and by the capture 
of Fort George, by the enemy, in October, 1780, which was 
garrisoned by about 70 of Warner's regiment, under the com- 
mand of Captain John Chipman, 

On the first of January, 1781, the regiment was reduced, 
under a resolution of Congress, and some of the officers were 
transferred to other regiments. Chipman was promoted to 
the rank of Major in the New York line. 

In the year 1782, Warner returned with his family to Rox- 
bury, his native town, in the hope of obtaining relief from the 
painful disorders under which he was suffering ; but his hopes 
proved fallacious, and he gradually wasted away till the 26th 



63 
of December, 178 i, when death put an end to all his earthly 
sufferings. 

His funeral serman was preached by the Rev, Thomas Can- 
field, from Samuel 1, 27. " How are the mighty fallen, and 
the weapons of War perished." 

Seth Warner was over six feet in height, erect and well pro- 
portioned, his countenance, attitude and movements indicative 
of great strength and vigor of body and mind, of resolution, 
firmness and self-possession. His commanding appearance, 
and known character, undoubtedly saved him from many an 
attack by the New Yorkers. In one instance only, during the 
long controversy with New York, did any one attempt to ar- 
rest him single-handed. He pursued his public and private 
business among the settlers in the different (owns, with appar- 
ent unconcern, and yet he was always prepared for defence; 

He was for so long a time and so ardently engaged in the 
public service, that his attention seems to have been wholly 
diverted from his own private concerns. He had been so long 
engaged in maintaining the rights of propeity, that a disposition 
to acquire it seemed to be wholly eradicated ; and the mode- 
rate estate which he inherited having been spent in the service 
of his country, he left his family destitute. The proprietors of 
several townships gave him tracts of land of considerable val- 
ue, as a reward for his services in defence of the New Hamp- 
shire grants, but the greater part, if not all of them, were sold 
for taxes, and his heirs never received any considerable bene- 
fit from them. In October, 1787, the Legislature of Vermont 
generously granted his heirs 2000 acres of land, in the north- 
west part of the county of Essex. It was then supposed that 
this land w^ould become valuable by a settlement of that part 
of the county, but it was subsequently found that the tract was 
of little or no value, and it yet remains unsettled. 

The following inscription is on the tablet erected over his 
grave in the Roxbury burying-ground— 



69 

In memory of 

COL. SETH WARNER. ESQ., 

Who departed this life, December 26, A. D. 1784, 

In the 42d year of his age. 

Triumphant leader of our armies' head. 
Whose martial glory struck a panic dread, 
Thy warlike deeds engraven on this stone 
Tell future ages what a hero's done. 
Full sixteen battles he did fight 
For to procure his country's right. 
Oh ! this brave hero, he did fall 
By death, who ever conquers alt. 

When this you see, remember me, 



NATHANIEL CHIPMAN 



The common ancestor oi all those bearing the name of 
Chipman in North America, was John Chipman, born in Barn- 
stable, England, a. d. 1614. He emigrated to America in 
1630, at the age of 16, and married a daughter of John How- 
land, one of the pilgrims who landed from the May Flower 
upon the Rock of Plymouth. He settled on a farm in Barn- 
stable, Massachusetts, on which his descendants have ever 
since resided. He was made a freeman by vote of the town, 
in December 1662. His son, Samuel, wasborn at Barnstable, 
August 15, 1661 — married Sarah Cobb, and had ten children, 
one of whom was John Chipman, born in 1691, graduated at 
Harvard College, was ordained minister at Beverly, Mass., in 
1715, and died in 1775, aged 84. He had fifteen children. 
Their descendants are very numerous in Nova Scotia and New 
Brunswick, among whom is the Hon. Ward Chipman, one of 
the Commissioners under the Treaty of Ghent for settling the 
North Eastern Boundary. 

The eldest of the ten children of Samuel Chipman, was 
Thomas, born November 17, 1687. He settled in Groton, 
Connecticut, and had five sons, Thomas, John, Amos, Samuel 
and Jonathan. In 1740, ke removed with these sons to Salis- 
bury, in the present county of Litchfield. In the following 
year, the town was organized, and he was chosen the first 
Representative to the Legislature. When the county of Litch- 
field was organized, in 1751, he was appointed a Judge of the 
county court but died before the first term. His son Samuel 
married Hannah Austin, of Suffieid, Conn., and had six sons, 



71 
Nathaniel, Lemuel, Darius, Cyrus, Samuel and Daniel — th e 
eldest and first named being the subject of this sketch. 

NATHANIEL CHIPMAN, ll. d., was born in Salisbury, 
Nov. 15, 1752. In 1772 he commenced his studies prepara- 
tory to entering college, and, after spending only nine months 
with his books, he became a member of the freshman class in 
Yale College, at the age of twentj^-one years. He immediate- 
ly took a high stand in his class, which he maintained through- 
out his collegiate course. Although he had a peculiar taste 
for the languages, he had the reputation of a universal scholar. 
In consequence of the systematic course pursued by him in his 
studies, he was enabled to devote a certain portion of every 
day to general reading-, and writing. Several pieces of his po- 
etry, written during this period and subsequently, are preser- 
ved in his Memoir, edited by his brother, the Hon. Daniel 
Chipman- — which evince a true poetic taste, and a remarkable 
facility at versifying. 

During hi? senior year — in the spring of 1777 — the subject 
of this notice received a Lieutenant's commission in the revo- 
lutionary army, which he accepted and at once entered the 
service of his country. The succeeding winter and spring he 
spent at Valley Forge ; and afterwards participated in the 
battles of Monmouth and White Plains. In a letter dated, 
"Camp, at Fredericksburg, October 3, 1778," to Mr. Fitch, 
(afterwards President of Williams College,) he writes, "I shall 
spend the winter in Salisbury, Connecticut, in the study of 
law. W'inter quarters are now in agitation. Litchfield is 
talked of for this division. Where they will be is uncertain as 
yet. I think, from all appearances, we may reasonably con- 
clude that the glorious contest draws near a glorious conclu- 
sion, when, with the blessing of heaven, we may enjoy th e 
sweets of liberty in peace. '* He resigned his commission soon 
after, and, as intimated above, commenced his legal studies in 
his native town. At the annual commencement of Yale CoU 



71 
lege in 1777, while he was absent in (he army, the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts was conferred upon him, and his name was 
enrolled among the regular graduates of that institution. 

In a letter to the same gentleman, dated at Salisbury, Janu- 
ary 1, 1779, he writes in the following strain of prophetic 
pleasantry — " I have not yet taken the attorney's oath, but 
expect to take it in March, and then I shall probably settle in 
Bennington, where I shall indeed be rata avis in terris, for 
there is not an attorney in the State. Think, Fitch, think 
what a figure I shall make, when I become the oracle of law 
to the State of Vermont t" On the 20th of March following, 
he writes to the same friend, informing him that he has been 
admitted to the bar, and in a few days shall start for Vermont. 
He then faceciously adds, " Ha, ha, ha ! I cannot but laugh 
when I think what a flash we shall make, when we come to be 
members of congress. And then again I am vexed when I 
think how many steps there are by which we must mount to 
that pinnacle of happiness. Let's see: First an attorney, then 
a selectman, a huffing justice, a deputy, an assistant, a mem- 
ber of congress. Is not this a little vexing? However, we 
must make the best of it." 

On the 10th of April, he arrived at Tinmouth, the then cap- 
ital of Rutland county, Vermont — to which place his parents 
had previously removed. During this and the following year, 
several able lawyers became residents of the State, and the 
litigation growing out of the disputed land-titles gave them,suf- 
ficient employment. Nathaniel Chipman immediately took a 
high stand at the bar, and was employed in nearly every impor- 
tant case that came before the courts of that State. In 1784 
he was a member of the State Legislature, where he ren- 
dered himself useful in quieting the turbulent feelings existing 
in the minds of a majority of the members, growing out the pe- 
cuniary distress occasioned by the war. In 1786, he was elec- 
ted an Assistant Judge of the Supreme Court — an office which 



?3 

he accepted, but resigned the next year; 

The reader of this volume will have seen, in the sketches of 
Allen and Warner, some particulars respecting the controver- 
sy between New York and Vermont. This controversy was 
far from being settled when Chipman removed into the latter 
State. On the 5th of July, 1780, the legislature of New York 
passed an act appointing Robert Yates, John Lansing, GuMan 
Verplanck, Simeon De Witt, Egbert Benson and Melancthon 
Smith, commissioners, with full power to acknowledge the 
sovreignty of Vermont, and to adjust all matters of controversy 
between the two states. And on the 23d of October follow- 
ing, the legislature of New York passed an act, appointing 
Nathaniel Chipman, Isaac Tickenor, Stephen R. Bradley, Ira 
Allen, Elijah Paine, Stephen Jacob and Israel Smith, commis- 
sioners on the part of Vermont, to treat with those of New York. 
The difficulties were all amicably adjusted ; and on the 6th of 
January, 1791, the State Convention met at Bennington to 
decide the question, whether Vermont should accede to the 
union, Of this convention Chipman was a member; and* af- 
tei the question was decided affirmatively, he and Lewis R< 
Morris were appointed to attend congress and negociate for 
the admission of Vermont into the federal union. 

In October, 1779, Nathaniel Chipman had been elected 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and continued in that office 
two years, when he was appointed Judge of the United States 
Court for the District of Vermont. There was very little bu- 
siness in this court, and he resigned in 1793, and returned to 
his practice at the bar. In October, 1796, he was re-elected 
Chief Justice. During the same. year, he was appointed one 
of a committee to revise the code of statute laws • and nearly 
all the acts known" as the revised laws of 1797, were written by 
him. 

In 1797, he was elected a Senator in Congress for ste years 
from the 4th of March, 1798. In that body he was distinguish- 



74 
ed for his talents, learning- and independence. From lSOb* to 
to 1811, inclusive, he was a representative to the legislature. 
In March, 1813, he was chosen one of the council of censor* 
— a council consisting of thirteen persons elected by a general 
ticket, at the expiration of every seven years, whose duty it is 
to revise the constitution, suggest amendments, call conven- 
tions to consider such amendments, &c. *In October, 1813, he 
was once more' elected Chief Justice, but two years afterwards 
was displaced in consequence of the ascendency of another 
political party. At this time the judges were elected annually. 
In 1816, Judge Chipmanwas appointed Professor of Law in 
Middlebury College, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the re- 
signation of his brother, the Hon. Daniel Chipman. He hacJ 
previously received the degree of Doctor of Laws from Dart- 
mouth College. 

He published, in 1793, a wo*k entitled, '* Sketches of the 
Principles of Government," and a small volume entitled, "Re- 
ports and Dissertations." 

During the last ten years of his life, he lived somewhat se" 
eluded, with few companions except his books, and occupied 
himself with their daily study until a short time before his death: 
He departed this life at Tinmouth, February 15th, 1843, in the 
91st year of his age: 

Nathaniel Chipman married Sarah- Hill, of Tinmouth, and ; 
&ad five sons and two daughters, viz., Henry, Jeffrey, Edwin, 
Laura, Evelina, and two others. 



- 



AMUEL J . MILLS, Sen 



** Father Milk," (as he was familiarly called,) was born hi 
the beautiful valley of the Housatonic, in the town of Kent., 
a. d. 1743, and graduated at Yale College in 1764. He stud- 
ied divinity with the celebrated Rev. Dr. Bellamy, of Bethlem, 
and was ordained pastor of the church in Torringford, in his 
native .county, on the 29th of June, 1769. In this quiet and 
rural parish he spent the remainder of his days in the pastoral 
.office, though in 1822, after a ministry of fifty-four years, he 
had a colleague who relieved him of most of his public duties. 

So many anecdotes have gone abroad over the country, de~ 
signed to illustrate simply his eccentricities, that few of those 
who are familiar with his name, have any correct idea of his 
'bis real character as a man and a preacher. In person he was 
portly, very erect, and in height overtopped all his compeers ; 
he had a large, ruddy face and high forehead, more venerable 
and majestic for the wiute wig above. His voice and manner 
were unique. His deep reverence for God and the Bible — the 
shaking of his large frame with sudden and strong emotion— 
his inimitable naturalness in stating facts — and the entire ease 
with which he could convulse those around him with laughter, 
and the next moment make them sober as the grave itself — 
were peculiarities which caused him to stand out in bold relief 
among the men of his generation, and have contributed in 
giving his name to posierity. In the pulpit he was at home ; 
perfectly self-possessed, the master of his subject, and impress- 
ed himself with the importance of his theme, no man could 
more effectually chain the attention of his auditory. His metb- 



76 
od of illustration was one of the principal things that gave to, 
his preaching its peculiar- cast of originality. Scriptural his- 
tory, and the history of the church in all ages, were made pro- 
fitably subservient to him in this respect. Nor did his obser- 
vant eye fail, with the same object in view, to notice current 
events. Whether he rode, or conversed, or read, he gleaned 
something that would be of use to him in the illustration and 
inculcation of truth. He lacked nothing in the compass of his 
voice to express what his mind conceived, or his heart felt. 
The tones, the cadence, and the emphasis which he used, the 
light of his eye, the expression of his countenance, and his ev- 
ery motion, indicated what seemed to be a perfect perception 
and discrimination, Kis appositeness, the singular associa- 
tions with which his mind teemed, and the vividness of the pic- 
ture which he presented to others, not unfrequently affected 
those not familiar with his manner, with levity. Of this he 
seemed to be unaware. While a smile was lighted up in the 
countenances of his auditors, his eyes were not unfrequently 
suffused with tears. Others may be regarded as examples for 
imitation, but much as there was found to admire in the man- 
ner of Mr. Mills, none could safely attempt to imitate it. 

Those who saw him at a distance, would be ready to sup- 
pose that his habits of study were loose, and that he was not 
laborious in his investigations. He did, indeed, read less than 
some, but few thought more than he, or to better effect. He 
read, so far as was necessary to furnish materials for thought, 
and with these his active mind was ever busy. His sermons, 
though generally unwritten, were thoroughly studied, and ex- 
celled in logical arrangement and practical power. He was 
for many years one of the editors of the Connecticut Evangel- 
ical Magazine, and as a writer he displayed great tact, vigor, 
and correctness of style. 

Mr. Mills was greatly esteemed ?nd blessed in his ministry, 
bj*h at home and abroad, and several powerful religious awa- 



77 
kenings were among' the fruits of feis preaching. The interest 
which he took in the henevolent opeiations which distinguish- 
ed the latter period of his life, was peculiar fot one of his age. 
His habits of feeling - and acting were evidently formed under 
the influence of the spirit which produced this era. Hence he 
was prepared to hail its commencement, and his heart never- 
ceased to glow in view of the wants which shed upon it such 
signal lustre. Apparently, it did not cost him a struggle to, 
give up a beloved son to the service of the American Board. 
When he learned the purpose of this excellent son, and sup- 
posed he was soon to go far hence to (he Gentiles, he seemed 
ready so bless God for having imparted such grace, and to. 
deem the sacrifice required of him a privilege. He contempla- 
ted with wonder and admiration, the enlargement of the Re- 
deemer's kingdom. This was a theme ever present on lib 
mind and tongue. He lost, in his advanced age, his interest 
in other things, but in this it never abated. His recollection 
of person? and things failed, at length, but this subject was 
fresh with him to the last. 

Under the title of " Old Father Morris," Mrs. Harriet Beech, 
er Stow, (a daughter of the Rev. Dr. Beecher, then of Litch- 
field,) gives us her recellections of Mr. Mills in her "May 
Flower"— from which we make the following extracts : 

Of all the marvels that astonished my childhood, there is none I 
remember to this day with so much interest as the character of old 
Father Mills When I knew him he was an aged clergyman, settled 
over an obscure village in New England. He had enjoyed the advan- 
tages of a liberal education, had a strong original power of thought, an 
omnipotent imagination, and much general information ; but so early 
and so deeply had the habits and associations of the plow, the farm, 
and country life, wrought themselves into his mind, that his after ac- 
quirements could only mingle with them, forming an unexampled 
amalgam, like unto nothing but itself. He was an ingrain New Eng- 
ender, and whatever might have been the source of his information, it 
came out in Yankee form, with the strong provinciality of Yankee 
dialect, 



It is in vain to attempt to give a full picture of such a genuine 
unique ; but some slight and imperfect dashes may help the imagina- 
tion to a faint idea of what none can fully conceive but those who 
have seen and heard old Father Mills. 

Suppose yourself one of half-a-dozen children, and you hear tha 
cry, " Father Mills is coming V 3 You run to the window or door, and 
you sec a tall, bulky old man, with a pair of saddle-bags on one arm, 
hitching his old horse with a fumbling carefulness, and then deliber- 
ately stumping toward* the house. Vou notice his tranquil, florid, 
full-moon face, .enlightened by a pair of great, round blue eyes, that 
roll with dreamy inattentiveness on all the objects around, and as he 
takes oft' his hat, you see the white curling wig that sets off his round 
head. He comes towards you, and as you stand staring with all the 
children around, he deliberately puts his great hand on your head, and 
with a deep, rumbling voice, inquires., " How d'ye do, my darter? Is 
your daddy at home ?" " My darter" usually makes off as fast as 
possible in an unconquerable giggle. Father Mills goes into the house, 
and we watch him at every turn, as, with the most liberal simplicity } 
he makes himself at home, takes off his wig, wipes down his great face 
w r ith a checked pocket-handkerchief, helps himself hither and thither 
to whatever he wants, and asks for such things as he cannot lay his 
hands on, with all the comfortable easiness of childhood. 

I remember to this day how we used .to peep through the crack of 
the door or hold it half ajar and peer in to watch his motions ; and 
how mightily diverted we were with his deep, slow 7 manner of speaking, 
his heavy, cumbrous walk, but, above all, with the wonderful facul- 
ty of hemming which he possessed. His deep, thundering, protracted 
a-hem-em was like nothing else that ever I heard; and when once, as 
he was in the midst of one of these performances, the parlor door sud- 
denly happened to swing open, I heard one of my roguish brothers 
calling, in a suppressed tone, "Charles! Charles! Father Mills has 
hammed the door open !" and then followed the signs of a long and 
desperate titter, in which I sincerely sympathized. 

Hut the morrow is Sunday. The o}d man rises in the pulpit, lie 
is not now in his own humble littfe parish, preaching simply to the 
hoers of corn and planters of potatoes, but there sits Governor W., 
and there is Judge R., and Counsellor P., and Judge G. In short, 
he is before a refined and literary audience. But Father Mills rises ; 
he thinks nothing of this — he cares nothing — he knows nothing, as he 
himself would say, but " Jesus Christ and him crucified." It was after 
this very sermon, that Governor Griswold, in passing outjof the house, 
laid hold on the sleeve of his first acquaintance — " Pray tell me," said 
he, " who is that minister ?" 

"Why, it is old Father Mills." 

" Well, he is an oddity— and a genius too ! 1 declare ! he continued, 
i have been wondering all the morning how 1 could have read the Bible 



7{) 

foso little purpose as not to see all these particulars he lias presented*" 

I once heard him narrate in his picturesque way the stoiy of Laaarf 
us. The great bustling city of Jerusalem first rises to view, and you 
are told, with great simplicity, how the Lord Jesus " used to get tired 
of the noise ;" and how he was " tired of preaching again and again 
to people who- would not mind a word he said ;" and how, " when it 
came evening, he used to go out and see his friends in Bethany. 3 ' Then 
he told about the house of Martha and Mary : " a little white house 
among the trees," he said ; " you could just see it from Jerusalem." 
And there the Lord Jesus and his disciples used to go and sit in the 
evenings, with Martha, and Mary, and Lazarus. Then the narrator 
went on to tell how Lazarus died, describing with tears and a choking 
voice, the distress they were in, and how they sent a message to the 
Lord Jesus, and he did not come, and how they wondered and won- 
dered ; and thus on he went, winding up the interest by the graphic 
minutiae of an eye-witness, till he woke you from the dream by his tri- 
umphant joy at the resurrection scene. 

On another occasion, as he was sitting at a tea table unusually sup- 
plied with cakes and sweetmeats, he found an opportunity to make a 
practical allusion to the same familiar story. He spoke of Mary as 
quiet and humble, sitting at her Saviour's feet to hear his woids ; but 
Martha thought more of what was to be got for tea. Martha could 
not find time to listen to Christ : no ; she was " cumbered with much 
serving" — "around the house, frying flitters, and making gingerbread." 

At another time Father Mills gave the details of the annointing of 
David to be king. He told them how Samuel went to Bethlehem, to 
Jesse's house, and went in with a -'How d'ye do, Jesse?" and how, 
when Jesse asked him to take a chair, he said he could not stay a min- 
ute ; that the Lord had sent him to annoint one of- his sons for a king ; 
and how, when Jesse called in the tallest and handsomest, Samuel 
said "he would not do ;" and how all the rest passed the same test ; and 
at last, how Samuel says, " Why, have not you any more sons, 
Jesse ?" and Jesse says, " Why, yes, there is little David down in the 
lot f and how as soon as ever Samuel saw David, " he slashed the 
oil right on him;" and how Jesse said "he never was so beat in all 
his life !" 

Father Mills sometimes .used his illustrative talent to very good 
purpose in the way of rebuke. He had on his farm a fine orchard of 
peaches, from which some of the ten- and twelve-year-old gentlemen 
helped themselves more liberally than even the old man's kindness 
thought expedient. Accordingly, he took occasion to introduce into 
his sermon one Sunday, in his little parish, an account of a journey he 
took : and how he was very warm and very dry ; and how he saw a fine 
orchard of peaches that made his mouth water to look at them. " So,-' 
says he, " I came up to the fence and looked all around, for I would 
not have touched one of them without leave for the world. At last 
t spied a man, and says I, ' Mister, won't you give me some of your 



80 
peaches '." So the man came and gave me nigh a hat full. And while 
\ slood there eating, J said, 'Mister how do you manage to keep your 
peaches'." 'Keep them!' said he, and he stared at me; ' what do 
you mean?' ' Yes sir,' said I; 'don't the boys steal them?' ' Boys 
steal them ?' said he ; ' no indeed !' ' Why, sir,' said I, ' I have a whole 
lot full of peaches, and I cannot get half of them'--here the old man's 
voice grew tremulous — ' because the boys in my parish steal them 
bo.' ' Why, sir,' said lie, ' don't their parents teach them not to steal ?' 
And I grew all over in a cold sweat, and I told him, I was afeared 
they didn't ' 'Why how you talk !' says the man ; ' do tell me where 
you live ?' ' Then,' said Father Mills, the tears running over, ' I was 
obliged to tell him I lived in the town of TV After this Father Mills 
kept his peaches. 

Although the old man never seemed to be .sensible of anything 
tending to the ludicrous in his own mode of expressing himself, yet he 
had considerable relish for humor, and some shrewdness of repartee. 
One time^as he was walking through a neighboring parish, famous for 
its profanity, he was stopped by a whole flock of the youthful repro- 
bates of the place : — ' Father Mills ! Father Mills ! the devil's dead !' 
' Is he ?' said the old man, benignly laying his hand on the head of 
the nearest urchin, ' you poor fatherless children !' 

But the sayings and doings of this good, old man, as leported in the 
legends of the neighbourhood, are more than can be gathered or re- 
ported. He lived far beyond the common age of man, and continued 
when age had impaired his powers, to tell over and over again the 
same Bible stones that he had told so often before. 

[Here end our extracts from Mrs. Stow. The following anecdote 
is from another source :] 

Paul Peck, one of the first settlers of Litchfield, was the most fa- 
mous hunter and trapper in the county. In one of his sermons, Fa- 
ther Mills, wishing to illustrate the progress and certain doom of the 
sinner, compared him to a timid Berkshire fox, that set out on a trip 
to the Sound. "When he started, he was fearful and cautious — wari- 
ly shunning every appearance of evil, and trembling at the sound of 
a leaf; but having passed the hunters of Salisbury, the hounds of 
Cornwall, and the snares of Goshen, lie considers himself safe ; 
proud of his superior adroitness in thus escaping from predicted evils, 
he becomes more and more heedless and self-conceited ; he enters 
Fat Swamp at a jolly trot — head and tail up — looking defiance at the 
enemies he has left far behind him ! But oh, the dreadful reverse ! 
in the midst of his haughty reverie he is brought to a sudden and ev- 
erlasting stop, in one of Paul Peck's traps /" 

Father Mills died in Torringford, in May, 1833, at the age 

of 90 years, and in the 64th year of his ministry. 



81 



DANIEL CHIPMAN 



DANIEL CHIPMAN, ll.d., (brother of Chief Justice 
Chipman,) was born at Salisbury, October 22, 1765. Inl775, 
his father removed with his family to Tinmouth, in what was 
then called the New Hampshire Grants, in the present county 
of Rutland, Vermont. Daniel labored on the farm until No- 
vember 1783, when he commenced his studies preparatory to 
entering college. In the following year he entered Dart- 
mouth College, graduated in 1788, and immediately com- 
menced the study of the law with his brother above alluded 
to. He was admitted to the Bar in 1790, opened an office in 
Rutland, and soon had an extensive practice. In 1793, he 
represented the town of Rutland in the Convention held at 
Windsor for amending the Constitution. 

Mr. Chipman removed to Middlebury, in the county of Ad- 
dison, in 1794, which town he frequently represented in the 
Legislature until 1808, when he was elected a member of the 
Council — in place of which the Senate has since been consti- 
tuted. In 1812, he was elected a Fellow of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences. Most of the time between 
1809 and 1815 he represented Middlebury in the Legislature, 
and in 1813 and '14 he was chosen Speaker of the House. In 
1815 he was elected to the Congress of the United States — and 
attended the first session, but was confined at home by sick- 
ness during the second session. The following year his heatlh 
was so far restored that he resumed the practice of law ; and 
in the years 1818 and '21, he was elected to the Legislature, 

In 1822 he published an Essay on the Law of Contracts for 



me Payment of Specific Articles — which was well received by 
the legal profession generally, and highly commended by 
Judge Story, Chancellor Kent, and other eminent jurists. In 
the Preface to this work, Mr. Chipman urged the importance 
of having the decisions of the Supreme Court reported ; and 
at the next session of the Legislature, an act was passed pro- 
viding for the appointment of a Reporter, and he was selected 
for that office. He published one volume of Reports, when 
ill health compelled him to relinquish his station. 

In the Preface to his Reports, he suggested and urged the 
idea of elevating the Legislature, by constituting a Senate ; 
and in 1836 an amendment of the Constitution to that end was 
proposed, and a Convention called. In the mean time, the 
subject of this sketch had retired from public life, and taken up 
his residence in the secluded village of Ripton. Such, how- 
ever, was his desire to have the amendment adopted, that he 
yielded to the wishes of his fellow-townsmen, and represented 
them in the Convention. He was justly regarded as the 
champion of the Amendment in that body— which Amendment 
was, after three or four days' debate, adopted by a majority of 
three. It was universally admitted that the project would 
have failed had it not been for the vigorous and well-directed 
efforts made in its behalf by Mr, Chipman. A speech which 
he delivered on the occasion was published in a pamphlet 
form. 

Since the death of his brother, Judge Chipman, he has pub- 
lished his biography, under the title of—" The Life of Nathan- 
iel Chipman, ll. d., formerly a member of the United States 
Senate, and Chief Justice of the State of Vermont ; with Se- 
lections from his Miscellaneous Papers." This work has also 
been highly extolled by Chancellor Kent, and others, whose 
capacity to judge of its merits none will question. Mr. C. has 
recently written and published the Life of Col. Seth Warner, 
a distinguished officer of the Revolution. 



83. 
Tn 1848, the subject of this brief memoir received the degree 
of Doctor of Laws from Dartmouth College, This distinguish- 
ed honor in connection with those so often received from his 
fellow citizens, afford the most gratifying indications not only 
of his high, attainments as a scholar, but of the general esteem 
in which he has long been held by the people of his adopted; 
State- 



84 



STANLEY GRISWOLD 



STANLEY GRISWOLD was'bornin Torringford, Novem- 
ber 14, 1768. Like most farmers' sons at that period, his 
youth was passed alternately on the farm and at the district 
school, until he reached the age of sixteen years, when he 
was placed in an academy. At the age of nineteen, he en- 
tered the freshman class of Yale College, at which institution 
he graduated in September 1786. For about a year thereaf- 
ter, he taught a high school and then began the study of Di- 
vinity with the learned Rev. Dr. McClure, of East Windsor. 
He commenced preaching early in the year 17S9, and soon 
after received an invitation to settle over the chuich in Lyme, 
which he declined. On the 14th of June of the same year, 
he began to preach as a candidate in New Mil ford, and was 
there installed as a colleague of the Rev. Mr. Taylor, Janua- 
ry 20, 1790. About this time he was married to Elizabeth^ 
daughter of Dr. Samuel Flagg, of East Hartford. 

At the time of his ordination, and for a period of years after, 
lie was very popular with his people, and ndeed with all who 
heard him preach. He was a good writer, an easy and grace- 
ful speaker, and having the advantage of a good voice and a 
fine persona! appearance, few equalled and BtilJ fewer excelled 
him in pulpit oratory. In ordinary and private intercourse, he 
familiar and pleasant, and seemed in all respects well cal- 
culated to gain and retain friends. 

The principles of the Government seemed at that time to be 
in a 'state of chaos, and the great minds of (he nation were al- 
most universally drawn into the vortex of -politics. "Jeflerso- 



85 
man Democracy," as it was termed, had risen into popularity 
in many sections of the country. In New England, however, 
(as is well known,) Jefferson was regarded by the clergy and 
by religious people generally, as but little better than an avowed 
Atheist — and his political adherents were consequently looked 
upon with suspicion and prejudice. To the young- and ardent 
mind of Griswold, glowing with the fire of genius, aspiring to 
whatever was true and progressive in Freedom, and grasping- 
after new thoughts and new theories, the political fabric of the 
great apostle of democracy was seized upon as the most perfect 
model of a republic which had been conceived. Unaccustom- 
ed to conceal his opinions on matters of general interest and 
importance, and conscious of the rectitude of his motives, he 
did not hesitate from the first to declare his preferences in con- 
versation whenever he thought proper to do so. As a matter 
of course, it was soon noised abroad that Mr. Griswold was a 
" democrat." Still his popularity was net materially affected: 
thereby, so long as his sentiments were not publicly expressed. 
His talents and eloquence secured for him crowded audiences, 
and elicited the applause of his hearers, though very many 
mourned over what they regarded as his errors. 

When first settled, he was regarded (and probably justly so,) 
as belonging to the Colvinistic School of divines. But after a 
few years his brethren in the ministry gradually became dis 
satisfied with some of his religious tenets, and the Rev. Mr. 
Day, of the neighboring palish of New Preston, was deputed 
to converse with him on the doctrines. Not being satisfied 
with Mr. G/s conduct and opinions as expressed on that occa- 
sion, Mr. Day made an unfavorable repoit to the Association, 
and ultimately preferred charges against him. What the pre- 
cise charges were, are unknown to the author of this volume, 
far her than that they were designed to impeach his orthodoxy, 
and did not in any way affect his moral character. Mr. Gris- 
wold, however, was cited to appear and make answer thereto 



68 
before a session of the Association convened at Roxlmry,* 

From some cause of nlledged informolity, he refused to ap- 
pear in person, until they should first annul their proceedings 
claimed to be irregular, and receive his explanation as from an. 
uncensured brother. To this proposition the Association did 
not think proper to accede, but forthwith proceeded against 
him ex parte, cutting him off from his connection with that body. 
The people of his charge very generally espoused his cause 
with much zeal and earnestness, and he continued his minis 
(rations with them for several years after his connection with 
the Association had been ihjis forcibly dissolved. 

In March 1801, the demociats of the State held a Jubilee at 
VValliugford, in New Haven county, in honor of the election of 
Jeiferson and Burr to the Presidency, and Vice Presidency of 
the United States, and Mr. Giiswold was invited to deliver a 
Sermon on tjie occasion. He accepted the invitation, though 
strenuously, advised against it. by. his friends, who warned him 

* Since this Sketch was prepared for the press, the Rev. Truman 
Marsh, of Litchfield, has put into our hands a pamphlet entitled, "A 
Statement of the Singular Manner of Proceeding of the Rev. Asso- 
ciation of the South Part of Litchfield County, in an Ecclesiastical 
Prosecution by them instituted against the Rev. Stanley Griswold, 
Pastor of the First Church of Christ in New Milford ; who, without 
being heard in his own defence, was by them sentenced to an exclu- 
sion from their Associate Communion. Together with a subsequent 
Address to said Association, by Neheaaah Strong, Esq., of said New 
Milford, late Professor of Nahual Philosophy in Yale College. Hart- 
ford : Printed by Elisha Babcoek, 1797." 

On the 2d of July, 1797, the charges against Mr. Griswold were, 
at his request, read before bis church and congregation, immediately 
after divine service. Mr. G. having retired, it was Voted, unanimous- 
ly, that, having attended constantly on his preaching since his settle- 
ment in New Milford, " they have never been led to entertain an opin- 
ion opposed to the doctiines preached by him, but ever have and still: 
do feel satisfied with his preaching ;" they deprecated "all interfer- 
ence from aboad," and further express their "serious wish that there- 
may be no further interposition from said Association/' Arc. The 
Commmittee appointed to record and transmit the vote to the A 
ation were, Sherman Board man, Nehemiah Strong, Abel Iline, Josiah, 
Starr, Elizur Warner, Philo Ruggles, and Daniel Everett. 



of the consequences of such a step to him as a minis! e'r. But 
as he had evidently ere this resolved upon leaving the ministry, 
these admonitions had less effect than they might otherwise 
have had. His sermon was published and had a wide circula- 
tion.* This, together with a private letter from him to the Hon 
Mr. Coit, Representative in Congress from New London coun- 
ty, (which by some means found iis way into the public prints,) 
brought his political sentiments fully and fairly before the 
world. It was swch an unusual event for a minister of the 
"standing order," in New England, to avow his preference for 
the opinions of the democratic party, that his name and fame 
spread rapidly throughout the country. 

In the fall of 1802, Mr. Griswold resigned his pastoral 
charge in New Milford, much against the wishes of many 
members of his church and congregation, who regarded him 
as persecuted on account of his political opinions. He subse- 
quently preach for a short time in Greenfield, though not with 
the design of settling — and soon after abandoned the pulpit 
altogether. 

In 1804, he left his native State, and established a demo- 
cratic newspaper at Walpole, New Hampshrie, which was 
conducted with great ability and obtained a wide-spread influ- 
ence and popularity. During the following year he was call- 
ed from this situation to Michigan, having received from Presi- 
dent Jefferson the appointment of Secretary of that Territory 
— the notorious Gen. William Hull then being Governor. For 
reasons which were never given to the public, the Governor 
and Secretary did not long harmonize in their views. The 

* A new edition of this Discourse was printed at New Haven in 1 84 5, 
by Mr. J. H. Benham. It is entitled, " Overcome Evil with Good : 
A Sermon Delivered at Wallingford, Connecticut, March 11th, 180 1> 
before a numerous collection of the Friends of the Constitution, of 
Thomas Jefferson, President, and of Aaron Burr, Vice President of 
the United States. By Stanley Griswold, A. M., of New Milford, 
Hartford— Printed by Elisha Babcock, 1801." 



former, it is said, suspected the latter with attempting to sup 
plant him. However that may have been, the Secretary short- 
ly resigned his post and took up his residence in Ohio. 

In 1809, Mr. Griswold received from Governor Huntington 
the appointment of Senator in the Congress of the United 
States, to fill a vacancy then existing in the Ohio delegation. 
In that illustrious body he soon distinguished himself as an el, 
oquent debater, and men of all parties acknowledged his abili- 
ty as a statesman and his integrity as a patriot. 

Soon after the term for which he was appointed had expir- 
ed, he was nominated by the President and confirmed by the 
Senate, as United States' Judge for the North Western Ter- 
ritory. This new post he was destined to occupy but a short 
time. While out upon a judicial circuit, he contracted a fever 
which terminated fatally. He died at Shawneetown, Illinois, 
August 21, 1814, aged 51 years. 



89 



MARTIN CHITTENDEN 

The subject of this sketch was a son of the Hon. Thomas 
Chittenden, (the first Governor of the State of Vermont,) and 
was born in Salisbury, March 12, 1766. In 1776 the entire 
family removed from Connecticut to Williston, in the northern 
part of Vermont— a region which was at that time almost an 
unbroken wilderness. During the same year, they took up 
their abode in the south part of the State, where they remain- 
ed until the close of the revolutionary war. 

Martin Chittenden fitted for college, in part, under the 
instruction of the Rev. Mr. Farrand, of Canaan, in his native 
county, and subsequently studied at More's School, at Hano- 
ver, New Hampshire. He graduated at Dartmouth College 
in 1789. In consequence of feeble health at this period, he 
did not study a profession, but engaged in agricultural pursuits 
- — an employment of which he was passionately fond, and which 
(aside from his public duties,) chiefly occupied his time 
and attention through life. He located himself in Jericho, 
Chittenden county ; in 1789 he was appointed a Justice of the 
Peace, and during the following year was elected County 
Clerk, and a Representative to the Legislature. To the last 
office he was re-elected for six successive years, and several 
times afterwards. In 1793, he was appointed Judgs of the 
County Court, and, three years after, was elected Chief Judge, 
the duties of which latter station he faithfully performed for 
seven years, and until transfered by the people to a higher 
post of duty and responsibility. He was elected a Represen- 
tative to the National Congress in 1803, and held his seat in 



90 
that honorable body until 1813— a period of ten years. His 
congressional career was eminently useful and popular, though 
not brilliant. He seldom addressed the House, yet the views 
and opinions of few members were more respected or had 
more influence, in and out of Congress, than his. 

In 1814 and 1S15 he was elected Governor of the State, 
The period of his administration was one of great excitement 
and alarm among his constituents, occasioned by the war then 
existing between the United States and Great Britain. Ver- 
mont, being upon the frontier of the British possessions, and 
lying along the borders of a lake which extended into the en- 
emy's country, was peculiarly exposed to the incursions of the 
foe. During the September of 1814, it was ascertained that a 
British fleet was coming down the lake. General Macomb, 
who commanded the American troops at Plattsburg, opposite 
Burlington, sent over a summons to Governor Chittenden for 
the immediate presence and aid of the Vermont Militia. Gov- 
ernor C, (considering it uncertain upon which side of the lake 
the enemy would land, and believing it to be his first duty to 
protect the inhabitants of his own State,) peremptorily refused 
to comply with the summons of the commanding General. 
A portion of the enemy's troops landed at Plattsburg, though 
the principal fight was upon the water. This act of the Gov- 
ernor's — though now generally regarded as right — was seized 
upon with great avidity by his political opponents, and with 
such success as to overthrow his administration in 1816. 

We have thus far spoken of Governor Chittenden only as a 
civilian. As a military officer he was eminently popular, and 
rose to the highest honor. At the age of twenty-four, he was 
appointed aide-de-camp to Lieutenant Governor Olcott ; and 
at the age of thirty-three he had attained the rank of Major- 
General. 

Governor Chittenden was married, March 12, 1796, to Anna 



Pi 
Bently, who died September 25, 1827. They had two. sons 
and two daughters ; the sons only are living. 

Governor C. departed this life, September 5, 1840, in the 
75th year of his age— leaving a large estate, and an honorable 
fame, to his posterity. 



9% 



SAMUEL J. MILLS 



SAMUEL JOHN MILLS, " the Father of Foreign Missions 
in America," was the son of Samuel J. Mills, a venerable con- 
gregational clergyman in Torringford, (celebrated no less for 
his ardent piety than for his eccentricities,) at which place he. 
was born on the 21st of April, 1783. His mother was a wo- 
man of pre-eminent piety, and early dedicated him to the God 
whom she delighted to serve. The years of his childhood 
were spent beneath the paternal roof, in the enjoyment of such 
instructions as were commonly bestowed upon the children of 
New England ministers at that period. 

Dining a revival of religion which took place in his father's 
parish when the subject of this sketch was about fifteen years 
of age, his mind became painfully exercised on the great 
themes of religion. In vain he struggled for light and hope. 
All that resided beneath the same roof, and all who remained 
of his father's descendants, himself excepted, had expressed a 
hope of pardon, and had united with the church — st'ill he gro- 
ped in darkness and despondency. In this state of mind he 
continued for more than two years. In November, 1801, after 
a most solemn and earnest appeal from his mother, young Mills 
left home with the design of spending the winter at an Acade- 
my in Litchfield, about sixteen miles distant. The morning 
of his departure was a memorable one in his history. After 
he had left, the mother betook herself to earnest prayer for her 
son — and he for himself. " That very morning," says the 
Rev. Dr. Spring, " it pleased the I T >|y Spirit to knock off the 
chains frcm this unhappy prisoner, and introduce him to the 



93 
liberty of the sons of God. He had not gone far before he h ad- 
such a view of the perfections of God, that he wondered Vie 
had never seen their beauty and glory befoie. He retired a 
short distance into the woods, that he might be the more at lib- 
erty to contemplate the character of God, and adore and extol 
his amiable sovreignty" 

The direction of young Mills' thoughts may be gathered 
from a single suggestion soon after his return from Litchfield, 
viz., c that he could not conceive of any course of life in which 
to pass the rest of his days, that would prove so pleasant as to 
preach the gospel to the heathen.' It is worthy of remark that 
from that hour, though but a youth of sixteen, he never lost 
sight of his darling object. During his stay at home, and while 
toiling at the plough, he made a solemn consecration of him- 
self to the cause of foreign missions. "Thus," adds Dr. Spring, 
" in a retired field in Litchfield county, was the King of Zion 
beginning that great course of operations which have produced 
such a mighty revolution in the American Churches, and which 
bear so intimate a relation to the progressive glories of his 
kingdom.'' 

In 1806, Mills entered Williams College, and graduated in 
1810. While in that institution there was an extensive religious 
revival there, of which he was the chief instrument, and very 
many who have since become foreign missionaries became sub- 
jects of grace at that time. 

Previous to the efforts of Mills, several Missionary Societies 
had been formed in this country, but the} had all been devoted 
exclusively to the support of domestic missions. But in trac- 
ing the rise and progress of Foreign Missions, we have little 
else to do than to follow the leading events of Mr. Mills' life, 
from his first year in college, to the embarkation of the Amer- 
ican Missionaries for Calcutta, under the direction of the 
American Board of Commissioners foi Foreign Missions, in the 
year 1812. Although from a youth he had manifested a re- 



94 
markable interest and zeal in (he cause, it was not until he 
became a member of college that his real objects and designs 
were made manifest to the world. He there unburthened his 
mind to a few fellow-students ; these be led to a secluded spot* 
where, by the side of a larue haystack, they devoted the day to 
fasting and prayer, and familiar conversation on this new and 
interesting theme ; and he had the satisfaction of finding a like 
spirit kindling in their bosoms. 

After graduating, he became a resident graduate of Yale 
College. His ostensible object was the study of theology : 
hot his great purpose was to ascertain whether there were not 
some kindred spirits in that institution. Shortly after his arri- 
val in New Haven, he became acquainted with Obookiah, a 
heathen youth from Owyhee, one of the Sandwich Islands* 
who will be again referred to hereafter. 

Having succeeded, in an eminent degree, in infusing a mis- 
sionary spirit into a goodly number of students and graduates 
of the college, he became a member of the Theological Sem- 
inary at Andover. Here he was more than ever active in urg- 
ing the claims of the heathen upon the attention of his breth- 
ren in the institution ; and it is sufficient to add, that from their 
number w T ent forth in after years, a Newel], a Hall, a Nott, 
and a Judson. The hallowed influence of Mills spread rapid- 
idly among the religious people of New England. It was by 
his instrumentality, and the advice and co-operation of the 
Professors at Andover, and the Rev. Drs. Worcester and 
Spring, that on motion of the last named gentleman the subject 
was first introduced to the atfention of the General Association 
of Massachusetts, at their annual meeting at Bradford. June 
27, 1810. On that occasion the following paper was intro- 
duced — 

** The undersigned, members of the Divinity College, respectfully 
request the attention of their Reverend Fathers, convened in General 
Association at Bradford, to the following statement and inquiries • 

" They beg leave to state, that their minds have long been impress- 



06 
ed with the duty and importance of personally attempting a Mission 
to the Heathen — that the impressions on their minds have induced a 
serious, and they trust a prayerful consideration of the subject in its 
various attitudes, particularly in relation to the probable success and 
the difficulties attending such an attempt — and that after examining 
all the information which they can obtain, they consider themselves as 
devoted -to this work for life, whenever God in his providence shall 
open the way. 

"They now offer the following inquiries, on which they solicit the 
opinion and advice of the Association. Whether, with their present 
views and feelings, they ought to renounce the object of Missions as 
visionary and impracticable — if not, whether they ought to direci their 
attention to the eastern or the western world ; whether they may ex- 
pect patronage and support from a Missionary Society in this country, 
or must commit themselves to the direction of a European Society ; 
and what preparatory measures they ought to take previous to actual 
engagement ? 

"' The undersigned, Feeling their youth and inexperience, look up to 
their Fathers in the Church, and respectfully solicit their advice, di- 
rection, and prayers. 

ADONIRAM JUDSOF, Jr. 

SAMUEL NOTT, Jr. 

SAMUEL J. MILLS, 

SAMUEL NEWELL." 

This document was referred to a special committee, who 
reported favorably, urged the young' men to persevere in their 
glorious undertaking, and submitted the outlines of a plan 
which at that meeting was carried into effect in the appoint.- 
ment of a Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, " for 
the purpose of devising ways and means, and adopting and 
prosecuting measures, for the spread of the Gospel in heathen 
lands." Here was laid the corner-stone of an edifice, which 
will long be an ornament to the American Church ; such was 
the origin of an institution, which, for the extension of its plans 
and the wisdom of its direction, has long been a distinguished 
monument of divine favor to the American people. 

The first efforts of this organization, resulted in the embark- 
ation of the Rev. Messrs. Hail, Nott, Judson, Rice, and New- 
ell, for Calcutta, in February 1812. Missions were also soon 
after established in Ceylon, the Sandwich Islands, &c. 



913 

In consequence of the deep interest which Mills felt in the 
Welfare of Obookiah, he conceived the idea of establishing a 
Mission School for the education of heathen youth. He took 
the young Owyhean under his personal care, and instructed 
him in the use of language and in the precepts of religion. 
They lived together in New Haven, Torringford, and Andover. 
Wherever they went, the interest excited in behalf of the 
youth was very great. Meantime Mills continued to agitate 
his favorite project, until he had the gratification of seeing the 
Mission School established at Cornwall, ic his native county. 
The'institution was received under the care of the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions in the autumn of 
1816, and it was from this School that the Sandwich Island 
Mission originated In 1819, it contained thirty -two pupils 
from various heathen nations. 

Mi\ Mills received ordination as a gospel minister, at New- 
buryport, Massachusetts, in company with Messrs. Richards, 
Bard well, Meigs, Poor, and Warren, on the 21st of June, 1814, 
all destined to missionary services. Shortly afterwards, he 
began to make preparations for a missionary tour through the 
western and southern States, Such was his impression of the 
the importance of this service, that he performed two distinct 
tours through those sections of the Union — the first of which 
was made under the direction and patronage of the Connecti- 
cut and Massachusetts Missionary Societies ; and for the sec- 
ond, he obtained the assistance of the Philadelphia Bible and 
Missionary Societies. The objects of these tours were, to ex- 
plore the country and learn its moral and religious state— -to 
preach the gospel to the destitute — and to form and promote 
the establishment of Bible Societies and other religious and 
charitable institutions. In connection with the Rev. John F. 
Schermerhorn on his first, and the Rev. Daniel Smith on his 
second tour, he passed through New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
Kentucky, Tennessee, &c, to New Orleans, Nearly six hun- 



07 
(fred miles of their route lay through a mere wilderness. The 
Report made by Mr, Mills, of these tours, is one of the most 
interesting ever given to the public. Preaching to the soldiers 
of Generals Jackson, Adair and Thomas, at their respective 
camps — visiting the hospitals for the sick and wounded — and 
attending to the spiritual wants of the British prisoners in their 
dungeons — these were some of his employments during his 
mission to the south west in 1814. 

On his return, it was his paramount desire to turn the a'- 
tention of the Atlantic Stares to the destitute regions he hail 
visited. He accordingly presented their claims to the Socie- 
ties in Philadelphia and Baltimore, and to the Connecticut 
Bible Society — which immediately set on foot measures for the 
supply of the South and West with Bibles ; the Connecticut 
Society promptly voting five hundred copies for gratuitous dis- 
tribution in Louisiana. 

Among Mr. Mills' great projects of benevolence was the 
formation of a National Bible Society. Dr. Spring remarks : 

" The formation of this great national institution Mr. Mills thought 
of, suggested, and pressed the suggestion, long before it probably en- 
tered into the mind or heart of any other individual. With the gen- 
tlemen who were interested in the early stages of this measure, he had 
frequent interviews ; and though he concealed the hand that moved it 
forward, was himself the principal mover of the design, and a princi- 
pal agent in inducing others of greater weight of character, to become 
its abettors. If the lofty edifice has inscribed on one side the endear- 
ed and memorable name ©f Elias Boudinot, it has on the other the 
humbler inscription, Samuel J. Mills." 

The American Bible Society was formed in the city of New 
York on the Sth day of Ma), 1816. 

Mr. Mills' next great effort was.to unite the Presbyterians of 
the General Assembly, the Dutch Reformed, and the Associate 
Reformed churches, in the missionary cause, and the result 
was, the formation of The United Foreign Missionary Society- 
About this time he spent some months in the city of New York, 
seeking out the wretched abodes of poverty and vice, cheering 



98 
and relieving the wants of the suffering, and lifting up the 
fallen. 

Hut the darling object of Mr. Mills, and the one for which 
he seems to have been specially raised up, was the ameliora- 
tion of Africa. The civil, moral and spiritual degradation of 
that benighted land, lay with continual weight upon his mind. 
His first effort in his new enterprise, was, to establish a sem- 
inary for the education of colored men in this country, with a 
view to their becoming missionaries in the land of their fathers, 
The institution, through his instrumentality, soon went into 
operation under the management of a Board of Directors ap- 
pointed by the Synod of New York and New Jersey, and Mr. 
Mills accepted an appointment as their Agent. He had at the 
same time a commission from the Directors of the Foreign 
Mission School at Cornwall. In a letter dated at Philadel- 
phia, July 15, 1816, he" says— "I arrived in this place yester- 
day from Baltimore. I collected for the Mission School while 
in the State of Virginia, about fifteen hundred dollars. I re- 
ceived at Baltimore, and two or three other places in Mary- 
land, for the African School, about eight hundred dollars/* 
These schools flourished for several years ; but at length, miss- 
ing the fostering- care of their projector and friend, they died. 

A colonization project had long occupied the thoughts of 
Mills, and in all his travels South and West, he had labored 
to awaken on the subject a spirit of inquiry and interest. A 
kindred feeling, in the meantime, was beginning to burn in the 
hearts of other distinguished philanthropists. A preliminary 
meeting of the friends of the scheme was held at the residence 
of Elias B, Caldwell, Esq., in the city of Washington, towards 
the close of the year 1816, at which Mr. Mills was present. 
He was also present and participated in the deliberations of 
the meeing at which the American Colonization Society was 
formed, held on the 1st day of January, 1817. 

At the commencement of the Society's operations, great 



99 
embarrassment was felt thiough want of information as to the 
most eligible places for the establishment of a colony. With 
a view to obviate this difficulty, it was resolved to commission 
some person of suitable qualifications to explore the western 
coast of Africa, This commission, replete as it was with 
responsibility, was put into the hands of Mr. Mills. No soon- 
er had he accepted it, than he saw the importance of having 
a colleague to share the burthen with him in this arduous mis- 
sion. As the funds of the Society would not then allow of 
this appointment, Mr. Mills was employed in forming Auxilia- 
ry Societies in several of the large cities, till the Board felt 
warranted in incurring the additional expense — and gave Mr. 
Mills the privilege of selecting his own companion on the tour. 
His thoughts were at once directed to a kindred spirit, viz , the 
Rev. Ebenezer Burgess, Professor of Mathematics and Natu- 
ral Philosophy in the University of Vermont. To him he im- 
mediately wrote on the subject, and in September, 1817, Mr. 
B. signified his acceptance of the appointment. 

Messrs. Mills and Burgess left America on the 16th of No" 
vember following, and after a perilous voyage arrived in Eng- 
land late in December. They at once presented their letters 
to Zachary Macauley, Esq., formerly Governor of Sierra 
Leone, and to the Rev. Messrs. Pratt and Bickersteth, Secre- 
taries of the Church Missionary Society, who were partially 
informed as to the designs of the Colonization Society and the 
nature of the embassy, and gave them many expressions of their 
confidence. Mr. Wilberforce also received them with great 
cordiality, and introduced them to Lords Bathurst and Gam- 
bier, and to his Royal Highness the Duke bi Glocester — all of 
whom entered into the objects of the mission with enthusiasm. 
Lord Bathurst gave them letters of introduction to the Gov- 
ernor of Sierra Leone, and other officers on the coast ; and 
Lord Gambier called upon them at their rooms, and politely 
i»rofl«red them any service in his power. 



100 

Having adjusted their affairs in Ei gland, ihcy tmbaiked for 
Africa on the 2d of February, 1818. A pleasant passage 
brought them to ihe coast of that continent on the 12th of 
March. The incidents of the voyage, as well as their journey 
along the coast in pursuing the objects of their mission, are 
graphically related by Mr. Mills in his journal. After spend- 
ing upwards of two months in exploring the country, and col- 
lecting and noting facts, they embarked for the United States, 
via. England, on the 22d of May. 

The health of Mr. Mills was feeble when he left America, 
and the climate of Africa and the fatigues which he had under- 
gone there, had not improved it. It was a delightful evening 
when he left those heathen shores. The sun was just going 
down, and the mountains of Sierra Leone appeared in their 
majesty and beauty. As he stood on the quarter- deck, taking 
a last glance of Ethiopia, his bosom began to heave with 
thoughts of home. " We may now," said he to his colleague, 
be thankful to God and congratulate each other, th.it the la- 
bors and dangers of our mission are past. The prospect is 
fair, that we shall once more return to our dear native land, 
and see the faces of our beloved parents and friends. " To all 
human appearance, this was true ; but .an all-wise providence 
had ordered that he should not realize this prospect. 

On the evening of the 5th of June, when about two weeks 
out, he took a heavy cold, became ill, and expressed some ap- 
prehensions of a fever. lie continued to grow worse until the 
16th, when, between two and three p. m., he gently folded his 
hands on his breast, as if to engage in some act of devotion, 
while a celestial smile seltled upon his countenance, and 
yielded up his spirit. 

Thus, in his thirty-fifth year, did this beloved man close his 
life of distinguished piety and usefulness. Brief as was his 
career, he contributed more, perhaps, to the, formation and 
advancement of the existing national benevolent societies, than 



101 

any other man of the age in which he lived, or even of litis 
age. The American Bible Society, the American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions, the American Coloniza- 
tion Society, the Foreign Mission School at Cornwall, and the 
African School at. Baltimore, all had their origin, either direct- 
ly or indirectly, with him. And when they were once organ- 
ized, he devoted his whole energies to the furtherance of the 
objects for which they were designed. To the eye of man, 
the shaft of death could not have fallen upon one in whom 
was centered so many hopes for the moral and religious reno- 
vation of our race. Blessed be his memory ! No monumental 
marble records his worth — no fragrant dews shall descend up- 
on his tomb. His dust sleeps unseen amid the pearls .and 
corals of the ocean, and his name shall swell upon the breeze 
and be echoed by the wave, until the dawning of that day when 
the sea shall give up her dead. 

After the arrival of Mr. Burgess in this country, the Coloni- 
zation Sociely presented a memorial to Congress, through the 
Speaker of the House, Mr. Clay, from which we extract the 
following — 

" In order to obtain the most accurate information, from seources 
of the most unquestionable authority, the Society sent out, at great 
expense, two Agents, Messrs. Mills and Burgess, who have pro- ed 
themselves eminently qualified for the undertaking. They proceed- 
ed to the west coast of Africa, where they prosecuted their researches 
with such zeal, industry and intelligence, as to have contributed es- 
sentially to the illustration of many important and interesting facts 
connected with the geography, climate, soil, and products, of that 
part of the continent, and with the habits, manners, social institutions, 
and domestic economy, of its inhabitants. From the information thus 
obtained, the present penod would seem to be designated, by a com- 
bination of favorable circumstances, as the fortunate crisis for reducing 
to test of actual experiment, these views and objects of the Society, 
which have already met so encouraging a notice from Congress," &c: 
" The volume of accurate and valuable information, collected by them, 
will be found among the documents which we now beg, sir, through 
your kind mediation, to present Congress." 



102 
[Note.— A volume of 250 pages was published in 1820, with 
the following title: " Memoirs of the Rev. Samuel J. Mills, 
late Missionary to the South-Western section of the United 
States, and Agent of the American Colonization Society, de- 
puted to explore the Western Coast of Africa. By Gardner 
Spring, D. D." The foregoing Sketch is mainly compiled 
from this work.] 



103 



EPHRA1M KIRBY., 

This gentleman was a native of Litchfield, and was born on 
the 23d of February, 1757. His father was a farmer in mod- 
erate circumstances, and Ephraim was employed on the farm 
during his boyhood. At the age of nineteen, (fired with the 
patriotism which burst into a flame throughout the country on 
the news cf the battle of Lexington,) he shouldered his musket, 
and inarched with the volunteers from Litchfield to the scene 
of conflict, in time to be present at the battle of Bunker Hill; 
He remained in the field until independence was achieved, with 
only such intervals as he was driven from it by severe wounds. 
He was in nineteen battles and skirmishes — among them, 
Brandywine, Monmouth, Germantown, &c k — and received 
thirteen wounds, seven of which were sabre-cuts on the head, 
inflicted by a British soldier at Germantown, where Kirby was 
left for dead upon the field. These "honorable scars" he 
carried with him through life. 

At the close of the Revolution, he rejected with indignation 
the offer of pecuniary assistance to speculate in soldiers' certi- 
ficates, by which he might have amassed wealth without labor. 
He would not tarnish the glory of the cause of Freedom, by 
thus taking advantage of the necessities of his comrades in 
arms — preferring, penniless as he was, but conscious of the 
fire within, to take a more congenial road to eminence. By 
the labor of his own hands he earned the price of his education. 
For some time he was a member of Yale College, and in 1787 
he received from that institution the honorary degree of Mas- 
ter of Arts. Mr. Kirby studied the legal profession in the of- 



KM 
fice of Reynold Marvin, Ksq., who had been King's Attorney 
be fere ihe war, and who relinquished the office for the purpose 
of engaging with all his might, in the great struggle for inde- 
pendence. After he was admitted to the Bar, Mr. Kirby was 
married to Ruth Marvin, the excellent and accomplished 
daughter of his distinguished patron and preceptor. 

In 1791, Colonel Kirby was for the first time elected a Rep- 
resentative to the; Legislature — a post of honor and responsibil- 
ity to which he was subsequently re-chosen at thirteen semi- 
annual elections. As a legislator, he was always distinguished 
for the dignity of his deportment, for his comprehensive and 
enlightened views, for the liberality of his sentiments, and for 
his ablility, firmness and decision. 

On the elevation of Jefferson to the Presidency in 1801, Col. 
Kirby was appointed Supervisor of the National Revenue for 
the State of Connecticut. About this peiiod, he was for sev- 
eral years a candidate for the office of Governor, Upon the 
acquisition of Louisiana, the President appointed him a Judge 
of the then newly organized Territory of Orleans. Having 
accepted the station, he set out for New Orleans ; but he was 
not destined to reach the place. Having proceeded as far as 
Fort Stoddart, in the Mississippi Territory, he was taken sick, 
and died on the 2d of October, 1804, aged 47— at a period 
when a wide career of public usefulness seemed opening upon 
him. His remains were interred with the honors of war, and 
other demonstrations of respect. 

While in the practice of the law in his native town, in the 
year 1789, he published a volume of Reports of the decisions 
of the Superior Court and Supreme Court of Errors in this 
State. This was a novel undertaking ; being the first volume 
of Reports ever published in Connecticut, and perhaps in the 
United States,* It was executed with faithfulness, judgment, 

* Pease and Niles's Gazetteer spaaks of this work as the first vol- 
ume of Reports published in Connecticut ; Colonel Edmund Kirby, 



10f> 
and ability, and is now regarded as Authority in nil our Courts! 
Col. Kirby was a man of tbe highest grade of moral as well 
as physical courage — elevated in his feelings and aspirations 
—warm, generous and constant in his attachments — and of 
indomitable energy. Pie was, withal, gentle and winning in 
his manners, kindly in his disposition, and naturally of an ar- 
dent and cheerful temperament, though the last few years 
of his life were saddened by heavy pecuniary misfortunes.* 
As a lawyer, he was remarkable for the frankness and down- 
right honesty of his advice to clients, striving always to prevent 
litigation, uniformly allaying irritation and effecting compro- 
mises, and only prosecuting with energy the just and good 
cause against the bad. He enjoyed the friendship of many of 
the sages of the Revolution, his correspondence with whom 
would form interesting materials for the history of his time ; 
but, unfortunately, almost all of it was lost at sea between 
New York and St. Augustine, some twenty-five years 'ago. 
A few letters to and from President Jefferson are, however, 
still preserved by Col. Edmund Kirby, of Brownville, New 
York, which are interesting as showing the relations of confi- 

expres^es his belief that it was the first work of the kind ever pub- 
lished in the United States, 

* Col. Kirby had acquired a handsome property by his profession, 
but in an evil hour he employed an agent to purchase for him a large 
tract of new land in Virginia. This agent betrayed his trust, and by 
his dishonesty involved his affairs in irretrievable ruin. To be har- 
assed by liabilities which he could not meet, was, to an honest and 
sensitive mind like his, a source of the keenest solicitude. This reverse 
took place but a short time before his appointment to the judgeship, 
and consequently he left Litchfield for the la,t time in a very dejected 
state of mind. My friend and kinsman, who still survives, (Colonel 
J. Kilbourne, late member of Congress from Ohio.) informs me that 
he unexpectedly overtook Col. Kirby while crossing the Alleghanie^ 
in the summer of 1804, and traveled with him for many miles. Kir> 
by was then on his way to fulfil the duties of his appointment in Louis- 
iana. He was gloomy and sad, and expressed his forebodings that he 
should never return to his native State. 



100 
dence existing between the subject of this notice and that 
great statesman. 

Mrs. Kirby died at Litchfield, in October, 1817, aged 53.* 

* We cannot forbear inserting here the following beautiful and 
well deserved tribute to the memory of this estimable lady, contained 
in a private letter from her gallant and lamented son already alluded 
to, (Col. Edmund K.,) to the author cf these pages — dated August 4, 
1848. "She is worthy of honorable mention on the page that com- 
memorates those who have done most to reflect honor on Litchfield 
— so full of cherished memories ! She possessed a rare combination 
of talents and accomplishments, blended with all Christian virtues 
that adorn and make the female character lovely. Born to the pros- 
pect of a fortune, highly educated and refined, she met the reverses of 
after life with equinimity and energy, and a display of practical tal- 
ent for the business of life, in the husbandry of her narrow resources 
and the education of her children, that commanded the admiration of 
all who knew her." 



107 



JOHN COTTON SMITH. 



In the year 1639, the Rev. Henry Smith was the minister at 
Wethersfield, on the Connecticut River. A few years be- 
fore, the Rev. John Cotton and the Rev. Richard Mather, har- 
rassed by the persecutions to which the non-conformists were 
subjected, left their mother country and sought refuge in the 
feeble colonies of New England. They had both been emi- 
nent in their native country for learning and piety. A son of 
the latter, the Rev. Increase Mather, was for twenty years 
President of Harvard College, He married a daughter of the 
Rev. John Cotton, and from this marriage sprang the Rev. 
Cotton Mather, of world-wide renown. His daughter, Jeru- 
sha, married Mr. Samuel Smith, of Suffield, a grandson of the 
Rev. Henry Smith, above-mentioned, and was the mother of 
the Rev. Cotton Mather Smith, the father of the subiect of this 
sketch. He was for more than fifty years the minister of the 
church in Sharon, in this county, where his name is still pre- 
served in the affectionate traditions of the people, as a sound 
divine, a most faithful and tender-hearted pastor, and a man of 
great personal dignity. His wife was a daughter of (he Rev. 
William Worthington, of Saybrook, one of the old puritan 
women, in whom faith was the fountain of mild dignify and 
earnest well-doing. 

Of th3se parents JOHN COTTON SMITH wan born in 
Sharon, February 12, 1765; and he could thus enumerate 
among his ancestors no less than seven of the clergy of New 
England, some of whom are illustrious in her history. It was 
the great biessing of his childhood to receive his training in 



108 
one of the best of the old New England households, where 
Law stood embodied in patriarchal authority, and Christian 
Faith gave the key-note to the domestic harmonies ; and much 
of the loveliness of his character was doubtless owing to the 
pure and quickening atmosphere of his father's house. 

His early education, till he was six years old, was commit- 
ted to his mother; and he pursued his classical studies partly 
in Sharon and partly with the Rev. Mr. Brinsmade of Wash- 
ington. He entered Yale College in 1779, being then in his 
fifteenth year.* Though so young, he passed through his col- 
legiate course, with honor, acquiring a high rank as a scholar, 
and preserving his moral principles and habits from the slight- 
est stain. It was at the time of the Revolution, the heroic era 
in our annals, when the energies of our people were quicken- 
ed to their utmost — and, although our young student took no 
part in the war, his whole heart went with his country in her 
struggle for freedom. His father was a zealous patriot, having 
served as chaplain in the campaign of 1775, and full of hope 
as to the issue even in the darkest reverses. The son partook 
of the father's spirit, and with the hopefulness of youth anti- 
cipated a high and honorable destiny for his new-born country.t 
He graduated in 1783, the year of the termination of the 

* The following winter his father went to bring him home for the 
vacation. A great snow storm came on, and they were compelled to 
leave their sleigh in Woodbury, and travel to Bcthlem on horseback. 
By (.hat time the roads had become impassable to horses, and, fearing 
that they might be wholly blocked up, they set out, with Dr. Bellamy's 
sanction, on Sunday afternoon, on snow-shoes, reached Washington 
that night, Warren the next day, and home on the third. 

f" The appearance of a large British army from Canada, under Gen. 
Burgoyne, and the expedition up the North River, under Gen. Vaugh- 
an, in 1 777, filled the whole country with terror and despondency. 
The firmness and confidence of Parson Smith, however, remained un- 
broken, and his efforts to revive the drooping spirits of his people were 
unremitted. In the month of October, he preached a sermon from 
these words, " Watchman, what of the night*' The watchman saith, 
the morninir cometh." He dwelt upon the indications which the deal- 



109 
war, and immediately entered on the study of the law in the 
office of John Canfield, Esq., in his native village. In 1786, 
he was admitted to the Bar of Litchfield county, then inferior 
to none in the State for the brilliant array of legal and forensic 
talent : among whom we may mention Reeve, distinguished 
for his wisdom and learning as a jurist, as well as for the ex- 
cellence of his moral and religious character ; Tracy, surpass- 
ed by none in sparkling wit and subduing eloquence; and Na- 
thaniel Smith, who, by the energy of extraordinary talents, 
forced his way through great disadvantages to the highest pro- 
fessional eminence. With these and other distinguished com- 
petitors, Mr, Smith soon obtained a high reputation, and a 
lucrative practice. 

-In 1793, he was first chosen to represent his native town 
in the General Assembly of Connecticut ; and from 1796 to 
1800, he was without interruption a member of the lower 
House. At the October session 1799, he was appointed Clerk 
— and in both of the sessions of the following year he was el- 
evated to the Speaker's chair. 

In October 1800, he was chosen a member of Congress to 
fill a vacancy occasioned by a resignation, and at the same time 

ings of providence afforded, that a bright and glorious morning was 
about to dawn upon a long night of defeat and disaster. He told his 
congregation he believed they would soon hear of a signal victory 
crowning the arms of America, and exhorted them to unshaken con- 
fidence in the final triumph of their cause. Before the congregation 
was dismissed, a messenger arrived in Sharon with the intelligence of 
the surrender of Burgoyne's army: The letter was immediately sent 
to Parson Smith, who read it from the pulpit, and a flood of joy and 
gratitude burst from the entire audience. — Conn. Hist. Coll. 

A body of Hessians, belonging to the same army, marched through 
Sharon after their .capture, and their officers were hospitably enter- 
tained at Parson Smith's. The next morning, when drawn up for 
march, they sang psalms in their noble language, and then moved on 
to the sound of sacred music. His son, (John-Cotton,) then twelve 
years old, was so much delighted with it, that he followed them along 
way on their march, and he often spoke of it with enthusiasm after- 
wards. 



fio 

he was elected to the full teim of the 7th Congress. When 
he entered the National Legislature, the Federal party wa s 
still in power ; but the close of that session saw the sceptre 
pass out of its hands, and the party with which he acted lost 
its national ascendency forever. During almost the whole of 
his congressional career, he was in a minority ; and the honors 
which he received were not, therefore, the reward of a parti- 
zan by a dominant faction. Nor did he ever seek to conciliate 
his political opponents; he was an open, decided, uncompro- 
mising opponent ; and yet, such were his talents as a states- 
man, such his bearing as a gentleman, and such the spotless 
integrity of his character, as to command the respect and win 
the confidence of the House and of the country during times 
of the most violent party excitement. After the first session, 
he was Chairman of the Committee on Claims so long as he 
held his seat — a most laborious office at that time, when there 
was less subdivision of duties in Congress than now, but which 
he filled with great ability and reputation. Clear-sighted, 
prompt, energetic and indefatigable, he was able rapidly to dis- 
entangle the most perplexed subjects, and present them with 
luminous distinctness ; while his lofty rectitude, never soiled 
even by the breath of suspicion, gave moral weight to his de- 
cisions, as coming from one who would never sacrifice justice 
to party or even national ends. 

He was oftener called to the chair in Committee of the 
Whole than any other member, especially when those questions 
were before the House which were most fitted to awaken par- 
ty animosities. In the celebrated discussion on the Judiciary 
in 1801, he presided to universal acceptance — on one occasion, 
when the excitement was at its bight, sitting immvoable in his 
place, with the firm endurance of a Roman Senator, for twelve 
hours. His Congressional career closed in 1 806, when he 
resigned his seat that he might minister to the comfort of his 
aged father. He did not resume his practice at the Bar, but 



Ill 

devoted himself to the management of his farm, and to those 
literary pursuits which were congenial to his refined taste. 
But his townsmen would not suffer his talents to be wholly 
buried. He was sent to the Lower House of the State Legis- 
lature in the autumn of the same year, and was again chosen 
Speaker ; and he continued a member of that body until 1809, 
when he was elected to the Council. In October of that year, 
he was elevated to the bench of the Supreme Court, in the 
place of Roger Giiswold, who had been elected Lieutenant 
Governor. Before the second term of this Court was held, 
Mr. Giiswold was elevated to the chief magistracy, and Judge 
Smith was called from the bench to fill the office of Lieutenant 
Governor. 

Of his associates on the bench, the venerable Simeon Bald- 
win, of New Haven, father of the ex-Governor, is now (1849) 
the only survivor. 

In consequence of the death of Governor Griswold in Oc- 
tober 1812, Mr. Smith became acting Governor. For the 
four following years, and until the political revolution oi 1817, 
he was elected to the office of Governor, which station he filled 
with eminent ability and faithfulness. 

The life of a Governor of Connecticut is generally tranquil, 
and presents few incidents for history. The narrow limits of 
our territory, the orderly habits of our people, and the stability 
of our institutions, leave little to be done by our rulers save 
cairn supervision and such gentle amendments as the change 
of circumstances may require. Apart from the war, there is 
nothing demanding special notice in Governor Smith's admin- 
istration. He adorned the station* by the consummate grace 
and dignity with which he appeared on all public occasions. 
All the duties and proprieties of the office were most faithfully 
performed and observed, and his Slate Papers were distinguish- 
ed for perspicuity and classic elegance, He was always equal 
to the occasion. 



yi2 

From his retirement in 1817 until his death, a period of al- 
most thirty years, he lived upon his estate in his native town, 
wholly withdrawn from all participation in political affairs, and 
devoted to the studies and employments befitting a scholar, a 
gentleman, and a Christian. 

The connection of Governor Smith with the great moral and 
religious enterprises of the age, was an important feature in 
his later life. He rejoiced when the Church, startled out of 
the sleep of the last century by the shock that engulphed the 
monarchy of France, began to grope her way in the morning 
twilight, and with weak faith and dim vision to gird herself for 
her work, as the light of the world and the pillar' and ground 
of the truth. He was President of the Litchfield County For- 
eign Mission Society, and of the Litchfield County Temperance 
Society ; he was also the first President of the State Bible So- 
ciety, which preceded by several years the national institution. 
In 1826, he was chosen President of the American' Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions ; and in 1881, President 
of the Ameiican Bible Society, — thus receiving the highest 
marks of confidence and esteem which the christian public 
could bestow upon him. The former he resigned in 1841, but 
the latter he retained until his death. 

It was a noble spectacle to see the retired statesman conse- 
crating his old age to such a work. Standing wholly apart 
from political contests, yet full of filial anxiety for his country, 
he gave to the Church of God the first place in his affections 
and labors. Nor was it only in enterprizes the magnitude of 
which might seem to give them an outward magnificence, that 
he felt an interest; he was equally for those humble works of 
which the world takes but little notice. His wisdom and gen- 
tleness made him much sought for in healing the wounds of 
distracted churches, and never was he more thankful than 
when he saw a blessing on those labors of love. 

Besides the political and religious honors already mentioned, 



113 
he received several of a literary kind. In 1814, the degree 
of Doctor of Laws was conferred upon him by his Alma Ma- 
ter. During the following- \ ear, he wo? elected a member of 
the Northern Society of Antiquaries in Copenhagen, Denmark. 
He was also elected a member of the Connecticut Historical 
Society, and an honorary member of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society, in the aims and objects of which societies he 
entered warmly, and gave them his cordial support. He was 
for several years an occasional contributor to various scientific 
and literary periodicals, and was a deeply interested observer 
of the progress of those arts, sciences, and inventions, which 
tend to advance civilization, and promote the partial or general 
welfare of our race. His essays on these subjects, evince 
patient investigation, deep research, correct observation, with 
occasional prophetic glimpses of their probable results in th e 
unknown future. 

But the portraiture of Governor Smith's character will bein- 
complete, without giving greater prominence to the element of 
the Christian gentleman. He was an eminent ornament of a class 
of which very few survive, commonly spoken of as gentlemen 
of the old school. This is commonly understood to designate 
a lofty tone of manners which belonged' to a state of society 
now gone by, and the loss of which is as little to be regretted 
as the obsolete fashions of our grandsires' coats, The free and 
easy spirit of our age rejoices in its deliverance from the un- 
comfortable restraints of those punctilious times, and ridicules 
the antique forms of social and public life. But manners are 
shaped by principles. They are the expression of the senti- 
ment, of the moral and spiritual character, of men ; and when 
these are debased, they will stamp their meanness on the man- 
ners also. Outward coarseness and vulgarity are a fruit and 

an index of moral debasement ; and the stately and beautiful 
forms of life are the fit embodiment of high and honorable 

feeling, though they may be the decora ted sepulchre that hides 



114 
the corruption of death. The loftier manners of past ages, 
grew out of their loftier principles. The life of man was felt 
to be encompassed by a heavenly Light. Society was a di- 
vine structure, and office-bearers therein were the representa- 
tives and ministers of God. Hence a reverential spirit, and its 
outward expression, a respectful manner, grew out of the faith 
of men in the Invisible as symbolized in the visible, in the Eter- 
nal as symbolized in the temporal In the father they saw set 
forth the everlasting fatherhood of God ; in the ruler, the ma- 
jesty of the great King. Admiration of the person, was a 
distinct thing altogether from reverence for the office-bearer ; 
the individual properties of the stone, were not confounded 
with the powers given it by its place in the arch. 

Governor Smith was trained from childhood to revere and 
obey ; life, in the forms in which it was developed around him, 
was full of sacredness, and thus the ground-work was laid of 
that gentlemanly character, that union of courtesy and suavi- 
ty with a princely bearing, for*\vhich he was so eminently 
distinguished.* Elevated above all around him by the official 
honors which he had so nobly worn; possessed of an ample 
estate, which enabled him to live in the style of dignified sim- 
plicity suited to his station, and which was the fit decoration 
and instrument of his majestic character j and standing among 
his townsmen, not as a novus homo, but as the scion of an hon- 
ored stock, that for more than a century had struck its roots 
deep in thesoil, and thus invested with strong hereditary claims 

* IS.vys Mr. Andrews, ".His dwelling had a nobility about it, in 
harmony with the man. Its position was one of almost unequalled 
beauty, near the western base of tint range of hills which separates 
much of the rugged county of Litchfield from the gentle slopes of 
Dutchess, and "overlooking a landscape of considerable extent and 
great loveliness. And the old stone mansion itself, with its spacious 
and lofty piazza, its battlemented roof, its regal look— it was a fit 
abode for one 

• Whose soul was likt a star, and dwell apart.' 



115 
on their affections, he entered upon the last great period of his 
life, a recognized guide and leader of men. And seldom are 
such gifts turned to nobler account. He was a fountain of 
purifying and ennobling influences. All loved and revered him; 
and well it is for men when they can find worthy objects to 
love and revere. 

But we must come to the closing scenes of his life. His last 
appearance in public was in New Haven at the annual com- 
mencement of Yale College, August, 1845. Yielding to the 
entreaties of his friends against his own convictions, he con- 
sented to preside at the meeting of the Alumni. The journey 
in the heat of summer, across the rough and rain-washed hills 
of his native county, w.is too much for his advanced years. A 
night's severe illness followed — and when the morning came, 
he was too enfeebled for the task he had undertaken. But 
he had never known the pain of giving disappointment, and, 
rallying his strength, he passed with slow and trembling 
steps up the lofty hall — but how were all shocked at the 
death-like paleness of his countenance, so unlike its wonted 
freshness. Twice in that stifled atmosphere he fainted ; 
but even then we saw how painful it was for his energetic 
will to relinquish its purpose- Never before had he assumed 
a duty that crushed him. From that illness he never fully re- 
covered ; and after a few weeks of extreme bodily suffering, 
under which he manifested great patience and faith, on the 7th 
of December, 1845, the spirit of John Cotton Smith departed 
to its rest. 

" That," says Andrews, " was the quenching of a great light. 
A Man was taken from us— a man for whom all may mourn, 
for the beauty and majesty of manhood shone forth in him. 
Noble aims, an unspotted life, a tender conscience, the sim- 
plicity and gentleness of childhood united with manly vigcr, ail 
were his," 



116 

.** *uUiOgy upon Governor Smith was pronounced before 
the Connecticut Historical Society, af its annual meeting in 
1846, by the Rev. Wm. W. Andrews, of Kent, from which the 
foregoing sketch is mainly compiled. 



117 



IRA ALLEN 



IRA ALLEN, (a younger brother of Ethan Allen,) was 
born in Cornwall, a. d. 1752, and in early life removed to the 
wilderness of Vermont (then called the NewHampshire Grants.) 
Though less known to the world than the brother alluded to, 
Ira acted a part equally honorable and useful, and shaied 
much more largely in the civil and political honors of their 
adopted State. He was actively engaged in the celebrated 
controversy between Vermont and New York, and subsequent- 
ly in the American Revolution. In the latter, he rose to the 
rank of Colonel, and was distinguished for coolness, patience, 
and courage. 

In 1780, the British Generals in America began to meditate 
the scheme of bringing Vermont into a union with Canada, by 
taking advantage of the disputes which had continued so long 
and waxed so warm between the settlers and the New York 
Government. Knowing the bitter feelings thus engendered, 
and the delay and hesitancy with which Congress had treated 
her remonstrances and petitions, these officers supposed Ver- 
mont would be ready to accept tempting overtures from the 
British. This idea received encouragement from the fact, that 
Congress afforded but a slender defence to these frontiers, 
while the Governor of Canada could at any time send a force 
srrong the settlers sufficient to bear down all opposition. The 
first step was, to bring over some of the leaders. According- 
ly, on the 30th of March, 1780, Col. Beverly Robinson wrote 
to Ethan Allen, revealing the plan and suggesting negocia- 
iions. This letter did not reach Allen until July. He imme- 



118 
d lately bent back trie messenger, and ... confidence laid tht 
communication before Gov. Chittenden and a few other friends. 
That they might not be outdone in the allowable stratagems of 
war, (hey bethought themselves to turn to a profitable account 
this advance on the part of the enemy. Several prisoners from 
Veimont were then confined in Canada, and it was advised 
that the Governor should write to the commandeHn Canada, 
proposing a cartel for an exchange. A letter was accordingly 
written and despatched with a flag. Soon after, the British 
fleet were seen coming up the Lake. Tho alarm spread, and 
thousands of Green Mountain Boys rushed to arms. The 
commander on board the fleet sent, secretly, a letter to Gov. 
Chittenden with a flag, assenting to the proposal for the ex- 
change of prisoners, and offering a truce with Vermont until 
the cartel should be arranged. As this arrangement was not 
publicly known, the people were surprised to see the fleet re- 
treating down the Lake, and the military disbanded and going 
home. Ira Allen and Maj. Fay were appointed Commission- 
ers to meet others fiom Canada, and settle the t«;rms of a car- 
tel. The season was so far advanced, however, that they were 
obstructed in their voyage across the Lake by the ice, and 
were obliged to return. 

"In the month of May following," says Col. Stone, in his 
* Life of Brant,' " the Governor and Council of Vermont 
commissioned Colonel Ira Allen to proceed to the Isle au Noix* 
to settle a cartel with the British in Canada, and, if possible, 
negociate an armistice in favor of Vermont. The arrange-, 
ments for this negotiation were conducted with the most pro- 
found secrecy, only eight persons being cognizant of the pro- 
ceeding. Colonel Allen, accompanied by one subaltern, two 
sergeants, and sixteen privates, departed on his mission on the 
first of May, and, having arrived at the Isle au Noix, entered 
at once upon his business — negotiating with Major Dundas, 
the commander of that post, only on the subject of an exchange 



119 

of prisoners, but more privately wiih Captain Sherwood and 
George Smith, Esq., on the subject of an armistice. The stay 
of Allen at the island was protracted for a considerable tim*; 
and the conferences with the two commissioners, Sherwood 
and Smith, were frequent, but perfectly confidential— A lien 
carefully avoiding to write anything, to guard against acoi 
dents. After a negotiation of seventeen days, the cartel wa< 
arranged, and an armistice verbally agreed upon, by virtue of 
which hostilities were to cease between the British forces and 
the people under the jurisdiction of Vermont, for a specified 
time. Notwithstanding the suspicions of the people were 
aroused, so adroit was their management that the Aliens held 
communication with the enemy during the whole summer 
without detection. On more than one occasion, British 
Guards of several men came to the very precincts of Arlington, 
delivering and receiving packages in the twilight." 

On neither side would it answer to confide the secret of the 
armistice to the subordinates and soldiers. They, of course, 
regarded the opposing armies as enemies in good faith — a fact 
which in one instance, at least, placed the superior officers in 
an embarrassing predicament. An American sergeant having 
been killed by the British, in a skirmish, Gen. St, Leger sent a 
messenger to Gov. Chittenden, with the sergeant's clothes, 
and an explanatory letter, in which he expressed regret for his 
death. This letter by some means fell into the hands of the 
people, and a popular clamor was the consequence. Major 
Runnels confronted Ira Allen, and demanded to know why 
St. Leger was sorry for the death of the sergeant. The an- 
swer was evasive and unsatisfactory. The major repeated the 
question, and Allen replied that he bad better go to St. Leger 
at the head of his regiment, and demand the reason for his 
sorrow in person. A sharp altercation ensued, which had the 
effect, for a short time, to divert the attention of the people 
from the letter itself. 



120 

This hneste o:» the part of these few leaders, had the desired 
■effect, to protect the settlers from the attacks of the British 
until the news of the capture of Cornwallis, soon after which, 
the enemy left the Lake» 

Ira Allen was a member of the Convention which formed 
the Constitution of Vermont, and was chosen one of the com- 
missioners to negotiate for the admission of the State into the 
federal union. He was also appointed the first Secretary of 
State, and was subsequently member of the Council, State 
Treasurer, and Surveyor General. Hnving risen to the rank 
of Major-General of the militia, in December, 1795, he pro- 
ceeded to Europe to purchase arms, as a private speculation, for 
for the supply of the State. In France he contracted for 
twenty thousand muskets and twenty-four brass cannon, with 
a part of which, on his return to New York, he was captured 
and carried to England, being charged with the purpose of 
supplying the Irish rebels with arms. This led to a litigation 
of eight years in the court of admiralty, but the result was final- 
ly in his favor. 

He was the author of " The Natural and Civil History of 
Vermont" — a work of much merit, and esteemed as unques- 
tionable authority in regard to the part which that State acted 
the border warfare and in the revolutionary struggle. 

The subject of this notice died in the city of Philadelphia, 
January 7, 1814, in the 67th year of his age. 



121 



JONATHAN BRACE 



Another one in that group of worthies which Litchfield Courts 
ty has produced— ^-one valued in all the relations of life, and 
long entrusted with great public interests — was the subject of 
this sketch. 

JONATHAN BRACE was born in Harwinton, Novem- 
ber li, 1754, His father, after whom he was named, (and 
who had ten children, five sons and five daughters,) was one 
of the first settlers and a substantial farmer in that town. Jon- 
athan had such advantages as the schools of the village at that 
time afforded ; and being a good scholar and desirous of a lib- 
eral education, he was sent to Yale College. During his col- 
lege course, he appreciated the value of time, and was distin- 
guished by close application to his studies, and received the 
baccalaureate in 1779. Of this institution, at which he grad- 
uated, and whose interests he ever afterwards cherished, he 
was subsequently elected one of the Corporation. 

Mr. Brace made a public profession of religion at the age of 
twenty years, and designed to have chosen the Christian min- 
istry as his sphere of action and duty ; but the arrangements 
of Providence seeming to order otherwise, he commenced the 
study of the law, under the direction of Oliver Ellsworth, then 
of Hartford, and afterwards Chief Justice of the United States. 
Soon after his admission to the bar, he removed to Manchester, 
Vermont, and in the counties of Bennington and Rutland he 
obtained a very extensive and lucrative practice in his profes- 
sion. While there, he held for a considerable part of the time 
the office of State Attorney for the county of Bennington, and 



122 
attended courts in the State of New York. He was also ap- 
pointed a Justice of the Peace for said county, and was elected 
by the freemen 'of the State a member of the Council of Cen- 
sors. 

From Manchester, he removed to Glastenbury, Conn., 
where he had married, and where he had lived for a time be- 
fore going to Vermont. Here he was several times chosen by 
his fellow townsmen a Representative to the Legislature, and 
faithfully served them in that capacity in the years 1788, '91, 
'92, '93 and '94. In August of the latter year, he removed to 
Hartford, and there pursued his professional business with 
good success. There were at that period men of high attain- 
ment at the Hartford bar, but he was inferior to none of them; 
His bodily frame was large, manly, and commanding, his voice 
full and sonorous, his countenance indicative of honesty and 
benevolence, and his manner easy and popular. Add to this, 
an intimate acquaintance with the law, and the springs of hu- 
man conduct — the ability of seizing upon the main points in a 
case, and of reasoning logically on common sense principles, 
connected with so complete a control of his temper and spirit 
as never to be thrown off his guard or unduly excited by the 
remarks of his opponents — and you have an idea of what he 
then was before a jwry, and as an effective lawyer. These 
qualities were duly appreciated, for he was chosen to the of- 
fices of State Attorney for the county of Hartford, Judge u of 
the County Court for said county, and Judge of Probate for 
that District. In May, 1798, he was elected an Assistant; 
in 1799, he was chosen a member of Congress, in the room of 
the Hon. Mr. Coit, deceased; in May 1800, he was re-elected 
to Congress, and attended the winter following. That session 
closed in May 1801, and was the last meeting of that body in 
Philadelphia. At its close, his health being impaired, he ten* 
dered his resignation, which was accepted. He was, however, 
again chosen an Assistant in May 1802, and afterwards an- 



123 
nually until May 1819, when the State having adopted a new 
Constitution, he was chosen a Senator — that title being sub- 
stituted in place of Assistant, and that branch of the Legisla- 
ture being denominated the Senate which before had been 
styled the Council. He was again chosen a Senator in 1820, 
and attended the session that year in New Haven, and declined 
a further election. The office of Judge of the County Court 
he held twelve years, and the office of Judge of Probate fifteen 
years. He was likewise for a protracted period one oi the 
Common Councilmen for the city of Hartford, subsequently 
one of the Aldermen, and subsequently still, Mayor, which of- 
fice he held nine years, and resigned the same on account of 
age. For more than thirty years he was annually appointed, 
in connection with the Rev. Dr. Perkins, of West Hartford, a 
Trustee of the Missionary Society of Connecticut, which office 
he held until the time of his death ; which occurred in Hart- 
ford August 26, 1837. The following notice of that event is 
extracted from the Connecticut Observer, of which the Rev. 
Horace Hooker of Hartford was the Editor, 

Died, in this, city on the 26th inst. Hon. Jonathan Brace, aged 
83. 

Rarely has the grave closed over a member of our community, who 
was more widely esteemed, or more fondly loved. His worth, early 
appreciated, won for him the confidence of the public ; — and most of 
the offices of honor and trust which it was in their power to bestow, 
were conferred upon him. He was several times elected to the 
State Legislature ; and held successively the offices of State Attorney, 
Judge of the County Court, Judge of Probate, a Representative to 
Congress, and Mayor of the City. These responsible stations he 
ably filled, so ably, that he could say, what few can say, that he was 
ejected from no one of them. All of them he voluntarily resigned. 
But while distinguished as a civilian, he was no less distinguished as a 
christian. Here he shone pre-eminent. Admitted to the church at 
the early age of twenty, his character was moulded under the purify- 
ing, elevating influences of divine truth, and the divine Spirit. Hence 
the production of a character, signally symmetrical and faultless. 
In his daily walk, he embodied Paul's idea of " the living epistle." 
He was " read of men," and the reading was profitable to them, 
His life exhibited the lovliness and energy of the gospel ; — and his 



124 

course fulfilled, he came to the grave "as a shock of corn corueth in 
its season." 

He died, as such an one might be expected to die. Perfectly con- 
scious of his critical situation, he was composed and tranquil. The 
valley of the shadow of death was not dark to him. The star of 
Bethlehem shone in upon it, with a reviving light. " Having so often 
given myself away to the Saviour," he obseived, "in the days of 
my health, it is easy for me to do it now, and there is rich consolation 
in the act. Precious Jesus, fie £* precious ! a In this delightful frame 
of mind- "the silver cord was loosed," and he entered, we cannot 
doubt, that celestial city, at whose gate he had been sitting so many 
years, breathing the fragrance, and listening to the music which was 
wafted from within. 

We are melancholy at the passing of such men from us. We need 
their services. We need them to stimulate us to virtue, and win^p 
to goodness. Above all, we need their prayers. These "avail 
much ;" and hence when their lips are sealed in death, the severity of 
the loss keenly affects us. May their mantles be caught hy those 
who succeed them. 

"■ Those suns have set, 
rise some other such !" 

To the above sketch of his life and notice of his death a few 
remarks may be appropriately appended. 

That he must have had some marked intellectual and moral 
features, is manifest, for nothing less, would have enabled him 
to hold so many offices, and hold them so long. He was in 
public life from 1782, till 1824, forty two years, — holding 
during all this period, one or more important offices. It is 
doubtful whether there was ever a native of our county, per- 
haps we might say of our state, who was honored in a greater 
variety of ways, — who had committed to him more responsible 
trusti, and who in the discharge of the duties thereby imposed, 
was brought in contact with a larger number o^ his fellow 
men. He was not so honored because his political sentiments 
were concealed. Those were well known, and known to be 
in accordance with those of Ellsworth, Jay, Hamilton, Picker- 
ing and Ames. He was not so honored because he could be 
used by others as a tool, would move as he was moved. He 
was indepe ndent, marked out his own path, and walked in it, 
Th$ q uestion with him was,— not what is popular, but what is 



123 
right; and so well was this understood, that no one would 
venture by any appeal to his self-interest, to caiise him to 
swerve from the line of rectitude. The secret of his success 
lay in the fact, that men had confidence i?i him — confidence in 
is talents and integrity ; — confidence in hi m as an honest man ;— 
a confidence in him as a lawyer, that he would be employed in 
no cause, touching which he had not a fair conviction of its 
justice ; and confidence in him as a statesman, that however he 
might vote, speak, or act, it would be as a tender, enlightened 
conscience dictated. Hence he was respected even by the 
wicked, who " felt how awful goodness is," and received the 
patronage and support of those who were politically opposed 
to him. 

Such a man must have been very useful in his day; per- 
haps more so, than if he had carried out his original intention of 
preaching the gospel ; for his influence which was invariably 
thrown on the side of righteousness, had additional weight 
from tjie fact that it was cast by a layman and civilian, and 
go not cast professionally. Uniformly kind, uniformly firm to 
his convictions of duty, and inflexibly opposed to iniquity in 
all its forms, he " served his generation faithfully by the will of 
God ;" and while many a widow whose rights as Judge of 
Probate he vindicated, and many a fatherless one whom he 
protected, and many an unguarded youth whom he counselled 
and befriended, have had occasion to bless him, and have 
blessed him*; his native town and county, if true to themselves, 
must ever count him among those who are worthy of their 
esteem. 



U'6 



BEZAIEEL BEEBE, 



BEZALEEL BEEBE was born in Litchfield on the 28th 
of April, 1741. He was a son of Ebenezer Beebe, who emi- 
grated from Fairfield county to Litchfield in the early settle- 
ment of that town, and purchased a tract of land lying on the 
north side of Bantam Lake, which is still owned and occupied 
by his descendants. The mother of the subject of this notice, 
was Berthia Osborn, sister of thalate Capt. John Osborn of 
Litchfield — both natives of Long Island. 

In 175S, at the age of seventeen years, Bezaleel Beebe was 
enrolled as a soldier in the French and Indian war, a»d march- 
ed with Capt, Evarts' company to Fort St. George, where he 
was for some time stationed. He soon after enlisted into Ma^ 
jor Rogers' celebrated corps of Rangers, an account of whose 
daring exploits was subsequently published in London by their 
heroic commander. While with Rogers, he participated in the 
sanguinary fight which resulted in the capture of Major (after- 
wards General) Putnam. At this time, Gen. Abercrombie 
commanded the Northern Army, but was goon after superce- 
ded by Lord Amherst, During much of the succeeding year, 
he was a soldier in Capt. Whiting's company, and was station- 
ed at Fort Miller. In 1760, he enlisted under Capt. Archi- 
bald McNiel, of Litchfield, and shared in the glory and perils 
of the reduction of Montreal. He continued with McNiel un- 
til the close of the war in 176$, having in the meantime been 
appointed Sergeant. 

His country having no longer need of his services in the 
field, young Beebe, now in his 22d year, returned home, and 



12* 
engaged in the labors of the farm. On the 1 1th of July, 1764* 
he was married to Elizabeth Marsh, daughter of John Marsh 
of Litchfield, and settled upon his paternal estate, hoping to 
spend the remainder of his days in the quiet enjoyment of do- 
mestic life. But his lot was cast in troublous times. Only a 
few years of peace had elapsed, before the spirit of revolution, 
too long smothered in the breasts of the people, burst into a 
flame throughout the colonies. At the April session of the 
General Assembly of Connecticut* 1775* a law was passed 
mustering into the public service one-fourth of all the militia of 
the colony—formed into companies of 100 men each, and into 
six regiments. He was commissioned as Lieutenant of one of 
these companies* and immediately joined his command. This 
entire force was sent to Boston soon after battle at Lexington; 
In July of the same year, the Legislature sent one hundred 
•oldiers, with their officers, to man the fortresses on Lake 
Champlain, which had been recently captured from the British* 
Lieutenant Beebe, who accompanied this expedition, was sta- 
tioned at Crown Point, having been transferred to the Quar^ 
ter Master General's department. 

In January, 1776, he received a Captain's commission, and 
at once raised a company for an eight weeks' campaign for the 
defence o[ New York, at the expiration of which period the 
company was disbanded and returned to their homes. At the 
following May session of the General Assembly, it was 
deemed advisable, "inconsequence of the alarming movements 
of the ministerial army and navy," to raise two new regiments 
for the defence of this and other colonies, and subject to join 
the continental army if so ordered by the Governor: These 
troops were placed under the command of Colonels Waterbury 
and Hinman, and Captain Beebe was appointed to the com- 
mand of one of the companies in Hinman's regiment, and was 
for some time in active service in New York and New Jersey. 
At this time, the second lieutenant of his company was James 



128 
Watson, who subsequently rose to an honorable rank as an of- 
ficer, and, aftei the war, became a Senator in Congress from 
the State of New York. JEarly in November, Captain B. was 
placed in command of thirty-six picked men, raised for the de- 
fence of Fort Washington near New York. On the 16th of 
that month, the Fort, after a desperate resistance on the part 
of its brave defenders, fell into the hands of the British, and 
all the Americans were either killed or taken prisoners.* The 
subsequent, treatment and sufferings of the prisoners, who were 
confined in the Sugar House and on board the prison-ships, is 
perhaps without a parallel in the history of the wars of any 
civilized nation. Crowded into & narrow space, without air, 
and for two days without food, contagion and death were the 
natural consequences. The dysentary, small pox> and other 
terrible diseases, broke out among them, and very few of the 
whole number survived the terrible ordeal. December the 
£7th, an exchange of prisoners took place \ but only eleven 
of those who gurVived Were able to start for Connecticut — six 
of whom died en the way. The remainder of those who were 
living at that date, being too ill to be removed, where all, with 
a single exception, (Sergt. Mather,) died within a few days — * 
ottist of them with the small pox. Captain Beebe, in consid- 

* As these thirty-six men, selected for so fearful an enterprize, were 
all or nearly all from Litchfield county, this is deemed a fitting place 
in which to record their names and destiny for the admiration of their 
posterity; Corporal Sam 3 l Coe, Jeremiah Weed, Joseph Spencer and 
John Whiting were killed at the time of the capture ; Sergt. David Halh 
Isaac Gibbs, Timothy Stanley, Amos Johnson, Samuel Vaill, Nathan- 
iel Allen, Gershom Gibbs, Enos Austin, Daniel Smithy David Olm- 
sted, Jared Stuart^ John Lyman, Aaron Stoddard, John Parmely, Joel 
Taylor, AleX; McNiel, Gideon Wilcoxon, Elijah Loomis, and Phineas 
Goodwin, died in prison or within a few days of their liberation ; Tim- 
othy Marsh, Berius Beach, Oliver Marshall, Elisha Brovvnson, Zebulori 
Bissell and Remembrance Loomis, died on their way home ; Solomon 
Parmely is supposed to have been drowned from the prison -ship ; 
Sergeant Cotton Mather, Thomas Mason, Noah Beach, Daniel Bene- 
dict, James Little and Oliver Woodruff, reached their homes, but two 
vr three of them died soon after. Oliver Woodruff lived until 1847. 



it* 

eration of his office, was allowed the limits of the city, but wa s 
compelled to provide himself with food, lodging, &c„ or go 
without. He was accustomed to visit his men daily, so long as 
as anyremained, but he could do little to alleviate their wretch, 
ed condition. There then being no British officer of his rank 
in the hands of the Americans, he was not exchanged with the 
other prisoners, but was confined within the 'limits' for nearly 
a year at his own expense. During a part or whole of this 
period, the celebrated Ethan Allen was held as a prisoner in 
and near New York, and Captain Beebe often met him on 
parol and consulted with him on the condition of his men and 
the means for their relief. 

On the 13th of August, 1777, the General Assembly re- 
solved to raise a regiment by voluntary enlistment, to serve in 
the northern department, or elsewhere ; and appointed Sam- 
uel McLellan, Colonel of said regiment ; Noah Phelps, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel ; and Bezaleel Beebe, Major. It was'further 
resolved, that the Governor and Council should give all necessa- 
ry orders for raising and directing the same, during the recess 
of the Assembly. This regiment, which was to continue in 
service thirty-one days, was socn raised, and served in Rhode 
Island and parts adjacent under orders from the Governor and 
Council. On the 2 tth of September following, the Assembly 
ordered that a recruiting officer to enlist men for the continental 
army and to arrest deserters, should be appointed in each of the 
six brigades of the Slate. Major Beebe was appointed for the 
sixth brigade, and Litchfield was designated as his place of 
rendezvous. Here he remained until he was appointed Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel, in 1780, when he was stationed with his regi- 
ment at Horse-Neck. Early in the following year, he receiv 
ed a Colonel's commission, and was soon after appointed to the 
command of all the Connecticut troops raised for the defence 
of the sea coast. Under this appointment he was assigned thi 
duties and received the emoluments of a Brigadier-General, 



130 
In the auturan of 1781 he retired from the army, and once 
more returned to his home. But his fellow-citizens still had 
claims upon his services which they were unwilling to relin- 
quish; It was a period of great interest and anxiety to the 
American people. Just emerging in triumph from the War of 
Revolution, their laws were to be re-modelled and their system 
of government to be formed and established, and men of wis- 
dom and experience were needed in the councils of the State 
and nation. Colonel Beebe was elected a member of the Le- 
gislature of Connecticut for the October Session, 1781, and he 
continued to be re-elected at intervals until 1795, when he de- 
clined being again a candidate for the House — a treaty of peace 
having in the mean time been concluded with Great Britain, 
and our general and State governments being fully established 
and in successful operation. He, however, continued to 
serve his fellow-townsmen in various public employments 
for several years thereafter, and always to the entire satis- 
faction of his constituents. Few men ever possessed in a 
more eminent degree the confidence of those who knew him 
— confidence not only in his honesty, but in his ability to per- 
form whatever trusts might be committed to his care. He 
died in his native town on the 29th day of May, 1824, aged 83 
years — his wife surviving him only about a year. He had three 
sons, viz., Ebenezer, (Major U. S. Army, died in the service 
during the last war with Great Britain,) William, and James, 
(both of whom have been members of the Senate of Connec- 
ticut,) and three or four daughters. The Hon. Julius Rock- 
well, Representative in Congress from Massachusetts, is his 
grandson. 

Colonel Beebe was in person tall, portly and erect, with an 
open, cheerful, and benevolent countenance, and in all res- 
pects he was a noble specimen of a man. As a soldier, legis- 
lator and citizen, he was worthy of imitation for his devoted 
patriotism and self-den j r ing labors ; as a Christian, he adorn- 



131 
ed the doctrines of the cross by a life of practical godliness. 
The spirit of missions, and the other great benevolent projects 
which characterized the church and the world during his lat- 
ter years, found in him an earnest friend and zealous supporter. 
Long accustomed to look upon death with the eye of an un- 
clouded faith> the summons for his final departure found tym, 
not only waiting but anxious to go. 



13* 



FREDERIOK WOLOOT T 



FREDERICK WOLCOTT, a younger brother of the 
last Governor Wolcott, (a sketch of whose history will be found 
in this volume,) was born in Litchfield, Nov'r. 2. 1767. His 
boyhood was spent in his native town, and necessarily partook 
much of the excitement consequent upon the Revolution. His 
father, during much of this period, was absent from home — 
sometimes on military duty, and sometimes in his seat as a 
member of the continental congress. When, in 1 776, the lead- 
en statue of George the Third was torn by a mob from its po- 
sition on the Bowling Green in New York, and conveyed to 
the care of General Wolcott, Frederick, then a lad of nine 
years, assis'ed in casting it into bullets for the use of our army 
In 1787, he graduated at Yale College 1 , and soon after entered 
upon the study of the law, but was prevented by ill health 
from engaging in its practice. His uncommonly sound and 
mature judgment early attracted the attention of the public, so 
that without the least solicitation on his part, he was called to 
the discharge of many important civil trusts before he had at- 
tained the age of 25 years. 

In 1793, Mr. Wolcott was appointed Clerk of the Court of 
Common Pleas and of the Superior Court, and, upon its estab- 
lishment five years afterwards, Clerk of the Supreme Court. 
These offices he continued to hold until his resignation in 1836. 
In 1796, he was appointed Judge of Probate for the District of 
Litchfield, a station to which, notwithstanding the fluctuations 
of party, he was annually re-elected by the Legislature for 
forty-one successive years. In 1802 and in 1803 he was a 



member of the House of Representatives ; and in 1810 lie wa* 
chosen by the freemen of the Stale, a member of the Council, 
in which body he sat until after the adoption of the Constitution 
. in 1819. At this date the Council was abolished, and the Sen- 
ate organized in its stead; and Judge Wolcott wassubsequently 
for several years elected Senator. 

Within the limits of the last brief paragraph, we have passed 
over almost a life-time in the years of one whose prime was 
literally spent in the public service ; yet in thus enumerating 
the various offices of trust and responsibility which he filled so 
long and so well, we are conscious of having given but a single 
item of his history. His was a life of unsullied purity and ex- 
tensive usefulness. Wherever good might be accomplished, 
whether in the humble walks of life or in the more enlarged 
sphere of benevolent operations, he was a willing and welcome 
actor. 'Hence, all institutions of learning, and societies for 
ameliorating the physical and moral condition of mankind, ev- 
er found in him a warm and efficient friend. He was President 
of the Litchfield County Foreign Mission and Education Soci- 
eties, President of the Board of Trustees of the Litchfield 
Female Academy, Fellow of the Conneoticut Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, Member of the Corporation of Yale College, 
&c, &c. 

No man was less covetous of the world's applause, yet few 
received more fully the homage and regard of his fellow men, 
not only in his native State, but wherever he was known. With 
a commanding personal appearance, and a countenance of 
singular majesty and benignity, he moved among his compeers 
like a being of superior mould. His clear and comprehensive 
mind, well disciplined, and well stored with common sense, 
combined with a calm and tender conscience, furnishing strong, 
instinctive and enlightened perceptions of right and wrong, 
admirably qualified him for an arbiter and judge. He held 
with equal balance the scales of justice, and when the spotleei. 



134 
cnnine of the judicial robe was placed upon him, it touched 
nothing less pure and spotless than itself. All his official du- 
ties were discharged in the most exemplary manner, and those 
who required his services and counsel, will long remember the 
fidelity and urbanity with which they were performed. And 
although these duties were often arduous and complicated, and 
his decisions on legal points numerous, it is worthy of honora- 
ble record that not one of them was reversed by the higher 
tribunals. 

But the charms of Judge Wolcott's character were most 
attractively unfolded in the peaceful and retired scenes of pri- 
vate and social life. In these he most delighted to move, and 
in these it is most pleasing to contemplate him. Possessing a 
singularly modest and unassuming deportment, a frank, gener- 
ous and cordial disposition, he loved the exercise of those kind- 
ly offices which pertain to the citizen, the neighbor, the friend, 
the father and the christian. In the performance of the vari- 
ous duties incident to these relations, he was pre-eminently 
happy. In these the moral beauty of his character was daily 
developed in all its loveliness. His elevated standard of duty 
and honor, and his warm and benevolent spirit, qualified him, 
for a prudent counsellor and compassionate friend. He re- 
joiced in relieving the distresses of the widow and the orphan ; 
and when relief could not be extended to human suffering, he 
delighted to bind up the broken-hearted and to pour the oil of 
consolation into the bosom of affliction. Meek and merciful, 
pure in heart, and a peace-maker, he enjoyed in all their rich- 
ness the blessings which they ensure, and clothed in this pan- 
oply of power and love, like his great Master, he "went about 
doing good.'* Hence he was appropriately denominated the pa- 
triarch of the village, a pillar in the church a luminary in the land. 

Judge Wolcott died May 28, 1837, leaving several children. 
His first wife was Bettey Huntington, of Norwich, who died 
April 2, 1812 ; his 2d, Mrs. Sally W, Cook, died Sept. U, 1842, 



135 



AUGUSTUS PETTIBONE. 

Colonel Giles Pettibone, of Simsbury, in Hartford county, 
was one of the earliest settlers and most prominent citizens of 
Norfolk. He was the first Representative of that town to the 
General Court, the first Judge of Probate for the District, the 
second Town Treasurer, and one of its earliest Magistrates. 
After sharing in the labors and triumphs of a pioneer for more 
than half a century, he died at an advanced age in 1810, 
greatly lamented by the entire community. 

AUGUSTUS PETTIBONE, his son, was born in Norfolk, 
February 16, 1765. He was admitted to the bar in early man- 
hood, and in a few years was regarded as one of the shrewdest 
lawyers in the county. He was elected a Representative to 
the Legislature at the October Session, 1800, and was re- 
elected at twenty-eight semi-annual elections— his father, whom 
he succeeded in the House, having previously been a member 
of that honorable body at twenty-six sessions ! In 1812, the 
Legislature appointed him a Justice of the Quorum for the 
bounty of Litchfield, and four years after elevated him to the 
bench of the Common Pleas. Upon the re-organization of the 
County Courts in 1820, Judge Pettibone was appointed Chief 
Justice of his native county, and so continued by annual ap- 
pointments for eleven years. 

In 1818, he was a member of the Convention which formed 
the Constitution of this State ; and in 1830 and '31, he was 
elected to the Senate from the 17th district. He was also for 
seventeen years Judge of the Probate Court for the District 
of Norfolk. 



\'6f> 

We have thus briefly noted some of the public employments 
of one who, for a period of more than forty years, bore a con- 
spicuous and useful part in (he public affairs of Litchfield coun- 
ty. The simple fact that he was so long, and in such. a variety 
of ways, honored by his fellow citizens, is of itself a sufficient 
indication of the fact that Augustus Pettibone was not an or- 
dinary man He was distinguished for the extent of his legal 
acquirements, as well as for his talents, industry, and strict 
sense of honor. He was a safe counseller, a just judge, a use- 
ful legislator, and an exemplary citizen. After a quiet and 
cheerful old age, he departed this life at his residence in Nor- 
folk, on the 5th of October, 1847, in the 83d year of his age, 
leaving a wife but no descendants. The monument erected 
to his memory in the grave yard of his native town, is one of 
the finest in the State. 



13 



NATHANIEL SMITH. 



The "Smith Family" is an extensive one, the world over ; 
and he who shall accomplish the herculean task of beginning 
and completing its genealogy, will be worthy of the thanks of 
that innumerable and respectable race. Scarcely a town or 
village can be found, either in Great Britain or America, where 
the name does not exist ; no haunt, of depravity, no lonely back- 
woods settlement, no office of honor in Church or State, where 
the Smiths have not been repiesentated. 

In another part of this volume, we have traced the genealo- 
gy of the late Governor Smith, of this State, back to the Rev. 
Henry Smith, the first minister of Weathersfield. We have not, 
however, succeeded in obtaining any definite information rela- 
tive to the remote ancestry of that distinguished branch of the 
family with which we have now to do. The.father of the sub- 
ject of the brief sketch given below, was a pioneer of that part 
of Woodbury since incorporated into the town of Roxbury. 
Tie married a sister of the celebrated Gen. Benjamin Hinman 
of the Revolution, (a woman of superior mental endowments,) 
and had three sons who became men of eminence, viz., Na- 
thaniel — Phineas, (the father of the Hon. Truman Smith,) long 
a Magistrate and Representative — and Nathan, formerly of the 
U. S. Senate. 

NATHANIEL SMITH was born in Roxbury, January G, 
1762. His labors upon the farm in the rugged aud mountain- 
ous region of his nativity, gave him a robust constitution and 
sinewy frame ; while his early struggles* with', and triumphs 



138 
over, the indigence and hardships consequent upon war and a 
new country, gradually disciplined his mind for the important 
positions wl'ich he was destined to occupy. Soon after the close 
of the Revolution, he commenced the study of the law with 
Judge lleeve of Litchfield, and, after being admitted to the bar, 
opened an office in Woodbury in 1789. He rose rapidly in 
his profession, and in public esteem. For keenness of discern- 
ment, accuracy in investigation, adroitness in argument, and 
energy of delivery, he had few if any equals in the State. In 
1790, he was elected a member of the House of Representa- 
tives, and was eight times re-elected. In 1795, he was cho- 
sen a member of the Congress of the United States, and after 
remaining in that body for four years, he was elected a mem- 
of the Council of his native State. In 1806, he was promoted 
to the office of Judge of the Superior Court and Supreme 
Court of Errors. He remained upon the bench until 1819— 
having thus been constantly in public life for the period of 
twenty-nine years. 

Though compelled to forego the advantages of a collegiate 
education, his studies were by no means confined to his pro- 
fession. He early made respectable progress in the study of 
the classics, and was a proficient in the abstruse sciences. At 
the age of thirty-three, the honorary degree of Master of Arts 
Was conferred upon him by Yale College, and he was subse- 
quently elected a Fellow of the Connecticut Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, 

His success as a lawyer lay in his tact and power, united to 
a uniform consistency and integrity of purpose which inspired 
the jury with confidence in him and in his cause. He never 
resorted to the petty quibblings of the craft, for the purpose of 
diverting the minds of the jurors from the real points at issue; 
but with a steady, systematic, straight-forward argument, he 
presented his cause with luminous perspicuity, and he seldom 
failed in the accomplishment of his object. As a judge, he 



139 
tempered judgment with mercy, and, wherever the demands 
q{ justice would allow, he delighted to say to the offender, "Go ; 
and sin no more." As a legislator, he was eminently wise, 
patriotic and sagacious. His mind seemed to comprehend at 
a glance, the various bearings which any proposed measure 
might have upon the public weal ; and he possessed the rare 
faculty of so vividly presenting the subject to the minds of oth- 
ers, that they could see it in the same clear light. As a man of 
mind — ? of exalted capabilities, and pure aspirations — *few of his 
generation might be compared with, him. A distinguished 
Governor of the State, now living, lately said of him, " Connec- 
ticut never produced a greater intellect that Judge, Smith pos- 
sessed." 

He died in Woodbury, March 9, 1822, in the (j.lst year of 
his age. 



110 



II ORA G E II L L E V . 



The present village of Lakevillc, in the town of Salisbury, 
near the northwest corner of the county and of the State, was 
the birth-place of the subject of this memoir. The town boasts 
of having given birth to very many persons who have been 
highly distinguished in our countr} 7 , and who still adorn its civ- 
il, military and literary walks. Its iron soil, at once rugged 
and fertile, seems to have a peculiar adaptation to the produc- 
tion of vigorous intellect. G lowing patriotism, patient industry, 
ardent enterprize, and exuberant fancy, have been its common 
products. These active energies, as exhibited in the character 
of its sons, are diffused throughout the nation. Its towering 
mountains, its beautiful lakes, its luxuriant valleys, though de- 
serted by the genius they inspired and nurtured, still claim 
their share in those ardent aspirations which sent it forth to 
an admiring world, and in that affection which, amidst toil and 
vicissitude, ever directs its warmest impulses to the cherished 
remembrances and dear scenes of its birth and infancy. Which 
of its sons, on revisiting his native village, does not direct his 
eye afar off to the lofty Tachannac, and the pile of stones 
which his boy-hands assisted to raise as an altar to fame on its 
summit 1 Which of them is not moved by the sight of the pla- 
cid Wonscopomac, with its woods and lawns and the little skiff 
upon its 'waveless mirror?' W 7 hich of them is not inspired 
with holy sentiments, as he sees the dwelling of his father, with 
its orchard and meadow bathed by the limpid waters'? Which 
of them does not feel his heart g!ow with religious emotion, 
while on a Sabbath morning he presses on with the throng of 



141 

neatly dressed youths and, maidens, old men and children, and 
discovers in (he distance, 

"■ The village church among the trees, 

Where ^rst his lisping prayers, were given, 

Whose solemn peal still swells the breeze, 

Whose taper spire still points to heaven." 

Luther Hqlley, (the father of Horace,) was descended in 
a direct line from Edmund Halley, a celebrated English philos- 
opher, born the 29th of October, 1556,- In St. Leonardos Parish 
Shoreditch, London. His great-grandfather came from Eng 
land and settled in Stratfprd, Connecticut, and afterwards re 
moved to Stamford. His grandfather married Waitstill Webb 
and continued at Stamford until his children were grown up 
when he removed to Sharon, in this county, being one. oftbe. 
first settlers of that town. His second son, John, whose wife's 
name was Sarah Lord, was the lather of Luther. Luther was 
a' man of unusual energy and enterprize, and rose from com- 
parative indigence to circumstances of independence and great 
respectability. He died in 1826. 

HORACE HOLLEY, ll, p,., was born on the 13th of Feb- 
ruary, 1781. He early manifested a more than usual degree of 
mewtal vivacity, and, even in childhood, gave indications of 
high and generous qualities. Blessed from birth with a sound; 
and healthful frame, no physical infirmaties checked the ex- 
pansion of his faculties. His senses were perfect; his percep-. 
tfons were quick and clear, and his memory retentive and ready. 
Thus qualified to learn, he was naturally fond of trying his 
opening powers ; and the acquisition of new ideas, from what- 
ever source, was to him an enjoyment. He was placed at the 
common district school in the immediate vicinity of his father's 
hojise, when he was but little more than three years old; and; 
the peculiarly rapid progress which he made in the simple stud- 
ies suited to his age, proved his aptitude to receive instruction* 
and plainly showed that his lessons w r ere no burden to him. 

The first ten years of his life passed in this w r ay, chiefly at ;: 



142- 
school or in such light labor as was suited to his years^ anjtj 
which, intermingled with the customary sports of childhood, 
served both to develope his corporeal powers, and to give a 
healthful tone to his mind. With such faculties, and such a 
disposition to use them, he soon became familiar with the com- 
mon rudiments of knowledge ; and as nothing farther was to 
be acquired at a district school, he was permitted to avail him- 
self of other modes of gratifying his active spirit. His father, 
in addition to the cultivation of a farm, was pretty extensively 
engagedin country trade, which gave occasion for the transpor- 
tation of considerable quantities of produce and merchandise, 
and to many errands of business from home. New York was 
then, as now, the ultimate market for that quarter of the coun- 
try, and intercourse with it, previous to the construction of the 
Housatonic Railroad, was carried on through the freighting 
villages on the Hudson river, A drive to Rhinebeck, or Red. 
hook, or Poughkeepsie, on a smooth road, through a cultivated 
and pleasant district, with a pair of good horses, and charged 
with, business, was no repulsive employment to a lad of manly 
temper and enterprizing spirit. It w T as well adapted to pro- 
mote many valuable objects, It was calculated to help for- 
ward a knowledge of men and things — of the modes of bur 
siness, and the relative value of commodities — to throw a youth 
in a beneficial way upon his own resources, and to aid in giving 
firmness and tone to character ; and in this kind of occupation, 
this new school of practical education, was young Holley fre- 
quently and cheerfully engaged, while yet a boy of twelve oe 
thirteen years of age, the promptitude, accuracy and fidelity 
with which he discharged his trust, always bringing tokens of 
parental approbation- 

About this time, his father, in pursuance, of his original pui> 
pose of educating Horace for a merchant, sought a place for 
him in the city of New York. Finding, however, that a sita r 
ation in a mercantile house of respectable standing and exten-. 



143 
Vive connexions, could not be procured for him without paying 
a considerable premium for the privilege, the design was relin- 
quished, and he went into his father's store, as the best means 
then at hand of furnishing him with wholesome occupation, cul- 
tivating habits of industry, and advancing his knowledge of bu- 
siness. Still, he was not exclusively devoted to this employ- 
ment; but, with those of his biothers then at home, he was 
occasionally on the farm and at school, and, wherever enga- 
ged, was active, faithful, intelligent and efficient. 

As his faculties unfolded, however, and as the impulse from 
within gave more decided indications of the direction of his pro; 
pensities and tastes, it became more and more obvious that 
intellectual pursuits attracted him most powerfully ; and the 
rising desire to obtain a liberal education strengthened, until his 
thoughts became so engrossed with that object, his hopes and 
wishes so clung to it, that his father finally consented, and 
came to the determination to set apart for the purpose that por- 
tion of his estate with which he had intended to set him up in 
business. The plan being adopted, it was speedily acted upon ; 
for procrastination was no part of the character ot father or 
son. Accordingly, in 1797, Horace, then being sixteen years 
old, was taken to Williamstown, in Berkshire county, Massac 
ehusetts, and placed in the academy or preparatory school con- 
nected with Williams College, with the view, when the prop- 
er time should arrive, of entering him in that institution. At 
that early period, however, Williams College was more limited 
in literary means than at present. Perceiving the deficiences 
in that establishment, and ascertaining the superior advantages 
of Yale College, after completing, his preparatory studies at 
Williamstown, he went to New Haven, and entered the Fresh- 
man Class of Yale at the commencement of the collegiate year 
in 1799. Yale was then flourishing under the auspices of its 
celebrated President, Dwight, whose brilliant reputation shed 
lustre on the institution committed to his care, and whose indf- 



144 
vidua] fame had long before become fixed as a part of the pub- 
lic glory of his country. Horace now found his long cherish- 
ed desire for knowledge in the way of being satisfied. His 
•course was upward, from the beginning. He studied intensely 
and stood among the foremost. He had his full share of col- 
lege honors, and has since been heard to say, that during the 
four years of his college life, he was never the subject of a fine* 
or admonition from his tutors. Indeed, he was a favorite with 
them all, and with the President, the best test of talent and 
application. He was also distinguished in the polite circles of 
the town, for his elegant person, polished manners, and intellect- 
ual conversation. He already began to take that lead in socU 
ety which he ever afterwards maintained. He discovered also 
thus early, that taste for mental philosophy, then called meta- 
physics, and not so much in repute or so well understood as at 
present, for which he became so much distinguished. 

The religious revival of 1803, which spread over New Ha- 
ven, extended also into the college. Many of the students 
were numbered among its subjects. It is hot strange that one, 
of the enthusipstic temperament we have described, should have 
caught its influence. His mind, equally ardent in every thing* 
imbibed ihs spirit of the time, and gave all its eloquence to di- 
vine things. The debating clubs were changed into meetings 
of religious exhortation and prayer. 

With these softened feelings, during the Senior vacation, he 
retired to the bosom of his brother's family, then in Poughkeep- 
sie, to prepare for the last honors of his college, being appoint- 
ed to deliver an oration. Here he was seized with the fever 
find ague, which nearly unfitted him for the task. Pale and 
emaciated, he appeared upon the stage on commencement- 
day, and, as he ever did, carried with him the admiration, as 
well as the deep sympathy of the audience. 

It will give the reader some idea of the state of religious feel- 
ing at that time existing in college, to state, that a great pro- 



145 ' 
portion of the graduating class, before parting for their distant 
homes, entered into a solemn engagement in writing, to pray 
'for each other at a certain hour every day. Bound together 
by so many ties, the parting was solemn and affecting. They 
embraced in tears, and bade each other adieu — with many an 
eternal adieu ! 

In the winter following his graduation, we find the subject 
°f this sketch in the office of Riggs and Radcliff, New York, as 
a student at law. All his energies were for some months en- 
gaged in this study. But soon a reaction took place which gave 
a different direction to his mind, and determined his destiny 
for life. 

This change, which gave to the profession of divinity one of 
its brightest ornaments, and a most eloquent expositor, may be 
ascribed in a great measure to the influence of Dr. Dwight, 
who, much interested in his favorite pupil, was desirous of en- 
gaging in this service so much active talent. He was proud 
of this son of his beloved institution; one who was no bad 
example of his own mind and manner, his powerful eloquence 
and successful instruction. 

Accordingly, in the summer of 1804, Holley entered as a 
student of theology under Dr. Dwight, and resided in the fam- 
ily of the venerable Dr. Dana. Here he engaged in his new 
course of study with all the zeal which novelty as well as ardor, 
and a lively satisfaction with the late change in his destiny, 
could inspire. Here also he cultivated poetry, and indulged 
his tastes and his friendships. 

On the first of January, 1805, Mr. Holley was married in 
New Haven, to Miss Mary Austin^ a lady of many and varied 
accomplishments, since distinguished as the biographer of her 
husband, and author of "The History of Texas," to which 
country she some years since accompanied her uncle, the cel- 
ebrated General Stephen Austin. The first six months after 
their marriage were spent beneath the paternal roof in Salisbu- 



11$ 

ry. The lime of the young - divine, the date of whose license 
preceded but a few days that of his manage, was employed, 
during a severe winter in the country, in writing sermons and 
pursuing his theological studies. In the following summer he 
repaired to New Haven, and various invitations were received 
by him. Much expectation was excited by the advent of the 
young pulpit orator, and it was in no respect disappointed. — 
Invitations pressed upon him, and he was not long in select- 
in 0, a residence— and the selection in a personal point of view, 
as often happens to the young and romantic, was made less in 
reference to the real wants of life, than to taste, literary ease, 
and rural retirement. It is sufficient to name Greenfield Hill-, 
Fairfield county, Connecticut, which once boasted as its pastor 
the venerated President of Yale, Timothy Dwight, who cele- 
brated its beauties in verse, and who retained an after influence 
on its destinies. He was ordained by the Western Consocia-- 
tion of Fairfield, September the 13th, 1805- The parish voted 
" to give Mr. Holley five hundred and sixty dollars per year for 
his services in the ministry, so long as said parish and Mr. Hol- 
ley shall agree." It was at the option of either to dissolve the 
union, when they should consider it no longer expedient to 
remain together. There was never the least disaffection be- 
tween them, but after the experience of nearly three years, it 
wps found that the salary was too small. And though the sit- 
uation was delightful, the people kind, the professional duties 
congenial, the tender charities of life agreeable, it was not in 
the power of so small a community to increase the annual sti* 
pend of their pastor. A dissolution of his pastoral connection 
with this parish was consecpaently effected on the 13th of Sep* 
tember, 1808. 

Again at New Haven, ever the starting point of his hopes, 
and freed from all engagements and every external influence, 
Mr. Holley determined on a journey through Massachusetts 
and Maine. He had now reached the maturity of his intellect, 



34T 

an J perhaps no man ever presented a finer combination of rare 
qualities. His mind was active, vigorous and glowing; his 
person manly, graceful any imposing ; — and he had a power of 
eloquence which few possess and none surpass. On ihe 13th 
of October vvc find hi.ni at Marblehead, where he remained 
preaching with such success that he was invited to become the 
paster of the church in that place. This, however, he declin- 
ed. He received also, about this time invitations from Middle- 
town, Albany, New York, and other places ; but he detei min- 
ed against establishing himself in either. Having finished bis 
engagement in Marblehead, he repaired to Boston, whither his 
fame hid preceded him ; and we next find him preaching at 
the Old South Church, always to crowded houses. Subse- 
quently he was engaged at the- church in Hollis street, where, 
after several weeks' probation, he was invited to take the pas- 
toral charge. He did not hesitate to accept of a situation so. 
eligible — a situation that not only promised but more than re- 
alized all he had hoped. His installation took place on the 
8th of March, 1809. This connection continued' for ten years, 
and no society and minister ever lived together more harmo- 
niously — he giving to his people the most entire and perfect 
satisfaction, and receiving from them every demonstration of 
affection and esteem. His sermons were generally extempo- 
raneous, or, if written, were seldom finished, but left to be fill- 
ed out by the suggestions of the moment. His method of com- 
posing, or of preparing them, was as follows. His mind was 
richly stored with information on all subjects ; he never forgot 
anything he had once learned, and he learned all things accu- 
sately and definitely. Whatever he read or saw in his walks 
during the week, was made tributary to his Sabbath exercises.. 
Frequently a visit, or an accidental conversation with one of 
his parishioners, would furnish a train of thought upon which, 
his hearers hung with intense interest. Hence these sermons 
were always practical, always addressed to the heart and un- 
derstanding ;, and hence, in part, their power. 



148 
It was his custom to enter his study on Saturday evening-, 
and remain there until a late hour, more lor the purpose of re- 
flection than composition, to arrange the plan of his discourse, 
and to make notes. After a few hours of sleep, he was again 
in his study, when he would suffer no interruption from any 
cause, not even stopping for breakfast. He then entered the 
pulpit, fired with his theme, and livited all attention for an hour 
or more, with scarcely a recurrence to his notes. If the after- 
noon service required a similar effort, he ate no dinner. If he 
dined, he would take a familiar subject and treat it less elabo- 
rately. 

His mornings were spent in intense study — for everything 
with him was intense ; and his evenings were devoted to the 
current literature of the day, which he read aloud in his fami- 
ly, and to the enjoyment of yociety and conversation, which 
w ere made subservient to the objects on which his mind was 
acting in retirement. Thus the fruits of his studious hours 
were brought into society, and thus also society in its turn add- 
ed its contributions to the stores of his intellect and taste. II is 
occasional sermons were composed with care and written out. 
In 1815, he was invited to the Presidency of Transylvania 
University in Kentucky, to which invitation, however, he gave 
little heed. The church and society over which he was settled 
were united and happy under his ministrations — and the idea 
of leaving them appears not to have entered into his thoughts. 
The change which is alledged to have taken place in his views 
of the Trinity, during his iesidence in Boston, did not in the 
least estrange his people from him. In November, 1817, the 
invitation from Transylvania was unanimously renewed, and 
with so much authority, promise and plausibility, that he was 
induced to listen to the proposition, and to undertake a journey 
thither. On reaching Lexington, he was welcomed with dem- 
onstrations of joy by all. From his correspondence it appears 
that he was invited to preach in their several pulpits by the 



149 
Rev. Messrs, Vandeman. (Baptist,) Wi.rd,* (Ej is< opal;) M< - 
Chord, (Presbyterian,) and also by the ministers of? the Mcth 
odist and Associate Reformed chinches. In one of his letters 
he says — 

"This morning I breakfasted at Mr. Clay's, who lives a mile and a. 
half from town. Ashland is a very pleasant place, handsomer than i 
had anticipated. The grounds are beautiful, the lawns and walks ex- 
tensive, the shrubbery luxuriant, and the garden well supplied. The 
native forest of ash in the rear, adds a charming effect to the whole. 
After breakfast Mr. Clay rode inwith me, and we went with the- Trus- 
tees, by appointment, to the college, to visit the professors and stu- 
dents. They were all collected in the largest hall to receive us. I 
made a short address, which was received in a kind manner. I was 
then conducted to the Library, the Apparatus and the Recitation 
Rooms. The library is small and the apparatus is smaller. There is 
no regular division of students into classes as in other colleges, ihkI:' 
but few laws. Everything is to be done, and so much the better, as 
nothing is to be reformed. Almost the whole is proposed to be left to 
me to arrange- I am now making all necessary inquiries, and a meet- 
ing of the Trustees is to be called next week." 

After remaining in the vicinity for several weeks, informing 
himself of the state of feeling which existed- among the people, 
as well as of the prospects of the institution, he, on the 13th of 
April, 1818, signified his acceptance of (lie invitation. He 
seems to have regarded the new field before him with all his 
wonted enthusiasm. In a letter to Mrs. Holley, after reverting 
to the love which he bore the Holiis street church, and his de- 
termination to leave it, he adds, "I shall make a sacrifice in 
many things, but I shall do my duty, and if I meet with success 
it will be glorious. I am not about to bury myself, or my tal- 
ents, humble as they are, from an active and conspicuous 
sphere This whole western country is to feed my seminary, 
which will send out lawyers, physicians, clergymen, statesmen,, 
poets, orators and savans, who will make the nation feel them. 
It is a great opening, and I should be pusillanimous to shrink 
from it, on account of the sacrifice I shall make in the refine- 

* Rev. John Ward, a native of Litchfield, Conn. 



150 
meats of society, and the breaking up of connections, however 
dear to my heart. The course I am pursuing is a high and 
honorable one, entirely above the region of clouds and storms 
of sects, and in a clear and pure day. I breathe an atmosphere 
more agreeable to me, in the large view that I take, than I have 
breathed before." 

It now only remained to break up his connection in Boston. 
He immediately informed his church and society of his decis- 
ion, and returned home to make the necessary preparations for 
removing his family to Kentucky. His Farewell Discourse, 
which was a master-piece of eloquence, drew together an im- 
mense crowd of listeners. The large church, which had been 
erected and consecrated for him, was not only filled, but the 
entrance, the steps, and; even a part of the street, were crowded: 
with people — and thousands were moved to tears by the pa; 
thos and power of his eloquence. 

In the autumn of 1818, Dr. Holley removed to Lexington,, 
with a stipulated salary of $3,000 per annum, and was inducted 
into office on the 1 9th of December following. This act, as 
had been anticipated, proved a life-spring to the institution. 
It was like the sun to vegetation, after the lapse of a dreary 
winter. Pupils came in from every quarter, until, in a few 
months, the institution was highly respectable in numbers and 
importance. But it will be useless to follow Dr. Holley 
through the nine years of his Presidency of Transylvania. 
Suffice it to say, that the institution which, in 1818, was little 
more than a grammer school, with but a, single class, and that, 
of insignificant numbers, grew and flourished under his care, 
until, in 1824 and 1825, it numbered 400 students, divided into 
the four college classes — with an elevated standard of study, 
and a high and growing reputation. But subsequently to this 
period, the spirit of sectarianism set itself to work against the 
University and its distinguished head ; in consequence of which 
Dr. Holley, feeling that his prospects of extended usefulness 



151 

were in a degree curtailed, signified to the Trustees, in the. 
spring of 1826, his intention of resigning his post. This step 
was regarded with deep regret by the citizens of Lexington and 
hy the friends of the University generally. Not a few who had 
been hostile to him, expressed a readiness to unite in a general 
request that he would retain his station, declaring that in future 
he should have their cordial support But their repentance 
came too late. Although, some months after writing it, Dr* 
Holley was induced to recall his letter to the Board, he carried 
his intended resignation into effect in the spring of 1827. 

On the 27th of March, of the year last named, he left Lex- 
ington, accompanied for a considerable distance by a proces- 
sion of pupils, citizens, and friends. On his arrival at New 
Orleans, he was waited upon by several distinguished and 
wealthy citizens, with a proposal to establish for him a College 
uear that city. As soon as it was ascertained that he regarded 
the plan with favor, a subscription was started for the object •, 
which in three or four weeks amounted to thirty thousand dol- 
lars. But the hot season had now arrived, and Dr. Holley 
found his health rapidly failing him. He, therefore, resolved 
upon a visit to his friends at the North, and accordingly took 
passage (with Mrs, Holley*) on board the ship Louisiana, for 
New York. The remainder of our story is sad, and soon told. 
When a few days out, he was seized with a violent illness, 
which terminated fatally on the fifth day from his embarkation 
• — July 31, 1827, aged 46 ; and on the following day his re- 
mains were consigned to the bosom of the ocean. 

Thus passed from the earth one of its purest and most gifted 
spirits— distinguished alike for his learning, his virtues, his 
genius, his broad philanthropy, and his inspiring eloquence. 
As the tidings of his death spread through the country, they 
were received with demonstrations of sorrow and mourning. 
tn New Orleans, Lexington, Plymouth, Boston, and elsewhere, 

* This estimable lady died in New Orleans, in September, 1846, 



151' 
furierai discourses were delivered. The Rev. John Pierpont, 
$)r. Molley\s successor in the Mollis street church, pronounced 
a discourse on his life and character, by request of his society ; 
null the same " p'easant yet mournful" duty was assigned to 
Prof. Charles Caldwell by the University over which the de- 
ceased had so long presided. We cannot better close this 
sketch than by Copying the following paragraphs from the Dis- 
course by Prof. Caldwell : 

"As nn orator it may be asserted of Dr. Hollcy, as truly as it was of 
the great Chatham, in reference to his Roman virtues and peerless en- 
dowments, that., in some respects, at least he ' stood alone.' In that 
capacity, neither truth nor justice forbids me to add, "that 'modern 
degeneracy had not reached him.' Of the orators of antiquity, whose 
fame is the theme of classical story, and who still furnish models for 
the world's imitation, the mantle of inspiration would seem to have de- 
scended to him and gifted him like themselves. In the eloquence of 
the pulpit he was the paragon of his country, if not of the age, and 
might calmly look down on all the efforts of cotemporary rivalry. — 
Nor, in that line of oratory, has his superior, perhaps, ever shed a 
lustre on any age. Bossuet, of France, was not more elevated, v-ebes 
meat, and impressive, nor Massillon himself more enchantingly attract- 
ive. To award to him a triumphant ascendency over Chalmers and 
Irving, the living Massilon and Bossuet of Britain, is but to do what 
has been repeatedly done, by sundry judges, whose decision is entitled 
to undisputed confidence. To say the least of them, the matter, ar- 
rangement and language of his discourses were equal to those of the 
discourses of the British orators ; and his delivery of them incontesti- 
bly and greatly superior. In general opulence of diction, and splen>- 
dor of elocution, more especially in the majesty of lofty and solemn 
declamation, he left the two foreign divines immeasurably behind him. 

!* Nor, of his powers of analysis, when topics of depth and intricacy 
presented themselves, am I inclined to speak in less elevated terms. 
Here, as on all other points, he descanted as he thought, with accuracy, 
vigor, and resplendant perspicuity. Even matters of mystery almost 
ceased to be mysterious, as they fell from his lips irradiated by his 
genius." 

" As if she had cast him intentionally in her happiest mould, and en- 
dowed him in a moment of her most abundant prodigality, Nature had 
showered on this her favorite, in unwonted profusion and' of the choic- 
est stamp, those minor attributes, which are so powerful in their in- 
fluence, as the exteriors of oratory. In person and general aspect, as 
heretofore mentioned, he was not only elegant and imposing, but 



loo 
splendidly beautiful. But, with out any of that delicacy, which though 
peculiarly characteristic'^ youth adheres to some throughout their 
lives, or the slighest admixture of feebleness or effeminacy, °his beauty 
was as masculine as it was rare and attractive. With a stature of the 
most approved dimensions, a figure sosymetrical as to be almost fault- 
less, features bold, expressive, and comely, giving strength to a coun- 
tenance beaming with the brightest intelligence, and animated with 
the workings of the loftiest sentiments and the most ardent feelings, 
h3 truly and emphatically gave to the world, assurance of a man— 
' take him for all in all, we shall not look upon his like again.' 

" Thus configured, gifted and accomplished, when he ascended, in 
his flowing toga, the pulpit or the rostrum, assumed the air and atti- 
tude of the orator, and threw his eyes around him on an admiring 
audience, the presentation itself was a burst of eloquence an exquis- 
ite exordium to a splendid discourse. Under the illusion of the moment, 
the Genius of Oratory, indebted for his existence to poetic fiction, 
might have been almost fancied to have started into actual beino-, and 
stood forth to view, clothed in the/orm and aspect most suitable to 
his character. An ordinary address from a source^of such promise 
would have been deep disappointment. One of consummate elegance, 
opulency, and force, could slone redeem the pledge that was proffer- 
ed. When to these attributes were added, a mellow, rich, and silver- 
toned voice, thrilling at times with the very essence of melody, and of 
unusual compass, flexibility and power an enunciation uncommonly- 
distinct and varied ; a manner in the highest degree tasteful and ani- 
mated, and action the most graceful, expressive, and appropriate, the 
combinaticn to give to elocution all its fascination, and produce by its 
most powerful and indelible effects, was as complete as nature in her 
bounty could bestow. To render it irrestible, nothing^ was wanting but 
the outpourings of a mighty and cultivated intellect — and the whole 
were united in the person of the deceased." 

" And, though man had been silent when his body was committed 
to the deep, the rolling surf, as it broke over the reef near which he 
was deposited, would have resounded to him, as it did, a solemn re- 
quiem, which will never cease to salute the ear of the passing mariner, 
while the winds shall continue to waft him and, the ocean to be his 
home. And, amidst the roar of the mighty waters, his repose will 
be as peaceful as if he slept under fretted marble, or the grassy- 
sod, silently wept on by the dews of evening, and smoothed by the 
vespers of the softened breeze." 



ABRAHAM AND PHINEAS BRADLEY. 



Stephen Bradley emigrated from England about the rear 
1660, and settled in Guilford, Connecticut, where he died on 
the 20th of June, 1702, aged 60 years. He had son? Ste- 
phen and Abraham. The latter was born in Guilford, May 
IS, 1675, married Jane Learning, and died April 20, 1721, 
aged 46 years. He had three sons, viz., Abraham, Daniel, 
(died in Salisbury, Ct, in 1794,) and Joseph, (died at Guilford, 
in 1799.) Abraham, last named, was born July 26, 1702, 
graduated at Yale College, married Reliance Stone, and died 
in 1771, aged 69 years. He had three sons, viz., Abraham, 
Learning,* and Peleg. 

Abraham Bradley, last named, was born in Guilford, on 
the 11th of December, 1731. In 1763, he married Hannah 
Baldwin, of Litchfield, where he settled and resided for up- 
wards of thirty years. He subsequently removed to Hanover, 
(near Wilkesbarre,) Penn., and in his latier years went to re- 
side with his son Phineas, near Washington City, D. C. He 
was successively master of a vessel, surveyor of lands, select- 
beaming Bradley settled in Litchfield, where he died in 1821, 
aged 85 years — leaving three sons and three daughters. One of his 
sons, the late Capt. Aaron Bradley, was a member of the Legislature 
from Litchfield at six sessions. One of his daughters, Anne, married 
the late Mr. Levi Kilbourn ; another, Lucy, married Mr. Jacob Kilbourn 
—both of Litchfield: 



155 
man, town treasurer, representative to the legislature, justice 
of the peace, captain in the militia and in the revolutionary war, 
judge, town clerk, &c. His wife died in Wilkesbarre, Sept. 
18, 1804, aged 67 ; he lived to be about 90 years old. 

ABRAHAM and PHINEAS BRADLEY, (sons of Capt. 
Abraham Bradley,) were both natives of Litchfield — the form- 
er, born February 21, 1767; the latter, July 17, 1769. As 
their public career was passed together in the same Depart- 
ment of the Government, we have deemed it advisable to blend 
the outlines of their histoiy in a single sketch, The elder 
brother was educated for the bar, and in early manhood com- 
menced the practice of his profession in the beautiful valley of 
the Wyoming, in Pennsylvania — where he married Miss Han- 
nah Smith, of Pittst on, Luzerne county. The younger brother 
was bred a physician, and, after practicing a short time in Mid- 
dletown, Ct., he opened a drug store in his native town. From 
thence he removed to Painted Post, N. Y., and soon after to 
Wilkesbarre, Pa. He married Miss Hannah Jones, of Litch- 
field, a lady eminently distinguished lor pleasing manners and 
personal beauty. 

When, in 1791, Colonel Pickering was called by Washing- 
ton to take charge of the Post Office Department, Abraham 
Bradley, then an Associate Judge of Luzerne county, (where 
Colonel P. exercised the daties of Prothonotory,) was invited 
to accompany him to Philadelphia as a confidential clerk. A 
very unassuming man, yet a lawyer of competent learning, 
with a clear and discriminating mind, and an industry which 
knew no relaxation while there was a duty to be performed, 
a more valuable officer could not have been selected than 
Judge Bradley. He accepted the invitation, and soon remov- 
ed with his family to the seat of Government, and entered up- 
on his new and arduous duties. 

But the Post Office, then in extreme infancy, needing addi- 
tional aid, Dr. Bradley also received an appointment in that 



156 
Department. Abraham was appointed Assistant Postmas- 
ter General in 1799; and very early after a second Assis- 
tant Postmaster General was authorized by law. The station 
was conferred on Dr. Bradley, the former having* charge of the 
accounts, collecting, disbursing, settling with postmasters, &c. ; 
while Phineas took upon himself the more difficult, because 
more varying and complicated business of arranging pos- 
routes, forwarding the mails, making and enforcing contracts. 
The difficulties experienced at every step may be best appreci- 
ated by men, thorough-going business men, who will for a min- 
ute give their minds to the establishment of a mail line, say 
eastwardly, from Philadelphia to Boston: At every ten or 
twelve miles along the main stem there must be ramifications, 
diverging lines starting off on each side into the country, up 
the North river, on to Long Island, through every leading road 
in Connecticut ; indeed, through all New England. On each 
of these ramifications innumerable other branches shootout. 
Some of the mails are daily, some weekly, some once a fort- 
night ; but they must be arranged to depart and meet so as to 
answer prompt and regular connexion and facilities throughout 
the whole. "A mail contractor myself for twenty years," 
says a correspondent of the National Intelligencer, "I he propo- 
als for contracts were ever a puzzle to me — a labyrinth too in- 
tricate for me to explore, and the most sagacious business man 
-would find the arrangement a tangled skein most difficult of 
unravelment. Precisely the mind lo manage this complicated 
machinery was that of Dr. Phineas Bradley. From the time 
he entered the Dapartment he availed himself of the best 
lights afforded him, and, as if by intution, saw through the 
whole matter with the clearness, I had almost said, of inspira- 
tion. With the rapid settlement of the country and the extra- 
ordinary development of its businesi and resources, the situa- 
tion of Dr. Bradley was no sinecure. No servant ever (oiled 
harder ; but his way was cheered by the consciousness (for 



157 
he had a noble ambition) that he was in the path of duty, per- 
forming highly useful and honorable service to his country, 
while he was establishing his own reputation and fairly serving 
his own interest." 

Colonel Pickering having been called to the execution of 
other trusts, a succession of Postmasters General followed : — 
Habersham from the South, Granger from Connecticut, Meigs 
and McLean from Ohio, succeeding. Party politics raged then 
as now, and the "tempestuous sea of liberty," wiih its rolling 
waves and rushing storms, shook at times not only the Depart- 
ment but the Government itself; yet the Bradleys remained 
at their elevated posts, commanding by their talents, capacity 
for business, unwearied application, and unspotted integrity, 
universal confidence. Appointed by Pickering, it need hardly 
be said they were both Federalists of the old school ; but min- 
gling the rarest prudence with the most free and unreserved 
expression of their opinions, they passed the ordeal of all the 
Administrations for nearly forty years without scath, and, ex- 
cept in one instance, without serious alarm — a matter alike 
honorable to themselves and to the Democratic gentlemen who 
were called to preside over them. 

Thus it may be said that the Post Office Department, from 
infancy to childhood, and from childhood up to vigorous mat- 
urity, was nursed and educated under the superintendence of 
Phineas and Abraham Bradley. They laid its foundations in 
wisdom, they erected the edifice in strergth, they adorned it 
with a beauty approaching perfection. This brief sketch is no 
fitting place for statistics, or it would be a pleasure to trace up 
from small beginnings the extension of post routes, the mail 
stage accommodations, the multiplication of post offices, the 
steady increase of income and expenditure, from the time they 
entered to the period they left the establishment. A fact new 
to many, and not incurious, may be here stated. In early 
times, it being deemed necessary to increase the speed of the 



158 
mail on one of the great routes, the Government established a 
line of stages between Philadelphia and Baltimore — the Gen- 
eral Post Office owning horses and carriages and hiring dri- 
vers. The fare through between the two cities, on the Gov- 
ernment Line, was ten dollars. 

On the coming in of Governor Barry, of Kentucky, as 
Postmaster General, in 1829, whose administration of the De- 
partment, proved so unfortunate, Abraham Bradley was dis- 
missed, to make room for an influential partizan of the Admin- 
istration. Dr. Bradley would have been retained, but he de* 
clined to remain. Twenty-five hundred dollars a year, though 
a strong temptation, could not for a moment shake his resolve 
to leave the office, if his faithful brother was dismissed, or, as 
he deemed it, dishonored. The confidence and affection ever 
existing between these brothers, present a most amiable trait in 
their characters. For a season the Department was in no lit- 
tle perplexity ; for, though the papers were all there, and in 
excellent order, Dr. Bradley's head, his wonderfully retentive 
memory, were wanting, and seemed indispensable to explain 
the intricate involutions; and connections when a new adver- 
tisement for mail contracts was to bs made out. So remarka- 
bly clear and tenacious was his memory, thatthere was scarcely 
a metter pertaining to his office which he could not explain 
without reference to a paper. 

The Bradleys, during their continuance in office, probably 
wrote more letters than any other two men in the nation. 
Brief and pertinent, it might be regarded a wonder if one in a 
thousand ever occupied more than a single page. Their hand 
writings were peculiar, yet different. If ever seen, they could 
iiever be mistaken, for they were unlike any other in existence. 
Neither of them was a diner out, a giver of parties, an attend- 
ant upon levees, or seen as courtiers at the houses of the great. 
^Each at home, living in elegant simplicity, their hospitable ta- 

: .: . .. ] 



150 
lies were ahvays well set, and iheir doors were opened with 
a cordial welcome to their friends and occasional guests. 

Abraham Bradley was a book-man. In his hours of leisure 
he loved study, talked philosophy and metaphysics, was fond 
of abstruse speculations, and wrote well on every subject oh 
which he chose to employ his pen. Asa more active recreation, 
acriculture was his delight. He had a farm some eight or 
ten miles from the city, whither he was wont to resort whenever 
his public duties would permit. Extremely domestic, moder- 
ate in all his wants and expenditures, he ought to have accu- 
mulated a fortune. But after the education of a fine family of 
children, who do honor to his name and memory, he left but a 
moderate independence.* In 1793, he drew and published 
a map of the United States, which soon passed to a second 
edition. In 1814, he commenced the great work of preparing 
his Map of Post Roads, which was subsequently published, and 
which contained every mail route and every post office in the 
United States, with the distances clearly defined. This was 
the first work of the kind ever given to the public, and for ac- 
curacy and minuteness of design, it has never been equalled. 

Dr. Bradley, on the other hand, was thoroughly read in the 
great book of human nature. Man he had studied to advan- 
tage, and rarely has any one understood his subject more per- 
fectly. There was no affectation of graceful manner or fash- 
ionable politeness about him. A bow would have been to him 
an awkward affair ; but he met you with a cordial shake of the 
hand — a cheerful " gocd morning." Perfectly master of the 
topics of the day, you would seldom meet a more intelligent 
gentleman, or interesting companion. Tall, a high forehead, 
dark thin hair, yet so long as to be tied behind, dress plain, 

* Among the reasons assigned by the Government paper, for the 
removal of Abraham Bradley, it was asserted that he had accumula- 
ted a property of $100,000 ; it was subsequently stated that Dr. 
Phineas Bradley was the individual meant. 



160 
countenance habitually cheerful ; an excellent physician, nat- 
urally so, above and beyond the rules of art ; though he did 
not practice for his fee, he was ever attentive and most wel- 
come at the bedside of his friends when ill. This doubtless in- 
creased his influence among those with whom he was associa- 
ted. For many years he resided at " Clover Hill,'" his country 
seat, two miles north of the Capitol. " Clover Hill," with its 
charming embelishments, awakened the muse of his aged fa- 
ther, and produced a poem of no inconsiderable merit from the 
pen of that venerable gentleman, who enjoyed in advanced age 
the gratifying success and unceasing attentions of his sons and 
their families, emulous to make him happy. Dr. Bradley was 
for many years a consistent member of the Presbyterian church; 
In liberality — and his means were ample — no name stood be- 
fore his, when religious or charitable objects solicited his sub- 
scriptions. 

The sketch is done ; the mere profiles are taken, " It would 
require a volume," says the writer already quoted, "to do jus- 
tice to their biography, every page of which would be a portion 
of the history of the rise, expansion and success of the Post 
Office, which contributes so largely to the general intelligence 
and happiness of the people. The merits and blessings of that 
great establishment are more especially theirs than any other 
persons who have yet lived. Their image and superscription 
is impressed on every leaf of its growth. Marble statues of the 
two Bradleys ought to be chiselled in the best style of Persico, 
and placed on the right and left of the two entrances of the 
noble structure wherein it is accommodated." 

Phineas Bradley died in the Spring of 1845 — having sur- 
vied his brother several years. Both left highly respectable 
families, some of the sons having risen to eminence at the bar 
and in public stations. 



•161 



KIC H ARD SKINNER- 



RICHARD SKINNER, ll. d., (son of General Timothy 
Skinner,) was born in Litchfield, on the 30th May, 1778. He 
Teceived his legal education at the Law School of his native town, 
was admitted to the bar of Litchfield county in 1800, and dur- 
ing the same year, emigrated to Manchester, Vermont, where 
he spent the remainder of his days. He immediately took a 
high stand in his profession, and though surrounded by older 
and long distinguished competitors, he was in a few years 
acknowledged as the ablest lawyer in the State. In 1801, at 
the early age of 23 years,, he was appointed State's Attorney 
for the county of Bennington, where his extraordinary talents, 
legal accumen, and great forensic powers, were put to severe 
though triumphant test. An intellect less vigorous, a purpose 
less determined, would have quailed before the formidable ar- 
ray of learning, shrewdness, and experience, which his pecul- 
iar position rendered it necessary for him to combat. But, 
conscious of his own abilities, he bore himself with a mild dig^ 
«ity and a loftiness of purpose, which secured for him not only 
the admiration but the good will of his associates at the bar 
and of the public generally. Young as he was, and thus ear- 
ly elevated to a station to which much older men aspired, he 
did not forget the respect and courtesy due to his seniors. His 
demeanor in their presence, and towards them, was perfectly 
unassuming and deferential ; he was more ready to receive 
instruction, than to instruct, 

In 1809, Mr, Skinner was appointed Judge of Probate for 
Bennington county ; and at the age of thirty-five he was elect- 



162 
ed a member of the American Congress. In fulfiling the du- 
ties of the last office, his labors were as arduous as his position 
was peculiar. Our nation was in the midst, of a war with 
Great Britain, when Judge Skinner entered the councils of the 
nation. Me, and the State which he represented, had steadily 
opposed the measures and policy which had originated the war. 
The contest having been, as he believed, unnecessarily begun, 
it became an interesting question in ethics, how far he ought 
to go towards carrying it on — a question which we do not pro- 
pose to discuss, much less decide. A step too far in one direc- 
tion, might justly cause his patriotism to be suspected; while 
a step too far in an opposite course, might be chargable with 
inconsistency. It is sufficient to add, that Judge Skinner so 
far discovered and pursued the " happy medium'' as to pass the 
ordeal without scath. 

In 1816, the Legislature appointed him an Associate Judge 
of the Supreme Court ; and during the following year, he was 
elevated to the office of Chief Justice of the State of Vermont. 
In 1818, he was a member of the House of Repiesentatives 
from Manchester, and was elected Speaker of that bedy. 

In 1820, Judge Skinner was elected to the office of Govern- 
or of the State — and was re-elected in 1 82 1, and again in 1822. 
The period of his administration was characterized, not only in 
his own State but throughout the nation, by unusual quietness. 
There was a calm on the sea of party politics — a lull of the 
giant storm which previously had well nigh shipwrecked the 
Union, and with it the hopes of a world smuggling for freedom. 
Those were genial and prosperous days for that sturdy old 
commonwealth — a commonwealth as immovable in her adhe- 
rence to the principles and spirit of liberty, asher own majestic 
mountains. Soon after retiring from the chair of the chief ma- 
gistracy, he was re -elected Chief Justice, a station which he 
continued to fill with general acceptance until 1829, when he 
retired from public life. 



163 
Though Governor Skinner thus for a series of years occu- 
pied the highest civil and judicial stations within the gift of the 
people of his adopted State, his thoughts and labors were by no 
means exclusively engaged in objects pertaining to those stations. 
He felt that the various benevolent and religious societies of 
the day, had claims upon him which he could not innocently 
or honorably resist. Hence they ever found in him an earnest 
co-worker and liberal patron. He was an officer of various 
local benevolent associations, besides being President of the 
North-Eastern Branch of the Ameiican Education Society, 
and member of the Board of Trustees of Middlebury Colle°'e. 
From the institution last named, he received the degree of 
Doctor of Laws. 

He died at his residence in Manchester, May 23d, 1833, in 
the 55ih year of his age- 



164; 



JOSEPH VAILk. 



JOSEPH VAILL, (son of Captain Joseph Vaill, who emi- 
grated from Southhold, L. I., to Litchfield about 120 years 
ago,) was born in Litchfield, July 14, 1751. His mother, Je- 
rusha Vaill, was a daughter of Mr. William Peck, of the same 
place. He continued to reside with his parents, engaged in the 
labors of the farm, until he had reached the age of twenty-one 
years. 

In 1772, a plan was proposed by Mr. Jeremiah Osborn, who 
had removed from Litchfield the preceding yearinto the neigh- 
borhood of Dartmouth College, for several young men to de- 
fray the expense of a college education for themselves, by, 
tending a saw mill and grist mill, the property of the college, 
which he had taken to run on shares. A brother of Mr. Os. 
born had before this become a member of Dartmouth College. 
The subject of this sketch had long been desirous of a public 
education, but the way had seemed hedged up with insur- 
mountable difficulties. Two of his acquaintances, however, 
concluded to make trial of the plan proposed, and he signified 
to his parents his desire to join in the new and arduous enter- 
prize ; but they raised such strong objections, that he at first 
felt it to be his duty to abandon the project. His father was 
considerably advanced in life, and had no other son except an 
infant ; he had seven daughters mostly dependant on him. — 
These were considerations which weigned heavily upon the 
mind of the son, but they did not deter him from wishing and 
hoping for the consummation of his favorate idea. In Septem- 
ber he received a lettei from Mr. Osborn which fixed his de- 



1(35 
termination to go. His father ottered him one half of his 
estate if he would remain on the farm ; but he replied that he 
would rather give up his claims to any part of it than not to go. 
His friends generally regarded the scheme as wild and visiona- 
ry, and did all they could to persuade him to stay, but in vain. 

His father rendered him such assistance as he was able,, and 
he set out for the college, in company with three others, Sep- 
tember 28th, 1772, taking with him his axe and such clothing 
and books as were deemed most necessary. These four young- 
men took with them one small horse, on which the youngest 
and most feeble of their number rode most of the way — the 
others traveling on foot, with their packs slung across their 
backs. The distance they were to travel was computed to be 
one hundred and eighty miles. Mr. Vaill thus speaks of tills 
journey : " I had only about fifteen shillings in money in my 
pocket to bear my expenses on the journey ; and as this prov- 
ed insufficient,!" received some more from one of our company. 
We traveled on an average about thirty miles a day. L had 
never before been twenty miles from home, nor gone on foot a 
whole day at a time. I became excessively weary, and at times 
was almost ready to lie down in the street. On the third day,, 
as we went from Hartford, on the east side of the Connecticut 
River, we reached the Chickopee River in Massachusetts; and 
finding the bridge gone, one of our number rode the horse over 
and ascertained that it was not dangerous as to depth. We 
then pulled off our stockings and shoes, and waded across, a 
distance of about ten rods. The water was cold, the stream; 
rapid, and the bottom covered with sharp and slippery stones. 
We reached Claremont, in New Hampshire, on Saturday night, 
and put up over the Sabbath at a small tavern on the beach, 
of Sugar River. The landlord was an Episcopulian. A 
meeting was held at his house on the Sabbath, On Monday, 
October 5th, we reach the College Mills." 

Few young men at this day would practice such selfdenial 



166 
for the purpose of obtaining an education. The following- 
additional extracts from Mr. Vaill's narrative, will let the 
leader still further into the nature of the labors and privations 
of t lie students of those primitive times. Is it to be wondered 
at that they made robust and vigorous men ! 

" The mills were one mile south from the college. They 
stood on a large brook, and near them was an interval of fif- 
teen or twenty acres of land, which interval w r as nearly sur* 
rounded on one side by a high hill of simicircular form, which 
extended from north east to south wsst. This hill was thickly 
covered with forest trees. The road from the mills to the col- 
lege, after about sixiy rods of level land, ppssed directly up 
this hill, thence through a hemlock swamp, nearly half a mile 
in width, before it reached the plain where the college stood. 

"We found Mr. Osborn living alone in a small framed unfin- 
ished house, which had been built for (he man who should 
tend the college mills. A more solitary and romantic situation 
can seldom be found. The howling of the wild beasts, and 
the plaintive notes of the owl, greatly added to the gloominess 
of the night season, Mr. O. was supplied with some provis- 
ions and utensils, sufficient for one who lived in his solitary 
condition. His lodging was a box made of boards, called a 
bunk, with a ticken filled with pine shavings, and a sufficient 
covering of Indian blankets. For the first week we strangers 
took each one a blanket and slept upon the floor ; but in a 
short time we furnished ourselves w r ith bunks and straw beds, 
and utensils sufficient to take our meals in a more decent man- 
ner. The first four or five weeks we spent in tending the mills, 
and in clearing away the trees near our house, which furnish- 
ed a supply of fuel for the winter. One of our company soon 
gave up the idea of studying, and returned to Connecticut be- 
fore winter. Three of us now entered on the study of the Lat- 
in Grammar, and so continued through the winter. Our tutor 
was a brother of Mr. J. O., and a member of the Sophomore 



167 

Class in college. We gave him his boaul for his services in 
teaching us ; and we had no other teacher until wc entered 
college. During the first winter, we studied in our cold house, 
and used pine knots to burn for lights, instead of candles, for 
a part of the time. I lodged with » one of my classmates in 
the chamber, which we reached by a ladder placed in the en- 
try. My pillow was a duffed great coat, and our covering nar- 
row Indian blankets. We did our own cooking and washing 
until the latter part of March, when a young married couple 
came from Connecticut and lived in our house, and superin- 
tended our domestic affairs. Having repaired a small cottage 
near by, built in part of logs, we removed into that to study 
and lodge, where he remained during the next summer, suf- 
eri ng many inconveniences, and undergoing many privations. 
V On the return of spring in 1773, as soon as the ice dis- 
solved, we resumed our sawing. We sawed about sixty thou- 
sand feet of pine boards, and stuck them up. We also tended 
the grist mill in our turns, besides burning over several acres of 
ground, and clearing the same for tillage ; we sowed a part 
with clover seed for mowing and pasture, and planted yearly 
about one acre of corn, besides our garden. Our corn-field 
was never plowed. We employed our hoes in planting the 
corn, and we dug our field, when the corn was up, with our 
hoes. The first spring efter we commenced our settlement 
there, the measles broke out in our family, and proved fatal 
to one of our number. This was an afflictive Providence to 
us all. In the first summer, we built a new convenient housp. 
One of our number and myself constructed the chimney : and 
for want of cattle, we backed the stones from several rods dis- 
tance. The mantle-stone two of us carried on our shoulders 
nearly a mile ; and the jamb-stones we backed some distance. 
By the time we had finished our house, which was in Septem- 
ber, my health was very much reduced ; and I experienced so 
severe an attack of dysentery, attended with a burning fever; 



1CS 
that for several clays my life was greatly threatened, ftiit 
through a merciful Piovidenc, I was at length restored to 
health. Thus I continued to labor and study for two years, 
.before I, with one of the company, entered college. My hard- 
ships were excessive, and especially in the spring, when, after 
studying through the winter, we turned out in the latter part 
of March, two of us at a lime, and tended the saw mill for 
about six weeks together. We made it our rule to saw every 
evening, except Saturday and Sunday evenings, until ten 
o'clock, and in the meantime some one in his turn tended the 
grist mill. 

" About two years after we commenced our enterprize, twO 
young men from Massachusetts joined us, one of whom brought 
on an excellent cow, which furnished us with milk and butter 
for most of the year*, and greatly contributed to our living 
more comfortabty. After I entered college, I went twice and 
sometimes three times a day to recite with my class In the 
winter, we rose at five o'clock, and having united in morning 
prayer in our family, I set off for college, having to face the 
north-west wind, which was cold and piercing in that climate ; 
and not, unfrequently I had to break my path through a new 
fall of snow a foot in depth or more. It is marvellous I did 
not freeze my limbs, or perish with the cold, especially as I 
was but thinly clothed. I had scarcely a moment's leisure 
from one week or month to another. I was frequently exposed 
to being drenched with water when mending the trough or 
buckets of the water wheel ; and in one instance, I experi- 
enced a narrow escape from being torn in pieces by the saw." 

In 1777, then in his junior year, Mr. Vaill, finding his health 
greatly impaired by his routine of labors and hardships, sought 
advice of the President of the College, (Rev. Dr. Wheelock,) 
whether some other course might not be open to him by which 
Jie might defray his expenses and pursue his studies. The 
President proposed that he should remove into college, and takre 



160 
charge of certain Canadian boys, who had been sent there to 
receive an English education, and that he should have his board 
and tuition for instructing and taking the oversight of them. 
Accordingly he took a room in college — became the instructor 
of these boys— and in this manner defrayed his expenses and 
at the same time kept up with his class, till his health failed 
under this change. He was taken down with a violent billious 
fever, which confined him for several weeks. As soon as he 
was able to travel, he visited his parents, with whom he re- 
mained until his health was fully restored. On his return to 
college, he took charge of More's School, so called from a 
benefactor of the institution. This school was kept in a room 
in the college, and by means of this service, Mr. Vaill continu- 
ed to defray his expenses for some time, when, in consequence 
(if the excitement and alarm occasioned by the inarch of Bur- 
goyne, the college exercises were suspended, and he once 
more took up his abode at his father's house in Litchfield. He, 
however, resumed his studies with his class in the spring of 
1778, and received his degree in the August following. 

Having honorably finished his college education, Mr. Vaill 
at once turned his attention to the study of Theology ; and for 
this end he went to reside with the Rev. Mr. .Storrs, of North- 
bury, (now Plymouth,) in his native county, Oct. 14, 1778. 
Here again he Was favored with the privilege of teaching a 
public school in the winter, which enabled him to meet his 
pecuniary engagements. Mr. Storrs also gave him privileges, 
received him into his family, furnished him with fire- wood, 
gave him the use of his library and instructed him gratuitously. 
He remained with Mr. Storrs till May, 1779, when the Associ- 
ation to which Mr. S. belonged, met at his house, and on his 
recommendation, Mr. Vaill offered himself for examination ; 
and, having sustained himself in ils several parts, he was li- 
censed as a candidate for the gospel ministry. 

The first Sabbath after he was licensed, he preached for Mr. 



no 

Storrs, and about three weeks after, he was sent for to preacfr 
in Hadlyme, in the County of New London. After supplying 
the pulpit of the Congregational Church in that place for five 
months, he received a unanimous invitation to become its pas- 
tor. He ultimately accepted the call, and was installed on the 
9th of February, 1780, On the 12th of the following Octo- 
ber, he was married to Miss Sarah Fowler, eldest daughter of 
Rev. Joseph Fowler, of East Haddam. The connection was 
an eminently happy one, Mrs. Vaill having been educated in 
a minister's family, knew how to accommodate herself to the 
situation she was to fill, and her good sense and exemplary pie- 
ty procured for her the respect and confidence of the people to 
whom her husband ministered. 

We cannot, in a work like this, follow this excellent divine 
through the long peiiod of his ministry. For nearly sixty years, 
he remained in the pastoral office over the church in Hadlyme, 
although, during the last few years of his life, he was relieved 
from active duty as a preacher by a colleague. In the pulpit, 
Mr. Vaill was plain and simple in his style, and solemn and ar- 
dent in his manner. His countenance was grave and sober, in- 
dicative of sincerity and seriousness of purpose; His voice was 
full and distinct, so that it could easily be heard in all parts of 
the assembly. Although he could not properly be ranked 
among the greatest of preachers, he was nevertheless quite 
above the ordinary grade — often eloquent and powerful, and 
always edifying and instructive. He possessed a natural 
shrewdness, and quickness of discernment in regard to men 
and things, which gave his conversation at times a faceciou& 
turn, highly enlivening and interesting. Many anecdotes are 
still in remembrance, illustrative of this trait in his charac- 
tsr. It was by means of this trait,, that he was sometimes 
very severe in his retorts upon such as would accost him im- 
pertinently, or, for the sake of drawing forth some humorous 
^eply. At times, also, his wit would spend itself pleasantly 



171 
upon his friends. It would flow out so unexpectedly and from 
under so ministerial a countenance, and with such pertinence 
of application, that every one in the company would be amused 
and yet no one be injured or offended by it. 

In addition to his clerical duties, Mr. Vaill devoted some por- 
tion of his time for several years to the instruction of youth. 
Among those who were instructed by him in the preparatory 
stages of their education, were the Rev. Drs. Griffin and Har- 
vey, and Wm. Hungerford, Esq., of the Hartford bar. By 
means of this school, he was enabled to assist his two sons in 
obtaining their College education, and^also to give his daugh- 
ters an education. These sons have long been useful and con- 
spicuous ministers. The eldest, Rev. William F. Vaill, became 
pastor of the church in North Guilford in 1808 ; in 1820, he 
was dismissed from the'pastoral care of this church, and went 
on a mission to the Osage Indians, under the patronage of the 
United Foreign Mission Society. The Rev. Joseph Vaill, Jr., 
(youngest son of the subject of this sketch,) was ordained as 
pastor of the church in Brimneld, Massachusetts, in 1814. — 
At the settlement of each of these sons, the father preached 
the ordination sermon. His farewell address to his eldest son, 
just upon the eve of his departure with his family for his mis- 
sion-ground in the far western wilds, was published. It is a 
most interesting and affecting memorial. In concluding that 
address, he says, "No matter, my dear children, whether you 
are laid in the sepulchre of your fathers, or whether your dust 
be deposited three thousand miles from the land of your nativi- 
ty. If you die in the Lord, it will be as glorious to meet your 
descending Redeemer, when the voice of the archangel and 
the trump of God shall awake you from the sleep of death, in 
the Arkansas country, as to rise surrounded by your former 
Christian connections." 

As early as 1792, a missionary spirit began to manifest itself 
in Middlesex Association, to which Mr. Vaill belonged, in 



172 
some special efforts in behalf of the new settlements in (jj« 
State of Vermont. A temporary mission was projected to 
Vermont by the Association referred to, and Mr. Vaill was se- 
lected to go on this mission. He consented, and went into 
that State and spent six weeks, laboring in destitute places. 
His pulpit was supplied in his absence by his clerical brethren. 
In the year 1807, the Trustees of the Missionary Society of 
Connecticut, appointed and commissioned JVIr. Vaill to perform 
a mission to the " Black River country," in the State of New 
York. He was absent from his people, on this mission, fifteen 
Sabbaths. In the report of his labors, which he presented Ip. 
the Trustees, they were furnished with gratifying evidence that 
he was well received, and that the mission had been attended 
with good. 

In the latter part of the year 183], finding the infirmities of 
age increasing upon him, Mr. Vaill entered into an arrange- 
with his people for them to procure him a colleague. To en- 
able them to do this, he consented to relinquish his salary 
when the arrangement should go into effect. Accordingly, in 
the spring of 1832, the Rev. Ralph S, Crampton was installed 
colleague pastor of the church in Hadlyme. He was dismiss- 
ed in the autumn of 1834 ; and in the following spring, the 
Rev. George Carrington was installed colleague pastor with 
Mr. Vaill. Though Mr. V. had now retired from the respon- 
sibility of supplying the pulpit on the Sabbath, still he did not 
lose his interest in his people. He was about among them, en- 
couraging whatever was calculated for their good, strengthen- 
ing the hands of his colleague, and exercising a fatherly affec- 
tion over his parishoners, In the winter of 1836, he broke up 
his family establishment, and went to reside with his son-in-law, 
David Evarts, Esq., of Killingly. Here he remained in the 
full enjoyment of a quiet old age, occasionally visiting his peo- 
ple at Hadlyme and the neighboring pastors, until the 21st. of 
November, 1838, when he "fell asleep in Jesus," in the 88th 



173 

year of bis age, and 59th of his ministry. He was burled at, 
Hadlyme ; his funeral sermon was preached by the Rev. Isaac. 
Parsons, of East Haddam. 

Mr. Vaill wrote well and much, though he published but 
little. In 1796, a poem of his was printed in pamphlet form, 
entitled, " Noah's Flood." This poem, containing about five 
hundred and fifty lines, is preserved in the library of the Con- 
necticut Historical Society. Several minor poetical pieces are 
printed in the same pamphlet. The following is the com- 
mencement of the principal poem— 

" In the beginning, from chaotic night, 
God, by his powerful voice, called forth the light. 
When he the corner stone of nature laid, 
The morning stars their joyous homage paid, 
And all the sons of God, with sweet amaze, 
In glorious concert joined to shout his praise ; 
They saw with raptured minds this work divine, 
And gazed to see the rays of Godhead shine ; 
Saw the thick darkness sever from the light, 
And infant time commence her day and night." 

The extract which follows is from the conclusion of the 
poem — 

" The world, once drowned, is now reserved in store, 
To be destroyed by God's consuming power. 
Redemption finished, and his Church complete, 
The elements shall melt with fervent heat ; 
Dread lightnings flash, and peals of thunder roll, 
And rock the burning world from pole to pole ; 
Creation welter in a mass of fire, 
When days, and time, and nature, shall expire ! 
When God shall pour his vengeance from on high, 
Where will poor infidels for covert fly ? 
No Ark to screen them from the fiery flood, 
The powers of darkness, or the wrath of God ; 
No hiding-place for safety can be found, 



174 

In dark retreats, or caverns of the ground ; 
No one to guard them from the burning flame, 
Or fiercest wrath of the incensed Lamb." 

The Sermon which Mr. Vaill preached at the ordination of 
his son Joseph, in 1814, was published. The Connecticut 
Evangelical Magazine contains several of his essays over the 
signatures of Senex and Jethro. He was also a contributor to 
several religious periodicals. 

[A volume of 236 pages was published by Taylor & Dodd, 
New York, in 1839, entitled, "Memoir of the Life and Char- 
acter of the Rev, Joseph Vaill, late Pastor of (he Church of 
Christ in Hadlyme. By the Rev. Isaac Parsons, Pastor of the 
Church in East Haddam. v ] 



I) A V I D BOSTWICK.' 



John and Arthur Bostwick came over from Cheshire,' 
England, and settled in the town of Stratford, Connecticut. 
Arthur subsequently removed to Bedford, New York. John 
removed to New Milford with his family in 1707, he being the 
second white person who settled there. He had seven sonsj 
viz., John, Robert, Ebenezer, Joseph, Nathaniel, Lemuel, and 
Daniel ; the last named having been the first white male child 
born in New Milford. 

John Bostwick, Jr., married Mary Bushnell, of Danbury, in 
1711, and had five sons, viz., Bushnell, John, Benajah, David, 
and Samuel. 

DAVID BOSTWICK was born in New Milford, January 
8th, 1721, and graduated at Yale College in 1740. On leav- 
ing college, he was engaged as a teacher in an academy at 
Newark, New Jersey, under the inspection of the Rev. Aaron 
Burr, afterwards President of the College of- New- Jersey — - 
with whom Mr. Bostwick at the same time pursued the study 
of divinity. He was ordained to the work of the gospel min- 
istry, and installed pastor of the church in Jamaica, Long Isl- 
and, October 9th, 1745. The sermon on that occasion was 
preached by (he Rev. Mr. Burr, and subsequently published, 
Here Mr. Bostwick remained upwards of ten years, enjoying 
in a very high degree the affection and respect, not only of the 
people of his charge, but also of his brethren in the ministry 

* For most of the materials of this sketch the author acknowledges 
his indebtedness to David E. Bostwick, M. D., of Litchfield. 



1/0 
and tin? churches in general. During this period large addi- 
tions were made to his church, and his fame as an eloquent 
and most successful preacher, rapidly extended. There was, 
however, little excitement in his parish, except on the occa* 
sion of a visit from the celebrated George Whiteiicld, whom 
Mr. Bostwick admitted into his pulpit in spite of the remon- 
strances of his deacons and many of his church members. The 
tumult caused by this event was intense, but temporary in its 
duration ; and many were afterwards constrained to acknowl- 
edge the goodness of God in sending that great evangelist 
among them. 

The First Presbyterian Church in the city of New York 
was established in 1719, and Mr. Anderson, a Scotch minister, 
was settled over it. In 1727, he was succeeded by the Rev. 
Ebenezer Pemberton. Mr. Alexander Gumming was chosen 
colleague to Mr. Pemberton in 1750; but in consequence of 
a most unhappy difficulty among the members relative to cei 
tain doctrines and measures, both the pastors soon after re- 
signed. For a length of time, the church remained destitute 
of a pastor. Two or three eminent divines were invited to the 
pastoral office— among whom was the Rev. I)r. Bellamy, of 
Bethlem, Conn.,-- -but the invitations were declined because of 
the divisions alluded to. The church and society now began 
to turn their thoughts towards the Rev. David Bostwick, as 
the man of all others best calculated to heal their divisions and 
unite them ic one harmonious body. In July, 1755, they gave 
him a call. The people of Jamaica made warm and persever- 
ing opposition to the removal of their minister ; and the divided 
state of tlie church in New York, formed another obstacle to 
his acceptance of the invitation. The Presbytery, on the matter 
being laid before them, referred a decision to the Synod, which 
met in Newark, in the month of September following. The 
Synod appointed^ committee to meet at Jamaica on the 29th 
of October, that they might deliberate more at leisure, and 



Ill 

decide wilh more light. The committee met at the time and 
place designated ; when the elders, deacons and trustees of 
the church in New York, presented a memorial, praying in 
the most earnest yet respectful terms, that they would favor 
the acceptance^ their call to Mr. Bostwick. The committee 
not being able to agree, referred the case back to the Synod. 
A special meeting of the Synod was therefore called, which 
convened at Princeton on the 14th of April 1756. After a full 
hearing of the delegates from the churches of Jamaica and 
New York, his removal to the latter place was decided upon. 
In this decision Mr. Bostwick acquiesced ; and his pastoral 
relation to the church at Jamaica was thereupon dissolved, 

Mr. Bostwick shortly after removed his family to the city, 
and entered on his new charge. Possessing pulpit talents su- 
perior to most of his brethren, he was a very popular preacher ; 
and his piety and prudence, which were no less conspicuous, 
rendered him highly acceptable to his people, and to the city 
in general. The result of this choice proved as favorable as 
the most sanguine expectations of its friends. 

Smith, in his History of New York, published in 1758, says 
in reference to this church and its pastor — 

" The congregation consists at present of twelve or fourteen 
hundred souls, under the pastoral charge of the Reverend Mr. 
David Bostwick, who was lately translated from Jamaica to 
New York by a synodicel decree. He is a gentleman of mild, 
catholic disposition, and being a man of piety, prudence and 
zeal, he confines himself entirely to the proper duties of his pro- 
fession. In the art of preaching, he is one of the most distin- 
guished clergymen in these parts. His discourses are method- 
ical, sound and pathetic ; in sentiment, and in point of diction, 
singularly ornamented, He delivers himself without notes, 
and yet with great ease and fluency of expression." 

In 1762, the society purchased a parsonage, and gave the 
use of it to Mr. Bostwick in addition to his stated salary, The 



178 
congregation having greatly increased, and Mr. Bostwick's 
health becoming much impaired in consequence of overexer- 
tion, it was deemed advisable that a colleague should be settled. 
According!}', in October, 1761, a call was given to the Rev. 
Joseph Treat, a member of the Presbytery of New Brunswick 
— which was accepted, and the colleague immediately entered 
upon his new duties. But (he joint labors of these two emi- 
nent divines were destined soon to terminate. Mr. Bostwick 
died on the 12th of November, 1763, aged 42 years. 

In 1758, Mr. Bostwick published a sermon entitled, "Self 
Disclaimed and Christ Exalted," which received the warm re- 
commendation of Gilbert Tennent He published, also, an 
account of the Life, Character, and Death, of President Da- 
vies, prefixed to Davies' Sermon on the Death of George II., 
1761. Soon after the death of Mr. B., a small volume appear- 
ed from the New York press, with the following title, " A Fair 
and Rational Vindication of the Right of Infants to the Ordi- 
nance of Baptism. By David Bostwick, A. M., late Minister 
of the First Presbyterian Church in the city of New York." In 
1765, an edition of this work was published in London, " Re- 
printed for Edward and Charles Dilly, in the Poultry, near the 
Mansion-House," In 1837, it was re-published by Robert 
Carter, 112 Canal street, New York. 

The compiler of the last mentioned work, say?, in the pre- 
face to the first edition, " The subtance of this treatise was 
composed for the pulpit, and preached but a (e\v weeks before 
the author's decease To those who were acquainted with 
the mild and pacific temper, the gentle and cautious deport- 
ment of Mr. Bostwick, and the general course of his ministry, 
it may seem strange that a controverted point should have oc- 
cupied his mind just before he entered into the joy of his Lord. 
Especially, as it was remarked by his hearers, that he appear- 
ed in his public discourses, for several months before his depart- 
ure, to have been under an uncommon impress of the glorious 



179 
and dreadful realities of the future world. The truth was, that 
this excellent and godly servant of Christ thought the subject 
of such high concernment in religion, that it well deserved his 
attention even in the immediate view of eternity." 

Several biographical sketches of Mr. Bostwick have been 
published, all of which agree in ranking him among the first 
ministers of his generation. Middleton's Ecclesiastical Biog- 
raphy, in an extended notice of him, says, "Though he was 
remarkable for his gentleness and prudence, yet in preaching 
the gospel he feared no man. With a lively imagination, and 
a heart deeply affected by the truths of religion, he was ena- 
bled to address his hearers with great solemnity and energy* 
Few men could describe the hideous deformity of sin, the mis- 
ery of man's apostacy from God, the wonders of redeeming 
love, and the glories and richness of divine grace, ic so distinct 
and affecting a manner." 

The London edition of his work on Infant Baptism, contains 
a brief notice of his life, from which we make the following 
extract : 

" As a preacher, Mr. Bostwick was uncommonly popular. 
His gifts and qualifications for the pulpit were, of a high order. 
His appearance and. deportment were peculiarly venerable ; 
possessing a clear understanding, a warm heart, a quick ap*. 
prehension, a lively imagination, a solid judgment, and a strong- 
voice ; he spake in a distinct, deliberate and impressive man- 
ner, and with a commanding eloquence. He was a Divine of 
the old stamp, fully believing and faithfully teaching the pure 
doctrines of Christianity, contained in the Holy Scriptures, and 
as they were declared in. the public ^confessions of the Reform- 
ed churches in their original and genuine meaning. He wa 
a scribe well instructed in the great truths of Revelation, anc 
knew how to defend them. In treating divine subjects, h 
manifested an habitual reverence for the word of God, a deep 
sense of the worth of souls, and an intimate knowledge of the 



180 
the human heart. He preached not himself, but Christ ; and; 
when delivering his message, he remembered in whose place he 
stood, and was kept from the fear of men." 

Mr. Bostwick married a Miss Ilinman, of Southbury, and 
left four sons and six daughters, viz., Andrew, David, William, 
James, Mercy, Polly, Hannah, Amelia, Lucretia, and Nancy. 
Mercy and Lucretia died unmarried; Polly married Gen, 
Robertson, of Philadelphia ; Hannah married Gen. Alexander 
McDougal, of the continental army, afterwards a Senator in 
Congress from the State of New York ; Amelia married a Mr, 
Plumb ; Nancy married Captain McGee, U. S. Army. 



181 



EBENEZER FOOTE 



EBENEZER FOOTE was the eldest son of John Foote,. 
by his second wife, Mary Peck, and was born on the 6th of 
July, 1773, at Watertovvn. His grandfather, Dr. Thomas 
Foote, lived and died — his father was born, lived and died — 
and he was born, on the same farm, which is still in the family, 
being now owned and occupied by his nephew, Mr. Hubert 
Scovill. John Foote, the father of Fbenezer, was an industri- 
ous and successful farmer. He had eight children, three 
sons and five daughters, to whose support and education he 
devoted the proceeds of his farm. His second son, John, and 
his youngest son, Samuel Alfred, received liberal educations at 
college. Ebenezer being the eldest, was designed by his father 
to be the farmer of the family ; and remained on the farm un- 
til he was twenty years of age. He then became anxious to 
change his pursuit. He wished to acquire an education and 
enter the profession of law ; it then being the expectation of 
the family that John would enter th# ministry. His parents - 
did not oppose his wishes, and after the season of labor was - 
over in the autumn of 1792, he left home, went to the neigh- 
boring town of Cheshire, and commenced classical studies un- 
der the tuition of the Rev. John Foote, with a view of prepar- 
ing himself for entering college, and in the sophomore or jun- 
ior class. He pursued these studies nearly two years, not, 
however, giving his whole time to them, as he was obliged to 
devote a considerable portion of it to teciehing school for the 
purpose of earning in part the means of obtaininghis education. 
Finding that full four years would be required to complete his 



182 
collegiate course,, with, the interruptions alluded to, he deter- 
mined to enter at once upon the study of his profession. Ac- 
cordingly he went to Litchfield, and entered the law school of 
the Hon. Tapping Reeve, and commenced the study of the 
law. This school deservedly had a high reputation, and fur- 
nished great facilities for acquiring a knowledge of legal science* 
Mr. Foote here pursued his studies for two years, a portion of 
each year being spent in teaching. In December, 1796, he 
was admitted to the bar of Litchfield County, and in the lan- 
guage of his license, was allowed "full right and authority to 
practice, as attorney and counsellor at law, in all the courts, 
as well supreme as inferior, both of law and equity, throughout 
this State." Soon after obtaining this license, he removed to 
the State of New York, and established himself at Lansing- 
burg, in the county of Rensselaer. He reserved the small por- 
tion which his parents were able to give him until this time of 
his need. In February, 1797, he sold the land which his fa- 
ther had given him on his attaining his majority, and with the 
nroceeds provided an outfit for the commencement of his career 
in life. He was a dutiful son, and left the paternal roof with 
the affection and blessing of pious parents. 

Admission to the courts in the State of New York was at that 
time easy, and after a few months professional study he w r as 
licensed to practice. His first license was given to him in No- 
vember, 1797, by the Court of Common Pleas of Rensselaer 
county. His admission into the other and higher courts of the 
State, followed soon afterwards. A strong constitution, a large 
and vigorous frame, a full and manly voice, a mature intellect, 
a ready and rough wit, together with uncommon self-reliance, 
fitted him for success in the profession which he had chosen. 
That success he obtained at once. He also became a promi- 
nent politician, and was soon an active and influential member 
of the old republican party. He early acquired the confidence 
of the leaders of that party in his adopted Stale, and in after 



183 
years his political opponents, in consequence of the intimacy 
and friendship existing between him and the late Chief Justice 
Spencer, who was the leading spirit of the republican party of 
that day, used to call him ''Spencer's Foot." 

Troy proving to be a more fortunate location for a commer- 
cial town, and increasing more rapidly in business and popu- 
lation than Lansingburg, and being also the shire town of the 
county, Mr. Foote soon changed his residerice to that place and 
entered into copartnership With John Bird, Esq., (a native of 
Litchfield,) a gentleman of brilliant intellect and finished schol- 
arship. Their copartnership continued for several years, and 
was finally dissolved by the death of Mr. Bird. In 1801, only 
four years after his admission to the bar, Mr. Foote had ac- 
quired considerable eminence in his profession. He had at- 
tracted the notice and secured the friendship of Governor 
George Clinton. So high an estimate did the Governor put on 
his talents and worth, that in August of that year he caused 
him to be appointed Assistant Attorney General of the State; 
The District over which his official jurisdiction extended, em- 
braced the large and flourishing counties of Columbia, Rens- 
selaer and Greene. The duties of this office required the ex- 
ertion of high professional talents, and they were discharged by 
Mr, Foote to the entire satisfaction of the public. He held the 
station for several years, and until a change in the party politics 
of the State caused a general change in the official incum- 
bents. 

After the discontinuance of the professional connection be- 
tween him and Mr. Bird, he pursued his business alone for 
sometime ; but finding it impossible to attend the courts where 
his extensive practice required his presence almost constantly, 
and also give the requisite attention to the attorney's business 
in the office, he entered into a new copartnership with a gen- 
tleman of high respectability, who had industry and tact for 
business, and was well versed in the practice of the law. This 



18* 
was a fortunate arrangement for both. Their labors were iii- 
cesunr, and they were very prosperous. His partner gave his 
attention principally to the duties of an Attorney and Solicitor 
which confined him to the office, while Mr. Foote performed 
those of counsellor and advocate. He was almost constantly 
engaged In" the trial and argument of causes. He excelled 
particularly in trials before juries, and in that branch of his 
profession had few if an supeiiors in the Stale. His influence 
and standing as a politician kept pace with his progress as a 
lawyer. 

Finding that the capital of the State afforded a more con- 
venient location for him than the then village of Troy, he 
dissolved his copartnership in August, 1808, and shortly after- 
wards removed to the city of Albany, where he spent the re- 
mainder of his days. During this period he took an active part 
in politics, wrote considerably for th3 press, and exerted a strong 
influence in favor of the side he espoused. He was on one oc- 
casion a prominent candidate for the office of United Slates 
Senator, and his friends for a time believed they should accom- 
plish his election, but did not. 

His young- and only surviving brother, Samuel A. Foote, 
entered his office as a clerk in 1811. Samuel North, Esq., 
was then his partner. Mr. North's ill health obliged him to 
■withdraw from the duties of his profession in February, 1812. 
From that time, Mr. Foote's brother took charge of the business 
of the office. Mr. North's illness proved fatal. He died in 
January, 1813, while yet a young man, beloved and admired in 
life, and mourned in death, for his moral qualities and intel- 
lectual attainments. This event opened the way for a profes- 
sional connection between Mr. Foote and his brother, who had 
then just attained his majority, but had not studied law the 
length of time required by the rules of the court for admission 
to the bar. Mr. Foote, however, availing himself of the lime 
had spent in the office while a youth, and before entering col- 



185 
lege, made a special application to the Court, who dispensed 
with the rule in favor of his brother, and admitted him to an 
examination. He was found qualified, received his license, 
and (he brothers entered into copartnership in January, 1813. 
This connection was happy and prosperous, but of shoit dura- 
tion. Mr. Foote attended the Circuit Court of Rensselaer 
County, held at Troy in the early part of July, 1814. He 
was engaged in several important trials; the weather was 
unusually warm, and his temperament ardent. Over exertion 
brought upon him a bilious fever. lie returned home, medi- 
cal aid was obtained and nothing serious apprehended for some 
days. But on the fourth or fifth day of his illness, the fever 
began to rage and the disease assumed an alarming aspect. 
On the 21st of that month, and in the 42d year of his age, af- 
ter an illness of only eleven days, he died in the full maturity 
of his intellectual and physical powers. 

Mr. Foote was a large man, full six feet in height, had a 
good constitution, and a well formed and muscular frame. His 
forehead was high, and his eyes dark and remarkably bright. 
Cut down unexpectedly and early in life, no portrait of him 
was taken, and his likeness only remains in the recollection of 
those who knew and now survive him. He was married to 
Elizabeth Colt in December 1803. She survived him, and 
also a daughter and only child, born in December 1804. His 
daughter was married some years after his death to Lebbeus 
Booth, Esq. Mr. Foote had a strong and active mind, a 
Warm and generous heart. Had he enjoyed the advantages of 
an early and thorough education, he would have had few equals 
in this country. As he was, he had no superiors in the State 
of New York, in those contests at the bar where ready wit, 
strong and discriminating judgment, powerful reasoning and 
great intellectual resources were essential to success. He 
wrote as he spoke, with vigor and wit, but without the elegance 
or polish of a finished scholar. A brief notice like the pres- 



j86 
ent will not permit a reference to any of tn<. n. ^i,.,.. . . 
in which he was engaged, nor extracts from his speeches, 
many of which were published in the newspapers and pamph- 
lets of the day, nor even a recital of ihe many anecdotes told 
of him, and which show the force and brilliancy of his unpolish- 
ed but exhnustless and spicy wit. 

One act of Mr. Foote's life should not be omitted, nor fpr* 
gotten whenever his name is mentioned. The present Fe- 
male Academy in the city of Albany, owes its existence main- 
ly if not entirely to him. It is now and has been ior many 
years one of the most valuable institutions in this country. It 
was commenced in February, 1814, under the name of the 
11 Union School in Montgomery Street." The original sub- 
scription paper is still extant, bearing date the 24th of that 
month. The subscriptions are made payable to Mr. Foote, 
who, it is proper to remark, started the project and obtained 
the subscribers' names. 








^x^ 



• 



18' 



DANIEL S . DICKINSON 



The able and distinguished Senator whose name heads this 
sketch, is a native of Goshen, and was born on the 11th of 
September, 1800. When he was about six years of age, his 
father removed to the present town of Guilford, Chenango 
county, N. Y. Carrying with him into that new country his 
New England habits and spirit of enterpiize, he established a 
common school, of which his own family, with others, had the 
benefit. Daniel attended this school winters until he had 
reached the age of sixteen, when he was apprenticed to a me- 
chanic in the neighborhood, to learn the art and mystery of 
manufacturing woolen cloths. From this time he had no other 
advantages than such as are common to all apprentices. Hav- 
ing procured such books as he could, he continued the more 
practical studies, without the aid of a teacher, among which 
was the art of surveying, which he subsequently practiced ex- 
tensively. At the termination of his apprenticeship, he had 
qualified himself for a teacher, and for several years thereafter 
divided his time between teaching, studying, surveying, and 
working at his trade. 

In 1822 he married. In 1825 he commenced studying law 
in the office of Messrs. Clark & Clapp, counsellors at law, 
Norwich, N. Y. Being destitute of pecuniary means, and hav- 
ing a family to supp >rt, he still continued to teach and survey, 
rising early and sitting up late to pursue his professional studies, 
until 1829. In February of that year, he was about making 
application to the Court of Common Pleas of Chenango coun- 
ty for admission to the bar; but was informed that this would. 



188 
be opposed by some of the senior members, the rule of all courts 
requiring that the studies must be pursued "in the office," 
while his had in part been pursued out of the office. He ac- 
cordingly waived the application to the inferior court, and 
went to Albany where the Supreme Court of the State was 
then sitting— called in person upon Chief Justice Savage, rela- 
ted to him the peculiarities of his history, and asked to be ad- 
mitted to examination. The Chief Justice granted his request, 
and he was admitted to the Supreme Court, which gave him 
access to every court in the State. 

Mr. Dickinson immediately opened an office in Guilford, 
where he did a small business until 1831, when he removed 
to Binghamton, Broome county, a distance of forty miles from 
his former residence. Here his business rapidly increased, and 
he was brought in collision with some of the ablest members 
of the bar in the State. In 1834, he was chosen President of 
the village of Binghamton ; and in 1836, he was elected a 
member of the Senate of New York for four years, ending the 
31st of December, 1840, As a Senator, he was ex officio a 
Judge of the Court for the correction of errors. 

In 1840, Mr. Dickinson was nominated for the office of Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of the State, but was defeated at the general 
election. In 1842, perceiving that he was often spoken of by 
the public press in connection with the office last named, he 
wrote a letter declining the honor of a nomination. He wus, 
however, nominated, and elected by about 25,000 majority. 
He entered upoa the duties of this siation on the 1st of Janua- 
ry, 1843, and continued their exercise for two years. The 
Lieutenant-Governor ot that State is President of the Senate, 
Chief Judge of the Court of Errors, a Regent of the University, 
President of the Canal Board, &c. 

In the autumn of 1844, he was elected a Presidential Elector 
fui he State at large, and as such gave his vote for Mr. Polk 
for resident of the United State.*. About the same time, he 



ISO 
received from Governor Bouck the appointment of United 
States Senator, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resigna- 
tion of Mr. Tallm.idge, whose term was to expire on the 4th of 
March, 1845. On the assembling of the Legislature, he was 
elected to fill that vacancy, and was subsequently re-elected for 
the full term of six years, which expire March 4, 1851, 

In addition to the legislative and congressional speeches, 
(some of which have been widely circulated and extensively 
read,) several of his addresses have been published. The 
earliest of these with which we have met, was delivered atthe 
Annual Fair of the Queens County (N. Y.) Agricultural Society, 
October 17, 1843. The only other one now before us, is An 
Address to the Hermean Society of Geneva College, August 
2, 1848. 

Governor Dickinson is still in the prime of life, and a long 
public career may be still before him. Of course any sketch 
of him at this time must of necessity be incomplete. The fact, 
too, that he is so conspicuous and earnest a partizan, renders 
it no easy task for a biographer to do him "equal and exact 
justice." He has net been content to run a noiseless career,, 
or walk in the beaten track of ordinary life. Few public men. 
have more unrelenting' political enemies than he — and still 
fewer could ever rally around their standard a host of more 
devoted personal and political friends. None who have known 
him personally, or who have listened to or read his addresses 
will call in question his ability. As a self-made man, his his- 
tory is. full of interest and encouragement to the youth of our 
republic. 

In May, 1850, several hundred of his fellow-citizens in the 
counties of New York, Westchester, Kings, Queens and Rich- 
mond, addressed him a card inviting him to a public dinner in 
the city of New York, in order that they might " have the op- 
portunity of giving full utterance to the sentiments of respect 
and confidence with which his distinguished political services 



190 

to our country hud iftpirecl them." In concluding- their invita- 
tion they say, " In the try ing- crisis through which oui country, 
and we may add, the cause of the world's freedom and of re- 
publicanism, is now passing, the State of New York is most 
fortunate in being represented in the Senate of the Union by 
one whose patriotism soars above the level of time serving: 
purposes, and whose eminent talents and moral worth com- 
mand respect, both in the State he represents and in the Coun- 
cils of the Nation." Among the names signed to this card, 
we recognize those of ex-Mayors Mickle, Lawrence, and 
Morrris ; Hon. Messrs. Win, B. Maclay, James R. Whiting, 
Aaron Ward, Campbell P White, Gen. Sandford, Gen. George 
P. Morris, Theodore Sedgwick, Francis B. Cutting, Schuyler 
Livingston, Gen. Henry Storms, and Oihers equally distin- 
guished. The municipal authorities of New York also joined 
the citizens in doing him honor. 

The invitation was accepted by Senator Dickinson, and the 
17th of June was fixed upon for a public demonstration. On 
the afternoon of that day he arrived in the cars from Philadel- 
phia, accompanied by ex-Senator Stewart, of Maryland. On 
reaching New York in the steamboat from Jersey City, his hon- 
or, Mayor Woodhull, in company with a Special Committee 
from both branches of the Common Council, went on board the 
boat, and after each member of the Committee had been intro- 
duced to the Senator, the Mayor read to him the Resolution of 
the city authorities, and addressed him briefly, cordially wel- 
coming him, and extending to him the hospitalities of the city. 
At the conclusion of Senator Dickinson's reply, he was con- 
ducted by the commitiee to a splendid barouche, (drawn by 
four dark bay horses,) in which he was seated with the Mayor, 
the President of the Board of Aldermen, and Alderman Shaw. 
In the rear of the barouche followed a train of carriages, con- 
taining the members of ths common council and other persons 
connected With the city government. The New York Globe 



191 
adds, " A large number of citizens were in attendance at the 
landing, and greeted the favorite son of the Empire State in 
true republican style. At the Astor House, where rooms had 
been provided for the guesi by direction of the City Authorities, 
Senator Dickinson was waited upon by hundreds of citizens, 
who were anxious to pay their respects to the man whom they 
had so long admired as being one of the warmest defendeis of 
our state and national liberties." 

The Dinner came off at Tammany Hall during the evening, 
and over two hundred citizens shared in the festivities. The 
toasts and speeches on the occasion, however, were too much 
of a partizan character to be reported here. W'e will conclude 
this sketch with two 01 three extracts of letters from distin- 
guished statesmen which were read at the festival. 

The Hon George M. Dallas, late Vice President of the Uni- 
ted States, writes as follows — " As patriots and politicians, you 
have every reason to approve the public conduct of your Rep- 
resentative in the Senate of the United States, Gov. Daniel S. 
Dickinson. During my service in that chamber, I did not fail 
to notice the untiring zeal, manly frankness, quick and pow- 
erful ability which he invariably applied to forward the interests 
and sustain the sentiments of the commonwealth of New York 
It is no wonder that you should desire, at the present interest- 
ing juncture in national affairs, to mark prominently with your 
encomium and encouragement a public agent so eminent, so 
honorable, and so useful ; and it would give me very sincere 
gratification, were it in my power, to join you at the enter- 
tainment for that purpose on Monday next, to which you have 
obligingly invited me. I am, however, constrained by my en- 
gagements to forego this pleasure, and content myself with of. 
fering to your indulgent adoption the following toast : 'The 
Patriot Senator of New York — He who cherishes no higher aim 
than his country's good, and adopts no higher law than his 
country's Constitution,' " 



192 

The Hon. L3*vis Cass says, "I have received your invita 
tion to be present at 'he dinner to b • given to your able and 
patriotic Senator, Governor Dickinson, for his services during 
the period of exc.tement growing out of the slavery question, 
and regret that I cannot accept it. This testimonial of your 
approbation ha* been as nobly won as it is honorably bestowed. 
It comes in good time, and from a good quarter — from the Com- 
mercial Metropolis of our country, and now, when the dark 
hour is upon us. I have observed with pride and pleasure the 
conduct of your Senator, during this whole unhappy controver- 
sy, and never was a State represented in the councils of our 
nation, with more patriotism, firmness and consistency." 

Letters of similar purport were read from Governor Marcy-, 
Hon. James Buchanan, Hon. George Bancroft, Chancellor 
Walworth, Governor Toucey, &c. 



19(i 



JED EDI AH STRONG 



Perhaps no name occurs more frequently upon the Litch- 
field Town and County Records, for a period of twenty-five 
years, than that of JEDEDIAH STRONG. He was a son 
of Supply Strong, one of tht>, first settlers of Litchfield, where he 
was born on the 7th of Nov'r. 1738. In 1761, he graduated 
at Yale College, and first studied divinity, but soon abandoned 
it for the profession of law. He became a member of the bar 
of this county, but, being constantly in some public station for 
many years thereafter, he had little or no business before the 
C ourts. 

In 1771, Mr. Strong was elected a Member of the Connec- 
ticut House of Representatives, and held a seat in that body 
for thirty regular sessions — during several of which he was 
Clerk of the House. In 1774, he was chosen a Member of the 
Continental Congress. In 1 780, the Legislature appointed him 
a Judge of the County Court, an office which he held for elev- 
en years. In the mean time he had been elected to the Coun- 
cil, or Upper House of the Legislature, in place of which the 
Senate has since been constituted. In all of these honorable 
public employments he appears to have given general satisfac- 
tion, both to the Government and to the people. 

"At a town meeting of the inhabitants of Litchfield, legally 
warned, held on the 3 1st of August 1770, — Mr. Abraham 
Kilborw, Moderator — It was Voted to chose a Committee to 
attend the General Meeting of the Mercantile and Landed 
Interests of the Colony, at New Haven, on the day after the 
Commencement. Jedediah Strong, Esq., and Capt. John 
Osborn, were chosen said Committee." 



J 04 

In 1774 and '75, he was appointed a member of the Revo- 
lutionary "Committee of Inspection,'' in connectkm with Ol- 
iver Wolcott, James Morris, Seth Bird, Abraham Kilborn, 
Andrew Adams, Abraham Bradley, and others. 

At the commencement of the Revolution, Mr, Strong was 
appointed by the General Court, a Commissary of Supplies for 
the Army. In April, 1775, the Governor and Council sent 
him to Albany with a special commission to secure all " the 
arms belonging to this colony, left theie during the French 
War, and return them as soon as might be." In the spring of 
the following year, the Legislature selected him as one of a 
committee "to procure ,£1,800 in specie, in exchange for bills, 
and pay the same to the Governor for the use of the Northern 
Army, on a request of Congress." During the period of the 
disaffection in the army in 1777, complaint was made to the 
Legislature against several militia officers in Litchfield county : 
and Jedediah Strong, Capt. John Watson, Reuben Smith, and 
H. Fitch, were appointed a committee " to examine the facts 
and report to the Assembly." 

In 1788 he was chosen a Delegate to the Convention which 
adopted the Constitution of the United States. 

Judge Strong was also conspicuous in all matters of local in- 
terest in the town. He was Town Clerk for sixteen years — 
a Lister and Inspector for six years — a Selectman for thirteen 
years — besides being a Constable, Grand Juror, Surveyor, &c. 

The first wife of Judge Strong was Ruth Patterson, to whom 
he was marriad on the 17th of April 1774. She having died, 
he was married to Susannah, daughter of the Hon. George 
Wyllys, of Hartford, (Secretary of State,) on the 22d of Janu- 
ary, 1 788. Previous to this last date, his popularity had begun 
to wane. By our town records it appears (hat committees 
were appointed to oppose certain claims of his against the town 
— and subsequently a committee was chosen to prosecute him 
few siWnrn^ "/}i,ao tn *v»p town." He had scarcely been mar- 



195 
ried a year, before his young wife petitioned the General 
Court for a divorce, on the ground of intemperance, personal 
abuse, &c. ; and her petition was granted. In 1789 he re- 
resigned the office of Town Clerk " at the particular request 
of the Selectmen." — and after the year 1791, he appears to 
have lived in obscurity and poverty until his death in 1802: 
His remains were interred in the burying -ground west of the 
village of Litchfield, but no stone was ever erected to his mem- 
ory. He left one daughter, who died unmarried. 






EDMUND KIEBY. 



In another part of this volume we have briefly noted the life 
and character of the Hon. Ephraim Kir by, a distinguished 
lawyer and politician of the last generation. He had three 
sons, viz., Ephraim, who died young ; Reynold-Marvin, a Ma- 
jor in the U. S. Army ; and Edmnnd, the subject of this sketchy 
One of his daughters married Major Belton, of the Army ; an- 
other became the wife of Colonel Joseph L. Smith, who was 
formerly an attorney in Litchfield, subsequently an officer in 
the Army, and at a still later period was Judge of the District 
ol East Florida. She was the mother of Major Ephraim K. 
Smith, who fell in the assault on Molin del Rey, in Mexico ; 
and Lieutenant Edmund K. Smith, who was also distinguish- 
ed in the war with Mexico. 

EDMUND KIRBY was born at Litchfield on the 8th of 
April, 1794, and continued to reside in his native town until 
the breaking out of the war between the United States and 
Great Britain in 1812, when he received a Lieutenant's com- 
mission in the Army. He served with distinction throughout 
the war, on the Northern and North- Western frontier, and re- 
ceived the highest commendation from his superiors in rank. 
Immediately after the Peace of 1815, he was placed in com- 
mand of the military station at Detroit, in the Territory of 
Michigan. This was a frontier post, and the few white set- 
tlers scattered along the line, were constantly exposed to the 
depredations of the savages. Hence the duties of the officers 
and soldiers there stationed, in protecting and defending our 
own citizens, were frequently of the most onerous and difficult 



197 

nature — requiring courage, sagacity, and skill. Here Kirby 
remain for five years, and until appointed Aide-de-Camp to 
Major-General Jacob Brown, whose daughter he married. In 
1821, he was transferred to the City of Washington, having 
been appointed to the honorable and responsible post of Ad- 
jutant General. He remained at the seat of Government, in 
the discharge of the duties of this office, for about two years s 
when, having been appointed Paymaster, he took up his resi- 
dence in Brownville, Jefferson county, N. Y., (the seat of his 
father-in-law, Gen. Brown,) where his family have since con- 
tinued to reside. 

From 1833 to 1840, Major Kirby served faithfully through 
the Black Hawk, Creek and Seminole wars. His duties 2?roper, 
were but a small part of those actually rendered by him. On 
the march, in the camp, and in the field — wherever duty or 
danger might call — he was wise and prudent in council, and 
prompt and efficient in action. The diseased or the wounded 
soldier found him at his side, to soothe his sufferings and ad- 
minister relief. 

Soon after General Taylor marched to the Rio Grande, 
he was joined by Major Kirby, who continued at his side, as an 
accepted Volunteer Aide-de-Camp, until the "Regulars" were 
called to join General Scott. For his distinguished services at 
the taking of Monterey, he was promoted to the rank of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel. In addition to his arduous duties as Chief of 
the Pay Department, he also acted as a Volunteer Aide to Gen- 
eral Scott at Vera Cruz, Cerra Cordo, Contreras, Cherubusco, 
Chepultepec, and the City of Mexico, and distinguished him- 
self for wisdom, bravery and fidelity. For his meritorious ser- 
vices in this campaign, he was honored by the President and< 
Congress with a Colonel's commission. 

In private as well as in public life, Colonel Kirby was a 
model man. Every object of local or general enterprise, or of 
private charity, found his heart right and his hand open, As 



198 
a husband, a father, a friend, a neighbor, he had few equals- 
no superiors. No man was ever more universally beloved 
while living, or more sincerely mourned in death, than Edmund 
Kirbv. 

On his return homeward from his last campaign in Mexico, 
he was greeted with many gratifying demonstrations of public 
regard. Landing at Sackett's Harbor, citizens and soldiery 
turned out en masse to welcome him. The Watertown (N. Y.) 
Journal of May 3d, 1848, says, " On Thursday last, the ring- 
ing of bells, the booming of cannon, and other demonstrations 
of popular enthusiasm, announced to the people of Brownville 
and its vicinity that their excellent fellow-citizens, Colonel 
Kirby, was returning to his home. Although the unexpected 
manner of his arrival was such as to preclude any preconcert 
of arrangement, and disappointed the desire of thousands of the 
adjacent country to join in the congratulations and welcome ; 
yet a large cavalcade of his friends were able to meet him be- 
fore his arrival in town, and before reaching the village the en-' 
tire population had formed in procession, and gave him a most 
cordi.il and heart- felt reception." He was addressed by Thom- 
as Y. Howe, Esq-, in behalf of the citizens — to which Colonel 
Kirby responded. " The reply," says the Journal, " was 
drowned in cheers — three times three, and one more, the pro- 
cession moved on to the gate of his beautiful and beloved home- 
stead, and with a parting sheer hit him to the embraces of his 
family." 1 

After spending a few weeks at home, he repaired to Louis- 
ville and Cincinnati, for the purpose of discharging and paying 
off the Western Volunteers — a difficult and arduous duty, but 
one which he most faithfully performed. While at the city 
last named, he addressed a communication to the author of 
this volume, detailing the principal incidents in the life of his 
father, brother, &c. Of himself he modestly remarks, " I am 
not conscious of deserving a conspicuous notice in your work: 



H)9 
My career has been humble — my aspirations for a higher and 
more enlarged sphere of action, in the walks of my profession, 
especially during the last two years, have been curbed by the 
higher powers, and I can only hope to transmit to my children 
a name free from reproach. " His anticipations in this respect 
are more than realized. Completing his duties abroad, he once 
more returned to his home, where he devoted the intervals of 
his public labors to the superintendance of his noble farm. He 
had long been known as an eminent agriculturalist — had at 
various times been an officer of the New York State Agricultu- 
ral Society, and early in 1849 he was appointed by the Gov- 
ernor one of the Commissioners to matt-ire a plan for an Agri- 
cultural College and an Experimental Farm. 

So prominent had Col, Kirby's long and faithful public ser- 
ices rendered him, that, upon the elevation of General Taylor 
to the Presidency, he was frequently spoken of in the news- 
papers as one who would in all probability be called to a seat 
in the new Cabinet ; and we have good reasons for saying, 
that such would have been his destiny had not one of the chief 
offices of the Government (that of Vice President,) been held 
by a citizen of New York. 

A disease of the liver, contracted in Mexico, gradually un- 
dermined his naturally strong constitution, and he died at Avon 
Springs, (whither he had gone in the hope of obtaining relief 
from the medicinal waters,) on the 20th of August, 1849. His 
remains were taken to his residence at Brownville, and were 
committed to the earth on the 22d, with military honors, the 
troops from Madison Barracks being present. The notice of 
his death, and of the time appointed for the rites of sepulture, 
although brief, brought together the largest assemblage ever 
convened on a funeral occasion in Jefferson county. Thou- 
sands on foot and in carriages pressed towards the church, 
where a solemn and impressive Sermon was delivered by the 
Rev. Wm. H, Hill, Rector of St. Paul's, At the grave, the 



200 
service of the Episcopal Church was read, three vollles were 
fired by the U. S. Troops present, and tfce body of our friend 
was left to its slumbers, until the trumpet shall summon him 
to the last dread Muster-Day ! 

The following extracts from Mr. HilPs Funeral Discourse, 
present his character as a citizen and as an officer, in its true 
light: After alluding to the dishonesty and the defalcations 
of many of the agents of Government, the preacher continues: 

But who and where is he that can rise and say that that man ever 
■#ave place to such a temptation, even for an hour ? The challenge 
may be made from the great Lakes to the swamps of Florida — from 
the Northeastern Boundary to the halls of the Montezumas (and he 
was the public servant over all that extent,) and the answer would be 
from old and young, officer and private, President, Cabinet, public offi- 
cer, and all with whom he was brought in contact — "he was faithful 
to his trust." He never learned that there could be any difference 
between public and private honesty. He would have scorned such 
an intimation, had it come to him even from his nearest friend. Tens, 
and I may say hundreds of millions of dollars of public money have 
passed through his hands. Not one cent remained on its passage, 
save the exact amount justly due him for his arduous and most faith- 
fully discharged, duties. Comparatively brief as has been my per- 
sonal intercourse with him, I have seen and know enough to satisfy 
me, that he lies there this moment the victim of personal, unwearied 
devotion to his public duties. 

In Mexico, though his station as Chief of the Pay Department — had 
he been a man of but common mould — might justly have exempted 
him from the vast mass of the personal labor which he actually per- 
formed — yet he endured all this additional task, lest the public busi- 
ness might become entangled through the want of capacity or experi- 
ence of some who had been entrusted with a particular branch ot it. 
With all his fellow officers, he too endured equally the hardships of 
a long and weary campaign. The dangers of the battle-field he never 
shunned, though his station never called him to such a post. He felt, 
as he expressed himself to me, that though many precious lives k at 
home were dependent on his own— and I need not tell you he never 
forgot them — yet, situated as he was, he owed all his energies to his 
country and his companions in the field, and he might not withhold 
them. Hence he was found a volunteer, a cheerful and accepted 
volunteer, to both of those distinguished Generals upon whom so much 
depended. In the thickest of the battle was he found, and his fellow 
officers knew and felt and said, that in all those terrible scenes of peril 
on the Rio Grande, and on the route from the Gulf to the City of 



1'0\ 

Ntotco, no coward's heart was hid in the breast of Edmund Kjrby. 
He was there, not because his soul loved such scenes, but because he 
felt that his duty called him there. His brave and lion Heart could 
not be kept in the quiet tent of the Paymaster. He must be in the 
■battle where his friends and companions needed and well appreciated 
his services. 

All these public dangers and fatigues, 1 repeat, he shared equally 
-with his companions. But when they could rest, he might not. Day 
and night did this faithful public servant draw upon the energies of 
his iron constitution, until the wonder is, that we ever had the pleas- 
ure of meeting him again. And since his return, I can bear witness 
how unceasingly he toiled to finish up the labors which had been 
imposed upon him, and which were arduous enough to i xhaust and 
"break down the energies and constitution of any three men. Person- 
al fatigue was as nothing to him — and even when sickness had sapped 
the very foundations of that iron frame, he would still sit for hours in 
-his chair writing and working for the public, whose servant he was, 
while the perspiration of real anguish would bedew his whole coun- 
tenance. Often when seeing him thus have I besought him to save him- 
self. Others added their expostulations. But he had only one answer. 
The work was to be done, and he must do it. And he labored thus, 
until his relaxed muscles almost refused to grasp the pen, which to 
him was more fatal than the sword, for it drained out his very heart's 
blood. Such was the fidelity of the deceased to his public trust. It 
was not for an hour, or month, or year merely, but for life. He lived 
and he died an honest man. His example in this is bright, without a. 
spot. He served his country faithfully, and surely; with his example 
before us, I may say to all those present, who like him, are entrusted 
with public duties — "Go ye and do likewise." 

I need scarcely add, that the same sterling unintermitting honesty 
and fidelity marked all his private dealings, and his relations to the 
society about him. We all mourn a friend lost. His energies, his 
public spirit, and his confessedly commanding position in society, have 
so interwoven him and his name with almost every thing in which any 
of us had any personal interest, that we can scarcely begin to realize 
the blank which has been made. Every eye was upon him. If he 
moved, we telt cjnfident that the particular work would succeed. 
Was there any station of usefulness to be filled or any public trust to 
be discharged, involving either pecuniary or other responsibility ?— 
Whose name rose spontaneously to every lip as the man for that sta- 
tion or trust ? I need not answer. It seemed as if in reference te- 
him, envy herself had ab tained from exerting her baleful influence. 
He was respected, esteemed, beloved by all. We all weep, for we have 
■lost a father, a brother, a friend. Oh ! there was no stimulated woe,, 
no hypocritical pretence, in those saddened faces, which almost 



202 
literally lined the road for the last few miles of our journey home- 
ward. There were all ages and sexes and classes. All knew him and 
all mourned that their friend — not one of whom they had read in books 
or heard by the hearing of the ear merely, but their own, personal, 
true friend had been called away. 

Col. Kirby leaves behind him a widow and nine children to 
mourn his loss. One of his sons (Jacob Brown Kirby,) gradu- 
ated at Yale College the Wednesday preceding his (CoL K.'s) 
death. 



203 



AMBROSE SPENCEit. 

Albany, April 4, 1848. 
P. K. Kilbouhne, Esq. — 

Sir — Your letter of October 12, 1847, to my deceased father,, 
the late Judge Spencer, requesting information respecting incidents in 
his life, must have arrived at Lyons after the severs attack of the dis- 
ease which terminated his life, and when, of course, he was unable to 
pa}>" any attention to it. As I find it among his letters, I have deem- 
ed it proper to explain the reason why it has not been answered. My 
father was taken ill in April, but no serious apprehensions of any fatal 
result were entertained until the 1st of October, when he had severe 
chills, and from that time he was confined to his bed until his death 
on the 13 th of March last. 

The best answer I can give to your enquiries, is contained in a bio- 
graphical notice of him in the Evening Journal of this city, of the 14th 
of March, a copy of which I enclose herein, and which is very accu- 
rate in its data, &c. Very Respectfully, Yours, 

J. C. SPENCER. 



AMBROSE SPENCER was born December 13th, 1765, 
in the town of Salisbury, in the State of Connecticut. His 
father was a mechanic and a farmer, who, although in mode- 
rate circumstances, by his industry and economy, obtained the 
means of giving his two sons, Philip and Ambrose, the very 
best educatiou which the country then afforded. He often de- 
clared his conviction that he could noj better endow his sons, 
if it cost all he had, than by giving 1hem a finished education. 
The generosity and self-devotion of this resolution at that time, 
and under the privations which it occasioned, render it worthy 
of record. The two sons entered Yale College in the autumn 
of 1779, and after remaining three years, were removed to 
Harvard University, where they graduated in July, 1783. The 



201 

subject of this notice was then but 17 years and six months 
old. This fact, as well as the concurring testimony of his 
classmates, among whom were John Cotton Smith and Har- 
rison Gray Otis, show that he must have possessed remarka- 
ble talent as well as close application to enable him to pass 
through the rigid discipline of that day, and to receive the hon- 
ors of Harvard. 

He devoted himself to the profession of the law, and studied 
for some time with John Canfield, an eminent lawyer of Sharon, 
in his native county, and completed his studies with John Bay, 
at Claverack, and with Ezekiel Gilbert, at Hudson, New Ycrk. 
Before he was nineteen, he married Laura Canfield, a daugh- 
ter of his preceptor, and made Hudson his residence. In 1786 
he was appointed clerk of the city ; and in 1793, he was elect- 
ed a member of the Assembly of New York from Columbia 
county. In 1 795, he was elected to the Senate for three years, 
and in 1798, was re-elected for four years. In 1796, he was 
appointed asssistant attorney-general for the counties of Colum- 
bia and Rensselaer. In February, 1802, he was appointed 
Attorney General of the State ; and in 1804, he received the 
appointment of a Justice of the Supreme Court, of which he 
was made Chief Justice in 18 1 9. His professional practice is 
known to have been very extensive and very successful. He 
was engaged in every important cause in that part of the State, 
and often met in forensic contest the great intellects that illu- 
mined that peiiod— Hamilton, Burr, Brockholst and Edward 
Livingston, Josiah Ogden Hoffman, Richard Harrison, Abra- 
ham Van Vechten, John V. Henry, William W, Van Ness, and 
others of less notoriety. His advancement to the highest hon- 
ors of his profession, at a time when office sought merit and 
talent, is the best proof of the estimation in which his powers 
and attainments were held. 

During the period of his service in the Senate, he became 
the personal friend and political associate of De Wilt Clinton* 



20o 
and there commenced an intimacy which, with a short interval 
of alienation, continued during the life of that great benefac- 
tor of his native State, It was during this period, also, that 
the great political revolution occurred which placed Mr. Jef- 
ferson in the Presidency. How much of this result was attri- 
butable to the efforts of Messrs. Clinton and Spencer, it is 
now needless to enquire. But by the general voice of their 
political friends, they were placed in the front of battle and at 
the head of the Republican columns in the State. During 
this struggle, those gentlemen were chosen members of the 
Council of Appointment, at that time the dispenser of all the 
patronage of the State. A controversy arose between ihe ma-' 
jority of the Council and Governor Jay respecting the claim 
of the latter to the exclusive right of nominating officers to the 
Council, which agitated the State, and resulted in calling a 
Convention of Delegates to expound and amend the Consti- 
tution, which body sustained the views of the majority of the 
Council. 

During his whole life, Judge Spencer took a warm interest 
in the public events effecting the destiny of his country, and 
contributed his best services to the promotion of its welfare. 
Ardent in his temperament, as resolute as he was honest in 
his purposes, and firm and persevering in the execution of 
them, he necessarily became mingled with the political organ- 
ization of the times through which he passed. But he was no 
blind partizan ; he saw and deprecated the errors of his own 
associates as freely as he exposed those of his antagonists. 
And it was his known independence and disinterestedness, his 
fearless maintenance of truth and justice on all occasions, that 
gave his opinion that great weight which for a long series of 
years they received not only from his friends, but from the 
whole community. 

The judicial course of the subject of this notice has given him 
a reputation over the whole extent of our country, equal to that 



206 

of its most distinguished jurist*. For nearly twenty years he 
was associated on the bench of the Supreme Court of the State, 
and in the Court of last resort, with Kent, Thompson, Piatt, 
Woodworfh and Van Ness. No lawyer need be informed that 
those twenty years were the Augustan age of our jurispru- 
dence. The reports of cases decided by these Judges, became 
standard authorities in the various States of this Union, and 
were quoted with the highest respect in Westminster Hall. 
They adapted the principles of the common ktw of England to 
the new exigencies of our country — a task requiring the most 
profound knowledge and the greatest circumspection, — and 
were distinguished as well for their conformity to the spirit of 
our institutions, as for their soundness and perspicuity. In 
these decisions, Judge Spencer had his full share; Indeed, 
it is but just to say, according to the concurrent testimony of 
those best able to judge — the members of the legal profession 
— to the opinions delivered by him does the Court owe much 
of its reputation for strict and accurate reasoning, clearness of 
views and of language, and a thorough comprehension of the 
philosophy of the common law. Although Judge Spencei 
held to be one of the best, if -not the first, common law lawyer 
of his time, yet his opinions delivered in the Court for the Cor- 
rection of Errors, show that he was also a consummate master 
of equity jurisprudence. 

Having nearly arrived at the period limited by the then 
Constitution for judicial service, Judge Spencer retired from 
the bench in January, 1823, amidst the universal regret of those 
who had witnessed his labors. The accomplished reporter of 
the decisions of the Supreme Court, William Johnson, Esq., 
in the dedication of the Twentieth Volume of his Reports, lias 
expressed the general sentiment of the Bar and of the com- 
munity, in the lofty testimony he bears to the strict impartiality, 
stern justice, and unwavering independence, of Judge Spencer 
during his long judicial career, and amidst party contentions 
of the most ferocious character. 



807 

In 1808, during his judicial term, Judge Spencer was ap- 
pointed by the Legislature together with Peter J. Monroe, to 
prepare and report such reforms and improvements in the 
Chancery System of the State, as they should deem expedi- 
ent. This report, made in March, 1809, was enlightened, 
comprehensive, and well adapted to the wants of the State. 
It proposed the division of the State into three equity districts, 
with a Chancellor for each, and a court in banc consisting ol 
the three Chancellors, and various modifications of the prac- 
tice and improvements of the whole system, which, if they 
bad been then adopted, would have obviated the necessity of 
the extensive and vital changes which have recently been 
made. It is singular that many of the modern changes are in 
conformity with those recommended by the report of 1809. 

After leaving the bench, Judge Spencer devoted himself 
for a few years to the legal profession, more, it is presumed, 
more for the sake of (he occupation it afforded, than for the 
emolument. His usual success attended him, but he found 
the cares and anxieties of the profession irksome and encroach- 
ing too much on his time. He soon occupied a farm in the 
vicinity of Albany, and employed himself in superintending its 
cultivation. He was chosen Mayor of the city of Albany, and 
served his fellow citizens in that capacity to their great grati- 
fication. In 1829 he was elected to the Congress of the Uni- 
ted States, and discharged all the duties of the station during 
his term. He declined taking any leading part in the political 
movements of the day, although his advice and aid were al- 
ways at the command of his friends. The difficulty with the 
Cherokee Indians was, however, of a character calculated to 
enlist his warmest sympathies. His innate love of justice, 
which had been invigorated by his judicial duties and had be- 
come the ruling principle of his life, was shocked by the treat- 
ment of that unfortunate people ; and with characteristic en- 
ergy and fearlessness, he united with Wirt and that noble 



•>08 
■oand of statesmen and philanthropists, who resisted and en- 
deavored to arrest the cruel aggressions and the monstrous 
injustice of our government. But it was in vain. In vain did 
the virtuous Marshall and his associates on the bench of the 
Supreme Court of the United States, declare the eternal prin- 
ciples of right. The law was too weak. Cupidity and vio- 
lence triumphed over a helpless people, and drove them from 
the land in which they were born and from the graves of their 
ancestors, into a wilderness. 

He continued his agricultural pursuits in the vicinity of 
Albany, enjoying the universal esteem and regard of the com- 
munity, until 1839, when he removed to the village of Lyons, 
— having previously lost by death his last wife. In that se- 
questered village he lived in the calm enjoyment of a green old 
age, and in the grateful recollections of a well spent life, until 
summoned hence. Possessing a vigorous constitution, impro- 
ved by great regularity and temperance of life, he scarcely 
knew disease until his last fatal sickness. His wonderful 
health at his advanced age, ana the firmness and elasticity of 
his step, were for years the admiration of all who knew him. 

In 1844, he was President of the Whig National Convention 
held at Baltimore, which nominated Henry Clay for the Pres- 
idency and Theodore Frelinghuysen for the Vice Presidency 
of the United States. The last public act of his life was to 
address an able letter to his fellow-citizens in opposition to 
a proposed amendment of the Constitution, providing for an 
-elective judiciary with brief terms of office. In an eloquent 
and logical argument, equal to the best efforts of his best days, 
he presented the subject in a manner to elicit universal com- 
mendation of its ability and manliness. 

Some years previous to his death, Judge Spencer became a 
member of the Episcopal church, and was sustained in his 
last days by the hopes and promises of the Gospel. 



209 
The Hon. John Canfield Spencer, a son of Judge Spencer, 
was a member of Congress from 1817 to 1819; and was sub- 
sequently Secretary of Stale for the State of New York In 
1841, upon the resignation of the Harrison Cabinet, he was 
appointed to and accepted the office of Secretary of the United 
States Treasury, which he held until the close of President 
Tyler's Administration, 



210 



WILLIAM KAY. 



WILLIAM RAY was born in Salisbury, on the^th of De- 
cember, 1771. While he was a child, his father removed to a 
remote town in the State of New York, where the son had lit- 
tle opportunity for cultivating those intellectual and literary 
tastes which were very early developed in him. At the age of 
en, he left the paternal roof and went to Dover, in Duch- 
s county, where he assumed the charge of a school. He 
. abandoned this occupation, and engaged in trade, which 
•sued for several years. His commercial speculations, 
er, proved unsuccessful, and finally issued in bankruptcy. 
Finding it impossible to obtain a release from his creditors, or 
to procure employment for the support of himself and wife, he 
left his home in the spring of 1803, and started for Philadel- 
phia in search of some congenial occupation. He traveled 
through the State of Pennsylvania under circumstances of 
great distress, and with but very slender pecuniary resources. 
Lie was overtaken by sickness ; his last cent was expended ; 
and he at length reached Philadelphia in a state of extreme 
destitution, and not yet restored to a comfortable degree of 
health. Here new trials awaited him. He failed to procure 
employment, and, impelled by his necessities, on the 13th of 
June, t803, he enlisted into the maritime service of the United 
Stales. He admits that " imprudence, vice, intemperance and 
prodigality, were the primaiy causes of his misfortunes ;" and 
pleads that "the miseries and horrors of painful mancipation, 
Bnd a thousand concomitant evils and sufferings, ought, in 



2H 
some c ^rec, to expiate bis iaults and follies in the benignant 
eyes of Charity. 

On the 3d of July, Ray and his comrades were ordered on 
board the frigate Philadelphia, under the command of Captain 
Bainbridge, destined to join our squadron against Tripoli. She 
sailed in the course of the same month, having on board a com- 
plement of three hundred men. The frigate proceeded pros- 
perously on her voyage, and arrived at Gibraltar on the 26th 
of August. Here she remained a few days, and was joined by 
several American ships of the line. Information being receiv- 
ed that a vessel with Barbary colors was cruising off the 'Rock,' 1 
the Philadelphia went in pursuit of her, under English colors. 
The stranger was easily captured, and proved to be a Moroc- 
co vessel mounting twenty-two guns, and containing about one 
hundred men. The prize had captured an American brig, 
which the Philadelphia, on the following day, overtook and 
re-captured, liberating her crew from their bondage. The 
frigate, in company with the prize and brig, then returned to 
Gibraltar. In October, the Philadelphia proceeded to the 
island of Malta, and from thence sailed for Tripoli. On the 
3lst day of October, she fell in with an enemy's vessel off the 
harbor of Tripoli, and gave chase. The pirate stood in for the 
town, and the frigate made every effort to cut off her retreat. 
Having no pilot on board who understood the harbor, and be- 
coming excited in the pursuit, the Americans ventured in too 
far, and when about three miles distant from the town, their 
vessel struck upon a shoal, and remained fast. Every effort 
was made, though in vain, to release her, while the enemy, 
emboldened by her condition, sent off three gun-boats against 
her. It was a little past twelve o'clock when the frigate struck, 
and the crew continued firing at the bjats, at the same time 
endeavoring to get their ship afloat, until four o'clock in the 
afternoon, when, unable to escape or longer to resist, they 
struck their flag, and ihe Philadelphia was consigned lo her 



212 
piratical victors. The enemy immediately boarded her, when 
convinced that she had in reality surrendered, and the officers 
and crew were soon escorted into the presence of their new 
master, the Bashaw of Tripoli. 

From this period, for more than a year and a half, the his- 
tory of Ray and his comrades is a tale of sad captivity and. 
hardship. The officers of the Philadelphia suffered much from 
confinement, and the want of proper nourishment : but the 
greatest misery was allotted to the unfortunate crew. Strip- 
ped of almost all their clothing, reduced to so pitiful an alow- 
ance of food that life could scarcely be sustained, they were 
driven forth in bands to the performance of the most incredi- 
ble labors; and when sickness necessarily succeeded to such 
unnatural exertions, the wretched captives received from their 
tyrants only threats and blows. At one time we find many of 
them employed to raise the wreck of a vessel, deeply sunken 
in the sand. At the coldest season of the year they are forced 
into the water at sunrise, and compelled to shovel the sand from 
the bottom, and carry it in baskets to the bank. Once through- 
out the day they are allowed a scanty meal, when they resume 
their labors until sunset, and then return to their prison to pass 
the night upon the damp earth, and await the horrors of the 
succeeding day. Again, at another season, many of them are 
compelled, barefooted and almost naked, to drag a heavy wag- 
on five or six miles into the country, over burning sands, and 
back again, loaded with timber, before any food was allowed 
them, except, perhaps, raw vegetables. A number were re^ 
leased from their sufferings by death, and to the survivors life 
became a burden almost insupportable. Eyery exertion in his 
power was made by Captain Bainbridge for the relief of his 
crew, and frequently, through the Danish Consul, he was en- 
abled to send them some comfortable provisions. Yet he was 
himself a captive also, and could effect but, little for their relief. 
But the American Government was not unmindful of the 



213 
fate of its unfortunate defenders. Duringthe summer of 1804, 
an American squadron was sent out under Commodore Preble 
against Tripoli. On the 3d of August, the squadron stood in 
for the harbor, and commenced a severe cannonade against 
the shipping, and also bombarded the town. Three of the 
Tripolitan gun-boats were captured, three were sunk, a num- 
ber of prisoners were taken, and many killed and wounded, 
with but little loss on the part of the Americans. On the 7th, 
Commodore Preble renewed the attack on the town with much 
execution, though sustaining a greater loss than on the former 
occasion. The Bashaw still demanding a large ranso m for 
his prisoners, on the 26th of August, and again on the 3d of 
September, the attack was renewed upon the town, and upon 
the gallies and gun-boats of the enemy. Soon after, the 
weather proving unfavorable, and the ammunition being great- 
ly reduced, the Commodore dismissed all the vessels but three, 
for Syracuse, and with these determined to keep up the block- 
ade. He was shortly afterward joined by two other ships un- 
der command of Commodore Barron, to whom the charge was 
resigned. But the season was now so far advanced that little 
more was done to the enemy, save the capture of a number of 
vessels laden with wheat, and bound for the Tripolitan market. 
Early the following season the Bashaw was willing to treat 
for peace. He w r as impoverished in his finances, and justly 
alarmed at the report of the formidable armament preparing 
against him. On the 26th of May, three American frigates 
appeared in sight. The smallest came near the town, and 
hoisted the banner of peace, a signal to which he gladly res- 
ponded. The frigates however disappeared, and hope and 
fear alternately agitated the breasts of the Tripolitans and 
their miserable captives. On the 29th, three frigates and a 
brig bore down upon the town, and displayed the signals of 
peace, which were immediately answered from the castle. 
From this period, friendly negociations went on rapidly, and 



214 
on the 3d day of June, 1805, the articles were signed. At 4 
o'clock in the afternoon a salute was fired from the frigates 
and batteries, causing transports of wild delight in many a long- 
desolate bosom. Ray enthusiastically exclaims, 

" But ah ! what joy when the saluting sound 
Was heard to thunder through the arches round ! 
Enraptured lays the choral hundreds sung, 
And that drear mansion once with gladness rung !" 

The "saluting sound" of course spoke freedom to the Amer- 
ican captives, and their first act on regaining their liberty was 
one so noble that it ought not to be omitted. They immedi- 
ately resumed a subject which had before enlisted (heir sympa- 
thies — that of librating a fellow-prisoner, a friendly Neapolitan, 
who had been able to render several of them essential services. 
They subscribed over three hundred dollars, wrote to Captain 
Bainbridge, had the sum deducted from their wages, and re- 
stored their still captive friend to freedom. 

Ray now entered as Captain's clerk on board the frigate 
Essex, and returned home during the following year. What- 
ever may have been his conduct before entering the service, 
it was irreproachable during his connection with it, and he left 
with the good will and respect both of his commander and of 
all the other officers. 

In 1809, the subject of this notice settled in a town in Es- 
sex county, New York, and resumed his old mercatile occupa> 
tion, but with no better success than before. In 1812, upon 
the declaration of war with Great Britain, he was appointed 
a Brigade Major in the detached militia stationed at Pitts- 
burgh. After a short term of military service, he resided in 
vaiious parts of the State of New York, and finally settled in 
Onondaga, where he filled the offices of Justice of the Peace 
and Commissioner in Courts of Record He died in Auburn 
in, 1827. 



215 

The first work of Ray was published in 1808, entitled, "Hor- 
rois of Slavery, or the American Tars in Tripoli." It is a 
well written narration of the unfortunate expedition of the 
Philadelphia, and the subsequent sufferings of her crew, to- 
gether with a description of Tripoli, the manners and customs 
of its inhabitants, and the transactions of the United States 
with that government. The volume is interspersed with va- 
rious poetical effusions, and a few pages of verse are appended 
to it. 

In 1821, Ray published a volume of poems, containing also 
a brief narrative of his sufferings in Tripoli. His poems are 
characterized by melodious versification, and are often forci- 
ble. Yet they lack imagination, and betray a want of delicate 
taste in their author. Rev. C. W. Everest give him an hon- 
orable place in his " Poets of Connecticut," from which work 
this sketch is principally taken. 

In the conclusion of his long and well written "Exordium'* 
to his first volnme, Ray deprecates criticism, alluding, we pre- 
sume, as well to his verses as his Narrative, and he may be 
head in his own defense : ^tL 

" Reader ! lay prejudice aside, 
And let calm reason be your guide ; 
If in the following, then, you find 
Things not so pleasing to your mind, 
And think them false, why disbelieve them J 
Errors of weakness ? then forgive them » 
And let our sufferings and abuses 
For several facts make some excuses ; 
And when you 're captured by a Turk, 
Sit down and write a better work !" 

We make two or three extracts from his poems on the fol- 
lowing pages-* 



216 
TRIPOL I. 

Ye lurid domes ! whose tottering columns stand, 

Marks of the despot's desolating hand ; 

Whose weed-grown roofs and mouldering arches shows 

The curse of tyranny, a nation's wo ; 

In every ruin, every pile, I find 

A warning lesson to a thoughtful mind. 

Your gloomy cells expressive silence break, 

Echo to groans, and eloquently speak . 

The Christian's blood cements the sthe stones he rears 

This clay was moistened with a Christian's tears ; 

Pale as these walls, aprisoner of has lain, 

Felt the keen scourge and worn the ruthless chain, 

While scoffing foes increasing tortures pour, 

Till the poor victim feels, alas ! no more ! 

Here thy brave tars, America, are forind, 

Locked in vile prisions, add in fetters bound. 

* * * Must free Columbia bow 
Before yon tinsel tyrant's murky brow ? 

Cringe to a power which death and rapine crown ? 
Smi^tt a smile, and tremble at a frown ? 
KneeRt a throne, its clemency implore, 
Enriched by spoils and stained with human gore ? 
Bear the sharp lasb, the ponderous load sustain, 
Suppress their anger, and revenge restrain ? 
Leave a free clime, explore the treacherous waves^ 
The sport of miscreants and the slave of slaves ? 
Heavens ! at the sight each patriot bosom glows 
With virtuous hatred on its country's foes ; 
At every blow indignant passions rise, 
And vengeance flashes from resentful eyes. 
But Heaven in just, tho' man's bewildered mind 
Th the dark ways of providence is blind ; 
Else why are some ordained above the rest, 
Or villains treated better than the best ? 



217 
Why, martyred virtue, hang thy injured head ? 
Why lived an Arnold, why a Warren bled ? 
Earth's murderers triumph, proud oppressors reign 
While patriots bleed, and captives sigh in vain ? 
Yet slumbering Justice soon shall wake and show 
Her sword unsheath'd, and vengeance wing the blow, 
Columbia's genius, glorious as the sun, 
With thy blest shade, immortal Washington, 
Unite to guard us from nefarious foes, 
And Heaven defend, and angels interpose ! 



VILLAGE GREATNESS. 

In every country village^where 

Ten chimney-smokes perfume the air, 

Contiguous to a steeple, 
Great gentle-folks are found, a score, 
Who can't associate any more 

With common " country people." 

Jack Fallow, born amongst the woods. 
From rolling logs, now rolls in goods, 

Enough awhile to dash on — 
Tells negro -stories, smokes cigars, 
Talks politics, decides on wars, 

And lives in stylish fashion. 

Tim Ox-goad, lately from the plow, 
A polished gentleman is now, 

And talks of " country fellows ;" 
But ask the fop what books he's read, 
You'll find the brain-pan of his head 

As empty as a bellows. 



218 

Miss Faddle, lately from the wheel, 
Now talks aftectedly genteel, 

And sings some tasty songs, too ; 
But my veracity impeach, 
If she can tell what part of speech 

Gentility belongs to. 

Without one spark of wit refined. 
Without one beauty of the mind, 

Genius, or education, 
Or family, or fame to boast — 
To see such gentry rule the roast, 

Turns patience to vexation. 

To clear such rubbish from the earth, 
Though real genius, mental worth, 

And science to attend you, 
You might as well the sty refine, 
Or cast your pearls before the swine ; 

They'd only turn and rend you. 



THE WAY TO BE HAPPY. 

Do troubles overwhelm thy soul, 

Like billows of the ocean, 
That o'er the shipwrecked victim roll 

In terrible commotion ? 
Seize bold Imagination's wing 

And soar to heaven, so seeming, 
Or reign a potentate or king- - 

r Tis all obtained by dreaming. 

Do pain and poverty unite 
To rob thee of all pleasure ? 

Like thieves break in at dead of nicjht, 
And steal away thy treasui e ? 



219 
The treasure of a tranquil mind, 

With joy and rapture teeming, 
Seek, seek, my friend, and thou shalt find 

More solid joy in dreaming. 

For let the world still darker frown 

Than night-clouds on creation, 
And shower its tenfold vengeance down, 

Its wrath and indignation, 
On this devoted head of mine, 

One star is still left gleaming — 
One light that will forever shine, 

The hope, the bliss of dreaming. 

Whene'er I lay me down to rest,. 

With toils and sorrows weary, 
A heart most feelingly distressed, 

And all on earth looks dreary ; 
Aerial powers around me throng, 

With light and glory beaming, 
And waft my raptured soul along 

The paradise of dreaming. 

And oft as pensively I walk 

In solitary places, 
I hear celestial spirits talk, 

And think I see their faces ; 
They bid me leave all earthly things, 

While tears of grief are streaming— 
I mount Imagination's wings, 

And find my heaven in dreaming. 



THE LIEUTENANTS. 
Who's he that walks with such a swagger 
With cockade, uniform and dagger, 
Holding this motto up to view, 
" I am much better, sir, than you ?" 



220 
Why, 'tis our officer — young Davy — 
A smart Lieutenant of the Navy ; 
Who's challeng'd, tho' they call him cruel, 
Twice twenty bumpers to one duel, 
And fought where clubs, not cannon, rattle, 
A score of watchmen in one battle ; 
Wounds he's received— in all his clothes, 
And bled profusely — at the nose ; 
For which grown bolder still and braver , 
He basks in govermental favor. 
And who is that with feathered head, 
And coat broad-faced with warlike red ? 
That blustering, tell me what it means ? 
Why, he's Lieutenant of Marines ; 
Whose duty 'tis to follow fashions, 
To draw his pay and eat his rations ; 
To 'list recruits for calls emergent — 
To drill them, or to make his sergeant — 
Defraud them out of half their pay, 
Then flog them, if a word they say ; 
For all the art of war consists 
In pay-rolls and provision lists, 
Well filled, which men are forced to sign, 
i — This, this is martial discipline. 



221 



TIMOTHY MERRITT 



TIMOTHY MERRITT, a celebrated clergyman of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, was born in Barkhamsted, in 
October, 1775. He entered the ministry in 1796, and was 
stationed on New London Circuit, where his services were 
both acceptable and useful. During* the next year he was 
stationed on the Penobscot Circuit, in the Province of Maine, 
and continued in that Province for about fourteen years. Du- 
ring this period his labors were arduous and peculiar. He 
filled appointments constantly on the Sabbath, and delivered 
occasional week-day lectures j and, as most of the stationed 
preachers were unordained, he had to visit their societies to 
administer the ordinances, and assist in organizing and regu- 
lating affairs necessary for the peace and prosperity of the 
cause. Occasionally he attended Quarterly Meetings for the 
Presiding Elders, from twenty to an hundred miles from home, 
taking appointments in his way to visit the churches. He went 
to his appointments in canoes, and skated to them in winter, 
on the streams and lakes of that cold region, 

Mr. Merritt had by this time become one of the most emi- 
inent and successful preachers of his denomination in New 
England. From 1817 to 1830, he was stationed in Boston, 
Providence, New Bedford, Lynn, Springfield and Bristol, and 
extensive revivals followed his ministry. In 1831, he was 
the editor of Zion's Herald. From 1832 to 1835 he was in 
New York, as one of the editors of the Christian Advocate and 
Journal. 



222 

Thence he returned to the New England Conference, and 
was stationed at Lynn a second time, where he continued two 
years. His health and physical energies failing, he was pla- 
ced upon the superanuated list, and there continued until his 
death. 

Mr. Merritt was in many respects an extraordinary person. 
Possessed of rare intellectual endowments, and blessed with 
an unusual degree of mental and bodily vigor, he was fitted to 
endure the fatigues and labors incident to the new and wild 
region in which his lot was cast for many years. The Rev. 
A. Stevens, A. M., in his "Memorials of Methodism," calls 
him " a prince and a great man in our Israel." One of his as- 
sociates in the ministry says of him, " No man has been taken 
from the Itinerant ranks of New England, who had a higher 
claim to an honorable memorial among us, than had Mr. Mer- 
ritt. He was a learned man — a man thoroughly read in di- 
vinity and philosophy ; critical in his observations — powerful 
in analysis — of untiring application — deeply experienced in the 
things of God — always exhibiting the fruits of the spirit by the 
patience of faith and the labors of love. He was a self-taught 
man. By close and long continued application, he acquired 
a terse, perspicuous and beautiful stj'le of writing and speaking. 
The attention he bestowed upon the arguments of an opponent, 
before answering him, was remarkable. He weighed every 
word, and comprehended it, before he framed a sentence, and 
then replied in the most concise and forcible manner, Thus 
he seldom either misunderstood or misrepresented — always 
kept directly to the point, and seldom failed of a complete vic- 
tory. There was a dignified simplicity, a loftiness of language 
and thought, accompanied by a solemnity and fervency of spir- 
it, which awed the hearer, and made him feel that God was 
near : and not unfrequently, as the good man's soul filled and 
gathered strength, and in the light and majesty of confiding 
faith, rose higher and higher still, the spectator would stand 



223 
entranced, like an astonished Israelite looking up into the 
mountain to see Moses talking wilh God." 

Another clergyman says, "Holiness to the Lord, was his 
constant motto. He literally forsook all to follow Christ and 
seek the salvation of his fellow-men. Both his mental and phy- 
sical system were formed for the work, He had a muscular 
energy fitted for labor and fatigue. He was constantly grasp- 
ing for new subjects of thought and new scenes of usefulness. 
Mr. Merritf s gravity was not sour or sombre, so as to render 
him unsocial or unamiable. I ever found in him one of the 
most free and social companions of my life. The out-pourings 
of his amiable heart never appeared more interesting and ex- 
cellent than in his confidential correspondence, which I have 
had the happiness to enjoy for more than forty years, and to 
which I never refer without the purest pleasure. As a preach- 
er, his subjects were generally well chosen, his manner serious, 
plain, distinct and direct. He was often doctrinal, and in these 
discourses he stated his object and presented his propositions 
with precision, and brought his Scripture proofs aptly, fully, 
and forcibly. His inferences and reflections were various and 
pertinent. He felt that he was called to defend the great doc- 
trines of the gospel, and did it fearlessly, searching, out and ex- 
posing error and detecting sophistry. But his most delightful 
theme was the doctrine of holiness. In treating of this he 
found ample scope for illustrating every part of Christian expe- 
rience, and of explaining and enforcing all the practical duties 
enjoined in the gospel. There were no flashes of wit, no ef- 
forts of eloquence to excite a stare, no meretricious drapery, 
no bombast, no passionate exclam ations for effect, no useless 
verbiage to fill an empty sp ace — but a straight-forward, plain 
effort to open, explain and improve the subject and to profit 
his hearers. The duties of a pastor were conscienciously and 
faithfully performed by him, as the various places of his charge 
can testify," 



224 
When his physical energies gave^way, his active mind felt 
the shock and totterings of the earthly tabernacle. But this 
was the time for the more beautiful development of Christian 
resignation and calm submission. He died in the full exercise 
of faith, and patience, and love ; and his memory is embalmed 
in the affections and gratitude of many hearts. A likeness of 
Mr. Meriitt may be found in the frontispiece of "The Memorials 
of Methodism," before alluded to. 



H25 



HENRY WALTON WESSELLS, 



This distinguished officer in the army of the United Statesi 
is a son of Dr. Ashbel Wessells, of Litchfield, in which town 
he was born the 20th of February, 1809. He spent the year 
1828 at Captain Partridge's Military School in Middletown, 
Conn., where he was a classmate of Thomas H. Seymour, 
of Hartford, since distinguished in the councils of the nation 
and as an officer in the late war with Mexico. 

In July, 1829, young Wessells entered as a cadet at the 
West Point Military Academy, and graduated in 1833. He 
at once entered the Army as brevet second-lieutenant in the 
Second Infantry — a regiment to which he has ever since been 
attached, and in which he has won all his laurels as a military 
commander. The two years immediately succeeding his grad- 
uation, were spent at Hancock Barracks, near the disputed 
boundary between Maine and the British Possessions, and in 
Boston. In 1835, he was engaged in the Creek War in Geor- 
gia, and subsequently, until the breaking out of the Seminole 
War in Florida, he was stationed at Green Bay and Fort Gra- 
triot. In 1837, Lieut. Wessells joined the army in Florida, 
and the five succeeding years were passed in the protracted 
and most dangerous struggle with the Seminole Indians. 

On the breaking out of the war between the United States 
and Mexico, in 1846, Lieut. Wessells sailed with the troops 
under General Scott for Vera Cruz, in Colonel Riley's regi- 
ment, and was promoted to a Captaincy soon after his arriva 1 
on the enemy's territory. He was actively engaged in the 
great battles of Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Churu* 



226 
busco, and at the capture of the city of Mexico. In all thes* 
engagements, he was conspicuous; but was particularly dis- 
tinguished in that of Contreras, in which he was wounded, 
and for his services in which he was brevetted a Major. In 
the official report of Colonel Riley he is commended in the 
highest terms. Major Mori is, in his report, alluding to a 
most important crisis in the history of that eventful day, says, 
" The color-sergeant, Dennis Daily, manfully bearing- himself 
among the foremost, was shot dead ; and Captain Wessells, 
though wounded at the same time, gallantly raised the colors 
and pressed on." We may add, that Morris's report is chiefly 
occupied with details of the services of Captains Wessells and 

Casey. 

On his return from Mexico, in the autumn of 1848, Major 
Wessells re-visited his native town ; but sailed soon after (No- 
vember 10,) with the regiment bound for our newly acquired 
territory on the shores of the Pacific — and is now in California. 

In May, 1849, the Legislatute of Connecticut, in consider- 
ation of the distinguished services of Major Wessells in his 
country's cause, appropriated the sum of $300 for the purchase 
of a Sword, to be presented to him in the name of the Slate ; 
and Governor Trumbull, General Francis Bacon, Colonel 
George C. Woodruff, Colonel Henry D. Smith and Major A. 
C. Goodman, were appointed a Committee to procure the 
sword, and make a public presentation of it. 

On the 24ih of December, 1849, a meeting of the citizens 
of Litchfield was held at Spencer's Mansion House, to make 
preparations for the ceiemony of Presentation — Chief Justice 
Church in the Chair, and Dr. George Seymour, Secretary* 
At this meeting, the following gentlemen were appointed a 
Committee of Arrangements, viz., — Generals George P. Shel- 
tonof Southury, William T. Kingoi Sharon, Edward A. Phelps 
of Colebrook, Frederick Buel of Litchfield, and Merritt Hem- 
ingway of Watertown, Colonels David Gould of Sharon, Rob* 



bins Battell of Norfolk, John C. Smith of New Milford, Wif,. 
Ham F. Baldwin of Litchfield, CharlesB. Smith of Wolcottville„ 
Peter W. Mills of Kent, DwightW. Pierce of Cornwall, Major 
Chester W. Birge, Captains Charles Coe of Winsted, William 
S. Nash of New Hartford, Solomon Marsh of Litchfield, Quar- 
ter Master George B. Turrell of South Farms, Dr. David E. 
Bostwick and Lieutenant Alfred H. Beers of Litchfield. 

The following particulars of the ceremony of Presentation 
are copied from the Litchfield Enquirer of January 31, 1850 : 

Notwithstanding the severe storm of the preceding day, (which pre 
vented the attendance of many from abroad, who bad designed being 
present,) a large concourse of citizens and strangers was drawn together 
to witness tbe interesting ceremony, and to do honor to one whose 
conduct has reflected so much honor upon the town and State which 
gave him birth. 

The day dawned beautifully. At sunrise, a national salute was fired. 
The ** Bacon Guards," commanded by Capt. L. W. Wessells, and the 
" Litchfield Artillery," commanded by Capt. Solomon Marsh, paraded 
during the forenoon, and presented a fine appearance. At half past 
12, a Procession was formed, under the direction of Adjutant- General 
Shelton, (Chairman of the Committee of Arrangements,) and Colonel 
Baldwin — which moved around the East Park in the following or- 
der — 

1. Military Companies. 

2. Band. 

3. Committee of Arrangements. 

4. Committee of Presentation and Reception. 
5> Officers, Past and Commissoned. 

6. Citizens and Strangers. 

Returning, the ceremony of Presentation took place on the Balcony 
of the Mansion House, in the presence of the crowd of spectators who 
thronged the street and side-walk in front, and some hundreds of ladies 
in the hall, balcony, and the rooms adjacent. Colonel Woodruff, 
in behalf of the Committee and of the State, made the presentation ; 
the gallant Colonel T. H. Seymour, of Hartford, (by request and in 
behalf of the absent Major,) received the beautiful present. 

col. woodruff's address. 
Colonel Seymour : 

The Legislature of this State, at its last session, made a liberal 
appropriation for the purchase of a Sword, to be presented to Major 
Henry W. Wessells, as a testimonial of respect for his bravery and; 
gallant conduct in the late war with Mexico. 



228 
A Committee was subsequently appointed to procure the Sword;, 
and make a public presentation thereof. In the absence of His Excel- 
lency the Governor, and owing to the decease of the late and lamented 
Major General of this State, it has devolved upon me, as the organ of- 
the Committee, to announce, that we have procured the Sword, and are 
now prepared to present it. 

I need not say how gratifying it would be to us to meet Major Wes- 
sells on an occasion so interesting — to grasp the hand so often raised 
in defense of his country — and to embrace the form so fearlessly ex- 
posed in vindication of that country's honor. But, sir, the soldier is 
not his own ; and duty detains the gallant Major at his post far towards 
the setting sun, in that golden land acquired in no small measure by 
his own bravery. 

And permit me to say, sir, that no more fitting representative than, 
yourself, could have been selected by him, to act in his behalf on this, 
occasion. You have been the companion of his youth, and in the hard- 
ships of the Camp ; you have participated with him in the dangers of 
the bloody battle-field ; you, if not an eye-witness to his efforts, are well 
informed of the lion-hearted courage with which he led his command 
against the bravest troops of Mexico ; together you have borne no 
undistinguished part in those triumphs, unequalled on Mexican soil 
since the days of Cortez, and in that crowning victory which gave to us 
possession of the Imperial City of the Montezumas. 

You may have known him, too, when, the stern soldier being laid 
aside., he retired to the sweet scenes of social and domestic lif % His 
affability, his benevolence, his generosity, need no eulogy ; his moral; 
virtues no recapitulation. To know him, is to love and admire him. 

Of such a Soldier, and such a Man, this State has reason to be proud 
— is proud, and delights to show him honor. And every citizen of this 
his native town and county glories in saying, he is one of us. 

And we may well sympathise with his venerable parents, who early 
surrendered a beloved son to their country's service. We may imagine 
the torturing fear which has harrowed their souls, lest he should fall a 
victim to the pestilence, or the sword of the enemy ; and the tumultu- 
ous joy, with which tidings of his safety, and the honorable report of 
his conduct, have swelled their breasts ; consummated by this testimo- 
nial of the respect of his fellow-citizens for a favorite son, — sweet in- 
cense to a parent's heart. 

To the Major, in his exile from his native hills, we trust, the ceremo- 
nies of this day will prove an assurance that his past services are not 
unappreciated, and that the remembrance thereof will alleviate hi? la- 
bors, and encourage him in his honorable career. 

We then present to you for him, this beautiful emblem of his profes- 
sion. May its purity never be sullied in an unrighteous cause. Re- 
ceive it from a State, not lavish nor indiscriminate in its honors. Re- 
feive it as a token of the gratitude of this Republic. 



229 
Col. seymour*s reply. 
(blonel Woodruff — Sir : 

I come forward with a degree of pleasure, which forhids anything, 
like reluctance on my part. I appear in the presence of your towns- 
men, and my fellow-citizens of the State, to discharge one of the most 
gratifying duties which can be laid upon any man — a duty enlivened 
by the warmest recollection of early friendship, and supported by the 
honor of the position it has devolved on me to occupy on this occasion. 

The pleasure of which I have spoken, derived from a desire to fulfil 
the request of an absent friend, is not unmixed with those painful re- 
grets, which the mention of another to whom you have referred, has 
brought forcibly to mind- -regrets which come like shadows between, 
the living and the dead. Nor am I insensible to the force of those 
memories which show us, that there is a vacancy in the .ranks of the 
youthful soldiers who have taken a part in this ceremony, which is bcth. 
seen and felt by them and all of this assembly. 

Far from the scenes of this day, the officer whom I have the honor 
to represent under circumstances of such peculiar interest, will deeply 
lament with us the execution of the stern decree which has consigned 
to an early grave, the object of his grateful consideration and regard 
— that grave which we so lately saw bedewed with the tears of weep- 
ing relatives, companions and friends. 

" The hand of the reaper 

Takes the ear I hat is hoary, 
But the voice of the weeper 

Wails manhwod in glory." 

I have listened, sir, with feelings of personal gratification to the just 
tribute which you have been pleased to pay to the social and domestic 
virtues of our absent friend, as well as to those sterner qualities which 
the service of his country required ; in which service, he will feel grate- 
ful for the assurance which has been given, that his efforts have not 
been unappreciated. Strongly attached as I know him to be to the 
place of his birth, where his affections are firmly planted — bound by 
many personal ties to his native State, the honor conferred upon him, 
however he may choose to consider it beyond his deserts, will greatly 
influence his course I am convinced, and shed a light along the path 
of his chosen profession, whether that path shall hereafter be* strewn 
with the blessings of peace or torn by the storms of war. 

In confirmation of what I have said, and in support of the weight 
which I attach to his feelings on this subject, I might mention, that 
at successive interviews which I had with him prior to the late battles 
in which he distinguished himself, and often afterwards, I had cause 
to be impressed with the strength uf his filial regard for the home of 
his youth, and the State to which he belonged. From what I believe 
I know of bis local attachments, which kindle the pride of the soldier, 



23fr 

and of his high regard for the honor of his native State, — from what 
is generally known of his ardent desire to serve his country to the best 
of his abilities, I may safely assume in reply to your remarks, that this 
gift from the State will be affectionately preserved by him, and never 
dishonored in his hands. 

Though often his companion abroad, I cannot say that I was a wit- 
ness to the gallant part which he took in the struggles to which you 
have alluded. But I had the plearure to hear him spoken of in terms 
of the highest praise by those under whose immediate orders he acted. 
Our State had many like him in the old line of the army, who, with 
him, served through the entire war, with honor to themselves and to 
the State. They are too well known through the official reports, the 
true history of the war, to require any notice from me. They belong, 
together with my friend Wessells, to that accomplished class of officers 
in our army whose military science, and admirable prowess, exhibited 
in so many battle-fields of the war, have justly contributed to the 
honor of the institution at which they were educated. 

Pardon me for saying in this connection, that on a recent occasion 
similar in its object to this, I could not divest myself of the reflection, 
that amongst those to whom I have already referred, many might have 
been found better entitled to the honors of the State than myself— to 
whom I would gladly have yieldeJthe precedence. The gallant offi- 
cer — neighbor to my honorable friend of the committee from another 
county— who won his brightest laurels in the openmg blaze of the war, 
from what I believe I know of his generous nature, will not hesitate to 
credit the sincerity of the avowal which I have felt called upon thus 
publicly to make. 

Whilst I have felt called upon by a sense of respect for that portion 
of the American Army in which we find the candidate for the honors 
of this day — allow me to turn for a moment from the living to the dead. 
I am forcibly reminded that this is the birth-place of the lamented 
Kirby, so highly eulogized in the report of General Worth, and of that 
chivalrous spirit, E. Kirby Smith, who fell at Molino del Rev, whose 
heroic death it is impossible to recall without at the same time bringing 
to mind the fate of anothsgcallant youth of the highest promise, born 
in an opposite section of IS Mate, descendant of a race of heroes, 
the youthful Rogers, who fell under the walls of the last proud fortress 
which held the Key to the City of Mexico. 

"And the soldier of the legion in a foreign land lay dead." 

I have already expressed the pleasure with which I have come for- 
ward to receive this sword in behalf of its rightful owner, whose ser- 
vices you have met to commemorate and reward. I have but a few- 
words to add in full discharge of the duties I have undertaken. 

In the presence of these fair ladies of his native town, before these 
citizens and citizen soldiers, witnesses of this ceremony, I have now the 
honor to accept of this gift from the State of Connecticut to Major 



231 
&ENRY W. Wessells of the 2d Infantry, United States Arm v. In its 
rare workmanship and significant devices he will see the friendly hand 
which bade the arts contribute to polish and adorn it, and I feel 
assured that he will preserve it in sacred remembrance of his honored 
State, and of the youthful Senator, now alas no more, whose voice 
filled the halls of legislation with the praise of the absent whose deeds 
he contributed to reward. 

Cheered and encouraged by the proud distinction which has been 
conferred upon him, a deep sense of gratitude, mingled with the du- 
ties of his military career, will make those duties light, and the flinty 
couch of the soldier as a bed of down. Having been a party in the 
war which has given us vast possessions on the Pacific border, he has 
been called with others to protect the flag which floats over those rich 
acquisitions — that flag which, wherever it waves, over plain, or moun- 
tain land, or sea-girt shore, prefigures the power of the Anglo-Saxon 
race, or heralds the march of our language and our liberties. 

In no vain boast I may say of him that he will seek to be among the 
foremost to guard that proud banner in whose shining folds the Star 
of his native State gleams brightly in the clustering "old thirteen" 
— and brighter still in the reflected beams from the new-born States 
which have been added to the glorious constellation of the American 
Union. And should he be called again to those sanguinary fields, 
Where the sword must point the way to victory or death, however his 
heart may relent in view of the calamities of war, his hand we have no 
doubt will be firm to execute whatever his country shall demand in 
the name of Justice, Order, and Libertf. 

At the conclusion of this address, three hearty cheers were given by 
the crowd for Major Wessells, and three more for Colonel Seymour 
— which were responded to by a salute from the artillery. 

During the ceremony, we noticed among those standing on the 
balcony, the Hon. H. D. Smith, Treasurer of the State, the Hon. 
Abijah Catlin, Comptroller of the State, and Major Webb, late of the 
Army in Mexico. 

A grand Military Ball came off in the evening, in which between 
four and five hundred persons participated. 

The sword is straight, and of the usual length. The blade is of the 
finest temper, beautifully wrought and ornamented to within about ten inch- 
es of its point. The hilt is of gold inlaid with pearl ; in the strips of pearl 
gold studs are inserted, and in the centre "of the pearl upon one side of the 
hill is an oriental garnet. In the upper end of the hilt is a topaz, and 
near the base an emerald, both set in gold. A massive gold cord is at- 
.ached to the top of the hilt, passes to its base, and thence depends, ter* 
minating in a tassel. Just below the hilt is a gold plate on which are 
^ngraved the arms of the State of Connecticut and its motto ,{ qui trans- 
ulit sustinet.'* Upon the scabbard which is heavily gilt throughout, any 
tquisitely polished except where embossed, is a gold plate containing the 

^ing inscription, viz ; 



232 

" The State of Connecticut to 
Major HENRY W. WESSELLS, 
2d Infantry, U. S. Army, 
for distinguished services at Vera Cruz, Cerro Oordo, Contreras and 

Churubusco" 

Below is a representation of arms in relief bound together; upon the 
band are inscribed the names of tni battles above mentioned. Still lower 
is another representation of weapons of war, also in relief. The point of 
Ihe scabbard is projected by an acorn-shaped fence upon its edge's. 

Major Wessells was married in September, 1834, to Mary 
T., daughter of Chester Griswold, Esq. ; she died at Fort Kingf, 
Florida, in the autumn of 1841, leaving one daughter who still 
survives, In 1S44, he was married to Miss Hannah Cooper, 
o Cooperstown, N. Y., a niece of J. Fennimore Cooper ; by 
this marriage he has had three children, two sons who are liv- 
ing, and a daughter, Julia, who died in California in June 1849. 



9S3 



AMASA J. PARK ER. 



This gentleman, who holds so conspicuous a place among 
the distinguished men of the empire State, was born in Shar- 
on, Ellsworth parish, on the 2d of June, 1807. A notice of 
him in the "American Biographical Sketch Book," prefaces a 
sketch of his public services with the following complimentary 
remarks concerning this county : " It has been remarked, that 
there is no neighborhood in the United States, of the same 
limits and population, which has been the birth-place or tb.e 
home of so many eminent men, as the county of Litchfield. 
ft is a region of hard hills and rocky farms, contiguous to no 
commercial cities, and crossed by no important lines of travel 
- — but its homesteads, so quiet and retired, have beeri the fa- 
vorite haunts of the genii. Here the bracing, air f the h ,o M« 
lands, and the habits of industry an I self-dependence, formed 
from childhood, have given strong lungs and vigoro n frames, 
expanded souls, and spirits fcVi of energy, to a hundred men, 
where the influences ot s'lty life will scarcely endow with the 
same gifts a single one," 

The Rev. Daniel Parker, f father of the subject of this notice,) 
^was a graduate of Yale College. He married Miss Anna 
Fenn, daughter of Thomas Fenn, TSsq., and was for alniDst 20 
years the settled minister at Ellsworth. During this period 
he established and had charge of an academy at that place, 
which acquired. a high reputation, and in which many young 
men, since distinguKned in vaiious parts of the Union, were ed- 
ucate^. He was a, son of Amaza Parker, of Watertown, 
Conn., m which* place Thomas Fenn, above named, also re- 
tided. 



234 

In 1816, Mr. Parker removed with bis family to Greenville* 
Greene county, N. Y., and took charge of an academy at that 
place. Here Amaza J. Parker, then only nine years of age, 
commenced the study of the Latin language. At the end of 
two years, he was placed at an academy in Hudson, and from 
thence was transferred to the city of New York. At the age 
of sixteen, he had completed the usual course of collegiate 
study, although not within the Walts of a college. 

In May, 1823, as its principal, he tock charge of Hudson 
Academy, an incorporated institution, subject to the visitation 
of the regents. During the four years which he remained at 
its head, the academy stood high in public estimation; His 
age was not then mature, and his pupils, scattered over the 
State, were afterwards surprized to learn that their preceptor 
was younger than many of themselves. During this time, the 
argument was used by the academy at Kinderhook, a rival in- 
stitution, that the principal of the Hudson academy was not a 
graduate of a college. To obviate any such objection, Mr. 
Parker availed himself of the opportunity afforded by a short 
vacation, to present himself at Union college, in order to take 
an examination for the entire course, and to graduate with the 
class. This he did, and took his degree of bachelor of arts, in 
July, 1825. 

During the latter part of his term at the Hudson academy 
he entered as a student at law, in the office of that sound jurist, 
John W. Edmonds, then residing at Hudson, and since judge 
of the supreme court. At the age of twenty, in the spring of 
1828, having resigned his charge, Mr. Parker retired to Del- 
hi, Delaware county, for the purpose of pursuing his legal 
studies in the office of his uncle, Col. Amasa Parker, a prac- 
ticing lawyer of eminence at that place. He continued there 
until his admission to the bar, at the October term, in 1828. 
He then formed a co-partnership with his uncle, which lasted 
fifteen years, during which period they were engaged in a most 
extensive practice 



195 

Delaware county having for forty years been strongly dera^ 
ccratic in its politics, Mr. Parker was early engaged in the 
great political struggles of the day. In the fall of 1833, at 
the age of twenty-six, he was elected a Representative in the 
State Legislature, whete he served on the Committee of Ways 
and Means, and in other important positions. In 1835, he 
was elected by the Legislature, a Regent of the State Universi- 
ty — a rare honor for so young a man — the post never having 
been before conferred upon one of his age- 

At the age of twenty-nine, he was elected a member of the 
twenty-fifth Congress, to represent the district composed of 
the counties of Delaware and Broome. It is here worthy of 
remark, that at both elections, he ran without opposition, the 
opposite party deeming it useless lo bring a candidate into the 
field against him. While in Congress he served upon several 
important committees, and his speeches were upon the public 
lands, the Mississippi election' question, the Cilley duel, and 
other great subjects of the day, all of which may be found in 
the Congressional Globe. 

In the fall of 1839, he was a candidate for the office of State 
Senator, in the third senatorial district. The canvass was a 
very exciting one, owing to the fact that a United States Sena- 
tor was to be elected by the next legislature, in the place of Mr. 
Tallmadge, Very great exertions were made, and about fifty 
thousand; votes were polled. The result was, the election of 
the whig candidate, the late Gen. Root, by a small majority. 

On the 6th of March, 1841, he was appointed Circuit Judge, 
on accepting which he immediately took up his residence in 
the city of Albany, and continued there during his term of of- 
fice. The duties of this appointment were very laborious, an<J 
required the most constant application. As Judge in the com- 
mon law courts, and as Vice Chancellor in the Court of Equi- 
ty, the whole of his time was occupied and heavy responsibili- 
ties devolved upon him. In addition to the ordinary business 



2tt 

of his district, the anti-rent difficulties added much to his labors. 
He commenced his civil calenders with questions of title, ar^d 
at the oyer and terminer, the most painful duties were impose d 
upon him, in punishing violations of ihe public peace. His 
labors at the Delaware Circuit, in 1845, will not soon be for- 
gotten. He found in jail upwards of one hundred persons, un- 
der indictment. At the end of three weeks, the jail was clear- 
ed, every case having been disposed of, by conviction or other- 
wise. Two were sentenced to death for the murder of Sheriff 
Steele, and about fifteen to confinement for various periods in 
the state prison ; and for the lighter offences, fines were in sev- 
eral cases imposed. The course pursued by Judge Parker 
met with general approbation. After the adjournment of the 
court, the military were dismissed, peace was restored, and 
no instance of a like resistance to the law has since occurred 
in that county. 

During the following summer, the degree of Doctor of Laws 
was conferred upon Judge Parker by Geneva College. 

His term of office as circuit judge terminated with the then 
existing Constitution of the State, and at the first election held 
under the new Constitution, he was chosen a Judge of the 
Supreme Court. 

On the 27th of August 1834, Judge Parker was united in 
marriage with Miss Harriet L. Roberts, of Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire, and they have now six children. 



ELIJAH BOARD MAN 



ELIJAH BOARDMAN was the third son of Sherman on tf 
Sarah Boardman, and was born in New Mdford, March 7, 1760.. 
His excellent mother used mosi feelingly to relate to her young'" 
er children, that, while busily employed in her household con-. 
(perns, she thought she heard a noise like that occasioned by 
something falling into the water ; and stepping to the door to 
look for her little boy, she saw the water in a large trough in 
motion, and found her child lying at the bottom of the trough. 
Had the almost inaudible sound not reached the mother's ear 
his name would scarcely have been heard beyond that little 
family circle, and his services and influence would have been 
lost to his country and the world. 

His early education was conducted chiefly by his mother, at 
home, until the winter of 1779-80, when a very excellent in- 
structor was employed. From his too rapid growth and con- 
sequent debility, he became unable, before this period, to en- 
dure constant labor on the farm ; and he occasionally attended 
school in the village, walking to and from it, a distance of two 
and a half miles each day. At the age of fifteen years, he com- 
menced the study of Latin with the Minister of the parish, the 
Rev. Nathaniel Taylor, who had a private class. In March. 
1776, himself desirous of the service and with his father's con- 
tent, lie enlisted as a common soldier into the revolutionary 
army, he now being sixteen years of age. The regiment in 
which he enlisted was commanded by Col. Charles Webb, and 
was one of the sixteen regiments first raised by authority of the 
Cofttfajental Congress. The officers of the company to which 



235 
young Boardman belonged, were Captain Isaac Bostwicfc, 
Lieutenant Kimball, Lieutenant Elisha Bostwick, and Ensign 
Amos Bostwick — all except the first lieutenant being from the 
town of New Milford. The first destination of the regiment 
was for Boston, but before getting out of the limits of Connec- 
ticut, they were ordered to New London, where they embarked 
for Hew York, in and about which city the regiment remained 
until it was evacuated by the American army, in the month •! 
October. 

Shortly before this event, Mr, Boardman was seized with a 
dangerous illness, from which he had but partially recovered, 
when the retreat of the army seemed to render his situatioq 
hopeless. In this extremity, observing a wagon to stop near 
the house in which he was, he improved the opportunity afford- 
ed by the driver being a moment absent, and exerting to the 
utmost his wasted strength, he threw himself into the wagon. 
"When the driver was about to eject him, an officer passing by 
ordered him to desist, and to permit the sick man to ride as far 
as the wagon was going. This was to the neighborhood of 
Kingsbridge. There Mr. Boardman was left, lying on the 
ground, and incapable of further exertion. In that situation 
he was discovered by a neighbor of his father, who had gone 
to New York to convey home a sick relative. The neighbor 
took him to a place of safety, and gave immediate notice to his 
father, who hastened to his relief. His state of health render- 
ing it quite manifest that he could render no further service 
during the remainder of the period for which he had enlisted, 
a discharge was obtained, and he was brought home in a de- 
plorable state. He slowly recovered ; but his constitution, as 
he always thought, then received a shock, the effects of which 
were abiding. 

In the autumn of 1777, he performed a short tour of duty 
on the Hudson, and then returned home and entered upon a 
course of study under the direction of a private tutor. He wu 



IS* 

fcfeon after employed as a clerk in the store of Elijah and Arch- 
ibald Austin, then prominent merchants in New Haven. In 
the fall of 1781, he commenced business ns a retail merchant 
in New Mil ford. For eleven years, his brother Daniel was his 
partner in business ; and subsequently he was associated for a 
few years with Elijah Bennett. In 1 819, the establishment 
was sold out to Stanley Lockwood, and Mr. Boardman relin- 
quished the mercantile business. 

In September, 1795, the subject of this sketch became a 
member of the Connecticut Land Companjr, and, as such, one 
fc-f the purchasers of the Connecticut Western Reserve, so 
called, now forming the. northern part of the State of Ohio. 
T hat part of this purchase lying east of the Cuyahogo River 
the Company caused to be surveyed and divided into town^ 
ships and tracts ; and a partition among the purchasers was 
made by lot, in May, 1799. By this partition, Mr. Boardman 
tind his immediate associates became entitled to two entire 
townships and the "equalizing lots" of land (as they were call- 
ed,) annexed thereto. Hisinterestextended to somewhat more 
than half of each township. No. 1 of the second range, was 
named, after him, "Boardman" — a name which the town still 
retains. Some years after, the Land Company, having com- 
pleted the survey of that part of their purchase lying west of 
the Cuyahoga, made, in the same manner as before, a partition 
among the purchasers. By this, Mr. Boardman and his as* 
sociates became the proprietors of the town of Medina. 

Mr. Boardman's assiduous attention to his piivate concerns, 
long prevented his taking an active part in the political dis- 
cussions which became rife throughout the country, soon after 
the establishment of the new Constitution of the United States. 
Yet, from the habitual activity of his mind, he was by no means 
an inattentive observer of passing events. About the year 
1800, howeyer, he became quite prominent as a politician in 
Connecticut But having embraced the principles of the par- 



ty which then, and for a considerable time after, wa9 in the mi- 
nority in the State, he received no higher appointment than 
that of Representative lo (he State Legislature, to which he 
was six times elected between and including the years 1803 
and 1816. When the political party to which he was attached 
gained a partial ascendency, he was elected, in 1817 and again 
in IS18, an Assistant, or member of the Upper House. In 
May, 1 S 1 9, when the New Constitution of the State went in- 
fo operation, lie was elected to the State Senate, and continued 
in thof body until May, 1821, when he was elected to the 
Senate of the United Slates. He occupied his seat in th^ ' iaU 
fei bod'v durinsf the two sessions of the seventeenth px«„« 
pikI continued a member until his death, »;\; ich t00 u la ' ce at 
ttoardman, Ohio, (while oh a vfci» Vnere,) A : ^ Usi 18, 1823. 

His remains were brought * \ u;"- , c .-. 

» .o a«.w ^ Ill0 r c j for interment. 

Froui mlure. p lllirn( ; nn t , .. :'■■., • t . n 

, uuiiluiuii^ nnc -{ |, a bit, \\j was emphatically a 

practical man in p 1 * reS pect3. Mis business talents were un- 
common ^ ; ^ i( j j } j s con stancy in their exercise was rarely sur- 
^Josed. His natural temperament inclined him to hilarity ; but 
Vis strictlv moral and industrious habits >o far repressed ibis 
natural propensity, as to give him raihei the appearance of 
giavity than of its opposite, in the latter part of bis life. Yet 
h's natural and acquired case and urbanity, rendered him a 
pleasing companion both to the grave and the gay. His ten- 
der emotions were easily excited, and not easily concealed ; 
nor weie they ever suppressed but from a sense of duly or pro- 
priety. He was benignant and exemplary in his domestic re- 
lations — and just in bis dealings with all. He had been for 
manv years previous to his death, a consistant member of the 
Episcopal Church. 

On the toth of September, 1792, Mr. Boardman was mar- 
ried to Miss Mary Ann Whiting, daughter of Dr. William Whi- 
ting, of Great Barrington, Mass., and had six children, viz , 
1, Hon. William W., of New Haven ; 2, Henry M., who mar- 



241 
ncd diirah H„ daughter of the Rev. Benjamin Efcnh&ni, then 
of New Mil ford, and died at Boardman, Ohio, in I S i 5 , leaving 
four sons ; 3. George S., who graduated at Union College, 
and died at the a°:e of 26 ; 4. Caroline M.. the wife of ihe 
Rev. John Frederick Sehroeder, D. D., of New York, who has 
eight children ; 5. Mary Anna, who died at the age of 17 
years ; 6. Caroline E., unmarried. 

Mrs. Boardman was a lady eminent for her piety, judgment, 
talents, and dignity of character. She died in June, 184S; 
and during the following year, her Memoirs, edited by Dr. 
Sehroeder, were printed in a handsome volume of 478 pages* 



3** 



ELISHA WHITTLESEY 



ELISHA WHITTLESEY is a native of Washington, New 
Preston Society. While he was a child, his parents removed 
to Salisbury, where his boyhood was chiefly spent. He early 
qualified himself for admission to the bar, and commenced the 
practice of his profession on the l< Connecticut Reserve," in 
the State of Ohio. He rose rapidly in public estimation, and 
was soon universally esteemed not only for his soundness and 
ability as a lawyer, but as a gentleman of singular uprightness 
a:ul disinterestedness of purpose. 

In 1823, Mr. Whittlesey was elected to Congress from the 
Reserves and was continued a member of that body, by suc- 
cessive re-elections, for eighteen years ! Of his long and 
distinguished congressional career we prefer to let others sptak. 
In 1837, the "Pennsylvania inquirer/' published in Philadel- 
phia, contained a series of sketches of public men, under the 
head of " Portrait Gallery," which were widely copied. The 
second sketch of the series is as follows — 

The Honorable Eltsiia Whittlesey, of Ohio, is one of the oldest 
member^ of Congress, and lias held a seat in the House of Represen- 
ts iv s ever since I can ijernember. Of his early history I know but 
Be is >i native of Connecticut, but eaily in youth emigrated to 
Ohio, and there commenced the practice of the law. As a lawyer, lie 
was soon distinguished in rhe west, for the soundness of his judgment, 
the correctness of his purposes, a. id an unyielding integrity, which, if 
the scandal of the world is to be accredited, does not always attach 
itself to the followers of the legal profession. The confidence reposed 
in him by the people, soon induced them to delegate him as their 
Representative to Congress, and if I mistake not, he has held the seat 
h% now occuniat since the voar 1821, 



3 4S 

For manr years past, Mr. Whittlesey has held the important and 
esponsible place of Chairman of the Committee on Claims, an office that 
requires a greater degree of industry, actual labor, and patience, than 
any other that falls within the duties of the House. The business of 
this committee is to examine and investigate all private claims, or 
claims presented by individuals against the government, and report 
their merits to the House. In discharging duties like these, the 
chairman of the committee is necessarily subjected to intense labor, 
as many of the claims presented to him involve all the principles of the 
:ommon and statute law of the country, and not unfrequently are 
:!osely connected with the documentary history of the Republic from 
its very foundation. To ascertain the justice of Amey Darden's 
;laim for the loss of a horse during the war of the Revolution, for in- 
stance, all the papers of the old Continental Congress, and the regis- 
try of the original War office, had to be ransacked — a labor that 
would, at its opening, have staggered and dismayed any other man 
than Mr. Whittlesey. Claims, requiring a corresponding amount of 
labor, are of daily occurrence, and are investigated with alacrity by 
the indefatigable and untiring Chairman of the Committee on Claims. 
The duties of the Chairman of the Ways and Means, are but trifles, 
so far as labor is concerned, in comparison with those which devolve 
on the Chairman of the Committee on Claims, and which are dischar- 
ged with promptitude and a zeal that command the respect of all 
sides of the House of Representatives. 

The House has unbounded confidence in the ability and integrity of 
Mr. Whittlesey, so much so, that it invariably adopts whatever he 
may report ; and it is only necessary to have it understood, that the 
Chairman of the Committee on Claims has reported favourably to a 
claimant, to secure immediate redress. The confidence thus secured 
is as advantageous to the business of this House, as it is to the security 
of justice to individual merit, and the futherance of parliamentary jus- 
tice. And whilst it subserves the ends and aims of legislative action, 
it reflects a credit on Mr. Whittlesey of far greater moment than all 
the glory that can be attained at the hands of partizan warfare. 

As a useful — as an indefatigable legislator, Mr. Whittlesey has no 
superior in Congress— rnay, he has not an equal. His whole time and 
study are directed to the furtherance of the public good, not to the 
promotion of mere party warfare and discipline ; and in the discharge 
of the trusts reposed in him, he is above the reach of the contamin- 
ating influence of party creeds and party dictation. In legislating he 
knj.vi but one party — his country. Ever anxious to promote the 
best interests of the people, and expedite the true course of legislation, 
he never annoys the House with a harrangue for the purpose of send- 
ing a speech home to operate in his district, or to influence his election. 
He daily has occasion to participate in debate, but he is always brief, 
•oncise. distinct, and confines himself exclusively to the subject under 



2H 

dircussicn. If he rises to offer a fe* remarks on the Navy Appro- 
priation, or on any other subject, he discusses the subject itself, and 
does not, like nine-tenths of the speakers in the House, direct himself 
to all other matters this side of the grave, to the exclusion of the 
question at issue. 

In debate, he is distinguished for clearness, perspicuity, precision, 
and a rigid adhesion to facts as they present themselves, and never 
strains at effect. He is always listened to with attention and great 
respect; nnd what he utters always produces a desirable influence. 
His manner is plain and unostentatious, adapted to the every day scenes 
and business of life. No man ever listened to him for a moment, 
without passing judgment in favor of his integrity, his statesmanlike 
qualities, and practical good sense. 

Mr, Whittlesey is about five feet eight or ten inches high, rather 
thick set, and possesses a countenance which is an idex of his heart. 
Stern integrity, benevolence, and morality, are to be read in his fea- 
tures ; and his whole life has been a comment, and an illustration of 
his physiognomy. Without any ostentatious parade of his benevo- 
lence and morality, he has devoted a life, now somewhat protracted, 
to the good of his country and the world ; and I do not believe, that 
he has at any time perpetrated an act, for the consequences of which 
he need blush. Although now well advanced in life, he is in the 
midst of a " green old age ; 5 ' and notwithstanding he is on the down- 
hill side of sixty, a course of morality, of virtue, temperance, and of 
honor, has shielded his constitution against the invasions of age, and 
lie does not appear to be more than two-and-forty. 

Mr. Whittlesey is a whig, and acts with the party in maintaining its 
general principles, but is by no means a violent or a noisy partizan. 
He undoubtedly is of opinion, and correctly too, that the principles of 
a party, and the honour of a country, can be maintained without re- 
sorting to acts of violence, or to the enactment of the scenes of actual 
outrage, which not unfrequentiy, at all stages of the world, have dis- 
graced party struggles. 

He possesses ail the great talents necessary to the office of Chief 
Executive of the United States, and if people could be induced to se- 
lect a candidate for their suffrages, on the basis of legitimate worth and 
merit, their favour would be conferred on just such a man as the Hon. 
Elisha Whittlese} 7 , of Ohio — a man who is an honor to his country, 
and who has proved himself, by a long series of public duty, to be a 
Patriot too pure, and a man too incorruptible, to be swayed by party, 
whilst engaged in discharging the duties of an enlightened American 
Statesman. 

U p*>n the elevation of General Harrison to the Presidency, 

Mr. Whittlesey was appointed Auditor of the United Stales 

Trei-ury for the Post Office Department. He consequently 



'24 5 
declined a re-election to Congress, and on tiie 1 9th of March, 
1841 , he entered upon the duties of his new office, and re- 
mained in their faithful and efficient discharge until near the 
close of President Tyler's administration, when he resigned. 

In 1845, he was appointed General Agent and Director of 
the Washington National Monument Society — a post which 
he still holds. His energetic and systematic efforts in behalf 
of this grand national enterprise, have contributed in an emi- 
nent degree to its success. In 1849, Mr. Whittlesey was 
made First Comptroller of the Treasury of the United Slates, 
and he still continues to discharge the complicated and res- 
ponsible duties of that important office. 



*4e 



JUNIUS SMITH 



JUNIUS SMITH, ll. d , a son of Major-General David 
Smith, was born in Plymouth, October 2, 1780. He gradua- 
ted at Yale College in 1S02, and during the following year he 
was a member of (he Litchfield Law School. In 1803, he pro- 
nouned the annual oration before the "Cincinnati of Connec- 
ticut," a Society composed of Revolutionary Officers. 

In 1S05, by a somewhatsingulartrain of circumstances, Mr. 
Smith became a resident of London. His brother, David, was 
engaged in commercial business in New Haven, and was, in 
conjunction with Captains Gad Peck and Elnathan Atwater 
of that city, owner of the ship "Mohawk," and engaged in the 
West India trade. This ship was captured by a British crui- 
zcr, sent into Tortola, and condemned. The subject of this 
sketch was then practicing law in New Haven, and was appli- 
ed to by the owners to go to London and prosecute an appeal 
in the High Court of Admiralty. He accepted the invitation, 
and sailed from New York on the 25th of November of that 
year. He had no idea of remaining in London longer than 
might be necessary to complete the business entrusted to his 
care ; but the time was protracted more than four years, be- 
fore the Lords of Appeal would even give him a hearing. The 
decision of the Vice Admiralty Court in Tortola was reversed, 
and the avails of the ship and cargo were restored. In the 
mean time Mr. Smith had become extensively engaged in 
commerce, and connected as he was with the house of TalU 
madge, Smith & Co., of New York, it was not an easy matter 
for Jiim to quit his post. 



247 

In 1810, his business requiring bis presence in New York, 
he sailed for that city on the l9th of November. Having dis- 
solved his partnership, and visited his friends in Connecticut 
and elsewhere, he returned to London during the following 
spring. On the 9th of April, 1812, he was married to Miss 
Sarah Allen, daughter of Thomas Allen, Esq., of Huddenfield, 
in Yorkshire — a young iady distinguished for her many accom- 
plishments and her ardent piety. 

Mr. Smith continued his mercantile pursuits until 1832 — 
sometimes with much success, and sometimes in adversity — 
when he commenced the great, work of Atlantic Steam Navi- 
gation, which has led to such important results. On the 12th 
of August, in that year, he sailed from London for New 
York, with his wife and daughter, in the British barque, St. 
Leonard, Captain Rutherford. He chartered the vessel for the 
voyage out, and had 150 passengers on board. The passage 
proved rough and tedious, and was protracted to fifty-seven 
days. The practicability of crossing the Atlantic by steam, 
and the vast advantages which would result from that mode of 
conveyance, occupied his thoughts ; and the more he consid- 
the subject, the more clearly it developed itself to his mind, 
until he became perfectly convinced that it was not only prac- 
ticable but the most philosophical mode of navigating the 
ocean. Upon his arrival in New York, he began to disclose 
his views on this subject, and to argue the question with those 
of his friends who differed from him in opinion, and who could 
see nothing but insuperable difficulties. The project was 
never out of his mind, and all the objections raised and all the 
difficulties foreseen, only served to confirm his own opinion. 
He answered all objections to his own satisfaction, and gath- 
ered strength in the combat, although he knew they remained 
unconvinced, for their incredulity was visible in every feature. 

It was not a slight affair for a single individual, without the 
co-operation of others, to devise, shtpe and follow out measured 



246 

which were to change the system of commercial intercourse 
between Europe and America, and establish a mode of navi- 
gation, new in itself, against the combined interests of com. 
mercial and nautical men, against the uniform practice of ah 
past ages, and the stubborn, unbending prejudices of the world. 

Having maturely considered the undertaking in all its bear- 
ings, he determined, previous to his leaving New York in De- 
cember, 1835, to propose the scheme to some of the most influ- 
ential merchants of that city. He did so ; and the answer was 
characteristic if not rational — "Try the experiment when you 
get back to London, and if it succeeds, we will then join you." 
Not one favored the plan upon independent grounds. He was 
not much disappointed — for he had no very sanguine expecta- 
tions that the merchants of New York would lead the way. 

Mr. Smith sailed from New York on the 20th of December, 
and on the 24th of January he arrived in London. To en list 
the public generally, at that period, in sucli an undertaking, 
was to his mind an unpromising undertaking. The only 
chance of success seemed to be, that of inducing those already 
engaged in the steam coasting trade, and who had therefore 
had some experience in a smail way, to look favorably upon 
the project. With this view he called upon Mr. Jones, a 
Director of the London and Edinburgh Steam Navigation Com- 
pany, whose steam vessels were then the largest afloat, explain- 
to him his views, and solicited his co-operation in carrying into 
effect the plan of navigating the Atlantic by steam. After two 
or three interviews, this gentleman requested Mr. Smith to 
commit his ideas to writing, and he would lay them before the 
Directors. In compliance with this request, he wrote the fol- 
lowing letter : 

London, Feb. 9, 1833. 

Dear Sir, — In conjunction with my friends in New York, I am de- 
Eirous of forming a line of steam-packets to run between this port and 
New York, I apprehend that four in number will be sufficient, and 
fully equal to tht twelve American sailing ships now running on tht 



240 

same line ; and the cost of the four steam -packets, at 30,000/. each, 
frill be about the same as the aggregate cost of the twelve American 
line of packets now running;. 

It is my intention to have two British and two American ships ; and 
the reason is, first, to combine the interests of the two countries in 
their support; and secondly, to afford a certain conveyance both ways 
for goods of foreign as well as domestic growth and manufacture. By 
the treaty of commerce with the United States, British ships cannot 
take foreign goods into the United States, nor can American ships 
bring foreign goods from the United States to England for home con- 
Sumption, but the converse is true of both. It will; therefore, be read • 
ly seen that a line formed of the ships of both nations, to sail alternately 
will embrace all branches of the carrying trade. I left London for 
New York in August last, and the hitter place far London, on the 20th 
December. My friends in New York make no doubt of the practica- 
bility nor of the success of such an undertaking, and have assured me 
that they will build two steam- vessels suited to the object in view, as 
soon as they learn that the plan, so far as regards the British interest, 
can be carried into execution here. % 

In New York, the plan is regarded as one of the first importance to 
the commercial interests of both countries. 

I examined and traveled in many American steam-packets, but they 
have not one calculated for a sea voyage. They are all constructed 
to run upon the rivers* sounds, bays, and canals. These packets are in 
general very roomy, and calculated to cany a great many passengers. 

The North America, in which I took passage on the 16th October, 
at New York, for Albany, 145 miles up the Hudson river, is 230 feet 
in length, 30 feet beam, has two 60-horse low-pressure engines, which 
work at the rate of 26 strokes of the piston per minute. This packet 
is calculated to accommodate 1200 passengers, and there were 400 
on board at the time mentioned. She draws but 4 feet of water, and 
performed the passage to Albany, against the current of the river, in 
twelve hours, including stoppages at the numerous landing-places on 
both sides of the river. Several other packets of nearly equal dimen- 
sions ply upon this river, a particular description of which is unneces- 
sary here. The same general description of packets run in all the 
rivers, sounds, bays, <fcc, from which you will perceive their unfitness 
for the high seas. 

The commercial intercourse between- Great Britain and New York 
is of late years so amazingly increased, that more than 40,000 pa* 
sengers and emigrants landed in the last year in the port of New Yc 
from Europe, chiefly from Great Britain. 

Since the construction of the Erie Canal, running through the Stu 
of New York 350 miles, from Albany to Lake Erie, opening a wa> 
eorumuuieation every step of the way from London to the Niaga 



250 

Falls, the Lakes, Canada, Ohio, Michigan, and ait of the western pari 
of the United States, now peopling with astonishing rapidity, and tbs 
establishment of elegant and convenient packet-boats upon the canal 
for the accommodation of passengers, New York has become the great 
thoroughfare for travelers and emigrants from every part of Europe. 
Whatever mode of conveyance will shorten and facilitate the passage 
from Europe, is certain to have a preference ; and a line of steam'- 
packets from London to New York, would have not only the support 
of Great Britain, but of all Europe. I can hardly expect in a short 
letter to open up the subject so fully to those unacquainted with the 
American trade, as to induce them to enter into my views fully at 
once, or to appreciate the commercial advantages which it promises. 
It was under this impression that I proposed 1 , if I he company enter- 
tained doubts as to the success of the undertaking, to charter of them- 
a suitable vessel for two voyages, or two vessels for one voyage each, 
and to take upon myself the result of such an experiment. 

The distance from Portsmouth to New York is about 3,000 mile?, 
and a good packet ought to make the passage in twelve or thirteen 
days. • 

From March to October is generally the best season of the year for 
passengers, and if we sail from London 20th April to 1st May, it 
would be in good time. 

I am quite sure that no foreign pert can offer such decided advan- 
tages for a line of steam-packets as New York, and up to the present 
time the ground is unoccupied. 

I abstain at present from entering into any calculations as to the 
probable returns to New York. If these hints are not entertained, T 
should be glad to have them considered as confidential, and should feel 
obliged for as early an answer as practicable, for my future govern- 
ment. Your obedient servant, Junius Smith. 

20, Abchurch-lane. 

To this letter the following laconic answer was received* 
which put an end to any further correspondence in that quar- 
ter. 

35 Leadenhall'-street, Feb. 27, 1833. 
Mr. Junius Smith — Sir: Your letter of the 9th Instant, addressed- 
to Mr. Jones, was this day laid before the committee of the London 
and Edinburgh Steam-packet Company, and I am directed to state,- 
they decline your proposal for this season, as all their vessel* are oth* 
erwise appointed. Sir, your most obedient servant, 

A. Mitchell. 



251 
There was but one other steam vessel in England besides 
those owned by the London and Edinburgh Company, of suf- 
ficient size, or in any way adapted to risk a voyage across the 
Atlantic, and that was the " London Merchant." This ship 
was then in the service of Don Pedro, in Portugal. Mr. Smith 
resolved to wait her return. In May, 1833, she arrived at 
Blackwall, and he went down immediately to examine her. 
She was a strong, well built ship, in bad condition, miserably 
fitted up—and could not well have been more filthy if a cargo 
of pigs, instead of Don Pedro's soldiers, had inhabited her. 
Still, he thought she might be put in condition to go the voy- 
age, and accordingly applied to a gentleman interested in the 
ship, and offered to charter her for New York. After some 
d?ys spent in talking, he learned that there were sixteen own- 
ers ; and to induce sixteen owners of one vessel to listen to so 
preposterous a scheme as the one contemplated, was entirely 
hopeless—rand he consequently abandoned her. 

Seeing the difficulties which attended all his efforts to char- 
ter a ship, and feeling at the same time the unsuitableness of 
the ships themselves for go long a voyage, he turned his atten- 
tion most seriously to the formation of a company for the pur- 
pose of building steam-ships for Atlantic navigation. The 
more he resolved this point in his mind, the clearer he saw he 
was following the safest and most correct course, [and there- 
fore was soon reconciled to former disappointments. 

Not a single individual whom he consulted at this time, gave 
him the slightest encouragement, and as yet he had taken no 
steps to ascertain the bearing of public opinion. It seemed 
necessary that some measures to that end should be taken ; 
for he felt that ultimate success must depend upon public sup- 
port- He knew London well. Few men had experienced 
more of its commercial life than he had. Hence, he was 
well aware of the importance of wealth, distinguished con- 
nexions, and a titled name, in successfully carrying forward 



252 
any new enterprize in that great metropolis. Without these, 
and eyen without the least encouragement from the honored 
and great, he was not disheartened. Relying solely upon 
the intrinsic merit of his enterprize, he resolved to persevere. 

On the 1st of June, 1835, he published a Prospectus of a 
joint stock steam navigation company in his own name — for 
in truth he find could no one to second him — proposing to 
raise £100,000 in 200 shares, of £500 each, to construct* 
steam ships for the New York trade. These Prospectuses 
were widely distributed, at a considerable expense of money 
and labor. No person in the American trad« was omitted, 
and most of the public companies and public officers were 
furnished with a copy. Not a single share was applied for, 
nor did Mr. Smith expect many applications. But one object 
he had in view was answered. Through those employed in 
distributing the prospectuses, he learned what the feeling of 
the public was upon the subject, A few looked upon the 
scheme with some favor, and several gentlemen called upon 
him to make inquiries. Generally, however, the plan was 
made the subject of sarcasm, slander, and ridicule. The 
storm raised by the shipping interest and all in the American 
trade, with a single exception, was a fearful thing to encoun- 
ter, and Mr. Smith took some time to consider before proceed- 
ing further. The expense was heavy, the labor severe, and 
the risk of defeat and consequent loss and disgrace, deserved 
some attention. He was not long in deciding upon his course. 

He revised his Prospectus, raised the capital stock to .£500,- 
000, and and adopted the name of The British and American 
Steam Navigation Company, though as yet he had not secured 
a single Director. He called personally upon all the princi- 
pal American Houses to solicit their aid by becoming Direc- 
tors, and every one declined. By this time Mr. Smith was 
convinced that the company must be formed, if at all, entirely 
independent of the shipping interest. This increased the dif- 



253 
ficulty ten fold. Those must be enlisted who were sti angers 
in the field, and who must, be argued into the belief that they 
could do what those concerned in the trade could not do. 

After encountering various other obstacles, which it is un- 
necessary to detail, the company was organized, with the fol- 
lowing Board of Directors, viz., Isaac Solby, Esq.. (Chair- 
man of the London and Birmingham Railroad Co.,) chairman y 
Moses Allen, Esq., Colonel Aspinwall, Captain T. Laikins, 
James Beale, Henry JJainbridge, Charles Enderby, George 
Lunell, Joseph R. Pirn, Junius Smith, and Paul Twigg, Esq's. 
Macgregor Laird, Esq , of London, was chosen Secretary, 
and several Bankers to the Company were appointed. Seven 
of these Directors resided in London, and one in each of the 
cities of Bristol, Liverpool, Dublin, and Cork. 

Ad erti^ements were now published in the daily journals, 
informing the public of the formation of the Company and 
stating where shares might be obtained. Applications poured 
in from all quarters. The capital was raised to £l, 000, 000, 
and a resolution was adopted to establish two lines of steam 
ships to run to New York — one from London and one from 
Liverpool. In July, 1836, the Directors gave notice that they 
were ready to receive plans and proposals, and in September 
a contraet was made with some ship builders in London, to 
construct a steam ship of 2016 tons burthen — the keel of 
which was laid on the 1st of April, 1837. This vessel, after 
the accession of Victoria to the throne of England, was called 
the " British Queen." 

The company were delayed in sending out this ship by the 
failure of those who contracted to furnish the engines ; in 
consequence of which the Sirius, a steam ship of about 700 
tons, was chartered and dispatched for New York. This was 
the first ship that ever crossed the Atlantic propelled by steam, 
Subsequently the British Queen crossed it from London and 
the President from Liverpool. Mr. Smith embarked in the 



254 
British Queen on the I2th of July, I £39, and at half- past 12 
o'clock, P. M., she was under full headway, shooting out to 
sea from Spithead, (he eastern extremity of the Isle of Wight, 
wilh 1 50 passengers. They had a most delightful run, and at 
2 o'clock ou the morning of the 28l h of July, they were at 
Sandy Hook, waiting for a pilot — thus making the passage in 
fourteen and a half da) s. On Thursday afternoon, August 
•2d, they hauled out ot dock and proceeded down the Narrows, 
cheered by innumerable spectators who thronged the wharves, 
shipping, batteries, &c , and accompanied by several steam- 
boats, gaily decorated and crowded with ladies and gentlemen. 

Returning to England, on the 14th they took on board a 
£owes pilot — twelve days from pilot to pilot, and thirteen and 
a half days from New York to Portsmouth. Mr. Smith ar- 
rived at his own house precisely on the day and hour he bad 
£xed upon previous to leaving England, 

The navigation of the ocean by steam, was now no longer 
a doubtful experiment. The praises of Junius Smith were 
jjpon every tongue. He was elected President of the Conir 
pany which he had founded, and Yale College conferred upon 
him the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. We shall not 
speak of the untold advantages which have resulted and may 
yet result from the persevering labors of this one man ; pos- 
terity will do him justice. 

Having accomplished this great object of his ambition and 
hopes, he turned his thoughts into another channel. He had 
visited those countries where Tea was the staple production, 
and had minutely watched its growth and cultivation in con- 
nection with soil and climate ; and having satisfied himself rel r 
ative to the feasiblity of the plan, he determined to introduce 
its cultivation into his native county. With this view he pur- 
chased an extensive plantation in Greenville, South Carolina, 
where for some eight years past he has been experimenting 



with this new article of agriculture. The following letter cm 
the subject is contained in the last Patent Office Repori : 

Dear Sir : — The frequent notice's which have appeared in the pub- 
lic journals, by those Who have visited my tea-garden in Greenville, 
S. C, and by those who have not, seem to render superfluous the ad- 
dition of another word. 

Nothing but your request to make a communication on the subject 
of tea cultivation, through the the Patent Ohrce, would induce me to 
risk the danger of wearying the public ear and of exposing myself to 1 
obloquy.' 

During the past year the tea-plant under my care has passed through' 
severe trials, from" the injury received in transplanting, from the heat 
generated in the packing-cases, from the v\ant of shelter during the 
severe frosts of February, from the excessive heat in June, and from 
the drought of 58 day's Continuance in July and August. The 
plants were divested of their leaves and generally of their branches 
and twigs in February, during my absence in New York. Knowing 
that the plants were tender, and not, fortified by age and mature 
growth against severe weather, I had directed them to bo covered in 
case a material change of temperature should occur. But these or- 
ders were neglected, and they consequently suffered from that cause. 

The plant is sufficiently bard'y to resist any weather occurring in 
this part of the country, when seasoned for one year. 

The plant has grown thrifty since April, and the quantity of foliage, 
buds and blossoms, show that the root has taken strong hold, and- is' 
now fully equal to produce its fruit next autumn, which always follows 
the year after the blossoms. I have a variety of both black and 
green tea-plants. The buds and blossoms of the latter did not aps 
pear until a fortnight after the black? tea-plant. But the blossoms 
were larger when they did appear in September, October, November, 
and December. From present appearances, I think the blossoms of 
some of the late plants will continue to unfold until spring. It is not 
an unusual thing for the blossoms and the fruit to appear at the same 
t'rme upon- the same plant. In this particular it differs from any 
plant I have seen. As my chief object, at present, is to cultivate and- 
increase the tea-nut, it will be a year or two perhaps before I attempt 
to convert the leaf into tea. The root supports the leaf and fruit, 
and the leaf the root, so that neither can be spared without detri- 
ment. 

This climate appears congenial to the growth of the plant, and 
the soil is so diversified in this mountainous district that there is no- 
difficulty in selecting that best adapted to seed growing plants, ©4r 
that designed for the leaf only. Upon the plantation purchased thW 



256 

summer, I have light yellow, dark-brown, red clay subsoil, of a fria- 
ble character, with a surface soil sufficiently sandy to answer the 
demands of the plant. I do not see any reason to doubt, from a year's 
experience, that the tea- plant in its varieties will flourish in what I 
heretofore denominated the tea-growing district of the United States, 
as well as in any part of China. 

The slowness of its growth requires patience. But when once es-» 
iablished, the tea-nuts will supply the moans of extending cultivation, 
and the duration of the plant for twenty 5*ears diminishes the ex- 
pense of labor. To illustrate the hardihood of the plant, I may ob- 
serve, that notwithstanding the zero severity of February frost des- 
troyed the leaves and branches of most of the plants, and those novv 
blooming in great beauty and strength are from roots the growth of 
this summer, I have one green tea-plant the stem and branches of 
which withstood the frost of February without the slightest protection: 
and is now a splendid plant, covered with branches and ever-green 
leaves, affording undeniable evidence not only of its capability of re- 
sist ino- frost, but of its adaption to just such a degree of temperature. 

I have often remarked that the tea- plant requires for its perfection 
the influence of two separate and distinct climates, the heat of sum- 
mer and the cold of winter. The thermometer in this vicinity during 
the heat of summer generally ranges from 74 at 6 o'clock A. M. to 
82 at 3 o'clock P. M., only one day during the summer so high as 86. 

This is a most agreeable temperature, nights always cool, which 
the tea- plant enjoys, and the days hot and fanned with the mountain 
breeze. 

The drought I found the most difficult point to contend with, ows 
jng to the want of adequate means for irrigation. I lost 20 or 30 
plants through this, and learned that no tea plantation should be es- 
tablished without irrigation. After two or three years there will be! 
little necessity for it, because the depth of the roots will generally 
then protect the plant. 

My plantation at Golden Grove is well supplied with water, or I 
Should not have purchased it at any price. 

It is the first and most important point to secure a southern Of 
western aspect, a gentle declivity the second, salubrious air and suit- 
able soil the third. 

Our country is filled with natural tea plantations, which are only 
waiting the hand of the husbsndman to be covered with this luxuri- 
ant and productive plant. 

I know the public is naturally impatient of delay. Like corn, it is 
expected that the tea-nuts will be p'anted in the spring, and the crop 
gathered in the autumn. But they forget that the tea-plant does not 
interfere with any other crop, and when once planted it does not soon 
require a renewal. 



257 

I have sometimes felt this impatience myself, and longed for a cup 
of tea of my own growing, but I have never had one. As a husband- 
man, I must wait some time longer, and let patience have her perfect 
work. Your obedient servant, 

JUNIUS SMITH. 
Golden Grove Tea Plantation. 
Greenville, S. C. December 11th, 1849. 

In July, 1851, Mr. Smith writes to the New York Journal of 
Commerce, that he has just drank for the first time, a dish of tea 
of his own raising. 

Mrs. Smith, (the wife of the subject of this sketch,) died in 
1836. They had one child, a daughter, who became the wife of 
the Rev. Edward Knight Maddox, a graduate of Cambridge and a 
clergyman of the church of England. In October, 1842, Mr. 
Maddox was appointed a chaplain to the army in India. They 
sailed for Calcutta with a little son about two months old, in 
November of the same year. In September, 1843, he was appoint- 
ed chaplain to the important station of Mearut, a little north of 
Delhi, and about seven hundred miles east of Bombay. Mrs. 
Maddox has since died. 



33 



258 



PETER DUEL PORTER. 



General PETER B. PORTER, (son of Colonel Joshua Por- 
ter,) was born in Salisbury in 1773., and graduated at Yale Col- 
lage in 1791, in the class with the Hon. Lyman Law, of New 
London, and the Hon. James Gould, LL.D., of Litchfield. Hav- 
ing completed his legal "studies with Chief Justice Reeve of Litch- 
field, he, in company with his brother, the late Hon. Augustus 
Porter, emigrated to Western New York, they having purchased 
large tracts of land in that then wilderness. The country around 
him increased rapidly in population and resources, and he was 
called early to the performance of various public trusts. Having 
passed, step by step, through various offices of minor grade, in 
1809 he was elected to represent the western district in the Con- 
gress of the United States, in which body he served with fidelity 
and distinction on some of the most laborious committees. In the 
summer following, he was chosen by the legislature of New York, 
in conjunction with De Witt Clinton and Gouveneur Morris, a 
Commissioner to explore the route from Albany to Buffalo, and 
report upon the feasibility of uniting the waters of Lake Erie with 
those of the Hudson. The Report subsequently presented by 
these Commissioners, determined jtjie grand question of commen- 
cing the "Erie Canal" — one of the greatest works of internal 
improvement in the world. 

In 1811, Mr. Porter was agah>« elected to Congress for another 
fall term of two years. The events which transpired during this 



259 

latter period, and in which he was an active participant, were 
among the most important in our history. The long series of 
alleged indignities to our countrymen and our flag, were brought 
to a crisis by a declaration of war by our Government against 
Great Britain, in 1812. Mr. Porter was among the earliest and 
most efficient advocates of the justice and policy of that decla- 
ration. During the exciting sessions of 1811 and 1812, he was 
Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations. In the latter 
part of November, 1811, he reported a set of resolutions, authori- 
zing immediate and active preparations for war ; and on the 11th 
of December following, justified their propriety and necessity by a 
speech of great ability, firm and energetic in its tone, yet temperate 
and judicious, Soon after the war, he was elected Secretary of 
State for New York ; and was also appointed by President Madi- 
son, one of the Commissioners to run the boundary line between 
the United States and the British possessions. 

In 1818, he was transferred from the national councils to the 
field — having been appointed Major General and Chief in com- 
mand of the New York state troops. From that time until the 
close of the war, General Poter was in active service, and distin- 
guished himself in several engagements on the northern frontier. 
It is a fact not generally known, that in 1815 he received from 
President Madison the- appointment of Commander-in-chief of the 
army of the United States — a post which he respectfully decli- 
ned. The letter tendering to him that distinguished station, is 
still in the hands of his family at Niagara Falls. 

At the termination of that unhappy conflict, in 1815, General 
Porter was once more elected to Congress. At the close of that 
term, he declined a re-election, ancl retired to his seat at Niagara, 
intending to spend the remainder of his days in the quiet of domes- 
tic enjoyment. He was regarded as one of the great men of the 
nation, and the annual throng of visitors to the Falls, were wont to 
pay him respectful homage and share in his cheerful hospitality. 
For his services in the war, the legislature of New York voted him 



260 

an elegant and costly sword, with appropriate devices and inscrip- 
tions commemorative of his military career. 

In 1828, President Adams called him from his retirement, 
having appointed him to an important post in his cabinet, that of 
Secretary of War. lie repaired at once to the seat of govern- 
ment, and entered upon the arduous duties of the office, and con- 
tinued to discharge them with extraordinary industry and fidelity, 
until the inauguration of President Jackson ; when, presuming that 
his place would be wanted by some friend of the new administra- 
tion, he sent in his resignation. The famous John H. Eaton suc- 
ceeded him, who was soon succeeded by General Lewis Cass of 
Michigan. 

The wife of General Porter was Leticia Breckenridge, of Ken- 
tucky, a sister of the Rev. Robert J. Breckenridge, D. D. a dis- 
tinguished clergyman of that state. She died at Black Rock, N. 
Y. iii August, 1831, leaving a son and daughter. General Porter 
died at Niagara Falls, March 20, 1844, aged 71 years. 




'■&r 









261 



NATHANIEL W . TAYLOR, D. 0, 



The Rev. Nathaniel Taylor, the second minister in New Mil- 
ford, was settled over the Congregational church in that town, in 
June, 1T48, and continued his pastoral duties there until his death, 
in December, 1800 — over fifty two years. His wife was Tamer, 
daughter of the Rev. Daniel Boardman, his predecessor in the pas- 
toral office. His sons were 1, John B. died in infancy ; 2, Nathan- 
iel ; 3, General Augustine, graduated at Yale College, was an 
officer in the Revolution, and died in Sharon in 1816 ; 4, Colonel 
William Taylor, graduated at Yale College, died in New Milford, 
in 1841. 

Nathaniel Taylor, Esq. (son of the Rev. Nathaniel Taylor,) 
Avas born in New Milford in 1T53 ; married Anna Northrop ; he 
died in 1818. Their children were, 1, Laura, died in childhood ; 
2, John, died in 1837, aged 60 ; 3, Charlotte, married the Hon. 
David S. Boardman of New Milford, and died in 1846 ; 4, Nathan- 
iel W. the subject of this sketch. 

The Rev. NATHANIEL W. TAYLOR, D. D. was born in 
New Milford, June 23d, 1786, and graduated at Yale College in 
1807, in the class with the Hon. John P. Cushman, M. C, Thomas 
L. Grimke, LL. D., Jacob Sutherland, LL. D., Rev. Samuel 
R. Andrew, and other distinguished men. Having completed a 
regular course of theological study, he was ordained and installed 
pastor of the First Congregational Church and Society in New 
Haven, April 8, 1812. In this relation he continued the prompt 



Zo2 

discharge of his ministerial duties, for a period of ten years — 
during which time he established for himself the reputation of 
being one of the ablest and soundest divines in New England; and 
what is still more to his praise as a faithful ambassador of the Great 
Head of the Church, he became the instrument of everlasting good 
to very many who sat under his preaching. 

In November, 1823, Dr. Taylor was appointed to and accepted 
the important post of " Dwight Professor of Didactic Theology" 
in Yale College — a position which he still occupies with distin- 
guished ability. He has long occupied a prominent position in the 
religious world ; being regarded as the official exponent of the 
system of theology taught in one of the largest and most important 
theological seminaries in the United States. But aside from his 
peculiar position, his sermons and lectures, published and unpub- 
lished, have attracted very general attention from their own intrin- 
sic merits — the soundness of their philosophy, the loftiness and 
dignity of their language, and the depth and fervency of piety 
which they exhibit. 

While in the pastoral office, Dr. Taylor was married to Miss 
Rebecca Hine, daughter of Major Beebe Hine, then of New Mil- 
ford, but now a resident of New Haven. His only son, Nathaniel, 
graduated at Yale College in 18d4, and is now a practicing physi- 
cian in New Haven. 



263 



JOSEPH I. FOOTE, D. D. 



Rev. JOSEPH I. FOOTE was born in Watertown, November 
7, 1796. We have no information of his early life and education, 
until be graduated at Union College, N. Y. in 1821. He fitted 
himself for the Christian Ministry at the Theological Seminary at 
Andover, Mass., where he spent three years. In 1826, on the 
26th of October, he was installed pastor of the Congregational 
Church and Society in West Brookfield, Mass. in which relation 
he resided there until May 1, 1832. In the year following he 
was called to the charge of the church in Salina, N. Y. where he 
resided until 1835, when he removed to Courtland in the same 
state, where he continued to labor in the ministry until 1837. In 
1839 he removed to Knoxville, East Tennessee, to the pastoral 
charge of the church in that place. Here his reputation as a 
scholar and divine arrested the attention of the corporation of 
Washington College, in that section of the state, who conferred 
upon him the degree of D. D. and tendered him early in 1840, 
the presidency of that Institution. This College was the first incor- 
porated west of the Alleganies. It dates back to 1794, and 
within its walls were educated many of the most distinguished 
professional men in the Southern and Western States. Dr. Foote, 
after consulting the advice of his friends, accepted the presidency, 
and on the 9th of April, 1840, left Knoxville on a visit to the seat 
of the College in Washington county. On his way, he preached 
on the Sabbath, April 13, at Rogersville, from a part of the apos- 



264 

folic benediction — "The communion of the Holy Ghost be with 
you all" — unci on the following Sunday, at New Providence, 
from another part — "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be 
with you all." These labors were his last, and seem prophetic of 
his end. On the 20th, as he was continuing his journey, he was 
thrown from his horse near Leesburg, and received such injmy 
that he expired on the following day, twenty hours after his Ml — 
the day preceding that on which he was to be inaugurated Presi- 
dent of the College, and enter on anew and wide career of useful- 
ness. 

The following summary of Dr. Foote's character is taken from a 
Biographical Sketch of him, published soon after his death. 

" By this mysterious and afflictive dispensation of Providence, 
the church of Christ has lost a bright and shining light — the 
cause of literature and science, an illustrious and efficient advo- 
cate and patron — a large circle of friends and acquaintances their 
pride and ornament — and a fond and devoted wife, a kind and 
affectionate guide and protector. 

" As a faithful, zealous, and evangelical preacher, Dr. Foote 
had few equals, and perhaps no superiors. As a theologian, he 
was thoroughly conversant with the various systems of faith embra- 
ced by the different denominations of the Christian church. As a 
controvertist, he made no compromise with essential error, either 
in the doctrines or order of the church ; but with that boldness 
and intrepidity which characterized the Fathers of the Reforma- 
tion, he combatted whatever he believed to conflict with the plain 
canons of Scripture, or to stand in opposition to the advancement 
of a pure, practical, and evangelical religion. As a scholar and 
writer, he stood pre-eminently high ; and the frequent contribu- 
tions of his pen to the New York Literary and Theological 
Review, and other periodicals of equal celebrity, have placed him 
on an eminence in polemic and didactic theology, to which but fe 
can, with confidence, aspire. In his intercourse with the world 
he was frank and undisguised — an instructive and sociable com- 



w 



265 

panion — a candid, sincere, unaffected and sympathizing friend; 
and in his domestic circle, a very pattern of tenderness and affec- 
tion." 

The address which Dr. Foote had prepared to deliver on the 
occasion of his inauguration was published immediately after his 
death. In this address he advocates the claims of the College in 
a very able manner. The following extract shows his sympathy 
with the poor, to whose doors he would carry the means of the 
highest intellectual improvement. 

" A prominent motive in extending the operations of the Col- 
lege, is the education of the poor. I use not this term in reproach. 
Who, almost in the whole circle of distinguished schools, has not 
been indigent ? If from the lists of those who have been distin- 
guished officers in Colleges, or pre-eminent in the profession of 
Law, Medicine or Divinity, or celebrated for their attainments in 
science — if from these lists we were to strike out the names 
of those who were originally indigent, how small then would be 
the remainder ? Nor is this scarcely less true of the many who 
have risen to the principal places of honor in the several states, 
and even in the nation itself. 

" There is a disposition in the community to compound indigence 
with ignominy, and to treat the poor as if they were criminal ; no 
other tendency is so injurious to the general elevation of society 
or to our republican institutions. It is, indeed, an affecting fact, 
that scarcely a son of the indolent, the worthless and the immoral 
has ever risen to eminence in our country. The habitations of 
vileness engrave their own character so legibly on their children, 
that it is rarely, or never, obliterated. By far the greater portion 
of those, who in our country have been denominated poor, are 
entirely competent to sustain their families at home. They are 
honest. Their morals are without a stain. They are beloved by 
all their neighbors. Their children are trained in every virtue. 
They are the joy of their parents and the delight of their wealthy 
neighbors. If instead of undertaking to procure an education in 
34 



266 

the liberal arts and sciences, they were to apply themselves to agri- 
culture, to merchandize, or to any ordinary employment, it is 
unquestionable, that competence and perhaps wealth would soon 
smile around them. But if instead of limiting their circle of use- 
fulness by these boundaries, their minds contemplate a wider range 
of operation ; if instead of growing up with the rapidity of the pop- 
lar, they endeavor to acquire the solidity and the expansion of the 
oak ; if their hearts are fixed on being widely and permanently 
useful to the human race, such aspirations in the youthful bosoms, 
ought to he hailed by the community. Facilities ought to be pro- 
vided for the development of such desires and faculties. With 
steady and persevering industry, these minds will soon shine with 
a lustre, equal to that of a prince in his court, or the sons of the 
rich in their palaces. 

" They will, indeed, outshine all those whose industry is not of 
the most stern and enduring kind. Time would fail me to recount 
by name the distinguished men who, from an honorable poverty in 
childhood, have risen by persevering industry and economy to the 
very summit of literary and professional excellence. Excluded 
from participating in the commercial affairs of the country, the 
commodities of the agriculturist cannot be made to yield him those 
pecuniary returns which reward the husbandmen of other regions. 
Hence, many whose home is blessed with abundance, can procure 
but limited means to sustain themselves or their children abroad. 
For such individuals, this institution has always been an asylum ; 
and while she has educated her full share of the rich and the hon- 
orable, she has always been the patron of the honest and the obscure. 
In this she will persevere. It is undeniable, that greater facilities 
than any now enjoyed in these regions for acquiring an education, 
can here be offered at a comparatively small expense. The door 
will always be opened for the admission of the moral, industrious 
and persevering sons of the community to enter. Equally with 
the heirs of the opulent, will it be our delight to train those who 
cannot otherwise be prepared for extensive usefulness. In this 



267 

country, neither honor nor office is hereditary. Every boy is born 
a candidate for the Presidency of the United States. Thus the 
sons of the rich and the poor are equally permitted to run. ' But 
one receiveth the prize ;' the son of an obscure minister of the gos- 
pel, or of a laborer in bricks and mortar, or of a lonely widow, is 
as likely as any other one to sit in Washington's seat and adminis- 
ter the government of his country." 

During his connection with the church at West Brookfield, 
Dr. Foote prepared and delivered " An Historical Discourse'' on 
the occasion of the annual Thanksgiving, November 27, 1828, 
which was published. This discourse exhibits much patient 
research, and is full of interesting facts relating to the settlement 
and early history of Brookfield, and breathes an affectionate and 
grateful spirit towards the fathers of the town and of New England* 
It concludes with impressing on the present generation the duty 
not only of preserving but of increasing the means of civil and reli- 
gious liberty which have come down to us from our ancestors. 

" A review of the dispensations of Providence is calculated to 
impress our minds with the importance of increasing, as well as 
perpetuating the blessings which we enjoy. Had not our ances- 
ters acted on this principle, they would have remained in subjec- 
tion to an oppressive prelacy. They would never have crossed the 
mighty deep, to seek an asylum in the Western hemisphere. 
They would never have taken up their abode in the immense wil* 
derness of America. Had those who first arrived in this place, 
been content with a bare subsistence and with the few privileges 
which they then enjoyed, the forest would still have covered these 
hills and plains. These fields would never have been cultivated. 
These dwellings would never have been erected. These houses 
for the instruction of children and youth would never have been 
reared. These cheerful villages would not have risen. These 
temples for the worship of Jehovah would never have been built. 
It was care for those who should come after them, that chiefly 
influenced our ancestors to cultivate the soil, and to lay deep and 



268 

broad the foundations of literary and ecclesiastical institutions. It 
was the regard of each succeeding generation for the welfare of 
posterity, that has caused these blessings to accumulate in their 
descent to us. And shall we be content to hand down to the next 
generation only the inheritance which was left us by our fathers ? 
Is it enough that we preserve the rights and privileges which we 
have received ? Shall the stream of civil and religious blessings, 
which in passing each generation became broader and deeper, 
receive no tributaries from us ? Can we do nothing to advance to 
that state of perfection at which it is destined eventually to arrive 
' when nation shall no more lift up sword against nation,' and when 
there shall be nothing to molest or intimidate throughout the wide 
extent of God's earthly dominions? Shall the wheel of civil and 
intellectual and moral improvement, which during two centuries 
has been increasing its rapidity, instead of receiving additional 
impulse, be retarded in our generation? let gratitude for the 
blessings which we inherit, impel us to make efforts for the good of 
those who shall come after us. Let us endeavor to leave some 
memorials of our regard for future ages ; and when our bodies shall 
have mingled with the dust, and our very names been forgotten, 
may those ' who arise and declare' the ' mighty acts of the Lord,' 
find amongst their occasions of thankfulness, that their blessings 
were augmented by our generation." 

A volume of Dr. Foote's Sermons, edited by his brother, the 
Rev. George Foote, was published after his decease, and have 
elicited high praise from some of the most eminent theologians of 
the country. 



269 



WILLIAM THOMPSON BACON 



WILLIAM THOMPSON BACON was born at Woodbury, in 
Litchfield county, on the 24th of August, 1814. At the age of 
twelve he was sent to the " Episcopal Academy," at Cheshire, to 
be fitted for college, but, after two years, determined on a mercan- 
tile life, and became a clerk in the city of New York. After 
three years, at the age of seventeen, he established himself in 
business in New Haven. In a short time, however, he withdrew 
from his mercantile connection, and devoted himself to study. 
He entered Yale College in 1833, where he was regularly gradu- 
ated in 1837, and was appointed by his class to deliver the Vale- 
dictory Poem, at the time of the leaving the Institution. During 
the following autumn, he entered the Divinity School of New 
Haven, and, after the usual term of study, was licensed as a min- 
ister in the Congregational denomination. On leaving that insti- 
tution, he was married to a daughter of Professor Knight, of the 
Medical Department of Yale College, and, in 1842, was settled 
over the Congregational church and society in the town of Trum- 
bull, where he remained until 1845, when ill health compelled him 
to ask a dismission. He subsequently became one of the editors 
of the " New Englander" a quarterly magazine of great ability. 
He was also for a few years the editor and proprietor of the New 
Haven daily and weekly " Journal and Courier," which he con- 
ducted with marked ability and success. He is now engaged in 
his ministerial labors in Kent, in his native county. 

Soon after leaving college, Mr. Bacon published a volume of 



270 

Poems from a Boston press, which, in 1840, passed into a third 
edition, revised and enlarged. In 1848, a new volume of Poems 
from his pen, was published by Mr. Putnam of New York, con- 
taining two hundred and seventy five pages. His lighter Poems 
possess much simplicity and grace. He has a fine perception of 
natural beauty, and his graver productions are pervaded by a cur- 
rent of deeply reflective moral and religious sentiment. 
The following will serve as specimens of his Poems. 

ROME. 

The Coliseum's lonely walls still tower, 

In all their massy strength, to greet the skies ; 

The Caesars' hundred palaces of power 
In undecayed magnificence still rise ; 

And towers, and tombs, and temples desolate, 

Tell of the solemn grandeur of her state. 

The winding walks are there, which, erst, have rung 
With steel-shod foot, and hoof, and clattering car, 

When hosts met hosts, like Waves on wild waves flung, 
And Fury sped the thunderbolt of war; 

And there, to greet the traveller, still rise 

The trophies of a thousand victories. 

Each step records some tokens of a day, 

Whose pomp and power we cannot comprehend ; 

'Tis grandeur in the grandeur of decay, 

Where ruin mars what man has scorned to mend; 

And, as from pile to pile the step is led, 

We seem amid the dwellings of the dead. 

We walk amid those temples tottering ; 

Each foot-fall starts the young owl from her rest ; 
Where mantling vines round mouldering arches cling, 

To furnish forth the bat her dusky nest; 



271 

And every breeze that through the ruin strays, 
Seems like the ghost of Rome's departed days. 

Romans and Roman matrons wandered here ; 

Here blushed the cheek as its sweet beauty spoken ; 
Trembled the delicate hand, and sparkled clear 

The bright drop in the eye, at Love's fond token ; 
And children's voices woke these streets all day, 
And echoed the light laugh of maidens gay. 

Tempest, and terror, war, and flood, and fire, 

And cruelty, and guilt, and avarice, 
These have been here, and wreaked their vengeance dire, 

On pillared fane, and smouldering precipice; 
Yet sits she still amid the solemn scene, 
Queen of the hills! ay, "every inch" a Queen. 

Rome's greatness, and Rome's grandeur may not be 
The greatness and the grandeur that we prize; 

Yet, though her soul was chained, her mind was free ; 
And power was there which men cannot despise; 

She lifted her proud arm, each flag was furled, 

And, at her haughty beck, bowed down the world. 

And with her, though a tyrant in her mood, 

Was genius, learning, talent consecrate; 
And though on land and sea her track was blood, 

Yet intellectual greatness marked her state ; 
For while was heard the trumpet's deafening clang, 
The Forum thundered with the loud harangue. 

Yet we walk forth upon the breast of earth, 
And dare to speak and tell how great we are; 

Less than the ancient worthies from our birth, 
We talk of deeds of daring — thus we dare; 

It is as if the young and timorous dove 

Should mate itself with the proud bird of Jove ! 



272 



"THE LEAVES ON THE BOUGH STIRR'D." 

The leaves on the bough stirr'd, 

Are fading and falling, 
And the wind and the wood-bird 

Are mournfully calling; 
And music around us, 

Of landscape and river, 
And feelings that bound us, 

Are passing for ever. 

The mists of the mountain, 

With morning upspringing, 
The chime of the fountain, 

Its melody ringing ; 
The foam where the river burst 

Up to the day, 
And all by the sweet stream nurs'd, 

Passing away. 

So hearts we have cherish'd, 

When life was before us, 
Are grown cold or perish'd, 

As years have roll'd o'er us ; 
And we look in the faces, 

Once glowing with gladness, 
And we find in their places, 

But sorrow and sadness. 

0, life! it is tearful, 

We 're all of us sighing; 
The moment we 're cheerful, 

That moment we 're dying; 
And all we have tasted, 

And all we have spoken, 
Are hopes — that are wasted, 

And hearts — that are broken. 



-27S 



FREDERICK WHITTLESEY. 



FREDERICK WHITTLESEY was bom in Washington, 
(New Preston Society,) on the 12th of June, 1799. His fa- 
ther, David Whittlesey, Esq., still survives; his mother was 
Martha Pomeroy, a daughter of Quartus Pomeroy, of North- 
ampton, Mass. When about ten years of age, Frederick com- 
menced a course of studies preparatory to entering college — 
first with the Rev. Dr. Backus of Bethlem, and subsequently 
under the tuition of the Rev. Samuel Whittlesey* then pastor 
of a church in New Preston. From thence he went to the 
Academy of the Rev. Daniel Parker, in Sharon, Ellsworth So- 
ciety, where he completed his preparatory studies. 

In the autumn of 1814, he entered the Freshman Class of 
Yale College, and graduated in 1818. Soon after, he entered 
as a law student in the office of Bleeker & Sedgwick, in Alba- 
ny, N. Y., and after remaining there about nine months, he 
became a member of the Litchfield Law School. At the end 
of one year, lie took up his abode with his kinsman, Robert 
Campbell, Esq., of Cooperstown, N, Y., with whom he fin- 
ished his legal education, and was admitted to the bar of the 
Slate of New York, at Utica, in October 1821. During the 
whole course of his professional studies, he was distinguished 
for his application, and prontted by the advantages allowed 
him. He was not only well qualified for the bar, but in the 
mean time he had reviewed the classics, devoted much time 
to general literature, and had to a considerable extent practiced 
in the art of composition. 



214 

After his admissidh to the bar, Mr. Whittlesey spent about 
three months at his father's house in Connecticut, revolving in 
his mind where he should commence business. Remember- 
ing the pleasant associations connected with Cooperstown, he 
finally returned to that village, opened an office, and remain- 
ed there about nine months. Not meeting with a success ade- 
quate to his wants and wishes, he became somewhat uneasy. 
He finally packed up his books, made his way to the Erie Ca- 
nal, placed himself, trunks and boxes, on board a boat, and pro- 
ceeded westward in search of some indefinite place of residence 
which should afford a prospect of subsistence. He had a vague 
idea of ultimately reaching Detroit — but there was no definite 
purpose in his mind, except to go somewhere and settle down. 
He followed the Canal as far as Rochester, where it then ter- 
minated. The weather was bad — the roads were muddy be- 
yond precedent. He was wearied and ill, and instead of pro- 
ceeding onward, put up at a public house. Rochester was but 
a small village, and he knew not a soul there. While tarrying 
in this place, undecided and desponding, he made some ac- 
quaintances, who suggested it as a favorable point of location. 
He decided to remain rather than encounter the miserable 
thoroughfares which lay beyond — and accordingly opened an 
effice, November 1822. From that moment, he looked upon 
Rochester as his home, and such it has continued to be un- 
til the present time. 

In 1824, the first Bank was established in Rochester, and in 
some of the disputes growing out of its establisment, Mr, 
Whittlesey was appointed one of its Attorneys. During the 
following year, he was appointed Clerk of the Court of Equity 
for the Eighth Circuit of the State of New York — an office 
which he held until 1830, when the Courts were differently 
arranged. In September 1825, he was married to Miss Ann 
Hinsd-ile, daughter of Bissell Hinsdale, Esq., of Winsted^ in his 
sative county, who is still living. 



275 

In 1826, the abduction of William Morgan occurred, on ac- 
count of his alleged revelation of the secrets of Free Masonry, 
The nature of his offence, and the mystery which shrouded his 
fate, caused great excitement in the community in which the 
events occurred. At a public meeting held in Rochester in 
relation to this transaction, Mr. Whittlesey was chosen one of 
a Committee of Investigation, since known as the "Morgan 
Committee." In connection with others, he bestowed much 
time and labor in investigating the circumstances of this abduc- 
tion — in endeavoring to unravel the dark conspiracy — in tra- 
cing out his mysterious fate, and seeking to bring the perpe- 
trators of a great social crime to justice. This investigation 
almost imperceptibly ran into politics, and led to the formation 
of the Anti-Masonic Party, of which Mr. Whittlesey was an 
active and leading member. Previous to this time he had be- 
come one of the editors and proprietors of a political newspa- 
per, in which his talents as a writer had become favorably 
known to the public. In 1S26, he was appointed Commis 
er of Deeds ; and during the following year he was appointed 
one of the Trustees of the village of Rochester, and subse- 
quently was elected Clerk of the Board of Trustees of that 
village. In 1829, he was appointed Treasurer of the County 
of Monroe, and held the office for two years. 

Mr. Whittlesey was elected a Representative to Congress 
in 1830, from the district composed of the counties of Monroe 
and Livingston ; and was re-elected in 1832, from the district 
composed of Monroe county alone. Having served his con- 
stituents in this capacity for four years with distinguished abil- 
ity and general acceptance, his congressional career termina- 
ated on the 4th of March, 1835. ^ 

In 1839, the Legislature of the State of New York passed a 
jaw creating the office of Vice Chancellor of the Eighth Judicial 
Circuit, and Mr. Whittlesey was appointed to that office by the 
Governor and Senate. He continued to discharge the duties 



27a 

q{ this appointment for eight years, when the office ceased un- 
der the provisions of the new Constitution; In 1847, he was 
one of the Whig candidates for the office of Judge of the Court 
of Appeals, a new Court created by the Constitution then re- 
cently adopted, and to which the Judges were elected by the 
people. Immediately upon ceasing to be Vice Chancellor, he 
was appointed by the Governor and Senate, a Judge of the old 
Supreme Court, which was to continue in existence until July 
1848. In January 1850, Judge Whittlesey was appointed 
professor of Law in Genessee College. 



277 



SAMUEL SHEATHER PHELPS. 



SAMUEL S. PHELPS was born at Litchfield, May 13th, 
1793. His father, Captain John Phelps, was a wealthy and 
respectable farmer in Litchfield, and a soldier of the Revolu- 
tion. Soon after the war broke out, he enlisted into a com- 
pany of cavalry commanded by Captain Moses Seymour, of 
the same town, which was present at the battle of Saratoga, 
and rendered other valuable services in the struggle for Amer- 
ican Independence. He was the only son of Edward Phelps, 
who was a Representative to the General Court of Connecti- 
cut in 1744 and '45, and who died at an advanced age, on the 
same farm where he had spent a great part of his life, and to 
the possession of which his son succeeded. John Phelps mar- 
ried Miss Sheather, of Litchfield, and had several children, most 
of whom still reside in that town. The subject of this sketch 
was the youngest sou, and named after his maternal uncle* 
Samuel Sheather. 

At an early age, Samuel was placed under the care of the 
Rev. Ammi Robbins, of Norfolk — who kept a family school 
for boys — where he pursued the preparatory studies required 
for entering college. Judge Phelps still occasionally refers, 
with great apparent pleasure, to the days he spent with the 
good Connecticut pastor who laid the foundation of his mental 
discipline— always speaking of him in affectionate terms, and 
as one of whom he has ever retained a reverent and kindly re- 
membrance. 

In September, 1807. at the age of fourteen, he entered Yale 
College, where he was duly graduated, and with credit to him- 



2*78 
self, though considerably younger than most of his class — among 
the number of whom were the Hon. John M. Clayton, late 
Secretary of State, and the Hon. Roger S. Baldwin, formerly 
Governor of Connecticut, and United States Senator. 

The winter ensuing was spent at the Litchfield Law School, 
where he attended the lectures of Judges Reeve and Gould. 
In the following spring he removed to Vermont, and took up his 
residence at Middlebury — a town which had been settled 
chiefly by emigrants from Connecticut, and, in a great propor- 
tion, from Litchfield county. He there continued his legal 
studies in the office of the Hon. Horatio Seymour, since a Sen- 
ator in Congress from Vermont. At that time, (1812,) party 
spirit ran high ; in New England, and in the particular region 
where he lived, the Federal, Anti-War party was strongly in 
the ascendant. Notwithstanding this, however, he was a de- 
cided Democrat and a warm supporter of the Administration. 
Soon after hostilities commenced, he was dratted as one of the 
100,000 men who were to hold themselves in readiness, and 
during the summer was ordered to the Canadian frontier. He 
continued in the ranks at Burlington and Plattsburgh until au- 
tumn, when he received from President Madison ihe appoint- 
ment of Paymaster in the United States' service. In that ca- 
pacity he remained, until the object of his appointment was 
accomplished. 

Returning to Middlebury, he resumed his law studies, and 
was admitted, in December, 1814, to practice in the Superior 
Courts, and, three years after, in the Supreme Court. Here 
he continued in an extensive and successful practice for the 
next seventeen years, and until called upon to give up these 
duties, to fill high and responsible public stations. Previous 
to the termination of this period, he was elected (in 1827) one 
of the Council of Sensors. The address to the people, put 
forth by this Council, was written by Mr, Phelps. 

One peculiar feature in the Constitution of Vermont, at that 



2^0 
peiiod, was the vesting of the principal legislative power in one 
body of men, ealled the House of Representatives — subject, 
however, to the approval and consent of the Governor and 
Council, The latter body consisted of one member from each 
county in the state, elected by general ticket. In 1821, Mr. 
Phelps was elected a member of the Legislative Council, and 
during the session of the Legislature of that year, he was ap- 
pointed a Judge of the Supreme Court. This office he held 
by successive elections until 1838. 

In the autumn of 1838, Judge Phelps was elected to the Sen- 
ate of the United States, and at the close of his term of six 
years, was re-elected to the same office in 1844. 

The military appointments held by Senator Phelps, we may 
add, have been, Paymaster in the governmental service, Aid to 
Gov. Galusha, adjutant of a regiment, captain of a volunteer 
company of riflemen, and colonel of a regiment. The office 
of brigadier-general he declined in favor of a friend who stood 
next in the line of promotion. 

The high reputation which Judge Phelps enjoyed, as a mem- 
ber of the Supreme Bench, would undoubtedly (notwithstand- 
ing the too frequent change of judicial officers in his State) have 
retained him in that capacity for many years beyond the time 
of his resignation, to enter the Senate, but for that event. Nc* 
decisions of the Vermont Bench are more highly valued than 
his, as contained in the Reports from 1831 to 1838. None are 
more marked by clearness and force of language, as well as by 
a deep and thorough scrutiny of the whole case, in all its bear- 
ings, that exhausts the subject, and leaves scarcely room for a 
cavil. The confidence of the people at large in his integrity 
and ability in this capacity has been rarely equalled, and their 
admiration of his judicial character*and talents cannot be ex- 
pressed in exaggerated terms. As an advocate, his reputation 
is not confined to his own State, or to New England. His ar- 
guments before the Supreme Court of the United States, at 



280 
Washington, have made him very generally known as one 
who has few superiors as a cogent and powerful reasoner — one 
who, at a glance, can look through the merits and bearings of 
a case, and leave no strong point for his client unoccupied, and 
no assailable point in the positions of his adversary unattacked. 
We deem it no impropriely to mention here the remark of one 
highly distinguished, both as advocate, orator and statesman, 
after arguing a complicated and important case before the Su- 
preme Court, in which Judge Phelps was his opponent : " I 
would rather," said he, " have met any other lawyer from New 
England. Judge Phelps has no superior there or in the coun- 
try." 

In the Senate, he has been known as a useful and influen- 
tial, rather than as a noisy member ; a man of sound practical 
judgment, and acting fearlessly up to his convictions of right ; 
cautious and conservative, yet not to such an extreme but that 
he can recognize and cheerfully adopt every real and positive 
improvement ; true to the Constitution he has sworn to sup- 
port, and to the Union ; and commending himself, by his cour- 
tesy and candor, to the respect and esteem of all parties. He 
seldom speaks, unless some important question is pending, and 
unless, on that question, he has some well-considered opinions. 
His quiet and industrious labors in the committee-room — and 
especially as a member of the committee on Claims, and of the 
committee on Indian Affairs, in one or both of which capacities 
he has rendered efficient service for several jears- have been 
highly appreciated by his associates at Washington, and have 
not been valueless to the country. 

Several able speeches have been delivered by him in the 
Senate, two of which, in particular, attracted much attention 
in all parts of the Union, ^Ve allude to his speech on the bill 
(known as Clayton's Compromise,) reported by a select com- 
mittee of the Senate, of which he was a member, in the summer 
of 1848 ; and to that on the Vermont auti slavery resolutions, 



'281 
'Oil the Vermont Anti-Slavery Resolutions, during the spring 
of 1850. From the well known anti-slavery sentiment of the 
people of Vermont, and the course of northern Senators gen- 
erally, he was placed in a difficult position by his support of 
what was, for the moment, almost universally denounced at 
the North. Yet he never wavered from his convictions of duty 
in obedience to popular clamor ; and, whether light or wrong 
in his positions, he had the satisfaction of subsequently see- 
ing his course generally approved by his constituency. His 
speech on the Anti-Slavery Resolutions of his State, secured 
for him at once a high position as an orator and statesman, 
and was received with admiration by the Senate and the coun- 
try; It was copied entire into newspapers in various parts of 
the Union — especially at the North and West. 

Senator Phelps was appointed on the Select Committee of 
Thirteen, to whom were referred various matters pertaining 
to Slavery, With instructions to report some suitable plan for 
the adjustment of existing difficulties. Reluctantly he con- 
sented to act on that Committee, and from their report, sub- 
sequently drawn up and piesented by Mr. Clay, he very pro* 
perly dissented. 

Senator Phelps was one of the distinguished guests on board 
the U. S. Frigate " Princeton," at the time of the memorable 
explosion of the mammoth gun, which killed several members 
of President Tyler's Cabinet and other prominent gentlemen.* 

* The following letter from Senator Phelps to a gentleman in Boston, 
was published soon after the occurrence of the terrible catastrophe — 

Washington, March 3d, 1844. 

My Dear Sir — Yoar kind letter of yesterday came to hand this evening. 
My escape from death by the tremendousx>ccurrence on board the Princes- 
ton, was narrower than you or the public are aware. I stood at ihe breach 
of the gun, and I suppose nearer to it than any man except those employed 
in discharging it. I had with rae a young lady from Maryland, (Miss 
Somerville,) whom I had just introduced to Colonel Benton, and who 
was the only lady on board exposed. The Colonel and I were both pros, 
trated, and he is on his back still. My hat disappeared, and I have made 
no inquiry for it. The young lady's bonnet went with it. Her dress was 
torn. My surtout was lorn open, and my pantaloons demolished- Her 



282 
He himself narrowly escaped death — but, through the inter 
vention of a merciful Providence, he still lives. 

He was appointed to deliver the annual address before the 
American Institute in October 1850, but in consequence of 
the protracted session of Congress, he was unable to fulfil the 
appointment. On the 4th of March, 1851, after being twelve 
years in the Senate, he retired to private life, and was suc- 
ceeded in that body by the Hon. Solomon Foote. 

face was scorched, and the poor girl stood like a statue, unconscious. I 
did not lose my consciousness for a moment. I took a glance at the scene 
caught her round the waste, and carried her below. I witnessed a scene 
there which I shall not attempt to describe — it was one of agony, frenzy. 
The shrieks of an hundred females — wives, daughters, sisters — the beauty, 
the loveliness of the land — are still ringing in my ears. The imploring 
appeals to know the fate of the nearest and dearest objects of their affec- 
tion^ cannot be forgotten. "Sir," said one, " they will not tell me about 
my husband." I knew her not, but she was at that moment a widow. 
Her husband was blown to atoms. Another, in a state of frenzy, was 
caught in the arms of her husband, and assured, by his ardent embrace 
and fervent kiss, that he was safe ; but the agonized being who had, at 
that moment, made that trying appeal to me, augured too surely that she 
would feel that embrace no more. My friend, you will hardly believe me 
when I tell you I was calm, collected. It was no time for trepidation. I 
felt as if introduced into the presence of my Maker. The scene was un- 
earthly : every selfish feeling vanished : even my own life was of no ac- 
count. I was taken to the portals of eternity, and felt that I was survey* 
ing, not the paltry interest* of time and sense, but man's eternal destiny. 
The first tear that started from my eye, fell upon the few lines which con^ 
vOyed to my beloved and devoted wife the assurance that she was not a 
widow, nor her children fatherless. 

But it is past ! The friends who but a moment before the fatal accident 
were seated with me at the festive board, blest with health and clothed 
with honor — the select and distinguished few, a nation's pride and a na- 
tion's ornament — are now in the presence of their God, whither I musl 
soon follow. My worthless lite has been spared — may it not have been for 
the purpose of a better preparation 1 Adieu. S. S. PHELPS. 



•283 



JOHN PIERPONT. 



The Rev. JOHN PIERPONT is a lineal descendant of 
the Rev. James Pierpont, the second minister of New Haven, 
who is supposed to have been allied to the noble English fam- 
ily of his name, which held the earldom of Kingston, and bore 
the motto "Pie repone te." The grandson of Mr. Pierpont 
of New Haven was a resident of Litchfield, where his son, the 
subject of this sketch, was born, on the 6th of April, 1785, 
He entered Yale College at fifteen years of age, and was reg- 
ularly graduated in 1804, After assisting for a short time the 
Rev. Dr f Backus, in the charge of the Academy at Bethlem, 
he went to South Carolina in the autumn of 1805, and resided 
as a private tutor in the family of Col. William Alston, with 
whom he remained for nearly four years. Here he commen- 
ced the study of the law, which, after his return to Connecti- 
cut in 1809, he continued in the law school at Litchfield. 

In 1812, Mr Pierpont was admitted to the bar in Essex 
County, Massachusetts, and practiced his profession for a tine 
in Newburyport. Here he first became known to the public 
in a poetical character, by delivering before the " Washington 
Benevolent Society" of Newburyport, a patriotic poem entitled 
" The Portrait," which was afterwards published. His health 
demanding more active employment, he relinquished his pro- 
fession, and engaged in mercantile transactions, first in Boston 
and subsequently in Baltimore. In 1816, he abandoned these 
pursuits, and about the same time published the " Airs of Pal- 
estine," three editions of which were published in the course 
two years. He now devoted himself to the study of theology, 



284 
first at Baltimore, and afterwards at the Theological School 
connected with Harvard College. In October, 1818, he left 
that institution, and in April of the following year, was ordain- 
ed pastor of the Hollis Street Church, in Boston, as successor 
to the Rev. Dr. Holley, who had been elected President of 
Transylvania University, in Kentucky, 

In 1835, Mr. Pierpont left his native country, and passed a 
year among the most interesting scenes of foreign travel. He 
visited England, France and Italy, and from thence extended 
his tour through Greece into Asia Minor, and to Constanti- 
nople. On his return, he resumed his pastoral charge in Bos- 
ton, which he retained until 1846 — a period of more than twen- 
ty-seven years from his settlement. After leaving that city, 
he was for a sbort time a resident of Troy, New York, but was 
subsequently'settled over a church in Medford, Massachusetts, 
where he still resides. In addition to his more legitimate du- 
ties as a pastor, he has been often and zealously engaged in 
various moral and political reforms. He was at one election, 
the regular candidate of the Liberty Party for the office of 
Governor of Massachusetts ; and in the autumn of 1850, he 
was the Free Soil candidate for Representative to Congress 
from the district in which he resides— but there being no choice, 
he withdrew from the contest before another election. 

The " Airs of Palestine" is a poem of about eight hundred 
lines, in the heroic measure, designed to illustrate the influence 
of music upon the passions of mankind, by examples chiefly 
drawn from sacred history. It was written in the cause of 
charity, its recitation having formed part of the exercises of an 
evening concert of sacred music for the benefit of the poor. 
It is the largest work of our author, and its graceful verse and 
glowing imagery have justly rendered it one of the most pop-, 
ular of American poems. The minor and occasional poems of 
Mr. Pierpont have been numerous, and of a highly varied 
character. They are composed in almost every variety of 



285 
measure, and are generally marked with more of boldness and 
less of delicacy that the " Airs of Palestine." They were 
collected and published with the latter poem, at Boston, in a 
duodecimo volume, Mr. Pierpont is elected as the Poet of 
the Phi Beta Kappa Society of Yale College for the year 1851. 

In addition to his poetical works, Mr. Pierpont has publish- 
ed several school books, which have been very popular. 

The following extracts from his poems will give the reader 
some idea of his style and talent ; 



THE PILGRIM FATHERS. 

The pilgrim fathers — where are they ? 

The waves that brought them o'er, 
Still roll in the bay, and throw their spray, 

As they break along the shore ; 
Still roll in the bay, as they rolled that day,, 

When the May-Flower moored below, 
When the sea around was black with storms, 

And white the shore with snow. 

The mist that wraped the pilgrim's sleep, 

Still broods upon the tide : 
And his rocks yet keep their watch by the deep, 

To stay its waves of pride. 
But the snow-white sail, that he gave to the gale, 

When the heavens looked dark, is gone, 
As an angel's wing, through an opening cloud, 

Is seen, and then withdrawn, 

The pilgrim exile — sainted name ! 

The hill, whose icy brow 
Rejoiced, when he came, in the morning's flame, 

In the morning's flame burns now. 



And the moon's cold light as it lay that night 

On the hill-side and the sea, 
Still lies where he laid his houseless head, 

But the pilgrim — where is he ? 

The pilgiim fathers arc at rest ; 

When Summer's throned on high, 
And the world's warm breast is in verdure dresse d 

Go, stand on the hill where they lie. 
The earliest ray of the golden day 

On that hallowed spot is cast ; 
And the evening sun, as he leaves the world, 

Looks kindly on that spot last. 

The pilgri m spirit has not fled, 

It walks in noon's broad light ; 
And it watches the bed of the glorious dead, 

With the holy stars, by n ight. 
It watches the bed of the brave who have bled, 

And shall guard this ice-bound shore, 
Till the waves of the bay where the May-flower lay 

Shall foam and freeze no more. 



DEDICATION HYMN. 

O Thou, to whom, in ancient time, 
The lyre of Hebrew bard was strung, 

Whom kings adored in songs sublime, 

And prophets praised with glowing tongue,- 

Not now, on Zlon's height alone, 
Thy favored worshipper may dwell, 

Nor where, at sultry noon, thy Son 
Sat, weary, by the patriarch's well. 

From every place below the skies, 

The grateful song, the fervent prayer— 



287 

The incense of the heart— may rise 
To heaven, and find acceptance there. 

In this thy house, whose doors we now 
For social worship first unfold, 

To Thee the suppliant throng shall bow, 
While circling years on years are rolled. 

To Thee shall age, with snowy hair, 

And strength and beauty, bend the knee, 

And childhood lisp, with reverend air, 
Its praises and its prayers to thee. 

O Thou, to whom in ancient time, 
The lyre of prophet bards was strung, 

To thee, at last, in very clime, 

Shall temples rise, and praise be sung ! 



INVOCATION. 
From the "Airs of Palis tine. 1 * 
0, Thou Dread Spirit ! Being's End and Source I 
Check thy bright chariot in its fervid course ; 
Bend from thy throne of darkness and of fire, 
And with one smile immortalize our lyre. 
Amid the cloudy lustre of thy throne, 
Tho' wreathy tubes, unheard on earth, are blown, 
In sweet accord with the undying hymn 
Of angel choirs and harping Seraphim, 
Still hast thou stooped to hear a shepherd play, 
To prompt his measures and approve his lay. 
Hast thou grown old, Thou, who forever livest ! 
Hast thou forgotten, Thou, who memory givest ! 
How on the day th'.ie ark, vrith loud acclaim, 
From Zion's hill to Mount Moriah came, 



288 
iBeneath the wings of cherubim to rest, 
In a rich veil of Tyrian purple dressed ; 
When, harps and cymbols joined in echoing clang> 
\Vbeft psalters tinkled, and when trumpets rang, 
Thou didst descend, and, rolling thro' the crowd-, 
Inshrine thine ark and altar in thy shroud, 
And fill tlie temple with thy mantling cloud ! 
And now, Almighty Father, Well we know, 
When humble strains from grateful bosoms flow> 
Those humble strains grow richer as they rise. 
And shed a balmier freshness oil the skies ! 

What though no Cherubim are here displayed* 

iNo gilded walls, no cedar colonnade, 

No crimson curtains hang around our choir* 

Wrought by the cunning artizan of Tyre j 

No doors of fir on golden hinges turn > 

No spicy gums in golden censers burn ; 

No frankincense, in rising volumes, shrouds 

The fretted roof in aromatic clouds ; 

No royal minstrel, from his ivory throne* 

Gives thee his father's numbers or his own ; 

If humble love, if gratitude inspire, 

Our strain shall silence even the temple's choir, 

And rival Michael's trump, nor yield to Gabriel's lyrei 



289 



JEREMIAH PAY 



JEREMIAH BAY, D. D., LL. D., late President of Yale 
College, was born in New Preston, a parish in the town of Wash- 
ington, Connecticut, 1773. His father, the Rev. Jeremiah Day, 
who was graduated at Yale College in 1756, was pastor of the 
church in New Preston, and lived to an advanced age, much 
respected. President Day was entered a freshman in Yale Col- 
lege, 1789, but on account of infirm health, did not complete his 
collegiate course with the class to which he at firsc belonged. 
After an absence of several years, he rejoined the College, and 
received the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1795. 

This was the year of Dr. Dwight's accession to the presidency. 
By the removal of Dr. Dwight from Greenfield, the school which 
he had established in that village, and which had flourished very 
greatly under his instruction, was destitute of a preceptor. Mr. 
Day was invited to take charge of this school, and continued in it 
a year; when he was elected a tutor in Williams College, Massa- 
chusetts. Here he remained two years. In Yale College, he 
commenced his tutorship in 1798. He had early chosen Theology 
as a profession, and while officiating as tutor, began to preach as 
a candidate for the ministry. On the resignation of Professor 
Meigs, who had been called to the presidency of the University of 
Georgia, Mr. Day was elected, in 1801, to succeed him as Profes- 
sor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. At this time Mr. 
Day was in feeble health, and was obliged to suspend the business 
37 



290 

of instruction. By the advice of his physician, he passed one 
winter in the island of Bermuda. In 1803, his health was so far 
restored that he entered upon his professorship; the duties of 
which he continued to discharge, till the death of Dr. D wight, in 
1817, when he was elected to the office of President. He was 
inaugurated in July of the same year. On the same day in which 
he was introduced into the presidency, he was ordained, by the 
clerical part of the Fellows, a minister of the gospel. 

While President Day was Professor of Mathematics and Natural 
Philosophy, he published several mathematical treatises for the use 
of students in that department; which are used in Yale College, 
and some, or all of them, extensively in other institutions. While 
he was President of the College, he published several occasional 
sermons, and "An Inquiry respecting the Self-determining Power 
of the Will, or Contingent Volition." 

In 1817, the College in Middlebury, Vermont, conferred on 
President Day the degree of Doctor of Laws, and in 1818, Union 
College, in Schenectady, the degree of Doctor of Divinity. The 
degree of Doctor of Divinity, likewise, was conferred on him in 
1831, by Harvard University. 

President Day occupied his station until 1846 — longer than any 
other head of the College. Yale College has been peculiarly for- 
tunate in its Presidents ; and it may be said with truth, that it at 
no time flourished more, than under the administration of President 
Day. His learning and talent united to great kindness of heart, 
and urbanity of manner, secured alike the respect and love of 
the thousands of pupils committed to his charge. 



291 



REV. EBENEZER PORTER, D. D. 



EBEKEZER PORTER was born October 5, 1772, at Cornwall. 
His father, Hon. Thomas Porter, was a farmer, but for many years, 
especially in the latter part of his life, was somewhat prominent as 
a political man. In 1779, he removed with his family to Tinmouth, 
a small town in the Southern part of the county of Rutland, Ver- 
mont. Dr. Porter began to fit for college at an early age, under 
the instruction of his brother-in-law, the Rev. Mr. Osborn, then 
minister of Tinmouth. He completed his preparatory studies 
under the superintendence of the Rev. Job Swift, D. D., pastor of 
the Congregational church in Bennington, Vt. He entered the 
freshman class in Dartmouth College in 1788, and in 1792 received 
the degree of A. B. At the commencement exercises, he had the 
first appointment. During the whole college course, he had sus- 
tained a high rank as a scholar. 

The remark has not unfrequently been made, that the standing 
of a student in college furnishes little or no data on which to esti- 
mate his subsequent usefulness or reputation. Cases, indeed, 
occur of premature growth. The mind which shoots suddenly to 
manhood, may speedily decay. Boys who have excited extraordi- 
nary hopes in college, have afterwards sunk into utter obscurity. 
The mind is also sometimes under the stimulus of vicious excite- 
ments. A young man toils for the highest honors of his class. 
Day and night his powers are stretched to the utmost intensity. 
A stranger to the hallowed motives to literary effort furnished by 
the Christian religion, he nourishes his feverish hopes. The goa? 



292 

is reached ; the vale<Mct<mt oration is secured; the starring scenes 
of commoncemenb-day vanish; the plaudits of too partial friends 
have lost their relish. The unhappy youth is thrown out upon the 
■world without an object or a motive. His mental energies suffer a 
fearful collapse. We hear no more of him. He is a disgrace to 
one of the learned professions, or betakes himself to a life of idle- 
ness, or lingers out a miserable existence in dissipation. Perhaps 
his health was ruined by his unnatural application while in the col- 
lege. The valedictory has been in more than one instance a pre- 
cursor to the grave. The constitution was shattered by the enor- 
mous draughts which the four years made upon it. Still we are 
inclined to think that the character in college is a pretty good 
index of the whole subsequent life. The early developments, as 
a general thing, correspond to the subsequent history. Mind is 
not so changeable in its aspects as to falsify every prediction. 
Some of the most powerful motives which stimulate the youthful 
scholar are of a permanent, as well as a laudable character. 
Years of idleness in college are occasionally recovered at a single 
bound, or atoned for by subsequent indefatigable application. But 
this is not the ordinary law. " Seest thou a man diligent in his 
business; he shall stand before kings." This is as applicable to a 
scholar's life, as to that of any other person. 

Dr. Porter's career is an illustration of this conclusion. He 
studied industriously and methodically in college ; in the whole of 
his subsequent life, so far as his health permitted, he was a hard 
student. In college he acquired for himself respect and an honor- 
able rank; in his professional career he maintained the same 
ascendancy. 

Dr. Porter became pious during his junior year in college. The 
circumstances connected with this interesting event in his history 
are not known to the writer of this article. The year after he 
left college, he connected himself with the Congregational church 
in Washington, Litchfield county. Conn. Of this church he was 
afterwards pastor. It was then under the pastoral care of the 



293 

Rev. Noah Merwin, with whose daughter Dr. Porter subsequently 
became connected in marriage. 

After leaving college, Dr. Porter spent several months in teach- 
ing a school. He then commenced the study of divinity in the 
celebrated private theological school of the Rev. Dr. Joseph Bel- 
lamy, in Bethlem, Conn. Of this distinguished divine and theolog- 
ical instructor, his pupil frequently spoke in terms of the highest 
veneration and respect. For vigor and clearness of intellect; for 
his power in presenting doctrinal truth to the understanding and 
the conscience ; for the hold which he gained in the judgement and 
affection of the students in divinity who resorted to his house ; and 
for the great and happy effects produced by his preaching, his 
lectures and his published discourses, Dr. Bellamy ranks very 
high among the theologians of this and of other lands. The 
American church has great reason to rejoice that she has been 
favored with such luminaries as Drs. Bellamy, Strong, Hart, 
Beecher, Backus, Stephen West, Hopkins, Dwight, Hyde, and oth- 
ers. Perhaps no county in New England has been more highly 
favored in this particular than our own beloved Litchfield. Not a 
little of the spiritual good which Dr. Porter was enabled to effect, 
is, no doubt, to be attributed to the counsels, and example of Dr. 
Bellamy. The length of time employed by Dr. Porter in the study 
of divinity, is not certainly known. It was probably about sixteen 
or eighteen months. On the 6th of September, 1796, he was 
ordained pastor of the Congregational church at Washington, vacant 
by the death of Mr. Merwin. 

The Theological Seminary at Andovcr was opened on *he 28th 
of September, 1808 ; on which occasion the Rev. President Dwight 
of Yale College, one of the visitors, delivered a sermon. At the 
same time, the Rev. Eliphalet Pearson, LL. D., professor elect of 
sacred literature, was ordained. Rev. Leonard Woods, D. D., 
was appointed Abbot professor of Christian theology. Soon after, 
Rev. Edward D. Griffin, D. D., was chosen Bartlet professor of 
sacred rhetoric. On the resignation of Dr. Pearson, Rev. Moses 



294 

Stuart of New Haven, Conn., was chosen professor of sacred litera- 
ture ; and on the resignation of Dr. Griffin, the Rev. Ebenezer 
Porter, the subject of the present sketch, was appointed professor 
of sacred rhetoric. 

The appointment of Dr. Porter was made in 1811. On the 
18th of December of that year, the South Consociation of Litch- 
field county held a special meeting at the house of Dr. Porter, for 
the purpose of considering the circumstances of the application, 
and, if thought advisable, to dissolve the relation between him and 
his people. The clergymen present on this occasion, were the Rev. 
Drs. Backus of Bethlem, Tyler of South Britain, Beecher of 
Litchfield, and the Rev. Messrs. Benedict of Woodbury, Chase of 
South Farms, Swift of Roxbury, Whittelsey of New Preston, Tay- 
lor of Bridgewater, Hart of Plymouth, and Gelston. The Conso- 
ciation, after considering the whole subject, came to the conclusion 
unanimously, that it was Dr. Porter's duty to accept the appoint- 
ment. His pastoral relation was accordingly dissolved. 

On Wednesday, April 1, 1812, Dr. Porter was inaugurated as 
professor of sacred rhetoric in the theological seminary at Ando- 
ver. 

In the mental habits and character of Dr. Porter there were 
very obvious and striking excellencies. His sound common sense 
must have been apparent to the most superficial observer. In his 
public performances, there were, frequently, remarks of great pith 
and sententiousness, which were not drawn from books, but from a 
close observation of human nature. During his journeys, and in 
his extensive acquaintance with men and institutions, he had treas- 
ured up numerous and striking anecdotes illustrative of the foibles 
and the weaknesses, or of the commendable points in human char- 
acter. In the thousand incidents of familiar and domestic life he 
exhibited a keen insight in respect to the motives by which men 
are governed. No one was better qualified to give advice to young 
men in relation to the many points where they would come in con- 
tact with society. Dr. Porter was also remarkable for his industry. 



295 

It was a habit which he early acquired, and which he retained 
through life. He had to contend with frequent bodily indisposition, 
and, for many of the latter years of his life, with a shattered and 
broken constitution. Yet no moment, in which it was possible to 
labor, was lost. He seized with avidity upon every interval from 
pain. Even when under the pressure of severe suffering, and 
unable to leave his study, he had contrived some mental employ- 
ment, which would relieve the tedium of confinement, and at the 
same time, be useful to his fellow creatures. In this respect, he 
resembled Richard Baxter, of whose writings he was extremely 
fond, and who labored indefatigably, while suffering under almost 
all the ills to which men are incident. This industry was, however, 
very far removed from all bustle and excitement. There was not 
the least affectation of extraordinary diligence. Some men, by 
their glowing zeal and boisterous industry, convey the impression 
that they have no method in their labors, and that their work will 
need amendment, if not an entire revision. Dr. Porter was ever 
calm and collected, for he clearly apprehended the nature of his 
duties, the order in which they were to be performed, and the 
strength necessary for their accomplishment. Dr. Porter possessed 
a discriminating mind. In power of profound investigation on 
abstruse subjects he was excelled by some other men. But he 
mastered whatever he undertook. He clearly apprehended the 
relations of the different parts of a subject, and the bearing of the 
whole on a particular object. His study of language, his skill in 
the use of it, the necessity, imposed upon him by his office, of 
skillfully analyzing sentences, doubtless contributed to this result. 
Language without meaning, terms without discrimination, discourse 
without logic, no one was more unwilling or less liable to exhibit. 
This fault in others, when it fell under his observation, and when 
circumstances rendered it proper, he subjected to a severe yet 
just and kind animadversion. There is a great perfection in Dr. 
Porter's style of writing. So far as the nice balance of sentences, 
the harmonious collocation of their members, and the selection of 



296 

apt and beautiful words are concerned, he was rarely ever excelled. 
There was no heterogeneous agglomeration of epithets or of sen- 
tences, no verbiage, no confusion of metaphors. Every thing 
was distinct, clear, finished. We have the same associations 
respecting the perfection of his style, which we have with that of 
Prof. Play fair, Thomas Campbell, and Prof. Frisbie. His words 
fell on the ear like the music of Handel. In his best discourses, 
the extreme polish was not apparent. The order was so logical, 
and the sentences were so clearly and precisely expressed, as to 
occupy the entire attention of the hearer. It found a lodgment in 
the inmost soul. Some of Dr. Porter's sermons, as delivered by 
him when in the enjoyment of comparative health, were felt in the 
conscience and in the heart, and produced great and permanent 
effects. After all which may be said respecting unstudied nature, 
the out-breaking of natural eloquence, the happy disregard of rule 
and of formality, of which we so frequently hear, it is yet refresh- 
ing and instructive beyond expression to listen to well-composed 
sentences, which have been subjected to the revision of a severely 
disciplined mind. There is a perfection in some of the sentences 
of a few English writers, like Milton and Cowper, which we are 
wholly unable to describe, but which affords the highest mental 
pleasure. 

A prominent trait in the social character of Dr. Porter w r as his 
exact and methodical arrangement of all his business transactions, 
in connection with great benevolence of character, and, consider- 
ing his means, extensive charities. No individual was ever less 
obnoxious to the charge of avarice. We never heard the least 
intimation of any thing resembling meanness in his intercourse with 
his fellow-creatures. At the same time, a thoroughly bred 
accountant could not have managed his affairs more systematically 
and prudently. His habits in this particular, as must be the case 
with all good habits, descended to things minute and compara- 
tively unimportant. It is a most valuable acquisition, and worthy 
of the serious attention of all students, who would, on the one hand, 



297 

preserve themselves free from the charge of avarice and a want of 
fair and honorable dealing, and, on the other hand, maintain the 
rules of Christian economy, providing things honest in the sight of 
all men, in order that they may render their families comfortable, 
and have wherewithal to bestow upon him that needeth. A parsi- 
monious habit and a wasteful expenditure are equally removed 
from the spirit of the Christian religion. Cheerfulness was an 
interesting and prominent trait in Dr. Porter's domestic character. 
When suffering severe pains of body, while confined whole dreary 
winters to his house, or compelled, on the approach of winter, to 
leave his beloved home and his ardently cherished seminary, and 
repair to a warmer climate and the society of strangers, he still 
maintained the serenity of a composed mind. When any thing 
betidecl ill to the cause of his country, or of Christianity, he was 
not accustomed so to dwell on the unfavorable aspect, as to cloud 
his brow in gloom, to distrust a merciful Providence, or to incapaci- 
tate himself for labor. His natural character was undoubtedly 
peculiarly amiable. The influence also of a firm and humble hope 
in Christ, had refined and perfected an original endowment of 
nature. We may also add that there was a remarkable simplicity 
and honesty of character in Dr. Porter. No one ever accused him 
of duplicity, double dealing, equivocation, or any thing of the kind. 
He possessed a sterling integrity, founded on Christian principle, 
which carried him above all the arts of evasion and of insincerity. 
He was an Israelite indeed, in whom there was no guile. No 
one ever imagined that Dr. Porter could be enlisted in any under- 
taking which would not bear the light of clay and the scrutiny of 
an enlightened conscience. At the same time, there was nothing 
scrupulous or over-just in his habits of thinking or acting. He did 
not fall into the fault of some excellent men, in following the letter 
of the law beyond its spirit, or of pressing rules excellent in them- 
selves into matters indifferent, and thus creating positive injustice. 
Combining these, and other interesting traits of social character 
which we have not room here to delineate, Dr. Porter was, as 
38 



298 

might have been expected, an interesting companion, a tender and 
faithful counselor, a conscientious instructor, and a Christian gen- 
tleman. 

Dr. Porter's religious views were distinguished for the attribute 
of clearness. He did not possess the spiritual imagination of Pay- 
son, nor the amplitude in range of John Howe, nor the fertile 
invention of Richard Baxter, but the objects of faith which came 
within the scope of his mental view, were most distinctly appre- 
hended, and left on his character and conduct the most definite 
impressions. His religious reading was extensive, and always 
discriminating, his acquaintance with pious men and sacred institu- 
tions was varied and long continued, his religious experience 
decided and thorough, and all were turned to the best practical 
purposes. The system of religious doctrines which he cherished, 
and at all times firmly maintained, accorded with that taught by his 
venerable theological instructor, Dr. Bellamy. After mature and 
careful examination, he was convinced that this system was founded 
on the Scriptures. Hence, in the exhibition and defence of it, he 
was explicit and decided. Yet he was never intolerant, nor perti- 
nacious. He never maintained the opinion, nor exemplified it in 
his practice, that orthodoxy, in the absence of the Christian tem- 
per, is acceptable to heaven, or that the mode and spirit in which 
a doctrine are exhibited are of no consequence, provided the doc- 
trine itself be sound. He strove to maintain peace, and a Christ- 
ian temper, while he explained and enforced the pure truth of the 
gospel, never postponing or undervaluing peace while he contend- 
ed for purity. Scarcely any topic was exhibited more frequently 
or impressively in his public preaching than the importance of love 
for the truth and Christian meekness, in addition to zeal for ortho- 
doxy ; and that eminent spiritual affections ought always to accom- 
pany and consecrate fresh acquisitions of religious knowledge. He 
was ever aware of the great danger of substituting biblical or theo- 
logical learning for vital piety. His influence upon the seminary, 
and upon candidates for the ministry, in this respect, was con- 
stantly and successfully exerted. 



299 

To our various public charitable institutions, Dr. Porter was a 
uniform and invaluable friend. He not only felt a deep interest in 
them, and offered prayer in their behalf, but contributed liberally 
for their support. He perceived their intimate and essential rela* 
tion to the kingdom of Jesus Christ, and to the promotion of the 
best interests of the human race. To no one of these institutions 
did he exhibit a stronger attachment, than to the American Edu- 
cation Society. He was among the first to perceive the necessity 
of special efforts to seek out and bring forward ministers and 
missionaries for the numerous fields which are whitening for the 
harvest. To this important subject, from the outset, he gave a 
large amount of thought and personal effort. His extensive and 
important influence in the southern States, as well as in other por- 
tions of the country, was most cheerfully exerted. When this 
Society was called to experience severe embarrassment and trial, 
Dr. Porter remained stedfast to its interests, and prompt to afford 
encouragement and aid. Every successive year in its history fur- 
nishes evidence of the wisdom and forecast of his views in relation 
to this great cause. At the anniversary of the Society in Boston, 
in 1820, he delivered a sermon, wdiich has been regarded as 
among his ablest productions. It discovers the anxious paternal 
interest which he felt in the subject. It is filled with facts dis- 
playing the most elaborate and careful research, and is written 
with his accustomed taste and power. 

Dr. Porter died at Andover on the 8th of April, 1834, at the 
age of sixty-two years. He had been for many years an invalid. 
Early in the spring, some severe domestic afflictions were the 
means of still further reducing his feeble frame. The powers of 
nature sunk 3 till the energies of his- body and mind entirely gave 
way. Owing to the absence of reason, for the last few days of 
his life, he was not able to give those testimonies of the precious- 
ness of the Christian hope, which, in other circumstances, his uni- 
form and consistent piety, his mature and settled views of Christian 
truth, would have led us confidently to anticipate. 



300 

The funeral services were attended on Friday, the 11th of 
April. A procession of the trustees, patrons, and students of the 
theological and literary institutions was formed at Dr. Porter's 
house, and moved with his remains to the chapel, where prayers 
were offered by the Rev. Drs. Dana and Church, and a sermon 
was preached by the Rev. Dr. Woods, from John xvii. 4, " I have 
glorified thee on the earth ; I have finished the work which thou 
gavest me to do." 

The following is the inscription on a neat monument, in the form 
of an obelisk, of white marble, which has since been erected to his 
memory, by the American Education Society. 

[In front] 

SACKED 

to the memory of 

EBENEZER PORTER, D. D. 

who died 1834, aged sixty-two years; 

was graduated at 

Dartmouth College, 1792, 

ordained as Pastor at 

Washington, Conn. 1795, 

inaugurated as 

Professor of Sacred Rhetoric 

in the Theological Seminary 

at Andover, 1812, 

appointed President of the same 

1827. 

[On the right sid .] 

Of cultivated understanding, 

refined taste, solid judgment, 

sound faith and ardent piety ; 

Distinguished for strict integrity 

and uprightness, 

kind and gentle deportment, 

simplicity and godly sincerity; 

A Father to the Institution 

with which he was connected, 

a highly useful Instructor, 

a zealous Patron of the 

Benevolent Societies of the times 

in which he lived, 



301 

a true Friend to the temporal 

and eternal interests of 

his fellow beings ; 

Living, he was peculiarly loved and revered ; 

Dying, he was universally lamented. 

[On the leftside.] 
The 

American Education Society, 

to whose use he bequeathed 

the greater part of his property, 

in token of their high esteem, 

and grateful remembrance of 

his services and bounties, 

have caused this monument 

to be erected. 

The following is the most complete list of Dr. Porter's publica- 
tions, which we have been able to make. It is probable that some 
single sermons are not included. 

1. Missionary Sermon ; Hartford, Conn. 1806. 

2. Fatal Effects of Ardent Spirit ; Hartford, Conn. 1811. 

3. Great Effects from Little Causes ; a Sermon before the Mora! 
Society, Andover, 1815. 

4. Sermon at the Ordination of the Rev. Israel W. Putnam, 
Portsmouth, N. H. 1815. 

5. Character of Nehemiah ; a Sermon ; Andover, 1816. 

6. Sermon at the Dedication of the Chapel of the Theological 
Seminary; Andover, 1819. 

7. Sermon at the Ordination of the Rev. Thomas J. Murdoek ; 
Portland, Me. 1819. 

8. Sermon at the Installation of Rev. D. Oliphant; Beverly, 
Mass. 1819. # 

9. Young Preacher's Manual, or a Collection of Treatises on 
Preaching; Boston, 1819, 1 vol. 8vo. A second edition enlarged, 
has since been published. 

10. Sermon before the American Education Society ; Boston, 1820. 

11. Signs of the Times; a Sermon delivered at the Public Fast ; 
Andover, 1823. 

12. Analysis of Vocal Inflection; (Pamph.) Andover, 1824o 



302 

13. Analysis of the Principles of Rhetorical Delivery; 1 vol. 
18mo. ; Andover, 1827. 

14. Rhetorical Reader, and a course of Rhetorical Exercises; 1 
vol. 18mo. ; Andover, 1831. Fourteen editions of this book have 
been published. 

15. Syllabus of Lectures ; (Pamph.) Andover, 1832. 

1G. Treatise on Spiritual Mindedness, by John Owen, D. D* 
abridged by Ebenezer Porter, D. D. ; Boston, 1833, 1 vol. 18 mo. 

17. Lectures on Homiletics and Preaching, and on Public Prayer, 
together with Sermons and Addresses, 1 vol. 8vo. ; 1834. An edition 
of this volume was published in London, in 1835, with a Preface, and 
with Notes, by Rev. J. Jones of Liverpool. 

18. A Practical Exposition of the 130th Psalm, by John Owen* 
D. D. abridged by Ebenezer Porter, D. D. ; Boston, 1834, 1 vol. 
18mo. 

Since the death of Dr. Porter there have been published from his 
manuscripts — 

19. The Biblical Reader, consisting of Rhetorical Extracts from 
the Old and New Testaments, revised for publication by T. D. P. 
Stone ; Andover, 1834, 1 vol. 18 mo. ; and 

20. Lectures on Eloquence and Style; 1836. 

Dr. Porter also published some Sermons in the American National 
Preacher ; various essays, biographies, etc. in the Connecticut Evan- 
gelical Magazine, the Panoplist, the Spirit of the Pilgrims, and the 
American Quarterly Register. 

The Lectures on Eloquence do not comprise an entire course. 
They were intended as a sequel to those which have been incorpora- 
ted into the Author's Analysis of Rhetorical Delivery. He was indu- 
ced to enlarge on the vocal organs, by the urgent request of those 
whose judgment he regarded, and because no instruction on the abuses 
of those organs, had been accessible in any regular form to young 
ministers. The Lectures on Style are also designedly limited in 
extent, embracing only a few topics, the discussion of which was deemed 
most important in its bearing on the reputation and usefulness of the 
American Pulpit. All the Lectures discover* that good sense, that 
careful discrimination and cultivated taste, visible in the author's pre- 
vious publications. They are well worth the study, not only of theo- 
logical students, but of all who are preparing to become public speak- 
ers, or to influence the public mind by the press. 



"03 



HORATIO SEYMOUR, L.L.D 



Was born at Litchfield, Conn., May 31st, 1778. He was of the 
sixth generation in lineal descent from Richard Seymour, one of 
the first settlers of Hartford. This Richard Seymour, his son 
John, his grandson John, and his great grandson Moses, all lived 
and died in Hartford. Moses Seymour, the great grandson of 
Richard, and the grandfather of Horatio, was born at Hartford in 
1705, and died there, Sept. 24th, 1795, aged 85. *His wife 
Rachel was born in 1716, and died July 23d, 1763, aged 47. 
Major Moses Seymour, Jr., the son of Moses and the father of 
Horatio, was born at Hartford, July 23d, 1742, removed early to 
Litchfield, and married Mary, the daughter of Ebenezer Marsh, 
Esq., of Litchfield, a pious and estimable woman. Major Seymour 
was in the war of the Revolution, and was present at the surrender 
of Burgoyne. He represented the town of Litchfield in the State 
Legislature, much of the time, from 1795 to 1812; was Town 
Clerk from 1789 to 1826, and Senior Warden of St. Michael's 
Church, Litchfield, more than seventeen years. He died, greatly 
respected, Sept. 17th, 1826, aged 84. His wife died, July 17th, 
1826, aged 73. They had six children, namely: (1.) Clarissa, 
born Aug. 3d, 1772, married in October, 1791, to Rev. Truman 
Marsh, who was born in Litchfield, Feb. 22d, 1768 ; graduated at 
Yale in 1786 ; was ordained a Deacon by Bishop White, in March, 
1790, and a Presbyter by Bishop Seabury, in June, the same 
year; became the Rector of St. John's Church, New Milford, till 
November, 1799; then Rector of St. Michael's Church, Litch- 



304 

field, till 1810. (2.) Moses Seymour, Jr., Esq., born June 30th, 
1774, married Mabel Strong, of Addison, Vt., was for several 
years Postmaster in Litchfield, and High Sheriff, and died there, 
May 8th, 1824, aged 52. His son, Dr. George Seymour, born 
in 1817, is a physician in Litchfield, and has twice represented 
that town in the State Legislature. (3.) Ozias Seymour, born 
July 8th, 1776, married Miss Sebrina Storrs, of Mansfield, Conn., 
was for several years Sheriff of Litchfield county, and died in 
1851. His wife died, Nov. 2d, 1814, aged 28, leaving an only 
son, Origen S. Seymour, Esq., who was born, February, 1804, 
graduated at Yale in 1824, and is a noted lawyer in Litchfield, 
and now a member of Congress. (4.) Horatio Seymour, the 
subject of this memoir. (5.) Henry Seymour, born May 30th, 
1780, removed to Utica, State of New York, became wealthy, was 
Mayor of Utica, Canal Commissioner, State Senator, and died 
recently,, leaving a widow and reputable descendants. One of 
his sons, the Hon. Horatio Sejinour, of Utica, was the Democratic 
candidate for Governor of New York, in 1851. (6.) Epaphro- 
ditus Seymour, born July 8th, 1783, removed to Brattleborough, 
Vt., where he still lives, and is president of a bank. He was 
never married. 

Horatio Seymour, the fourth child of Major Moses Seymour, 
was, from early childhood, amiable, studious, and decorous in all 
his conduct. He fitted for College at New Milford, under the 
instruction of his brother-in-law, the Rev. Truman Marsh. The 
first year after his graduation, he was an assistant teacher in the 
academy at Cheshire, Conn. The next year he spent in Litch- 
field, attending the Law School of Judge Reeve. In October, 
1799, he removed to Middlebury, Addison county, Vermont, and 
became a student of law in the office of the Hon. Daniel Chip- 
man. In the spring of 1800, he was admitted to the bar, and 
commenced business in Middlebury, which has been his place of 
residence ever since. In 1809, he was elected a member of the 
Council, or Upper House, in the State Legislature ; and for seven 



305 

or eight years, he was annually elected to that body. In October, 
1820, the Legislature of the State appointed him a Senator in the 
United States Congress for six years from the 4th of March, 1821; 
and, at the expiration of that term, he was reelected for a second 
term of six years. In 1833 he resumed the practice of law, and 
has continued it to the present time. In 1836 he was the whig 
candidate for Governor of Vermont, but Mr. Palmer, the anti- 
masonic candidate, was elected. Up to the time that he went 
into the United States Senate, his law practice had been very 
extensive, and his pecuniary affairs prosperous. He had acquired 
an amount of property, which might be deemed a competency for 
the remainder of life. But he subsequently lost it all, and chiefly 
by becoming surety for others. Since he left the Senate, his pro- 
fessional business has afforded him a good support, and has also 
enabled him every year to pay a considerable amount of debts. 
Still he is destitute of property. In October, 1847, the Legisla- 
ture appointed him Judge of Probate for the district of Addison. 
This affords him employment a great part of the time, and adds 
something to his means of support. The Corporation of Yale 
College, at the Commencement in 1847, conferred on him the 
honorary degree of LL. D. 

In the spring of 1800, Mr. Seymour was married to Miss Lucy 
Case, of the town of Addison, Vt., who bore him six children, and 
died in October, 1838. Since her death he has remained single. 
His six children were — (1.) Ozias Seymour, educated at Middle- 
bury College, a lawyer in Middlebury, and residing near his father. 
He has a wife and five children. (2.) Moses Seymour, bred a 
merchant, engaged in business in Middlebury, was unfortunate in 
his business, and removed to the West, a few years ago, and now 
resides in Geneva, Walworth County, Wisconsin, where he culti- 
vates a small farm. He has a wife and two children. (3.) Mary 
Seymour, who died in June, 1821, at the age of sixteen, of con- 
sumption. (4.) Emma Hart Seymour, married Philip Battell, 
Esq., son of the late Joseph Battell, of Norfolk, and died of 
39 



306 

consumption, November, 1841, leaving two small children, a son 
and a daughter. These grandchildren and their surviving parent 
now constitute a part of Mr. Seymour's family. (5.) Horatio 
Seymour, Jr., was educated at Middlebury College, and is a 
lawyer of note at Buffalo, State of New York. He has a wife 
and two children. (6.) Henry Seymour, was a merchant's clerk 
until of age, never embarked in regular business, and was never 
married. He was with the army in Florida during most of the 
Seminole war, afterwards went to the coast of Africa in the United 
States ship Jamestown, returned in the ship, and died in Boston, 
January, 1847. 

Mr. Seymour united with the Episcopal Society in Middlebury 
at its first organization, and for several years has been the Senior 
Warden of the parish. He has been a communicant in the Epis- 
copal church for many years. 

He says : " I have, through life, with a few exceptions, enjoyed 
good health, and am at present exempt from bodily infirmities to a 
much greater degree than are most persons who have arrived at 
my advanced age. I attend regularly the sessions of the court in 
this county, and take part in the trial of causes. I keep an office, 
and am regular and constant in my attention to the business of it. 
So long as I shall be blessed with the measure of health I now 
enjoy, I ought not to feel any anxiety in relation to a comfortable 
support." 



807 



THOMAS DAY, L. L. D, 



Was the third son of Rev. Jeremiah Day, a Congregational minis- 
ter, in New Preston Society, in the town of Washington, and a 
younger brother of Rev. Jeremiah Day, D. D., LL. D., President 
of Yale College. He was a descendant, in the sixth generation, 
from Robert Day, of Hartford, who was born in England, came 
to America among the first settlers in Massachusetts, and joined 
the company of one hundred persons, who, in 1638, removed from 
Newtown, Mass., to Hartford, Conn,, with the Rev. Thomas 
Hooker, the first minister of Hartford. Thomas Day was born at 
New Preston, July 6th, 1777. He passed his childhood and 
youth under the paternal roof, attending the common district school 
in winter, and laboring with his brothers on a farm in summer. 
His father and older brother first instructed him in Latin and 
Greek ; and he afterwards spent some months under the tuition of 
Barzillai Slosson, Esq., in the neighboring town of Kent. The 
winter of 1793-4 he passed at an academy in New Milford. Thus 
fitted for College, he entered the Freshman Class in the spring of 
1794, and graduated in 1797, at the age of twenty. 

During his first year after graduation, he attended the Law 
lectures of Judge Reeve, at Litchfield. From September, 1798, 
to September, 1799, he was a Tutor in Williams' College, and, at 
the same time, read law under the direction of Daniel Dewey, 
Esq., of Williamstown, afterwards a Judge of the Supreme Court 
of Massachusetts. In September, 1799, Mr. Day went to Hartford, 



80S 

read law for about three months with Theodore Dwight, Esq., was 
admitted to the bar in December, 1799, and immediately entered 
on the practice of law in Hartford, where he has resided ever 
since. In October, 1809, he was appointed by the General 
Assembly of Connecticut, Assistant Secretary of State ; and in 
1810, he was elected Secretary of State by the people, and re- 
elected for twenty five successive years, or until May, 1835. 

In May, 1815, he was appointed associate Judge of the County 
Court, for the County of Hartford, and annually afterwards, except 
one year, until May, 1825, in which year he was made Chief 
Judge of that Court, and was continued in that office, by succes- 
sive annual appointments, until June, 1833. In March, 1818, as 
one of the two senior aldermen of the city of Hartford, he became 
one of the Judges of the City Court, and continued such, by suc- 
cessive annual elections, until March, 1831. 

Mr. Day was one of the Committee who prepared the edition of 
the Statutes of Connecticut, published in 1808; and by him the 
notes Were compiled, the index made, and the introduction written. 
He was also one of the Committee who revised the Statutes in 
1 821, and likewise one of a Committee to prepare and superintend 
a new edition in 1824. 

In June. 1805, he began to attend the Supreme Court of Errors, 
for the purpose of taking notes and reporting the decisions of that 
Court; and he has attended ir over since for the same purpose. 
Provision being made by law for the appointment of a Reporter, 
Mr. Day was appointed to that office in June, 1814, and has been 
continued in it to the present time. As a volunteer, he prepared 
and published reports of cases decided by the Supreme Court of 
Errors, from 1802 to 1813, in five volumes 8vo ; and as official 
Reporter, reports of cases decided by the same Court, from 1814 
to 1846, inclusive, in seventeen volumes royal 8vo, the 18th being 
now in course of preparation. He has also edited several English 
law works, in all about forty volumes, in which he introduced 
notices of American decisions, and sometimes of the later English 



309 

Cases, either by incorporating them in the text, or by appending 
them as notes in the margin, together with other improvements. 

Mr. Day's name likewise stands connected with many literary 
and benevolent institutions. He is, or has been, one of the 
Trustees of the Hartford Grammar School, and Clerk of the Board ; 
one of the Trustees of the Hartford Female Seminary, and Presi- 
dent of the Board ; one of the Vice Presidents of the American 
Asylum for the education of the Deaf and Dumb ; one of the 
Trustees of the Retreat for the Insane ; one of the Directors of 
the Connecticut Bible Society ; President of the Hartford County 
Missionary Society, auxiliary to the Am. B. C. F. M. ; President 
of the Connecticut Branch of the American Education Society ; 
President of the Goodrich Association, &c. &c. He was an 
original member of the Connecticut Historical Society, and aided 
in its organization, in 1825, being at that time its Recording Sec- 
retary. On the revival of the institution in 1839, he became its 
President, a position which he still retains. 

Mr. Day was married on the 18th of March, 1813, to Sarah 
Coit, daughter of Wheeler Coit, of Preston, (now Griswokl,) who 
was a grandson of the Rev. Joseph Coit, of Plainfield, one of the 
first class of Yalensian graduates. They have had eight children, 
two sons and six daughters. One of the sons died in infancy, the 
other son and all the daughters but one are living. They are Sarah 
Colt, bom in 1814, resides with her father ; Elizabeth, born in 

1816, is the wife of Prof. N. P. Seymour, of the Western Reserve 
College, and resides at Hudson, Ohio ; Thomas Mills, born in 

1817, graduated at Yale in 1837, was admitted to the bar in 
Hartford, 1840, and is resident in Boston ; Catherine Augusta, 
born in 1819, was recently married ; Harriet, born in 1821, is 
the wife of John P. Putnam, LL. B., who graduated at Yale in 
1837, and resides now in Boston ; Robert, born in 1824, and died 
the same year ; Mary Frances, born in 1826, and Ellen, born in 
1829, and died in 1850, 

At the Commencement of Yale College, in 1847, the Corporation 
of that Institution conferred on Mr. Day the Honorary Degree of 
LL.D. 



310 



NATHAN SMITH, 



The Honorable NATHAN SMITH, of New Haven, was born 
in Roxbury, in 1770. He was a son of Richard Smith, and brother 
of the late Hon. Nathaniel Smith, whose history is briefly sketched 
in this volume. His mother was a daughter of Benjamin Hurd, 
and grand-daughter of Benjamin Hinman, of Woodbury.* The 
parents of the subject of this sketch were plain, unaspiring people, 
yet among their descendants have been some of the most eminent 
lawyers and statesmen of the commonwealth. 

On arriving at a suitable age, Nathan was transferred from the 
farm to the office of his brother above named, and afterwards to 
that of Judge Reeve, to learn the "art and mystery" of the law; 
and in due time he was admitted to the bar of his native county. 
He commenced the practice of law in the city of New Haven, 
where he continued to reside until his death. Slowly but surely, 
he won his way to the highest professional eminence. Indeed, 
he was an enthusiast in the profession he had chosen, ever 
regarding success therein, as the goal of his ambition. Conse- 
quently, he studied the standard legal authors of England and 
America thoroughly and systematically. No practitioner in the 
Connecticut Courts better understood the law in all its crooks and 
turns, and no one could more effectually impress the minds of a 
jury with his own views and feelings on any case, than he. The 
theoretical and practical, the profound and witty, were so happily 

* In the sketch of the Hon. Nathaniel Smith, (p. 137,) we erroneously stated that 
his mother was a Hinman. 



311 

blended in his arguments, that while they attracted the admiration 
of the listener, they were almost certain of securing the wished 
for verdict. His wonderful success at the bar, however, must not 
be attributed solely to his talents and ingenuity. His strict regard 
for justice and right, would not permit him to plead a case which 
he knew to be grossly unrighteous. Before enlisting his services 
in any cause, he was wont to examine minutely the main facts and 
circumstances connected with it ; and if convinced of its justice, 
he entered upon the discharge of his duties to his client with his 
whole soul, and rarely failed of coming oif victorious. It was his 
own manifest confidence in the goodness of the cause he advocated, 
united to a knowledge of his uniform integrity of purpose, which 
so surely won from every jury a favorable verdict. 

Mr. Smith was not a politician, and had the utmost contempt of 
the office-seeking propensity of many of his legal brethren, And 
even if his own ambition had been turned into that channel, it is by 
no means certain he would have been successful. The political 
party with which he acted, was for a long series of years in the 
minority in the region in which he lived ; and where party lines 
are closely drawn, a zeal for place and power not unfrequently 
triumphs over merit. His name was sometimes, without his con- 
sent, used by his fellow-citizens in the political struggles of the 
times. In 1825, he was a principal opponent of Oliver Wolcott 
for the office of Governor of Connecticut. There were, however, 
some offices more directly in the line of his profession, which he 
did not dislike, though he was far from seeking them. He was 
for many years State's attorney for the county of New Haven, 
and subsequently, United States' attorney for the District of Con- 
necticut. In these stations, his peculiar genius and learning were 
often rendered conspicuous. 

In May, 1832, Mr. Smith was elected a Senator in the Con- 
gress of the United States, to succeed the Hon. Samuel A. Foote, 
whose term would expire on the 3d of March following. He took 
his seat in that distinguished body, March 4, 1833, and continued 
to discharge the duties of the station until the 6th of December, 



312 

1835, when he died suddenly in the city of Washington, in the 
66th year of his age. The correspondent of the New York Daily 
Advertiser, gives the following account of the funeral ceremonies 
of Senator Smith, which took place on Wednesday, the 9th of 
December. 

"The flag-staff, with the American flag floating at half mast, denoted 
early on the morning of Wednesday, that the capitol was to be the 
scene of solemnity. At 12 o'clock the hour of adjournment came. 
The ladies' gallery was filled with the beau'y and fashion of the nation, 
and the opposite gallery was not less crowded with spectators, all anx- 
ious to witness the obsequies. A motion was made for adjournment 
till 12 o'clock on the following day, which was carried hy a silent vote. 
Prior to this, however, the President and Vice President of the United 
States, the Heads of Departments, public and private Secretaries, with 
the Senators and clergymen entered and seated themselves in the 
Senate chamber. Soon the coffin was borne in by servants with broad 
white scarfs around their hats. Next came the Representatives with 
crape upon their left arms, preceded by the members from Connecticut, 
(the state of the deceased,) in deep mourning, with a broad black 
scarf extending from the right shoulder under the left arm. The Vice 
President was in the chair; the President and Heads of Departments 
sat on the left side of the front row of seats ; the Senators and Repre- 
sentatives filled the remaining seats. Opposite the President were the 
delegation from Connecticut. All was still and solemn as the grave, 
when the minister, dressed in a black robe over which was a white 
scarf, arose from the seat in front of the Vice President's chair, repeat- 
ing some expressive and appropriate texts from the volume of Holy 
Writ. He addressed the assembly for some minutes, when, after 
invoking a blessing from the Almighty, the funeral procession was 
formed. The Committee of Arrangements, dressed in white scarfs, 
preceded the hearse ; next came the pall-bearers ; then followed the 
clergymen, President, Vice President, Secretaries, Members and 
Citizens. The procession consisted of one hundred carriages, extend- 
ing nearly a mile in length. All of the hackmen were dressed in a 
uniform mourning, with a crape around their hats. The deceased 
was carried to the national burying-ground, where, after the accus- 
tomed services, the procession was re-formed and returned. The 
whole scene was truly impressive and solemn — worthy of the nation 
and of the venerated character of the deceased." 

In 1808, Mr. Smith received the honorary degree of Master of 
Arts from Yale College, 



318 



FREDERICK AUGUSTUS TALLMADGB. 



The Hon. F. A. TALLMADGE, the celebrated lawyer and 
politician of the City of New York, is a son of the late Hon. 
Benjamin Tallmaclge, an officer of the Revolutionary Army and for 
fifteen years a distinguished member of Congress from Connecticut. 
The subject of this sketch was born in Litchfield, August 29th, 
1792, and graduated at Yale College in 1811, in the class with 
his distinguished fellow-townsman, the Hon. S. S. Phelps, of Ver- 
mont. Immediately after graduating, Mr. Tallmadge entered the 
Law School at Litchfield, and after prosecuting the usual course of 
legal studies, he was admitted a member of the Bar of Litchfield 
County. 

In 1814 he commenced the practice of his profession in the 
City of New York. Notwithstanding he was surrounded by 
experienced and eminent lawyers, he soon rose to distinction in 
the metropolis, and in a few years he was regarded as one of its 
most successful advocates and counsellors. In 1834, he was 
elected an Alderman of that city, and while a member of the 
Common Council, in the fall of 1836, he was chosen a member of 
the State Senate, and was subsequently elected its presiding officer. 
As a Senator he was ex officio a Judge of the Supreme Court for 
the Correction of Errors. After remaining a member of that dis- 
tinguished body for four years, Mr. Tallmadge was appointed by 
the Governor and Senate, to the office of Recorder of the City of 
New York — a post which he occupied for five years. As Chief 
Justice of the Police Court in the city, his labors were arduous 
40 



314 

and responsible, and it is sufficient praise to say that he discharged 
them promptly and faithfully. 

In 1846, he was elected a Representative to the Congress of 
the United States. In the autumn of 1848, before the expiration 
of his Congressional term, he was elected Recorder of New York 
by the people — his being the first election to that office under 
the new Constitution of the State. He still occupies the station. 

Soon after locating in New York, Mr. Tallmadge was married to 
a daughter of the Hon. Judson Canfield of Sharon, in his native 
County. His public career has been eminently popular, and as he 
is still in the prime of life, we trust new honors await him. 



315 



ARPHAXAD LOOMIS, 



Was born at Winchester, on the 9th of Apiil, 1798. His father 
was a farmer, in very moderate circumstances. Arphaxad was the 
fifth son, and from the time his father removed with his family to 
Herkimer county, New York, until his fourteenth year, he was 
accustomed to steady service on the farm. He enjoyed, however, 
the usual opportunities afforded to boys in the country, of attending 
the common school, and which he improved to good advantage. 
When fourteen years of age, his father hired him out as the teacher 
of a common school, seven or eight miles from home. He was 
then quite small of his age. His agreement was six dollars per 
month, and to "board round." He subsequently, for several 
successive years, taught school in the winters, and during the 
summers he attended the academy at Fairfield, Herkimer county, 
paying his tuition by his winter earnings. According to the com- 
mon practice of that institution, he lived in his room, at the acad- 
emy, upon his own food, a week's supply of which he was accus- 
tomed to carry from his father's house, a distance of four miles, 
every Monday morning. He also wore the home-made garments 
of his father's household. It was understood, however, that he 
was not to be a burden to the family, even to this extent, and 
accordingly, his winter's earnings were, with the exception of 
"tuition," and "book-money," regularly paid over to his father, 
as an equivalent for his supplies. He was very desirous of going 
through a collegiate course, but his resources would not permit the 
gratification of this ambition. 



81 6* 

In 1818, he entered his name as a student in a law office at 
Johnstown, Montgomery count;.-. At the end of three months, 
however, his funds became exhausted, and he was compelled once 
more to commence teaching. Although he sometimes brooded in 
deep despondency over his want of means to prosecute his legal 
studies, lie was determined not to " give up." Having heard that 
a teacher of his acquirements might probably find good employ- 
ment at Watertown, Jefferson county, he borrowed ten dollars of 
his father, and on the 20th of December, 1818, he started on foot 
with a knapsack on his back, over the bleak hills and frozen ground. 
Owing to the extreme cold, which happened to set in about that 
time, the journey proved a very severe one, and to that he attrib- 
utes his impaired hearing. 

At Watertown, he obtained employment in the district school. 
Here, also, he entered a law office, and pursued his legal studies. 
At the end of three months, he obtained sufficient law business to 
enable him forever to relinquish the school room, and to continue 
his studies without further interruption. He completed them at 
Sacketts Harbor, in January, 1825, and took his license as attor- 
ney at law. He spent the tw r o succeeding years in practicing in 
the office where he finished his course. A part of the third year 
was spent in a journey through the south-western states, with a 
vague notion that he would locate himself in a new country, and 
"grow up with it." He visited Gen. Jackson, and saw all the 
lions in his way. He found the country, however, too "new" for 
his taste, and returned to his father's house exhausted in funds, 
and in feeble health. After recruiting himself to some extent, he 
iinally located at Little Falls, Herkimer county, his present resi- 
dence. He there devoted himself to the practice of his profession, 
with considerable success. 

In February, 1828, he was appointed surrogate of Herkimer 
county, which office he held until 1837. In the winter of 1884, 
his name was sent to the senate, by Gov. Marcy, for the office of 
circuit judge : but, owing to an apprehension that his defective 



317 

hearing would interfere with the proper discharge of the duties, 
the nomination was subsequently withdrawn. On that occasion he 
received complimentary letters from all the democratic senators, 
assuring him that nothing but the said impediment had induced 
them to advise the substitution of another person. 

During the spring of the same year, Gov. Marcy appointed him 
on the commission, with Messrs. Elisha Litchfield and Eli Moore, 
to investigate the subject of mechanical labor in the state prisons ; 
also, the prison policy and discipline. After a most laborious 
investigation, a report and bill, both drawn up by Mr. Loomis, 
were submitted to the legislature, in 1835, on which the law of 
the year was based. This had the effect of subduing the prevail- 
ing excitement for several years, when the continual disregard of 
the regulations, by executive officers of the prisons, caused the 
mechanical interests in the state to renew the complaint. 

In the fall of 183G, Mr. Loomis was elected a representative in 
congress, and took his seat at the first session under Mr. Van 
Buren's administration. During the long session of 1837-8, he 
was a member of the committee on private land claims, and his 
labors were so severe as to seriously impair his health. The 
following session he served on the committee on public lands, 
where he also found that there was work to' do. While on the 
latter committee, he strenuously exerted himself to prepare the 
way for the sale of lands to actual settlers only, and at a very 
moderate price, believing then, as now, that all other sales are 
detrimental to the public interest. He also exerted himself in 
favor of postage reform, and the regulation of the franking privi- 
lege, and with this object he introduced many resolutions of inquiry 
into the existing abuses, and which had the effect of hastening the 
subsequent action of congress on those subjects. 

On the 1st of January, 1841, Mr. Loomis took his seat in the 
New York legislature, as a representative of Herkimer county. 
Here, entertaining strong convictions of the great evils of a public 
debt, and thinking that he perceived a strong tendency to create 



318 

debts, and in many cases from selfish motives, it occnred to him 
that these tendencies might be lessened, if not entirely obviated, 
by preventing any public debt, unless sanctioned by the direct 
vote of the people themselves. In addition to giving his views 
through the press, on the 14th of January, 1841, he introduced a 
resolution to amend the constitution, so as to restrain the legisla- 
ture from borrowing money, or creating any public debt, except to 
repel invasion, suppress insurrection, or to defend the state in war, 
unless authorized by a direct vote of the electors, at a general 
election. This proposition was approved by most of the democratic 
papers in New York, and other states. Many of the editors kept 
it at the head of their columns for months. Although the resolu- 
tion was not carried, yet its frequent repetition by him during 
succeeding sessions, resulted, in the convention of 1846, of which 
Mr. Loomis was an active member, in its adoption. 

Of the arduous labors of Mr. Loomis, as chairman of the judi- 
ciary committee, in the legislature, and of his eminent services as a 
member of the convention, and which seriously injured his health, 
our limits, will not permit us to speak. It will be sufficient to say, 
that a more devoted public servant cannot be found. 



319 



WILLIAM W. BOARDMAN. 



This gentleman is a son of the late Hon. Elijah Boardinan, of 
the United States Senate, and was born in New . Milford, on the 
10th of October, 1794. During his boyhood, he was for a while 
at school in Great Barrington, Mass., among his mother's relatives, 
and was thence transferred to Bacon Academy, at Colchester, 
where he fitted for College. In the autumn of 1808, he entered 
Yale College and graduated in due course, before he was eighteen 
years of age. The following year was spent by him as a resident 
graduate at Harvard College. He read law with David S. Board- 
man, Esq., of New Milford, and at the Litchfield Law School, and 
commenced the practice of the legal profession at New Haven, in 
1819, where he still resides. 

Upon the organization of our State Government under the new 
Constitution, in May, 1819, Mr. Boardman was elected Secretary 
of the Senate, and was annually re-elected until 1824, when he 
was appointed Judge of Probate for the District of New Haven ; 
a post which he filled for five years. In 1830, he was elected to 
the Senate of this State, and was twice re-elected. In the spring 
of 1836, he represented New Haven in the Connecticut House of 
Representatives, at which session he had a somewhat famous 
debate with the Hon. Perry Smith (since of the United States 
Senate,) then a member from New Milford. At the extra session 
held during the following winter, the law relating to electors' meet- 
ings, enacted in pursuance of an amendment of the Constitution, 
was drawn up and reported by him. Mr. Boardman was again a 



320 

member of the House in 1837, and was appointed chairman of the 
Committee on Divorces. At the same session he proposed amend- 
ments to the Constitution, giving the election of Judges of Probate 
and Justices of the Peace to the people, and though they failed at 
that time, they have recently been adopted. 

In 1838 and 1839, Mr. Boardman was a member of the House, 
and elected Speaker both years. In 1840, he w8s chosen amem- 
of the 26th Congress to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resigna- 
tion of the Hon. Win. L. Storrs, who had been transferred to the 
Supreme Bench; and was a member of the Committee on Private 
Land Claims. In April, 1841, he was re-elected to the National 
House of Representatives, and during the three sessions of the 
27th Congress, he served as Chairman of the Committee on public 
buildings and grounds. 

The subject of this sketch was returned as a member of the 
Connecticut Legislature in 1845, and was again elected Speaker. 
He was also a member in 1849, and would have been elected Speaker 
on one of the ballotings if he had withheld his own vote. On the 
ballot alluded to, Mr. Boardman had 110 votes ; John C. Lewis, 
Esq., of Plymouth, had 108 ; and there was two scattering votes, 
one of which was cast by Mr. Boardman. On the following ballot 
Mr. Lewis was choseu by one majority. During this session, Mr. 
B. was Chairman on the part of the House of the Committee on 
Divorces, the late Gen. Bacon, of Litchfield, being Chairman on 
the part of the Senate. In 1851, Mr. Boardman was once more 
a member and candidate for Speaker of the House. 

We have thus given the leading events in the history of one of 
the distinguished sons" of Litchfield County — a gentleman who is 
still in the prime of life and on the highway to new preferment. 



321 



JO PIN MILTON HOLLEY 



JOHN MILTON HOLLEY, (son of a distinguished gentleman 
of the same name,) was a native of Salisbury, where he was born 
in November, 1802. He graduated with distinguished honors at 
Yale College, in 1822, and after pursuing a course of legal study, 
he was admitted to the New Y 7 ork bar in 1825, and commenced 
practice the next year at Lyons, in Western New York, where he 
has ever since resided. His learning, capacity, and integrity, soon 
placed him in the front rank of his profession. To a mind at once 
brilliant and solid, he united those generous qualities of the heart 
which attract the love and confidence of mankind. Popular hon- 
ors were showered upon him, and, during his whole career, he 
enjoyed the most gratifying demonstrations of public regard. In 
various stations of public trust he exemplified the remark that offi- 
cial elevation is made truly illustrious by the personal worth and 
fidelity of the incumbent. He was chosen to represent his county in 
the Assembly of his State in 1838, and again in 1841. In the 
Legislature of his State he gained a high reputation for eloquence 
and ability. Ever firm and unyielding in the assertion of what he 
deemed to be the truth and the right, always fearless and bold in 
the expression of his convictions, yet the ingenuous candor of his 
spirit disarmed hostility by winning the admiration and friendship 
of political opponents. Whilst he had no personal enemies, no man 
could boast a more devoted u troop of friends." 

In 1845, he was an unsuccessful candidate for the State Senate. 
In 1846, he was chosen to represent the 27th Congressional dis- 
41 



322 

trict, composed of the counties of Seneca and Wayne, in the Thir- 
tieth Congress, and was, at the time of his election, in the enjoyment 
of health which gave promise of a long life of usefulness and honor. 
But, he was struck suddenly down with a fit of pulmonary apo- 
plexy from which he never fully recovered. Being desirous to dis- 
charge with fidelity his representative obligations, at the commence- 
ment of the ensuing session, though exceedingly feeble and infirm, 
he repaired to the Capital } and took part in the organization of the 
House, and yielded reluctantly to the advice of his physician and 
friends to seek relief in repose and a southern clime. Immediately 
after the opening of the session, he proceeded to Jacksonville, in 
the State of Florida, where the genial influences of the climate 
seemed to revive him for a season, and his friends were flattered 
with the hope of his recovery. But a sudden return of the disease 
brought with it a fatal termination, and he expired on the 8th of 
March, 1848. He died conscious of the mighty change which 
awaited him, calm and resigned, in the hope of a glorious future. 
The companion of his life, who had accompanied him with that 
fidelity and affection known only to woman, was present at his bed- 
side, to smooth his dying pillow, and close his eyes in death. In 
writing to a friend, the day before his death, he said, "With hopes 
of earthly fame or distinction I have done ; I seek those better 
things to which the humblest votary may aspire." He had evi- 
dently withdrawn his thoughts from " the competitions, factions, and 
debates of mankind," to contemplate the higher concerns of that 
immortal existence upon which he now has entered. 

On the 18th of March following the decease of Mr. Holley, the 
Hon. Washington Hunt, Representative in Congress from the State 
of New York, arose in his place and said: 

Mr. Speaker, I rise to discharge a mournful and unwelcome duty. 
tlpon me h;ts been devolved the melancholy task of announcing to the 
House that. John M. Holley, one of the Representatives of the State 
of 2s ew York, has departed this life. He died at Jacksonville, in 
Florida, on the 8th instant, after a protracted illness, which he endured 
with calnmcrs and Christian resignation. 



323 

I feel the inadequacy of language to express the grief with which I 
am penetrated by this afflicting event. The nation has lost one of her 
noblest sons, and the public councils are deprived of the services of a 
pure patriot and a wise statesman. The estimation in which his virtues 
were held by the people of the State to which he belongs, forms of 
itself, the highest eulogium upon his character. 

Mr. Speaker, in the community where our lamented colleague had 
dwelt so long, the intelligence of his death will be received with the. 
deepest sorrow. Universally beloved while living, his loss will be uni- 
versally mourned; whilst the memory of his manly graces and virtues 
will be fondly cherished by all who knew him. 

I dare not trust myself to speak of the domestic circle which is made 
desolate, and the hallowed ties which are sundered by this afflictive 
dispensation. Would that we might impart consolation to the bereaved 
family by the expression of our affectionate sympathy and condolence! 
May they be sustained and comforted by the protecting power of the 
Supreme Being whose merciful promise it is to be the widow's friend 
and "a father to the fatherless." 

In conclusion, Mr. Speaker, I offer the following resolutions: 

Resolved, That this House has heard, with deep sensibility, the 
annunciation of the death of Hon. John M. Holley, a member from 
the State of New York. 

Resolved, That this House tenders to the relatives of the deceased 
the expression of its smypathy on this affecting event, and, as a testi- 
mony of respect for the memory of the deceased, the members and 
officers of the House will go into mourning by wearing crape on the 
left arm for thirty days. 

Resolved, That, as a further mark of respect for the memory of the 
deceased, this House do now adjourn. 

The Hon. D. S. Dickinson announced the death of Mr. Holley 
in the Senate, and paid a feeling and appropriate tribute to his 
memory. Both Houses adjourned. 



324 



MRS. LAURA M. THURSTON. 



MRS. THURSTON was the daughter of Mr. Earl P. Hawley, 
and was born in Norfolk, December, 1812. Her parents being in 
moderate circumstances, her early advantages for education were 
such only as were afforded by the common district school. On 
arriving at maturer years, however, she found means to enter Mr. 
J. P. Brace's "Female Seminary," in Hartford, where she prose- 
cuted her studies with unusual diligence and success, and secured 
the marked approbation of the Principal and teachers. After 
leaving this Institution, she was for a few years engaged as a 
teacher in New Milford and Philadelphia, and subsequently became 
an assistant in Brace's Seminary. Here she remained until 1837, 
when, upon Mr. Brace's recommendation, she left Connecticut to 
take charge of the Academy at New Albany, in the State of 
Indiana. In 1839 she was married to Mr. Franklin Thurston, a 
merchant of NeAV Albany. She was at this time a frequent con^ 
tributor to the Western papers and periodicals, usually over the 
signature of "Viola," — and soon won for herself the reputation 
of beino; one of the best female writers at the West. But in the 
midst of her growing fame, and ere her dreams of earthly happi- 
ness had scarcely begun to be realized, death marked her for his 
victim! Yet, when he came to execute his dread commission, he 
found her not unprepared. In the bloom of youth and health she 
had consecrated herself to God, and the hopes she had long cher- 
ished did not desert her as she descended "the dark valley." 



325 

When told that she must die, her joyful exclamation was, "Is it 
possible I shall so soon be in Heaven !" She expired on the 21st of 
July, 1842. 

In the autumn of 1843 the author of this volume accompanied 
a literary friend to the "Childhood's Home" of Mrs. Thurston. 
Her early residence is situated about three miles to the north-east 
of the village of Norfolk, Litchfield county, Connecticut — in a quiet, 
secluded nook, shut out, as it were, from the great world; in short, 
just such a place as a poet might choose for the undisturbed indul- 
gence of his day-dreams. On our way thither, we paused for a 
moment over the foundations of the now demolished school-house, 
where, in early childhood, my friend had been the school-companion 
of the future poetess ; and many pleasant reminiscences of those 
halcyon days were called to mind, and related by him, as we pur- 
sued our way down the green lane, toward the cottage which had 
been her home from infancy. The dwelling is a small, venerable 
looking, wood-colored building, of but a single story, located about 
half a mile from the main road, on a path which has the appear- 
ance of being but seldom traveled. Her father still resides thare, 
and appears to take a pride in the growing fame of his daughter. 
He pointed out to us the spot on which she was born, about two 
miles distant, near the borders of a small and picturesque lake — 
from whence he removed to his present residence, during her first 
year. He also showed us several of her poems, and gave us the 
materials from which the annexed brief sketch of her history is 
drawn. 

The following beautiful poem, descriptive of the home and scenes 
of her childhood, (the frequent perusal of which first induced in 
us the desire to visit them,) is preserved in the Appendix to Gris- 
wold's " Poets and Poetry of America." It was written after her 
removal and settlement in the West, and but a short time previous 
to her death. 



326 



THE GREEN HILLS OF MY FATHER LAND. 

The green hills of ray father-land, 

In dreams still greet my view ; 
I see again the wave-girt strand, 

The ocean-depth of blue; 
The sky, the glorious sky, outspread 

Above their calm repose; 
The river o'er its rocky bed, 

Still singing as it flows! 
The stillness of the Sabbath-hours, 

When men go up to pray, 
The sun-light resting on the flowers, 
The birds that sing among the bowers, 

Through all the summer day! 

Land of my birth! — mine early home! 

Once more thine airs I breathe! 
I see thy proud hills tower above — 

Thy green vales sleep beneath ; 
Thy groves, thy rocks, thy murmuring rills, 

All rise before mine eyes; 
The dawn of morning on thy hills, 

Thy gorgeous sun-set skies; 
Thy forest, from whose deep recess 

A thousand streams have birth, 
Gladdening the lonely wilderness, 
And rilling the green silentness 

With melody and mirth. 

I wonder if my home would seem 

As lovely as of yore ! 
I wonder if the mountain stream 

Goes singing by the door ! 



•327 

And if the flowers still bloom as fair, 

And if the woodbines climb, 
As when I used to train them there 

In the dear olden time! 
I wonder if the birds still sing 

Upon the garden tree, 
As sweetly as in that sweet spring, 
Whose golden memories gently bring 

So many dreams to me. 

I know that there hath been a change — 

A change o'er hall and hearth — 
Faces and footsteps new and strange, 

About my place of birth. 
The heavens above are still as bright 

As in the years gone by, 
But vanished in the beacon-light 

Which cheered my morning sky ! 
And hill, and vale, and wooded glen, 

And rock, and murmuring stream, 
Which wore such glorious beauty then, 
Would seem, should I return again, 

The record of a dream. 

I mourn not for my childhood's hours, 

Since in the far-off West, 
'Neath summer skies and greener bowers, 

My heart hath found its rest. 
I mourn not for the hills and streams, 

Which chained my steps so long ; 
But still I see them in my dream, 

And hail them in my song ! 
And often by the hearth-fires blaze, 

When winter eves shall come, 
We'll sit and talk of other days, 
And sing the well-remembered lays, 

Of my green mountain home ! 



328 

Who that lias been a sojourner in a land of strangers, can fail 
to appreciate the beauty and pathos of these exquisite lines? 
Thousands of hearts luwcfelt all that the writer has here portrayed, 
but who could have expressed those feelings so well ? At such times, 
how naturally the " winged thoughts" fly back to our " fatherland," 
— reviving the scenes hallowed by early associations- — and re-uni- 
ting the long-severed links in the chain of youthful companionship ! 
And how natural it is in our search after happiness, to turn from 
the joys of the past, to the joys of the future! The beautiful and 
quiet picture of domestic felicity which the writer has drawn in the 
concluding stanzas, will be admired by every kindred mind ; and 
few will read it without a heart-felt sigh that her gifted spirit must 
so soon have taken its departure from earth, even though we 
rejoice in the full assurance that she has found "a home of rest" 
in a purer and better world. 

As our eyes rested upon the scenes which had once been so 
dear to her, and which she was wont to look back upon with feel- 
ings of interest from her new home in the far west, it was sad to 
reflect upon the changes which a few years had wrought, not only 
"o'er hall and hearth," but in the absence of many of those sim- 
ple ornaments which, during her residence there, had helped to 
make up the attractions of the spot. The "woodbines," (which 
then almost covered the dwelling,) soon missed the fostering care 

of her who 

"Used to train them there 
In the dear olden time." 

And nothing is now to be seen of them, save a few straggling, half- 
decayed vines. The flowers which once adorned the door-way 
and garden-walks, no longer attract the admiration of the passer by. 

Yet still 

"The mountain stream 

Goes singing by the door." 

And now, as then — 

"The birds still sing 
Upon the garden tree," 

though she is no longer there to listen to their melody. 



S29 

The poems which follow will serve as specimens of her peculiar 
talents. 

ON CROSSING THE ALLEGANIES. 
The broad, the bright, the glorious West, 

Is spread before me now! 
Where the gray mists of morning rest 

Beneath yon mountain's brow! 
The bound is past, the goal is won j 
The region of the setting sun 

Is open to my view: 
Land of the valiant and the free — 
My own green mountain land — to thee> 

And thine, a long adieu! 

I hail thee, Valley of the West, 

For what thou yet shalt be! 
I hail thee for the hopes that rest 

Upon thy destiny ! 
Here, from this mountain height, I see 
Thy bright waves floating to the sea* 

Thine emerald fields outspread; 
And feel that, in the book of fame, 
Proudly shall thy recorded name, 

In later days be read. 

Yet, while I gaze upon thee now, 

All glorious as thou art, 
A cloud is resting on my brow, 

A weight upon my heart. 
To ine, in all thy youthful pride, 
Thou a land of cares untried, 

Of untold hopes and fears; 
Thou art — yet not for tliea I grieve; 
But, for the far-off land 1 leave, 

I look on thee with t^ars. 

Oh! brightly, brightly, glow thy skies 
In Summer's sunny hours ! 
42 



The green earth seems a paradise, 

Arrayed in Summer flowers! 
But oh ! there is a land afar, 
Whose skies to me are brighter far, 

Along the Atlantic shore ! 
For eyes beneath their radiant shrine, 
In kindlier glances answered mine: 
Can these their light restore ? 

Upon the lofty bound I stand, 

That parts the East and West ; 
Before me, lies a fairy land ; 

Behind, a home of rest ! 
Here, Hope her wild enchantment flings, 
Portrays all bright and lovely things, 

My footsteps to allure; 
But there, in Memory's light, I see 
All that was once most dear to me — 

My young heart's cynosure! 



THE PATHS OF LIFE. 

An Address to a Class of Givls about leaving School, in Indiana. 

Go forth! the world is very wide, 
And many paths before ye lie, 

Devious, and dangerous, and untried t 
Go forth, with wary eye! 

Go! with a heart by grief unbowed! 

Go! ere a shadow, or a cloud, 
Hath dimmed the laughing sky! 

But, lest your wandering footsteps stray* 

Choose ye the straight, the narrow way; 

Go forth! the world is very lair, 

Through the dim distance as ye gaze; 

And mark, in long perspective, there, 
The scenes of coming days* 



331 

Orbs of bright radiance gem the sky, 
And fields of glorious beauty lie 

Beneath their orient rays ; 
Yet, ere their altered light grow dim, 
Seek ye the Star of Bethlehem ! 

Go forth ! within your distant homes 

There are fond hearts that mourn your stay ; 

There are sweet voices bid ye come ; 
Go ! ye must hence, away ! 

No more within the woodland bowers 

Your hands may wreathe the Summer flowers, 
No more your footsteps stra^; 

To hail the hearth, and grove, and glen, 

Oh! when will ye return again! 

Not when the Summer leaves shall fade, 
As now they fade from shrub and tree, 

When Autumn winds, through grove and glade* 
Make mournful melody ; 

The long, bright, silent, Autumn days, 

The sunset, with its glorious blaze, 
These shall return — but ye, 

Though Time may all beside restore, 

Ye may come back to us no more. 

Go ! ye have dreamed a fairy dream, 
Of cloudless skies and fadeless flowery 

Of days whose sunny lapse shall seem 
A fete mid festal bowers ! 

But of the change, the fear, the strife, 

The gathering clouds, the storms of life, 
The blight of Autumn showers, 

Ye have no vision — these must be 

Unveiled by stern reality ! 

Ye yet must wake, (for Time and Care 
Have ever wandered side by side,) 



332 

To find earth false, as well as fair, 

And weary too, as wide. 
Ye yet must wake, to find the glow 
Hath faded from the things below, 

The glory and the pride ! 
To bind the willow on the brow, 
Wreathed with the laurel garland now. 

But wherefore shall I break the spell 
That makes the Future seem so bright? 

Why to the young glad spirit tell 
Of withering and blight? 

'T were better, when the meteor dies, 

A steadier, holier light shall rise, 
Cheering the gloomy night ; 

A light when others fade away, 

Still shining on to perfect day. 

Go, then ! and when no more are seen, 
The faces that ye now behold, 

When years, long years, shall intervene, 
Sadly and darkly told ; 

When time, with stealthy hand, shall trace 

His mystic lines on every face, 
Oh, may his touch unfold 

The promise of that better part, 

The unfading Spring-time of the heart! 



PARTING HYMN, 

Sung aX the close of the Anniversary Exercises of the New Albany Theological Seminary. 

Brethren, we are parting now, 

Here perchance to meet no more: 
Well may sorrow cloud each brow, 

That another dream is o'er. 



333 

Life is fraught with changeful dreams, 

Ne'er to-morrow as to day ; 
Scarce we catch their transient gleams, 

Ere they melt and fade away. 

But, upon the brow of night, 

See the Morning Star arise ; 
With unchanging, holy light 

Gilding all the Eastern skies. 
Bethlehem's Star! of yore it blazed, 

Gleaming on Judea's brow, 
While the wondering Magi gazed; 

Brethren, let it guide us now. 

Guide us over land and sea, 

Where the tribes in darkness mourn, 
Where no Gospel jubilee 

Bids the ransomed ones return ; 
Or, beneath our own blue skies, 

Where our green savannahs spread, 
Let us bid that Star arise, 

And its beams of healing shed. 

Shall we shrink from pain and strife, 

While our Captain leads the way? 
Shall we, for the love of life, 

Cast a Saviour's love away? 
Rather gird his armor on, 

Fight the battles of the Lord, 
Till the victory be won, 

And we gain our long reward. 

Oh ! may many a radiant gem, 
Souls redeemed by us from woe, 

Sparkle in the diadem 

That our Leader shall bestow. 

Change and trial here may come ; 
But no grief may haunt the breast, 



334 

When we reach our heavenly home, 
Find our everlasting rest. 

Broken is our household band, 

Hushed a while our eyening hymn 
But there is a better land, 

Where no tears the eye shall dim: 
There is heard no farewell tone, 

On that bright and peaceful shore; 
There no parting grief is known, 

For they meet to part no more. 



ELEGIAC STANZAS. 

She sleepeth: and the Summer breezes, sighing, 
Shedding the green leaves on the fountain's breast, 

And the soft murmur of the stream, replying 
Unto her melody, break not their rest, 

I know thy hearth is lonely: that thy dwelling 
No more may echo to that loved one's tread; 

I know too well thy widowed heart is swelling 
With silent grief: yet weep not for the dead. 

She yet shall waken ; on that morning glorious 
When day shall evermore displace the night; 

O'er time, and care, and change, and death victorious, 
A holy seraph in the land of light. 

Yes, she shall waken ; not to earthly sorrow, 
Not to the blight of care, the thrill of pain ; 

Wake to the day that ne'er shall know a morrow, 
To life that may not yield to Death again. 

She rests in peace: for her forbear thy weeping: 
Thou soon shalt meet her in the world on high : 

The care-worn form in yonder grave is sleeping, 
But the freed spirit lives beyond the sky. 



335 



Francis bacon 



FRANCIS BACON, the third son of Asa Bacon, Esq., was 
bora in Litchfield, in January, 1820, and graduated at Yale Col- 
lege in 1838. He pursued his professional studies with the Hon. 
0. S. Seymour, was admitted to the Bar of Litchfield county in 
1840, and at once commenced the practice of the law in his native 
village. He was soon ranked among the most able and popular 
advocates in our courts. In 1842, he removed to Lancaster, 
Pennsylvania, and formed a legal co-partnership with the Hon. 
Thaddeus Stevens, one of the most successful lawyers in that state. 
Here he gradually won for himself an honorable reputation, and his 
growing fame and extended practice were regarded with just pride 
by his friends in Connecticut. He regarded his location as per- 
manent, but, upon the death of his only remaining brother, E. C* 
Bacon, Esq., he was persuaded to return to Litchfield, that he 
might be near his venerable parents, and solace their declining 
years. 

Being once more established amid the cherished scenes and 
friends of his youth, where he had long been a favorite, his success 
at the bar and in political life was almost unprecedented. In 1845, 
he was appointed Clerk of th6 Probate Court for the District of 
Litchfield. Having risen to the rank of Colonel of the Regiment 
with which he was connected, in 1846 he was elected Brigadier 
General, but declined the office. Upon the re-organization of the 
militia system of Connecticut, by which the entire militia of the 
state was embraced in one division, he was elected Major General 



336 

by the Legislature. In 1847 and 1848, he was the whig candi- 
date for Representative from Litchfield. During two successive 
sessions of the Legislature, those of 1847 and 1848, he was chosen 
First Clerk of the House of Representatives ; and in the spring 
of 1840, he was elected to the Senate by an unparalleled plurality 
of votes. Much to his credit, he received the suffrages of many 
of the best men among his political opponents, who appreciated his 
talents and personal worth beyond mere party expediency. In the 
discharge of legislative duties he was sincere and ardent, but ever 
courteous in his manners ; while no political asperity embittered 
the intercourse of private life : hence he enjoyed the respect and 
kind regard of all. In the honorable Senate he was its youngest 
member, and yet his quick perception of truth and character, his 
retentive memory, his ready and discriminating judgment, his 
practical tact, his flowing eloquence, and his conservative course, 
secured for him an influence much beyond his years — an influence 
which was much felt in several important acts of legislation. 

General Bacon died on the 16th of September, 1849, in the 
30th year of his age. His funeral was attended on the afternoon 
of the Wednesday following his decease, drew together a very 
large collection of people from Litchfield and the adjacent towns, 
and many members of the bar and other prominent gentlemen from 
a distance. The silence and solemnity which seemed to pervade 
all hearts, bore convincing testimony to the respect and affection 
with which the entire community regarded the deceased, and the 
bereavement which all felt they had sustained in his untimely 
departure. Among the strangers present, were the venerable 
ex-Chief Justice Williams, and Judges Waite and Storrs, all of the 
Supreme Court; the Hon. D. S. Boardman, of New Milford, late 
Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas ; the Right Rev. T. 
C. Brownell, D. D., Charles Chapman, Esq., Francis Fellows, Esq. 
Col. Thomas H. Seymour, (since Governor,) and Quarter-Master 
General Ely, of Hartford ; Adjutant-General Shelton, of South- 
bury ; Brigadier-General King, of Sharon; Hon. William W. 



337 

Boardinan, of New Haven ; Professor Lamed, of Yale College ; 
Professor Stewart, of Trinity College, &c. There were also pres- 
ent, several clegymen of various denominations, and members of 
the bar, from the towns in the vicinity. 

At the late residence of the deceased, the funeral services were 
commenced with a prayer by the Rev. Mr. Swan, of the Congre- 
gational Church. At half-past two o'clock, the remains were taken 
to St. Michael's Church, accompanied by the mourners, citizens, 
&c. As the procession entered, a voluntary of solemn music was 
played upon the organ by Miss Julia H. Beers. The funeral ser- 
vice was read by the Rector, the Rev. Dr. Fuller, who then 
preached from the text, " He being dead yet speaketh," in which 
he portrayed the character of the deceased, and most feelingly 
urged the solemn admonitions which his death awakened, upon all 
present. Appropriate prayers were then read by Bishop Brownell. 

The services being over, the procession formed, and moved to 
the East Burying Ground, in the following order : — 

Clergy. 

Citizens on foot. 

Members of Societies of Odd Fellows. 

Members of the Bar. 

Military, 

Litchfield Union Blues, and New Milford Rifle Company. 

Pall Bearers. 



General King, 
Colonel Ely, 
G. H. Hollister, Esq. 
G. F. Davis, Esq. 
Colonel R. Battell, 



General Shelton, 

Col. Thoma3 H. Sevmour, 

E. B. Webster, Esq. 

C. B. Smith, Esq. 

E. C. Buel, Esq. 



Relatives in Carriages. 
Judges of the Supreme Court, and Citizens in Carriages. 

At the Burying Ground, the solemn burial service of the Epis-' 
copal Church was read by the Rev. Dr. Fuller, and the remains 
of the deceased were committed to the silent dust, near the splen- 
43 



did monument recently erected to the memory of his brothers, who 
died abroad. 

We conclude this sketch with two or three extracts from the 
Funeral Sermon of the Rev. Dr. Fuller. 

Speech is the utterance of thought, the audible expression of the 
emotions of the soul. The distinguished individual whose sudden 
departure from our midst we all so deeply deplore, and whose mortal 
remains we are about to convey to their last resting-place, was a man 
of whom every one that knew him must say, ' k He speaketh.''" lie did 
not merely live and move, but he spake, and exerted an influence. He 
was not the silent and passive person who floats through life without 
being observed and respected, but at all times and in all places he 
caused his voice to be heard, and his talents, opinions, and character to 
be felt and appreciated. This was true even in his boyhood, passed 
amidst the lovely scenes of this delightful region, when he showed the 
same characteristics that marked his maturer years: intelligence, 
memory, activity, energy, decision, generosity, courage. This was the 
case in his youthful clays, while he was engaged in study; for his class- 
mates, both at school and in college, will never forget the mental and 
moral qualities which attached them to himself. His voice was heard 
and his influence felt during his brief but successful legal, military and 
political career, in which he proved himself a sagacious and eloquent 
counselor and advocate, an energetic officer and efficient disciplinarian, 
and a diligent and patriotic legislator and statesman. In the social 
and family circle, his words of intelligence and kindness, of neighborly 
intercourse, of filial affection, and of domestic love, will never fade 
from the memories of his bereaved and afflicted friends and relatives. 
In the house of prayer his lips were vocal with the prescribed expres- 
sions of confession and supination, of thanksgiving and praise; while 
in his dying hour, he professed with decided and fervent voice, his 
firm belief in all the articles of the Christian faith, and sealed his con- 
victions of the truth of our heaven-born religion, by requesting to be 
baptized into the adorable name of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. 

ButVhile our lamented fellow-citizen and Christian brother was 
thus speaking and acting in a wide and rapidly extending sphere of 
honor and usefulness, an inscrutible Providence had appointed him to 
an early grave. A fever, which is the bane of our salubrious New 
England, fastened witli stealthy approach upon his athletic frame, baff- 
ling all medical skill, and mocking the tears and prayers of distressed 
neighbors and relatives, till now, the last of three manly and premis- 
ing brothers, the only children of their aged and stricken parents, the 
dutiful son, their pride and hope, their support and staff, the affection- 
ate husband, the beloved companion, the useful citizen, the rising law- 



339 

yer, the respeo'ed general, the honorable senator, lies before us, silent, 
speechless, unconscious, motionless, dead! 

But, "he being dead yet speaketh;" not indeed with the living 
voice, for we shall no more hear his energetic tones, either at the fire- 
side, in professional consultation, in secret fraternity, at the bar, on 
the bristling parade, on the tented field, or in the halls of legislation ; 
but he though dead speaketh to us by his examjjle; and he speaketh 
to us as an affecting witness to the vanity of worldly pursuits: while 
our Saviour Christ, who, though once dead, is alive for evermore, also 
speaketh to us by this mournful event as a hud and earnest admon- 
isher, to seek with fervent zeal the great salvation which he offers to all 
who love and obey him. 

Thus fast and thickly did honors cluster upon a man, who had not 
yet completed his thirtieth year. Nor was this the apparent summit 
of his political eminence, since it was the universal conviction, not 
only among his friends, but likewise among his opponents, that there 
was no office in the gift of his native State, which he would not sooner 
or later occupy. Honored as a lawyer in his own county, and through- 
out the Commonwealth as a soldier and a statesman, he was inquired 
after by the citizens of one of our largest cities, as a civilian, whom 
they desired to have established in their midst; so that had his life 
been spared, and he desired the change, he might have soon ceased to 
be a resident of his beloved Litchfield. 

But when thus on the high road to distinction and honor, he is 
stopped in his ascending path by the unsparing hand of death. What 
a comment upon this world's transitoriness ! what an affecting witness 
is this dead advocate, general, and politician, thus cut down in the 
prime of his days, and in the vigor of his strength, to the vanity of 
earthly pursuits! His eminence, what is it? A heap of dust, which 
the wind of death has unexpectedly scattered! His honors, where are 
they now ? Faded flowers, to be buried with him in the lowly and 
forgotten grave! His future wealth, so carefully preserved for his 
future benefit by his doating parents, of what use is it to him in his 
present state? Of no more service than is his perishing body to his 
departed spirit, which, if he died in the Lord, now rejoices to be freed 
from the burden of the flesh. Thus alfectingly does our dead son and 
brother bear witness to the emptiness -and worthlessness of all earthly 
objects: and may the Spirit of God write this impressive testimony 
indelibly upon the hearts of all who are acquainted with this distress- 
ing providence which has invested this whole community with sadness 
and mourning! 

This entire community, which is deeply impressed by the sad prov- 
idence which has convened us this afternoon, might, by the dead, be thus 



340 

admonished, could his voice once more be heard : Boast not your- 
selves of to-morrow, for ye know not what a day may bring forth ; for 
what is your life ? it is even a vapor which appeareth for a little while, 
and then vanisheth away. The end of all things is at hand ; in sucJi 
an hour as ye think not, the Son of Man cometh ; be therefore sober, 
and watch unto prayer, that your loins may be girt about, your souls 
may be prepared for death, and yourselves waiting and ready for the 
advent of your Judge. 

Ah! desolate parents, chastened relatives, gentlemen of the law, 
soldiers, christian brethren, citizens: the departed and lamented one 
will not speak to us again ! but, till the voice of the archangel and the 
trump of God, announcing the final judgment, and the descent from 
heaven of the Son of Man, shall awake the slumbering dead, he shall 
lie in silence, sealed and deep, which no lapse of years, no revolution 
of ages can ever break ! To his long rest in the dust of the earth we 
then lay him down, with the assured hope, that if he died in the Lord, 
he is sleeping in Jesus, who by the sudden and calamitous bereave- 
ment we have all sustained, as well as by his living word and striving 
Spirit, is calling to every one of us, who is still reposing in his sins : 
Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, and I will give thee 
light: hear, and your soul shall live!" 



341 



CHARLES G. FINNEY. 



REV. CHARLES G. FINNEY, the celebrated Revivalist, 
was born in Warren, on the 29th of August, 1792. The following 
interesting facts respecting his early life, conversion, &c. are con- 
tained in communication to the New York Evangelist, in May, 
1850, written from Adams, Jefferson County, N. Y. 

" His father was a plain farmer. On reaching manhood, he left 
the paternal estate, and commenced the study of law in this village. 
He also led the choir of the Presbyterian church. His clear intel- 
lect and independence of character, gave him a commanding influ- 
ence over the youth of the place. He was intellectually orthodox 
on the great doctrines of revelation, but impenitent and careless. 
His views of Christian duty were so vivid, that he poured contempt 
on the apathy of the church. A fellow-student, (now Judge 

W ,) remarked to me recently, that Finney asked him one 

evening to attend a prayer-meeting. They went, and upon their 
return, Mr. F. said with an oath, that it made him indignant to 
hear Christians pray after that fashion — > u they didnH know what 
they wanted" He often told professors of religion and clergymen, 
that they were not sincere— • that it was not possible to believe that 
he and others were on the verge of hell, and yet be so indifferent in 
regard to the terrific fact — and assured them, if he ever served God, 
it would be in earnest — he would " pull men out of the fire." This 
fearless manner gave him tremendous power, and one minister 
remarked that the young people would not be converted while 



342 

Finney was here. But during the great revival of 1821, he was 
reached by the truth of God — in an agony of conviction, he 
retired to a grove alone, and yielded to the Spirit. Returning to 
his office, he invited Dea. B. to come in; and with tears and smiles 
of rapture, told him what had transpired. When it was known in 
the place, many seemed to feel like the disciples when Saul was 
converted — they were in doubt. When he arose in the crowded 
sanctuary soon after, his first expression was, "My God! is it If 
He acted immediately on his former assurance. No modern 
Christian ever more literally exemplified Paul's experience, who 
warned men day and night with tears. This has ever been his 
manner of life, from that time of consecration to the Lord. His 
way of conducting meetings was always solemn ; he never appealed 
to the animal feelings ; his dependence was prayer, and a pungent 
presentation of God's law and man's ruin, without hope but in the 
arms of a Mediator. Mr. F. doubtless, had faults — some eccen- 
tricities, but they were those of a man who was thoroughly pene- 
trated with a sense of eternal realities. Heaven and hell were 
words full of meaning to him. We find everywhere noble monu- 
ments of his labors in the gospel — the pillars in many a Zion, will 
call him blessed at the last day. And doubtless a rank of pro- 
fessed disciples, and among them not a few ministers, who have 
ignorantly or malignantly reproached him, will gaze there upon his 
radiant crown with wonder, while their own will be set with com- 
paratively a few stars of rejoicing." 

Mr. Finney commenced his labors in the ministry in 1824, at 
the age of thirty-two. His preaching, from the first, seems to 
have had a startling effect upon his auditors, and powerful revivals 
followed his labors wherever he went. He determined not to 
enter the pastoral office, but to continue his labors as an evange- 
list, which he did, with wonderful success, until 1835, when he 
accepted a Professorship in Oberlin College, Ohio. He, however, 
continued to preach in the City of New York during certain por- 
tions of each year, for some time after his removal to Ohio. 



343 

In 1848, Prof. Finney visited England, where he was received 
with high consideration by the Christian public. In that country 
he continued for about three years, returning to New York just in 
time to participate in the "Anniversary Exercises," in May, 1851. 
Of his labors abroad, something may be inferred from the following 
significant paragraph from the London Morning Chronicle : "Dr. 
Finney, the celebrated American revivalist, leaves England for his 
native country by the next Steamer. Though he came here for 
purposes of health and relaxation, he has not been idle. His fer- 
vid eloquence has created a powerful and we hope a permanent effect 
wherever he preached. Perhaps no man since the days of George 
Whitfield, has succeeded in producing a more wonderful sensation. " 

The following are some of Prof. Finney's published works, viz : 
"Sermons on Important Subjects," 277 pp. 8vo ; three editions of 
which had, been published in this country, in 1836, and several 
editions abroad ; " Lectures on Revivals," pp. 437, 12mo ; six edi- 
tions of which had been published in 1835 ; " On Sanctification," 
pp. 150, 16mo, 1840 ; " Systematic Theology," 2 vol. pp. 600 
and 583, 8vo, 1847; "Guide to the Saviour," 204 pp. 16mo; 
and several other smaller works. An edition of " Systematic The- 
ology" was published in London in 1851, in one volume of 1016 
pages, with a preface by the Rev. Dr. Redford, of Worcester, who 
says that " when a student he would gladly have bartered half the 
books in his library to have gained a single perusal of this volume." 



344 



GEORGE B. HOLT. 



This gentleman was bom in Norfolk, in the year 1790, and is 
now in the 60th year of his age. With fine talents, more of a 
practical than of a showy kind, he has been enabled to leave his 
mark, broad and deep, on the early Legislation of Ohio, and the 
future historian, in giving to the public that desideratum, a history 
of that State, (for it has yet to be written,) must give the name of 
Mr. Holt a place among the patriotic and the far-seeing statesmen 
of the commonwealth, who, a quarter of a century ago, planted 
the seed which has made Ohio the third, if not the second in rank 
among the states of the Union. 

The parents of Mr. Holt r -early designed him for the legal pro- 
fession, and his inclinations being nothing averse to the course 
marked out, he entered the Law School of Judges Reeve k Gould, 
in Litchfield, and in 1812, underwent an examination, and being 
found qualified, was licensed to practice law. 

Ohio, at that time, was in the u far west," and the hardy emi- 
grants who had sought its wilds, after the close of the war, were 
loud in their praises of its vast fertility, and of the magnificent 
wildness of its scenery. The ambition of young Holt was fired — 
he wished to see the country, — to become a part and parcel of it, 
and to share the privations of its settlers, and in 1819, we find him 
a citizen of the then small village of Dayton, and the following 
year, he raised his shingle as an Attorney at Law. 

The profession of law, at that time, was no sinecure. The cir- 
cuits extended over many counties, in most of which roads were 



345 

but bridle paths, and houses of entertainment few and far between, 
Bridges, there were none in the country, and when the streams 
were swollen into angry floods by the spring freshets, the members 
of the bar had to brave the torrent, and trust to a frail canoe, after 
driving their horses across, or else to plunge in, and trust to their 
horses to carry them safe across, and then, wet, chilled and weary, 
to traverse the woods for miles before they could espy the blue 
smoke of the log cabin, by whose hospitable hearth they could dry 
their clothes. The history of the early bar of that state, would be 
among the most readable of books, for many were the mishaps and 
adventures of these disciples of Blackstone and Chitty, which still 
live in memory, and are cherished by the younger members of the 
profession, as the child cherishes the legends in which his father 
bore a part. 

During the Administration of Mr. Monroe, party politics meas- 
urably died away, nevertheless there were times, places and occa- 
sions in which the spirit of party was temporarily aroused. Such 
was the fact in Dayton, in the year 1822, when Mr. Holt estab- 
lished, and for three years conducted the " Miami Republican," a 
newspaper, devoted to news, agriculture, and the dissemination 
of Democratic doctrines. 

In the fall of 1824, Mr. Holt was a candidate for, and elected 
to, the Legislature of the State, and deeply participated in the 
passage of the laws which made that session the most important 
ever held in Ohio. The lands of the State were then divided into 
first, second and third classes, and taxed accordingly — -the improved 
farms as high as the wild lands of the same class. The injustice 
of the system and the gross inequality of the classification, by 
which the sterile hills of eastern Ohio, in many cases, were taxed 
as high as the rich alluvian of the Miami and Sciota valleys, called 
loudly for amendment, yet it was not until the session of 1824-'25 
that the evil was abated by the adoption of the ad valorem system, 
which from that time, became the settled policy of the State. 

New York, under the auspices of De Witt Clinton, had commenced 

44 



346 

her canal policy, by which the waters of the Hudson were united 
with those of Lake Erie, so as to have a direct water communica- 
tion between the inland seas of the Northwest and those of the 
Atlantic. The necessity of similar communications between the 
Lakes and the Ohio river, sweeping through Ohio, had excited 
public attention, and with it, an oppositton of a bitter kind. 
Judge Holt stood forward as a prominent advocate of the work, and 
employed the columns of his paper to favor the measure, and this 
fact brought him forward more prominently as the man for the 
crisis. He was elected to the Legislature, and during the session 
which followed, the first canal law was passed, and under which 
the Ohio and the Miami canals were commenced, and the policy of 
the State in favor of internal improvements, from that moment was 
considered settled. 

Ohio, at that time, had no school system. Parents in the thinly 
settled portions of the State, were forced to rely on chance for 
teachers, who were themselves better fitted to be taught than to 
be the instructors of embryo men, and who mainly relied upon the 
birch and ferule, to beat learning into the head of their pupils. 
Money at the time was scarce — but little produce was exported, 
and many men who had a farm they could call their own, were yet 
in circumstances too straitened to allow them to give their children 
that schooling so much needed, to make them useful citizens of 
community. To remedy this evil — to give all, the rich, the poor, 
the high and the low, the same benefits of a common school edu- 
cation, was a matter which excited much attention. Fortunately 
for the State, the Legislature of 1824 -'25 was composed of men 
of more enlarged philanthropy than any which preceded it. Mr. 
Holt was appointed a member of the committee to whom the sub- 
ject was referred, and that committee reported a bill which passed 
into a law, and which established the common school system of 
Ohio. 

To us, at this day, it seems a matter of astonishment, that such 
a system should meet with opposition ; yet such was the fact. It 



847 

was deemed as a daring infringement on the right? of property — 
as a tyrannical and unjust law, which drew money from the pockets 
of the wealthy, to educate the children of other men. The poor 
were appealed to, and were told by those who opposed the law, 
that their children were to be educated at pauper schools, and 
their pride was thus aroused to resistance ; and, at the next elec- 
tion, the clamor became so great that many of the friends of the 
school system were sent into retirement. The colleague of Mr. 
Holt went down in the contest, and the Judge was reelected, 
chiefly from the fact that his services in securing the passage of 
the law for the construction of the Miami canal, in which his con- 
stituents felt a deep interest, gained him a popularity which ill- 
founded clamor could not shake. He was reelected to the Legis- 
lature at the next session. 

In 1827, during the palmy days of the militia system, Mr. Holt 
was elected Brigadier General, and for some years commanded 
one of the finest Brigades in the State. 

At the annual election in 1828, Mr. Holt was elected to the 
State Senate, and served during the sessions of 1828 -'29 and 
1829 -'30. He was Chairman of the Committee on Internal 
Improvements, then one of the most important .in the body. 

During the last session of which Mr. Holt was a member of the 
Legislature, he was elected President Judge of the Circuit Court, 
in which he had practiced law, and served during the constitu- 
tional term of seven years. At the commencement of his term of 
service on the Bench, the circuit was composed of the counties of 
Montgomery, Clark, Champaign, Logan, Miami, Darke, Shelby and 
Mercer. The counties of Allen and Putnam were subsequently 
attached to the first circuit, over which Judge Holt presided, in 
lieu of Clark, Champaign and Logan, which were transferred to 
the seventh circuit. 

At the end of his service as President Judge, Judge Holt par- 
tially resumed the practice of law, and, during which time, under 
appointment of the Court, he served one year as Prosecuting 



348 

Attorney of Montgomery county, one year in the same office in 
Mercer, and two terms in the same station in the county of Van 
Wert. 

At the session of the Legislature of 1842-43, Judge Holt was 
again called to the Bench, by a reelection to the office of President 
Judge of the same circuit, and served out his constitutional term. 

During the interval between his first and second term as pre- 
siding Judge of the Common Pleas Court of his circuit, Judge 
Holt divided his time between his practice and agriculture and 
stock growing, of which latter he was always passionately fond, 
and spent large sums in improving the breed of cattle — he having 
introduced into the counties of Miami, Mercer and Montgomery, 
the first thorough bred short-horned Durham cattle — part of which 
time he filled the honorable station of President of the Agricultural 
Society of Montgomery county. 

At the breaking out of the Cholera in Dayton, during the summer 
of 1849, it became an object of much concern, to have an able 
and energetic Board of Health, that the fell ravages of the disease 
might be stayed. Judge Holt, having been among the earliest 
and constant volunteers to visit and minister to the relief of the 
sufferers, was made President of the Board, in which capacity his 
sendees were constant, efficient, and highly valued by the citizens. 

During the spring of 1850, in casting around for a man, at once 
available for his personal w T orth and popularity, and with an 
enlarged mind, to be the candidate of the Democratic party, in 
a county where the tide of popular favor runs in a contrary direc- 
tion, Judge Holt was found to possess all the requisites, and he 
received the nomination and was elected to the important station 
of Delegate to revise, amend or change the Constitution of the 
State. On his arrival in Columbus, to attend to the responsible 
duties of his station, he met Jacob Blickensderfer, of Tuscarawas, 
who had participated as a member from the county he represents, 
in the House of Kepresentatives, during the important session of 
1824 -'25. From the adjournment of that Legislature, Judge 



349 

Holt and Mr. Blickensderfer had never met, until they came 
together as Delegates to form a new Constitution for the State, for 
which they they had aided, a quarter of a century since, in giving 
a canal policy and a school system, which have stood the test of 
time, and have aided much in bringing Ohio to its present proud 
position. 

As President Judge of the first Judicial circuit, Judge Holt 
gained an enviable reputution. He ranked, before his election to 
the Bench, as a sound lawyer, and to that he soon added the 
highest reputation of an able and impartial Judge. During a 
service of fourteen years in the service of the State, as presiding 
Judge of a circuit distinguished for the legal talent of its bar, it 
is a high compliment to say, that he gave entire satisfaction, and 
that, popular as he ever has been as a man, his popularity as a 
Judge exceeded it. 

For thirty-five years past, Judge Holt has been a member of 
the Presbyterian Church, and although far from being a bigot in 
his religion, has ever been recognized as a sincere Christian. 
While on the Bench, he saw, in its worst form, the evils of intem- 
perance, and he was among the early, as he has ever been the 
steady friend of the temperance cause. 

The mind of Judge Holt, as we before intimated, is less showy 
than solid. The distinguishing traits are a subjection of all ques- 
tions to a philosophic test, industry in investigation, and a perseve- 
ring pursuit of and rigid adherence to the just and true. In his 
domestic attachments, ardent and constant ; ready and reliable in 
his friendships ; and an active philanthropist. In politics he is a 
Democrat, with a strong tendency to radicalism. In the Conven- 
tion he was at the head of the committee on Jurisprudence, and, 
though a silent member, yet, if we mistake not, his impress for 
influence and utility, in the result of its deliberations, will be found 
deep and enduring. 



350 



EBENEZER PORTER MASON 



Was born in Washington, December 7th, 1819. His father, the 
Rev. Stephen Mason, a native of Litchfield, was pastor of the 
Congregational Church in Washington, at the time of the birth of 
the subject of this notice. Young Mason, though he died in his 
21st year, attained so distinguished a rank as a scholar, as to excite 
the wonder and admiration of the great men with whom circum- 
stances brought him in contact. At the same time, his amiable 
deportment and strict regard for Christian principle, won for him 
the affection of all. 

Ebenezer pursued his preparatory studies at the celebrated 
school at Ellington, and entered Yale College in the autumn of 
1835. Professor Olmsted says — "I well remember his appear- 
ance at that time, and the impression he made on me. He was 
now in his seventeenth year, but his figure, complexion and whole 
air, were those of a child of fourteen — being slender in person, 
complexion hale, voice soft, and his whole appearance very juve- 
nile. I was immediately struck with the superiority of his math- 
ematical powers and attainments, from the full and luminous expla- 
nations he gave of the principles of arithmetical rules, and from 
the ready and correct solutions he furnished of problems. I was 
uncommonly impressed with his adroitness in extracting roots, and 
in explaining the reason for each step of the process. Even in 
extracting the cube root, he required no figuring ; but, soon after 
a case was proposed, he gave the answer by a process purely men- 
tal. I remember mentioning to a gentleman associated with me 



351 

in the examination, that that boy was or would make a first rate 
mathematician. The first notice I had of his taste for astronomy, 
was one evening, when a small party of students of the senior 
class went, under my direction, to look for Halley's Comet, with a 
small telescope. It had already been seen in the large col- 
lege telescope, (which had afforded to Professor Loomis and 
myself the first view that was obtained of that remarkable body, 
on this side of the Atlantic ;) but the object was now to find it by 
the aid of a small refractor. Mason obtained permission to be 
present, and excited much notice by his familiarity with the stars." 

He soon became distinguished for the solution of problems, and 
obtained therefor the first premium of the Freshmen class. Not 
content with this, he even went in advance ; and, simply for his 
amusement, solved all the problems of the Sophomore class. Some 
of these problems were of the most difficult class, but they were 
solved with great elegance and apparent ease, and many of them 
by several different methods. In the above paragraph, Professor 
Olmsted alludes to the "taste for astronomy" which Mason early 
manifested. The Professor, speaking of him during his Freshmen 
year, remarks: "Instead of the transient and superficial views 
which most persons are satisfied to take, when they first have 
access to a large telescope, we see him exploring at once all the 
phenomena of Jupiter — his belts — his moons, with their eclipses 
and the shadows -they cast on their primaries. With great delicacy, 
he marks the exact position of each body observed; and, if it has 
motions, delineates the precise path it has among the stars. The 
more hidden objects of astronomy are immediately sought for, as 
the Asteroids, Double Stars and Nebulge ; and we find only a day 
or two intervening before his resolution served him to rise in a 
cold morning, before day, to enjoy the luxurious view of the sys- 
tem of Saturn. This was the beginning of a course of night- 
watchings which speedily terminated his earthly career." His 
enthusiasm in this department of science continually increased, 
and he resolved, during his Sophomore year, to devote his* life to 



$52 

his favorite pursuit. By means of a telescope, and other instru- 
ments of his own construction, he commenced calculating eclipses. 
During his Senior collegiate year, in connection with a fellow- 
student, he made the largest telescope then ever constructed on 
this side of the Atlantic. 

Mason graduated in August, 1839. After remaining in New 
Haven for a few months as a resident graduate, pursuing his favorite 
studies, and writing and stereotyping a "Practical Treatise on 
Astronomy," he was invited to a Tutorship in Western Reserve 
College, Ohio. In consequence of the continued decline of his 
health, his friends dissuaded him from accepting the appointment. 
In the summer of 1840, he was selected as one of the Assistants 
to the Commissioners for exploring and fixing the disputed bound- 
ary between Maine and Canada. Thinking that the more active 
duties connected with such an expedition might be a means of 
restoring his health, he joined the Commissioners, at Portland, 
about the 1st of September. For several weeks, he was busily 
engaged in making surveys and taking observations — traveling on 
foot, or being rowed up the wild rivers of that inhospitable region 
— encamping out nights — and, in short, enduring all the fatigues 
and privations and hardships of the more robust members of the 
expedition. About the 1st of November, he returned to New 
York, and soon after took up his residence in the family of Pro- 
fessor Olmsted, where he completed his work on Astronomy, which 
was soon after published. 

His health continuing to decline, in December he started on a 
visit to some relatives in Richmond, Virginia, hoping that the 
balmy air of the South might prove beneficial to him. He died 
at the residence of his uncle, (Rev. J. H. Turner,) near Rich- 
mond, on the 24th of that month, aged twenty-one years and 
seventeen days. In 1842, his Memoirs were published by Pro- 
fessor Olmsted, in a volume of 252 pages, with the following title : 
"Life and Writings of Ebenezer Porter Mason; interspersed with 
Hints to Parents and Instructors, on the Training and Education 
of a Child of Genius." 



BRIEF NOTES 

Of some of the more prominent Natives and Residents of Litchfield 
County, not sketched in the preceding pages. 



AD VMS, Andrew, LL. D,, a native of Stratford, and a graduate of Yale Col- 
lege, settled in Litchfield in 1774, where he spent the remainder of his days. 
He was a Representative, Assistant, member of the continental congress, and 
chief justice of the State. Died November 29, 1799, aged 63. His mother 
died in Litchfield in 1803 aged 105 years. 

ALLEN, John, a native of Great Barrington, Mass., fettled in Litchfield as 
a lawyer in 1785, and died therein 1812. He was a Representative, member 
of Congress, &c. : he was not only a man of great intellect, but of giant stature 
— measuring full six and a half feet in height and weighing about 300 lbs. He 
received the honorary degree of A. M. at Yale in 1791. His son, John W. Ah* 
]en of Cleveland, Ohio, was lately in Congress. 

ALLEN, Pelatiah, a native of Windsor, was the first settler of Barkham- 
stead in 1745. and remained the only inhabitant for ten years — clearing and 
cultivating t h 3 land in summer and hunting in winter. When apprehensive 
of danger, he used i© repair to a fortified post in the northein part ol JVew 
Hartford. After the organization ot the town, he was often a Representative 
and Magistrate. 

AUSTIN. Aaron, colonel, a native of Suffleld, but settled at JVew Hartford 
soon after the Revolution, (in which he was an officer,) and died there in 1829. 
For a long series of years, he was in public life y i i 1805, he received an hon - 
orary degree at Yale college, of which institution he was for fifteen years a 
member of the Corporation. 

AVERILL. Chester, a native of SaVsbury, died in that town in 1S36, while 
Professor ot Chemistry in Union College. 

B \C0N, Eoaphroditus C, (son of Asa Bacon, Esq.,) was born in Litchfield, 
graduated at Yale college in 1833, and settled in his native town in the prac 
tice of law He was twice a Representative, and in 1836 was a Delegate to 
the Whig National Convention, He was distinguished as a historian and an- 
tiquarian. Died at Seville, Spain, in 1844, aged 34. His brother Frederick, 
a gallant officer of the Navy, was lost off Cape Horn with the U. S. sloop sea- 
Gull, of the Exploring Expedition, in 1810, aged 24. 

BACKUS. Azel, D. D., a native of Norwich and a graduate of Yale, was set- 
tled over the congregational church in Belhlem in 1791, and remained there 
until 1313, when he accepted a call to the Presidency of Hamilton college.— 
Died in 1816, aged 51, His son, Dr. Frederick Backus of Rochester, N. Y-, 
has been a member of the New York Senate. 

B VLDWIN, Ashbel, a native of Litchfield, was the first Episcopal minister 
ever ordained in the United State3 — August 1735. He was a rector in his na» 
tive town, and in Stratford. Died in Rochester, N, Y., in 1846, aged 89, 

BALDWIN, Eli, emigrated from J\eu> Milford to Ohio, and in 1335 was a 
candidate for Governor of that State— receiving ?5,156 votes. 



354 

BALDWIN, Jehiel,died in Washington June 1, 1531, m hia 102d year 

B\LDWiN, Augustus, General, a native of G>shen, emulated to Hudsoh' - . 
Ohio — subsequently settled in Franklin, and died thire in 1333, while Presi« 
dent of the iVlassilon Bank, aged 50. 

BARSTOW, Gamaliel H., a native of Sharon, settled in Broome county, NY; 
and became State Senator, State Treasurer, and in 1831 was elected to Congress. 

BATTELL, Joseph, was born in Milford in 177 i — early removed with his 
parents to Woodbury and from thence to Torrington. At. the early age of 18 
he commenced the mercantile business in Norfolk, where he spent the remain- 
der of his life I? became eminent for his wealth, liberality, enterprize and 
hospitality . iides being an officer and munificent patron ot various benevo- 
lent societi ! learned institutions, he was often a Representative, and was 
member o! I Convention which formed the Constitution of this State. He 
married Sarah, daughter of the Rev. A. R. Robbins, the first pastor of the con- 
gregational church in Norfolk. Mr. Battell died suddenly Decembers, 1841, 
67, 

BATTELL, Charles I., born in Torringford in 1789— graduated at Yule col- 
lege in 180S — and was recently Judge of the Circuit Court of Indiana. He is a 
resident of Evansville, Ind. 

BEEBE, Ebenezer, (son of Colonel Bezaleel Beebe,) was born in Litchfield in 
1772,- he was a Major in the U S. Army in the last war with Great Britain, 
and was Inspector-General of the Northern Division. Died at Plattsburg, 1815. 

BEECHER, Lyman. D, D. now President of Lane Seminary, was pastor of 
the first congregational church in Litchfield from 1810 to 1826— by fat the most 
active and laborious part of hi9 life. All of his sons became congregational cler- 
gymen, viz. William, Edward, D, D M George (died in 1843,) Henry Ward, 
Charles, Thomas K, and James. The daughters are, Catharine E. and Harriet, 
(well known authors,) Mary, and Isabella. Dr. Beeoher was born in New Haven 
in 1775 ; his mother died during his infancy, and he was given to her sister, 
Mrs. Lot Benton of Guilford, who brought him up. The infant when received 
by Mrs Benton weighed only three and a half lbs. 

BEECHER, Philemon, General, born in Kent — emigrated to Ohio, became 
Speaker ot the House, and in 1S17 succeeded Colonel Kilbeurne in Congress. 

BEECHER, Luther Fitch, D. D. of Albany, is a native of Goshen. 

BEERS, Seth P. born in Woodbury in 1781; was admitted to the bar in Litch- 
field in 1805 and has ever since resided in that town. He has been a senator 
and representative, clerk and speaker of the House, Commissioner of the School 
Fund foi twenty- five years, and Fellow of Trinity college,- 

BELLAMY, Joseph, D. D. spent fifty years (his entire ministerial life,) in 
Hethlem; he was esteemed as one of the most learned and eloquent divines of 
his day. In 1750 he published True Religion Delineated — his works were is- 
sued in tnree volumes in 1811, a new edition of which wa9 published in 1850. 
He kept for a long time a theological school. Settled 1740 — died 1790, aged 71. 

BENNETT, Milo L. Judge of the Supreme Court of Vermont, is a native of 
Sharon. 

BINGHAM, Caleb, a well known author, compiler and publisher in Boston, 
was born in Salisbury, and graduated at Dartmouth college. Died in 1817.— 
Nathan Towson, now Paymaster General of the Army, married his daughter, 

BIRD, John, (son of the eminent Doct. Seth Bird,) was a nati\e of Litchfield 
and a graduate nf Yale. He commenced the practice of law in his native town, 
but removed to Troy in 179 J, and was there elected to the Legislature and to 
Congress. His brilliant but eccentric career terminated in 1806, aged 38. 

BIRDSEY, Victory, (son of E. Birdsey and grandson of Rev. Nathvn Birdsey 
of Strafford, who died at the age of 101 yean,) is a native of Cormvell and a 



355 

graduate of Williams college v settled in Pompey, Onondaga county, New York, 
and became a representative, member of the Constitutional conrcntion, and 
in 1815 and 1841 was elected to congress 

BISSELL, Aldcn, a native of Litchfield, settled in Meigs county, Ohio, and 
became Judge of the court ol common pleas, 

BOARDMAN. David S. a native and resident of JYew Milford, has been a 
representative, senator, and chief judge of the court ef common pleas. His 
brother, Homer Boardman, who died in 1851, had been representative, senator 
and preiidential elector. 

BOOTH, Reuben, a native of Kent, settled in Danbury as a lawyer, rose to 
the rank of Litulenant Governor of the State, and died in 1848. 

BOSTWICK — long an honorable and conspicuous name in JVew Mi/ford. — 
Colonels Elisha and Bushnell were officers of the Revolution, and atterwards 
well known in civil life ; Rev, Gideon was the first Epiucopal minister in Great 
Barrington, Mjss. Several others have been honored at home and abroad, 

BRADLEY, William A. late Mayor of Washington City, D C, and now 
Postmaster, was born in Litchfield in 1794. 

BRINSMADE, Daniel N. (son of the Rev. Daniel Brinsmaue, the first minis- 
ter of Washington,) graduated at Yale in 1772; lived and died in his native 
town. He was longer in public life than any other person who ever lived there. 
Died in 1826, aged 75. General Daniel B. Brinsmade is his son. 

BUEL, John, from Lebanon, was a first settler and original proprietor of 
Litchfield in 1720— and there became a deacon, captain, representative and 
magistrate; he died in 1740 aged 74. His wife, Mary Loomis, died in 17S8 
aged 90 — having had 4L0 descendants, 336 of whom survived her. 

BUEL, David Jr.of Troy, N. Y. is a native of Litchfield ; he has been First 
Judge of the Renselaer county court, member of the Constitutional convention 
of 1821, and is. now a Regent of the University. 

BUSHNELL, Horace, D.D., th.3 celebrated Hartford Divine, was bom in 
Litchfield in 1802 > graduated at Yale college in 1827 : and for the last twenty 
years has been pastor of the North congregational church in Hartford. He is 
selected t« preach .the sermon at the Centennial Celebration of Litch- 
field County, August 13th and 14th, 1851 : he has probably delivered more 
orations and discourses on anniversary occasions, than any other New England 
clergyman. The author hoped tc have obtained an extended sketch of his life. 

BUTLER. David, D. D., born in Harwinton in 1761— was rector of St. Mi* 
ehaei's church in Litchfield from 1794 to 1799 — was afterwards rector of a 
church in Troy until his death, which occurred July 11, 1842, at the age of 80. 
Rev, Clement M, Butler, D D, now chaplain of the U. S. Senate, is his son. 

BURNHAM, Oliver, born, lived and died in Cornwall. In youth he was a 
revolutionary soldier — in early manhood a practical Surveyor — and subsequent- 
ly for many years a Representative, Magistrate, and Judge of the County Court, 
He died in 1845. 

BURRALL — of Canaan— one of the most distinguished names in the county. 

CATLIN — of Harwinton and Litchfield. Several of this family have been 
or are distinguished : among them, Jacob D. D. of New Marlborough, Mass. — 
Lynde, President of the Merchant's Bank in New York city— Putnam, of Mon- 
trose, Penn , (fathei of George the painter and historian of the aboriginees,) a 
Judge of the common pleas — George S. member of Congress, &c. from Windham 
county — Abijah, late senator, judge, comptroller, and now commissioner of the 
school fund — Julius of Hartford- 

CHITTENDEN, Thomas, from Guilford, settled in Salisbury in 1750, and 
was a resident of that town lor 24 years, during which time he was elected 
colonel of militia, representative, ice. In 1774 he emigrated to Vermont, and 
in 1778 was chosen Governor of that state, to which office he was re-elected 



356 

tor 18 year?. He died in 1797; his memoirs by the Hon, Daniel Chipman were 
published in 1850. 

CHIPMAN, Lemuel, born in Salisbury in 1744— studied medicine and 
settled in Pawlet, Vt, represented the town in the legislature at 14 sessions, 
and was judge of the Rutland county court from 1789 to 1794. Ahout the year 
1800, heremoved to Ontario county, New York, and was there chosen a mem- 
ber of the senate and judge oi the county court. His brother, Darius, was a 
representative from Rutland, and state's attorney for 14 years, 

CHILDS, Haman \V. colonel, resided in Litehfitld until 1830, when here- 
moved to New York : he twice represented the city in the legislature, was 
collector of the city revenue, commissioner of streets and lamps, and manager 
of the American Institute, Died in 1851, aged 50. 

CHAPIN, Graham H, a native of Salisbury and a graduate of Yale, was elec- 
ted to congress from the state of New Yoik in 1S3S— died in 1542. 

CHURCH, Samuel, LL D., was born in Salisbury in 1785— graduated at Yale 
college in 1803, and settled in his native town as a lawyer He was represen- 
tative at six sessions, senator three years, judge of probate eleven years, ant 
member of tlj.e Constitutional convention. In 1832 he was appointed a Judge 
of the Superior Court and Supreme Court of Errors, and in 1847 he was elee'ed 
Chief Justice, In 1845. he removed to Litchfield, his present residence. His 
son, Albert E. Church, is Professor of Ma. hematics at West Point. 

CHURCH, Le.nan, of Canaan, brother of the preceding, one of the most 
eminent and successful lawyers in the county, died in 1849. 

COLLIER, Thomas, a native of Boston, established the Litchfield Monitor in 
1731 — the first newspaper ever published in the county — which he continued 
for20 years. He died at Binghamton, N. Y., about ten years since. 

COLLIER, John A. son of the preceding, settled in Binghamton, where he 
still resides. He has been a member of the legiilature, member of congress, 
comptroller of the state, presidential elector, &c. His brother, General James 
Collier of Steubenville, Ohio, was recently collector of the national customs for 
California. They are both natives of Litchfield. 

DAVIES, Charles, LL. D., born in Washington — has been Professor at West 
Point, in the New York University, and in Trinity college. He is the author of 
fifteen or twenty volumes, several ot which are mathematical woiks. 

DEMING, Miner R., son of Stephen Deming, Esq. of Litchfield, was born in 
Sharon in 1S10— removed to Cincinnati in 1836, and to St. Mary's, Illinois, in 
1839- In 18-12, he was elected brigadier general ; and was chiet commander of 
the State troops during the Mormon War. He was elected high sheriff of Han- 
cock county in 1844 ; died in 1845, 

DUTTON, Mathew R. born in Walerlown in 1783 : was Professor of Natural 

Philosophy and Mathematics in Yale college from lSt*2 until his death in 1825. 

DUTTON, Henry, Professor of Law in YaleCollege, is a native of Plymouth. 

He has been a representative, senator, judge of the N. Haven county court, &c. 

EDWARDS, Jonathan, D D. President of Union college, studied divinity 

with Dr. Joseph Bellamy, vtas licensed to preach by the South consociation of 

Litchfield county, and was pastor ot the church in ColebiookUova January 1796 

to July 1799— and there wrote some of his most important works, Died 1801. 

EMERSON, Ralph, D. D , now Professor at Andover, was pastor of a church 

in Norfolk for 12 y'rs. His son, Joseph, a now Professor in Beloit college, was 

born in that town. 

FRANKLIN, John, colonel, an officer of the revolution, and afterwards con- 
spicuous in Wyoming. Pennsylvania, was a native of Canaan; he was fre- 
quently a representaiiva and judge in Pennsylvania, and in 1787 he was arrest- 
ed and imprisoned in Philadelphia on a charge of treason. He w«is liberated 
on bail, which, by connivance of the authorities, was never required to be paid. 







E8 KV IEMSHA MlTTt'li E I. h I 

PB.OPESSOB OF riiKMivrnY. M l\r;i: Al.oc.Y AMI ckoi.im; V. 
IX THE rxiVKI'.SlTV OT WORTH (Ai.'OI.IXA . 



i Hiin-,,,,,,- society >i. dip n 



35? 

FOOTE, Samuel A. a native of Water town, now a resident of Canarada'gua, 
New York, and a Judge oi the Supreme Court of that state. He formerly prac- 
ticed law in Albany and in New York city. 

GALUSHA, Jonas, for 20 years a resident of Salisbury, emigrated to Vermont 
and was for nine years Governor of that State. Died 1834, aged 83. 

GOLD. Thomas Rugglee, a native of Cornwall and a graduate of Yale, set- 
tled in Whitestown.New York, in 1809 was elected to congress, and was twice 
re-elected. Died in 1526, 

GOULD, James, LL. D , a native of Branford and a graduate of Yale, settled 
in Litchfield, where he resided until his death in 1838. For about 40 years he 
was associated with Judge Reeve in conducting the Law School at that place 
He was Jud^e of the supreme court, and author of a work on special pleading. 

HITCHCOCK, Samuel J., LL. D , a native of Beihlem, and a graduate and 
tutor of Yale college, in which institution he was instructor of law until his 
death in 1845 ; he was mayor ot the city of New Haven, judge of the county 
court, and commission?!' of bankruptcy under the national bankrupt law. 

HOLLEY— -of Salisbury— one of the most talented families in the state, 

HOLMES, Uriel, from Hartland, graduated at Yale in 1781, studied law in 
Litchfield, settled in that town and remained there until his death ; he was a 
representative, judge, and member of congress. 

HI N MAN.— This has Jong been one of the most respectable and prominent 
names in that part of the county embraced in the present town of Southbury. 
Southbury was incorporated in 1786, and was annexed to New Haven county 
in 1S06. Joel ol the supreme court, and Royal R, late secretary of State, were 
born in this county — as were also a long list of officials who have borne the 
name during the last century. [See appendix] They are all descendants of 
Edward Hinman, a sergeant in the life guard ot Charles II. who came to this 
colony and died at Stratford in 1681. 

HUNTINGTON, Jabez W, a native of Norwich and a graduate of Yale in 
1306, vvas a resident of Lilehfield for about 30 years — represented the town in 
the legislature and the county in congress; and became a judge of the supreme 
court and senator in congress. Died in his native town in 1847. 

HUDSON, David, a native of Goshen, emigrated to Ohio in 1800, and found- 
ed the town of Hudson, 

JACKSON, William, D. D. a native of Cornwall and pastor of the congrega- 
tional churches ot Dorset and East Rupert, Vermont, for 46 years, died in 1845 
aged 74. His epitaph says he was the * founder of the first Education Society 
in the U. S, and was the first member of the corporation ot Middlebury college.' 

JANES, Edmund, D. D. one of the present Methodist Episcopal Bishops of 
the United States, is a native of Salisbury. 

JEWETT, Freeborn G. born in Sharon— settled in Onondaga county, New 
York, and has been surrogate, representative, member of congress, and is now 
Judge of the Court of Appeals. 

JOHNSTON, Josiah S. a native of Salisbury, removed in 17S9 with his pa- 
rents to Kentucky. He emigrated 'rom thence to Louisiana where in 1821 he 
was elected to congress — and in 1825 he was chosen United States Senator, On 
his return homeward from Washington city in the spring of 1S33, he was in- 
stantly killed by the bursting of a steamboat boiler on the Ohio river, May 19. 
His father. Dr. John Johnston, died at Washington, Ky. October 25 1833. 

JUDSON, Adoniram, born in Woodbury in 1751— graduated at Yale, and 
was pastor of the congregational churches in Maiden, Wenham and Plymouth, 
Mass. until 1817, when he became a Baptist, resigned his charge, and died soon 
after. He was the father of the late Rev, Dr. Jud3on, of the Burman Mission, 

LAWRENCE, Jame9 R. General, a native of JSIorfolh, but a resident of Syr* 
acu3e, New York, was a member of the legislature in 1825 '38 '39 '40— Judge 



358 

of the county couit in 1847. and is now United States Attorney for the Northern 
District of New York. His brother, Grove, also of Syracuse, was First Judge of 
the county court for several years from 1S38. 

LYON, Mathew, colonel, a native of Ireland, came to this country in 1758 
and was tor several years a resident of this county. He emigrated to Vermont 
and was there elected to congress in 1797 and again in 1799; he soon alter re- 
moved to Kentucky, and was sent to congress from that State from 1803 to 1811. 
His son, Chittenden Lyon, was in congress from Kentucky lor eiuht years. Both 
of colonel Ly* i's wives were natives ot this county, the first being a niece of 
Ethan Allen, the second a daughter of Governor Chittenden. 

FRYMAN — long an honored and honorable name in Goshen. The head of the 
family was Deacon Moses Lyman fiom Northampton who died in 1768, —his 
son, Colonel Moses Lyman, a brave officer of the revolution, died in 1829, aged 87. 

LYMAN, Samuel, son of deacon Moses; born in Goshen Jan. 25, 1749, and 
graduated at Yale in 1770; settled in Springfield, Mass. — became a Judge of the 
supreme cour', and in 1795 was ejected to congress, and served in that body five 
years. Died in 1802. 

LYMAN, Darius, son of colonel Moses, born in Goshen July 19, 1789, and 
graduated at Williams college in 1810— settled at Ravenna, Ohio, where he still 
resides. He has been much in public life, and in 1832 was a candidate for Gov* 
ernor of Ohio — receiving 63,185 votes, to 71,251 for Governor Lucas. Mr. L)> 
man is now a member of the Ohio Senate. 

MARVIN, Reynold, a native of Lyme and a graduate ol Yale in 1748, was the 
first lawyer in Litchfield and King's Attorney for the county. Died in 1802. 

MONSON. Levinus, born in Canaan, graduated at Yale, and settled at Hu- 
bart, New York, his present residence — he wa3 formerly a judge of the county 
court, and is now a judge of the supreme court. 

MITCHELL, Elisha, D. D., a native of Washington and a graduate of Yale 
in 1813, is now Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University ol Norlh Car- 
olina — [See plate. 

MERWIN, Orange, a native and resident of New Milford, was a member of 
congress tour years commencing in 1825. 

McNIEL. David, colonel, a native of Litchfield, settled in Phelps, New York, 
and became a Judge of the court of common pleas. 

OWEN, John, a native ot Salisbury, died in Chatauque county, New York, in 
1843, aged 107, 

OSBORN, Selleek, from Danbury, was editor of the Litchfield Witness in 
1804 '5 — and distinguished as a poet- During the war of 1812 he published a 
newspaper in Wilmington, Delaware. Died in Philadelphia in 1S26. 

PECK, John M., a native of Litchfield, a celebrated Baptist minister at Rock 
Spring, Illinois. He is so popular with the people, that the whigs of that state 
a few years since (about 1845,) nominated him for Governor. 

PECK, William V., of Portsmouth, Ohio, and Judge of the circuit court of 
that state, is a son of Litchfield parents, and way brought up from infancy to 
manhood in that town. 

PE^ET, Harvey P., LL.D., a native of Bttlilem, is now President of the New 
York Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. 

PETTIBONE, Rufus, a native of Norfolk, and a graduate of "Williams col- 
lege, settled in St. Louis and became judge ol the supreme court of Missouri. 

PORTER, Augustus; a native of Salisbury, was an early pioneer ol Western 
New York, 'where he became an extensive landholder, and a Judge. He died 
at Niagara Falls in 1850. Peter B. Porter, J r , lato speaker of the New York 
House, and Augustus A. Porter, late senator in congress from Michigan, are his 
sons. 



359 

PIERCE, John, a-lonel, a native of Litchjield, became Paymaster-General of 
the Army, and Commissioner for settling War Accounts— died in New Yoik in 
1788, He was brother of Miss Sarah Pierce, the founder of the Litchfield Fe- 
male Academy, who is still living. 

PIERPONT, Robert, born in Litchfield in 1792— settled in Vermont, became 
lieutenant governor and is now a Judge of the supreme court. 

REEVE, Tapping. LL. D., born at Brookhaven, L. I., and graduated at New 
Jersey college in 1763; settled at Litchfield and became chief justice of the State. 
He established the Litchfield Law School, the most celebrated in the Union, 
with which he was connected until his death in 1823. His first wife was a 
sister of the celebrated Aaron Burr, who sp.mt several of his early ye^ars in the 
Judge's family, and was here when, on hearing of the battle of Lexington, he 
started for the scene of conflict and entered the army. 

ROGERS, Edward, of Madison, New York, and a graduate of Williams col- 
lege in 1S09, is a native of Cornwall; he was elected to congress in 1839 

RIGGS, Dr. Lewis, a native of JVorfolk, was' elected to congress in 1841 from 
Western New York. 

ROBBINS, Thomas, D. D. son of Rev. Ammi R. the first minister in Norjolk, 
was born in that town in 1777, and graduated at Yale in 1796 Having dis- 
charged the duties of a pastor for about filty years, in 1*45 he accepted the 
appointment of Librarian of the Connecticut Historical Society — a post which 
he si ill holds. He ha* the largest antiquarian library in the country ; and ha9 
published t'.vn 01 three volumes, asd fifteen sermons and addresses in pamphlet 
form. The degree ol doctor ol divinity was conferred on him at Harvard. 

ROCKWELL— a distinguished name in Colebrook ; the Hon Julius, SpeaK- 
er of the Massachusetts House, and member of congress, was born io that town. 
SANFORD, Edward f. naw American Secretary of Legation to^ France, is a 
native of Wcodbury. 

ST. JOHN, Daniel B late member of congress from the state of New York- 
and nov? superintendend of the banking sy?tem, is a native of Sharon, 

SEDGWICK — one of the most eminent names in the county. All who bear 
it among us, are descendants of Richrrd, a Major General in Cromwell's army. 
A branch of the family removed from West Hartford to Cornwall in 1"749. — 
Theodore, LL. D, (speaker of the National House and President of the Senate,) 
then a child of three years, was brought up in that town- A goodly number of 
the name have been or are piominent men, 

SHELDON, Daniel Jr, was born in Washington — died at Marseilles, France, 
hi 1828, while secretary of legation to that country. 

SKINNER, Roger, born in Litchfield in 1773— settled at Sandy Hill, New 
York, and became a Senator and United States District Judge. 

SMITH, Perry, of New Milford, has been a representative, judge of probate 
and Senator in Congress.- 

SMITH, Truman, a native of Roxbury and resident of Litchfield, has been a 
representative, member of coagress,and is now United States Senator. 

STRONG, Theron R, a native of Salisbury, settled in Palmyra, New York, 
and was elected to congress in 1839, [Moses Strong, a native of the same town r 
settled in Rutland, Vermont, became chief judge of that county, and died in 
1842, aged 70. Adonijah and Martin were also prominent, men.] 

STERLING— Ansel of Sharon and Elisha of Salisbury— both eminent men in 
public and private life, are natives of Lyme, 



360 

TALL'UADGE, Benjamin, colonel, a distinguished officer of the conii • 
hental army, was born at Brookhaven, [j. I,, in 1754, and graduated at 
Yale in 1773. He entered the army in 1776, and was in several impor- 
tant battles. In 17S4, he settled in LHclfield % and resided there until his 
death in 1835. He was a member of congress from 1800 10 1815. 

TALLMADGE, Henry F. was born at Litchfield in 1787 ; he is now U. 
S. Marshal for the Southern District of New York. Benjamin, Jr,, his 
brother, a Lieutenant in the Navy, died on board the United States frigate 
Brandy wine, off Gibi altar, June 20, 1831, aged 36. 

TANNER, William, a native of Rhode Island, but long a resident of 
CornwflK died in that town a few years since at the age of 104 years. — 
After 100 years old, he became a professed conyert to Christianity and 
joined the Methodist church. 

TRACY, Uriah, General,^ natiye of Norwich and a graduate of Yale, 
settled in J tchfield, and there spent his entire professional and official life. 
He was a member of congress three, and United Slates Senator eleven 
years; and died in the latter office, in Washington city, in 1607, 

TICKNOR, Luther, M. D., of Salisbury, President of the State Medi- 
cal Society, &c, died in 1846. Caleb, his brother, a native of that town, 
and distinguished as a physician and author, died in New York city in 
1840, aged 36. Another brother, Benajah, is a surgeon in the Navy. 

WATSON, James, b. in Washington, fitted for college with Rev. A. R. 
Robbinsof Norfolk, and graduated at Yale in 1776. He was an officer of 
the Revolution, at the close of which he settled in New York city, and 
there became a wealthy merchant. He was appointed Naval Officer, and 
a Director of the Bank of the United States — and in 1798 he was elected a 
Senator in congress. Died in 1806. His parents are both buried in a 
retired little graveyard about half a mile south-west of Bantam Lake in 
Litchfield, under a red-stone tablet erected by their distinguished son. 

WOODWARD, Samuel B., M. D., a native of Torrington, settled as a 
physician at Wethersfield and in 1832 was elected to the State Senate. — 
He was subsequently Superintendent of the Insane Retreat at Hartford, 
and of the Massachusetts Lunatic Asylum- Died in 1849. | Several of 
his brothers have been or are prominent physicians.] 

WOODRUFF, Morris, a native an^ resident of Litchfield, died in that 
town in 1841, He had been Major General, representative, Judge of the 
county court, presidential elector, &c. His son, Lewis B., is now Judge 
of the court of common pleas for the city and county of New York. 

WOODRUFF, Clark, brother of the preceding, has been Judge of the 
supreme court of Louisiana. 



361 



APPENDIX 



LITCHFIELD COUNTY, 



North of the ancient towns of Waterbury, Woodbury and New 
Milford long remained a wilderness after most of the other parts 
of the State were settled. To secure the fee of the soil to the 
colonists, when at and subsequently to the administration of Sir 
Edmund Andros, efforts were made to wrest from us our charter 
privileges, the General Assembly granted Patents to several 
towns ; and as most of Litchfield County was not then embraced 
in any townships, the land was granted to the inhabitants of Hart- 
ford and Windsor, as far west as the Housatonic river. All other 
parts of the State, not included in any townships, when the dan- 
ger was over, quietly and without question reverted to the Colony ; 
but Hartford and Windsor on pretence that it was a bona fide 
grant, laid claim to the whole. While the controversy was pend- 
ing, Litchfield was incorporated ; and the government gave indica- 
tions of a determination to do right and improve these lands, then 
called Western Lands, for the benefit of the whole Colony. But 
the leading men of Hartford and Windsor were determined to give 
the government no peace till their rights were acknowledged. 
Finally, wearied out with their importunity, the General Assembly, 
after reserving to Litchfield their chartered rights, ceded the East 
46 



362 

portion of the territory to Hartford and Windsor, and those towns 
relinquished all claim to the Western portion. The dividing line 
has Goshen and Norfolk on the West, and Torrington, Winchester 
and Colebrook on the East. Hartford took for their portion the 
townships of New Hartford, Winchester and Hartland ; and Wind- 
sor took Barkhamsted, Torrington and Colebrook. Harwinton was 
divided one half to each town, and named from the two towns, 
Har -Win -ton. The portion secured to the government was laid 
out into townships and rights, which were sold at auction at the 
several count v seats. 



Norfolk was 


sold at 


Hartford, 


Goshen 


u 


New Haven, 


Canaan " 


U 


New London, 


Cornwall " 


U 


Fairfield, 


Kent 


a 


Windham. 



And the avails appropriated originally for schools, though after- 
wards some part was allowed to be used for ecclesiastical pur- 
poses. 

The several towns of the County were incorporated as follows : 
though most of them did not send members to the General Assem- 
bly till several years subsequently. 

W t oodbury, incorporated 1683. The towns taken from Wood- 
bury were 

Bethlem, incorporated May, 1787 ; 

Southbury, incorporated, May, 1787, and annexed to New- 
Haven County in . 

Roxbury, incorporated October, 17 96 ; and part of 

Washington, incorporated Jan. 1770. The other parts of 
Washington were taken from New Milford, Litchfield and Kent. 

New Milford was incorporated Oct. 1712. 

Litchfield " " May, 1710. 

Harwinton " " Oct. 1737. 

New Hartford " " Oct. 1738. 

Sharon, Salisbury, (?) Canaan, Goshen and Kent, Oct. 
1739. From Kent was taken 



363 

Warren, incorporated May, 1786. 
Cornwall was incorporated May, 1740. 

T0RRINGT0N " " Oct. 1740. 

Norfolk " " May, 1758. 

Hartland, May, 1761. Annexed to Hartford County. 

Winchester, May, 1771. 

Barkhamsted and Colebrook, Oct. 1779. 

Watertown was taken from Waterbury and incorporated May, 
1780, and annexed to Litchfield County. And included 

Plymouth, incorporated a separate town, May, 1795. 

Woodbury was originally embraced in Fairfield County. 

New Milford, Sharon and Salisbury in New Haven County. 

All the other towns in Hartford County. 

The Act of Oct. 1751, constituting the County was 

" Be it enacted, &c. That the townships of Litchfield, Wood- 
bury, New Milford, Harwinton, New Hartford, Barkhempstead, 
Hartland, Colebrook, Norfolk, Canaan, Salisbury, Kent, Sharon, 
Cornwall, Goshen, Torrington and Winchester, lying in the north- 
westerly part of this Colony, shall be and remain one entire County, 
and be called the County of Litchfield ; the 

bounds of which County shall extend north to the Colony line and 
west to the Colony line, till it meets with the township of New 
Fairfield, and to include the towns above mentioned." [Col. Rec. 
VIII. 84. 

JUDGES of the county court. 





Acces. 


Exit. 


William Preston, Woodbury, 


1751 


1754 


John Williams, Sharon, 


1754 


1773 


Oliver Wolcott, Litchfield, 


1773 


1786 



Daniel Sherman, Woodbury, 1786 1791 

Joshua Porter, Salisbury, " 1791 1808 

Aaron Austin, New Hartford, 1808 1816 



364 



Augustus Pettibone, Norfolk, 
David S. Boardman, New Milford, 
William M. Burrall, Canaan, 
Ansel Sterling, Sharon, 
Calvin Butler, Plymouth, 
Ansel Sterling, Sharon, 
William M. Burrall, Canaan, 
Abijah Catlin, Harwinton, 
Elisha S. Abernethy, Litchfield, 
Ilolbrook Curtis, Watertown, 
Hiram Goodwin, Barkhamsted, 
Charles B. Phelps, Woodbury, 
Hiram Goodwin, Barkhamsted, 



Access. 


Exit. 


181G 


1831 


1831 


1836 


1836 


1838 


1838 


1839 


1839 


1840 


1840 


1842 


1842 


1844 


1844 


1846 


1846 


1847 


1847 


1849 


1849 


1850 


1850 


1851 


1851 





JUSTICES OF THE QUORUM. 





Access. 


Exit. 


John Miner, Woodbury, 


1704 


1716* 


John Sherman, Woodbury, 


1708 


1714* 


U ii u 


1723 


1728* 


Joseph Miner, " 


1725 


1739* 


William Preston, " 


1740 


1751* 


Thomas Chipman, Salisbury, 


1751 


1753 


John Williams, Sharon, 


1751 


1754 


Samuel Canfield, New Milford, 


1751 


1754 


Ebenezer Marsh, Litchfield, 


1751 


1772 


Joseph Bird, Salisbury, 


1753 


1754 


Noah Hinman, Woodbury, 


1754 


1759 


Elisha Shelden, Litchfield, 


1754 


1761 


Increase Moseley, Woodbury, 


1755 


1780 


Roger Sherman, New Milford, 


1759 


1762 


Daniel Sherman, Woodbury, 


1761 


1786 


* In Faii-field County. 







365 

Bushnell Bostwick, New Milford, 
Joshua Porter, Salisbury, 
Samuel Canfield, New Milford, 
Jedediah Strong, Litchfield, 
Heman Swift, Cornwall, 
Aaron Austin, New Hartford, 
Nathan Hale, Canaan, 
David Smith, Plymouth, 
Daniel N. Brinsmade, Washington, 
Judson Canfield, Sharon, 
Birdsey Norton, Goshen, 
Augustus Pettibone, Norfolk, 
Uriel Holmes, Litchfield, 
Moses Lyman, jr., Goshen, 
Oliver Burnham, Cornwall, 
Cyrus Swan, Sharon, 
Martin Strong, Salisbury, 
John Welch, Litchfield, 

ASSOCIATE JUDGES. 



Access. 


Exit. 


1762 


1776 


1772 


1791 


1777 


1790 


1780 


1791 


1786 


1802 


1790 


1808 


1791 


1809 


1791 


1814 


1802 


1818 


1808 


1815 


1809 


1812 


1812 


1816 


1814 


1817 


1815 


1817 


1816 


1818 


1817 


1819 


1817 


1820 


1819 


1820 



Martin Strong, Salisbury, 


1820 


1829 


John Welch, Litchfield, 


1820 


1829 


William M. Burrall, Canaan, 


1829 


1836 


Morris Woodruff, Litchfield, 


1829 


1838 


Hugh P. Welch, " 


1836 


1838 



COUNTY COMMISSIONED. 



Morris Woodruff, Litchfield, appointed 1839 
Joseph H. Bellamy, Bethlem, " 1839, '41 

John Boyd, Winchester " 1840, '9, '50 

William Beebe, Litchfield, " 1840 



366 



Lester Loo-mis, Barkhamsted, 
Frederick Kellogg, Cornwall, 
Russell C. Abernethy, Torrington, 
Oliver W. Pickett, New Milford, 
Leman W. Cutler, Watertown, 
Joseph I. Gaylord, Goshen, 
Stephen Deming, Litchfield, 
William P. Russell, Salisbury, 
Hiram Goodwin, Barkhamsted, 
Dunning Babbitt, New Milford, 
Eli Mygatt, New Milford, 
Henry L. Randale, Roxbury, 
Daniel Parsons, Sharon, 
Peleg Shepard, Barkhamsted, 
William Cothren, Woodbury, 



appointed 1841, '4, '5 



1841, '2, 


'3 


1842, '3 




1842, '3 




1844, '5 




1844, '5, 

1 8 \ CK 


% 


Io40 

1846, 51 




1847, '8 




1847, '8 




1849 




1850 




1850 




1851 




1851 





'7, '8, '9 



CLERKS OF THE COURT OF COMMON PLEAS AND THE COUNTY 
COURT, AND OF THE SUPERIOR COURT AFTER ITS ESTAB- 
LISHMENT IN THE COUNTY IN 1798. 



Access. Exit. 

Isaac Baldwin, 1751 1793 

Frederick Wolcott, 1793 1836 
Origen S. Seymour, 1836 1844 
Gideon H. Hollister, 1844 1845 



Access. Exit. 

Origen S. Seymour, 1846 1847 
Gideon II. Hollister, 1847 1850 



Elisha Johnson. 



1850 



SHERIFFS. 



Access. Exit. 

Oliver Wolcott, 1751 1772 

Lynde Lord, 1772 1801 

John R. Landon, 1801 1819 

Moses Seymour, jr. 1819 1825 



Ozias Seymour, 
Albert Sedgwick, 
Charles A. Judson. 
Albert Sedgwick, 



Access. Exit. 

1825 1834 

1834 1835 

1835 1838 
1838 



367 

JUDGES OF PROBATE. 

YEARS OP APPOINTMENT ARE SPECIFIED. 

Barkhamsted District, from New Hartford District in 1834. 

Lancelot Phelps, 1834 Hiram Goodwin, 1847 

Amos Beecher, 1830, '7, '46, '5 Lester Loomis, 1848, '9 
Jesse Ives, 1838 to '45 James Eggleston, 1851 

Canaan District, from Sharon District, in 1846, 

William M. Burrall, 1846 Miles T. Granger, 1849 to '51 

William G. Pierce, 1847, '8 

Cornwall District, from Litchfield District in 1847. 

Philo Kellogg, 1847, '8 Frederick Kellogg, 1850, '1 

Burritt B. North, 1849 

Harwinton District, from Litchfield District in 1835. 

Benajah Hayden, '35 to '7, 42, 3 Lewis Smith, '44, '5, '7 to 9, '51 
Abijah Catlin, 1838 to 1841 Martin Cook, 2d, 1846, '50 

Kent District, from New Milford District in 1831. 

N. P. Perry, 1831 to '4, '8 to '41 R. Fuller, jr. 1842, '3, '9 to '51 
Frederick Chittenden, 1835, '6 J. C. Hatch, 1844, '5, '7, '8 
Wells Beardslee, 1837 John H. St. John, 1846 

Litchfield District includes Goshen and Warren ; from Hart- 
ford and Woodbury, Oct. 1742. 

Ebenezer Marsh, 1742 to '71 Phineas Miner, 1838,'9 

Oliver Wolcott, 1772 to '95 Ralph G. Camp, 1840, '1, '4, '5 

Andrew Adam, pro tern, 1776 Charles Adams, 1847 to '9. 

Frederick Wolcott, 1796 to 1836 Oliver A. G. Todd, 1850 

E. S. Abernethy,'37, 42, '3, '46 Henry B. Graves, 1851 



868 

New Hartford District, from Sunshiny District in 1825 ; 
originally in Farmirigton District. 

Isaac Kellogg, 1825 to '32, '34 Roger XL Mills, 1838 to '41, 
Lancelot Phelps, 1833 '44, '5, '7 to '51 

Tertius Wadsworth, 1835 to '37 Wait Garrett, 1842, '3, '6 

New Milford District, from Woodbury and Sharon Districts 

in 1787. 

Samuel Canfield, 1787 to '89 Perry Smith, 1833, '5 

Daniel Everet, 1790 to 1804 George Taylor, 1836, 7, '42, '3 

David S. Boardman, 1805 to '20 Thomas B. Lacey, 1846 

Jehiel Williams, 1821 to '31 David G. Sanford, 1847, '8, '51 

Nathaniel Perry, 1832, '4, '8 to Julius B. Harrison, 1849, '50 
41, '4, '5 

Norfolk District, from Simsbury and Litchfield Districts, 1779. 

Giles Pettibone, 1779 to 1806 Daniel Hotchkiss, 1846 

Augustus Pettibone, 1807 to '21 Darius Phelps, 1847, '9 

Mich'l F. Mills, 1822 to '41 '4 '5 William R. Peck, 1848, '51 

Joseph Riggs, 1842 John Dewell, 1850 
James C. Swift, 1843 

Plymouth District, from Waterbury District in 1833. 

Calvin Butler, 1833 to '41 Henry B. Graves, 1845, '7 

El'a Johnson, 1842, '3, '6, '9, '50 Barnabas W. Root, 1848 
Calvin R. Butler, 1844 Ammi Giddings, 1851 

Roxbury District, from Woodbury District in 1842. 

H. B. Eastman, 1842 to '4, '50 Henry L. Randall, 1846 
Aaron W. Fenn, 1845, '7 to '9 Myron Downs, 1851 

Salisbury District, from Sharon District in L847. 
John G.Mitchell, 1847 to '51 



369 

Sharon District from Litchfield District, Oct. 1755. 

John Williams, 1755 to 1773 C. F. Sedgwick, 1840, '1, '4, '5 
Joshua Porter, 1774 to 1810 '7, '8, '51 

Elisha Sterling, 1811 to 1820 John G. Mitchell, 1842, '3, '6 

Samuel Church, 1821 to 1832 James Orr, 1849, '50 
William M. Burrall 1833 to '39 

Torrington District, from Litchfield District in 1847. 

George D. Wadhams, 1847 to '9 Henry S. Barbour, 1851 
Harlow Fjler, 1850 

Washington District from Woodbury and Litchfield Dists. 1832. 

Daniel B. Brinsmade, 1832 to Ithiel Hickox, 1837, '42, '43 

'4, '8 to '41, '4, '5, '7 to '9,51 William Moody, 1846 
Frederick S. Fenn, 1835, '6 Daniel G. Piatt, 1850 

Watertown District from Waterbury District in 1834. 

Holbrook Curtiss, 1834, '5, '8 Merrit Hemmingway, 1837 
to '45, '47 to '49 Charles S. Woodward, 1846 

Benjamin De Forest, 1836 Allyn M. Hungerford, 1850, '1 

Winchester District includes Colebrook ;• from Norfolk Dis- 
trict in 1838. 

John Boyd, 1838 Samuel W. Coe, 1843, '9, '50 

Gideon Hall jr., 1839 to '41, Roland Hitchcock, 1846, '51 

'44, '5, '8 William H. Rood, 1847 
Daniel Coe, 1842 

Woodbury District from Hartford and Fairfield Dists. Oct. 1719. 

John Sherman, 1719 to '27 John Strong jr., 1816, '17, '34 

Joseph Minor, 1728 to '56 Charles B. Phelps, 1823 to '33, 
Daniel Sherman, 1757 to '94 '35 to '37, '42, '3, '6, '9 to '51 

Nathan Preston, 1795 to 1804, Nathan'l B. Smith, 1838 to '41 

'18 to '22 Leman B. Sprague, 1844 

Noah B. Benedict, 1805 to '15 Thomas Bull, 1845 '7, '8 
47 



370 

JUDGES OF SUPERIOR COURT. 



Andrew Adams, Litchfield, 

appointed Chief Justice in 
Tapping Reeve, Litchfield, 

appointed Chief Justice in 
Nathaniel Smith, Woodbury 
John Cotton Smith, Sharon, 
James Gould, Litchfield, 
Samuel Church, Salisbury, 

appointed Chief Justice in 
Jabez W. Huntington, Litchfield, 

SENATORS OF CONGRESS. 

Uriah Tracy, Litchfield, 
Elijah Boardman, New Milford, 
Jabez W. Huntington, Litchfield, 
Truman Smith, " 

MEMBERS OF CONGRESS. 

Uriah Tracy, Litchfield, 
Nathaniel Smith, Woodbury, 
John Allen, Litchfield, 
John Cotton Smith, Sharon, 
Benjamin Tallmadge, Litchfield, 
Uriel Holmes, Litchfield, 
Ansel Sterling, Sharon, 
Orange Merwin, New Milford, 
Jabez W. Huntington, Litchfield, 
Phinehas Miner, " 

Lancelot Phelps, Colebrook, 
Truman Smith, Litchfield, 1839 '43 
Origen S. Seymour, Litchfield, 



Access. 


Exit 


1789 


1798 


1793 




1798 


1815 


1814 




180G 


1818 


1809 


1811 


1816 


1819 


1833 




1847 




1834 


1840 


1796 


1807 


1821 


1823 


1840 


1847 


1849 




1793 


1796 


1795 


1799 


1797 


1799 


1800 


1806 


1801 


1817 


1817 


1818 


1821 


1825 


1825 


1829 


1829 


1834 


1834 


1835 


1835 


1839 


1845 


1849 


1851 





371 

GOVERNORS. 

Access. Exit. 

Oliver Wolcott, Litchfield, 1796 1798 

John Cotton Smith, Sharon, 1813 1817 

Oliver Wolcott, Litchfield, 1817 1827 

LIEUTENANT GOVERNORS. 

Oliver Wolcott, Litchfield, 1786 1796 

John Cotton Smith, Sharon, 1811 1813 

William S. Holabird, Winchester, 1842 1844 

SECRETARIES OF STATE. 

Royal R. Hinman, Roxbury, 1835 1842 

Roger H. Mills, New Hartford, 1849 1850 

STATE COMPTROLLERS. 

Oliver Wolcott, Litchfield, 1788 1789* 

Abijah Catlin, Harwinton, 1847 1850 

COMMISSIONER OF SCHOOL FUND. 

Seth P. Beers, Litchfield, 1825 1849 

Abijah Catlin Harwinton, 1851 

ASSISTANTS UNDER THE CHARTER. 

John Sherman, Woodbury, 1713 1723 

Elisha Sheldon, Litchfield, 1761 1779 

Oliver Wolcott, " 1771 1735 

Andrew Adams, " 1781 1790 

Jedediah Strong, " 1789 1791 

Resigned on appointment of Auditor of the United States Treasury 



372 

Herman Swift, Cornwall, 
Tapping Reeve, Litchfield, 
Aaron Austin, New Hartford, 
Nathaniel Smith, Woodbury, 
John Allen, Litchfield, 
John Cotton Smith, Sharon, 
Judson Canfield, Sharon, 
Frederick Wolcott, Litchfield, 
Noah B. Benedict, Woodbury, 
Elijah Boardman, New Milford, 

SENATORS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION ELECTE] 

Frederick "Wolcott, Litchfield, 

Elijah Boardman, New Milford, 

Orange Merwin, New Milford, 

Seth P. Beers, Litchfield, 

John Welch, Litchfield, 

Samuel Church, Salisbury, 

Homer Boardman, New Milford, 1828 1829 

SENATORS UNDER THE DISTRICT SYSTEM. 

District No. 15. 

Phineas Lord, Litchfield, 1830 1831 

William G. Williams, New Hartford, 1832 1833 

Theron Rockwell, Colebrook, 1834 1835 

James Beebe, Winchester, 1836 1837 

Andrew Abernethy, Harwinton, 1838 1830 

Lambert Hitchcock, Barkhamsted, 1840 1841 

Martin Webster, Torrington, 1842 

Israel Coe, " 1843 

Abijah Catlin, Harwinton, 1844 

William Beebe, Litchfield, 1845 



Access. 


Exit. 


1790 


1802 


1792 


1793 


1794 


1818 


1799 


1805 


1800 


1806 


1809 


1810 


1809 


1815 


1810 


1819 


1816 


1818 


1818 


1819 


BY GENERAL TIC 


1819 


1822 


1819 


1820 


1821 


1824 


1824 




1825 


1827 


1825 


1827 



373 





Access. 


Exit. 


Lucius Clark, Winchester, 


1846 




Gideon Hall, Jr., " 


1847 




Roger H. Mills, New Hartford, 


1848 




Francis Bacon, Litchfield, 


1849 




Samuel W. Coe, Winchester > 


1850 




Charles Adams, Litchfield, 


1851 




District No. 16. 






Homer Boardman, New Milford, 


1830 




Thomas Mitchell, Plymouth, 


1831 




Calvin Butler, " 


1832 




Nehemiah C. Sanford, Woodbury, 


1833 


1834 


George Taylor, New Milford, 


1835 


1836 


Matthew Minor, Woodbury, 


1837 




John Buckingham, Watertown, 


1838 




Alvin Brown, Washington, 


1839 




Eli Potter, Plymouth, 


1840 




Joseph H. Bellamy, Bethlem, 


1841 




Elijah Warner, Plymouth, 


1842 




Charles B. Phelps, Woodbury, 


1843 




Silas Hoadley, Plymouth, 


1844 




Leman W. Cutler, Watertown, 


1845 




Minot Smith, Bethlem, 


1846 




John C. Ambler, " 


1847 




Henry Merwin, New Milford, 


1848 




Elisha Johnson, Plymouth, 


1849 


1850 


Levi Heaton, " 


1851 




District No. 17. 






Augustus Pettibone, Norfolk, 


1830 


1831 


Charles F. Sedgwick, Sharon , 


1832 




Elisha Sterling, Salisbury, 


1833 


1834 


Horatio Smith, Sharon, 


1835 





3T4 





Access. 


Exit. 


Martin Strong, Salisbury, 


1836 




Peter Bierce, Cornwall, 


1837 


1838 


Nathaniel P. Perry, Kent, 


1839 


1840 


Augustus Miles, Goshen, 


1841 




William M. Burrall, Canaan, 


1842 




John Dewell, Norfolk, 


1843 




Philo Kellogg, Cornwall, 


1844 


1845 


Sidney Ensign, Canaan, 


1846 




John Hi Hubbard, Salisbury, 


1847 


1850 


Samuel W. Gold, Cornwall, 


1848 




William P. Russell, Salisbury, 


1849 




William W. Welch, Norfolk, 


1851 





375 



REPRESENTATIVES TO THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 



Including the delegates to the Constitutional Convention in 1818, 
marked * from the towns in Litchfield County. Previous to the 
adoption of the Constitution of 1818, the Legislature held two sessions 
a year, in May and October, under the provisions of the Charter of 
1GG2, to both of which Representatives were chosen. 

The several towns first sent Representatives to the General Assem- 
bly as follows : 



Woodbury, 


May, 


1684 


Torrington, 


May, 


1762 


New Milford, 


Oct. 


1725 


Norfolk, 


Oct. 


1777 


Litchfield, 


May, 


1740 


Washington, 


May, 


1779 


Sharon, 


Oct. 


1755 


Watertown, 


Oct. 


1780 


Harwinton, 


Oct. 


1756 


Winchester, 


May, 


1781 


Goshen, 


Oct. 


1756 


Warren, 


Oct. 


1786 


Salisbury, 


May, 


1757 • 


Bethlem, 


Oct. 


1787 


New Hartford, 


May, 


1757 


Plymouth, • 


May, 


1795 


Kent, 


May, 


1757 


Barkhamsted, 


Oct. 


1796 


Canaan, 


May, 


1757 


'Colebrook, 


Oct. 


1796 


Cornwall, 


Oct. 


1761 


Roxbury, 


May, 


1797 








First 


Last Number 


Representatives. 




Towns. 


Chosen. 


Chosen. Sessions 


Abernethy Andrew, 




Harwinton, 1836 


1837 


2 


Elisha S 




Litchfield, 1844 




1 


u John, 




Woodbury, 1845 




1 


Russell C. 


Torringi 


ton, o 1815 


1828 


5 


" William C. 


Harwinton, m 1816 


1820 


8 


Ackley Benjamin, 




Kent, 


M 1781 


o 1782 


2 


" Chester, 




Washing 


;ton, 1829 


1840 


2 



376 







First 


Last 


Number 


Representatives. 


Towns. 


Chosen. 


Chosen. ! 


Sessions 


Adam John, 


Canaan, 


m 1791 


O 1809 


8 


" Samuel F. 


u 


m 1816 


1828 


4 


Adams Andrew, f 


Litchfield, 


o 177G 


m 1781 


10 


" Charles, 


*( 


1845 




1 


" George R. 


New Hartford, 


1849 




1 


" Matthew, 


Winchester, 


M 1818 


1831 


5 


11 Normand, 


« 


1851 




1 


Alford Arba, 


Barkhamsted, 


1850 




1 


Allen Gideon, 


Bethlem, 


1843 




1 


" James, 


u 


1836 




1 


« " Jr, 


it 


1851 




1 


« John,| 


Litchfield, 


m 1793 


o 1796 


7 


" Noble, 


Bethlem, 


1838 




1 


Ailing James, 


Cornwall, 


o 1817 




1 


Allyn Austin, 


Goshen, 


1846 


1847 


2 


" Henry, 


Barkhamsted, 


1828 




1 


" Matthew, 


a 


1829 


1834 


5 


" PeJatiah, 


a 


o 1796 


M 1814 


23 


" Sanford, 


a 


1846 




1 


Alvord Eliphaz, 


Winchester, 


m 1782 


o 1811 


11 


" Roswell, 


Harwinton, 


o 1818 


1826 


2 


Ambler David, 


Woodbury, 


m 1787 




}■» 


a u 


Bethlem, 


o 1787 


o 1793 


Ames Horatio, 


Salisbury, 


1848 


1850 


2 


Andrews Daniel, 


Winchester, 


1833 




1 


" Edward W. 


Cornwall, 


1851 




1 


Andrus Seth, 


Canaan, 


o 1806 


o 1818 




Atwood Stephen, 


Woodbury, 


1843 




1 


Austin Aaron, 


Torrington, 


m 1778 


m 1782 


3 


a u 


New Hartford, 


M 1777 


1820 


28* 


" George, 


Colebrook, 


1849 




1 


" Nathaniel, 


Torrington, 


o 1799 




1 


Averill Moses, 


Kent, 


o 1770 


m 1776 

• 


3 


t Speaker, 1779, 1780. 




t Clerk, 


Oct. 1796. 





37T 



Representatives. 
Averill Roger, 
Babcock Timothy, 


Towns. 
Salisbury, 
Colebrook, 


First 
Chosen. 

1843 

o 1818 


Last 
Chosen. ! 

1822 


Number 
Sessions 

1 

2 


Bacon Asahel, 
" Daniel, 
" E. Champion, 


Roxbury, 

Woodbury, 

Litchfield, 


M 18 12 

o 1811 

1840 


o 1816 
1846 
1841 


2 
10* 

2 


u Nathaniel, 


Woodbury, 


o 1810 


m 1813 


4 


" William H. 


i. 


1836 




1 


Bailey Eber, 


Goshen, 


1833 


1834 


2 


" Philo, 


(C 


1845 


1846 


2 


" Putnam, 


it 


1839 


1840 


2 


Baker Elisha, 


New Hartford, 


m 1768 




1 


a a 


Canaan, 


m 1769 


o 17.72 


4 


Baldwin Albert N. 


New Milford, 


1840 


1851 


4 


a Amos, 


Watertown, 


m 1818 


1820 


4* 


* Collins, 


Goshen, 


1836 




1 


" David, 


Watertown, 


m 1816 


o 1816 


2 


u Isaac, 


Litchfield, 


m 1745 


M 1766 


10 


" Jr. 


it 


o 1782 


o 1784 


4 


" Nathaniel, 


Goshen, 


o 1759 




1 


" Theophilus, 


New Milford, 


o 1735 


o 1741 


6 


Truman, 


Washington, 


1838 




1 


Ball Robert, 


Salisbury, 


1827 


1829 


2 


Bancroft Ephraim, 


Torrington. 


m 1772 


o 1776 


4 


Barber Asahel N. 


Harwinton, 


1842 


1843 


2 


" Dorrance, 


Colebrook, 


1837 


1843 


3 


Barbour Henry S. 


Torrington, 


1850 




1 


Barnes Nathaniel, 


Watertown, 


o 1782 


m 1784 


4 


Barnum William II. 


Salisbury, 


1851 




1 


Bartholomew Thomas, 


Goshen, 


1842 


1843 


2 


Bass Nathan, 


Colebrook, 


o 1808 


1825 


8 


" Henry, 
Bates Samuel S. 


u 
New Hartford, 


1821 

1840 




1 
1 


« William S. 


ti a 


1850 




1 


Battle Joseph, 


Norfolk, 


M 1811 


1828 


7* 


or William, 


Torrington, 

48 


o 1792 


M 1802 


9 



378 



Representatives. 
Battell William Jr. 


Towns. 
Torrington, 


First 
Chosen. 

M 1804 


Last Numbci 
Chosen. Sessions 

1832 18* 


Baxter Gilbert, 


Colebrook, 


1836 




1 


Beach Abel, 


Kent, 


m 1818 


1828 


Q 

o 


" Edmund, 


Goshen, 


M 17G7 


o 1774 


5 


" John, 


u 


M 1757 


u 17G1 


3 


" Julius, 


t< 


o 1817 


M 1818 


2 


" Moses, 


Harwinton, 


1841 


1842 


2 


" Wait, 


Torrington, 


o 1798 


M 1800 




Beardsley Agur, 


Kent, 


1845 






" Birdsey, 


" 


1830 






" Charles, 


Roxbury, 


1839 






" Everett, 


** 


1848 






Wells, 


Kent, 


1834 






Beckley Samuel Jr. 
Beebe Asahel, 


Canaan, 


o 1816 
m 1775 


o 1777 


4 


" Bezaleel, 


Litchfield, 


o 1781 


o 1795 


6 


" James, 


Winchester, 


1819 


1826 


3 


tt a 


Canaan, 


M 1757 


o 1705 


5 


John, 


u 


M 1758 


m 1764 


3 


« William, 


Litchfield, 


m 1815 


1833 


7 


Beecher Abraham, 


Bethlem, 


1842 




1 


" Amos, 


Barkhamsted, 


o 1817 


1827 


2 


Rollin L. 


Winchester, 


184G 




1 


Beers Seth P.f 


Litchfield, 


1820 


1823 


4 


Belding Oliver, 


Canaan, 


o 17G8 




1 


Bellamy David, 


Bethlem, 


M 1794 


o 1810 


22 


Joseph H. 


" 


o 1818 


1827 


5 


Benedict Benjamin, 


Winchester, 


m 1787 


o 1817 


7 


• ; Isaac, 


Colebrook, 


o 1802 




1 


Nathaniel Jr. 


Salisbury, 


1833 


1851 


4 


Noah B.J 


Woodbury, 


o 179G 


1827 


12 


Benham Leonard D. 


Colebrook, 


1848 




1 


Bennett William, 


Cornwall, 


1821 




J 


Benton Ebenezer, 


Litchfield, 


M 1787 




1 



1 Cleric, 1821, Speaker, L822, 1823 J Clerk, Oct. 1809, May, 1811 



379 



Representatives. 
Benton Jacob, 


Towns. 
Harvvinton, 


First 
Chosen. 

175G 


Last 

Chosen. ! 

o 1758 


Number 

Sessions 

3 


Berry Nathaniel, 


Kent, 


o 1788 


o 1792 


6 


<f Jr. 


u 


o 1804 


m 1805 


2 


Bierce Peter, 


Cornwall, 


1824 


1829 


6 


Bidwell Eleazer, 


Colebrook, 


o 1803 




1 


" Riverius, 


New Hartford, 


o 1803 


m 1806 


6 


" Thomas, 


t< a 


m 1785 


o 1785 


2 


Bird James, 


Salisbury, 


o 1768 


o 1775 


o 


" John, 


Litchfield, 


o 1740 


m 1748 


o 


" Joseph, 


ii 


m 1740 


m 1749 


9 


Birge Allen, 


Harwinton, 


1840 


1841 


2 


Bishop Asa, 


Colebrook, 


m 1805 




1 


" James, 


Watertown, 


1828 


1829 


2 


" Miles, 
Bissell Zaeheus W. 


Roxbury, 
Sharon, 


o 1813 
1836 


1841 


1 
2 


Blackmail Simeon, 


it 


o 1809 


o 1811 


5 


Blake Jonathan, 


Winchester, 


1851 




1 


Blakesl,ey Ransom, 
" Samuel, 


Plymouth, 
Colebrook, 


1826 
o 1805 


1827 
M 1806 


2 

2 


Bliss Linus, 


Barkhamsted, 


1847 




1 


Bloss Charles A. 


Bethlem, 


1841 




1 


" George T. 


a 


1845 




1 


Boardman Daniel, 


New Milford, 


M 1790 


o 1792 


2 


David S. 


u a 


o 1812 


1829 


8 


" Elijah, 


it U 


m 1803 


m 1816 


6 


" Homer, 


a a 


o 1805 


o 1818 


2 


" Sherman, 


u k i 


m 1771 


o 1800 


23 


Bolles Samuel P. 


Litchfield, 


1848 




1 


Booth Charles, 


Woodbury, 


1840 




1 


" Gerardus, 


New Milford, 


o 1815 




1 


" Reuben, 


a u 


M 1778 


o 1786 


2 


" Walter, 


a a 


1831 


1832 


2 


Bordwell Mills, 


Kent, 


1826 




1 


Bostwick Bushnell, 


New Milford, 


m 1750 


m 1773 


30 


" Daniel, 


a a 


m 1753 


o 1761 


4 



380 



Representatives. 
Bostwick Elisha, 


Towns. 
New Milford, 


First 
Chosen. 

m 1791 


Last Number 
Chosen. Sessions 

m 1815 15 


John, 


U U 


o 1725 


o 1740 


18 


41 Nathaniel, 


u it 


M 1738 


o 1743 


5 


" Reuben, 


a u 


m 1785 




1 


" hiehard, 


i( U 


o 1769 




1 


" Samuel, 


a u 


M 17G3 


m 1796 


2 


Bosworth Thomas B. 


Salisbury, 


1839 


1840 


2 


Botsford Daniel, 


Roxbury, 


1840 




1 


Gideon B. 


"Woodbury, 


1832 


1834 


2 


" Isaac G. 


Roxbury, 


1844 




1 


" Nathan, 


New Milford, 


o 1752 




1 


Boyd James, 


Winchester, 


m 1804 


1819 


5 


u John, 


it 


1830 


1835 


2 


Brace James, 


Harwinton, 


o 1797 


a 1818 


30* 


Bradley Aaron, 


Litchfield, 


o 1806 


o 1810 


6 


" Abraham, 


u 


o 1775 


M 1785 


4 


" Albert, 


Torrington, 


1850 




1 


u Aner, 


Watertown, 


M 1795 


m 1797. 


o 


Joel, 


Harwinton, 


m 1810 


o 1814 


4 


Phineas S. 


Woodbury, 


1842 




1 


Brewster Asa S. 


Canaan, 


1825 


1826 


6 


u Jabez, 


U 


m 1817 


1820 


8 


Rev. Daniel, 


Washington, 


m 1787 




1 


Brinsmade Daniel N.f 


" 


m 1784 


o 1814 


43 


* B. 


n 


m 1816 


1848 


10 


Bronson Abraham, 


Roxbury, 


m 1798 


m 1805 


o 


or Isaac, 


Winchester, 


1823 


1832 


3 


Brownson Moseley V. 
or Ozias, 


Washington, 
Winchester, 


1851 
m 1783 


m 1784 


1 
3 


Brunson Richard, 


Woodbury, 


o 1740 




1 


" Salmon, 


Warren, 


o 1813 




1 


" Samuel, 


New Milford, 


o 1726 




1 


" Theron, 


Winchester, 


1849 




1 


" Timothy, 


Salisbury, 


o 1761 




1 



t Clerk, Oct. 1800. 



381 



Representatives. 
Brooks Watts H. 
Brothwell David, 
Brown Edmund, 

" Frederick, 

u Sanfbrd, 
Bryan Piatt, 
Brush John, 
Buckingham Jolin, 
Buell Frederick, 

" Jonathan, 

" Jonathan, 

M John, 

•' Norman, 

" Peter, 

" Samuel, 
Bull John, 

« Men-it, 

" Thomas, 
Burnham Arvin, 

" Daniel, 

" Hiram, 

" Oliver, 

Burr Silas, 
Burrall Charles, 

« " Jr. 

" Jonathan, 

« Win. M. 
Wm. F.f 
Burritt Ebenezer, 
Burton Nathan, Jr. 
Bushnell Ensign, 

" William, 

Butler Calvin, 

" Oliver B. 





First 


Last : 


Number 


Towns. 


Chosen. 


Chosen. ! 


Sessions 


Goshen, 


1851 




1 


Roxbury, 


1829 


1836 


3 


Norfolk, 


1831 




1 


Colebrook, 


o 1812 


o 1814 


2 


New Hartford, 


1844 




1 


Washington, 


1847 




1 


Woodbury, 


1828 




1 


Watertown, 


1825 


1827 


2 


Litchfield, 


1840 


1841 


2 


u 


o 1815 


o 1817 


5 


Goshen, 


o 1770 


m 1772 


2 


Litchfield, 


o 1740 


m 1741 


2 


« 


m 1806 




1 


« 


M 1755 


m 1756 


2 


a 


1838 


1839 


2 


Ilarwinton, 


1843 


1844 


2 


Winchester, 


m 1817 


o 1817 


2 


Woodbury, 


1845 




1 


Washington, 


1851 




1 


a 


1849 




1 


Barkhamsted, 


1846 




1 


Cornwall, 


m 1801 


1823 


33* 


Norfolk, 


1845 




1 


Canaan, 


m 1760 


m 1792 


32 


a 


o 1788 


m 1795 


7 


a 


o 1795 


m 1804 


10 


a 


a 1818 


1833 


5* 


« 


1835 


1846 


3 


Roxbury, 


o 1811 




1 


Bethlem, 


1823 




1 


Washington, 


a 1818 


1821 


2* 


Salisbury, 


1849 




1 


Plymouth, 


m 1814 


1828 


10* 


Norfolk, 


1847 




1 


t Clerk, 1835, 1836. 









;82 



Representatives. 
Calhoun Sheldon H. 
" John, 


Towns. 
Washington, 
Washington, 


First 
Chosen. 

1849 

M 1782 


Last Number 
Chosen. Sessions 

1 

1 


u a 


Cornwall, 


m 1808 


o 1810 


2 


" c. 


a 


1839 


1847 


2 


Camp Abiel, 
•* David, 


Salisbury, 
Bethlem, 


m 1775 

o 1788 


o 1780 


7 
1 


" Edward, 


Barkhamsted, 


1848 




1 


" Enos, 


New Milford, 


m 1755 




1 


« Israel, 


Sharon, 


o 1816 


1832 


4 


u John, 
" Riverius, 


Winchester, 
New Milford, 


1844 
o 1808 




1 
1 


" Treat, 
Candee Eli, 


Woodbury, 
Harwinton, 


1831 
1821 


1834 
1822 


2 

2 


" Lewis B. 
Canfield Elihu, 
" Ithamer, 


Woodbury, 
Roxbury, 
New Milford, 


1842 
o 1797 
o 1814 


M 1813 
jvi 1816 


1 
11 

2 


" John, 


Sharon, 


o 1775 


o 1786 


12 


" Joseph, Jr. 
" Judson, 


Salisbury, 
Sharon, 


m 1798 
o 1791 


o 1799 
m 1809 


4 
17 


" Samuel, 


a 


o 1780 


o 1797 


7 


U U 


New Milford, 


o 1735 


M 1754 


14 


it a 


a 


m 1765 


m 1788 


27 


a a 


it 


1822 


1823 


2 


Carrington Riverius, 
Carter Benjamin, 
" Dan, 


Warren, 


o 1751 

o 1807 
1827 


1820 
1835 


1 
6 
3 


" Henry W. 
" Joseph, 
" Russell, 


*< 

Kent, 
Warren, 


1843 

o 1777 
1837 


1844 

m 1784 

1838 


2 
6 
2 


" Samuel, 
Cartwright David S. 


u 

Sharon, 


m 1788 
1850 


o 1797 


4 


Cary N. H. 
Case Abial E. 


Washington, 
Norfolk, 


1847 
1837 






" Abial, 


Barkhamsted, 


1849 






" Ashbel, 


Norfolk, 


o 1780 







383 







First 


Last 


Number 


Representatives. 


Towns. 


Chosen. 


Chosen. 


Sessions 


Case Chester N. 


Harwinton, 


1834 




1 


" Hira, 


Barkhamsted, 


1850 




1 


" Jehiel, 


t< 


1842 




1 


" Lyman, 


Winchester, 


1839 




1 


" Zopher, 


Barkhamsted, 


o 1818 


1826 


2 


Castle Henry, 


Woodbury, 


m 1727 


o 1729 


2 


Catlin Abijah, 


Harwinton, 


m 1757 


o 1773 


23 


" t 


a 


1837. 


1851 


5 


" Benjamin, 


Cornwall, 


1832 


1833 


2 


* Dan, 


Litchfield, 


1844 


1845 


2 


" Daniel, 


Harwinton, 


o 1759 


o 1768 


14 


u ii 


" 


o 1791 


o 1802 


20 


" George, 


it 


o 1766 


o 1783 


8 


" Joel, 


a 


o 1765 


o 1767 


2 


u Jonathan, 


n 


m 1767 




1 


" Sheldon G. 


it 


1847 


1848 


2 


Chamberlin Abiram, 


Colebrook, 


1831 




1 


Chapman Clark, 


Sharon, 


1830 


1833 


2 


" Laurin, 


Warren, 


1840 


1842 


2 


Chapin Phineas, 


Salisbury, 


m 1803 


1828 


8 


Chipman Thomas, 


a 


m 1757 




1 


Chittenden Frederick, 


Washington, 


1842 




1 


" Thomas, 


Salisbury, 


o 1764 


m 1772 


13 


" Timothy, Jr. 


a 


H 1803 


m 1812 


4 


a a 


a 


m 1779 


o 1779 


2 


Church Leman, 


Canaan, 


1834 


1835 


2 


" Nathaniel, 


Salisbury, 


m 1802 


o 1802 


2 


u Samuel,j 


a 


a 1818 


1831 


7* 


* Samuel, Jr. 


Bethlem, 


M 1810 


m 1814 


3 


Clark Ebenezer, 


Washington, 


o 1779 




1 


" John, 


Woodbury, 


m 1800 


o 1801 


4 


« Philo, 


Washington, 


1822 




1 


Nehemiah, 


Salisbury, 


1840 




1 


« Silas, 


Woodbury, 


1849 




1 


t Clerk, 1839 




i Clerk 


; 1624 





184 



llepresentatives. 
Clark Timothy, Jr, 


Towns. 
Uarwinton, 


First 

Chosen. 

M 1803 


Last 1 
Chosen. ' 

O 1812 


Number 
Sessions 

10 


" Victorianus, 


Cornwall, 


1833 




1834 


2 


" William, 


u 


1836 






1 


Cleveland Alexander, 


Barkhamsted, 


1841 






1 


a u p 


u 


184D 






1 


" James C. 


Winchester, 


1834 






1 


Cobb James, 


Colebrook, 


1847 






1 


Coe Demas, 


Torrington, 


1845 






1 


* w Jonathan, 


u 


o 1762 


31 


1765 


4 


Jr. 


Winchester, 


1822 




1828 


4 


u Linus W. 


Torrington, 


1845 






1 


" James R. 


Winchester, 


1845 






1 


" Norris, 


" 


1838 




1839 


2 


u Roger, 


a 


m 1814 


O 


1815 


3 


" Thomas M. 


Litchfield, 


1851 






1 


Coffin John C. 


Salisbury, 


m 1815 






1 


Cogswell William, 


Washington, 


m 1779 




1823 


14 


Cole Benjamin, 
Coleman Josiah, 
Collins Cicero, 


Canaan, 
Sharon, 
Goshen, 


m 1759 

o 1783 

1835 


M 


1788 


1 
3 
1 


" Timothy, 


u 


1824 




1834 


2 


Colt Anson, Jr. 


Torrington, 


1839 




1840 


2 


Comstock David, 


Kent, 


o 1799 


31 


1804 


7 


" Eliphalet, 
" Peter, 
« John, 


u 
u 

New Milford, 


o 1762 
o 1793 
o 1757 





1767 


5 

1 
1 


" Samuel, 


« 


o 1771 


31 


1806 


8 


Concklin Thomas, 


Colebrook, 


1823 






1 


Cone Calvin, 


Barkhamsted, 


o 1801 






I 


" Warren, 


Norfolk, 


1834 




1838 


2 


Converse Hiram, 


Kent, 


1836 






1 


Cook Elisha, 


Torrington, 


1819 




1820 


2 


" George, 
•' John, 


Goshen, 
rorringtun. 


1831 
m 1762 


O 


1835 
1777 


22 


« John W. 


a 


1851 






1 



385 



Representatives. 
Cook Joseph, 


Towns. 
Harwinton, 


First 
Chosen. 

o 1778 


Last 
Chosen. 

o 1798 


Number 
Sessions 

11 


" Moses, 


Goshen, 


1820 


1850 


3 


" William, 


New Hartford, 


o 1813 


m 1817 


8 


Cornish George, 
Corn well John, 
" Joshua, 


Barkhamsted, 

Cornwall, 

Canaan, 


1840 
o 1787 
o 1815 


m 1788 
o 1818 


1 

2 
4 


" William, 


Washington, 


m 1781 




1 


Cowles Asa, 


New Hartford, 


o 1806 


o 1809 


7 


" James M. 


Norfolk, 


1844 


1851 


2 


« Richard B. 


New Hartford, 


1836 




1 


Craft Chauncey, 
Culver Samuel, 
Cummings J. T, 


Woodbury, 

Litchfield, 

Winchester, 


1823 
o 1741 
m 1809 




1 
1 
1 


Cunningham Garwood H. 
Curtis Augustus, 


Woodbury, 
Warren, 


m 1799 
o 1818 


o 1801 


3 
1 


or " Daniel, 
" Daniel, 


Woodbury, 


m 1742 
1843 


1844 


1 
2 


" Eleazer, 


Kent, 


o 1779 


m 1786 


4 


« Elizur, 


New Hartford, 


1829 




1 


" Holbrook, 


Watertown, 


1821 


1845 


7. 


4< Israel, 
" Jesse, 
" John, 
" Solomon, 


Woodbury, 
Watertown, 

Woodbury, 
Norfolk, 


m 1689 
o 1780 
m 1696 

1848 


o 1704 
m 1781 
m 1735 


12 

2 
8 
1 


" Stephen, 
" Thomas, 
" Truman, 


Woodbury, 
Norfolk, 
New Hartford, 


m 1718 
1829 

1848 


1842 


1 
5 
1 


Cutler Leman W. 


Watertown, 


1836 


1840 


2 


Daley Elijah, 
Dauchy Jeremiah, 
Davis Nathaniel, 


Woodbury, 

Salisbury, 

Harwinton, 


o 1815 
m 1800 
m 1759 


m 1805 


1 
5 
1 


Day Jeremiah, 


Sharon, 


o 1766 


m 1767 


2 


'« Noble, 


Washington, 


m 1809 


o 181« 


6 


Dayton Daniel, 


Kent, 


1835 




1 



49 



386 



Representatives. 
Dean Jesse, 


Towns. 
Canaan, 


First 
Chosen. 

1842 


Last Number 

Chosen. Sessions 

1 


De Forest Benjamin, 
" John, 


Watertown, 


1831 

1838 




1 
1 


John H. 


a 


m 1809 


o 1815 


5 


Demang Julius, 


Litchfield, 


o 1790 


m 1798 


3 


" Ralph, 


Sharon, 


1835 


1839 


2 


Dibble Isaac H. 


Torrington, 


1824 


1825 


2 


Dickinson John, 


Norfolk, 


m 1807 


o 1810 


6 


Dodge Stephen, 
Doolittle Richard A. 


Kent, 
Barkhamsted, 


m 1792 
1843 




1 

1 


Doty Erastus, Jr. 


Colebrook, 


1845 


1846 


2 


Douglass Benajah, 
" William, 


Canaan, 


m 1817 

a 1818 


1830 
1850 


6 
3* 


u Riverius, 


New Hartford, 


1842 




1 


Dowd David L. 


Norfolk, 


1841 




1 


" Elizur, 


a 


1835 


1839 


2 


Downs David, 

" Myron, 
Drake Noah, Jr. 


Sharon, 

Roxbury, 

Torrington, 


o 1778 
1851 
1829 


m 1795 
1835 


13 
1 
4 


" Rufus, 


Winchester, 


1836 


1837 


2 


Drakely William, 
Dudley George, 
Dunham Samuel, 


Woodbury, 

Winchester, 

Sharon, 


1822 

1847 

m 1758 


1824 
m 1760 


3 
1 

2 


Dutcher Ruleff, 
Eastman Josiah R. 
Eaton Ira, 


Canaan, 
Roxbury, 

Kent, 


1840 

m 1818 

1833 


1333 


1 
3 
1 


Eldred Judah, 


Warren, 


o 1798 


1819 


7 


Elliott Matthew, 


Kent, 


M 1808 


m 1816 


4 


" John, 


a 


o 1794 


m 1797 


3 


" Nathan, 


a 


o 1760 


o 1790 


15 


" Youngs, 


Washington, 


1832 


1833 


2 


Elmore Henry B. 


New Hartford, 


1838 




1 


" John, 


Canaan, 


o 1802 


m 1815 


13 


" " Jr. 


u 


1837 




1 


Samuel 


Sharon, 


m 1779 


o 1781 


4 



387 



Representatives. 
Elton Samuel, 


Towns. 
Watertown, 


First 
Chosen. 

m 1817 


Last 
Chosen. 

o 1817 


Number 
Sessions 

2 


Eno Eliphalet, 


Torrington, 


o 1782 


m 1792 


9 


Ensign Eli, 


Canaan, 


1831 




1 


" John, 


a 


o 1772 


m 1776 


3 t 


U a 


Salisbury, 


1836 


1837 


2 


" Sidney, 
Essex Joseph, 
Everett Charles, 


Canaan, 

Cornwall, 

Warren, 


1841 
1845 

1846 


1851 


2 
1 
1 


" Daniel, 


New Milford, 


o 1780 


o 1783 


3 


" Elmore, 


Sharon, 


1837 


1846 


4 


" Samuel E. 


a 


o 1811 


1832 


9* 


" William, 


a 


1843 




1 


Everts John, 
" Nathaniel, 


Salisbury, 


m 1757 
m 1807 


m 1772 

o 1807 


13 
2 


Farnham Peter, 
Farrand Jonathan, 


Salisbury, 
Washington, 


o 1808 
o 1785 


m 1813 
o 1790 


4 
4 


Fellows Thomas, 


Canaan, 


m 1780 




1 


Fenn James, 


a 


1820 




1 


" Thomas, 


(Waterbury,) 
Watertown, 


m 177S 
o 1780 


3i 1780 
m 1807 


} 38 


Ferris Fitch, 


Canaan, 


1838 


1839 


2 


Fisk Ebenezer, 


New Milford, 


m 1745 




1 


Fitch Elisha, 
" Hezekiah, 


Salisbury, 


m 1782 
o 1774 


m 1787 
o 1793 


5 
22 


Forbes Samuel, 


Canaan, 


o 1766 


m 1802 


29 


Ford John M. 


Washington, 


1839 




1 


Foster David, 


Sharon, 


o 1763 


o 1764 


2 


Fowler Warren R. 


Washington, 


m 1810 




1 


Fox Reuben, 


Cornwall, 


o 1813 




1 


Francis Asa, 


Goshen, 


m 1777 


m 1780 


3 


Frisbie Daniel, 


Washington, 


1842 




1 


" Enos, 


Harwinton, 


1819 




1 


" Russel, 


Colebrook, 


1845 




1 


" Samuel, 


Washington, 


1834 




1 


Fuller Alpheus, 


Kent, 


1827 




1 



388 



Representatives. 
Fuller Amos, 


Towns. 
Salisbury, 


First 
Chosen. 

M 1764 


Last : 
Chosen. 1 


Number 
Sessions 

1 


" Henry I. 

" Robert N. 
" Rufiis, Jr. 


Kent, 

Salisbury, 

Kent, 


1851 
1845 

1848 




1 
1 

1 


Gager Samuel R. 


Sharon, 


1821 


1829 


3 


Gains Edward, 


New Hartford, 


184G 




1 


Garnsey Samuel, 
Gay Calvin, 


Plymouth, 
Sharon, 


1829 

1827 


1830 
1828 


2 

2 


" Ebenezer, 


a 


m 1774 


m 1784 


9 


" John, 


it 


M 17G1 




1 


Gaylord Anson, 
" Benjamin, 
" Daniel, 


Norfolk, • 
New Milford, 


1849 

M 1760 

1824 




1 
1 
1 


« Elijah, 


Harwinton, 


o 1811 


o 1813 


2 


" Hiram, 


Norfolk, 


1840 


1851 


2 


" Joseph I. 
" Nathan, 


Goshen, 
New Milford, 


1848 
o 1762 


1849 
o 1764 


2 
4 


" Nathaniel B. 


Winchester, 


o 1816 


o 1818 


2 


'« Willard, 


Goshen, 


1840 


1841 


2 


" Sereno, 
« William, 


Plymouth, 
New Milford, 


1850 
o 1733 




1 
1 


Giddings Ammi, 
Gilbert Alvin, 
« William L. 


Plymouth, 

Winchester, 
u 


1851 
1850 
1849 




1 
1 
1 


Gillet Asaph, 
" Horace, 
" Jabez, 


Torrington, 
tt 

a 


1831 

1829 

o 1784 


1844 

1830 

o 1803 


3 
2 

10 


" John, 
« " Jr. 


a 

•i 


m 1801 
o 1809 


1837 


1 
12 


'< A. 
" Jonathan, 
« Matthew, 
Goodwin Asa, 
" Eleazar, 


Canaan, 
Sharon, 
New Hartford, 

u a 


1843 
m 1787 
o 1762 
o 1810 
o 1759 


o 1787 

m 1783 

1825 

m 1764 


1 
2 

26 

15 

2 


" Hezekiah, 


Sharon, 


m 1818 




1 



889 



Representatives. 
Goodwin Hiram, 


Towns. 
Barkhamsted, 


First 
Chosen. 

1836 


Last 
Chosen. 

1837 


Number 
Sessions 

2 


" John P. 
" Nathaniel, 


Sharon, 
Litchfield, 


1846 
o 1808 


1847 
o 1809 


2 
3 


" Orrin, 

M Stephen, 
Gold Benjamin or 

" Hezekiah, 
Graham Andrew, 

" Freeman, 


New Hartford, 

Goshen, 

Cornwall, 
a 

Woodbury , 
New Hartford, 


1841 
o 1771 
m 1802 
o 1787 
o 1778 

1842 


1850 
o 1780 
o 1814 


2 
3 
20 
1 
1 
1 


Grant Daniel, 


Torrington, 


ol782 


3i 1785 


2 


" Elijah, 
" Harvey, . 
" Matthew, 


Norfolk, 
u 

Torrington, 


o 1782 
1832 
1822 


m 1783 
1833 


2 
2 
1 


Gregory Hezekiah C. 


Cornwall, 


1849 




1 


Griswold Benjamin, 


Harwinton, 


m 1805 


m 1813 


12 


" Giles, 


Goshen, 


o 1779 




1 


« Giles, 
" Joseph, 
" Marvin, 


a 

Litchfield, 
Harwinton, 


1826 

m 1742 

1821 


1828 

o 1742 

1831 


3 

2 
6 


" Normand, 


Torrington, 


m 1807 


M 1811 


2 


« Thaddeus, 


a 


o 1810 


o 1816 


6 


" Shubael, 


a 


m 1776 


o 1793 


11 


Guittean Ephraim, 
Gunn Abraham, 


Norfolk, 
New Milford, 


o 1783 
m 1800 




1 
1 


" Abner, 


a 


o 1799 




1 


(i Frederick, 


u 


1843 




1 


" John N. 


Washington, 


m 1812 


o 1818 


4 


Hale Adino, 

" Nathan, 


Goshen, 
Canaan, 


m 1786 Aug. 1818 
o 1780 m 1798 


54* 
15 


" Timothy, 
Hall Asaph, 
" Ephraim S. 
" Gideon, Jr. 


Goshen, 

a 

Litchfield, 
Winchester, 


o 1802 
o 1773 
m 1817 

1838 


o 1817 

o 1792 

m 1818 

1846 


8 

18 

3 

2 


" Philip, 
Hamlin Luman B. 


Harwinton, 
New Milford, 


1849 

1848 


1849 


1 

2 





390 












First 


Last 


Number 


Representatives. 


Towns. 


Chosen. 


Chosen. 


Sessions 


Hammond David, 


Roxbury, 


o 1803 




1 


Harrison Elihu, 


Litchfield, 


1832 


1835 


2 


" Jared S. 


Salisbury, 


1830 


1835 


3 


*' John R. 


Cornwall, 


1840 


1841 


2 


" Myron, 


«« 


1837 


1848 


2 


M Thomas, 


Litchfield, 


m 1747 


o 1754 


9 


Hart Alpha, 


Goshen, 


1837 


1838 


2 


« Henry, 


a 


1822 


1823 


2 


« Josiah Hall, 


Barkhamsted, 


m 1813 


m 1816 


2 


" Miles, 


Go&hen, 


1841 


1842 


2 


Hartwell Sherman, 


Warren, 


1822 


1824 


2 


Hatch Jetliro, 


Kent, 


o 1775 


m 1780 




* Johnson C. 


"Washington, 


1831 






" Washington, 


Winchester, 


1844 






Hawes George, 


Canaan, 


1841 






Hawley Isaac B. 


Roxbury, 


1824 






u Jehiel, 


New Milford, 


o 1753 


m 1761 


4 


" Nathan, 


Bethlem, 


m 1816 


1639 


4 


" William, 


Woodbury, 


m 1802 


o 1805 


3 


Hayden Cicero, 


Torrington, 


1834 


1835 


2 


" Moses, 


Barkhamsted, 


m 1812 


m 1817 


7 


" Samuel, 


u 


o 1797 Aug. 1818 


3* 


Hayes Ezekiel, 


u 


1851 




1 


" Elijah, 


Warren, 


1830 


1839 


5 


" Jeriel, 


Bethlem, 


1837 




1 


* Timothy, 


Barkhamsted, 


1841 




1 


Hazen Elijah, 


Washington, 


m 1797 


m 1808 


11 


Heakox Benjamin, 


Woodbury, 


o 1719 




1 


Hecex Benjamin, 


u 


m 1747 


o 1758 


6 


Heaten Levi, 


Plymouth, 


1847 


1848 


2 


" Stephen, 


Goshen, 


o 1758 


m 1768 


2 


Hemingway Jacob, 


Plymouth, 


m 1815 


1819 


4 


Henderson, Gordon, 


New Hartford, 


1843 


1844 


2 


" " W. 


u 


1851 




1 


" James, 


■ u 


m 1804 


1823 


3 



391 



lleprescntatives. 
Henderson James F. 
4k John, 


Towns. 
New Hartford, 


First 
Chosen. 

1839 

M 1786 


Last Number 
Chosen. Sessions 

1 

m 1803 18 


Htckox Daniel, 


Watertown, 


1819 




1 


Hickcox Edmund, 
" Curtis, 
" Ithiel, 


Washington, 
a 


1847 
1821 
1846 




1 
1 
1 


w Nathan, 


u 


m 1781 


o 1787 


6 


B Samuel, 


Watertown, 


m 1782 


o 1784 


3 


Higley Horace, 
Hill George A. 
Hills Hewitt, 


Winchester, 

Goshen, 

Winchester, 


m 1799 

1849 

m 1792 


m 1806 

1850 

o 1794 


7 
2 
4 


* Seth, 


a 


m 1781 


o 1793 


6 


Hind James, 


New Milford, 


o 1748 




1 


Hind man William, 


Cornwall, 


1842 


1846 


3 


Hine Abel, 


New Milford, 


o 1769 


o 1798 


12 


M u 


tt 


1824 




1 


<; Bee be, 


a 


o 1806 


m 1812 


11 


« Clark, 


u 


1828 


1829 


2 


" Lyman, 
" Myron S. 
" Noble, 


a 

Warren, 
New Milford, 


1836 

1850 

m 1780 


m 1795 


1 
1 
7 


Hinman Andrew, 

" Benjamin, 

a u 


Woodbury, 
a 

n 


m 1725 
M 1711 
o 1757 


m 1740 

o 1787 


8 

1 

21 


" Daniel, 


Harwinton, 


1850 




1 


Hinman Eleazer, 
" Edward, 


Woodbury, 

a 


o 1749 
M1773 




1 
1 


" Ephraim, 
b Noah, 
b Royal R. 
b Titus, 
Hinsdale Abel, 


Roxbury, 

Woodbury, 

Roxbury, 

Woodbury, 

Torrington, 


o 1798 
m 1731 
m 1814 
m 1699 
m 1815 


m 1809 
M 1752 

1831 
o 1720 

1821 


3 

20 
4 

9 

4* 


" Bissel, 


Winchester, 


m 1815 


o 1815 


2 


" Elisha, 
" Horace, 


Torrington, 
Winchester, 


o 1805 
1821 


o 1806 


3 

1 



392 



Representatives. 
Hinsdale, Lorrain, 
" Jacob, 

" Theodore, 

Hitchcock John, 
u a 

" Lambert, 

" Southard, 

Hoadley Samuel, 

" Silas, 

Hodge Chauncey, 
Hodges Elkanah, 

" Erastus, 

" Elkanah H. 
Holabird John, 

" Milo, 

Holcomb Hiram, 
Hollister Gideon, 

" Horace, 

Holly Luther, 

" Newman, 
Holmes Israel, 

" Joseph, 

" Uriel, Jr. 

" " Jr.f 

Holt James, 

" Eleazer, 

" Isaac, 
Hooker Asahel, 
Hopkins Asa, 

" Samuel, 

ft a 

Uriah, 
Hopson Wm. T. 



Towns- 
Tor rington, 
Harwinton, 
Winchester, 
New Milt'ord, 
Kent, 

Barkhamsted, 
Sharon, 
Winchester, 
Plymouth, 
Roxbury, 
Torrington, 



Canaan, 



Washington, 
Salisbury, 



Torrington, 

Winchester, 

New Hartford, 

Litchfield, 

Harwinton, 

Norfolk, 
a 

Harwinton, 

Litchfield, 

Goshen, 

Cornwall, 

Harwinton, 

Kent, 



First 
Chosen. 

1846 
o 1756 

1837 
o 1749 
o 1763 

1834 

1850 
m 1811 

1832 

1842 
m 1792 
m 1813 

1839 
o 1801 

1848 

1845 
m 1780 

1846 
m 1811 

1821 

1838 
m 1808 
o 1792 
o 1803 

1830 
o 1798 
o 1781 

1832 

1833 
M1787 

1821 
o 1816 

1837 



Last 
Chosen. 

1847 

M 1761 

m 1758 



1837 



1832 

o 1816 
1849 

o 1780 

o 1812 
1827 

o 1814 
m 1793 
o 1814 
1849 
o 1815 



m 1801 
1823 

1825 



Number 
Sessions 

2 

3 

1 

6 

1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
5 
1 
8 
2 
1 
2 
1 
3 
4 
1 
6 



11 

4 
12 

1 

1 

1 
13 

3 

9* 

1 



t Clerk, Oct. 1806. 



393 



Representatives. 
Hosford Chauncey, 
Hosmer Thomas, 
Hotchkiss R. H. 

" Samuel, 

" Wm. B. 

Howard Jarvis C. 
Howd Salmon, 
Howell Arthur, 

" Edmund, 
Hubbell Ephraim, Jr. 

" Jedediah, 

Hubbard Parley, 
Humphrey Asahel, 

« Dudley, 

" Hosea, 

" John, 

" Noah, 

« Obed M. 

Hungerford Allyn M. 

" Joel, 

Hunt Amos, 

" Reuben, 

" Russell, 
Huntington Jabez W. 
Hurd Curtis, 

" David, 
Hurlbut George, 

" Gideon, 

" John, 

" Samuel, 
« a 

« Timothy, 
Hutchinson John, 

Ives Jesse, 



Towns. 
Canaan, 

a 

Woodbury, 
New Hartford, 
Woodbury, 
Warren, 
Barkhamsted, 
Colebrook, 
a 

Kent, 

u 

Salisbury, 
Norfolk, 



Goshen, 

a 

Watertown, 

a 

Canaan, 



Litchfield, 
Woodbury, 

Roxbury, 
Goshen, 
Canaan, 
Winchester, 

Canaan, 

Salisbury, 

Barkhamsted, 



First Last 

Chosen. Chosen. 

1837 1838 
m 1783 m 1784 

1847 

1849 

1848 

1851 
o 1818 1848 

1826 1839 
m 1804 

m 1764 m 1777 
o 1778 

1823 1824 
o 1778 m 1797 
m 1779 o 1794 
m 1787 o 1787 

1849 

1820 1821 

1843 1844 

1850 1851 

1834 
m 1809 o 1812 

1828 
o 1805 

1828 
m 1794 
o 1788 o 1789 

1845 
o 1757 

(See Holabird.) 
m 1791 3i 1810 

1835 
m 1765 m 1785 
o 1758 

1824 1827 



Number 
Sessions 

2 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

4 

7 

1 

15 

1 

2 

13 

14 

2 

1 

2 

2 

2 

1 

2 



10 
1 
3 



50 



394 



Representatives. 
Ives Titus, 
Jackson Ebenezer, 

" Nathan, Jr. 
Jenkins Benjamin, 

" Eleazer, 
Jenner Samuel, 
Jerome Amasa, 

T. G. 
Jewett Caleb, 

« John S. 
Johnson Amos, 

« M. 

" Augustus S. 

" Daniel, 

" James, 

Jones Caleb, 

" Elijah, 

" Henry, 

" Israel, Jr. 

" Orville, 
Judd Leverett, 

" Russell, 
Judson Elmore, 

" Horace, 
David, 

" John, 

•« u 

" Joseph, 
u u 

Wells, 
Kasson Alexander, 
" Benadam, 
" George D. 
Kellogg Elias, 



Frederick, 



Towns. 


First 
Chosen. 


Last Number 
Chosen. Sessions 


Norfolk, 


o 1780 


fit 1787 


2 


Cornwall, 


o 1788 


M 1795 


6 


Bethlem, 


1829 


1833 


4 


Winchester, 


o 1803 


o 1804 


2 


Sharon, 


1842 




1 


Woodbury, 


M 1702 




1 


New Hartford, 


o 1815 




1 


tl u 


1847 




1 


Sharon, 


o 1760 


m 1776 


11 


tt 


1851 




1 


Cornwall, 


o 1763 




1 


a 


1850 




1 


Harwinton, 


1835 


1846 


4 


Salisbury, 


M 1817 


1819 


5* 


tt 


M 1805 




1 


Cornwall, 


1836 


1838 


3 


Barkhamsted, 


1821 


1836 


7 


New Hartford, 


1835 


1845 


2 


Barkhamsted, 


m 1796 


o 1808 


19 


«< 


1851 




1 


Bethlem, 


o 1813 


o 1814 


2 


Kent, 


1823 


1838 


2 


Woodbury, 


1837 




1 


New Milford, 


1846 




1 


Washington, 


o 1789 


m 1794 


7 


Woodbury, 


M 1706 


m 1721 


3 


u 


1835 


1840 


2 


u 


M 1684 


o 1686 


6 


u 


m 1725 




1 


Roxbury, 


m 1804 




1 


Bethlem, 


o 1801 




1 


New Hartford, 


1836 




1 


Bethlem, 


M 1811 


if 1813 


2 


New Hartford, 


M 1811 




1 


Cornwall, 


1830 


1841 


4 



395 



Representatives. 
Kellogg Isaac, 


Towns. 
New Hartford 


First 

Chosen. 

M 1759 


Last Number 
Chosen. Sessions 

o 1776 23 


a u 


(i a 


1824 


1843 


4 


J* Abraham, Jr. 


a u 


m 1797 




1 


" George C. 
Judah, 


U »< 

Cornwall, 


1826 
o 1776 


1834 
o 1801 


5 
11 


" Noah, 


New Hartford, 


o 1777 


o 1779 


2 


" Norman, 


U a 


1841 




1 


f Oliver, 


Sharon, 


m 1797 


1820 


15 


Philo, 


Cornwall, 


1834 


1835 


2 


" William, 


« 


1820 




1 


Kilbourn Abraham, 


Litchfield, 


m 1769 


o 1770 


4 


" Joseph, 
King George, 


u 
Sharon, 


o 1752 
o 1800 


m 1753 
m 1801 


2 

2 


" Plato, 


New Hartford, 


o 1811 




1 


Kingsbury Lemuel, 


Canaan, 


m 1784 


o 1784 


2 


Kirby Ephraim, 
Knapp Horace B. 


Litchfield, 
Norfolk, 


o 1791 
1846 


o 1802 


14 

1 


Kniblo William N. 


Sharon, 


1845 




1 


Knowles Thomas, 
Lamb Alexander, 
Lambert Nehemiah, 


Woodbury, 

Salisbury, 

Bethlem, 


m 1722 
o 1818 
o 1803 


o 1739 
a 1818 


3 
1 

9* 


« Willys, 
Lamson Nathaniel, 


Woodbury, 


1849 
o 1810 


M 1811 


1 
2 


Landers Joseph, 


Sharon, 


m 1782 




1 


Landon James, 
Lane Daniel P. 


Salisbury, 
Kent, 


m 1758 
1840 


m 1774 


12 
1 


" Jared, 


New Milford, 


M 1809 


m 1812 


5 


Lawrence Daniel, 


Canaan, 


m 1758 




1 


" E. Grove, 


Norfolk, 


1845 




1 


u Isaac, 


Canaan, 


o 1765 




1 


" Joseph, 
" William, 


Norfolk, 


o 1780 
1844 




1 
1 


Leavenworth Gideon. 

" Wait, 
Leavitt David, Jr. 


Koxbury, 

u 

Bethlem, 


m 1806 

1837 

m 1798 


o 1802 


1 

1 
6 



396 







First 


Last ] 


Number 


Representatives. 


Towns. 


Chosen. 


Chosen. Sessions 


Leavitt Samuel, 


Washington, 


m 1815 


1819 


5 


« Jr. 


M 


1826 


1835 


4 


Sheldon C. 


Bethlem, 


o 1S15 


1828 


7 


Lee Daniel, 


Kent, 


o 1758 


o 1768 


4 


" Samuel, 


Salisbury, 


o 1788 


o 1809 


10 


" Thomas, 


New Hartford, 


o 1812 


o 1816 


4 


Lemmon Abial C. 


Washington, 


1850 




1 


Charles, 


ic 


1836 




1 


Lewis Charles, 


Canaan, 


1844 




1 


u George, 


Washington, 


1834 




1 


" Charles, 


Cornwall, 


1850 




1 


« John C. t 


Plymouth, 


1849 




1 


" Nehemiah, 


Goshen, 


o 1767 




1 


Lockwood Samuel, 


New Milford, 


o 1804 


m 1S05 


2 


Logan Matthew, 


Washington, 


m 1785 




1 


Loomis Israel, 


New Hartford, 


o 1766 


m 1767 


2 


" Lester, 


Barkhamsted, 


1828 


1832 


2 


** Luke, 


a 


m 1815 




1 


il Oliver, 


Winchester, 


1834 




1 


" Simeon, 


Goshen, 


1847 


1848 


2 


Lord Joseph, 


Sharon, 


o 1777 




1 


" Lynde, 


Litchfield, 


o 1771 


m 1772 


2 


" Phineas, 


u 


o 1818 


1837 


4 


Loveland Leyman F. 


Colebrook, 


1850 




1 


Lyman Erastus, 


Goshen, 


1822 


1828 


4 


" Moses Jr. 


a 


m 1810 


o 1812 


4 


it u 


a 


m 1757 


m 17(37 


13 


u Samuel, 


u 


o 1818 


1819 


2 


Malory Adna, 


Roxbury, 


o 1805 




1 


■' Benajah, 


Warren, 


1845 


1849 


2 


Manchester D. E. 


Colebrook, 


1850 




1 


" John, 


u 


1838 




1 


" William, 


it 

+ Speaker in 1849 


1841 


1»42 


o 



197 



Representatives. 
Manner Ephraim, 


Towns. 
Sharon, 


First 
Chosen. 

m 1787 


Last 
Chosen. ! 

1783 


Number 
Sessions 

3 


Marsh David, 


New Milford, 


1837 




1 


" David, 


Litchfield, 


1824 


1847 


4 


" Ebenezer, 


u 


m 1740 


m 1771 


48 


« « 


a 


m 1784 


m 1790 


10 


" Elihu, 2d, 


New Milford, 


1826 


1827 


2 


" Isaac, 


Cornwall, 


1839 


1851 


3 


" Jonathan, Jr. 


New Hartford, 


m 1797 


a 1818 


17* 


" John, 


Litchfield, 


o 1766 


m 1774 


8 


" Solomon, 


n 


o 1792 




1 


" William S. 


Canaan, 


1839 


1847 


2 


" Cyrus, 


Kent, 


m 1761 


o 1766 


10 


Marshall Abner, 


Torrington, 


o 1777 


m 1782 


6 


" Maiden, 


New Hartford, 


1848 




1 


" Herman us, 


Washington, 


a 1818 




1* 


John P. 

" Noah, 


Woodbury, 
Torrington, 


m 1817 
o 1771 


o 1818 
m 1775 


2 
3 


Seth, 


Colebrook, 


o 1809 


31 1816 


6 


Martin Caleb, 
" Reuben, 


Woodbury, 


o 1747 
M 1814 


3i 1748 
1819 


2 
4 


Marvin John, 


Sharon, 


m 1756 


3i 1768 


2 


Masters Nicholas S. 


New Milford, 


m 1792 


3i 1794 


2 


Mattoon David, 


Watertown, 


1848 




1 


McCune David, 


Winchester, 


o 1791 




1 


" Robert, 


u 


o 1781 


o 1797 


9 


McMahen Constantine, 


Washington, 


1817 


1827 


3 


Merrill Abel, 


New Hartford, 


3i 1765 


o 1775 


11 


Elijah, 
George, 
" Ira, 


a a 

Barkhamsted, 
New -Hartford, 


m 1781 
1830 
1846 


1831 


1 
2 

1 


" James, 


a u 


1838 




1 


" John, 


Barkhamsted, 


o 1805 


1821 


10 


" Merlin, 


a 


1838 


1839 


2 


" Norman, 


New Hartford, 


1828 


1845 


4 


•• Zebulon, 


u a 


m 1775 




1 



398 









First 


Last Number 


Representatives. 


Towns. 


Chosen. 


Chosen. { 


sessions 


Merriman George F. 


Watertown, 


1849 




1 


tt 


W. II. 


tt 


1835 




1 


Mervin Abel, 


New Milford, 


o 180G 


m 1807 


2 


tt 


Henry, 


tt u 


1846 


1847 


2 


a 


Orange, 


ii ii 


o 1816 


1838 


9* 


u 


Samuel H. 


Goshen, 


1851 




1 


Milk 


:r Amos, 


New Hartford, 


m 1783 


m 1784 


3 


« 


Ebenezer, 


Torrington, 


o 1798 




1 


tt 


Joseph, 


Winchester, 


a 1818 


1829 


2* 


?« 


Hubbell, 


Kent, 


1839 




1 


Miles Augustus, 


Goshen, 


1824 


1839 


4 


u 


Daniel, 


" 


o 1778 


m 1789 


10 


(4 


William, 


a 


1836 


1837 


2 


Mills Gideon, Jr. 


Barkhamsted, 


o 1810 


M 1811 


2 


u 


Hiram, 


Norfolk, 


1839 




1 


a 


John, 


Kent, 


1824 




1 


H 


Joseph, 


Norfolk, 


m 1780 




1 


ii 


Lawrence, 


tt 


1821 




1 


M 


Lewis, 


Kent, 


o 1780 


m 1781 


2 


(l 


a 


a 


1819 


1820 


2 


« 


Michael, 


Norfolk, 


m 1779 


o 1791 


12 


u 


" F. 


tt 


1830 


1833 


Q 

o 


a 


Oliver, 


Barkhamsted, 


o 1815 


a 1818 


5* 


tt 


Philo, 


Kent, 


m 1817 


1831 


3 


a 


Eoger, 


New Hartford, 


1822 




1 


ti 


" H.t 


a a • 


1839 


1847 


2 


a 


Samuel, 


Colebrook, 


o 1796 


m 1813 


9 


Miner Phineas, 


Winchester, 


m 1809 


m 1816 


}■■ 


u 


K 


Litchfield, 


1S23 


1825 


Minor Andrew, 


New Milford, 


o 1807 




1 


ti 


Ephraim, 


Woodbury, 
t Clerk, 1839. 


o 1718 
o 1817 


m 1735 


5 

1 



399 







First 


Last 


Number 


Representatives. 


Towns. 


Chosen. 


Chosen. ! 


Sessions 


Minor John,t 


Woodbury, 


m 1684 


m 1710 


21 


" Josiah G. 


it 


1851 




1 


" Matthew, 


u 


m 1808 


m 1810 


2 


" " Jr. 


u 


1830 


1833 


3 


" Miles, 


Canaan, 


1S40 




1 


" Joseph, 


"Woodbury, 


m 1712 


m 1745 


35 


" Samuel, 


u 


m 1742 


o J 756 


12 


" Silas, 


Roxbury, 


m 1815 


1821 


5 


" Thomas, 


Woodbury, 


m 1698 




1 


Mitchell John, 


a 


o 1709 


o 1740 


2 


" Kniel, 


u 


m 1741 




1 


" Reuben, 


a 


m 1799 


o 1807 


7 


" Simeon, 


Washington, 


o 1791 


m 1802 


3 


Thomas, 


Plymouth, 


1823 


1824 


' 2 


" Timothy, 


Washington, 


1822 




1 


Moody Ebenezer, 


New Hartford, 


o 17S3 


m 1791 


3 


" Evetts, 


Washington, 


M 1811 


1823 


2 


Moore Albert, 


Salisbury, 


1846 




1 


" Josiah, 


New Hartford, 


m 1781 


o 1790 


11 


" Samuel, 


Salisbury, 


m 1759 


o 1765 


4 


« Silas, 


a 


m 1810 


o 1810 


2 


Morehouse Miner P. 


New Milford, 


■ 1848 




1 


Morris James, 


Litchfield, 


m 1798 


o 1805 


9 


" Harvey, 


Woodbury, 


1829 


1838 


3 


" John, 


Watertown, 


1826 


1832 


2 


" Levi, 


New Milford, 


1841 




1 


Moseley Increase, 


Washington, 


m 1779 




1 


« « 


Woodbury, 


o 1751 


o 1784 


39 


Moss Nicholas, 


Bethlem, 


1844 


1847 


2 


Hunger Elizur, 


Norfolk, 


o 1811 


1821 


5 


Munsell Levi, 


Torrington, 


1823 


1833 


3 


" Luman, 


tt 


1840 


1841 


2 


" Marcus, 


Winchester, 
t Clerk, May 1707. 


1847 




1 



400 



Representatives. 
Munson Ephraim, 
« Medad, 


Towns. 
Barkhamsted, 
u 


First 
Chosen. 

m 1800 

m 1809 


Last Number 
Chosen. Sessions 

o 1802 4 

o 1809 2 


u Samuel, 


u 


o 1811 


1826 


5 


Murray Philo, 
Mygatt Eli, 


Woodbury, 
New Milford, 


m 1815 
1825 


m 1818 
1826 


2 
2 


H. S. 


u a 


1847 




1 


Nash Alva, 
" Samuel, 


Winchester, 
Goshen, 


1829 
o 1756 


1830 
m 1778 


2 
22 


Nettleton Samuel H. 


Watertown, 


1823 


1846 


4 


Newill Abel, 


Goshen, 


m 1781 


m 1782 


3 


Newton John, 


Washington, 


o 1811 


1838 


3 


* Nathan, 


u 


1826 




1 


Nichelson Augus, 


New Milford, 


o 1793 




1 


Noble David, 


u , a 


o 1745 


M 1747 


4 


" Phineas W. 


Harwinton, 


1827 


1850 


5 


" Stephen, 


New Milford, 


o 1725 


m 1739 


15 


" Thomas, 


a a 


o 1750 


M 1774 


4 


North Enos, 


Colebrook, 


o 1807 


1846 


6 


" Jonathan, 


Goshen, 


1832 


1833 


2 


" Noah, 


Torrington, 


m 1779 


m 1787 


8 


" Phineas, 


CI 


o 1800 


m 1805 


4 


" Rufus, 


Colebrook, 


m 1818 


1826 


3 


« Theodore, 


Goshen, 


m 1813 


a 1818 


10* 


Northrup Amos, 


New Milford, 


M 1756 


M 1762 


4 


« David, 


U li 


m 1786 




1 


Northway Samuel D. 


Norfolk, 


1850 




1 


Norton Birdsey, 


Goshen, 


m 1797 


M 1811 


26 


" Dudley, 
" Ebenezer, 


Norfolk, 
Goshen, 


1842 
m 1760 


o 1791 


1 

24 


» Lot, 


Salisbury, 


o 1783 


m 1786 


3 


" " Jr., 


u 


o 1804 


o 1815 


13 


u u 


ii 


1831 




1 


Orr James, 


Sharon, 


1849 




1 


Orton Samuel, 


Woodbury, 


M 1794 


o 1795 


4 


Osborne Shadrach, 


a 


m 1791 




1 



401 







First 


Last 


Number 


Representatives. 


Towns. 


Chosen. 


Chosen. 


Sessions 


Osborne Sheldon, 


Harwinton, 


1838 


1839 


2 


« Eliada, 


Kent, 


1850 




1 


Painter Deliverance L. 


Roxbury, 


o 1808 




1 


Palmer Robert, 


Goshen, 


1830 


1831 


2 


Pardee Isaac, 


Sharon, 


m 1789 


o 1812 


12 


" James, 


u 


M 1769 


m 1780 


9 


« John, 


u 


o 1755 


m 1762 


6 


" Thomas, 


a 


m 1768 


o 1774 


5 


Parker Jason, 


Woodbury, 


1850 




1 


Parmelee Abraham, 


Goshen, 


o 1769 




1 


i( Oliver, 


Bethlem, 


o 1792 


m 1797 


2 


Pachen Abel, 


Sharon, 


o 1798 


m 1799 


2 


Patchen Farmafy 


Woodbury, 


1839 




1 


Patterson Elisha, 


Roxbury, 


o 1817 


1826 


o 
O 


" Matthew, 


Cornwall, 


m 1781 


m 1787 


8 


" Samuel, 


Roxbury, 


1820 




1 


Pattison Amos L. 


Salisbury, 


1S47 




1 


Payne Abraham, 


Cornwall, 


o 1778 




1 


Pearson Enoch, 


Sharon, 


o 1795 




1 


Pease Calvin, 


Canaan, 


M 1811 


m 1812 


3 


Peck Jeremiah, 


Woodbury, 


1825 


1833 


2 


" Peter F. 


ti 


1826 


1836 


2 


" Sherman, 


New Milford, 


1834 


1835 


2 


u Sidney, 


Bethlem, 


1850 




1 


Peet Abijah C. 


Salisbury, 


m 1817 


1830 


5 


" George W. 


Canaan, 


1850 




1 


Percival Lorain, 


Colebrook, 


1833 


1834 


2 


Perkins Lyman, 


Harwinton, 


1835 




I 


Perry Nathaniel, 


Woodbury, 


m 1805 


1820 


9* 


t 


New Milford, 


1832 




1 


u « -p. 


Kent, 


1822 


1829 


2 


Persons Huntington, 


Colebrook, 


1847 




1 


Pettee Seneca, 


Salisbury, 
tClerk 1832. 


1825 




1 



51 



402 



Kepresentatives. 
Pettibone Avnos, 


Towns. 
Norfolk, 


First 
Chosen. 

1826 


Last 
Chosen. 1 

1830 


Number 
Sessions 

4 


" Augustus, 


« 


o 1800 


1828 


31 


Giles, 


u 


o 1777 


m 1800 


23* 


" Samuel, 


Goshen, 


m 1759 


M 1762 


5 


Phelps Arah, 


Colebrook, 


m 1800 


1825 


9* 


C. B. 


n 


1835 




1 


« Charles B. 
" Daniel, 


Woodbury, 
Winchester, 


1831 
o 1818 


1837 
1828 


2 
2 


u Darius, 


Norfolk, 


1836 




1 


" Edward A. 


Colebrook, 


1840 


1851 


3 


u Jannah B. 


Torrington, 


1848 


1849 


2 


Thelps Edward, 


Litchfield, 


o 1744 


o 1745 


2 


" Jedediah, 


Norfolk, 


1832 




1 


" Jeremiah W. 


u 


m 1806 


o 1806 


2 


" Josiah, 


Harwinton, 


o 1770 


o 1800 


43 


" Lancelot, 


Colebrook, 


m 1817 


1830 


9 


" Warren, 


Barkhamsted, 


1843 


1844 


2 


Pickett Daniel A. 


New Milford, 


1820 


1821 


2 


Pierce John, 


Cornwall, 


m 1774 


m 1788 


5 


« « H. 


« 


m 1815 


1819 


4 


" Joshua, 


a 


o 1761 


m 1770 


11 


" Seth, Jr. 


u 


1828 




1 


" Wm. 
Pine Samuel W. 


Roxbury, 
Barkhamsted, 


1832 
1847 




1 
1 


Pinney Asaph, 
" David, 


Colebrook, 


m 1808 
o 1797 


1823 
m 1798 


4 

2 


" Grove, 


(( 


M 1800 Aug. 1818 


13* 


" Harvey W. 
Piatt Levi, 


u 

Winchester, 


1851 
Aug. 1818 




1 
1* 


Plumb Frederick, 
" Ovid, 


Salisbury, 
Canaan, 


1834 
1819 




1 

1 


Pool Wm. 


Washington, 


1839 




1 


Porter Joshua, 
" Thomas, 


Salisbury, 
Cornwall, 


o 1764 
o 1768 


o 1801 
o 1777 


51 
14 


v ost Henry, 


Canaan, 


1832 


1834 


2 



403 



Representatives. 
Potter Daniel, 


Towns. 
Water town, 


First 
Chosen. 

o 1786 


Last 
Chosen. ! 

o 1792 


Number 
Sessions 

5 


it a 

" Eli, 


Plymouth, 
u 


m 1799 
1834 


M 1811 
1836 


10 
3 


« Lake, 


a 


o 1798 


o 1813 


12 


" Tertius D. 


li 


1838 


1839 


2 


Pratt Chalk er, 
" Hopson, 
" Joseph, 
" Peter, 


Cornwall, 

Kent, 
u 

a 


1847 
o 1810 
m 1770 
m 1793 


m 1814 

o 1800 


1 

5 

21 

1 


" Schuyler, 
Preston Bennett S. 


Salisbury, 
Roxbury, 


1850 
1849 




1 
1 


" Gardner, 


Harwinton, 


1846 


1847 


2 


« John S. 


a 


1822 


1825 


2 


" Joseph, 
" Nathan, 


Woodbury, 


m 1731 
M 1791 


1819 


1 

14 


" Nathaniel, 


u 


1833 




1 


" Wm. 


« 


m 1714 


m 1749 


36 


Prindle Mark, 


Harwinton, 


m 1774 


o 1791 


11 


Randall Henry L. 
Ransom John, 


Roxbury, 
Kent, 


1838 
m 1766 


m 1770 


1 

5 . 


Ray Wm. 


Litchfield, 


1838 


1839 


2 


Raymond John M. 
Reed Chauncey, Jr. 
" Horace, 


Kent, 

Canaan, 

Sharon, 


1841 
1844 
1840 




1 
1 
1 


" Silas, 

" Stephen, 
Reeve Tapping, 
Richardson Leonard, 
Riggs Eden, 


Salisbury, 
a 

Litchfiejd, 
Salisbury, 
Norfolk, 


o 1818 

m 1806 

o 1789 

1849 

1841 


1826 
o 1806 


3 
2 

1 
1 
1 


" Joseph, 
Robbins Samuel, 


it- 
Canaan, 


1827 
M 1811 


1819 


1 
5 


Roberts Clark H. 


Colebrook, 


1839 


1840 


2 


" Samuel, 


Sharon, 


1822 


1823 


2 


" Nelson, 
" William, 


Torrington, 
New Milford, 


1846 
1845 


1847 


2 
1 



404 



Representative?. 
Rockwell Alpha, 
« Elijah, 
" Martin, 


Towns. 
Winchester, 

Colebrook, 

a 


First 
Chosen. 

1807 

o 179G 

o 1808 


Last 
Chosen. 1 

M 1814 
o 1816 


Number 

Sessions 

14 
6 


" Reuben, 


u 


o 1799 


m 1S15 


6 


" Samuel, 


Sharon, 


o 1815 


m 1816 


2 


" Solomon, 


Winchester, 


1820 




1 


" Theron, 


Colebrook, 


1838 




1 


Rogers Anson, 


Cornwall, 


1835 




1 


" Edward, 


tt 


o 1775 


o 1783 


10 


" Noah, 


a 


m 1766 


o 1781 


2 


u a 


a 


m 1813 


o 1818 


5 


" Timothy, 
Rood Marinus, 


Canaan, 


m 1791 
M 1807 


m 1792 
o 1808 


3 

o 
it 


Root Barnabus W. 
Rose Alban, 


Plymouth, 
Canaan, 


1845 
M 1S10 


o 1815 


I 

3 


Royce Phineas, 
Roys Harlow, 


Watertown, 
Norfolk, 


o 1781 
1846 


m 1782 


2 
1 


Ruggles Benjamin, 
« Pliilo, 


New Milford, 

a a 


o 1757 
o 1796 


o 1802 


1 
6 


" Timothy, 
Russell Barlow, 
" Giles, 


U u 

Woodbury, 
Winchester, 


m 1785 

1848 

M 1810 


m 1S16 


1 

1 
3 


" Nathaniel, 


a 


o 1801 




1 


" John, 
" Stephen, 
" Thomas, 
William P. 
Sackett Homer, 


Salisbury, 
Litchfield, 
Cornwall, 
Salisbury, 
Warrerf, 


1838 
m 1818 
o 1761 

18^7 
o 1801 


1834 
o 1773 

1842 
1821 


1 

5 

16 

1 

7 


" Justus, 


Kent, 


m 1771 


m 1782 


10 


U it 


Warren, 


o 1792 




1 


a a 


it 


1831 




1 


" Orrin, 


a 


o 1810 




1 


Sanford Daniel, 


Barkhamsted, 


1837 


1838 


2 


" Glover, 


New Milford, 


1850 




1 


" Joel, 


u u 


m 1817 


1830 


3 



405 







First 


Last 3 


dumber 


Representatives. 


Towns. 


Chosen. 


Chosen. ! 


Sessions 


Sanford Joseph, 


Litchfield, 


m 1747 


o 1750 


3 


" Ne hernial* C, 


Woodbury, 


1830 




1 


" Stephen, 


Roxbury, 


1822 


1850 


3 


Scoville John, 


Cornwall, 


1844 


1848 


2 


" Jonathan, 


Salisbury, 


m 1816 


o 1816 


2 


" Samuel C. 


a 


1843 




1 


Sears Charles, 


Sharon, 


1845 


1847 


2 


Sedgwick Benjamin, .£.££. 


Cornwall, 


1824 


1838 


3 


" Charles F. 


Sharon, 


1830 


1831 


2 


« John, . 


Cornwall, 


m 1782 


m 1812 


29 


" John A. 


« 


1826 


1829 


3 


Segar He man, 


Kent, 


1849 




1 


Seymour Chauncey, 


New Hartford, 


o 1801 


o 1813 


6 


" George, 


Litchfield, 


1846 


1847 


2 


" Moses, 


u 


o 1795 


m 1812 


16 


" Origen S.f 


a 


1842 


1850 


4 


" Rufus, 


Col eb rook, 


1849 




1 


Sheldon Elisha, 


Litchfield, 


o 1755 


m 1761 


9 


u Epaphras, 


Torrington, 


m 1763 


o 1796 


14 


* Philo G. 


Winchester, 


1850 




1 


Shepard James, 


Norfolk, 


1840 




1 


" John K. 


u 


1847 




1 


" Levi, 


u 


1837 




1 


Sherman Bennet A. 


Woodbury, 


1851 




1 


" Daniel, 


« 


m 1754 


m 1791 


62 


« David, 


u 


m 1757 




1 


" Elijah, 


u 


m 1797 


m 1807 


9 


« " Jr., 


a 


m 1817 


o 1818 


2 


" John, I 


it 


o 1699 


o 1712 


17 


" Monroe C. 


(i 


1850 




1 


" Peter, 


Washington, 


o 1788 


m 1795 


6 


" Roger, 


New Milford, 


m 1755 


m 1761 


9 


Sill Elisha, 


Goshen, 


m 1771 


o 1785 


8 


t Speaker, 1850. 


t* 


Speaker, 1710, 1711. 





400 









First 


Last Number 


Representatives. 


Towns. 


Chosen. 


Chosen. Sessions 


Simons Samuel, Jr., 


Colebrook, 


1836 


1837 


2 


Skiff 


Joseph, 


Kent, 


o 1816 




1 


u 


Gibbs W. 


Sharon, 


1851 




1 


Skinner Ashbel, 


Harvvinton, 


o 1772 




1 


Slosson Barzillai,t 


Kent, 


o 1797 


o 1812 


15 


a 


Nathan, Jr., 


u 


1821 




1 


Smedley William L. 


Litchfield, 


1848 




1 


Smith Aaron, 


a 


m 1808 


m 1814 


11 


IK 


Asahel, 


Winchester, 


1827 


1831 


2 


a 


Azariah, 


Canaan, 


m 1807 


o 1811 


3 


it 


David, 


Watertown, 


o 1784 


o 1794) 


38 


tt 


a 


Plymouth, 


o 1795 


o 1812) 


a 


Ebenezer, 


New Milford, 


o 1809 




1 


« 


Eli M. 


Roxbury, 


1819 


1827 


2 


it 


Elisha, 


Torrington, 


o 1786 


m 1812 


32 


u 


Garret, 


Watertown, 


m 1810 


m 1S14 


5 


a 


Heman, 


Winchester, 


o 1795 


m 1S00 


3 


u 


Horatio, 


Sharon, 


1823 


1834 


4 


l< 


Ithamar H. 


Canaan, 


1848 




1 


u 


John C.+ 


Sharon, 


m 1793 


o 1809 


IS 


« 


" " Jr., 


a 


1833 


1842 


3 


U 


Jonathan, 


Bethlem, 


m 1789 


o 1789 


2 


at 


Josiah, 


Barkhamsted, 


1820 




1 


a 


Lorenzo D. 


Sharon, 


1843 




1 


a 


Lyman, 


New Milford, 


1849 




1 


if 


Martin, 


New Hartford, 


m 1757 


m 1766 


11 


« 


Milton, 


Colebrook, 


1843 


1S44 


2 


a 


Minor, 


Bethlem, 


1832 




1 


Cf 


Nathaniel, 


Woodbury, 


m 1790 


o 1795 


10 


a 


B. 


u 


1828 


1847 


2 


a 


Perry, 


New Milford, 


1822 


1836 


4 


a 


Phineas, 


Woodbury, 


m 1796 




1 


a 


a 


Roxbury, 


m 1797 




1 


t Clerk, 1812. \ Clerk, Oct. 1798, 1799, — Sj 


>eaker, 1800 to 1808; 5 sessions. 



407 



Representatives. 
Smith Phineas, 


Towns. 
Sharon, 


First 
Chosen. 

o 1790 


Last 
Chosen. 

m 1792 


Number 
Sessions 

4 


" Ransom, 
" Richard, 

" Seth, 


a 

New Hartford, 


1843 

1841 

m 1771 


1849 
o 1787 


2 

1 

13 


" Simeon, 
" Sylvester, 
" Truman, 


Sharon, 

Colebrook, 

Litchfield, 


o 1767 
1831 
1831 


o 1787 
1832 
1834 


14 
2 
3 


" Thomas N. 
" Wait, 


Salisbury, 
Watertown, 


1822 

m 1789 


1828 


2 

1 


" Zebina, 


Winchester, 


m 1798 


o 1802 


2 


Soper David, 
Soule Benjamin B. 
Southmayd Samuel W. 
Spencer Grinnell, 

« Job, 

" John, 


Torrington, 
New Milford, 
Watertown, 
Winchester, 
Colebrook, 
New Hartford, 


m 1785 
1830 

o 1798 
1824 
1848 
1829 


1833 
o 1812 

1831 


1 
2 

17 
1 
1 
3 


Seth, 
Squire Amos, 
" Anson, 


it a 
Roxbury, 
New Milford, 


o 1793 

m 1807 

1839 


o 1803 


20 
1 

1 


Stanley Roderick, 
" Timothy, 
" William, 
Stanton Joshua, 
Starr George, 
" Josiah, 
" Truman, 


Plymouth, 
Goshen, 
« 

Salisbury, 
Warren, 
New Milford, 
Goshen, 


o 1817 
m 1777 

1818 
m 1779 

1823 
m 1771 

1825 


1819 
o 1783 

1829 
o 1802 


1 
1 

2 

2 
4 

18 
1 


Steele Elijah, 
" " Jr. 


Cornwall, 


m 1768 
m 1798 




1 
1 


" George, 

" James, 

" Samuel, 

Stevens Andrew, 


Washington, 
New Hartford, 
Woodbury, 
Canaan, 


1843 
o 1786 

1821 
m 1759 


1829 
m 1761 


1 
1 
3 

2 


or" Benjamin, 
Stephens John, 
" Nathaniel, 


a 

a 


m 1764 
o 1778 
m 1792 


o 1768 
m 1818 


5 

1 
7 



408 







First 


Last 3 


dumber 


Representatives. 


Towns. 


Chosen. 


Chosen. Sessions 


Stephens Nathaniel, Jr. 


Canaan, 


1826 


1836 


4 


u u 


Norfolk, 


M 1781 


o 1803 


18 


« " Jr. 


u 


m 1805 


1819 


20 


" Sanford P. 


Canaan, 


1842 




1 


Sterling Ansel,t 


Sharon, 


m 1815 


1837 


ii 


" Elisha,} 


Salisbury, 


o 1797 


o 1816 


8 


Stiles Benjamin, 


Woodbury, 


o 1754 


o 1771 


9 


Stillman Roger, 


Colebrook, 


m 1815 


o 1815 


2 


St. John Daniel, 


Sharon, 


M 1803 


o 1815 


5 


" Jesse, 


Kent, 


o 1814 


m 1815 


2 


" Lewis, 


n 


a 1818 




1* 


" Thomas, 


Sharon, 


o 1817 


m 1818 


2 


Stoddard Elisha, 


Woodbury, 


m 1755 


m 1757 


2 


" Enos, 


Litchfield, 


1842 


1843 


2 


u Harman, 


Woodbury, 


1839 




1 


" Israel, 


u 


m 1780 




1 


« Josiah, 


Salisbury, 


o 1757 


m 1762 


6 


Strong Adonijah, 


u 


m 1789 


o 1802 


7 


" Adino, 


Woodbury, 


m 1726 




i 


« Charles B. 


u 


1846 




l 


" Jedediah,§ 


Litchfield, 


o 1771 


m 1789 


28 


M John, 


Woodbury, 


m 1803 


m 1812 


10 


" " Jr. 


a 


m 1813 


1826 


3 


M Josiah, 


Sharon, 


m 1757 


o 1760 


3 


" Martin, 


Salisbury, 


o 1813 


1822 


2 


Stuart John L. 


Kent, 


1843 


1847 


2 


Swan Cyrus, 


Sharon, 


o 1810 


1828 


9* 


Swift Clark S. 


Warren, 


1847 


1848 


2 


" Elisha, 


Kent, 


m 1768 


o 1770 


5 


" Heman, 


Cornwall, 


o 1766 


M 1787 


16 


• Isaac, 


« 


o 1792 


m 1799 


9 


" Jabez, 


Kent, 


m 1757 


m 1760 


6 


" John S. 


u 


1825 




1 


t Clerk, 1819, 1820. 


I Clerk, 1816. 


§ Clerk, 1779 to 1788, 14 sessions. 



409 









First 


Last Number 


Representatives. 


Towns. 




Chosen. 


Chosen. Sessions 


Swift Nathaniel, Jr. 


Warren, 


o 


17S6 


m 1810 


19 


" Philo, 


Cornwall, 


o 


1816 


o 1818 


5* 


Talliraan David, 


Woodbury, 


M 


1796 


o 1796 




Tallmadge George P. 


Warren, 




1841 




1 


" John, 


a 


o 


1793 


a 1818 


14* 


Tanner Ebenezer, 


a 


o 


1794 


m 1812 


8 


" Marvin, 


Canaan, 




1831 


1832 


2 


Trial, 


Cornwall, 


o 


1791 


m 1793 


3 


Taylor Augustin, 


Sharon, 


() 


1790 


o 1802 


7 


" George, 


New Milford, 




1833 


1850 


3 


" Lawrence, 


u a 




1842 




1 


" Uri, 


Torrington, 




1841 


1842 


2 


' " William, 


New Milford, 


o 


1796 


o 1816 


5 


k a 


Barkhamsted, 


o 


1814 




1 


Terrill Nathan, 


Kent, 




1846 




1 


Terry Henry, 


Plymouth, 




1844 




1 


« Silas B. 


M 




1846 




1 


Thayer Wheelock, 


Winchester, 




1833 




1 


Thomas Charles, 


Roxbury, 




1847 




1 


Thompson Abijah, 


New Milford, 




1843 




1 


or" David, ■ 


Goshen, 


o 


1775 


o 1776 


2 


Thomson Edwin L. 


Bethlem, 




1849 




1 


" Gideon, 


Goshen, 


o 


1756 


m 1759 


3 


" Hezekiah, 


Woodbury, 


M 


: 1782 


m 1790 


5 


Thorp James D. 


New Hartford, 




1832 


1834 


3 


Thrall Homer F. 


Torrington, 




1849 




1 


" Lorrain, 


a 




1838 




1 


Tiffany Joel, 


Barkhamsted, 




1832 


1833 


2 


Titus Joseph, Jr. 


Washington, 




1831 


1836 


2 


Todd Carrington, 


Cornwall, 




1846 




1 


« Eli, 


New Milford, 





1805 


1821 


3 


" Jonah, 


it u 


o 


1778 




1 


" Marvin S. 


Bethlem, 




1848 




1 


Tolles Amos, 


Winchester, 


M 


[ 1812 


o 1812 


2 



52 



410 



Representatives. 
Tomlinson Abijah, 


Towns. 
Washington, 


First 
Chosen. 

1824 


Last Number 
Chosen. Sessions 

1648 2 


« Eliphalet, 


u 


182s 




1 


" Johnson L. 


u 


1S50 




1 


Tracy Uriah,t 


Litchfield, 


o 1788 


m 1793 


9 


Ticknor Luther, 


Salisbury, 


1832 


1833 


2 


Thatcher Partridge, 


New Millbrd, 


o 1759 


o 17G5 


2 


Trowbridge James, 


New Hartford, 


1851 




1 


« John, 


Roxbury, 


o 1800 


a 1818 


6* 


u u 


<t 


1843 




1 


Tuttle Uriel, 


Torrington, 


M 1815 


1820 


2 


Upson Garry, 
Vaii Charles, 


Barkhamsted, 
Washington, 


1839 
1837 


1840 


2 

1 


Wadhams Isaac, 


Goshen, 


1825 


182G 


2 


« John M. 


a 


1844 


1845 


2 


Wadsworth Isaac S. 


Bethlem, 


1835 




1 


" Samuel, 


Cornwall, 


m 178G 


o 1801 


8 


Wakefield Luman, 


Winchester, 


182G 


1827 


2 


Wakeley Ahner, 


Roxbury, 


m 1803 




1 


Walker Samuel, 
" Zachariah, 


Woodbury, 

u 


m 1805 
m 1720 




1 
1 


Walter William, 


Norfolk, 


o 1777 




i 


Walton Frederick A. 


Salisbury, 


1835 


183G 


2 


" William II. 


u 


1839 


1847 


o 
O 


Ward Abiram, 


Roxbur3 r , 


1841 




1 


Warner Bennett, 


Bethlem, 


1846 




1 


" Donald J. 


Salisbury, 


1848 




1 


" Ebenezer, 


Woodbury, 


o 1722 


o 1723 


2 


" Apollos, 
" Elijah, Jr. 
" Elizur, 


Plymouth, 

a 

New Milford, 


1840 

1825 

M 1782 


1833 
m 1783 


1 
3 
3 


" " Jr. 


it n 


o 1803 


1837 


4 


" John, 


a a 


m 1744 


o 1756 


G 


" s. 


Plymouth, 


1842 




1 



t Clerk, Oct. 1789 to May, 1792; Speaker, May, 1793. 



411 



Representatives. 
Warner Oliver, 


Towns. 
New Milford, 


First 
Chosen. 

m 1777 


Lust Ni 
Chosen. !5c 


unber 
ssions 

1 


ki Orange, 


a u 


1839 


1842 


2 


" Reuben, 


u a 


o 1810 


1825 


5 


Warren Alamon, 


Watertown, 


1841 




1 


Waterman David, 


Salisbury, 


M 1794 


o 1800 


2 


Watson Frederick, 


Canaan, 


1846 


1847 


2 


" John, 


u 


o 1774 


m 1795 


11 


a u 


a 


1843 


1843 


2 


" Levi, 


New Hartford, 


m 1780 


m 1815 


4 


"■ Thomas Jr. 


<< it 


1837 




1 


" William, 


Canaan, 


1851 




1 


Webb John, 


u 


o 180G 


o 1809 


4 


Webster Abijah, 


Harwinton, 


1833 


1834 


2 


" Benjamin, 


Litchfield, 


o 1752 


m 1755 


5 


" Cyprian, 


Harwinton, 


m 1777 




1 


U i. 


« 


o 1813 


m 1816 


6 


" Martin, 


Torrington, 


1833 




1 


" Reuben, 


Litchfield, 


1826 




1 


Weleh Benjamin, 


Norfolk, 


M 1808 


1823 


6 


" " Jr. 


u 


1836 




1 


" David, 


Litchfield, 


M 1770 


o 1780 


5 


" John, 


u 


o 1799 


1822 


8* 


a u 


New Milford, 


o 1727 




1 


" Paul, 


U a 


m 1740 


3i 1749 


10 


" William W. 


Norfolk, 


1S48 


1850 


2 


Weller David, 


Roxbury, 


1834 




1 


Elisha A. 


u 


1846 




1 


" Samuel, 


u 


o 1807 




1 


" Zaccheus W. 


a 


1828 




1 


Wells Absalom, (Jr.) 


New Hartford, 


1826 


1828 


3 


" Gaylord, 
" Joseph, 


Harwinton, 
New Hartford, 


1832 
o 1811 


1833 
1833 


2 
2 


Welton Heman, 
Noah, 


Plymouth, 
Harwinton, 


1843 
1827 


1828 


1 

2 


Went worth Chester. 


Barkhamsted, 


g 1835 







412 



Representatives. 
Weston Salmon, 


Towns. 
Warren, 


First 
Chosen. 

1826 


Last 
Chosen. 


Number 
Sessions 

1 


AVetmore Abel S. 
u Lyman, 


Winchester, 
Torrington, 


1848 
o 1809 


M 


1818 


1 

9 


« Seth, 


u 


u 1794 


o 


1794 


1' 


H it 


"Winchester, 


m 1799 


o 


1802 


Wheaton Daniel, 
M George, 


Washington, 
Cornwall, 


1835 
1830 




1831 


1 

2 


Wheeler Alanson, 
" Ansel, 


Sharon, 
Barkhamsted, 


1838 
1842 




1839 


2 
1 


" Cliristopher, 
" Lemuel, 


Litchfield, 
Salisbury, 


1849 
o 1786 


p 


1850 
1789 


2 
6 


Wheelock Daniel B. 


Winchester, 


1849 






1 


White Edward K. 
" Edwin, 


Cornwall, 


1845 
1842 




1843 


1 
2 


Whittbrd Robert, 
M Samuel, 


Barkhamsted, 
Colebrook, 


o 1807 
1820 




1834 


1 
4 


Whiting Frederick P. 
Giles, 


Torrington, 
u 


1848 
1836 




1837 


1 

2 


" John, 


Colebrook, 


M 1811 






1 


" Lewis, 


Torrington, 


1851 






1 


k ' Riley, 


Winchester, 


M 1818 




1832 


2 


Whitney David, 
M John, 

Tarball. 


Canaan, 
u 

a 


m 1757 

m 1770 
M 1770 


M 


1766 


13 
1 

1 


Whittlesey David, 
u u 


Washington, 


M 1793 
1846 


O 


1814 


14 

1 


" C. 


%i 


1832 




1833 


2 


« Eliphalet, 


Kent, 


m 1775 






1 


a u 


Salisbury, 


o 1813 


31 


1814 


2 


John, 

U u 

" Joseph, 
Wilcox Abiram, 
" Hosea, 


Washington, 

u 

New Hartford, 
Norfolk, 


o 1804 
o 1781 
o 1809 
1840 
m 1778 


O 


1791 

1820 

1781 


1 

17 
5 

1 
4 


Reuben, 


Cornwall, 


1849 






1 



413 







First 


Last 


Number 


Representatives. 


Towns. 


Chosen. 


Chosen. 


Sessions 


Wilcox Robert, 


Barkhamsted, 


M 1807 


O 1811 


6 


Wilder Joseph, 


u 


1797 


m 1798 


2 


Williams Jehiel, 


New Milford, 


o 1815 


1851 


5* 


" John, 


Sharon, 


o 1755 


m 1773 


27 


Wilson Abijah, 


Winchester, 


o 1708 


m 1802 


2 


" Abner, 


Harwinton, 


m 1787 


m 1795 


7 


u Amos, 


Torrington, 


M 1772 


o 1787 


3 


David, 


Harwinton, 


1829 


1830 


2 


A. 


u 


1851 




1 


Eli, 


u 


m 1778 


o 1788 


3 


John, 


u 


m 1764 


m 1778 


10 


" Noah, 


Torrington, 


m 1766 


m 1770 


5 


Winegan Garrett, 


Kent, 


1832 




1 


Wolcott Frederick, 


Litchfield, 


M 1802 


m 1803 


2 


« Oliver, 


■u 


o 1764 


o 1770 


5 


U £l + 


a 


Aug. 1818 




1* 


Woodruff Gideon, 


Plymouth, 


1820 




1 


" George C.+ 


Litchfield, 


1851 




1 


w Jacob, 


a 


M 1759 


o 1768 


2 


" John, 


Sharon, 


1848 




1 


" Morris, 


Litchfield, 


o 1812 


1837 


13 


Woodward Griswold, 


Torrington, 


1831 


1844 


3 


Elijah, 


Watertown, 


o 1791 


o 1794 


4 


" Lucius, 


u 


1844 




1 


" Samuel, 


Torrington, 


o 1783 


m 1790 


6 


a u 


a 


1822 




1 


Wooster David, 


Goshen, 


1829 


1830 


2 


" John, 


New Milford, 


1838 




1 


Wright Elizur, 


Canaan, 


o 1799 


M 1805 


7 


•* Moses, Jr. 


Colebrook, 


m 1806 




1 


" Joseph A. 


Watertown, 


m 1793 


H 1795 


4 


Young Andrew, 


Cornwall, 


o 1779 


o 1784 


7 


Youngs Daniel, 


Barkhamsted, 


1844 




1 


t President of the Convention. 




t Clerk, 1849. 




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